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5 3 

V. 15 


VOL. xv. 

* KING HENRY VIII.] We are unacquainted with any dra- 
matick piece on the subject of Henry VIII. that preceded this of 
Shakspeare ; and yet on the books of the Stationers' Company 
appears the following entry: " Nathaniel Butter] (who was 
one of our author's printers) Feb. 12, 1604-. That he get good 
allowance for the enterlude of King Henry VIII. before he begin 
to print it ; and with the wardens hand to yt, he is to have the 
same for his copy." Dr. Farmer, in a note on the epilogue to 
this play, observes, frcm Stowe, that Robert Greene had written 
somewhat on the same story. STEEVENS. 

This historical drama comprizes a period of twelve years, 
commencing in the twelfth year of King Henry's reign, ( 1521,) 
and eliding with the christening of Elizabeth in 1533. Shak- 
speare has deviated from history in placing the death of Queen 
Katharine before the birth of Elizabeth, for in fact Katharine 
did not die till 1536. 

King Henry VIII. was written, I believe, in 1601. See An 
Attempt to ascertain the Order of Shakspeare' s Plays, Vol. II. 

Dr. Fanner, in a note on the epilogue, observes, from Stowe, 
that " Robert Greene had written something on this story ;" but 
this, I apprehend, was not a play, but some historical account of 
Henry's reign, written not by Robert Greene, the dramatick 
poet, but by some other person. In the list of " authors out of 
whom Stowe' j? Annals were compiled," prefixed to the last edi- 
tion printed in his life time, quarto, 1605, Robert Greene is 
enumerated with Robert de Brim, Robert Fabian, &c. and he is 
often quoted as ;m authority for facts in the margin of the history 
of that reign. M.ALONK. 

13 2 


I come no more to make you laugh ; things now, 
That bear a weighty and a serious brow, 
Sad, high, and working, full of state and woe, 
Such noble scenes as draw the eye to flow, 
We now present. Those that can pity, here 
May, if they think it well, let fall a tear ; 
The subject will deserve it. Such, as give 
Their money out of hope they may believe, 
May here find truth too. Those, that come to see 
Only a show or two, and so agree, 
The play may pass ; if they be still, and willing, 
I'll undertake, may see away their shilling 
Richly in two short hours. Only they, 
That come to hear a merry, bawdy play, 
A noise of targets ; or to see a fellow 
In a long motley coat, 1 guarded with yellow r , 
Will be deceiv'd : for, gentle hearers, know, 
To rank our chosen truth with such a show 

1 or to see a fellow 

In a long motley coat,] Alluding to the fools and buffoons, 
introduced in the plays a little before our author's time : and of 
whom he has left us a small taste in his own. THEOBALD. 

In Marston's 10th Satire there is an allusion to this kind of 
dress : 

" The longfoole's, coat, the huge slop, the lugg'd boot, 
" From mimick Piso nil doe claime their roote." 
Thus also Nashe, in his Epistle Dedicatory to Hare idth you 
to Saffron Walden y or Guuriel Harrci/'x Hunt is up, 1.51)6: 
" Joules, ye know, !-vaies for the most part (especiallie if 
they bee naturaliybo/es ) are suted in long coats.''* STEEVENS. 


As fool and fight is, 2 beside forfeiting 
Our own brains, and the opinion that we bring, 
(To make that only true we now intend, 3 ) 
Will leave us never an understanding friend. 

* -such a show 

As fool andjight is,~\ This is not the only passage in which 
Shakspeare has discovered his conviction of the impropriety of 
battles represented on the stage. He knew that five or six men 
with swords, gave a very unsatisfactory idea of an army, and 
therefore, without much care to excuse his former practice, he 
allows that a theatrical fight would destroy all opinion of truth, 
and leave him never an understanding friend. Magnis ingeniis 
et multa nihilominus habitnris simplex convenit erroris conjessio. 
Yet I know not whether the coronation shown in this play may 
not be liable to all that can be objected against a battle. 


J . the opinion that rvc bring, 

( To make that only true we now intcnd,)~\ These lines I do 
not understand, and suspect them of corruption. I believe we 
may better read thus : 

the opinion, that ive bring 

Or make; that only truth we now intend. JOHNSON. 

To intend, in our author, has sometimes the same meaning as 

to pretend. So, in King Richard HI : 

" The mayor is here at hand: Intend some fear ." 

Again : 

" Tremble and start at wagging of a straw, 
" Intending deep suspicion." STEEVENS. 

If any alteration were necessary, I should be for only changing 
the order of the words, and reading : 

That only true to make we now intend : 
i. e. that now we intend to exhibit only what is true. 

This passage, and others of this Prologue, in which great stress 
is laid upon the truth of the ensuing representation, would lead 
one to suspect, that this play of Henry the VHIth. is the very 
play mentioned by Sir H. Wotton, [in his Letter of 2 .July, 1G1J5, 
Rdiq. IVotton, p. V2'),~\ under the description of " a nnc play, 
[acted by the king's players at the Bank's Side] called, All is 
True, representing some principal pieces of the reign of Henry 
the VHIth." The extraordinary circumstances of pomp and 
majesty, with which, Sir Henry says, that play was set forth, 
and the particular incident of certain cannons shot off at the 


Therefore, for goodness' sake, and as you are known 
The first and happiest hearers of the town, 4 

King's entry to a masque at the Cardinal Wolsey's house, (by 
which the theatre was set on fire and burnt to the ground,) are 
strictly applicable to the play before us. Mr. Chamberlaine, in 
Winwood's Memorials, Vol. III. p. 469, mentions " the burning 
of the Globe, or playhouse, on the Bankside, on St. Peter's-day 
[1613,] which (says he) fell out by a peale of chambers, that 
I know not on what occasion were to be used in the play." Ben 
Jonson, in his Execration upon Vulcan, says, they were two poor 
chambers. [See the stage-direction in this play, a little before 
the King's entrance : " Drum and trumpet, chambers dis- 
charged."^ The Continuator of Stowe's Chronicle, relating the 
same accident, p. 1003, says expressly, that it happened at the 
play of Henry the VHIth. 

In a MS. Letter of Tho. Lorkin to Sir Tho. Puckering, dated 
London, this last of June, 1613, the same fact is thus related: 
" No longer since than yesterday, while Bourbage his companie 
were acting at the Globe the play of Hen. VIII, and there shoot- 
ing of certayne chambers in way of triumph, the fire catch'd," 
&c. MS. Harl. 7002. TYRWHITT. 

I have followed a regulation recommended by an anonymous 
correspondent, and only included the contested line in a paren- 
thesis, which in some editions was placed before the word beside. 
Opinion, I believe, means here, as in one of the parts of King 
Henry IV. character. [" Thou hast redeem'd thy lost opinion." 
King Henry IV. Part I. Vol. XI. p. 422.] To realize and 
fulfil the expectations formed of our play, is now our object. 
This sentiment ( to say nothing of the general style of this pro- 
logue) could never have fallen from the modest Shakspeare. 
I have no doubt that the whole prologue was written by Ben 
Jonson, at the revival of the play, in 1613. MALONE. 

4 Thejirst and happiest hearers of the toinm,~\ Were it neces- 
sary to strengthen Dr. Johnson's and Dr. Farmer's supposition, 
(see notes on the epilogue,) that old Ben, not Shakspeare, was 
author of the prologue before us, we might observe, that happy 
appears, in the present instance, to have been used with one of 
its Roman significations, i. e. propitious or favourable : " Sis 
bonus O, felixquc tuis !" Virg. Eel. 5. a sense of the word 
which must have been unknown to Shakspeare, but was familiar 
to Jonson. STEEVEXS. 


Be sad, as we would make ye : Think, ye see 
The very persons of our noble story, 5 
As they were living ; think, you see them great, 
And follow'd with the general throng, and sweat, 
Of thousand friends ; then, in a moment, see 
How soon this mightiness meets misery ! 
And, if you can be merry then, I'll say, 
A man may weep upon his wedding day. 

* Think, ye see 

The very persons of our nolle story ,] Why the rhyme 
should have been interrupted here, when it was so easily to be 
supplied, I cannot conceive. It can only be accounted for from 
the negligence of the press, or the transcribers ; and therefore 
I have made no scruple to replace it thus : 
Think, before ye. THEOBALD. 

This is specious, but the laxity of the versification in this pro- 
logue, and in the following epilogue, makes it not necessary. 


Mr. Heath would read : 

of our history. STEEVENS. 

The word story was not intended to make a double, but merely 
a single rhyme, though, it must be acknowledged, a very bad 
one, the last syllable, ry, corresponding in sound with see. I 
thought Theobald right, till I observed a couplet of the same 
kind in the epilogue: 

" For this play at this time is only in 
" The merciful construction of good women." 
In order to preserve the rhyme, the accent must be laid on the 
last syllable of the words women and story. 

A rhyme of the same kind occurs in The Knight of the Burning 
Pestle, where Master Humphrey says: 

" Till both of us arrive, at her request, 

" Some ten miles oft' in the wild Waltham forest." 



King Henry the Eighth. 

Cardinal Wolsey. Cardinal Campeius. 

Capucius, A mbassadorfrom tlie Emperor, Charles V. 

Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Duke o/'Norfolk. Duke of Buckingham. 

Duke of Suffolk. Earl of Surrey. 

Lord Chamberlain. Lord Chancellor. 

Gardiner, Bishop of Win Chester. 

Bishop of Lincoln. ior</Abergavenny. Z/ore?Sands. 

Sir Henry Guildford. Sir Thomas Lovell. 

Sir Anthony Denny. Sir Nicholas Vaux. 

Secretaries to Wolsey. 

Cromwell, Servant to Wolsey. 

Griffith, Gentleman-Usher to Queen Katharine. 

Three other Gentlemen. 

Doctor Butts, Physician to the King. 

Garter, King at Arms. 

Surveyor to the Duke of Buckingham. 

Brandon, and a Sergeant at Arms. 

Door-keeper of the Council-Chamber. Porter, and 

his Man. 
Page to Gardiner. A Crier. 

Queen Katharine, Wife to King Henry, afterwards 

Anne Bullen, her Maid of Honour, afterwards 


An old Lady, Friend to Anne Bullen. 
Patience, Woman to Queen Katharine. 

Several Lords and Ladies in the Dumb Shows; 
Women attending upon the Queen ; Spirits, which 
appear to her; Scribes, Officers, Guards, and 
other Attendants. 

SCENE, chiefly in London and Westminster j 
once, at Kimbolton. 



London. An Ante-chamber in the Palace. 

Enter the Duke of NORFOLK, at one Door; at the 
other, the Duke of BUCKINGHAM, and the Lord 


BUCK. Good morrow, and well met. How have 

you done, 
Since last we saw in France ? 

NOR. I thank your grace : 

Healthful ; and ever since a fresh admirer 2 
Of what I saw there. 

BUCK. An untimely ague 

Stay'd me a prisoner in my chamber, when 
Those suns of glory, 3 those two lights of men, 
Met in the vale of Arde. 

1 Lord Abrrrrarcnni/.~] George Nevill, who married Mary, 
daughter of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham. RKKD. 

8 a fresh admirer ] An admirer untired; an admirer 

still feeling the impression as if it were hourly renewed. 


3 Those suns ofglory t ~\ That is, those glorious suns. The 
editor of the third folio plausibly enough reads Those sons of 
glory ; and indeed as in old English books the two words are 
used indiscriminately, the luminary being often spelt son, it L> 


NOR. 'Twixt Guynes and Arde :* 

I was then present, saw them salute on horseback ; 
Beheld them, when they lighted, how they clung 
In their embracement, as they grew together; 5 
Which had they, 

What four thron'd ones could have weigh'd 
Such a compounded one ? 

BUCK. All the whole time 

I was my chamber's prisoner. 

NOR. Then you lost 

The view of earthly glory : Men might say, 
Till this time, pomp was single ; but now married 
To one above itself. 6 Each following day 

sometimes difficult to determine which is meant ; sun, or son. 
However, the subsequent part of the line, and the recurrence of 
the same expression afterwards, are in favour of the reading of 
the original copy. MALONE. 

Pope has borrowed this phrase in his Imitation of Horace's 
Epistle to Augustus, v. 22 : 

" Those suns of glory please not till they set." 


4 Guynes and Arde :] Guynes then belonged to the 

English, and Arde to the French; they are towns in Picardy, 
and the valley of Ardren lay between them. Arde is Ardres, 
but both Hall and Holinshed write it as Shakspeare does. 


s as they grew together;] So, in All's well that ends 

'well: " I grow to you, and our parting is as a tortured body." 
Again, in A Midsummer-Night's Dream : " So we grew toge- 
ther." STEEVEXS. 

-as they grew together;"] That is, as if they grew toge- 

ther. We have the same image in our author's Venus and 
Adonis : 

" a sweet embrace; 

" Incorporate then they seem ; face grows to face." 


c Till this time, pomp was single ; but now married 

To one above itself.~\ The thought is odd and whimsical ; 
and obscure enough to need an explanation. Till this time (says 

sc.i. KING HENRY VIII. 11 

Became the next day's master, till the last 
Made former wonders it's: 7 To-day, the French, 
All clinquant, 8 all in gold, like heathen gods, 
Shone down the English ; and, to-morrow, they 
Made Britain, India : every man, that stood, 
Show'd like a mine. Their dwarfish pages were 
As cherubins, all gilt : the madams too, 
Not us'd to toil, did almost sweat to bear 
The pride upon them, that their very labour 
Was to them as a painting : now this mask 
Was cry'd incomparable ; and the ensuing night 
Made it a fool, and beggar. The two kings, 
Equal in lustre, were now best, now worst, 

the speaker) pomp led a single life, as not finding a husband 
able to support her according to her dignity ; but she has now 
got one in Henry VIII. who could support her, even above her 
condition, in finery. WAHBURTON. 

Dr. Warburton has here discovered more beauty than the 
author intended, who only meant to say in a noisy periphrase, 
that pomp was encreast'd on this occasion to more lhan twice as 
much us it had ever been before. Pomp is no more married to 
the English than to the French King, for to neither is any pre- 
ference given by the speaker. Pomp is only married to pomp, 
but the new pomp is greater than the old. JOHNSON*. 

Before this time all pompous shows v.'ere exhibited by one 
prince only. On this occasion the Kings of England and 1 ranee 
vied with each other. To this circumstance Norfolk alludes. 

31. MASON. 

' Eachfolloiuing day 

Became the next day's master, &C.] Dies diem docct. 
Every day learned something from the preceding, till the con- 
cluding day collected all the splendor of all the former shows. 


8 All clinquant,] All glittering, all shining. Clarendon uses 
this word in his description of the Spanish Jitcgo de To rot. 


It is likewise used in A Memorable Masque, &c. performed 
before King James at Whitehall in 1G13, at the marriage of the 
Palsgrave and Princess Elizabeth : 

" his buskins clinquant as his other attire." 



As presence did present them ; him in eye, 
Still him in praise : 9 and, being present both, 
'Twas said, they saw but one ; and no discerner 
Durst wag his tongue in censure. 1 When these suns 
(For so they phrase them,) by their heralds chal- 


The noble spirits to arms, they did perform 
Beyond thought's compass ; that former fabulous 


Being now seen possible enough, got credit, 
That Bevis was believ'd. 2 

BUCK. O, you go far. 

NOR. As I belong to worship, and affect 
In honour honesty, the tract of every thing 3 
Would by a good discourser lose some life, 
Which action's self was tongue to. All was royal;* 

9 him in eye. 

Still him in praise:'] So, Dryden : 
" Two chiefs 

" So match'd, as each seem'd worthiest when alone." 


1 Durst tvag his tongue in censure.] Censure for determina- 
tion, of which had the noblest appearance. WARBURTON. 

See Vol. IV. p. 190, n. 4. MALONE. 

2 That Bevis turns believed.'] The old romantick legend of 
Bevis of Southampton. This Bevis, (or Beavois,) a Saxon, was 
for his prowess created by William the Conqueror Earl of South- 
ampton: of whom Camden in his Britannia. THEOBALD. 

3 the tract of every thing &c.] The course of these 

triumphs and pleasures, however well related, must lose in the 
description part of that spirit and energy which were expressed 
in the real action. JOHNSON. 

4 All voas royal; &c.] This speech was given in all the 

editions to Buckingham ; but improperly ; for he wanted infor- 
mation, having kept his chamber during the solemnity. I have 
therefore given it to Norfolk. WARBURTON. 

The regulation had already been made by Mr. Theobald. 



To the disposing of it nought rebell'd, 
Order gave each thing view ; the office did 
Distinctly his full function. 5 

BUCK. Who did guide, 

I mean, who set the body and the limbs 
Of this great sport together, as you guess ? 

NOR. One, certes, 6 that promises no element 7 
In such a business. 

BUCK. I pray you, who, my lord? 

NOR. All this was ordcr'd by the good discretion 
Of the right reverend cardinal of York. 

BUCK. The devil speed him ! no man's pie is 


From his ambitious finger. 8 What had he 
To do in these fierce vanities? 9 I wonder, 

* the office did 

Distinctly his full function."] The commission for regulating 
this festivity was well executed, and gave exactly to every parti- 
cular person and action the proper place. JOHNSON. 

5 cerfes,~\ An obsolete adverb, signifying certainly, in 

truth. So, in The Tempest: 

" For, certes, these are people of the island." 
It occurs again in Othello, Act I. sc. i. 

It is remarkable, that, in the present instance, the adverb 
certes must be sounded as a monosyllable. It is well understood 
that old lien had no skill in the pronunciation of the French 
language; and the scene before us appears to have had some 
touches from his pen. By genuine Shakspeare ccrtcs is con- 
stantly employed as a dissyllable. STEEVENS. 

~ clement ] No initiation, no previous practices. 

ments are the first principles of things, or rudiments of know- 
ledge. The word is here applied, not without a catachrcsit, to a 
person. JOHNSON. 

no man^s pie is free'd 

From his ambitious Jin<re.r.~\ To have a finger in the pie, is 
a proverbial phrase. See Hay, 214. REED. 

" fierce vanities?'] Fierce is here, I think, used like 


That such a keech l can with his very bulk 
Take up the rays o'the beneficial sun, 
And keep it from the earth. 

NOR. Surely, sir, 

There's in him stuff that puts him to these ends : 
For, being not propp'd by ancestry, (whose grace 
Chalks successors their way,) nor call'd upon 
For high feats done to the crown ; neither allied 
To eminent assistants, but, spider-like, 
Out of his self-drawing web, y he gives us note, 5 
The force of his own merit makes his way ; 
A gift that heaven gives for him, which buys 
A place next to the king. 4 

the French fier for proud, unless we suppose an allusion to the 
mimical ferocity of the combatants in the tilt. JOHNSON. 

It is certainly used as the French wordier. So, in Ben 
Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, the puritan says, the hobby horse 
" is a. fierce and rank idol.'* STEEVENS. 

Again, in The Rape of Lucrece : 

" Thy violent vanities can never last.'* 
In Timon of Athens , we have 

" O thejierce wretchedness that glory brings !" 


1 That such a keech ] A keech is a solid lump or mass. A 
cake of wax or tallow formed in a mould, is called yet in some 
places, a keech. JOHNSON. 

There may, perhaps, be a singular propriety in this term of 
contempt. Wotseij was the son of a butcher, and in The Second 
Part of King Henry IV. a. butcher's wife is called Goody 


2 Out of his se^drawing 'web,'] Thus it stands in the first 
edition. The latter editors, by injudicious correction, have 
printed : 

Out of his self-drawn lucb. JOHNSON. 

' he gives us notc,~] Old copy O gives us &c. Cor- 
rected by Mr. Steevens. MALONE. 

' -^ Sift that heaven gives for him, which buys 

A place next to the king.'] It is evident a word or two in 
the sentence is misplaced, and that we should read : 

ac. /. KING HENRY VIII. 15 

ABER. I cannot tell 

What heaven hath given him, let some graver eye 
Pierce into that ; but I can see his pride 
Peep through each part of him : 5 Whence has he 

that ? 

If not from hell, the devil is a niggard ; 
Or has given all before, and he begins 
A new hell in himself. 

BUCK. Why the devil, 

Upon this French going-out, took he upon him, 
Without the privity o* the king, to appoint 
Who should attend on him ? He makes up the file 6 
Of all the gentry ; for the most part such 

A gift that heaven gives ; "which buys for him. 
A place next to the king. WARBUKTON. 

It is full as likely that Shakspeare wrote: 

gives to him, 

which will save any greater alteration. JOHNSON. 

I am too dull to perceive the necessity of any change. What 
he is unable to give himself, heaven gives or deposits^/br him, 
and that gift, or deposit, buys a place, <S:c. STEEVENS. 

I agree with Johnson that we should read : 

A gift that heaven gives to him: 
for Abergavenny says in reply, 

" I cannot tell 

" What heaven hath given him ;" 

which confirms the justness of this amendment. I should other- 
wise have thought Steevens's explanation right. M. MASON. 

5 / can sec his pride 

Peep through each part of him :] So, in Troilus and 
Cressida .- 

" her wanton spirits look out 

" At every joint and motive of her body." STEEVENS. 

the fie ] That is, the list. JOHNSON*. 

So, in Measure for Measure: " The greater j^/e of the subject 
held the duke for wise." Again, in Macbeth : 

" 1 have i\Jile 

" Of all the gentry ." STEEVENS. 


Too, whom as great a charge as little honour 
He meant to lay upon : and his own letter, 
The honourable board of council out, 7 
Must fetch him in he papers. 8 

ABER. I do know 

Kinsmen of mine, three at the least, that have 
By this so sicken'd their estates, that never 
They shall abound as formerly. 

BUCK. O, many 

Have broke their backs with laying manors on them 
For this great journey. 9 What did this vanity, 

7 council out,"] Council not then sitting. JOHNSON. 

The expression rather means, " all mention of the board of 
council being left out of his letter." STEEVENS. 

That is, left out, omitted, unnoticed, unconsulted with. 


It appears from Holinshed, that this expression is rightly ex- 
plained by Mr. Pope in the next note: without the concurrence 
of the council. " The peers of the realme receiving letters to 
prepare themselves to attend the king in this journey, and rio 
apparent necessarie cause expressed, why or wherefore, seemed 
to grudge that such a costly journey should be taken in hand 
"without consent of the whole boards of the Counsaille." 


8 Must fetch him in he papers.] He papers, a verb ; his 
own letter, by his own single authority, and without the con- 
currence of the council, must fetch him in whom he papers 
down. I don't understand it, unless this be the meaning. 


Wolsey published a list of the several persons whom he had 
appointed to attend on the King at this interview. See Hall's 
Chronicle, Rymer's Fcedera, Tom. XIII. &c. STEEVENS. 

9 Have broke their backs with laying manors on them 

For this great journey. ~\ In the ancient Interlude (tfNaiurc t 
bl. 1. no date, but apparently printed in the reign of King 
Henry VIII. there seems to have been a similar stroke aimed 
at this expensive expedition: 

" Prydc. 1 am unhappy, I se it well, 

" For the expence ofmyne apparcll 

sc.i. KING HENRY VIII. 17 

But minister communication of 
A most poor issue ?' 

NOR. Grievingly I think, 

The peace between the French and us not values 
The cost that did conclude it. 

BUCK. Every man, 

After the hideous storm that follow'd, 2 was 

" Towardys this vyage 
" What in horses and other aray 
" Hath compelled me for to lay 
" All my land to mortgage." 

Chapman has introduced the same idea into his version of the 
second Iliad : 

" Proud-girle-like, that doth ever bcare her dowre upon 
her backc" STEEVENS. 

So, in King John : 

" Hash, inconsiderate, fiery voluntaries, 
" Have sold their fortunes at their native homes, 
" Bearing their birth-rights proudly on their backs, 
" To make a hazard of new fortunes here." 
Again, in Camden's Remains, 1605 : " There was a noble- 
man merrily conceited, and riotously given, that having lately 
sold a manner of an hundred tenements, came ruffling into the 
court, saying, am not I a mighty man, that beare an hundred 
houses on my backe?" MALONE. 

See also Dodsley's Collection of Old Flays, edit. 1780, Vol. V. 
p. 26 ; Vol. XII. p. 395. REED. 

So also Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy : " 'Tis an 
ordinary thing to put a thousand oakes, or an hundred oxen, 
into a sute of apparell, to \veare a whole manor on his back." 
Edit. 1631, p. -182. Wn ALLEY. 

1 U'hat did this reality, 

lint minister t'vc.] What elicit had this pompous show, 
but the production ot' a wretched conclusion. JOHNSON. 

* F.vcn/ man, 

After the hideous storm thai fulloiv'd, itc.] From Holin- 
shed: " Monday the xviii. of .Imu v was such an hideous stonne 
of wind ;uul wi'athiT, that many conjectured it did prognosticate 
trouble and hatred shortly alter to follow between princes. "- 
Dr. \\arburton has (|iiotctl n .similar passage from Hall, whom 
vol.. XV. <; 


A thing inspir'd ; and, not consulting, broke 
Into a general prophecy, That this tempest, 
Dashing the garment of this peace, aboded 
The sudden breach on't. 

NOR. Which is budded out ; 

For France hath flaw'd theleague,and hathattach'd 
Our merchants' goods at Bourdeaux. 

ABER. Is it therefore 

The ambassador is silenc'd ? 3 

NOR. Marry, is't. 

ABER. A proper title of a peace ; 4 and purchas'd 
At a superfluous rate ! 

BUCK. Why, all this business 

Our reverend cardinal carried. 5 

NOR. 'Like it your grace, 

he calls Shakspeare's author ; but Holinshed, and not Hall, was 
his author : as is proved here by the words which I have printed 
in Italicks, which are not found so combined in Hall's Chronicle. 
This fact is indeed proved by various circumstances. MALONE. 

3 The ambassador is silenc'd ?] Silenc'd for recalled. This 
being proper to be said of an orator; and an ambassador or 
publick minister being called an orator, he applies silenc'd to an 
ambassador. WARBURTON. 

I understand it rather of the French ambassador residing in 
England, who, by being refused an audience, may be said to be 
silenc'd. JOHNSON. 

4 A proper title of a peace ;] A fine name of a peace. 
Ironically. JOHNSON. 

So, in Macbeth : 

" O proper stuff! 

" This is the very painting of your fear.'* STEEVENS. 

3 this business 

Our reverend cardinal carricd.~\ To carry a business was 
at this time a current phrase for to conduct or manage it. So, 
in this Act: 

" he'd carry it so, 

'* To make the scepter his." REED, 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 19 

The state takes notice of the private difference 
Betwixt you and the cardinal. I advise you, 
(And take it from a heart that wishes towards you 
Honour and plenteous safety,) that you read 
The cardinal's malice and his potency 
Together : to consider further, that 
What his high hatred would effect, wants not 
A minister in his power : You know his nature, 
That he's revengeful ; and I know, his sword 
Hath a sharp edge : it's long, and, it may be said, 
It reaches far ; and where 'twill not extend, 
Thither he darts it. Bosom up my counsel, 
You'll find it wholesome. Lo, where comes that 

rock, 6 
That I advise your shunning. 

Enter Cardinal WOLSEY, (the Purse borne before 
him,} certain of the Guard, and two Secretaries 
tvith Papers. The Cardinal in his Passagejixeth 
him, both full of Disdain. 

WOL. The duke of Buckingham's surveyor ? ha ? 
Where's his examination ? 

1 SECR. Here, so please you. 

WOL. Is he in person ready ? 

1 SECR. Ay, please your grace. 

W<JL. Well, we shall then know more ; and 

Shall lessen this big look. 

{Exeunt WOLSEY, and Train. 

" comes that rock t ~] To make the rock come, is not very 

just. JOHNSON. 

c '2 


BUCK. This butcher's cur 7 is venom-mouth'd, 

and I 

Have not the power to muzzle him ; therefore, best 
Not wake him in his slumber. A beggar's book 
Out-worths a noble's blood. 8 

NOR. What, are you chaf *d ? 

Ask God for temperance ; that's the appliance only, 
Which your disease requires. 

BUCK. I read in his looks 

Matter against me ; and his eye revil'd 
Me, as his abject object : at this instant 
He bores me with some trick : 9 He's gone to the 

I'll follow, and out-stare him. 

NOR. Stay, my lord, 

7 butcher's cur 3 Wolsey is said to have been the son 

of a butcher. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Grey observes, that when the death of the Duke of Buck- 
ingham was reported to the Emperor Charles V. he said, " The 
first buck of England was worried to death by a butcher's dog." 
Skelton, whose satire is of the grossest kind, in Why come you 
not to Court, has the same reflection on the meanness of Cardinal 
Wolsey's birth : 

" For drede of the bouchcr's dog, 

" Wold wirry them like an hog." STEEVENS. 

8 A beggar's book 

Out-icorths a noble's blood.~] That is, the literary qualifi- 
cations of a bookish beggar are more prized than the high descent 
of hereditary greatness. This is a contemptuous exclamation 
very naturally put into the mouth of one of the ancient, unlet- 
tered, martial nobility. JOHNSON. 

It ought to be remembered that the speaker is afterward pro- 
nounced by the King himself a learned gentleman. RITSON. 

9 He bores me icilh some trick :~] He stabs or wounds me 
by some artifice or fiction. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Life and Death of Lord Cromive//, 1G02: 

" One that hath gull'd you, that hath bor'd you, sir.*' 



And let your reason with your choler question 
What 'tis you go about : To climb steep hills, 
Requires slow pace at first : Anger is like 
A full-hot horse ; ! who being allow'd his way, 
Self-mettle tires him. Not a man in England 
Can advise me like you : be to yourself 
As you would to your friend. 

BUCK. I'll to the king ; 

And from a mouth of honour 2 quite cry down 
This Ipswich fellow's insolence ; or proclaim, 
There's difference in no persons. 

NOR. Be advis'd ; 

Heat not a furnace for your foe so hot 
That it do singe yourself: 3 We may outrun, 
By violent swiftness, that which we run at, 
And lose by over-running. Know you not, 
The fire, that mounts the liquor till it run o'er, 
In seeming to augment it, wastes it ? Be advis'd: 
I say again, there is no English soul 
More stronger to direct you than yourself; 
If with the sap of reason you would quench, 

1 Anger is like 

A full-hot horse ;~\ So, Massinger, in The Unnatural 
Combat : 

" Let passion work, and, like a hot-rein'd horsp, 
" 'Twill quickly tire itself." STEEVEXS. 

Again, in our author's Rape of Lucrece : 

" Till, like ujade, self-mil himself doth tire." 


-from a mouth of honour ] I will crush this base- 

born fellow, by the due influence of my rank, or say that all 
distinction of persons is at an end. JOHNSON. 

' I leal not <i furnace &c.] Might not Shakspeare allude to 
Dan. iii. '2'2. ? " Therefore because the king's commandment 
was urgent, and the furnace exceeding hot, the fiame of lire 
>le\v those men that took up Shadrach, Mcs/iac, and Abednego" 



Or but allay, the fire of passion.* 

BUCK. Sir, 

I am thankful to you ; and I'll go along 
By your prescription : but this top-proud fellow, 
(Whom from the flow of gall I name not, but 
From sincere motions, 5 ) by intelligence, 
And proofs as clear as founts in July, when 
We see each grain of gravel, I do know 
To be corrupt and treasonous. 

NOR. Say not, treasonous. 

