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* KING HENRY VI. PART I.] The historical transactions 
contained in this play, take in the compass of above thirty years. 
I must observe, however, that our author, in the three parts of 
Henry VI. has not been very precise to the date and disposition of 
his facts ; but shuffled them, backwards and forwards, out of 
time. For instance ; the lord Talbot is killed at the end of the 
fourth Act of this play, who in reality did not fall till the 13th 
of July, 1453 : and The Second Part of Henry VI. opens with 
the marriage of the king, which was solemnized eight years be- 
fore Talbot's death, in the year 1445. Again, in the Second 
Part, dame Eleanor Cobham is introduced to insult Queen Mar- 
garet ; though her penance and banishment for sorcery happened 
three years before that princess came over to England. I could 
point out many other transgressions against history, as far as the 
order of time is concerned. Indeed, though there are several 
master-strokes in these three plays, which incontestibly betray the 
workmanship of Shakspeare ; yet I am almost doubtful, whe- 
ther they were entirely of his writing. And unless they were 
wrote by him very early, I should rather imagine them to have 
been brought to him as a director of the stage ; and so have re- 
ceived some finishing beauties at his hand. An accurate observer 
will easily see, the diction of them is more obsolete, and the num- 
bers more mean and prosaical, than in the generality of his 
genuine compositions. THEOBALD. 

Having given my opinion very fully relative to these plays at 
the end of The Third Part of King Henry VI. it is here only 
necessary to apprize the reader what my hypothesis is, that he 
may be the better enabled, as he proceeds, to judge concerning 
its probability. Like many others, I was long struck with the 
many evident Shakspearianisms in these plays, which appeared 
to me to carry such decisive weight, that I could scarcely bring 
myself to examine with attention any of the arguments that have 
been urged against his being the author of them. I am now sur- 
prized, (and my readers perhaps may say the same thing of them- 
selves,) that I should never have adverted to a very striking cir- 
cumstance which distinguishes this^rs^ part from the other parts 
of King Henry VI. This circumstance is, that none of these 
Shaksperian passages are to be found here, though several are 
scattered through the two other parts. I am therefore decisively 
of opinion that this play was not written by Shakspeare. The 
reasons on which that opinion is founded, are stated at large in 
the Dissertation above referred to. But I would here request the 
reader to attend particularly to the versification of this piece, (of 
which almost every line has a pause at the end,) which is so 
different from that of Shakspeare's undoubted plays, and of the 
greater part of the two succeeding pieces as altered by him, and 
so exactly corresponds with that of the tragedies written by others 
before and about the time of his first commencing author, that 

this alone might decide the question, without taking into the ac- 
count the numerous classical allusions which are found in thisfirst 
part. The reader will be enabled to judge how far this argument 
deserves attention, from the several extracts from those ancient 
pieces which he will find in the Essay on this subject. 

With respect to the second and third parts of King Henry VI. 
or, as they were originally called, The Contention of the Tvao 
famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster, they stand, in my ap- 
prehension, on a very different ground from that of this first part, 
or, as I believe it was anciently called, The Play of King 
Henry VI. The Contention, &c. printed in two parts, in quarto, 
1600, was, I conceive, the production of some playwright who 
preceded, or was contemporary with Shakspeare ; and out of 
that piece he formed the two plays which are now denominated 
the Second and Third Parts of King Henry VI. ; as, out of the 
old plays of King John and The Taming of the Shrew, he formed 
two other plays with the same titles. For the reasons on which 
this opinion is formed, I must again refer to my Essay on this 

This old play of King Henry VI. now before us, or as our 
author's editors have called it, \hejirst part of King Henry VI. 
I suppose, to have been written in 1589, or before. See An At- 
tempt to ascertain the Order of Shakspeare's Plays, Vol. II. 
The disposition of facts in these three plays, not always corre- 
sponding with the dates, which Mr. Theobald mentions, and the 
want of uniformity and consistency in the series of events exhi- 
bited, may perhaps be in some measure accounted for by the 
hypothesis now stated. As to our author's having accepted these 
pieces as a Director of the stage, he had, I fear, no pretension 
to such a situation at so early a period. MALONE. 

The chief argument on which the first paragraph of the fore- 
going note depends, is not, in my opinion, conclusive. This 
historical play might have been one of our author's earliest dra- 
matick efforts : and almost every young poet begins his career by 
imitation. Shakspeare, therefore, till he felt his own strength, 
perhaps servilely conformed to the style and manner of his pre- 
decessors. Thus, the captive eaglet described by Rowe : 

a while endures his cage and chains, 

And like a prisoner with the clown remains : 
But when his plumes shoot forth, his pinions swell, 
He quits the rustick and his homely cell, 
Breaks from his bonds, and in the face of day 
" Full in the sun's bright beams he soars away." 
What further remarks I may offer on this subject, will appear 
in the form of notes to Mr. Malone's Essay, from which I do 
not wantonly differ, though hardily, I confess, as far as my 
sentiments may seem to militate against those of Dr. Farmer. 


B 2 


King Henry the Sixth. 

Duke o/Gloster, Uncle to the King, and Protector. 

Duke of Bedford, uncle to the King, and Regent of 

Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, great Uncle to 

the King. 
Henry Beaufort, great Uncle to the King, Bishop of 

Winchester, and afterwards Cardinal. 
John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset-, afterwards, Duke. 
Richard Plantagenet, eldest Son of Richard late 
Earl of Cambridge ; afterwards Duke of York. 
Earl of Warwick. JSar/gf Salisbury. Earl of Suffolk. 
Lord Talbot, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury : 
John Talbot, his Son. 
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March. 
Mortimer's Keeper, and a Lawyer. 
Sir John Fastolfe. Sir William Lucy. 
Sir William Glansdale. Sir Thomas Gargrave. 
Mayor of London. Woodville, Lieutenant of 'theTotver. 
Vernon, of the White Rose, or York Faction. 
Basset, of* the Red Rose, or Lancaster Faction. 
Charles, Dauphin, and afterwards King of France. 
Reignier,DwAreo/Anjou, and titular King of Naples. 
Duke of Burgundy. Duke o/'Ale^on. 
Governor of Paris. Bastard of Orleans. 
Master-Gunner of Orleans, and his Son. 
General of the French Forces in Bourdeaux. 
A French Sergeant. A Porter. 
An old Shepherd, Father to Joan la Pucelle. 
Margaret, Daughter to Reignier ; afterwards mar- 
ried to King Henry. 
Countess of Auvergne. 

Joan la Pucelle, commonly called Joan of Arc. 
Fiends appearing to La Pucelle, Lords, Warders of the 
Tower, Heralds, Officers, Soldiers, Messengers, and 
. .several Attendants both on the English and French. 
SCENE, par tly in England, and partly in France. 




Westminster Abbey. 

Dead march. Corpse of King Henry the Fifth dis- 
covered, tying in state; attended on by the Dukes 
of BEDFORD, GLOSTER, and EXETER ; the Earl 
of WARWICK, 1 the Bishop of Winchester, He- 
ralds, fyc. 

BED. Hung be the heavens with black, 2 yield 

day to night! 
Comets, importing change of times and states, 

1 Earl of Warwick,] The Earl of Warwick who makes 

his appearance in the first scene of this play is Richard Beau- 
champ, who is a character in King Henry V. The Earl who 
appears in the subsequent part of it, is Richard Nevil, son to the 
Earl of Salisbury, who became possessed of the title in right of 
his wife, Anne, sister of Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick, 
on the death of Anne his only child in 1449. Richard, the fa- 
ther of this Henry, was appointed governor to the king, on the 
demise of Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, and died in 1 439. 
There is no reason to think that the author meant to confound the 
two characters. RITSON. 

" Hung be the heavens with black,~] Alluding to our ancient 
stage-practice when a tragedy was to be expected. So, in Sid- 


Brandish your crystal tresses 3 in the sky ; 
And with them scourge the bad revolting stars, 
That have consented 4 unto Henry's death ! 

ney's Arcadia, Book II : " There arose, even with the sunne, a 
vaile of darke cloudes before his face, which shortly had blacked 
over all the face of heaven, preparing (as it were) a mournfull 
stage for a tragedie to be played on." See also Mr. Malone's 
Historical Account of the English Stage. STEEVENS. 

3 Brandish your crystal tresses ] Crystal is an epithet re- 
peatedly bestowed on comets by our ancient writers. So, in a 
Sonnet, by Lord Sterline, 1604 : 

" When as .those chrystal comets whiles appear." 
Spenser, in his Fairy Queen, Book I. c. x. applies it to a lady's 
face : 

'* Like sunny beams threw from her chrystal face." 
Again, in an ancient song entitled The falling out of Lovers isthe 
renewing of Love : 

" Y o\i chrystal planets shine all clear 

" And light a lover's way." 

" There is also a white comet with silver haires," says Pliny, 
as translated by P. Holland, 1601. STEEVENS. 

* That have consented ] If this expression means no more 
than that the stars gave a bare consent, or agreed to let King 
Henry die, it does no great honour to its author. I believe to 
consent, in this instance, means to act in concert. Concentus, 
Lat. Thus Erato the muse, applauding the song of Apollo, in 
Lyly's Midas, 1592, cries out: " O sweet consent /" i. e. sweet 
union of sounds. Again, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. IV. c. ii: 

" Such musick his wise words with time consented." 
Again, in his translation of Virgil's Cul x : 

" Chaunted their sundry notes with sweet concent." 
Again, in Chapman's version of the 24th Book of Homer's 
Odyssey : 

" all the sacred nine 

" Of deathless muses, paid thee dues divine : 
" By varied turns their heavenly voices venting ; 
" All in deep passion for thy death consenting." 
Consented, or, as it should be spelt, concented, means, have 
thrown themselves into a malignant configuration, to promote 
the death of Henry. Spenser, in more than one instance, spells 
this word as it appears in the text of Shakspeare, as does Ben 
Jonson, in his Epithalamion on Mr. Weston. The following 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 

Henry the fifth, 5 too famous to live long ! 6 
England ne'er lost a king of so much worth. 

" shall we curse the planets of mishap, 

" That plotted thus," &c. 

seem to countenance my explanation ; and Falstaff says of Shal- 
low's servants, that " they flock together in consent, like so 

many wild geese." See also Tully de Natura Deorum, Lib. II. 
ch. xlvi : " Nolo in stellarum ratione multus vobis videri, maxi- 
meque earum quae errare dicuntur. Quarum tantus est concentus 
ex dissimilibus motibus," &c. 

Milton uses the word, and with the same meaning, in his 
Penseroso : 

" Whose power hath a true consent 

" With planet, or with element." STEEVENS. 

Steevens is right in his explanation of the word consented. 
So, in The Knight of the burning Pestle, the Merchant says to 
Merrythought : 

too late, I well perceive, 

" Thou art consenting to my daughter's loss." 
and in The Chances, Antonio, speaking of the wench who robbed 
him, says : 

" And also the fiddler who was consenting with her." 
meaning the fiddler that was her accomplice. 

The word appears to be used in the same sense in the fifth 
scene of this Act, where Talbot says to his troops: 
" You all consented unto Salisbury's death, 
" For none would strike a stroke in his revenge." 


Consent, in all the books of the age of Elizabeth, and long 
afterwards, is the usual spelling of the word concent. See 
Vol. X. p. 96, n. 3 ; and K. Henry IV. P. II. Act V. sc. i. In 
other places I have adopted the modern and more proper spell- 
ing; but, in the present instance, I apprehend,, the word was 
used in its ordinary sense. In the second Act, Talbot, reproach- 
ing the soldiery, uses the same expression, certainly without 
any idea of a malignant configuration : 

" You all consented unto Salisbury's death" MALONE. 

3 Henry thejifth y ~] Old copy, redundantly, King Henry &c. 


6 too famous to live long /] So, in King Richard III : 
" So wise so young, they say, do ne'er live long." 



GLO. England ne'er had a king, until his time. 
Virtue he had, deserving to command : 
His brandish'd sword did blind men with his beams; 
His arms spread wider than a dragon's wings ; 7 
His sparkling eyes replete with wrathful fire, 
More dazzled and drove back his enemies, 
Than mid-day sun, fierce bent against their faces. 
What should I say? his deeds exceed all speech: 
He ne'er lift up his hand, but conquered. 

EXE. We mourn in black ; Why mourn we not 

in blood ? 

Henry is dead, and never shall revive : 
Upon a wooden coffin we attend ; 
And death's dishonourable victory 
We with our stately presence glorify, 
Like captives bound to a triumphant car. 
What ? shall we curse the planets of mishap, 
That plotted thus our glory's overthrow ? 
Or shall we think the subtle-witted French 8 
Conjurers and sorcerers, that, afraid of him, 
By magick verses have contriv'd his end ? 

WIN. He was a kingbless'd of the King of kings. 
Unto the French the dreadful judgment day 

7 His arms spread voider than a dragon's wings;] So, in 
Troilus and Cressida : 

" The dragon iving of night overspreads the earth." 


8 the subtle-tvitted French &c.] There was a notion pre-. 

valent a long time, that life might be taken away by metrical 
charms. As superstition grew weaker, these charms were ima- 
gined only to have power on irrational animals. In our author's 
time it was supposed that the Irish could kill rats by a song. 


So, in Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584: 
' The Irishmen addict themselves, &c. yea they will not stioke 
to affirme that they can rime either man or beast to death." 



So dreadful will not be, as was his sight. 
The battles of the Lord of hosts he fought : 
The church's prayers made him so prosperous. 

GLO. The church ! where is it ? Had not church- 
men pray'd, 

His thread of life had not so soon decay'd: 
None do you like but an effeminate prince, 
Whom, like a school-boy, you may over-awe. 

WIN. Gloster, whate'er we like, thou art pro- 
tector ; 

And lookest to command the prince, and realm. 
Thy wife is proud ; she holdeth thee in awe, 
More than God, or religious churchmen, may. 

GLO. Name not religion, for thou lov'st the flesh ; 
And ne'er throughout the year to church thou go'st, 
Except it be to pray against thy foes. 

BED. Cease, cease these jars, and rest your 

minds in peace ! 

Let's to the altar : Heralds, wait on us : 
Instead of gold, we'll offer up our arms ; 
Since arms avail not, now that Henry's dead. 
Posterity, await for wretched years, 
Whenat their mothers' moist eyes 9 babes shall suck; 
Our isle be made a nourish of salt tears, 1 

9 moist eyes ] Thus the second folio. The first, re- 
dundantly, moisten'd. STEEVENS. 

1 Our isle be made a nourish of salt tears,"] Mr. Pope ma- 
risk. All the old copies read, a nourish : and considering it is 
said in the line immediately preceding, that babes shall suck at 
their mothers' moist eyes, it seems very probable that our au- 
thor wrote, a nourice, i. e. that the whole isle should be one com- 
mon nurse, or nourisher, of tears : and those be the nourishment 
of its miserable issue. THEOBALD. 

Was there ever such nonsense ! But he did not know that ma- 
rish is an old word for marsh or fen -, and therefore very judi- 
ciously thus corrected by Mr. Pope. WARBURTON. 


And none but women left to wail the dead. 
Henry the fifth ! thy ghost I invocate ; 
Prosper this realm, keep it from civil broils ! 
Combat with adverse planets in the heavens ! 
A far more glorious star thy soul will make, 
Than Julius Caesar, or bright 2 

We should certainly read marisk. So, in The Spanish Tra- 
gedy t 

" Made mountains marsh, with spring-tides of my tears." 


I have been informed, that what we call at present a stew, in 
which fish are preserved alive, was anciently called a nourish. 
Nourice, however, Fr. a nurse, was anciently spelt many differ- 
ent ways, among which nourish was one. So, in Syr Eglamour 
of Artois, bl. 1. no date : 

" Of that chylde she wasblyth, 

" After noryshes she sent belive." 

A nourish therefore in this passage of our author may signify a 
nurse, as it apparently does in the Tragedies of John Bochas, by 
Lydgate, B. I. c. xii : 

" Athenes whan it was in his floures 

" Was called nourish of philosophers wise.'* 

Jubcs t'ellus general, leonum 

Arida nutrix. STEEVENS. 

Spenser, in his Ruins of Time, vises nourice as an English 

" Chaucer, the nourice of antiquity." MALONE. 

* Than Julius Ccesar, or bright 3 I can't guess the occa- 
sion of the hemistich and imperfect sense in this place ; 'tis not 
impossible it might have been filled up with Francis Drake, 
though that were a terrible anachronism (as bad as Hector's 
quoting Aristotle in Troilus and Cressida) ; yet perhaps at the 
time that brave Englishman was in his glory, to an English- 
hearted audience, and pronounced by some favourite actor, the 
thing might be popular, though not judicious ; and, therefore, 
by some critick in favour of the author, afterwards struck out. 
But this is a mere slight conjecture. POPE. 

To confute the slight conjecture of Pope, a whole page of ve- 
hement opposition is annexed to this passage by Theobald. Sir 
Thomas Ilanmer has stopped at Caesar perhaps more judicious- 
ly. It might, however, have been written or bright Berenice. 


90. /. KING HENRY VI. 11 

Enter a Messenger. 

MESS. My honourable lords, health to you all 1 
Sad tidings bring I to you out of France, 
Of loss, of slaughter, and discomfiture : 
Guienne, Champaigne, Rheims, Orleans, 3 
Paris, Guysors, Poictiers, are all quite lost. 

BED. What say'st thou, man, before dead 

Henry's corse ? 

Speak softly ; or the loss of those great towns 
Will make him burst his lead, and rise from death. 

GLO. Is Paris lost ? is Rouen yielded up ? 
If Henry were recalPd to life again, 
These news would cause him once more yield the 

EXE. How were they lost ? what treachery was 

MESS. No treachery; but want of men and 


Among the soldiers this is muttered, 
That here you maintain several factions ; 
And, whilst a field should be despatched and fought, 

Pope's conjecture is confirmed by this peculiar circumstance, 
that two blazing stars (the Julium sidus) are part of the arms of 
the Drake family. It is well known that families and arms were 
much more attended to in Shakspeare's time, than they are at 
this day. M. MASON. 

This blank undoubtedly arose from the transcriber's or com- 
positor's not being able to make out the name. So, in a subse- 
quent passage the word Nero was omitted for the same reason. 
See the Dissertation at the end of the third part of King Henry 

3 Guienne, Champaigne, Rheims, Orleans,'] This verse might 
be completed by the insertion of Rouen among the places lost, 
as Gloster in his next speech infers that it had been mentioned 
with the rest. STEEVENS. 


You are disputing of your generals. 

One would have ling'ring wars, with little cost ; 

Another would fly swift but wanteth wings ; 

A third man thinks, 4 without expence at all, 

By guileful fair words peace may be obtained. 

Awake, awake, English nobility ! 

Let not sloth dim your honours, new-begot : 

Cropp'd are the flower-de-luces in your arms ; 

Of England's coat one half is cut away. 

EXE. Were our tears wanting to this funeral, 
These tidings would call forth her flowing tides. 5 

BED. Me they concern; regent lam of France: 
Give me my steeled coat, I'll fight for France. < 
Away with these disgraceful wailing robes ! 
Wounds I will lend the French, instead of eyes, 
To weep their intermissive miseries. 6 

Enter another Messenger. 

2 MESS. Lords, view these letters, full of bad 


France is revolted from the English quite ; 
Except some petty towns of no import : 
The Dauphin Charles is crowned king in Rheims j 
The bastard of Orleans with him is join'd ; 
Reignier, duke of Anjou, doth take his part ; 
The duke of Alen9on flieth to his side. 

. ' * A third man thinks,] Thus the second folio. The first omits 
the word man, and consequently leaves the verse imperfect. 


4 herjl&wing tides."] i. e. England's flowing tides. 


6 their intermissive miseries.'} - e. their miseries, which 
have had only a short intermission from Henry the Fifth's 
death to my coming amongst them. WARBURTON. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 13 

EXE. The Dauphin crowned king ! all fly to him ! 
O, whither shall we fly from this reproach ? 

GLO. We will not fly, but to our enemies' 

throats : 
Bedford, if thou be slack, I'll fight it out. 

BED. Gloster, why doubt* st thou of my forward- 
ness ? 

An army have I muster'd in my thoughts, 
Wherewith already France is over-run. 

Enter a third Messenger. 

3 MESS. My gracious lords, to add to your la- 

Wherewith you now bedew king Henry's hearse, 
I must inform you of a dismal right, 
Betwixt the stout lord Talbot and the French. 

WIN. What ! wherein Talbot overcame ? is't so ? 

3 MESS. O, no ; wherein lord Talbot was o'er- 

thrown : 

The circumstance I'll tell you more at large. 
The tenth of August last, this dreadful lord, 
Retiring from the siege of Orleans, 
Having full scarce six thousand in his troop, 7 
By three and twenty thousand of the French 
Was round encompassed and set upon : 
No leisure had he to enrank his men ; 
He wanted pikes to set before his archers ; 
Instead whereof, sharp stakes, pluck'd out of hedges, 
They pitched in the ground confusedly, 

7 Having full scarce &c.] The modern editors read scarce 
full, but, I think, unnecessarily. So, in The Tempest ; 

" Prospero, master of /# poor cell." 



To keep the horsemen off from breaking in. 
More than three hours the fight continued ; 
Where valiant Talbot, above human thought, 
Enacted wonders 8 with his sword and lance. 
Hundreds he sent to hell, and none durst stand him; 
Here, there, and every where, enrag'd he slew : 9 
The French exclaim'd, The devil was in arms ; 
All the whole army stood agaz'd on him : 
His soldiers, spying his undaunted spirit, 
A Talbot ! a Talbot ! cried out amain, 
And rush'd into the bowels of the battle. 1 
Here had the conquest fully been seaPd up, 
If sir John Fastolfe 2 had not play'd the coward ; 

above human thought, 

Enacted wonders ] So, in King Richard III : 
" The king enacts more wonders than a man." 


he slew:] I suspect the author wrote fan. 


1 And rush'd into the bowels of the battle.] Again, in the 
fifth Act of this play: 

" So, rushing in the bowels of the French." 
The same phrase had occurred in the first part of Jeronimo, 

" Meet, Don Andrea ! yes, in the battle's bowels." 


8 If sir John Fastolfe c.] Mr. Pope has taken notice, " That 
Falstaff is here introduced again, who was dead in Henry V. 
The occasion whereof is, that this play was written before King 
Henry IV. or King Henry V." But it is the historical Sir John 
Fastolfe (for so he is called in both our Chroniclers) that is here 
mentioned ; who was a lieutenant general, deputy regent to the 
duke of Bedford in Normandy, and a knight of the garter ; and 
not the comick character afterwards introduced by our author, 
and which was a creature merely of his own brain. Nor when 
he named him Falstaff do I believe he had any intention of 
throwing a slur on the memory of this renowned old warrior. 


Mr. Theobald' might have seen his notion contradicted in the 
very line he quotes from. Fastolfe, whether truly or not, is 

sc. /. KING HENRY VI. 15 

He being in the vaward, (plac'd behind, 3 
With purpose to relieve and follow them,) 
Cowardly fled, not having struck one stroke. 
Hence grew the general wreck and massacre ; 
Enclosed were they with their enemies : 
A base Walloon, to win the Dauphin's grace, 
Thrust Talbot with a spear into the back ; 
Whom all France, with their chief assembled 

Durst not presume to look once in the face. 

said by Hall and Holinshed to have been degraded for cowardice. 
Dr. Heylin, in his Saint George for England, tells us, that " he 
was afterwards, upon good reason by him alledged in his de- 
fence, restored to his honour." "This Sir John FastolfeJ 1 con- 
tinues he, " was without doubt, a valiant and wise captain, not- 
withstanding the stage hath made merry with him." FARMER. 

See Vol. XL p. 194, n. 3 ; and Oldys's Life of Sir John Fas- 
tolfe in the General Dictionary. MALONE. 

In the 18th Song of Dray ton's Polyolbion is the following cha- 
racter of this Sir John Fastolph : 

1 Strong Fastolph with this man compare we justly may; 
' By Salsbury who oft being seriously imploy'd 

* In many a brave attempt the general foe annoy'd ; 

' With excellent successe in Main and Anjou fought, 
' And many a bulwarke there into our keeping brought ; 
' And chosen to go forth with Vadamont in warre, 

* Most resolutely tooke proud Renate duke of Barre." 


For an account of this Sir John Fastolfe, see Anstis's Treatise 
on the Order of the Garter ; Parkins's Supplement to Blomfield's 
History of Norfolk ; Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannica ; or Capel's 
notes, Vol. II. p. 221 ; and Sir John Fenn's Collection of the 
Paston Letters. REED. 

3 He being in the vaivard, (plac'd behind,] Some of the edi- 
tors seem to have considered this as a contradiction in terms, and 
have proposed to read the rearward, but without necessity. 
Some part of the van must have been behind the foremost line 
of it. We often say the back front of a house. STEEVENS. 

When an army is attacked in the rear, the van becomes the 
rear in its turn, and of course the reserve. M. 


BED. Is Talbot slain ? then I will slay myself, 
For living idly here, in pomp and ease, 
Whilst such a worthy leader, wanting aid, 
Unto his dastard foe-men is betray'd. 

3 MESS. O no, he lives ; but is took prisoner, 
And lord Scales with him, and lord Hungerford : 
Most of the rest slaughter'd, or took, likewise. 

BED. His ransome there is none but I shall pay : 
I'll hale the Dauphin headlong from his throne, 
His crown shall be the ransome of my friend ; 
Four of their lords I'll change for one of ours. 
Farewell, my masters ; to my task will I ; 
Bonfires in France forthwith I am to make, 
To keep our great Saint George's feast withal : 
Ten thousand soldiers with me I will take, 
Whose bloody deeds shall make all Europe quake. 

3 MESS. So you had need ; for Orleans is be- 


The English army is grown weak and faint : 
The earl of Salisbury craveth supply, 
And hardly keeps his men from mutiny, 
Since they, so few, watch such a multitude. 

* EXE. Remember, lords, your oaths to Henry 

sworn ; 

Either to quell the Dauphin utterly, 
Or bring him in obedience to your yoke. 

BED. I do remember it ; and here take leave, 
To go about my preparation. \JEocit. 

GLO. I'll to the Tower, with all the haste I can, 
To view the artillery and munition ; 
And then I will proclaim young Henry king. 

To Eltham will I, where the young king 

sc.t. KING HENRY VI. 17 

Being ordain'd his special governor; 

And for his safety there Ffi best devise. [Exit. 

WIN. Each hath his place and function to at- 
tend : 

I am left out ; for me nothing remains. 
But long I will not be Jack-out-of-office ; 
The king from Eltham I intend to send, 
And sit at chiefest stern of publick weal. 4 

[Exit. Scene closes. 

* The king from Eltham I intend to send, 

And sit at chiefest stern of publick tveal.'] The King was not 
at this time so much in the power of the Cardinal, that he could 
send him where he pleased. I have therefore no doubt but that 
there is an error in this passage, and that it should be read thus : 

The king from Eltham I intend to steal, 

And sit at chiefest stern of publick 'weal. 

This slight alteration preserves the sense, and the rhyme also, 
with which many scenes in this play conclude. The King's per- 
son, as appears from the speech immediately preceding this of 
Winchester, was under the care of the Duke of Exeter, not of 
the Cardinal : 

" Exe. To Eltham will I, where the young king is, 

*' Being ordain'd his special governor.'* M. MASON. 

The second charge in the Articles of Accusation preferred by 
the Duke of Gloster against the Bishop, ( Hall's Chron. Hen. VI. 
f. 12, b.) countenances this conjecture. MALONE. 

The disagreeable clash of the words intend and send, seems 
indeed to confirm the propriety of Mr. M. Mason's emendation. 





France. Before Orleans. 

Enter CHARLES, with his forces; ALEN$ON, 
REIGNIER, and Others. 

CHAR. Mars his true moving, 5 even as in the hea- 

So in the earth, to this day is not known : 
Late did he shine upon the English side ; 
Now we are victors upon us he smiles. 
What towns of any moment, but we have ? 
At pleasure here we lie, near Orleans ; 
Otherwhiles, the famish' d English, like pale ghosts, 
Faintly besiege us one hour in a month. 

ALEN. They want their porridge, and their fat 

bull-beeves : 

Either they must be dieted like mules, 
And have their provender tyed to their mouths, 
Or piteous they will look like drowned mice. 

REIG. Let's raise the siege j Why live we idly 

here ? 

Talbot is taken, whom we wont to fear : 
Remaineth none but mad-brain'd Salisbury j 
And he may well in fretting spend his gall, 
Nor men, nor money, hath he to make war. 

CHAR. Sound, sound alarum; we will rush on 

4 Mars his true moving, #c.] So, Nash, in one of his prefaces 
before Gabriel Harvey's Hunt is up, 1596: "You are as igno- 
rant in the true movings of my muse, as the astronomers are in 
the true movings of Mars, which to this day they could never 
attain to." STEEVENS. 

sp. fi. KING HENRY VI. 19 

Now for the honour of the forlorn French : 
Him I forgive my death, that killeth me, 
When he sees me go back one foot, or fly. 


Alarums; Excursions; afterwards a Retreat. 


CHAR. Who ever saw the like ? what men have 

Dogs ! cowards ! dastards ! I would ne'er have fled, 
But that they left me 'midst my enemies. 

REIG. Salisbury is a desperate homicide ; 
He fighteth as one weary of his life. 
The other lords, like lions wanting food, 
Do rush upon us as their hungry prey. 6 

ALEN. Froissard, a countryman of ours, records, 
England all Olivers and Rowlands bred, 7 
During the time Edward the third did reign. 

6 as their hungry prey.~\ I believe it should be read : 

as their hungred prey. JOHNSON. 

I adhere to the old reading, which appears to signify the prey 
for 'which they are hungry. STEEVENS. 

7 England all Olivers and Rowlands bred,~\ These were two 
of the most famous in the list of Charlemagne's twelve peers ; 
and their exploits are rendered so ridiculously and equally ex- 
travagant by the old romancers, that from hence arose that saying 
amongst ouv plain and sensible ancestors, of giving one a Rovu" 
land for his Oliver, to signify the matching one incredible lie 
with another. WARBURTON. 

Rather, to oppose one herb to another ; i. e. to give a person 
as good a one as he brings. STEEVENS. 

The old copy has breed. Corrected by Mr. Rowe. 



More truly now may this be verified ; 

For none but Samsons, and Goliasses, 

It sendeth forth to skirmish. One to ten ! 

Lean raw-bon'd rascals ! who would e'er suppose 

They had such courage and audacity ? 

CHAR. Let's leave this town ; for they are hair- 

brain'd slaves, 

And hunger will enforce them to be more eager:* 
Of old I know them ; rather with their teeth 
The walls they'll tear down, than forsake the siege. 

REIG. I think, by some odd gimmals 9 or de- 
Their arms are set, like clocks, l still to strike on ; 

8 And hunger 'will enforce them to be more eager:"] The pre- 
position to should be omitted, as injurious to the measure, and 
unnecessary in the old elliptical mode of writing. So, Act IV. 
sc. i. of this play : 

" Let me persuade you take a better course." 
>. e. to take &c. The error pointed out, occurs again in p. 31 : 
" Piel'd priest, dost thou command me to be shut out ?" 


p gimmals 3 A gimmal is a piece of jointed work, 

where one piece moves Avithin another, whence it is taken at large 
for an engine. It is now by the vulgar called a gimcrack. 


In the inventory of the jewels, &c. belonging to Salisbury 
cathedral, taken in 1536, 28th of Henry VIII. is " a faire chest 
with gimmals and key." Again : " Three other chests with gim- 
mals of silver and gilt." Again, in The Vow-breaker, or The faire 
Maide of Clifton, 1636.- 

" My actes are like the motionall gymmals 

" Fixt in a watch." 
See also King Henry V. Act IV. sc. ii. STEEVENS. 

1 Their arms are set, like clocks,'} Perhaps our author was 
thinking of the clocks in which figures in the shape of men 
struck the hours. Of these there were many in his time. 


To go like clockwork, is still a phrase in common use, to express 
a regular and constant motion. STEEVENS. 

ac. n. KING HENRY VI. 2! 

Else ne'er could they hold out so, as they do. 
By my consent, we'll e'en let them alone. 

ALEN. Be it so. 

Enter the Bastard of Orleans. 

BAST. Where's the prince Dauphin, I have news 
for him. 

CHAR. Bastard of Orleans, 2 thrice welcome to us. 

BAST. Methinks, your looks are sad, your cheer 
appall'd; 3 

* Bastard of Orleans,"] That this in former times was not a 
term of reproach, see Bishop Kurd's Letters on Chivalry and 
Romance, in the third volume of his Dialogues, p. 233, who ob- 
serving on circumstances of agreement between the heroick and 
Gothick manners, says that " Bastardy was in credit with both." 
One of William the Conqueror's charters begins " Ego Gidielmus 
cognomento Bastardus" And in the reign of Edward I. John 
Earl Warren and Surrey being called before the King's Justices 
to show by what title he held his lands, produxit in medium gla- 
dinm antiquum evaginatum et ait, Ecce Domini met, ecce ivar- 
rantum meum! Antecessores mei cum Willo Bastardo venientes 
conquesti sunt terras suas, &c. Dugd. Orig. Jurid. p. 13. Dugd. 
Bar. o/Eng. Vol. I. Blount 9. 

" Le Bastarde de Savoy," is inscribed over the head of one of 
the figures in a curious picture of the Battle of Pavia, in the 
Ashmolean Museum. In Fenn's Paston Letters, Vol. III. p. 72-3, 
in the articles of impeachment against the Duke of Suffolk, we 
read of the " Erie of Darias, bastard of Orlyaunce " 


Bastardy was reckoned no disgrace among the ancients. See 
the eighth Iliad, in which the illegitimacy of Teucer is mentioned 
as a panegyric upon him, ver. 284: 

" Ka< <rs, voQov Tfs JoVra, xojxicrcraro cJ Jv< OJKW." 


3 your cheer appall* d;~\ Cheer is jollity, gaiety. 


Cheer, rather signifies countenance. So, in A Midsummer- 
Night's Dream : 

" All fancy-sick she is, and pale of cheer" 
See Vol. IV. p. 41 4-, n. 9. STEEVENS. 


Hath the late overthrow wrought this offence ? 
Be not dismay' d, for succour is at hand : 
A holy maid hither with me I bring, 
Which, by a vision sent to her from heaven, 
Ordained is to raise this tedious siege, 
And drive the English forth the bounds of France. 
The spirit of deep prophecy she hath, 
Exceeding the nine sibyls of old Rome ; 4 
What's past, and what's to come, she can descry. 
Speak, shall I call her in ? Believe my words, 5 
For they are certain and unfallible. 

CHAR. Go, call her in: [Exit Bastard.] But, first, 

to try her skill, 

Reignier, stand thou as Dauphin in my place : 
Question her proudly, let thy looks be stern : 
By this means shall we sound what skill she hath. 


Enter LA PUCELLE, Bastard of Orleans, and 

REIG. Fair maid, is't thou wilt do these wond'rous 

feats ? 
Puc. Reignier, is't thoii that thinkest to beguile 

Where is the Dauphin? come, come from behind : 

4 nine sibyls of old Rome;"} There were no nine sibyls of 

Rome; but he confounds things, and mistakes this for the nine 
books of Sibylline oracles, brought to one of the Tarqiiins. 


* Believe my "words,"] It should be read : 

Believe her "words. JOHNSON. 

I perceive no need of change. The Bastard calls upon the 
Dauphin to believe the extraordinary account he has just given 
of the prophetick spirit and prowess of the Maid of Orleans. 


so. if. KING HENRY VI. 23 

I know thee well, though never seen, before. 
Be not amaz'd, there's nothing hid from me : 
In private will I talk with thee apart ;- 
Stand back, you lords, and give us leave awhile. 

REIG. She takes upon her bravely at first dash. 

Puc. Dauphin, I ainby birth a shepherd's daugh- 

My wit untrain'd in any kind of art. 
Heaven, and our Lady gracious, hath it pleas'd 
To shine on my contemptible estate: 6 
Lo, whilst I waited on my tender lambs, 
And to sun's parching heat display'd my cheeks, 
God's mother deigned to appear to me ; 
And, in a vision full of majesty, 7 
WilPd me to leave my base vocation, 
And free my country from calamity : 
Her aid she promis'd, and assur'd success : 
In complete glory she reveal' d herself; 
And, whereas I was black and swart before, 
With those clear rays which she infus'd on me, 
That beauty am I bless'd with, which you see. 8 
Ask me what question thou canst possible, 
And I will answer unpremeditated : 
My courage try by combat, if thou dar'st, 
And thou shalt find that I exceed my sex. 

G To shine on my contemptible estate:"] So, in Daniel's Com~ 
plaint of Rosamond, ,'1594- : 

thy king &c. 

*' Lightens forth glory on thy dark estate. STEEVENS. 

7 a vision fall of majesty. ~\ So, in The Tempest: 

" This is a most majestick vision ." 


* "which, you see.~] Thus the second folio. The first, in- 
judiciously as well as redundantly, which you may see. 



Resolve on this : 9 Thou shalt be fortunate, 
If thou receive me for thy warlike mate, 

CHAR. Thou hast astonish J d me with thy high 

terms ; 

Only this proof I'll of thy valour make,- 
In single combat thou shalt buckle with me ; 
And, if thou vanquishest, thy words are true j 
Otherwise, I renounce all confidence. 

Puc. I am prepared: here is my keen-edg'd 


Deck'd with five flower-de-luces on each side ; l 
The which at Touraine, in Saint Katharine's 

Out of a deal of old iron I chose forth. 2 

CHAR. Then come o'God's name, I fear no wo- 

9 Resolve on this:"] i. e. be firmly persuaded of it. So, in 
King Henry VI. P. Ill: 

" 1 am resolved 

" That Clifford's manhood lies upon his tongue." 


1 Deck'd tvith five jlower-de-luces c.] Old copy -fine; but 
we should read, according to Holinshed, -jive flower-de-luces. 
" in a secret place there among old iron, appointed she hir 
sword to be sought out and brought her, that with Jive floure-de- 
lices was graven on both sides," &c. STEEVENS. 

The same mistake having happened in A Midsummer-Night's 
Dream, and in other places, I have not hesitated to reform the 
text, according to Mr. Steevens's suggestion. In the MSS. of 
the age of Queen Elizabeth, u and n are undistinguishable. 


8 Out of a deal of old iron &c.] The old copy yet more re- 
dundantly Out of a great deal &c. I have no doubt but the 
original line stood, elliptically, thus : 

Out a deal of old iron I chose forth. 

The phrase of hospitals is still an out door; not an out of door 
patient. STEEVENS. 


Puc. And, while I live, I'll ne'er fly from a man. 

IThey fight. 

CHAR. Stay, stay thy hands ; thou art an Ama- 
And tightest with the sword of Deborah. 

Puc. Christ's mother helps me, else I were too 

CHAR. Whoe'er helps thee, 'tis thou that must 

help me : 

Impatiently I burn with thy desire ; 3 
My heart and hands thou hast at once subdu'd. 
Excellent Pucelle, if thy name be so, 
Let me thy servant, and not sovereign, be ; 
'Tis, the French Dauphin sueth to thee thus. 

Puc. I must not yield to any rites of love, 
For my profession's sacred from above : 
When I have chased all thy foes from hence, 
Then will I think upon a recompense. 

CHAR. Mean time, look gracious on thy prostrate 

REIG. My lord, methinks, is very long in talk. 

ALEN. Doubtless he shrives this woman to her 

smock ; 
Else ne'er could he so long protract his speech. 

REIG. Shall we disturb him, since he keeps no 
mean ? 

3 Impatiently I burn ivith thy desire ;] The amorous con- 
stitution of the Dauphin has been mentioned in the preceding 

" Doing is activity, and he will still be doing." 


The Dauphin in the succeeding play is John, the elder bro- 
ther of the present speaker. He died in 1416, the year after the 
battle of Agincourt. RITSON. 


. He may mean more than we poor men do 

know : 

These women are shrewd tempters with their 

REIG. My lord, where are you? what devise you 

on ? 
Shall we give over Orleans, or no ? 

Puc. Why no, I say, distrustful recreants ! 
Fight till the last gasp ; I will be your guard. 

CHAR. What she says, I'll confirm ; We'll fight 
it oUt. 

Puc. Assign'd am I to be the English scourge. 
This night the siege assuredly I'll raise : 
Expect Saint Martin's summer, 4 halcyon days, 
Since I have entered into these wars. 
Glory is like a circle in the water, 
Which never ceaseth to enlarge itself, 
Till, by broad spreading, it disperse to nought. 8 

4 Expect Saint Martin's summer, ~\ That is, expect prosperity 
after misfortune, like fair weather at Martletnas, after winter 
has begun. JOHNSON. 

* Glory is like a circle in the water, 
Which never ceaseth to enlarge itself, 

Till, by broad spreading, it disperse to nought. ,] So, in 
Nosce Teipsum, a poem by Sir John Davies, 1599: 
" As when a stone is into water cast, 
" One circle doth another circle make, 
" Till the last circle reach the bank at last." 
The same image, without the particular application, may be 
found in Silius Italicus, Lib. XIII : 

' Sic ubi perrumpsit stagnantem calculus undam, 

' Exiguos format per prima volumina gyros, 

' Mox tremulum vibrans motu gliscente liquorem 

' Multiplicat crebros sinuati gurgitis orbes ; 

* Donee postremo laxatis circulus oris, 

' Contingat geminas patulo curvamine ripas. 

This was a favourite simile with Pope. It is to be found also 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 27 

With Henry's death, the English circle ends ; 
Dispersed are the glories it included. 
Now am I like that proud insulting ship, 
Which Caesar and his fortune bare at once. 6 

CHAR. Was Mahomet inspired with a dove? 7 
Thou with an eagle art inspired then. 
Helen, the mother of great Constantine, 
Nor yet Saint Philip's daughters, 8 were like thee. 

in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, Book VIII. st. 63, of Sir John 
Harrington's translation : 

" As circles in a water cleare are spread, 
" When sunne doth shine by day, and moone by night, 
" Succeeding one another in a ranke, 
" Till all by one and one do touch the banke." 
I meet with it again in Chapman's Epistle Dedicatorie, pre- 
fixed to his version of the Iliad ; 

As in a spring, 

The plyant water, mov'd with any thing 
Let fall into it, puts her motion out 
In perfect circles, that moue round about 
The gentle fountaine, one another raysing." 
And the same image is much expanded by Sylvester, the trans- 
lator of Du Bartas, 3d part of 2d day of 2d week. 


6 like that proud insulting ship, 

Which Ccesar and his fortune bare at once.~\ This alludes to 
a passage in Plutarch's Life of Julius Ctesar, thus translated by 
Sir Thomas North : " Caesar hearing that, straight discovered 
himselfe unto the maister of the pynnase, who at the first was 
amazed when he saw him ; but Caesar, &c. said unto him, Good 
fellow, be of good cheere, &c. and fear not, for thou hast Ccesar 
and his fortune "with thee." STEEVENS. 

7 Was Mahomet inspired 'with a dove?~\ Mahomet had a dove, 
" which he used to feed with wheat out of his ear ; which dove, 
when it was hungry, lighted on Mahomet's shoulder, and thrust 
its bill in to find its breakfast ; Mahomet persuading the rude 
and simple Arabians, that it was the Holy Ghost that gave him 
advice." See Sir Walter Raleigh's History of the World, Book 
I. P. I. ch. vi. Life of Mahomet, by Dr. Prideaux. GREY. 

8 Nor yet Saint Philip's daughters,'] Meaning the four daugh- 
ters of Philip mentioned in the Acts. HANMER. 


Bright star of Venus, fall'n down on the earth, 
How may I reverently worship thee enough ? 9 

ALEN. Leave off delays, and let us raise the 

REIG. Woman, do what thou canst to save our 

honours ; 
Drive them from Orleans, and be immortalized. 

CHAR. Presently we'll try: Come, let's away 

about it : 
No prophet will I trust, if she prove false. 



London. Hill before the Tower. 

Enter, at the Gates, the Duke O/~GLOSTER, with his 
Serving-men, in blue Coats. 

GLO. I am come to survey the Tower this day ; 
Since Henry's death, I fear there is conveyance. 1 
Where be these warders, that they wait not here ? 
Open the gates ; Gloster it is that calls. 

[Servants knock. 

1 WARD. \_Within.~\ Who is there that knocks 
so imperiously ? 

1 SERV. It is the noble duke of Gloster. 

9 Hotv may I reverently "worship thee enough ?~] Perhaps this 
unmetrical line originally ran thus : 

How may I reverence, worship thee enough ? 
The climax rises properly, from reverence, to worship. 


1 there is conveyance.] Conveyance means theft. 


So Pistol, in The Merry Wives of Windsor : " Convey the 
wise it call : Stepl ! foh ; a fico for the phrase." STEEVENS. 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 29 

2 WARD. \_Wiihin.~\ Whoe'er he be, you may 
not be let in. 

1 SEEV. Answer you so the lord protector, vil- 
lains ? 

1 WARD. \_Within.~] The Lord protect him ! so 

we answer him : 
We do no otherwise than we are will'd. 

GLO. Who willed you ? or whose will stands, but 

mine ? 

There's none protector of the realm but I. 
Break up the gates, 2 I'll be your warrantize: 
Shall I be flouted thus by dunghill grooms ? 

Servants rush at the Tower Gates. Enter, to the 
Gates, WOODVILLE, the Lieutenant. 

WOOD. [ Within."] What noise is this ? what 
traitors have we here ? 

GLO. Lieutenant, is it you, whose voice I hear? 
Open the gates ; here's Gloster, that would enter. 

WOOD. [Within."} Have patience, noble duke; 
I may not open j 

f Break up the gates, ~] I suppose to break up the gate is to 
force up the portcullis, or by the application of petards to blow 
up the gates themselves. STEEVENS. 

To break up in Shakspeare's age was the same as to break 
open. Thus, in our translation of the Bible : " They have 
broken up, and have passed through the gate." Micah, ii. 13. 
So again, in St. Mattheiv, xxiv. 43 : " He would have watched, 
and would not have suffered his house to be broken up." 


Some one has proposed to read 

Break ope the gales, 

but the old copy is right. So Hall, HENRY VI. folio 78, b : 
" The lusty Kentishmen hopyng on more friends, brake up the 
gaytes of the King's Bench and Marshalsea," &c. MALONE. 


The cardinal of Winchester forbids : 
From him I have express commandement, 
That thou, nor none of thine, shall be let in. 

GLO. Faint-hearted Woodville, prizest him 'fore 


Arrogant Winchester ? that haughty prelate, 
Whom Henry, our late sovereign, ne'er could 


Thou art no friend to God, or to the king : 
Open the gates, or I'll shut thee out shortly. 

1 SERF. Open the gates unto the lord protector ; 
Or we'll burst them open, if that you come not 

, Enter WINCHESTER, attended by a Train of 
Servants in tawny Coats. 3 

WIN. How now, ambitious Humphry ? what 
means this ? 4 

3 tawny coats.'} It appears from the following passage 

in a comedy called, A Maidenhead well lost, 1634, that a 
tawny coat was the dress of a summoner, i. e. an apparitor, an 
officer whose business it was to summon offenders to an ecclesi- 
astical court : 

" Tho I was never a tawny-coat, I have played the summoner' s 

These are the proper attendants therefore on the Bishop of 
Winchester. So, in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 822 : " and by the 
way the bishop of London met him, attended on by a goodly 
company of gentlemen in tawny-coats," &c. 

Tawny was likewise a colour worn for mourning, as 'well as 
black ; and was therefore the suitable and sober habit of any 
person employed in an ecclesiastical court: 

" A croune of bayes shall that man weare 

" That triumphs over me ; 
" For blacfce and tawnie will I weare, 

" Whiche mournyng colours be." 

The Complaint of a Lover wearing blacke and tawnie ; by E. O. 
[i. e. the Earl of Oxford.] Paradise of Dainty Devises, 1576. 


4 How now, ambitious Humphry? what means this?] The 

7. ///. KING HENRY VI. 3j 

GLO. Piel'd priest, 5 dost thou command me to 
be shut out ? 

WIN. I do, thou most usurping proditor, 
And not protector of the king or realm. 

GLO. Stand back, thou manifest conspirator ; 
Thou, that contriv'dst to murder our dead lord ; 
Thou, that giv'st whores indulgences to sin : 6 

first folio has it^-umpheir. The traces of the letters, and the 
word being printed in Italicks, convince me that the Duke's 
Christian name lurked under this corruption. THEOBALD. 

* Piel'd priest,'] Alluding to his shaven crown. POPE. 

In Skinner (to whose Dictionary I was directed by Mr. Ed- 
wards) I find that it means more : Pill' dor peel' d garlicky cuipel- 
lis, vet pili omnes ex morbo aliquo, prtesertim e lue venerea, de- 

In Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, the following instance 
occurs : 

" 111 see them p 'd first, and pil'd and double pil'd." 


In Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 364?, Robert Baldocke, 
bishop of London, is called apeel'd priest, pilide clerk, seemingly 
in allusion to his shaven crown alone. So, bald-head was a term 
of scorn and mockery. TOLLET. 

The old copy has piel'd priest. Piel'd and pifd were only 
the old spelling ofpeel'd. So, in our poet's Rape ofLucrece f 4?to. 

M His leaves will wither, and his sap decay, 
** So must my soul, her bark being pil'd away." 

See also Florio's Italian Dictionary, 1598 : " Pelare. To pill 
or pluck, as they do the feathers of fowle ; to pull off the hair or 
skin." MALONE. 

6 Thou, that giv'st ivhores indulgences to sin :~] The public 
stews were formerly under the district of the bishop of Winches- 
ter. POPE. 

There is now extant an old manuscript (formerly the office- 
book of the court-leet held under the jurisdiction of the bishop 
of Winchester in Southwark,) in which are mentioned the seve- 
ral fees arising from the brothel-houses allowed to be kept in the 
bishop's manor, with the customs and regulations of them. One 
of the articles is : 

" De his, qui cmtodiunt mulieres habentes nefandavn infirmi- 


I'll canvas thee in thy broad cardinal's hat, 7 
If thou proceed in this thy insolence. 

WIN. Nay, stand thou back, I will not budge a 


This be Damascus, be thou cursed Cain, 8 
To sla^ thy brother Abel, if thou wilt. 

" Item. That no stewholder keep any woman within his house, 
that hath any sickness of brenning, but that she be put out upon 
pain of making a fyne unto the lord of C shillings." UPTON. 

7 Pll canvas thee in thy broad cardinal's hat,'] This means, I 
believe, /'// tumble thee into thy great hat, and shake thee, as 
bran and meal are shaken in a sieve. 

So, Sir W. D'Avenant, in The Cruel Brother, 1630: 

" I'll sift and winnow him in an old hat." 
To canvas was anciently used for to sift. So, in Hans Beer- 
pot's invisible Comedy, 1618 : 

** We'll canvas him. 

" I am too big ." 

Again, in the Epistle Dedicatory to Have 'with you to Saffron 
Walden, or Gabriel Harvey's Hunt is up, &c. 1596 : " canvaze 
him and his angell brother Gabriell, in ten sheets of paper," &c. 


Again, in The Second Part of King Henry IV. Doll Tearsheet 
says to Falstaff " If thou dost, I'll canvas thee between a pair 
of sheets." M. MASON. 

Probably from the materials of which the bottom of a sieve is 
made. Perhaps, however, in the passage before us Gloster means, 
that he will toss the cardinal in a sheet, even while he was in- 
vested with the peculiar badge of his ecclesiastical dignity. 
Coarse sheets were formerly termed canvass sheets. See K. 
Henry IV. P. II. Act II. sc. iv. MALONE. 

8 This be Damascus, be thou cursed Cain,~\ About four miles 
from Damascus is a high hill, reported to be the same on which 
Cain slew his brother Abel. Maundrel's Travels, p. 131. 


Sir John Maundeville says : " And in that place where Da- 
mascus was founded, Kaym sloughe Abel his brother." Maun- 
deville's Travels, edit. 1725, p. 148. REED. 

" Damascus is as moche to saye as shedynge of blood. For 
there Chaym slowe Abell, and hydde him in the sonde." Poly- 
chronicon, fo. xii. RITSON. 

sc. in. KING HENRY VI. 33 

GLO. I will not slay thee, but I'll drive thee 


Thy scarlet robes, as a child's bearing-cloth 
I'll use, to carry thee out of this place. 

WIN. Do what thou dar'st; I beard thee to thy 

f * 


GLO. What? am I dar'd, and bearded to my 


Draw, men, for all this privileged place ; 
Blue-coats to tawny-coats. Priest, beware your 

beard ; 

[GLOSTER and his Men attack the Bishop. 
I mean to tug it, and to cuff you soundly : 
Under my feet I stamp thy cardinal's hat ; 
In spite of pope or dignities of church, 
Here by the cheeks I'll drag thee up and down. 

WIN. Gloster, thou'lt answer this before the 

GLO. Winchester goose, 9 1 cry arope! arope! 1 
Now beat them hence, Why do you let them stay? 
Thee I'll chase hence, thou wolf in sheep's array. 
Out, tawny coats! out, scarlet hypocrite! 2 

9 Winchester goose,"] A strumpet, or the consequences 

of her love, was a Winchester goose. JOHNSON. 

a rope! a rope!~\ See The Comedy of Errors, Act IV. 

sc. iv. MALONE 

8 out, scarlet hypocrite!"] Thus, in King Henry VIII. 

the Earl of Surrey, with a similar allusion to Cardinal Wolsey's 
habit, calls him " scarlet sin," STEEVENS. 



Here a great Tumult. In the midst of it, Enter the 
Mayor o/'London, 3 and Officers. 

. Fye, lords ! that you, being supreme ma- 

Thus contumeliously should break the peace ! 

GLO. Peace, mayor ; thou know'st little of my 

wrongs : 

Here's Beaufort, that regards nor God nor king, 
Hath here distrain' d the Tower to his use. 

WIN. Here's Gloster too, a foe to citizens j* 
One that still motions war, and never peace, 
O'ercharging your free purses with large fines ; 
That seeks to overthrow religion, 
Because he is protector of the realm ; 
And would have armour here out of the Tower, 
To crown himself king, and suppress the prince. 

GLO. I will not answer thee with words, but 
blows. [Here they skirmish again. 

MAY. Nought rests for me, in this tumultuous 


But to make open proclamation : 
Come, officer j as loud as e'er thou can'st. 

3 -the Mayor of' London,] I learn from Mr. Pennant's 
LONDON, that this Mayor was John Coventry, an opulent mer- 
cer, from whom is descended the present Earl of Coventry. 


* Here's Gloster too, %c.~\ Thus the second folio. The first 
folio, with less spirit of reciprocation, and feebler metre, Here 
is Gloster &c. STEEVENS. 

$c. m. KING HENRY VI. 35 

OFF. All manner of men, assembled here in arms 
this day, against God's peace and the king's, we 
charge and command you, in his highness' name, 
to repair to your several dwelling-places; and not 
to wear, handk, or use, any sword, weapon, or 
dagger, henceforward, upon pain of death. 

GLO. Cardinal, I'll be no breaker of the law : 
But we shall meet, and break our minds at large. 

WIN. Oloster, we'll meet ; to thy dear cost, be 

sure : 5 
Thy heart-blood I will have, for this day's work. 

MAY. I'll call for clubs, if you will not away: 6 
This cardinal is more haughty than the devil. 

GLO. Mayor, farewell : thou dost but what thou 
may' st. 

WIN. Abominable Gloster! guard thy head; 
For I intend to have it, ere long. [Exeunt. 

MAY. See the coast clear'd, and then we will 

4 Gloster, we 1 II meet; to thy dear cost, be sure:~\ Thus the 
second folio. The first omits the epithet dear; as does Mr. 
Malone, who says that the word sure " is here used as a dissyl- 
lable." STEEVENS. 

6 I'll call for clubs, if you taill not atvay:'] This was an 
outcry for assistance, on any riot or quarrel in the streets. It hath 
been explained before. WHALLEY. 

So, in Kins Henry VIII: " and hit that woman, who 

cried out, duos!'' STEEVENS. 

That is, for peace-officers armed with clubs or staves. In 
affrays, it was customary in this author's time to call out clubs, 
clubs! See As you like it, Vol. VIII. p. 166, n. 3. MALONE. 

D 2 


GoodGod! that nobles should such stomachs 7 bear! 
1 myself fight not once in forty year.* \_Exeunt. 


France. Before Orleans. 

Enter, on the Walls, the Master-Gunner and his 


M. GUN. Sirrah, thou know'st how Orleans is be- 

sieg'd ; 
And how the English have the suburbs won. 

SON. Father, I know ; and oft have shot at them, 
Howe'er, unfortunate, I miss'd my aim. 

7 stomachs 3 Stomach is pride, a haughty spirit of re- 
sentment. So, in King Henry VIII: 

" he was a man 

" Of an unbounded stomach -." STEEVENS. 

8 that nobles should such stomachs bear! 

I myself jlght not once in forty year.~\ Old copy these 
nobles. Corrected by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

The Mayor of London was not brought in to be laughed at, as 
is plain by his manner of interfering in the quarrel, where he all 
along preserves a sufficient dignity. In the line preceding these, 
he directs his Officer, to whom without doubt these two lines 
should be given. They suit his character, and are very expressive 
of the pacific temper of the city guards. WARBURTON. 

I see no reason for this change. The Mayor speaks first as a 
magistrate, and afterwards as a citizen. JOHNSON. 

Notwithstanding Warburton's note in support of the dignity of 
the May or, Shakspeare certainly meant to represent him as a poor, 
well-meaning, simple man, for that is the character he invariably 
gives to his Mayors. The Mayor of London, in Richard III. is 
just of the same stamp. And so is the Mayor of York, in the 
Third Part of this play, where he refuses to admit Edward as 
King, but lets him into the city as Duke of York, on which 
Gloster says 

" A wise stout captain! and persuaded soon. 

" Hast. The good old man would fain that all were well.'* 
Such are all Shakspeare's Mayors. M. MASON. 

sc. m KING HENRY VI. 37 

M. Gu^. But now thou shalt not. Be thou rul'd 

by me : 

Chief master-gunner am I of this town ; 
Something I must do, to procure me grace. 
The prince's espials 9 have informed me, 
How the English, in the suburbs close intrench'd, 
Wont, through a secret grate of iron bars 
In yonder tower, to overpeer the city ;' 
And thence discover, how, with most advantage, 
They may vex us, with shot, or with assault. 
To intercept this inconvenience, 
A piece of ordnance 'gainst it I have plac'd ; 
And fully even these three days have I watch'd, 
If I could see them. Now, boy, do thou watch, 
For I can stay no longer. 2 

9 The prince's espials ] Espials are spies. So, in Chaucer's 
Freres Tale: 

" For subtilly he had his espiaille." STEEVENS, 

The word is often used by Hall and Holinshed. MALONE. 

1 Wont, through a secret grate of iron bars &c.] Old copy 
went. See the notes that follow Dr. Johnson's. STEEVENS. 

That is, the English went not through a secret grate, but went 
to over-peer the city through a secret grate which is in yonder 
tower. I did not know till of late that this passage had been 
thought difficult. JOHNSON. 

I believe, instead of went, we should read wont. The third 
person plural of the old verb wont. The English wont, that 

is, are accustomed to over-peer the city. The word is used 

very frequently by Spenser, and several times by Milton. 


The emendation proposed by Mr. Tyrwhitt is fully supported 
by the passage in Hall's Chronicle, on which this speech is formed. 
So, in The Arraignment of Paris, 1584: 

" the usual time is nie, 

" When wont the dames of fate and destinie 

" In robes of chearfull colour to repair ." 


3 > Now, boy, do thou watch, 

For I can stay no longer.'] The first folio reads: 


If thou 6py'st any, run and bring me word ; 
And thou shalt find me at the governor's. \JRxit. 

SON. Father, I warrant you ; take you no care ; 
I'll never trouble you, if I may spy them. 

Enter, in an upper Chamber of a Tower, the Lords 

SAL. Talbot, my life, my joy, again return'd ! 
How wert thou handled, being prisoner ? 
Or by what means got'st thou to be released ? 
Discourse, I pr'ythee, on this turret's top. 

TAL. The duke of Bedford had a prisoner, 
Galled the brave lord Ponton de Santrailles ; 

And even these three days have I tvatcht 
If I could see them. Nmv do thou match, 
For I can stay no longer. STEEVENS. 

Part of this line being in the old copy by a mistake of the 
transcriber connected with the preceding hemistich, the editor of 
the second folio supplied the metre by adding the word boy, in 
which he has been followed in all the subsequent editions. 


As I cannot but entertain a more favourable opinion than Mr. 
Malone of the numerous emendations that appear in the second 
folio, I have again adopted its regulation in the present instance. 
This folio likewise supplied the word -fully. STEEVENS. 

3 Talbot, ~] Though the three parts of King Henry VI. 

are deservedly numbered among the feeblest performances of 
Shakspeare, this first of them appears to have been received with 
the greatest applause. So, in Pierce Penniless* s Supplication to 
the Devil, by Nash, 1592: " How would it have joyed brave 
Talbot (the terror of the French,) to thinke that after he had lien 
two hundred years in his tombe, he should triumph againe on 
the stage, and have his bones netv embalmed with the teares of 
ten thousand spectators at least (at several times,) who in the 
tragedian that represents his person, imagine they behold him 
fresh bleeding?" STEEVENB. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 39 

For him I was exchang'd and ransomed- 

But with a baser man of arms by far, 

Once, in contempt, they would have bartered me: 

Which I, disdaining, scorn* d ; and craved death 

Rather than I would be so pil'd esteem'd. 4 

4 50 pil'd esteemed.'] Thus the old copy. Some of the 

modern editors read, but without authority so vile-esteem' d. 
-So pill'd, may mean so piling' d, so stripped of honours ; but I 
suspect a corruption, which Mr. M. Mason would remedy, by 
reading either vile or z7/-esteemed. 

It is possible, however, that Shakspeare might have written 
Philistin'd; i. e. treated as contumeliously as Samson was by 
the Philistines. Both Samson and Talbot had been prisoners, 
and were alike insulted by their captors. 

Our author has jocularly formed more than one verb from a 
proper name; as for instance, from Aujidius, in Coriolanus: 

" 1 would not have been so jidius'd for all the chests in 

Corioli." Again in King Henry F. Pistol says to his prisoner: 
" Master Fer? I'lljer him," &c. Again, in Hamlet, from 
Herod, we have the verb " out-kerod." 

Shakspeare, therefore, in the present instance, might have 
taken a similar liberty. To fall into the hands of the Philistines 
has long been a cant phrase, expressive of danger incurred, whe- 
ther from enemies, association with hard drinkers, gamesters, or 
a less welcome acquaintance with the harpies of the law. 

Talbot's idea would be sufficiently expressedby the term Phi- 
listin'd, which ( as the play before us appears to have been copied 
by the ear, ) was more liable to corruption than a common verb. 

I may add, that perhaps no word will be found nearer to the 
sound and traces of the letters, in pil-esteem'd, than Philistin'd. 

Philistine, in the age of Shakspeare, was always accented on 
the first syllable, and therefore is not injurious to the line in 
which I have hesitatingly proposed to insert it. 

I cannot, however, help smiling at my own conjecture; and 
should it excite the same sensation in the reader who journeys 
through the barren desert of our accumulated notes on this play, 
like Addison's traveller, when he discovers a cheerful spring amid 
the wilds of sand, let him 

" bless his stars, and think it luxury." STEEVENS. 

I have no doubt that we should read so pile-esteem' d: a 
Latinism, for which the author of this play had, I believe, no 
occasion to go to Lily's Grammar: " Flocci, nauci, nihili, pili, 


In fine, redeemed I was as I desir'd. 

But, O ! the treacherous Fastolfe wounds my heart! 

Whom w r ith my bare fists I would execute, 

If I now had him brought into my power. 

SAL. Yet telPst thou not, how thou wert enter- 

TAL. With scoffs, and scorns, and contumelious 


In open market-place produc'd they me, 
To be a publick spectacle to all ; 
Here, said they, is the terror of the French, 
The scare-crow that affrights our children so. 5 
Then broke I from the officers that led me ; 
And with my nails digg'd stones out of the ground, 
To hurl at the beholders of my shame. 
My grisly countenance made others fly ; 
None durst come near for fear of sudden death. 
In iron walls they deem'd me not secure j 

&c. his verbis, cestimo, pendo, peculiariter adjiciuntur; ut, 
Nee hujus Judo, qui me pili aestimat." Even if we suppose no 
change to be necessary, this surely was the meaning intended to 
be conveyed. In one of Shakspeare's plays we have the same 
phrase, in English, vile-esteem'd. MALONE. 

If the author of the play before us designed to avail himself of 
the Latin phrase yili cestimo, would he have only half translated 
it ? for what correspondence has pile in English to a single hair? 
Was a single hair ever called a pile, by any English writer ? 


4 the terror of the French, 

The scare-crow that affrights our children so.] From Hall's 
Chronicle: " This man [Talbot] was to the French people a 
very scourge and a daily terror, insomuch that as his person was 
fearful, and terrible to his adversaries present, so his name and 
fame was spiteful and dreadful to the common people absent ; 
insomuch that women in France to feare their young children, 
would crye, the Talbot commeth, the Talbot commeth." The 
same thing is said of King Richard I. when he was in the Holy 
Land. See Camden's Remaines, 4to. 1614, p. 267. MALONE.. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 41 

So great fear of my name 'mongst them was spread, 
That they supposed, I could rend bars of steel, 
And spurn in pieces posts of adamant : 
Wherefore a guard of chosen shot I had, 
That walk'd about me every minute-while ; 
And if I did but stir out of my bed, 
Ready they were to shoot me to the heart. 

SAL. I grieve to hear what torments you endur'd ; 
But we will be reveng'd sufficiently. 
Now it is supper-time in Orleans : 
Here, through this grate, I can count every one, 6 
And view the Frenchmen how they fortify ; 
Let us look in, the sight will much delight thee. p 
Sir Thomas Gargrave, and sir William Glansdale, 
Let me have your express opinions, 
Where is best place to make our battery next. 

GAR. I think, at the north gate ; for there stand 

GLAN. And I, here, at the bulwark of the bridge, 

TAL. For aught I see, this city must be famish'd, 
Or with light skirmishes enfeebled. 7 

\_Shotfrom tfie Town. SALISBURY and Sir 

SAL. O Lord, have mercy on us, wretched 
sinners ! 

GAR. O Lord, have mercy on me, woeful man ! 
TAL. What chance is this, that suddenly hath 

cross'd us ? 
Speak, Salisbury ; at least, if thou canst speak ; 

6 Here, through this grate, I can count every one,] Thus the 
second folio. The first, very harshly and unmetrically, reads : 

Here, thorough this grate, I count each one. 


7 ,__ enfeebled.'] This word is here used as a quadrisyllable. 



How far'st thou, mirror of all martial men ? 
One of thy eyes, and thy cheek's side struck off! 8 - 
Accursed tower ! accursed fatal hand, 
That hath contriv'd this woeful tragedy ! 
In thirteen battles Salisbury o'ercame ; 
Henry the fifth he first train' d to the wars ; 
Whilst any trump did sound, or drum struck up, 
His sword did ne'er leave striking in the field. 
Yet liv'st thou, Salisbury ? though thy speech doth 


One eye thou hast, to look to heaven for grace : 9 
The sun with one eye vieweth all the world. 
Heaven, be thou gracious to none alive, 
If Salisbury wants mercy at thy hands ! 
Bear hence his body, I will help to bury it. 
Sir Thomas Gargrave, hast thou any life ? 
Speak unto Talbot ; nay, look up to him. 
Salisbury, cheer thy spirit with this comfort ; 

Thou shalt not die, whiles 

He beckons with his hand, and smiles on me ; 
As who should say, When I am dead and gone, 
Remember to avenge me on the French. 
Plantagenet, I will ; and Nero-like, 1 

8 thy cheek's side struck off!~\ Camden says in his Pe- 

maines, that the French scarce knew the use of great ordnance, 
till the siege of Mans in 1455, when a breach was made in the 
walls of that town by the English, under the conduct of this earl 
of Salisbury ; and that he was the first English gentleman that 
was slain by a cannon-ball. MALONE. 

9 One eye thou hast, &c.~] A similar thought occurs in King 
Lear : 

" my lord, you have one eye left, 

" To see some mischief on him." STEEVENS. 

1 and Nero-like,] The first folio reads : 

Plantagenet, I will ; and like thee STEEVENS. 

In the old copy, the word Nero is wanting, owing probably 
to the transcriber's not being able to make out the name. The 

ac. iv. KING HENRY VI. 43 

Play on the lute, beholding the towns burn : 
Wretched shall France be only in my name. 

[Thunder heard ; afterwards an Alarum. 
What stir is this ? What tumult's in the heavens ? 
Whence cometh this alarum, and the noise ? 

Enter a Messenger. 

MESS. My lord, my lord, the French have ga- 
ther* d head : 

The Dauphin, with one Joan la Pucelle join'd, 
A holy prophetess, new risen up, 
Is come with a great power to raise the siege, 

[SALISBURY groans. 

TAL. Hear, hear, how dying Salisbury doth 

groan ! 

It irks his heart, he cannot be reveng'd. 
Frenchmen, I'll be a Salisbury to you : 
Pucelle or puzzel, dolphin or dogfish, 2 

editor of the second folio, with his usual freedom, altered the 
line thus : 

and Nero-like tvill . MALONE. 

I am content to read with the second folio (not conceiving the 
emendation in it to be an arbitrary one,) and omit only the need- 
less repetition of the word tuilL Surely there is some absur- 
dity in making Talbot address Plantagenet, and invoke Nero, in 
the same line. STEEVENS. 

3 Pucelle or puzzel, dolphin or dogfish,"] Piissel means a 
dirty ivench or a drab, from puzza, i. e. malus faetor, says Min- 
sheu. In a translation from Stephens's Apology for Herodotus, in 
1607, p. 98, we read " Some filthy queans, especially our puz- 
zles of Paris, use this other theft." TOLLET. 

So, Stubbs, in his Anatomic of Abuses, 1595 : " No nor yet 
iny droye nor puzzel in the country but will carry a nosegay in 
her hand." 


Your hearts I'll stamp out with my horse's heels, 
And make a quagmire of your mingled brains.- 
Convey me Salisbury into his tent, 
And then we'll try what these dastard Frenchmen 
dare. 3 

\JLxeunty bearing out the Bodies. 

Again, in Ben Jonson's Commendatory Verses, prefixed to the 
works of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Lady or Pusill, that wears mask or fan." 

As for the conceit, miserable as it is, it may be countenanced 
by that of James I. who looking at the statue of Sir Thomas 
Bodley in the library at Oxford. " Pii Thomae Godly nomine 
insignivit, eoque potius nomine quam Bodly, deinceps merito 
nominandum esse censuit." See RexPlatomcus, &e. edit, quint. 
Oxon. 1635, p. 187. 

It should be remembered, that in Shakspeare*s time the 
word dauphin was always written dolphin. STEEVENS. 

There are frequent references to Pucelle's name in this play : 

" I 'scar'd the dauphin and his trull" 
Again : 

" Scoff on, vile fiend, and shameless courtezan !" 


3 And then we'll try what these dastard Frenchmen dare."] 

Perhaps the conjunction and, or the demonstrative pronoun 

these, for the sake of metre, should be omitted at the beginning 

of this line, which, in my opinion, however, originally ran thus : 

Then try we what these dastard Frenchmen dare. 


sc. r. KING HENRY VI. 45 


The same. Before one of the Gates. 

Alarum. Skirmishings. TALBOT pursueth the Dau- 
phin, and driveth him in: then enter JOAN LA 
PUCELLE, driving Englishmen before her. Then 
enter TALBOT. 

TAL. Where is my strength, my valour, and my 

force ? 

Our English troops retire, I cannot stay them ; 
A woman, clad in armour, chaseth them. 


Here, here she comes : I'll have a bout with 

thee ; 

Devil, or devil's dam, I'll conjure thee : 
Blood will I draw on thee, 4 thou art a witch, 
And straightway give thy soul to him thou serv'st. 

Puc. Come, come, 'tis only I that must disgrace 
thee. [They fight. 

TAL. Heavens, can you suffer hell so to prevail ? 
My breast I'll burst with straining of my courage, 
And from my shoulders crack my arms asunder, 
But I will chastise this high-minded strumpet. 

Puc. Talbot, farewell ; thy hour is not yet come : 
I must go victual Orleans forthwith. 

4 Blood iiill I draw on thee,] The superstition of those times 
taught that he that could draw the witch's blood, was free from 
her power. JOHNSON. 


Overtake me, if thou canst ; I scorn thy strength. 
Go, go, cheer up thy hunger-starved 5 men ; 
Help Salisbury to make his testament : 
This day is ours, as many more shall be. 

[PUCELLE enters the Town, with Soldiers. 

TAL. My thoughts are whirled like a potter's 

wheel ; 6 

I know not where I am, nor what I do : 
A witch, by fear, 7 not force, like Hannibal, 
Drives back our troops, and conquers as she lists : 
So bees with smoke, and doveswith noisome stench, 
Are from their hives, and houses, driven away. 
They call'd us, for our fierceness, English dogs ; 
Now, like to whelps, we crying run away. 

[ A short Alarum. 

Hark, countrymen ! either renew the fight, 
Or tear the lions out of England's coat ; 
Renounce your soil, give sheep in lions' stead : 
Sheep run not half so timorous 8 from the wolf, 
Or horse, or oxen, from the leopard, 
As you fly from your oft-subdued slaves. 

[Alarum. Another Skirmish. 
It will not be : Retire into your trenches : 
You all consented unto Salisbury's death, 
For none would strike a stroke in his revenge. 

6 hunger-starved ] The same epithet is, I think, used 

by Shakspeare. The old copy has hungry-starved. Corrected 
by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

6 like a potter's wheel ;] This idea might have been 

caught from Psalm Ixxxiii. 13 : " Make them like unto a 

wheel, and as the stubble before the wind." STEEVENS. 

7 by fear, &c.] See Hannibal's stratagem to escape by 

fixing bundles oflighted twigs on the horns of oxen, recorded in 
Livy, Lib. XXII. c. xvi. HOLT WHITE. 

8 50 timorous ] Old copy treacherous. Corrected by 

Mr. Pope. MALONE. 

sc. vi. KING HENRY VI. 47 

Pucelle is enter' d into Orleans, 
In spite of us, or aught that we could do. 
O, would I were to die with Salisbury ! 
The shame hereof will make me hide my head. 
[Alarum. Retreat. Exeunt TALBOT and his 
Forces, fyc. 


The same. 

Enter, on the Walls, PUCELLE, CHARLES, 
REIGNIER, ALE^ON, and Soldiers. 

Puc. Advance our waving colours on the walls ; 
Rescu'd is Orleans from the English wolves : 9 - 
Thus Joan la Pucelle hath perform'd her word. 

9 from the English wolves: 8$c.~\ Thus the second folio. 

The first omits the word wolves, STEEVENS. 

The editor of the second folio, not perceiving that English was 
used as a trisyllable, arbitrarily readsEnglish wolves ; in which 
he has been followed by all the subsequent editors. So, in the 
next line but one, he reads bright Astrcea, not observing that 
Astr&a, by a licentious pronunciation, was used by the author 
of this play, as if written Astercea. So monstrous is made a tri- 
syllable ; monsterous. See Mr. Tyrwhitt's note, Two Gentle" 
men of Verona, Vol. IV. p. 201, n. 5. MALONE. 

Here again I must follow the second folio, to which we are 
indebted for former and numerous emendations received even by 
Mr. Malone. 

Shakspeare has frequently the same image. So, the French in 
King Henry V. speaking of the English : " They will eat like 
Evolves, and fight like devils." 

If Pucelle, by this term, does not allude to the hunger or 
fierceness of the English, she refers to the wolves by which their 
kingdom was formerly infested. So, in King Henry IV. P. II. 
" Peopled with wolves, thy old inhabitants." 


CHAR. Divinest creature, bright Astraea's daugh- 


How shall I honour thee for this success ? 
Thy promises are like Adonis* gardens, 1 

As no example of the proper name Astrtza, pronounced as 
a quadrisyllable, is given by Mr. Malone, or has occurred to me, 
I also think myself authorised to receive bright, the necessary 
epithet supplied by the second folio. STEEVENS. 

1 - like Adonis' gardens,"] It may not be impertinent to 
take notice of a dispute between four criticks, of very different 
orders, upon this very important point of the gardens of Adonis* 
Milton had said : 

" Spot more delicious than those gardens feign'd, 

" Or of reviv'd Adonis, or 

which Dr. Bentley pronounces spurious ;forthat 
$0$, the gardens of Adonis, so frequently mentioned by Greek writ- 
ers, Plato, Plutarch, &c. were nothing but portable earthern 
pots, with some lettice or fennel growing in them. On his yearly 
festival every woman carried one of them for Adonis's worship ; 
because Venus had once laid him in a lettice bed. The next day 
they were thrown away, &c. To this Dr. Pearce replies, That 
this account of the gardens of Adonis is right, and yet Milton 
may be defended for what he says of them : for why (says he) 
did the Grecians on Adonis? festival carry these small gardens 
about in honour of him? It was, because they had a tradition, 
that, when he was alive, he delighted in gardens, and had a 
magnificent one : for proof of this we have Pliny's words, xix. 4 : 
" Antiquitas nihil prius mirata est quam Hesperidum hortos, ac 
regum Adonidis & Alcinoi." One would now think the question 
well decided : but Mr. Theobald comes, and will needs be Dr. 
Bentley 's second. A learned and reverend gentleman (says he) 
having attempted to impeach Dr. Bentley of error, for main- 
taining that there never was existent any magnificent or spacious 
gardens of Adonis, an opinion in which it has been my fortune 
to second the Doctor, I thought myself concerned, in some part, 
to weigh those authorities alledged by the objector, &c. The 
reader sees that Mr. Theobald mistakes the very question in dis- 
.pute between these two truly learned men, which was not whe- 
ther Adonis' gardens were ever existent, but whether there was 
a tradition of any celebrated gardens cultivated by Adonis. For 
this would sufficiently justify Milton's mention of them, together 
with the gardens of Alcinous, confessed by the poet himself to 
be fabulous. But hear their own words. There was no such 

sc. vi. KING HENRY VI. 49 

That one day bloom'd, and fruitful were the next. 
France, triumph in thy glorious prophetess ! 
Recovered is the town of Orleans : 
More blessed hap did ne'er befall our state. 

REIG. Why ring not out the bells througheut 

the town ? 2 

Dauphin, command the citizens make bonfires, 
And feast and banquet in the open streets, 
To celebrate the joy that God hath given us. 

ALEN. All France will be replete with mirth 

and joy, 
When they shall hear how we have play'd the men. 

CHAR. J Tis Joan, not we, by whom the day is 

garden (says Dr. Bentley ) ever existent, or even feign* d. He adds 
the latter part, as knowing that that would justify the poet; and 
it is on that assertion only that his adversary Dr. Pearce joins is- 
sue with him. Why ( says he ) did they carry the small earthen 
fardens? It was because they had a tradition, that when alive 
e delighted in gardens. Mr. Theobald, therefore, mistaking the 
question, it is no wonder that all he says, in his long note at the 
end of his fourth volume, is nothing to the purpose ; it being to 
shew that Dr. Pearce's quotations from Pliny and others, do not 
prove the real existence of the gardens. After these, comes the 
Oxford editor ; and he pronounces in favour of Dr. Bentley, 
against Dr. Pearce, in these words, The gardens of Adonis were 
never represented under any local description. But whether this 
was said at hazard, or to contradict Dr. Pearce, or to rectify Mr. 
Theobald's mistake of the question, it is so obscurely expressed, 
that one can hardly determine. WARBURTON. 

2 Why ring not out the bells throughout the town f] The old 
copy, unnecessarily as well as redundantly, reads 

Why ring not out the bells aloud Sfc. 

But if the bells rang out, they must have rang aloud ; for to ring 
out, as I am informed, is a technical term with that signification. 
The disagreeable jingle, however, of out and throughoMf, in- 
duces me to suppose the line originally stood thus : 

Why ring not bells aloud throughout the town ? 




For which, I will divide my crown with her : 
And all the priests and friars in my realm 
Shall, in procession, sing her endless praise. 
A statelier pyramis to her I'll rear, 
Than Rhodope's, 3 or Memphis', ever was : 
In memory of her, when she is dead, 
Her ashes, in an urn more precious 
Than the rich-jewel' d coffer of Darius, 4 

3 Than Rhodope's,] Rhodope was a famous strumpet, who 
acquired great riches by her trade. The least but most finished 
of the Egyptian pyramids (says Pliny, in the 36th Book of his 
Natural History, ch. xii.) was built by her. She is said after- 
wards to have married Psammetichus, King of Egypt. Dr. John- 
son thinks that the Dauphin means to call Joan qf'Arc a strum- 
pet, all the while he is making this loud praise of her. 

Rhodope is mentioned in the play of The Costly Whore, 

" a base Rhodope, 

" Whose body is as common as the sea 
" In the receipt of every lustful spring.'* 
I would read : 

Than Rhodope's of Memphis ever was. STEEVENS. 

The .brother of Sappho was in love with Rhodope, and pur- 
chased her freedom (for she was a slave in the same house with 
^Esop the fabulist) at a great price. Rhodope was of Thrace, 
not of Memphis. Memphis, a city of Egypt, was celebrated for 
its pyramids : 

" Barbara Pyramidum sileant miracula Memphis" 
MART. De spectaculis Libel. Ep. I. MALONE. 

The question, I apprehend, is not where Rhodope was born, 
but where she obtained celebrity.. Her Thracian birth-place 
would not have rescued her from oblivion. STEEVENS. 

The emendation proposed by Mr. Steevens must be adopted. 
The meaning is not that Rhodope herself was of Memphis, 
but that her pyramis was there. I will rear to her, says the 
Dauphin, a pyramid more stately than that of Memphis, which 
was called Rhodope's. Pliny says the pyramids were six miles 
from that city ; and that " the fairest and most commended for 
workmanship was built at the cost and charges of one Rhodope, 
a verie strumpet." RITSON. 

4 coffer of 'Darius,'] When Alexander the Great took 

sc. vi. KING HENRY VI. 51 

Transported shall be at high festivals 
Before the kings and queens of France. 5 
No longer on Saint Dennis will we cry, 
But Joan la Pucelle shall be France's saint. 
Come in ; and let us banquet royally, 
After this golden day of victory. 

[Flourish. Exeunt. 

the city of Gaza, the metropolis of Syria, amidst the other spoils 
and wealth of Darius treasured up there, he found an exceeding 
rich and beautiful little chest or casket, and asked those about 
him what they thought fittest to be laid up in it. When they 
had severally delivered their opinions, he told them, he esteemed 
nothing so worthy to be preserved in it as Homer's Iliad. Vide 
Plutarchum in Vita Alexandri Magni. THEOBALD. 

The very words of the text are found in Puttenham's Arte of 
English Poesie, 1589: " In what price the noble poems of Ho- 
mer were holden with Alexander the Great, insomuch as everie 
night they were layd under his pillow, and by day were carried 
in the rich jewel cqfer of Darius, lately before vanquished by him 
in battaile." M ALONE. 

I believe, we should read, with Puttenham, "jewel-coffer," 
and not, as in the text, " jewel *d coffer." The jewel-coffer of 
Darius was, I suppose, the cabinet in which he kept his gems. 

To ajeivelled coffer (i. e. a coffer ornamented with, jewels) the 
epithet rich would have been superfluous. 

My conjecture, however, deserves not much attention ; be- 
cause Pliny, Lib. II. ch. 29, informs us, that this casket, when 
found, was full of precious oils, and was decorated with gems of 
great value. STEEVENS. 

5 Before the kings and queens of France.^ Sir Thomas Han- 
mer supplies the obvious defect in thisjine, by reading 
Ever before the kings &c. STEEVENS. 

E 2 


The same. 

Enter to the Gates, a French Sergeant, and Two 

SERG. Sirs, take your places, and be vigilant : 
If any noise, or soldier, you perceive, 
Near to the walls, by some apparent sign, 
Let us have knowledge at the court of guard. 6 

1 SENT. Sergeant, you shall. [Exit Sergeant.] 

Thus are poor servitors 
(When others sleep upon their quiet beds,) 
Constrain' d to watch in darkness, rain, and cold. 

with scaling Ladders ; their Drums beating a 
dead march. 

TAL. Lord regent, and redoubted Burgundy, 
By whose approach, the regions of Artois, 
Walloon, and Picardy, are friends to us, 
This happy night the Frenchmen are secure, 
Having all day carous'd and banqueted : 
Embrace we then this opportunity ; 
As fitting best to quittance their deceit, 
Contriv'd by art, and baleful sorcery. 

c court of guard."] The same phrase occurs again in 
Othello, Antony and Cleopatra, &c. and is equivalent to the 
modern term guard-room. STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 53 

BED. Coward of France! how much he wrongs 

his fame, 

Despairing of his own arm's fortitude, 
To join with witches, and the help of hell. 

BUR. Traitors have never other company. 
But what's that Pucelle, whom they term so pure? 

TAL. A maid, they say. 

BED. A maid ! and be so martial I 

BUR. Pray God, she prove not masculine ere 


If underneath the standard of the French, 
She carry armour, as she hath begun. 

TAL. Well, let them practise and converse with 

spirits : 

God is our fortress ; in whose conquering name, 
Let us resolve to scale their flinty bulwarks. 

BED. Ascend,brave Talbot ; we will follow thee. 

TAL. Not all together : better far, I guess, 
That we do make our entrance several ways ; 
That, if it chance the one of us do fail, 
The other yet may rise against their force. 

BED. Agreed ; I'll to yon corner. 

BUR. And I to this. 

TAL. And here will Talbot mount, or make his 


Now Salisbury ! for thee, and for the right 
Of English Henry, shall this night appear 
How much in duty I am bound to both. 

[The English scale the Walls, crying St. George ! 
a Talbot ! and all enter by the Town. 

SENT. \_Within.~] Arm, arm! the enemy doth 
make assault ! 


The French leap over the Walls in their Shirts. 
Enter, several ways, BASTARD, ALE^ON, 
REIGNIER, half ready, and half unready. 

ALEN. How now, my lords ? what, all unready 

so? 7 
BAST. Unready ? ay, and glad we 'scap'd so well. 

RJEIG. 'Twas time, I trow, to wake and leave our 

Hearing alarums at our chamber doors. 8 

ALEN. Of all exploits, since first I followed arms, 
Ne'er heard I of a warlike enterprize 
More venturous, or desperate than this. 

BAST. I think, this Talbot be a fiend of hell. 

7 unready so ?] Unready was the current word in those 

times for undressed. JOHNSON. 

So, in Heywood's Rape ofLucrece, 1638 : " Enter Sixtusand 
Lucrece unready." 

Again, in The TIKO Maids of More-clacke, 1609: 

*' Enter James unready in his night-cap, garterless," &c. 

Again, in A Match at Midnight, 1633, is this stage direc- 

" He makes himself unready." 

" Why what do you mean ? you will not be so uncivil as to 
unbrace you here?" 

Again, in Monsieur D'Olive, 1606 : 

" You are not going to bed, I see you are not yet unready." 
Again, in Heywood's Golden Age, 1611 : 

" Here Jupiter puts out the lights, and makes himself un- 

V'nready is equivalent to the old French word di-pret. 


8 Hearing alarums at our chamber doors.'} So, in King 

" Or, at the chamber door I'll beat the drum " 


sc. I. KING HENRY VI. 55 

REIG. If not of hell, the heavens, sure, favour 

ALEN. Here cometh Charles j I marvel, how he 


BAST. Tut ! holy Joan was his defensive guard. 

CHAR. Is this thy cunning, thou deceitful dame? 
Didst thou at first, to flatter us withal, 
Make us partakers of a little gain, 
That now our loss might be ten times so much ? 

Puc. Wherefore is Charles impatient with his 

friend ? 

At all times will you have my power alike ? 
Sleeping, or waking, must I still prevail, 
Or will you blame and lay the fault on me ? 
Improvident soldiers ! had your watch been good, 
This sudden mischief never could have fall'n. 

CHAR. Duke of Alen9on, this was your default; 
That, being captain of the watch to-night, 
Did look no better to that weighty charge. 

ALEN. Had all your quarters been as safely kept, 
As that whereof I had the government, 
We had not been thus shamefully surpriz'd. 

BAST. Mine was secure. 

REIG. And so was mine, my lord. 

CHAR. And, for myself, most part of all this 


Within her quarter, and mine own precinct, 
I was employed in passing to and fro, 
About relieving of the sentinels : 
Then how, or which way, should they first break in ? 


Puc. Question, my lords, no further of the case, 
How, or which, way; 'tis sure, they found some 


But weakly guarded, where the breach was made. 
And now there rests no other shift but this, 
To gather our soldiers, scatter' d and dispers'd, 
And lay new platforms 9 to endamage them. 

Alarum. Enter an English Soldier, crying a Tal-. 
bot ! a Talbot ! 1 They Jly, leaving their Clothes 

SOLD. I'll be so bold to take what they have left. 
The cry of Talbot serves me for a sword ; 

9 platforms ] i. e. plans, schemes. STEEVENS. 

1 Enter an English Soldier crying, a Talbot! a Talbot!] And 
afterwards : 

" The cry of Talbot serves me for a sword." 
Here a popular tradition, exclusive of any chronicle-evidence, 
was in Shakspeare's mind. Edward Kerke, the old commenta- 
tor on Spenser's Pastorals, first published in 1579, observes in 
his notes on June, that Lord Talbot's " noblenesse bred such a 
terrour in the hearts of the French, that oftimes greate armies 
were defaited and put to flight, at the only hearing of his name: 
insomuch that the French women, to affray their children, would 
tell them, that the TALBOT cometh." See also sc. iii. 


The same is said in Dray ton's Miseries of Queen Margaret, of 
Lord Warwick : 

" And still so fearful was great Warwick's name, 
*' That being once cry'd on, put them oft to flight, 
" On the king's army till at length they light." 


In a note on a former passage, p. 40, n. 5, I have quoted a 
passage from Hall's Chronicle, which probably furnished the au- 
thor of this play with this circumstance. It is not mentioned by 
Holinshed, (Shakspeare's historian,) and is one of the numerous 
proofs that have convinced me that this play was not the producr 
tion of our author. See the Essay at the end of The Third Part 
of King Henry VI. It is surely more probable that the writer 

ac. ii. KING HENRY VI. 57 

For I have loaden me with many spoils, 

Using no other weapon but his name. [Exit. 


Orleans. Within the Town. 

and Others. 

BED. The day begins to break, and night is fled, 
Whose pitchy mantle over- veil* d the earth. 
Here sound retreat, and cease our hot pursuit. 

[Retreat sounded. 

TAL. Bring forth the body of old Salisbury j 
And here advance it in the market-place, 
The middle centre of this cursed town. 
Now have I paid my vow unto his soul ; 2 
For every drop of blood was drawn from him, 
There hath at least five Frenchmen died to-night. 
And, that hereafter ages may behold 
What ruin happened in revenge of him, 

of this play should have taken this circumstance from the Chro- 
nicle which furnished him with this plot, than from the Com- 
ment on Spenser's Pastorals. MALONE. 

This is one of the floating atoms of intelligence which might 
have been orally circulated, and consequently have reached our 
author through other channels, than those of Spenser's annota- 
tor, or our English Chronicler. STEEVENS. 

s Notv have I paid my vow unto his soul; &c.] So, in the 
old spurious play of King John : 

" Thus hath king Richard's son perform'd his vow, 

** And offer'd Austria's blood for sacrifice 

" Unto his father's ever-living soul." STEEVENS. 


Within their chiefest temple I'll erect 

A tomb, wherein his corpse shall be interr'd : 

Upon the which, that every one may read, 

Shall be engrav'd the sack of Orleans ; 

The treacherous manner of his mournful death, 

And what a terror he had been to France. 

But, lords, in all our bloody massacre, 

I muse, we met not with the Dauphin's grace ; 

His new-come champion, virtuous Joan of Arc ; 

Nor any of his false confederates. 

BED. J Tis thought, lord Talbot, when the fight 


Rous'd on the sudden from their drowsy beds, 
They did, amongst the troops of armed men, 
Leap o'er the walls for refuge in the field. 

BUR. Myself (as far as I could well discern, 
For smoke, and dusky vapours of the night,) 
Am sure, I scar'd the Dauphin, and his trull ; 
When arm in arm they both came swiftly running, 
Like to a pair of loving turtle-doves, 
That could not live asunder day or night. 
After that things are set in order here, 
We'll follow them with all the power we have. 

Enter a Messenger. 

MESS. All hail, my lords ! which of this princely 


Call ye the warlike Talbot, for his acts 
So much applauded through the realm of France ? 

TAL. Here is the Talbot; who would speak 
with him ? 

MESS. The virtuous lady, countess of Auvergne, 
With modesty admiring thy renown, 
By me entreats, good lord, thou wouldst vouchsafe 

so. II. KING HENRY VI. 59 

To visit her poor castle where she lies ; 3 
That she may boast, she hath beheld the man 
Whose glory fills the world with loud report. 

BUR. Is it even so ? Nay, then, I see, our wars 
Will turn unto a peaceful comick sport, 
When ladies crave to be encountered with. 
You may not, my lord, despise her gentle suit. 

TAL. Ne'er trust me then ; for, when a world of 


Could not prevail with all their oratory, 
Yet hath a woman's kindness over-rul'd : 
And therefore tell her, I return great thanks ; 
And in submission will attend on her. 
Will not your honours bear me company ? 

BED. No, truly ; it is more than manners will : 
And I have heard it said, Unbidden guests 
Are often welcomest when they are gone. 

TAL. Well then, alone, since there's no remedy, 
I mean to prove this lady's courtesy. 
Come hither, captain. \_ Whispers.~\ You perceive 
my mind. 

CAPT. I do, my lord ; and mean accordingly. 


3 _ inhere she lies ;] i. e. where she dwells. MALONE. 



Auvergne. Court of the Castle. 
Enter the Countess and her Porter. 

COUNT. Porter, remember what I gave in charge ; 
And, when you have done so, bring the keys to me. 

POST. Madam, I will. [Exit. 

COUNT. The plot is laid : if all things fall out 


I shall as famous be by this exploit, 
As Scythian Thomyris by Cyrus* death. 
Great is the rumour of this dreadful knight, 
And his achievements of no less account : 
Fain would mine eyes be witness with mine ears, 
To give their censure 4 of these rare reports. 

Enter Messenger and TALBOT. 

MESS. Madam, 

According as your ladyship desir'd, 
By message crav'd, so is lord Talbot come. 

COUNT. And he is welcome. What! is this the 

MESS. Madam, it is. 

COUNT. Is this the scourge of France ? 

Is this the Talbot, so much fear'd abroad, 

4 . their censure ] i. e. their opinion. So, in King 

Richard III : 

" And give your censures in this weighty business." , t 


sc. in. KING HENRY VI. 61 

That with his name the mothers still their babes? 5 

I see, report is fabulous and false : 

I thought, I should have seen some Hercules, 

A second Hector, for his grim aspect, 

And large proportion of his strong-knit limbs. 

Alas ! this is a child, a silly dwarf : 

It cannot be, this weak and writhled 6 shrimp 

Should strike such terror to his enemies. 

TAL. Madam, I have been bold to trouble you: 
But, since your ladyship is not at leisure, 
I'll sort some other time to visit you. 

COUNT. What means he now ? Go ask him, 
whither he goes. 

MESS. Stay, my lord Talbot ; for my lady craves 
To know the cause of your abrupt departure. 

TAL. Marry, for that she's in a wrong belief, 
I go to certify her, Talbot's here. 

Re-enter Porter, with Keys. 

COUNT. If thou be he, then art thou prisoner. 
TAL. Prisoner ! to whom ? 

* That "with his name the mothers still fheir babes ?] Dryden 
has transplanted this idea into his Don Sebastian, King of Por- 
tugal : 

" Nor shall Sebastian's formidable name 

" Be longer us'd, to lull the crying babe." STEEVENS. 

6 writhled ] i. e. wrinkled. The word is used by 

Spenser. Sir Thomas Hanmer reads wrizled, which has been 
followed in subsequent editions. MALONE. 

The instance from Spenser, is the following : 

Her ivrithled skin, as rough as maple rind.'* 
Again, in Marston's fourth Satire : 

" Cold, writhled eld, his lives wet almost spent." 



COUNT. To me, blood-thirsty lord ; 

And for that cause I train' d thee to my house. 
Long time thy shadow hath been thrall to me, 
For in my gallery thy picture hangs : 
But now the substance shall endure the like ; 
And I will chain these legs and arms of thine, 
That hast by tyranny, these many years, 
Wasted our country, slain our citizens, 
And sent our sons and husbands captivate. 7 

TAL. Ha, ha, ha ! 

COUNT. Laughest thou, wretch ? thy mirth shall 
turn to moan. 

TAL. I laugh to see your ladyship so fond, 8 
To think that you have aught but Talbot's shadow, 
Whereon to practice your severity. 

COUNT. Why, art not thou the man ? 

TAL. I am indeed. 

COUNT. Then have I substance too. 

TAL. No, no, I am but shadow of myself : 9 
You are deceiv'd, my substance is not here ; 
For what you see, is but the smallest part 
And least proportion of humanity : 
I tell you, madam, were the whole frame here, 
It is of such a spacious lofty pitch, 
Your roof were not sufficient to contain it. 

7 captivate.'] So, in Soliman and Perseda : 

" If not destroy 'd and bound, and captivate, 
" If captivate, then forc'd from holy faith." 


8 so fond,] i. e. so foolish. So, in King Henry IV. P. II : 

" Fondly brought here, and foolishly sent hence." 


9 I am but shadow of myself :] So, in K. Henry VIII:' 

" I am the shadow of poor Buckingham." STEEVENS. 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 63 

COUNT. This is a riddling merchant for the 

nonce; 1 

He will be here, and yet he is not here : 
How can these contrarieties agree ? 

TAL. That will I show you presently. 2 

He winds a Horn. Drums heard ; then a Peal of 
Ordnance. The Gates being forced, enter Sol- 

How say you, madam ? are you now persuaded, 
That Talbot is but shadow of himself? 
These are his substance, sinews, arms, and strength, 
With which he yoketh your rebellious necks ; 
Razeth your cities, and subverts your towns, 
And in a moment makes them desolate. 

COUNT. Victorious Talbot ! pardon my abuse : 
I find, thou art no less than fame hath bruited, 3 
And more than may be gather'd by thy shape. 
Let my presumption not provoke thy wrath ; 
For I am sorry, that with reverence 
I did not entertain thee as thou art. 

T^L.Be not dismay'd, fair lady; nor misconstrue 
The mind of Talbot, as you did mistake 
The outward composition of his body. 

1 This is a riddling merchant &c.] So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" What saucy merchant was this ?" 
See a note on this passage, Act II. sc. iv. STEEVENS. 

a That luill I show you presently."} The deficient foot in this 
line may properly be supplied, by reading : 

That, madam, mil I show you presently. STEEVENS. 

3 bruited,'] To bruit is to proclaim with noise, to an- 
nounce loudly. So, in Macbeth : 

" one of greatest note 

" Seems bruited'* STEEVENS. 


What you have done, hath not offended me : 
No other satisfaction do I crave, 
But only (with your patience,) that we may 
Taste of your wine, and see what cates you have j 
For soldiers' stomachs always serve them well. 

COUNT. With all my heart; and think me ho- 
To feast so great a warrior in my house. \_Exeunt. 

London. The Temple Garden. 

Enter the Earls O/'SOMERSET, SUFFOLK, and WAR- 
another Lawyer. 4 

PLAN. Great lords, and gentlemen, what means 

this silence ? 
Dare no man answer in a case of truth ? 

SUF. Within the Temple hall we were too loud ; 
The garden here is more convenient. 

PLAN. Then say at once, If I maintained the 

truth ; 
Or, else, was wrangling Somerset in the error ? 5 

4 and another Latvyer."] Read a lawyer. This lawyer 

was probably Roger Nevyte, who was afterward hanged. See 
W. Wyrcester, p. 478. RITSON. 

5 Or, else, ixas -wrangling Somerset in the error ?] So all the 
editions. There is apparently a want of opposition between the 
two questions. I once read : 

Or else tvas wrangling Somerset i'th* right ? JOHNSON. 

Sir T. Hanmer would read : 

And was not STEEVENS. 

sc. IF. KING HENRY VI. 65 

SUF. 'Faith, I have been a truant in the law; 
And never yet could frame my will to it; 
And, therefore, frame the law unto my will. 

SOM. Judge you, my lord of Warwick, then be- 
tween us. 

WAR. Between two hawks, which flies the higher 


Between two dogs, which hath the deeper mouth, 
Between two blades, which bears the better temper, 
Between two horses, which doth bear him best, 6 
Between two girls, which hath the merriest eye, 
I have, perhaps, some shallow spirit of judgment: 
But in these nice sharp quillets of the law, 
Good faith, I am no wiser than a daw. 

PLAN. Tut, tut, here is a mannerly forbearance : 
The truth appears so naked on my side, 
That any purblind eye may find it out. 

SOM. And on my side it is so 'well apparell'd, 
So clear, so shining, and so evident, 
That it will glimmer through a blind man's eye. 

PLAN. Since you are tongue-ty'd, and so loath 

to speak, 

In dumb significants 7 proclaim your thoughts : 
Let him, that is a true-born gentleman, 
And stands upon the honour of his birth, 

6 bear him best,"] i. e. regulate his motions most adroitly. 

So, in Romeo and Juliet: 

" Ke bears him like a portly gentleman." STEEVENS. 

7 In dumb significants ] I suspect, we should read signifi- 
cance. MALONE. 

I believe the old reading is the true one. So, in Love's La- 
bour's Lost: " Bear this sign ificant [i. e. a letter] to the country 
maid, Jaquenetta." STEEVENS. 



If he suppose that I have pleaded truth, 

From on this brier pluck a white rose with me. 8 

SOM. Let him that is no coward, nor no flat- 

But dare maintain the party of the truth, 
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me. 

WAR. I love no colours ; 9 and, without all co- 

From off this brier pluck a white rose 'with wze.] This is 
given as the original of the two badges of the houses of York and 
Lancaster, whether truly or not, is no great matter. But the 
proverbial expression of saying a thing under the rose, I am per- 
suaded came from thence. When the nation had ranged itself 
into two great factions, under the white and red rose, and were 
perpetually plotting and counterplotting against one another, then, 
when a matter of faction was communicated by either party to 
his friend in the same quarrel, it was natural for him to add, that 
he said it under the rose; meaning that, as it concerned the 
faction, it was religiously to be kept secret. WARBURTON. 

This is ingenious ! What pity, that it is not learned too ! 

The rose (as the fables say) was the symbol of silence, and con- 
secrated by Cupid to Harpocrates, to conceal the lewd pranks of 
his mother. So common a book as Lloyd's Dictionary might 
have instructedDr. Warburton in this : " Huic Harpocrati Cupido 
Veneris films parentis suae rosam dedit in munus, ut scilicet si 
quidh'centius dictum, vel actum sit in convivio, sciant tacendaesse 
omnia. Atque idcirco veteres ad finem convivii sub rosa, 
Anglic^ under the rose, transacta esse omnia ante digressum con- 
testabantur; cujus formaevis eadem esset, atque ista, MKrapva,- 
jw-ova cruprorav. Probant hanc rem versus qui reperiuntur in mar- 

" Est rosa flos Veneris, cujus quo furta laterent 
" Harpocrati matris dona dicavit amor. 

" Inde rosam mensis hospes suspendit amicis, 

" Convivae ut sub ea dicta tacenda sciant.'* UPTON. 

9 I love no colours ;] Colours is here used ambiguously for 
tints and deceits. JOHNSON. 

So, in Love's Labour's Lost : " I do fear colourable 
colours." STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 67 

Of base insinuating flattery, 

I pluck this white rose, with Plantagenet. 

SUF. I pluck this red rose, with young Somerset; 
And say withal, I think he held the right. 

VER. Stay, lords, and gentlemen; and pluck no 


Till you conclude that he, upon whose side 
The fewest roses are cropp'd from the tree, 
Shall yield the other in the right opinion. 

SOM. Good master Vernon, it is well objected; 1 
If I have fewest, I subscribe in silence. 

PLAN. And I. 

VER. Then, for the truth and plainness of the 


I pluck this pale, and maiden blossom here, 
Giving my verdict on the white rose side. 

SOM. Prick not your finger as you pluck it off; 
Lest, bleeding, you do paint the white rose red, 
And fall on my side so against your will. 

VER. If I, my lord, for my opinion bleed, 
Opinion shall be surgeon to my hurt, 
And keep me on the side where still I am. 

. l well objected ;~\ Properly thrown in our way, justly 

proposed. JOHNSON. 

So, in Goulart's Admirable Histories, 4to. 1607: " And be- 
cause Sathan transfigures himselfe into an angell of light, I ob- 
jected many and sundry questions unto him." Again, in Chap- 
man's version of the 21st Book of Homer's Odyssey: 
" Excites Penelope t'object the prize, 
" (The bow and bright steeles) to thewoers* strength." 
Again, in his version of the seventeenth Iliad: 
" Objecting his all-dazeling shield," &c. 
Again, in the twentieth Iliad: 

" his worst shall be withstood, 

" With sole objection of myselfe." STEEVENS. 

F 2 


SOM. Well, well, come on: Who else ? 

LAW. Unless my study and my books be false, 
The argument you held, was wrong in you ; 

In sign whereof, I pluck a white rose too. 

PLAN. Now, Somerset, where is your argument? 

SOM. Here, in my scabbard ; meditating that, 
Shall die your white rose in a bloody red. 

PLAN. Mean time, your cheeks do counterfeit 

our roses; 

For pale they look with fear, as witnessing 
The truth on our side. 

SOM. No, Plantagenet, 

5 Tis not for fear; but anger, that thy cheeks 2 
Blush for pure shame, to counterfeit our roses ; 
And yet thy tongue will not confess thy error. 

PLAN. Hath not thy rose a canker, Somerset? 
SOM. Hath not thy rose a thorn, Plantagenet? 

PLAN. Ay, sharp and piercing, to maintain his 

truth ; 
Whiles thy consuming canker eats his falsehood. 

SOM. Well, I'll find friends to wear my bleeding- 

That shall maintain what I have said is true, 
Where false Plantagenet dare not be seen. 

PLAN. Now, by this maiden blossom in my hand, 
I scorn thee and thy fashion, 3 peevish boy. 

* but anger, that thy cheeks &c.] i. e. it is not for fear 

that my cheeks look pale, but for anger ; anger produced by this 
circumstance, namely, that thy cheeks blush, &c. MALONE. 

3 I scorn thee and thy fashion,] So the old copies read, and 
rightly. Mr. Theobald altered it to faction, not considering that 
by fashion is meant the badge of the red rose, which Somerset 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 69 

SUF. Turn not thy scorns this way, Plantagenet. 

PLAN. Proud Poole, I will ; and scorn both him 
and thee. 

SUF. I'll turn my part thereof into thy throat. 

So M. Away, away, good William De-la- Poole! 
We grace the yeoman, by conversing with him. 

WAR. Now, by God's will, thou wrong' st him, 

His grandfather was Lionel, duke of Clarence, 4 

said he and his friends would be distinguished by. But Mr. 
Theobald asks, If faction was not the true reading, ivhy should 
Stiffblk immediately reply 

Turn not thy scorns this ivay, Plantagenet. 
Why ? because Plantagenet had called Somerset, with whom 
Suffolk sided, peevish boy. WARBURTON. 

Mr. Theobald, with great probability, reads -fact ion. Plan- 
tagenet afterward uses the same word: 

" this pale and angry rose 

" Will I for ever, and my faction, wear." 

In Kins Henry V. we have potion for paction. We should un- 
doubtedly read and thy faction. The old spelling of this word 
wasfaccion, and hence fashion easily crept into the text. 

So, in Hall's Chronicle, EDWARD IV. fol. xxii: " whom 

we ought to beleve to be sent from God, and of hym onely to 
bee provided a kynge, for to extinguish both thefaccions and 
paries [i. e. parties] of Kyng Henry the VI. and of Kyng Ed-- 
ward the fourth." MALONE. 

As fashion might have been meant to convey the meaning 
assigned to it by Dr. Warburton, I have left the text as I found 
it, allowing at the same time the merit of the emendation offered 
by Mr. Theobald, and countenanced by Mr. Malone. 


4 His grandfather was Lionel, ditke of Clarence, ~] The author 
mistakes. Plantagenet's paternal grandfather was Edmund of 
Langley, Duke of York. His maternal grandfather was Roger 
Mortimer, Earl of March, who was the son of Philippa the 
daughter of Lionel, Duke of Clarence. The duke therefore was 
his maternal great great grandfather. See Vol. XL p. 225, n.5. 



Third son to the third Edward king of England ; 
Spring crestless yeomen 5 from so deep a root ? 

PLAN. He bears him on the place's privilege, 6 
Or durst not, for his craven heart, say thus. 

SOM. By him that made me, I'll maintain my 


On any plot of ground in Christendom: 
Was not thy father, Richard, earl of Cambridge, 
For treason executed in our late king's days? 7 
And, by his treason, stand' st not thou attainted, 
Corrupted, and exempt 8 from ancient gentry? 
His trespass yet lives guilty in thy blood ; 
And, till thou be restor'd, thou art a yeoman. 

PLAN. My father was attached, not attainted; 
Condemn* d to die for treason, but no traitor; 
And that I'll prove on better men than Somerset, 

4 Spring crestless yeomen ] i. e. those who have no right to 

6 He bears him on the place's privilege,^] The Temple, being 
a religious house, was an asylum, a place of exemption, from 
violence, revenge, and bloodshed. JOHNSON. 

It does not appear that the Temple had any peculiar privilege 
at this time, being then, as it is at present, the residence of law- 
students. The author might, indeed, imagine it to have derived 
some such privilege from its former inhabitants, the Knights 
Templars, or Knights Hospitalers, both religious orders: or blows 
might have been prohibited by the regulations of the Society: or 
what is equally probable, he might have neither known nor cared 
any thing about the matter. RITSON. 

7 For treason executed in our late king's days ?~] This unme- 
trical line may be somewhat harmonized by adopting a practice 
common to our author, and reading execute instead of executed. 
Thus, in King Henry V. we have create instead of created, and 
contaminate instead of contaminated. STEEVENS. 

* Corrupted, and exempt ] Exempt for excluded. 


sc. ir. KING HENRY VI. 71 

Were growing time once ripen'd 9 to my will. 
For your partaker Poole, 1 and you yourself, 
I'll note you in my book of memory, 2 
To scourge you for this apprehension: 3 
Look to it well ; and say you are well warn'd. 

SoM. Ay, thou shalt find us ready for thee still : 
And know us, by these colours, for thy foes; 
For these my friends, in spite of thee, shall wear. 

PLAN. And, by my soul, this pale and angry rose, 
As cognizance of my blood-drinking hate,* 

9 time once ripen'd ] So, in The Merchant of Venice: 

" stay the very riping of the time." STEEVENS. 

1 For your partaker Poole,~] Partaker in ancient language, 
signifies one who takes part with another, an accomplice, a con- 
federate. So, in Psalm L : " When thou sawest a thief thou didst 
consent unto him, and hast been partaker with the adulterers.'* 
Again, inMarlow's translation of the first Book of Lucan,1600: 
" Each side had great partakers; Caesar's cause 
" The Gods abetted;" 

Again, in Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, Lib. II: " his 

obsequies being no more solemnized by the teares of his parta- 
kers, than the bloud of his enemies." STEEVENS. 

4 Pll note you in my book of memory,] So, in Hamlet: 

" the table of my memory." 


" shall live 

" Within the book and volume of my brain." 


3 To scourge you for this apprehension:] Though this word 
possesses all the copies, I am persuaded it did not come from the 
author. I have ventured to read reprehension : and Plantagenet 
means, that Somerset had reprehended or reproached him with his 
father the Earl of Cambridge's treason. THEOBALD. 

Apprehension, i. e. opinion. WARBURTON. 

So, in Much Ado about Nothing: 

" ' how long have you profess'd apprehension?" 


4 this pale and angry rose. 

As cognizance of my blood-drinking hate,~\ So, in Romeo 
and Juliet: 


Will I for ever, a'nd my faction, wear ; 
Until it wither with me to my grave, 
Or flourish to the height of my degree. 

SUF. Go forward, and be chok'd with thy ambi- 
And so farewell, until I meet thee next. \_Exit. 

SOM. Have with thee, Poole. Farewell, ambi- 
tious Richard. [Exit. 

PLAN. How I am brav'd, and must perforce en- 
dure it! 

WAR. This blot, that they object against your 


Shall be wip'd out 5 in the next parliament, 
X^all'd for the truce of Winchester and Gloster; 
And, if thou be not then created York, 
I will not live to be accounted Warwick. 
Mean time, in signal of my love to thee, 
Against proud Somerset, and William Poole, 
Will I upon thy party wear this rose : 
And here I prophecy, This brawl to-day, 
Grown to this faction, in the Temple garden, 
Shall send, between the red rose and the white, 
A thousand souls to death and deadly night. 

PLAN. Good master Vernon, I am bound to you, 
That you on my behalf would pluck a flower, 

" Either my eye-sight fails, or thou look'st pale. 
" And, trust me, love, in mine eye so do you: 
" Dry sorrow drinks our blood" STEEVENS, 
A badge is called a cognisance a cognoscendo, because by it 
such persons as do wear it upon their sleeves, their shoulders, or 
in their hats, are manifestly known whose servants they are. In 
heraldry the cognisance is seated upon the most eminent part of 
the helmet. TOLLET. 

* Shall be wip'd out ] Old copy tvhip't. Corrected by the 
editor of the second folio. MALONE. 

sc. r. KING HENRY VI. 73 

VER. In your behalf still will I wear the same. 
LAW. And so will I. 

PLAN. Thanks, gentle sir. 6 
Come, let us four to dinner : I dare say, 
This quarrel will drink blood another day. 



The same. A Room in the Tower. 

Enter MORTIMER, 7 brought in a Chair by Two 

MOR. Kind keepers of my weak decaying age, 

6 gentle sir.] The latter word, which yet does not com- 
plete the metre, was added by the editor of the second folio. 


Perhaps the line had originally this conclusion : 

" Thanks, gentle sir ; thanks both." STEEVENS. 

7 Enter Mortimer,] Mr. Edwards, in his MS. notes, observes, 
that Shakspeare has varied from the truth of history, to introduce 
this scene between Mortimer and Richard Plantagenet. Edmund 
Mortimer served under Henry V. in 1422, and died unconfined 
in Ireland in 1424. Holinshed says, that Mortimer was one of 
the mourners at the funeral of Henry V. 

His uncle, Sir John Mortimer, was indeed prisoner in the 
Tower, and was executed not long before the Earl of March's 
death, being charged with an attempt to make his escape in order 
to stir up an insurrection in Wales. STEEVENS. 

A Remarker on this note [the author of the next] seems to 
think that he has totally overturned it, by quoting the following 
passage from Hall's Chronicle : " During whiche parliament 
[held in the third year of Henry VI. 1425,] came to London 
Peter Duke of Quimber, whiche of the Duke of Exeter, &c. 
was highly fested . During whych season Edmond Mortymer, 
the last Erie of Marche of that name, (whiche long tyme had 


Let dying Mortimer here rest himself. 8 

bene restrayned from hys liberty and finally waxed lame,) dfs- 
ceased without yssue, whose inheritance descended to Lord 
Richard Plantagenet," &c. as if a circumstance which Hall men- 
tioned to mark the time of Mortimer's death, necessarily explained 
the place where it happened also. The fact is, that this Edmund 
Mortimer did not die in London, but at Trim in Ireland. He 
did not however die in confinement ( as Sandford has erroneously 
asserted in his Genealogical History. See King Henry IF. P. I. 
Vol. XI. p. 225, n. 5.); and whether he ever was confined, 
(except by Owen Glendower,) may be doubted, notwithstanding 
the assertion of Hall. Hardyng, who lived at the time, says he 
was treated with the greatest kindness and care both by Henry IV. 
(to whom he was a ivard,) and by his son Henry V. See his 
Chronicle, 1453, fol. 229. He was certainly at liberty in the 
year 1415, having a few days before King Henry sailed from 
Southampton, divulged to him in that town the traiterous inten- 
tions of his brother-in-law Richard Earl of Cambridge, by which 
he probably conciliated the friendship of the young king. He at 
that time received a general pardon from Henry, and was em- 
ployed by him in a naval enterprize. At the coronation of 
Queen Katharine he attended and held the sceptre. 

Soon after the accession of King Henry VI. he was constituted 
by the English Regency chief governor of Ireland, an office which 
he executed by a deputy of his own appointment. In the latter 
end of the year 1424, he went himself to that country, to protect 
the great inheritance which he derived from his grandmother 
Philippa, (daughter to Lionel Duke of Clarence,) from the in- 
cursions of some Irish chieftains, who were aided by a body of 
Scottish rovers ; but soon after his arrival died of the plague in 
his castle at Trim, in January 1424-5. 

This Edmond Mortimer was, I believe, confounded by the 
author of this play, and by the old historians, with his kinsman, 
who was perhaps about thirty years old at his death. Edmond 
Mortimer at the time of his death could not have been above 
thirty years old; for supposing that his grandmother Philippa was 
married at fifteen, in 1376, his father Roger could not have been 
born till 1377; and if he married at the early age of sixteen, 
Edmond was born in 1394. 

This family had great possessions in Ireland, in consequence of 
the marriage of Lionel Duke of Clarence with the daughter of 
the Earl of Ulster, in 1360, and were long connected with that 
country. Lionel was for some time Viceroy of Ireland, and was 
created by his father Edward III. Duke of Clarence, in conse- 

sc. v. KING HENRY VI. 75 

Even like a man new haled from the rack, 

quence of possessing the honour of Clare, in the county of Tho- 
rnond. Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, who married 
Philippa the duke's only daughter, succeeded him in the govern- 
ment of Ireland, and died in his office, at St. Domi nick's Abbey, 
near Cork, in December 1381. His son, Roger Mortimer, was 
twice Vicegerent of Ireland, and was slain at a place called 
Kenles, in Ossory, in 1398. Edmund his son, the Mortimer of 
this play, was, as has been already mentioned, Chief Governor 
of Ireland, in the years 1423, and 1424, and died there in 14-25. 
His nephew and heir, Richard Duke of York, (the Plantagenet 
of this play, ) was in 1449 constituted Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 
for ten years, with extraordinary powers; and his son George 
Duke of Clarence (who was afterwards murdered in the Tower) 
was born in the Castle of Dublin, in 1450. This prince filled 
the same office which so many of his ancestors had possessed, 
being constituted Chief Governor of Ireland for life, by his bro- 
ther King Edward IV. in the third year of his reign. 

Since this note was written, I have more precisely ascertained 
the age of Edmond Mortimer, Earl of March, uncle to the 
Richard Plantagenet of this play. He was born in December 
1392, and consequently was thirty-two years old when he died. 
His ancestor, Lionel Duke of Clarence, was married to the 
daughter of the Earl of Ulster, but not in 1360, as I have said, 
but about the year 1353. He probably did not take his title of 
Clarence from his great Irish possessions, (as I have suggested) 
but rather from his wife's mother, Elizabeth le Clare, third 
daughter of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloster, and sister to Gilbert 
de Clare, the last (of that name) Earl of Gloster, who founded 
Clare Hall in Cambridge. 

The error concerning Edmund Mortimer, brother-in-law to 
Richard Earl of Cambridge, having been " kept in captivity 
untill he died," seems to have arisen from the legend of Richard 
Plantagenet, Duke of Yorke, in The Mirrour for Magistrates, 
1575, where the following lines are found : 

His cursed son ensued his cruel path, 
And kept my guiltless cousin strait in durance, 
For whom my father hard entreated hath, 
But living hopeless of his life's assurance, 
He thought it best by politick procurance 
To slay the king, and so restore his friend ; 
Which brought himself to an infamous end. 


So fare my limbs with long imprisonment : 

For when king- Henry, of that name the fift, 
Had tane my father in his conspiracie, 
He, from Sir Edmund all the blame to shift, 
Was faine to say, the French king Charles, his ally, 
Had hired him this traiterous act to try ; 
" For which condemned shortly he was slain : 
" In helping right this was my father's gain." 


It is objected that Shakspeare has varied from the truth of 
history, to introduce this scene between Mortimer and Richard 
Plantagenet ; as the former served under Henry V. in 14-22, and 
died unconfined in Ireland, in 1424. In the third year of Henry 
the Sixth, 1425, and during the time that Peter Duke of Coimbra 
was entertained in London, " Edmonde Mortimer (says Hall) 
the last erle of Marche of that name (uthichlonge tyme had bene 
restrained from hys liberty, and fynally waxed lame, ) disceased 
without yssue, whose inheritance descended to lord Richard Plan- 
tagenet," &c. Holinshed has the same words ; and these autho- 
rities, though the fact be otherwise, are sufficient to prove that 
Shakspeare, or whoever was the author of the play, did not in- 
tentionally vary from the truth of history to introduce the present 
scene. The historian does not, indeed, expressly say that the 
Earl of March died in the Tower; but one cannot reasonably 
suppose that he meant to relate an event which he knew had hap- 
pened to a free man in Ireland, as happening' to a prisoner during 
the time that a particular person was in London. But, where- 
ever he meant to lay the scene of Mortimer's death, it is clear 
that the author of this play understood him as representing it to 
have happened in a London prison ; an idea, if indeed his words 
will bear any other construction, a preceding passage may serve 
to corroborate : " The erle of March (he has observed) was ever 
Icepte in the courte under such a keper that he could nether doo 
or attempte any thyng agaynste the kyng wythout his knowledge, 
and dyed without issue." I am aware, and could easily show, 
that some of the most interesting events, not only in the Chro- 
nicles of Hall and Holinshed, but in the Histories of Rapin, 
Hume, and Smollet, are perfectly fabulous and unfounded, 
which are nevertheless constantly cited and regarded as incontro- 
vertible facts. But, if modern writers, standing, as it were, 
upon the shoulders of their predecessors, and possessing innumer- 
able other advantages, are not always to be depended on, what 
allowances ought we not to make for those who had neither 
Rymer, nor Dugdale, nor Sandford to consult, who could have 

sc. v. KING HENRY VI. 77 

And these grey locks, the pursuivants of death, 9 

Nestor-like aged, in an age of care, 

Argue the end of Edmund Mortimer. 

These eyes, like lamps whose wasting oil is 

spent, 1 

Wax dim, as drawing to their exigent :* 
Weak shoulders, overborne with burd'ning grief; 
.And pithless arms, 3 like to a withered vine 
That droops his sapless branches to the ground : 

no access to the treasuries of Cotton or Harley, nor were per- 
mitted the inspection of a public record ? If this were the case 
with the historian, what can be expected from the dramatist ? 
He naturally took for fact what he found in history, and is by 
no means answerable for the misinformation of his authority. 


8 Let dying Mortimer here rest himself. ~\ I know not whether 
Milton did not take from this hint the lines with which he opens 
his tragedy. JOHNSON. 

Rather from the beginning of the last scene of the third Act 
f the Phcenisste of Euripides : 

Tiresias. " 'Hys irdcoiQe, Svyafep, u>$ 
" ' 

tf ro Xevpw TfsSov '/%voj fitts!? s^ov" &.C. 


9 - pursuivants of death, ] Pursuivants. The heralds that, 
forerunning death, proclaim its approach. JOHNSON. 

1 - like lamps 'whose "wasting oil is spent, ~\ So, in King 
Richard II : 

" My oil-dry'd lamp, and time-bewasted light ." 


* - as drawing to their exigent :] Exigent, end. 

So, in Doctor Dodypoll, a comedy, 1600 : 

" Hath driven her to some desperate exigent" 


3 And pithless arms,] Pith was used for marrow, and figura- 
tively, for strength. JOHNSON. 

In the first of these senses it is used in Othello : 

" For since these arms of mine had seven years' pith .'* 
And, figuratively, in Hamlet : 

" And enterprizes of great pith and moment ." 



Yet are thesefeet whose strengthless stayis numb, 
Unable to support this lump of clay, 
Swift-winged with desire to get a grave, 
As witting I no other comfort have. 
But tell me, keeper, will my nephew come ? 

1 KEEP. Richard Plantagenet, my lord, will 

come : 

We sent unto the Temple, to his chamber ; 
And answer was returned that he will come. 

MOR. Enough ; my soul shall then be satisfied. 
Poor gentleman ! his wrong doth equal mine. 
Since Henry Monmouth first began to reign, 
(Before whose glory I was great in arms,) 
This loathsome sequestration have I had ; 4 
And even since then hath Richard been obscur'd, 
Depriv'd of honour and inheritance : 
But now, the arbitrator of despairs, 
Just death, kind umpire of men's miseries, 5 
With sweet enlargement doth dismiss me hence ; 
I would, his troubles likewise were expired, 
That so he might recover what was lost. 

4 Since Henry Monmouth Jirst began to reign, 

This loathsome sequestration have I had ;} Here again, the 
author certainly is mistaken. See p. 73, n. 7. MALONE. 

5 the arbitrator of despairs, 

Just death, kind umpire of 'men* 's miseries,"] That is, he that 
terminates or concludes misery. The expression is harsh and 
forced. JOHNSON. 

The same idea is expressed with greater propriety in Romeo and 
Juliet : 

" 'Twixt my extremes and me this bloody knife 
" Shall play the umpire, arbitrating that," &c. 


sc. r. KING HENRY VI. 79 


1 KEEP. My lord, your loving nephew now is 

MOR. Richard Plantagenet, my friend ? Is he 
come ? 

PLAN. Ay, noble uncle, thus ignobly us'd, 
Your nephew, late-despised 6 Richard, comes. 

MOR. Direct mine arms, I may embrace his neck, 
And in his bosom spend my latter gasp : 

0, tell me, when my lips do touch his cheeks, 
That I may kindly give one fainting kiss. 
And now declare, sweet stem from York's great 

Why didst thou say of late thou wert despis'd ? 

PLAN. First, lean thine aged back against mine 

arm ; 

And, in that ease, I'll tell thee my disease. 7 
This day, in argument upon a case, 

6 late-despised ] i. e. lately despised. M. MASON. 

7 Pit tell thee my disease.] Disease seems to be here 

uneasiness, or discontent. JOHNSON. 

It is so used by other ancient writers, and by Shakspeare in 
Coriolanus. Thus likewise, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. III. 
c. v: 

" But labour'd long in that deep ford with vain disease." 
That to disease is to disturb, may be known from the following 
passages in Chapman's version of the Iliad and Odyssey : 

" But brother, hye thee to the ships, and Idomen disease." 

1. e. wake him. B. VI. edit. 1598. Again, Odyss. Book VI : 

" with which he declin'd 

" The eyes of any waker when he pleas'd, 
" And any sleeper, when he wish'd, diseased." 
Again, in the ancient metrical history of The Battle of Floddon : 
" He thought the Scots might him disease 

" With constituted captains meet." STEEVENS. 


Some words there grew 'twixt Somerset and me : 
Among which terms he used his lavish tongue, 
And did upbraid me with my father's death ; 
Which obloquy set bars before my tongue, 
Else with the like I had requited him : 
Therefore, good uncle, for my father's sake, 
In honour of a true Plantagenet, 
And for alliance' sake, declare the cause 
My father, earl of Cambridge, lost his head. 

MOR. That cause, fair nephew, that imprison'd 


And hath detain'd me, all my flow'ring youth, 
Within a loathsome dungeon, there to pine, 
Was cursed instrument of his decease. 

PLAN. Discover more at large what cause that 

For I am ignorant, and cannot guess. 

MOR. I will ; if that my fading breath permit, 
And death approach not ere my tale be done. 
Henry the fourth, grandfather to this king, 
Depos'd his nephew Richard ; 8 Edward's son, 

8 his nephew Richard ; ] Thus the old copy. Modern 

editors read his cousin but without necessity. Nephew has 
sometimes the power of the Latin nepos, and is used with great 
laxity among our ancient English writers. Thus in Othello, lago 
tells Brabantio he shall " have his nephews (i. e. the children 
of his own daughter) neigh to him." STEEVENS. 

It would be surely better to read cousin, the meaning which 
nephew ought to have in this place. Mr. Steevens only proves 
that the word nephews is sometimes used for grand-children, 
which is very certain. Both uncle and nephew might, however, 
formerly signify cousin. See the Menagiana, Vol. II. p. 193. 
In The Second Part of the troublesome Raigne of King John, 
Prince Henry calls his cousin the Bastard, " uncle" RITSON. 

I believe the mistake here arose from the author's ignorance ; 
and that he conceived Richard to be Henry's nephew. 


sc. v. KING HENRY VI. 81 

The first-begotten, and the lawful heir 
Of Edward king, the third of that descent : 
During whose reign, the Percies of the north, 
Finding his usurpation most unjust, 
Endeavour'd my advancement to the throne : 
The reason mov'd these warlike lords to this, 
Was for that (young king Richard 9 thus remov'd, 
Leaving no heir begotten of his body,) 
I was the next by birth and parentage ; 
For by my mother I derived am 
From Lionel duke of Clarence, the third son l 
To king Edward the third, whereas he, 
From John of Gaunt doth bring his pedigree, 
Being but fourth of that heroick line. 
But mark ; as, in this haughty great attempt, 2 
They laboured to plant the rightful heir, 
I lost my liberty, and they their lives. 
Long after this, when Henry the fifth, 
Succeeding his father Bolingbroke, did reign, 
Thy father, earl of Cambridge, then deriv'd 
From famous Edmund Langley, duke of York, 
Marrying my sister, that thy mother was, 
Again, in pity of my hard distress, 
Levied an army ; 3 weening to redeem, 

9 young king Richard ] Thus the second folio. The 

first omits king, which is necessary to the metre. STEEVENS. 

1 the third son ] The article the, which is necessary 

to the metre, is omitted in the first folio, but found in the second. 


3 in this haughty great attempt,'] Haughty is high. 

So, in the fourth Act : 

" Valiant and virtuous, full of haughty courage." 


3 Levied an army ;] Here is again another falsification of his- 
tory. Cambridge levied no army, but was apprehended at 
Southampton, the night before Henry sailed from that town for 


And have install'd me in the diadem : 
But, as the rest, so fell that noble earl, 
And was beheaded. Thus the Mortimers, 
In whom the title rested, were suppress' d. 

PLAN. Of which, my lord, your honour is the 

MOR. True; and thou seest, that I no issue have; 
And that my fainting words do warrant death : 
Thou art my heir ; the rest, I wish thee gather :* 
But yet be wary in thy studious care. 

PLAN. Thy grave admonishments prevail with 

me : 

But yet, methinks, my father's execution 
Was nothing less than bloody tyranny. 

MOR. With silence, nephew, be thou politick 5 
Strong-fixed is the house of Lancaster, 
And, like a mountain, not to be remov'd. 5 
But now thy uncle is removing hence ; 
As princes do their courts, when they are cloy'd 
With long continuance in a settled place. 

PLAN. O, uncle, 'would some part of my young 

Might but redeem the passage of your age ! 6 

France, on the information of this very Edmund Mortimer, Earl 
of March. MALONE. 

4 Thou art my heir ; the rest, I tvish thee gather:"] The sense 
is I acknowledge thee to be my heir; the consequences which 
may be collected from thence, I recommend it to thee to draw. 


5 And, like a mountain, not to be remold.'} Thus Milton, Par. 
Lost, Book IV : 

" Like Teneriffor Atlas, unremov'd." STEEVENS. 

6 O, uncle, y iaould some part of my young years 

Might but redeem &c.] This thought has some resemblance 
to that of the following lines, which are supposed to be addressed 

sc. v. KING HENRY VI. 83 

MOR. Thou dost then wrong me ; as the slaugh- 

t'rer doth, 

Which giveth many wounds, when one will kill. 7 
Mourn not, except thou sorrow for my good ; 
Only, give order for my funeral ; 
And so farewell ; and fair be all thy hopes ! 8 
And prosperous be thy life, in peace, and war ! 


by a married lady, who died very young, to her husband. The 
inscription is, I think, in the church of Trent : 

" Immatura peri ; sed tu diuturnior annos 

" Vive meos, conjux optime, vive tuos." MALONE. 

This superstition is very ancient. Some traces of it may be 
found in the traditions of the Rabbins ; it is enlarged upon in 
the Alcestes of Euripides ; and such offers ridiculed by Juvenal, 
Sat. XII. Dion Cassius in Vit. Hadrian, fol. edit. Hamburgh, 
Vol. II. p. 1160, insinuates, " That Hadrian sacrificed his fa- 
vourite Antinous with this design." See Reimari Annotat. in 
loc. : " De nostris annis, tibi Jupiter augeat annos," said the 
Romans to Augustus. See Lister's Journey to Paris, p. 221. 


7 as the slaughterer doth, 

Which giveth many wounds, 'when one 'will kill.'} The same 
thought occurs in Hamlet : 

" Like to a murdering-piece, in many places 
" Gives me superfluous death." STEEVENS. 

8 and fair be all thy hopes!'] Mortimer knew Plantage- 

net's hopes were fair, but that the establishment of the Lancas- 
trian line disappointed them : sure, he would wish, that his ne- 
phew's fair hopes might have a fair issue. I am persuaded the 
poet wrote : 

and fair befal thy hopes ! THEOBALD. 

This emendation is received by Sir Thomas Hanmer and Dr. 
Warburton. I do not see how the readings differ in sense. Fair 
is lucky, or prosperous. So we say, a fair wind, and fair fortune. 


Theobald's emendment is unnecessary, and proceeded from 
his confounding Plantagenet's hopes with his pretensions. His 
pretensions were well founded, but his hopes were not. 


G 2 


PLAN. And peace, no war, befal thy parting 


In prison hast thou spent a pilgrimage, 
And like a hermit overpass'd thy days. 
Well, I will lock his counsel in my breast ; 
And what I do imagine, let that rest. 
Keepers, convey him hence ; and I myself 
Will see his burial better than his life. 

[Exeunt Keepers, bearing out MORTIMER. 
Here dies the dusky torch of Mortimer, 
Chok'd with ambition 9 of the meaner sort: 
And, for those wrongs, those bitter injuries, 
Which Somerset hath offer'd to my house, 
I doubt not, but with honour to redress : 
And therefore haste I to the parliament ; 
Either to be restored to my blood, 
Or make my ill 1 the advantage of my good. 


9 Choked with ambition of the meaner sort ] So, in the pre- 
ceding scene : 

" Go forward, and be chok'dwith thy ambition." 


We are to understand the speaker as reflecting on the ill for- 
tune of Mortimer, in being always made a tool of by the Percies 
of the North in their rebellious intrigues ; rather than in asserting 
his claim to the crown, in support of his own princely ambition. 

1 Or make my ill ~] In former editions : 

Or make my will th' advantage of my good. 
So all the printed copies ; but with very little regard to the poet's 
meaning. I read : 

Or make my ill th* advantage of my good. 
Thus we recover the antithesis of the expression. THEOBALD. 

My ill, is my ill usage. MALONE. 

This sentiment resembles another of Falstaff, in The Second 
Part of King Henry IV : " I will turn diseases to commodity." 




The same. The Parliament-House.* 

Flourish. Enter King HENRY, EXETER, GLOSTER, 
of Winchester, RICHARD PLANTAGENET, and 
Others. GLOSTER offers to put up a Bill ; 3 Win- 
chester snatches it, and tears it. 

WIN. Com'st thou with deep premeditated lines, 
With written pamphlets studiously devis'd, 
Humphrey of Gloster ? if thou canst accuse, 
Or aught intend' st to lay unto my charge, 
Do it without invention suddenly ; 
As I with sudden and extemporal speech 
Purpose to answer what thou canst object. 

GLO. Presumptuous priest ! this place commands 

my patience, 

Or thou should* st find thou hast dishonour' d me. 
Think not, although in writing I preferr'd 
The manner of thy vile outrageous crimes, 

4 The Parliament- House.^ This parliament was held in 1426, 
at Leicester, though the author of this play has represented it to 
have been held in London. King Henry was now in the fifth 
year of his age. In the first parliament which was held at Lon- 
don shortly after his father's death, his mother Queen Katharine 
brought the young King from Windsor to the metropolis, and 
sat on the throne of the parliament-house with the infant in her 
lap. MALONE. 

3 put up a Bill;~\ i. e. articles of accusation, for in this 

sense the word bill was sometimes used. So, in Nashe's Have 
with you to Saffron Walden, 1596 : " That's the cause we have 
so manie bad workmen now adaies : put up a bill against them 
next parliament.'* MALONE. 


That therefore I have forg*d, or am not able 
Verbatim to rehearse the method of my pen : 
No, prelate ; such is thy audacious wickedness, 
Thy lewd, pestiferous, and dissentious pranks, 
As very infants prattle of thy pride. 
Thou art a most pernicious usurer ; 
Froward by nature, enemy to peace ; 
Lascivious, wanton, more than well beseems 
A man of thy profession, and degree ; 
And for thy treachery, What's more manifest ? 
In that thou laid'st a trap to take my life, 
As well at London bridge, as at the Tower ? 
Beside, I fear me, if thy thoughts were sifted, 
The king, thy sovereign, is not quite exempt 
From envious malice of thy swelling heart. 

WIN. Gloster, I do defy thee. Lords, vouch- 


To give me hearing what I shall reply. 
If I were covetous, ambitious, or perverse, 4 
As he will have me, How am I so poor ? 
Or how haps it, I seek not to advance 
Or raise myself, but keep my wonted calling ? 
And for dissention, Who preferreth peace 
More than I do, except I be provok'd ? 
No, my good lords, it is not that offends ; 
It is not that, that hath incens'd the duke : 
It is, because no one should sway but he ; 
No one, but he, should be about the king ; 
And that engenders thunder in his breast, 
And makes him roar these accusations forth. 

But he shall know, I am as good 

GLO. Asgood? 

4 If I were covetous, ambitious, or perverse,] I suppose this 
redundant line originally stood 

Were I covetous, ambitious, &c. STEEVENS. 

ac. i. KING HENRY VI. 87 

Thou bastard of my grandfather ! 5 

WIN. Ay, lordly sir ; For what are you, I pray, 
But one imperious in another's throne ? 

GLO. Am I not the protector, 6 saucy priest ? 
WIN. And am I not a prelate of the church ? 

GLO. Yes, as an outlaw in a castle keeps, 
And useth it to patronage his theft. 

WIN. Unreverent Gloster ! 

GLO. Thou art reverent 

Touching thy spiritual function, not thy life. 

WIN. This Rome shall remedy. 7 

WAR. Roam thither then. 8 

SOM. My lord, it were your duty to forbear. 9 

5 Thou bastard of my grandfather!] The Bishop of Winchester 
was an illegitimate son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
by Katharine Swynford, whom the Duke afterwards married. 


the protector,] I have added the article the, for the 

sake of metre. STEEVENS. 

7 This Rome shall remedy.] The old copy, unmetrically 

Rome shall remedy this. 
The transposition is Sir Thomas Hanmer's. STEEVENS. 

8 Roam thither then.] Roam to Rome. To roam is supposed 
to be derived from the cant of vagabonds, who often pretended 
a pilgrimage to Rome. JOHNSON. 

The jingle between roam and Rome is common to other wri- 
ters. So, in Nash's Lenten Stiff, &c. 1599 : " three hun- 
dred thousand people roamed to Rome for purgatorie pills," &c. 


9 Som. My lord, it ivere your duty to forbear. &c.] This 
line, in the old copy, is joined to the former hemistich spoken 
by Warwick. The modern editors have very properly given it 
to Somerset, for whom it seems to have been designed : 


WAR. Ay, see the bishop be not overborne. 

SOM. Methinks, my lord should be religious, 
And know the office that belongs to such. 

WAR. Methinks, his lordship should be hum- 
It fitteth not a prelate so to plead. 

SOM. Yes, when his holy state is touched so near. 

WAR. State holy, or unhallow'd, what of that ? 
Is not his grace protector to the king ? 

PLAN. Plantagenet, I see, must hold his tongue ; 
Lest it be said, Speak, sirrah, when you should ; 
Must your bold verdict enter talk with lords ? 
Else would I have a fling at Winchester. \_Aside. 

K. HEN. Uncles of Gloster, and of Winchester, 
The special watchmen of our English weal j 
I would prevail, if prayers might prevail, 
To join your hearts in love and amity. 
O, what a scandal is it to our crown, 
That two such noble peers as ye, should jar ! 
Believe me, lords, my tender years can tell, 
Civil dissention is a viperous worm, 
That gnaws the bowels of the commonwealth. 

[A Noise within; Down with the tawny coats! 
What tumult's this ? 

WAR. An uproar, I dare warrant, 

Begun through malice of the bishop's men. 

\_A Noise again ; Stones ! Stones ! 

Ay, see the bishop be not overborne. 

was as erroneously given in the next speech to Somerset, instead 
of Warwick, to whom it has been since restored. STEEVENS. 

The correction was made by Mr. Theobald. MALONE. 

K. i. KING HENRY VI. 89 

Enter the Mayor of London, attended. 

MAY. O, my good lords, and virtuous Henry, 
Pity the city of London, pity us ! 
The bishop and the duke of Gloster's men, 
Forbidden late to carry any weapon, 
Have fill'd their pockets full of pebble-stones ; 
And, banding themselves in contrary parts, 
Do pelt so fast at one another's pate, 
That many have their giddy brains knock' d out: 
Our windows are broke down in every street, 
And we, for fear, compelled to shut our shops. 

Enter, skirmishing, the Retainers O/'GLOSTER and 
Winchester, with bloody pates. 

K. HEN. We charge you, on allegiance to our- 

To hold your slaught'ring hands, and keep the 

Pray, uncle Gloster, mitigate this strife. 

1 SERF. Nay, if we be 

Forbidden stones, we'll fall to it with our teeth. 

2 SERF. Do what ye dare, we are as resolute. 

[Skirmish again. 

GLO. You of my household, leave this peevish 

And set this unaccustom'd fight ' aside. 

1 SERF. My lord, we know your grace to be a 

unaccustom'd fight ] Unaccustomed is unseemly, in~ 

decent. JOHNSON. 


Just and upright ; and, for your royal birth, 

Inferior to none, but his majesty : 2 

And, ere that we will suffer such a prince, 

So kind a father of the commonweal, 

To be disgraced by an inkhorn mate, 3 

We, and our wives, and children, all will fight, 

And have our bodies slaughter' d by thy foes. 

1 SERV. Ay, and the very parings of our nails 
Shall pitch a field, when we are dead. 

[Skirmish again. 

GLO. Stay, stay, I say ! 4 

And, if you love me, as you say you do, 
Let me persuade you to forbear a while. 

K. HEN. O, how this discord doth afflict my 

soul ! 

Can you, my lord of Winchester, behold 
My sighs and tears, and will not once relent ? 

The same epithet occurs again in Romeo and Juliet, where it 
seems to mean such as is uncommon, not in familiar use : 
" Shall give him such an unaccustomed dram." 


* but his majesty :~\ Old copy, redundantly 

but to his majesty. 

Perhaps the line originally ran thus : 

" To none inferior, but his majesty." STEEVENS. 

3 an inkhorn 'mate,'] A bookman. JOHNSON. 

It was a term of reproach at the time towards^en of learning 
or men affecting to be learned. George Pettie in his Introduction 
to Guazzd's Civil Conversation, 1586, speaking of those he calls 
nice travellers, says, " if one chance to derive anie word from 
the Latine, which is insolent to their ears, (as perchance they 
will take that phrase to be) they forthwith make a jest at it, and 
tearme it an Inkhorne tearme." REED. 

* Stay, stay, I say !] Perhaps the words / say, should 

be omitted, as they only serve to disorder the metre, and create 
a disagreeable repetition of the worcU-soy, in the next line. 


sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 91 

Who should be pitiful, if you be not ? 
Or who should study to prefer a peace, 
If holy churchmen take delight in broils ? 

WAR. My lord protector, yield ; 5 yield, Win- 
chester ; 

Except you mean, with obstinate repulse, 
To slay your sovereign, and destroy the realm. 
You see what mischief, and what murder too, 
Hath been enacted through your enmity ; 
Then be at peace, except ye thirst for blood. 

WIN. He shall submit, or I will never yield. 

GLO. Compassion on the king commands me 

stoop ; 

Or, I would see his heart out, ere the priest 
Should ever get that privilege of me. 

WAR. Behold, my lord of Winchester, the duke 
Hath banish'd moody discontented fury, 
As by his smoothed brows it doth appear : 
Why look you still so stern, and tragical ? 

GLO. Here, Winchester, I offer thee my hand. 

K. HEN. Fye, uncle Beaufort! I have heard you 


That malice was a great and grievous sin : 
And will not you maintain the thing you teach, 
But prove a chief offender in the same ? 

WAR. Sweet king! the bishop hath a kindly 
gird. 6 

s My lord protector, yield;] Old copy Yield, my lord pro- 
tector. This judicious transposition was made by Sir T. Hanmer. 


hath a kindly gird.] i. e. feels an emotion of kind re- 

morse. JOHNSON. 


A kindly gird is a gentle or friendly reproof. Falstaffob- 
rves, that " men of all sorts take a pride to gird at him :" and, 


For shame, my lord of Winchester ! relent ; 
What, shall a child instruct you what to do ? 

WIN. Well, duke of Gloster, I will yield to thee j 
Love for thy love, and hand for hand I give. 

GLO. Ay ; but, I fear me, with a hollow heart. 
See here, my friends, and loving countrymen ; 
This token serveth for a flag of truce, 
Betwixt ourselves, and all our followers : 
So help me God, as I dissemble not ! 

WIN. So help me God, as I intend it not ! 


K. HEN. O loving uncle, kind duke of Gloster, 7 
How joyful am I made by this contract ! 
Away, my masters ! trouble us no more ; 
But join in friendship, as your lords have done. 

1 SERV. Content ; I'll to the surgeon's. 

2 SERV. And so will I. 

3 SERV. And I will see what physick the tavern 

affords. \_Exeunt Servants, Mayor,$c. 

WAR. Accept this scroll, most gracious sove- 
reign ; 

in The Taming of the Shrew, Baptista says : " Tranio hits you 
now:" to which Lucentio answers : 

" I thank thee for that gird, good Tranio." STEEVENS. 

The word gird does not here signify reproof, as Steevens sup- 
poses, but a twitch, a. pang, a yearning of kindness. M. MASON. 

I wish Mr. M. Mason had produced any example of gird used in 
the sense for which he contends. I cannot supply one for him, 
or I most readily would. STEEVENS. 

Mr. Malone in a note on a passage in Coriolanus, Act I. sc. i. 
says, that to gird means to pluck, or twinge, and informs us that 
Cotgrave makes gird and twinge synonymous. M. MASON. 

kind duke of Gloster, ] For the sake of metre, I could 

wish to read 

most kind duke &c. STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 93 

Which in the right of Richard Plantagenet 
We do exhibit to your majesty. 

GLO. Well urg'd, my lord of Warwick ; for, 

sweet prince, 

An if your grace mark every circumstance, 
You have great reason to do Richard right : 
Especially, for those occasions 
At Eltham-place I told your majesty. 

K. HEN. And those occasions, uncle, were of 

force : 

Therefore, my loving lords, our pleasure is, 
That Richard be restored to his blood. 

WAR. Let Richard be restored to his blood ; 
So shall his father's wrongs be recompens'd. 

WIN. As will the rest, so willeth Winchester. 

K. HEN. If Richard will be true, not that alone, 8 
But all the whole inheritance I give, 
That doth belong unto the house of York, 
From whence you spring by lineal descent. 

PLAN. Thy humble servant vows obedience, 
And humble service, till the point of death. 

K. HEN. Stoop then, and set your knee against 

my foot ; 

And, in reguerdon 9 of that duty done, 
I girt thee with the valiant sword of York : 
Rise, Richard, like a true Plantagenet ; 
And rise created princely duke of York. 

PLAN. And so thrive Richard, as thy foes may fall! 

8 that alone,"] By a mistake probably of the transcriber, 

the old copy reads that all alone. The correction was made by 
the editor of the second folio. MALONE. 

9 reguerdon ] Recompence, return. JOHNSON. 

It is perhaps a corruption of regardum, middle Latin. See 
Vol. VII. p. 63, n. 2. STEEVENS. 


And as my duty springs so perish they 

That grudge one thought against your majesty ! 

ALL. Welcome, high prince, the mighty duke of 

SOM. Perish, base prince, ignoble duke of York! 


GLO. Now will it best avail your majesty, 
To cross the seas, and to be crown'd in France : 
The presence of a king engenders love 
Amongst his subjects, and his loyal friends ; 
As it ctisanimates his enemies. 

K.HEN. When Gloster says the word, king Henry 

For friendly counsel cuts off many foes. 

GLO. Your ships already are in readiness. 

[Exeunt all but EXETER. 

EXE. Ay, we may march in England, or in France, 
Not seeing what is likely to ensue : 
This late dissention, grown betwixt the peers, 
Burns under feigned ashes of forg'd love, 1 
And will at last break out into a flame : 
As fester' d members rot but by degrees, 
Till bones, and flesh, and sinews, fall away, 
So will this base and envious discord breed. 2 
And now I fear that fatal prophecy, 
Which, in the time of Henry, nam'd the fifth, 
Was in the mouth of every sucking babe, 
That Henry, born at Monmouth, should win all ; 
And Henry, born at Windsor, should lose all : 

1 Burns under feigned ashes of for ^d lone ^\ 

" Ignes suppositos cineri doloso." Hor. MALONE. 

* So ivill this base and envious discord breed.] That is, so will 
the malignity of this discord propagate itself ", and advance. 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 95 

Which is so plain, that Exeter doth wish 

His days may finish ere that hapless time. 3 [Exit. 


France. Before Rouen. 

Enter LA PUCELLE disguised, and Soldiers dressed 
like Countrymen, with Sacks upon their Backs. 

Puc. These are the city gates, the gates of Rouen,* 
Through which our policy must make a breach : 
Take heed, be wary how you place your words ; 
Talk like the vulgar sort of market-men, 
That come to gather money for their corn. 
If we have entrance, (as, I hope, we shall,) 
And that we find the slothful watch but weak, 
I'll by a sign give notice to our friends, 
That Charles the Dauphin may encounter them. 

1 SOLD. Our sacks shall be a mean to sack the 
city, 5 

3 His days may finish &c.] The Duke of Exeter died shortly 
after the meeting of this parliament, and the Earl of Warwick 
was appointed governor or tutor to the King in his room. 


4 the gates o/'Roiien,] Here, and throughout the play, 

in the old copy, we have Roan, which was the old spelling of 
Rouen. The word, consequently, is used as a monosyllable. See 
King Henry V. Act III. sc. v. MALONE. 

I do not perceive the necessity of considering Rouen here as a 
monosyllable. Would not the verse have been sufficiently regu- 
lar, had the scene been in England, and authorized Shakspeare to 
write (with a dissyllabical termination, familiar to the drama) 
These are the city gates, the gates of London? 


5 Our sacks shall be a mean to sack the city.~\ Falstaff has the 


And we be lords and rulers over Rouen ; 
Therefore we'll knock. [Knocks. 

GUARD. [Within.] Quiestld? 6 

Pu c . Paisans, pauvres gens de France : 
Poor market-folks, that come to sell their corn. 

GUARD. Enter, go in j the market-bell is rung. 

[Opens the Gates. 

Puc. Now, Rouen, I'll shake thy bulwarks to 
the ground. 

[PucELLE, cpc. enter the City. 

Enter CHARLES, Bastard o/'Orleans, ALE^ON, and 

CHAR. Saint Dennis bless this happy stratagem ! 
And once again we'll sleep secure in Rouen. 

BAST. Here enter*dPucelle,andherpractisants: 7 
Now she is there, how will she specify 
Where is 8 the best and safest passage in ? 

ALEN. By thrusting out a torch from yonder 
tower ; 

same quibble, showing his bottle of sack: " Here's that will sack 
a city." STEEVENS. 

6 Qui est Id f] Old copy Che la. For the emendation I am 
answerable. MALONE. 

Late editions Qui va la ? STEEVENS. 

7 Here entered Pucelle, and her practisants :] Practice, in the 
language of that time, was treachery, and perhaps in the softer 
sense stratagem. Practisants are therefore confederates in stra- 
tagems. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Induction to The Taming of the Shrew : 

" Sirs, I will practice on this drunken man." STEEVENS. 

8 Where is ] Old copy Here is. Corrected by Mr. Howe. 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 97 

Which, once discern'd, shows, that her meaning 

No way to that, 9 for weakness, which she enter'd. 