BUCK. To the king I'll say't ; and make my 

vouch as strong 

As shore of rock. Attend. This holy fox, 
Or wolf, or both, (for he is equal ravenous, 6 
As he is subtle ; and as prone to mischief, 
As able to perform it : his mind and place 
Infecting one another, 7 yea, reciprocally,) 
Only to show his pomp as well in France 
As here at home, suggests the king our master 8 

4 If with the sap of reason you ivould quench, 

Or but allay, thejire of passion,'] So, in Hamlet : 
" Upon the heat and flame of thy distemper 
" Sprinkle cool patience." STEEVENS. 

5 sincere motions, ) ] Honest indignation, warmth of 

integrity. Perhaps name not, should be blame not. 

Whom from thejtow of gall I blame not. JOHNSON. 

6 for he is equal ravenous,'] Equal for equally. Shak- 

speare frequently uses adjectives adverbially. See King John, 
Vol. X. p. 523, n. 4. MALONE. 

7 his mind and place 

Infecting one another,'] This is very satirical. His mind he 
represents as highly corrupt ; and yet he supposes the contagion 
of the place of first minister as adding an infection to it. 


8 suggests the king our master ] Suggests, for excites. 

So, in King Richard II : 

his soon-believing adversaries." STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. as 

To this last costly treaty, the interview, 

That swallow'd so much treasure, and like a glass 

Did break i' the rinsing. 

NOR. 'Faith, and so it did. 

BUCK. Pray, give me favour, sir. This cunning 


The articles o'the combination drew, 
As himself pleas'd; and they were ratified, 
As he cried, Thus let be : to as much end, 
As give a crutch to the dead: But our count-car- 
dinal 9 

Has done this, and 'tis well ; for worthy Wolsey, 
Who cannot err, he did it. Now this follows, 
(Which, as I take it, is a kind of puppy 
To the old dam, treason,) Charles the emperor, 
Under pretence to see the queen his aunt, 
(For 'twas, indeed, his colour; but he came 
To whisper Wolsey,) here makes visitation : 
His fears were, that the interview, betwixt 
England and France, might, through their amity, 
Breed him some prejudice; for from this league 
Peep'd harms that menac'd him : He privily 1 
Deals with our cardinal ; and, as I trow, 
Which I do well ; for, I am sure, the emperor 
Paid ere he promis'd ; whereby his suit was granted, 
Ere it was ask'd ; but when the way was made, 
And pav'd with gold, the emperor thus desir'd ; 
That lie would please to alter the king's course, 
And break the foresuid peace. Let the king know, 
(As soon he shall by me,) that thus the cardinal 

our count-cardinal ] Wolsey is afterwards called 
king cardinal. Mr. Pope and the subsequent editors read 
court -cardinal. MA LONE. 

1 He pr'rcil'/ ] //., which is not in the original copy, 

was added by the editor of the second folio. M ALONE. 


Does buy and sell his honour as he pleases, 2 
And for his own advantage. 

NOR. I am sorry 

To hear this of him ; and could wish, he were 
Something mistaken in't. 3 

BUCK. No, not a syllable ; 

I do pronounce him in that very shape, 
He shall appear in proof. 

Enter BRANDON ; a Sergeant at Arms before him, 
and two or three of the Guard. 

BRAN. Your office, sergeant ; execute it. 

SERG. Sir, 

My lord the duke of Buckingham, and earl 
Of Hereford, Stafford, and Northampton, I 
Arrest thee of high treason, in the name 
Of our most sovereign king. 

BUCK. Lo you, my lord, 

The net has falPn upon me ; I shall perish 
Under device and practice. 4 

2 thus the cardinal 

Does buy and sell his honour as he pleases,'] This was a 
proverbial expression. See King Richard III. Act V. sc. iii. 

The same phrase occurs also in King Henry VI. Part I : 

" from bought and sold lord Talbot." 

Again, in The Comedy of Errors : " It would make a man as 
mad as a buck, to be so bought and sold." STEKVENS. 

3 he were 

Something mistaken in't.'] That is, that he were something 
different from what he is taken or supposed by you to be. 


4 practice.^ i. e. unfair stratagem. So, in Ol 'hello , 

ActV: J 

" Fallen in the practice of a cursed slave." 
And in this play, Surrey, speaking of Wolsey, says : 
" How came his practices to light ?" HEED. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 25 

BRAN. I am sorry 

To see you ta'en from liberty, to look on 
The business present : r> 'Tis his highness' pleasure, 
You shall to the Tower. 

BUCK. It will help me nothing, 

To plead mine innocence ; for that die is on me, 
Which makes my whitest part black. The will of 


Be done in this and all things ! I obey. 
O my lord Aberga'ny, fare you well. 

BRAN. Nay, he must bear you company: The 

Is pleas'd, you shall to the Tower, till you know 
How lie determines further. 

ASER. As the duke said 

The will of heaven be done, and the king's pleasure 
By me obey'd. 

BRAN. Here is a warrant from 

The king, to attach lordMontacute; 6 and thcbodies 
Of the duke's confessor, John do la Court, 7 
One Gilbert Peck, his chancellor, 1 " 

5 I am sorry 

To see you ta'en from liberty, to look on 
The business present .-] I am sorry that I am obliged to be 
present and an eye-witness of your loss of liberty. JOHNSON'. 

'' lord Mont acute ;] This was Henry Pole, grandson to 

George Duke of Clarence, and eldest brother to Cardinal Pole. 
He had married the Lord Abergavennv's daughter. lie was 
restored to favour at this juncture, but was afterwards executed 
for another treason in this reign. KKI:D. 

John de la Court, ~\ The name of this monk of the 
Chartreux was John de. la Car, alias de la Court. See Holin- 
shed, p. 8M. STKKVKNS. 

b One Ciilbert Peck, his chancellor,] The old copies have 
it his ; but I, from the authorities of Hall and Ho- 
linshed, changed it to chancellor. And our poet himself, in tilt- 
beginning of the second Act, vouches for this correction : 


BUCK. So, so ; 

These are the limbs of the plot : No more, I hope. 

BRAN. A monk o' the Chartreux. 

BUCK. O, Nicholas Hopkins? 9 

BRAN. He. 

BUCK. My surveyor is false ; the o'er-great car- 

Hath show'd him gold: my life is spann'd already: 1 
I am the shadow of poor Buckingham ; 2 
Whose figure even this instant cloud puts on, 
By dark'ning my clear sun. 3 My lord, farewell. 


" At which, appear'd against him his surveyor, 
" Sir Gilbert Peck, his chancellor." THEOBALD. 

I believe [in the former instance] the author wrote And 
Gilbert &c. MALONE. 

9 Nicholas Hopkins?"] The old copy has Michael 
Hopkins. Mr. Theobald made the emendation, conformably 
to the Chronicle : " Nicholas Hopkins, a monk of an house of 
the Chartreux order, beside Bristow, called Henton." In the 
MS. Nich. only was probably set down, and mistaken for Mich. 


1 my life is spann'd already ] To span is to gripe, or 

inclose in the hand ; to span is also to measure by the palm and 
fingers. The meaning, therefore, may either be, that hold is 
taken of my life, my life is in the gripe of my enemies ; or, that 
my time is measured, the length of my life is now determined. 


Man's life, in scripture, is said to be but a span long. Pro- 
bably, therefore, it means, when 'tis spann'd 'tis ended. 


z I am the shadow of poor Buckingham ;~\ So, in the old 
play of King Leir, 1605 : 

" And think me but the shadow of myself." 

J J * c> 


J I am the shadow of poor Buckingham ; 
Whose figure even this instant cloud puts on, 
By dark'ning my clear sun.'] These lines have passed all 
the editors. Does the reader understand them ? By me they 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 27 


The Council-Chamber, 

Cornets. Enter King HENRY, Cardinal WOLSEY, 
the Lords of the Council, Sir THOMAS LOVELL, 
Officers, and Attendants. The King enters lean- 
in": on the Cardinal 's Shoulder. 


K. HEN. My life itself, and the best heart of it, 4 
Thanks you for this great care : I stood i' the level 

are inexplicable, and must be left, I fear, to some happier saga- 
city. It'tbe usage of our author's time could allow Jigure to be 
taken, as now, for dignity or importance, we might read : 

Whose Jigure even this instant cloud puts out. 
But I cannot please myself with any conjecture. 

Another explanation may be given, somewhat harsh, but the 
best that occurs to me : 

/ am the shadow of poor Buckingham, 

Whose figure even this instant cloud puts on, 
whose port and dignity is assumed by the Cardinal, that over- 
clouds and oppresses me, and who gains my place 

By darkening my clear sun. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Shakspeare has expressed the same idea more clearly 

in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Antony and Cleopatra, and 

King John : 

" O, how this spring of love resembletll 

" Th' uncertain glory of an April day, 

" Which now shows all the beauty of the sun, 

" And, by and by, a cloud takes all away." 

Antony, remarking on the various appearances assumed by the 

flying vapours, adds : 

" now thy captain is 

" Even such a body : here I am Antony, 

" But cannot hold this visible shape, my knave." 

Or, yet more appositely, in King John : 

" being but the shadow of your son 

" Becomes a sun, and makes your son a shadow." 


Of a full-charg'd confederacy, 5 and give thanks 
To you that chok'd it. Let be calPd before us 

Such another thought occurs in The famous History of Thomas 
Stukely, 1605: 

" He is the substance of my shadoivcd love." 
There is likewise a passage similar to the conclusion of this, 
in Rollo, or the Bloody Brother, of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" is drawn so high, that, like an ominous comet, 

" He darkens a/I your light." 

We might, however, read pouts on ; i. e. looks gloomily 
upon. So, in Coriolanus, Act V. sc. i: 

" then 

" Vfe pout upon the morning, are unapt 

" To give, or to forgive." 
Again, in Romeo and Juliet, Act III. sc. iii: 

" Thou pout'st upon thy fortune and thy love." 
Wolsey could only reach Buckingham through the medium of 
the King's power. The Duke therefore compares the Cardinal 
to a cloud, which intercepts the rays of the sun, and throws a 
gloom over the object beneath it. " I am (says he) but the 
shadow of poor Buckingham, on whose figure this impending 
cloud looks gloomy, having got between me and the sunshine of 
royal favour." 

Our poet has introduced a somewhat similar idea in Mitch 
Ado about Nothing: 

" the pleached bower, 

" Where honeysuckles, ripen'd by the sun, 

" Forbid the sun to enter ; like favourites 

" Made proud by princes ." 

To pout is at this time a phrase descriptive only of infantine 
sullenness, but might anciently have had a more consequential 

I should wish, however, instead of 

By darkening my clear sun, 
to read 

Re-dark 1 ning my clear sun. 
So, in The Tempest : 

" I have iodimm'd 

" The noontide sun." STEEVJCXS. 

The following passage in Greene's Dorastus and Faivnia, 
1588, (a book which Shakspeare certainly had read,) adds sup- 
port to Dr. Johnson's conjecture : " Fortune, envious of such 
happy successe, turned her wheele, and darkened their 1 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 29 

That gentleman of Buckingham's : in person 
I'll hear him his confessions justify ; 
And point by point the treasons of his master 
He shall again relate. 

sunne of prosperitie with the mistie cloudes of mishap ami 

Mr. M. Mason has observed that Dr. Johnson did not do jus- 
tice to his own emendation, referring the words whose figure to 
Buckingham, when, in fact, they relate to shadow. Sir W. Black- 
stone had already explained the passage in this manner. 


By adopting Dr. Johnson's first conjecture, " puts out," for 
" puts on," a tolerable sense may be given to these obscure lines. 
" I am but the shadow of poor Buckingham : and even the figure 
or outline of this shadow begins now to fade away, being extin- 
guished by this impending cloud, which darkens (or interposes 
between me and) my clear sun ; that is, the favour of my sove- 
reign." BLACKSTONE. 

and the best heart ?///,] Heart is not here taken for 
the great organ of circulation and life, but, in a common, and 
popular sense, for the most valuable or precious part. Our 
author, in Hamlet, mentions the heart of hear!. Exhausted 
and effete ground is said by the fanner to be out of heart. The 
hard and inner part of the oak is called heart of oak. 


* stood /' the level 

Of a full-charged confederacy,"] To stand in the level of a 
gun is to stand in a line ivith its mouth, so as to be hit by tin- 
shot. JOHNSON. 

So, in our author's Lover's Complaint : 

" not a heart which in his level came 

" Could scape the hail of his all-hurting aim." 

Again, in our author's 117th Sonnet: 

" Bring me within the level of your frown, 
" But shoot not at me," <S:c. 
See also Vol. IX. p. '271, n. 4 ; and p. 291, n. 8. MALONK. 


The King takes his State. The Lords of the Coun- 
cil take their several Places. The Cardinal places 
himself under the King's Feet, on his right Side. 

A Noise within, crying, Room for the Queen. 
Enter the Queen, ushered by the Dukes of NOR- 
FOLK and SUFFOLK : she kneels. The King 
riseth from his State, takes her up, kisses, and 
placeth her by him. 

Q. KATH. Nay, we must longer kneel ; I am a 

K. HEN. Arise, and take place by us : Half 

your suit 

Never name to us ; you have half our power : 
The other moiety, ere you ask, is given j 
Repeat your will, and take it. 

Q. KATH. Thank your majesty. 

That you would love yourself; and, in that love, 
Not unconsider'd leave your honour, nor 
The dignity of your office, is the point 
Of my petition. 

K. HEN. Lady mine, proceed. 

Q. KATH. I am solicited, not by a few, 
And those of true condition, that your subjects 
Are in great grievance : there have been commis- 

Sent down among them, which hath flaw'd the heart 
Of all their loyalties: wherein, although, 
My good lord cardinal, they vent reproaches 
Most bitterly on you, as putter-on 
Of these exactions, 6 yet the king our master, 

as putter-on 

Of these exactions,'] The instigator of these exactions; the 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. si 

(Whose honour heaven shield from soil !) even he 

escapes not 

Language unmannerly, yea, such which breaks 
The sides of loyalty, and almost appears 
In loud rebellion. 

NOR. Not almost appears, 

It doth appear : for, upon these taxations, 
The clothiers all, not able to maintain 
The many to them 'longing, 7 have put off 
The spinsters, carders, fullers, weavers, who, 
Unfit for other life, compell' d by hunger 
And lack of other means, in desperate manner 
Daring the event to the teeth, are all in uproar, 
And Danger serves among them. 8 

person who suggested to the King the taxes complained of, and 
incited him to exact them from his subjects. So, in Macbeth : 

" The powers above 

" Put on their instruments." 
Again, in Hamlet : 

" Of deaths put on by cunning and forc'd cause." 

See Vol. X. p. 252, n. 4. STEEVENS. 

" The many to them 'longing,'] The mawj is the meiny, the 
train, the people. Dryden is, perhaps, the last that used this 

" The kings before their many rode." JOHNSON. 

I believe the many is only the multitude, the oi roAAoi. Thus, 
Coriolanus, speaking of the rabble, calls them 

" the mutable rank-scented many." STEEVENS. 

9 And Danger serves among thcm.~] Could one easily believe 
that a writer, who had, but immediately before, sunk so low in 
his expression, should here rise again to a height so truly *vib- 
lime ? where, by the noblest stretch of fancy, Danger is per- 
sonalized as serving in the rebel army, and shaking the esta- 
blished government. WAUBURTOX. 

Chaucer, Gower, Skelton, and Spenser, have personified 
Danger. The (irst, in his Romannt of the Rose ; the second, 
in his fifth Book, DC Confessionc Amantis ; the third, in his 

Boiige oj Court 


K. HEN. Taxation ! 

Wherein ? and what taxation ? My lord cardinal, 
You that are blam'd for it alike with us, 
Know you of this taxation ? 

WOL. Please you, sir, 

I know but of a single part, in aught 
Pertains to the state ; and front but in that file 9 
Where others tell steps with me. 

Q. KATH. No, my lord, 

You know no more than others : but you frame 
Things, that are known alike ; 1 w r hich are not 


To those which would not know them, and yet must 
Perforce be their acquaintance. These exactions, 
Whereof my sovereign would have note, they are 
Most pestilent to the hearing ; and, to bear them, 
The back is sacrifice to the load. They say, 
They are devis'd by you ; or else you suffer 
Too hard an exclamation. 

K. HEN. Still exaction ! 

The nature of it ? In what kind, let's know, 
Is this exaction ? 

" With that, anone out start dangerc ;" 

and the fourth, in the 10th Canto of the 4th Book of his Fairy 
Queen, and again in the fifth Book and the ninth Canto. 


9 front but in that file ] I am but primus inter pares. 

I am but first in the row of counsellors. JOHNSON. 

This was the very idea that Wolsey wished to disclaim. It 
was not his intention to acknowledge that he was the first in the 
row of counsellors, but that he was merely on a level with the 
rest, and stept in the same line with them. M. MASON. 

1 You know no more than others : &c.~] That is, you know 
no more than other counsellors, but you are the person who 
frame those things which are afterwards proposed, and known 
equally by all. M. MASON. 


Q. KATH. I am much too venturous 

In tempting of your patience ; but am bolden'd 
Under your promis'd pardon. The subject's grief 
Comes through commissions, which compel from 


The sixth part of his substance, to be levied 
Without delay ; and the pretence for this 
Is nam'd, your wars in France : This makes bold 

mouths : 

Tongues spit their duties out, and cold hearts freeze 
Allegiance in them ; their curses now, 
Live where their prayers did; and it's come to pass, 
That tractable obedience is a slave 
To each incensed will. 2 I would, your highness 
Would give it quick consideration, for 
There is no primer business. 3 

s tractable obedience &c.~] i. e. those who are tractable 

and obedient, must give way to others who are angry. 


The meaning of this is, that the people were so much irritated 
by oppression, that their resentment got the better of their obe- 
dience. M. MASON. 

The meaning, I think, is Things are now in such a situation, 
that resentment and indignation predominate in every man's 
breast over duty and allegiance. MA LONE. 

3 There is no primer business.] In the old edition 

There is no primer baseness. 

The queen is here complaining of the suffering of the commons, 
which, she suspects, arose from the abuse of power in some 
great men. But she is very reserved in speaking her thoughts 
concerning the quality of it. We may be assured then, that she 
did not, in conclusion, call it the highest baseness ; but rather 
made use of a word that could not offend the Cardinal, and yet 
would incline the King to give it a speedy hearing. I read 
therefore : 

There is no primer business. 
i. c. no matter of state that more earnestly presses a despatch. 


Dr. Warburton (for reasons which he has given in his note) 
would read : 

1 no primer business : 



K. HEN. By my life, 

This is against our pleasure. 

WOL. And for me, 

I have no further gone in this, than by 
A single voice ; and that not pass'd me, but 
By learned approbation of the judges. 
If I am traduc'd by tongues, which neither know 
My faculties, nor person, 4 yet will be 
The chronicles of my doing, let me say, 
J Tis but the fate of place, and the rough brake 
That virtue must go through. We must not stint 5 
Our necessary actions, in the fear 
To cope 6 malicious censurers ; which ever, 
As ravenous fishes, do a vessel follow 
That is new trimm'd ; but benefit no further 
Than vainly longing. What we oft do best, 
By sick interpreters, once weak ones, 7 is 

but I think the meaning of the original word is sufficiently clear. 
No primer baseness is no mischief more ripe or ready for redress. 
So, in Othello : 

" Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkies ." 


4 If I am traduc'd by tongues, which neither know 

My faculties, nor person,"] The old copy by ignorant 
tongues. But surely this epithet must have been an interpolation, 
the ignorance of the supposed speakers being sufficiently indi- 
cated by their knowing neither the faculties nor person of the 
Cardinal. I have, therefore, with Sir T. Hanmer, restored the 
measure, by the present omission. STEEVENS. 

5 We must not stint ] To stint is to stop, to retard. Many 
instances of this sense of the word are given in a note on Jtomco 
and Juliet, Act I. sc. iii. STEEVENS. 

To cope ] To engage with, to encounter. The word i 
still used in some counties. JOHNSON. 

So, in As you like it : 

" I love to cope him in these sullen fits." STEEVENS. 

7 once weak ones,~\ The modern editors read or weal; 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 35 

Not ours, or not allow'd ; 8 what worst, as oft, 
Hitting a grosser quality, 9 is cried up 
For our best act. 1 If we shall stand still, 
In fear our motion will be mock'd or carp'd at, 
We should take root here where we sit, or sit 
State statues only. 

K. HEN. Things done well, 2 

And with a care, exempt themselves from fear ; 
Things done without example, in their issue 
Are to be fear'd. Have you a precedent 
Of this commission ? I believe, not any. 
We must not rend our subjects from our laws, 
And stick them in our will. Sixth part of each ? 
A trembling contribution ! Why, we take, 
From every tree, lop, bark, and part o' the timber ;* 

ones ; but once is not unfrequcntly used for sometime, or at one 
time or other, among our ancient writers. 

So, in the 13th Idea of Drayton: 

" This diamond shall once consume to dust." 
Again, in The Merry Wives of Windsor : " I pray thee, once 
to-night give my sweet Nan this ring." 

Again, in Leicester's Commonwealth : " if God should 

take from us her most excellent majesty (as once he will) and so 
leave us destitute ." STEEVEXS. 

or not allow'd;] Not approved. See Vol. V. p. 95, 

n. ,3. MA LONE. 

-what worst, as oft, 

Hitting a grosser quality ,~\ The worst actions of great men 
are commended by the vulgar, as more accommodated to the 
grossness of their notions. JOHNSON. 

1 For our best act.] I suppose, for the sake of measure, we 
should read action. Perhaps the three last letters of this word 
were accidentally omitted by the compositor. STKEVEXS. 

8 Things done well,'] Sir T. Hanmer, very judiciously in my 
opinion, completes the measure by reading : 

Things that are done nW/. STKI.VKNS. 

* From every tree, lop, btir/-.\ and part o' the timber;"] Lop 
is a substantive, and signifies the brunches. WAKBURTOX. 

D 2 


And, though we leave it with a root, thus hack'd, 
The air will drink the sap. To every county, 
Where this is question' d, send our letters, with 
Free pardon to each man that has denied 
The force of this commission : Pray, look to't j 
I put it to your care. 

WOL. A word with you. 

[To the Secretary. 

Let there be letters writ to every shire, 
Of the king's grace and pardon. The griev'd 


Hardly conceive of me ; let it be nois'd, 
That, through our intercession, this revokement 
And pardon comes : 4 I shall anon advise you 
Further in the proceeding. [Exit Secretary. 

Enter Surveyor. 5 

Q. KATH. I am sorry, that the duke of Buck- 
Is run in your displeasure. 

K. HEN. It grieves many : 

The gentleman is learn'd, 6 and a most rare speaker, 

4 That, through our intercession, c.] So, in Holinslied, 
p. 892 : " The cardinal!, to deliver himself from the evill will of 
the commons, purchased by procuring and advancing of this 
demand, affirmed, and caused it to he hruted abrode that 
through his intercession the king had pardoned and released all 
things." STEEVEXS. 

3 Enter Surveyor."] It appears from Holinshed that his name 
was Charles Knyoct. RITSOX. 

u The gentleman is learn'd, &f.] We understand from 
" The Prologue of the translatour," that the Knyghte of the 
Swanne, a French romance, was translated at the request of 
this unfortunate nobleman. Copland, the printer, adds, 
*"' this present, history compyled, named Heli/as the Knight 

sc. n. KING HENRY VIII. 37 

To nature none more bound ; his training such, 

That he may furnish and instruct great teachers, 

And never seek for aid out of himself. 7 

Yet see 

When these so noble benefits shall prove 

Not well dispos'd, 8 the mind growing once corrupt, 

They turn to vicious forms, ten times more ugly 

Than ever they were fair. This man so complete, 

Who was enroll'd 'mongst wonders, and when we, 

Almost with ravish'd listening, could not find 

His hour of speech a minute ; he, my lady, 

Hath into monstrous habits put the graces 

That once were his, and is become as black 

As if besmear'd in hell. 9 Sit by us ; you shall hear 

(This was his gentleman in trust,) of him 

Things to strike honour sad. Bid him recount 

The fore-recited practices ; whereof 

We cannot feel too little, hear too much. 

WOL. Stand forth ; and with bold spirit relate 

what you, 

Most like a careful subject, have collected 
Out of the duke of Buckingham. 


of the Stvannr, <tf mhom linially is descended my said lord.' 1 
The duke was executed on Friday the 17th ot May, 1521. 
The book has no date. STEEVENS. 

7 And never seek for aid out of himself.] Beyond the trea- 
sures of his own mind. JOHNSON. 

Read : 

And ne'er seek aid out of himself. Yet sec, . RITSON. 

* noble benefits 

Not well dispos'd,~] Great gifts of nature and education, 
not joined with good dispositions. JOHNSON. 

9 is become as black 

As if besmear' d in hell.~\ So, in Othello: 

" Her name, that was as fresh 

" As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black 
" As mine own face." STEEVENS. 


K. HEN. Speak freely. 

SURV. First, it was usual with him, every day 
It would infect his speech, That if the king 
Should without issue die, he'd carry it 1 so 
To make the scepter his : These very words 
I have heard him utter to his son-in-law, 
Lord Aberga'ny ; to whom by oath he menac'd 
Revenge upon the cardinal. 

WOL. Please your highness, note 

This dangerous conception in this points 
Not friended by his wish, to your high person 
His will is most malignant ; and it stretches 
Beyond you, to your friends. 

Q. KATH. My learn'd lord cardinal, 

Deliver all with charity. 

K. HEN. Speak on ; 

How grounded he his title to the crown, 
Upon our fail ? to this point hast thou heard him 
At any time speak aught ? 

SURV. He was brought to this 

By a vain prophecy of Nicholas Hopkins. 3 

1 he'd carry it ] Old copy ke'L Corrected by Mr. 

Howe. MALONE. 

' This dangerous conception in this point.~\ Note this parti- 
cular part of this dangerous design. JOHNSON. 

3 By a vain prophecy of Nicholas Hopkins.] In former 
editions : 

By a rain prophecy of Nicholas Henton. 

We heard before from Brandon, of one Nicholas Hopkins ; and 
now his name is changed into Henton ; so that Brandon and the 
surveyor seem to be in two stories. There is, however, but one 
and the same person meant, Hopkins, as I have restored it in the 
text, for perspicuity's sake ; yet it will not be any difficulty to 
account for the other name, when we come to consider that he 
was a monk of the convent, called Henton, near Bristol. So 
both Hall and llolinshed acquaint us. And he might, according 

sr. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 39 

A". HEN. What was that Hopkins ? 

SURV. Sir, a Chartreux friar, 

His confessor ; who fed him every minute 
With words of sovereignty. 

A'. HEN. How know'st thou this ? 

SURV. Not long before your highness sped to 


The duke being at the Rose, within the parish 
Saint Lawrence Poultney, 4 did of me demand 
What was the speech amongst the Londoners 
Concerning the French journey : I replied, 
Men fear'd, the French would prove perfidious, 
To the king's danger. Presently the duke 
Said, *Twas the fear, indeed ; and that he doubted, 
'Twould prove the verity of certain words 
Spoke by a holy monk ; that oft, says he, 
Hath sent to me, wishing me to permit 
John de la Court, my chaplain, a choice hour 
To hear from him a matter of some moment : 
Whom after under the confession 1 s seal 5 

to the custom of these times, be called Nicholas of Henton, 
from the place ; as Hopkins from his family. THEOBALD. 

This mistake, as it was undoubtedly made by Shakspeare, is 
worth a note. It would be doing too great an honour to the 
players to suppose them capable of being the authors of it. . 


Shakspeare was perhaps led into the mistake by inadvertently 
referring the words, " called Ilenton," in the passage already 
quoted from Holinshed, (p. 26, n. 9,) not to the monastery, but 
to the monk. MALONE. 

4 The duke bc/tig at t)ic Rose, tSrc.] This house was pur- 
chased about the year 1561, by llichard Hill, sometime master 
of the Merchant Tailors companv, and is now the Merchant 
Tailors school, in Suffolk-lane. \VnAi.i. I;Y. 

4 under ///< confession's seal ] All the editions, down 

from the beginning, have commission's. But what commission's 


He solemnly had sworn, that, what he spoke, 

My chaplain to no creature living, but 

To me, should utter, with demure confidence 

This pausingly ensu'd, Neither the king, nor his 


( Tell you the duke} shall prosper : bid him strive 
To gain the love 6 of the commonalty the duke 
Shall govern England. 

Q. KATH. If I know you well, 

You were the duke's surveyor, and lost your office 
On the complaint o' the tenants: Take good heed, 
You charge not in your spleen a noble person, 
And spoil your nobler soul ! I say, take heed ; 
Yes, heartily beseech you. 

K. HEN. Let him on : 

Go forward. 

SURF. On my soul, I'll speak but truth. 

I told my lord the duke, By the devil's illusions 

seal? That is a question, I dare say, none of our diligent editors 
asked themselves. The text must be restored, as I have cor- 
rected it; and honest Holinshed, [p. 863,] from whom our 
author took the substance of this passage, may be called in as a 
testimony. " The duke in talk told the monk, that he had done 
very well to bind his chaplain, John de la Court, under the seal 
of confession, to keep secret such matter." THEOBALD. 

5 To gain the love ] The old copy reads To the love. 


For the insertion of the word gain I am answerable. From 
the corresponding passage in Holinshed, it appears evidently to 
have been omitted through the carelessness of the compositor : 
" The said monke told to De la Court, neither the king nor his 
heirs should prosper, and that I should endeavour to purchase the 
good wills of the commonalty of England." 

Since I wrote the above, I find this correction had been made 
by the editor of the fourth folio. MALONE. 

It had been adopted by Mr. Rowe, and all subsequent editors. 


sc. n. KING HENRY VIII. 41 

The monk might be deceiv'd ; and that 'twas 

dang'rous for him, 7 
To ruminate on this so far, until 
It forg'd him some design, which, being believ'd, 
It was much like to do : He answer'd, Tusk ! 
It can do me no damage: adding further, 
That, had the king in his last sickness faiPd, 
The cardinal's and sir Thomas Lovell's heads 
Should have gone off. 

K. HEX. Ha! what, so rank? 8 Ah, ha! 

There's mischief in this man : Canst thou say 

further ? 

SURV. I can, my liege. 

A'. HEN. Proceed. 

Sunr. Being at Greenwich, 

After your highness had reprov'd the duke 
About sir William Blomer, 

K. HEX. I remember, 

Of such a time : Being my servant sworn, 9 

The duke retain'd him his. But on ; What 

hence ? 

SURV. If, quoth he, I for this had been com- 

As, to the Tower, I thought, I would have played 
The part my father meant to act upon 

7 for him,] Old copy for this. Corrected by Mr. 

Rowc. MALONE. 

so rank?] Rank weeds, are weeds grown up to great 

height and strength. What, says the King, uas he advanced to 
t/i is pitch ? Jo H N so x. 

9 Being mi/ servant sworn, &c.] Sir William Blomer, 

(Ilolinshed calls him Uulmcr,) was reprimanded hy the King in 
the star-chamber, for that, being his sworn servant, he had left 
the King's service for the duke of Buckingham's. 

Edwards' s MSS. STEE YEN s. 


The usurper Richard : who, being at Salisbury, 
Made suit to come in his presence; which if granted, 
As he made semblance of his duty, would 
Have put his knife into him. 1 

K. HEN. A giant traitor ! 

WOL. Now, madam, may his highness live in 

And this man out of prison ? 

Q. KATH. God mend all ! 

K. HEN. There's something more would out of 
thee; What say' st? 

SURV. After the duke his father, with the 

1 Have put his knife into him.] The accuracy of Holinshed, 
if from him Shakspeare took his account of the accusations and 
punishment, together with the qualities of the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, is proved in the most authentick manner by a very 
curious report of his case in East. Term, 13 Henry VIII. in the 
year books published by authority, fol. 11 and 12, edit. 1597. 
After, in the most exact manner, setting forth the arrangement 
of the Lord High Steward, the Peers, the arraignment, and 
other forms and ceremonies, it says : " Et issint fuit arreine 
Edward Due de Buckingham, le derrain jour de Terme le xij 
jour de May, le Due de Norfolk donques cstant Grand seneschal : 
la cause fuit, pur ceo que il avoit entend 1' mort de nostre Srir. 
le Rey. Car premicrment un Moine del' Abbey de Henton in le 
countie de Somerset dit a lui que il sera Roy command' luy de 
obtenir le benevolence del' communalte, & sur ceo il dona ccr- 
taines robbes a cest entent. A que il dit que le moine ne onques 
dit ainsi a lui, & que il ne dona ceux clones a cest intent. 
Donques auteiibits il dit, si le Roy morust sans issue male, il 
voul' estre Roy : & auxi que il disoit, si le Roy avoit lui commis 
al' prison, donques il voul' lui occire ove son dagger. Mes touts 
ceux matters il denia in effect, mes fuit trove coulp: Et pur ceo 
il avoit jugement comme traitre, et fuit decolle le Vendrcdy de- 
vant le Feste del Pentecost que fuit le xiij jour de May avant dit. 
Dieu a sa ame grant mercy car il fuit trcs noble prince & pru- 
dent, et mirror de tout courtesie." VAILLANT. 

7. //. KING HENRY VIII. 43 

He stretch'd him, and, with one hand on-hisdagger, 
Another spread on his breast, mounting his eyes, 
He did discharge a horrible oath ; whose tenour 
Was, Were he evil us'd, lie would out-go 
His father, by as much as a performance 
Does an irresolute purpose. 

K. HEN. There's his period, 

To sheath his knife in us. He is attach'd ; 
Call him to present trial : if he may 
Find mercy in the law, 'tis his ; if none, 
Let him not seek't of us : By day and night, 2 
He's traitor to the height. {_Exeunt. 

* By day and night, 1 This, I believe, was a phrase 

anciently signifying at all times, every txay, completely. In 
The Merry Wives of Windsor, Fulstaff, at the end of his letter 
to Mrs. Ford, styles himself: 

" Thine own true knight, 

" By day or night e," &c. 

Again, (I must repeat a quotation I have elsewhere employed, ) 
in the third Book of Gower, DC Confessione Amantis: 

" The sonne cleped was Machayre, 

" The daughter eke Canace hight, 

" By dale bothe and eke by nig/it." 

The King's words, however, by some criticks, have been 
considered as an adjuration. I do not pretend to have deter- 
mined the exact force of them. STEEVENS. 



A Room in the Palace. 
Enter the Lord Chamberlain, 3 and Lord SANDS.* 

CHAM. Is it possible, the spells of France should 

Men into such strange mysteries? 5 

3 Lord Chamberlain ] Shakspeare has placed this scene 

in 1521. Charles Earl of Worcester was then Lord Chamber- 
lain ; but when the King in fact went in masquerade to Cardinal 
Wolsey's house, Lord Sands, who is here introduced as going 
thither with the Chamberlain, himself possessed that office. 


Lord Chamberlain ] Charles Somerset, created Earl of 
Worcester 5 Henry VIII. He was Lord Chamberlain both to 
Henry VII. and Henry VIII. and continued in the office until 
his death, 1526. REED. 

* Lord Sands.] Sir William Sands, of the Vine, near Basing- 
stoke, in Hants, was created a peer 1521. He became Lord 
Chamberlain upon the death of the Earl of Worcester in 1526. 


5 Is it possible, the spells of France shoidd juggle 

Men into such strange mysteries ?] Mysteries were allego- 
rical shows, which the mummers of those times exhibited in odd 
fantastick habits. Mysteries are used, by an easy figure, for 
those that exhibited mysteries; and the sense is only, that the 
travelled Englishmen were metamorphosed, by foreign fashions, 
into such an uncouth appearance, that they looked like mummers 
in a mystery. JOHNSON. 

That mysteries is the genuine reading, [Dr. Warburton would 
read mockeries'] and that it is used in a different sense from the 
one here given, will appear in tire following instance from Dray- 
ton's Shepherd's Garland: 

" even so it fareth now with thee, 

" And with these wizards of thy mysterie" 
The context of which shows, that by wizards are meant poets, 
and by mysterie their poetick skill, which was before called 

ac. in. KING HENRY VIII. 45 

SAXDS. New customs, 

Though they be never so ridiculous, 
Nay, let them be unmanly, yet are followed. 

CHAM. As far as I see, all the good our English 
Have got by the late voyage, is but merely 
A fit or two o'the face; 6 but they are shrewd ones; 
For when they hold them, you would swear directly, 
Their very noses had been counsellors 
To Pepin, or Clotharius, they keep state so. 

SAXDS. They have all new legs, and lame ones; 

one would take it, 

That never saw them 7 pace before, the spavin, 
A springhalt reign'd among them. 8 

CHAM. Death ! my lord, 

" mister artes." Hence the mysteries in Shakspeare signify those 
fontastick manners and fashions of the French, which had ope- 
rated as spells or enchantments. HEXLEY. 

A Jit or two o'the face ;] A fit of the face seems to be what 
we now term a grimace, an artificial cast of the countenance. 


Fletcher has more plainly expressed the same thought in The 
Elder Brother : 

" learnt new tongues 

" To vary his face as seamen do their compass." 


' That never saw them ] Old copy sec 'em. Corrected 
by Mr. Pope. MALOXE. 

8 A springhalt reign'd among thcm.~\ The stringfialt, or 
springhalt, (as the old copy reads,) is a disease incident to 
horses, which gives them a convulsive motion in their paces. 

So, in Mideasses the Turk, 1610 : " by reason of a general 
spring-halt and debility in their hams." 

Again, in Ben Jonson's Bartholomnv Fair : 

" Poor soul, she has had a xlringhalt" STEKVKN T S. 

Mr. Pope and the subsequent editors, without any necessity, 
I think, for A springhalt, read And springhalt. MAI.ONK. 


Their clothes are after such a pagan cut too, 9 
That, sure, they have worn out Christendom. How 

now ? 
What news, sir Thomas Lovell ? 


Lov. 'Faith, my lord, 

I hear of none, but the new r proclamation 
That's clapp'd upon the court-gate. 

CHAM. What is't for ? 

Lov. The reformation of our travell'd gallants, 
That fill the court wfth quarrels, talk, and tailors. 

CHAM. 1 am glad, 'tis there ; now I would pray 

our monsieurs 

To think an English courtier may be wise, 
And never see the Louvre. 

Lov. They must either 

(For so run the conditions,) leave these remnants 
Of fool, and feather, 1 that they got in France, 

cut too,] Old copy cut to't. Corrected in the fourth 

folio. MALONE. 

Both the first and second folio read cut too't, so that for part 
of this correction we are not indebted to the fourth folio. 


1 leave these remnants. 

Of fool, and feather,] This does not allude to the feathers 
anciently worn in the hats and caps of our countrymen, (a cir- 
cumstance to which no ridicule could justly belong,) but to an 
effeminate fashion recorded in Greene's Farewell to Folly, 1617: 
from whence it appears that even young gentlemen carried Jans 
of feathers in their hands : " we strive to be counted womanish, 
by keeping of beauty, by curling the hair, by wearing plumes 
of feathers in our hands, which in wars, our ancestors wore on 
their heads." Again, in his Quip for an upstart Courtier, 1620: 
" Then our young courtiers strove to exceed one another in 

ac. m. KING HENRY VIIL 47 

With all their honourable points of ignorance, 
Pertaining thereunto, (as fights, and fireworks; 9 
Abusing better men than they can be, 
Out of a foreign wisdom,) renouncing clean 
The faith they have in tennis, and tall stockings, 
Short blister'd breeches, 3 and those types of travel, 
And understand ascain like honest men ; 

vcrtue, not in bravery ; they rode not \\-\\\\fannes to ward their 
faces from the wind," &c. Again, in Lingua, &c. 1607, Phan- 
tasies, who is a male character, is equipped with ajan. 


The text may receive illustration from a passage in Nashe's 
Life oflacke Wilton, 1594? : " At that time [viz. in the court of 
King Henry VIIL] I was no common squire, no undertroden 
torch-bearer, / had my feather in my cap as big as a Jtag in 
the foretop, my French doublet gelte in the belly, as though 
(lyke a pig readie to be spitted) all my guts had been pluckt 
out, a paire of side paned hose that hung down like two scales 
filled with Holland cheeses, my long stock that sate close to my 
dock, my rapier pendant like a round sticke, &c. my blacke 
cloake of black cloth, ouerspreading my backe lyke athornbacke 
or an elephantes eare; and in consummation of my curiositie, 
my handes without gloves, all a more French " &c. KITSOK. 

In Rowley's Match at Midnight, Act I. sc. i. Sim says: " Yes, 
yes, she that dwells in Blackfryers, next to the sign of The Foul 
laughing at a Feather" 

But Sir Thomas Lovell's is rather an allusion to the feathers 
which were formerly worn by fools in their cups. See a print on 
this subject from a painting of Jordaens, engraved by Voert; and 
again, in the ballad of News and no AVu'.v: 

" And feathers wagging in a fool's cap." Dorcr. 

" -Jircixorks ;~\ We learn from a French writer quoted in 

Montfaucon's Monuments ilc la Monarchic Franrithc, Vol. IV. 
that some very extraordinary fireworks wire played o!f on the 
evening of the last day of the royal interview between Guynes 
and Ardres. Hence, our " travelled gallants," who were present 
at this exhibition, might have imbibed their fondness for the 
pyrotechnic art. STF.EVENS. 

blister'd brccchcx,~] Thu* the old copy; i. e. breeches. 

pufF'd, swell'd out like blisters. The modern editors read 
bolstcr'd breeches, which has the same meaning. STEEVENS. 


Or pack to their old playfellows: there, I take it, 
They may, cum privilegio, wear away 4 
The lag end of their lewdness, and be laugh' d at. 
SANDS. 'Tis time to give them physick, their 

Are grown so catching. 

CHAM. What a loss our ladies 

Will have of these trim vanities ! 

Lor. Ay, marry, 

There will be woe indeed, lords; the sly whoresons 
Have got a speeding trick to lay down ladies ; 
A French song, and a fiddle, has no fellow. 

SANDS. The devil fiddle them ! I am glad they're 

going ; 

(For, sure, there's no converting of them;) now 
An honest country lord, as I am, beaten 
A long time out of play, may bring his plain-song, 
And have an hour of hearing ; and, by'r-lady, 
Held current musick too. 

CHAM. W T ell said, lord Sands ; 

Your colt's tooth is not cast yet. 

SANDS. No, my lord ; 

Nor shall not, while I have a stump. 

CHAM. Sir Thomas, 

Whither were you a going ? 

Lov. To the cardinal's ; 

Your lordship is a guest too. 

CHAM. O, 'tis true : 

This night he makes a supper, and a great one, 
To many lords and ladies ; there will be 
The beauty of this kingdom, I'll assure you. 

4 wear aicaij ] Old copy vice away. Corrected in 

the second folio. MA LONE. 

ac. in. KING HENRY VIII. 49 

Lor. That churcliman bears a bounteous mind 


A hand as fruitful as the land that feeds us ; 
His dews fall every where. 

CHAM. No doubt, he's noble ; 

He had a black mouth, that said other of him. 

SAXDS. He may, my lord, he has wherewithal ; 

in him, 

Sparing would show a worse sin than ill doctrine : 
Men of his way should be most liberal, 
They are set here for examples. 

CHAM. True, they are so ; 

But few now give so great ones. My barge stays; 5 
Your lordship shall along: Come, good sir Thomas, 
We shall be late else : which I would not be, 
For I was spoke to, with sir Henry Guildford, 
This night to be comptrollers. 

SAXDS. I am your lordship's. 


'- My barge stays ;] The speaker is now in the King's 

palace at Bridewell, from which he is proceeding by water to 
York-place, (Cardinal Wolsey's house, ) now Whitehall. 


VOT.. \\. 



The Presence-Chamber in York- Place. 

Hautboys. A small Table under a State for the 
Cardinal, a longer Table for the Guests. Enter 
at one Door ANNE BULLEN, and divers Lords, 
Ladies, and Gentlewomen, as Guests ; at another 
Door, enter Sir HENRY GUILDFORD. 

GUILD. Ladies, a general welcome from his grace 
Salutes ye all : This night he dedicates 
To fair content, and you : none here, he hopes, 
In all this noble bevy, 6 has brought with her 
One care abroad ; he would have all as merry 
As first-good company, good wine, good welcome 

Can make good people. 7 O, my lord, you are 

tardy ; 

* noble bevy,] Milton has copied this word : 

" A bevy of fair dames." JOHNSON. 

Spenser had, before Shakspeare, employed this word in the 
same manner : 

" And whither runs this bevy of ladies bright?" 

Shepheard's Calender. April. 
Again, in his Fairy Queen : 

" And in the midst thereof, upon the flowre, 
" A lovely bevy of faire ladies sate." 

The word bevy was originally applied to larks. See the Glos- 
sary to the Shepheard's Calender. MA LONE. 

7 As first-good company, &c.] As this passage has been all 
along pointed, [As first, good company,] Sir Harry Guildford 
is made to include all these under theflrst article ; and then gives 
us the drop as to what should follow. The poet, I am per- 
suaded, wrote : 

As first-good company, good nine, good welcome, &c. 
i. e. he would have you as merry as these three things can make- 

ac. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 51 

Enter Lord Chamberlain, Lord SANDS, and Sir 

The very thought of this fair company 
Clapp'd wings to me. 

CHAM. You are young, sir Harry Guildford. 

SANDS. Sir Thomas Lovell, Had the cardinal 
But half my lay-thoughts in him, some of these 
Should find a running banquet 8 ere they rested, 
I think, would better please them : By my life, 
They are a sweet society of fair ones. 

you, the best company in the land, of the best rank, good wine, 

Sir T. Hanmer has mended it more elegantly, but with greater 
violence : 

As first, good company, then good wine, &c. JOHNSON. 

a running banquet ] A running banquet, literally 

speaking, is a hasty refreshment, as set in opposition to a regular 
and protracted meal. The former is the object of this rakish 
peer ; the latter, perhaps, he would have relinquished to those 
of more permanent desires. STEEVENS. 

A running banquet seems to have meant a hasty banquet, 
" Queen Margaret and Prince Edward, (says Habingdon, in his 
History of King Edward IV.} though by the Earle recalled, 
found their fate and the winds so adverse, that they could not 
land in England, to taste this running banquet to which fortune 
had invited them." The hasty banquet, that was in Lord 
JSunds's thoughts, is too obvious to require explanation. 

It should seem from the following lines in the prologue to 
comedy called The Walks of Islington, 1(557, that some doublu 
meaning was couched under the phrase, a running banquet ; 

" The gate unto his walks, through which you may 

" Behold a pretty prospect of the play ; 

" A play of walks, or you may please to rank it 

" With that "which ladies /oiv, a running banquet." 




Lov. O,that your lordship were but now confessor 
To one or two of these ! 

SANDS. I would, I were ; 

They should find easy penance. 

Lor. 'Faith, how easy ? 

SANDS. As easy as a down-bed would afford it. 

CHAM. Sweet ladies, will it please you sit ? Sir 


Place you that side, I'll take the charge of this : 
His grace is ent'ring. Nay, you must not freeze ; 
Two women plac'd together makes cold weather: 
My lord Sands, you are one will keep them waking; 
Pray, sit between these ladies. 

SANDS. By my faith, 

And thank your lordship. By your leave, sweet 

ladies : 
\_Seats himself between ANNE BULLEN and 

another Lady. 

If I chance to talk a little wild, forgive me ; 
I had it from my father. 

ANNE. Was he mad, sir ? 

SANDS. O, very mad, exceeding mad, in love too : 
But he would bite none ; just as I do now, 
He would kiss you twenty with a breath. 

[Kisses her. 

CHAM. Well said, my lord. 

So, now you are fairly seated : Gentlemen, 
The penance lies on you, if these fair ladies 
Pass away frowning. 

SANDS. For my little cure, 

Let me alone. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. S3 

Hautboys. Enter Cardinal WOLSEY, attended ; 
and takes his state. 

WOL. You are welcome, my fair guests ; that 

noble lady, 

Or gentleman, that is not freely merry, 
Is not my friend : This, to confirm my welcome ; 
And to you all good health. \_Drinks. 

SANDS. Your grace is noble : 

Let me have such a bowl may hold my thanks, 
And save me so much talking. 

WOL. My lord Sands, 

I am beholden to you : cheer your neighbours. 
Ladies, you are not merry ; Gentlemen, 
Whose fault is this ? 

SANDS. The red wine first must rise 

In their fair cheeks, my lord ; then we shall have 

Talk us to silence. 

ANNE. You are a merry gamester, 

My lord Sands. 

SANDS. Yes, if I make my play. 9 

Here's to your ladyship : and pledge it, madam, 
For 'tis to such a thing, 

ANNE. You cannot show me. 

<J if I make my play.] i. e. if I make my party. 


Rather if I may choose my game. RITSOX. 
As the measure, in this place, requires an additional syllable, 
\ve may, commodiously enough, read, with Sir T. Ilaumer : 
Yes, if I may make my play. STEEVENS. 


SANDS. I told your grace, they would talk anon. 
\_Drwn and Trumpets tititliin : Chambers 
discharged. 1 

WOL. What's that ? 

CHAM. Look out there, some of you. 

[Exit a Servant. 

WOL. What warlike voice ? 

And to what end is this ? Nay, ladies, fear not ; 
By all the laws of war you are privileg'd. 

Re-enter Servant. 

CHAM. How now ? what is't ? 

SERV. A noble troop of strangers ; 

For so they seem : they have left their barge,- and 

landed ; 

And hither make, as great ambassadors 
From foreign princes, 

WOL. Good lord chamberlain, 

1 Chambers discharged.] A chamber is a gun which 

stands erect on its breech. Such are used only on occasions of 
rejoicing, and are so contrived as to carry great charges, and 
thereby to make a noise more than proportioned to their bulk. 
They are called chambers because they are mere chambers to 
lodge powder ; a chamber being the technical term for that 
cavity in a piece of ordnance which contains the combustibles. 
Some of them are still fired in the Park, and at the places oppo- 
site to the parliament-house when the king goes thither. Cam- 
den enumerates them among other guns, as follows : " cannons, 
demi-canrions, chambers, arquebuse, musquet." 
Again, in A new Trick to cheat the Devil, 1636: 

" I still think o' the Tower ordinance, 

" Or of the peal of chambers, that's still fir'd 

" When my lord-mayor takes his barge." STEEVENS. 

they have lej't their barge,] See p. 49, n. 5. 


sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 55 

Go, give them welcome, you can speak the French 

tongue ; 

And, pray, receive them nobly, and conduct them, 
Into our presence, where this heaven of beauty 
Shall shine at full upon them : Some attend him. 
\_Exit Chamberlain, attended. All arise, 

and Tables removed. 

You have now a broken banquet ; but we'll mend it. 
A good digestion to you all : and, once more, 
I shower a welcome on you ; Welcome all. 

Hautboys. Enter the King, and twelve Others, as 
Maskers* habited like Shepherds, Kith sixteen 
Torch-bearers; ushered by the Lord Chamber- 
Iain. They pass directly before the Cardinal, 
and gracefully salute him. 

\ noble company! what are their pleasures ? 

( 7/.-U/. Because they speak no English, thus they 

' F.ntcr tlic A7;/, and twelve Others, as Maskers,'] For an 
account of this masquerade, see Holinshcd, Vol. IJ. p. 921. 


The account of this masquerade was first given by Cavendish, 

MI hi-- Lijc nfTi'a /,,"//, which was written in the time of Queen 
Mary : from which Stowe and Holinshed copied it. Cavendish 
was himself present. Before the King, &c. began to dance, 
they requested leave ('ays Cavendish) to accompany the ladies 
at minuc/triiicc. \A ;.ve being granted, " tlicn went the masquers, 
and first saluted all the dames, and then returned to the most 
worthiest, and then opened the great cup of gold filled with 
cnnvries, and other pieco to cast at. Thus perusing all the 
gentlewomen, of some they womie, and to some they lost. 
And having viewed all the ladies they returned to the Cardinal 
wiili great reverence, pouring downe all their gold, which was 
above two hsmdred crownes. At all, (juoth the Cardinal, and 
casting the die, he wonne it; whereat was made great joy." 

/.if<- of ll'dxcy, p. '22, edit. Kill. M ALONE. 


To tell your grace ; That, having heard by fame 
Of this so noble and so fair assembly 
This night to meet here, they could do no less, 
Out of the great respect they bear to beauty, 
But leave their flocks; and, under your fair conduct, 
Crave leave to view these ladies, and entreat 
An hour of revels with them. 

WOL. Say, lord chamberlain, 

They have done my poor house grace ; for which I 

pay them 

A thousand thanks, and pray them take their plea- 

[Ladies chosen for the Dance. The King 
chooses ANNE BULLEN. 

K. HEN. The fairest hand I ever touch' d ! O, 

Till now I never knew thee. \_Mnsick. Dance, 

WOL. My lord, 

CHAM. Your grace ? 

WOL. Pray, tell them thus much from me : 
There should be one amongst them, by his person, 
More worthy this place than myself; to whom, 
If I but knew him, with my love and duty 
I would surrender it. 

CHAM. I will, my lord. 

[Cham, goes to the Company, and returns. 

WOL. What say they ? 

CHAM. Such a one, they all confess, 

There is, indeed ; which they would have your grace 
Find out, and he will take it.* 

WOL. Let me see then. 

[Comes from his State. 

4 take it.~\ lhatis, take the chief place. JOHNSON. 

ac. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 57 

By all your good leaves, gentlemen ; Here I'll make 
My royal choice. 

K. HEN. You have found him, cardinal: 5 

[ Unmasking. 

You hold a fair assembly ; you do well, lord : 
You are a churchman, or, I'll tell you, cardinal, 
I should judge now unhappily. 6 

WOL. I am glad, 

Your grace is grown so pleasant. 

K. HEX. My lord chamberlain, 

Pr'ythee, come hither : What fair lady's that ? 

CHAM. An't please your grace, sir Thomas Bul- 

len's daughter, 
The viscount Rochford, one of her highness' women. 

K. HEN. By heaven, she is a dainty one. Sweet- 

I were unmannerly, to take you out, 
And not to kiss you. 7 A health, gentlemen, 
Let it go round. 

* You have found him, cardinal :] Holinshed says the Cardi- 
nal mistook, and pitched upon Sir Edward Neville ; upon which 
the King laughed, and pulled off" both his own mask and Sir Ed- 
ward's. Edwards' s MSS. STEEVEXS. 

unhappily.'] That is, unluckily, mischievously. 


So, in A merye Jeste of a Man called Hou>leglas,b\.\.nodnte: 
" in such manner colde he cloke and hyde his unhnppinessc 
and falsnesse." STEEVEXS. 

See Vol. VI. p. 55, n. 2. MAI.ONE. 

1 I were unmannerly, to take i/on out, 

And not to kiss //.] A kiss was anciently the established 
fee of u lady's partner. So, in A Dialogue between Custom and 
^'critic, concerning the Use and Abuse of Dauncing anil Min- 
strelsie, bl. 1. no date, " Imprinted at London, at the long shop 
adjoining unto saint Mildred's church in the Pultrie, by John 
Allde :" 


WOL. Sir Thomas Lovell, is the banquet ready 
I* the privy chamber ? 

Lov. Yes, my lord. 

WOL. Your grace, 

I fear, with dancing is a little heated. 8 

K. HEN. I fear, too much. 

WOL. There's fresher air, my lord, 

In the next chamber. 

K. HEN. Lead in your ladies, everyone. Sweet 


I must not yet forsake you : Let's be merry; 
Good my lord cardinal, I have half a dozen healths 
To drink to these fair ladies, and a measure 
To lead them once again ; and then let's dream 
AVho's best in favour. Let the musick knock it.* 

[Exeunt, mlh Trumpets. 

" But some reply, what foole would daunce, 

" If that when daunce is doon, 
" He may not have at ladyes lips 

" That which in daunce he woon ?" STEEVENS. 

See Vol. IV. p. 43, n. 5. MALONE. 

This custom is still prevalent, among the country people, in 
many, perhaps all, parts of the kingdom. When the fiddler 
thinks his young couple have had musick enough, he makes his 
instrument squeak out two notes which all understand to say 
kiss her ! HITSON. 

* a little hcatcd.~] The King, on being discovered and 

desired by Wolsey to take his place, said that he would " first 
go and shift him : and thereupon, went into the Cardinal's bed- 
charnber, where was a great fire prepared for him, and there he 
new appareled himsclfe with rich and princely garments. And 
in the king's absence the dishes of the banquet were cleane taken 
away, and the tables covered with new and perfumed clothes. 
Then the king took his scat under the cloath of estate, command- 
ing every person to sit still as before ; and then came in a new 
banquet before his majestic of/tro hunched c/V'//r.v, and so they 
passed the night in banqueting and dancing untiil morning." Ca- 
vendish's Life oJWohcij. MALONE. 



A Street. 
Enter T<ro Gentlemen, meeting. 

1 GENT. Whither away so fast ? 

2 GENT. O, God save you I 1 
Even to the hall, to hear what shall become 

Of the great duke of Buckingham. 

1 GENT. I'll save you 
That labour, sir. All's now done, but the ceremony 
Of bringing back the prisoner. 

2 GENT. Were you there ? 

1 GENT. Yes, indeed, was I. 

2 GENT. Pray, speak, what has happen' d ? 

1 GENT. You may guess quickly what. 

2 GENT. Is he found guilty ? 

1 GENT. Yes, truly is he, and condcmn'd upon it. 

2 GENT. I am sorry for't. 

1 GENT. So are a number more. 

2 GENT. But, pray, how pass'd it ? 

9 Let the music k knock //.] So, in Antonio and MeUida t 

Part I. 1602: 

" Fla. Faith, the son^ will seem to come off hardly- 

" Catz. Troth, not a whit, it' you seem to come off 

" Flu. Pert Cat/o, l-nnck it then" STEEVENS. 

: O, dot/ ,vr/7' ( - you /] Surely, (with Sir Thomas Ilanmcr,) 
we should complete the measure by reading: 
O, sir, (Jod save, you ! STEEVENS. 


1 GENT. I'll tell you in a little. The great duke 
Came to the bar ; where, to his accusations, 
He pleaded still, not guilty, and alleg'd 
Many sharp reasons to defeat the law. 
The king's attorney, on the contrary, 
Urg'd on the examinations, proofs, confessions 
Of divers witnesses ; which the duke desir'd 
To him brought, viva voce, to his face : 2 
At which appear* d against him, his surveyor ; 
Sir Gilbert Peck his chancellor ; and John Court, 
Confessor to him ; with that devil-monk, 
Hopkins, that made this mischief. 

2 GENT. That was he, 

That fed him with his prophecies ? 

1 GENT. The same. 
All these accus'd him strongly ; which he fain 
Would have flung from him, but, indeed, he could 

not : 

And so his peers, upon this evidence, 
Have found him guilty of high treason. Much 
He spoke, and learnedly, for life ; but all 
Was either pitied in him, or forgotten. 3 

2 GENT. After all this, how did he bear himself? 

1 GENT. Whenhewasbrought again to the bar, 

to hear 

His knell rung out, his judgment, he was stirr'd 
With such an agony, he sweat extremely, 4 

* To him brought, viva vocc, to his face :] This is a clear er- 
ror of the press. We must read have instead of him. 


3 Was either pitied in him, or forgotten.'] Either produced 
no effect, or produced only ineffectual pity. MALONE. 

he sweat extremely,~\ This circumstance is taken from 
Holinshed : " After he \vas found guilty, the duke was brought 
to the bur, sore-chafing, and siveal marvclously." STJ.KX J:NS. 

x. i. KING HENRY VIII. 61 

And something spoke in choler, ill, and hasty : 
But he fell to himself* again, and, sweetly, 
In all the rest show'd a most noble patience. 

2 GENT. I do not think, he fears death. 

1 GENT. Sure, he does not, 
He never was so womanish ; the cause 

He may a little grieve at. 

2 GENT. Certainly, 
The cardinal is the end of this. 

1 GENT. J Tis likely, 
By all conjectures : First, Kildare's attainder, 
Then deputy of Ireland ; who remov'd, 

Earl Surrey was sent thither, and in haste too, 
Lest he should help his father. 

2 GENT. That trick of state 
Was a deep envious one. 

1 GENT. At his return, 

No doubt, he will requite it. This is noted, 
And generally; whoever the king favours, 
The cardinal instantly will find employment, 
And far enough from court too. 

2 GENT. All the commons 
Hate him perniciously, and, o' my conscience, 
Wish him ten fathom deep : this duke as much 
They love and dote on ; call him, bounteous Buck- 

The mirror of all courtesy ; 5 

* * 

1 GENT. Stay there, sir, 

And see the noble ruin'd man you speak of. 

* The mirror of all courtesy ;~\ See the concluding words of 
u. 1, p. 42. STEF.VENS. 


Enter BUCKINGHAM from his Arraignment ; Tip- 
staves before him ; the Axe with the Edge towards 
him ; Halberds on each Side : with him, Sir 
WILLIAM SANDS, C and common People. 

2 GENT. Let's stand close, and behold him. 

BUCK. All good people, 

You that thus far have come to pity me, 
Hear what I say, and then go home and lose me. 
I have this day received a traitor's judgment, 
And by that name must die ; Yet, heaven bear 


And, if I have a conscience, let it sink me, 
Even as the axe falls, if I be not faithful ! 
The law I bear no malice for my death, 
It has done, upon the premises, but justice : 
But those, that sought it, I could wish more chris- 

tians : 

Be what they will, I heartily forgive them : 
Yet let them look they glory not in mischief, 

s Sir William Sands,] The old copy reads Sir Walter. 


The correction is justified by Holinshed's Chronicle, in which 
it is said, that Sir Nicholas Vaux, and Sir William Sands, re- 
ceived Buckingham at the Temple, and accompanied him to the 
Tower. Sir William Sands was, at this time, (May, 1521,) 
only a baronet, frather, a knight ; as baronetage was unknown 
till 1611,] not being created 'Lord Sands till April 27, 1527. 
Shakspeare probably did not know that he was the same person 
whom he has already introduced with that title. He fell into 
the error by placing the King's visit to Wolsey, (at which time 
Sir William was Lord Sands,) and Buckingham's condemnation, 
in the same year ; whereas that visit was made some years after- 
wards. MALONE. 

sc. /. KING HENRY VIII. 63 

Nor build their evils on the graves of great men ; 7 
For then my guiltless blood must cry against them. 
For further life in this world I ne'er hope, 
Nor will I aue, although the king have mercies 
More than I dare make faults. You few that lov'd 

me, 8 

And dare be bold to weep for Buckingham, 
His noble friends, and fellows, whom to leave 
Is only bitter to him, only dying, 
Go with me, like good angels, to my end ; 
And, as the long divorce 9 of steel falls on me, 
Make of your prayers one sweet sacrifice, 
And lift my soul to heaven. 1 Lead on, o'God's 


Lav. I do beseech your grace, for charity, 
If ever any malice in your heart 
Were hid against me, now to forgive me frankly. 