Enter LA PUCELLE on a Battlement: holding out 
a Torch burning. 

Puc. Behold, this is the happy wedding torch, 
That joineth Rouen unto her countrymen; 
But burning fatal to the Talbotites. 

BAST. See, noble Charles! the beacon of our 

The burning torch in yonder turret stands. 

CHAR. Now shine it like a comet of revenge, 
A prophet to the fall of all our foes! 

ALEN. Defer no time, Delays have dangerous 


Enter, and cry The Dauphin! presently, 
And then do execution on the watch. \_They enter. 

Alarums. Enter TALBOT, and certain English. 

TAL. France, thou shalt rue this treason with thy 

tears, 1 

If Talbot but survive thy treachery. 
Pucelle, that witch, that damned sorceress, 

9 No 'way to that,] That is, no tvay equal to that, no way so 
fit as that. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Two Gentlemen of Verona : 

" There is no woe to his correction." STEEVENS. 

1 France, thou shalt rue this c.] So, in King John: 

" France, thou shalt rue this hour" &c. STEEVENS. 


Hath wrought this hellish mischief unawares, 
That hardly we escap'd the pride of France. 2 

[Exeunt to the Town. 

Alarum: Excursions. Enter, from the Town, BED- 
FORD, brought in sick, in a Chair, with TALBOT, 
BURGUNDY, and the English Forces. Then, en- 
ter on the Walls, LA PUCELLE, CHARLES, Bas- 
tard, ALENCON, S and Others. 

Puc. Good morrow, gallants! want ye corn for 

bread ? 

I think, the duke of Burgundy will fast, 
Before he'll buy again at such a rate: 

' That hardly tve escap'd the pride of France."] Pride signifies 
the haughty power. The same speaker says afterwards, Act IV. 
sc. vi : 

" And from the pride of Gallia rescu'd thee." 
One would think this plain enough. But what won't a puzzling 
critick obscure! Mr. Theobald says Pride of France is an ab- 
surd and unmeaning expression, and therefore alters it to prize of 
France; and in this is followed by the Oxford editor. 


Dr. Warburton, I believe, has rightly explained the force of 
the word pride, which indeed is as unfamiliarly used by Chap- 
man, in his version of the tenth Iliad: 

" And therefore will not tempt his fate, nor ours, with 

further pride." 
Again, in the eleventh Iliad: 

he died 

" Far from his newly-married wife, in aid of foreign pride." 
Our author, however, in King Henry V. has the same phrase: 

" could entertain 

" With half their forces the fullp-wfe of France" 


3 Alenson,] Alenqon Sir T. Hanmer has replaced here, 

instead of Reign ier, because Alen9on, not Reignier, appears in 
the ensuing scene. JOHNSON. 

ac. ii. KING HENRY VI. 99 

'Twas full of darnel; 4 Do you like the taste? 

BUR. Scoff on, vile fiend, and shameless cour- 
tezan ! 

I trust, ere long, to choke thee with thine own, 
And make thee curse the harvest of that corn. 

CHAR. Your grace may starve, perhaps, before 
that time. 

BED. O, let no words, but deeds, revenge this 
treason ! 

Puc. What will you do, good grey -beard? break 

a lance, 
And run a tilt at death within a chair? 

TAL. Foul fiend of France, and hag of all de- 

Encompass'd with thy lustful paramours! 
Becomes it thee to taunt his valiant age, 
And twit with cowardice a man half dead? 
Damsel, I'll have a bout with you again, 
Or else let Talbot perish with this shame. 

Puc. Are you so hot, sir ? Yet, Pucelle, hold 

thy peace ; 
If Talbot do but thunder, rain will follow. 

[TALBOT, and the rest, consult together. 
Godspeed the parliament! who shall be the speaker? 

4 darnel ;] So, in King Lear: 

" Darnel, and all the idle weeds that grow 
" In our sustaining corn." 

" Darnel (says Gerard) hurteth the eyes, andmaketh them dim, 
if it happen either in come for breade, or drinke." Hence the 
old proverb Lolio victitare, applied to such as were dim-sighted. 
Thus also, Ovid, Fast. I. 691 : 

" Et careant loliis oculos vitiantibus agri." 
Pucelle means to intimate, that the corn she carried with her, 
had produced the same effect on the guards of Rouen; otherwise 
they would have seen through her disguise, and defeated her 
stratagem. STEEVENP. 

H 2 


TAL. Dare ye come forth, and meet us in the 

Puc. Belike, your lordship takes us then for fools, 
To try if that our own be ours, or no. 

TAL. I speak not to that railing Hecate, 
But unto thee, Alenon, and the rest ; 
Will ye, like soldiers, come and fight it out ? 

ALEN. Signior, no. 

TAL. Signior, hang ! base muleteers of France ! 
Like peasant foot-boys do they keep the walls, 
And dare not take up arms like gentlemen. 

Puc. .Captains, away: let's get us from the 

walls ; 

For Talbot means no goodness, by his looks. 
God be wi* you, my lord! we came, sir, but to tell 

you 5 
That we are here. 

\Exeunt LA PUCELLE, fyc.from the Walls. 

TAL. And there will we be too, ere it be long, 
Or else reproach be Talbot's greatest fame! 
Vow, Burgundy, by honour of thy house, 
(Prick'd on by publick wrongs, sustained in France,) 
Either to get the town again, or die: 
And I, as sure as English Henry lives, 
And as his father here was conqueror; 
As sure as in this late-betrayed town 
Great Coeur-de-lion's heart was buried; 
So sure I swear, to get the town, or die. 

BUR. My vows are equal partners with thy vows. 
TAL. But, ere we go, regard this dying prince, 

* toe came, sir, but to tell you ] The word sir, which 

is wanting in the first folio, was judiciously supplied by the 
second. STEEVENS. 

sc. u. KING HENRY VI. 101 

The valiant duke of Bedford : Come, my lord, 
We will bestow you in some better place, 
Fitter for sickness, and for crazy age. 

BED. Lord Talbot, do not so dishonour me: 
Here will I sit before the walls of Rouen, 
And will be partner of your weal, or woe. 

BUR. Courageous Bedford, let us now persuade 

BED. Not to be gone from hence; for once I 


That stout Pendragon, in his litter, 6 sick, 
Came to the field, and vanquished his foes : 
Methinks, I should revive the soldiers' hearts, 
Because I ever found them as myself. 

TAL. Undaunted spirit in a dying breast! 
Then be it so: Heavens keep old Bedford safe! 
And now no more ado, brave Burgundy, 

* once I read, 

That stout Pendragon, in his litter, &c.] This hero was 
Uther Pendragon, brother to Aurelius, and father to King Ar- 

Shakspeare has imputed to Pendragon an exploit of Aurelius, 
who, says Holinshed, " even sicke of a flixe as he was, caused 
himselfe to be carried forth in a litter: with whose presence his 
people were so incouraged, that encountering with the Saxons 
they wan the victorie." Hist, of Scotland, p. 99. 

Harding, however, in his Chronicle (as I learn from Dr. Grey) 
gives the following account of Uther Pendragon: 

For which the king ordain'd a horse-litter 

To bear him so then unto Verolame, 

Where Ocea lay, and Oysa also in fear, 

That saint Albones now hight of noble fame, 

Bet down the walles ; but to him forth they came, 

Where in battayle Ocea and Oysa were slayn. 

The fielde he had, and thereof was full fayne." 



But gather we our forces out of hand, 
And set upon our boasting enemy. 

\_Exeunt BURGUNDY, TALBOT, and Forces, 
leaving BEDFORD, and Others. 

Alarum: Excursions. Enter Sir JOHN FASTOLFE, 
and a Captain. 

CAP. Whither away, sir John Fastolfe, in such 
haste ? 

FAST. Whither away? to save myself by flight ; 7 
We are like to have the overthrow again. 

CAP. What! will you fly, and leave lord Talbot ? 

FAST. Ay, 

All the Talbots in the world, to save my life. 


CAP. Cowardly knight! ill fortune follow thee! 


7 > save myself ly fight ;] I have no doubt that it was 

the exaggerated representation of Sir John Fastolfe's cowardice 
which the author of this play has given, that induced Shakspeare 
to give the name of Falstaff to his knight. Sir John Fastolfe did 
indeed fly at the battle of Patay in the year 1429; and is re- 
proached by Talbot in a subsequent scene, for his conduct on that 
occasion; but no historian has said that he fled before Rouen. 
The change of the name had been already made, for throughout 
the old copy of this play, this flying general is erroneously called 
Falstajffe. MALONE. 

so. ii. KING HENRY VI. 103 

Retreat: Excursions. Enter ', from the Town, LA 
PUCELLE, ALENCON, CHARLES, fyc. and Exeunt, 

BED. Now, quiet soul, depart when heaven please; 
For I have seen 8 our enemies' overthrow. 
What is the trust or strength of foolish man ? 
They, that of late were daring with their scoffs, 
Are glad and fain by flight to save themselves. 

f* and is carried off in his Chair. 

Alarum: Enter TALBOT, BURGUNDY, and Others. 

TAL. Lost, and recover'd in a day again! 
This is a double honour, Burgundy: 
Yet, heavens have glory for this victory! 

BUR. Warlike and martial Talbot, Burgundy 
Enshrines thee in his heart; and there erects 
Thy noble deeds, as valour's monument. 

TAL. Thanks, gentle duke. But where is Pu r 

celle now ? 

I think, her old familiar is asleep: 
Now where's the Bastard's braves, and Charles his 

gleeks ? 
What, all a-mort? 1 Roiien hangs her head for 


* Now, quiet soul, depart "when heaven please. ; 

For I have seen ] So, in St. Luke, ii. 29: "Lord, now 
lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen 
thy salvation." STEEVENS. 

9 Dies, &c.] The Duke of Bedford died at Rouen in Septem- 
ber, 1435, but not in any action before that town. MALONE. 

1 What, all a-mort?] i. e. quite dispirited; a frequent Galli- 
cism. So, in The Taming of the Shrew: 

" What sweeting! all a-mort?" STEEVENS. 


That such a valiant company are fled. 
Now will we take some order 2 in the town, 
Placing therein some expert officers; 
And then depart to Paris, to the king ; 
For there young Harry, with his nobles, lies. 

BUR. What wills lord Talbot, pleaseth Bur- 

TAL. But yet, before we go, let's not forget 
The noble duke of Bedford, late deceas'd, 
But see his exequies fulfill' d in Rouen; 
A braver soldier never couched lance, 3 
A gentler heart did never sway in court: 
But kings and mightiest potentates, must die; 
For that's the end of human misery. [Exeunt. 

* take some order ] i. e. make some necessary disposi- 
tions. So, in The Comedy of Errors: 

" Whilst to take order for the wrong I went." 
See also Othello, sc. ult. STEEVENS. 

3 A braver soldier never couched lance,"] So, in a subsequent 
scene, p. Ill: 

" A stouter champion never handled sword." 
The same praise is expressed with more animation in the Third 
Part of this play: 

" braver men 

" Ne'er spur'd their coursers at the trumpet's sound." 


K. ui. KING HENRY VI. 105 


The same. The Plains near the City. 

Enter CHARLES, the Bastard, ALENCON, LA Pu- 
CELLE, and Forces. 

Puc. Dismay not, princes, at this accident, 
Nor grieve that Rouen is so recovered : 
Care is no cure, but rather corrosive, 
For things that are not to be remedied. 
Let frantick Talbot triumph for a while, 
And like a peacock sweep along his tail ; 
We'll pull his plumes, and take away his train, 
If Dauphin, and the rest, will be but rul'd. 

CHAR. We have been guided by thee hitherto, 
And of thy cunning had no diffidence ; 
One sudden foil shall never breed distrust. 

BAST. Search out thy wit for secret policies, 
And we will make thee famous through the world. 

ALEN. We'll set thy statue in some holy place, 
And have thee reverenc'd like a blessed saint ; 
Employ thee then, sweet virgin, for our good. 

Puc. Then thus it must be ; this doth Joan de- 
vise : 

By fair persuasions, mix'd with sugar'd words, 
We will entice the duke of Burgundy 
To leave the Talbot, and to follow us. 

CHAR. Ay, marry, sweeting, if we could do that, 
France were no place for Henry's warriors ; 
Nor should that nation boast it so with us, 


But be extirped from our provinces. 4 

ALEN. For ever should they be expuls'd from 

France, 5 
And not have title to an earldom here. 

Puc. Your honours shall perceive how I will 

To bring this matter to the wished end. 

[Drums heard, 

Hark ! by the sound of drum, you may perceive 
Their powers are marching unto Paris-ward. 

An English March. Enter, and pass over at a dis- 
tance, TALBOT and his Forces. 

There goes the Talbot, with his colours spread ; 
And all the troops of English after him. 

A French March. Enter the Duke of BURGUNDY 
and Forces. 

Now, in the rearward, comes the duke, and his ; 
Fortune, in favour, makes him lag behind. 
Summon a parley, we will talk with him. 

[A Parley sounded. 

CHAR. A parley with the duke of Burgundy. 

4 But be extirped from our provinces."] To extirp is to root 
out. So, in Lord Sterline's Darius, 1603: 

' The world shall gather to extirp our name. " 


4 expuls'd from France,'] i. e. expelled. So, in Ben 

Jonson's Sejanus : 

" The expulsed Apicata finds them there.'* 
Again, in Drayton's Muses Elizium : 

" And if you expulse them there, 

" They'll hang upon your braided hair." STEEVENS. 

ac. m. KING HENRY VI. 107 

BUR. Who craves a parley with the Burgundy ? 

Puc. The princely Charles of France, thy coun- 

BUR. What say'st thou, Charles? for I am march- 
ing hence. 

CHAR. Speak, Pucelle ; and enchant him with thy 

Puc. Brave Burgundy, undoubtedhope of France! 
Stay, let thy humble handmaid speak to thee. 

BUR. Speak on ; but be not over- tedious. 

Puc. Look on thy country, look on fertile 

And see the cities and the towns defac'd 

By wasting ruin of the cruel foe ! 

As looks the mother on her lowly babe, 6 

When death doth close his tender dying eyes, 

See, see, the pining malady of France ; 

Behold the wounds, the most unnatural wounds, 

Which thou thyself hast given her woful breast ! 

O, turn thy edged sword another way ; 

Strike those that hurt, and hurt not those that help ! 

One drop of blood, drawn from thy country's bo- 

Should grieve thee more than streams of foreign 
gore ; 

Return thee, therefore, with a flood of tears, 

And wash away thy country's stained spots ! 

6 As looks the mother on her lowly labe,~\ It is plain Shak- 
speare wrote lovely babe, it answering to fertile France above, 
which this domestic image is brought to illustrate. WARBURTON. 

The alteration is easy and probable, but perhaps the poet by 
lowly babe meant the babe lying low in death. Lowly answers 
as well to towns defaced and wasting ruin, as lovely to fertile. 



BUR. Either she hath bewitch'd me with her 

Or nature makes me suddenly relent. 

Puc. Besides, all French and France exclaims 

on thee, 

Doubting thy birth and lawful progeny. 
Who join'st thou with, but with a lordly nation, 
That will not trust thee, but for profit's sake ? 
When Talbot hath set footing once in France, 
And fashion'd thee that instrument of ill, 
Who then, but English Henry, will be lord, 
And thou be thrust out, like a fugitive ? 
Call we to mind, and mark but this, for proof j 
Was not the duke of Orleans thy foe ? 
And was he not in England prisoner ? 
But, when they heard he w r as thine enemy, 
They set him free, 7 without his ransome paid, 
In spite of Burgundy, and all his friends. 
See then ! thou fight' st against thy countrymen, 
And join'st with them will be thy slaughter-men. 
Come, come, return ; return, thou wand' ring lord ; 
Charles, and the rest, will take thee in their arms. 

BUR. I am vanquished; these haughty words of 

Have batter' d me like roaring cannon-shot, 8 

7 They set him free, &c.] A mistake : The Duke was not 
liberated till after Burgundy's decline to the French interest ; 
which did not happen, by the way, till some years after the exe- 
cution of this very Joan la Pucelle ; nor was that during the re- 
gency of York, but of Bedford. RITSON. 

8 these haughty words of hers 

Have batter' d me like roaring cannon-shot,^ How these 
lines came hither I know not ; there was nothing in the speech 
of Joan haughty or violent, it was all soft entreaty and mild ex- 
postulation. JOHNSON. 

Haughty does not mean violent in this place, but elevated t 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 1O9 

And made me almost yield upon my knees. 
Forgive me, country, and sweet countrymen ! 
And, lords, accept this hearty kind embrace : 
My forces and my power of men are yours ; 
So, farewell, Talbot ; I'll no longer trust thee. 

Puc. Done like a Frenchman ; turn, and turn 
again ! 9 

high-spirited. It is used in a similar sense, in two other passages 

in this very play. In a preceding scene Mortimer says : 
" But mark ; as in this haughty, great attempt, 
" They laboured to plant the rightful heir ." 

And again, in the next scene, Talbot says : 

" Knights of the Garter were of noble birth, 

" Valiant, and virtuous ; full of haughty courage." 

At the first interview with Joan, the Dauphin says : 

" Thou hast astonish'd me with thy high terms ;" 

meaning, by her high terms, what Burgundy here calls her 

haughty "words. M. MASON. 

That haughty signifies elevated or exalted, may be ascertained 
by the following passage in a very scarce book entitled, A Courtlie 
Controversie of Cupid's Cautels, &c. Translated out of French, 
by H. W. [Henry Wotton] Gentleman, 4to. 1578, p. 235 : 

" Among which troupe of base degree, God forbid I should 
place you deare lady Parthenia, for both the haughtie bloud 
whereof you are extraught, and also the graces wherewith the 
heauens with contention have enobled you, worthily deserueth 
your person should be preferred of all men, among the most ex- 
cellent Princesses." STEEVENS. 

9 Done like a Frenchman ; turn, and turn again !~\ The in- 
constancy of the French was always the subject of satire. I have 
read a dissertation written to prove that the index of the wind 
upon our steeples was made in form of a cock, to ridicule the 
French for their frequent changes. JOHNSON. 

So afterwards : 

" In France, amongst ajickle wavering nation." 


In Othello we have the same phrase : 

" Sir, she can turn, and turn, and yet go on, 
" And turn again." STEEVENS. 


CHAR. Welcome, brave duke! thy friendship 
makes us fresh. 

BAST. And doth beget new courage in our 

ALEN. Pucelle hath bravely plaied her part in 

And doth deserve a coronet of gold. 

CHAR. Now let us on, my lords, and join our 

powers ; 
And seek how we may prejudice the foe. 



Paris. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter King HENRY, GLOSTER, and other Lords, 
VERNON, BASSET, 8$c. To them TALBOT, and 
some of his Officers. 

TAL. My gracious prince, and honourable 


Hearing of your arrival in this realm, 
I have a while given truce unto my wars, 
To do my duty to my sovereign : 
In sign whereof, this arm that hath reclaimed 
To your obedience fifty fortresses, 
Twelve cities, and seven walled towns of strength, 
Beside five hundred prisoners of esteem, 
Lets fall his sword before your highness' feet ; 
And, with submissive loyalty of heart, 
Ascribes the glory of his conquest got, 
First to my God, and next unto your grace. KING HENRY VI. in 

K. HEN. Is this the lord Talbot, uncle Gloster, 1 
That hath so long been resident in France ? 

GLO. Yes, if it please your majesty, my liege. 

K. HEN. Welcome, brave captain, and victori- 
ous lord ! 

When I was young, (as yet I am not old,) 
I do remember how my father said, 2 
A stouter champion never handled sword. 
Long since we were resolved of your truth, 3 
Your faithful service, and your toil in war ; 
Yet never have you tasted our reward, 
Or been reguerdon'd 4 with so much as thanks, 
Because till now we never saw your face : 
Therefore, stand up ; and, for these good deserts, 
We here create you earl of Shrewsbury ; 
And in our coronation take your place. 

and Nobles. 

VER. Now, sir, to you, that were so hot at sea, 
Disgracing of these colours that I wear 5 

1 Is this the lord Talbot, uncle Gloster, ~\ Sir Thomas Harimer 
supplies the apparent deficiency, by reading 

Is this the fam'd lord Talbot, &c. 
So, in Troilus and Cressida : 

" My well fam'd lord of Troy ." STEEVENS. 

2 / do remember hotv my father said,~\ The author of this play 
was not a very correct historian. Henry was but nine months 
old when his father died, and never saw him. M ALONE. 

3 resolved of your truth,~\ i. e. confirmed in opinion of 

it. So, in the Third Part of this play : 

" I am resolv'd 

" That Clifford's manhood lies upon his tongue.'* 


4 Or been reguerdon'd ] i. e. rewarded. The word was ob- 
solete even in the time of Shakspeare. Chaucer uses it in the 
Boke qfBoethius. STEEVENS. 

* th'ese colours that I wear ] This was the badge of a 


In honour of my noble lord of York, 

Dar'st thou maintain the former words thou spak'st? 

BAS. Yes, sir ; as well as you dare patronage 
The envious barking of your saucy tongue 
Against my lord, the duke of Somerset. 

VER. Sirrah, thy lord I honour as he is. 

BAS. Why, what is he ? as good a man as York. 

VER. Hark ye ; not so : in witness, take ye that. 

[Strikes him. 

BAS. Villain, thou know'st, the law of arms is 

That, who so draws 'a sword, 'tis present death ; 6 

rose, and not an officer's scarf. So, in Love's Labour's Lost, 
Act III. scene the last : 

" And wear his colours like a tumbler's hoop." 


6 That, who so drains a sword, 'tis present death;"] Shakspeare 
wrote : 

draws a sword i'th' presence 't's death ; 

i. e. in the court, or in the presence chamber. WARBURTON. 

This reading cannot be right, because, as Mr. Edwards ob- 
served, it cannot be pronounced. It is, however, a good com- 
ment, as it shows the author's meaning. JOHNSON. 

I believe the line should be written as it is in the folio : 

That, who so draws a sword, 

i. e. (as Dr. Warburton has observed,) with a menace in the 
court or in the presence chamber. 

Johnson, in his collection of Ecclesiastical Laws, has preserved 
the following, which was made by Ina, king of the West Saxons, 
693 : " If any one fight in the king's house, let him forfeit all 
his estate, and let the king deem whether he shall live or not." 
I am told that there are many other ancient canons to the same 
purpose. Grey. STEEVENS. 

Sir William Blackstone observes that, " by the ancient law be- 
fore the Conquest, Jighting in the king's palace, or before the 
king's judges, was punished with death. So too, in the old 
Gothic constitution, there were many places privileged by law, 
quibus major reverentia et securitas debetur, ut templa et judicia, 


Or else this blow should broach thy dearest blood. 
But I'll unto his majesty, and crave 
I may have liberty to venge this wrong ; 
When thou shalt see, I'll meet thee to thy cost. 

VER. Well, miscreant, I'll be there as soon as 

And, after, meet you sooner than you would. 



The same. A Room of State. 

TALBOT, the Governour of Paris, and Others. 

GLO. Lord bishop, set the crown upon his head. 

WIN. God save king Henry, of that name the 
sixth ! 

GLO. Now, governour of Paris, take your oath, 

[Governour kneels. 

qua sancta habebantur, -arces et aula regis, denique locus 

quilibet presente out adventante rege. And at present with us, 
by the Stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. xii. malicious striking in the king's 
palace, wherein his royal person resides, whereby blood is drawn, 
is punishable by perpetual imprisonment and fine, at the king's 
pleasure, and also with loss of the offender's right hand, the so- 
lemn execution of which sentence is prescribed in the statute at 
length." Commentaries, Vol. IV. p. 124?. " By the ancient 
common law, also before the Conquest, striking in the king's 
court of justice, or drawing a sword therein, was a capital 
felony." Ibid. p. 125. REED. 



That you elect no other king but him : 

Esteem none friends, but such as are his friends ; 

And none your foes, but such as shall pretend 7 

Malicious practices against his state : 

This shall ye do, so help you righteous God ! 

[Exeunt Gov. and his Train. 


FAST. My gracious sovereign, as I rode from 


To haste unto your coronation, 
A letter was deliver'd to my hands, 
Writ to your grace from the duke of Burgundy. 

TAL. Shame to the duke of Burgundy, and 


I vow'd, base knight, when I did meet thee next, 
To tear the garter from thy craven's leg, 8 

[Plucking It off. 

(Which I have done) because unworthily 
Thou wast installed in that high degree. 
Pardon me, princely Henry, and the rest : 
This dastard, at the battle of Patay, 9 

7 such as shall pretend ] To pretend is to design, to 

intend. JOHNSON. 

So, in Macbeth: 

" What good could they pretend ?" STEEVEVS. 
8 To tear the garter from thy craven's leg,"] Thus the old copy. 

The last line should run thus : 

from thy craven leg, 

i. e. thy mean, dastardly leg. WHALLEY. 

a . at the battle of Patay,] The old copy has Pgictiers. 


The battle of Poictiers was fought in the year 1357, the 31st 
of King Edward III. and the scene now lies in the 7th year of 

sc.i. KING HENRY VI. 115 

When but in all I was six thousand strong, 
And that the French were almost ten to one, 
Before we met, or that a stroke was given, 
Like to a trusty squire, did run away ; 
In which assault we lost twelve hundred men ; 
Myself, and divers gentlemen beside, 
Were there surpriz'd, and taken prisoners. 
Then judge, great lords, if I have done amiss;, 
Or whether that such cowards ought to wear 
This ornament of knighthood, yea, or no. 

GLO. To say the truth, this fact was infamous, 
And ill beseeming any common man ; 
Much more a knight, a captain, and a leader. 

TAL. When first this order was ordain' d, my 


Knights of the garter were of noble birth ; 
Valiant, and virtuous, full of haughty courages, l 
Such as were grown to credit by the wars ; 
Not fearing death, nor shrinking for distress, 

the reign of King Henry VI. viz. 1428. This blunder ft>ay be 
justly imputed to the players or transcribers ; nor can we very 
well justify ourselves for permitting it to continue so long, as it 
was too glaring to have escaped an attentive reader. The action 
of which Shakspeare is now speaking, happened (according to 
Holinshed) " neere unto a village in Beausse called Pataie" 
which we should read, instead of Poictiers. *' From this battell 
departed without anie stroke striken, Sir John Fastolfe, the same 
yeere by his valiantnesse elected into the order of the garter. 
But for doubt of misdealing at this brunt, the duke of Bedford 
tooke from him the image of St. George and his garter," &C. 
Holinshed, Vol. II. p. 601. Monstrelet, the French historian, 
also bears witness to this degradation of Sir John Fastolfe. 


1 haughty courage,] Haughty is here in its original sense 

for high. JOHNSON. 

1 2 


But always resolute in most extremes. 2 
He then, that is not furnish' d in this sort, 
Doth but usurp the sacred name of knight, 
Profaning this most honourable order ; 
And should (if I were worthy to be judge,) 
Be quite degraded, like a hedge-born swain 
That doth presume to boast of gentle blood. 

K.HEN. Stain to thy countrymen ! thouhear'st 

thy doom : 

Be packing therefore, thou that wast a knight ; 
Henceforth we banish thee, on pain of death. 


And now, my lord protector, view the letter 
Sent from our uncle duke of Burgundy. 

GLO. What means his grace, that he hath chang'd 
his style ? [ Viewing the superscription. 
No more but, plain and bluntly, To the king? 
Hath he forgot, h.e is his sovereign ? 
Or doth this churlish superscription 
Pretend some alteration in good will? 3 
What's here ? I have, upon especial cause, 


Mov'd with compassion of my country's wreck, 
Together with the pitiful complaints 
Of such as your oppression feeds upon, 
Forsaken your pernicious faction, 
And joined with Charles, the rightful king of 

4 in most extremes^ i. e. in greatest extremities. So, 
Spenser : 

" they all repair'd, both most and least.'* 

See Vol. X. p. 274-, n. 8. STEEVENS. 

* Pretend some alteration in good 'will?'] Thus the old copy. 
To pretend seems to be here used in its Latin sense, i. e. to hold 
out, to stretchforward. It may mean, however, as in other places, 
to design. Modern editors read portend. STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 117 

monstrous treachery ! Can this be so ; 
That in alliance, amity, and oaths, 

There should be found such false dissembling guile? 

K. HEN. What ! doth my uncle Burgundy re- 

GLO. He doth, my lord ; and is become your 

K. HEN. Is that the worst, this letter doth con- 

GLO. It is the worst, and all, my lord, he writes. 

K. HEN. Why then, lord Talbot there shall talk 

with him, 

And give him chastisement for this abuse : 
My lord, how say you ? 4 are you not content ? 

TAL. Content, my liege ? Yes ; but that I am 
prevented, 5 

1 should have begg'd I might have been employed. 

K. HEN. Then gather strength, and march unto 

him straight : 

Let him perceive, how ill we brook his treason ; 
And what offence it is, to flout his friends. 

TAL. I go, my lord ; in heart desiring still, 
You may behold confusion of your foes. \JLocit. 

4 My lord, hoiv say you ?"] Old copy 

How say you, my lord? 
The transposition is Sir T. Hanmer's. STEEVENS. 

4 / am prevented,] Prevented is here, anticipated; a 

Latinism. MALONE. 

So, in our Liturgy : " Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings." 
Prior is, perhaps, the last English poet who used this verb' in 
its obsolete sense : 

" Else had I come, preventing Sheba's queen, 
tl To see the comeliest of the sons of men." 

Solomon, Book II. STEEVENS. 



. Grant me the combat, gracious sovereign ! 

BAS. And me, my lord, grant me the combat 

YORK. This is my servant; Hear him, noble 
prince ! 

SOM. And this is mine ; Sweet Henry, favour 
him ! 

K. HEN. Be patient, lords ; and give them leave 

to speak. 

Say, gentlemen, What makes you thus exclaim ? 
And wherefore crave you combat ? or with whom ? 

VER. With him, my lord ; for he hath done me 

BAS. And I with him ; for he hath done me 

K. HEN. What is that wrong whereof you both 

complain ? 
First let me know, and then I'll answer you. 

BAS. Crossing the sea from England into Prance, 
This fellow here, with envious carping tongue, 
Upbraided me about the rose I wear; 
Saying the sanguine colour of the leaves 
Did represent my master's blushing cheeks, 
When stubbornly he did repugn the truth, 6 
About a certain question in the law, 
Argu'd betwixt the duke of York and him ; 

* did repugn tke truth,] To repugn is to resist. The 

word is used by Chaucer. STEEVENS. 

It is found in Bullokar's English Expositor, 8vo. 1616. 


'ac. i. KING HENRY VI. 119 

With other vile and ignominious terms : 
In confutation of which rude reproach, 
And in defence of my lord's worthiness, 
I crave the benefit or law of arms. 

VER. And that is my petition, noble lord : 
For though he seem, with forged quaint conceit, 
To set a gloss upon his bold intent, 
Yet know, my lord, I was provok'd by him ; 
And he first took exceptions at this badge, 
Pronouncing that the paleness of this flower 
Bewray'd the faintness of my master's heart. 

YORK. Will not this malice, Somerset, be left ? 

SOM. Your private grudge, my lord of York, 

will out, 
Though ne'er so cunningly you smother it. 

K. HEN. Good Lord ! what madness rules in 

brain-sick men ; 

When, for so slight and frivolous a cause, 
Such factious emulations shall arise ! 
Good cousins both, of York and Somerset, 
Quiet yourselves, I pray, and be at peace. 

YORK. Let this dissention first be tried by fight, 
And then your highness shall command a peace. 

SOM. The quarrel toucheth none but us alone j 
Betwixt ourselves let us decide it then. 

YORK. There is my pledge ; accept it, Somerset. 
VER. Nay, let it rest where it began at first. 
BAS. Confirm it so, mine honourable lord. 

GLO. Confirm it so ? Confounded be your strife ! 
And perish ye, with your audacious prate ! 
Presumptuous vassals ! are you not asham'd, 
With this immodest clamorous outrage 
To trouble and disturb the king and us ? 

120 , FIRST PART OF ACT iv. 

And you, my lords, methinks, you do not well, 
To bear with their perverse objections ; 
Much less, to take occasion from their mouths 
To raise a mutiny betwixt yourselves ; 
Let me persuade you take a better course. 

EXE. It grieves his highness j Good my lords, 
be friends. 

K. HEN. Come hither, you that would be com- 
batants : 

Henceforth, I charge you, as you love our favour, 
Quite to forget this quarrel, and the cause. 
And you, my lords,- remember where we are ; 
In France, amongst a fickle wavering nation : 
If they perceive dissention in our looks, 
And that within ourselves we disagree, 
How will their grudging stomachs be provok'd 
To wilful disobedience, and rebel ? 
Beside, What infamy will there arise, 
When foreign princes shall be certified, 
That, for a toy, a thing of no regard, 
King Henry's peers, and chief nobility, 
Destroy'd themselves, and lost the realm of France ? 
O, think upon the conquest of my father, 
My tender years ; and let us not forego 
That for a trifle, that was bought with blood ! 
Let me be umpire in this doubtful strife. 
I see no reason, if I wear this rose, 

\_Putting on a red Rose. 
That any one should therefore be suspicious 
I more incline to Somerset, than York : 
Both are my kinsmen, and I love them both : 
As well they may upbraid me with my crown, 
Because, forsooth, the king of Scots is crown'd, 
But your discretions better can persuade, 
Than I am able to instruct or teach : 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 121 

And therefore, as we hither came in peace, 
So let us still continue peace and love. 
Cousin of York, we institute your grace 
To be our regent in these parts of France : 
And good my lord of Somerset, unite 
Your troops of horsemen with his bands of foot ; 
And, like true subjects, sons of your progenitors, 
Go cheerfully together, and digest 
Your angry choler on your enemies. 
Ourself, my lord protector, and the rest, 
After some respite, will return to Calais ; 
From thence to England ; where I hope ere long 
To be presented, by your victories, 
With Charles, Alen9on, and that traitorous rout. 
[Flourish. Exeunt King HENRY, GLO. SOM. 

WAR. My lord of York, I promise you, the king 
Prettily, methought, did play the orator. 

YORK. And so he did ; but yet I like it not, 
In that he wears the badge of Somerset. 

WAR. Tush! that was but hisfancy, blame himnot; 
I dare presume, sweet prince, he thought no harm. 

YORK. And, if I wist, he did, 7 But let it rest ; 
Other affairs must now be managed. 

\_Exeunt YORK, WARWICK, and VERNON. 

7 And, if I wist, hedid,~\ In former editions : 

And, if I wish, he did . 

By the pointing reformed, and a single letter expunged, I have 
restored the text to its purity : 

And, if I wis, he did. 

Warwick had said, the King meant no harm in wearing Somer- 
set's rose : York testily replies, " Nay, if I know any thing, he 
did think harm." THEOBALD. 

This is followed by the succeeding editors, and is indeed plau- 
sible enough ; but perhaps this speech may become sufficiently 
intelligible without any change, only supposing it broken ; 

122 FIRST PART OF AC* iv. 

EXE. Well didst thou, Richard, to suppress thy 

voice : 

For, had the passions of thy heart burst out, 
I fear, we should have seen decipher'd there 
More rancorous spite, more furious raging broils, 
Than yet can be imagined or supposed. 
But howsoe'er, no simple man that sees 
This jarring discord of nobility, 
This shouldering of each other in the court, 
This factious bandying of their favourites, 
But that it doth presage some ill event. 8 
'Tis much, 9 when scepters are in children's hands; 

And if- / wish he did . 

or, perhaps : 

And if he did / wish . JOHNSON. 

I read I wist, the pret. of the old obsolete verb I wis, which 
is used by Shakspeare in The Merchant of Venice : 
" There be fools alive, I wis, 
* ( Silver'd o'er, and so was this." STEEVENS. 

York says, he is not pleased that the King should prefer the 
red rose, the badge of Somerset, his enemy ; Warwick desires 
him not to be offended at it, as he dares say the King meant no 
harm. To which York, yet unsatisfied, hastily adds, in a menac- 
ing tone, If I thought he did ; but he instantly checks his 
threat with, let it rest. It is an example of a rhetorical figure, 
which our author has elsewhere used. Thus, in Coriolanus : 

" An 'twere to give again But 'tis no matter." 
Mr. Steevens is too familiar with Virgil, not to recollect his 

Quos ego sed motos prcestat componere fluctus. 
The author of the Revisal understood this passage in the same 
manner. RITSON. 

8 it doth presage some ill event."] That is, it doth presage 

to him that sees this discord, &c. that some ill event will happen. 


9 'Tis much,] In our author's time this phrase meant 'Tis 
strange, or wonderful. See, As you like it, Vol. VIII. p. 150, 
n. 8. This meaning being included in the word much, the word 
strange is perhaps understood in the next line : " But more 
strange," &c. The construction, however, may be, But 'tis 
much more, when, &c. MALONE. 

sc. n. KING HENRY VI. 123 

But more, when envy breeds unkind division ; l 
There comes the ruin, there begins confusion. 



France. Before Bourdeaux. 
Enter TALBOT, with his Forces. 

TAL. Go to the gates of Bourdeaux, trumpeter, 
Summon their general unto the wall. 

Trumpet sounds a Parley. Enter, on the Walls, the 
General of the French Forces, and Others. 

English John Talbot, captains, calls you forth, 
Servant in arms to Harry king of England ; 
And thus he would, Open your city gates, 
Be humble to us ; call my sovereign yours, 
And do him homage as obedient subjects, 
And I'll withdraw me and my bloody power : 
But, if you frown upon this proffer' d peace, 
You tempt the fury of my three attendants, 
Lean famine, quartering steel, and climbing fire ; * 

'Tis much, is a colloquial phrase, and the meaning of it, in 
many instances, can be gathered only from the tenor of the 
speech in which it occurs. On the present occasion, I believe, 
it signifies ' Tis an alarming circumstance, a thing of great con- 
sequence, or of much weight. STEEVENS. 

1 tvhen envy breeds unkind division ;] Envy in old Eng- 
lish writers frequently means enmity. Unkind is unnatural. See 
Vol. VII. p. 403, 1. 30 ; and Vol. VIII. p. 77, n. 8. MALONE. 

* Lean famine, quartering steel, and climbing ji re;] The au- 
thor of this play followed Hall's Chronicle : " The Goddesse of 


Who, in a moment, even with the earth 
Shall lay your stately and air-braving towers, 
If you forsake the offer of their love. 3 

GEN. Thou ominous and fearful owl of death, 
Our nation's terror, and their bloody scourge ! 
The period of thy tyranny approacheth. 
On us thou canst not enter, but by death : 
For, I protest, we are well fortified, 
And strong enough to issue out and fight : 
If thou retire, the Dauphin, well appointed, 
Stands with the snares of war to tangle thee : 
On either hand thee there are squadrons pitch' d, 
To wall thee from the liberty of flight ; 
And no way canst thou turn thee for redress, 
But death doth front thee with apparent spoil, 
And pale destruction meets thee in the face. 
Ten thousand French have ta'en the sacrament, 

warre, called Bellona hath these three hand maides ever of ne- 
cessitie attendyng on her ; Bloud, Fire, and Famine ; whiche 
thre damosels be of that force and strength that every one of 
them alone is able and sufficient to torment and afflict a proud 
prince ; and they all joyned together are of puissance to destroy 
the most populous countrey and most richest region of the 
world." MALONE. 

It may as probably be asserted that our author followed Ho- 
linshed, from whom I have already quoted a part of this passage 
in a note on the first Chorus to King Henry V. See Holinshed, 
p. 567- STEEVENS. 

3 the offer of their love."] Thus the old editions. Sir T. 

Hanmer altered it to our. JOHNSON. 

" Their love" may mean, the peaceable demeanour of my 
three attendants ; their forbearing to injure you. But the ex- 
pression is harsh. MALONE. 

There is much such another line in King Henry VIII ; 

" If you omit the offer of the time." 
I believe the reading of Sir T. Hanmer should be adopted. 


x. n. KING HENRY VI. 125 

To rive their dangerous artillery 4 

Upon no Christian soul but English Talbot. 

Lo ! there thou stand* st, a breathing valiant man, 

Of an invincible unconquer'd spirit : 

This is the latest glory of thy praise, 

That I, thy enemy, due thee withal ; 5 

4 To rive their dangerous artillery ] I do not understand 
the phrase to rive artillery ; perhaps it might be to drive ; we say 
to drive a blow, and to drive at a man, when we mean to express 
furious assault. JOHNSON. 

To rive seems to be used, with some deviation from its com* 
mon meaning, in Antony and Cleopatra, Act IV. sc. ii : 
" The soul and body rive not more at parting." 


. Rive their artillery seems to mean, charge their artillery so. 
much as to endanger their bursting. So, in Troilus and Cressida, 
Ajax bids the trumpeter blow so loud, as to crack his lungs and 
split his brazen pipe. TOLLET. 

To rive their artillery means only to Jire their artillery. To 
rive is to burst ; and a cannon, when fired, has so much the ap- 
pearance of bursting, that, in the language of poetry, it may be 
well said to burst. We say, a cloud bursts, when it thunders. 


s due thee withal ,] To due is to endue, to deck, to 

grace. JOHNSON. 

Johnson says in his Dictionary, that to due is to pay as due ; 
and quotes this passage as an example. Possibly that may be the 
true meaning of it. M. MASON. 

It means, I think, to honour by giving thee thy due, thy me- 
rited eulogium. Due was substituted for dew, the reading of the 
old copy, by Mr. Theobald. Dew was sometimes the old spell- 
ing of due, as Hew was of Hugh. MALONE. 

The old copy reads dew thee withal ; and perhaps rightly. 
The dew of praise is an expression I have met with in other 

Shakspeare uses the same verb in Macbeth : 

" To dew the sovereign flow'r, and drown the weeds." 
Again, in The Second Part of King Henry VI: 

_ give me thy hand, 

" That I may dew it with my mournful tears." 



For ere the glass, that now begins to run, 
Finish the process of his sandy hour, 
These eyes, that see thee now well coloured, 
Shall see thee withered, bloody, pale, and dead. 

\JDrum afar off. 

Hark! hark ! the Dauphin's drum, a warning bell, 
Sings heavy musick to thy timorous soul j 
And mine shall ring thy dire departure out. 

[Exeunt General, fyc.from the Walls. 

TAL. He fables not, 6 I hear the enemy ; 
Out, somelight horsemen, and peruse theirwings. 
O, negligent and heedless discipline ! 
How are we park'd, and bounded in a pale ; 
A little herd of England's timorous deer, 
Maz'd with a yelping kennel of French curs ! 
If we be English deer, be then in blood : 7 
Not rascal-like, 8 to fall down with a pinch ; 
But rather moody-mad, and desperate stags, 
Turn on the bloody hounds with heads of steel, 9 

He fables not,"] This expression Milton has borrowed in his 
Masque at Ludlotxi Castle : 

" She fables not, I feel that I do fear ." 

It occurs again in The Pinner of Wakefield, 1599 : 
" good father ijable not with him." 

7 be then in blood :] Be in high spirits, be of true mettle. 


This was a phrase of the forest. See Love's Labour's Lost, 
Vol. VII. p. 88, n, 1 : 

" The deer was, as you know, in samguis, blood." 
Again, in Bullokar's English Expositor, 1616 : " Tenderlings. 
The soft tops of a deere's horns, when they are m blood." 


8 Not rascal-like, J A rascal deer is the term of chase for lean 
poor deer. JOHNSON. 

See Vol. XII. p. 79, n. 4-. STEEVENS. 

9 ivith heads of steel,'} Continuing the image of the 

deer, he supposes the lances to be their horns. JOHNSON. 

ac. m. KING HENRY VI. 127 

And make the cowards stand aloof at bay : 
Sell every man his life as dear as mine, 
And they shall find dear deer of us, l my friends. 
God, and Saint George ! Talbot, and England's 

right ! 
Prosper our colours in this dangerous fight ! 


Plains in Gascony. 

Enter YORK, with Forces; to him a Messenger. 

YORK. Are not the speedy scouts return'd again, 
That dogg'd the mighty army of the Dauphin ? 

MESS. They are return'd, my lord ; and give it 


That he is march'd to Bourdeaux with his power, 
To fight with Talbot : As he march'd along, 
By your espials were discovered 
Two mightier troops than that the Dauphin led ; 
Which join'd with him, and made their march for 


YORK. A. plague upon that villain Somerset ; 
That thus delays my promised supply 
Of horsemen, that were levied for this siege ! 
Renowned Talbot doth expect my aid ; 
And I am lowted 2 by a traitor villain, 

1 dear deer of us,'] The same quibble occurs in King 

Henry IV. P. I : 

" Death hath not struck so fat a deer to-day, 
" Though many dearer" &c. STEEVENS. 

* And I am lowted ] To lout may signify to depress, to 
lower, to dishonour ; but I do not remember it so used. W 


And cannot help the noble chevalier : 

God comfort him in this necessity ! 

If he miscarry, farewell wars in France. 

1 ,..,,:.'... ' .! ;. 

Enter Sir WILLIAM Lucy. 3 

, LUCY. Thou princely leader of our English 

may read And I amjlouted ; I am mocked, and treated with 
contempt. JOHNSON. 

To lout, in Chaucer, signifies to submit. To submit is to let 
doivn. So, Dryden : 

" Sometime the hill submits itself a while 
" In small descents," &c. 

To lout and underlout, in Gawin Douglas's version of the 
JEneid, signifies to be subdued, vanquished. STEEVENS. 

A lout is a country fellow, a clown. He means that Somer- 
set treats him like a hind. RITSON. 

I believe the meaning is : I am treated with contempt like a 
lowt, or low country fellow. M ALONE. 

Mr. Malone's explanation of the word lowted, is strongly 
countenanced by the following passage in an ancient libel upon 
priests, intitled, I playne Piers which cannot Jlatter, a Plowman 
Men me call, &c : 

" No christen booke 
" Maye thou on looke, 

" Yf thou be an Englishe strunt ; 
" Thus dothe alyens us loivtte 
" By that ye spreade aboute, 

" After that old sorte and wonte." 

Again, in the last poem in a collection called The Phoenix Nest, 
4'. 1593 : 

" So love was louted," 

i. e. baffled. Again, in Arthur Hall's translation of the first 
Book of Homer, 4". 1581 : 

" You wel shal know of al these folke I wil not be the 

Agamemnon is the speaker. STEEVENS. 

3 Enter Sir William Lucy.~\ In the old copy we have only 
Enter a Messenger. But it appears from the subsequent scene 
that the messenger was Sir William Lucy. MALONB. 

. sc. ///. KING HENRY VI. 129 

Never so needful on the earth of France, 
Spur to the rescue of the noble Talbot ; 
Wht> now is girdled with a waist of iron, 4 
And hemm'd about with grim destruction: 
To Bourdeaux, warlike duke! to Bourdeaux, York I 
Else, farewell Talbot, France, and England's ho- 

YORK. O God! that Somerset who in proud 


Doth stop my cornets were in Talbot' s place ! 
So should we save a valiant gentleman, 
By forfeiting a traitor and a coward. 
Mad ire, and wrathful fury, makes me weep, 
That thus we die, while remiss traitors sleep. 

LUCY. O, send some succour to the distress* dlord! 

YORK. He dies, we lose; I break my warlike 


We mourn, France smiles ; we lose, they daily getj 
All 'long of this vile traitor Somerset. 

LUCY. Then, God take mercy on brave Talbot's 

And on his son, young John; whom, two hours 


I met in travel toward his warlike father! 
This seven years did not Talbot see his son; 
And now they meet where both their lives are 

done. 5 

YORK. Alas! what joy shall noble Talbot have, 
To bid his young son welcome to his grave ? 

4 girdled ivith a waist of iron,'] So, in King John: 

" those sleeping stones, 

" That as a tvaist do girdle you about ." 


3 are done.] i. e. expended, consumed. The word is 

yet used in this sense in the Western counties. MAI/ONE. 


Away! vexation almost stops my breath, 

That sunder' d friends greet in the hour of death. 

Lucy, farewell: no more my fortune can, 

But curse the cause I cannot aid the man. 

Maine, Blois, Poictiers, and Tours, are won away, 

'Long all of Somerset, and his delay. [Exit. 

LUCY. Thus, while the vulture 6 of sedition 
Feeds in the bosom of such great commanders, 
Sleeping neglection doth betray to loss 
The conquest of our scarce-cold conqueror, 
That ever-living man of memory, 
Henry the fifth : Whiles they each other cross, 
Lives, honours, lands, and all, hurry to loss. 



Other Plains of Gascony. 

Enter SOMERSET, with his Forces; an Officer of 
TALBOT'S with him. 

SOM. It is too late ; I cannot send them now : 
This expedition was by York, and Talbot, 
Too rashly plotted; all our general force 
Might with a sally of the very town 
Be buckled with : the over-daring Talbot 
Hath sullied all his gloss of former honour, 7 
By this unheedful, desperate, wild adventure: 

6 the vulture ] Alluding to the tale of Prometheus. 


7 all his gloss of former honour,"] Our author very fre- 
quently employs this phrase. So, in Much Ado about Nothing : 
<f the new gloss of your marriage." It occurs also in Love's 
Labour's Lost t and in Macbeth, &c. STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. isi 

York set him on to fight, and die in shame, 
That, Talbot dead, great York mightbear the name. 

OFF. Here is sir William Lucy, who with me 
Set from our o'er-match'd forces forth for aid. 


SOM. How now, sir William ? whither were you 
sent ? 

LUCY. Whither, my lord ? from bought and sold 

lord Talbot; 8 

Who, ring'd about 9 with bold adversity, 
Cries out for noble York and Somerset, 
To beat assailing death from his weak legions. 1 
And whiles the honourable captain there 
Drops bloody sweat from his war- wearied limbs, 
And, in advantage ling' ring, 2 looks for rescue, 
You, his false hopes, the trust of England's ho- 

* from bought and sold lord Talbot ;"] i. e. from one 

utterly ruined by the treacherous practices of others. So, in 

King Richard III: 

" Jocky of Norfolk, be not too bold, 

" For Dickon thy master is bought and sold" 

The expression appears to have been proverbial. See Vol. X. 

p. 514, n. 4. MALONE. 

9 ring'd about ] Environed, encircled. JOHNSOX. 

So, in A Midsummer-Night's Dream : 

" JLnrings the barky fingers of the elm." STEEVEKS. 

1 his tveak legions.] Old copy regions. Corrected by 

Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

* in advantage ling' 'ring, j Protracting his resistance by 

the advantage of a strong post. JOHNSON. 

Or, perhaps, endeavouring by every means that he can, with 
advantage to himself, to linger out the action, &c. MALONE. 



Keep off aloof with worthless emulation. 3 
Let not your private discord keep away 
The levied succours that should lend him aid, 
While he, renowned noble gentleman, 
Yields 4 up his life unto a world of odds : 
Orleans the Bastard, Charles, and Burgundy, 5 
Alencon, Reignier, compass him about, 
And Talbot perisheth by your default. 

SOM. York set him on, York should have sent 
him aid. 

LUCY. And York as fast upon your grace ex- 
claims ; 

Swearing that you withhold his levied host, 
Collected for this expedition. 

SOM. York lies ; he might have sent and had the 

horse : 

I owe him little duty, and less love; 
And take foul scorn, to fawn on him by sending. 

LUCY. The fraud of England, not the force of 


Hath now entrapp'd the noble-minded Talbot: 
Never to England shall he bear his life j 
But dies, betraied to fortune by your strife. 

3 worthless emulation.] In this line, emulation signifies 
merely rivalry, not struggle for superior excellence. JOHNSON, 

So Ulysses, in Troilus and Cressida, says that the Grecian 
chiefs were 

" grown to an envious fever 

" Of pale.and bloodless emulation. 1 ' M. MASON. 

* Yields"] Thus the second folio: the first yield. 


* and Burgundy,'] And, which is necessary to the me- 
tre, is wanting in the first folio, but is supplied by the second. 


sc. v. KING HENRY VI. 133 

SOM. Come, go ; I will despatch the horsemen 

straight : 
Within six hours they will be at his aid. 

LUCY. Too late comes rescue; he is ta'en, or 

slain : 

For fly he could not, if he would have fled ; 
And fly would Talbot never, though he might. 

SOM. If he be dead, brave Talbot then adieu ! 

LUCY. His fame lives in the world, his shame in 
you. [Exeunt. 


The English Camp near Bourdeaux. 

Enter TALBOT and JOHN his Son. 

TAL. O young John Talbot! I did send for thee, 
To tutor thee in stratagems of war ; 
That Talbot' s name might be in thee reviv'd, 
When sapless age, and weak unable limbs, 
Should bring thy father to his drooping chair. 
But, O malignant and ill-boding stars ! 
Now thou art come unto a feast of death, 6 
A terrible and unavoided 7 danger: 

6 a feast of death,] To a field where death will be feasted 

with slaughter. JOHNSON. 

So, in King Richard II: 

" This feast of battle, with mine adversary." 


7 unavoided ] for unavoidable. MALONE. 

So, in Kin<r Richard II: 

" And unavoided is the danger now." STEEVENS. 


Therefore, dear boy, mount on my swiftest horse; 
And I'll direct thee how thou shalt escape 
By sudden flight: come, dally not, begone. 

JOHN. Is my name Talbot? and am I your son? 
And shall I fly ? O, if you love my mother, 
Dishonour not her honourable name, 
To make a bastard, and a slave of me: 
The world will say He is not Talbot's blood, 
That basely fled, when noble Talbot stood. 8 

TAL. Fly, to revenge my death, if I be slain. 
JOHN. He, that flies so, will ne'er return again. 
TAL. If we both stay, we both are sure to die. 

JOHN. Then let me stay ; and, father, do you fly: 
Your loss is great, so your regard 9 should be; 
My worth unknown, no loss is known in me. 
Upon my death the French can little boast; 
In yours they will, in you all hopes are lost. 
Flight cannot stain the honour you have won; 
But mine it will, that no exploit have done : 
You fled for vantage every one will swear; 
But, if I bow, they'll say it was for fear. 
There is no hope that ever I will stay, 
If, the first hour, I shrink, and run away. 
Here, on my knee, I beg mortality, 
Rather than life preserv'd with infamy. 

* noble Talbot stood."] For what reason this scene is 

written in rhyme, I cannot guess. If Shakspeare had not in 
other plays mingled his rhymes and blank verses in the same 
manner, I should have suspected that this dialogue had been a 
part of some other poem which was never finished, and that be- 
ing loath to throw his labour away, he inserted it here. 


9 your regard ] Your care of your own safety. 


ac. v. KING HENRY VI. 135 

TAL. Shall all thy mother's hopes lie in one 
tomb ? 

JOHN. Ay,, rather than I'll shame my mother's 

TAL. Upon my blessing I command thee go. 
JOHN. To fight I will, but not to fly the foe. 
TAL. Part of thy father may be sav'd in thee. 
JOHN. No part of him, but will be shame in me. 

TAL. Thou never hadst renown, nor canst not 
lose it. 

JOHN. Yes, your renowned name; Shall flight 
abuse it ? 

TAL. Thy father's charge shall clear thee from 
that stain. 

JOHN. You cannot witness for me, being slain. 
If death be so apparent, then both fly. 

TAL. And leave my followers here, to fight, and 

My age was never tainted with such shame. 

JOHN. And shall my youth be guilty of such 

blame ? 

No more can I be sever'd from your side, 
Than can yourself yourself in twain divide: 
Stay, go, do what you will, the like do I ; 
For live I will not, if my father die. 

TAL. Then here I take my leave of thee, fair son, 
Born to eclipse 1 thy life this afternoon. 

fair son, 

Born to eclipse #c.] An apparent quibble between son and 
s?m. So, in King Richard III: 

" And turns the sun to shade; alas, alas! 
" Witness my son, now in the shade of death." 



Come, side by side together live and die ; 
And soul with soul from France to heaven fly. 



A Field of Battle. 

Alarum: Excursions, wherein TALBOT'S Son is 
hemmed about, and TALBOT rescues him. 

TAL. Saint George and victory ! fight, soldiers, 


The regent hath with Talbot broke his word, 
And left us to the rage of France his sword. 
Where is John Talbot? pause, and take thy 

breath ; 
I gave thee life, and rescu'd thee from death. 

JOHN. O twice my father! twice am I thy son; 8 
The life, thou gav'st me first, was lost and done j 3 

* O twee my father! tinice am I thy son:"} A French epi- 
gram, on a child, who being shipwrecked with his father saved 
his life by getting on his parent's dead body, turns on the same 
thought. After describing the wreck, it concludes thus: 

" aprez mille efforts, 

" J'appergus prez de moi flotter des membres morts; 
" Helas! c'eloit mon pere. 
" Je le connus, je 1'embrassai, 
" Et sur lui jusq' au port heureusement pousse, 
" Des ondes et vents j'evitai la furie. 
" Que ce pere doit m'etre cher^ 
<( Qui m'a deuxfois donne la vie, 
" Unejbis sur la terre, et I'autre sur la mer!" 


3 and done;] See p. 129, n. 5. MALONE. 

sc. vi. KING HENRY VI. 1S7 

Till with thy warlike sword, despite of fate, 
To my determined time 4 thou gav'st new date. 

TAL. When from the Dauphin's crest thy sword 

struck fire, 5 

Jt warm'd thy father's heart with proud desire 
Of bold-fac'd victory. Then leaden age, 
Quicken 5 d with youthful spleen, and warlike rage, 
Beat down Alen9on, Orleans, Burgundy, 
And from the pride of Gallia rescu'd thee. 
The ireful bastard Orleans that drew blood 
From thee, my boy ; and had the maidenhood 
Of thy first fight I soon encountered ; 
And, interchanging blows, I quickly shed 
Some of his bastard blood ; and, in disgrace, 
Bespoke him thus : Contaminated, base, 
And misbegotten blood I spill of thine, 
Mean and right poor ; for that pure blood of mine, 
Which thou didst force from Talbot, my brave boy : 
Here, purposing the Bastard to destroy, 
Came in strong rescue. Speak, thy father's care ; 
Art not thou weary, John ? How dost thou fare ? 
Wilt thou yet leave the battle, boy, and fly, 
Now thou art seaPd the son of chivalry ? 
Ply, to revenge my death, when I am dead ; 
The help of one stands me in little stead. 
O, too much folly is it, well I wot, 
To hazard all our lives in one small boat. 

4 To my determin'd time ] i. e. ended. So, in K. Henry IV. 
Part II : 

" Till his friend sickness hath determined me." 

The word is still used in that sense by legal conveyancers. 


* When from the Dauphin's crest thy sword struck fire,] So, 
in Dray ton's Mortimeriados, 1596: 

" Madejftre to fly from Hertford's burgonet." 



If I to-day die not with Frenchmen's rage, 
To-morrow I shall die with mickle age : 
By me they nothing gain, an if I stay, 
J Tis but the shortening of my life one day : 6 
In thee thy mother dies, our household's name, 
My death's revenge, thy youth, and England's fame : 
All these, and more, we hazard by thy stay ; 
All these are sav'd, if thou wilt fly away. 

JOHN. The sword of Orleans hath not made me 

These words of yours draw life-blood from my 

heart : 7 

On that advantage, bought with such a shame, 
(To save a paltry life, and slay bright fame,) 8 

6 'Tis but the shortening of my life one day :~] The structure 
of this line very much resembles that of another, in King 
Henry IF. P. II: 

" . to say, 

" Heaven shorten Harry's happy life one day." 


7 The sword of Orleans hath not made me smart, 
These "words of yours draw life-blood from my heart ] 

" Are there not poisons, racks, and flames, and swords ? 
'* That Emma thus must die by Henry's words ?" Prior. 


So, in this play, Part III : 

" Ah, kill me with thy weapon, not with words. 1 * 


8 On that advantage, bought with such a shame, 

( To save a paltry life, and slay bright fame, ) ] This passage 
seems to lie obscure and disjointed. Neither the grammar is to 
be justified; nor is the sentiment better. I have ventured at a 
slight alteration, which departs so little from the reading which 
has obtained, but so much raises the sense, as well as takes away 
the obscurity, that I am willing to think it restores the author's 
meaning : 

Out on that vantage, . THEOBALD. 

Sir T. Hanmer reads : 

O what advantage, 

sc. vi. KING HENRY VI. 139 

Before young Talbot from old Talbot fly, 
The coward horse, that bears me, fall and die ! 
And like me to the peasant boys of France ; 9 
To be shame's scorn, and subject of mischance! 
Surely, by all the glory you have won, 
An if I fly, I am not Talbot 5 s son : 
Then talk no more of flight, it is no boot ; 
If son to Talbot, die at Talbot' s foot. 

TAL. Then follow thou thy desperate sire of 

Thou Icarus j 1 thy life to me is sweet : 

which I have followed, though Mr. Theobald's conjecture may 
be well enough admitted. JOHNSON. 

I have no doubt but the old reading is right, and the amend- 
ment unnecessary; the passage being better as it stood originally, 
if pointed thus : 

On that advantage, bought with such a shame, 
( To save a paltry life, and slay bright fame,} 
Before young Talbot from old Talbot Jly, 
The co-ward horse, that bears me, Jail and die ! 
The dividing the sentence into two distinct parts, occasioned the 
obscurity of it, which this method of printing removes. 


The sense is Before young Talbot fly from his father, ( in 
order to save his life while he destroys his character,) on, or for 
the sake of, the advantages you mention, namely, preserving 
our household's name, &c. may my coward horse drop down 
dead ! MALONE. 

9 And like me to the peasant boys of France ;] To like one 
to the peasants, is, to compare, to level by comparison ; the line 
is therefore intelligible enough by itself, but in this sense it wants 
connection. Sir T. Hanmer reads, And leave me, which 
makes a clear sense and just consequence. But as change is not 
to be allowed without necessity, I have suffered like to stand, be- 
cause I suppose the author meant the same as make like, or re- 
duce to a level with. JOHNSON. 

So, in King Henry IV. Part II : " when the Prince broke 
thy head for liking his father to a singing man" &c. STEEVENS. 

1 thy desperate sire of Crete, 

Thou Icarus ;] So, in the Third Part of this play : 


If thou wilt fight, fight by thy father's side ; 
And, commendable prov'd, let's die in pride. 



Another Part of the same. 

Alarum : Excursions. Enter TALBOT Bounded, 
supported by a Servant. 

TAL. Where is my other life ? mine own is 

gone ; 

O, where's young Talbot? where is valiant John ? 
Triumphant death, smear' d with captivity ! 2 
Young Talbot's valour makes me smile at thee : 
When he perceiv'd me shrink, and on my knee, 
His bloody sword he brandish'd over me, 
And, like a hungry lion, did commence 
Rough deeds of rage, and stern impatience ; 

" What a peevish fool was that of Crete ?" 

Again : 

" I, Daedalus ; my poor boy, Icarus ." STEEVEKS. 

* Triumphant death, smear* d taith captivity .'] That is, death 
stained and dishonoured with captivity. JOHNSON. 

Death stained by my being made a captive and dying in cap- 
tivity. The author, when he first addresses death, and uses the 
epithet triumphant, considers him as a person whx) had triumphed 
over him by plunging his dart in his breast. In the latter part 
of the line, if Dr. Johnson has rightly explained it, death must 
have its ordinary signification. " I think light of my death, 
though rendered disgraceful by captivity," &c. Perhaps, how- 
ever, the construction intended by the poetwas Young Talbot's 
valour makes me, smeared with captivity^ smile, &c If so, 
there should be a comma after captivity. MALONE. 

ac. vn. KING HENRY VI. 141 

But when my angry guardant stood alone, 
Tendering my ruin, 3 and assail'd of none, 
Dizzy-ey'd fury, and great rage of heart, 
Suddenly made him from my side to start 
Into the clust'ring battle of the French : 
And in that sea of blood my boy did drench 
His overmounting spirit ; and there died 
My Icarus, my blossom, in his pride. 

Enter Soldiers, bearing the Body qf JOHN TALBOT> 

SERV. O my dear lord ! lo, where your son is 

borne ! 
TAL. Thou antick death, 5 which laugh'st us here 

to scorn, 

3 Tend'ring my ruin,~\ Watching me with tenderness in my 
fall. JOHNSON. 

I would rather read 

Tending my ruin, &c. TYRWHITT. 

I adhere to the old reading. So, in Hamlet, Polonius says to 
Ophelia : 

" Tender yourself more dearly." STEEVENS. 

Again, in King Henry VI. Part II : 

" I tender so the safety of my liege." MALONE. 

4 the Body of John Talbot.~\ This John Talbot was the 

eldest son of the first Earl by his second wife, and was Viscount 
Lisle, when he was killed with his father, in endeavouring to 
relieve Chatillon, after the battle of Bourdeaux, in the year 1453. 
He was created Viscount Lisle in 1451. John, the Earl's eldest 
son by his first wife, was slain at the battle of Northampton, in 
14-60. MALONE. 

4 Thou antick death,"} Thefool, or antick of the play, made 
sport by mocking the graver personages. JOHNSON. 

In King Richard II. we have the same image : . 

*' within the hollow crown 

" That rounds the mortal temples of a king 


Anon, from thy insulting tyranny, 

Coupled in bonds of perpetuity, 

Two Talbots, winged through the lither sky, 6 

In thy despite, shall 'scape mortality. 

O thou whose wounds become hard-favour'd death, 

Speak to thy father, ere thou yield thy breath : 

Brave death by speaking, whether he will, or no ; 

Imagine him a Frenchman, and thy foe. 

Poor boy! he smiles, methinks; as who should 

Had death been French, then death had died to- 

" Keeps death his court: and there the antick sits 
" Scoffing his state, and grinning at his pomp." 


It is not improbable that Shakspeare borrowed this idea from 
one of the cuts to that most exquisite work called Imagines Mor- 
tis, commonly ascribed to the pencil of Holbein, but without any 
authority. See the 7th print. DOUCE. 

6 "winged through the lither sky,~] Lither is flexible of 

yielding. In much the same sense Milton says : 

" He with broad sails 

" Winnow'd the buxom air." 
That is, the obsequious air. JOHNSON. 

Lither is the comparative of the adjective lithe. 
So, in Lyly's Endymion, 1591 : 

" to breed numbness or litherness." 

Litherness is limberness, or yielding weakness. 
Again, in Look about you, 1600 : 

" I'll bring his lither legs in better frame." 
Milton might have borrowed the expression from Spenser or 
Gower, who uses it in the Prologue to his Confessio Amantis : 

" That unto him whiche the head is, 

" The membres buxom shall bowe." 

In the old service of matrimony, the wife was enjoined to be 
buxom both at bed and board. Buxom, therefore, anciently sig- 
nified obedient or yielding. Stubbs, in his Anatomic of Abuses , 

1595, uses the word in the same sense : " are so buxome 

to their shameless desires," &c. STEEVENS. 

sc. vii. KING HENRY VI. 14-3 

Come, come, and lay him in his father's arms ; 
My spirit can no longer bear these harms. 
Soldiers, adieu ! I have what I would have, 
Now my old arms are young John Talbot' s grave. 


Alarums. Exeunt Soldiers and Servant, leaving the 
two Bodies. Enter CHARLES, ALENCON, BUR- 
GUNDY, Bastard, LA PUCELLE, and Forces. 

CHAR. Had York and Somerset brought rescue 

We should have found a bloody day of this. 

BAST. How the young whelp of Talbot's, raging- 
wood, 7 
Did flesh his puny sword in Frenchmen's blood 1 s 

Puc. Once I encounter'd him, and thus I said, 
Thou maiden youth be vanquished by a maid : 
But -with a proud, majestical high scorn, 
He answer'd thus ; Young Talbot was not born 
To be the pillage of a giglot wench : 9 
So, rushing in the bowels of the French, 1 

7 rflgjwgvwood,] That is, raging mad. So, in Hey- 

wood's Dialogues, containing a Number of effectual Proverbs, 

" She was, as they say, horn-twcrf." 
Again, in The longer thou livest the more Fool thou art, 1570 : 

" He will fight as he were wood." STEEVENS. 

5 in Frenchmen's blood !~\ The return of rhyme where 

young Talbot is again mentioned, and in no other place, 
strengthens the suspicion that these verses were originally part 
of some other work, and were copied here only to save the trou- 
ble of composing new. JOHNSON. 

9 of a giglot wench : ] Giglot is a wanton, or a strumpet. 


The word is used by Gascoigne and other authors, though now 
quite obsolete. 


He left me proudly, as unworthy fight. 

BUR. Doubtless, he would have made a noble 

knight : 

See, where he lies inhersed in the arms 
Of the most bloody nurser of his harms. 

BAST. Hew them to pieces, hack their bones 

asunder ; 
Whose life was England's glory, Gallia's wonder. 

CHAR. O, no ; forbear : for that which we have 


During the life, let us not wrong it dead. 


Enter Sir WILLIAM LUCY, attended; a French 
Herald preceding. 

LUCY. Herald, 

Conduct me to the Dauphin's tent ; to know 
Who hath obtain'd 2 the glory of the day. 

CHAR. On what submissive message art thou sent? 

LUCY. Submission, Dauphin ? 'tis a mere French 

We English warriors wot not what it means. 

So, in the play of Orlando Furioso, 1594 : 

" Whose choice is like that Greekish giglot's love, 
" That left her lord, prince Menelaus." 
See Vol. VI. p. 404, n. 7. STEEVENS. 

1 in the bowls of the French,] So, in the first part of Je- 

ronimo, 1605 : 

" Meet, Don Andrea ! yes, in the battle's bowels." 



Conduct me to the Daimhin's tent; to knot 
Who hath obtained ] Lucy's message implied that he knew 
who had obtained the victory : therefore Sir T. Hanmer reads : 
Herald t conduct me to the Dauphin's tent. JOHNSOK. 

sc. vii. KING HENRY VI. 145 

I come to know what prisoners thou hast ta'en, 
And to survey the bodies of the dead. 

CHAR. For prisoners ask'st thou? hell our prison 

But tell me whom thou seek'st. 

LUCY. Where is the great Alcides 3 of the field, 
Valiant lord Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury ? 
Created, for his rare success in arms, 
Great earl of Washford, 4 Waterford, and Valence j 
Lord Talbot of Goodrig and Urchinfield, 
Lord Strange of Blackmere, lord Verdun of Alton, 
Lord Cromwell of Wingfield, lord Furnival of Shef- 

The thrice victorious lord of Falconbridge ; 
Knight of the noble order of Saint George, 
Worthy Saint Michael, and the golden fleece ; 
Great mareshal to Henry the sixth, 
Of all his wars within the realm of France ? 

3 Where is the great Alcides ] Old copy But where's. Cor- 
rected by Mr. Howe. The compositor probably caught the word 
But from the preceding line. MALONE. 

4 Great earl of Washford,] It appears from Camden's Bri- 
tannia and Holinshed's Chronicle of Ireland , that Wexford was 
anciently called Weysford. In Crompton's Mansion of Mag' 
nanimitie it is written as here, Washford. This long list of titles 
is taken from the epitaph formerly fixed on Lord Talbot's tomb 
in iloiien in Normandy. Where this author found it, I have 
not been able to ascertain, for it is not in the common his- 
torians. The oldest book in which I have met with it is the tract 
above mentioned, which was printed in 1599, posterior to the 
date of this play. Numerous as this list is, the epitaph has one 
more, which, I suppose, was only rejected because it would not 
easily fall into the verse, " Lord Lovetoft of Worsop." It con- 
cludes as here, " Lord Falconbridge, Knight of the noble order 
of St. George, St. Michael, and the golden fleece, Great Mar- 
shall to King Henry VI. of his realm in France, who died in the 
battle of Bourdeaux, 1453." MALONE. 



Puc. Here is a silly stately style indeed ! 
The Turk, that two and fifty kingdoms hath, 5 
Writes not so tedious a style as this. 
Him, that thou magnifiest with all these titles, 
Stinking, and fly-blown, lies here at our feet. 

LUCY. Is Talbot slain ; the Frenchmen's only 


Your kingdom's terrour and black Nemesis ? 
O, were mine eye-balls into bullets turn'd, 
That I, in rage, might shoot them at your faces ! 
O, that I could but call these dead to life ! 
It were enough to fright the realm of France : 
Were but his picture left among you here, 
It would amaze 6 the proudest of you all. 
Give me their bodies ; that I may bear them hence, 
And give them burial as beseems their worth. 

Puc. I think, this upstart is old Talbot's ghost, 
He speaks with such a proud commanding spirit. 
For God's sake, let him have 'em j 7 to keep them 

They would but stink, and putrefy the air. 

CHAR. Go, take their bodies hence. 

LUCY. I'll bear them hence : 

* The Turk, &c.] Alluding probably to the ostentatious letter 
of Sultan Solyman the Magnificent, to the Emperor Ferdinand, 
1562 ; in which all the Grand Seignor's titles are enumerated. 
See Knolles's History of the Turks, 5th edit. p. 789. GREY. 

6 amaze ] i. e. (as in other instances) confound, throw 

into consternation. So, in Cymbelme: 

" I am amaz'd with matter ." STEEVENS. 

7 let him have 'era;] Old copy have him. So, a 

little lower, do with him. The first emendation was made by 
Mr, Theobald ; the other by the editor of the second folio. 


sc. vn. KING HENRY VI. 147 

But from their ashes shall be rear'd 

A phcenix 8 that shall make all France afeard. 

CHAR. So we be rid of them, do with 'em what 

thou wilt. 9 

And now to Paris, in this conquering vein ; 
All will be ours, now bloody Talbot's slain. 


9 But from their ashes shall be rear'd 

A phcenix &c.] The defect in the metre shews that some word 
6f two syllables was inadvertently omitted ; probably an epithet 
to ashes. MALONE. 

So, in the Third Part of this play : 

" My ashes, as the phoenix, shall bring forth 
" A bird that will revenge upon you all." 
Sir Thomas Hanmer, with great probability reads : 

But from their ashes, Dauphin, 8fC. STEEVENS. 

9 So tve be rid of them, do with 'em what thou wilt.'] I gup- 
pose, for the sake of metre, the useless words <witk 'em should 
be omitted. STEEVENS. 



London. A Room in the Palace. 


K. HEN. Have you perus'd the letters from the 

The emperor, and the earl of Armagnac ? 

GLO. I have, my lord ; and their intent is this, 
They humbly sue unto your excellence, 
To have a godly peace concluded of, 
Between the realms of England and of France. 

K. HEN. How doth your grace affect their mo- 

GLO. Well, my good lord ; and as the only means 
To stop effusion of our Christian blood, 
And 'stablish quietness on every side. 

K.HEN. Ay, marry, uncle; for I always thought, 
It was both impious and unnatural, 
That such immanity 2 and bloody strife 
Should reign among professors of one faith. 

GLO. Beside, my lord, the sooner to effect, 
And surer bind, this knot of amity, 
The earl of Armagnac near knit to Charles, 

1 In the original copy, the transcriber or printer forgot to mark 
the commencement of the fifth Act ; and has by mistake called 
this scene, Scene II. The editor of the second folio made a very 
absurd regulation by making the Act begin in the middle of the 
preceding scene, (where the Dauphin, &c. enter, and take notice 
of the dead bodies of Talbot and his son,) which was inadvert- 
ently followed in subsequent editions. MALONE. 

3 immunity 3 i. e. barbarity, savageness. STEEVENS. 

se. I. KING HENRY VI. 149 

A man of great authority in France, 

Proffers his only daughter to your grace 

In marriage, with a large and sumptuous dowry. 

K. HEN. Marriage, uncle ! alas ! my years are 

.young; 3 

And fitter is my study and my books, 
Than wanton dalliance with a paramour. 
Yet, call the ambassadors ; and, as you please, 
So let them have their answers every one : 
I shall be well content with any choice, 
Tends to God's glory, and my country's weal. 

Enter a Legate, and Two Ambassadors, with WIN- 
CHESTER, in a Cardinal's Habit. 

EXE. What ! is my lord of Winchester install'd, 
And call'd unto a cardinal's degree ! 4 
Then, I perceive, that will be verified, 
Henry the fifth did sometime prophecy, 

3 my years are young;~\ His majesty, however, was 
twenty-four years old. MALONE. 

* What! is my lord of Winchester install'd, 

And call'd unto a cardinal's degree!] This, (as Mr. Ed- 
wards has observed in his MS. notes,) argues a great forgetful- 
ness in the poet. In the first Act Gloster says: 

" I'll canvass thee in thy broad cardinal's hat :" 
and it is strange that the Duke of Exeter should not know of his 
advancement. STEEVENS. 