BUCK. Sir Thomas Lovell, I as free forgive you, 
As I would be forgiven : I forgive all ; 
There cannot be those numberless oii'ences 

7 Nor build their evils on the graves of great mm ;~\ 
in this place, nrcforicce. So, in Measure jor Measure : 

" Having v/aste ground enough, 

" Shall we desire to raze the sanctuary, 

" And pitch our evils there?" 
See Vol. VI. p. 260, n. S. STEJVVJ-.NS. 

* \oitfe\v that Inv'd ?r, &e.] These lines are remark- 
ably tender .,nd pathetick. JOHNSON. 

the lon< divorce ~\ So, in Lord Storline's Darius, 
l(j(W : 

" Scarce was the lasiirg last divorcement made 

" Betwixt the hodie and i ; ,c soule" S;c. STJ-:KVEX>. 

1 Ami lift m:i soul to heaven.! So Milton, Paradise Loft, 
Book IV:' 

" . . their ^pngs 

" Divide tli - nighl, ami i/Jl our thong/its t<) he arm" 


'Gainst me, I can't take peace with : no black envy 
Shall make my grave. 2 Commend me to his grace ; 
And, if he speak of Buckingham, pray, tell him, 
You met him half in heaven : my vows and prayers 

* no black envy 

Shall make my grave.'] Shakspeare, by this expression, 
meant no more than to make the Duke say, Afa action expressive 
of malice shall cancludc my life. Envy, by our author, is used 
for malice and hatred, in other places, and, perhaps, in this. 

Again, in the ancient metrical romance of Syr Bevys of 
Hampton, bl. 1. no date : 

** Traytoure, he sayd with great envy, 

" Turne thee now, I thee defye." 
Again : 

" They drewe theyr swordes hastely, 

" And smot together with great envy.' 1 '' 

And Barrett, in his Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary , 1580, 
thus interprets it. 

To make a grave, however, may mean to close it. So, in 
The Comedy of Errors : 

11 \\ hy at this time the doors are made against you." 
i. e. closed, shut. The sense will then be, (whether quaintly OF 
poetically expressed, let the reader determine) no malicious ac- 
tion shall close my grave, i. e. attend the conclusion of my exist- 
ence, or terminate my life ; the last action of it shall not be un- 
charitable. SXEEVENS. 

Envy is frequently used in this sense by our author and his 
contemporaries. See Vol. VII. p. 311, n. 9 ; and p. 403, 1. 30, 
I have therefore no doubt that Mr. Stcevens's exposition is 
right. Dr. Warburton reads mark my grave ; and in support 
of the emendation it may be observed that the same error has 
happened in King Henry V ; or at least that all the editors 
have supposed so, having there adopted a similar correction. 
See Vol. XII. p. 339, n. 1. 

Dr. "VVarburton's emendation also derives some support from 
the following passage in The Comedy of Errors : 

" A vulgar comment will be made of it ; 

" And that supposed by the common rout 

" Against your yet ungalled estimation, 

" That may with foul intrusion enter in, 

" And duett upon your grave, when you are dead." 


sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 65 

Yet are the king's ; and, till my soul forsake me, 3 
Shall cry for blessings on him : May he live 
Longer than I have time to tell his years ! 
Ever belov 'd, and loving, may his rule be ! 
And, when old time shall lead him to his end, 
Goodness and he fill up orfe monument ! 

Lov. To the water side I must conduct your 

grace ; 

Then give my charge up to sir Nicholas Vaux, 
"Who undertakes you to your end. 

VAUX. Prepare there, 

The duke is coming : see, the barge be ready j 
And fit it with such furniture, as suits 
The greatness of his person. 

BUCK. Nay, sir Nicholas, 

Let it alone ; my state now will but mock me. 4 
When I came hither, I was lord high constable, 
And duke of Buckingham ; now, poor Edward 
Boh un : 3 

3 forsake me,] The latter word was added by Mr. 

Ro\ve. MA LONE. 

4 A T rty, sir Nicholas, 

Let it alone ; my slate notv ivill but mode mc.~\ The last 
verse would run more smoothly, by making the monosyllables 
change places : 

Lei it alone, my state will noiv but mock me. 


poor Edward Bohun :] The Duke of Buckingham's 
name was Stafford. Shakspeare was led into the mistake by 
Holinshed. STEEVENS. 

This i.: not an expression thrown out at random, or by mistake, 
but one strongly marked with historical propriety. The name of 
the Duke of Buckingham, most generally known, was Stafford f 
but the History nf Remarkable Vr/V/Av, 8vo. 171."), p. 170, says: 
" it seems he affected that surname [of Bohun~] before that of 
Stafford, he being descended from the lio/ninx, earls of Here- 
ford." His reason for this might be, because he was lord high 


Yet I am richer than my base accusers, 

That never knew what truth meant : I now seal it ; 6 

And with that blood will make them one day groan 


My noble father, Henry of Buckingham, 
Who first rais'd head against usurping Richard, 
Flying for succour to his servant Banister, 
Being distressed, was by that wretch betray'd, 
And without trial fell ; God's peace be with him! 
Henry the seventh succeeding, truly pitying 
My father's loss, like a most royal prince, 
Restor'd me to my honours, and, out of ruins, 
Made my name once more noble. Now his son, 
Henry the eighth, life, honour, name, and all 
That made me happy, at one stroke has taken 
For ever from the world. I had my trial, 
And, must needs say, a noble one ; which makes me 
A little happier than my wretched father : 
Yet thus far we are one in fortunes, Both 
Fell by our servants, by those men we lov'd most; 
A most unnatural and faithless service ! 
Heaven has an end in all : Yet, you that hear me, 
This from a dying man receive as certain : 
Where you are liberal of your loves, and counsels, 

constable of England by inheritance of tenure from the Bohtins; 
and as the poet has taken particular notice of his great office, 
does it not seem probable that he had fully considered of the 
Duke's foundation for assuming the name of Bohun? In truth, 
the Duke's name was BAGOT; for a gentleman of that very 
ancient family married the heiress of the barony of Stafford, 
and their son relinquishing his paternal surname, assumed that 
of his mother, which continued in his posterity. TOLLET. 

Of all this probably Shakspeare knew nothing. MALONE. 

6 / now seal it; &c.] I now seal my truth, my loyalty, 

with blood, which blood shall one day make them groan. 



Be sure, you be not loose; 7 for those you make 


And give your hearts to, when they once perceive 
The least rub in your fortunes, fall away 
Like water from ye, never found again 
But where they mean to sink ye. All good people, 
Pray for me! I must now forsake ye; the last hour 
Of my long weary life is come upon me. 
Farewell : 

And when you would say something that is sad, 9 
Speak how I fell. I have done ; and God forgive 


\_Exeunt BUCKINGHAM and Train. 

1 GENT. O, this is full of pity ! Sir, it calls, 
I fear, too many curses on their heads, 

That were the authors. 

2 GENT. If the duke be guiltless, 
'Tis full of woe : yet I can give you inkling 
Of an ensuing evil, if it fall, 

Greater than this. 

1 GENT. Good angels keep it from us ! 
Where may it be? You do not doubt my faith, sir? 

2 GENT. This secret is so weighty, 'twill require 
A strong faith 9 to conceal it. 

l GENT. Let me have it ; 

I do not talk much. 

7 If not loose ;] This expression occurs again in Othello ; 

" There are a kind of men so loose of soul, 

" That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs." 


1 And i(.-J/rn ynu mould say something that is sad, &C.J So, 
in King Richard II: 

" Tell thou the lamentable tale of me, 

*' And send the hearers \vceping to their beds." 


* -strong faith ] Is great fidelity. JOHNSON. 

F 2 


2 GENT. I am confident ; 

You shall, sir : Did you not of late days hear 
A buzzing, of a separation 
Between the king and Katharine? 

1 GENT. Yes, but it held not : 
For when the king once heard it, out of anger 
He sent command to the lord mayor, straight 
To stop the rumour, and allay those tongues 
That durst disperse it. 

2 GENT. But that slander, sir, 
Is found a truth now : for it grows again 
Fresher than e'er it was ; and held for certa in 1 
The king will venture at it. Either the cardinal, 
Or some about him near, have, out of malice 

To the good queen, possessed him with a scruple 
That will undo her : To confirm this too, 
Cardinal Campeius is arriv'd, and lately ; 
As all think, for this business. 

1 GENT. *Tis the cardinal ; 
And merely to revenge him on the emperor, 
For not bestowing on him, at his asking, 

The archbishoprick of Toledo, this is purpos'd. 

2 GENT. I think, you have hit the mark : But is't 

not cruel, 

That she should feel the smart of this? The cardinal 
Will have his will, and she must fall. 

l GENT. 'Tis woful. 

We are too open here to argue this ; 
Let's think in private more. \_Excunt. 

1 and held for certain,'] To hold, is to believe. So, 

in Lord Surrey's translation of the fourth JEneid : 

" I hold thee not, nor yet gainsay thy words." 


sc. n. KING HENRY VIII. 69 


An Ante-chamber in the Palace. 
Enter the Lord Chamberlain, reading a Letter. 

CHAM. My lord, The horses your lordship sent 
for, with all the care I had, I saw well chosen, rid- 
den, and furnished. They were young, and hand- 
some ; and of the best breed in the north. When they 
were ready to set out for London, a man of my lord 
cardinal's, by commission, and main power, look 'em 
from me ; with this reason, His master would be 
served before a subject, if not before the king : 
which stopped our moutlis, sir. 

I fear, lie will, indeed : Well, let him have them : 
He will have all, I think. 

Enter the Dukes ^NORFOLK and SUFFOLK. 

NOR. Well met, my good 2 

Lord chamberlain. 

CHAM. Good day to both your graces. 

SUF. How is the king employ'd ? 

CHAM. I left him private, 

Full of sad thoughts and troubles. 

NOR. What's the cause? 

CHAM. It seems, the marriage with his brother's 

Has crept too near his conscience. 

* Well met, mi/ good ] The epithet %oorf, was inserted 
by Sir Thomas Hanmer, ibr the sake oi' measure. SxctvEXs. 


SUF. No, his conscience 

Has crept too near another lady. 

NOR. 'Tis so ; 

This is the cardinal's doing, the king-cardinal : 
That blind priest, like the eldest son of fortune, 
Turns what he lists. The king will know him one 

SUF. Pray God, he do ! he'll never know him- 
self else. 

NOR. How holily he works in all his business ! 
And with what zeal ! For, now he has crack'd the 

Between us and the emperor, the queen's great 


He dives into the king's soul ; and there scatters 
Dangers, doubts, wringing of the conscience, 
Fears, and despairs, and all these for his marriage : 
And, out of all these to restore the king, 
He counsels a divorce : a loss of her, 
That, like a jewel, has hung twenty years 
About his neck, yet never lost her lustre ; 3 
Of her, that loves him with that excellence 
That angels love good men with ; even of her 
That, when the greatest stroke of fortune falls, 
Will bless the king: And is not this course pious? 

CHAM. Heaven keep me from such counsel ! 

'Tis most true, 
These news are every where j every tongue speaks 


And every true heart weeps for't : All, that dare 
Look into these affairs, see this main end, 4 

s That, like a jewel, has hung twenty years &c.] See Vol. IX. 
p. 24-2, n. 2. MALONE. 

* sec this main end,] Thus the old copy. All, &c. 

sc. it. KING HENRY VIII. 71 

The French king's sister'. Heaven will one day 


The king's eyes, that so long have slept upon 
This bold bad man. 

SUF. And free us from his slavery. 

NOR. We had need pray, 
And heartily, for our deliverance ; 
Or this imperious man will work us all 
From princes into pages : <; all men's honours 
Lie in one lump before him, to be fashion'd 
Into what pitch he please. 7 

SUF. For me, my lords, 

I love him not, nor fear him; there's my creed: 
As I am made without him, so I'll stand, 
If the king please ; his curses and his blessings 
Touch me alike, they are breath I not believe in. 

perceive this main end of these counsels, namely, the French 
king's sister. The editor of the fourtli folio and all the subse- 
quent editors read his; but y f - or this were not likely to be 
confounded with hi a. Besides, the King, not Wolsey, is the 
person last mentioned ; and it was the main end or object of 
Wolsey to bring about a marriage between Henry and the 
French king's sister. End has already been used for cause, and. 
may be so here. See p. fil : 

" The cardinal is the end of this." MALONE. 

5 The French king's sister.] i. e. the Duchess of Alcncon. 


From princes into pages .] This may allude to the retinue 
of the Cardinal, who had several of the nobility among hi* 
menial servants. JOHNSON. 

7 Into what pitch he plcase.~\ The mass must be fashioned 
into pilch or height, as well as into particular form. The mean- 
ing is, that the Cardinal can, as he pleases, make high or low. 


The allusion seems to be to the '2 1st verse of the 9th chapter 
Of the Epistle of St. Paul to the fionxins: " Hath not the potter 
power over the clay of the same lump, to make one vessel unto 
honour, and another unto dishonour ?" COLLINS. 


I knew him, and I know him ; so I leave him 
To him, that made him proud, the pope. 

NOR. Let's in ; 

And, with some other business, put the king 
From these sad thoughts, that work too much 

upon him: 
My lord, you'll bear us company? 

CHAM. Excuse me ; 

The king hath sent me other-where : besides, 
You'll find a most unfit time to disturb him : 
Health to your lordships. 

NOR. Thanks, my good lord chamberlain. 

\_Exit Lord Chamberlain. 

NORFOLK opens a folding-door. The King is dis- 
covered sitting, and reading pensively? 

SUF. How sad he looks! sure, he is much afflicted. 

' The stage direction, in the old copy, is a singular one. 
Exit Lord Chamberlain, and the King drams the curtain, and 
sits reading pensively. STEEVENS. 

This stage direction was calculated for, and ascertains pre- 
cisely the state of, the theatre in Shakspeare's time. When a 
person was to be discovered in a different apartment from that in 
which the original speakers in the scene are exhibited, the art- 
less mode of our author's time was to place such person in the 
back part of the stage, behind the curtains, which were occa- 
sionally suspended across it. These the person who was to be 
discovered, (as Henry, in the present case,) drew back just at 
the proper time. Mr. Rowe, who seems to have looked no 
further than the modern stage, changed the direction thus : 
** The scene opens, and discovers the King," &c. but, besides 
the impropriety of introducing scenes when there were none, 
such an exhibition would not be proper here, for Norfolk lias 
just said " Let's in," and therefore should himself do some 
act, in order to visit the King. This, indeed, in the simple state 
of the old stage, was not attended to ; the King very civilly dis- 
covering himself. See An Account of our old Theatres, Vol. III. 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 73 

A'. HEX. Who is there ? ha ? 

NOR. 'Pray God, he he not angry. 

A'. HEX. Who's there, I say ? How dare you 

thrust yourselves 
Into my private meditations ? 
Who nm I ? ha ? 

Noit. A gracious king, that pardons all offences 
Malice ne'er meant : our breach of duty, this way, 
Is business of estate ; in which, we come 
To know your royal pleasure. 

K. HEX. You are too bold ; 

Go to ; I'll make ye know your times of business : 
Is this an hour for temporal affairs ? ha ? 


Who's there ? my good lord cardinal ? O my 


The quiet of my wounded conscience, 
Thou art a cure fit for a king. You're welcome, 


Most learned reverend sir, into our kingdom; 
Use us, and it : My good lord, have great care 
I be not found a talker. 9 [To WOLSEY. 

IToL. Sir, you cannot. 

I would, your grace would give us but an hour 
Of private conference. 

have "rent care. 

1 lie not Joiind a talker."] I take the meaning to be, Lei 
care be. taken tltal mi/ promise be performed, that my professions 
(if welcome be nol j' empty talk. JOHNSON*. 
So, in A7q Rich a rtl III : 

" we will not stand to prate, 

" ' are no u;ood doers." STEEVEXS. 


K. HEN. We are busy ; go. 


NOR. This priest has no pride in him ? 

SUF. Not to speak of; 

I would not be so sick though, 1 for his 

place : 
But this cannot continue. 

NOR. If it do, 

I'll venture one heave at him. 2 

SUF. I another. 


WOL. Your grace has given a precedent of wisdom 
Above all princes, in committing freely 
Your scruple to the voice of Christendom : 
Who can be angry now ? what envy reach you ? 
The Spaniard, tied by blood and favour to her, 
Must now confess, if they have any goodness, 
The trial just and noble. All the clerks, 
I mean, the learned ones, in Christian kingdoms, 
Have their free voices j 3 Home, the nurse of judg- 

Invited by your noble self, hath sent 
One general tongue unto us, this good man, 
This just and learned priest, cardinal Campeius ; 
Whom, once more, I present unto your highness. 

1 so sick though,] That is, so sick as he is proud. 


1 one heave at him."] So, in King Henry VI. Part II : 

" To heave the traitor Somerset from hence.'* 

The first folio gives the passage thus : 
lie venture one ; haue at him. 

The reading in the text is that of the second folio. STEEVENS. 

3 Have their free voices ;] The construction is, have sent 
their free voices ; the word sent, which occurs in the next line, 
being understood here. MALONE. 

ac. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 75 

K. HEN. And, once more, in mine arms I bid 

him welcome, 

And thank the holy conclave for their loves ; 
They have sent me such a man I would have wish'd 

CAM. Your grace must needs deserve all strangers* 


You are so noble : To your highness* hand 
I tender my commission ; by whose virtue, 
(The court of Rome commanding,) you, my lord 
Cardinal of York, are join'd with me their servant, 
In the impartial judging of this business. 

K. HEN. Two equal men. The queen shall be 

Forthwith, for what you come : Where's G ardiner ? 

WOL. I know, your majesty has always lov'd her 
So dear in heart, not to deny her that 
A woman of less place might ask by law, 
Scholars, allow'd freely to argue for her. 

K. P!EN. Ay, and the best, she shall have ; and 

my favour 

To him that does best; God forbid else. Cardinal, 
Pr'ythce, call Gardiner to me, my new secretary ; 
I find him a fit fellow. [Exit WOLSEY. 

Re-enter WOLSEY, with GARDINER. 

WOL. Give me your hand : much joy and favour 

to you ; 
You are the king's now. 

GARD. But to be commanded 

For ever by your grace, whose hand has rais'd me. 

K. HEN. Come hither, Gardiner. 

[They converse apart. 


CAM. My lord of York, was not one doctor Pace 
In this man's place before him ? 

WOL. Yes, he was. 

CAM. Was he not held a learned man ? 

WOL. Yes, surely. 

CAM. Believe me, there's an ill opinion spread 

Even of yourself, lord cardinal. 

WOL. How ! of me ? 

CAM. They will not stick to say, you envied him ; 
And, fearing he would rise, he was so virtuous, 
Kepthim a foreign man still ;* which so griev'd him, 
That he ran mad, and died. 

WOL. Heaven's peace be with him ! 

That's Christian care enough : for living murmurers, 
There's places of rebuke. He was a fool ; 
For he would needs be virtuous : That good fellow, 
If I command him, follows my appointment ; 
I will have none so near else. Learn this, brother, 
We live not to be grip'd by meaner persons. 

K. HEN. Deliver this with modesty to the queen. 


The most convenient place that I can think of, 
For such receipt of learning, is Black-Friars ; 
There ye shall meet about this weighty business: 
My Wolsey, see it furnish'd. O my lord, 
Would it not grieve an able man, to leave 
So sweet a bedfellow? But, conscience, consci- 
O, 'tis a tender place, and I must leave her. 


4 Kept him a foreign man still ;] Kept him out of the 
king's presence, employed in foreign embassies. JOHNSON. 

56'. ///. KING HENRY VIII. 77 


An Ante-chamber in the Queen's Apartments. 
Enter ANNE BULLEX, and an old Lady. 

ANNE. Not for that neither j Here's the pang 

that pinches : 

His highness having liv'd so long with her: and she 
So good a lady, that no tongue could ever 
Pronounce dishonour of her, by my life, 
She never knew harm-doing ; O now, after 
So many courses of the sun enthron'd, 
Still growing in a majesty and pomp, the which 
To leave is 5 a thousand-fold more bitter, than 
'Tis sweet at first to acquire, after this process, 
To give her the avaunt! 6 it is a pity 
Would move a monster. 

OLD L. Hearts of most hard temper 

Melt and lament for her. 

ANNE. O, God's will ! much better, 

She ne'er had known pomp : though it be temporal, 
Yet, if that quarrel, fortune, 7 do divorce 

* To leave is ] The latter word was added by Mr. 
Theobald. MALONE. 

b To give her the araunt.'~] To send her away contemptu- 
ously ; to pronounce against her a sentence of ejection. 


7 Yet, if that quarrel, fortune,~] She calls Fortune a quarrel 
or arrow, from her striking so deep and suddenly. Quarrel was 
a large arrow so called. Thus Fairfax : 

" twang'd the string, out flew the quarrel long." 


Such is Dr. Wurburton's interpretation. Sir Thomas Hanmer 
reads : 

That quarreller Fortune. 


It from the bearer, 'tis a sufferance, panging 
As soul and body's severing. 8 

OLD L. Alas, poor lady ! 

She's a stranger now again. 9 

I think the poet may be easily'supposed to use quarrel for quar- 
reller, as murder for the murderer, the act for the agent. 

Dr. Johnson may be right. So, in Antony and Cleopatra . 

" but that your royalty 

" Hold idleness your subject, I should take you 

" For Idleness itself." 

Like Martial's " Non vitiosus homo es, Zoile, sed Vitium." 
We might, however, read : 

Yet if' that quarrel fortune to divorce 

It from the bearer. 

i. e. if any quarrel happen or chance to divorce it from the 
bearer. To fortune is a verb used by Shakspeare in The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona : 

" I'll tell you as we pass along, 

" That you will wonder what hath fortuned." 
Again, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. I. c. ii : 

" It fortuned (high heaven did so ordaine)" &c. 



As soul and body's severwg."] So Bertram, in All's ivr.ll 
that ends well: " I grow to you, and our parting is a tortur'd 
body." STEEVENS. 

Again, in Antony and Cleopatra : 

" The soul and body rive not more at parting, 
" Than greatness going oft'." MALOXC. 

9 stranger now again.~\ Again an alien; not only no 

longer queen, but no longer an Englishwoman. JOHNSON. 

It rather means, she is alienated from the King's affection, is 
a stranger to his bed; for she still retained the rights of an 
Englishwoman, and was princess dowager of Wales. So, in the 
second scene of the third Act : 

*' Katharine no more 

" Shall be call'd queen ; but princess dowager, 
" And widow to prince Arthur." To L LET. 

Dr. Johnson's interpretation appears to me to be the true one. 


9C. in. KING HENRY VIII. 73 

ANNE. So much the more 

Must pity drop upon her. Verily, 
I swear, 'tis better to be lowly born, 
And range with humble livers in content, 
Than to be perk'd up in a glistering grief, 
And wear a golden sorrow. 

OLD L. Our content 

Is our best having. 1 

ANNE. By my troth, and maidenhead, 

I would not be a queen. 

OLD L. Beshrew me, I would, 

And venture maidenhead for't; and so would you, 
For all this spice of your hypocrisy : 
You, that have so fair parts of woman on yon, 
Have too a woman's heart ; which ever yet 
Affected eminence, wealth, sovereignty ; 
Which, to say sooth, are blessings: and which gifts 
(Saving your mincing) the capacity 
Of your soft cheveril 2 conscience would receive, 
If you might please to stretch it. 

ANNE. Nay, good troth, 

OLD L. Yes, troth, and troth, You would not 
be a queen ? 

I agree with Mr. Toilet. So, in King Lear : 

" Dower'd with our curse, and stranger'd with our 


i. e. the revocation of my love has reduced her to the condition 
of an unfriended stranger. STEEVENS. 

1 our best having.] That is, our best possession. So, in 

Macbeth : 

" Of nohle having and of royal hope." 
In Spanish, hazicnda. JOHNSON. 

c/ieveril ] is kid-skin, soft leather. JOHNSON. 

So, in Histriomastix, 161 0: 

" The cheveril conscience of corrupted law." 



ANNE. No, not for all the riches under heaven. 

OLD i.'Tis strange; a three-pence bowed would 

hire me, 

Old as I am, to queen it : But, I pray you, 
What think you of a duchess ? have you limbs 
To bear that load of title ? 

ANNE. No, in truth. 

OLD L. Then you are weakly made : Pluck off a 

little; 3 

I would not be a young count in your way, 
For more than blushing comes to : i your back 
Cannot vouchsafe this burden, 'tis too weak 
Ever to get a boy. 

ANNE. How you do talk ! 

I swear again, I would not be a queen 
For all the world. 

OLD L. In faith, for little England 

You'd venture an emballing : I myself 
Would for Carnarvonshire, 4 although there 'long'd 

3 Pluck off a little; &c.~] What must she pluck off? 

I think we may better read : 

Pluck up a little. 

Pluck up ! is an idiomatical expression for take courage. 


The old lady first questions Anne Rullen about being a queen, 
which she declares her aversion to ; she then proposes the title of 
a duchess, and asks her if she thinks herself equal to the task of 
sustaining it ; but as she still declines the offer of greatness, 

Pluck off a little, 

says she ; i. e. let us still further divest preferment of its glare, 
let us descend yet lower, and more upon a level with your own 
quality ; and then adds : 

/ "would not be a young count it; your "way, 

which is an inferior degree of honour to any before enumerated. 


4 Iti faith, for little England 

You'd venture an emballing : / myself 

Would for Carnarvonshire,] Little England seems very 

sc. in. KING HENRY VIII. 81 

No more to the crown but that. Lo, who comes 
here ? 

properly opposed to all the world ; but what has Carnarvonshire 
to do here ? Does it refer to the birth of Edward II. at Car- 
narvon ? or may not this be the allusion ? By little England is 
meant, perhaps, that territory in Pembrokeshire, where the 
Flemings settled in Henry Ist's time, who speaking a language 
very different from the Welsh, and bearing some affinity to the 
English, this fertile spot was called by the Britons, as we are 
told by Camden, Little England beyond Wales; and, as it is a 
very fruitful country, may be justly opposed to the mountainous 
and barren county of Carnarvon. WHALLEY. 

So, in A short Relation of a loner Journey &c. by John 
Taylor the Water Poet : " Concerning Pembrookskire, the people 
do speak English in it almost generally, and therefore they call 
it Little England beyond Wales, it being the farthest south and 
west county in the whole principality." STEEVENS. 

You'd venture an emballing:^ You would venture to be dis- 
tinguished by the ball, the ensign of royalty. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnson's explanation cannot be right, because a queen- 
consort, such as Anne Bullen was, is not distinguished by the 
ball, the ensign of royalty, nor has the poet expressed that she 
was so distinguished. TOLLET. 

Mr. Toilet's objection to Johnson's explanation is an hyper- 
criticism. Shakspeare did not probably consider so curiously 
his distinction between a queen consort and a queen regent. 


Might we read 

You'd venture an empalling; 

i. e. being invested with the pall or robes of state ? The word 
occurs in the old tragedy of King Edward III. 1596: 
" As with this armour I impall thy breast ." 
And, in Macbeth, the verb to pall is used in the sense of enrobe: 
" And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell." 


The word recommended by Mr.Malone occurs also in Chap- 
man's version of the eighth Book of Homer's Odyssey: 

" such a radiance as doth round empall 

" Crown'd Cytherea, " STEEVENS. 

Might we not read an embalming ? A queen consort is 


Enter the Lord Chamberlain. 

CHAM. Good morrow, ladies. What wer't worth 

to know 
The secret of your conference ? 

ANNE. My good lord, 

Not your demand ; it values not your asking : 
Our mistress* sorrows we were pitying. 

CHAM. It was a gentle business, and becoming 
The action of good women : there is hope, 
All will be well. 

ANNE. Now I pray God, amen ! 

CHAM. You bear a gentle mind, and heavenly 


Follow such creatures. That you may, fair lady, 
Perceive I speak sincerely, and high note's 
Ta'en of your many virtues, the king's majesty 
Commends his good opinion to you, 5 and 

anointed at her coronation ; and in King Richard II. the word 
is used in that sense : 

" With my own tears I wash away my balm." 
Dr. Johnson properly explains it, the oil of consecration. 


The Old Lady's jocularity, I am afraid, carries her beyond 
the bounds of decorum ; but her quibbling allusion is more easily 
comprehended than explained. RITSON. 

5 Commends his good opinion to you,'] Thus the old copy, and 
subsequent editors. Mr. Malone reads : 

Commends his good opinion of </nu. STEEVENS. 

The words to you, in the next line, must in construction be 
understood here. The old copy, indeed, reads : 

Commends his good opinion of you to you, and 

but the metre shows that cannot be right. The words to you 
were probably accidentally omitted by the compositor in the 
second line, and being marked by the corrector as out, (to speak- 
technically,) were inserted in the wrong place. The old error 

ac. m. KING HENRY VIII. 83 

Does purpose honour to you no less flowing 
Than marchioness of Pembroke ; to which title 
A thousand pound a year, annual support, 
Out of his grace he adds. 

ANNE. I do not know, 

What kind of my obedience I should tender ; 
More than my all is nothing: 6 nor my prayers 
Are not words duly hallow'd, 7 nor my wishes 

being again marked, the words that were wanting were properly 
inserted in the second line where they now stand, and the new 
error in the first was overlooked. In the printing-house this 
frequently happens. MALONE. 

It is as probable that, in the present instance, a correction, 
and the erasure that was designed to make room for it, have 
both been printed. 

The phrase I found in the text I have not disturbed, as it is 
supported by a passage in Antony and Cleopatra: 

" Commend unto his lips thy favouring hand.'* 
Again, in King Lear: 

" I did commend your highness' letters to them." 


More than my all is nothing :"] Not only my all is nothing, 
but if my all were more than it is, it were still nothing. 


So, in Macbeth: 

" More is thy due than more than all can pay." 


-nor mi/ prayers 

Arc not words duly halloirfd, &c.] It appears to me abso- 
lutely necessary, in order-to make sense of this passage, to read : 

for mij prayers 

Are not words duly halloed, &c. 
instead of " nor my prayers." 

Anne's argument is this : " More than my all is nothing,yr 
my prayers and wishes are of no value, and yet prayers and 
wishes are all 1 have to return." M. MASON. 

The double negative, it has been already observed, was com- 
monly used in our author's time. 

For my prayers, a reading introduced by Mr. Pope, even if 
such arbitrary changes were allowable, ought not to be admitted 

G '2 


More worth than empty vanities ; yet prayers, and 


Are all I can return. 'Beseech your lordship, 
Vouchsafe to speak my thanks, and my obedience, 
As from a blushing handmaid, to his highness ; 
Whose health, and royalty, I pray for. 

CHAM. Lady, 

I shall not fail to approve the fair conceit, 8 
The king hath of you. I have perus'd her well; 9 


Beauty and honour in her are so mingled, 
That they have caught the king : and who knows 

, y et > 

But from this lady may proceed a gem, 
To lighten all this isle ? ' I'll to the king, 
And say, I spoke with you. 

here, this being a distinct proposition, not an illation from what 
has gone before. I know not, (says Anne,) what external acts 
of duty and obeisance I ought to return for such unmerited 
favour. All I can do of that kind, and even more, if more 
were possible, would be insufficient : nor are any prayers that I 
can offer up for my benefactor sufficiently sanctified, nor any 
wishes that I can breathe for his happiness, of more value than 
the most worthless and empty vanities. MALONE. 

b I shall not Jail &c.] I shall not omit to strengthen, by my 
commendation, the opinion which the King has formed. 


9 I have perns' d her well ;] From the many artful 

strokes of address the poet has thrown in upon Queen Elizabeth 
and her mother, it should seem that this play was written and 
performed in his royal mistress's time : if so, some lines were 
added by him in the last scene, after the accession of her suc- 
cessor, King James. THEOBALD. 


To lighten all this isle?~] Perhaps alluding to the carbuncle, 
a gem supposed to have intrinsick light, and to shine in the 
dark: any other gem may reflect light, but cannot give it. 


sc. m. KING HENRY VIII. 85 

ANNE. My honour'd lord. 

[Exit Lord Chamberlain. 

OLD L. Why, this it is ; see, see ! 
I have been begging sixteen years in court, 
(Am yet a courtier beggarly,) nor could 
Come pat betwixt too early and too late, 
For any suit of pounds : and you, (O fate!) 
A very fresh-fish here, (fye, fye upon 
This compell'd fortune!) have your mouth fill'd up, 
Before you open it. 

AXNE. This is strange to me. 

OLD L. How tastes it ? is it bitter ? forty pence, 
no. e 

So, in Thus Andronicus : 

" A precious ring, that lightens all the hole." 


Thus, in a palace described in Amadis de Gaule, Trans. 1619, 
fol. B. IV. p. 5 : " In the roofe of a chamber hung two lampes 
of gold, at the bottomes whereof were enchased two carbuncles, 
which gave so bright a splendour round about the roome, that 
there was no neede of any other light." With a reference to 
this notion, I imagine, Milton, speaking of the orb of the sun, 

" If stone, carbuncle most or chrysolite." 

Paradise Lost, B. III. v. 59G. 
And that we have in Antony and Cleopatra : 

" were it carbnncled 

" Like holy Phoebus' car," HOLT WHITE. 

* is it bitter ? forty pence, HO.] Mr. Roderick, in his 

appendix to Mr. Edwards's book, proposes to read : 

for two-pence, 

The old reading may, however, stand. Forty pence was, in 
those days, the proverbial expression of a small wager, or a small 
sum. Money was then reckoned by pounds, marks, and nobles, 
Forty pence is half a noble, or the sixth part of a pound. 
Forty pence, or three and four pence, still remains, in many of- 
fices, the legal and established fee. 

So, in King Richard II. Act V. sc. v : 

" The cheapest of us is ten groats too dear." 


There was a lady once, ('tis an old story,) 
That would not be a queen, that would she not, 
For all the mud in Egypt : 3 Have you heard it ? 

ANNE. Come, you are pleasant. 

OLD L. With your theme, I could 

O'ermount the lark. The marchioness of Pembroke! 
A thousand pounds a year ! for pure respect ; 
No other obligation : By my life, 
That promises more thousands : Honour's train 
Is longer than his foreskirt. By this time, 
I know, your back will bear a duchess ; Say, 
Are you not stronger than you were ? 

ANNE. Good lady, 

Make yourself mirth with your particular fancy, 
And leave me out on't. 'Would I had no being, 
If this salute my blood a jot ; it faints me, 
To think what follows. 
The queen is comfortless, and we forgetful 
In our long absence : Pray, do not deliver 
What here you have heard, to her. 

OLD L. What do you think me? 


Again, in All's well that ends well, Act II. the Clown says : " As 
fit as ten groats for the hand of an attorney." 

Again, in Green's Groundwork of Coneycatching : " wagers 
laying, &c. forty pence gaged against a match of wrestling." 

Again, in The longer thou livest, the more Fool thou art, 1570: 
" I dare tvage with any man forty pence." 

Again, in The Storye of King Darius, 1565, an interlude: 
" Nay, that I will not forfourty pence." STEEVEN.S. 

3 For all the mud in Egypt:'] The fertility of Egypt is de- 
rived from the mud and slime of the Nile. STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 87 


A Hall in Black-fryars. 

Trumpets , Sennet , 4 and Cornets. Enter Two 
Vergers, with short Silver Wands ; next tliem^ 

4 Sennet,"] Dr. Burney (whose General History ofMu- 

sick has been so highly and deservedly applauded ) undertook to 
trace the etymology, and discover the certain meaning of this 
term, but without success. The following conjecture of his 
should not, however, be withheld from the publick : 

" Senne or sennie, de 1'Allemand sen, qui signifie assemblee. 
Diet, de vieux Language: 

" Senne, assemblee a son de cloche" Menage. 
Perhaps, therefore, (says he,) sennet may mean a flourish for the 
purpose of assembling chiefs, or apprizing the people of their 
approach. I have likewise been informed, (as is elsewhere 
noted,) that seneste is the name of an antiquated French tune." 
See Julius Ccesar, Act I. sc. ii. STEEVENS. 

In the second part of Marston's Antonio and Mettlda 
" Cornets sound ncynet" FARMER. 

A senet appears to have signified a short flourish on cornets. 
In King Henry VI. P. III. after the King and the Duke of 
York have entered into a compact in the parliament-house, we 
find this marginal direction : " Senet. Here they [the lords] 
come damn [from their seats]." In that place a flourish must 
have been meant. The direction which has occasioned this note 
should be, I believe, sennet on cornets. 

In Marlowe's King Edward II. we find " Cornets sound a 

Senet or .signate was undoubtedly nothing more than a flourish 
or sounding. The Italian Sonata formerly signified nothing 
more. See Florio's Italian Diet. 1611, in v. 

That senel was merely the corrupt pronunciation of signate, 
is ascertained by the following entry in the folio MS. of Mr. 
Henslowe, who appears to have spelt entirely by the ear : 

" Laid out at sundry times, of my own ready money, abowt 
the gainynge of ower comysion, as followcth, 1597. 

" Laid out for goinge to the corte to the Master of the Re- 
queasts, xii d. 

" Item. Paid unto the clerk of the Scnctte, 40s." MALONE. 


Tico Scribes, in the Habits of Doctors ; after 
them, the Archbishop of Canterbury alone ; after 
him, the Bishops of Lincoln, Ely, Rochester, and 
Saint Asaph ; 5 next them, with some small dis- 
tance, Jbllou's a Gentleman bearing the Purse, 
with the Great Seal, and a Car dinars Hat : then 
two Priests, bearing each a Silver Cross ; then a 
Gentleman- Usher bare-headed, accompanied with 
a Sergeant at Arms, bearing a Silver Mace ; then 
two Gentlemen, bearing two great Silver Pillars; 6 

* Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishops of Lincoln, 

Ely, Rochester, and Saint Asaph;] These were, William 
Warham, John Longland, Nicholas West, John Fisher, and 
Henry Standish. West, Fisher, and Standish, were counsel for 
the Queen. REED. 

6 pillars ;~] Pillars were some of the ensigns of digfaity 

carried before cardinals. Sir Thomas More, when he was 
speaker to the commons, advised them to admit Wolsey into the 
house with his maces and his pillars. More's Life of Sir T. 

So, in The Treatous, a satire on Cardinal Wolsey, no date, 
but published between the execution of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham and the repudiation of Queen Katharine. Of this curiosity 
the reader will find a particular account in Herbert's improved 
edit, of Ames's Typographical Antiquities, Vol. III. p. 1538, 

The author of this invective was William Roy. See Bale de 
Script. Brit. edit. 154-8, p. 254, b : 

" With worldly pompe incredible, 
" Before him rydeth two prestes stronge ; 
" And they bear two crosses right longe, 

" Gapynge in every man's face : 
" After them folowe two laye men secular, 
" And each of theym holdyn a pillar, 

" In their hondes steade of a mace." STEEVENS. 

At the end of Fiddes's Life of Cardinal Wolsey, is a curious 
letter of Mr. Anstis's, on the subject of the two silver pillars 
usually borne before Cardinal Wolsey. This remarkable piece 
of pageantry did not escape the notice of Shakspeare. PERCY. 

Wolsey had two great crosses of silver, the one of his arch- 


after them, side by side, the tiro Cardinals WOL- 
SEY and CAMPEIUS ; two Noblemen with the 
Sword and Mace. Then enter the King and 
Queen, and their Trains. The King- takes place 
under the cloth of state ; the two Cardinals sit 
wider him as judges. The Queen takes place at 
some distance from the King. The Bishops place 
themselves on each side the court, in manner of a 
consistoi~y ; between them, the Scribes. The Lords 
sit next the Bishops. The Crier and the rest of 
the Attendants stand in convenient order about the 

WOL. Whilst our commission from Rome is read 
Let silence be commanded. 

A'. HEX. What's the need ? 

It hath already publickly been read, 
And on all sides the authority allow'd ; 
You may then spare that time. 

WOL. Be't so : Proceed. 

SCRIBE. Say, Henry king of England, come into 
the court. 

bishoprick, the other of his legacy, borne before him whither- 
soever he went or rode, by two of the tallest priests that he 
could get within the realm. This is from Vol. III. p. 920, of 
Holinshed, and it seems from p. 837, that one of the pillars 
was the token of a cardinal, and perhaps he bore the other pillar 
as an archbishop. TOLLET. 

One of Wolsey's crosses certainly denoted his being Legate, as 
the other was borne before him either as cardinal or archbishop. 

" On the day of the same moneth (says Hall) the cardi- 

nall removed out of his house called \orke-place, with one 
crosse, saying, that he would he had never borne more, mean- 
ing that by hys crosse which he bore as legate, which degree- 
raking was his confusion." Chron. Henry VlII. 101. b. 



CRIER. Henry king of England, &c. 
K. HEN. Here. 

SCRIBE. Say, Katharine queen of England, come 
into court. 

CRIER. Katharine, queen of England, &c. 

\_The Queen makes no answer, rises out of her 
chair, goes about the court? comes to the King, 
and kneels at his feet; then speaks. ~\ 

Q.KATH. Sir, I desire you, dome right and justice ; 3 
And to bestow your pity on me : for 
I am a most poor woman, and a stranger, 
Born out of your dominions ; having here 
No judge indifferent, nor no more assurance 
Of equal friendship and proceeding. Alas, sir, 
In what have I offended you ? what cause 
Hath my behaviour given to your displeasure, 
That thus you should proceed to put me off, 
Andtakeyourgoodgracefromme ? Heaven witness, 
I have been to you a true and humble wife, 
At all times to your will conformable : 9 

7 goes about the court,'] " Because (says Cavendish) 

she could not come to the king directlie, for the distance severed 
between them." MALONE. 

8 Sir, I desire you, do me right and justice ; &c.] This 
speech of the Queen, and the King's reply, are taken from 
Holinshed, with the most trifling variations. STEEVENS. 

9 At all times to your -will conformable:] The character 
Queen Katharine here prides herself for, is given to another 
Queen in The, Historic of the uniting of the Kingdom of Port u~ 
gall to the Crowne of Castill, fo. 1600, p. 238 : " at which 
time Queene Anne his wife fell sicke of a rotten fever, the 
which in few daies brought her to another life ; wherewith the 
King was much grieved, being a lady wholly conformable to his 
humour." REED. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 91 

Ever in fear to kindle your dislike, 

Yea, subject to your countenance ; glad, or sorry, 

As I saw it inclin'd. When was the hour, 

I ever contradicted your desire, 

Or made it not mine too ? Or which of your friends 

Have I not strove to love, although I knew 

He were mine enemy ? what friend of mine 

That had to him deriv'd your anger, did I 

Continue in my liking? nay, gave notice 1 

He was from thence discharg'd ? Sir, call to mind 

That I have been your wife, in this obedience, 

Upward of twenty years, and have been blest 

With many children by you : If, in the course 

And process of this time, you can report, 

And prove it too, against mine honour aught, 

My bond to wedlock, or my love and duty, 

Against your sacred person, 2 in God's name, 

1 nay, ga-ce notice ] In modern editions : 

> S ave not J1 t' ce 

Though the author's common liberties of speech might justify 
the old reading, yet I cannot but think that not was dropped 
before notice, having the same letters, and would therefore 
follow Sir T. Hanmer's correction. JOHNSON. 

Our author is so licentious in his construction, that I suspect 
no corruption. MALOXE. 

Perhaps this inaccuracy (like a thousand others) is chargeable 
only on the blundering superintendants of the first folio. In- 
stead of nuy, we might read : 

nor gave uodce 

He VMS from thence discharged? STEEVENS. 

or my love and duty 

Against your sacred person,"] There seems to be an error 
in the phrase " Against your sacred person ;" but I don't 
know how to amend it. The sense would require that we 
should read, " Toward* your sacred person," or some word of 
a similar import, which against will not bear: and it is not 
likely that against should be written by mistake for towards. 

In the old copy there is not a comma in the preceding line 


Turn me away ; and let the foul'st contempt 
Shut door upon me, and so give me up 
To the sharpest kind of justice. Please you, sir, 
The king, your father, was reputed for 
A prince most prudent, of an excellent 
And unmatch'd wit and judgment : Ferdinand, 
My father, king of Spain, was reckoned one 
The wisest prince, that there had reign' d by many 
A year before : It is not to be question'd 
That they had gathered a wise council to them 
Of every realm, that did debate this business, 
Who deem'd our marriage lawful : Wherefore I 


Beseech you, sir, to spare me, till I may 
Be by my friends in Spain advis'd ; whose counsel 
I will implore : if not ; i'the name of God, 
Your pleasure be fulfill' d ! 

after duty. Mr. M. Mason has justly observed that, with such 
a punctuation, the sense requires Towards your sacred person. 
A comma being placed at duty, the construction is If you can 
report and prove aught against mine honour, my love and duty, 
or aught against your sacred person, &c. but I doubt whether 
this was our author's intention ; for such an arrangement seems 
to make a breach of her honour and matrimonial bond to be 
something distinct from an offence against the king's person, 
which is not the case. Perhaps, however, by the latter words 
Shakspeare meant, against your life. MALONE. 

against my honour aught, 

My bond to wedlock, or my love and duty 
Against your sacred person, &c.] The meaning of this 
passage is sufficiently clear, but the construction of it has puzzled 
us all. It is evidently erroneous, but may be amended by 
merely removing the word or from the middle of the second line 
to the end of it. It will then run thus 

against my honour aught, 

My bond to wedlock, my love and duty, or 
Against your sacred person, &c. 

This slight alteration makes it grammatical, as well as intelligi- 
ble. M. MASOX. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 93 

WOL. You have here, lady, 

(And of your choice,) these reverend fathers ; men 
Of singular integrity and learning, 
Yea, the elect of the land, who are assembled 
To plead your cause: It shall be therefore bootless, 
That longer you desire the court ; 3 as well 
For your own quiet, as to rectify 
What is unsettled in the kins;. 


CAM. His grace 

Hath spoken well, and justly : Therefore, madam, 
It's fit this royal session do proceed ; 
And that, without delay, their arguments 
Be now produc'd, and heard. 

Q. KATH. Lord cardinal, 

To you I speak. 

WOL. Your pleasure, madam ? 

Q. KATH. Sir, 

I am about to weep ; 4 but, thinking that 
We are a queen, (or long have dream'd so,) certain, 
The daughter of a king, my drops of tears 
I'll turn to sparks of fire. 

WOL. Be patient yet. 

J That longer you desire the court;"] That you desire to pro- 
tract the business of the court ; that you solicit a more distant 
session and trial. To pray for a longer day, i. e. a more distant 
one, when the trial or execution of criminals is agitated, is yet 
the language of the bar. In the fourth folio, and all the modern 
editions, defer is substituted for desire. MALONE. 

4 I am about to weep ; &c.] Shakspeare has given almost a 
similar sentiment to Ilermionc, in The IVinter's Tale, on an 
almost similar occasion : 

" I am not prone to weeping, as our sex 

" Commonly are, &c. but I have 

" That honourable grief lodg'd here, which burns 

" Worse than tears drown;" &c. STEEVENS. 


Q. KATH. I will, when you are humble ; nay, 


Or God will punish me. I do believe, 
Induc'd by potent circumstances, that 
You are mine enemy ; and make my challenge, 
You shall not be my judge : 5 for it is you 
Have blown this coal betwixt my lord and me, 
Which God's dewquench! Therefore,! say agairij 
I utterly abhor, yea, from my soul, 
Refuse you for my judge ; 6 whom, yet once more, 
I hold my most malicious foe, and think not 
At all a friend to truth. 

WOL. I do profess, 

You speak not like yourself; who ever yet 
Have stood to charity, and display'd the effects 
Of disposition gentle, and of wisdom 
O'ertopping woman's power. Madam, you do me 

wrong : 

I have no spleen against you ; nor injustice 
For you, or any : how far I have proceeded, 
Or how far further shall, is warranted 
By a commission from the consistory, 
Yea, the whole consistory of Rome. You charge me. 
That I have blown this coal : I do deny it : 

You shall not lie my judge :~\ Challenge is here a veroum 
juris, a law term. The criminal, when he refuses a juryman, 
says / challenge him. JOHNSON. 

6 / utterly abhor, yea, from my soul 

Refuse you for my judge ;~\ These are not mere words of 
passion, but technical terms in the canon law. 

Detector and Recuso. The former, in the language of canon- 
ists, signifies no more, than I protest against. BLACKSTONE. 

The words are Holinshed's : " and therefore openly pro- 
tested that she did utterly abhor, refuse, and forsake such a 
judge." MALONE. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 95 

The king is present : if it be known to him, 
That I gainsay 7 my deed, how may he wound, 
And worthily, my falsehood ? yea, as much 
As you have done my truth. But if 8 he know 
That 1 am free of your report, he knows, 
I am not of your wrong. Therefore in him 
It lies, to cure me : and the cure is, to 
Remove these thoughts from you : The which before 
His highness shall speak in, I do beseech 
You, gracious madam, to unthink your speaking, 
And to say so no more. 

Q. KATH. My lord, my lord, 

I am a simple woman, much too weak 
To oppose your cunning. You are meek, and luim- 

ble-mouth'd ; 

You sign your place and calling, 9 in full seeming, 
With meekness and humility : but your heart 
Is cramm'd with arrogancy, spleen, and pride. 
You have, by fortune, and his highness' favours, 
Gone slightly o'er low steps ; and now are mounted 
Where powers are your retainers : and your words, 

7 gainsay ] i. e. deny. So, in Lord Surrey's trans- 
lation of the fourth Book of the JEncid : 

" I hold thee not, nor yet gainsay thy words." 


" But if- ~] The conjunction But, which is wanting 

in the old copy, was supplied, for the sake of measure, by Sir 
T. Hanmer. STEEVENS. 

1 You sign your place and calling,'] S/ifH, for answer. 


1 think, to sign, must here he to .v/fon-, to denote. By your 
outward meekness and humility, you show that you are of an 
holy order, but, &c. JOHNSON. 

So, with a kindred sense, in Jnliii* Ca i >ar : 

" Sign'd in thy spoil, and critnson'd in thy lethe." 



Domesticks to you, serve your will, 1 as't please 
Yourself pronounce their office. I must tell you, 
You tender more your person's honour, than 
Your high profession spiritual : That again 
I do refuse you for my judge ; and here, 
Before you all, appeal unto the pope, 

1 Where powers are your retainers : and your words, 

Domesticks to you, serve your will,'] You have now got 
power at your beck, following in your retinue ; and words there- 
fore are degraded to the servile state of performing any office 
which you shall give them. In humbler and more common 
terms : Having now got power, you do not regard your word. 


The word power, when used in the plural and applied to one 
person only, will not bear the meaning that Dr. Johnson wishes 
to give it. 

By powers are meant the Emperor and the King of France, 
in the pay of one or the other of whom Wolsey was constantly 
retained ; and it is well known that Wolsey entertained some of 
the nobility of England among his domesticks, and had an abso- 
lute power over the rest. M. MASON. 

Whoever were pointed at by the word powers, Shakspeare, 
surely, does not mean to say that Wolsey was retained by them, 
but that they were retainers, or subservient, to Wolsey. 


I believe that powers, in the present instance, are used merely 
to express persons in whom power is lodged. The Queen would 
insinuate that Wolsey had rendered the highest officers of state 
subservient to his will. STEEVENS. 

I believe we should read : 

Where powers are your retainers, and your wards, 
Domesticks to you, &c. 

The Queen rises naturally in her description. She paints the 
powers of government depending upon Wolsey under three 
images ; as his retainers, his wards, his domestick servants. 


So, in Storer's Life and Death of Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal, 
a poem, 1599: 

" I must have notice where their wards must dwell : 

" I car'd not for the gentry, for I had 

" Young nobles of the land," &c. STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 97 

To bring my whole cause 'fore his holiness, 
And to be judg'd by him. 

[She curfsies to the King, and offers to depart. 

CAM. The queen is obstinate, 

Stubborn to justice, apt to accuse it, and 
Disdainful to be try'd by it j 'tis not well. 
She's going away. 

K. HEN. Call her again. 

CRIER. Katharine queen of England, come into 

the court. 
GRIP. Madam, you are call'd back. 

Q. KATH. What need you note it? pray you, 

keep your way : 

When you are call'd, return. Now the Lord help, 
They vex me past my patience ! pray you, pass on : 
I will not tarry : no, nor ever more, 
Upon this business, my appearance make 
In any of their courts. 

[Exeunt Queen, GRIFFITH, and her other 

K. HEX. Go thy ways, Kate : 

That man i'the world, who shall report he has 
A better wife, let him in nought be trusted, 
For speaking false in that : Thou art, alone, 
(If thy rare qualities, sweet gentleness, 
Thy meekness saint-like, wife-like government, 
Obeying in commanding, and thy parts 
Sovereign and pious else, could speak thee out, 2 ) 

* could speak thee ow/,)] If thy several qualities had 

tongues to speak thy praise. JOHNSON. 

Rather had tongues capable of speaking out thy merits ; i.e. 
of doing them extensive justice. In Cymbelinc we have a similar 
expression : 

" You speak him for." STEEVENS. 



The queen of earthly queens : She is noble born ; 
And, like her true nobility, she has 
Carried herself towards me. 

WOL. Most gracious sir, 

In humblest manner I require your highness, 
That it shall please you to declare, in hearing 
Of all these ears, (for where I am robb'd and bound, 
There must I be unloos'd ; although not there 
At once and fully satisfied, 3 ) whether ever I 
Did broach this business to your highness ; or 
Laid any scruple in your way, w r hich might 
Induce you to the question on't ? or ever 
Have to you, but with thanks to God for such 
A royal lady, spake one the least word, might 4 
Be to the prejudice of her present state, 
Or touch of her good person ? 

K. HEN. My lord cardinal, 

I do excuse you ; yea, upon mine honour, 
I free you from't. You are not to be taught 
That you have many enemies, that know not 
Why they are so, but, like to village curs, 
Bark when their fellows do : by some of these 
The queen is put in anger. Y"ou are excus'd : 
But will you be more justified ? you ever 
Have wish'd the sleeping of this business ; never 
Desir'd it to be stirr'd ; 5 but oft have hinder'd j oft 

At once and fully satisfied,)'] The sense, which is encum- 
bered with words, is no more than this I must be loosed, 
though when so loosed, I shall not be satisfied fully and at once ; 
that is, I shall not be immediately satisfied. JOHNSON. 

4 might ] Old copy, redundantly that might. 


3 Desir'd it to be stirr'd ;] The useless words to be, might, 
in my opinion, be safely omitted, as they clog the metre, with- 
out enforcement of the sense. STEEVENS. 

#7. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 99 

The passages made toward it : 6 on my honour, 
I speak my good lord cardinal to this point, 7 
Andthus far clear him. Now, whatmov'dmeto't, 
I will be bold with time, and your attention : 
Then mark the inducement. Thus it came ; give 

heed to't : - 

My conscience first receiv'd a tenderness, 
Scruple, and prick, 8 on certain speeches utter' d 
By the bishop of Bayonne, then French ambassador j 
Who had been hither sent on the debating 
A marriage," 'twixt the duke of Orleans and 
Our daughter Mary: I'the progress of thisbusiness, 
Ere a determinate resolution, he 
(I mean, the bishop) did require a respite ; 
Wherein he might the king his lord advertise 
Whether our daughter were legitimate, 

6 The passages made toward it:'] i. e. dosed, or fastened* 
So, in The Comedy of Errors, Act III. sc. i : 

" Why at this time the doors are made against you." 
For the present explanation and pointing, I alone am answer- 
able. A similar phrase occurs in Macbeth : 

" Stop up the access and passage to remorse." 
Yet the sense in which these words have hitherto been received 
may be the true one. STEEVENS. 

7 on mi/ honour, 

I speak my good lord cardinal to this point,"] The King, 
having first addressed to Wolsey, breaks off; and declares upon 
his honour to the whole court, that he speaks the Cardinal's 
sentiments upon the point in question ; and clears him from any 
attempt, or wish, to stir that business. THEOBALD. 

* Scruple, and prick,] Prick of conscience was the term in 
confession. JOHNSON. 

The expression is from Holinshed, where the King says: 
" The special cause that moved me unto this matter was a cer- 
taine scrupulositie that pricked my conscience," &c. See Ho- 
Unshed, p. 907. STEEVENS. 

9 A marriage,'] Old copy And marriage. Corrected by 
Mr. Pope. MALOXE. 

II 2 


Respecting this our marriage with the dowager, 
Sometimes our brother's wire. This respite shook 
The bosom of my conscience, 1 enter'd me, 
Yea, with a splitting power, and made to tremble 
The region of my breast ; which forc'd such way, 
That many maz'd considerings did throng, 
And press'd in with this caution. First, meth ought, 
I stood not in the smile of heaven ; who had 
Commanded nature, that my lady's womb, 
If not conceiv'd a male child by me, should 
Do no more offices of life to't, than 
The grave does to the dead : for her male issue 
Or died where they were made, or shortly after 
This world had air'd them : Hence I took a thought, 
This was a judgment on me ; that my kingdom, 
Well worthy the best heir o'the world, should not 
Be gladded in't by me : Then follows, that 
I weigh'd the danger which my realms stood in 
By this my issue's fail ; and that gave to me 
Many a groaning throe. Thus hulling in 

1 This respite shook 

The bosom of my conscience,"] Though this reading be sense, 
yet, I verily believe, the poet wrote : 

The bottom of my conscience, 

Shakspeare, in all his historical plays, was a most diligent 
observer of Holinshed's Chronicle. Now Holinshed, in the 
speech which he has given to King Henry upon this subject, 
makes him deliver himself thus: " Which words, once con- 
ceived within the secret bottom of my conscience, ingendred such 
a scrupulous doubt, that my conscience was incontinently ac- 
combred, vexed, and disquieted." Vid. Life of Henry VIII. 
p. 907. THEOBALD. 

The phrase recommended by Mr. Theobald occurs again in 
King Henry VI. Part I : 

" for therein should we read 

" The very bottom and soul of hope." 

It is repeated also in Measure for Measure, All's ixell that ends 
well, King Henry VI. P. II. Coriolanus, &c. STEEVENS. 

sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 101 

The wild sea 2 of my conscience, I did steer 
Toward this remedy, whereupon we are 
Now present here together ; that's to say, 
I meant to rectify my conscience, which 
I then did feel full sick, and vet not well, 
By all the reverend fathers of the land, 
And doctors learn'd. First, I began in private 
With you, my lord of Lincoln ; you remember 
How under my oppression I did reek, 
When I first mov'd you. 

IAN. Very well, my liege. 

K. HEN. I have spoke long ; be pleas'd your- 
self to say 
How far you satisfied me. 

Lix. So please your highness, 

The question did at first so stagger me, 
Bearing a state of mighty moment in't, 
And consequence of dread, that I committed 
The daring'st counsel which I had, to doubt ; 
And did entreat your highness to this course, 
Which you are running here. 

K. HEN. I then mov'd you, 3 

hulling in 

The wild sea ] That is, floating without guidance ; 
tossed here and there. JOHNSON. 

The phrase belongs to navigation. A ship is said to hull when 
she is dismasted, and only her hull, or hulk, is left at the direc- 
tion and mercy of the waves. 

So, in The Alarum for London, 1G02: 

" And they lye hulling up and down the stream." 


1 ///?." mov'd you,"] " I moved it in confession to you, my 
lord of Lincoln, then my ghostly father. And forasmuch as 
then you yourself were in some doubt, you moved me to ask 
the counsel of all these my lords. Whereupon I moved you, 


My lord of Canterbury ; and got your leave 
To make this present summons : Unsolicited 
I left no reverend person in this court ; 
But by particular consent proceeded, 
Under your hands and seals. Therefore, go on : 
For no dislike i'the world against the person 
Of the good queen, but the sharp thorny points 
Of my alleged reasons, drive this forward : 
Prove but our marriage lawful, by my life, 
And kingly dignity, we are contented 
To wear our mortal state to come, w r ith her, 
Katharine our queen, before the primest creature 
That's paragon'd o'the world. 4 

CAM. So please your highness, 

The queen being absent, 'tis a needful fitness 
That we adjourn this court till further day: 
Mean while must be an earnest motion 

my lord of Canterbury, first to have your licence, in as much as 
you were metropolitan, to put this matter in question ; and so I 
did of all of you, my lords." Holinshed's Life of Henry VIII. 
p. 908. THEOBALD. 

* That's paragon'd o'the 'world.'] Sir T. Hanmer reads, I 
think, better : 

the primest creature 

That's paragon o'the world. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Two Gentlemen of Verona : 

" No : but she is an earthly paragon" 
Again, in Cymbeline : 

" an angel! or, if not, 

" An earthly paragon." 

To paragon, however, is a verb used by Shakspeare, both in 
Antony and Cleopatra and Othello : 

" If thou with Caesar paragon again 

" My man of men. 

" a maid 

" That paragons description and wild fame." 


sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 10$ 

Made to the queen, to call back her appeal 
She intends unto his holiness. 

\_They rise to depart* 

K. HEN. I may perceive, [Aside. 

These cardinals trifle with me : I abhor 
This dilatory sloth, and tricks of Rome. 
My learn'd and well-beloved servant, Cranmer, 
Pr'ythee return ! with thy approach, I know, 
My comfort comes along. Break up the court : 
I say, set on. [Exeunt, in manner as tliey entered. 

3 They rise to depart.] Here the modern editors add : [ The 
King speaks to Crammer."] This marginal direction is not found 
in the old folio, and was wrongly introduced by some subsequent 
editor. Cranmer was now absent from court on an embassy, 
as appears from the last scene of this Act, where Cromwell in- 
forms Wolsey that he is returned and installed archbishop of 
Canterbury : 

" My learn'd and well-beloved servant, Cranmer, 

" IVythee, return ! " 

is no more than an apostrophe to the absent bishop of that 
name. RTDLEY. 



Palace at Bridewell, 

A Room in the Queen's Apartment. 

The Queen, and some of her Women, at work.* 

Q. KATH. Take thy lute, wench : my soul grows 

sad with troubles ; 

Sing, and disperse them, if thou canst; leave 


Orpheus with his lute made trees, 
And the mountain-tops, that freeze, 

Bow themselves, when he did sing: 
To his musick, plants, andjlowers, 
Ever sprung; as sun, and showers, 

There had been a lasting spring. 

Every thing that heard him play, 
Even the billows of the sea, 

Hung their heads, and then lay by. 
In sweet musick is such art ; 
Killing care, and grief of heart, 

Fall asleep, or, hearing, die. 

4 at tiw&.] Her majesty (says Cavendish,) on being 

informed that the cardinals were coming to visit her, " rose up, 
having a skein ofredsilke about her neck, being at work with 
her maidens." Cavendish attended Wolsey in this visit ; and 
the Queen's answer, in p. 108, is exactly conformable to that 
which he has recorded, and which he appears to have heard her 
pronounce. MALONE. 

ac. i. KING HENRY VIII. 105 

Enter a Gentleman. 

Q. KATH. How now ? 

GENT. An't please your grace, the two great 


Wait in the presence. 5 

Q. KATH. Would they speak with me ? 

GEXT. They will'd me say so, madam. 