It should seem from the stage-direction prefixed to this scene, 
and from the conversation between the Legate and Winchester, 
that the author meant it to be understood that the bishop had 
obtained his cardinal's hat only just before his present entry. 
The inaccuracy, therefore, was in making Gloster address him 
by that title in the beginning of the play. He in fact obtained 
it in the fifth year of Henry's reign. MALONE. 


If once he come to be a cardinal, 

JEfe'll make his cap co-equal with the crown. 

K.HEN. My lords ambassadors., your several 


Have been considered and debated on. 
Your purpose is both good and reasonable : 
And, therefore, are we certainly resolv'd 
To draw conditions of a friendly peace ; 
Which, by my lord of Winchester, we mean 
Shall be transported presently to France. 

GLO. And for the proffer of my lord your mas- 

I have informed his highness so at large, 
As liking of the lady's virtuous gifts, 
Her beauty, and the value of her dower, 
He doth intend she shall be England's queen. 

K. HEN. In argument and proof of which con- 
Bear her this jewel, [To the Amb.] pledge of my 


And so, my lord protector, see them guarded, 
And safely brought to Dover ; where, inshipp'd, 
Commit them to the fortune of the sea. 

[Exeunt King HENRY and Train ; GLOSTER, 
EXETER, and Ambassadors. 

WIN. Stay, my lord legate ; you shall first re- 

The sum of money, which I promised 
Should be delivered to his holiness 
For clothing me in these grave ornaments. 

LEG. I will attend upon your lordship's leisure. 

WIN. Now, Winchester will not submit, I trow, 
Or be inferior to the proudest peer. 
Humphrey of Gloster, thou shalt well perceive, 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 151 

That, neither in birth, 5 or for authority, 

The bishop will be overborne by thee : 

I'll either make thee stoop, and bend thy knee, 

Or sack this country with a mutiny. [Exeunt. 


France. Plains in Anjou. 

PUCELLE, and Forces, marching. 

CHAR. These news, my lords, may cheer our 

drooping spirits : 

*Tis said, the stout Parisians do revolt, 
And turn again unto the warlike French. 

ALEN. Then march to Paris, royal Charles of 

And keep not back your powers in dalliance. 

Puc. Peace be amongst them, if they turn to us ; 
Else, ruin combat with their palaces ! 

Enter a Messenger. 

MESS. Success unto our valiant general, 
And happiness to his accomplices ! 

CHAR. What tidings send our scouts ? I pr'ythee, 

MESS. The English army, that divided was 

* That, neither in birth,'] I would read -for birth. That is, 
thou shalt not rule me, though thy birth is legitimate, and thy 
authority supreme. JOHNSON. 


Into two parts, 6 is now conjoin'd in one; 
And means to give you battle presently. 

CHAR. Somewhat too sudden, sirs, the warning 

But we will presently provide for them. 

BUR. I trust, the ghost of Talbot is not there j 
Now he is gone, my lord, you need not fear. 

Puc. Of all base passions, fear is most accurs'd: 
Command the conquest, Charles, it shall be thine ; 
Let Henry fret, and all the world repine. 

CHAR. Then on, my lords ; And France be for- 
tunate ! [Exeunt. 


The same. Before Angiers. 
Alarums: Excursions. Enter LA PUCELLE. 
Puc. The regent conquers, and the Frenchmen 

Now help, ye charming spells, and periapts ; ' 

. 7 

6 parts,~\ Old copies -parties, STEEVENS. 

7 ye charming spells, and periapts ;] Charms sewed up. 

Ezek. xiii. 18 : " Woe to them that sew pillows to all arm-holes, 
to hunt souls." POPE. 

Periapts were worn about the neck as preservatives from dis- 
ease or danger. Of these, the first chapter of St. John's Gospel 
was deemed the most efficacious. 

Whoever is desirous to know more about them, may consult 
Reginald Scott's Discovery of Witchcraft, 1584, p. 230, &c. 


^ The following story, which is related in Wits, Fits, and Fan- 
cies, 1595, proves what Mr. Steevens has asserted; " A cardinal 
seeing a priest carrying a cudgel under his gown, reprimanded 

K. m. KING HENRY VI. 153 

And ye choice spirits that admonish me, 
And give me signs of future accidents ! [Thunder. 
You speedy helpers, that are substitutes 
Under the lordly monarch of the north, 8 
Appear, and aid me in this enterprize ! 

Enter Fiends. 

This speedy quick appearance argues proof 
Of your accustom' d diligence to me. 
Now, ye familiar spirits, that are cull'd 
Out of the powerful regions under earth, 9 
Help me this once, that France may get the field. 
\_They walk about, and speak not. 

him. His excuse was, that he only carried it to defend himself 
against the dogs of the town. Wherefore, I pray you, replied 
the cardinal, serves St. John's Gospel? Alas, my lord, said the 
priest, these curs understand no Latin." MALONE. 

8 monarch of the north,~] The north was always sup- 
posed to be the particular habitation of bad spirits. Milton, 
therefore, assembles the rebel angels in the north. JOHNSON. 

The boast of Lucifer in the-xivth chapter of Isaiah is said to 
be, that he will sit upon the mount of the congregation, in the 
sides of the north. STEEVENS. 

9 Out of the powerful regions under earth,~] I believe Shak- 
speare wrote legions. WARBURTON. 

The regions under earth are the infernal regions. Whence else 
should the sorceress have selected or summoned her fiends ? 


In a former passage, regions seems to have been printed in- 
stead of legions ; at least all the editors from the time of Mr. 
Howe have there substituted the latter word instead of the for- 
mer. See p. 131, n. 1. The word cull'd, and the epithet power- 
ful, which is applicable to thejiends themselves, but not to their 
place of residence, show that it has an equal title to a place in 
the text here. So, in The Tempest : 

But onejiend at a time, 

" I'll fight their legions o'er." MALONE. 


O, hold me not with silence over-long ! 

Where 1 I was wont to feed you with my blood, 

I'll lop a member off, and give it you, 

In earnest of a further benefit ; 

So you do condescend to help me now. 

\They hang their heads, 
No hope to have redress ? My body shall 
Pay recompense, if you will grant my suit. 

Cannot my body, nor blood-sacrifice, 
Entreat you to your wonted furtherance ? 
Then take my soul ; my body, soul, and all, 
Before that England give the French the foil. 

\_They depart. 

See ! they forsake me. Now the time is come, 
That France must vail her lofty-plumed crest, 2 
And let her head fall into England's lap. 
My ancient incantations are too weak, 
And hell too strong for me to buckle with : 
Now, France, thy glory droopeth to the dust. 


Alarums. Enter French and English, Jighting. 
LA PUCELLE and YORK Jight hand to hand. LA 
PUCELLE is taken. The French jtfy. 

YORK. Damsel of France, I think, I have you 

fast : 
Unchain your spirits now with spelling charms, 

1 Where 3 i. e. "whereas. So, in Pericles, Prince of Tyre : 
" Where now you're both a father and a son." 


* vail her lofty-plumed crest,"] i. e. lower it. So, in The 

Merchant of Venice : 

" Vailing her high top lower than her ribs." 
See Vol. VII. p. 235, n. 1. STEEVENS. 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 155 

And try if they can gain your liberty. 
A goodly prize, fit for the devil's grace ! 
See, how the ugly witch doth bend her brows, 
As if, with Circe, she would change my shape. 3 

Puc. Chang' d to a worser shape thou canst notbe. 

YORK. O, Charles the Dauphin is a proper man ; 
No shape but his can please your dainty eye. 

Puc. A plaguing mischief light on Charles, and 


And may ye both be suddenly surpriz'd 
By bloody hands, in sleeping on your beds ! 

YORK. Fell, banning hag ! 4 enchantress, hold thy 

Puc. I pr'ythee, give me leave to curse a while. 

YORK. Curse, miscreant, when thou comest to 
the stake. \ExeunL 

Alarums. Enter SUFFOLK, leading in Lady 

SUF. Be what thou wilt, thou art my prisoner. 

[Gazes on her. 

fairest beauty, do not fear, nor fly ; 

For I will touch thee but with reverent hands, 
And lay them gently on thy tender side. 

1 kiss these fingers [Kissing her hand.~\ for eternal 

peace : 5 

3 As if, tuith Circe, 8fc.~] So, in The Comedy of Errors: 
" I think, you all have drank of Circe's cup." 


* Fell, banning hag .'3 To ban is to curse. So, in The Jew 
of Malta, 1633: 

" I ban their souls to everlasting pains." STEEVENS. 

* I kiss these fingers for eternal peace .] In the old copy these 
lines are thus arranged and pointed : 


Who art thou ? say, that I may honour thee. 

MAR. Margaret my name ; and daughter to a 

The king of Naples, whosoe'er thou art. 

SUF. An earl I am, and Suffolk am I call'd. 
Be not offended, nature's miracle, 
Thou art allotted to be ta'en by me : 
So doth the swan her downy cygnets save, 
Keeping them prisoners underneath her wings.* 
Yet, if this servile usage once offend, 
Go, and be free again as Suffolk's friend. 

[She turns away as going, 
O, stay ! I have no power to let her pass ; 
My hand would free her, but my heart says no.* 

" For I will touch thee but with reverent hands, 
" I kiss these fingers for eternal peace, 
" And lay them gently on thy tender side." 
by which Suffolk is made to kiss his own fingers, a symbol of 
peace of which, there is, I believe, no example. The transpo- 
sition was made, I think, rightly, by Mr. Capell. In the old 
edition, as here, there is only a comma after " hands," which 
seems to countenance the regulation now made. To obtain some- 
thing like sense, the modern editors were obliged to put a full 
point at the end of that line. 

In confirmation of the transposition here made, let it be re- 
membered that two lines are in like manner misplaced in Troilus 
and Cressida, Act I. fol. 1623 : 

" Or like a star dis-orb'd ; nay, if we talk of reason, 
" And fly like a chidden Mercury from Jove." 
Again, in King Richard III. Act IV. sc. iv : 

" That reigns in galled eyes of weeping souls, 

" That excellent grand tyrant of the earth." MALONE. 

7 her tvings.'] Old copy his. This manifes terror I 

only mention, because it supports a note in Vol. VIII. p. 184, 
n. 4, and justifies the change there made. Her was formerly 
spelt hir ; hence it was often confounded with his. MALONE. 

8 My hand ivouldfree her, but my heart says no.] Thus, 
ha The Two Gentlemen of Verona . 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 157 

As plays the sun upon the glassy streams, 9 

Twinkling another counterfeited beam, 

So seems this gorgeous beauty to mine eyes. 

Fain would I woo her, yet I dare not speak : 

I'll call for pen and ink, and write my mind : 

Fye, De la Poole ! disable not thyself; l 

Hast not a tongue ? is she not here thy prisoner ? 2 

Wilt thou be daunted at a woman's sight ? 

Ay ; beauty's princely majesty is such, 

Confounds the tongue, andmakes the senses rough. 5 

MAR. Say, earl of Suffolk, if thy name be so, 

my heart accords thereto, 

" And yet a thousand times it answersno" 


9 As plays the sun upon the glassy streams, &c.~] This com- 
parison, made between things which seem sufficiently unlike, is 
intended to express the softness and delicacy of Lady Margaret's 
beauty, which delighted, but did not dazzle ; which was bright, 
but gave no pain by its lustre. JOHNSON. 

Thus, Tasso : 

" Qual raggio in onda, le scintilla unriso 
" Negli umidi occhi tremulo ." HENLEY. 

Sidney, in his Asirophel and Stella, serves to support Dr. 
Johnson's explanation : 

" Lest if no vaile these brave gleames did disguise, 
" They, sun-like, should more dazle than delight" 


1 disable not thyself ;~\ Do not represent thyself so weak. 

To disable the judgment of another was, in that age, the same 
as to destroy its credit or authority. JOHNSON. 

So, in As you like it, Act V : "If again, it was not well cut, 
he disabled my judgment" STEEVENS. 

8 Hast not a tongue? is she not here thy prisoner?] The 
words thy prisoner, which are wanting in the first folio, are 
found in the second. STEEVENS. 

3 and makes the senses rough.] The meaning of this 

word is not very obvious. Sir Thomas Haumer reads crouch. 



What ransome must I pay before I pass ? 
For, I perceive, 1 am thy prisoner. 

SUF. How canst thou tell, she will deny thy suit, 
Before thou make a trial of her love ? [Aside. 

MAR. Why speak'st thou not? what ransome 
must I pay ? 

SUF. She's beautiful ; and therefore to be woo'd: 
She is a woman ; therefore to be won. 4 [Aside. 

MAR. Wilt thou accept of ransome, yea, or no ? 

SUF. Fond man! remember, that thou hast a 

Then how can Margaret be thy paramour ? [Aside. 

MAR. I were best leave him, for he will not hear. 

SUF. There all is marr'd; there lies a cooling 
card. 5 

MAR. He talks at random ; sure, the man is mad. 
SUF. And yet a dispensation may be had. 
MAR. And yet I would that you would answer me. 

SUF. I'll win this lady Margaret. For whom ? 
Why, for my king : Tush ! that's a wooden thing. 6 

4 She is a woman ; therefore to le won.'] This seems to be a 
proverbial line, and occurs in Greene's Planetomachia, 1585. 


* a cooling card.] So, in Mariusand Sylla, 1594 : 

" I'll have a present cooling card for you." STEEVENS. 

a wooden thing."] Is an aukward business, an under- 
taking not likely to succeed. 

So, in Lyly's Galathea, 1592: " Would I were out of these 
woods, for I shall have but wooden luck." 
Again, in Sidney's Astrophel and Stella : 

" Or, seeing, have so woodden wits as not that worth to 

Again, in The Knave of Spades, &c. no date : 

" To make an end of that same wooden phrase." 


sc. in. KING HENRY VI. 159 

MAR. He talks of wood : It is some carpenter. 

SUF. Yet so my fancy 7 may be satisfied, 
And peace established between these realms. 
But there remains a scruple in that too : 
For though her father be the king of Naples, 
Duke of Anjou and Maine, yet is he poor, 
And our nobility will scorn the match. [Aside. 

MAR. Hear ye, captain ? Are you not at leisure ? 

SUF. It shall be so, disdain they ne'er so much: 
Henry is youthful, and will quickly yield. 
Madam, I have a secret to reveal. 

MAR. What though I be enthralled ? he seems a 

And will not any way dishonour me. [Aside. 

SUF. Lady, vouchsafe to listen what I say. 

MAR. Perhaps, I shall be rescu'd by the French ; 
And then I need not crave his courtesy. [Aside. 

SUF. Sweet madam, give me hearing in a cause 

MAR. Tush! women have been captivate erenow. 


SUF. Lady, wherefore talk you so ? 
MAR. I cry you mercy, 'tis but quid for quo. 

SUF. Say, gentle princess, would you not suppose 
Your bondage happy, to be made a queen ? 

MAR. To be a queen in bondage, is more vile, 
Than is a slave in base servility ; 
For princes should be free. 

SUF. And so shall you, 

7 my fancy ] i. e. my love. So, in A Midsummer- 

Night's Dream : 

" Fair Helena infancy following me." 
See Vol. IV. p. 454, n. 6. STEEVENS. 


If happy England's royal king be free. 

MAR. Why, what concerns his freedom unto me ? 

SUF. I'll undertake to make thee Henry's queen j 
To put a golden scepter in thy hand, 
And set a precious crown upon thy head, 
If thou wilt condescend to be my 8 

MAR. What ? 

SUF. His love. 

MAR. I am unworthy to be Henry's wife. 

SuF. No, gentle madam ; I unworthy am 
To woo so fair a dame to be his wife, 
And have no portion in the choice myself. 
How say you, madam ; are you so content ? 

MAR. An if my father please, I am content. 

SUF. Then call our captains, and our colours, 

forth : 

And, madam, at your father's castle walls 
We'll crave a parley, to confer with him. 

[Troops come forward. 

A Parley sounded. Enter REIGNIER, on the 

SUF. See, Reignier, see, thy daughter prisoner. 

REIG. To whom ? 

SUF. To me. 

8 Jfthouivilt condescend to be my ] I have little doubt that 
the words be my, are an interpolation, and that the passage 
originally stood thus : 

If thou ivilt condescend to- 


His love. 
Both sense and measure are then complete. STBEVEKS. 

sc. HI. KING HENRY VI. 161 

REIG. Suffolk, what remedy ? 

I am a soldier ; and unapt to weep, 
Or to exclaim on fortune's fickleness. 

SUF. Yes, there is remedy enough, my lord : 
Consent, (and, for thy honour, give consent,) 
Thy daughter shall be wedded to my king ; 
Whom I with pain have woo'd and won thereto ; 
And this her easy-held imprisonment 
Hath gain'd thy daughter princely liberty* 

REIG. Speaks Suffolk as he thinks ? 

SUF. Fair Margaret knows, 

That Suffolk doth not flatter, face, or feign. 9 

REIG. Upon thy princely warrant, I descend, 
To give thee answer of thy just demand. 

[Ezit,from the Walls. 

SUF. And here I will expect thy coming. 

Trumpets sounded. Enter REIGNIER, below* 

REIG. Welcome, brave earl, into our territories; 
Command in Anjou what your honour pleases. 

SUF. Thanks, Reignier, happy for so sweet a child, 
Fit to be made companion with a king : 
What answer makes your grace unto my suit ? 

REIG. Since thou dost deign to woo her little 
worth, 1 

9 face, or feign,] " To face (says Dr. Johnson) is to 

carry a false appearance; to play the hypocrite.'* Hence the 
name of one of the characters in Ben Jonson's Alchymist. 


So, in The Taming of the Shrew: 

" Yet have 1 faced it with a card of ten.'* STEEVENS. 

1 Since thou dost deign to woo her little worth, &c.J To woo 


To be the princely bride of sucn a lord ; 
Upon condition I may quietly 
Enjoy mine own, the county Maine, 2 and Anjou, 
Free from oppression, or the stroke of war, 
My daughter shall be Henry's, if he please. 

SUF. That is her ransome, I deliver her ; 
And those two counties, I will undertake, 
Your grace shall well and quietly enjoy. 

RJEIG. And I again, in Henry's royal name, 
As deputy unto that gracious king, 
Give thee her hand, for sign of plighted faith. 

SUF. Reignier of France, Igivethee kingly thanks, 
Because this is in traffick of a king : 
And yet, methinks, I could be well content 
To be mine own attorney in this case. \_Addc. 
I'll over then to England with this news, 
And make this marriage to be solemniz'd ; 
So, farewell, Reignier ! Set this diamond safe 
In golden palaces, as it becomes. 

RELG. I do embrace thee, as I would embrace 
The Christian prince, king Henry, were he here. 

MAR. Farewell, my lord! Good wishes, praise, 

and prayers,- 
Shall Suffolk ever have of Margaret. [Going. 

SUF. Farewell, sweet madam! But hark you, 

No princely commendations to my king ? 

her little worth may mean to court her small share of merit. 
But perhaps the passage should be pointed thus: 

Since thou dost deign to IKOO her, little worth 

To be the princely bride, of such a lord; 
I. e. little deserving to be the wife of such a prince. MALONE, 

* the county .Maine, 3 Maine is called a county both by 

Hall and Holinshed. The old copy erroneously reads country. 


W. m. KING HENRY VI. 163 

MAR. Such commendations as become a maid, 
A virgin, and his servant, say to him. 

SUF. Words sweetly plac'd, and modestly 3 di- 

But, madam, I must trouble you again, 
No loving token to his majesty? 

MAR. Yes, my good lord ; a pure unspotted 

Never yet taint with love, I send the king. 

SUF. And this withal. [Kisses her. 

MAR. That for thyself; I will not so presume, 
To send such peevish tokens 4 to a king. 


SUF. O, wert thou for myself! But, Suffolk, 


Thou may'st not wander in that labyrinth ; 
There Minotaurs, and ugly treasons, lurk. 
Solicit Henry with her wond'rous praise : 
Bethink thee on her virtues that surmount; 
Mad, natural graces 5 that extinguish art ; 

modestly ] Old copy modesty. Corrected by the 

editor of the second folio. MALONE. 

4 To send such peevish tokens ] Peevish, for childish. 


See a note on Cymbeline, Act I. sc. vii: " He's strange and 
peevish." STEEVENS. 

5 Mad, natural graces ] So the old copy. The modern 
editors have been content to read her natural graces. By the 
word mad, however, I believe the poet only meant wild or un- 
cultivated. In the former of these significations he appears to 
have used it in Othello: 

" i he she lov'd prov'd mad." 

which Dr. Johnson has properly interpreted. We call a wild girl, 
to this day, a mad-cap. 

In Macer's Herball, practysyd by Doctor Linacre: Transla- 
ted out of Laten into Englysshe c. bl. 1. no date, the epithet 

M 2 


Repeat their semblance often on the seas, 
That, when thou com'st to kneel at Henry's feet, 
Thou may'st bereave him of his wits with wonder. 


mad seems also to be used in an uncommon sense: " The vertuc 
of this herbe [lactuca leporica] is thus : yf a hare eat of this 
herbe in somer whan he is mad, he shall be hole." 

Mad, in some of the ancient books of gardening, is used as 
an epithet to plants which grow rampant and wild, 


Pope had, perhaps, this line in his thoughts, when he wrote 

" And catch a grace beyond the reach of art." 
In The Ttvo Noble Kinsmen, 1634-, mad is used in the same man- 
ner as in the text: 

" Is it not mad lodging in these wild woods here ?" 
Again, in Nashe's Have ttttk you to Saffron Walden, 1596: 
" with manic more madde tricks of youth never plaid before." 


It is possible that Steevens may be right in asserting that the 
word mad, may have been used to express wild; but I believe it 
was never used as descriptive of excellence, or as applicable to 
grace. The passage is in truth erroneous, as is also the amend- 
ment of former editors. That which I should propose is, to read 
and, instead of mad, words that might easily have been mistaken 
for each other: 

Bethink thee of her virtues that surmount, 
And natural graces, that extinguish art. 

That is, think of her virtues that surmount art, and of her natu- 
ral graces that extinguish it. M. MASON. 

ac. m KING HENRY VL 165 


Camp of the Duke of York, in Anjou. 
Enter YORK, WARWICK, and Others. 

YORK. Bring forth that sorceress, condemned to 

Enter LA PUCELLE, guarded, and a Shepherd. 

SHEP. Ah, Joan! this kills thy father's heart 6 

outright ! 

Have I sought every country far and near, 
And, now it is my chance to find thee out, 
Must I behold thy timeless 7 cruel death ? 
Ah, Joan, sweet daughter Joan, I'll die with thee! 

Puc. Decrepit miser ! 8 base ignoble wretch] 

6 kills thy father's heart ] This phrase occurs likewise 

in King Henry V. and The Winter's Tale. STEEVENS. 

7 timeless ] is untimely. So, in Drayton's Legend of 

Robert Duke of Normandy : 

" Thy strength was buried in his timeless death." 


8 Decrepit miser!] Miser has no relation to avarice in this pas- 
sage, but simply means a miserable creature. So, in the inter- 
lude of Jacob and Esau, 1568: 

" But as for these misers within my father's tent-.'* 
Again, in Lord Sterline's tragedy of Croesus, 1604: 

" Or think'st thou me of judgement too remiss, 

" A miser that in miserie remains, 
" The bastard child of fortune, barr'd from bliss, 

" Whom heaven doth hate, and all the world disdains?'* 

Again, in Holinshed, p. 760, where he is speaking of the 

death of Richard III; " And so this miser, at the same verie 

point, had like chance and fortune," &c. Again, p. 951, among 


I am descended of a gentler blood ; 

Thou art no father, nor no friend, of mine. 

SHEP. Out, out ! My lords, an please you, 'tis 

not so ; 

I did beget her, all the parish knows : 
Her mother liveth yet, can testify, 
She was the first fruit of my bachelorship. 

WAR. Graceless! wilt thou deny thy parentage? 

YORK. This argues what her kind of life hath 

been ; 
Wicked and vile; and so her death concludes. 9 

SHEP. Fye, Joan ! that thou wilt be so obstacle I 1 
God knows, thou art a collop of my flesh ; 2 
And for thy sake have I shed many a tear: 
Deny me not, I pr'ythee, gentle Joan. 

Puc. Peasant, avaunt! You have suborn J d this 

the last words of Lord Cromwell : " for if I should so doo, I 
were a very wretch and a miser" Again, ibid: "and so 

Eatiently suffered the stroke of the ax, by a ragged and butcher- 
e miser, which ill-favouredlie performed the office.'* 


9 This argues "what her kind of life hath been; 

Wicked and vile; and so her death concludes.^] So, in this 
play, Part II. Act III. sc. iii: 

" So bad a death argues a monstrous life." STEEVENS. 

1 that thou wilt be so obstacle!] A vulgar corruption of 

obstinate, which I think has oddly lasted since our author's time 
till now. JOHNSON. 

The same corruption may be met with in Gower, and other 
writers. Thus, in Chapman's May-Day, 1611: 

" An obstacle young thing it is." 
Again, in The Tragedy of Hoffman, 1631 : 

" Be not obstacle, old duke." STEEVENS. 

* a collop of my flesh ;~\ So, in The History of Morindos 

and Miracola, 1609, quarto, bl. 1: " yet being his second 
eelfe, a collop of his own flesh" &c. RITSON. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 167 

Of purpose to obscure my noble birth. 

SHEP. 'Tis time, I gave a noble 3 to the priest, 
The morn that I was wedded to her mother. 
Kneel down and take my blessing, good my girl. 
Wilt thou not stoop ? Now cursed be the time 
Of thy nativity ! I would, the milk 
Thy mother gave thee, when thou suck'dst her 


Had been a little ratsbane for thy sake ! 
Or else, when thou didst keep my lambs a-field, 
I wish some ravenous wolf had eaten thee ! 
Dost thou deny thy father, cursed drab ? 
O, burn her, burn her j hanging is too good. 


YORK. Take her away; for she hath hVd too long* 
To fill the world with vicious qualities. 

Puc. First, let me tell you whom you have con- 

demn'd : 

Not me 4 begotten of a shepherd swain, 
But issu'd from t^e progeny of kings ; 
Virtuous, and holy j chosen from above, 
By inspiration of celestial grace, 
To work exceeding miracles on earth. 
I never had to do with wicked spirits : 
But you, that are polluted with your lusts, 
Stain'd with the guiltless blood or innocents, 
Corrupt and tainted with a thousand vices, 
Because you want the grace that others have, 
You judge it straight a thing impossible 


noble birth. 

Shep. ' Tis true, I gave a noble ] This passage seems to 
corroborate an explanation, somewhat far-fetched, which I have 
given in King Henry IV. of the nobleman and royal man. 


4 Not me ] I believe the author wrote Not one. MAI-ONE. 


To compass wonders, but by help of devils. 
No, misconceived ! 5 Joan of Arc hath been 
A virgin from her tender infancy, 
Chaste and immaculate in very thought; 
Whose maiden blood, thus rigorously effus'd, 
Will cry for vengeance at the gates of heaven. 

YORK. Ay, ay ; away with her to execution. 

WAR. And hark ye, sirs; because she is a maid, 
Spare for no fagots, let there be enough : 
Place barrels of pitch upon the fatal stake, 
That so her torture may be shortened. 

Puc. Will nothing turn your unrelenting 


Then, Joan, discover thine infirmity ; 
That warranteth by law to be thy privilege. 6 - 
I am with child, ye bloody homicides : 
Murder not then the fruit within my womb, 
Although ye hale me to a violent death. 

YORK. Now heaven forefend! the holy maid 
with child ? 

WAR. The greatest miracle that e'er ye wrought; 
Is all your strict preciseness come to this ? 

YORK. She and the Dauphin have been juggling : 
I did imagine what would be her refuge. 

WAR. Well, go to; we will have no bastards 

Especially, since Charles must father it. 

Puc. You are deceiv'd; my child is none of his; 
It was Alen9on, that enjoy'd my love. 

* No, misconceived /] i. e. No, ye misconceivers, ye who mis- 
take me and my qualities. STEEVENS. 

6 That txarranteih by latv to be thy privilege."] The useless 
words to be, which spoil the measure, are an evident interpo- 
lation. STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 169 

YORK. Alen9<m ! that notorious Machiavel ! 7 
It dies, an if it had a thousand lives. 

Puc. O, give me leave, I have deluded you ; 
'Twas neither Charles, nor yet the duke I nam'd, 
But Reignier, king of Naples, that prevailed. 

WAR. A married man ! that's most intolerable. 

YORK. Why, here's a girl ! I think, she knows 

not well, 
There were so many, whom she may accuse. 

WAR. It's sign, she hath been liberal and free. 

YORK. And yet, forsooth, she is a virgin pure. 
Strumpet, thy words condemn thy brat, and thee : 
Use no entreaty, for it is in vain. 

Puc. Then lead me hence ; with whom I leave 

my curse : 

May never glorious sun reflex his beams 
Upon the country where you make abode ! 
But darkness and the gloomy shade of death 8 

7 Alenqon ! that notorious Machiavel \~] Machiavel being men- 
tioned somewhat before his time, this line is by some of the edi- 
tors given to the players, and ejected from the text. JOHNSON. 

The character of Machiavel seems to have made so very deep 
an impression on the dramatick writers of this age, that he is 
many times as prematurely spoken of. So, in The Valiant 
Welchman, 1615, one of the characters bids Caradec, i. e. Ca~ 

" read Machiavel: 

" Princes that would aspire, must mock at hell." 
Again : 

" my brain 

?' Italianates my barren faculties 

* To Machiavelian blackness." STEEVENS. 

8 darkness and the gloomy shade of death ~] The ex- 
pression is scriptural : " Whereby the day-spring from on high 
hath visited us, to give light to them that sit in darkness and in. 
the shadow of death." MALONE. 

170 FIRST PART OF jcrr. 

Environ you ; till mischief, and despair, 
Drive you to break your necks, or hang yourselves!* 

\_Exit, guarded. ' 

YORK. Break thou in pieces, and consume to 

Thou foul accursed minister of hell ! 

Enter Cardinal BEAUFORT, attended. 

CAR. Lord regent, I do greet your excellence 
With letters of commission from the king. 
For know, my lords, the states of Christendom, 
Mov'd with remorse 1 of these outrageous broils, 
Have earnestly implor'd a general peace 
Betwixt our nation and the aspiring French ; 
And here at hand the Dauphin, and his train, 
Approacheth, to confer about some matter. 

YORK. Is all our travail turn'd to this effect ? 
After the slaughter of so many peers, 
So many captains, gentlemen, and soldiers, 
That in this quarrel have been overthrown, 
And sold their bodies for their country's benefit, 
Shall we at last conclude effeminate peace ? 
Have we not lost most part of all the towns, 
By treason, falsehood, and by treachery, 
Our great progenitors had conquered ? 

9 till mischief, and despair, 

Drive you to break your necks, or hang yourselves /"] Per- 
haps Shakspeare intended to remark, in this execration, the fre- 
quency of suicide among the English, which has been common- 
ly imputed to the gloominess of their air. JOHNSON. 

1 remorse 3 * e> compassion, pity. So, in Measure 
for Measure : 

" If so your heart were touch'd with that remorse 
" As mine is to him." STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 171 

O, Warwick, Warwick ! I foresee with grief 
The utter loss of all the realm of France. 

WAR. Be patient, York : if we conclude a peace, 
It shall be with such strict and severe covenants, 
As little shall the Frenchmen gain thereby. 

Enter CHARLES, attended ; ALENCON, Bastard, 
REIGNIER, and Others. 

CHAR. Since, lords of England, it is thus agreed, 
That peaceful truce shall be proclaim'd in France, 
We come to be informed by yourselves 
What the conditions of that league must be. 

YORK. Speak, 'Winchester ; for boiling choler 


The hollow passage of my poison' d voice, 2 
By sight of these our baleful enemies. 3 

WIN. Charles, and the rest, it is enacted thus : 
That in regard king Henry gives consent, 
Of mere compassion, and of lenity, 
To ease your country of distressful war, 
And suffer you to breathe in fruitful peace, 
You shall become true liegemen to his crown : 

* poison'd voice,~\ Poisoned voice agrees well enough with 

baneful enemies, or with baleful, if it can be used in the same 
sense. The modern editors read prison' d voice. JOHNSON. 

Prison'd was introduced by Mr. Pope. MALONE. 

3 baleful enemies.~\ Baleful is sorrotvful ; I therefore ra- 
ther imagine that we should read baneful, hurtful, or mischiev- 
ous. JOHNSON. 

Baleful had anciently the same meaning as baneful. It is an 
epithet very frequently bestowed on poisonous plants and rep- 
tiles. So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

*' With baleful weeds, and precious-juiced flowers.'* 



And, Charles, upon condition thou wilt swear 
To pay him tribute, and submit thyself, 
Thou shalt be plac'd as viceroy under him, 
And still enjoy thy regal dignity. 

ALEN. Must he be then as shadow of himself? 
Adorn his temples with a coronet ; 4 
And yet, in substance and authority, 
Retain but privilege of a private man ? 
This proffer is absurd and reasonless. 

CHAR. 'Tis known, already that I am possess'd 
With more than half the Gallian territories, 
And therein reverenc'd for their lawful king : 
Shall I, for lucre of the rest unvanquish'd, 
Detract so much from that prerogative, 
As to be call'd but viceroy of the whole ? 
No, lord ambassador ; I'll rather keep 
That which I have, than, coveting for more, 
Be cast from possibility of all. 

YORK. Insulting Charles! hast thou by secret 


Used intercession to obtain a league ; 
And, now the matter grows to compromise, 
Stand' st thou aloof upon comparison ? 5 
Either accept the title thou usurp'st, 

4 tuitk a coronet ;] Coronet is here used for a crown. 


So, in King Lear : 

" which to confirm, 

" This coronet part between you." 

These are the words of Lear, when he gives up his crown to 
Cornwall and Albany. STEEVENS. 

s upon comparison?] Do you stand to compare your 

present state, a state which you have neither right or power to 
maintain, with the terms which we offer ? JOHNSON. 


Of benefit 6 proceeding from our king,. 

And not of any challenge of desert, 

Or we will plague thee with incessant wars. 

REIG. My lord, you do not well in obstinacy 
To cavil in the course of this contract : 
If once it be neglected, ten to one, 
We shall not find like opportunity. 

ALEN. To say the truth, it is your policy* 
To save your subjects from such massacre, 
And ruthless slaughters, as are daily seen 
By our proceeding in hostility i 
And therefore take this compact of a truce, 
Although you break it when your pleasure serves. 

\_Aside, to CHARLES. 

WAR. How say'st thou, Charles ? shall our con- 
dition stand ? 

CHAR. It shall : 

Only reserved, you claim no interest 
In any of our towns of garrison. 

YORK. Then swear allegiance to his majesty ; 
As thou art knight, never to disobey, 
Nor be rebellious to the crown of England, 
Thou, nor thy nobles, to the crown of England. 
[CHARLES, and the rest, give Tokens of fealty* 
So, now dismiss your army when ye please ; 
Hang up your ensigns, let your drums be still, 
For here we entertain a solemn peace. \Exeunt. 

6 accept the title thou usurp'st, 

Of benefit ] Benefit is here a term of law. Be content 
to live as the beneficiary of our king. JOHNSON. 

174 FIRST PART OF Acrr. 


London. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter King HENRY, in conference with SUFFOLK ; 
GLOSTER and EXETER following. 

K. HEN. Your wond'rous rare description, noble 


Of beauteous Margaret hath astonished me : 
Her virtues, graced with external gifts, 
Do breed love's settled passions in my heart : 
And like as rigour in tempestuous gusts 
Provokes the mightiest hulk against the tide ; 
So am I driven, 7 by breath of her renown, 
Either to suffer shipwreck, or arrive 
Where I may have fruition of her love. 

SUF. Tush ! my good lord 1 this superficial tale 
Is but a preface of her worthy praise r 
The chief perfections of that lovely dame, 
(Had I sufficient skill to utter them,) 
Would make a volume of enticing lines, 
Able to ravish any dull conceit. 
And, which is more, she is not so divine, 
So full replete with choice of all delights, 
But, with as humble lowliness of mind, 
She is content to be at your command ; 
Command, I mean, of virtuous chaste intents, 
To love and honour Henry as her lord. 

7 So am I driven,^ This simile is somewhat obscure ; he 
seems to mean, that as a ship is driven against the tide by the 
wind, so he is driven by love against the current of his interest. 


sc. r. KING HENRY VI. 175 

K. HEN. And otherwise will Henry ne'er pre- 

Therefore, my lord protector, give consent, 
That Margaret may be England's royal queen. 

GLO. So should I give consent to flatter sin. 
You know, my lord, your highness is betroth'd 
Unto another lady of esteem ; 
How shall we then dispense with that contract, 
And not deface your honour with reproach ? 

SUP. As doth a ruler with unlawful oaths ; 
Or one, that, at a triumph 8 having vow'd 
To try his strength, forsaketh yet the lists 
By reason of his adversary's odds : 
A poor earl's daughter is unequal odds, 
And therefore may be broke without offence. 

GLO. Why, what, I pray, is Margaret more than 

that ? 

Her father is no better than an earl, 
Although in glorious titles he excel. 

SUF. Yes, my good lord, 9 her father is a king, 
The king of Naples, and Jerusalem ; 
And of such great authority in France, 
As his alliance will confirm our peace, 
And keep the Frenchmen in allegiance. 

* at a triumph ] That is, at the sports at which a 

triumph is celebrated. JOHNSON. 

A triumph, in the age of Shakspeare, signified a public exhibi- 
tion, such as a mask, a revel, &c. Thus, in King Richard II : 
" What news from Oxford ? hold those justs and triumphs?" 


See A Midsummer-Night 1 s Dream, Vol. IV. p. 318, n. 5. 


9 my good lord,~] Good, which is not in the old copy, 

was added for the sake of the metre, in the second folio. 



GLO. And so the earl of Armagnac may do, 
Because he is near kinsman unto Charles. 

EXE. Beside, his wealth doth warrant liberal 

dower ; 
While Reignier sooner will receive, than give. 

SUF. A dower, my lords ! disgrace not so your 


That he should be so abject, base, and poor, 
To choose for wealth, and not for perfect love. 
Henry is able to enrich his queen, 
And not to seek a queen to make him rich : 
So worthless peasants bargain for their wives, 
As market-men for oxen, sheep, or horse. 
Marriage is a matter of more worth, 
Than to be dealt in by attorneyship ;* 
Not whom we will, but whom his grace affects, 
Must be companion of his nuptial bed : 
And therefore, lords, since he affects her most, 
It most 2 of all these reasons bindeth us, 
In our opinions she should be preferred. 
For what is wedlock forced, but a hell, 
An age of discord and continual strife ? 
Whereas the contrary bringeth forth bliss, 5 

1 by attorneyship ;~\ By the intervention of another 

man's choice; or the discretional agency of another. JOHNSON. 

This is a phrase of which Shakspeare is peculiarly fond. It oc- 
curs twice in King Richard III ; 

" Be the attorney of my love to her." 
Again : 

" I, by attorney, bless thee from thy mother." STEE VENS. 
* It most ] The word It , which is wanting in the old copy, 
was inserted by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

3 Whereas the contrary bringeth forth bliss,"] The word 
forth, which is not in the first folio, was supplied, I think, un- 
necessarily, by the second. Contrary was, I believe, used by the 
author as a quadrisyllable, as if it were written conterary ; ac- 
cording to which pronunciation the metre is not defective : 

to. r. KING HENRY VI. 177 

And is a pattern of celestial peace. 
Whom should we match, with Henry, being a king, 
But Margaret, that is daughter to a king ? 
Her peerless feature, joined with her birth, 
Approves her fit for none, but for u king : 
Her valiant courage, and undaunted spirit, 
(More than in women commonly is seen,) 
Will answer our hope in issue of a king ;* 
For Henry, son unto a conqueror, 
Is likely to beget more conquerors, 
If with a lady of so high resolve, 
As is fair Margaret, he be link'd in love. 
Then yield, my lords ; and here conclude with me, 
That Margaret shall be queen, and none but she. 
K. HEN. Whether it be through force of your 


My noble lord of Suffolk ; or for that 
My tender youth was never yet attaint 
With any passion of inflaming love, 
I cannot tell : but this I am assur'd, 
I feel such sharp dissention in my breast, 
Such fierce alarums both of hope and fear, 
As I am sick with working of my thoughts. 3 

Whereas the conterary bringeth bliss. 

In the same manner Shakspeare frequently uses Henry as a 
trisyllable, and hour andjire as dissyllables. See Vol. IV. p. 201, 
n. 5. MALONE. 

I have little confidence in this remark. Such a pronunciation 
of the word contrary is, perhaps, without example. Hour and 
Jire were anciently written, as dissyllables, viz. howerjier. 


4 Will answer our hope in issue of a king;~\ The useless word 
our, which destroys the harmony of this line, I suppose ought 
to be omitted. STEEVENS. 

s As I am sick with working of my thoughts.] So, in Shak- 
speare's King Henry V : 

" Work, work your thoughts, and therein see a siege." 



Take, therefore, shipping; post,mylord, to France; 

Agree to any covenants: and procure 

That lady Margaret do vouchsafe to come 

To cross the seas to England, and be crown* d 

King Henry's faithful and anointed queen : 

For your expences and sufficient charge, 

Among the people gather up a tenth. 

Be gone, I say ; for, till you do return, 

I rest perplexed with a thousand cares. 

And you, good uncle, banish all offence : 

If you do censure me by what you were, 6 

Not what you are, I know it will excuse 

This sudden execution of my will. 

And so conduct me, where from company, 

I may revolve and ruminate my grief. 7 [Exit. 

GLO. Ay, grief, I fear me, both at first and last. 
[Exeunt GLOSTER and EXETER. 

SUF. Thus Suffolk hath prevail' d : and thus he 


As did the youthful Paris once to Greece ; 
With hope to find the like event in love, 
But prosper better than the Trojan did. 
Margaret shall now be queen, and rule the king ; 
But I will rule both her, the king, and realm. 

c If you do censure me &c.] To censure is here simply to judge, 
If in judging me you consider the past frailties of your oivn 
youth. JOHNSON. 

See Vol. IV. p. 190, n. 4*. MALONE. 

7 - ruminate my grief.] Grief in the first line is taken ge- 
nerally for pain or uneasiness; in the second specially for sorrow. 


*, 8 Of this play there is no copy earlier than that of the folio in 
1623, though the two succeeding parts are extant in two edi- 
tions iff quarto. That the second and third parts were published 
without the first, may be admitted as no weak proof that the 


copies were surreptitiously obtained, and that the printers of that 
time gave the publick those plays, not such as the author designed, 
but such as they could get them. That this play was written 
before the two others is indubitably collected from the series of 
events ; that it was written and played before Henry the Fifth"\s 
apparent, because in the epilogue there is mention made of this 
play, and not of the other parts : 

" Henry the sixth in swaddling bands crown'd king, 
" Whose state so many had the managing, 
" That they lost France, and made his England bleed: 
" Which oft our stage hath shown." 

France is lost in this play. The two following contain, as the 
old title imports, the contention of the houses of York and Lan- 

The second and third parts of Henry F/.were printed in 1600. 
When Henry V. was written, we know not, but it was printed 
likewise in 1600, and therefore before the publication of the first 
and second parts. The first part of Henry VI. had been often 
shown on the stage, and would certainly have appeared in its 
place, had the author been the publisher. JOHNSON. 

That the second and third parts (as they are now called) were 
printed without the first, is a proof, in my apprehension, that 
they were not written by the author of the first : and the title of 
The Contention of the Houses of York and Lancaster, being 
affixed to the two pieces which were printed in quarto 1600, is 
a proof that they were a distinct work, commencing where the 
other ended, but not written at the same time ; and that this 
play was never known by the name of Thejtrst Part of King 
Henry VI. till Heminge and Condell gave it this title in their 
volume, to distinguish it from the two subsequent plays ; which 
being altered by Shakspeare, assumed the new titles of The 
Second and Third Parts of King Henry VI. that they might not 
be confounded with the original pieces on which they were 
formed. This first part was, I conceive, originally called The 
Historical Play of King Henry VI. See the Essay at the end 
of these contested pieces. MALONE, 

N 2 


* SECOND PART OF KING HENRY VI.] This and The Third 
Part of King Henry VI. contain that troublesome period of this 
prince's reign which took in the whole contention betwixt the 
houses of York and Lancaster: and under that title were these 
two plays first acted and published. The present scene opens 
with King Henry's marriage, which was in the twenty-third 
year of his reign [A. D. 1445 :] and closes with the first battle 
fought at St. Albans, and won by the York faction, in the thirty- 
third year of his reign [A. D. 1455]: so that it comprizes the 
history and transactions of ten years. THEOBALD. 

This play was altered by Croune, and acted in the year 1681. 


In a note prefixed to the preceding play, I have briefly stated 
my opinion concerning the drama now before us, and that which 
follows it ; to which the original editors of Shakspeare's works 
in folio have given the titles of The Second and Third Parts of 
King Henry VI. 

The Contention of the Two famous Houses of Yorke and Lan- 
caster in two parts, was published in quarto, in 1600 ; and the 
first part was entered on the Stationers' books, (as Mr. Steevens 
has observed,) March 12, 1593-4. On these two plays, which 
I believe to have been written by some preceding author, before 
the year 1590, Shakspeare formed, as I conceive, this and the 
following drama; altering, retrenching, or amplifying, as he 
thought proper. The reasons on which this hypothesis is founded, 
I shall subjoin at large at the end of The Third Part of King 
Henry VI. At present it is only necessary to apprize the reader 
of the method observed in the printing of these plays. All the 
lines printed in the usual manner, are found in the original quarto 
plays ( or at least with such minute variations as are not worth 
noticing) : and those, I conceive, Shakspeare adopted as he found 
them. The lines to which inverted commas are prefixed, were, 
if my hypothesis be well founded, retouched, and greatly im- 
proved by him ; and those with asterisks were his own original 
production ; the embroidery with which he ornamented the 
coarse stuff that had been aukwardly made up for the stage by 
some of his contemporaries. The speeches which he new-mo- 
delled, he improved, sometimes by amplification, and sometimes 
by retrenchment. 

These two pieces, I imagine, were produced in their present 
form in 1591. See An Attempt to ascertain the Order of Shak- 
speare's Plays, Vol. II. and the Dissertation at the end of The 
Third Part of King Henry VI. Dr. Johnson observes very 
justly, that these two parts were not written without a depen- 
dance on the first. Undoubtedly not ; the old play of King 

Henry VI. (or, as it is now called, The First Part,) certainly 
had been exhibited before these were written in any form. But 
it does not follow from this concession, either that The Con- 
tention of the Two Houses, &c. in two parts, was written by the 
author of the former play, or that Shakspeare was the author of 
these two pieces as they originally appeared. MALONE. 


King Henry the Sixth : 

Humphrey, Duke o/Gloster, his Uncle. 

Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, great 

Uncle to the King. 

Richard Plantagenet, Duke o/* York : 
Edward and Richard, his Sons. 
Duke of Somerset, "\ 

Duke (/Suffolk, / 

Duke of Buckingham, \oftlie King's Party. 
Lord Clifford, I 

Young Clifford, his Son, / 

Earl of Salisbury, 7 ,, ,, v 1 ^ ,. 

i? i f\ir i > of the York Faction. 

Earl of Warwick, J 

Lord Scales, Governour of the Tower. Lord Say. 
Sir Humphrey Stafford, and his Brother. Sir John 

A Sea-captain, Master, and Master's Mate, and 

Walter Whitmore. 

Two Gentlemen, Prisoners with Suffolk. 
A Herald. Vaux. 
Hume and Southwell, Two Priests. 
Bolingbroke, a Conjurer. A Spirit raised by hint. 
Thomas Homer, an Armourer. Peter, his Man. 
Clerk of Chatham. Mayor of Saint Alban's. 
Simpcox, an Impostor. Two Murderers. 
Jack Cade, a Rebel : 
George, John, Dick Smith the Weaver, Michael, 

<$c. his Followers. 
Alexander Iden, a Kentish Gentleman. 

Margaret, Queen to King Henry. 

Eleanor, Duchess o/Gloster. 

Margery Jourdain, a Witch. Wife to Simpcox. 

Lords, Ladies, fy Attendants ; Petitioners, Aldermen, 
a Beadle, Sheriff, fy Officers; Citizens, Prentices^ 
Falconers, Guards, Soldiers, Messengers, 8$c. 

SCENE, dispersedly in various Parts of England. 



London. A Room of State in the Palace. 

Flourish of Trumpets : then Hautboys. Enter, on one 
side, King HENRY, Duke O/*(JLOSTER, SALIS- 
BURY, WARWICK, and Cardinal BEAUFORT ; on the 
other, Queen MARGARET, led in by SUFFOLK ; 

SUF. As by your high 1 imperial majesty 
I had in charge at my depart for France, 
As procurator to your excellence, 2 

1 As by your high &c.] Vide Hall's Chronicle, fol. 66, year 
23, init. POPE. 

It is apparent that this play begins where the former ends, and 
continues the series of transactions of which it presupposes the 
first part already known. This is a sufficient proof that the se- 
cond and third parts were not written without dependance 
on the first, though they were printed as containing a complete 
period of history. JOHNSON. 

8 As procurator to your excellence, &c.] So, in Holinshed, 
p. 625 : " The marquesse of Suffolk, as procurator to king Hen- 
rie, espoused the said ladie in the church of Saint Martins. At 
the which marriage were present the father and mother of the 
bride; the French king himself that was uncle to the husband, 


To marry princess Margaret for your grace ; 
So, in the famous ancient city, Tours, 
In presence of the kings of France and Sicil, 
The dukes of Orleans, Calaber, Bretaigne, and 

Seven earls, twelve barons, twenty reverend bi- 


I have perform'd my task, and was espous'd : 
And humbly now upon my bended knee, 
In sight of England and her lordly peers, 
Deliver up my title in the queen 
To your most gracious hands,that are 5 the substance 
Of that great shadow I did represent ; 
The happiest gift that ever marquess gave, 
The fairest queen that ever king receiv'd. 

K. HEN. Suffolk, arise. Welcome, queen Mar- 
garet : 

I can express no kinder sign of love, 
Than this kind kiss. O Lord, that lends me life, 
Lend me a heart replete with thankfulness ! 
For thou hast given me, in this beauteous face, 
' A world of earthly blessings to my soul, 
* If sympathy of love unite our thoughts. 

' Q. MAR. Great king of England, and my gra- 
cious lord 5 

and the French queen also that was aunt to the wife. There 
were also the dukes of Orleance, of Calabre, of Alanson, and 
of Britaine, seaVen earles, twelve barons, twenty bishops," &c. 


This passage Holinshed transcribed verbatim from Hall. 


* that are ] i. e. to the gracious hands of you, my so- 
vereign, who are, &c. In the old play the line stands : 
" Unto your gracious excellence that.are" &c. 


se. i. KING HENRY VI. 187 

' The mutual conference 4 that my mind hath had 
' By day, by night; waking, and in my dreams; 
' In .courtly company, or at my beads, 
<~ With you mine alder-liefest sovereign, 5 
' Makes me the bolder to salute my king 
' With ruder terms j such as my wit affords, 
' And over-joy of heart doth minister. 

' K. HEN. Her sight did ravish : but her grace in 


* Her words y-clad with wisdom's majesty, 
' Makes mejfronrwondering, fall to weeping joys j 6 

\ * The mutual conference ] I am the bolder to address you, 
having already familiarized you to my imagination. JOHNSON. 

4 mine alder-liefest sovereign,'] Alder-lievest is an old 

English word given to him to whom the speaker is supremely at- 
tached : lievest being the superlative of the comparative levar, 
rather, from lief. So, Hall in his Chronicle, Henry VI. folio 12: 
" Ryght hyghe and mighty prince, and my ryght noble, and, 
after one, levest lord." WARBURTON. 

Alder-liefest is a corruption of the German word alder-liebste t 
beloved above all things, dearest of all. 

The word is used by Chaucer ; and is put by Marston into the 
mouth of his Dutch courtesan : 

" O mine alder-liefest love." 
Again : 

" pretty sweetheart of mine alder-liefest affection." 

Again, in Gascoigne : 

" and to mine alder-lievest lord I must indite.'* 
See Mr. Tyrwhitt's Glossary to Chaucer. Leve or lefe, Sax, 
dear; AlderorAller,gen.csi.p\.ofalL STEEVENS. 

6 Makes me, from "wondering, fall to weeping joys;] This 
weeping joy, of which there is no trace in the original play, 
Shakspeare was extremely fond of; having introduced it in 
Much Ado about Nothing, King Richard II. Macbeth, andging 
Lear. This and the preceding speech stand thus in the original 
play in quarto. I transcribe them, that the reader may be the 
better able to judge concerning my hypothesis ; and shall quote 
'few other passages for the same purpose. To exhibit all the 
speeches that Shakspeare has altered, would be almost to print, 
the two plays, twice: 


1 Such is the fulness of my heart's content. 
' Lords, with one cheerful voice welcome my love. 

ALL. Long live queen Margaret, England's hap- 
piness ! 

Q. MAR. We thank you all. [Flourish. 

SUF. My lord protector, so it please your grace, 
Here are the articles of contracted peace, 
Between our sovereign and the French king Charles, 
' For eighteen months concluded by consent. 

GLO. \_Reads.~\ Imprimis, It is agreed between 
the French king, Charles, and William de la Poole, 
marquess of Suffolk, ambassador for Henry king of 
England, that the said Henry shall espouse the lady 
Margaret, daughter unto Reignier king of Naples, 
Sicilia, and Jerusalem ; and crown her queen of 

Eng land, ere the thirtieth of May next ensuing. 

Item, That the dutchy ofAnjou and, the county of 
Maine,' 1 shall be released and delivered to the king 
her father 

" Queen. The excessive love I bear unto your grace, 
" Forbids me to be lavish of my tongue, 
" Lest I should speake more than beseems a woman. 
" Let this suffice ; my bliss is in your liking ; 
" And nothing can make poor Margaret miserable 
" Unless the frowne of mightie England's king. 

" Fr. King. Her lookes did wound, but now her speech 

doth pierce. 

" Lovely queen Margaret, sit down by my side ; 
" And uncle Gloster, and you lordly peeres, 
" With one voice welcome my beloved queen." 


7 and the county of Maine, ,] So the chronicles; yet 
when the Cardinal afterwards reads this article, he says : " It is 
further agreed that the dutchies of Anjoy and Maine shall be 
released and delivered over," &c. But the words in the instru- 
ment could not thus vary, whilst it was passing from the hands 
of the Duke to those of the Cardinal. For the inaccuracy Shak- 
speare must answer, the author of the original play not having 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 189 

K. HEN. Uncle, how now ? 

GLO. Pardon me, gracious lord ; 

Some sudden qualm hath struck me at the heart, 
And dimm'd mine eyes, that I can read no further. 

K. HEN. Uncle of Winchester, I pray, read on. 

WIN. Item, It is further agreed between them, 
that the dutchies of Anjou and Maine shall be re- 
leased and delivered over to the king her father; and 
she sent over of the king of England's own proper 
cost and charges, without having dowry. 

K. HEN. They please us well. Lord marquess, 

kneel down ; 

We here create thee the first duke of Suffolk, 
And girt thee with the sword. 
Cousin of York, we here discharge your grace 
From being regent in the parts of France, 
Till term of eighteen months be full expir'd. 
Thanks, uncle Winchester, Gloster, York, and 


Somerset, Salisbury, and Warwick ; 
We thank you all for this great favour done, 
In entertainment to my princely queen. 
Come, let us in ; and with all speed provide 
To see her coronation be performed. 

\_Exeunt King, Queen, and SUFFOLK. 

GLO. Brave peers of England, pillars of the state, 
' To you duke Humphrey must unload his grief, 
' Your grief, the common grief of all the land. 
' What ! did my brother Henry spend his youth, 
' His valour, coin, and people, in the wars ? 

been guilty of it. This kind of inaccuracy is, I believe, pecu- 
liar to our poet ; for I have never met with any thing similar in 
any other writer. He has again fallen into the same impropriety 
in All's well thtit ends well. MALONB. 


e Did he so often lodge in open field, 

c In winter's cold, and summer's parching heat, 

e To conquer France, his true inheritance? ' 

* And did my brother Bedford toil his wits, 
e To keep by policy what Henry got ? 

c Have you yourselves, Somerset, Buckingham, 
e Brave York, Salisbury, and victorious Warwick, 
' Receiv'd deep scars in France and Normandy ? 

* Or hath my uncle Beaufort, and myself, 

* With all the learned council of the realm, 
' Studied so long, sat in the cpuncil-house,_ 

* Early and late, debating to and fro 

f How France and Frenchmen might be kept in awe? 

' And hath his highness in his infancy 

' Been crown'd 7 in Paris, in despite of foes ? 

' And shall these labours, and these honours, die? 

* Shall Henry's conquest, Bedford's vigilance, 

* Your deeds of war, and all our counsel, die ? 
' O peers of England, shameful is this league ! 

* Fatal this marriage, cancelling your fame : 

* Blotting your names from books of memory : 

* Razing the characters of your renown ; 

* Defacing monuments of conquered France ; 

* Undoing all, as all had never been ! 

6 CAU. Nephew, what means this passionate dis- 

course ? 

* This peroration with such circumstance ? 8 
.' For France, 'tis ours ; and we will keep it still. 

* GLQ. Ay, uncle, we will keep it, if we can ; 

* But now it is impossible we should : 
Suffolk, the new-made duke that rules the roast, 
' Hath given the dutchies of Anjou and Maine 

7 Been crown'd ] The word Been was supplied by Mr. 
fJteevens. MALONE. 

* This peroration taith such circumstance ?"] This speech 
crouded with so many instances of aggravation. JOHNSON* 


* Unto the poor king Reignier, whose large style 

* Agrees not with the leanness of his purse. 9 t * 

* SAL. Now, by the death of him that died for 


* These counties were the keys of Normandy : 
But wherefore weeps Warwick, my valiant son ? 

c WAR. For grief, that they are past recovery : 
' For, were there hope to conquer them again, 

* My sword should shed hot blood, mine eyes no 


' Anjou and Maine ! myself did win them both ; 
' Those provinces these arms of mine did conquer: 
' And are the cities, 1 that I got with wounds, 

* Deliver' d up again with peaceful words ? 
Mort Dieu ! 

* YORK. For Suffolk's duke may hebe suffocate, 

* That dims the honour of this warlike isle ! 

* France should have torn and rent my very heart, 

* Before I would have yielded to this league. 
' I never read but England's kings have had 

' Large sums of gold, and dowries, with their wives: 
c And our king Henry gives away his own, 
' To match with her tha.t .brings no vantages. 

* GLO. A proper jest, and never heard before, 

* That Suffolk should demand a whole fifteenfH, 

9 whose large style 

Agrees not with the leanness of his purse."} So Holinshed: 
" King Reigner hir father, for all his long stile y had too short a 
gurse to send his daughter honourably to the king hir spowse.*-' 


1 And are the cities, &c.] The indignation of Warwick is na- 
tural, and I wish it had been better expressed; there is a kincl fef 
jingle intended in wounds and words. JOHNSON. 

In the old play the jingle is more striking. " And must that 
then which we won with our swords t be given away witjh 
.voords?'* MALONE. 


* For costs and charges in transporting her ! 

* She should have staid in France, and starv'd in 


* Before 

* CAR. My lord of Gloster, now you grow too 


* It was the pleasure of my lord the king. 

* GLO. My lord of Winchester, I know your 


* 'Tis not my speeches that you do mislike, 

c But 'tis my presence that doth trouble you. 

* Rancour will out : Proud prelate, in thy face 
' I see thy fury : if I longer stay, 

* We shall begin our ancient bickerings. 2 
Lordings, farewell ; and say, when I am gone, 

I prophesied France will be lost ere long. [Exitt 

CAR. So, there goes our protector in a rage. 
'Tis known to you, he is mine enemy : 

* Nay, more, an enemy unto you all ; 

* And no great friend, I fear me, to the king. 

1 bickerings."] To bicker is to skirmish. In the ancient 

metrical romance of Guy Earl of Warwick, bl. 1. no date, the 
heroes consult whether they should bicker on the walls, or de- 
scend to battle on the plain. Again, in the genuine ballad of 
Chevy Chace : 

" Bomen bickarte upon the bent 

" With their browd aras cleare." 
Again, in Drayton's Polyolbion, Song 9 : 

" From bickering with his folk to keep us Britains back." 
Again, in The Spanish Masquerade, by Greene, 1589: " sun- 
dry times bickered with our men, and gave them the foyle." 
Again, in Holinshed, p. 537: "At another bickering also it 
chanced that the Englishmen had the upper hand.'* Again, 
p. 572 : " At first there was a sharp bickering betwixt them, 
but in the end victorie remained with the Englishmen." 'Levi 
pugna congredior, is the expression by which Barrett in hisAlvea- 
rie y or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, explains the word to bicker. 


sc. i. KING HENRY VL 193 

* Consider, lords, he is the next of blood, 

* And heir apparent to the English crown ; 

* Had Henry got an empire by his marriage, 

* And all the wealthy kingdoms of the west, 3 

* There's reason he should be displeas'd at it. 

* Look to it, lords ; let not his smoothing words 

* Bewitch your hearts ; be wise, and circumspect. 
4 What though the common people favour him, 

* Calling him Humphrey, thegoodduke ofGloster; 

* Clapping their hands, and crying withloud voice 
c Jesu maintain your royal excellence! 

' With God preserve the good duke Humphrey! 

* I fear me, lords, for all this flattering gloss, 

* He will be found a dangerous protector. 

* BUCK. Why should he then protect our sove- 


* He being of age to govern of himself? 
' Cousin of Somerset, join you with me, 

' And all together with the duke of Suffolk, 

* We'll quickly hoise duke Humphrey from his seat. 

* CAR. This weighty business will not brook de- 

lay ; 

* I'll to the duke of Suffolk presently. [Exit. 

* Sou. Cousin of Buckingham, though Hum- 

phrey's pride, 

* And greatness of his place be grief to us, 
' Yet let us watch the haughty cardinal ; 

' His insolence is more intolerable 

' Than all the princes in the land beside ; 

' If Gloster be displac'd, he'll be protector. 

3 And all the "wealthy kingdoms of the ivest,'] Certainly Shak- 
peare wrote east. WARBURTON. 

There are wealthy kingdoms in the 'west as well as in the east, 
and the western kingdoms were more likely to be in the thought 
of the speaker. JOHNSON. 



SUCK. Or thou, or I, Somerset, will be protector, 
* Despight duke Humphrey, or the cardinal. 


SAL. Pride went before, ambition follows him.* 
c While these do labour for their own preferment, 
Behoves it us to labour for the realm. 
I never saw but Humphrey duke of Gloster 
Did bear him like a noble gentleman. 
Oft have I seen the haughty cardinal 
More like a soldier, than a man o'the church, 
As stout, and proud, as he were lord of all, 
Swear like a ruffian, and demean himself 
Unlike the ruler of a common-weal. 
' Warwick, my son, the comfort of my age ! 
c Thy deeds, thy plainness, and thy house-keeping, 
' Hath won the greatest favour of the commons, 
' Excepting none but good duke Humphrey. 
6 And, brother York, 5 thy acts in Ireland, 
4 In bringing them to civil discipline ; 6 

4 Pride went before, ambition follows him.~\ Perhaps in this 
line there is somewhat of proverbiality. Thus, in A. of Wyn- 
town's Cronykil, B. VIII. ch. xxvii. v. 177 : 

" Awld men in thare provverbe sayis, 

* Pryde gays befor, and schame alwayis 

" Follffivys" &c. STEEVENS. 

So, in Proverbs, xvi. 18 : " Pride goeth before destruction, 
and an haughty spirit before a fall." HARRIS. 

* And, brother York,~] Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, 
married Cicely, the daughter of Ralf Nevil, Earl of Westmore- 
land. Richard Nevil, Earl of Salisbury, was son to the Earl of 
Westmoreland by a second wife. He married Alice, the only 
daughter of Thomas Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, who wa& 
killed at the siege of Orleans [See this play, Part I. Act. I. sc. 
iii.] ; and in consequence of that alliance obtained the title of 
Salisbury in 1428. His eldest son Richard, having married the 
fcister and heir of Henry Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, was cre- 
ated Earl of Warwick in 1449. MALONE. 

6 to civil discipline ;] This is an anachronism. The pre- 
sent scene is in 14-45, but Richard Duke of York was not viceroy 
of Ireland till 1449. MALONE. 

sc. r. KING HENRY VI. 195 

* Thy late exploits, done in the heart of France, 
' When thou wert regent for our sovereign, 

' Have made thee fear'd, and honoured, of the peo- 
ple : 

* Join we together, for the publick good ; 

* In what we can to bridle and suppress 
' The pride of Suffolk, and the cardinal, 

* With Somerset's and Buckingham's ambition ; 

* And, as we may, cherish duke Humphrey's deeds, 
' While they do tend the profit of the land. 7 

* WAR. So God help Warwick, as he loves the 


* And common profit of his country ! 

* YORK. And so says York, for he hath greatest 


SAL. Then let's make haste away, and look unto 
the main. 8 

WAR. Unto the main ! O father, Maine is lost ; 
That Maine, which by main force Warwick did 

* And would have kept, so long as breath did last : 
Main chance, father, you meant; but I meant Maine; 
Which I will win from France, or else be slain. 


7 the profit of the land.~\ I think we might read, more 

clearly to profit of" the land i. e. to profit themselves by it ; 
unless 'tend be written for attend, as in King Richard II : 

" They tend the crowne, yet still with me they stay." 


Perhaps tend has here the same meaning as tender in the sub- 
sequent scene : 

" I tender so the safety of my liege.'* 

Or it may have been put for intend; while they have the ad- 
vantage of the commonwealth as their object. MALONE. 

* Then let's &c.] The quarto without such redundancy 
" Come, sonnes, away, and looke unto the maine." 


o 2 


YORK. Anjou and Maine aregiven to the French ; 

* Paris is lost ; the state of Normandy 

* Stands on a tickle point, 9 now they are gone : 

* Suffolk concluded on the articles ; 

* The peers agreed ; and Henry was well pleas'd, 

* To change two dukedoms for a duke's fair daugh- 


* I cannot blame them all ; What is't to them ? 

* 'Tis thine they give away, and not their own. 

* Pirates may make cheap pennyworths of their 


* And purchase friends, and give to courtezans, 

* Still revelling, like lords, till all be gone : 

* While as the silly owner of the goods 

* Weeps over them, and wrings his hapless hands, 

* And shakes his head, and trembling stands aloof, 

* While all is shar'd, and all is borne away ; 

* Ready to starve, and dare not touch his own. 

* So York must sit, and fret, and bite his tongue, 

* While his own lands are bargain'd for, and sold, 

* Methinks, the realms of England, France, and 


* Bear that proportion to my flesh and blood, 

* As did the fatal brand Althea burn'd, 

* Unto the prince's heart of Calydon. 1 

9 on a tickle point 9 "\ Tickle is very frequently used for 

ticklish by poets contemporary with Shakspeare. So, Heywood 
in his Epigrams on Proverbs, 1562 : 

" Time is tickell, we may matche time in this, 

" For be even as tickell as time is.' r 
Again, in Jeronymo, 1605 : 

" Now stands our fortune on a tickle point." 
Again, in Soliman and Perseda, 1599: 

" The rest by turning of my tickle wheel." STEEVENS. 

1 the prince's heart ofCalydon."] Meleager. STEEVENS. 

According to the fable, Meleager's life was to continue only 


Anjou and Maine, both given unto the French ! 

Cold news for me ; for I had hope of France, 

Even as I have of fertile England's soil. 

A day will come, when York shall claim his own ; 

And therefore I will take the Nevils' parts, 

And make a show of love to proud duke Humphrey, 

And, when I spy advantage, claim the crown, 

For that's the golden mark I seek to hit : 

Nor shall proud Lancaster usurp my right, 

Nor hold his scepter in his childish fist, 

Nor wear the diadem upon his head, 

Whose church-like humours fit not for a crown. 

Then, York, be still awhile, till time do serve : 

Watch thou, and wake, when others be asleep, 

To pry into the secrets of the state ; 

Till Henry, surfeiting in joys of love, 

With his new bride, and England's dear-bought 


And Humphrey with the peers be fall'n at jars : 
Then will I raise aloft the milk-white rose, 
With whose sweet smell the air shall be perfum'd j 
And in my standard bear the arms of York, 
To grapple with the house of Lancaster ; 
And, force perforce, I'll make him yield the crown, 
Whose bookish rule hath pull'd fair England down. 


so long as a certain firebrand should last. His mother Althea 
having thrown it into the fire, he expired in great torments. 




The same. A Room in the Duke of Gloster's House. 
Enter GLOSTER and the Duchess. 

DUCH. Why droops my lord, like over-ripen'd 

Hanging the head at Ceres' plenteous load ? 

* Why doth the great duke Humphrey knit his 


* As frowning at the favours of the world ? 

* Why are thine eyes fix'd to the sullen earth, 

* Gazing on that which seems to dim thy sight ? 

* What see'st thou there ? king Henry's diadem, 

* Enchas'd with all the honours of the world ? 

* If so, gaze on, and grovel on thy face, 

* Until thy head be circled with the same. 

c Put forth thy hand, reach at the glorious gold : - 
c What, is't too short ? I'll lengthen it with mine : 

* And, having both together heav'd it up, 

* We'll both together lift our heads to heaven ; 

* And never more abase our sight so low, 

* As to vouchsafe one glance unto the ground. 

' GLO. O Nell, sweet Nell, if thou dost love thy 


' Banish the canker of ambitious thoughts : 2 
e And may that thought, when I imagine ill 

* Against my king and nephew, virtuous Henry, 
' Be my last breathing in this mortal world ! 

* Banish the canker of ambitious thoughts:] So, in K. Henry 

" Cromwell, I charge theejling away ambition." 


ac. n. KING HENRY VI. 199 

' My troublous dream this night doth make me sad. 

' DUCH. What dream' d my lord? tell me, and 
I'll requite it 

* With sweet rehearsal of my morning's dream. 

c 6*1-0. Methought, this staff, mine office-badge 

in court, 

' Was broke in twain ; by whom, I have forgot, " 
' But, as I think, it was by the cardinal ; 
' And on the pieces of the broken wand 
6 Were plac'd the heads of Edmond duke of Somer- 

' And William de la Poole first duke of Suffolk. 
c This was my dream ; what it doth bode, God 

' DUCH. Tut, this was nothing but an argument, 
That he that breaks a stick of Gloster's grove, 

* Shall lose his head for his presumption. 

' But list to me, my Humphrey, my sweet duke : 

Methought, I sat in seat of majesty, 

In the cathedral church of Westminster, 

And in that chair where kings and queens are 

crown' d ; 

Where Henry, and dame Margaret, kneel' d to me, 
6 And on my head did set the diadem. 

6 GLO. Nay, Eleanor, then must I chide outright : 

* Presumptuous dame, ill-nurtur'd Eleanor ! 3 
Art thou not second woman in the realm ; 
And the protector's wife, belov'd of him ? 

* Hast thou not worldly pleasure at command, 

* Above the reach or compass of thy thought ? 

3 ill-nurtur'd Eleanor /] Ill-nurtur'd is ill-educated. 

So, in Venus and Adonis : 

" Were I hard-favour'd, foul, or wrinkled-old, 
" III nurtur y d, crooked, churlish, harsh in voice.'* 



And wilt thou still be hammering treachery, 

* To tumble down thy husband, and thyself, 

* From top of honour to disgrace's feet ? 
Away from me, and let me hear no more. 

* DUCH. What, what, my lord! are you so cho- 

* With Eleanor, for telling but her dream ? 

6 Next time, I'll keep my dreams unto myself, 

* And not be check' d. 

' GLO. Nay, be not angry, I am pleas' d again. 4 

Enter a Messenger. 

' MESS. My lord protector, 'tis his highness* plea- 

* You do prepare to ride unto Saint Albans, 

' Whereas the king and queen do mean to hawk. 5 

4 Nay, be not angry, &c.] Instead of this line, we have these 
two in the old play : 

'* Nay, Nell, I'll give no credit to a dream ; 
" But I would have thee to think on no such things." 


* Whereas the king and queen do mean to hawk.'] Whereas 
is the same as where ; and seems to be brought into use only on 
account of its being a dissyllable. So, in The Tryal of Trea- 
sure, 1567 : 

" Whereas she is resident, I must needes be." 
Again, in Daniel's Tragedy of Cleopatra, 1594 : 

" That I should pass whereas Octavia stands 

" To view my misery," &c. 
Again, in Marius and Sylla, 1594 : 

** But see whereas Lucretius is return'd. 

" Welcome, brave Roman !" 

The word is several times used in this piece, as well as in 
some others ; and always with the same sense. 

Again, in the 51st Sonnet of Lord Sterline, 1604: 

** I dream'd the nymph, that o'er my fancy reigns, 

" Came to a part whereas I paus'd alone." STEEVENS, 

fic.ii. KING HENRY VI. 201 

GLO. I go. Come, Nell, thou wilt ride with us? 

c DUCH. Yes, good my lord, I'll follow presently. 
[Exeunt GLOSTER and Messenger. 
' Follow I must, I cannot go before, 

* While Gloster bears this base and humble mind. 

* Were I a man, a duke, and next of blood, 

* I would remove these tedious stumbling-blocks, 

* And smooth my way upon their headless necks : 

* And, being a woman, I will not be slack 

* To play my part in fortune's pageant. 

* Where are you there ? Sir John I 6 nay, fear not, 


* We are alone; here's none but thee, and L 

Enter HUME. 

HUME. Jesu preserve your royal majesty! 

5 DUCH. What say'st thou, majesty! I am but 

HUME. But, by the grace of God, and Hume's 

' Your grace's title shall be multiplied. 

DUCH. What say'st thou, man ? hast thou as yet 


With Margery Jourdain, the cunning witch j 
And Roger Bolingbroke, the conjurer ? 
And will they undertake to do me good ? 

' HUME. This they have promised, to show 

your highness 
A spirit rais'd from depth of under ground, 

6 Sir John!"] A title frequently bestowed on the clergy. 

See notes on The Merry Wives of Windsor , Vol. V. p. 7, n. 1. 



e That shall make answer to such questions, 
' As by your grace shall be propounded him. 

* DUCH. It is enough; 7 I'll think upon the ques- 

tions : 

* When from Saint Albans we do make return, 
' We'll see these things effected to the full. 

' Here, Hume, take this reward ; make merry, man, 
4 With thy confederates in this weighty cause. 

[Exit Duchess. 

* HUME. Hume must make merry with the du- 

chess* gold; 

' Marry, and shall. But how now, Sir John Hume ? 
' Seal up your lips, and give no words but mum ! 

* The business asketh silent secrecy. 

* Dame Eleanor gives gold, to bring the witch: 

* Gold cannot come amiss, were she a devil. 

* Yet have I gold, flies from another coast: 
' I dare not say, from the rich cardinal, 

6 And from the great and new-made duke of Suf- 

7 Duch. It is enough} &c.] This speech stands thus in the old 

" Elean. Thanks, good sir John, 
" Some two days hence, I guess, will fit our time ; 
" Then see that they be here. 
" For now the king is riding to St. Albans, 
" And all the dukes and earls along with him. 
" When they be gone, then safely may they come, 
" And on the backside of mine orchard here 
" There cast their spells in silence of the night, 

" And so resolve us of the thing we wish : 

" Till when, drink that for my sake, and so farewell." 


Here we have a speech of ten lines, with different versification, 
and different circumstances, from those of the Jive which are 
found in the folio. What imperfect transcript (for such the quarto 
has been called) ever produced such a variation? MALONE. 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 203 

6 Yet I do find it so: for, to be plain, 

' They, knowing dame Eleanor's aspiring humour, 

* Have hired me to undermine the duchess, 

* And buz these conjurations in her brain. 

* They say, A crafty knave does need no broker; 8 

* Yet am I Suffolk and the cardinal's broker. 

* Hume, if you take not heed, you shall go near 

* To call them both a pair of crafty knaves. 

* Well, so it stands : And thus, I fear, at last, 

* Hume's knavery, will be the duchess' wreck; 

* And her attainture will be Humphrey's fall: 

* Sort how it will, 9 1 shall have gold for all. 



The same. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter PETER, and Others, with Petitions. 

4 1 PET. My masters, let's stand close; my lord 
' protector will come this way by and by, and then 
' we may deliver our supplications in the quill. 1 

8 A crafty knave does need no broker;"] This is a prover- 
bial sentence. See Ray's Collection. STEEVENS. 

9 Sort hotu it will,'] Let the issue be what it will. 


See Vol. XI. p. 132, n. 4. 

This whole speech is very different in the original play. In- 
stead of the last couplet we find these lines : 

" But whist, Sir John; no more of that I trow, 
" For fear you lose your head, before you go." 


1 in the quill."] In quill is Sir Thomas Hanmer's read- 
ing; the rest have in the quill. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps our supplications in the quill, or in quill, means no 


2 PET. Marry, the Lord protect him, for he's 

* a good man ! Jesu bless him ! 

Enter SUFFOLK, and Queen MARGARET. 

* 1 PET. Here 'a comes, methinks, and the 

* queen with him : I'll be the first, sure. 

c 2 PET. Come back, fool ; this is the duke of 
c Suffolk, and not my lord protector. 

f SUF. How now, fellow ? would' st any thing 
e with me ? 

6 I PET. I pray, my lord, pardon me ! I took ye 
c for my lord protector. 

* Q. MAR. [Reading the superscription.] To 
' my lord protector ! are your supplications to his 

* lordship ? Let me see them: What is thine ? 

more than our written or penn'd supplications. We still say, a 
drawing in chalk, for a drawing executed by the use of chalk. 


In the quill may mean, with great exactness and observance 
of form, or with the utmost punctilio of ceremony. The phrase 
seems to be taken from part of the dress of our ancestors, whose 
ruffs were quilled. While these were worn, itmight be the vogue 
to say, such a thing is in the quill t i. e. in the reigning mode of 
taste. TOLLET. 

To this observation I may add, that after printing began, the 
similar phrase of a thing being in print was used to express the 
same circumstance of exactness. "All this, (declares one of 
the quibbling servants in The Two Gentlemen of Verona,} " I say 
in print, for in print I found it." STEEVENS. 

In quill may be supposed to have been a phrase formerly in 
use, and the same with the French en quille, which is said of a 
man, when he stands upright upon his feet without stirring from 
the place. The proper sense of quille in French is a nine-pin, 
and, in some parts of England, nine-pins are still called cayls, 
which word is used in the statute 33 Henry Fill. c. 9. Quelle 
in the old British language also signifies any piece of wood set 
upright. HAWKINS. 

A?. m. KING HENRY VI. 205 

4 1 PET. Mine is, an't please your grace, against 

* John Goodman, my lord cardinal's man, for keep- 

* ing my house, and lands, and wife and all, from 
' me. 

SUF. Thy wife too ? that is some wrong, indeed. 
What's your's? What's here ! [Reads.~\ Against 
the duke of Suffolk, for enclosing the commons of 
Melford. How now, sir knave ? 

2 PET. Alas, sir, I am but a poor petitioner of 
our whole township. 

PETER. ^Presenting his petition.^ Against my 
master, Thomas Homer, for saying, That the duke 
of York was rightful heir to the crown. 

' Q. MAR. What say'st thou ? Did the duke of 
' York say, he was rightful heir to the crown ? 

' PETER. That my master was ? 2 No, forsooth : 
' my master said, That he was ; and that the king 
' was an usurper. 

SUF. Who is there ? \_~Enter Servants.] Take 
this fellow in, and send for his master with a pur- 

* That my master tvas?~] The old copy that my mistress 
was ? The present emendation was supplied by Mr. Tyrwhitt, 
and has the concurrence of Mr. M. Mason. STEEVENS. 

The folio reads That my mistress was ; which has been fol- 
lowed in all subsequent editions. But the context shows clearly 
that it was a misprint for master. Peter supposes that the Queen 
had asked, whether the duke of York had said that his master 
(for so he understands the pronoun he in her speech) was right- 
ful heir to the crown. " That my master was heir to the crown! 
(he replies.) No, the reverse is the case. My master said, 
that the duke of York was heir to the crown.'* In The Taming 
of the Shrew, mistress and master are frequently confounded. 
The mistake arose from these words being formerly abbreviated 
in MSS; and an M. stood for either one or the other. See Vol. 
IX. p. 54, n. 8. MALONE. 


suivant presently : we'll hear more of your matter 
before the king. \_Exeunt Servants, with PETER. 

' Q. MAR. And as for you, that love to be pro- 

' Under the wings of our protector's grace, 
' Begin your suits anew, and sue to him. 

[Tears the Petition. 
' Away, base cullions ! Suffolk, let them go. 

* ALL. Come, let's be gone. 

\JExeunt Petitioners. 

* Q. MAR. My lord of Suffolk, say, is this the 


* Is this the fashion in the court of England ? 

* Is this the government of Britain's isle, 

* And this the royalty of Albion's king ? 

* What, shall king Henry be a pupil still, 

* Under the surly Gloster's governance? 

* Am I a queen in title and in style, 

* And must be made a subject to a duke ? 

' I tell thee, Poole, when in the city Tours 

* Thou ran'st a tilt in honour of my love, 

* And stol'st away the ladies' hearts of France j 
' I thought king Henry had resembled thee, 

* In courage, courtship, and proportion : 
6 But all his mind is bent to holiness, 

* To number Ave-Maries on his beads : 

* His champions are the prophets and apostles ; 

* His weapons, holy saws of sacred writ ; 

* His study is his tilt-yard, and his loves 

* Are brazen images of canoniz'd saints. 

* I would, the college of cardinals 

* Would choose him pope, and carry him to Rome, 

* And set the triple crown upon his head j 

* That were a state fit for his holiness. 

' SUF. Madam, be patient : as I was cause 

sc\ rti. KING HENRY VI. 207 

* Your highness came to England, so will I 

* In England work your grace's full content. 

* Q. MAR. Beside the haught protector, have we 


* The imperious churchman ; Somerset, Bucking- 


* And grumbling York: and not the least of these, 

* But can do more in England than the king. 

* SUF. And he of these, that can do most of all, 

* Cannot do more in England than the Nevils : 

* Salisbury, and Warwick, are no simple peers. 

* Q. MAR. Not all these lords do vex me half so 


* As that proud dame, the lord protector's wife. 

* She sweeps it through the court with troops of 


* More like an empress than duke Humphrey's 

wife 5 
Strangers in court do take her for the queen: 

* She bears a duke's revenues on her back, 3 

* And in her heart she scorns her poverty : 

* Shall I not live to be aveng'd on her ? 

* Contemptuous base-born callat as she is, 

* She vaunted 'mongst her minions t'other day, 
The very train of her worst wearing-gown 
Was better worth than all my father's lands, 

* Till Suffolk gave two dukedoms* for his daughter. 

4 SUF. Madam, myself have lim'd a bush for her ; 5 

. 3 She bears a duke's revenues &c.~\ See King Henry VIII. 
Act I. sc. i. Vol. XV. MALONE. 

4 tiKO dukedoms ] The duchies of Anjou and Maine, 

which Henry surrendered to Reignier, on his marriage with 
Margaret. See sc. i. MALONE. 

4 lim'd a bush for her;] So, in Arden of Feversham, 



* And plac'd a quire of such enticing birds, 

* That she will light to listen to the lays, 

* And never mount to trouble you again. 

* So, let her rest : And, madam, list to me ; 

* For I am bold to counsel you in this. 

* Although we fancy not the cardinal, 

* Yet 'must we join with him, and with the lords, 
Till we have brought duke Humphrey in disgrace. 

* As for the duke of York, this late complaint 6 

* Will make but little for his benefit: 

* So, one by one, we'll weed them all at last, 

* And you yourself shall steer the happy helm. 

Enter King HENRY, YORK, and SOMERSET, con- 
versing with him ; Duke and Duchess O/'GLOSTER, 

K. HEN. For my part, noble lords, I care not 

which ; 
Or Somerset, or York, all's one to me. 

YORK. If York have ill demean' d himself in 

Then let him be denay'd 7 the regentship. 

" Lime your twigs to catch this weary bird." 
Again, in The Tragedy ofMariam, 1612: 

" A crimson bush that ever limes the soul." STEEVENS. 

In the original play in quarto : 

" I have set lime-twigs that will entangle them." 


6 this late complaint ] That is, The complaint of Peter 

the armourer's man against his master, for saying that York was 
the rightful king. JOHNSON. 

7 be denay'd ] Thus the old copy. I have noted the 

word only to observe, that denoy is frequently used instead of 
deny, among the old writers. 

sc> ///. KING HENRY VI. 209 

SOM. If Somerset be unworthy of the place, 
Let York be regent, I will yield to him. 

WAR. Whether your grace be worthy, yea, or no, 
Dispute not that : York is the worthier. 

CAR. Ambitious Warwick, let thy betters speak. 
WAR. The cardinal's not my better in the field. 

BUCK. All in this presence are thy betters, War- 

WAR. Warwick may live to be the best of all. 

* SAL. Peace, son ; and show some reason, 


* Why Somerset should be preferr'd in this. 

* Q. MAR. Because the king, forsooth, will have 

it so. 

6 GLO. Madam, the king is old enough himself 

* To give his censure: 8 these are no women's matters. 

Q. MAR. If he be old enough what needs your 

' To be protector of his excellence ? 

4 GLO. Madam, I am protector of the realm ; 
e And, at his pleasure, will resign my place. 

SUF. Resign it then, and leave thine insolence. 
' Since thou wert king, (as who is king, but thou?) 

* The commonwealth hath daily run to wreck : 

So, in Twelfth- Night : 

" My love can give no place, bide no denay" 


8 his censure :~\ Through all these plays censure is used 

in an indifferent sense, simply for judgment or opinion. 


So, in King Richard III : 

" To give your censures in this weighty business." 
In other plays I have adduced repeated instances to show the 
word was thus used by all contemporary 'writers. STEEVENS, 


* The Dauphin hath prevail* d beyond the seas j 

* And all the peers and nobles of the realm 

* Have been as bondmen to thy sovereignty. 

* CAR. The commons hast thou rack'd ; the 

clergy's bags 

* Are lank and lean with thy extortions. 

* SOM. Thy sumptuous buildings, and thy wife's 


* Have cost a mass of publick treasury. 

* BUCK. Thy cruelty in execution, 

* Upon offenders, hath exceeded law, 

* And left thee to the mercy of the law. 

* Q. MAR. Thy sale of offices, and towns in 


* If they were known, as the suspect is great, 

* Would make thee quickly hop without thy head. 

[Exit GLOSTER. The Queen drops her Fan. 
4 Give me my fan : 9 What, minion ! can you not ? 
\_Gives the Duchess a box on the Ear. 
' I cry you mercy, madam ; Was it you ? 

' DUCH. Was't I? yea, I it was, proud French- 
woman : 

' Could I come near your beauty with my nails, 
I'd set my ten commandments in your face. l 

9 Give me my fan :] In the original play the Queen drops not 
a. Jan, but. a glove : 

*' Give me my glove ; why minion, can you not see?" 


1 I'd set my ten commandments in your face.~\ So, in The 
Play of the Four P's, 1569 : 

" Now ten times I beseech him that hie sits, . 
" Thy wifes x com. may serche thy five wits." 
Again, in Selimus Emperor of the Turks, 1594: 

" I would set a tap abroach, and not live in fear of my wife's 
ten commandments." 

ac. Bf. KING HENRY VI. 211 

K. HEN. Sweet aunt, be quiet; 'twas against her 

' DUCH. Against her will ! Good king, look to't 

in time ; 
' She'll hamper thee, and dandle thee like a baby : 

* Though in this place most master wear nobreeches, 
She shall not strike dame Eleanor unreveng'd. 

[Exit Duchess. * 

* BUCK. Lord cardinal, I will follow Eleanor, 

* And listen after Humphrey, how he proceeds : 

* She's tickled now ; 3 her fume can need no spurs, 

* She'll gallop fast enough * to her destruction. 


Re-enter GLOSTER. 

* GLO. Now, lords, my choler being over-blown, 

Again, in Westward Hoe, 1607 : 

" your harpy has set his ten commandments on my 

back." STEEVENS. 

8 Exit Duchess.'] The quarto adds, after the exit of Eleanor, 
the following : 

" King. Believe me, my love, thou wert much to blame. 
" I would not for a thousand pounds of gold, 

" My noble uncle had been here in place. 

" But see, where he comes ! I am glad he met her not." 


s She's tickled HOIK ;] Tickled is here used as a trisyllable. 
The editor of the second folio, not perceiving this, reads " her 
fume can need no spurs ;" in which he has been followed by all 
the subsequent editors. M ALONE. 

Were Mr. Malone's supposition adopted, the verse would still 
halt most lamentably. I am therefore content with the emenda- 
tion of the second folio, a book to which we are all indebted for 
restorations of our author's metre. I am unwilling to publish 
what no ear, accustomed to harmony, can endure. STEEVENS. 

4 fast enough ] The folio reads -Jarre enough. Cor- 
rected by Mr. Pope. MALONE, 

P 2 


* With walking once about the quadrangle, 

* I come to talk of commonwealth affairs. 

* As for your spiteful false objections, 

* Prove them, and I lie open to the law : 

* But God in mercy so deal with my soul, 

* As I in duty love my king and country ! 

* But, to the matter that we have in hand : 

* I say, my sovereign, York is meetest man 

* To be your regent in the realm of France. 

* SUF. Before we make election, give me leave 

* To show some reason, of no little force, 
' That York is most unmeet of any man. 

' YORK. I'll tell thee, Suffolk, why I am unmeet. 
' First, for I cannot flatter thee in pride : 

* Next, if I be appointed for the place, 

* My lord of Somerset will keep me here, 

* Without discharge, money, or furniture, 

* Till France be won into the Dauphin's hands. 

* Last time, I danc'd attendance on his will, 

* Till Paris was besieg'd, famish'd, and lost. 

* WAR. That I can witness ; and a fouler fact 

* Did never traitor in the land commit. 

SUF. Peace, head-strong Warwick ! 
WAR. Image of pride, why should I hold my 
peace ? 

Enter Servants of SUFFOLK, bringing in HORNER 
and PETER. 

SUF. Because here is a man accus'd of treason : 
Pray God, the duke of York excuse himself! 

* YORK. Doth any one accuse York for a traitor? 

* K. HEN. What mean'st thou, Suffolk ? tell me : 

What are these ? 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 213 

* SUF. Please it your majesty, this is the man 

* That doth accuse his master of high treason : 

4 His words were these ; that Richard, duke of 

* Was rightful heir unto the English crown j 

* And that your majesty was an usurper. 

' K. HEN. Say, man, were these thy words ? 

HOR. An't shall please your majesty, I never said 
nor thought any such matter : God is my witness, 
I am falsely accused by the villain. 

4 PET. By these ten bones, 5 my lords, [Holding 

* up his Hands.} he did speak them to me in the 

* garret one night, as we were scouring my lord of 
' York's armour. 

* YORK. Base dunghill villain, and mechanical, 

* I'll have thy head for this thy traitor's speech: 
' I do beseech your royal majesty, 

' Let him have all the rigour of the law. 

HOR. Alas, my lord, hang me, if ever I spake 
the words. My accuser is my prentice ; and when 
I did correct him for his fault the other day, he did 
vow upon his knees he would be even with me : I 
have good witness of this ; therefore, I beseech 

5 By these ten bones, &c.] We have just heard a Duchess 
threaten to set her ten commandments in the face of a Queen. 
The jests in this play turn rather too much on the enumeration 
of fingers. 

This adjuration is, however, very ancient. So, in the mystery 
of Candlemas-Day, 1512 : 

" But by their bonys ten, thei be to you untrue.'* 
Again, in The longer thou livest the more Foolthou art, 1570 J 

" By these tenne bones I will, I have sworne." 
It occurs likewise more than once in the Morality of Hycke 
IScornfr. Again, in Monsieur Thomas, 1637: 

" By these ten bones, sir, by these eyes and tears." 



your majesty, do not cast away an honest man for 
a villain's accusation. 

K. HEN. Uncle, what shall we say to this in law ? 

' GLO. This doom, my lord, if I may judge. 
' Let Somerset be regent o'er the French, 
e Because in York this breeds suspicion : 
c And let these have a day appointed them 6 
' For single combat in convenient place ; 
6 For he hath witness of his servant's malice : 
* This is the law, and this duke Humphrey's doom. 

K. HEN. Then be it so. 7 My lord of Somerset, 

6 And let these have a day appointed them &c.] In the ori- 
ginal play, quarto 1600, the corresponding lines stand thus: 

" The law, my lord, is this. By case it rests suspicious, 
" That a day of combat be appointed, 
" And these to try each other's right or wrong, 
" Which shall be on the thirtieth of this month, 
" With ebon staves and sandbags combating, 
" In Smithfield, before your royal majesty." 
An opinion has prevailed that The whole Contention, &c. 
printed in 1600, was an imperfect surreptitious copy of Shak- 
speare's play as exhibited in the folio ; but what spurious copy, 
or imperfect transcript taken in short-hand, ever produced such 
variations as these ? MALONE. 

Such varieties, during several years, were to be found in every 
MS. copy of Mr. Sheridan's then unprinted Duenna, as used in 
country theatres. The dialogue of it was obtained piece-meal, 
and connected by frequent interpolations. STEEVENS. 

7 K. Hen. Then be it so. &c.] These two lines I have inserted 
from the old quarto; and, as I think, very necessarily. For, 
without them, the King has not declared his assent to Gloster's 
opinion : and the Duke of Somerset is made to thank him for the 
regency before the King has deputed him to it. THEOBALD. 

The plea urged by Theobald for their introduction is, that 
otherwise Somerset thanks the King before he had declared his 
appointment ; but Shakspeare, I suppose, thought Henry's assent 
might be expressed by a nod. Somerset knew that Humphrey's 
doom was final ; as likewise did the Armourer, for he, like Somer- 
set, accepts the combat, without waiting for the King's confirma- 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 215 

We make your grace lord regent o'er the. French. 
SOM. I humbly thank your royal majesty. 
HOR. And I accept the combat willingly. 

PET. Alas, my lord, I cannot fight ; *for God's 

* sake, pity my case ! the spite of man prevaileth 

* against me. O, Lord have mercy upon me ! I 

* shall never be able to fight a blow : O Lord, my 

* heart ! 

GLO. Sirrah, or you must fight, or else be hang'd. 

' K. HEN. Away with them to prison : and the 

tion of what Gloster had said. Shakspeare therefore not having 
introduced the following speech, which is found in the first copy, 
we have no right to insert it. That it was not intended to be 
preserved, appears from the concluding line of the present scene, 
in which Henry addresses Somerset; whereas in the quarto, 
Somerset goes out, on his appointment. This is one of those 
minute circumstances which may be urged to show that these 
plays, however afterwards worked up by Shakspeare, were ori- 
ginally the production of another author, and that the quarto 
edition of 1600 was printed from the copy originally written by 
that author, whoever he was. MALONE. 

After the lines inserted by Theobald, the King continues his 
speech thus : 

" over the French ; 

" And to defend our rights 'gainst foreign foes, 
" And so do good unto the realm of France. 
" Make haste, my lord ; 'tis time that you were gone : 
" The time of truce, I think, is full expir'd. 
" Som. I humbly thank your royal majesty, 

" And take my leave, to post with speed to France. 

[Exit Somerset. 

" King. Come, uncle Gloster ; now let's have our horse, 
" For we will to St. Albans presently. 
" Madam, your hawk, they say, is swift of flight, 
" And we will try how she will fly to-day." 

[Exeunt omnes. 


' Of combat shall be the last of the next month. 
* Come, Somerset,, we'll see thee sent away. 



The same. The Duke o/fGloster's Garden. 


* HUME. Come, my masters ; the duchess, I tell 

* you, expects performance of your promises. 

* BOLING. Master Hume, we are therefore pro- 

* vided : Will her ladyship behold and hear our ex- 
*orcisms? 9 

* HUME. Ay ; What else ? fear you not her cou- 

* rage. 

* BOLING. I have heard her reported to be a wo* 

* Enter &c.] The quarto reads : 

Enter Eleanor, Sir John Hum, Roger Bolingbrook a conjurer, 

and Margery Jourdaine a ivitcn. 
"Eleanor. Here, sir John, take this scroll of paper here, 
*' Wherein is writ the questions you shall ask : 
" And I will stand upon this tower here, 
" And hear the spirit what it says to you ; 
" And to my questions write the answers down.*' 

[ She goes up to the toiaer. 

9 our exorcisms ?] The word exorcise, and its derivatives, 
are used by Shakspeare in an uncommon sense. In all other 
writers it means to lay spirits, but in these plays it invariably 
means to raise them. So, in Julius Ccesar, Ligarius says 
" Thou, like an exorcist, hast conjur'd up 
" My mortified spirit." M. MASON. 
See Vol. VIII. p. 407, n. 3. MALONE, 

ac. iv. KING HENRY VI. 217 

* man of an invincible spirit : But it shall be con- 

* venient, master Hume, that you be by her aloft, 

* while we be busy below ; and so, I pray you, go 

* in God's name, and leave us. \_~Exit HUME.] ' Mo- 
' ther Jourdain, be you prostrate, and grovel on the 

* earth : * John Southwell, read you 5 and let us 

* to our work. 

Enter Duchess, above. 

* DUCH. Well said, my masters ; and welcome 
* all. To this geer ; the sooner the better. 

* BOLING. Patience, good lady j wizards know 

their times : 
Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night, 1 

1 Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night,] The silent 
of the night is a classical expression, and means an interlunar 
night. Arnica silentia lunce. So, Pliny, Inter omnes vero con- 
venit, utilissime in coitu ejus sterni, quern diem alii interlunii, 
alii silentis lunce appellant. Lib. XVI. cap. 39. In imitation of 
this language, Milton says : 

" The sun to me is dark, 

" And silent as the moon, 

" When she deserts the night, 

** Hid in her vacant interlunar cave." WARBURTON. 

I believe this display of learning might have been spared. 
Silent, though an adjective, is used by Shakspeare as a substan- 
tive. So, in The Tempest, the vast of night is used for the 
greatest part of it. The old quarto reads, the silence of the 
night. The variation between the copies is worth notice : 

" Bolingbrooke makes a circle. 

" Bol. Dark night, dread night, the silence of the night, 
Wherein the furies mask in hellish troops, 
Send up, I charge you, from Cocytus' lake 
The spirit Ascalon to come to me ; 
To pierce the bowels of this centrick earth, 
And hither come in twinkling of an eye ! 
'* Ascalon, ascend, ascend!" 


' The time of night when Troy was set on fire ; 

* The time when screech-owls cry, and ban-dogs 

howl, 2 
' And spirits walk, and ghosts breakup their graves, 

* That time best fits the work we have in hand. 
'Madam, sit you, and fear not; whom we raise, 
' We will make fast within a hallow'd verge. 

\_Here they perform the Ceremonies appertaining^ 
and make the Circle; Bolingbroke, or South- 
well, reads, Conjuro te, &c. It thunders and 
lightens terribly ; then the Spirit riseth. 

In a speech already quoted from the quarto, Eleanor says, 
they have 

" cast their spells in silence of the night." 

And in the ancient Interlude of Nature, bl. 1. no date, is the 
same expression : 

" Who taught the nyghtyngall to recorde besyly 
" Her strange entunes in sylence of the nyght?" 
Again, in The Faithful Shepherdess of Fletcher : 
" Through still silence of the night, 
" Guided by the glow-worm's light." STEEVENS. 
Steevens's explanation of this passage is evidently right ; and 
Warburton's observations on it, though long, learned, and labo- 
rious, are nothing to the purpose. Bolingbroke does not talk of 
the silence of the moon, but of the silence of the night ; nor is 
he describing the time of the month, but the hour of the night. 


8 ban-dogs hovd,~\ I was unacquainted with the etymo- 
logy of this word, till it was pointed out to me by an ingenious 
correspondent in the Supplement to The Gentleman's Magazine, 
for 1789, who signs himself D. T: " Shakspeare's ban-dog 
(says he) is simply a village-dog, or mastiff, which was formerly 
called a band-dog, per syncopen, bandog." In support of this 
opinion he quotes Caius de canibus Britannicis : " Hoc genus 
canis, etiam catenarium, a catena vel ligamento, qua ad januas 
interdiu detinetur, ne laedat, & tamen latratu terreat, appellatur. 
Rusticos, shepherds' dogs, mastives, & bandogs, nominavi- 
mus." STEEVENS. 

Ban-dog is surely a corruption of band-dog ; or rather the 
first d is suppressed here, as in other compound words. Cole, in 
his Diet. 1679, renders ban-dog, canis catenatus. MALONE. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 219 

* SPIR. Adsum. 

* M. JOURD. Asmath, 

* By the eternal God, whose name and power 

* Thou tremblest at, answer that I shall ask ; 

* For, till thou speak, thou shalt not pass from 


* SPIR. Ask what thou wilt : That I had said 

and done ! 3 

BOLING. First, of the king. What shall of him 
become .** \_Reading out of a Paper. 

SPIR. The duke yet lives, that Henry shall de- 
pose ; 
But him outlive, and die a violent death. 

[As the Spirit speaks, SOUTHWELL writes the 

3 That I had said and done /] It was anciently believed 

that spirits, who were raised by incantations, remained above 
ground, and answered questions with reluctance. See both 
Lucan and Statius. STEEVENS. 

So the Apparition says in Macbeth : 

" Dismiss me. Enough !" 

The words " That I had said and done !" are not in the old 
play. MALONE. 

4 What shall of hint become f] Here is another proof of 

what has been already suggested. In the quarto 1600, it is con- 
certed between Mother Jourdain and Bolingbroke that he should 
frame a circle, &c. and that she should " fall prostrate to the 
ground," to " whisper with the devils below." ( Southwell is 
not introduced in that piece.) Accordingly, as soon as the in- 
cantations begin, Bolingbroke reads the questions out of a paper, 
as here. But our poet has expressly said in the preceding part 
of this scene that Southwell was to read them. Here, however, 
he inadvertently follows his original as it lay before him, for- 
getting that, consistently with what he had already written, he 
should have deviated from it. He has fallen into the same kind 
of inconsistency in Romeo and Juliet, by sometimes adhering to 
and sometimes deserting the poem on which he formed that tra- 
gedy. MALONE. 


BOLING. What fate awaits the duke of Suffolk ? 
SPIR. By water shall he die, and take his end. 
BOLING. What shall befall the duke of Somerset ? 

SPIR. Let him shun castles ; 
Safer shall he be upon the sandy plains 
Than where castles mounted stand. 5 
Have done, for more I hardly can endure. 

BOLING. Descend to darkness, and the burning 

lake : 
6 False fiend, avoid \ 6 

[Thunder and Lightning. Spirit descends. 

1 Than inhere castles mounted stand."] I remember to have read 
this prophecy in some old Chronicle, where, I think, it ran 

" Safer shall he be on sand, 

" Than where castles mounted stand :" 
at present I do not recollect where. STEEVENS. 

6 Falsejiend, avoid /] Instead of this short speech at the dis- 
mission of the spirit, the old quarto gives us the following : 
" Then down, I say, unto the damned pool 
" Where Pluto in his fiery waggon sits, 
" Riding amidst the sing'd and parched smoaks, 
" The road of Dytas, by the river Styx ; 
" There howle and burn for ever in those flames : 
" Rise, Jordane, rise, and stay thy charming spells : 
" 'Zounds ! we are betray'd !" 

Dytas is written by mistake for Ditis, the genitive case ofDis, 
which is used instead of the nominative by more than one ancient 

So, in Thomas Drant's translation of the fifth Satire of Ho- 
race, 1567: 

" And by that meanes made manye soules lord Ditis hall 
to seeke." STEEVENS. 

Here again we have such a variation as never could have 
arisen from an imperfect transcript. MALONE. 

x. iv. KING HENRY VI. 221 

Enter YORK and BUCKINGHAM, hastily, with their 
Guards, and Others. 

4 YORK. Lay hands upon these traitors, and their 


4 Beldame, I think, we watch'd you at an inch. 
4 What, madam, are you there ? the king and com- 
4 Are deeply indebted for this piece of pains ; 

* My lord protector will, I doubt it not, 

* See you well guerdon'd for these good deserts. 

* I)UCH. Not half so bad as thine to England's 


* Injurious duke ; that threat'st where is no cause. 

* BUCK. True, madam, none at all. What call 

you this ? [Shewing her the papers. 
4 Away with them ; let them be clapp'd up close, 
4 And kept asunder: You, madam,shallwith us : 
4 Stafford, take her to thee. 

[Exit Duchess from above. 
4 We'll see your trinkets here all forth-coming ; 
4 All. Away! 

[Exeunt Guards, with SOUTH. BOLING. fyc. 

* YORK. Lord Buckingham, methinks, 7 you 

watch'd her well : 

* A pretty plot, well chosen to build upon ! 

7 Lord Buckingham, methinks, &c.] This repetition of the 
prophecies, which is altogether unnecessary, after what the 
spectators had heard in the scene immediately preceding, is not 
to be found in the first edition of this play. POPE. 

They are not, it is true, found in this scene, but they are re- 
peated in the subsequent scene, in which Buckingham brings an 
account of this proceeding to the King. This also is a variation 
that only could proceed from various authors. M ALONE. 


Now, pray, my lord, let's see the devil's writ. 
What have we here ? \_Reads. 

The duke yet lives, that Henry shall depose; 
But him outlive, and die a violent death. 

* Why, this is just, 

* Aio te, sEacida, Romanos vincere posse. 
Well, to the rest: 

Tell me, 8 what fate awaits the duke of Suffolk? 
By water shall he die, and take his end. 
What shall betide the duke of Somerset? 
Let him shun castles ; 
Safer shall he be upon the sandy plains, 
Than where castles mounted stand. 

* Come, come, my lords ; 

* These oracles are hardily attain' d, 

* And hardly understood. 9 

' The king is now in progress toward Saint Albans, 

8 Tell me, &c.] Yet these two words were not in the papef 
read by Bolingbroke, which York has now in his hand; nor are 
they in the original play. Here we have a species of inaccuracy 
peculiar to Shakspeare, of which he has been guilty in other 
places. See p. 188-9, where Gloster and Winchester read the same 
paper differently. See also Vol. V. p. 327, n. 6. MALONE. 

9 These oracles are hardily attain'd, 

And hardly understood.'] The folio reads hardly. 


Not only the lameness of the versification, but the imperfection 
of the sense too, made me suspect this passage to be corrupt. 
York, seizing the parties and their papers, says, he'll see the de- 
vil's writ ; and finding the wizard's answers intricate and ambi- 
guous, he makes this general comment upon such sort of intelli- 
gence, as I have restored the text : 

These oracles are hardily attairi'd, 

And hardly understood. 

i. e. A great risque and hazard is run to obtain them ; and yet, 
after these hardy steps taken, the informations are so perplexed 
that they are hardly to be understood. THEOBALD. 

The correction made by Mr. Theobald has been adopted by 
the subsequent editors. MALONE. 


' With him, the husband of this lovely lady : 

' Thither go these news, as fast as horse can carry 

them ; 
' A sorry breakfast for my lord protector. 

* BUCK. Your grace shall give me leave, my lord 
of York, 

* To be the post, in hope of his reward. 

c YORK. At your pleasure, my good lord. Who's 

* within there, ho ! 

Enter a Servant. 

' Invite my lords of Salisbury, and Warwick, 
* To sup with me to-morrow night. Away ! 


Saint Albans. 

Cardinal, and SUFFOLK, with Falconers hollaing. 

* Q. MAR. Believe me, lords, for flying at the 

brook, 1 

' I saw not better sport these seven years' day : 
' Yet, by your leave, the wind was very high ; 

1 for 'flying at the brook,~] The falconer's term for hawk- 
ing at water-fowl. JOHNSON. 


And, ten to one, old Joan had not gone out. 2 

* K. HEN. But what a point, my lord, your fal- 
con made, 

e And what a pitch she flew above the rest ! 3 
' To see how God in all his creatures works ! 
* Yea, man and birds, are fain of climbing high. 4 

8 the wind tuas very high ; 

And, ten to one, old Joan had not gone out.~\ I am told by 
a gentleman, better acquainted with falconry than myself, that 
the meaning, however expressed, is, that the wind being high, 
it was ten to one that the old hawk had flown quite away ; a 
trick which hawks often play their masters in windy weather. 


old Joan had not gone out."] i. e. the wind was so high it 

was ten to one that old Joan would not have taken her flight at 
the game. PERCY. 

The ancient books of hawking do not enable me to decide on 
the merits of such discordant explanations. It may yet be re- 
marked, that the terms belonging to this once popular amuse- 
ment were in general settled with the utmost precision ; and I 
may at least venture to declare, that a mistress might have been 
kept at a cheaper rate than a falcon. To compound a medicine 
to cure one of these birds of worms, it was necessary to destroy 
no fewer animals than a lamb, a culver, a pigeon, a buck and a 
cat. I have this intelligence from the Booke of Haukinge, &c. 
bl. 1. no date. This work was written by dame Julyana Bernes, 
prioress of the nunnery of Sopwell, near St. Albans, (where 
Shakspeare has fixed the present scene,) and one of the editions 
of it was prynt ed at Westmestre by Wynkyn de Worde, 1496, to- 
gether with an additional treatise on Fishing. STEEVENS. 

3 But what a point, my lord, your falcon made, 

And what a pitch she flew above the rest !~\ The variation 
between these lines and those in the original play on which this 
is founded, is worth notice : 

" Uncle Gloster, how high your hawk did soar, 
1 " And on a sudden souc'd the partridge down." 


4 are fain of climbing high."] Fain, in this place, signifies 

fond. So, in Hey wood's Epigrams on Proverbs, 1562 : 
" Fayre words make foolesfaine." 

Sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 225 

SUF. No marvel, an it like your majesty, 
My lord protector's hawks do tower so well j 
They know their master loves to be aloft, 5 
* And bears his thoughts above his falcon's pitch. 

* GLO. My lord, 'tis but a base ignoble mind 
' That mounts no higher than a bird can soar. 

' CAR. I thought as much ; he'd be above the 

' GLO. Ay, my lord cardinal; How think you by 

Were it not good, your grace could fly to heaven ? 

* K. HEN. The treasury of everlasting joy ! 

' CAR. Thy heaven is on earth ; thine eyes and 

6 Beat on a crown, 6 the treasure of thy heart ; 

Again, in Whetstone's Promos and Cassandra, 1578 : 

" Her brother's life would make her glad and^/azn." 
The word, (as I am informed,) is still used in Scotland. 


4 to be aloft,"] Perhaps alluding to the adage: 

" High-flying hawks are fit for princes'." 
See Ray's Collection. STEEVENS. 

6 thine eyes and thoughts 

Beat on a crotow,] To bait or beat, (bathe) is a term in fal- 
conry. JOHNSON. 

To bathe, and to beat, or bate, are distinct terms in this diver- 
sion. To bathe a hawk was to wash his plumage. " To beat, or 
bate, was to flutter with his wings. To beat on a croivn, how- 
ever, is equivalent to an expression which is still used to ham- 
mer, i. e. to work in the mind. Shakspeare has employed a term 
somewhat similar in a preceding scene of the play before us : 

" Wilt thou still be hammering treachery ?" 
But the very same phrase occurs in Lyly's Maid's Metamor- 
phosis, 1600: 

" With him whose restless thoughts do beat on thee." 
Again, in Doctor Dodypoll, 1600 : 

" Since my mind beats on it mightily." 


Pernicious protector, dangerous peer, 

That smoothest it so with king and commonweal ! 

* GLO. What, cardinal, is your priesthood grown 
peremptory ? 

* Tantcene animis ccelestibus irce? 

* Churchmen so hot ? good uncle, hide such ma- 

' With such holiness can you do it? 7 

' SUF. No malice, sir ; no more than well be- 

* So good a quarrel, and so bad a peer. 

GLO. As who, my lord ? 

SUF. Why, as you, my lord ; 

Again, in Herod and Antipater, 1622 : 

" I feel within my cogitations beating" 
Later editors concur in reading, Bent on a crown. I follow 
the old copy. STEEVENS. 
So, in The Tempest : 

" Do not infest your mind with beating on 
" The strangeness of this business." 
Again, in The Two Noble Kinsmen, 1634: 

" This her mind beats on." 

I have given these instances of this phrase, because Dr. John- 
son's interpretation of it is certainly incorrect. MALONE. 

7 With suck holiness can you do it ?~\ Do what ? The verse 
wants a foot ; we should read : 

With such holiness can you not do it ? 

Spoken ironically. By holiness he means hypocrisy: and says, 
have you not hypocrisy enough to hide your malice ? 


The verse is lame enough after the emendation, nor does the 
negative particle improve the sense. When words are omitted 
it is not often easy to say what they were if there is a perfect 
sense without them. I read, but somewhat at random : 
A churchman, with such holiness can you do it ? 

The transcriber saw churchman just above, and therefore 
omitted it in the second line. JOHNSON. 

can you do it ?] The old play, quarto 1600, reads more 

intelligibly, " Good uncle, can you dote?" MALONE. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 227 

An't like your lordly lord-protectorship. 

GLO. Why, Suffolk, England knows thine inso- 

Q. MAR. And thy ambition, Gloster. 

K. HEN. I pr'ythee, peace, 

Good queen ; and whet not on these furious peers, 
For blessed are the peacemakers on earth. 8 

CAR. Let me be blessed for the peace I make, 
Against this proud protector, with my sword ! 

GLO. 'Faith, holy uncle, 'would 'twere come to 
that ! [Aside to the Cardinal. 

* CAR. Marry, when thou dar'st. [Aside. 

' GLO. Make up no factious numbers for the 

' In thine own person answer thy abuse. \_Aside. 

' CAR. Ay, where thou dar'st not peep: an if 

thou dar'st, 
* This evening on the east side of the grove. [Aside. 

' K. HEN. How now, my lords ? 

' CAR. Believe me, cousin Gloster, 

' Had not your man put up the fowl so suddenly, 
4 We had had more sport. Come with thy two- 
hand sword. [Aside to GLO. 

GLO. True, uncle. 

CAR. Are you advis'd ? the east side of the 
grove ? 

GLO. Cardinal, I am with you.* [Aside. 

8 blessed are the peacemakers on earth."] See St. Mat' 

thew, ch. v. 9. REED. 

9 Come with thy two-hand sword. 

Glo. True, uncle, are ye advised? the east side of the grove ? 

Cardinal, I am with you."} Thus is the whole speech placed 

to Gloster, in all the editions : but, surely, with great inadvert- 



K. HEN. Why, how now, uncle Gloster ? 

' GLO. Talking of hawking ; nothing else, my 


Now, by God's mother, priest, I'll shave your crown 
for this, 

* Or all my fence shall fail. 9 [Aside. 

* CAR. Medice teipsum; \VAside 

6 Protector, see to't well, protect yourself. ) L 

K. HEN. The winds grow high ; so do your 
stomachs, lords. * 

* How irksome is this musick to my heart ! 

ence. It is the Cardinal who first appoints the east side of the 
grove for the place of duel : and how finely does it express his 
rancour and impetuosity, for fear Gloster should mistake, to re- 
peat the appointment, and ask his antagonist if he takes him 
right ! THEOBALD. 

The two-hand sword is mentioned by Holinshed, Vol. III. 
p. 833 : " And he that touched the tawnie shield, should cast 
a spear on foot with a target on his arme, and after to fight with 
a two-hand sword. 1 ' STEEVENS. 

In the original play the Cardinal desires Gloster to bring " his 
sword and buckler." The two-hand sword was sometimes called 
the long sword,sa\& in common use before the introduction of the 
rapier. Justice Shallow, in The Merry Wives of Windsor, boasts 
of the exploits he had performed in his youth with this instru- 
ment. See Vol. V. p. 76, n. 3. MALONE. 

9 my fence shalljbil.~] Fence is the art of defence. So, 

in Much Ado about Nothing: 

" Despight his nicejence y and his active practice." 


4 The winds grow high; so do your stomachs, lords.~\ This 
Jine Shakspeare hath injudiciously adopted from the old play, 
changing only the word color [choler] to stomachs. In the old 
play the altercation appears not to be concealed from Henry. 
Here Shakspeare certainly intended that it should pass between 
the Cardinal and Gloster aside ; and yet he has inadvertently 
adopted a line, and added .others, that imply that Henry has 
heard the appointment they have made. MALONE. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 229 

* When such strings jar, what hope of harmony ? 

* I pray, my lords, let me compound this strife. 

Enter an Inhabitant of Saint Albans, crying, 
A Miracle! 2 

GLO. What means this noise ? 
Fellow, what miracle dost thou proclaim ? 

INHAB. A miracle ! a miracle ! 

SUF. Come to the king, and tell him what mi- 

INHAB. Forsooth, a blind man at Saint Alban's 


Within this half hour, hath receiv'd his sight; 
A man, that ne'er saw in his life before. 

' K. HEN. Now, God be prais'd ! that to believ- 
ing souls 
' -Gives light in darkness, comfort in despair ! 

Enter the Mayor of Saint Albans, and his Brethren; 
and SIMPCOX, borne between two persons in a 
Chair; his Wife and a great Multitude follow- 

* CAR. Here come the townsmen on procession, 

* To present your highness with the man. 

* K. HEN. Great is his comfort in this earthly 


4 crying, A Miracle !] This scene is founded on a story 

which Sir Thomas More has related, and which he says was com- 
municated to him by his father. The imposter's name is not 
mentioned, but he was detected by Humphrey Duke of Gloster, 
and in the manner here representsd. See his Works, p. 134, 
edit. J557. MALONE. 


* Although by his sight his sin be multiplied. 

* GLO. Stand by, my masters, bring him near the 


* His highness' pleasure is to talk with him. 

* K. HEN. Good fellow, tell us here the circum- 


* That we for thee may glorify the Lord. 
What, hast thou been long blind, and now restor'd? 

SIMP. Born blind, an't please your grace. 

WIFE. Ay, indeed, was he. 

SUF. What woman is this ? 

WIFE. His wife, an't like your worship. 

GLO. Had'st thou been his mother, thou could* st 
have better told. 

K. HEN. Where wert thou born ? 

SIMP. At Berwick in the north, an't like your 

'K. HEN. Poor soul ! God's goodness hath been 

great to thee : 

' Let never day nor night unhallow'd pass, 
' But still remember what the Lord hath done. 

* Q. MAR. Tell me, good fellow, cam'st thou 

here by chance, 
* Or of devotion, to this holy shrine ? 

* SIMP. God knows, of pure devotion ; being 


6 A hundred times, and oftner, in my sleep 
' By good Saint Alban ; who said, Simpcox? come ; 

3 ivho said, Simpcox, &c.] The former copies : 

- taho said, Simon, come ; 

Come, offer at my shrine, and I uill help thee. 
Why Simon ? The chronicles, that take notice of Gloster's 
detecting this pretended miracle, tell us, that the impostor, who 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 231 

' Come, offer at my shrine ', and I will help tfiee. 

* WIFE. Most true, forsooth ; and many time 

and oft 
* Myself have heard a voice to call him so. 

CAR. What, art thou lame ? 

SIMP. Ay, God Almighty help me ! 

SUF. How cam'st thou so ? 

SIMP. A fall off of a tree. 

WIFE. A plum-tree, master. 

GLO. How long hast thou been blind ? 

SIMP. O, born so, master. 

GLO. What, and would'st climb a tree ? 

SIMP. But that in all my life, when I was a youth. 

* WIFE. Too true; and bought his climbing very 


* GLO. 'Mass, thou lov'dst plums well, that 

would'st venture so. 

* SIMP. Alas, good master, my wife desir'd some 

' And made me climb, with danger of my life. 

*GLO. A subtle knave! but yet it shall not 

' Let me see thine eyes : wink now j now open 

them : 
' In my opinion yet thou see'st not well. 

6 SIMP. Yes, master, clear as day ; I thank God, 
and Saint Alban. 

asserted himself to be cured of blindness, was called Sounder 
Simpcox Simon was therefore a corruption. THEOBALD. 

It would seem better to read Simpcox; for which Sim. has in 
all probability been put by contraction in the player's MS. 



GLO. Say'st thou me so? What colour is this 
cloak of? 

SIMP. Red, master ; red as blood. 

GLO. Why, that's well said : What colour is my 
gown of? 

SIMP. Black, forsooth ; coal-black, as jet. 

K. HEN. Why then, thou know'st what colour 

jet is of? 
SUF. And yet, I think, jet did he never see. 

GLO. But cloaks, and gowns, before this day, a 

* WIFE. Never, before this day, in all his life. 
GLO. Tell me, sirrah, what's my name ? 
SIMP. Alas, master, I know not. 

GLO. What's his name ? 

SIMP. I know not. 

GLO. Nor his ? 

SIMP. No, indeed, master. 

GLO. What's thine own name ? 

SIMP. Saunder Simpcox, an if it please you, 

GLO. Then, Saunder, sit thou there, 4 the lyingest 


In Christendom. If thou hadst been born blind, 
Thou might* st as well have known our names, 5 as 


To name the several colours we do wear. 
Sight may distinguish of colours ; but suddenly 

* sit thou t here,] I have supplied the pronoun thou, for 

the sake of metre. STEEVENS. 

* __ our names,"] Old copy, redundantly all our names. 


ac. i. KING HENRY VI. 233 

To nominate them all, 's impossible. 6 
My lords, Saint Alban here hath done a miracle ; 
And would ye not think that cunning 7 to be great, 
That could restore this cripple to his legs? 8 

SIMP. O, master, that you could ! 

GLO. My masters of Saint Albans, have you not 
beadles in your town, and things called whips ? 

MAY. Yes, my lord, if it please your grace. 
GLO. Then send for one presently. 
MAY. Sirrah, go fetch the beadle hither straight. 

\_Exit an Attendant. 

GLO. Now, fetch me a stool hither by and by. \_A 
Stool brought out.'] Now, sirrah, if you mean to save 
yourself from whipping, leap me over this stool, 
and run away. 

SIMP. Alas, master, I am not able to stand alone: 
You go about to -torture me in vain. 

Re-enter Attendant, with the Beadle. 

GLO. Well, sir, we must have you find your legs. 
Sirrah beadle, whip him till he leap over that same 

BEAD. I will, my lord. Come on, sirrah ; off 
with your doublet quickly. 

6 To nominate them all, *s impossible.'] Old copy : 

it is impossible. STEEVENS. 

7 that cunning ] Folio ~it cunning. Corrected by 

Mr. Rowe. That was probably contracted in the MS. yt. 


8 to his legs?"] Old copies, redundantly to his legs 

again ? STEEVENS. 


SIMP. Alas, master, what shall I do ? I am not 
able to stand. 

\_After the Beadle hath hit him once, he leaps 
over the Stool, and runs away ; and the 
People follow, and cry, A Miracle ! 

* K. HEN. O God, see'st thou this, and bear'st 

so long ? 

* Q. MAR. It made me laugh, to see the villain 


* GLO. Follow the knave ; and take this drab 


* WIFE. Alas, sir, we did it for pure need. 

GLO. Let them be whipped through every market 

town, till they come to Berwick, whence they came. 

[Exeunt Mayor, Beadle, Wife, 8$c. 

6 CAR. Duke Humphrey has done a miracle to- 

* SUF. True ; made the lame to leap, and fly 


' GLO. But you have done more miracles than I ; 
6 You made, in a day, my lord, whole towns to fly.' 


' K. HEN. What tidings with our cousin Buck- 
ingham ? 

' BUCK. Such as my heart doth tremble to un- 
fold. 1 

9 _ 'whole towns tojly-'} Here in the old play the King 

" Have done, I say ; and let me hear no more of that." 


1 Such as my heart doth tremble to unfold. &c.] In the origi- 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 235 

4 A sort of naughty persons, lewdly bent, 2 
4 Under the countenance and confederacy 

* Of lady Eleanor, the protector's wife, 

4 The ringleader and head of all this rout, 
4 Have practis'd dangerously against your state, 
4 Dealing with witches, and with conjurers : 
4 Whom we have apprehended in the fact ; 

* Raising up wicked spirits from under ground, 
' Demanding of king Henry's life and death, 

4 And other of your highness* privy council, 
4 As more at large your grace shall understand. 

4 CAR. And so, my lord protector, by this means 
4 Your lady is forthcoming 3 yet at London. 
4 This news, I think, hath turn'd your weapon's 


4 'Tis like, my lord, you will not keep your hour. 

\_Aside to GLOSTER. 

4 GLO. Ambitious churchman, leave to afflict my 
heart ! 

* Sorrow and grief have vanquish'd all my powers: 

nal play the corresponding speech stands thus ; and the variation 

is worth noting : 

" 111 news for some, my lord, and this it is. 
" That proud dame Elinor, our protector's wife, 
" Hath plotted treasons 'gainst the king and peers, 
" By witchcrafts, sorceries, and conjurings : 
" Who by such means did raise a spirit up, 
" To tell her what hap should betide the state ; 
"But ere they had finish'd their devilish drift, 
" By York and myself they were all surpriz'd, 
" And here's the answer the devil did make to them.'* 


8 A sort lewdly bent,~] Lewdly, in this place, and in some 

others, does not signify wantonly, but wickedly. STEEVENS. 

The word is so used in old acts of parliament. A sort is a 
company. See Vol. IV. p. 409, n. 6. MALONE. 

1 Your lady is forthcoming ] That is, Your lady is in 
custody. JOHNSON. 


* And, vanquish'd as I am, I yield to thee, 

* Or to the meanest groom. 

* K. HEN. O God, what mischiefs work the 

wicked ones ; 

* Heaping confusion on their own heads thereby ! 

* Q. MAR. Gloster, see here the tainture of thy 


* And, look, thyself be faultless, thou wert best. 

c GLO. Madam, for myself, 4 to heaven I do ap- 

' How I have lov'd my king, and commonweal : 
e And, for my wife, I know not how it stands ; 
' Sorry I am to hear what I have heard : 
' Noble she is ; but if she have forgot 

* Honour, and virtue, and convers'd with such 
6 As, like to pitch, defile nobility, 

' I banish her my bed, and company ; 

* And give her, as a prey, to law, and shame, 

* That hath dishonour' d Gloster's honest name. 

* K. HEN. Well, for this night, we will repose us 


' To-morrow, toward London, back again, 
c To look into this business thoroughly, 
' And call these foul offenders to their answers ; 

Madam, for myself, &c.] Thus in the original play : 
" And pardon me, my gracious sovereign, 
" For here I swear unto your majesty, 
That I am guiltless of these heinous crimes, 
Which my ambitious wife hath falsely done : 
And for she would betray her sovereign lord, 
I here renounce her from my bed and board ; 
And leave her open for the law to judge, 
Unless she clear herself of this foul deed." 


sc. n. KING HENRY VI. 237 

' And poise the cause in justice' equal scales, 
6 Whose beam stands sure, whose rightful cause 
prevails. 5 [Flourish. Exeunt. 


London. The Duke of York's Garden. 

' YORK. Now, my good lords of Salisbury and 


' Our simple supper ended, give me leave, 
' In this close walk, to satisfy myself, 

* In craving your opinion of my title, 

* Which is infallible, 6 to England's crown. 

* SAL. My lord, I long to hear it at full. 

WAR. Sweet York, begin : and if thy claim be 

The Nevils are thy subjects to command. 

YORK. Then thus : 
' Edward the Third, my lords, had seven sons : 

* The first, Edward the Black Prince, prince of 

Wales ; 

* The second, William of Hatfield j and the third, 

s And poise the cause injustice 1 equal scales t 

Whose beam stands sure, whose rightful cause prevails."] The 
sense will, I think, be mended if we read in the optative mood : 

justice' equal scale, 

Whose beam stand sure, whose rightful cause prevail ! 


* Which is infallible,'] I know not well whether he means 
the opinion or the title is infallible. JOHNSON. 

Surely he means his title. MALONE. 


' Lionel, duke of Clarence ; next to whom, 

* Was John of Gaunt, the duke of Lancaster : 

* The fifth, was Edmond Langley, 7 duke of York; 
' The sixth, was Thomas of Woodstock, duke of 

Gloster ; 
' William of Windsor was the seventh, and last. 

* Edward, the Black Prince, died before his father ; 
' And left behind him Richard, his only son, 

* Who, after Edward the Third's death, reign'd as 


* Till Henry Bolingbroke, duke of Lancaster, 

* The eldest son and heir of John of Gaunt, 

' Crown'd by the name of Henry the Fourth, 
' Seiz'd on the realm ; depos'd the rightful king ; 

* Sent his poor queen to France, from whence she 


* And him to Pomfret ; where, as all you know, 8 

* Harmless Richard was murder'd traitorously. 

* WAR. Father, the duke hath told the truth ; 

* Thus got the house of Lancaster the crown. 

* YORK. Which now they hold by force, and not 

by right; 

* For Richard, the first son's heir being dead, 

* The issue of the next son should have reign'd. 

* SAL. But William of Hatfield died without an 


7 The fifth, ivas Edmond Langley, &c.] The author of the 
original play has ignorantly enumerated Roger Mortimer, Earl 
of March, as Edward's fifth son ; and represented the Duke of 
York as Edward's second son. MALONE. 

8 as all you &MOWJ,] In the original play the words are, 

as you both know." This mode of phraseology, when the 
speaker addresses only two persons, is peculiar to Shakspeare. 
In King Henry IV. P. II. Act III. sc. i. the King addressing 
Warwick and Surrey, says 

" Why then good morrow to you all, my lords." 


"sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 239 

* YORK. The third son, duke of Clarence, (from 

whose line 

* I claim the crown,) had issue Philippe, a daugh- 


* Who married Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, 

* Edmund had issue Roger, earl of March : 

* Roger had issue Edmund, Anne, and Eleanor. 

* SAL. This Edmund, 9 in the reign of Boling- 


* As I have read, laid claim unto the crown ; 

* And, but for Owen Glendower, had been king, 

* Who kept him in captivity, till he died. l 

* But, to the rest. 

9 This Edmund, &c.] In Act II. sc. v. of the last play, York, 
to whom this is spoken, is present at the death of Edmund Mor- 
timer in prison ; and the reader will recollect him to have been 
married to Owen Glendower's daughter, in The First Part of 
King Henry IV. RITSON. 

1 Who kept him in captivity, till he died."} I have observed in 
a former note, ( First Part, Act II. sc. v. ) that the historians as 
well as the dramatick poets have been strangely mistaken con- 
cerning this Edmond Mortimer, Earl of March, who was so far 
from being " kept in captivity till he died," that he appears to 
have been at liberty during the whole reign of King Henry V. 
and to have been trusted and employed by him ; and there is no 
proof that he ever was confined, as a state-prisoner, by King 
Henry IV. Being only six years of age at the death of his father 
in 1398, he was delivered by Henry in ward to his son Henry 
Prince of Wales ; and during the whole of that reign, being a 
minor and related to the family on the throne, both he and his 
brother Roger were under the particular care of the King. At 
the age often years, in 1402, he headed a body of Hereford- 
shire men against Owen Glendower ; and they being routed, he 
was taken prisoner by Owen, and is said by Walsingham to have 
contracted a marriage with Glendower's daughter, and to have 
been with him at the battle of Shrewsbury ; but I believe the 
story of his being affianced to Glendower's daughter is a mistake, 
and that the historian has confounded Mortimer with Lord Grey 
of Ruthvin, who was likewise taken prisoner by Glendower, and 
actually did marry his daughter. Edmond Mortimer, Earl of 


' YORK. His eldest sister, Anne, 

' My mother being heir unto the crown, 

March, married Anne Stafford, the daughter of Edmond Earl of 
Stafford. If he was at the battle of Shrewsbury he was proba- 
bly brought there against his will, to grace the cause of the re- 
bels. The Percies, in the Manifesto which they published a little 
before that battle, speak of him, not as a confederate of Owen's, 
but as the rightful heir to the crown, whom Owen had confined, 
and whom, finding that the King for political reasons would not 
ransom him, they at their own charges had ransomed. After 
that battle, he was certainly under the care of the King, he and 
his brother in the seventh year of that reign having had annui- 
ties of two hundred pounds and one hundred marks allotted to 
them, for their maintenance during their minorities. 

In addition to what I have already said respecting the trust 
reposed in him during the whole reign of King Henry V., I may 
add, that in the sixth year of that King, this Earl of March was 
with the Earl of Salisbury at the siege of Fresnes ; and soon af- 
terwards with the King himself at the siege of Melun. In the 
same year he was constituted LIEUTENANT OF NORMANDY. 
He attended Henry when he had an interview with the French 
King, &c. at Melun, to treat about a marriage with Catharine, 
and he accompanied the Queen when she returned from France 
in 1422, with the corpse of her husband. 

One of the sources of the mistakes in our old histories con- 
cerning this Earl, I believe, was this : he was probably con- 
founded with one of his kinsmen, a Sir John Mortimer, who was 
confined for a long time in the Tower, and at last was exe- 
cuted in 1424s That person, however, could not have been his 
uncle, (as has been said in a note on the First Part, Act II. sc. 
v. ) for he had but one legitimate uncle, and his name was Ed- 
mond. The Sir John Mortimer, who was confined in the Tower, 
was perhaps cousin german to the last Edmond Earl of March, 
the illegitimate son of his uncle Edmond. 

I take this opportunity of correcting an inaccuracy in the note 
above referred to. I have said that Lionel Duke of Clarence was 
married to Elizabeth the daughter of the Earl of Ulster, in 1360. 
I have since learned that he was affianced to her in his tender 
years ; and consequently Lionel, having been born in 1338, 
might have had his daughter Philippa in 1354. Philippa, I find, 
was married in 1370, at the age of sixteen, to Edmond Morti- 
mer Earl of March, who was himself born in 1351. Their son 
Roger was born in 1371, and must have been married to Eleanor, 
the daughter of the Earl of Kent, in the year 1388, or 1389, 

sc. ii, KING HENRY VI. 24-1 

* Married Richard, earl of Cambridge ; who was 

6 To Edmund Langley, Edward the third's fifth 


' By her I claim the kingdom : she was heir 
' To Roger, earl of March ; who was the son 

* Of Edmund Mortimer ; who married Philippe, 
' Sole daughter unto Lionel, duke of Clarence : 
' So, if the issue of the elder son 

' Succeed before the younger, I am king. 

* WAR. What plain proceedings are more plain 

than this ? 

Henry doth claim the crown from John of Gaunt, 
The fourth son ; York claims it from the third. 
Till Lionel's issue fails, his should not reign : 
It fails not yet ; but flourishes in thee, 
And in thy sons, fair slips of such a stock. 
Then, father Salisbury, kneel we both together ; 
And, in this private plot, 2 be we the first, 
That shall salute our rightful sovereign 
With honour of his birthright to the crown. 

BOTH. Long live our sovereign Richard, Eng* 
land's king ! 

* YORK. We thank you, lords. But I am not 

your king 

Till I be crown'd ; and that my sword be stain'd 
With heart-blood of the house of Lancaster : 

for their daughter Anne, who married Richard Earl of Cambridge", 
was born in 1389. Edmond Mortimer, Roger's eldest son, (the 
Mortimer of Shakspeare's Kins Henry IV. and the person who 
has given occasion to this tedious note, ) was born in the latter 
end of the year 1392; and consequently when he died in his 
castle at Trim in Ireland, in 1424-5, he was thirty-two years 
old. MALONE. 

* private plot, 1 Sequestered spot of ground. MALONE. 



* And that's not suddenly to be performed ; 

* But with advice, and silent secrecy. 

* Do you, as I do, in these dangerous days, 

* Wink at the duke of Suffolk's insolence, 

* At Beaufort's pride, at Somerset's ambition, 

* At Buckingham, and all the crew of them, 

* Till they have snar'd the shepherd of the flock, 

* That virtuous prince, the good duke Humphrey : 

* 'Tis that they seek ; and they, in seeking that, 

* Shall find their deaths, if York can prophesy. 

* SAL. My lord, break we off; we know your 

mind at full. 

* WAR. My heart assures me, 3 that the earl of 

6 Shall one day make the duke of York a king. 

' YORK. And, Nevil, this I do assure myself, 
' Richard shall live to make the earl of Warwick 

* The greatest man in England, but the king. 


3 My heart assures me,~\ Instead of this couplet, we find in the 
old play no less than ten lines; so that if we suppose that piece 
to be an imperfect transcript of this, we must acknowledge the 
transcriber had a good sprag memory, for he remembered what 
he never could have either heard or seen. MALONE. 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 243 


The same. A Hall of Justice. 

Trumpets sounded. Enter King HENRY, Queen 
SALISBURY ; the Duchess of GLOSTER, MAR- 
LINGBROKE, under guard. 

' K. HEN. Stand forth, dame Eleanor Cobham, 

Gloster's wife : 

' In sight of God, and us, your guilt is great ; 
' Receive the sentence of the law, for sins 
' Such as by God's book are adjudg'd to death. 

* You four, from hence to prison back again ; 

[To JOURD. 8$c. 

* From thence, unto the place of execution : 

* The witch in Smithfield shall be burn'd to ashes, 

* And you three shall be strangled on the gallows. 
' You, madam, for you are more nobly born, 

* Despoiled of your honour in your life, 

' Shall, after three days' open penance 4 done, 

* Live in your country here, in banishment, 

* With sir John Stanley, in the isle of Man. 

' DUCH. Welcome is banishment, welcome were 
my death. 

4 after three days' open penance ^ ] In the original play 

the King particularly specifies the mode of penance: " Thou 
shalt two days do penance barefoot, in the streets, with a white 
sheet," &c. MALONE. 

R 2 


* GLO. Eleanor, the law, thou seest, hath judged 


* I cannot justify whom the law condemns. 

[Exeunt the Duchess, and the other Prisoners, 

* Mine eyes are full of tears, my heart of grief. 

* Ah, Humphrey, this dishonour in thine age 

4 Will bring thy head with sorrow to the ground ! 
4 I beseech your majesty, give me leave to go ; 
' Sorrow would solace, and mine age would ease. 5 

* K.HEN. Stay, Humphrey duke of Gloster : ere 

thou go, 

* Give up thy staff; Henry will to himself 

* Protector be : and God shall be my hope, 

' My stay, my guide, and lantern to my feet ; 6 

* And go in peace, Humphrey ; no less belov'd, 
' Than when thou wert protector to thy king. 

* Q. MAR. I see no reason, why a king of years 

* Should be to be protected like a child. 

' God and king Henry govern England's helm : 7 

* Give up your staff, sir, and the king his realm. 

3 Sorroiv would solace, and mine age tuould ease."] That is, 
Sorrow would have, sorrow requires, solace, and age requires 
ease. JOHNSON. 

6 lantern to my feet ;~\ This image, I think, is from our 

Liturgy : " a lantern to my feet, and a light to my paths." 


7 God and king Henry govern England's helm :] Old copy 
realm. STEEVENS. 

The word realm at the end of two lines together is displeasing ; 
and when it is considered that much of this scene is written in 
rhyme, it will not appear improbable that the author wrote, 
govern England's helm. JOHNSON. 

So, in a preceding scene of this play : 

" And you yourself shall steer the happy helm." 


ac. m. KING HENRY VI. 245 

' GLO. My staff? here, noble Henry, is my staff: 

* As willingly do I the same resign, 

' As e'er thy father Henry made it mine ; 
And even as willingly at thy feet I leave it, 
As others would ambitiously receive it. 
' Farewell, good king : When I am dead and gone, 
May honourable peace attend thy throne 1 \_Exit. 

* Q. MAR. Why, now is Henry king, and Mar- 

garet queen ; 

* And Humphrey, duke of Gloster, scarce him- 


* That bears so shrewd a maim ; two pulls at 


* His lady banish'd, and a limb lopp'd off; 

* This staff of honour raught : 8 ' There let it 

6 Where it best fits to be, in Henry's hand. 

* SUF. Thus droops this lofty pine, and hangs 

his sprays ; 

* Thus Eleanor's pride dies in her youngest days. 9 

Dr. Johnson's emendation undoubtedly shouldbe received into 
the text. So, in Coriolanus : 

" and you slander 

" The helms of the state" MALONE. 

' This staff of honour raught :] Raught is the ancient preterite 
of the verb reach, and is frequently used by Spenser ; as in the 
following instance : 

" He trained was till riper years he raught." 

See Vol. VII. p. 91, n. 8. STEEVENS. 

Rather raft, or reft, the preterite of reave ; unless reached 
were ever used with the sense of arracher, Fr. that is, to snatch, 
take or pull violently away. So, in Peele's Arraygnement of 
Paris, 1584 : 

" How Pluto raught queene Ceres daughter thence.'* 


9 Thus Eleanor's pride dies in her youngest days."] This ex- 
pression has no meaning, if we suppose that the word her refers 


4 YORK. Lords, let him go. 1 Please it your ma- 

4 This is the day appointed for the combat ; 
4 And ready are the appellant and defendant, 
4 The armourer and his man, to enter the lists, 

* So please your highness to behold the fight. 

* Q. MAR. Ay, good my lord ; for purposely 


* Left I the court, to see this quarrel tried. 

4 K. HEN. O* God's name, see the lists and all 

things fit ; 
c Here let them end it, and God defend the right ! 

* YORK. I never saw a fellow worse bested, 2 

* Or more afraid to fight, than is the appellant, 

* The servant of this armourer, my lords. 

to Eleanor, who certainly was not a young woman. We must 
therefore suppose that the pronoun her refers to pride, and stands 
for it's ; a license frequently practised by Shakspeare. 


Or the meaning may be, in her, i. e. Eleanor's, youngest days 
of power. But the assertion, whichever way understood, is un- 
true. MALONE. 

Suffolk's meaning may be : The pride of Eleanor dies before 
it has reached maturity. It is by no means unnatural to suppose, 
that had the designs of a proud woman on a crown succeeded, 
she might have been prouder than she was before. STEEVENS. 

1 Lords, let him go."] i. e. Let him pass out of your thoughts, 
Duke Humphrey had already left the stage. STEEVENS. 

* inorse fasted,] In a worse plight. JOHNSON. 

sc. in. KING HENRY VI. 247 

.Ji '... 'I'+il.D'.LSL .\\Y)V&U%. <: 

Enter, on one side, HORNER, and his Neighbours, 
drinking to him so much that he is drunk ; and he 
enters bearing his staff' with a sand-bag fastened 
to it ; 3 a drum before him : at the other side, 
PETER, with a drum and a similar staff 1 ; accom- 
panied by Prentices drinking to him. 

1 NEIOH. Here, neighbour Homer, I drink to 
you in a cup of sack ; And fear not, neighbour, 
you shall do well enough. 

2 NEIGH. And here, neighbour, here's a cup of 
charneco. 4 

3 - toith a sand-bag fastened to it;~\ As, according to the 
old laws of duels, knights were to fight with the lance and 
sword ; so those of inferior rank fought with an ebon staff or 
battoon, to the farther end of which was fixed a bag crammed 
hard with sand. To this custom Hudibras has alluded in these 
humorous lines : 

" Engag'd with money-bags, as bold 

" As men with sand-bags did of old." WARBURTON. 

Mr. Sympson, in his notes on Ben Jonson, observes, that a 
passage in St. Chrysostom very clearly proves the great antiquity 
of this practice. STEEVENS. 

* - a cup of charneco. ~] A common name for a sort of 
sweet wine, as appears from a passage in a pamphlet intitled The 
Discovery of a London Monster, called the Black Dog of New- 
gate, printed 1612 : " Some drinking the neat wine of Orleance, 
some the Gascony, some the Bourdeaux. There wanted neither 
sherry, sack, nor charneco, maligo, nor amber-colour'd Candy, 
nor liquorish ipocras, brown beloved bastard, fat Aligant, or any 
quick-spirited liquor." And as charneca is, in Spanish, the name 
of a kind of turpentine-tree, I imagine the growth of it was 
in some district abounding with that tree ; or that it had its name 
from a certain flavour resembling it. WARBURTON. 

In a pamphlet entitled, Wit's Miserie, or the World's Mad- 
ness, printed in 1596, it is said that " the only medicine for the 
fleghm, is three cups of charneco, fasting." 


3 NEIGH. And here's a pot of good double beer, 
neighbour : drink, and fear not your man. 

HOR. Let it come, i'faith, and I'll pledge you all; 
And a fig for Peter ! 

1 PREN. Here, Peter, I drink to thee ; and be 
not afraid. 

2 PREN. Be merry, Peter, and fear not thy mas- 
ter; fight for credit of the prentices. 

PETER. I thank you all: * drink, andprayfor me, 

* I pray you ; for, I think, I have taken my last 

* draught in this world. 5 * Here, Robin, an if I 
die, I give thee my apron ; and, Will, thou shalt 
have my hammer : and here, Tom, take all the 
money that I have. O Lord, bless me, I pray God ! 
for J am never able to deal with my master, he hath 
learnt so much fence already. 

SAL. Come, leave your drinking, and fall to 

blows. Sirrah, what's thy name ? 


PETER. Peter, forsooth. 
SAL. Peter ! what more ? 
PETER. Thump, 

Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit 'without Money j 

" Where no old charneco is, nor no anchovies." 
Again, in Decker's Honest Whore, 1630, P. II: 

" Imprimis, a pottle of Greek wine, a pottle of Peter-sameene, 
a pottle of charneco, and a pottle of Ziattica." 
Again, in The Fair Maid of the West, 1615 : 

" Aragoosa, or Peter-see-me, canary, or charneco." 
Charneco is the name of a village near Lisbon, where this 
wine was made, See the European Magazine, for March, 1794. 


* / have taken my last draught in this world.] Gay has borrow- 
ed this idea in his What d'ye call it, where Peascod says : 
" Stay let me pledge 'tis my last earthly liquor." 

Peascod's subsequent bequest is likewise copied from Peter's 
division of his moveables. STEEVENS. 

ac. m. KING HENRY VI. 249 

SAL. Thump ! then see thou thump thy master 

HOR. Masters, I am come hither, as it were, 
upon my man's instigation, to prove him a knave, 
and myself an honest man : * and touching the 
* duke of York, will take my death, I never meant 
him any ill, nor the king, nor the queen : * And 
therefore, Peter, have at thee with a downright 
blow, as Bevis of Southampton fell upon Ascapart. 6 

* YORK. Despatch : this knave's tongue begins 
to double. 7 

as Bevis of Southampton Jell upon Ascapart.'] I have 

added this from the old quarto. WARBURTON. 

Ascapart the giant of the story a name familiar to our an- 
cestors, is mentioned by Dr. Donne : 

" Those Ascaparts, men big enough to throw 
" Charing-cross for a bar," &c. JOHNSON. 

The figures of these combatants are still preserved on the gates 
of Southampton. STEEVENS. 

Shakspeare not having adopted these words, according to the 
hypothesis already stated, they ought perhaps not to be here in- 
troduced. However, I am not so wedded to my own opinion, 
as to oppose it to so many preceding editors, in a matter of so 
little importance. MALONE. 

7 this knave* s tongue begins to double."] So, in Holinshed, 

whose narrative Shakspeare has deserted, by making the ar- 
mourer confess treason : 

" In the same yeare also, a certeine armourer was appeached 
of treason by a servant of his owne. For proofe whereof a daie 
was giuen them to fight in Smithfield, insomuch that in conflict 
the said armourer was ouercome and slaine ; but yet by misgo- 
uerning of himselfe. For on the morrow, when he should haue 
come to the field fresh and fasting, his neighbours came to him, 
and gaue him wine and strong drink in such excessive sort, that 
he was therewith distempered, and reeled as he went ; and so 
was slain without guilt: as for the false seruant, he liued 
not long," &c. 

By favour of Craven Ord, Esq. I have now before me the ori- 
ginal Exchequer record of expences attending this memorable 


* Sound trumpets, alarum to the combatants. 

[Alarum. They Jight, and PETER strikes down 
his Master. 

HOR. Hold, Peter, hold ! I confess, I confess 
treason. [Dies. 

* YORK. Take away his weapon : Fellow, thank 

* God, and the good wine in thy master's way. 

' PETER. O God ! have I overcome mine ene- 

* mies in this presence? O Peter, thou hast prevailed 
e in right ! 

K. HEN. Go, take hence that traitor from our 

sight ; 
For, by his death, we do perceive his guilt : 8 

combat. From hence it appears that William Catour, the Ar- 
mourer, was not killed by his opponent John Davy, but worsted, 
and immediately afterwards hanged. The following is the last 
article in the account ; and was struck off by the Barons of Ex- 
chequer, because it contained charges unauthorised by the Sheriffs. 

" Also paid to officers for watchyng of ye ded ' 
man in Smyth felde ye same day and ye nyghte 
aftyr yt ye bataill was dpon, and for hors hyre 
for ye officeres at ye execucion doying, and for 
ye hangman's labor, xj s . vi d . 

" Also paid for ye cloth yat lay upon ye ded 

s. d. 
Sum. xij. vii. 

man in Smyth felde, viij d . 

" Also paid for 1 pole and nayllis, and for 
settyng up of ye said mannys hed on london 
Brigge, v d ." 

The sum total of expence incurred on this occa- 
sion was , j; ; - - , - - - - of. 10 18 9 

I know not why Shakspeare has called the Armourer Homer. 
The name of one of the Sheriffs indeed was Home, as appears 
from the record before me, which will be printed at full length 
by Mr. Nichols in one of his valuable collections. STEEVENS. 

8 For, by his death, tve do perceive his guilt .] According to 
the ancient usage of the duel, the vanquished person not only lost 
his life but his reputation, and his death was always regarded as 
a certain evidence of his guilt. We have a remarkable instance 
of this in an account of the Duellum inter Dominum Johannem 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 251 

And God, in justice, hath reveal' d to us 
The truth and innocence of this poor fellow, 
Which he had thought to have murder'd wrong- 
Come, fellow, follow us for thy reward. [Exeunt. 


The same. A Street. 
Enter GLOSTER and Servants, in mourning Cloaks. 

* GLO. Thus, sometimes, hath the brightest day 
a cloud ; 

* And, after summer, evermore succeeds 

* Barren winter, with his wrathful nipping cold : 9 

* So cares and joys abound, as seasons fleet. 1 
Sirs, what's o'clock ? 

Hannesly, Militem, fy Robertum Katlenton, Armigerum, in quo 
Robertusjuit occisus. From whence, says the historian, " mag- 
na Juit evidentia quod militis causa erat vera, ex quo mors alte- 
rius sequebatur" A. Murimuth, ad ann. 1380, p. 149. 


9 Barren winter, taith his wrathful nipping cold .] So, in Sack- 
ville's Induction : 

" The wathful "winter 'proaching on apace." REED. 

I would read Bare winter for the sake of the metre, which 
is uncommonly harsh, if the word barren be retained. 


1 as seasons fleet.] To fleet is to change. So, in Antony 
and Cleopatra : 

" now the fleeting moon 

" No planet is of mine." STEEVENS. 

Dr. Johnson in his Dictionary supposes to fleet (as here used) 
to be the same as to flit ; that is, to be in a flux or transient 
state, to pass away. MALONE. 


SERF. Ten, my lord. 2 

* GLO. Ten is the hour that was appointed me, 
' To watch the coming of my punish'd duchess : 

* Uneath 3 may she endure the flinty streets, 

* To tread them with her tender-feeling feet. 
Sweet Nell, ill can thy noble mind abrook 
The abject people, gazing on thy face, 

With envious 4 looks still laughing at thy shame ;* 
That erst did follow thy proud chariot wheels, 
When thou didst ride in triumph through the streets. 

* But, soft ! I think, she comes ; and I'll prepare 

* My tear-stain'd eyes to see her miseries. 

the Duchess of GLOSTER, in a white sheet, 
with papers pinn'd upon her back, her feet bare, 
and a taper burning in her hand ; Sir John Stan- 
ley, a Sheriff, and Officers. 

SERV. So please your grace, we'll take her from 
the sheriff. 

* Ten, my lord."] For the sake of metre, I am willing to sup- 
pose this hemistich, as originally written, stood 

" ' Tis ten o'clock, my lord." STEEVENS. 

3 Uneath 3 * e> Scarcely. POPE. 

So, in the metrical romance of Guy Earl of Wartxick, bl. I. 
no date : 

" Uneathes we came from him certain, 
*' That he ne had us all slain.*' 

Eath is the ancient word for ease or easy. So, in Spenser's 
Fairy Queen, B. IV. c. vi : 

" More eath was new impression to receive." 
Uneath is commonly used by the same author for not easily. 


4 - envious ] i. e. malicious. Thus Ophelia in Hamlet 
is said to "spurn enviously at straws." See note on this passage. 


* With envious looks still laughing at thy shame ;~\ Still, 
which is not in the elder copies, was added in the second folio. 


sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. 253 

' GLO. No, stir not, for your lives ; let her pass 
by. 6 

DUCH. Come you, my lord, to see my open 

shame ? 