Q. KATH. Pray their graces 

To come near. [Exit Gent.] What can be their 


With me, a poor weak woman, fallen from favour ? 
1 do not like their coming, now I think on't. 
They shouldbegoodmen ; their affairs as righteous: 6 
But all hoods make not monks. 7 

3 Wait in tlic presence. 3 i. e. in the presence-chamber. So, 
in Peacham's Compleat Gentleman: " Hie lady Anne of Bre- 
taignc, passing tliorow the presence in the court of France," &c. 


They should be good men ; their affairs as righteous .-] 
Affairs, lor professions ; and then the sense is clear and pertinent. 
Tne proposition is they are priests. The illation, they are good 
men ; for being understood : but if affairs be interpreted in its 
common signification, the sentence is absurd. WARBURTON. 

The sentence has no great difficulty : Affairs means not their 
present errand, but the business of their calling. JOHNSON. 

Being churchmen they should be virtuous, and every business 
they undertake as righteous as their sacred office: but all hoods, 
&c. The ignorant editor of the second folio, not understanding 
the line, substituted arc for ax; and this capricious alteration 
(with many others introduced by the same hand,) has been 
adopted by all the modern editors. M ALONE. 

all hoods make not monks.'] Cucullus non facit mona- 

chum. STEEVENS. 

To this proverbial expression Chaucer alludes in his Roma tint 
of the Rose, 6190: 



WOL. Peace to your highness 1 

Q. KATH. Your graces find me here part of a 

housewife ; 

I would be all, against the worst may happen. 
What are your pleasures with me, reverend lords ? 

WOL. May it please you, noble madam, to with- 

Into your private chamber, we shall give you 
The full cause of our coming. 

Q. KATH. Speak it here ; 

There's nothing I have done yet, o' my conscience, 
Deserves a corner : 'Would, all other women 
Could speak this with as free a soul as I do ! 
My lords, I care not, (so much I am happy 
Above a number,) if my actions 
Were tried by every tongue, every eye saw them, 
Envy and base opinion set against them, 8 
I know my life so even : If your business 
Seek me out, 9 and that way I am wife in, 1 

This argument is all roignous, 
It is not worth a crooked brere ; 
Habitc ne makith Monke ne Frere; 
But a clene life and devotion, 
Makith gode men of religion." GREY. 

8 Envy and base opinion set against them,'] I would be glad 
that my conduct were in some publick trial confronted with mine 
enemies, that envy and corrupt judgment might try their ut- 
most power against me. JOHNSON. 

Envy, in Shakspeare's age, often signified malice. So, after- 
wards : 

" Ye turn the good we offer into envy" MAJ.ONE. 

" Seek me out, <Src.] I believe that a word has dropt out here, 
and that we should read : 

sc. I. KING HENRY VIII. 107 

Out with it boldly ; Truth loves open dealing. 

WOL. Tanta est ergd tc mentis integritas, regina 

Q. KATH. O, good my lord, no Latin ; 2 
I am not such a truant since my coming, 
As not to know the language I have liv'd in : 
A strange tongue makes my cause more strange, 

suspicious ; 
Pray, speak in English : here are some will thank 

If you speak truth, for their poor mistress* sake; 

If your business 

Seek me, speak out, and that way / am wise in; 
1. c. in the way that I can understand it. TYHWHITT. 

The metre shows here is a syllable dropt. I would read : 
I know my life so even, //''tis your business 
To seek me out, &c. BLACKSTONE. 

The alteration proposed by Sir W. Blackstone injures one line 
as much as it improves the other. We might read : 
Doth seek me out, . RITSON. 

1 and tJtat way / am wife in,~\ That is, if you come 

to examine the tille by which I am the King's wife ; or, if you 
come to know how I have behaved as a wife. The meaning, 
whatever it may be, is so coarsely and unskilfully expressed, that 
the latter editors have liked nonsense better, and contrarily to 
the ancient and only copy, have published : 

And that way / am wise in. JOHNSON. 

This passage is unskilfully expressed indeed ; so much so, 
that I don't see how it can import either of the meanings that 
Johnson contends for, or indeed any other. I therefore think 
that the modern editors have acted rightly in reading wise in- 
stead of ny'/r, for which that word might easily have been mis- 
taken ; nor can I think the passage, so amended, nonsense, the 
meaning of it being this : " If your business relates to me, or to 
any thing of which I have any knowledge." M. MASON-. 

* O, good my lord, no Latin ;~\ So, Ilolinshcd, p. 908 : 

' Then began the cardinall to speake to her in Latine. 
N'aie good my lord (quoth she) speake to me in English." 



Believe me, she has had much wrong : Lord car- 

The willing'st sin I ever yet committed, 
May be absolv'd in English. 

WOL. Noble lady, 

I am sorry, my integrity should breed, 
(And service to his majesty and you,) 3 
So deep suspicion, where all faith was meant. 
We come not by the way of accusation, 
To taint that honour every good tongue blesses ; 
Nor to betray you any way to sorrow ; 
You have too much, good lady : but to know 
How you stand minded in the weighty difference 
Between the king and you ; and to deliver, 
Like free and honest men, our just opinions, 
And comforts to your cause. 4 

CAM. Most honour* d madam, 

My lord of York, out of his noble nature, 
Zeal and obedience he still bore your grace ; 
Forgetting, like a good man, your late censure 
Both of his truth and him, (which was too far,) 
Offers, as I do, in a sign of peace, 
His service and his counsel. 

Q. KATH. To betray me. \_Asidc. 

My lords, I thank you both for your good wills, 
Ye speak like honest men, (pray God, ye prove so!) 
But how to make you suddenly an answer, 
In such a point of weight, so near mine honour, 

3 (And service to his majesty and you,}] This line stands so 
very aukwardly, that I am inclined to think it out of its place. 
The author perhaps wrote, as Mr. Edwards has suggested : 

" I am sorry my integrity should breed 

" So deep suspicion, where all faith was meant, 

" And service to his majesty and you." MALONE. 

4 to your causc.~] Old copy our cause. Corrected by 

the editor or the second folio. MALONE. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 109 

(More near my life, I fear,) with my weak wit, 
And to such men of gravity and learning, 
In truth, I know not. I was set at work 
Among my maids; full little, God knows, looking 
Either for such men, or sucli business. 
For her sake that I have been, 5 (for I feel 
The last n't of my greatness,) good your graces, 
Let me have time, and counsel, for my cause ; 
Alas ! I am a woman, friendless, hopeless. 

WOL. Madam, you wrong the king's love with 

these fears ; 
Your hopes and friends are infinite. 

Q. KATH. In England, 

But little for my profit : Can you think, lords, 
That any Englishman dare give me counsel ? 
Or be a known friend, 'gainst his highness' pleasure, 
(Though he be grown so desperate to be honest,)" 
And live a subject ? Nay, forsooth, my friends, 
They that must weigh out my afflictions, 7 
They that my trust must grow to, live not here ; 
They are, as all my other comforts, far hence, 
In mine own country, lords. 

5 For her sake that I have been, &c.] For the sake of that roy- 
alty which I have heretofore possessed. MALONE. 

6 ( Though he lie groivn so desperate to be honest,)] Do you 
think that any Englishman dare advise me; or, if any man 
should venture to advise with honesty, that he could live ? 


weigh out my afflictions,'] This phrase is obscure. 

To weigh out, is, in modern language, to deliver by weight ; but 
this sense cannot be here admitted. To weigh is likewise to deli- 
berate upon, to consider with due attention. This may, perhaps, 
be meant. Or the phrase, to weigh out, may signify to counter- 
balance, to counteract with equal force. JOHNSON. 

To weigh out is the same as to outweigh. In Macbeth, Shak- 
c ]H';ire has overcome for come over. STEEVENS. 


CAM. I would, your grace 

Would leave your griefs, and take my counsel. 

Q. KATH. How, sir ? 

CAM. Put your main cause into the king's pro- 
tection ; 

He's loving, and most gracious ; 'twill be much 
Both for your honour better, and your cause ; 
For, if the trial of the law overtake you, 
You'll part away disgrac'd. 

WOL. He tells you rightly. 

Q. KATH. Ye tell me what ye wish for both, my 

ruin : 

Is this your Christian counsel ? out upon ye ! 
Heaven is above all yet ; there sits a judge, 

^ i - * J & 

Inat no king can corrupt. 
CAM. Your rage mistakes us. 

Q. KATH. The more shame for ye; 8 holy men I 

thought ye, 

Upon my soul, two reverend cardinal virtues ; 
But cardinal sins, and hollow hearts, I fear ye : 
Mend them for shame, my lords. Is this your 

comfort ? 

The cordial that ye bring a wretched lady ? 
A woman lost among ye, laugh' d at, scorn* d ? 
I will not wish ye half my miseries, 
I have more charity : But say, I warn'd ye ; 
Take heed, for heaven's sake, take heed, lest at once 
The burden of my sorrows fall upon ye. 

WOL. Madam, this is a mere distraction ; 
You turn the good we offer into envy. 

8 The more shame for ye ;] If I mistake you, it is by your 
fault, not mine ; for I thought you good. The distress of Ka- 
tharine might have kept her from the quibble to which she is 
irresistibly tempted by the word cardinal. JOHNSON. 


Q. KATH. Ye turn me into nothing: Woe upon ye, 
And all such false professors ! Would ye have me 
(If you have any justice, any pity; 
If ye be any thing but churchmen's habits,) 
Put my sick cause into his hands that hates me ? 
Alas! he has banish'd me his bed already; 
His love, too long ago : I am old, my lords, 
And all the fellowship I hold now with him 
Is only my obedience. What can happen 
To me, above this wretchedness ? all your studies 
Make me a curse like this. 

CAM. Your fears are worse. 

Q. KATH. Have I liv'd thus long (let me speak 


Since virtue rinds no friends,) a wife, a true one ? 
A woman (I dare say, without vain-glory,) 
Never yet branded with suspicion ? 
Have 1 with all my full affections 
Still met the king ? lov'd him next heaven ? obey'd 

him ? 

Been, out of fondness, superstitious to him? 9 
Almost forgot my prayers to content him ? 
And am I thus rewarded ? 'tis not well, lords. 
Bring me a constant woman to her husband, 
One that ne'er dream'd a joy beyond his pleasure j 
And to that woman, when she has done most, 
Yet will I add an honour, a great patience. 

WOL. Madam, you wander from the good we 
aim at. 

Q. KATII. My lord, I dare not make myself so 

To give up willingly that noble title 

9 superstitious to him ?] That is, served him with supctv 

stitious attention ; done more than was required, JOHXSOX. 


Your master wed me to : nothing but death 
Shall e'er divorce my dignities. 

WOL. 'Pray, hear me. 

Q. KATH. 'Would I had never trod this English 


Or felt the flatteries that grow upon it ! 
Ye have angels' faces, 1 but heaven knows your 


What will become of me now, wretched lady ? 
I am the most unhappy woman living. 
Alas! poor wenches, where are now your fortunes? 

[To her Women. 

Shipwreck'd upon a kingdom, where no pity, 
No friends, no hope ; no kindred weep for me, 
Almost, no grave allow'd me : Like the lily, 

1 Ye have angels' faces,] She may perhaps allude to the old 
jingle of Angli and Angeli. JOHNSON. 

I find this jingle in The Arraignment of Paris, 1584. The 
goddesses refer the dispute about the golden apple to the decision 
of Diana, who setting aside their respective claims, awards it to 
Queen Elizabeth; and adds: 

" Her people are ycleped angeli, 
" Or if I miss a letter, is the most." 

In this pastoral, as it is called, the Queen herself may be al- 
most said to have been a performer, for at the conclusion of it, 
Diana gives the golden apple into her hands, and the Fates de- 
posit their insignia at her feet. It was presented before her Ma- 
jesty by the children of her chapel. 

It appears, from the following passage in The Spanish Mas- 
querado, by Greene, 1585, that this quibble was originally the 
quibble of a saint : " England, a little island, where, as saint 
Augustin saith, there be people with angel faces, so the inhabi- 
tants have the courage and hearts of lyons." STEEVENS. 

See also Nashe's Anatomic of Absurditie, 1589: " For my 
part I meane to suspend my sentence, and let an author of late 
memorie be my speaker ; who affirmeth that they carry angel? 
in their faces, and devils in their devices." MALONE. 


That once was mistress of the field, 2 and flourish'd, 
I'll hang my head, and perish. 

WoL. If your grace 

Could but be brought to know, our ends are honest, 
You'd feel more comfort : why should we, good 


Upon what cause, wrong you ? alas ! our places, 
The way of our profession is against it ; 
We are to cure such sorrows, not to sow them. 
For goodness' sake, consider what you do ; 
How you may hurt yourself, ay, utterly 
Grow from the king's acquaintance, by this car- 

The hearts of princes kiss obedience, 
So much they love it ; but, to stubborn spirits, 
They swell, and grow as terrible as storms. 3 
I know, you have a gentle, noble temper, 
A soul as even as a calm ; Pray, think us 
Those we profess, peace-makers, friends, and ser- 

CAM. Madam, you'll find it so. You wrong your 

-the lily, 

That once was mistress oftliejteld,~\ So, in Spenser's Fairy 
, Book II. c. vi. st. 16 : 
" The lily, lady of the flow'ring f eld." HOLT WHITE. 

3 The hearts of princes kiss obedience, 
So much thcij love it ; but, to stubborn spirits, 
They swell, and grow as terrible ns storms.] It was one of 
the charges brought against Lord Essex, in the year before this 
play was probably written, by his ungrateful kinsman, Sir Francis 
Bacon, when that nobleman, to the disgrace of humanity, was 
obliged, by a junto of his enemies, to kneel at the end of the 
council-table for several hours, that in a letter written during his 
retirement, in 1598, to the Lord Keeper, he had said, " There 
is no tempest to (he passionate indignation of a prince." 



With these weak women's fears. A noble spirit, 

As yours was put into you, ever casts 

Such doubts, as false coin, from it. The king loves 


Beware, you lose it not : For us, if you please 
To trust us in your business, we are ready 
To use our utmost studies in your service. 

Q. KATH. Do what ye will, my lords : And, pray, 

forgive me, 

If I have us'd myself unmannerly ;* 
You know, I am a woman, lacking wit 
To make a seemly answer to such persons. 
Pray, do my service to his majesty : 
He has my heart yet ; and shall have my prayers, 
While I shall have my life. Come, reverend fathers, 
Bestow your counsels on me : she now begs, 
That little thought, when she set footing here, 
She should have bought her dignities so dear. 


4 If I have us'd myself unmannerly ;] 
haved myself unmannerly. M. MASOX. 

That is, if I have be- 

sc.ii. KING HENRY VIII. 115 


Ante-chamber to the King's Apartment. 

Enter the Duke of NORFOLK, the Duke of SUF- 
FOLK, the Earl of SURREY, and the Lord 

NOR. If you will now unite in your complaints 
And force them 5 with a constancy, the cardinal 
Cannot stand under them : If you omit 
The offer of this time, I cannot promise, 
But that you shall sustain more new disgraces, 
With these you bear already. 

J / 

SUR. I am joyful 

To meet the least occasion, that may give me 
Remembrance of my father-in-law, the duke, 
To be reveng'd on him. 

SUF. Which of the peers 

Have uncontemn'd gone by him, or at least 
Strangely neglected? 6 when did he regard 

5 And force them ~\ Force is enforce^ urge. JOHNSOX. 

So, in Measure, for Measure : 

" Has he affections in him 

" That thus can make him bite the law by the nose, 
" When he \\-ou\dJbrcc it?" STEEVENS. 

c or at least 

Strangely neglected?"] Which of the peers has not gone by 
him contemned or neglected? JOHNSON. 

Our author extends to the words, strangely neglected, the 
negative comprehended in the word uncontemn d. M. MASON. 

Uncontemn'd, as I have before observed in a note on As you 
like it, must be understood, as if the author had written not con- 
temn'd. See Vol. VIII. p. lit, n. 7. MALONK. 

l <> 


The stamp of nobleness in any person, 
Out of himself? 7 

CHAM. My lords, you speak your pleasures: 
What he deserves of you and me, I know ; 
What we can do to him, (though now the time 
Gives way to us,) I much fear. If you cannot 
Bar his access to the king, never attempt 
Any thing on him ; for he hath a witchcraft 
Over the king in his tongue. 

NOR. O, fear him not j 

His spell in that is out : the king hath found 
Matter against him, that for ever mars 
The honey of his language. No, he's settled, 
Not to come off, in his displeasure. 

SUR. Sir, 

I should be glad to hear such news as this 
Once every hour. 

NOR. Believe it, this is true. 

In the divorce, his contrary proceedings 8 
Are all unfolded ; wherein he appears, 
As I could wish mine enemy. 

7 ivhen did he regard 

The stamp of nobleness in any person, 

Out of himself?'] The expression is bad, and the thought 
false. For it supposes Wolsey to be noble, which was not so : we 
should read and point : 

ivhcn did he regard 

The stamp of nobleness in any person ; 
Out oft himself? 

i. e. When did he regard nobleness of blood in another, having 
none of his own to value himself upon ? WARBUKTON. 

I do not think this correction proper. The meaning of the 
present reading is easy. When did he, however careful to carry 
his own dignity to the utmost height, regard any dignity of 
another? JOHNSON. 

9 contrary proceedings ] Private practices opposite to 

his publick procedure. JOHNSON. 

sc.ii. KING HENRY VIII. 117 

SUR. How came 

His practices to light ? 

SuF. Most strangely. 

SUR. O, how, how ? 

SUF. The cardinal's letter to the pope miscarried, 
And came to the eye o'the king: wherein was read, 
How that the cardinal did entreat his holiness 
To stay the judgment o'the divorce ; For if 
It did take place, / do, quoth he, perceive, 
l\Iy king is tangled in affection to 
A creature of the queen's, lady Anne Bullen. 

SUR. Has the king this ? 

SUF. Believe it. 

Sun. Will this work ? 

CHAM. The king in this perceives him, how he 


And hedges, his own way. 9 But in this point 
All his tricks founder, and he brings his physick 
After his patient's death ; the king already 
Hath married the fair lady. 

SUR. 'Would he had ! 

SUF. May you be happy in your wish, my lord! 
For, I profess, you have it. 

SUR. Now all my joy 

Trace the conjunction I 1 

9 And hedges, his oivn toffy.] To hedge, is to creep along by 
ihe hedge : not to take the direct and open path, but to steal 
covertly through circumvolutions. JOHNSON. 

Hedging is by land, what coasting is by sea. M. MASON. 

1 Trace the conjunction .'] To trace is tojblloiv. JOHNSON. 
So, in Macbeth : 

-all unfortunate souls 

" That trace him in his line." 


SUF. My amen to't ! 

NOR. All men's. 

SUF. There's order given for her coronation : 
Many, this is yet but young, 2 and may be left 
To some ears unrecounted. But, my lords, 
She is a gallant creature, and complete 
In mind and feature : I persuade me, from her 
Will fall some blessing to this land, which shall 
In it be memoriz'd. 3 

SUR. But, will the king 

Digest this letter of the cardinal's? 
The lord forbid ! 

NOR. Marry, amen ! 

SUF. No, no ; 

There be more wasps that buz about his nose, 
Will make this sting the sooner. Cardinal Campeius 
Is stolen away to Rome ; hath ta'en no leave ; 
Has left the cause o'the king unhandled ; and 
Is posted, as the agent of our cardinal, 
To second all his plot. I do assure you 
The king cry'd, ha ! at this. 

CHAM. Now, God incense him, 

And let him cry ha, louder ! 

The form of Surrey's wish has been anticipated by Richmond 
in King Richard III. sc. ult : 

" Smile heaven upon this fair conjunction !" 


* but young,] The same phrase occurs again in Romeo 

and Juliet, Act I. sc. i : 

" Good morrow, cousin. 

Is the day so young ?" 
See note on this passage. STEEVENS. 

5 In it be memoriz'd.] To memorize is to make memorable. 
The word has been already used in Macbeth, Act I. sc. ii. 


sc.ii. KING HENRY VIII. 119 

NOR. But, my lord, 

When returns Cranmer ? 

SUF. He is return'd, in his opinions ; which 
Have satisfied the king for his divorce, 
Together with all famous colleges 
Almost in Christendom : 4 shortly, I believe, 
His second marriage shall be publish J d, and 
Her coronation. Katharine no more 
Shall be call'd, queen ; but princess dowager, 
And widow to prince Arthur. 

NOR. This same Cranmer's 

A worthy fellow r , and hath ta'en much pain 
In the king's business. 

SUF. He has ; and we shall see him 

For it, an archbishop. 

NOR. So I hear. 

SUF. 'Tis so. 

The cardinal 

4 He is returned, in his opinions ; which 
Have satisfied the king for his divorce y 
Together with all famous colleges 

Almost in Christendom :] Thus the old copy. The mean- 
ing is this : Cranmer, says Suffolk, is returned in his opinions, 
i. e. with the same sentiments which he entertained before he 
went abroad, ivhich (sentiments) hare satisfied the king, together 
icith all (he famous colleges referred to on the oecasion. Or, per- 
haps the passage (as Mr. Tyrwhitt observes) may mean lie 
is returned in effect, having sent his opinions, i. e. the opinions of 
divines, &c. collected by him. Mr. Rowe altered these lines as 
follows, and all succeeding editors have silently adopted his un- 
necessary change : 

He is returned with his opinion. 1 !, which 
Have satisfied the king for his divorce, 
Gather'd from all the famous colleges 
Almost in Christendom: . STEEVENP. 



NOR. Observe, observe, he's moody. 

WOL. The packet, Cromwell, gave it you the 
king ? 

CROM. To his own hand, in his bedchamber. 5 
WOL. Look'd he o'the inside of the paper? 

CROM. Presently 

He did unseal them : and the first he view'd, 
He did it with a serious mind ; a heed 
Was in his countenance : You, he bade 
Attend him here this morning. 

WOL. Is he ready 

To come abroad ? 

CROM. I think, by this he is. 

WOL. Leave me a while. \_~Exit CROMWELL. 
It shall be to the duchess of Alen9on, 
The French king's sister : he shall marry her. 
Anne Biillen ! No ; I'll no Anne Bullens for him : 
There is more in it than fair visage. Bullen ! 
No, we'll no Bullens. Speedily I wish 
To hear from Rome. The marchioness of Pem- 
broke ! 

NOR. He's discontented. 

SUF. May be, he hears the king 

Does whet his anger to him. 

* To his o*un hand, in his bedchamber.'] Surely, both the 
syllable wanting in this line, and the respect due from the speaker 
to Wolsey, should authorize us to read : 

To his otvn hand, sir, in his bedchamber. 
And again, in Cromwell's next speech : 

Was in his countenance : you, sir, he bade-. 
or with Sir Thomas Hanmer : 

and you he bade . STEEVENS. 

sc. n. KING HENRY VIII. 121 

SUR. Sharp enough, 

Lord, lor thy justice ! 

Jf r OL. The late queen's.gentlewoman; a knight's 


To be her mistress* mistress ! the queen's queen! 
This candle burns not clear : 'tis I must snuff it ; 
Then, out it goes. What though I know her vir- 

And well-deserving ? yet I know her for 
A spleeny Lutheran ; and not wholesome to 
Our cause, that she should lie i'the bosom of 
Our hard-rul'd king. Again, there is sprung up 
An heretick, an arch one, Cranmer ; one 
Hath crawl'd into the favour of the king, 
And is his oracle. 

NOR. He is vex'd at something. 

SUF. I would, 'twere something that would fret 

the string, 
The master-cord of his heart ! 

Enter the King, reading a Schedule; 6 and 

SUF. The king, the king. 

K. HEX. What piles of wealth hath he accumu- 

'' Enter llic King, reading a Schedule ;] That the Cardinal 
pave the King an inventory of his own private wealth, by mis- 
take, and thereby ruined himself, is a known variation from the 
truth of history. Shakspeare, however, has not injudiciously 
represented the fall of that great man as owing to an incident 
which he had once improved to the destruction of another. Sec 
Jlolinshed, pp. 796 and 797: 

" Thomas Ruthall, bishop of Durham, was, after the death 
of King Henry V1L one of the privy council to Henry VIII. to 


To his own portion ! and what expence by the hour 
Seems to flow from him! How, i'the name of thrift, 
Does he rake this together ! Now, my lords ; 
Saw you the cardinal ? 

NOR. My lord, we have 

Stood here observing him : Some strange commo- 

Is in his brain : he bites his lip, and starts ; 
Stops on a sudden, looks upon the ground, 
Then, lays his finger on his temple ; straight, 
Springs out into fast gait ; then, stops again, 7 

whom the king gave in charge to write a book of the whole 
estate of the kingdom, &c. Afterwards, the king commanded 
cardinal Wolsey to go to this bishop, and to bring the book away 
with him. This bishop having written two books, (the one to 
answer the king's command, and the other intreating of his own 
private affairs,) did bind them both after one sort in vellum, &-c. 
Now, when the cardinal came to demand the book due to the 
king, the bishop unadvisedly commanded his servant to bring 
him the book bound in white vellum, lying in his study, in such 
a place. The servant accordingly brought forth one of the books 
so bound, being the book intreating of the state of the bishop, 
&c. The cardinal having the book went from the bishop, and 
after, (in his study by himself,) understanding the contents 
thereof, he greatly rejoiced, having now occasion (which he 
long sought for) offered unto him, to bring the bishop into the 
king's disgrace. 

" Wherefore he went forthwith to the king, delivered the 
book into his hands, and briefly informed him of the contents 
thereof; putting further into the king's head, that if at any time 
he were destitute of a mass of money, he should not need to 
seek further therefore than to the coffers of the bishop. Of all 
which when the bishop had intelligence, &c. he was stricken 
with such grief of the same, that he shortly, through extreme 
sorrow, ended his life at London, in the year of Christ 1523. 
After which, the cardinal, who had long before gaped after his 
bishoprick, in singular hope to attain thereunto, had now his 
wish in effect," &c. STEEVENS. 

then, stops again,'] Sallust, describing the disturbed 

state of Catiline's mind, takes notice of the same circumstance: 
" citus modo, modo tardus incessus." STEEVEXS. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 123 

Strikes his breast hard ; and anon, he casts 8 

His eye against the moon: in most strange postures 

We have seen him set himself. 

A'. HEX. It may well be ; 

There is a mutiny in his mind. This morning 
Papers of state lie sent me to peruse, 
As I requir'd ; And, wot you, what I found 
There ; on my conscience, put unwittingly? 
Forsooth, an inventory, thus importing, 
The several parcels of his plate, his treasure, 
Rich stuffs, and ornaments of household; which 
I find at such proud rate, that it out-speaks 
Possession of a subject. 

NOR. It's heaven's will ; 

Some spirit put this paper in the packet, 
To bless your eye withal. 

A'. HEX. If we did think 

His contemplation were above the earth, 
And fix'd on spiritual object, he should still 
Dwell in his musings : but, I am afraid, 
His thinkings are below the moon, not worth 
His serious considering. 

\_Hc takes his seat, and whispers LOVELL, 
t-cho goes to WOLSEY. 


IVoL. Heaven forgive me ! 

Ever God bless your highness ! 

K. HEX. Good my lord, 

You arc full of heavenly stuff, and bear the inven- 
Of your best graces in your mind ; the which 

6 Strike. 1 ; his breast hard ; am! own, he casts ] Here I 
think we should be at liberty to complete a detective verse, by 
reading, with Sir Thomas Ilanmer: 

and then, anon, f>? cnts STEEVEK?. 


You were now running o'er ; you have scarce time 
To steal from spiritual leisure a brief span, 
To keep your earthly audit : Sure, in that 
I deem you an ill husband ; and am glad 
To have you therein my companion. 

WOL. Sir, 

For holy offices I have a time ; a time 
To think upon the part of business, which 
I bear i'the state ; and nature does require 
Her times of preservation, which, perforce, 
I her frail son, amongst my brethren mortal, 
Must give my tendance to. 

K. HEN. You have said well. 

WOL. And ever may your highnessyoke together, 
As I will lend you cause, my doing well 
With my well saying ! 

K. HEN. 'Tis well said again ; 

And 'tis a kind of good deed, to say well : 
And yet words are no deeds. My father lov'd you : 
He said, he did ; and with his deed did crown 
His word 9 upon you. Since I had my office, 
I have kept you next my heart ; have not alone 
Employ'd you where high profits might come home, 
But par'd my present havings, to bestow 
My bounties upon you. 

WOL. What should this mean ? 

SUE. The lord increase this business ! [Aside, 

K. HEN. Have I not made you 

The prime man of the state ? I pray you, tell me, 
If what I now pronounce, you have found true : 

9 ivith his deed did crown 

His word ] So, in Macbeth : 

" To croivn my thoughts with acts~." STEEVENS. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 125 

And, if you may confess it, say withal, 

If you are bound to us, or no. What say you ? 

WOL. My sovereign, I confess, your royal graces, 
Shower'd on me daily, have been more, than could 
My studied purposes requite ; which went 
Beyond all man's endeavours: 1 my endeavours 
Have ever come too short of my desires, 
Yet, fiPd with my abilities: 2 Mine own ends 
Have been mine so, that evermore they pointed 
To the good of your most sacred person, and 
The profit of the state. For your great graces 
Heap'd upon me, poor undeserver, I 
Can nothing render but allegiant thanks ; 
My prayers to heaven for you ; my loyalty, 
Which ever has, and ever shall be growing, 
Till death, that winter, kill it. 

K. HEX. Fairly answer'd ; 

A loyal and obedient subject is 
Therein illustrated : The honour of it 
Does pay the act of it ; as, i'the contrary, 
The foulness is the punishment. I presume, 
That, as my hand has open'd bounty to you, 
My heart dropp'd love, my power rain'd honour, 

' Beyond nil man's endeavours :] The sense is, my purposes 
went beyond nil human endeavour. I purposed for your honour 
more than it falls within the compass of man's nature to attempt. 


I am rather inclined to think, that tvhich refers to " royal 
graces ;" which, says Wolsey, no human endeavour could re- 
quite. MALONE. 

1 Yet, fil'd ivifk my abilities :~\ My endeavours, though less 
than my desires, have fil'd, that is, have gone an equal pace 
with my abilities. JOHNSON. 

So, in a preceding scene : 

" front but in that file 

" Where others tell bteps with me." STEEVEXS. 


On you, 3 than any; so your hand, and heart, 
Your brain, and every function of your power, 
Should, notwithstanding that your bond of duty, 4 
As 'twere in love's particular, be more 
To me, your friend, than any. 

WOL. I do profess, 

That for your highness* good I ever labour' d 
More than mine own ; that am, have, and will be. 5 
Though all the world should crack their duty toyou, 
And throw it from their soul ; though perils did 
Abound, as thick as thought could make them, and 
Appear in forms more horrid ; yet my duty, 

3 my hand has open'd bounty t o you. 

My heart dropp'd love, my power rain'd honour, more 
On you, &c.] As Ben Jonson is supposed to have made 
some alterations in this play, it may not be amiss to compare 
the passage before us, with another, on the same subject, in the 
New Inn : 

" He gave me my first breeding, I acknowledge ; 

" Then shower'd his bounties on me, like the hours 

" That open-handed sit upon the clouds, 

" And press the liberality of heaven 

" Down to the laps of thankful men." STEEVENS. 

4 notwithstanding that your bond of duty,'] Besides the 

general bond of duty, by which you are obliged to be a loyal 
and obedient subject, you owe a particular devotion of yourself 
to me, as your particular benefactor. JOHNSON. 

5 that am, have, and will be.~\ I can find no meaning in 

these words, or see how they are connected with the rest of the 
sentence ; and should therefore strike them out. M. MASON. 

I suppose the meaning is, that, or such a man, I am, have 
been, and will ever be. Our author has many hard and forced 
expressions in his plays ; but many of the hardnesses in the 
piece before us appear to me of a different colour from those of 
Shakspeare. Perhaps, however, a line following this has been 
lost ; for in the old copy there is no stop at the end of this line; 
and, indeed, I have some doubt whether a comma ought not to 
be placed at it, rather than a full point. MALONE. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 127 

As doth a rock against the chiding flood, 6 
Should the approach of this wild river break, 
And stand unshaken yours. 

K. HEN. 'Tis nobly spoken : 

Take notice, lords, he has a loyal breast, 
For you have seen him open't. Read o'er this; 

[Giving him Papers. 

And, after, this : and then to breakfast, with 
What appetite you have. 

King, frowning upon Cardinal WOLSEY: 
the Nobles throng aj)er him, smiling, and 

WOL. What should this mean ? 

What sudden anger's this? how have I reap'd it? 
He parted frowning from me, as if ruin 
Leap'd from his eyes : So looks the chafed lion 
Upon the daring huntsman that has gall'd him ; 
Then makes him nothing. I must read this paper; 
I fear, the story of his anger. 'Tis so ; 
This paper has undone me : 'Tis the account 
Of all that world of wealth I have drawn together 
For mine own ends ; indeed, to gain the popedom, 
And fee my friends in Rome. O negligence, 

'' As doth a rock against the chiding Jlood,~\ So, in our au- 
thor's 116th Sonnet: 

" it is an ever-fixed mark, 

" That looks on tempests, and is never shaken." 
The chiding flood is the resounding flood. So, in the verses 
in commendation of our author, by J. M. S. prefixed to the 
folio 1632: 

" there plays a fair 

" But chiding fountain." 
See Vol. XII. p. 361, n. 2. MALONE. 

See also Vol. IV. p. 4-50, n. 5. STEEVENS. 

" Ille, velut pelagi rupes immota, resistit." 

JEn. VII. 586. S. W. 


Fit for a fool to fall by! What cross devil 
Made me put this main secret in the packet 
I sent the king ? Is there no way to cure this ? 
No new device to beat this from his brains ? 
I know, 'twill stir him strongly; Yet I know 
A way, if it take right, in spite of fortune 
Will bring me off again. What's this To the 


The letter, as I live, with all the business 
I writ to his holiness. Nay then, farewell ! 
I have touch'd the highest point of all my great- 
ness; 7 

And, from that full meridian of my glory, 
I haste now to my setting : I shall fall 
Like a bright exhalation in the evening, 
And no man see me more. 

Re-enter the Dukes of NORFOLK and SUFFOLK, 
the Earl of SURREY, 8 and the Lord Chamber- 

NOR. Hear the king's pleasure, cardinal : who 
commands you 

7 I have touch' d the highest point of all my greatness ;~\ So, 
in Marlowe's King Edward II : 

" Base fortune, now I see that in thy wheel 

" There is a point, to which when men aspire, 

" They tumble headlong down. That point I touch* d ; 

" And seeing there was no place to mount up higher, 

" Why should I grieve at my declining fall ?'* 


8 Re-enter the Dukes &c.] It may not be improper here to 
repeat, that the time of this play is from 1521, just before the 
Duke of Buckingham's commitment, to the year 1533, when 
Queen Elizabeth was born and christened. The Duke of Nor- 
folk, therefore, who is introduced in the first scene of the first 
Act, or in 1522, is not the same person who here, or in 1529, 
demands the great seal from Wolsey ; for Thomas Howard, who 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 129 

To render up the great seal presently 
Into our hands ; and to confine yourself 
To Asher-house, 9 my lord of Winchester's, 1 
Till you hear further from his highness. 

was created Duke of Norfolk, 1514, died, we are informed by 
Holinshed, p. 891, at Whitsuntide, 1525. As our author has 
here made two persons into one, so, on the contrary, he has 
made one person into two. The Earl of Surrey here is the same 
with him who married the Duke of Buckingham's daughter, as 
appears from his own mouth: 

** I am joyful 

" To meet the least occasion that may give me 

" Remembrance of my father-in-law, the duke." 
Again : 

" Thy ambition, 

" Thou scarlet sin, robb'd this bewailing land 

" Of noble Buckingham, my father-in-law : 

" You sent me deputy for Ireland ; 

" Far from his succour, ." 

But Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, who married the Duke 
of Buckingham's daughter, was at this time the individual above 
mentioned Duke of Norfolk. The reason for adding the third 
or fourth person as interlocutors in this scene is not very appa- 
rent, for Holinshed, p. 909, mentions only the Dukes of Nor- 
folk and Suffolk being sent to demand the great seal, and all 
that is spoken would proceed with sufficient propriety out of 
their mouths. The cause of the Duke of Norfolk's animosity 
to Wolsey is obvious, and Cavendish mentions that an open 
quarrel at this time subsisted between the Cardinal and Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. REED. 

-' To Asher-Ao?we,] Thus the old copy. Ashcr was the an- 
cient name of Eshcr ; as appears from Holinshed : " and 
everie man took their horses and rode strait to Ashcr" 

Holinshcd, Vol. II. p. 909. WARNER. 

1 mij lord f>f Winchester* x t ~\ Shakspcare forgot that 

Wolsey was himself Bishop of Winchester, unless he meant to 
say, you must confine yourself to that house which you possess 
as Bishop of Winchester. Ashcr, near Hampton-Court, waa 
one of the houses belonging to that bishoprick. MALONE. 

Fox, Bishop of Winchester, died Sept. 1 1, 1528, and Wolsey 
held this see in commcndam, Eshcr therefore was his own house. 



WOL. Stay, 

Where's your commission, lords? words cannot carry 
Authority so weighty. 2 

SUF. Who dare cross them ? 

Bearing the king's will from his mouth expressly ? 

WOL. Till I find more than will, or words, to do it, 
(I mean, your malice,) know, officious lords, 
I dare, and must deny it. 3 Now I feel 
Of what coarse metal ye are moulded, envy. 
How eagerly ye follow my disgraces, 
As if it fed ye ? and how sleek and wanton 
Ye appear in every thing may bring my ruin ! 
Follow your envious courses, men of malice ; 
You have Christian warrant for them, and, no doubt, 
In time will find their fit rewards. That seal, 
You ask with such a violence, the king, 
(Mine, andyourmaster,) withhisownhandgaveme : 
Bade me enjoy it, with the place and honours, 
During my life ; and, to confirm his goodness, 
Tied it by letters patents : Now, who'll take it ? 

so weighty.] The editor of the third folio changed 

weighty to mighty, and all the subsequent editors adopted his 
capricious alteration. MALONE. 

I believe the change pointed out was rather accidental than 
capricious ; as, in the proof sheets of this republication, the 
words weighty and mighty have more than once been given in- 
stead of each other. STEEVENS. 

3 Till IJind more than will, or words, to do it, 
(I mean, your malice,) know, &c.] Wolsey had said : 

words cannot carry 

" Authority so weighty." 
To which they reply : 

" Who dare cross them ?" &c. 

Wolsey, answering them, continues his own speech, Till IJind 
more than will or words (I mean more than your malicious will 
and words) to do it; that is, to carry authority so mighty ; I will 
deny to return what the King has given me. JOHNSON. 

sc. n. KING HENRY VIII. 131 

SUR. The king, that gave it. 

ff'oL. It must be himself then. 

SUR. Thou art a proud traitor, priest. 

WOL. Proud lord, thou liest ; 

Within these forty hours 4 Surrey durst better 
Have burnt that tongue, than said so. 

SUR. Thy ambition, 

Thou scarlet sin, robb'd this bewailing land 
Of noble Buckingham, my father-in-law : 
The heads of all thy brother cardinals, 
(With thee, and all thy best parts bound together,) 
Weigh' d not a hair of his. Plague of your policy ! 
You sent me deputy for Ireland ; 
Far from his succour, from the king, from all 
Thatmighthave mercy on the fault thou gav'st him; 
Whilst your great goodness, out of holy pity, 
Absolv'd him with an axe. 

WOL. This, and all else 

This talking lord can lay upon my credit, 
I answer, is most false. The duke by law 

4 Within these forty hours ~] Why forty hours ? But a 
few minutes have passed since Wolsey's disgrace. I suspect that 
Shakspeare wrote uv7///tt these four hours, and that the per- 
son who revised and tampered with this play, not knowing that 
hours was used hy our poet as a dissyllable, made this injudi- 
cious alteration. MALOXE. 

I adhere to the old reading. Forlij (I know not why) seems 
anciently to have been the familiar number on many occasions, 
where no very exact reckoning was necessary. In a former 
scene, the Old Lady otters to lay Anne Bullen a wager of 
" Jnrty pence ;" Slender, in The Merry Wives of Windsor, 
says " I had rather than forty shillings ;" and in The Taming 
of the .S'/m'.r, " the humour of J'orty fancies" is the ornament 
of (irinnio's hat. Thus, also, in Coriolamuf 

on fair ground 
" I could beat /or/// of them." STEEVENS. 


Found his deserts : how innocent I was 
From any private malice in his end, 
His noble jury and foul cause can witness. 
If I lov'd many words, lord, I should tell you, 
You have as little honesty as honour ; 
That I, in the way of loyalty and truth 5 
Toward the king, my ever royal master, 
Dare mate a sounder man than Surrey can be, 
And all that love his follies. 

SUE. By my soul, 

Your long coat, priest, protects you ; thou should'st 


My sword i'the life-blood of tliee else. My lords, 
Can ye endure to hear this arrogance ? 
And from this fellow ? If we live thus tamely, 
To be thus jaded 6 by a piece of scarlet, 
Farewell nobility ; let his grace go forward, 
And dare us with his cap, like larks. 7 

* That I, in the "way &c.~] Old copy That in the luay. 


Mr. Theobald reads : 

That I in the way &c. 

and this unnecessary emendation has been adopted by all the 
subsequent editors. MALONE. 

As this passage is to me obscure, if not unintelligible, without 
Mr. Theobald's correction, I have not discarded it. STEEVENS. 

6 To be thus jaded ] To be abused and ill treated, like a 
worthless horse : or perhaps to be ridden by a priest ; to have 
liim mounted above us. MALONE. 

The same verb (whatever its precise meaning may be) occurs 
in Antony and Cleopatra, Act III. sc. i : 

" The ne'er-yet-beaten horse of Parthia 

" We have jaded out o'the field." STEEVENS. 

~ And dare us with his cap, like larks.] So, in Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy, edit. 163'2, p. 656 : " never Hobie 
so dared a lark." 

It is well known that the hat of a cardinal is scarlet ; and 

sc. n. KING HENRY VIII. 133 

WOL. All goodness 

Is poison to thy stomach. 

Sun. Yes, that goodness 

Of gleaning all the land's wealth into one, 
Into your own hands, cardinal, by extortion j 
The goodness of your intercepted packets, 
You writ to the pope, against the king : your good- 

Since you provoke me, shall be most notorious. 
My lord of Norfolk, as you are truly noble, 
As you respect the common good, the state 
Of our despis'd nobility, our issues, 
"VVho, 8 if he live, will scarce be gentlemen, 
Produce the grand sum of his sins, the articles 
Collected from his life : I'll startle you 
Worse than the sacring bell, 9 when the brown 

wench 1 
Lay kis.sing in your arms, lord cardinal. 

that one of the methods of daring larks was by small mirrors 
fastened on scarlet cloth, which engaged the attention of these 
birds while the fowler drew his net over them. 

The same thought occurs in Skelton's Why come ye not to 
Court ? i. e. a satire on Wolsey : 

" The re<l hat with his lure, 

" Bringeth al thinges under cure." STEEVENS. 

* Who,~] Old copy Whom. Corrected in the second folio. 


Worse than f/ir sacring bell,] The little bell, which is rung 
to give notice of the Host approaching when it is carried in pro- 
ression, as also in other offices of the Romish church, is called 
the sacrhirr, or consecration bell ; from the French word, xacre'r. 


The Abbess, in The Merry Devil of Edmonton, 160S, says : 

" you shall ring the sacring bell, 

" Keep your hours, and toll your knell." 

Again, in Reginald Scott's Discovery nf Il'ifc/icraft, 1584- : 
" He heard a little sacring bell ring to the elevation of a to-mor- 
row mass." 


WOL. How much, methinks, I could despise this 

But that I am bound in charity against it ! 

NOR. Those articles, my lord, are in the king's 

But, thus much, they are foul ones. 

WOL. So much fairer, 

And spotless, shall mine innocence arise, 
When the king knows my truth. 

SUE. This cannot save you : 

I thank my memory, I yet remember 
Some of these articles; and out they shall. 
Now, if you can blush, and cry guilty, cardinal, 
You'll show a little honesty. 

WOL. Speak on, sir ; 

I dare your worst objections : if I blush, 
It is, to see a nobleman want manners. 

SUR. I'd rather want those, than my head. 
Have at you. 

The now obsolete verb to sacre, is used by P. Holland, in his 
translation of Pliny's Natural History, Book X. ch. vi. And 
by Chapman, in his version of Homer's Hymn to Diana : 
" Sacring my song to every deity." STEEVENS. 

1 lichen the brown ivench &c.] The amorous propensities 

of Cardinal Wolsey are much dwelt on in the ancient satire 
already quoted, p. 88, n. 6 : 

" By his pryde and faulce treachery, 
" Whoardom and baudy leachery, 

" He hath been so intolerable." 
Again : 

" The goodes that he thus gaddered 
" Wretchedly he hath scattered 

" In causes nothynge expedient. 
" To make wyndowes walles and dores, 
" And to mayntayne baudcs and chores 

" A grett parte thereof is spent." 

And still more grossly are his amours spoken of in many other 
parts oi'the same poem. STEEVENS. 

?. //. KINO HENRY VIII. 135 

First, that, without the king's assent, or knowledge, 
You wrought to be a legate ; by which power 
You maim'd the jurisdiction of all bishops. 

NOR. Then, that, in all you writ to Rome, or else 
To foreign princes, Ego et Rex incus 
Was still inscrib'd ; in which you brought the king 
To be your servant. 

SUF. Then, that, without the knowledge 

Either of king or council, when you went 
Ambassador to the emperor, you made bold 
To carry into Flanders the great seal. 

Sun. Item, you sent a large commission 
To Gregory de Cassalis, to conclude, 
Without the king's will, or the state's allowance, 
A leasnie between his highness and Ferrara. 

O O 

SUF. That, out of mere ambition, you have caus'd 
Your holy hat to be stamp'd on the king's coin. 3 

Sun. Then, that you have sent innumerable sub- 

(By what means got, I leave to your own conscience,) 
To furnish Rome, and to prepare the ways 

* Your holy hat to be stamp'd on the king's coin.'] In the 
long string of articles exhibited by the Privy Council against 
\Volsey, which Sir Edward Coke transcribed from the original, 
this offence composed one of the charges : " 40. Also the said 
Lord Cardinal of his further pompous and presumptuous minde, 
hath enterprised to joyn and imprint the Cardinal's hat under 
your armes in your coyn of groats made at your city of York, 
which like deed hath not been seen to be done by any subject 
in your realm before this time." \- Inst. JM. HOLT WHITE. 

This was certainly one of the articles exhibited against Wol- 
sey, but rather with a view to swell the catalogue, than from 
any serious cause of accusation ; inasmuch as the Archbishops 
Cranmer, Bainbrigge, and Warham, were indulged with the 
fame privilege. See Snelling's l'ic-c of' the Silver Coin and 
Coinage of England. DOUCE. 


You have for dignities ; to the mere undoing 3 
Of all the kingdom. Many more there are ; 
Which, since they are of you, and odious, 
I will not taint my mouth with. 

CHAM. O my lord, 

Press not a falling man too far ; 'tis virtue : 
His faults lie open to the laws ; let them, 
Not you, correct him. My heart weeps to see him 
So little of his great self. 

SUR. I forgive him. 

SUF. Lord cardinal, the king's further pleasure 


Because all those things, you have done of late 
By your power legatine within this kingdom, 
Fall into the compass 4 of a prcemuniref 
That therefore such a writ be sued against you ; 
To forfeit all your goods, lands, tenements, 
Chattels, and whatsoever, 6 and to be 
Out of the king's protection: This is my charge. 

3 to the mere undoing ] Mere is absolute. So, in 

The Honest Man's Fortune, by Beaumont and Fletcher: 

" I am as happy 

*' In my friend's good, as if 'twere merely mine.'* 


See Vol. IV. p. 9, n. 3. MALONE. 

* Fall into the compass &c.] The harshness of this line in- 
duces me to think that we should either read, with Sir Thomas 
Hanmer Fall in the compass, or Fall into compass, omitting 
the article. STEEVEXS. 

5 of a praemunire,] It is almost unnecessary to observe 

thatprainntiiire is a barbarous word used instead of prcemonere. 


6 Chattels, and whatsoever,'] The old copy castles. I have 
ventured to substitute chattels here, as the author's genuine 
word, because the judgment in a writ of prcemunire is, that the 
defendant shall be out of the king's protect ion ; and his lands 
and tenements, goods and chattels, forfeited to the king ; and 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 137 

NOR. And so we'll leave you to your meditations 
How to live better. For your stubborn answer, 
About the giving back the great seal to us, 
The king shall know it, and, no doubt, shall thank 

So fare you well, my little good lord cardinal. 

\_Exeunt all but WOLSEY. 

WOL. So farewell to the little good you bear me. 
Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness ! 
This is the state of man ; To-day he puts forth 
The tender leaves of hope, 7 to-morrow blossoms, 
And bears his blushing honours thick upon him : 
The third day, comes a frost, a killing frost ; 
And, when he thinks, good easy man, full surely 
His greatness is a ripening, nips his root, 8 

that his body shall remain in prison at the king's pleasure. 
This very description of" the precmunire is set out by Holinshed, 
in his Life oj' King Henry 1 III. p. 909. THEOBALD. 

The emendation made by Mr. Theobald, is, I think, fully 
justified by the passage in Holinshed's Chronicle, on which this 
is founded ; in which it is observable that the word chattels is 
spelt cattels, which might have been easily confounded with 
cnstcls : " After this, in the King's Bench his matter for the 
prtemunire being called upon, two attornies which he had au- 
thorised by his warrant signed with his own hand, confessed the 
action, and so had judgment to forfeit all his landes, tenements, 
goods, and called,, and to be put out of the king's protection." 

C/iron. Vol. II. p. 909. MALONE. 

This is the t/ale of man ; To day he puts forth 

The tender leaves of hope, &c.] So, in our author's 25th 
Sonnet : 

" (Jr-Ait princes' favourites their fair leaves spread, 

" l>ut as the marigold in the sun's eye; 

" And in themselves their pride lies buried, 

" For at a frown they in their glory die." MALONE. 

nips his root,] " As spring-frosts are not injurious to 

the mot* of fruit-trees," Dr. \Varburton reads shoot. Such 
capricious alterations I am sometimes obliged to mention, merely 


And then he falls, as I do. I have ventured, 
Like little wanton boys that swim on bladders, 
This many summers in a sea of glory ; 
But far beyond my depth : my high-blown pride 
At length broke under me ; and now has left me, 
Weary, and old with service, to the mercy 
Of a rude stream, that must for ever hide me. 
Vain pomp, and glory of this world, I hate ye ; 
I feel my heart new open'd : O, how wretched 
Is that poor man, that hangs on princes' favours ! 
There is, betwixt that smile we would aspire to, 
That sweet aspect of princes, and their ruin, 9 
More pangs and fears than wars or women have ; 
And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer, 1 
Never to hope again. 

to introduce the notes of those, who, while they have shewn 
them to be unnecessary, have illustrated our author. MA LONE. 

Vernal frosts, indeed, do not kill the root, but then to nip 
the shoots does not kill the tree or make it fall. The metaphor 
will not, in either reading, correspond exactly with nature. 


I adhere to the old reading, which is countenanced by the 
following passage in A. W.'s Commendation of Gascoigne and 
his Poesies : 

" And frosts so nip the rootes of vertuous-meaning 

See Gascoigne's Works, 1587. STEEVENS. 

9 and their ruin,'] Most of the modern editors read 

our ruin. STEEVENS. 

Their ruin is, their displeasure, producing the downfall and 
ruin of him on whom it lights. So before : 

" He par ted frowning from me, as if ruin 
" Leap'd from his eyes" MALONE. 

1 And ivhen he falls, he falls like Lucifer^ So, in Church- 
yard's Legend of Cardinal Wolsey, MiRROUR FOR MAGIS- 
TRATES, 1587: 

" Your fault not half so great as was my pride, 
" For which offence Jell Lucifer from the skies." 



Enter CROMWELL, amazedly. 

Why, how now, Cromwell ? 
CROM. I have no power to speak, sir. 

WOL. What, amaz'd 

At my misfortunes ? can thy spirit wonder, 
A great man should decline ? Nay, an you weep, 
I am fallen indeed. 

CROM. How does your grace ? 

WOL. Why, well; 

Never so truly happy, my good Cromwell. 
I know myself now ; and I feel w r ithin me 
A peace above all earthly dignities, 
A still and quiet conscience. The king has cur'd 


I humbly thank his grace ; and from these shoulders, 
These ruin'd pillars, out of pity, taken 
A load would sink a navy, too much honour : 
O, 'tis a burden, Cromwell, 'tis a burden, 
Too heavy for a man that hopes for heaven. 

CROM. I am glad, your grace has made that right 
use of it. 

WOL. I hope, I have : I am able now, methinks, 
(Out of a fortitude of soul I feel,) 
To endure more miseries, and greater far, 

In The Life and Death of Thnmas Wohey, &c. a poem, by 
Tho. Storer, student of Christ-church, in Oxford, 1.399, the 
Cardinal expresses himself in a manner somewhat similar : 
" If once we fall, we fall Colossus-like, 
" We full at, once, like pillars of the sunne," c. 



Than my weak-hearted enemies dare offer. 2 
What news abroad ? 

CROM. The heaviest, and the worst, 

Is your displeasure with the king. 

WOL. God bless him ! 

CROM. The next is, that sir Thomas More is 

Lord chancellor in your place. 

WOL. That's somewhat sudden : 

But he's a learned man. May he continue 
Long in his highness* favour, and do justice 
For truth's sake, and his conscience ; that his bones, 
When he has run his course, and sleeps in blessings, 
May have a tomb of orphans' tears wept on 'emi 3 
What more ? 

! / am able now, methinks, 

(Out of a fortitude of soul I feel,] 
To endure more miseries, and greater far, 
Than my taeak-hearted enemies dare offer. ~\ So, in King 
Henry VI. Part II : 

" More can I bear, than you dare execute." 
Again, in Othello : 

" Thou hast not half the power to do me harm, 
" As I have to be hurt." MALONE. 

3 a tomb of orphans' tears ivept on 'em !] The chan- 
cellor is the general guardian of orphans. A tomb of tears is 
very harsh. JOHNSON. 

This idea will appear not altogether indefensible to those who 
recollect the following epigram of Martial: 

" Flentibus Heliadum ramis dum vipera serpit, 

" Fluxit in obstantem succina gemma feram : 
" Quae dum miratur pingui se rore teneri, 

" Concreto riguit vincta repente gclu. 
" Ne tibi regali placeas Cleopatra sepulchro, 

" Vipera si tumulo nobiliore jacet." 

The Heliades certainly ivept a tomb of tears over the viper. 
The same conceit, however, is found in Drummond of Haw- 
thornden's Tearesfor the Death of Moeliadcs : 


CROM. That Cranmer is return'd with welcome, 
Installed lord archbishop of Canterbury. 
WOL. That's news indeed. 

CROM. Last, that the lady Anne, 

Whom the king hath in secrecy long married, 
This day was view'd in open, 4 as his queen, 
Going to chapel ; and the voice is now 
Only about her coronation. 

Jf'oL. There was the weight that pull'd me 

down. O Cromwell, 

The king has gone beyond me, all my glories 
In that one woman I have lost for ever : 
No sun shall ever usher forth mine honours, 
Or gild again the noble troops that waited 
Upon my smiles. 5 Go, getthee from me, Cromwell; 

*' The Muses, Phoebus, Love, have raised of their teares 
" A crystal tomb to him, through which his worth ap- 
pcarcs." STEEVENS. 

A similar conceit occurs in King Richard II. Act III. sc. iii. 


The old copy has on him. The error, which probably arose 
from similitude of sounds, was corrected by Mr. Steevens. 


4 in open,"] A Latinism, [_in apcrto~] perhaps introduced 

by Ben Jonson, who is supposed to have tampered with this play. 
Et castris in aperto positis : Liv. I. 33. i. e. in a place exposed on 
all sides to view. STEEVENS. 

5 Or gild again the noble troops that -waited 

I '/ton m>/ sniilc.<t.~] The number of persons who composed 
Cardinal Wolsey's household, according to the printed account, 
was eight hundred. " When (says Cavendish, in his Life nf 
Wolseijt) shall we see any more such subjects, that shall keepe 
such a noble house ? Here is an end of his houshold. The 
number of persons in the cheyne-roll [check-roll] were eight 
hundred persons." 

But Cavendish's work, though written in the time of Queen 
Mary, was not published till Kill ; and it was then printed 
mo*t unfaithfully, some passages being interpolated, near half of 


I am a poor fallen man, unworthy now 
To be thy lord and master : Seek the king ; 
That sun, I pray, may never set ! I have told him 
What, and how true thou art : he will advance thee j 
Some little memory of me will stir him, 
(I know his noble nature,) not to let 
Thy hopeful service perish too: Good Cromwell, 
Neglect him not ; make use now, 6 and provide 
For thine own future safety. 

CROM. O my lord, 

Must I then leave you ? must I needs forego 
So good, so noble, and so true a master ? 
Bear witness, all that have not hearts of iron, 
With what a sorrow Cromwell leaves his lord. 
The king shall have my service ; but my prayers 
For ever, and for ever, shall be yours. 

WOL. Cromwell, I did not think to shed a tear 

the MS. being omitted, and the phraseology being modernised 
throughout, to make it more readable at that time ; the covert 
object of the publication probably having been, to render Laud 
odious, by shewing how far church-power had been extended 
by Wolsey, and how dangerous that prelate was, who, in the 
opinion of many, followed his example. The persons who pro- 
cured this publication, seem to have been little solicitous about 
the means they employed, if they could but obtain their end ; 
and therefore, among other unwarrantable sophistications, they 
took care that the number *' of troops who waited on Wolsey' 
smiles," should be sufficiently magnified; and, instead of one 
hundred and eighty, which was the real number of his house- 
hold, they printed eight hundred. This appears from two MSS. 
of this work in the Museum ; MSS. Harl. N. 428, and MSS. 
Birch, 4233. 

In another manuscript copy of Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, 
in the Publick Library at Cambridge, the number of the Car- 
dinal's household, by the addition of a cypher, is made 1800. 


r< make use ~] i. e. make interest. So, in Much Ado 

about Nothing : " I gave him use for it." STEEVENS. 


In all my miseries ; but thou hast forc'd me 
Out of thy honest truth to play the woman. 
Let's dry our eyes : and thus far hear me, Crom- 

And, when I am forgotten, as I shall be ; 
And sleep in dull cold marble, where no mention 
Of me more must be heard of, say, I taught 


Say, Wolsey, that once trod the ways of glory, 
And sounded all the depths and shoals of honour, 
Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rise in ; 
A sure and safe one, though thy master miss'd it. 
Mark but my fall, and that that ruin'd me. 
Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition ; 7 
By that sin fell the angels, 8 how can man then, 
The image of his Maker, hope to win by't? 
Love thyself last : cherish those hearts that hate 
thee; 9 

ambition ;] Wolsey does not mean to 
condemn every kind of ambition ; for in a preceding line he says 
he will instruct Cromwell how to rise, and in the subsequent 
lines he evidently considers him as a man in office : " then it' 
thoufall'st," &c. Ambition here means a criminal and inordi- 
nate ambition, that endavours to obtain honours by dishonest 
means. MALONE. 

* By that sin fell the angels,'] See p. 138, n. 1. STEEVENS. 

cherish those hearts that hate thee ;~\ Though this be 

good divinity, and an admirable precept for our conduct in pri- 
Vate life, it was never calculated or designed for the magistrate 
or publick minister. Nor could this be the direction of a man 
experienced in affairs to his pupil. It would make a good Chris- 
tian, but a very ill and very unjust statesman. And we have 
nothing so infamous in tradition, as the supposed advice 
given to one ofour kings, to cherish his enemies, and be in no pain 
for his friends. I am of opinion the poet wrote : 

cht-rixh those hearts that wait tJiee ; 

i. e. thy dependants. For the contrary practice had contributed 
to Wolsey's ruin. He was not careful enough in making de- 


Corruption wins not more than honesty. 

Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace, 

To silence envious tongues. Be just, and fear not: 

Let all the ends, thou aim'st at, be thy country's, 

Thy God's, and truth's; then if thou fall'st, O 


Thou fall'st a blessed martyr. Serve the king; 
And, Pr'ythee, lead me in : 
There take an inventory of all I have, 1 
To the last penny ; 'tis the king's : my robe, 
And my integrity to heaven, is all 
I dare now call mine own. O Cromwell, Cromwell, 
Had I but serv'd my God with half the zeal 2 

pendants by his bounty, while intent in amassing wealth to him- 
self. The following line seems to confirm this correction : 

Corruption ivins not more than honesty. 

i. e. You will never find men won over to your temporary occa- 
sions by bribery, so useful to you as friends made by a just and 
generous munificence. WARBURTOX. 

I am unwilling wantonly to contradict so ingenious a remark, 
but that the reader may not be misled, and believe the emenda- 
tion proposed to be necessary, he should remember that this is 
not a time for Wolsey to speak only as a statesman, but as a 
Christian. Shakspeare would have debased the character, just 
when he was employing his strongest efforts to raise it, had he 
drawn it otherwise. Nothing makes the hour of disgrace more 
irksome, than the reflection, that we have been deaf to offers 
of reconciliation, and perpetuated that enmity which we might 
have converted into friendship. STEEVENS. 

1 Pr'ythee, lead me in : 

There take an inventory of all I have,"] This inventory 
Wolsey actually caused to be taken upon his disgrace, and the 
particulars may be seen at large in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 546, 
edit. 1631. 

Among the Harl. MSS. there is one intitled, " An Invento- 
rie of Cardinal Wolsey's rich Housholde Stuffe. Temp. Hen. 
VIII. The original book, as it seems, kept by his own officers." 
See Harl. Catal. X. 599. DOUCE. 

4 Had I but serv'd my God &c.] This sentence was really 
uttered by Wolsey. JOHNSON. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIIL 145 

I serv'd my king, he would not in mine age 
Have left me naked to mine enemies. 

CROM. Good sir, have patience. 

WOL. So I have. Farewell 

The hopes of court ! my hopes in heaven do dwell. 


When Samrah, the deputy governor of Basorah, was deposed 
by Moawiyah the sixth caliph, he is reported to have expressed 
himself in the same manner: " If I had served God so well as 
I have served him, he would never have condemned me to all 

A similar sentiment also occurs in The Earlc of Murton's 
Tragedy, by Churchyard, 1593 : 

" Had I serv'd God as well in euery sort, 
" As I did serue my king and maister still ; 
" My scope had not this season beene so short, 
*' Nor world haue had the power to doe me ill." 


Antonio Perez, the favourite of Philip the Second of Spain, 
made the same pathetick complaint : " Mon zele etoit si grand 
vers cesbenignes puissances [la courde Turin,] quesij'en eusse 
eu autant pour Dieu, je ne double point qu'il ne m'eut deja 
recompense do son paradis." MALONE. 