Now thou dost penance too. Look, how they gaze ! 
' See, how the giddy multitude do point, 

* And nod their heads, andthrowtheir eyes on thee ! 

* Ah, Gloster, hide thee from their hateful looks ; 

* And, in thy closet pent up, rue my shame, 
And ban thine enemies, both mine and thine. 

GLO. Be patient, gentle Nell ; forget this grief. 

DUCH. Ah, Gloster, teach me to forget myself : 
For, whilst I think I am thy married wife, 
And thou a prince, protector of this land, 

* Methinks, I should not thus be led along, 
Mail'd up in shame, 7 with papers on my back ; 

* And follow* d with a rabble, that rejoice 

* To see my tears, and hear my deep-fet 3 groans. 
The ruthless flint doth cut my tender feet ; 
And, when I start, the envious people laugh, 
And bid me be advised how I tread. 

4 Ah, Humphrey, can I bear this shameful yoke ? 

* Trow'st thou, that e'er I'll look upon the world ; 

* Or count them happy, that enjoy the sun ? 

* No ; dark shall be my light, and night my day ; 

* To think upon my pomp, shall be my hell. 

* No, stir not, &c.] In the original play thus : 

" I charge you for your lives, stir not a foot ; 

" Nor offer once to draw a weapon here, 

" But let them do their office as they should." 


7 Mail'd up in shame,'] Wrapped up ; bundled up in disgrace ; 
alluding to the sheet of penance. JOHNSON. 

* deep-fet ] i. e. deep^fetcked. So, in King Henry V: 

" Whose blood is Jet from fathers of war- proof." 



Sometime I'll say, I am duke Humphrey's wife ; 
And he a prince, and ruler of the land : 
Yet so he rul'd, and such a prince he was, 
As he stood by, whilst I, his forlorn duchess, 

* Was made a wonder, and a pointing-stock, 
To every idle rascal follower. 

But be thou mild, and blush not at my shame ; 
Nor stir at nothing, till the axe of death 
Hang over thee, as, sure, it shortly will. 
For Suffolk, he that can do all in all 
' With her, that hateth thee, and hates us all, 
And York, and impious Beaufort, that false priest, 
Have all lim'd bushes to betray thy wings, 
And, fly thou how thou canst, they'll tangle thee : 

* But fear not thou, until thy foot be snar'd, 

* Nor never seek prevention of thy foes. 

* GLO. Ah, Nell, forbear ; thou aimest all awry ; 

* I must offend, before I be attainted : 

* And had I twenty times so many foes, 

* And each of them had twenty times their power, 

* All these could not procure me any scathe, 9 

* So long as I am loyal, true, and crimeless. 

* Would'st have me rescue thee from this reproach? 

* Why, yet thy scandal were not wip'd away, 

* But I in danger for the breach of law. 

4 Thy greatest help is quiet, 1 gentle Nell : 

4 I pray thee, sort thy heart to patience ; 

4 These few days' wonder will be quickly worn. 

9 any scathe,] Scathe is harm, or mischief. Chaucer, 

Spenser, and all our ancient writers, are frequent in their use of 
this word. STEEVENS. 

1 Thy greatest help is quiet,'] The poet has not endeavoured to 
raise much compassion for the Duchess, who indeed suffers but 
what she had deserved. JOHNSON. 

BC. iv. KING HENRY VI. 255 

Enter a Herald. 

HER. I summon your grace to his majesty's par- 
liament, holden at Bury the first of this next month. 

GLO. And my consent ne'er ask'd herein before ! 
This is close dealing. Well, I will be there. 

[Exit Herald. 

My Nell, I take my leave : and, master sheriff, 
Let not her penance exceed the king's commission. 

4 SHER. An't please your grace, here my com- 
mission stays : 

* And sir John Stanley is appointed now 

* To take her with him to the isle of Man. 

' GLO. Must you, sir John, protect my lady here ? 

' STAN. So am I given in charge, may't please 
your grace. 

GLO. Entreat her not the worse, in that I pray 
You use her well : the world may laugh 2 again ; 
And I may live to do you kindness-, if 
You do it her. And so, sir John, farewell. 

DUCH. What gone, my lord ; and bid me not 
farewell ? 

' GLO. Witness my tears, I cannot stay to speak. 
[Exeunt GLOSTER and Servants. 

* DUCH. Art thou gone too ? * All comfort go 
with thee ! 

* For none abides with me : my joy is death ; 

* Death, at whose name I oft have been afear'd, 

* Because I wish'd this world's eternity. 

' Stanley, I pr'ythee, go, and take me hence ; 

* the world may laugh again ;] That is, The world may 

look again favourably upon me. JOHNSON. 


* I care not whither, for I beg no favour, 

* Only convey me where thou art commanded. 

* STAN. Why, madam, that is to the isle of Man ; 

* There to be used according to your state. 

* DUCH. That's bad enough, for I am but re- 

proach : 

* And shall I then be us'd reproachfully ? 

* STAN. Like to a duchess, and duke Humphrey's 


* According to that state you shall be used. 

' DUCH. Sheriff, farewell, and better than I fare ; 

* Although thou hast been conduct of my shame! 3 

' SHER. It is my office ; and, madam, pardon 

* DUCH. Ay, ay, farewell; thy office is dis- 


* Come, Stanley, shall we go ? 

' STAN. Madam, your penance done, throw off 

this sheet, 
' And go we to attire you for our journey. 

* DUCH. My shame will not be shifted with my 

sheet : 

* No, it will hang upon my richest robes, 

* And show itself, attire me how I can. 

* Go, lead the way j I long to see my prison. 4 


3 conduct of my shame /] i. e. conductor. So, in Romeo 

and Juliet : 

" Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide." 

" And fire-ey'd fury be my conduct now." STEEVENS. 

4 / long to see my prison.'] This impatience of a high 

spirit is very natural. It is not so dreadful to be imprisoned, as 


The Abbey at Bury. 

Enter to the Parliament, King HENRY, Queen MAR- 
BUCKINGHAM, and Others. 

4 K. HEN. I muse, 5 my lord of Gloster is not 
come : 

* 'Tis not his wont to be the hindmost man, 
4 Whate'er occasion keeps him from us now. 

4 Q. MAR. Can you not see ? or will you not 


* The strangeness of his alter' d countenance? 
4 With what a majesty he bears himself 5 

4 How insolent of late he is become, 

* How proud, peremptory, 6 and unlike himself? 

4 We know the time, since he was mild and affable; 

4 And, if we did but glance a far-off look, 

4 Immediately he was upon his knee, 

4 That all the court adrmVd him for submission : 

4 But meet him now, and, be it in the morn, 

it is desirable in a state of disgrace to be sheltered from the scorn 
of gazers. JOHNSON. 

This is one of those touches that certainly came from the hand 
of Shakspeare; for these words are not in the old play. 


5 / muse,"] i. e. I wonder. So, in Macbeth : 

" Do not muse at me, my most worthy friends." 


peremptory,'} Old copy, redundantly : 
hoiu peremptory . STEEVENS. 

VOL. xin. s 


* When every one will give the time of day, 

* He knits his brow, and shows an angry eye, 

* And passeth by with stiff unbowed knee, 
' Disdaining duty that to us belongs. 

' Small curs are not regarded, when they grin ; 
' But great men tremble, when the lion roars ; 
6 And Humphrey is no little man in England. 

* First, note, that he is near you in descent ; 

* And should you fall, he is the next will mount. 
' Me seemeth 7 then, it is no policy, 

' Respecting what a rancorous mind he bears, 
' And his advantage following your decease, 
4 That he should come about your royal person, 

* Or be admitted to your highness* council. 

* By flattery hath he won the commons' hearts ; 
' And, when he please to make commotion, 

* 'Tis to be fear'd, they all will follow him. 

' Now 'tis the spring, and weeds are shallow-rooted; 
' Suffer them now, and they'll o'ergrow the garden, 

* And choke the herbs for want of husbandry. 
' The reverent care, I bear unto my lord, 

* Made me collect 8 these dangers in the duke. 
' If it be fond, 9 call it a woman's fear ; 

' Which fear if better reasons can supplant, 
4 I will subscribe and say I wrong'd the duke. 

* My lord of Suffolk, Buckingham, and York, 
' Reprove my allegation, if you can ; 

7 Me seemeth ] That is, it seemeth to me, a word more 
grammatical than meihinks, which has, I know not how, intruded 
into its place. JOHNSON. 

9 . collect ] i. e. assemble by observation. STEEVENS. 

9 If it be fond,] i. e. weak, foolish. So, in Coriolanus: 

" tr \sfond to wail inevitable strokes." 
Again, in Timon of Athens : 

" Why diofond men expose themselves to battle?" 


sc. /. KING HENRY VI. 259 

* Or else conclude my words effectual. 

6 SUF. Well hath your highness seen into this 


c And, had I first been put to speak my mind, 
I think, I should have told your grace's tale. * 

* The duchess, by his subornation, 

* Upon my life, began her devilish practices : 

* Or if he were not privy to those faults, 

* Yet, by reputing of his high descent, 2 

* (As next the king, he was successive heir,) 

* And such high vaunts of his nobility, 

* Did instigate the bedlam brain-sick duchess, 

* By wicked means to frame our sovereign's fall. 
Smooth runs the water, where the brook is deep.j 

* And in his simple show he harbours treason. 
The fox barks not, when he would steal the lamb. 
No, no, my sovereign ; Gloster is a man 
Unsounded yet, and full of deep deceit. 

* CAR. Did he not, contrary to form of law, 

* Devise strange deaths for small offences done ? 

YORK. And did he not, in his protectorship, 

* Levy great sums of money through the realm, 

* For soldiers' pay in France, and never sent it ? 

* By means whereof, the towns each day revolted. 

* BUCK. Tut! these are petty faults to faults 


1 your grace's tale."] Suffolk uses highness and grace pro- 
miscuously to the Queen. Majesty was not the settled title till 
the time of King James the First. JOHNSON. 

* Yet, by reputing of his high descent,~] Thus the old copy. 
The modern editors read repeating. Reputing of his high de- 
scent, is valuing himself upon it. The same word occurs in the 
5th Act : 

'* And in my conscience do repute his grace," &c. 


S 2 


* Which time will bring to light in smooth duke 


* K. HEN. My lords, at once : The care you have 

of us, 

* To mow down thorns that would annoy our foot, 

* Is worthy praise: But shall I speak my conscience? 

* Our kinsman Gloster is as innocent 

* From meaning treason to our royal person, 

* As is the sucking lamb, or harmless dove : 

* The duke is virtuous, mild ; and too well given, 

* To dream on evil, or to work my downfall. 

* Q. MAR. Ah, what's more dangerous than this 

fond affiance ! 

* Seems he a dove ? his feathers are but borrow'd, 

* For he's disposed as the hateful raven. 

* Is he a lamb ? his skin is surely lent him, 

* For he's inclin'd as are the ravenous wolves. 

* Who cannot steal a shape, that means deceit ? 

* Take heed, my lord ; the welfare of us all 

* Hangs on the cutting short that fraudful man. 


* SOM. All health unto my gracious sovereign ! 

K. HEN. Welcome, lord Somerset. What news 
from France ? 

* SOM. That all your interest in those territories 
' Is utterly bereft you ; all is lost. 

K. HEN. Cold news, lord Somerset : But God's 
will be done ! 

YORK. Cold news for mej 3 for I had hope of 

3 Cold neivsfor me; &c.] These two lines York had spoken 
before in the nrst Act of this play* He is now meditating on his 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 261 

As firmly as I hope for fertile England. 

* Thus are my blossoms blasted in the bud, 

* And caterpillars eat my leaves away : 

* But I will remedy this gear 4 ere long, 

* Or sell my title for a glorious grave. [Aside. 


* GLO. All happiness unto my lord the king ! 
Pardon, my liege, that I have staid so long. 

SUF. Nay, Gloster, know, that thou art come too 


' Unless thou wert more loyal than thou art : 
I do arrest thee of high treason here. 

GLO. Well, Suffolk, yet 5 thou shalt not see me 

Nor change my countenance for this arrest ; 

* A heart unspotted is not easily daunted. 

* The purest spring is not so free from mud, 

disappointment, and comparing his former hopes with his present 
loss. STEEVENS. 

this gear ] Gear was a general word for things or 

matters. JOHNSON. 

So, in the story of King Darius, an interlude, 1565: 
" Wyll not yet this gere be amended, 
" Nor your sinful acts corrected?" STEEVENS. 

* Well, Suffolk, yet ] Yet was added in the second folio. 

The first folio has Well, Suffolk, thou The defect of the 
metre shows that the word was omitted, which I have supplied 
from the old play. MALONE. 

Mr. Malone reads 

Well, Suffolk's duke, 8?c. 

But this is, perhaps, too respectful an address from an adver- 
sary. The reading of the second folio is, in my opinion, pre- 
ferable, though the authority on which it is founded cannot be 
ascertained, STEEVENS. 


* As I am clear from treason to my sovereign : 
Who can accuse me ? wherein am I guilty ? 

YORK. 'Tis thought, my lord, that you tookbribes 

of France, 

And, being protector, staied the soldiers' pay ; 
By means whereof, his highness hath lost France. 

GLO. Is it but thought so ? What are they that 
think it ? 

* I never robb'd the soldiers of their pay, 

' Nor ever had one penny bribe from France. 
c So help me God, as I have watch'd the night, 
' Ay, night by night, in studying good for Eng- 

* That doit that e'er I wrested from the king, 
6 Or any groat I hoarded to my use, 

* Be brought against me at my trial day ! 

4 No ! many a pound of mine own proper store, 
6 Because I would not tax the needy commons, 
' Have I dispursed to the garrisons, 

* And never ask'd for restitution. 

* CAR. It serves you well, my lord, to say so 


* GLO. I say no more than truth, so help me 


YORK. In your protectorship, you did devise 
Strange tortures for offenders, never heard of, 
That England was defam'd by tyranny. 

GLO. Why, 'tis well known, that whiles I was 

Pity was all the fault that was in me ; 

* For I should melt at an offender's tears, 

* And lowly words were ransome for their fault. 

* Unless it were a bloody murderer, 

sc. I. KING HENRY VI. 263 

' Or foul felonious thief that fleec'd poor passen- 
' I never gave them c6ndign punishment : 

* Murder, indeed, that bloody sin, I tortur'd 
' Above the felon, or what trespass else. 

' SUF. My lord, these faults are easy, 6 quickly 

answer 'd : 

' But mightier crimes are laid unto your charge, 
4 Whereof you cannot easily purge yourself. 
' I do arrest you in his highness* name ; 

* And here commit you to my lord cardinal 
' To keep, until your further time of trial. 

' K. HEN. My lord of Gloster, 'tis my special 


' That you will clear yourself from all suspects; 7 
My conscience tells me, you are innocent. 

GLO. Ah, gracious lord, these days are danger- 

* Virtue is chok'd with foul ambition, 

* And charity chas'd hence by rancour's hand ; 

* Foul subornation is predominant, 

* And equity exil'd your highness' land. 

6 these faults are easy,] Easy is slight, inconsiderable, as 

in other passages of this author. JOHNSON. 

The word no doubt, means easily. RITSON. 

This explanation is, I believe, the true one. Easy is an ad- 
jective used adverbially. STEEVENS. 

7 from all suspects ;] The folio reads suspence. The 

emendation was suggested by Mr. Steevens. The corresponding 
line in the original play stands thus: 

" Good uncle, obey to this arrest ; 

" I have no doubt but thou shalt clear thyself." 

So, in a following scene : 

" If my suspect be false, forgive me, God !" 



* I know, their complot is to have my life ; 

6 And, if my death might make this island happy, 
' And prove the period of their tyranny, 
' I would expend it with all willingness : 

* But mine is made the prologue to their play ; 

' For thousands more, that yet suspect no peril, 
4 Will not conclude their plotted tragedy. 
6 Beaufort's red sparkling eyes blab his heart's ma- 

' And Suffolk's cloudy brow his stormy hate ; 
' Sharp Buckingham unburdens with his tongue 
' The envious load that lies upon his heart ; 
' And dogged York, that reaches at the moon, 

* Whose overweening arm I have pluck'd back, 
' By false accuse 8 doth level at my life : 

' And you, my sovereign lady, with the rest, 
' Causeless have laid disgraces on my head ; 

* And, with your best endeavour, have stirr'd up 

* My liefest 9 liege to be mine enemy : 

* Ay, all of you have laid your heads together, 

* Myself had notice of your conventicles, 

' I shall not want false witness to condemn me, 
c Nor store of treasons to augment my guilt ; 
' The ancient proverb will be well affected,- 
A staff is quickly found to beat a dog. 

* CAR. My liege, his railing is intolerable : 

* If those that care to keep your royal person 

* From treason's secret knife, and traitors' rage, 

8 accuse ] i. e. accusation. STEEVENS. 

9 liefest ] Is dearest. JOHNSON. 

So, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. II. c. ii : 

" Madam, my lief, 

" For God's dear love," &c. 
Again, c. ii : 

Fly, oh my liefest lord.'* STEEVENS, 

See p. 187, n. 5. MALONE. 

sc. I. KING HENRY VI. 265 

* Be thus upbraided, chid, and rated at, 

* And the offender granted scope of speech, 

* 'Twill make them cool in zeal unto your grace. 

SUF. Hath he not twit our sovereign lady here, 

* With ignominious words, though clerkly couch'd, 
' As if she had suborned some to swear 

' False allegations to o'erthrow his state ? 

' Q. MAR. But I can give the loser leave to chide. 

GLO. Far truer spoke, than meant : I lose, in- 
deed ; 

* Beshrew the winners, for they played me false ! 

* And well such losers may have leave to speak. 

BUCK. He'll wrest the sense, and hold us here 
all day : 

* Lord cardinal, he is your prisoner. 

' CAR. Sirs, take away the duke, and guard him 

GLO. Ah, thus king Henry throws away his 


Before his legs be firm to bear his body : 
' Thus is the shepherd beaten from thy side, 
' And wolves are gnarling who shall gnaw thee first. 

* Ah, that my fear were false ! * ah, that it were ! 
' For, good king Henry, thy decay I fear. 

\jExeunt Attendants, with GLOSTER. 

K. HEN. My lords, what to your wisdoms seem- 

eth best, 
Do, or undo, as if ourself were here. 

1 Ah, that my fear "were false ! &c.] The variation is here 
worth noting. In the original play, instead of these two lines, 
we have the following : 

" Farewell my sovereign ; long may'st thou enjoy 
" Thy father's happy days, free from annoy !" 



Q. MAR. What, will your highness leave the par- 
liament ? 

K. HEN. Ay, Margaret ; 2 my heart is drown'd 
with grief, 

* Whose flood begins to flow within mine eyes ; 

* My body round engirt with misery ; 

* For what's more miserable than discontent ? 

* Ah, uncle Humphrey ! in thy face I see 

* The map of honour, 3 truth, and loyalty ; 

* And yet, good Humphrey, is the hour to come, 

* That e'er I prov'd thee false, or fear'd thy faith. 

* What low'ring star now envies thy estate, 

* That these great lords, and Margaret our queen, 

* Do seek subversion of thy harmless life ? 

* Thou never didst them wrong, nor no man wrong: 

* And as the butcher takes away the calf, 

* And binds the wretch, and beats it when it strays, 4 

1 Ay, Margaret ; &c.] Of this speech the only traces in the 
quarto are the following lines. In the King's speech a line seems 
to be lost : 

" Queen. What, will your highness leave the parliament ? 

" King. Yea, Margaret ; my heart is kill'd with grief; 


" Where I may sit, and sigh in endless moan, 
" For who's a traitor, Gloster he is none." 
If, therefore, according to the conjecture already suggested, 
these plays were originally the composition of another author, 
the speech before us belongs to Shakspeare. It is observable 
that one of the expressions in it is found in his Richard II. and 
in The Rape of Lucrece ; and in perusing the subsequent lines 
one cannot help recollecting the trade which his father has by 
some been supposed to have followed. MALONE. 

3 The map of honour,'] In King Richard II. if I remember 
right, we have the same words. Again, in The Rape of Lucrece : 
" Showing life's triumph in the map of death." 


* And as the butcher takes away the calf, 

And binds the wretch, and beats it 'when it strays,'] But how 
can it stray when it is bound ? The poet certainly intended when 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 267 

* Bearing it to the bloody slaughter-house ; 

* Even so, remorseless, have they borne him hence. 

* And as the dam runs lowing up and down, 

* Looking the way her harmless young one went, 

* And can do nought but wail her darling's loss ; 

* Even so myself bewails good Gloster' s case, 

* With sad unhelpful tears ; and with dimm'd eyes 

* Look after him, and cannot do him good ; 

* So mighty are his vowed enemies. 

' His fortunes I will weep ; and, 'twixt each groan, 
' Say Who's a traitor, Gloster he is none. \_Exit. 

* Q. MAR. Free lords, 5 cold snow melts with the 
sun's hot beams. 

it strives ; i. e. when it struggles to get loose. And so he else- 
where employs this word. THIRLBY. 

This emendation is admitted by the succeeding editors, and I 
had once put it in the text. I am, however, inclined to believe 
that in this passage, as in many, there is a confusion of ideas, 
and that the poet had at once before him a butcher carrying a 
calf bound, and a butcher driving a calf to the slaughter, and 
beating him when he did not keep the path. Part of the line was 
suggested by one image, and part by another, so that strive is 
the best word, but stray is the right. JOHNSON. 

There needs no alteration. It is common for butchers to tie a 
rope or halter about the neck of a calf when they take it away 
from the breeder's farm, and to beat it gently if it attempts to 
stray from the direct road. The Duke of Gloster is borne away 
like the calf, that is, he is taken away upon his feet ; but he is 
not carried away as a burthen on horseback, or upon men's 
shoulders, or in their hands. TOLLET. 

5 Free lords, &c.] By this she means (as may be seen by the 
sequel) you, who are not bound up to such precise regards of 
religion as is the King ; but are men of the world, and know how 
to live. WARBURTON. 

So, in Twelfth-Night : 

" And \\\ejree maids that weave" &c. 
Again, in Milton : 

" thou goddess fair andfree, 

" In heaven yclep'd Euphrosyne." STEEVENS. 


* Henry my lord is cold in great affairs, 

* Too full of foolish pity : and Gloster's show 

* Beguiles him, as the mournful crocodile 

* With sorrow snares relenting passengers ; 

* Or as the snake, roll'd in a flowering bank, 6 

* With shining checker J d slough, doth sting a child, 

* That, for the beauty, thinks it excellent. 

* Believe me, lords, were none more wise than I, 
*( And yet, herein, I judge mine own wit good,) 
c This Gloster should be quickly rid the world, 

' To rid us from the fear we have of him. 

* CAR. That he should die, is worthy policy ; 

* But yet we want a colour for his death : 

* 'Tis meet, he be condemn'd by course of law. 

* SUF. But, in my mind, that were no policy : 

* The king will labour still to save his life, 

* The commons haply rise to save his life ; 

* And yet we have but trivial argument, 

* More than mistrust, that shows him worthy death. 

* YORK. So that, by this, you would not have 

i A' ' 

him die. 

* SUF. Ah, York, no man alive so fain as I. 

* YORK. 'Tis York that hath more reason for his 

death. 7 

6 in a flowering bank,"] i. e. in the flowers growing on a 

bank. Some of the modern editions read unnecessarily on a 
flowering bank. MALONE. 

7 'Tis York that hath more reason for his death."] Why York 
had more reason than the rest for desiring Humphrey's death, is 
not very clear ; he had only decided the deliberation about the 
regency of France in favour of Somerset. JOHNSON. 

York had more reason, because Duke Humphrey stood be- 
tween him and the crown, which he had proposed to himself as 
the termination of his ambitious views. So, Act III. sc. v: 
" For Humphrey being dead, as he shall be, 
" And Henry put apart, the next for me." STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 269 

* But, my lord cardinal, and you, my lord of Suf- 

* Say as you think, and speak it from your souls, 

* Wer't not all one, an empty eagle were set 

* To guard the chicken from a hungry kite, 

* As place duke Humphrey for the king's protec- 


Q. MAR. So the poor chicken should be sure of 

' SUF. Madam, 'tis true : And wer't not madness 


" To make the fox surveyor of the fold ? 
' Who being accus'd a crafty murderer, 

* His guilt should be but idly posted over, 
4 Because his purpose is not executed. 

* No ; let him die, in that he is a fox, 

' By nature prov'd an enemy to the flock, 

4 Before his chaps be stain' d with crimson blood j 

4 As Humphrey, prov'd by reasons, to my liege.* 

See Sir John Fenn's Observations on the Duke of Suffolk's 
death, in the collection of The Paston Letters, Vol. I. p. 48. 


* No ; let him die, in that he is a fox, 
By nature prov'd an enemy to the flock, 
Before his chaps be stain' d with crimson blood ; 
As Humphrey, prov'd by reasons, to my liege. ~\ The mean- 
ing of the speaker is not hard to be discovered, but his expres- 
sion is very much perplexed. He means that the fox may be law- 
fully killed, as being known to be by nature an enemy to sheep, 
even before he has actually killed them ; so Humphrey may be 
properly destroyed, as being prov'd by arguments to be the 
King's enemy, before he has committed any actual crime. 

Some may be tempted to read treasons for reasons, but the 
drift of the argument is to show that there may be reason to kill 
him before any treason has broken out. JOHNSON. 

This passage, as Johnson justly observes, is perplexed, but the 
perplexity arises from an error that ought to be corrected, which 
it may be by the change of a single letter. What is it that 


' And do not stand on quillets, how to slay him : 

' Be it by gins, by snares, by subtilty, 

' Sleeping, or waking, 'tis no matter how, 

6 So he be dead ; for that is good deceit 

' Which mates him first, that first intends deceit. 9 

Humphrey proved by reasons to the King ? This line, as it 
stands, is absolutely nonsense : But if we read Humphrey's, in- 
stead of Humphrey, and reason instead of reasons, the letter s 
having been transferred through inadvertency from one word to 
the other, the meaning of Suffolk will be clearly expressed ; and 
if we enclose also the third line in a parenthesis, the passage will 
scarcely require either explanation or comment : 
No ; let him die, in that he is a fox, 
By nature prov'd an enemy to the flock, 
(Before his chaps be stain' 'd tuith crimson blood) 
As Humphrey's prov'd by reason to my liege. 
Suffolk's argument is this : As Humphrey is the next heir to 
the crown, it is as imprudent to make him protector to the King, 
as it would be to make the fox surveyor of the fold ; and as we 
kill a fox before he has actually worried any of the sheep, be- 
cause we know that by nature he is an enemy to the flock, so we 
should get rid of Humphrey, because we know that he must be 
by reason an enemy to the King. M. MASON. 

As seems to be here used for like. Sir T. Hanmer reads, with 
some probability, As Humphrey's prov'd, &c. In the original 
play, instead of these lines, we have the following speech : 
Siif. And so think I, madam ; for as you know, 
If our king Henry had shook hands with death, 
Duke Humphrey then would look to be our king. 
And it may be, by policy he works, 
To bring to pass the thing which now we doubt. 
The fox barks not, when he would steal the lamb ; 
But if we take him ere he doth the deed, 
We should not question if that he should live. 
No, let him die, in that he is a fox, 
" Lest that in living he offend us more." MALONE. 

* for that is good deceit 

Which mates himjirst, that Jirst intends deceit."] Mates him 
means that first puts an end to his moving. To mate is a term 
in chess, used when the King is stopped from moving, and an 
end put to the game.- PERCY. 

Mates him, means confounds him ; from amatir or mater, Fr. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 271 

* Q. MAR. Thrice-noble Suffolk, 'tis resolutely 


* SUF. Not resolute, except so much were done j 

* For things are often spoke, and seldom meant : 

* But, that my heart accordeth with my tongue, 

* Seeing the deed is meritorious, 

* And to preserve my sovereign from his foe, 

* Say but the word, and I will be his priest. l 

* CAR. But I would have him dead, my lord of 


* Ere you can take due orders for a priest : 

* Say, you consent, and censure well the deed, 2 

* And I'll provide his executioner, 

* I tender so the safety of my liege, 

* SUF. Here is my hand, the deed is worthy do- 


* Q. MAR. And so say I. 

* YORK. And I: and now we three 3 have spoke it, 

* It skills not 4 greatly who impugns our doom. 

To mate is no term in chess. Check mate, the term alluded to, 
is a corruption of the Persian schah mat ; the king is killed. 


To mate, I believe, means here as in many other places in our 
author's plays, to confound or destroy; from matar, Span, to 
kill. See Vol. X. p. 258, n. 5. MALONE. 

1 / tvill be his priest."] I will be the attendant on his last 

scene ; I will be the last man whom he will see. JOHNSON. 

* and censure "well the deed,'] That is, approve the deed, 

judge the deed good. JOHNSON. 

3 ive three ] Surely the word three should be omitted. 

The verse is complete without it : 

And so say I. 

And I : and now lue have spoke it . 

But the metre of these plays scarce deserves the reformation 
which it too frequently requires. STEEVENS. 

4 It skills not ] It is of no importance. JOHNSON. 


Enter a Messenger. 

' MESS. Great lords, 5 from Ireland am I come 

' To signify that rebels there are up, 

* And put the Englishmen unto the sword : 

* Send succours, lords, and stop the rage betime, 

* Before the wound do grow incurable ; 

* For, being green, there is great hope of help. 

'* CAR. A breach, that craves a quick expedient 

stop! 6 
6 What counsel give you in this weighty cause ? 

' YORK. That Somerset be sent as regent thither : 
4 'Tis meet, that lucky ruler be employ 'd ; 
4 Witness the fortune he hath had in France. 

4 SOM. If York, with all his far-fet policy, 

So, in Sir T. More's Utopia, translated by R. Robinson, 1624 : 
" I will describe to you one or other of them, for it skilleth 
not greatly which.'* MALONE. 

* Great lords, &c.~\ I shall subjoin this speech as it stands in 
the quarto : 

" Madam, I bring you news from Ireland, 
" The wild Onele, my lord, is up in arms, 
" With troops of Irish kernes, that uncontroll'd 
" Doth plant themselves within the English pale, 
" And burn and spoil the country as they go." 
Surely here is not an imperfect exhibition of the lines in the 
folio, hastily taken down in the theatre by the ear or in short- 
hand, as I once concurred with others in thinking to be the case. 
We have here an original and distinct draught ; so that we must 
be obliged to maintain that Shakspeare wrote two plays on the 
present subject, a hasty sketch, and a more finished perform- 
ance ; or else must acknowledge, that he formed the piece be- 
fore us on a foundation laid by another writer. MALONE. 

expedient stop /] i. e. expeditious. So, in King John : 

" His marches are expedient to this town." STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VL 273 

c Had been the regent there instead of me, 
' He never would have staid in France so long. 

* YORK. No, not to lose it all, as thou hast done : 
' I rather would have lost my life betimes, 

* Than bring a burden of dishonour home, 

* By staying there so long, till all were lost. 

* Show me one scar character' d on thy skin : 

* Men's flesh preserv'd so whole, do seldom win. 

* Q. MAR. Nay then, this spark will prove a ra- 

ging fire, 

* If wind and fuel be brought to feed it with : 

* No more, good York ; sweet Somerset, be still; 

* Thy fortune, York, hadst thou been regent there, 

* Might happily have prov'd far worse than his. 

YORK. What, worse than naught ? nay, then a 
shame take all ! 

' SOM. And, in the number, thee, that wishest 
shame ! 

' CAR. My lord of York, try what your fortune 

* The uncivil Kernes of Ireland are in arms, 

' And temper clay with blood of Englishmen : 
' To Ireland will you lead a band of men, 

* Collected choicely, from each county some, 

* And try your hap against the Irishmen ? 

* YORK. I will, my lord, so please his majesty. 

* SUF. Why, our authority is his consent ; 

* And, what we do establish, he confirms : 

* Then, noble York, take thou this task in hand. 

' YORK. lam content: Provide me soldiers, lords, 

* Whiles I take order for mine own affairs. 



6 SUF. A charge, lord York, that I will see per- 
form J d. 7 

* But now return we to the false duke Humphrey. 

* CAR. No more of him ; for I will deal with 


' That, henceforth, he shall trouble us no more. 
' And so break off; the day is almost spent : 
' Lord Suffolk, you and I must talk of that event. 

' YORK. My lord of Suffolk, within fourteen 

* At Bristol I expect my soldiers ; 

* For there I'll ship them all for Ireland. 

SUF. I'll see it truly done, my lord of York. 

[Exeunt all but YORK. 

* YORK. Now, York, or never, steel thy fearful 

' And change misdoubt to resolution : 

* Be that thou hop'st to be ; or what thou art 

* Resign to death, it is not worth the enjoying : 

* Let pale-fac'd fear keep with the mean-born man, 

* And find no harbour in a royal heart. 

* Faster than spring-time showers, comes thought 

on thought ; 

7 that I uill see perform W.] In the old play this office 

Is given to Buckingham : 

" Queen. my lord of Buckingham, 

" Let it be your charge to muster up such soldiers, 
" As shall suffice him in these needful wars. 

*' Suck. Madam, I will ; and levy such a band 
" As soon shall overcome those Irish rebels : 
" But York, where shall those soldiers stay for thee ? 
" York. At Bristol I'll expect them ten days hence. 
" Buck. Then thither shall they come, and so farewell.'*' 

[Exit Buck. 
Here again we have a very remarkable variation. MALONE. 

sc. I. KING HENRY VI. 275 

* And not a thought, but thinks on dignity. 

* My brain, more busy than the labouring spider, 

* Weaves tedious snares to trap mine enemies. 

* Well, nobles, well, 'tis politickly done, 

* To send me packing with an host of men : 

* I fear me, you but warm the starved snake, 

* Who, cherish' d in your breasts, will sting your 


'Twas men I lack'd, and you will give them me : 
' I take it kindly ; yet, be well assur'd 
' You put sharp weapons in a madman's hands. 

* Whiles I in Ireland nourish a mighty band, 

* I will stir up in England some black storm, 

* Shall blow ten thousand souls to heaven, or 


* And this fell tempest shall not cease to rage 

* Until the golden circuit on my head, 8 

* Like to the glorious sun's transparent beams, 

* Do calm the fury of this mad-bred flaw. 9 
' And, for a minister of my intent, 

' I have seduc'd a head-strong Kentishman, 
' John Cade of Ashford, 
' To make commotion, as full well he can, 
' Under the title of John Mortimer. 

* In Ireland have I seen this stubborn Cade 

8 Until the golden circuit on my head,~] So, in Macbeth .- 
" All that impedes thee from the golden round, 
" Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem 
" To have thee crown'd withall." 
Again, in King Henry IV. P. II : 

a sleep 

" That from this golden rigol hath divorc'd 
" So many English kings." MALONE. 

mad-bred flaw.] Flaw is a sudden violent gust of 

wind. JOHNSON. 

T 2 


* Oppose himself against a troop of Kernes ;' 

* And fought so long, 2 till that his thighs with 


* Were almost like a sharp-quuTd porcupine : 

* And, in the end being rescu'd, I have seen him 

* Caper upright like a wild Morisco, 3 

* Shaking the bloody darts, as he his bells, 

1 a troop of Kernes ;] Kernes were light-armed Irish- 
foot-soldiers. STEEVENS. 

* And fought so long,~\ Read An&Jight so long. RITSON. 

3 a wild Morisco,] A Moor in a military dance, now 

called Morris, that is, a Moorish dance. JOHNSON. 

In Albion* 's Triumph, a Masque, 1631, the seventh entry con- 
sists of mimicks or Moriscos. 

Again, in Marston's What you 'will, 1607: 
" Your wit skips a Morisco." 

The Morris-dance was the Tripudium Mauritanicum, a kind 

of hornpipe. Junius describes it thus : " faciem plerum- 

que inficiunt fuligine, et peregrinum vestium cultum assumunt, 
qui ludicris talibus indulgent, ut Mauri esse videantur, aut e 
longius remota patria credantur advolasse, atque insolens recre- 
ationis genus advexisse." 

In the churchwardens' accompts of the parish of St. Helen's 
in Abington, Berkshire, from the first year of the reign of Philip 
and Mary, to the thirty-fourth of Queen Elizabeth, the Morrice 
bells are mentioned. Anno 1560, the third of Elizabeth, " For 
two dossin of Morres bells." As these appear to have been pur- 
chased by the community, we may suppose this diversion wag 
constantly practised at their public festivals. See the plate of 
Morris-dancers at the end of The First Part of King Henry IV. 
with Mr. Toilet's remarks annexed to it. STEEVENS. 

The editor of The Sad Shepherd, 8vo. 1783, p. 255, mentions 
seeing a company of morrice-dancers from Abington, at Rich- 
mond in Surrey, so late as the summer of 1783. They appeared 
to be making a kind of annual circuit. REED. 

Morrice-dancing, with bells on the legs, is common at this day 
in Oxfordshire and the adjacent counties, on May-day, Holy- 
Thursday, and Whitsun-ales, attended by the fool, or, as he 
is generally called, the 'Squire, and also a lord and lady ; the 
latter most probably the Maid Marian mentioned in Mr. Toilet's 
note: " nor is the hobby-horse forgot." HARRIS. 

sc. I. KING HENRY VI. 277 

* Full often, like a shag-hair'd crafty Kerne,* 

* Hath he conversed with the enemy ; 

* And undiscovered come to me again, 

* And given me notice of their villainies. 

* This devil here shall be my substitute ; 

* For that John Mortimer, which now is dead, 

* In face, in gait, in speech, he doth resemble : 
By this I shall perceive the commons' mind, 
How they affect the house and claim of York. 
Say, he be taken, rack'd, and tortured ; 

I know, no pain, they can inflict upon him, 
Will make him say I mov'd him to those arms. 
Say, that he thrive, (as 'tis great like he will,) 
Why, then from Ireland come I with my strength, 
And reap the harvest which that rascal sow'd : 
For, Humphrey being dead, as he shall be, 

* And Henry put apart, the next for me. 5 [Exit. 

* like a shag-hair'd crafty Kerne,'] See Vol. X. p. 227, 

a. 8 ; and p. 16, n. 3. MALONE. 

* For, Humphrey being dead, &c.] Instead of this couplet 
we find in the old play these lines : 

" And then Duke Humphrey, he well made away, 
" None then can stop the light to England's crown, 
" But York can tame, and headlong pull them down.*' 




Bury. A Room in the Palace. 
Enter certain Murderers, hastily. 

1 MUR. Run to my lord of Suffolk ; let him 

* We have despatched the duke, as he commanded. 

> * 2 MUR. O, that it were to do ! What have 
we done? 

* Didst ever hear a man so penitent ? 


' 1 MUR. Here comes my lord. 

* SUF. Now, sirs, have you 

Despatch' d this thing ? 

' 1 MUR. Ay, my good lord, he's dead. 

6 Scene //.] This scene, and the directions concerning it, 
stand thus in the quarto edition : 

Then the curtaines being draivne, Duke Humphrey is discovered 
in his bed, and two men lying on his brest, and smothering him in 
his bed. And then enter the Duke of Stiffblke to them. 

" Siiff. How now, sirs ! what, have you dispatcht him ? 

" One. I, my lord ; he's dead, I warrant you. 

" Suffl Then see the cloathes, laid smoothe about him 


*' That when the king comes, he may perceive 
" No other, but that he dide of his owne accord. 
2. " All things is handsome now, my lord. 
" Stiff. Then draw the curtaines againe, and get you 

" And you shall have your firme reward anon." 

[Exit Murtherers. STEEVENS. 

sc. IT. KING HENRY VI. 279 

SUF. Why, that's well said. Go, get you to 

my house ; 

' I will reward you for this venturous deed. 
e The king and all the peers are here at hand : 
' Have you laid fair the bed ? are all things well, 
' According as I gave directions ? 

' 1 MUR. 'Tis, my good lord. 

' SUF. Away, be gone ! [Exeunt Murderers. 

Enter King HENRY, Queen MARGARET, Cardinal 
BEAUFORT, SOMERSET, Lords, and Others. 

' K. HEN. Go, call our uncle to our presence 

straight : 

' Say, we intend to try his grace to-day, 
' If he be guilty, as 'tis published. 

' SUF. I'll call him presently, my noble lord. 


* K. HEN. Lords, take your places ; And, I 

pray you all, 

' Proceed no straiter 'gainst our uncle Gloster, 
' Than from true evidence, of good esteem, 
* He be approv'd in practice culpable. 

* Q. MAR. God forbid any malice should pre- 


* That faultless may condemn a nobleman ! 

* Pray God, he may acquit him of suspicion ! 

* K. HEN. I thank thee, Margaret ; these words 

content me much. 7 

7 1 thank thee, Margaret ; &c.] In former editions : 
/ thank thee, Nell, these words content me much. 

This is King Henry's reply to his wife Margaret. There can 
be no reason why he should forget his own wife's name, and 
call her Nell instead of Margaret. As the change of a single 


Re-enter SUFFOLK. 

' How now ? why look'st thou pale ? why tremblest 

e Where is our uncle ? what is the matter, Suffolk ? 

SUF. Dead in his bed, my lord ; Gloster is dead. 

* Q. MAR. Marry, God forefend ! 

* CAR. God's secret judgment : I did dream 


* The duke was dumb, and could not speak a word. 

\_T1ie King swoons. 

* Q. MAR. How fares my lord ? Help, lords ! 

the king is dead. 

letter sets all right, I am willing to suppose it came from his pen 

/ thank thee. Well, these words content me much. 


It has been observed by two or three commentators, that it is 
no way extraordinary the King should forget his wife's name, as 
it appears in no less than three places that she forgets it herself, 
calling herself Eleanor. It has also been said, that, if any con- 
traction of the real name is used, it should be Meg. All this is 
very true ; but as an alteration must be made, Theobald's is just 
as good, and as probable, as any other. I have therefore re- 
tained it, and wish it could have been done with propriety with- 
out a note. REED. 

Though the King could not well forget his wife's name, ei- 
ther Shakspeare or the transcriber might. That Nell is not a 
mistake of the press for Well, is clear from a subsequent speech 
of the Queen y s in this scene, where Eleanor, the name of the 
Duchess of Gloster, is again three times printed instead of Mar- 
garet. No reason can be assigned why the proper correction 
should be made in all those places, and not here. MALONE. 

I have admitted Mr. Malone's Correction ; and yet must re- 
mark, that while it is favourable to sense it is injurious to metre. 


ac. ii. KING HENRY VI. 281 

* SOM. Rear up his body ; wring him by the nose. 8 

* Q. MAR. Run, go, help, help ! O, Henry, 

ope thine eyes ! 

* SUF. He doth revive again ; Madam, be pa- 


* K. HEN. O heavenly God ! 

* Q. MAR. How fares my gracious lord ? 

SUF. Comfort, my sovereign ! gracious Henry, 

comfort ! 
K. HEN. What, doth my lord of Suffolk comfort 

Came he right now 9 to sing a raven's note, 

* Whose dismal tune bereft my vital powers ; 
And thinks he, that the chirping of a wren, 

' By crying comfort from a hollow breast, 
c Can chase away the first-conceived sound ? 

* Hide not thy poison with such sugar* d words. 

* Lay not thy hands on me ; forbear, I say ; 

* Their touch affrights me, as a serpent's sting. 
Thou baleful messenger, out of my sight ! 

Upon thy eye-balls murderous tyranny 

Sits in grim majesty, to fright the world. 

Look not upon me, for thine eyes are wounding: 

Yet do not go away ; Come, basilisk, 

And kill the innocent gazer with thy sight : l 

8 Som. Rear up his body ; wring him by the nose.~\ As nothing 
further is spoken either by Somerset or the Cardinal, or by any 
one else to show that they continue in the presence, it is to be 
presumed that they take advantage of the confusion occasioned 
by the King's swooning, and slip out unperceived. The next 
news we hear of the Cardinal, he is at the point of death* 


9 right now ] Just now, even now. JOHNSON. 

1 Come, basilisk, 

And kill the innocent gazer with thy sight .] So, in Albion's 
England, B. I. c. iii : 


* For in the shade of death I shall find joy ; 

* In life, but double death, now Gloster's dead. 

Q. MAR. Why do you rate my lord of Suffolk 
thus ? 

* Although the duke was enemy to him, 

* Yet he, most christian-like, laments his death : 

* And for myself, foe as he was to me, 

* Might liquid tears, or heart-offending groans, 

* Or blood-consuming sighs recall his life, 

* I would be blind with weeping, sick with groans, 

* Look pale as primrose, with blood-drinking sighs, 2 

* And all to have the noble duke alive. 

' What know I how the world may deem of me ? 
' For it is known, we were but hollow friends ; 
' It may be judg'd, I made the duke away : 

* So shall my name with slander's tongue be wound- 


* And princes' courts be filPd with my reproach. 

* This get I by his death : Ah me, unhappy ! 

* To be a queen, and crown'd with infamy ! 

c K. HEN. Ah, woe is me for Gloster, wretched 

Q. MAR. Bewoeforme, 3 more wretched than he is. 

" As jEsculap an herdsman did espie, 

" That did with easy fight enforce a basilisk to flye, 
" Albeit naturally that beast doth murther with the eye." 


So, Mantuanus, a writer very popular at this time : 
" Natus in ardentis Libyas basiliscus arena, 
" Vulnerat aspectu, luminibusque riocet." MALONE. 

2 blood-drinking sighs,'] So, in the Third Part of this 

Play, Act IV. sc. iv : 

" And stop the rising of blood-sucking sighs." 

Again, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" dry sorrow drinks our blood." MALONE. 

3 Be -woe for me,~\ That is, Let not woe be to thee for Gloster, 
but for me. JOHNSON. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 283 

What, dost thou turn away, and hide thy face ? 
I am no loathsome leper, look on me. 

* What, art thou, like the adder, waxen deaf? 4 

* Be poisonous too, and kill thy forlorn queen. 

* Is all thy comfort shut in Gloster's tomb ? 

* Why, then dame Margaret was ne'er thy joy : 

* Erect his statue then, and worship it, 

* And make my image but an alehouse sign. 
Was I, for this, nigh wreck'd upon the sea ; 

6 And twice by aukward wind 5 from England's bank 
' Drove back again unto my native clime ? 

4 What, art thou, like the adder, waxen deaff] This allusion, 
which has been borrowed by many writers from the Proverbs of 
Solomon, and. Psalm Iviii. may receive an odd illustration from the 
following passage in Gower de Confessione Amantis, B. I. fol. x : 

" A serpent, whiche that aspidis 

" Is cleped, of his kinde hath this, 

" That he the stone noblest of all 

" The whiche that men carbuncle call, 

" Bereth in his heed above on hight ; 

" For whiche whan that a man by slight 

" (The stone to wynne, and him to dante) 

" With his carecte him wolde enchante, 

" Anone as he perceiveth that, 

" He leyeth downe his one eare all plat 

" Unto the grounde, and halt it fast : 

" And eke that other eare alsjaste 

" He stoppeth with his taille so sore 

" That he the wordes, lasse nor more, 

" Of his enchantement ne hereth : 

" And in this wise him selfe he skiereth, 

" So that he hath the wordes wayved, 

" And thus his eare is nought deceived." 
Shakspeare has the same allusion in Troilus and Cressida .- 

" Have ears more deaf than adders, to the voice 

" Of any true decision." STEEVENS. 

s aukward wind ~] Thus the old copy. The modern 

editors read adverse winds. STEEVENS. 

The same uncommon epithet is applied to the same subject by 
Marlow in his King Edward II: 


What boded this, but well-forewarning wind 
Did seem to say, Seek not a scorpion's nest, 

* Nor set no footing on this unkind shore ? 

* What did I then, but curs'd the gentle gusts, 6 

* And he that loos'd them from their brazen caves ; 

* And bid them blow towards England's blessed 


* Or turn our stern upon a dreadful rock ? 

* Yet ^Eolus would not be a murderer, 

* But left that hateful office unto thee : 

* The pretty vaulting sea refus'd to drown me ; 

* Knowing, that thou would' st have me drown'd 

on shore, 

* With tears as salt as sea through thy unkindness : 

* The splitting rocks cower'din the sinking sands, T 

* And would not dash me with their ragged sides ; 

* Because thy flinty heart, more hard than they, 

* Might in thy palace perish Margaret. 8 

* As far as I could ken thy chalky cliffs, 

* When from the shore the tempest beat us back, 

* I stood upon the hatches in the storm : 
'* And when the dusky sky began to rob 

" With aukward winds, and with sore tempests driven 
" . To fall on shore " MALONE. 

6 What did I then, but curs'd the gentle gusts,"] I believe we 
should read but curse the gentle gusts. M. MASON. 

7 The splitting rocks &c.] The sense seems to be this: 
The rocks hid themselves in the sands, which sunk to receive 
them into their bosom. STEEVENS. 

That is, the rocks, whose property it is to split, shrunk into 
the sands, and would not dash me, &c. M. MASON. 

8 Might in thy palace perish Margaret."} The verb perish is 
here used actively. Thus, in Froissart's Chronicle, Cap. CCClvi: 
** Syr Johan Arundell their capitayne was there peri/shed." 
Again, in The Maid's Tragedy, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" let not my sins 

" Perish your noble youth." STEEVENS. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 285 

* My earnest-gaping sight of thy land's view, 

* I took a costly jewel from my neck, 

* A heart it was, bound in with diamonds, 

* And threw it towards thy land; the sea receiv'd 


* And so, I wish'd, thy body might my heart : 

* And even with this, I lost fair England's view, 

* And bid mine eyes be packing with my heart j 

* And calPd them blind and dusky spectacles, 

* For losing ken of Albion's wished coast. 

* How often have I tempted Suffolk's tongue 

* (The agent of thy foul inconstancy,) 

* To sit and witch me, as Ascanius did, 

* When he to madding Dido would unfold 

* His father's acts, commenc'd in burning Troy?* 

' To sit and witch me, as Ascanius did, 
When he to madding Dido would unfold 
His father's acts, commenc'd in burning Troy ?"] Old copy 
To sit and watch me, &c. STEEVENS. 

The poet here is unquestionably alluding to Virgil (JEneid /.) 
but he strangely blends fact with fiction. In the first place, it 
was Cupid in the semblance of Ascanius, who sat in Dido's lap, 
and was fondled by her. But then it was not Cupid who related 
to her the process of Troy's destruction ; but it was ^neas him- 
self who related this history. Again, how did the supposed As- 
canius sit and watch her ? Cupid was ordered, while Dido mis- 
takenly caressed him, to bewitch and infect her with love. To 
this circumstance the poet certainly alludes ; and, unless he had 
wrote, as I have restored to the text 

To sit and witch me, 

why should the Queen immediately draw this inference 

Am I not witch'd like her ? THEOBALD. 

Mr. Theobald's emendation is supported by a line in King 
Henry IV. P. I. where the same verb is used : 

" To witch the world with noble horsemanship." 

It may be remarked, that this mistake was certainly the mis- 
take of Shakspeare, whoever may have been the original author 
of the first sketch of this play; for this long speech of Margaret's 
is founded on one in the quarto, consisting only of seven lines, 
in which there is no allusion, to Virgil. MALONE. 


* Am I not witch' d like her ? or thou not false like 

him ?' 

* Ah me, I can no more ! Die, Margaret ! 

* For Henry weeps, that thou dost live so long. 

Noise within. Enter WARWICK and SALISBURY. 
The Commons press to the door. 

6 WAR. It is reported, mighty sovereign, 
' That good duke Humphrey traitorously is mur- 

* By Suffolk and the cardinal Beaufort's means. 
' The commons, like an angry hive of bees, 

( That want their leader, scatter up and down, 
' And care not who they sting in his revenge. 
' Myself have calm'd their spleenful mutiny, 

* Until they hear the order of his death. 

K. HEN. That he is dead, good Warwick, 'tis 

too true ; 

But how he died, God knows, not Henry : 2 
' Enter his chamber, view his breathless corpse, 
' And comment then upon his sudden death. 

WAR. That I shall do, my liege : Stay, Salis- 
With the rude multitude, till I return. 

[WARWICK goes into an inner Room, and 
SALISBURY retires. 

1 Am I not ivitch'd like her ? or thou not false like him ?~] This 
line, as it stands, is nonsense. We should surely read it thus : 

Am I not witch' 'd like her? Art thou not false like him? 


The superfluity of syllables in this line induces me to suppose 
it stood originally thus : 

Am I not witch'd like her ? thou false like him ? 


* r not Henry :] The poet commonly uses Henry as a 
word of three syllables. JOHNSON. 

sc. n. KING HENRY VI. 287 

* K. HEN. O thou that judgest all things, stay 

my thoughts ; 

* My thoughts, that labour to persuade my soul, 

* Some violent hands were laid on Humphrey's 


* If my suspect be false, forgive me, God ; 

* For judgment only doth belong to thee ! 

* Fain would I go to chafe his paly lips 

" With twenty thousand kisses, and to drain 3 

* Upon his face an ocean of salt tears ; 

* To tell my love unto his dumb deaf trunk, 

* And with my fingers feel his hand unfeeling : 

* But all in vain are these mean obsequies ; 

* And, to survey his dead and earthy image, 

* What were it but to make my sorrow greater ? 

The folding Doors of an inner Chamber are thrown 
open, and GLOSTER is discovered dead in his Bed : 
WARWICK and others standing by it. 1 * 

* WAR. Come hither, gracious sovereign, view 

this body. 

3 : and to drain 

Upon ] This is one of our poet's hargh expressions. As 
when a thing is drain' 'd, drops of water issue from it, he licen- 
tiously uses the word here in the sense of dropping,, or distilling. 


Surely our author wrote rain, not dram. The discharge of a 
single letter furnishes what seems to me a necessary emendation, 
confirmed by two passages, one in the Taming of the Shrew : 

" To rain a shower of commanded tears." 
And another, in King Henry IV. P. II : 

" To rain upon remembrance with mine eyes." 


4 This stage-direction I have inserted as best suited to the ex- 
hibition. The stage-direction in the quarto is " Warwick draws 
the curtaines, [i. e. draws them open] and shows Duke Hum- 


* K. HEN. That is to see how deep my grave is 
made : 

* For, with his soul, fled all my worldly solace ; 

* For seeing him, I see my life in death. 5 

' WAR. As surely as my soul intends to live 
e With that dread King that took our state upon 


' To free us from his Father's wrathful curse, 
4 I do believe that violent hands were laid 
' Upon the life of this thrice-famed duke. 

phrey in his bed." In the folio : " A bed with Gloster's body put 
forth." These are some of the many circumstances which prove, 
I think, decisively, that the theatres of our author's time were 
unfurnished with scenes. In those days, as I conceive, curtains 
were occasionally hung across the middle of the stage on an iron 
rod, which, being drawn open, formed a second apartment, 
when a change of scene was required. The direction of the folio, 
" to put forth a bed," was merely to the property-man to thrust 
a bed forwards behind those curtains, previous to their being 
drawn open. See the Account of the ancient Theatres, Vol. II. 


$ For seeing him, I see my life in death.~] Though, by a vio- 
lent operation, some sense may be extracted from this reading, 
yet I think it will be better to change it thus : 

For seeing him, I see my death in life. 

That is, Seeing him I live to see my own destruction. Thus 
it will aptly correspond with the first line : 

Come hither, gracious sovereign, view this body. 
K. Hen. That is to see how deep my grave is made. 


Surely the poet's meaning is obvious as the words now stand. 
/ see my life destroyed or endangered by his death. PfeRCY. 

I think the meaning is, I see my life in the arms of death ; I 
see my life expiring, or rather expired. The conceit is much in 
our author's manner. So, in Macbeth : 

" the death of each day's life." 

Our poet in King Richard III. has a similar play of words, 
though the sentiment is reversed : 

" even through the hollow eyes of death 

" I spy life peering." MALONE. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 289 

SUF. A dreadful oath, sworn with a solemn 

tongue ! 
' What instance gives lord Warwick for his vow? 

8 WAR. See, how the blood is settled in his face! 
Oft have I seen a timely-parted ghost, 6 

6 Oft have I seen a timely -parted ghost, #c.] All that is true 
of the body of a dead man is here said by Warwick of the soul. 
I would read : 

Oft have I seen a timely-parted corse. 

But of two common words how or why was one changed for 
the other ? I believe the transcriber thought that the epithet 
timely-parted could not be used of the body, but that, as in 
Hamlet there is mention of peace-parted souls, so here timely- 
parted must have the same substantive. He removed one ima- 
ginary difficulty, and made many real. If the soul is parted from 
the body, the body is likewise parted from the soul. 

I cannot but stop a moment to observe, that this horrible de- 
scription is scarcely the work of any pen but Shakspeare's. 


This is not the first time that Shakspeare has confounded the 
terms that signify body and soul, together. So, in A Midsummer- 
Night's Dream : 

" damned spirits all 

" That in cross ways and floods hove buriaL" 

It is surely the body and not the soul that is committed to the 
earth, .or whelmed in the water. The word ghost, however, is 
licentiously used by our ancient writers. In Spenser's Fairy 
Queen, B. II. c. viii. Sir Guyon is in a swoon, and two knights 
are about to strip him, when the Palmer says : 

" no knight so rude I weene, 

" As to doen outrage to a sleeping ghost." 
Again, in the short copy of verses printed at the conclusion of 
the three first Books of Spenser's Fairy Queen, 1596 : 

" And grones of buried ghostes the heavens did perse." 
Again, in our author's King Richard II : 
" The ghosts they have depos'd." 
Again, in Sir A. Gorges's translation of Lucan, B. IX: 

" a peasant of that coast 

" Bids him not tread on Hector's ghost." 
Again, in Certain Secret Wonders of Nature, &c. by Edward 
Fenton, quarto, bl. 1. 1569: " astonished at the view of the 
mortified ghost of him that lay dead," &c. p. 104-. STEEVENS. 


c Of ashy semblance, 7 meager, pale, and bloodless, 

* Being all descended to the labouring heart; 8 
6 Who, in the conflict that it holds with death, 

* Attracts the same for aidance 'gainst the enemy ; 
e Which with the heart there cools and ne'er re- 

4 To blush and beautify the cheek again. 

A timely-parted, ghost means a body that has become inani- 
mate in the common course of nature; to which violence has 
not brought a timeless end. The opposition is plainly marked 
afterwards,by the words " As guilty of duke Humphrey's time- 
less death." 

The corresponding lines appear thus in the quarto ; by which, 
if the notion that has been already suggested be well-founded, 
the reader may see how much of this deservedly admired speech 
is original, and how much super-induced : 

" Oft have I seen a timely-parted ghost, 
*' Of ashy semblance, pale, and bloodless : 
" But, lo ! the blood is settled in his face, 
" More better coloured than when he liv'd. 
" His well proportion'd beard made rough and stern ; 
" His fingers spread abroad, as one that grasp'd 
" For life, yet was by strength surpriz'd. The least 
" Of these are probable. It cannot choose 
" But he was murthered." 

In a subsequent passage, also in the original play, which Shak- 
speare has not transferred into his piece, the word ghost is again 
used as here. Young Clifford addressing himself to his father's 
dead body, says : 

" A dismal sight ! see, where he breathless lies, 
" All smear'd and welter'd in his luke-warm blood ! 
" Sweet father, to thy murder'd ghost I swear," &c. 
Our author therefore is not chargeable here with any impro- 
priety, or confusion. He has only used the phraseology of his 
time. MALONE. 

7 Of ashy semblance,"] So Spenser, Ruins of Rome, 4to. 
1591: . . 

" Ye pallid spirits, and ye ashy ghosts," MALONE. 

8 TT-. : bloodless, 

Being all descended to the labouring heart ;] That is, the 
blood being all descended, &c.; the substantive being comprised 
in the adjective bloodless. M. MASON. 

sc. n. KING HENRY VI. 291 

4 But, see, his face is black, and full of blood ; 
' His eye-balls further out than when he liv'd, 
4 Staring full ghastly like a strangled man : 
' His hair uprear'd, his nostrils stretch'd with 

struggling ; 

c His hands abroad display'd, 9 as one thatgrasp'd 
4 And tugg'd for life, and was by strength sub- 


' Look on the sheets, his hair, you see, is sticking; 
4 His well-proportion'd beard 1 made rough and 

( Like to the summer's corn by tempest lodg'd. 

* It cannot be, but he was murder* d here ; 

4 The least of all these signs were probable. 

4 SUF. Why, Warwick, who should do the duke 
to death ? 

* Myself, and Beaufort, had him in protection j 
4 And we, I hope, sir, are no murderers. 

4 WAR. But both of you were vow'd duke Hum- 
phrey's foes ; 

4 And you, forsooth, had the good duke to keep : 
4 'Tis like, you would not feast him like a friend ; 
4 And 'tis well seen he found an enemy. 

9 His hands abroad display'd,"] i. e. the fingers being widely 
distended. So adown, for down ; alveary, for weary, &c. See 
Peacham's Complete Gentleman, 1627 : " Herein was the Em- 
peror Domitian so cunning, that let a boy at a good distance off 
hold up his hand and stretch his fingers abroad, he would shoot 
through the spaces, without touching the boy's hand, or any 
finger." MALONE. 

1 His well-proportion 1 d beard"] His beard nicely trimmed aud 
adjusted. See note on King Henry V. Act III. sc. vi. 


His well-proportion' d beard, I believe, means no more than 
his beard well proportioned by nature. STEEVENS. 

u 2 


* Q. MAR. Then you, belike, suspect these noble- 

e As guilty of duke Humphrey's timeless death. 

WAR. Who finds the heifer dead, and bleeding 


And sees fast by a butcher with an axe, 
But will suspect, 'twas he that made the slaughter? 
Who finds the partridge in the puttock's nest, 
But may imagine how the bird was dead, 
Although the kite soar with unbloodied beak ? 
Even so suspicious is this tragedy. 

* Q. MAR. Are you the butcher, Suffolk; where's 

your knife ? 
Is Beaufort term'd a kite ? where are his talons ? 

SUF. I wear no knife, to slaughter sleeping men ; 
But here's a vengeful sword, rusted with ease, 
That shall be scoured in his rancorous heart, 
That slanders me with murder's crimson badge: 
Say, if thou dar'st, proud lord of Warwickshire, 
That I am faulty in duke Humphrey's death. 

\_Exeunt Cardinal, SOM. and Others. 

WAR. What dares not Warwick, if false Suffolk 
dare him ? 

Q. MAR. He dares not calm his contumelious 


Nor cease to be an arrogant controller, 
Though Suffolk dare him twenty thousand times. 

WAR. Madam, be still ; with reverence may I 


For every word, you speak in his behalf, 
Is slander to your royal dignity. 

' SUF. Blunt-witted lord, ignoble in demeanour! 
If ever lady wrong'd her lord so much, 
Thy mother took into her blameful bed 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 293 

Some stern untutor'd churl, and noble stock 
Was graft with crab-tree slip ; whose fruit thou art, 
And never of the Nevils* noble race. 

WAR. But that the guilt of murder bucklers 


And I should rob the deathsman of his fee, 
Quitting thee thereby of ten thousand shames, 
And that my sovereign's presence makes me mild, 
I would, false murderous coward, on thy knee 
Make thee beg pardon for thy passed speech, 
And say it was thy mother that thou meant'st, 
That thou thyself wast born in bastardy : 
And, after all this fearful homage done, 
Give thee thy hire, and send thy soul to hell, 
Pernicious bloodsucker of sleeping men ! 

SUF. Thou shalt be waking, while I shed thy 

If from this presence thou dar'st go with me. 

WAR. Away even now, or I will drag thee hence : 

* Unworthy though thou art, I'll cope with thee, 

* And do some service to duke Humphrey's ghost. 

\_Exeunt SUFFOLK and WARWICK. 

* K. HEN. What stronger breast-plate than a 
heart untainted ? 

* Thrice is he arm'd, that hath his quarrel just ; 2 

* And he but naked, though lock'd up in steel, 

* Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. 

[A Noise within. 

Q. MAR. What noise is this ? 

1 Thrice is he arm'dy &c.] So, in Marlow's Lust's Domi- 
nion : 

" Come, Moor ; I'm arm'd with more than complete 

*' The justice of my quarrel." MALONE, 


Re-enter SUFFOLK and WARWICK, with their 
Weapons drawn. 

6 K. HEN. Why, how now, lords ? your wrathful 

weapons drawn 

' Here in our presence ? dare you be so bold ? 
' Why, what tumultuous clamour have we here ? 

SUF. The traitorous Warwick, with the men of 

Set all upon me, mighty sovereign. 

Noise of a Croud within. Re-enter SALISBURY. 

* SAL. Sirs, stand apart ; the king shall know 
your mind. 

\_Speaking to those within. 

Dread lord, the commons send you word by me, 
Unless false Suffolk straight be done to death, 
Or banished fair England's territories, 
' They will by violence tear him from your palace, 

* And torture him with grievous ling' ring death. 
They say, by him the good duke Humphrey died; 
6 They say, in him they fear your highness' death ; 
6 And mere instinct of love, and loyalty, 

4 Free from a stubborn opposite intent, 

' As being thought to contradict your liking, 

* Makes them thus forward in his banishment. 

* They say, in care of your most royal person, 

* That, if your highness should intend to sleep, 

* And charge that no man should disturb your 


* In pain of your dislike, or pain of death ; 

* Yet notwithstanding such a strait edict, 

* Were there a serpent seen, with forked tongue, 


* That slily glided towards your majesty, 

* It were but necessary, you were wak'd ; 

* Lest, being suffer' d in that harmful slumber, 

* The mortal worm 3 might make the sleep eternal: 

* And therefore do they cry, though you forbid, 

* That they will guard you, whe'r you will, or no, 

* From such fell serpents as false Suffolk is ; 

* With whose envenomed and fatal sting, 

* Your loving uncle, twenty times his worth, 

* They say, is shamefully bereft of life. 

COMMONS. [ Within.~\ An answer from the king, 
my lord of Salisbury. 

SUF. J Tis like, the commons, rude unpolish'd 


Could send such message to their sovereign : 
But you, my lord, were glad to be employed, 
To show how quaint an orator 4 you are : 
But all the honour Salisbury hath won, 
Is that he was the lord ambassador, 
Sent from a sort 5 of tinkers to the king. 

3 The mortal worm ] i. e. the fatal, the deadly worm. So, 
in The Winter's Tale: 

" This news is mortal to the queen.'* 

Serpents in general, were anciently called worms. So, in 
The Devil's Charter, 1607, Pope Alexander says, when he takes 
off the aspicks from the young princes : 

"How now, proud worms? how tastes yon princes* 
blood?" STEEVENS. 

* JMW quaint an orator ~\ Quaint for dextrous, artificial. 

So, in The Two Gentlemen of Verona : " a ladder quaintly 

made of cords." MALONE. 

5 a sort ] Is a company. JOHNSON. 

So, in A Midsummer-Night's Dream : 

" russet-pated choughs, many in sort .'* STEEVENS. 


COMMONS. [ Wiihm.~\ An answer from the king, 
or we'll all break in. 

* K. HEN. Go, Salisbury, and tell them all from 

6 I thank them for their tender loving care : 

* And had I not been 'cited so by them, 
6 Yet did I purpose as they do entreat ; 

c For sure, my thoughts do hourly prophesy 
' Mischance unto my state by Suffolk's means. 
c And therefore, by His majesty I swear, 
6 Whose far unworthy deputy I am, 

* He shall not breathe infection in this air 6 

' But three days longer., on the pain of death. 


* Q. MAR. O Henry, let me plead for gentle Suf- 


' K. HEN. Ungentle queen, to call him gentle 

* No more, I say ; if thou dost plead for him, 

* Thou wilt but add increase unto my wrath. 

6 Had I but said, I would have kept my word ; 

* But, when I swear, it is irrevocable : 

* If, after three days' space, thou here be'st found 

* On any ground that I am ruler of, 

* The world shall not be ransome for thy life. 

* Come, Warwick, come, good Warwick, go with 

me ; 
' I have great matters to impart to thee. 

[Exeunt K. HENRY, WARWICK, Lords, fyc. 

He shall not breathe infection in this air J That is, he 
shall not contaminate this air with his infected breath. 


sc. n. KING HENRY VI. 297 

* Q. MAR. Mischance, and sorrow, go along with 

you! 7 

' Heart's discontent, and sour affliction, 
c Be playfellows to keep you company ! 
' There's two of you ; the devil make a third 1 
6 And threefold vengeance tend upon your steps ! 

* SUF. Cease, gentle queen, these execrations, 
* And let thy Suffolk take his heavy leave. 

* Q. MAR. Fye, coward woman, and soft-hearted 

wretch ! 
Hast thou not spirit to curse thine enemies ? 

SUF. A plague upon them ! wherefore should I 

curse them ? 
Would curses kill, as doth the mandrake's groan, 8 

7 Mischance, and sorrow, &c.] In the original play the queen 
is still more violent : 

" Hell-fire and vengeance go along with you !" MALONE. 

* Would curses kill, as doth the mandrake's groan,'] The fa- 
bulous accounts of the plant called a mandrake give it an infe- 
rior degree of animal life, and relate, that when it is torn from 
the ground it groans, and that this groan being certainly fatal to 
him that is offering such unwelcome violence, the practice of 
those who gather mandrakes is to tie one end of a string to the 
plant, and the other to a dog, upon whom the fatal groan dis- 
charges its malignity. JOHNSON. 

The same allusion occurs in Aristippus, or the Jovial Philoso- 
pher, by Randolph : 

" This is the mandrake's voice that undoes me." 


Bulleine in his Bulwarke of Defence against Sicknesse, &c. fol. 
1579, p. 41, speaking of Mandragora, says: "They doe af- 
fyrme that this herbe commeth of the seede of some convicted 
dead men : and also without the death of some lyvinge thinge it 
cannot be drawen out of the earth to man's use. Therefore they 
did tye some dogge or other lyving beast unto the roote thereof 
wyth a corde, and digged the earth in compasse round about, 
and in the meane tyme stopped their own eares for feare of the 
terreble shriek and cry of this Mandrack. In whych cry it doth 
.not only dye itselfe, but the feare thereof kylleth the dogge or 
beast which pulleth it out of the earth." REED. 


e I would invent as bitter-searching terms, 

* As curst, as harsh, and horrible to hear, 
Delivered strongly through my fixed teeth, 

* With full as many signs of deadly hate, 
As lean-fac'd Envy in her loathsome cave : 

My tongue should stumble in mine earnest words : 
Mine eyes should sparkle like the beaten flint ; 
My hair be nVd on end, as one distract ; 
Ay, every joint should seem to curse and ban : 
And even now my burden'd heart would break, 
Should I not curse them. Poison be their drink ! 9 
Gall, worse than gall, the daintiest that they taste ! 
Their sweetest shade, a grove of cypress trees ! l 
Their chiefest prospect, murdering basilisks ! 
Their softest touch, as smart as lizards' stings ! 2 
Their musick, frightful as the serpent's hiss ; 
And boding screech-owls make the concert full ! 
All the foul terrors in dark-seated hell 
Q. MAR. Enough, sweet Suffolk 5 thou torment' st 

* And these dread curses like the sun 'gainst glass, 

* Or like an overcharged gun, recoil, 

* And turn the force of them upon thyself. 

SUF. You bade me ban, and will you bid me 
leave? 3 

9 Poison be their drink /] Most of these execrations are 

used, in the very words of Shakspeare, by Lee, in his Caesar 
Borgia, Act IV. STEEVENS. 

1 o/cypress trees .'] Cypress was employed in the fune- 
ral rites of the Romans, and hence is always mentioned as an 
ill-boding plant. STEEVENS. 

2 murdering basilisks ! lizards' stings /] It has been 

said of the basilisk that it has the power of destroying by a single 
glance of the eye, A lizard has no sting, but is quite inoffen- 
sive. STEEVENS. 

See p. 281, n. 1. MALONE. 

~ * You bade me ban, and laill you bid me leavef] This in- 
consistency is very common in real life. Those who are vexed to 

ac. n. KING HENRY VI. 299 

Now, by the ground that I am banish'd from, 
Well could I curse away a winter's night, 
Though standing naked on a mountain top, 
Where biting cold would never let grass grow, 
And think it but a minute spent in sport. 

* Q. MAR. O, let me entreat thee, cease ! Give 

me thy hand, 4 

* That I may dew it with my mournful tears ; 

* Nor let the rain of heaven wet this place, 

* To wash away my woeful monuments. 

' O, could this kiss be printed in thy hand ; 

\_Kisses his hand. 

* That thou might J st think upon these by the seal, 
' Through whom a thousand sighs are breath'd for 

thee! 5 
' So, get thee gone, that I may know my grief; 

* 'Tis but surmis'd whilst thou art standing by, 

impatience, are angry to see others less disturbed than them- 
selves, but when others begin to rave, they immediately see in 
them what they could not tind in themselves, the deformity and 
folly of useless rage. JOHNSON. ' 

4 O, let me entreat thee, &c.] Instead of the first four lines 
of this speech, we find in the old play these, which Shakspeare 
has availed himself of elsewhere : 

" No more, sweet Suffolk, hie thee hence to France ; 
" Or live where thou wilt within this world's globe, 
** I'll have an Irish [Iris] that shall find thee out." 


* That thou might'st think upon these by the seal, 

Tlirough whom a thousand sighs &c.] That by the impres- 
sion of my kiss for ever remaining on thy hand thou mightest 
think on those lips through which a thousand sighs will be breath- 
ed for thee. JOHNSON, 

See the song introduced in Measure for Measure : 
" But my kisses bring again, 
" Seals of love, but seal'd in vain." 

Of this image our author appears to have been fond, having 
introduced it in several places. There is no trace of it in the old 
play. MALONE. 


* As one that surfeits thinking on a want. 

* I will repeal thee, or, be well assur'd, 

* Adventure to be banished myself: 

* And banished I am, if but from thee. 

* Go, speak not to me ; even now be gone. 

* O, go not yet! Even thus two friends condemn* d 

* Embrace, and kiss, and take ten thousand leaves, 

* Leather a hundred times to part than die. 

* Yet now farewell ; and farewell life with thee ! 

SUF. Thus is poor Suffolk ten times banished, 
Once by the king, and three times thrice by thee. 

* 'Tis not the land I care for, wert thou hence ; 

* A wilderness is populous enough, 

* So Suffolk had thy heavenly company : 

* For where thou art, there is the world itself, 6 

* With every several pleasure in the world ; 

* And where thou art not, desolation. 

* I can no more : Live thou to joy thy life ; 

* Myself no joy in nought, but that thou liv'st. 

Enter VAUX. 

* Q. MAR. Whither goes Vaux so fast? what news, 

I pr'ythee ? 

* VAUX. To signify unto his majesty, 
That cardinal Beaufort is at point of death : 
4 For suddenly a grievous sickness took him, 

For taker e thou art, &c.] So Lucretius : 

" Nee sine te pulchrum dias in luminis auras 

" Exoritur, neque sit laetum nee araabile quicquam." 

Still more elegantly Milton, in a passage of his Comus, (after- 
wards omitted) v. 214, &c : 

while I see you, 

" This dusky hollow is a paradise, 

" And heaven gates o'er my head." STEEVENS. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 301 

' That makes him gasp, and stare, and catch the 


' Blaspheming God, and cursing men on earth. 
' Sometime, he talks as if duke Humphrey's ghost 

* Were by his side ; sometime, he calls the king, 
And whispers to his pillow, as to him, 

* The secrets of his overcharged soul : 7 
' And I am sent to tell his majesty, 

* That even now he cries aloud for him. 

' Q. MAR. Go, tell this heavy message to the 
king. \JExit VAUX. 

* Ah me ! what is this world ? what news are 

these ? 8 
' But wherefore grieve I at an hour's poor loss, 9 

7 And whispers to his pillow, as to him, 
The secrets &c.] The first of these lines is in the old play. 
The second is unquestionably our author's. The thought appears 
to have struck him ; for he has introduced it again in Macbeth : 

'* Infected minds 

" To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets." 


' Ah me ! what is this world? what news are these f] Instead 
of this line, the quarto reads : 

" Oh ! what is worldly pomp ? all men must die, 
" And woe am I for Beaufort's heavy end." 


9 - at an hour' 's poor loss,"] She means, I believe, at a loss 
which any hour spent in contrivance and deliberation will enable 
her to supply. Or perhaps she may call the sickness of the Car- 
dinal the loss of an hour, as it may put some stop to her schemes. 


I believe the poet's meaning is, Wherefore do I grieve that 
Beaiifort has died an hour before his time, who, being an old 
man, could not have had a long time to live ? STEEVENS. 

This certainly may be the meaning ; yet I rather incline to 
think that the Queen intends to say, " Why do I lament a cir- 
cumstance, the impression of which will pass away in the short 
period of an hour ; while I neglect to think on the loss of Suffolk, 
my affection for whom no time will efface ?" MALONE. 


' Omitting Suffolk's exile, my soul's treasure ? 

' Why only, Suffolk, mourn I not for thee, 

e And with the southern clouds contend in tears ; 

' Theirs for the earth's increase, 1 mine for my sor- 
rows ? 

6 Now, get thee hence : The king, thou know'st, is 
coming ; 

4 If thou be found by me, thou art but dead. 

6 SUF. If I depart from thee, I cannot live : 

* And in thy sight to die, what were it else, 
But like a pleasant slumber in thy lap ? 
Here could I breathe my soul into the air, 

' As mild and gentle as the cradle-babe, 
Dying with mother's dug between its lips : 
Where, from thy sight, 2 I should be raging mad, 

* And cry out for thee to close up mine eyes, 

* To have thee with thy lips to stop my mouth ; 
4 So should' st thou either turn my flying soul, 3 

c Or I should breathe it so into tny body, 
And then it liv'd in sweet Elysium. 
To die by thee, were but to die in jest ; 

1 for the earth's increase,] See Vol. IV. p. 366, n. 3. 


* Where, from thy sight,"] In the preambles of almost all the 
statutes made during the first twenty years of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, the word "where is employed instead of whereas. It is so 
used here. MALONE. 

So, in The Two Gentlemen of Verona : 

" And where I thought the remnant of mine age" &c. 
See Vol. IV. p. 240, n. 7. STEEVENS. 

3 turn my flying soul,"] Perhaps Mr. Pope was indebted 

to this passage in nis Eloisa to Abelard, where he makes that 
Totarist of exquisite sensibility say : 

" See my lips tremble, and my eye-balls roll, 

" Suck my last breath, and catch my flying soul." 


sc. //. KING HENRY VI. 303 

From thee to die, were torture more than death : 
O, let me stay, befall what may befall. 

* Q. MAR. Away ! though parting be a fretful 

corrosive, 4 

' It is applied to a deathful wound. 
' To France, sweet Suffolk : Let me hear from thee; 
* For wheresoe'er thou art in this world's globe, 
I'll have an Iris 5 that shall find thee out. 

SUF. I go. 

Q. MAR. And take my heart with thee. 6 

SUF. A jewel, lock'd into the woeful'st cask 
That ever did contain a thing of worth. 
Even as a splitted bark, so sunder we ; 
This way fall I to death. 

Q. MAR. This way for me. 

\_Exeunt, severally. 

* Away! though parting be a fretful corrosive,] This word 
was generally, in our author's time, written, and, I suppose, 
pronounced corsive ; and the metre shows that it ought to be so 
printed here. . So, in The Spanish Tragedy, 1605 : 

" His son distrest, a corsive to his heart." 
Again, in The Alchymist, by Ben Jonson, 1610 : 

" Now do you see that something's to be done 

" Beside your beech-coal and your corsive waters." 
Again, in an Ode by the same : 

" I send not balms nor corsives to your wound." 


Thus also in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, edit. 1632, p. 
600 : " a corsive to all content, a frenzie," &c. STEEVENS. 

4 I'll have an Iris ] Iris was the messenger of Juno. 

So, in All's luell that ends well : 

ft this distemper'd messenger of wet, 

" The many-colour'd Iris ." STEEVENS. 
6 And take my heart with thee."] I suppose, to complete the 
verse, we should read : 

along luith thee. 

So, in Hamlet : 

" And he to England shall along with thee." STEEVENS, 



London. Cardinal Beaufort's Bed-chamber. 

Others. The Cardinal in bed ; Attendants with 

* K. HEN. How fares my lord ? 8 speak, Beaufort, 
to thy sovereign. 

7 Enter King Henry, &c.} The quarto offers the following 
stage directions. Enter King and Salisbury, and then the cur- 
tames be drawne, and the cardinal is discovered in his bed, raving 
and staring as if he lucre mad. STEEVENS. 

This description did not escape our author, for he has availed 
himself of it elsewhere. See the speech of Vaux in p. 300. 


9 Hota fares my lordf&c."] This scene, and that in which the 
dead body of the Duke of Gloster is described, are deservedly 
admired. Having already submitted to the reader the lines on 
which the former scene is founded, I shall now subjoin those 
which gave rise to that before us : 

" Car. O death, if thou wilt let me live but one whole 

" I'll give thee as much gold as will purchase such another 

" King. O see, my lord of Salisbury, how he is 

" Lord Cardinal, remember, Christ must have thy soul. 

" Car. Why, dy'd he not in his bed ? 
" What would you have me to do then ? 
" Can I make men live, whether they will or no ? 
" Sirrah, go fetch me the strong poison, which 
" The 'pothecary sent me. 

" O, see where duke Humphrey's ghost doth stand, 
" And stares me in the face ! Look ; look ; comb down 

his hair. 
" So now, he's gone again. Oh, oh, oh. 

sc. in. KING HENRY VI. 305 

' CAR, If thou be'st death, 1*11 give thee Eng- 
land's treasure, 9 

' Enough to purchase such another island, 
4 So thou wilt let me live, and feel no pain. 

* j?, HEN. Ah, what a sign it is of evil life, 
* When death's approach is seen so terrible ! 

" Sal. See how the pangs of death doth gripe his heart. 

" King. Lord Cardinal, if thou diest assured of heaven- 
ly bliss, 
" Hold up thy hand, and make some sign to me. 

[ The Cardinal dies, 

" O see, he dies, and makes no sign at all. 
" O God, forgive his soul 1 

" Sal. So bad an end did never none behold ; 
" But as his death, so was his life in all. 

" King. Forbear to judge, good Salisbury forbear ; 
" For God will judge us all. Go take him hence, 
t( And see his funerals be perform'd." [Exeunt. 


9 If thou be'st death, I'll give thee England's treasure, &c.] 
The following passage in Hall's Chronicle, Henry VI. fol. 70. b. 
suggested the corresponding lines to the author of the old play : 
" During these doynges, Henry Beaufford,byshop of Winchester, 
mid called the riche Cardynall, departed out of this worlde. 
This man was haut in stomach and hygh in countenance, ryche 
above measure of all men, and to fewe liberal ; disdaynful to his 
kynne, and dreadful to his lovers. His covetous insaciable and 
hope of long lyfe made hym bothe to forget God, his prynce, 
and hymselfe, in his latter dayes ; for Doctor John Baker, his 
pryvie counsailer and his chapellayn, wrote, that lying on his 
death-bed, he said these words: ' Why should I dye, having so 
muche riches ? If the whole realme would save my lyfe, I am 
able either by pollicie to get it, or by ryches to bye it. Fye will 
not death be hyred, nor will money do nothynge ? When my 
nephew of Bedford died, I thought my selfe halfe up the whele, 
but when I sawe myne other nephew of Gloucester disceased, 
then I thought my selfe able to be equal with kinges, and so 
thought to increase my treasure in hope to have worne a trypple 
croune. But I se nowe the worlde fayleth me, and so I am de- 
ceyved ; praying you all to pray for me." MALONE. 


* WAR. Beaufort, it is thy sovereign speaks to 


* CAR. Bring me unto my trial when you will. 
' Died he not in his bed ? where should he die ? 
Can I make men live, whe'r they will or no ? J 

* O ! torture me no more, I will confess. 

* Alive again ? then show me where he is ; 

* I'll give a thousand pound to look upon him. 

* He hath no eyes, the dust hath blinded them. 2 
4 Comb down his hair ; look ! look ! it stands up- 

' Like lime-twigs set to catch my winged soul ! 
' Give me some drink ; and bid the apothecary 
' Bring the strong poison that I bought of him. 

* K. HEN. O thou eternal Mover of the heavens, 

* Look with a gentle eye upon this wretch ! 

* O, beat away the busy meddling fiend, 

* That lays strong siege unto this wretch's soul, 

* And from his bosom purge this black despair ! 

' WAR. See, how the pangs of death do make 
him grin. 

* SAL. Disturb him not, let him pass peaceably. 

* K. HEN. Peace to his soul, if God's good plea- 

sure be ! 

* Lord cardinal, if thou think'st on heaven's bliss, 

1 Can I make men live, tuhe'r they tvill or no ?~\ So, in King 
John : 

" We cannot hold mortality's strong hand : 
" Why do you bend such solemn brows on me ? 
" Think you, I bear the shears of destiny ? 
" Have I commandment on the pulse of life ?'* 


* He hath no eyes, &c.] So, in Macbeth : 

" Thou hast no speculation in those eyes, 
" Which thou dost glare with." MALONE. 

K. in. KING HENRY VI. 307 

* Hold up thy hand, 3 make signal of thy hope. 
'He dies, and makes no sign ; O God, forgive 

him ! 

* WAR. So bad a death argues a monstrous life. 
e K. HEN. Forbear to judge,* for we are sinners 


* Close up his eyes, and draw the curtain close ; .'. 
6 And let us all to meditation. [Exeunt.* 

3 Hold up thy hand,"] Thus, in the spurious play of K. John, 

1591, Pandulph sees the King dying, and says : 

" Then, good my lord, if you forgive them all, 
" Lift up your hand, in token you forgive." 


" Lift up thy hand, that we may witness here, 

" Thou diest the servant of our Saviour Christ : 

" Now joy betide thy soul !" STEEVENS. 

When a dying person is incapable of speech, it is usual ( in the 
church of Rome) previous to the administration of the sacra- 
ments, to obtain some sign that he is desirous of having them 
administered. The passage may have an allusion to this prac- 
tice. C. 

* Forbear to judge, &c. J 

** Peccantes culpare cave, nam labimur omnes, 
" Aut sumus, aut fuimus,velpossumus esse, quod hie est." 


3 Exeunt."] This is one of the scenes which have been ap- 
plauded by the criticks, and which will continue to be admired 
when prejudices shall cease, and bigotry give way to impartial 
examination. These are beauties that rise out of nature and of 
truth; the superficial reader cannot miss them, the profound 
can image nothing beyond them. JOHNSON. 

X 2 


Kent, The Sea-shore near Dover. 6 

Firing heard at Sea. 7 Then enter from a Boat, a 
Captain, a Master, a Master's-Mate, WALTER 
WHITMORE, and Others; with them SUFFOLK, 
and other Gentlemen, prisoners. 

* CAP. The gaudy, blabbing, and remorseful 

day 8 
* Is crept into the bosom of the sea ; 

6 The circumstance oh which this scene is founded, is thus 
related by Hall in his Chronicle:" But fortune would not that 
this flagitious person [the Duke of Suffolk, who being impeached 
by the Commons was banished from England for five years,] 
shoulde so escape ; for when he shipped in Suffolk, entendynge 
to be transported into France, he was encountered with a shippe 
of warre apperteinyng to the Duke of Excester, the Constable 
of the Towre of London, called The Nicholas of ike Totvre. The 
capitaine of the same bark with small fight entered into the 
duke's shyppe, and perceyving his person present, brought him 
to Dover rode, and there on the one syde of a cocke-bote, caused 
his head to be stryken of, and left his body with the head upon 
the sandes of Dover; which corse was there founde by achape- 
layne of his, and conveyed to Wyngfielde college in Suffolke, 
and there buried." MALONE. 

See the Paston Letters, published by Sir John Fenn, second 
edit. Vol. I. p. 38, Letter X. in which this event is more circum- 
stantially related. STEEVENS. 

7 Firing heard at Sea.~\ Perhaps Ben Jonson was thinking of 
this play, when he put the following declaration into the mouth 
of Morose in The Silent Woman : " Nay, I would sit out a play 
that were nothing bntjights at sea, drum, trumpet, and target.'* 


8 The gaudy, Mabbing, and remorseful day ] The epithet 
blabbing applied to the day by a man about to commit murder, 

sc. I. KING HENRY VI. 309 

* And now loud-howling wolves arouse the jades 

* That drag the tragick melancholy night ; 

* Who with their drowsy, slow, and flagging wings 
*Clip dead men's graves, 9 and from their misty 


is exquisitely beautiful. Guilt is afraid of light, Considers dark- 
ness as a natural shelter, and makes night the confidante of those 
actions which cannot be trusted to the tell-tale day. JOHNSON- 

So, Milton, in his Comus, v. 138 : 

" Ere the blabbing eastern scout ." TODD. 

Again, in Spenser, Brit. Ida. C. ii. st. 3: 

" For Venus hated his all-blabbing light." STEEVENS. 

Remorseful is pitiful. So, in The Tivo Gentlemen of Verona : 

" a gentleman, 

*' Valiant, wise, remorseful, well accomplished. " 
The same idea occurs in Macbeth : 

" Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day." STEEVENS. 

This speech is an amplification of the following one in the first 
part of The Whole Contention, &c. quarto, 1600: 

" Bring forward these prisoners that scorn'd to yield ; 

" Unlade their goods with speed, and sink their ship. 

** Here master, this prisoner I give to you, 

*' This other the master's mate shall have ; 

" And Walter Whickmore, thou shalt have this man; 

" And let them pay their ransome ere they pass. 

" Sujf. Walter !" [He starteth. 

Had Shakspeare's play been taken down by the ear, or an im- 
perfect copy otherwise obtained, his lines might have been mu- 
tilated, or imperfectly represented; but would a new circum- 
stance (like that of sinking Suffolk's ship) not found in the ori- 
ginal, have been added by the copyist ? On the other hand, if 
Shakspeare new modelled the work of another, such a circum- 
stance might well be omitted. MALONE. 

9 the jades 

That drag the tragick melancholy night ; 
Who 'with their drowsy, slow, and flagging wings 
Clip dead men's graves,"] The wings of the jades that drag 
night appears an unnatural image, till it is remembered that the 


* Breathe foul contagious darkness in the air. 

* Therefore, bring forth the soldiers of our prize ; 

* For, whilst our pinnace anchors in the Downs, 

* Here shall they make their ransome on the sand, 

* Or with their blood stain this discolour' d shore. 
4 Master, this prisoner freely give I thee ; 

4 And thou that art his mate, make boot of this; 
' The other, [Pointing to SUFFOLK,] Walter Whit- 
more, is thy share. 

* 1 GENT. What is my ransome, master? let me 


4 MAST. A thousand crowns, or else lay down 
your head. 

* MATE. And so much shall you give, or off 

goes yours. 

* CAP. What, think you much to pay two thou- 

sand crowns, 

* And bear the name and port of gentlemen ? 

* Cut both the villains' throats ; for die you shall j 

* The lives of those which we have lost in fight, 

* Cannot be counterpois'd with such a petty sum. 1 

chariot of the night is supposed, by Shakspeare, to be drawn by 
dragons. JOHNSON. 

See Vol. IV. p. 432, n. 8. MALONE. 
See also, Cymfctene, Act II. sc. ii. STEEVENS. 
1 The lives of those &c.] The old copy (from which some 
deviation, for the sake of obtaining sense, was necessary,) has 
" The lives of those which we have lost in fight, 
" Be counter-poys'd with such a pettie sum." 
Mr. Malone reads : 

" The lives of those which we have lost in fight, 
" Cannot be counterpois'd with such a petty sum." 
But every reader will observe, that the last of these lines is 
incumbered with a superfluous foot.- 1 conceive, that the passage 
originally stood as follows : 

" The lives of those we have lost in fight, cannot 
" Be counterpois'd with such a petty sum." STEEVENS. 
I suspect that a line has been lost, preceding " The lives of 

sc. /. KING HENRY VI. 31 1 


* 1 GENT. I'll give it, sir ; and therefore spare 

my life. 

* 2 GENT. And so will I, and write home for it 


* WHIT. I lost mine eye in laying the prize aboard, 
' And therefore, to revenge it, shalt thou die ; 

[To SUF. 
* And so should these, if I might have my will. 

* CAP. Be not so rash; take ransome, let him live. 
' SUF. Look on my George, I am a gentleman ; 2 

' Rate me at what thou wilt, thou shalt be paid. 

* WHIT. And so am I; my name is Walter 


' How now ? why start'st thou ? what, doth death 
affright ? 

those," c. and that this speech belongs to Whitmore ; for it is 
inconsistent with what the captain says afterwards. The word 
cannot is not in the folio. The old play affords no assistance. 
The word now added is necessary to the sense, and is a less in- 
novation on the text than what has been made in the modern 
editions Nor can those lives, &c. 

The emendation made in this passage, (which was written by 
Shakspeare, there being no trace of it in the old play,) is sup- 
ported by another in Coriolanus, in which we have again the 
same expression, and nearly the same sentiments : 
" The man I speak of cannot in the world 
" B^ singly counterpoised" MALONE. 

The difference between the Captain's present and succeeding 
sentiments may be thus accounted for. Here, he is only striving 
to intimidate his prisoners into a ready payment of their ran- 
some. Afterwards his natural disposition inclines him to mercy, 
till he is provoked by the upbraidings of Suffolk. STEEVENS. 

* Look on my George,] In the first edition it is my ring. 


Here we have another proof of what has been already so often 
observed. A ring and a George could never have been con- 
founded either by the eye or the ear. So, in the original play 
the ransome of each of Suffolk's companions is a hundred 
pounds, but here a thousand crowns. MALONE. 


c SUF. Thy name aiFrights me, 3 in whose sound 

is death. 

' A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
' And told me that by Water 1 * I should die : 
4 Yet let not this make thee be bloody minded; 
' Thy name is Gualtier, being rightly sounded. 

' WHIT. Gualtier, or Walter, which it is, I care 


6 Ne'er yet did base dishonour blur our name, 5 
c But with our sword we wip'd away the blot ; 
' Therefore, when merchant-like I sell revenge, 

3 Thy name affrights me,~\ But he had heard his name before, 
without being startled by it. In the old play, as soon as ever 
the captain has consigned him to " Walter Whickmore" Suffolk 
immediately exclaims, Walter I Whickmore asks him, why he 
fears him, and Suffolk replies, " It is thy name affrights me." 
Our author has here, as in some other places, fallen into an im- 
propriety, by sometimes following and sometimes deserting his 
original. MALONE. 

4 by Water] So, in Queen Margaret's letter to this 

Duke of Suffolk, by Michael Drayton : 

" I pray thee, Poole, have care how thou dost pass, 
" Never the sea yet half so dangerous was, 
" And one foretold, by water thou should'st die," &c. 
A note on these lines says, " The witch of Eye received an- 
swer from her spirit, that the Duke of Suffolk should take heed 
of water." See the fourth scene of the first Act of this play. 


4 Ne'er yet did base dishonour &c.] This and the following 
lines are founded on these two in the old play : 

" And therefore ere I merchant-like sell blood for gold, 
" Then cast me headlong down into the sea" 
The new image which Shakspeare has introduced into this 

speech, " my arms torn and defac'd," is found also in 

King Richard II : 

" From my own windows torn my household coat, 
" Raz'd out my impress; leaving me no sign, 
" Save men's opinions, and my living blood, 
" To show the world I am a gentleman." 
See the notes on that passage. See Vol. XI. p. 85, n. 3, and 4. 


m/. KING HENRY VI. sis 

* Broke be my sword, my arms torn and defac'd, 
' And I proclaim'd a coward through the world ! 

\_Lays hold on SUFFOLK. 

' SUF. Stay, Whitmore ; for thy prisoner is a 

The duke of Suffolk, William de la Pole. 

' WHIT. The duke of Suffolk, muffled up in rags ! 

SUF. Ay, but these rags are no part of the duke ; 
Jove sometime went disguis'd, And why not I ? 6 

CAP. But Jove was never slain, as thou shalt be. 

4 SUF. Obscure and lowly swain, 7 king Henry's 


The honourable blood of Lancaster, 
4 Must not be shed by such a jaded groom. 8 

Jove sometime went disguis'd ', &c.] This verse is omitted in 
all but the first old edition, [quarto 1600,3 without which what 
follows is not sense. The next line also : 

Obscure and lowly swain, king -Henry's blood, 
was falsely put in the Captain's mouth. POPE. 

7 lowly swain,'] The folio reads lowsy swain. 


The quarto lowly. In a subsequent passage the folio has the 
word right : 

By such a lowly vassal as thyself. 
Lowsy was undoubtedly an errour of the press. MALONE. 

8 a jaded groom*^ I suppose he means a low fellow, fit 

only to attend upon horses ; which in our author's time were fre- 
quently termed jades. The original play has jady, which con- 
veys this meaning (the only one that the words seem to afford,) 
more clearly, jaded being liable to an equivoque. Jaded groom, 
however, may mean a groom whom all men treat with contempt ; 
as worthless as the most paltry kind of horse. 

So, m King Henry VIII: 

" if we live thus tamely, 

"To be thus jaded by a piece of scarlet ." MALONE. 

A jaded groom may signify a groom who has hitherto been 
treated with no greater ceremony than a horse. STEEVENS. 


Hast thou not kiss'd thy hand, and held my stirrup ? 
' Bare-headed plodded by my foot-cloth mule, 
6 And thought thee happy when I shook my head ? 
4 How often hast thou waited at my cup, 
' Fed from my trencher, kneel'd down at the board, 
' When I have feasted with queen Margaret ? 

* Remember it, and let it make thee crest-fall'n ; 

* Ay, and allay this thy abortive pride : 9 

* How in our voiding lobby hast thou stood, 

* And duly waited for my coming forth ? 

' This hand of mine hath writ in thy behalf, 

' And therefore shall it charm thy riotous tongue. * 

* WHIT. Speak, captain, shall I stab the forlorn 

swain ? 

* CAP. First let my words stab him, as he hath 


* SUF. Base slave ! thy words are blunt, and so 

art thou. 

* CAP. Convey him hence, and on our long-boat's 


* Strike off his head. 

SUF. Thou dar'st not for thy own. 2 

9 abortive pride :] Pride that has had birth too soon, 

pride issuing before its time. JOHNSON. 

1 charm thy riotous tongue.] i. e. restrain thy licentious 

talk ; compel thee to be silent. See Vol. IX. p. 140, n. 5, and 
Mr. Steevens's note in Othello, Act V. sc. ult. where lago uses 
the same expression. It occurs frequently in the books of our 
author's age. MALONE. 

Again, in the Third Part of this Play, Act V. sc. iii : 
" Peace, wilful boy, or I will charm your tongue." 


* Thou dar'st not &c.] In the quarto edition the passage stands 

" Suf. Thou dar'st not for thy own. 
" Cap. Yes, Pole. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VI. 315 

CAP. Yes, Poole. 

SUF. Poole ? 

CAP. Poole ? Sir Poole ? lord ? 3 

* Ay, kennel, puddle, sink ; whose filth and dirt 

4 Troubles the silver spring where England drinks. 
4 Now will I dam up this thy yawning mouth, 
4 For swallowing 4 the treasure of the realm : 

* Thy lips, that kiss'd the queen, shall sweep the 

ground ; 

4 And thou, that smil'dst at good duke Humphrey's 
death, 5 

" S*f. Pole? 

" Cap. Ay, Pole, puddle, kennel, sink and dirt, 
" I'll stop that yawning mouth of thine." 
I think the two intermediate speeches should be inserted in the 
text, to introduce the Captain's repetition of Poole, &c. 


It is clear from what follows that these speeches were not in- 
tended to be rejected by Shakspeare, but accidentally omitted 
at the press. I have therefore restored them. MALONE. 

3 Poole? Sir Poole? lord?"] The dissonance of this broken 
line makes it almost certain that we should read with a kind of 
ludicrous climax : 

Poole? Sir Poole? lord Poole? 
He then plays upon the name Poole, kennel, puddle. 


4 For swallowing ] He means, perhaps, so as to prevent thy 
swallowing, &c. So, in The Puritan, 1607 : " he is now in 
huckster's handlings/or running away." I have met with many 
other instances of this kind of phraseology. The more obvious 
interpretation, however, may be the true one. MALONE. 

* And thou, that smil'dst at good duke Humphrey's death, &c.] 
This enumeration of Suffolk's crimes seems to have been sug- 
gested by The Mirrour of Magistrates, 1575, Legend of William 
de la Pole : 

" And led me back again to Dover road, 
" Where unto me recounting all my faults, 
" As murthering of duke Humphrey in his bed, 
" And how I had brought all the realm to nought, 


' Against the senseless winds shalt grin in vain,* 

* Who, in contempt, shall hiss at thee again : 7 

* And wedded be thou to the hags of hell, 

* For daring to affy 8 a mighty lord 

* Unto the daughter of a worthless king, 

* Having neither subject, wealth, nor diadem. 

* By devilish policy art thou grown great, 

* And, like ambitious Sylla, overgorg'd 

* With gobbets of thy mother's bleeding heart. 

* By thee, Anjou and Maine were sold to France: 

* The false revolting Normans, thorough thee, 

* Disdain to call us lord ; and Picardy 

* Hath slain their governors, surpriz'd our forts, 

* Amd sent the ragged soldiers wounded home. 

* The princely Warwick, and the Nevils all, 

* Whose dreadful swords were never drawn in 


" Causing the king unlawfully to wed, 

" There was no grace but I must lose my head." 


shalt grin in vain,'] From hence to the end of this 

Speech is undoubtedly the original composition of Shakspeare, 
no traces of it being found in the elder play. MALONE. 

7 the senseless winds 

Who, in contempt, shall hiss at thee again :"] The same 
worthless image occurs also in Romeo and Juliet : 

the winds 

" Who, nothing hurt withal, hiss'd him in scorn." 


8 , to affy ] To affy is to betroth in marriage. So, in 

Drayton's Legend of Pierce Gaveston : 

" In bands of wedlock did to me affy 
" A lady," &c. 

Again, in the 17th Song of The Polyolbion : 

" the Almaine emperor's bride 

" Which after to the earl of Anjou was affy'd." 


to T. KING HENRY VI. 317 

* As hating thee, are rising 9 up in arms : 

* And now the house of York thrust from the 


* By shameful murder of a guiltless king, 

* And lofty proud encroaching tyranny, 

* Burns with revenging fire ; whose hopeful colours 

* Advance our half-fac'd sun, 1 striving to shine, 

* Under the which is writ Invitis nubibus. 

* The commons here in Kent are up in arms : 

* And, to conclude, reproach, and beggary, 

* Is crept into the palace of our king, 

* And all by thee : Away ! convey him hence. 

* SUF. O that I were a god, to shoot forth thunder 

* Upon these paltry, servile, abject drudges ! 

* Small things make base men proud : ' this villain 


c Being captain of a pinnace, 2 threatens more 
' Than Bargulus the strong Illyrian pirate. 3 

9 - are rising-*-"] Old copy and rising. Corrected by 

Mr. Howe. MALONE. 

1 "whose hopeful colours 

Advance our half-fac'd sun,~] " Edward III. bare for his de-- 
vice the rays of the sun dispersing themselves out of a cloud." 
Camden's Remaines. MALONE. 

* Being captain of a pinnace,] A pinnace did not anciently 
signify, as at present, a man of war's boat, but a ship of small 
burthen. So, in Winwood's Memorials, Vol. III. p. 118: " The 
king ( James I. ) naming the great ship, Trade's Increase ; and 
the prince, a pinnace of 250 tons (built to wait upon her,) 
Pepper-corn." STEEVENS. 

The complement of men on board a pinnace (or spyner} was 
about twenty five. See Paston Letters, Vol. I. p. 159. 


3 Than Bargulus the strong Illyrian pirate."] Mr. Theobald 
says, " This wight I have not been able to trace, or discover from 
what legend our author derived his acquaintance with him." 
And yet he is to be met with in Tully's Offices ; and the legend 


6 Drones suck not eagles* blood, but rob bee-hives. 

* It is impossible, that I should die 
' By such a lowly vassal as thyself. 

* Thy words move rage, and not remorse, in me : 4 

* I go of message from the queen to France ; 

* I charge thee, waft me safely cross the channel. 

' CAP. Walter, 

c WHIT. Come, Suffolk, I must waft thee to thy 

* SUF. Gelidus timor occupat artus : 5 'tis thee 
I fear. 

is the famous Theopompus's History : " Bargulus, Illyrius latro, 
de quo est apud Theopompum, magnas opes haouit. Lib. II. cap. xi. 


Dr. Farmer observes that Shakspeare might have met with 
this pirate in two translations. Robert Whytinton, 1533, calls 
him " Bargulus, a pirate upon the see of Illiry ;" and Nicholas 
Grimoald, about twenty-three years afterwards, " Bargulus, the 
Illyrian robber." 

Bargulus does not make his appearance in the quarto ; but we 
have another hero in his room. The Captain, says Suffolk, 
" Threatens more plagues than mighty Abradas, 
" The great Macedonian pirate." 

I know nothing more of this Abradas, than that he is men- 
tioned by Greene in his Penelope's Web, 1601 : 

" Abradas the great Macedonian pirat thought every one had 
a letter of mart that bare sayles in the ocean." STEEVENS. 

Here we see another proof of what has been before suggested. 
See p. 285, n. 9; and p. 311, n. 1. MALONE. 

4 Thy "words move rage, and not remorse, in me:"] This line 
Shakspeare has injudiciously taken from the Captain, to whom 
it is attributed in the original play, and given it to Suffolk ; for 
what remorse, that is, pity, could Suffolk be called upon to show 
to his assailant ? whereas the Captain might with propriety say 
to his captive thy haughty language exasperates me, instead of 
exciting my compassion. MALONE. 

Perhaps our author meant (however imperfectly he may have 
expressed himself, ) to make Suffolk say " Your words excite 
my anger, instead of prompting me to solicit pity." STEEVENS. 

4 Gelidus timor occupat artus .] The folio, where alone this 

sc. /. KING HENRY VI. 319 

' WHIT. Thou shalt have cause to fear, before I 

leave thee. 
' What, are ye daunted now ? now will ye stoop ? 

' 1 GENT. My gracious lord, entreat him, speak 
him fair. 

4 SUF. Suffolk's imperial tongue is stern and 


' Us'd to command, untaught to plead for favour. 
' Far be it, we should honour such as these 
' With humble suit : no, rather let my head 
c Stoop to the block, than these knees bow to any, 

* Save to the God of heaven, and to my king ; 

* And sooner dance upon a bloody pole, 

< Than stand uncovered to the vulgar groom. 

line isfound, reads Pine, &c. a corruption, I suppose, of 
the word that I have substituted in its place. I know not what 
other word could have been intended. The editor of the second 
folio, and all the modern editors, have escaped the difficulty by 
suppressing the word. The measure is of little consequence, for 
no such line, I believe, exists in any classick author. Dr. Grey 
refers us to " Ovid de Trist. 313, and Metamorph. 24-7 :" a very 
wide field to range in ; however with some trouble I found out 
what he meant. This line is not in Ovid ; (nor I believe in any 
other poet ;) but in his De Tristibus, Lib. I. El. iii. 113, we fina: 

" Navita, confessus gelido pallore timorem," 
and in his Metamorph. Lib. IV. 247, we meet with these lines: 
" Ille qui&em gelidos radiorum viribus artus, 
" Si queat, in vivum tentat revocare calorem." 


In the eleventh Book of Virgil, Turnus (addressing Drances) 

" - cur ante tubam tremor occupat artus ?" 

This is as near, I conceive, to Suffolk's quotation, as either of 
the passages already produced. Yet, somewhere, in the wide 
expanse of Latin Poetry, ancient and modern, the very words in 
question may hereafter be detected. 

Pene, the gem which appears to have illuminated the dreary 
.mine of collation, is beheld to so little advantage above-ground, 
that I am content to leave it where it was discovered. 



* True nobility is exempt from fear : 

c More can I bear, than you dare execute. 6 

' CAP. Hale him away, and let him talk no more. 

f SUF. Come, soldiers, showwhat cruelty ye can, 7 
' That this my death may never be forgot ! 
' Great men oft die by vile bezonians : 8 

* A Roman sworder 9 and banditto slave, 

* Murder J d sweet Tully ; Brutus' bastard hand * 

8 More can 1 bear, than you dare execute."] So, in King 

Henry VIII: 

" I am able now, methinks, 

" (Out of a fortitude of soul I feel, ) 

" To endure more miseries, and greater far, 

** Than my weak -hearted enemies dare offer." 

Again, in Othello : 

" Thou hast not half that power to do me harm, 
" As I have to be hurt." MA LONE. 

7 Come, soldiers, shotv tvhat cruelty ye can,"] In the folio this 
line is given to the Captain by the carelessness of the printer or 
transcriber. The present regulation was made by Sir Thomas 
Hanmer, and followed by Dr. Warburton. See the latter part 
of note 6, p. 313. MALONE. 

Surely (as has been suggested) this line belongs to the next 
speech. No cruelty was meditated beyond decollation; and 
without such an introduction, there is an obscure abruptness in 
the beginning of Suffolk's reply to the Captain. STEEVENS. 

8 bezonians :] See a note on the 2d part of K. Henry IV. 

Act V. sc. iii. VoL XII : 

" Bisognoso, is a mean low man." 
So, in Sir Giles Goosecap, 1606 : 

" if he come to me like your Besognio, or your boor." 

Again, in Markham's English Husbandman, p. 4 : 

" The ordinary tillers of the earth, such as we call husband- 
men ; in France peasants, in Spain besonyans, and generally the 
cloutshoe." STEEVENS. 

9 A Roman sworder &c.] i. e. Herennius, a centurion, and 
Popilius Laenas, tribune of the soldiers. STEEVENS. 

1 Brutus* bastard hand ] Brutus was the son of Servi- 

lia, a Roman lad,y who had been concubine to Julius aesar. 


sc.i. KING HENRY VI. 321 

' Stabb'd Julius Caesar ; savage islanders, 
* Pompey the great : 2 and Suffolk dies by pirates. 
\_Exit SUF. with WHIT, and Others. 

CAP. And as for these whose ransome we have 


It is our pleasure, one of them depart : 
Therefore come you with us, and let him go. 

[Exeunt all but thejirst Gentleman. 

Re-enter WHITMORE, with SUFFOLK'S Body. 

6 WHIT. There let his head and lifeless body lie, 
* Until the queen his mistress bury it. 3 [Exit. 

8 Pompey the great :] The poet seems to have confounded the 
story of Pompey with some other. JOHNSON. 

This circumstance might be advanced as a slight proof, in aid 
of many stronger, that our poet was no classical scholar. Such 
a one could not easily have forgotten the manner in which the 
life of Pompey was concluded. Pompey, however, is not in the 
quarto. Spenser likewise abounds with deviations from esta- 
blished history and fable. STEEVENS. 

Pompey being killed by Achillas and Septimius at the mo- 
ment that the Egyptian fishing boat in which they were, reached 
the coast, and his head being thrown into the sea, (a circum- 
stance which Shakspeare found in North's translation of Plu- 
tarch,) his mistake does not appear more extraordinary than 
some others which have been remarked in his works. 

It is remarkable that the introduction of Pompey was among 
Shakspeare's additions to the old play : This may account for 
the classical error, into which probably the original author 
would not have fallen. In the quarto the lines stand thus : 

" A sworder, and banditto slave 

" Murdered sweet Tully ; 

" Brutus' bastard hand stabb'd Julius Caesar, 

" And Suffolk dies by pirates on the seas." MALONE. 

3 There let his head &c.] Instead of this speech, the quarto 
gives us the following : 



* 1 GENT. O barbarous and bloody spectacle ! 

* His body will I bear unto the king : 

' If he revenge it not, yet will his friends ; 

* So will the queen, that living held him dear. 

[Exit, with the Body. 



* GEO. Come, and get thee a sword, 4 though 
' made of a lath ; they have been up these two days. 

' JOHN. They have the more need to sleep now 

' GEO. I tell thee, 5 Jack Cade the clothier means 
c to dress the commonwealth, and turn it, and set 
* a new nap upon it. 

'* Cap. Off with his head, and send it to the queen, 
*' And ransomless this prisoner shall go free, 
" To see it safe deliver'd unto her." STEEVENS. 

See p. 323, n. 8, and the notes there referred to. MALONE. 

See Sir John Fenn's Collection of The Paston Letters, Vol. I. 
p. 40. HENLEY. 

4 get thee a sivord,"] The quarto reads Come away, 
Nick, and put a long staff" in thy pike, &c. STEEVENS. 

50 afterwards, instead of " Cade the clothier," we have in the 
quarto " Cade the dyer of Ashford." See the notes above re- 
terred to. MALONE. 

5 1 tell ihee^\ In the original play this speech is introduced 
more naturally. Nick asks George " Sirra George, what's the 
matter ?" to which George replies, " Why marry, Jack Cade, 
the dyer of Ashford here," &c. MALONE. j 

sc. n. KING HENRY VI. 323 

JOHN. So he had need, for 'tis threadbare. Well, 
I say, it was never merry world in England, 6 since 
gentlemen came up. 7 

* GEO. O miserable age ! Virtue is not regarded 

* in handycrafts-men. 

c JOHN. The nobility think scorn to go in leather 
c aprons. 

* GEO. Nay more, the king's council are no good 

* workmen. 

* JOHN. True ; And yet it is said, Labour in 

* thy vocation : which is as much to say, as, let 

* the magistrates be labouring men ; and therefore 

* should we be magistrates. 

* GEO. Thou hast hit it : for there's no better 

* sign of a brave mind, than a hard hand. 

* JOHN. I see them ! I see them ! There's Best's 

* son, the tanner of Wingham ; 

* GEO. He shall have the skins of our enemies, 

* to make dog's leather of. 

JOHN. And Dick the butcher, 8 

6 Well, I say, it was never merry world in England, 8fc. ~\ 
The same phrase was used by the Duke of Suffolk in the time 
of Henry VIII : " Then stept forth the Duke of Suffolke from 
the King, and spake with a hault countenance these words : It 
mas never merry in England ( quoth hee ) while we had any Car- 
dinals among us," fyc. Stowe's Chronicle, Fo. 1631, p. 54-6. REED. 

7 since gentlemen came up.] Thus we familiarly say a 

fashion comes up. S TEE YENS. 

8 And Dick the butcher,"] In the first copy thus : 
Why there's Dick the butcher, and Robin the sadler, and 
Will that came a wooing to our Nan last Sunday, and Harry 
and Tom, and Gregory that should have your parnell, and a 
great sort more, is come from Rochester and from Maidstone, and 
Canterbury, and all the towns hereabouts, and we must all be lords, 
or squires, as soon as Jack Cade is king. See p. 210, n. 9 ; p. 
217, n. 1 ; p. 317, n. 3; and p. 322, n. 3. MALONE. 



* GEO. Then is sin struck down like an ox, and 
* iniquity's throat cut like a calf. 

* JOHN. And Smith the weaver : 

* GEO. Argo, their thread of life is spun. 

* JOHN. Come, come, let's fall in with them. 

Drum. Enter CADE, DICK the Butcher, SMITH 
the Weaver, and Others in great number. 

6 CADE. We John Cade, so termed of our sup- 
4 posed father, , 

DICK. Or rather, of stealing a cade of herrings. 9 


* CADE. for our enemies shall fall before us, 1 

9 a cade of herrings."] That is, A barrel of herrings. I 
suppose the word keg, which is now used, is cade corrupted. 


A cade is less than a barrel. The quantity it should contain 
is ascertained by the accounts of the Celeress of the Abbey of 
Berking. " Memorandum thata barrelof herryng shold contene 
a thousand herryngs, and a cade of herryng six hundreth, six 
score to the hundreth." Mon. Ang. I. 83. MALONE. 

Nash speaks of having weighed one of Gabriel Harvey's 
books against a cade of herrings, and ludicrously says, " That 
the rebel Jacke Cade was the first that devised to put redde^ 
herrings in cades, and from him they have their name." Praise 
of the Red Herring, 1599. Cade, however, is derived from Ca- 
dusy Lat. a cask or barrel. STEEVENS. 

1 our enemies shall foil before us,~\ He alludes to his name 

Cade, from cado, Lat. to fall. He has too much learning for 
his character. JOHNSON. 

We John Cade, &c.] This passage, I think, should be regu- 
lated thus : 

" Cade. We John Cade, so termed of our supposed fa- 
ther, for our enemies shall fall before us; 

" Dick. Or rather of stealing a cade of herrings. 
* Cade. Inspired with the spirit" &c. TYRWHITT. 

In the old play the corresponding passage stands thus : 
" Cade. I John Cade, so named for my valiancy, 
" Dick. Or rather for stealing of a cade of sprats." 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 325 

' inspired with the spirit of putting down kings and 

* princes, Command silence. 

DICK. Silence! 

CADE. My father was a Mortimer, 

DICK. He was an honest man, and a good brick- 
layer. [Aside. 

* CADE. My mother a Plantagenet, 

6 DICK. I knew her well, she was a midwife. 


e CADE. My wife descended of the Lacies, 

DICK. She was, indeed, a pedlar's daughter, and 
sold many laces. [Aside. 

' SMITH. But, now of late, not able to travel with 

* her furred pack, 2 she washes bucks here at home. 


The transposition recommended by Mr. Tyrwhitt is so plausi- 
ble, that I had once regulated the text accordingly. But Dick's 
quibbling on the word of ( which is used by Cade, according to 
the phraseology of our author's time, for by, and as employed by 
Dick, signifies on account of,} is so much in Shakspeare's man- 
ner, that no change ought, I think, to be made. If the words 
'.' Or rather of stealing," &c. be postponed to " For our ene- 
mies shall fall before us," Dick then, as at present, would assert 
that Cade is not so called on account of a particular theft ; 
which indeed would correspond sufficiently with the old play ; 
but the quibble on the word o/, which appears very like a con- 
ceit of Shakspeare, would be destroyed. Cade, as the speeches 
stand in the folio, proceeds to assign the origin of his name with- 
out paying any regard to what Dick has said. 

Of is used again in Coriolanus, in the sense which it bears in 
Cade's speech : " We have been called so o/'many," i. e. by 
many. MALONE. 

2 furred pack,"] A wallet or knapsack of skin with the 

hair outward. JOHNSON. 

In the original play the words are " and now being not able 
to occupy her furred pack," underwhich, perhaps, " more was 
meant than meets the ear." MALONE. 


6 CADE. Therefore am I of an honourable house. 

DICK. Ay, by my faith, the field is honourable ; 3 
and there was he born, under a hedge ; for his fa- 
ther had never a house, but the cage. 4 [Aside. 

* CADE. Valiant I am. 

* SMITH. 'A must needs ; for beggary is valiant. 

CADE. I am able to endure much. 

DICK. No question of that ; for I have seen him 
whipped three market days together. [Aside. 

CADE. I fear neither sword nor fire. 

SMITH. He need not fear the sword, for his coat 
is of proof. 5 [Aside. 

DICK. But, methinks, he should stand in fear of 
fire, being burnt i'the hand for stealing of sheep. 


CADE. Be brave then ; for your captain is brave, 
and vows reformation. There shall be, in England, 
seven half-penny loaves sold for a penny: the three- 
hooped pot shall have ten hoops j 6 and I will make 

3 the field is honourable ; j Perhaps a quibble between 

Jield in its heraldick, and in its common acceptation, was de- 
signed. STEEVENS. 

4 but the cage.] A cage was formerly a term for a prison. 

See Minsheu, in v. We yet talk of jail-birds. MALONE. 

There is scarce a village in England which has not a tempo- 
rary place of confinement, still called The Cage. STEEVENS. 

* Jbr his coat is of proof.] A quibble between two senses 

of the word ; one as being able to resist, the other as being well- 
tried, that is, long worn. HANMER. 

6 the three-hooped pot shall have ten hoops ;] In The 

Gul's Horn-Booke, a satirical pamphlet by Deckar, 1609, hoops 

are mentioned among other drinking measures: " his hoops, 

cans, half-cans," &c. And Nash, in his Pierce Pennilesse his 
Supplication to the Devil, 1595, says : " I believe hoopes in 

xc. //. KING HENRY VI. 32? 

it felony, to drink small beer : all the realm shall 
be in common, and in Cheapside shall my palfry 
go to grass. And, when I am king, (as king I will 

ALL. God save your majesty ! 

' CADE. I thank you, good people : there shall 
c be no money; 7 all shall eat and drink on my 
' score ; and I will apparel them all in one livery, 
' that they may agree like brothers, and worship me 
' their lord. 

' DICK. The first thing we do, let's kill all the 
* lawyers. 

CADE. Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a 
lamentable thing, 8 that of the skin of an innocent 
lamb should be made parchment ? that parchment, 
being scribbled o'er, should undo a man? Some 

quart pots were invented to that end, that every man should take 
his hoope, and no more." 

It appears from a passage in Cynthia's Revels,by Ben Jonson, 
that " burning of cans" was one of the offices of a city magi- 
strate. I suppose he means burning such as were not of statut- 
able measure. STEEVENS. 

An anonymous commentator supposes, perhaps with more 
truth, that "the burning of cans" was, marking them with a red- 
hot iron, which is still practised by the magistrate in many 
country boroughs, in proof of their being statutable measure. 
These cans, it should be observed, were of wood. HENLEY. 

7 there shall be no money ;~\ To mend the world by ba- 
nishing money is an old contrivance of those who did not consi- 
der that the quarrels and mischiefs which arise from money, as 
the sign or ticket of riches, must, if money were to cease, arise 
immediately from riches themselves, and could never be at an 
end till every man was contented with his own share of the 
goods of life. JOHNSON. 

8 Is not this a lamentable thing, &c.] This speech was trans- 
posed by Shakspeare, it being found in the old play in a subse* 
quent scene. MALONE. 


say, the bee stings : but I say, 'tis the bee's wax, 
for I did but seal once to a thing, and I was never 
mine own man since. How now ? who's there ? 

Enter some, bringing in the Clerk of Chatham. 9 

SMITH. The clerk of Chatham : he can write 
and read, and cast accompt. 

CADE. O monstrous ! 

SMITH. We took him setting of boys' copies. 1 

CADE. Here's a villain ! 

SMITH. H'as a book in his pocket, with red let- 
ters in't. 

CADE. Nay, then he is a conjurer. 

DICK. Nay, he can make obligations, 2 and write 

6 CADE. I am sorry for't : the man is a proper 
e man, on mine honour ; unless I find him guilty, 

9 the Clerk of Chatham.] The person whom Shakspeare 

makes Clerk of Chatham should seem to have been one Thomas 
Bayly, a reputed necromancer, or fortune-teller, at Whitechapel. 
He had formerly been a bosom friend of Cade's, and of the same 
profession. W. Wyrcester, p. 471. RITSON. 

1 We took him &c.] We must suppose that Smith had taken 
the Clerk some time before, and left him in the custody of those 
who now bring him in. In the old play Will the weaver enters 
with the Clerk, though he has not long before been conversing 
with Cade. Perhaps it was intended that Smith should go out 
after his speech ending, " for his coat is of proof :" but no Exit 
is marked in the old copy. It is a matter of little consequence. 
It is, I think, most probable that Will was the true name of this 
character, as in the old play, ( so Dick, George, John, &c. ) and 
that Smith, the name of some low actor, has crept into the folio 
by mistake. MALONE. 

* obligations,'] That is, bonds. MALONE. 

.w. I/. KING HENRY VI. 329 

* he shall not die, Come hither, sirrah, I must ex- 
4 amine thee : What is thy name ? 

CLERK. Emmanuel. 

DICK. They use to write it on the top of let- 
ters ; 3 'Twill go hard with you. 

6 CADE. Let me alone : Dost thou use to write 

* thy name ? or hast thou a mark to thyself, like an 

* honest plain-dealing man ? 

CLERK. Sir, I thank God, I have been so well 
brought up, that I can write my name. 

* ALL. He hath confessed : away with him ; he's 

* a villain, and a traitor. 

' CADE. Away with him, I say : hang him with 

* his pen and inkhorn about his neck. 

\JEyeunt some with the Clerk. 


c MICH. Where's our general ? 

' CADE. Here I am, thou particular fellow. 

* MICH. Fly, fly, fly ! sir Humphrey Stafford and 
' his brother are hard by, with the king's forces. 

' CADE. Stand, villain, stand, or I'll fell thee 

3 They use to "write it on the top of letters ;] i. e. Of letters 
missive, and such like publick acts. See Mabillon's Diplomata. 


In the old anonymous play, called The famous Victories of 
Henry V. containing the Honourable Baltel of Agincourt, I find 
the same circumstance. The Archbishop of Burges (i.e. Bruges) 
is the speaker, and addresses himself to King Henry : 
" I beseech your grace to deliver me your safe 
" Conduct, under your broad seal Emanuel." 
The King in answer says : 

" deliver him safe conduct 

" Under our broad seal Emanuel." STEEVENS. 


' down : He shall be encountered with a man as 
4 good as himself: He is but a knight, is 'a ? 

' MICH. No. 

* CADE. To equal him, I will make myself a 

* knight presently ; Rise up sir John Mortimer. 

* Now have at him. 4 

his Brother, with Drum and Forces. 

* STAF. Rebellious hinds, the filth and scum of 


* Mark'd for the gallows, lay your weapons down, 

* Home to your cottages, forsake this groom ; 

* The king is merciful, if you revolt. 

* W. STAF. But angry, wrathful, and inclin'd to 


* If you go forward : therefore yield, or die. 

CADE. As for these silken-coated slaves, I pass 

not ; 5 ' 
It is to you, good people, that I speak, 

* O'er whom, in time to come, I hope to reign ; 

* For I am rightful heir unto the crown. 

* have at him.~\ After this speech the old play has the 

following words: 

" Is there any more of them that be knights ? 
" Tom. Yea, his brother. 

" Cade. Then kneel down, Dick Butcher ; rise up sir 
" Dick Butcher. Sound up the drum." 
See p. 317, n. 3, and p. 323, n. 8. MALONE. 
* I pass not ,] I pay them no regard. JOHNSON. 

So, in Drayton's Quest of Cynthia : 

" Transform me to what shape you can, 
" Ipass not what it be." STEEVENS. 

se.ii. KING HENRY VI. 331 

e STAF. Villain, thy father was a plasterer ; 

* And thou thyself, a shearman, Art thou not ? 

CADE. And Adam was a gardener. 
W. STAF. And what of that ? 

CADE. Marry, this: Edmund Mortimer, earl 

of March, 

Married the duke of Clarence* daughter ; Did he 

* STAF. Ay, sir. 

CADE. By her, he had two children at one birth. 
W. STAF. That's false. 

c CADE. Ay, there's the question ; but, I say, 'tis 


c The elder of them, being put to nurse, 
e Was by a beggar-woman stol'n away ; 

* And, ignorant of his birth and parentage, 

6 Became a bricklayer, when he came to age : 
c His son am I ; deny it, if you can. 

DICK. Nay, 'tis too true ; therefore he shall be 

SMITH. Sir, he made a chimney in my father's 
house, and the bricks are alive at this day to testify 
it j therefore, deny it not. 

* STAF. And will you credit this base drudge's 


* That speaks he knows not what ? 

* ALL. Ay, marry, will we ; therefore get ye 

W. STAF. Jack Cade, the duke of York hath 
taught you this. 

* CADE. He lies, for I invented it myself. 
[Aside.~] Go to, sirrah, Tell the king from me, 
that for his father's sake, Henry the fifth, in whose 


time boys went to span-counter for French crowns, 
I am content he shall reign ; but I'll be protec- 
tor over him. 

6 DICK. And, furthermore, we'll have the lord 
' Say's head, for selling the dukedom of Maine. 

' CADE. And good reason ; for thereby is Eng- 
' land maimed, 6 and fain to go with a staff, but 

* that my puissance holds it up. Fellow kings, I 
4 tell you, that that lord Say nath gelded the com- 
c monwealth, 7 and made it an eunuch : and more 
6 than that, he can speak French, and therefore he 
e is a traitor. 

' STAF. O gross and miserable ignorance ! 

' CADE. Nay, answer, if you can: The Frenchmen 
c are our enemies : go to then, I ask but this ; Can 
' he, that speaks with the tongue of an enemy, be 

* a good counsellor, or no ? 

* ALL. No, no ; and therefore we'll have his 
*h ead. 

6 is England maimed,] The folio has main*d. The 

correction was made from the old play. I am not, however, 
sure that a blunder was not intended. Daniel has the same con- 
ceit; Civil Wars, 1595: 

" Anjou and Maine, the maim that foul appears ." 


7 hath gelded the commonivealth,~] Shakspeare has here 

transgressed a rule laid down by Tully, De Oratore : " Nolo 
morte dici Africani castratam esse rempublicam." The charac- 
ter of the speaker, however, may countenance such indelicacy. 
In other places our author, less excuseably, talks of gelding 
purses, patrimonies, and continents. STEEVENS. 

This peculiar expression is Shakspeare's own, not being found 
in the old play. In King Richard II. Ross says that Henry of 
Bolingbroke has been 

" Bereft and gelded of his patrimony." 

So Cade here says, that the commonwealth is bereft of what 
it before possessed, namely, certain provinces in France. 


ac. n. KING HENRY VI. 333 

* W. STAF. Well, seeing gentle words will not 


* Assail them with the army of the king. 

* STAF. Herald, away : and, throughout every 

' Proclaim them traitors that are up with Cade ; 

* That those, which fly before the battle ends, 

4 May, even in their wives' and children's sight, 
4 Be hang'd up for example at their doors : 

* And you, that be the king's friends, follow me. 

{^Exeunt the Two STAFFORDS, and Forces. 

* CADE. And you, that love the commons, fol- 

low me. 

* Now show yourselves men, 'tis for liberty. 

* We will not leave one lord, one gentleman : 

* Spare none, but such as go in clouted shoon ; 

* For they are thrifty honest men, and such 

* As would (but that they dare not,) take our 


* DICK. They are all in order, and march toward 


* CADE. But then are we in order, when we are 

* most out of order. Come, march forward. 8 


8 Come, march forward.'} In the first copy, instead of 

this speech, we have only Come, Sirs, St. George for us, and 
Kent. See p. 243, n. 4; p. 317, n. 3; and p. 369, n. 4. 




Another Part of Blackheath. 

Alarums. The two Parties enter, andjight, and 
both the STAFFORDS are slain. 

c CADE. Where's Dick, the butcher of Ashford ? 
' DICK. Here, sir. 

* CADE. They fell before thee like sheep and 

* oxen, and thou behavedst thyself as if thou hadst 
' been in thine own slaughter-house : therefore thus 

* will I reward thee, The Lent shall be as long 

* again as it is ; 9 and thou shalt have a license to 

* kill for a hundred lacking one. 

* DICK. I desire no more. 

* CADE. And, to speak truth, thou deservest no 

* less. This monument of the victory will I bear ; l 

* and the bodies shall be dragged at my horse* heels, 

* till I do come to London, where we will have the 

* mayor's sword borne before us. 

9 as long again as it is ;~\ The word again, which was 

certainly omitted in the folio by accident, was restored from the 
old play, by Mr. Steevens, on the suggestion of Dr. Johnson. 


1 This monument of the victory will I bear ;~] Here Cade 
must be supposed to take off Stafford's armour. So, Holinshed : 

" Jack Cade, upon his victory against the Staffords, apparel- 
led himself in Sir Humphrey's brigandine, set full of gilt nails, 
and so in some glory returned again toward London." 


Sir Humphrey Stafford, who was killed at Sevenoke in Cade's 
rebellion, is buried at Bromsgrove in Staffordshire. VAILLANT. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VI. S35 

* DICK. If we mean to thrive and do good, 2 

* break open the gaols, and let out the prisoners. 

* CADE. Fear not that, I warrant thee. Come, 

* let's march towards London. [Exeunt. 


London. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter King HENRY, reading a Supplication; the 
Duke of BUCKINGHAM, and Lord SAY with him : 
at a distance, Queen MARGARET, mourning over 

* Q. MAR. Oft have I heard that grief softens 
the mind, 

* And makes it fearful and degenerate ; 

* Think therefore on revenge, and cease to weep. 

* But who can cease to weep, and look on this ? 

* Here may his head lie on my throbbing breast : 

* But where's the body that I should embrace ? 

' BUCK. What answer makes your grace to the 

* rebels' supplication ? 3 

*Ifwe mean to thrive and do good, &c.] I think it should be 
read thus : If we mean to thrive, do good ; break open the gaols, 

The speaker designs to say " If we ourselves mean to thrive, 
and do good to others" &c. The old reading is the true one. 


3 to the rebels 9 supplication ?~] " And to the entent that 

the cause of this glorious capitaynes comyng thither might be 
shadowed from the king and his counsayll, he sent to him an 

humble supplication, affirmyng his commyng not to be against 
him, but against divers of his counsayl," &c. Hall, Henry VI. 

fbl. 77. MA LONE. 


* K. HEN. I'll send some holy bishop to entreat :* 

* For God forbid, so many simple souls 

' Should perish by the sword ! And I myself, 
4 Rather than bloody war shall cut them short, 
4 Will parley with Jack Cade their general. 

* But stay, 1*11 read it over once again. 

* Q. MAR. Ah, barbarous villains ! hath this 

lovely face 

* Rul'd, like a wandering planet, 5 over me ; 

* And could it not enforce them to relent, 

* That were unworthy to behold the same ? 

' K. HEN. Lord Say, Jack Cade hath sworn to 
have thy head. 

' SAY. Ay, but I hope, your highness shall have 

. K. HEN. How now, madam ? Still 
Lamenting, and mourning for Suffolk's death ? 

4 I'll send some holy bishop to entreat .] Here, as in some 
other places, our author has fallen into an inconsistency, by some- 
times following and sometimes deserting his original. In the old 
play, the King says not a word of sending any bishop to the re- 
bels ; but says, he will himself come and parly with them, and 
in the mean while orders Clifford and Buckingham to gather an 
army and to go to them. Shakspeare, in new modelling this 
scene, found in Holinshed's Chronicle the following words: 
" to whome [Cade} were sent from the king, the Archbishop 
of Canterburie and Humphrey duke of Buckingham, to com- 
mon with him of his griefs and requests." This gave birth to 
the line before us ; which our author afterwards forgot, having 
introduced in scene viii. only Buckingham and Clifford, conform- 
ably to the old play. MALONE. 

5 Rul'd, like a wandering planet,"] Predominated irresistibly 
over my passions, as the planets over the lives of those that are 
born under their influence. JOHNSON. 

The old play led Shakspeare into this strange exhibition ; a 
queen with the head of her murdered paramour on her bosom, 
in the presence of her husband ! MALONE. 

ac. iv. KING HENRY VI. 337 

I fear, my love, 6 if that I had been dead, 

Thou wouldest not have mourn'd so much for me. 

Q. MAR. No, my love, I should not mourn, but 
die for thee. 

Enter a Messenger. 

* K. HEN. How now J what news ? why com'st 

thou in such haste ? 

' MESS. The rebels are in South wark ; Fly, my 

* Jack Cade proclaims himself lord Mortimer, 

6 Descended from the duke of Clarence' house ; 
c And calls your grace usurper, openly, 

* And vows to crown himself in Westminster. 

* His army is a ragged multitude 

' Of hinds and peasants, rude and merciless : 
' Sir Humphrey Stafford and his brother's death 
' Hath given them heart and courage to proceed : 
' All scholars, lawyers, courtiers, gentlemen, 
' They call false caterpillars, and intend their 

* K. HEN. O graceless men ! they know not 

what they do. 7 

' BUCK. My gracious lord, retire to Kenelworth, 8 

8 1 'fear ; my Zow,] The folio has here I fear me, love, which 
is certainly sense; but as we find " my love" in the old play, and 
these lines were adopted without retouching, I suppose the 
transcriber's ear deceived him. MALONE. 

7 ivhat they do.~] Instead of this line, in the old copy 

we have 

" Go, bid Buckingham and Clifford gather 

*' An army up, and meet with the rebels." MALONE. 

8 retire to Kenelworth,] The old copy Killingworth, 



c Until a power be rais'd to put them down. 

* Q. MAR. Ah ! were the duke of Suffolk now 


* These Kentish rebels would be soon appeas'd. 

* K. HEN. Lord Say, the traitors hate thee, 
c Therefore away with us to Kenelworth. 

6 SAY. So might your grace's person be in dan- 
' The sight of me is odious in their eyes : 

* And therefore in this city will I stay, 
' And live alone as secret as I may. 

Enter another Messenger. 

*2 MESS. Jack Cade hath gotten London-bridge; 
the citizens 

* Fly and forsake their houses : 

" The rascal people, thirsting after prey, 

* Join with the traitor ; and they jointly swear, 

* To spoil the city, and your royal court. 

* BUCK. Then linger not, my lord ; away, take 


* K. HEN. Come, Margaret; God, our hope, 

will succour us. 

* Q. MAR. My hope is gone, now Suffolk is 


*K. HEV. Farewell, my lord ; [To Lord SAY.] 
trust not the Kentish rebels. 

which (as Sir William Blackstone observes) is still the modern 
pronunciation. STEEVENS. 

In the letter concerning Queen Elizabeth's entertainment at 
this place, we find, " the castle hath name of Kyllelingvaoorth; 
but of truth, grounded upon faythfull story, Kenelivoortn." 


so. v. KING HENRY VI. 339 

* BUCK. Trust nobody, for fear you be betray 'd. 9 

' SAY. The trust I have is in mine innocence, 
* And therefore am I bold and resolute, [Exeunt. 


T/ie same. The Tower. 

Enter Lord SCALES, and Others, on the Walls. 
Then enter certain Citizens below. 

SCALES. How now ? is Jack Cade slain ? 

1 CIT. No, my lord, nor likely to be slain ; for 
they have won the bridge, killing all those that 
withstand them : The lord mayor craves aid of 
your honour from the Tower, to defend the city 
from the rebels. 

SCALES. Such aid as I can spare, you shall com- 

But I am troubled here with them myself, 
The rebels have assay'd to win the Tower. 
But get you to SmitMeld, and gather head, 
And thither I will send you Matthew Gough : 
Fight for your king, your country, and your lives ; 
And so farewell, for I must hence again. [Exeunt. 

9 be betray' 'd.~\ Be, which was accidentally omitted in 

the old copy, was supplied by the editor of the second folio. 




The same. Cannon Street. 

Enter JACK CADE, and his Followers. He strikes 
his Staff on London-stone. 

Now is Mortimer lord of this city. And 
here, sitting upon London -stone, I charge and com- 
mand, that, of the city's cost, the pissing-conduit 
run nothing but claret ! wine this first year of our 
reign. And now, henceforward, it shall be treason 
for any that calls me other than lord Mortimer. 

1 - the pissing-conduit run nothing but claret ] This 
pissing-conduit, I suppose, was the Standarde in Cheape, which, 
as Stowe relates, " John Wels grocer, maior 1430, caused to be 
made with a small cesterne for fresh water, hauing one cocke con- 
tinually running." " I have wept so immoderately and lauishly, 
(says Jacke Wilton,) that I thought verily my palat had bin turn- 
ed to the pissing'Conduit in London." Life, 1594. RITSON. 

Whatever offence to modern delicacy may be given by this 
imagery, it appears to have been borrowed from the French, to 
whose entertainments, as well as our streets, it was sufficiently 
familiar, as I learn from a very curious and entertaining work 
entitled Histoire de la Vie privte des Francois, par M. le Grand 
D'Aussi, 3 Vols. 8vo. 1782. At a feast given by Phillippe-le- 
Bon there was exhibited " une statue de femme, dont les mam- 
melles fournissaient d'hippocras;" and the Roman de Tirant-le 
Blanc affords such another circumstance : " Outre une statue de 
femme, des mammelles de laquelle jaillissoit une liqueur, il y 
avait encore une jeune fille &c. Elle etoit nue, & tenoit ses 
mains baissees & serrees centre son corps, comme pour s'en couv- 
rir. De dessous ses mains, il sortoit unejbntaine de vin delicieux," 
&c. Again in another feast made by the Philippe aforesaid, in 
14-53, there was " une statue d'enfant nu, pose sur une roche, 
Sf qui, de sa broquelte, pissait sou-rose." STEEVENS. 

sc. vi. KING HENRY VI. 341 

Enter a Soldier, running. 

SOLD. Jack Cade ! Jack Cade ! 

CADE. Knock him down there. 2 [They kill him. 

* SMITH. If this fellow be wise, he'll never call 

* you Jack Cade more ; I think, he hath a very 

* fair warning. 

DICK. My lord, there's an army gathered to- 
gether in Smithfield. 

CADE. Come then, let's go fight with them: 
But, first, go and set London-bridge on fire; 3 and, 
if you can, burn down the Tower too. Come, let's 
away. [Exeunt. 

* Knock him down there."] So, Holinshed, p. 634: " He 
also put to execution in Southwark diverse persons, some for 
breaking his ordinance, and other being his old acquaintance, 
lest they should bewraie his base linage, disparaging him for his 
usurped surname of Mortimer." STEEVENS. 

3 set London-bridge on Jire ;] At that time London- 
bridge was made of wood. " After that, (says Hall,) he entered 
London and cut the ropes oftherfraw-bridge." The houses on 
London-bridge were in this rebellion burnt, and many of the in- 
habitants perished. MALONE. 



The same. Smithfield. 

Alarum. Enter, on one side, CADE and his Com- 
pany ; on the other, Citizens, and the King's 
Forces, headed by MATTHEW GOUGH. They 
Jight ; the Citizens are routed, and MATTHEW 
GOUGH 4 is slain. 

CADE. So, sirs : Now go some and pull down 
the Savoy; 5 others to the inns of court; down 
with them all. 

DICK. I have a suit unto your lordship. 

CADE. Be it a lordship thou shalt have it for that 

4 Matthew Gough, ] " A man of great wit and much 

experience in feats of chivalrie, the which in continual! warres 
had spent his time in serving of the king and his father." Holin- 
shed, p. 635. 

In W. of Worcestre, p. 357, is the following notice of Matthew 

" Memorandum quod Ewenus Gough, pater Matthei Gough 
armigeri, fuit ballivus manerii de Hangmerjuxta Whyte-church 
in North Wales ; et mater Matthei Gough vocatur Hawys ; et 
pater ejus, id est avus Matthei Gough ex parte matris, vocatur 
Davy Handmere ; et mater Matthei Gough fuit nutrix johannis 
domini Talbot, comitis de Shrewysbery, et aliorum fratrum et 
sororum suorum : 

" Morte Matthei Goghe Cambria clamitat oghe!" 

See also the Paston Letters, 2d edit. Vol. I. 42. STEEVENS. 

* go some and pull down the Savoy ;] This trouble had 

been saved Cade's reformers by his predecessor Wat Tyler, It 
was never re-edifyed, till Henry VII. founded the hospital. 


sc. vii. KING HENRY VI. 343 

c DICK. Only, that the laws of England may 

* come out of your mouth. 6 

' JOHN. Mass, 'twill be sore law then ; 7 for he 

* was thrust in the mouth with a spear, and 'tis not 
< whole yet. [Asitfe. 

' SMITH. Nay, John, it will be stinking law ; for 
' his breath stinks with eating toasted cheese. 


6 CADE. I have thought upon it, it shall be so. 
' Away, burn all the records of the realm ; 8 my 
' mouth shall be the parliament of England. 

* JOHN. Then we are like to have biting statutes, 

* unless his teeth be pulled out. [_ Aside. 

* CADE. And henceforward all things shall be in 

* common. 

6 that the laws of England may come out of your mouth."] 

This alludes to what Holinshed has related of Wat Tyler, p. 4?32 : 
" It was reported, indeed, that he should saie with great pride, 
putting his hands to his lips, that within four daies all the laws 
of England should comefoorth of his mouth" TYRWHITT. 

7 'twill be sore law then ; ] This poor jest has already oc- 
curred in The Tempest, scene the last : 

" You'd be king of the isle, sirrah ? 

" I should have been a sore one then." STEEVENS. 

* Away, burn all the records of the realm ,] Little more 

than half a century had elapsed from the time of writing this 
play, before a similar proposal was actually made in parliament. 
Bishop Burnet in his life of Sir Matthew Hale, says : " Among 
the other extravagant motions made in this parliament (i. e. one 
of Oliver Cromwell's) one was to destroy all the records in the 
Tower, and to settle the nation on a new foundation ; so he ( Sir 
M. Hale) took this province to himself, to show the madness of 
this proposition, the injustice of it, and the mischiefs that would 
follow on it ; and did it with such clearness and strength of rea- 
son as not only satisfied all sober persons (for it may be sup- 
posed that was soon done) but stopt even the mouths of the 
frantic people themselves." REED. 


Enter a Messenger. 

c Muss. My lord, a prize, a prize ! here's the 
' lord Say, which sold the towns in France ; * he 

* that made us pay one and twenty fifteens, 9 and 

* one shilling to the pound, the last subsidy. 

Enter GEORGE BEVIS, with the Lord SAY. 

CADE. Well, he shall be beheaded for it ten 
6 times. Ah, thou say, thou serge, 1 nay, thou 
' buckram lord ! now art thou within point-blank 
' of our jurisdiction regal. What canst thou answer 

9 one and twenty fifteens,] " This capteine (Cade) 

assured them if either by force or policie they might get the 
king and queene into their hands, he would cause them to be 
honourably used, and take such order for the punishing and re- 
forming of the misdemeanours of their bad councellours, that 
neither Jifteens should hereafter be demanded, nor anie imposi- 
tions or taxes be spoken of." Holinshed, Vol. II. p. 632. A 
ffteen was the fifteenth part of all the moveables or personal pro- 
perty of each subject. MALONE. 

1 thou say, thou serge,~] Say was the old word for silk ; 

on this depends the series of degradation, from say to serge, from 
serge to buckram. JOHNSON. 

This word occurs in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. I. c. iv : 
" All in a kirtle of discolour'd say 
" He clothed was." 
Again, in his Perigot and Cuddy's Roundelay : 

" And in a kirtle of green say." 

It appears, however, from the following passage in The Fairy 
Queen, B. III. c. ii, that say was not silk : 

" His garment neither was of silk nor say." STEEVENS. 
It appears from Minsheu's Dicx. 1617, that say was a kind 
of serge. It is made entirely of wool. There is a considerable 
manufactory of say at Sudbury near Colchester. This stuff is 
frequently dyed green, and is yet used by some mechanicks in 
aprons. MA LONE. 

ac. vn. KING HENRY VI. 345 

' to my majesty, for giving up of Normandy unto 
' monsieur Basimecu, a the dauphin of France ? Be 
' it known unto thee by these presence, even the 
' presence of lord Mortimer, that I am the besom 
' that must sweep the court clean of such filth as 
' thou art. Thou hast most traitorously corrupted 

* the youth of the realm, in erecting a grammar- 
' school : and whereas, before, our fore-fathers had 
' no other books but the score and the tally, thou 

* hast caused printing to be used j 3 and, contrary 


* monsieur Basiraecu,] Shakspeare probably wrote Bai- 

sermycti, or, by a designed corruption, Basemycu, in imitation 
of his original, where also we find a word half French, half 
English, " Monsieur Bussminecu." MALONE. 

3 printing to be used ;~\ Shakspeare is a little too early 

with this accusation. JOHNSON. 

Shakspeare might have been led into this mistake by Daniel, 
in the sixth book of his Civil JVars, who introduces printing and 
artillery as contemporary inventions : 

Let there be found two fatal instruments, 
The one to publish, th' other to defend 
Impious contention, and proud discontents ; 
Make that instamped characters may send 
Abroad to thousands thousand men's intents ; 
And, in a moment, may despatch much more 
Than could a world of pens perform before." 
Shakspeare's absurdities may always be countenanced by those 
of writers nearly his contemporaries. 

In the tragedy of Herod and Antipater, by Gervase Mark- 
ham and William Sampson, who were both scholars, is the fol- 
lowing passage : 

" Though cannons roar, yet you must not be deaf." 
Spenser mentions cloth made at Lincoln during the ideal reign 
of K. Arthur, and has adorned a castle at the same period " with 
cloth of Arras and of Toure." Chaucer introduces guns in the 
time of Antony and Cleopatra, and (as Mr. Warton has ob- 
served, ) Salvator Rosa places a cannon at the entrance of the 
tent of Holofernes. STEEVENS. 

Mr. Meerman, in his Origines Typographies, hath availed 
himself of this passage in Shakspeare, to support his hypothesis, 
that printing was introduced into England (before the time of 


6 to ihe king, his crown, and dignity, 4 thou hast 
' built a paper-mill. It will be proved to thy face, 
' that thou hast men about thee, that usually talk 
' of a noun, and a verb ; and such abominable 

* words; as no Christian ear can endure to hear. 
c Thou hast appointed justices of peace, to call poor 

* men before them about matters they were not 
' able to answer. 5 Moreover, thou hast put them 
' in prison ; and because they could not read, thou 

* hast hanged them ; 6 when, indeed, only for that 
c cause they have been most worthy to live. Thou 
6 dost ride on a foot-cloth, 7 dost thou not ? 

SAY. What of that ? 

CADE. Marry, thou oughtest not to let thy horse 
wear a cloak, 8 when honester men than thou go 
in their hose and doublets. 

Caxton) by Frederic Corsellis, a workman from Haerlem, in the 
time of Henry VI. BLACKSTONE. 

4 contrary to the king, his crown, &c.] " Against the 

peace of the said lord the now king, his crown, and dignity," is 
the regular language of indictments. MALONE. 

* to call poor men before them about matters they were not 

able to answer. ~\ The old play reads, with more humour, " to 
hang honest men that steal for their living." MALONE. 

6 because they could not read, thou hast hanged them ,] 

That is, they were hanged because they could not claim the be- 
nefit of clergy. JOHNSON. 

7 Thou dost ride on a foot-cloth,] Afoot-cloth was a horse 
with housings which reached as low as his feet. So, in the tra- 
gedy of Muleasses the Turk, 1610 : 

" I have seen, since my coming to Florence, the son of a ped- 
lar mounted on ajbotcloth." STEEVENS. 

AJbot-cloth was a kind of housing, which covered the body of 
the horse, and almost reached the ground. It was sometimes 
made of velvet, and bordered with gold lace. MALONE. 

8 to let thy horse wear a cloak,'] This is a reproach truly 

characteristical. Nothing gives so much offence to the lower 
ranks of mankind, as the sight of superfluities merely ostentatious. 


K. ni. KING HENRY VI. 347 

* DICK. And work in their shirt too; as myself, 

* for example, that am a butcher. 

SAY. You men of Kent, 
DICK. What say you of Kent ? 

* SAY. Nothing but this : 'Tis bona terra, mala 

gens. 9 

' CADE. Away with him, away with him ! he 
e speaks Latin. 

* SAY. Hear me but speak, and bear me where 

you will. 

e Kent, in the commentaries Caesar writ, 
' Is term'd the civil'st place of all this isle : * 
6 Sweet is the country, because full of riches ; 

* The people liberal, valiant, active, wealthy ; 

6 Which makes me hope you are not void of pity. 
c I sold not Maine, I lost not Normandy ; 

* Yet, to recover them, 2 would lose my life. 

9 bona terra, mala gens."] After this line the quarto 

proceeds thus : 

" Cade. Bonum terrum y what's that ? 
" Dick. He speaks French. 
" mil. No, 'tis Dutch. 

" Nick. No, 'tis Outalian ; I know it well enough." 
Holinshed has likewise stigmatized the Kentish men, p. 677 : 
" The Kentish-men, in this season (whose minds be ever move- 
able at the change of princes) came," &c. STEEVENS. 

1 Is term'd the civil'st place of all this isle .-] So, in Caesar's 
Comment. B. V : " Ex his omnibus sunt humanissimi qui Can- 
tium incolunt." The passage is thus translated by Arthur 
Golding, 1590: " Of all the inhabitants of this isle, the civilest 
are the Kentishfolke." STEEVENS. 

So, in Lyly's Euphues and his England, 1580, a book which 
the author of The Whole Contention &c. probably, and Shak- 
speare certainly, had read : " Of all the inhabitants of this isle 
the Kentish-men are the civilest." MALONE. 

8 Yet, to recover them, &c.] I suspect that here, as in a pas- 
sage in King Henry V. ( See a note on King Henry V. Act IV. 
sc. iii. Vol. XII.), Yet was misprinted for Yea. MALONE. 


* Justice with favour have I always done ; 

* Prayers and tears have mov'd me, gifts could 


* When have I aught exacted at your hands, 

* Kent to maintain, the king, the realm, and you? 

* Large gifts have I bestow'd on learned clerks, 

* Because my book preferr'd me to the king : 3 

* And seeing ignorance is the curse of God, 

* Knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to hea- 


3 When have I aught exacted at your hands, 
Kent to maintain, the king, the realm, and you ? 
Large gifts have I besto'w'd on learned clerks, 
Because my book preferr'd me to the king .-] This passage I 
know not well how to explain. It is pointed [in the old copy] 
so as to make Say declare that he preferred clerks to maintain 
Kent and the King. This is not very clear ; and, besides, he 
gives in the following line another reason of his bounty, that 
learning raised him, and therefore he supported learning. I am 
inclined to think Kent slipped into this passage by chance, and 
would read : 

When have I aught exacted at your hands, 
But to maintain the king, the realm, and you? 


I concur with Dr. Johnson in believing the word Kent to have 
been shuffled into the text by accident. Lord Say, as the passage 
stands in the folio, not only declares he had preferred men of 
learning to maintain Kent, the King, the realm, but adds tauto- 
logically you; for it should be remembered that they are Kentish 
men to whom he is now speaking. I would read, Bent to main- 
tain, c. i. e. strenuously resolved to the utmost, to &c. 


The punctuation to which Dr. Johnson alludes, is that of the 
folio : 

** When have I aught exacted at your hands ? 
" Kent to maintain, the king, the realm, and you, 
" Large gifts, have I bestow'd on learned clerks," &c. 
I have pointed the passage differently, the former punctuation 
appearing to me to render it nonsense. I suspect, however, with 
the preceding editors, that the word Kent is a corruption. 


ac. vn. KING HENRY VI. 349 

* Unless you be possessed with devilish spirits, 

* You cannot but forbear to murder me. 

* This tongue hath parley'd unto foreign kings 

* For your behoof, 

* CADE. Tut! when struck' st thou one blow in 

* the field ? 

* SAY. Great men have reaching hands : oft have 

I struck 

* Those that I never saw, and struck them dead. 

* GEO. O monstrous coward! what, to come be- 

hind folks ? 

* SAY. These cheeks are pale for watching 4 for 

your good. 

* CADE. Give him a box o'the ear, and that will 

* make 'em red again. 

* SAY. Long sitting to determine poor men's 

Hath made me full of sickness and diseases. 

* CADE. Ye shall have a hempen caudle then, 

* and the pap of a hatchet. 5 

4 > for ivatching ] That is, in consequence of watching. 
So Sir John Davies : 

" And shuns it still, although^r thirst she die.'* 

The second folio and all the modern editions read ivith 
watching. MALONE. 

4 the pap of a hatchet.^ Old copy the help of a hatchet. 

But we have here, as Dr. Farmer observed to me, a strange cor- 
ruption. The help of a hatchet is little better than nonsense, 
and it is almost certain our author originally wrote pap laith a 
hatchet ; alluding to Lyly's pamphlet with the same title, which 
made its appearance about the time when this play is supposed 
to have been written. STEEVENS. 

We should certainly read the pap of a hatchet ; and are much 
indebted to Dr. Farmer for so just and happy an emendation. 
There is no need, however, to suppose any allusion to the title 
of a pamphlet : It has doubtless been a cant phrase. So, in 


6 DICK. Why dost thou quiver, man ? 6 

' SAY. The palsy, and not fear, provoketh me. 

' CADE. Nay, he nods at us ; as who should say, 
' I'll be even with you. I'll see if his head will 
' stand steadier on a pole, or no : Take him away, 
' and behead him. 

* SAY. Tell me, wherein I have offended most ? 

* Have I affected wealth, or honour ; speak ? 

* Are my chests fill'd up with extorted gold ? 

* Is my apparel sumptuous to behold ? 

* Whom have I injur'd, that ye seek my death ? 

* These hands are free from guiltless blood-shed- 

ding, 7 

Lyly's Mother Bombie : " they glue us pap with a spoone 
before we can speake, and when wee speake for that we loue, 
pap ivith a hatchet." RITSON. 

and the help of a. hatchet."] I suppose, to cut him down 

after he has been hanged, or perhaps to cut off his head. The 
article (a hatchet) was supplied by the editor of the second folio. 


6 Why dost thou quiver, man?] Otway has borrowed this 
thought in Venice Preserved: 

" Spinosa. You are trembling, sir. 

" Renault. *Tis a cold night indeed, and I am aged, 

" Full of decay and natural infirmities." 
Peck, in his Memoirs of Milton, p. 250, gravely assures us 
that Lord Say's account of himself originates from,the following 
ancient charm for an ague : " Pilate said unto Jesus, why 
shakest thou ? And Jesus answered, the ague and notfear pro- 
voketh me." STEEVENS. 

7 These hands are free from guiltless blood-shedding,"] I for- 
merly imagined that the word guiltless was misplaced, and that 
the poet wrote 

These hands are guiltless, free from blood-shedding. 
But change is unnecessary. Guiltless is not an epithet to blood- 
shedding, but to blood. These hands are free from shedding 
guiltless or innocent blood. So, in King Henry VIII: 

" For then my guiltless blood must cry against them." 


so. vn. KING HENRY VI. 351 

*This breast from harbouring foul deceitful 

* O, let me live ! 

* CADE. I feel remorse in myself with his words : 

* but I'll bridle it ; he shall die, an it be but for 

* pleading so well for his life. 8 Away with him ! 
*he has a familiar under his tongue; 9 he speaks 

* not o'God's name. ' Go, take him away, I say, 
4 and strike off his head presently ; and then break 

* into his son-in-law's house, sir James Cromer, l 
6 and strike off his head, and bring them both upon 
' two poles hither. 

4 ALL. It shall be done. 

* SAY. Ah, countrymen ! if when you make your 


* God should be so obdurate as yourselves, 

* How would it fare with your departed souls ? 

* And therefore yet relent, and save my life. 

* CADE. Away with him, and do as I command 

ye. \_Exeunt some, 'with Lord SAY. 

* he shall die, an it be but for pleading so 'well far his 

life.'] This sentiment is not merely designed as an expression 
of ferocious triumph, but to mark the eternal enmity which the 
vulgar bear to those of more liberal education and superior rank. 
The vulgar are always ready to depreciate the talents which they 
behold with envy, and insult the eminence which they despair 
to reach. STEEVENS. 

9 a familiar under his tongue /] A familiar is a daemon 

who was supposed to attend at call. So, in Love's Labour's 
Lost : 

" Love is a familiar ; there is no angel but love." 


1 sir James Cromer, ~] It was William Crowmer, sheriff 

of Kent, whom Cade put to death. Lord Say and he had been 
previously sent to the Tower, and both, or at least the former, 
convicted of treason, at Cade's mock commission of oyer and ter- 
miner at Guildhall. See W. Worcester, p. 470. RITSON. 


6 The proudest peer in the realm shall not wear a 
' head on his shoulders, unless he pay me tribute ; 
' there shall not a maid be married, but she shall 
' pay to me her maidenhead 2 ere they have it : 
' Men shall jhold of me in capite ; 3 and we charge 
' and command, that their wives be as free as heart 
4 can wish, or tongue can tell. 4 

' DICK. My lord, when shall we go to Cheapside, 
* and take up commodities upon our bills ? 5 

8 shall pay to me her maidenhead &c.] Alluding to an 

ancient usage on which Beaumont and Fletcher have founded 
their play called The Custom of the Country. See Mr. Seward's 
note at the beginning of it. See also Cowell's Laiv Diet, in voce 
Marchet, &c. &c. &c. STEEVENS. 

Cowell's account of this custom has received the sanction of 
several eminent antiquaries ; but a learned writer, Sir David 
Dalrymple, controverts the fact, and denies the actual existence 
of the custom. See Annals of Scotland. Judge Blackstone, in 
his Commentaries, is of opinion it never prevailed in England, 
though he supposes it certainly did in Scotland. REED. 

See Blount's GLOSSOGRAPHIA, 8vo. 1681, in v. Marcheta. 
Hector Boethius and Skene both mention this custom as existing 
in Scotland till the time of Malcolm the Third, A. D. 1057. 


3 in capite ;~] This equivoque, for which the author of 
the old play is answerable, is too learned for Cade. MALONE. 

4 or tongue can tell.'] After this, in the old play, Robin 

enters to inform Cade that London bridge is on fire, and Dick 
enters with a serjeant, i. e. a bailiff; and there is a dialogue con- 
sisting of seventeen lines, of which Shakspeare has made no use 
whatsoever. MALONE. 

3 take up commodities upon our bills ?] Perhaps this is an 
equivoque alluding to the broivn bills, or halberds, with which 
the commons were anciently armed. PERCY. 

Thus, in the original play : 

" Nick. But when shall we take up those commodities which 
" you told us of? 

" Cade. Marry, he that will lustily stand to it, shall take up 
" these commodities following, Item, a gown, a kirtle, a petti- 
*' coat, and a smocke." 

ac. vii. KING HENRY VI. 353 

* CADE. Marry, presently. 
' ALL. O brave ! 

Re-enter Rebels, with the Heads of Lord SAY and 
his Son-in-law. 

' CADE. But is not this braver ? Let them kiss 
' one another, 6 for they loved well, 7 when they were 
' alive. Nowpart them again, lest they consult about 
* the giving up of some more towns in France. 
' Soldiers, defer the spoil of the city until night : 
4 for with these borne before us, instead of maces, 

If The Whole Contention &c. printed in 1600, was an imper- 
fect transcript of Shakspeare's Second and Third Part of King 
Henry VI. (as it has hitherto been supposed to be,) we have 
here another extraordinary proof of the inventive faculty of the 
transcriber. It is observable that the equivoque which Dr. 
Percy has taken notice of, is not found in the old play, but is 
found in Shakspeare's Much Ado about Nothing : 

" Bor. We are likely to prove a good commodity, being taken 
up of these men's bills. 

" Con. A commodity in question, I warrant you.'* 

See Vol. VI. p. 105, n. 6. MALONE. 

Let them kiss one another, ~\ This is from The Mirrourfor 
Magistrates, in the legend of Jack Cade : 

" With these two heads I made a pretty play, 

" For pight on poles I bore them through the strete, 

" And for my sport made each kissc other swete." 


It is likewise found in Holinshed, p. 634 : " and as it were in 
a spite caused them in every street to kisse together." STEEVENS. 

So also in Hall, Henry VI. folio 78. MALONE. 

7 for they loved well,'] Perhaps this passage suggested to 

Rowe the following remark in his Ambitious Stepmother : 
" Sure they lov'd well ; the very streams of blood 
" That flow from their pale bosoms, meet and mingle." 




* will we ride through the streets ; and, at every 
c corner, have them kiss. Away ! [ Exeunt. 


Alarum. Enter CADE, and all "his Rabblement. 

* CADE. Up Fish-street! down Saint Magnus* 

* corner ! kill and knock down ! throw them into 

* Thames ! \_A Parley sounded, then a Retreat. 

* What noise is this I hear ? Dare any be so bold 

* to sound retreat or parley, when I command them 

Enter BUCKINGHAM, and Old CLIFFORD, with 

' BUCK. Ay, here they be that dare and will dis- 
turb thee : 

' Know, Cade, we come ambassadors from the king 
' Unto the commons whom thou hast misled ; 
' And here pronounce free pardon to them all, 

* That will forsake thee, and go home in peace. 

* CLIP. What say ye, countrymen ? 8 will ye re- 


* Clif. What say ye, countrymen ? &c.] The variation in the 
original play is worth noting : 

" Why countrymen, and warlike friends of Kent, 
" What means this mutinous rebellion, 
" That you in troops do muster thus yourselves, 
" Under the conduct of this traitor, Cade ? 

A*. Mr/. KING HENRY VL 855 

c And yield to mercy, whilst 'tis offered you ; 

c Or let a rabble lead you to your deaths ? 

' Who loves the king, and will embrace his pardon, 

* Fling up his cap, and say God save his majesty ! 

* Who hateth him, and honours not his father, 

' Henry the fifth, that made all France to quake, 

* Shake he his weapon at us, and pass by. 

* ALL. God save the king ! God save the king ! 

* CADE. What, Buckingham, and Clifford, are ye 

* so brave ? And you, base peasants, do ye believe 
' him ? will you needs be hanged with your par- 
' dons about your necks ? Hath my sword therefore 
' broke through London Gates, thatyoushouldleave 
e me at the White Hart in South wark ? I thought, 

* ye would never have given out these arms, till you 
' had recovered your ancient freedom : but you are 
' all recreants, and dastards ; and delight to live in 
' slavery to the nobility. Let them break your backs 
c with burdens, take your houses over your heads, 

* ravish your wives and daughtersbefore your faces : 
' For me, I will make shift for one; and so God's 
f curse 'light upon you all ! 

ALL. We'll follow Cade, we'll follow Cade. 

* CLIP. Is Cade the son of Henry the fifth, 

* That thus you do exclaim you'll go with him ? 

" To rise against your sovereign lord and king, 

" Who mildly hath this pardon sent to you, 

" If you forsake this monstrous rebel here. 

" If honour be the mark whereat you aim, 

" Then haste to France, that our forefathers won, 

" And win again that thing which now is lost, 

" And leave to seek your country's overthrow. 

" All. A Clifford, a Clifford." \Theyfprsake Cade. 
Here we have precisely the same versification which we find in 
all the tragedies and historical dramas that were written before 
*he time of Shakspeare. MALONE. 

2 A 2 

356 SECOND PART OF Acrir, 

' Will he conduct you through the heart of France, 
' And make the meanest of you earls and dukes ? 

* Alas, he hath no home, no place to fly to ; 

c Nor knows he how to live, but by the spoil, 
' Unless by robbing of your friends, and us. 

* Wer't not a shame, that whilst you live at jar, 

' The fearful French, whom you late vanquished, 
' Should make a start o'er seas, and vanquish you ? 
' Methinks, already, in this civil broil, 
' I see them lording it in London streets, 

* Crying Villageois ! 9 unto all they meet. 

* Better, ten thousand base-born Cades miscarry, 
' Than you should stoop unto a Frenchman's mercy* 

* To France, to France, and get what you have 

6 Spare England, for it is your native coast : 

* Henry hath money, 1 you are strong and manly \ 
1 God on our side, doubt not of victoiy. 

6 ALL. A Clifford! a Clifford! we'll follow the 

* king, and Clifford. 

' CADE. Was ever feather so lightly blown to and 
6 fro, as this multitude ? the name of Henry the 
' fifth hales them to an hundred mischiefs, and 
' makes them leave me desolate. I see them lay 

* their heads together, to surprize me : my sword 
' make way for me, 2 for here is no staying. In de- 

9 Villageois /] Old copy Villiago. Corrected by Mr. 

Theobald. MALONE. 

1 Henry hath money,] Dr. Warburton reads Henry hath 
mercy ; but he does not seem to have attended to the speaker's 
drift, which is to lure them from their present design by the hope 
of French plunder. He bids them spare England, and go to 
France, and encourages them by telling them that all is ready 
for their expedition ; that they have strength, and the king has 
money. JOHNSON. 

8 my sword make way for me,'] In the original play 

ac. ix. KING HENRY VI. 557 

* spight of the devils and hell, have through the 
4 very midst of you ! and heavens and honour be 
4 witness, that no want of resolution in me, but only 
4 my followers' base and ignominious treasons, 

* makes me betake me to my heels. \_TLxit. 

4 BUCK. What, is he fled ? go some, and follow 


4 And he, that brings his head unto the king, 
4 Shall have a thousand crowns for his reward. 

[Exeunt some of them. 
4 Follow me, soldiers ; we'll devise a mean 
4 To reconcile you all unto the king. \_Exeunt. 


Kenelworth Castle. 

Enter King HENRY, Queen MARGARET, and 
SOMERSET, on the Terrace of the Castle. 

* K. HEN. Was ever king that joy' d an earthly 

* And could command no more content than I ? 

* No sooner was I crept out of my cradle, 

* But I was made a king, at nine months old : 3 

employs a more vulgar weapon : " My staff shall make way 
through the midst of you, and so a pox take you all !" 


3 I was made a king, at nine months old :~] So all the 

historians agree. And yet in Part I. Act III. sc. iv. King Hen- 
ry is made to say 

" I do remember how my father said." 

a plain proof that the whole of that play was not written by the 
same hand as this. BLACKSTONE. 


* Was never subject long' d to be a king, 

* As I do long and wish to be a subject. 4 


* BUCK. Health, and glad tidings, to your ma- 

jesty ! 

* K. HEN. Why, Buckingham, is the traitor, 

Cade, surpriz'd ? 

* Or is he but retir'd to make him strong ? 

Enter, below, a great number of CADE'S Followers, 
with Halters about their Necks. 

6 CLIP. He's fled, my lord, and all his powers 
do yield ; 

* And humbly thus, with halters on their necks, 
' Expect your highness' doom, of life, or death. 

c K. HEN. Then, heaven, 5 set ope thy everlasting 

- t , 

4 . to be a subject.^ In the original play befpre the entry 

of Buckingham and Clifford, we have the following short dia- 
logue, of which Shakspeare has here made no use : 

" King. Lord Somerset, what news hear you of the 

rebel Cade ? 

" Som. This, my gracious lord, that the lord Say is 
** done to death, and the city is almost sack'd. 

" King. God's will be done ; for as he hath decreed, 
" So it must be ; and be it as he please, 
" To stop the pride of these rebellious men. 

" Queen. Had the noble duke of Suffolk been alive, 
" The rebel Cade had been suppress'd ere this, 
" And all the rest that do take part with him." 
This sentiment he has attributed to the Queen in sc. iv. 


* Then, heaven, &c.] Thus, in the original play : 

. ** King. Stand up, you simple men, and give God praise, 
" For you did take in hand you know not what ; 

ac. ix. KING HENRY VI. 359 

* To entertain my vows of thanks and praise ! 

' Soldiers, this day have you redeem* d your lives, 

* And show'd how well you love your prince and 

country : 

' Continue still in this so good a mind, 
' And Henry, though he be infortunate, 

* Assure yourselves, will never be unkind : 

' And so, with thanks, and pardon to you all, 

* I do dismiss you to your several countries. 

ALL. God save the king! God save the king! 

Enter a Messenger. 

* MESS. Please it your grace to be advertised, 

* The duke of York is newly come from Ireland : 

* And with a puissant and a mighty power, 

* Of Gallowglasses, and stout Kernes, 6 

* Is marching hitherward in proud array ; 

* And still proclaimeth, as he comes along, 

* His arms are only to remove from thee 

* The duke of Somerset, whom he terms a traitor. 

" And go in peace, obedient to your king, 
" And five as subjects ; and you shall not want, 
" Whilst Henry lives and wears the English crown. 
" All. God save the king, God save the king." 


Of Gallowglasses, and stout Kernes,] These were two orders 
of foot-soldiers among the Irish. See Dr. Warburton's note on 
the second scene of the first Act of Macbeth, Vol. X. p. 16, 
n. 3. STEEVENS. 

" The galloglasse useth a kind of pollax for his weapon. These 
men are grim of countenance, tall of stature, big of limme, 
lusty of body, wel and strongly timbered. The kerne is an ordi- 
nary souldier, using for weapon his sword and target, and some- 
limes his peece, being commonly good markmen. Kerne 
[Kigheyren] signifieth a shower of hell, because they are taken 
for no better than for rake-hells, or the devils blacke garde." 
Stanihurst's Description of Ireland^ ch. viii. f. 28. JBowLE. 


* K. HEN. Thus stands my state, 'twixt Cade 
and York distressed ; 

* Like to a ship, that, having scap'd a tempest, 

* Is straightway calm'd and boarded with a pirate: 7 

7 Is straightway calm'd, and boarded with a pirate:"] The 
editions read claim'd; and one would think it plain enough ; 
alluding to York's claim to the crown. Cade's head-long tu- 
mult was well compared to a tempest, as York's premeditated re- 
bellion to a piracy. But see what it is to be critical : Mr. Theo- 
bald says, claim* d should be calm'd, because a calm frequently 
succeeds a tempest. It may be so ; but not here, if the King's 
word may be taken ; who expressly says, that no sooner was 
Cade driven back, but York appeared in arms : 

But now is Cade driv'n back, his men dispersed ; 

And now is York in arms to second him. WARBURTON. 

Dr. Warburton begins his note by roundly asserting that the 
editions read claim'd. The passage, indeed, is not found in the 
quarto ; but the folio, 1623, reads calme. Claim'd, the reading 
of the second folio, was not, perhaps, intentional, but merely a 
misprint for calm'd. Theobald says, that the third folio had 
anticipated his correction. I believe calm'd is right. 

So, in Othello : 

" must be be-lee'd and calm'd " 

The commotion raised by Cade was over, and the mind of the 
King was subsiding into a calm, when York appeared in arms, 
to raise fresh disturbances, and deprive it of its momentary peace. 


The editor of the second folio, who appears to have been 
wholly unacquainted with Shakspeare's phraseology, changed 
calm to claim'd. The editor of the third folio changed claim'd 
to calm'd ; and the latter word has been adopted, unnecessarily 
in my apprehension, by the modern editors. Many words were 
used in this manner in our author's time, and the import is pre- 
cisely the same as if he had written calm'd. So, in K. Henry 
IV: " what a candy deal of courtesy," which Mr. Pope alter- 
ed improperly to *' what a deal of candy' d courtesy." See Vol. 
XL p. 23^, n. 1, and p. 235, n. 2. 

By " my state" Henry, I think, means, his realm ; which had 
recently become quiet and peaceful by the defeat of Cade and 
his rabble. " With a pirate," agreeably to the phraseology of 
Shakspeare's time, means " by a pirate." MALONE. 

sc. ix. KING HENRY VI. 361 

* But now 8 is Cade driven back, his men dispersed ; 

* And now is York in arms to second him. 

* I pray thee, Bucking am, go forth and meet him ; 

* And ask him, what's the reason of these arms. 

* Tell him, I'll send duke Edmund to the Tower; 

* And, Somerset, we will commit thee thither, 

* Until his army be dismiss' d from him. 

* SOM. My lord, 

* I'll yield myself to prison willingly, 

* Or unto death, to do my country good. 

* K. HEN. In any case, be nottooroughin terms; 

* For he is fierce, and cannot brook hard language. 

* BUCK. I will, my lord; and doubt not so to 


* As all things shall redound unto your good. 

* K. HEN. Come, wife, let's in, 9 and learn to go- 

vern better ; 

* For yet may England curse my wretched reign; 


* But now ] But is here not adversative. It was only just 
wow, says Henry, that Cade and his followers were routed. 


So, in King Richard II : 

** But now the blood of twenty thousand men 
" Did triumph in my face." STEEVENS. 

9 Come, wife, let's in, &c.] In the old play the King con* 
eludes the scene thus : 

" Come, let us haste to London now with speed, 

" That solemn processions may be sung, 

" In laud and honour of the God of heaven, 

*' And triumphs of this happy victory." MALONE. 




Kent. Iden's Garden. 1 
Enter CADE. 

* CADE. Fye on ambition ! fye on myself; that 

* have a sword, and yet am ready to famish! These 

* five days have I hid me in these woods ; and durst 

* not peep out, for all the country is lay'd for 

* me ; but now am I so hungry, that if I might 

* have a lease of my life for a thousand years, I 

* could stay no longer. Wherefore, on a brick- 

* wall have I climbed into this garden ; to see if I 

* can eat grass, or pick a sallet another while, which 

* is not amiss to cool a man's stomach this hot 

* weather. And, I think, this word sallet was born 

* to do me good : for, many a time, but for a sal- 

* let, my brain-pan 2 had been cleft with a brown 

1 Kent. Iden's Garden.] Holinshed, p. 635, says : " a gen- 
tleman of Kent, .named Alexander Eden, awaited so his time, 
that he tooke the said Cade in a garden in Sussex, so that there 
he was slaine at Hothfield," &c. 

Instead of the soliloquy with which the present scene begins, 
the quarto has only this stage direction. Enter Jacke Cade at 
one doore, and at the other M. Alexander Eyden and his men ; 
and Jack Cade lies down picking qfhearbes, and eating them. 


This Iden was, in fact, the new sheriff of Kent, who had 
followed Cade from Rochester. W. Wyrcester, p. 472. 


* but for a sallet, my brain-pan &c.] A sallet by cor- 
ruption from ccelata, a helmet, (says Skinner,) quia galece ccela- 
tcefuerunt. POPE. 

I do not see by what rules of etymology, sallet can be formed 
from ccelata. Is it not rather a corruption from the French salut, 

sc. x. KING HENRY VI. 36S 

* bill ; and, many a time, when I have been dry, 

* and bravely marching, it hath served me instead 

* of a quart-pot to drink in ; and now the word 

* sallet must serve me to feed on* 

Enter IDEN, with Servants. 

' IDEN. Lord, who would live turmoiled in the 

taken, I suppose, from the scriptural phrase, the helmet ofsalva* 
tion? Brain-pan, for skull, occurs, 1 think, in WiclifPs trans- 
lation of Judges xix, 53. WHALLEY. 

In the ancient MS. romance of The Soudan of Babyloyne, 
p. 39> we have a similar phrase : 

" Such a stroke, she him there raught, 

" The brayne sterte oute of his hede pan." STEEVENS. 

So, in Caxton's Chronicle .- 

" Anonehe [Cade] toke sir Umfreyes salade and his brigan- 
teins smyten fulle of gilte nailles, and also his gilt spores, and 
arraied him like a lord and a capitayne." RITSON. 

Again, in Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch: 
" One of the company seeing Brutus athirst also, he ran to the 
river for water, and brought it in his sallet" 

Again, ibid : " Some were driven to fill their sallcts and mur- 
rians with water.'* 

Again, in The longer thou livest the more Foolthou art, 1570 : 
" This will beare away a good rappe, 
" As good as a sallet to me verilie." STEEVENS. 

Salade has the same meaning in French, as appears from a line 
in La Pucelle d* Orleans ; 

*' Devers la place arrive un Ecuyer 

" Portant salade, avec lance doree." M. MASON. 

Minsheu conjectures that it is derived " a salut, Gal. because 
it keepeth the head whole from breaking." He adds, " alias 
salade dicitur, a G. salade, idem ; utrumque vero celando, quod 
caput tegit." 

The word undoubtedly came to us from the French. In the 
Stat. 4- and 5 Ph. and Mary, ch. 2, we find " twentie haque- 
buts, and twentie morians or salets." MALONE. 


4 And may enjoy such quiet walks as these ? 
-* This small inheritance, my father left me, 
4 Contenteth me, and is worth a monarchy. 
4 I seek not to wax great by others* waning ; 3 
4 Or gather wealth, I care not with what envy ; 4 
4 Sufficeth, that I have maintains my state, 
4 And sends the poor well pleased from my gate. 

4 CADE. Here's the lord of the soil come to seize 
4 me for a stray, for entering his fee-simple without 
4 leave. Ah, villain, thou wilt betray me, and get 
4 a thousand crowns of the king for carrying my 
* head to him ; but I'll make thee eat iron like an 
4 ostrich, and swallow my sword like a great pin, 
4 ere thou and I part. 

4 IDEN. Why, rude companion, whatsoe'er thou 


4 I know thee not ; Why then should I betray thee ? 
4 Is't not enough, to break into my garden, 
4 And, like a thief, to come to rob my grounds, 

3 by others' waning;] The folio reads 'warning. Cor- 
rected by Mr. Pope. /* in the preceding line was supplied by 
Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

4 Or gather wealth, I care not with what envy ;] Or accumu- 
late riches, without regarding the odium I may incur in the 
acquisition, however great that odium may be. Envy is often 
used in this sense by our author and his contemporaries. It may, 
however, have here its more ordinary acceptation. 

This speech in the old play stands thus: 

" Good lord, how pleasant is this country life ! 
" This little land my father left me here, 
" With my contented mind, serves me as well, 
" As all the pleasures in the court can yield, 
" Nor would I change this pleasure for the court." 
Here surely we have not a hasty transcript of our author's 
lines, but the distinct composition of a preceding writer. The 
versification must at once strike the ear of every person who has 
perused any of our old dramas. MALONE. 

*c. x. KING HENRY VI. 365 

' Climbing my walls in spite of me the owner, 
' But thou wilt brave me with these saucy terms ? 

CADE. Brave thee ? ay, by the best blood that 
ever was broached, and beard thee too. 5 Look on me 
well : I have eat no meat these five days ; yet, come 
thou and thy five men, and if I do not leave you all 
as dead as a door nail, 6 1 pray God, I may never eat 
grass more. 

' IDEN. Nay, it shall ne'er be said, while Eng- 
land stands, 

That Alexander Iden, an esquire of Kent, 
Took odds to combat a poor famish'd man. 
' Oppose thy stedfast-gazing eyes to mine, 7 
' See if thou canst outface me with thy looks. 
' Set limb to limb, and thou art far the lesser j 
' Thy hand is but a finger to my fist ; 
' Thy leg a stick, compared with this truncheon ; 
' My foot shall fight with all the strength thou hast; 

* And if mine arm be heaved in the air, 

' Thy grave is digg'd already in the earth. 

* Asformorewords, whose greatness answerswords, 
' Let this my sword report what speech forbears. 8 

* and beard thee too.'] See Vol. XI. p. 365, n. 7. 


6 as dead as a door nail,'] See King Henry IV. P. II, 

Act V. sc. iii. Vol. XII. STEEVENS. 

7 Oppose thy stedfast-gazing eyes to mine, &c.] This and the 
following nine lines are an amplification by Shakspeare on these 
three of the old play : 

" Look on me, my limbs are equal unto thine, 
" And every way as big : then hand to hand 
*' I'll combat with thee. Sirra, fetch me weapons, 
" And stand you all aside." MALONE. 

8 As for more "words, 'whose greatness answers "words, 

Let this my sword report what speech for bears."] Sir Thomas 
Hanmer, and after him, Dr. Warburton, read : 


* CADE. By my valour, the most complete cham- 
* pion that ever I heard. Steel, if thou turn the 
' edge, or cut not out the burly-boned clown in 
' chines of beef ere thou sleep in thy sheath, I be- 
' seech God 9 on my knees, thou mayest be turned 

As for more words, let this my sword report 
( Whose greatness answers words) what speech forbears. 
. It seems to be a poor praise of a sword, that its greatness an- 
sivers words, whatever be the meaning of the expression. The 
old reading, though somewhat obscure, seems to me more capa- 
ble of explanation. For more words, whose pomp and tumour 
may answer words, and only words, I shall forbear them, and 
refer the rest to my sword. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Third Part of King Henry VI: 

" I will not bandy with thee, word for word, 
" But buckle with thee blows, twice two for one.'* 
More (As for more words) was an arbitrary and unnecessary 
addition made by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

How an unnecessary addition ? The measure is incomplete 
without it. STEEVENS. 

The introduction of the monosyllable more, in my opinion, 
injures the sense though it improves the metre. Were I to intro- 
duce any word for that purpose, I should choose to read As for 
mere words, instead of more words. M. MASON. 

9 I beseech God ] The folio reads I beseech Jove. 

This heathen deity, with whom Cade was not likely to be much 
acquainted, was undoubtedly introduced by the editor of the folio 
to avoid the penalty of the statute, 3 Jac. I. ch. 21. In the old 
play, 1600, he says, " I beseech God thou might'st fall into some 
smith's hand, and be turned to hobnails." This the editor of 
the second edition of the quarto play, no date, but printed in 
1619, changed (from the same apprehension ) to " I u>oWthou 
might'st fall," &c. These alterations fully confirm my note on 
King Henry V. Act IV. sc. iii. [where the King swears " by 
Jove"~\ Contrary to the general rule which I have observed in 
printing this play, I have not adhered in the present instance to 
the reading of the folio ; because I am confident that it proceed- 
ed not from Shakspeare, but his editor, who, for the reason al- 
ready given, makes Falstaffsay to Prince Henry " I knew ye 
as well as he that made ye," instead of" By the Lord t I knew 
ye," &c. MALONE. 

sc. x. KING HENRY VI. 367 

' to hobnails. [Theyjight. CADE falls.'] O, I am 
' slain ! famine, and no other, hath slain me : let 

* ten thousand devils come against me, and give me 
' but the ten meals I have lost, and I'd defy theiri 
' all. Wither, garden ; and be henceforth a bury- 
' ing-place to all that do dwell in this house, because 

* the unconquered soul of Cade is fled. 

' IDEN. Is't Cade that I have slain, that mon- 
strous traitor ? 
' Sword, I will hallow thee for this thy deed, 

* And hang thee o'er my tomb, when I am dead:* 

* Ne'er shall this blood be wiped from thy point j 

* But thou shalt wear it as a herald's coat, 

* To emblaze the honour that thy master got. 

1 when I am dead: &c.] How Iden was to hang a sword 

over his own tomb, after he was dead, it is not easy to explain. 
The sentiment is more correctly expressed in the quarto : 

** Oh, sword, I'll honour thee for this, and in my chamber 
" Shalt thou hang, as a monument to after age, 
" For this great service thou hast done to me." 


Here again we have a single thought considerably amplified. 
Shakspeare in new moulding this speech, has used the same 
mode of expression that he has employed in The Winter's Tale : 
" If thou'lt see a thing to talk on, when thou art dead and rotten, 
come hither." i. e. for people to talk of. So again, in a subse- 
quent scene of the play before us : 

" And dead men's cries do fill the empty air." 

Which of our author's plays does not exhibit expressions 
equally bold as " I will hang thee," to express " I will have thee 
hung ?" 

I must just observe, that most of our author's additions are 
strongly characteristick of his manner. The making Iden's 
sword wear the stains of Cade's blood on its point, and compar- 
ing those stains to a herald's coat, declare at once the pen of 
Shakspeare. MALONE. 

So, in the mock play perform'd in Hamlet .- 

^ i smear'd 

" With heraldry more dismal ." STEEVENS. 


e CADE. Iden, farewell ; and be proud of thy vic- 

* tory : Tell Kent from me, she hath lost her best 

* man, and exhort all the world to be cowards ; for 

* I, that never feared any, am vanquished by 
' famine, not by valour. \_Dies. 

* IDEN. How much thou wrongest me, 2 heaven 
be my judge. 

* Die, damned wretch, the curse of her that bare 

thee ! 

* And as I thrust thy body in with my sword, 

* So wish I, I might thrust thy soul to hell. 3 

* Ho'w much thou tvrong'st me,~] That is, in supposing that I 
am proud of my victory. JOHNSON. 

An anonymous writer [Mr. Ritson,] suggests that the meaning 
may be, that Cade wrongs Iden by undervaluing his prowess, 
declaring that he was subdued by famine, not by the valour of 
his adversary. I think Dr. Johnson's is the true interpretation. 


3 So wish /, / might thrust thy soul to hell. &c. J Not to dwell 
upon the wickedness of this horrid wish, with which Iden de- 
bases his character, the whole speech is wild and confused. To 
draw a man by the heels, headlong, is somewhat difficult ; nor 
can I discover how the dunghill would be his grave, if his trunk 
were left to be fed upon by crows. These I conceive not to be 
the faults of corruption but negligence, and therefore do not 
attempt correction. JOHNSON. 

The quarto is more favourable both to Iden's morality and 
language. It omits this savage wish, and makes him only add, 
after the lines I have just quoted : 

" I'll drag him hence, and with my sword 
" Cut off his head, and bear it to the king." 
The player editors seem to have preferred want of humanity 
and common sense, to fewness of lines, and defect of versification. 


By headlong the poet undoubtedly meant, with his head trailed 
along the ground. By saying, " the dunghill shall be thy grave," 
Iden means, the dunghill shall be the place where thy dead body 
shall be laid : the dunghill shall be the only grave which thou 
shalt have. Surely in poetry this is allowable. So, in Macbeth : 

" our monuments 

" Shall be the maws of kites." 


* Hence will I drag thee headlong by the heels 

* Unto a dunghill, which shall be thy grave, 

* And there cut off thy most ungracious head j 

* Which I will bear in triumph to the king, 
4 Leaving thy trunk for crows to feed upon. 

\_Exit) dragging out the Body. 


The same. Fields between Dartford and Black- 

The King's Camp on one side. On the other, enter 
YORK attended, with Drum and Colours: his 
Forces at some distance. 

4 YORK. From Ireland thus comes York, to claim 

his right, 

* And pluck the crown from feeble Henry's head: 
4 Ring, bells, aloud; burn, bonfires, clear and 


4 To entertain great England's lawful king. 
Ah, sancta majestas! 1 * who would not buy thee 

dear ? 

After what has been already stated, I fear it must be acknow- 
ledged, that this faulty amplification was owing rather to our au- 
thor's desire to expand a scanty thought of a preceding writer, 
than to any want of judgment in the player editors. MALONE. 

4 Ah, sancta majestas !] Thus the old copy ; instead of which 
the modern editors read, Ah, majesty ! STEEVENS. 


c Let them obey, that know not how to rule ; 

' This hand was made to handle nought but gold : 

4 I cannot give due action to my words, 

' Except a sword, or scepter, balance it. 5 

' A scepter shall it have, have I a soul ; 6 

' On which I'll toss the flower-de-luce of France. 


* Whom have we here ? Buckingham, to disturb 

' The king hath sent him, sure : I must dissemble. 

' BUCK. York, if thou meanest well, I greet thee 

* balance it.~\ That is, Balance my hand. JOHNSON. 

6 A scepter shall it have, have I a soul ;] I read : 

A scepter shall it have, have I a sword. 

York observes that his hand must be employed with a sword 
or scepter ; he then naturally observes, that he has a sword, 
and resolves that, if he has a sword, he will have a scepter. 


I rather think York means to say If I have a soul, my hand 
shall not be without a scepter. STEEVENS. 

This certainly is a very natural interpretation of these words, 
and being no friend to alteration merely for the sake of improve- 
ment, we ought, I think, to acquiesce in it. But some difficulty 
will still remain ; for if we read, with the old copy, soul, York 
threatens to " toss the flower-de-luce of France on his scepter," 
which sounds but oddly. To toss it on his sword, was a threat 
very natural for a man who had already triumphed over the 
French. So, in King Henry VI. P. Ill : 

" The soldiers should have toss'd me on their pikes." 

However, in the licentious phraseology of our author, York 
may mean, that he wilf tw'eW his sceptre, (that is, exercise his 
royal power, ) when he obtains it, so as to abase and destroy the 
French. The following line also in King Henry VIII. adds 
support to the old copy : 

" Sir, as I have a soul, she is an angel." MALONB. 

so. i. KING HENRY VI. 371 

' YORK. Humphrey of Buckingham, I accept thy 

* Art thou a messenger, or come of pleasure ? 

' BUCK. A messenger from Henry, our dread 


' To know the reason of these arms in peace ; 
' Or why, thou being a subject as I am, 7 
' Against thy oath and true allegiance sworn, 
' Should'st raise so great a power without his leave, 
' Or dare to bring thy force so near the court. 

6 YORK. Scarce can I speak, 8 my choler 
is so great. 

* O, I could hew up rocks, and fight with 


' I am so angry at these abject terms ; 
' And now, like Ajax Telamonius, 

* On sheep or oxen could I spend my fury! ^ Aside. 
' I am far better born than is the king ; 

' More like a king, more kingly in my 

thoughts : 

' But I must make fair weather yet a while, 
' Till Henry be more weak, and I more 


7 -being a subject as I am,'] Here again in the old play 
we have the style and versification of our author's immediate 
predecessors : 

.*' Or that thou, being a subject as I am, 

" Sho.uld'st thus approach so near with colours spread, 

" Whereas the person of the king doth keepef 


B Scarce can I speak, &C-3 The first nine lines of this speech 
are founded on the following in the old play : 
" A subject as he is ! 

" O, how I hate these spiteful abject terms ! 
** But York dissemble, till thou meet thy sonnes, 
" Who now in arms expect their father's sight, 
" And not far hence I know they cannot be." 




* O Buckingham, 9 I pr'ythee, pardon me, 

* That I have given no answer all this while; 

' My mind was troubled with deep melancholy. 

* The cause why I have brought this army hither, 
' Is to remove proud Somerset from the king, 

* Seditious to his grace, and to the state. 

* BUCK. That is too much presumption on thy 


' But if thy arms be to no other end, 
' The king hath yielded unto thy demand ; 

* The duke of Somerset is in the Tower. 

YORK. Upon thine honour, is he prisoner ? 
BUCK. Upon mine honour, he is prisoner. 

' YORK. Then, Buckingham, I do dismiss my 

' Soldiers, I thank you all ; disperse yourselves ; 

* Meet me to-morrow in Saint George's field, 

1 You shall have pay, and every thing you wish. 

* And let my sovereign, virtuous Henry, 

* Command my eldest son, nay, all my sons, 

* As pledges of my fealty and love, 

* I'll send them all as willing as I live ; 

* Lands, goods, horse, armour, any thing I have 

* Is his to use, so Somerset may die. 

' BUCK. York, I commend this kind submission : 
' We twain will go into his highness* tent. * 

9 O Buckingham,"] O, which is not in the authentick copy, 
was added, to supply the metre, by the editor of the second folio. 


1 We twain taill go into his highness* tentJ\ Shakspeare has 
here deviated from the original play without much propriety. 
He has followed it in making Henry come to Buckingham and 
York, instead of their going to him ; yet without the introduc- 
tion found in the quarto, where the lines stand thus : 

" Buck. Come, York, thou shalt go speak unto the king ; 
" But see, his grace is coming to meet with us.*' MALONE. 

sc. I. KING HENRY VI. S73 

Enter King HENRY, attended. 

* K. HEN. Buckingham, doth York intend no 

harm to us, 

* That thus he marcheth with thee arm in arm ? 

* YORK. In all submission and humility, 

* York doth present himself unto your highness. 

* K. HEN. Then what intend these forces thou 

dost bring ? 

e YORK. To heave the traitor Somerset from 

hence ; 2 

' And fight against that monstrous rebel, Cade, 
' Who since I heard to be discomfited. 

Enter IDEN, with CADE'S Head. 

' IDEN. If one so rude, and of so mean condition, 
* May pass into the presence of a king, 
e Lo, I present your grace a traitor's head, 
' The head of Cade, whom I in combat slew. 

' K. HEN. The head of Cade? 3 Great God, 
how just art thou ! 

* York. To heave the traitor Somerset from hence ;~\ The cor- 
responding speech to this is given in the old play to Bucking- 
ham, and acquaints the King with the plea that York had before 
made to him for his rising : " To heave the duke of Somer- 
set," &c. This variation could never have arisen from copyists, 
short-hand writers, or printers. MALONE. 

. * The head of Cade ?~] The speech corresponding to this in 
the first part of The Whole Contention &c. 1600, is alone suf- 
ficient to prove that piece the work of another poet: 

** King. First, thanks to heaven, and next, to thee, my 


" That hast subdu'd that wicked traitor thus. 
" O, let me see that head, that in his life 


c O, let me view his visage being dead, 

' That living wrought me such exceeding trouble. 

* Tell me, my friend, art thou the man that slew 


' IDEN. I was, an't like your majesty. 

' K. HEN. How art thou call'd ? and what is thy 
degree ? 

* IDEN. Alexander Iden, that's my name ; 
4 A poor esquire of Kent, that loves his king. 

* BUCK. So please it you, my lord, 'twere not 


* He were created knight for his good service. 

' K. HEN. Iden, kneel down; \_Hekneek.~] Rise 

up a knight. 
' We give thee for reward a thousand marks ; 

* And will, that thou henceforth attend on us. 

c IDEN. May Iden live to merit such a bounty, 
' And never live but true unto his liege? 4 

" Did work me and my land such cruel spight. 
" A visage stern ; coal-black his curled locks; 
" Deep trenched furrows in his frowning brow, 
*' Presageth warlike humours in his life. 
" Here take it hence, and thou for thy reward 
** Shalt be immediately created knight : 
" Kneel down, my friend, and tell me what's thy name." 


4 May Iden &c.] Iden has said before : 

" Lord ! who would live turmoiled in a court, 
" And may enjoy," &c. 

Shakspeare makes Iden rail at those enjoyments which he sup- 
poses to be out of his reach ; but no sooner are they offered to 
him but he readily accepts them. ANONYMOUS. 

In Iden's eulogium on the happiness of rural life, and in his 
ace ptance of the honours bestowed by his majesty, Shakspeare 
has merely followed the old play. MALONE. 

sc.r. KING HENRY VI. 375 

* K. HEN. See, Buckingham ! Somerset comes 

with the queen ; 
* Go, bid her hide him quickly from the duke. 


* Q. MAR. For thousand Yorks he shall not hide 

his head, 
c But boldly stand, and front him to his face, 

4 YORK. How now ! 5 Is Somerset at liberty ? 

* Then, York, unloose thy long-imprison' d thoughts, 
' And let thy tongue be equal with thy heart. 

4 Shall I endure the sight of Somerset ? 

4 False king ! why hast thou broken faith with me, 

4 Knowing how hardly I can brook abuse ? 

4 King did I call thee ? no, thou art not king ; 

4 Not fit to govern and rule multitudes, 

* Which dar'st not, no, nor canst not rule a traitor. 
4 That head of thine doth not become a crown ; 

4 Thy hand is made to grasp a palmer's staff, 

4 And not to grace an awful princely scepter. 

4 That gold must round engirt these brows of 


4 Whose smile and frown, like to Achilles' spear, 
4 Is able with the change to kill and cure. 6 

* Hotu noto ! &c.] This speech is greatly amplified, and in 
other respects very different from the original, which consists of 
but ten lines. MALONE. 

6 like to Achilles' spear, 

Is able with the change to kill and cure.^ 

" Mysus et jEmonia juvenis qua cuspide vulnus 
" Senserat, hac ipsa cuspide sensit opem." 

PROPERT. Lib. II. El. 1. 

Greene, in his Orlando Furioso, 1599, has the same allu- 


* Here is a hand to hold a scepter up, 

* And with the same to act controlling laws. 

' Give place ; by heaven, thou shalt rule no more 
' O'er him, whom heaven created for thy ruler. 

6 SOM. O monstrous traitor ! I arrest thee, 

' Of capital treason 'gainst the king and crown : 

* Obey, audacious traitor ; kneel for grace. 

* YORK. Would' st have me kneel ? first let me 
ask of these, 

* If they can brook I bow a knee to man. 

* Sirrah, call in my sons to be my bail ; 7 

[Exit an Attendant. 

" Where I took hurt, there have I heal'd myself; 
" As those that with Achilles' launce were wounded, 
" Fetch'd help at self-same pointed speare." MALONE. 

7 Would' st have me kneel ? Jirst let me ask of these, 

If they can brook I boiv a knee to man. 

Sirrah, call in my sons to be my bails'] As these lines stand, 
I think the sense perplexed and obscure. I have ventured to 
transpose them. WARBURTON. 

I believe these lines should be replaced in the order in which 
they stood till Dr. Wafburton transposed them. By these York 
means his knees. He speaks, as Mr. Upton would have said, 
OSIXTIKOU; : laying his hand upon, or at least pointing to, his 
knees. TYRWHITT. 

By these York evidently means his sons, whom he had just 
called for. Tyrwhitt's supposition, that he meant to ask his knees, 
whether he should bow his knees to any man, is not imagined 
with his usual sagacity. M. MASON. 

I have no doubt that York means either his sons, whom he 
mentions in the next line, or his troops, to whom he may be sup- 
posed to point. Dr. Warburton transposed the lines, placing that 
which is now the middle line of the speech at the beginning of 
it. 1 'nit, like many of his emendations, it appears to have been 
unnecessary. The folio reads of thee. The emendation was 
made by Mr. Theobald. Sons was substituted for son by the edi- 

sc. /. KING HENRY VI. 377 

* I know, ere they will have me go to ward, 

* They'll pawn their swords for my enfranchise- 


* Q. MAR. Call hither Clifford ; bid him come 


* To say, if that the bastard boys of York 

* Shall be the surety for their traitor father. 

* YORK. O blood-bespotted Neapolitan, 

* Outcast of Naples, England's bloody scourge ! 

* The sons of York, thy betters in their birth, 

' Shall be their father's bail ; and bane to those 8 
' That for my surety will refuse the boys. 

Forces, at one side; at the other, with Forces also, 
old CLIFFORD and his Son. 

* See, where they come ; I'll wararnt they'll make 

it good. 

* Q. MAR. And here comes Clifford, to deny 

their bail. 

' CLIF. Health and all happiness to my lord the 
king ! [Kneels. 

' YORK. I thank thee, Clifford : Say, what news 
with thee ? 

tor of the second folio. The correction is justified both by the 
context and the old play : " For my enfranchisement," instead 
of o/"my, &c. was likewise his correction. MALONE, 

8 Shall be their father's bail ; and bane to those J Consider^ 
ing how our author loves to play on words similar in their sound, 
but opposite in their signification, I make no doubt but the au 
thor wrote bail and bale. Bale (from whence our common ad- 
jective, baleful) signifies detriment, ruin, misfortune, &c. 


Bale signifies sorrow. Either word may serve. JOHNSON. 


6 Nay, do not fright us with an angry look : 
* We are thy sovereign, Clifford, kneel again ; 
' For thy mistaking so, we pardon thee. 

' CLIP. This is my king, York, I do not mis- 
take ; 

c But thou mistak'st me much, to think I do : 
' To Bedlam with him ! is the man grown mad ? 

* K. HEN. Ay, Clifford ; a bedlam and ambitious 

humour 9 
' Makes him oppose himself against his king. 

' CLIF. He is a traitor ; let him to the Tower, 
' And chop away that factious pate of his. 

Q. MAR. He is arrested, but will not obey ; 
' His sons, he says, shall give their words for him. 

' YORK. Will you not, sons ? 

EDW. Ay, noble father, if our words will serve. 

' RICH. And if words will not, then our wea- 
pons shall. 

9 a bedlam and ambitious humour ] The word bedlam 

was not used in the reign of King Henry the Sixth, nor was 
Bethlehem Hospital (vulgarly called Bedlam) converted into a 
house or hospital for lunaticks till the reign of King Henry the 
Eighth, who gave it to the city of London for that purpose. 


Shakspeare was led into this anachronism by the author of the 
elder play. MALONE. 

It is no anachronism, and Dr. Grey was mistaken : " Next unto 
the parish of St. Buttolph," says Stow, " is a fayre inne for re- 
ceipt of travellers: then an Hospitall of S. Mary of Bethelem, 
founded by Simon Fitz Mary, one of the Sheriffes of London, 
in the yeare 1246. He founded it to haue beene a priorie of 
Cannons with brethren and sisters, and king Edward the thirde 
granted a protection, which I have seene,for thebrethren Milicies 
beatfe Maries de Bethlem, within the citie of London, the 14 
yeare of his raigne. It was an hospitallfor distracted people " 
Survay of London, 1598, p. 127. RITSQN. 

K. i. KING HENRY VI. 379 

* CLIP. Why, what a brood of traitors have we 

here ! 

* YORK. Look in a glass, and call thy image so ; 

* I am thy king, and thou a false-heart traitor. 
' Call hither to the stake my two brave bears, 

* That, with the very shaking of their chains, 

* They may astonish these fell lurking curs ; l 

* Bid Salisbury, and Warwick, come 2 to me. 3 

Drums. Enter WARWICK and SALISBURY, with 

* CLIP. Are these thy bears ? we'll bait thy bears 

to death, 

' And manacle the bear-ward in their chains, 
' If thou dar'st bring them to the baiting-place. 

* RICH. Oft have I seen 4 a hot o'erweening cur 

1 fell lurking curs ; ] Mr. Roderick would read " fell 

barking ;" Mr. Heath " fell lurching;" but, perhaps, by fell 
lurking is meant curs who are at once a compound of cruelty and 
treachery. STEEVENS. 

* Call hither to the stake my two brave bears, 
Bid Salisbury, and Warwick, come 3 The Nevils, earls of 
Warwick, had a bear and ragged staff' for their cognizance. 


3 Bid Salisbury, and Warwick, come to me.'] Here in the old 
play the following lines are found : 

" King. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm himself. 
" York. Call Buckingham and all the friends thou hast ; 
" Both thou and they shall curse this fatal hour." 
Buckingham accordingly enters immediately with his forces. 
Shakspeare, we see, has not introdu'ced him in the present scene, 
but has availed himself of those lines below. MALONE. 

4 Oft have I seen &c.] Bear-baiting was anciently a royal sport. 
See Stowe's account of Queen Elizabeth's Amusements of this 


* Run back and bite, because he was withheld ; 

* Who, being suffer' d 5 with the bear's fell paw, 

* Hath clapp'd his tail between his legs, and cry'd: 

* And such a piece of service will you do, 

* If you oppose yourselves to match lord War- 


* CLIP. Hence, heap of wrath, foul indigested 


* As crooked in thy manners as thy shape ! 

* YORK. Nay, we shall heat you thoroughly 


* CLIP. Take heed, lest by your heat you burn 

yourselves. 6 

* K. HEN. Why, Warwick, hath thy knee forgot 

to bow ? 

* Old Salisbury, shame to thy silver hair, 

* Thou mad misleader of thy brain-sick son ! 

* What, wilt thou on thy death-bed play the ruf- 


* And seek for sorrow with thy spectacles ? 

* O, where is faith ? O, where is loyalty ? 

* If it be banish'd from the frosty head, 

* Where shall it find a harbour in the earth ? 

kind; and Langham's Letter concerning that Queen's Entertain- 
ment at Keneliaorth Castle. PERCY. 

The one of them has adopted his description from the other, 


* being suffer'd ] Being suffer'd to approach to the 

bear's fell paw. Such may be the meaning. I am not, how- 
ever, sure, but the poet meant, being in a state of sufferance or 
pain. MALONE. 

" c Take heed, lest by your heat you burn yourselves.'] So, in 
King Henry VIII: 

" Heat not a furnace for yourself so hot, 
" That it do singe yourself." STEEVENS. 

ac. i. KING HENRY VI. 381 

* Wilt thou go dig a grave to find out war, 

* And shame thine honourable age with blood ? 

* Why art thou old, and want'st experience ? 

* Or wherefore dost abuse it, if thou hast it ? 

* For shame ! in duty bend thy 'knee to me, 

* That bows unto the grave with mickle age. 

* SAL. My lord, I have consider' d with myself 

* The title of this most renowned duke ; 

* And in my conscience do repute his grace 

* The rightful heir to England's royal seat. 

* K. HEN. Hast thou not sworn allegiance unto 


* SAL. I have. 

* K. HEN. Canst thou dispense with heaven for 

such an oath ? 

* SAL. It is great sin, to swear unto a sin ; 7 

* But greater sin, to keep a sinful oath. 

* Who can be bound by any solemn vow 

* To do a murderous deed, to rob a man, 

* To force a spotless virgin's chastity, 

* To reave the orphan of his patrimony, 

* To wring the widow from her custom' d right ; 

* And have no other reason for this wrong, 

* But that he was bound by a solemn oath ? 

* Q. MAR. A subtle traitor needs no sophister. 

7 It is great sin, to swear unto a sin; &c.] We have the same 
sentiment in Love's Labour's Lost : 

" It is religion, to be thus forsworn." 
Again, in King John : 

" It is religion that doth make vows kept ; 

" But thou dost swear only to be forsworn ; 

" And most forsworn to keep what thou dost swear." 



6 K. HEN. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm 

6 YORK. Call Buckingham, and all the friends 

thou hast, 
6 I am resolv'd for death, or dignity. 8 

' CLIP. The first I warrant thee, if dreams prove 

' WAR. You were best to go to bed, and dream 

To keep thee from the tempest of the field. 

CLIP. I am resolv'd to bear a greater storm, 
Than any thou canst conjure up to-day ; 
And that I'll write upoa thy burgonet, 9 
Might I but know thee by thy household badge. 1 

WAR. Now, by my father's badge old Nevil's 


The rampant bear chain'd to the ragged staff, 
This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet, 
(As on a mountain-top the cedar shows, 
That keeps his leaves in spite of any storm,) 
Even to affright thee with the view thereof. 

CLIP. And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy 

* -f or death, or dignity.] The folio reads and dignity. 

The emendation was made by Mr. Pope. MALONE. 

9 burgonet,~] Is a helmet. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Martyr'd Soldier, 1638 : 

" now tye 

" Strong charms upon my full-plum'd burgonet." 


1 thy household badge."] The folio has housed badge, 

owing probably to the transcriber's ear deceiving him. The 
true reading is found in the old play. MALONE. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 383 

And tread it under foot with all contempt, 

* Despight the bear-ward that protects the bear. 

' Y. CLIP. And so to arms, victorious father, 
' To quell the rebels, and their 'complices. 

RICH. Fye ! charity, for shame ! speak not in 

For you shall sup with Jesu Christ to-night. 

' Y. CLIP. Foul stigmatick, 2 that's more than 
thou canst tell. 

6 RICH. If not in heaven, you'll surely sup in 
hell. \_Exeunt severally. 


Saint Albans. 
Alarums : Excursions. Enter WARWICK. 

WAR. Clifford of Cumberland, 'tis Warwick 


And if thou dost not hide thee from the bear, 
Now, when the angry trumpet sounds alarm, 
And dead men's cries do fill the empty air, 
Clifford, I say, come forth and fight with me ! 

* Foul stigmatick,] A stigmatick is one on whom nature has 
set a mark of deformity, a stigma. STEEVENS. 

This certainly is the meaning here. A stigmatick originally 
and properly signified a person who has been branded with a hot 
iron for some crime. See Bullokar's English Expositor, 1616. 



Proud northern lord, Clifford of Cumberland, 
Warwick is hoarse with calling thee to arms. 3 

Enter YORK. 

' How now, my noble lord ? what, all a-foot ? 

' YORK. The deadly-handed Clifford slew my 

steed ; 
' But match to match I have encounter* d him, 

* And made a prey for carrion kites and crows 4 
' Even of the bonny beast he lov'd so well. 5 


4 WAR. Of one or both of us the time is come. 
YORK. Hold, Warwick, seek thee out some other 

For I myself 6 must hunt this deer to death. 

WAR. Then, nobly, York j 'tis for a crown thou 

* As I intend, Clifford, to thrive to-day, 

3 Warwick is hoarse toith calling thee to arms.'] See Macbeth, 
Vol. X. p. 64, n. 3. STEEVENS. 

4 And made a prey for carrion kites and crows "] So, in 
Hamlet : 

" I should have fatted all the region kites 
" With this slave's offal." STEEVENS. 

* Even of the bonny beast he lov'd so well.'] In the old play : 
** The bonniest gray, that e'er was bred in North." 


6 For I myself '&c.] This passage will remind the classical 
reader of Achilles' conduct in the 22d Iliad, v. 205, where he 
expresses his determination that Hector should fall by no other 
hand than his own. STEEVENS. 

sc.ii. KING HENRY VI. 385 

It grieves my soul to leave thee unassail'd. 


4 CLIP. What seest thou in me, York ? 7 why dost 
thou pause ? 

4 YORK. With thy brave bearing should I be in 

4 But that thou art so fast mine enemy. 

* CLIP. Nor should thy prowess want praise and 

* But that 'tis shown ignobly, and in treason. 

4 YORK. So let it help me now against thy sword, 
4 As I in justice and true right express it ! 

' * CLIP. My soul and body on the action both ! 

* YORK. A dreadful lay! 8 address thee instantly. 

[Theyjight, and CLIFFORD falls. 

7 What seest thou in me, York ? &c.] Instead of this and the 
ten following lines, we find these in the old play, and the varia- 
tion is worth noting : 

" York. Now, Clifford, since we are singled here alone, 
" Be this the day of doom to one of us ; 
" For now my heart hath sworn immortal hate 
" To thee and all the house of Lancaster. 

" Clif. And here I stand, and pitch my foot to thine, 
" Vowing ne'er to stir till thou or I be slain ; 
" For never shall my heart be safe at rest, 
" Till I have spoil'd the hateful house of York. 

[Alarums, and theyjtght, awe? York kills Clifford. 
" York. Now Lancaster, sit sure ; thy sinews shrink. 
" Come, fearful Henry, groveling on thy face, 
" Yield up thy crown unto the prince of York." 

[Exit York. 

' A dreadful lay /] A dreadful wager ; a tremendous stake. 




6 CLIF. La Jin courwme les oeuvret. 9 [Dies.* 1 

YORK. Thus war hath given thee peace, for 

thou art still. 
* Peace with his soul, heaven, if it be thy will J 


Enter young CLIFFORD. 

* Y. CLIF. Shame and confusion ! all is on the 
rout j 2 

9 La Jin couronne les oeuvres.] The players read : 
La Jin corrone les eumenes. STEEVENS. 

Corrected by the editor of the second folio. MALONE. 

1 Dies."] Our author, in making Clifford fall by the hand of 
York, has departed from the truth of history ; a practice not un- 
common to him when he does his utmost to make his characters 
considerable. This circumstance, however, serves to prepare 
the reader or spectator for the vengeance afterwards taken by 
Clifford's son on York and Rutland. 

It is remarkable, that at the beginning of the third part of this 
historical play, the poet has forgot this occurrence, and there 
represents Clifford's death as it really happened : 

" Lord Clifford and lord Stafford all abreast 

" Charg'd our main battle's front ; and breaking in, 

" Were by the swords of common soldiers slain." 


For this inconsistency the elder poet must answer ; for these 
lines are in The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of York, &c. 
on which, as I conceive, The Third Part of King Henry VI. 
was founded. MALONE. 

8 Shame and confusion ! all is on the rout ; &c.] Instead of 
(his long speech, we have the following lines in the old play : 

" Y. Clifford. Father of Cumberland ! 
" Where may I seek my aged father forth ? 
" O dismal sight ! see where he breathless lies, 
" All smear'd and welter'd in his luke-warm blood < 
** Ah, aged pillar of all Cumberland's true house ! 
" Sweet father, to thy murder'd ghost I swear 
" Immortal hate unto the house of York ; 

ac. n. KING HENRY VI. 387 

* Fear frames disorder, and disorder wounds 

* Where it should guard. O war, thou son of hell, 

* Whom angry heavens do make their minister, 

* Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part 

* Hot coals of vengeance ! 3 Let no soldier fly : 

* He that is truly dedicate to war, 

* Hath no self-love ; nor he, that loves himself, 

* Hath not essentially, but by circumstance, 

* The name of valour. O, let the vile world end, 

[Seeing his dead Father. 

* And the premised flames 4 of the last day 

* Knit earth and heaven together ! 

* Now let the general trumpet blow his blast, 

* Particularities and petty sounds 

* To cease ! 5 Wast thou ordain'd, dear father, 

* To lose thy youth in peace, and to achieve 6 

" Nor never shall I sleep secure one night, 
" Till I have furiously reveng'd thy death, 
" And left not one of them to breathe on earth. 

\_He takes him up on his back, 
" And thus as old Anchises' son did bear 
* His aged father on his manly back, 
" And fought tuith him against the bloody Greeks, 
" Even so will I; but stay, here's one of them, 
' To whom my soul hath sworn immortal hate.** 


3 Hot coals of 'vengeance /] This phrase is scriptural. So, in 
the 140th Psalm : " Let hot burning coals fall upon them.'* 


4 And the premised Jlames ~] Premised, for sent before their 
time. The sense is, let the flames reserved for the last day be 
sent now. WARBURTON. 

* To cease!] Is to stop, a verb active. So, in Timon o/ 
Athens : 

" be not ceas'd 

" With slight denial " STEEVENS. 

" to achieve ] Is, to obtain. JOHNSON* 

2 C 2 


* The silver livery of advised age ; 7 

* And, in thy reverence, 8 and thy chair-days, thus 

* To die in ruffian battle ? Even at this sight, 

* My heart is turn'd to stone : 9 and, while 'tis 


* It shall be stony. 1 York not our old men spares j 

* No more will I their babes : tears virginal 

* Shall be to me even as the dew to fire j 

* And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims, 

* Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax. 8 

* Henceforth, I will not have to do with pity : 

* Meet I an infant of the house of York, 

* Into as many gobbets will I cut it, 

* As wild Medea young Absyrtus did : 3 

7 The silver livery q/advised age ;~\ Advised is wise, experien- 
ced. MALONE. 

Advised is cautious, considerate. So before in this play : 
" And bid me be advised how I tread." STEEVENS. 

8 And, in thy reverence,] In that period of life, which is en- 
titled to the reverence of others. Our author has used the word 
in the same manner in As you Uke it, where the younger brother 
says to the elder, (speaking of their father,) " thou art indeed 
nearer to his reverence" MALONE. 

9 My heart is turn'd to stone :] So, in Othello : " my heart 
is turn'd to stone ; I strike it, and it hurts my hand." MALONE. 

1 It shall be stony.~\ So again, in Othello : 
" Thou dost stone my heart." 

And, in King Richard III. we have " stone-hard heart." 


f '-i to my flaming wrath be oil and flax. ~\ So, in Hamlet: 
" To flaming youth let virtue be as wax, 
" And melt in her own fire." STEEVENS. 

* As itiild Medea &c.] When Medea fled with Jason from 
Golchos, she murdered her brother Absyrtus, and cut his body 
into several pieces, that her father might be prevented for some 
time from pursuing her. See Ovid. Trist. Lib. III. El. 9 : 

" divellit, divulsaque membra per agros 

" Dissipat, in multis invenienda locis : 
*' Ut gemtor luctuque novo tardetur, et artus 

" Dum legit extinctos, triste moretur iter." MALONE. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 389 

* In cruelty will I seek out my fame. 

* Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's house ; 

[Taking up the Body. 
6 As did ^Eneas old Anchises bear, 
c So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders ; 4 

* But then ^Eneas bare a living load, 

* Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. [Exit. 

Jighting, and SOMERSET is /ailed, 

RICH. So, lie thou there ; 

* For, underneath an alehouse' paltry sign, 
The Castle in Saint Albans, Somerset 

Hath made the wizard famous in his death. 5 

4 The quarto copy has these lines : 

" Even so will I. But stay, here's one of them, 
" To whom my soul hath sworn immortal hate." 

Enter Richard, and then Clifford lays down his father, fights 
toith him, and Richard Jties away again. 

" Out, crook-back'd villain ! get thee from my sight ! 

" But I will after thee, and once again 

" (When I have borne my father to his tent) 

." I'll try my fortune better with thee yet." 

[Exit young Clifford with his father. 

This is to be added to all the other circumstances which have 
been urged to show that the quarto play was the production of 
"an elder writer than Shakspeare. The former's description of 
^Eneas is different. See p. 386, n. 2. MALONE, 

5 So, lie thou there ; 

For, underneath an alehouse 1 paltry sign, 

The Castle in Saint Albans, Somerset 

Hath made the tuizardfamous in his death."] The parti- 
c\efor in the second line seems to be used without any very ap- 
parent inference. We might read : 

Fall'n underneath an alehouse 9 paltry sign, &c. 


* Sword, hold thy temper ; heart, be wrathful still: 

* Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. 


Yet the alteration is not necessary; for the old reading is 
sense, though obscure. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnson justly observes that the particles/or seems to be 
used here without any apparent inference. The corresponding 
passage in the old play induces me to believe that a line has been 
omitted, perhaps of this import : 

" Behold, the prophecy is come to pass ; 
" For, underneath " &c. 
We have had already two similar omissions in this play. 

Thus the passage stands in the quarto : 

" Rich. So lie thou there, and tumble in thy blood ! 
" What's here ? the sign of the Castle ? 
" Then the prophecy is come to pass ; 
" For Somerset was forewarned of castles, 
*' The which he always did observe ; and now, 
" Behold, under a paltry ale-house sign, 
" The Castle in saint Albans, Somerset 
" Hath made the wizard famous by his death." 
I suppose, however, that the third line was originally written : 
** Why, then the prophecy is come to pass." 


The death of Somerset here accomplishes that equivocal pre- 
diction given by Jourdain, the witch, concerning this duke ; 
which we met with at the close of the first Act of this play : 
" Let him shun castles : 
" Safer shall he be upon the sandy plains, 
" Than where castles, mounted stand." 
i. e. the representation of a castle, mounted for a sign. 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 391 

Alarums : Excursions. Enter King HENRY, Queen 
MARGARET, and others, retreating. 

* Q. MAR. Away, my lord ! 6 you are slow; for 

shame, away ! 

* K. HEN. Can we outrun the heavens ? good 

Margaret, stay. 

* Q. MAR. What are you made of? you'll not 

fight, nor fly : 

* Now is it manhood, wisdom, and defence, 7 

* To give the enemy way ; and to secure us 

* By what we can, which can no more but fly. 

[Alarum afar off. 

* If you be ta'en, we then should see the bottom 

* Of all our fortunes : 8 but if we haply scape, 

6 Away, my lord!"] Thus, in the old play : 

" Queen. Away, my lord, and fly to London straight; 
" Make haste, for vengeance comes along with them ; 
" Come, stand not to expostulate : let's go. 

" King. Come then, fair queen, to London let us 


" And summon a parliament with speed, 
" To stop the fury of these dire events." 

[Exeunt King and Queen. 

Previous to the entry of the King and Queen, there is the fol- 
lowing stage-direction : 

" Alarums again, and then enter three or four bearing the 
Duke of Buckingham wounded to his tent. Alarums still, and 
then enter the king and queen." See p. 210, n. 9, and p. 220, 
n. 6. MALONE. 

' NOIK is it manhood, wisdom, 8fc.~] This passage will serve 
to countenance an emendation proposed in Macbeth. See Vol. 
X. p. 232, n. 5. STEEVENS. 

* If you beta'en, vie then should see the bottom 
Of all our fortunes :] Of this expression, which is uudoubt- 


* (As well we may, if not through your neglectj 

* We shall to London get ; where you are lov'd ; 

* And where this breach, now in our fortunes made, 

* May readily be stopp'd. 

Enter young CLIFFORD. 

* Y. CLIP. But that my heart's on future mis- 
chief set, 

* I would speak blasphemy ere bid you fly ; 

* But fly you must ; uncurable discomfit 

* Reigns in the hearts of all our present parts.* 

edly Shakspeare's, he appears to have been fond. So, in King 
Henry IV. P. I: 

*' for therein should we read 

" The very bottom and the soul of hope, 

" The very list, the very utmost bound 

" Of all our fortunes." 
Again, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" Which sees into the bottom of my grief." 
Again, in Measure for Measure : 

" To look into the bottom of my place." MALONE. 

9 all our present parts.] Should we not read ? party. 


The text is undoubtedly right. So, before : 
" Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part 
" Hot coals of vengeance." 

I have met with part for party in other books of that time. 

So, in the Proclamation for the apprehension of John Cade, 
Stowe's Chronicle, p. 646, edit. 1605 : " the which John Cade 
also, after this, was sworne to the French parts, and dwelled 
with them," &c. 

Again, in Hall's Chronicle, King Henry VI. fol. 101 : " in 
conclusion King Edward so corageously comforted his men, re- 
freshing the weary, and helping the wounded, that the other part 
[i. e. the adverse army] was discomforted and overcome." Again, 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VI. 393 

* Away, for your relief! and we will live 

* To see their day, and them our fortune give : 

* Away, my lord, away ! [Exeunt, 

in the same Chronicle, EDWARD IV. fol. xxii: " to bee pro- 
vided a kynge, for to extinguish both \hejaccions and paries 
[i. e. parties^ of Kyng Henry the VI. and of Kyng Edward the 

Again, in Coriolanus : 

" if I cannot persuade thee, 

" Rather to show a noble grace to both parts, 
" Than seek the end of one," 

In Plutarch the corresponding passage runs thus : " For if I 
cannot persuade thee rather to do good unto both parties," &c. 


A hundred instances might be brought in proof that part and 
party were synonymously used. But that is not the present 
question. Mr. Tyrwhitt's ear (like every other accustomed to 
harmony of versification) must naturally have been shocked by 
the leonine gingle of hearts and parts, which is not found in any 
one of the passages produced by Mr. Malone in defence of the 
present reading. STKEVENS. 



--i ,..'.-- r ~"- T s ~, - - *i . ~ -,',f, 
Fields near Saint Albans. 

Alarum: Retreat. Flourish; then enter YORK, 
diers, 'with Drum and Colours. 

' YORK. Of Salisbury, 1 who can report of him ; 

* That winter lion, who, in rage, forgets 

* Aged contusions and all brush of time ; 2 

* And, like a gallant in the brow of youth, 3 

1 Of Salisbury, &c.] The corresponding speeches to this and 
the following, are these, in the original play : 

" York. How now, boys ! fortunate this fight hath been, 
" I hope to us and ours, for England's good, 
" And our great honour, that so long we lost, 
" Whilst faint-heart Henry did usurp our rights. 
*' But did you see old Salisbury, since we 
" With bloody minds did buckle with the foe ? 
" I would not for the loss of this right hand 
" That aught but well betide that good old man. 

" Rich. My lord, I saw him in the thickest throng, 
" Charging his launce with his old weary arms ; 
" And thrice I saw him beaten from his horse, 
" And thrice this hand did set him up again ; 
'* And still he fought with courage 'gainst his foes ; 
" The boldest-spirited man that e'er mine eyes beheld." 


* brush of time;"] Read bruise of time. WARBURTON. 

The brush of time, is the gradual detrition of time. The old 
reading I suppose to be the true one. So, in Timon : 

" one winter's brush " STEEVENS. 

3 gallant in the brow of youth,'] The brow of youth is an 

expression not very easily explained. I read the blow of youth ; 
the blossom, the spring. JOHNSON. 

sc. m. KING HENRY VI. 393 

* Repairs him with occasion ? this happy day 

* Is not itself, nor have we won one foot, 

* If Salisbury be lost. 

* RICH. My noble father, 

* Three times to-day I holp him to his horse, 

* Three times bestrid him, 4 thrice I led him off, 
' Persuaded him from any further act : 

c But still, where danger was, still there I met him j 

* And like rich hangings in a homely house, 

* So was his will in his old feeble body. 

* But, noble as he is, look where he comes. 


* SAL. Now, by my sword, well hast thou fought 
to-day; 5 

The brow of youth is the height of youth, as the broiv of a hill 
is its summit. So, in Othello: 

" ... the head said front of my offending.'* 

Again, in King John : 

" Why here walk I in the black brow of night." 


4 Three times bestrid him,] That is, Three times I saw him 
fallen, and, striding over him, defended him till he recovered. 


See Vol. XI. p. 405, n. 9. Of this act of friendship, which 
Shakspeare has frequently noticed in other places, no mention 
is made in the old play, as the reader may find on the opposite 
page ; and its introduction here is one of the numerous minute 
circumstances, which when united form almost a decisive proof 
that the piece before us was constructed on foundations laid by a 
preceding writer. MALONE. 

s Well hast thou fought &c.] The variation between this 
speech and that in the original play deserves to be noticed : 

" Sal. Well hast thou fought this day, thou valiant 

" And thou brave bud of York's increasing house, 


' By the mass, so did we all. I thank you, Rich- 

e God knows, how long it is I have to live ; 
6 And it hath pleas'd him, that three times to-day 
' You have defended me from imminent death. 

* Well, lords, we have not got that which we 

have : 6 
'Tis not enough our foes are this time fled, 

* Being opposites of such repairing nature. 7 

' YORK. I know, our safety is to follow them ; 

* For, as I hear, the king is fled to London, 

* To call a present court of parliament. 8 

' The small remainder of my weary life, 

" I hold for thee, for with thy warlike arm 

" Three times this day thou hast preserv'd my life." 


6 Well, lords, lae have not got that which toe have :] i. e. we 
have not secured, we are not sure of retaining, that which we 
have acquired. In our author's Rape of Lucrece, a poem very 
nearly contemporary with the present piece, we meet with a 
similar expression : 

" That oft they have not that which they possess." 


7 Being opposites of such repairing nature."] Being enemies 
that are likely so soon to rally and recover themselves from this 
defeat. See Vol. V. p. 331, n. 7. 

To repair, in our author's language, is, to renovate. So, in 
Cymbeline : 

" O, disloyal thing \ 

" That should'st repair my youth ." 
Again, in All's well that ends well: 

** i It much repairs me, 

" To talk of your good father." MALONE. 

' To call a present court of parliament.] The King and Queen 
left the stage only just as York entered, and have not said a word 
about calling a parliament. Where then could York hear this ? 
The fact is, as we< have seen, that in the old play the King 
does say, " he will call a parliament," but our author has omitted 

sc. in. KING HENRY VI. 397 

' Let us pursue him, ere the writs go forth : 
' What says lord Warwick ? shall we after them ? 

WAR. After them! nay, before them, if we 


Now by my faith, 9 lords, 'twas a glorious day : 
Saint Albans* battle, won by famous York, 
Shall be eterniz'd in all age to come. 
Sound, drums and trumpets ; and to London all : 
And more such days as these to us befall ! 


the lines. He has, therefore, here, as in some other places, 
fallen into an impropriety, by sometimes following and at others 
deserting his original. MALONE. 

9 Now by my faith,] The first folio reads Now by my hand. 
This undoubtedly was one of the many alterations made by the 
editors of that copy, to avoid the penalty of the Stat. 3 Jac. I. 
c. 21. See p. 366, n. 9. The true reading I have restored from 
the old play. MALONE. 


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