This was a strange sentence for Wolsey to utter, who was dis- 
graced for the basest treachery to his King in the affair of the 
divorce : but it shows how naturally men endeavour to palliate 
their crimes even to themselves. M. MASON. 

There is a remarkable affinity between these words and part 
of the speech of Sir James Hamilton, who was supposed by 
King James V. thus to address him in a dream : " Though I was 
a sinner against God, I failed not to thee. Had I been as good 
a servant to the Lord my God, as I was to thee, I had not died 
that death." Piuscottie's History of Scotland, p. 261 , edit. 1 7SS, 
I'Jmo. DOUCE. 




A Street in Westminster. 
Enter Two Gentlemen, meeting. 

1 GENT. You are well met once again. 3 

2 GENT. And so are you. 4 

1 GENT. You come to take your stand here, and 

The lady Anne pass from her coronation ? 

2 GENT. 'Tis all my business. At our last en- 

The duke of Buckingham came from his trial. 

1 GENT. 'Tis very true : but that time offer'd 

sorrow ; 
This, general joy. 

2 GENT. 'Tis well : The citizens, 

I am sure, have shown at full their royal minds ; 5 

3 once again.'} Alluding to their former meeting in the 

second Act. JOHNSON. 

4 And 50 are you.'] The conjunction And was supplied by 
Sir Thomas Hanmer, to complete the measure. STEEVENS. 

5 their royal minds;"] i. e. their minds well affected to 

their King. Mr. Pope unnecessarily changed this word to loyal. 
In King Henri/ IV. Part II. we have " royal faith," that is, 
faith due to kings ; which Sir T. Hanmer changed to loyal, and 
I too hastily followed Dr. Johnson and the late editions, in adopt- 
ing the emendation. The recurrence of the same expression, 
though it is not such a one as we should now use, convinces me 
that there is no error in the text in either place. MA LONE. 

Royal, I believe, in the present instance, only signifies nolle. 
So, Macbeth, speaking of Banquo, mentions his " royalty of 
nature." STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 147 

As, let them have their rights, they are ever for- 

In celebration of this day 6 with shows, 
Pageants, and sights of honour. 

1 CKXT. Never greater, 
Nor, I'll assure you, better taken, sir. 

2 GEXT. May I be bold to ask what that contains, 
That paper in your hand ? 

1 GEXT. Yes ; 'tis the list 
Of those, that claim their offices this day, 
By custom of the coronation. 

The duke of Suffolk is the first, and claims 

To be high steward ; next, the duke of Norfolk, 

He to be earl marshal ; you may read the rest. 

2 GEXT. I thank you, sir j had I not known those 


I should have been beholden to your paper. 
But, I beseech you, what's become of Katharine, 
The princess dowager ? how goes her business ? 

1 GENT. That I can tell you too. The archbishop 
Of Canterbury, accompanied with other 
Learned and reverend fathers of his order, 
Held a late court at Dunstable, six miles off 
From Ampthill, where the princess lay ; to which 
She oft was cited by them, but appear'd not : 
And, to be short, for not appearance, 7 and 

this day ~\ Sir Thomas llunmcr reads: 

these days- 

But Shakspeare meant such it dnif ft* ihis, a coronation day. 
And such is the En^li.Nh idiom, which our author commonly 
prefers to grammatical nicety. JOHNSON. 

not (!))j)ctn-ti>icr y ~\ I suppose, our author wrote nori' 
appearance. So, in The Winter'* Tnlc. : 

" the execution did cry out 

" Attain :>t the /ww-peribrmance." STI-:I-:VK\S. 

L ( 1 


The king's late scruple, by the main assent 
Of all these learned men she was divorc'd, 
And the late marriage 8 made of none effect: 
Since which, she was removed to Kimbolton, 
Where she remains now, sick. 

2 GENT. Alas, good lady ! 

[ Trumpets. 

The trumpets sound: stand close, the queen is 


A lively flourish of Trumpets; then, enter 

1. Two Judges. 

2. Lord Chancellor, with the purse and mace be- 

fore him. 

3. Choristers singing. [Musick. 

4. Mayor of London bearing the mace. Then 

Garter, in his coat of arms, 9 and on his 
head, a gilt copper crow?i. 

5. Marquis Dorset, bearing a scepter of gold, on 

his head a demi-coronal of gold. With him, 
the Earl of Surrey, bearing the rod of silver 
with the dove, crowned with an earl's coronet. 
Collars ofSS. 

6. Duke of Suffolk^ in his robe of estate, his coronet 

on his head, bearing a long white wand, as 
high-steward. With him, the Duke of Nor- 

8 the late marriage ] i. e. the marriage lately con- 
sidered as a valid one. STEEVENS. 

9 in his coat of arms, ~\ i. e. in his coat of office, em- 
blazoned with the royal arms. STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 149 

folk, with the rod of marsJiahhip, a coronet 
on his head. Collars ofSS. 

7. A canopy borne by four of the Cinque-ports ; 

under it, the Queen in her robe ; in her hair 
richly adorned with pearl, crowned. On 
each side of her, the Bishops of London and 

8. The old Duchess of Norfolk, in a coronal of gold, 

wrought with jlowers, bearing the Queen's 

9. Certain Ladies or Countesses, witJi plain circlets ' 

of gold without Jlowers. 

2 GENT. A royal train, believe me. These I 

know : 
Who's that, that bears the scepter ? 

1 GENT. Marquis Dorset ; 
And that the earl of Surrey, with the rod. 

2 GEXT. A bold brave gentleman : And that 

should be 
The duke of Suffolk. 

1 GENT. 'Tis the same ; high-steward. 

2 GENT. And that my lord of Norfolk ? 

1 GENT. Yes. 

2 GENT. Heaven bless thee ! 

\_Looking on the Queen. 

Thou hast the sweetest face I ever look'd on. 
Sir, as I have a soul, she is an angel ; 

1 coronal circlets ] I do not recollect that these 

two words occur in any other of our author's works ; a circum- 
stance that may serve to strengthen Dr. Farmer's opinion that 
the directions for the court pageantry throughout the present 
drama, were drawn up by another hand. STKKVENS. 


Our king has all the Indies in his arms, 

And more, and richer, when he strains that lady :" 

I cannot blame his conscience. 

1 GENT. They, that bear 
The cloth of honour over her, are four barons 
Of the Cinque-ports. 

2 GENT. Those men are happy ; and so are all, 

are near her. 

I take it, she that carries up the train, 
Is that old noble lady, duchess of Norfolk. 

1 GENT. It is ; and all the rest are countesses. 

2 GENT. Their coronets say so. These are stars, 

indeed ; 
And, sometimes, falling ones. 

1 GENT. No more of that. 

\_Exit Procession, with a great flourish of 

Enter a third Gentleman. 

God save you, sir ! Where have you been broiling ? 

3 GENT. Among the croud i'the abbey ; where a 


9 "Men lie strains that lady :~\ I do not recollect that 

our author, in any other of his works, has used the verb strain 
in its present sense, which is that of the Latin comprimere. 
Thus Livy, I. 4 : " Compres&a vestalis, quum geminum partum 
cdidisset," c. Again, in Chapman's version of the 21st Iliad: 

" Bright Peribaea, whom the flood, &c. 

" Compress'd." 

I have pointed out this circumstance, because Ben Jonson is 
suspected of having made some additions to the play before us, 
and, perhaps, in this very scene which is descriptive of the per- 
sonages who compose the antecedent procession. See Dr. Far- 
mer's note on the Epilogue to this play. STEEVEXS. 

sc.i. KING HENRY VIII. 151 

Couhl not be wedg'd in more ; and I am stifled J 
With the mere rankness of their joy. 

2 GEXT. You saw 

The ceremony ? 

3 GEXT. That I did. 

1 GEXT. How was it ? 
3 GEXT. Well worth the seeing. 

2 GEXT. Good sir, speak it to us. 

3 GENT. As well as I am able. The rich stream 4 
Of lords, and ladies, having brought the queen 
To a prepared place in the choir, fell off 

A distance from her ; while her grace sat down 
To rest a while, some half an hour, or so, 
In a ricli chair of state, opposing freely 
The beauty of her person to the people. 
Believe me, sir, she is the goodliest woman 
That ever lay by man : which when the people 
Had the full view of, such a noise arose 
As the shrouds make at sea in a stiff tempest, 
As loud, and to as many tunes : hats, cloaks, 
(Doublets, I think,) flew up ; and had their faces 
Been loose, this day they had been lost. Such joy 
I never saw before. Great-bellied women, 

1 and I am stifled ~] And was introduced by Sir T. 

Hanmcr, to complete the measure. STEEVENS. 

4 The rich stream Sfc.~\ 

" ingentera tbribus domus alta superbis 

" Mane salutantum totis vomit aedibus undam" 

Virg. Gcorg. II. 4-6 1. MALONE. 

Again, in the second Thelmid of Statius, v. 223 : 

" ibribus cum immissa superbis 

" Undft tremit vulgi." 
So, in Timon of Athens, Act I. sc. i: 

" this confluence, this great jlond of visitors." 

Sec Dr. Johnson's note on this passage. STEEVENS. 


That had not half a week to go, 5 like rams 6 
In the old time of war, would shake the press, 
And make them reel before them. No man living- 
Could say, This is my &'/<?, there ; all were woven 
So strangely in one piece. 

2 GENT. But, 'pray, what followed? 7 

3 GENT. At length her grace rose, and with mo- 

dest paces 

Came to the altar ; where she kneel'd, and, saint- 

Cast her fair eyes to heaven, and pray'd devoutly. 
Then rose again, and bow'd her to the people : 
When by the archbishop of Canterbury 
She had all the royal makings of a queen ; 
As holy oil, Edward Confessor's crown, 
The rod, and bird of peace, and all such emblems 
Laid nobly on her : which performed, the choir, 
With all the choicest musick of the kingdom, 
Together sung Te Deum. So she parted, 
And with the same full state pac'd back again 
To York-place, where the feast is held. 

1 GENT. Sir, you 

Must no more call it York-place, that is past : 
For, since the cardinal fell, that title's lost ; 
3 Tis now the king's, and calPd Whitehall. 

5 to go,] i.e. to continue in their pregnancy. So, 

afterwards : 

" the fruit she goes with 

" I pray for heartily." STEEVENS. 

6 like rams ] That is, like battering rams. 

So, in Virgil, JEneld II : 

" labat ariete crebro 

" Janua ." STEEVEXS. 

~ But, 'pray, what follow' d?~\ The word 'pray was added, 
for the sake of the measure, by Sir Thomas Hanmer. 


sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 153 

3 GENT. I know it ; 

But 'tis so lately alter'd, that the old name 
Is fresh about me. 

2 GENT. What two reverend bishops 
Were those that went on each side of the queen ? 

3 GENT. Stokesly and Gardiner ; the one, of 


(Newly preferr'd from the king's secretary,) 
The other, London. 

2 GENT. He of Winchester 

Is held no great good lover of the archbishop's, 
The virtuous Cranmer. 

3 GENT. All the land knows that : 
However, yet there's no great breach ; when it 

Cranmer will find a friend will not shrink from him. 

2 GENT. Who may that be, I pray you ? 

3 GENT. Thomas Cromwell ; 
A man in much esteem with the king, and truly 
A worthy friend. The king 

Has made him master o'the jewel-house, 
And one, already, of the privy-council. 

2 GENT. He will deserve more. 

3 GENT. Yes, without all doubt. 
Come, gentlemen, ye shall go my way, which 

Is to the court, and there ye shall be my guests ; 
Something I can command. As I walk thither, 
I'll tell ye more. 

BOTH. You may command us, sir. 





Enter KATHARINE, Dowager, sick; led between 

GRIP. How does your grace ? 

KATH. O, Griffith, sick to death : 

My legs, like loaden branches, bow to the earth, 
Willing to leave their burden : Reach a chair ; 
So, now, methinks, I feel a little ease. 
Didst thou not tell me, Griffith, as thou led'st me, 
That the great child of honour, 9 cardinal Wolsey, 
Was dead ? 

GRIP. Yes, madam ; but, I think, 1 your grace, 
Out of the pain you suffer' d, gave no ear to't. 

KATH. Pr'ythee, good Griffith, tell me how he 


If well, he stepp'd before me, happily, 
For my example. 2 

8 Scene //.] This scene is above any other part of Shak- 
speare's tragedies, and perhaps above any scene of any other 
poet, tender and pathetick, without gods, or furies, or poisons, 
or precipices, without the help of romantick circumstances, 
without improbable sallies of poetical lamentation, and without 
any throes of tumultuous misery. JOHNSON. 

9 child of 'honour ,] So, in King Henry IV. Part I: 

" That this same child of honour and renown " 


/ think, ] Old copy I thank. Corrected in the 

second folio. MA LONE. 

he stepped before me, happily, 

For my example.'] Happily seems to mean on this occasion 
peradventure, haply. I have been more than once of this opi- 

sc.n. KING HENRY VIII. 155 

GRIP. Well, the voice goes, madam : 

For after the stout earl Northumberland 3 
Arrested him at York, and brought him forward 
(As a man sorely tainted,) to his answer, 
He fell siek suddenly, and grew so ill, 
He could not sit his mule. 4 

nion, when I have met with the same word thus spelt in other 
passages. STEEVENS. 

Mr. M. Mason is of opinion that happily here means fortu- 
nately. Mr. Steevens's interpretation is, I think, right. So, in 
King Henry VI. Part II : 

" Thy fortune, York, hadst thou been regent there, 
" Might happily have prov'd far worse than his." 


3 the stout earl Northumberland ] So, in Chevy 

Chase : 

" The stout carl of Northumberland 

" A vow to God did make" &c. STEEVENS. 

4 He could not sit his mule. ,] In Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, 
16 H, it is said that Wolsey poisoned himself; but the words 
" at which time it was apparent that he had poisoned himself," 
which appear in p. 108 of that work, were an interpolation, 
inserted by the publisher for some sinister purpose ; not being 
found in the two manuscripts now preserved in the Museum. 
See a former note, p. 141. MALONE. 

Cardinals generally rode on mules. " He rode like a cardi- 
nal, sumptuously upon his mule" Cavendish's Life of Wolsey. 


In the representation of the Champ de Drap d'Or, published 
by the Society of Antiquaries, the Cardinal appears mounted on 
one of these animals very richly caparisoned. This circumstance 
also is much dwelt on in the ancient Satire quoted p. 88, n. 6: 
" Wat. What yf he will the devils blisse? 
" Jef. They regarde it no more be gisse 
" Then waggynge of his mule's tayle. 
" Wat. Doth he then use on mule's to rydc ? 
" Jef. Ye, and that with so shamful pryde 

"'That to tell it is not possible." 
Again : 

" Then foloweth my lorde on his mule 
" Trapped with golde under her eule 
" In every poynt most curiously." 


KATH. Alas, poor man ! 

GRIP. At last, with easy roads, 5 he came to 


Lodg'd in the abbey; where the reverend abbot, 
With all his convent, honourably receiv'd him ; 
To whom he gave these words, O father abbot, 
An old man, broken with the storms of state, 
Is come to lay his weary bones among ye ; 
Give him a little earth for charity! 
So went to bed : where eagerly his sickness 
Pursu'd him still ; and, three nights after this, 
About the hour of eight, (which he himself 
Foretold, should be his last,) full of repentance, 
Continual meditations, tears, and sorrows, 
He gave his honours to the world again, 
.His blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace. 

KATH. So may he rest; his faults lie gently on him! 
Yet thus far, Griffith, give me leave to speak him, 
And yet with charity, He was a man 
Of an unbounded stomach, 6 ever ranking 
Himself with princes ; one, that by suggestion 
Ty'd all the kingdom: 7 simony was fair play; 

Again : 

" The bosses of his mulls brydles 
" Myght bye Christ and his disciples 

" As farre as I coulde ever rede." STEEVENS. 

5 "with easy roads,] i. e. by short stages. STEEVENS. 

6 Of an unbounded stomach,"] i. e. of unbounded pride, or 
haughtiness. So, Holinshed, speaking of King Richard III : 

" Such a great audacitie and such a stomach reigned in his 
bodie." STEEVENS. 

one, that by suggestion 

Ty'd all the kingdom:'] The word suggestion, says the 
critick [Dr. Warburton], is here used with great propriety and 
seeming knowledge of the Latin tongue : and he proceeds to 
settle the sense of it from the late Roman writers and their 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 157 

His own opinion was his law : I'the presence 
He would say untruths ; and be ever double, 

glossers. But Shakspeare's knowledge was from Holinshed, 
whom he follows verbatim ; 

" This cardinal was of a great stomach, for he computed 
himself equal with princes, and by craftie suggestions got into 
his hands innumerable treasure : he forced little on simonie, and 
was not pitiful!, and stood affectionate in his own opinion : in 
open presence he would lie and seie untruth, and was double 
both in speech and meaning : he would promise much and per- 
form little : he was vicious of his bodie, and gave the clergie 
euil example." Edit. 1587, p. 922. 

Perhaps, after this quotation, you may not think, that Sir 
Thomas Hanmer, who reads tyth'd instead of ty*d all the 
kingdom, deserves quite so much of Dr. Warburton's severity. 
Indisputably the passage, like every other in the speech, is in- 
tended to express the meaning of the parallel one in the chro- 
nicle ; it cannot therefore be credited, that any man, when the 
original was produced, should still choose to defend a cant ac- 
ceptation, and inform us, perhaps, seriously, that in gaming 
language, from I know not what practice, to tye is to equal ! 
A sense of the word, as I have yet found, unknown to our old 
writers; and, if known, would not surely have been used in this 
place by our author. 

Hut, let us turn from conjecture to Shakspeare's authorities. 
Hall, from whom the above description is copied by Holinshed, 
is very explicit in the demands of the cardinal: who having 
insolently told the lord mayor and aldermen, " For sothe I 
thinke, that halfe your substance were too little," assures them, 
by way of comfort, at the end of his harangue, that, upon an 
average, the tythe should be sufficient : " Sirs, speake not to 
breake that thyng that is concluded, for some shall not paie the 
tenth parte, and some more." And again : " Thei saied, the 
cardinall by visitacions, makyng of abbottes, probates of testa- 
mentes, graunting of faculties, licences, and other pollyngs in 
his courtes legantines, had made his threasure cgall with the 
kynges." Edit. 154-8, p. 138, and 143. FARMEH. 

In Storer's Life and Death of Thomas Wolsey, a poem, 1599, 
the Cardinal says : 

" 1 car'd not for the gentrie, for I had 

" y7//W'-gentlemen, yong nobles of the land," ivc. 


Ty'd all the kingdom ;] i. e. he was a man of an unbounded 


Both in his words and meaning : He was never, 
But where he meant to ruin, pitiful : 

stomach, or pride, ranking himself with princes, and by sug- 
gestion to the King and the Pope, he ty'd, i. e. limited, circum- 
scribed, and set bounds to the liberties and properties of all per- 
sons in the kingdom. That he did so, appears from various pas- 
sages in the play. Act II. sc. ii. " free us from his slavery," 
" or this imperious man will work us all from princes into 
pages : all men's honours," &c. Act III. sc. ii. " You wrought 
to be a legate, by which power you maim'd the jurisdiction of 
all bishops." See also Act I. sc. i. and Act III. sc. ii. This 
construction of the passage may be supported from D'Ewes's 
Journal of Queen Elizabeth's Parliaments, p. 644- : " Far be it 
from me that the state and prerogative of the prince should be 
tied by me, or by the act of any other subject." 

Dr. Farmer has displayed such eminent knowledge of Shak- 
speare, that it is with the utmost diffidence I dissent from the 
alteration which he would establish here. He would read ti/th'd, 
and refers to the authorities of Hall and Holinshed about a tax 
of the tenth, or tythe of each man's substance, which is not 
taken notice of in the play. Let it be remarked that it is Queen 
Katharine speaks here, who, in Act I. sc. ii. told the King it 
was a demand of the sixth part of each subject's substance, that 
caused the rebellion. Would she afterwards say that he, i. e. 
Wolsey, had tythed all the kingdom, when she knew he had 
almost double-tythed it ? Still Dr. Farmer insists that " the pas- 
sage, like every other in the speech, is intended to express the 
meaning of the parallel one in the Chronicle:" i. e. The cardinal 
*' by craftie suggestion got into his hands innumerable treasure." 
This passage does not relate to a publick tax of the tenths, but to 
the Cardinal's own private acquisitions. If in this sense I ad- 
mitted the alteration, tyth'd, I Avould suppose that, as the Queen 
is descanting on the Cardinal's own acquirements, she borrows 
her term from the principal emolument or payment due to 
priests ; and means to intimate that the Cardinal was not con- 
tent with the tythes legally accruing to him from his own various 
pluralities, but that he extorted something equivalent to them 
throughout all the kingdom. So, Buckingham says, Act I. sc. i. 
" No man's pie is freed from his ambitious finger." So, again, 
Surrey says, Act III. sc. ult. " Yes, that goodness of gleaning 
all the land's wealth into one, into your own hands, cardinal, by 
extortion :" and ibidem, " You have sent innumerable substancs 
(by what means got, I leave to your own conscience) to the 
mere undoing of all the kingdom." This extortion is so fre- 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 159 

His promises were, as he then was, mighty; 
But his performance, as he is now, nothing. 8 
Of his own body he was ill, 1 ' and gave 
The clergy ill example. 

OK IF. Noble madam, 

Men's evil manners live in brass ; their virtues 
We write in water. 1 May it please your highness 
To hear me speak his good now ? 

quently spoken of, that perhaps our author purposely avoided a 
repetition of it in the passage under consideration, and therefore 
gave a different sentiment declarative of the consequence of his 
unbounded pride, that must humble all others. TOLLET. 

' as he is now, nothing.'} So, in Massinger's Great Duke 

of Florence : 

" Great men, 

" Till they have gain'd their ends, are giants in 

" Their promises ; but those obtain'd, iveak pygmies 

" In t/ictr performance." STEEVENS. 

9 Of his own body he teas ///,] A criminal connection with 
women was anciently called the vice of the body. Thus, in The 
Manciple's Tale, by Chaucer : 

" If of hire body dishonest she be." 

Again, in Holinshed, p. 1258: " he laboured by all meanes 
to cleare mistresse Sanders of committing evill of her bodie with 
him." STEEVEXS. 

So, the Protector says of Jane Shore, Hall's Chronicle, Edw. 
IV. p. 16: " She was naught of her bodye" MALONE. 

1 their virtues 

We write in water.] Beaumont and Fletcher have the same 
thought in their Philaster : 

" all your better deeds 

" Shall be in ixatcr writ, but this in marble.'* 


This reflection bears a great resemblance to a passage in Sir 
Thomas More's History of Richard III. whence Shakspeare 
undoubtedly formed his play on that subject. Speaking of the 
ungrateful turns which Jane Shore experienced from those whom 
she had served in her prosperity, More adds, " Men use, if they 
have an evil turne, to write it in marble, and whoso doth us a 
;.:ood turne, we write it in duste." 

More's JJWvf, bl. 1. 1551, p. 59. PERCY. 


KATH. Yes, good Griffith ; 

I were malicious else. 

GRIP. This cardinal, 2 

In Whitney's Emblemes, printed at Leyden, 4to. 1586, p. 183, 
is the following : 

" Scribit in marmore Icesus. 

" In marble harde our harmes wee alwayes grave, 
" Because, wee still will beare the same in minde : 
" In duste wee write the benefittes wee have, 
" Where they are soone defaced with the winde. 
" So, wronges wee houlde, and never will forgive ; 
" And soone forget, that still with us shoulde live." 
Again, as Mr. Ritson quotes from Harrington's Ariosto : 
" Men say it, and we see it come to pass, 
" Good turns in sand, shrewd turns are writ in brass" 
To avoid an unnecessary multiplication of instances, I shall 
just observe, that the same sentiment is found in Massinger's 
Maid of Honour, Act V. sc. ii. and Marston's Malcontent, 
Act II. sc. iii. REED. 

8 This cardinal, &c.~] This speech is formed on the following 
passage in Holinshed : " This cardinal, (as Edmond Campion, 
in his Historic oj" Ireland, described him,) was a man undoubt- 
edly born to honour ; I think, (saith he,) some prince's bastard, 
no butcher's sonne; exceeding wise, faire-spoken, high-minded, 
full of revenge, vitious of his bodie, loftie to his enemies, were 
they never so bigge, to those that accepted and sought his friend- 
ship wonderful courteous; a ripe schooleman, thrall to affec- 
tions, brought a bed with flatterie ; insaciable to get, and more 
princelie in bestowing, as appeareth by his two colleges at Ips- 
wich and Oxenford, the one overthrown with his fall, the other 
unfinished, and yet as it lyeth, for an house of studentes, (con- 
sidering all the appurtenances,) incomparable throughout Chris- 
tendome. He held and injoied at once the bishoprickes of 
Yorke, Duresme, and Winchester, the dignities of Lord Cardi- 
nal!, Legat, and Chancellor, the abbaie of St. Albons, diverse 
priories, sundrie fat benefices in commcndam ; a great preferrer 
of his servants, an advauncer of learning, stoute in every quar- 
rel, never happy till this his overthrow : wherein he shewed such 
moderation, and ended so perfectlie, that the houre of his death 
did him more honour than all the pomp of his life passed.*' 1 

* So, in Macbeth : 

" nothing in his life 

" Became him like the Icauii" it;." STEEVI.N- 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 161 

Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly 
Was fashion'd to much honour. 3 From his cradle, 
He was a scholar, and a ripe, and good one ; 
Exceeding wise, fair spoken, and persuading: 4 
Lofty, and sour, to them that lov'd him not ; 

When Shakspeare says that Wolsey was " a scholar from his 
cradle," he had probably in his thoughts the account given by 
Cavendish, which Stowe has copied; " Cardinal Wolsey was an 
honest, poor man's sonne who, being but a child, ivas very apt 
to learne ; wherefore by means of his parents and other his good 
friends he was maintained at the university of Oxford, where in 
a short time he prospered so well, that in a small time, (as he 
told me with his owne mouth,) he was made bachelour of arts, 
when he was but fifteen years of age, and was most commonly 
called the boy batchelour" See also Wolsey's Legend, Mirrour 
for Magistrates, 1587. 

1 have here followed the punctuation of the old copy, where 
there is a full point at honour, and From his cradle begins a new 
sentence. This punctuation has likewise been adopted in the 
late editions. Mr. Theobald, however, contends that we ought 
to point thus : 

" Was fashion'd to much honour from his cradle." 
And it must be owned that the words of Holinshed, here thrown 
into verse, " This cardinall was a man undoubtedly BO UN to 
honour," strongly support his regulation. The reader has before 
him the arguments on each side. I am by no means confident 
that I have decided rightly. MALONE. 

The present punctuation, 

From his cradle, 

" lie was a scholar ,- 

seems to be countenanced by a passage in King Henri/ V : 

" Nrccr was such a sudden scholar made." STEEVEXS. 

3 Was fashion* d to much lionour.~\ Perhaps our author bor- 
rowed this expression from Saint haul's F.pixtlc to the Honiaits, 
ix. '2} : " Hath not the potter power over the cl:;y of the same 
lump, to make one -ce.s^el nnlo honour" &c. STELVENS. 

4 fair spnkcn, and persuading:^ Eloquence constituted 

a part of the Cardinal's real character. In the charges exhibited 
against him, it was alledged that at the Privy Council " he would 
h:!\c all the words to himself, and consumed muck timcicith njltir" See !//,>/. <)i. 1 IOJ.T WHITE. 



But, to those men that sought him, sweet as summer. 
And though he were unsatisfied in getting, 
(Which was a sin,) yet in bestowing, madam, 
He was most princely : Ever witness for him 
Those twins of learning, that he rais'd in you, 
Ipswich, 5 and Oxford ! one of which fell with him, 
Unwilling to outlive the good that did it ; 6 
The other, though unfinished, yet so famous, 
So excellent in art, and still so rising, 
That Christendom shall ever speak his virtue. 
His overthrow heap'd happiness upon him ; 
For then, and not till then, he felt himself, 
And found the blessedness of being little : 
And, to add greater honours to his age 
Than man could give him, he died, fearing God. 

KATH. After my death I wish no other herald, 
No other speaker of my living actions, 
To keep mine honour from corruption, 

s Ipsiach,~] " The foundation-stone of the College which 
the Cardinal founded in this place, was discovered a few years 
ago. It is now in the Chapter-house of Christ-Church, Oxford." 
Seward's Anecdotes of distinguished Persons, &c. 1795. 


6 Unwilling to outlive the good that did it;"] Unwilling to 
survive that virtue which was the cause of its foundation : or, 
perhaps, " the good" is licentiously used for the good man; 
" the virtuous prelate who founded it." So, in The Winter's 
Tale : " a piece many years in doing." 

Mr. Pope and the subsequent editors read the good he did 
it ; which appears to me unintelligible. " The good he did it," 
was laying the foundation of the building and endowing it : if 
therefore we suppose the college unwilling to outlive the good he 
did it, we suppose it to expire instantly after its birth. 

" The college unwilling to live longer than its founder, or the 
goodness that gave rise to it," though certainly a conceit, is suf- 
ficiently intelligible. MALONE. 

Good, I believe, is put for goodness. So, in p. 159 : 

" May it please your highness 

" To hear me speak his good now 1" STEEVENS, 

sc. 77. KING HENRY VHI. 

But such an honest chronicler as Griffith. 
Whom I most hated living, thou hast made me, 
With thy religious truth, and modesty, 
Now in his ashes honour : Peace be with him! 
Patience, be near me still ; and set me lower : 
I have not long to trouble thee. Good Griffith, 
Cause the musicians play me that sad note 
I nam'd my knell, whilst I sit meditating 
On that celestial harmony I go to. 

Sad and solemn musick. 

GRIP. She is asleep: Good wench, let's sit down 

For fear we wake her j Softly, gentle Patience. 

The Vision. Enter, solemnly tripping one after 
another," six Personages, clad in white robes, 
wearing on their heads garlands of bays, and 
golden vizards* on their faces; branches of bays, 
or palm, in their hands. Theyjirst congee unto 
her, then dance ; and, at certain changes, the 
Jirst two hold a spare garland over her head ; at 
which, the other four make reverend court* sies ; 
then the two, lhat held the garland, deliver the 
same to the other next two, wiio observe the same 

7 solemnly tripping one cfci' at'other,"] This whimsical 

stage-direction is exactly taken t'-om the old copy. STEEYEXS. 

Of this stage-direction I do not believe our author wrote one 
word. Katharine's ntx* speech probably suggested this tripping 
<lumb-shew to the too busy reviver oi'this play. MALONE. 

1 golden vizards ] These tawdry disguises are also men- 
tioned in Hall's account of a maakc devised by King Henry VIIJ : 
" thei were appareled c. with risers and cappes ttfgolde." 

M 2 


order in their changes, and holding the garland 
over her head : which done, they deliver the same 
garland to the last two, who likewise observe the 
same order : at which, (as it were by inspiration,} 
she makes in her sleep signs of rejoicing, and 
holdeth up her hands to heaven : and so in their 
dancing they vanish, carrying the garland with 
them. The musick continues. 

KATH. Spirits of peace, where are ye ? Are ye 

all gone ? 
And leave me here in wretchedness behind ye ? 9 

GRIP. Madam, we are here. 

KATH. It is not you I call for : 

Saw ye none enter, since I slept ? 

GRIP. None, madam. 

KATH. No ? Saw you not, even now, a blessed 


Invite me to a banquet ; whose bright faces 
Cast thousand beams upon me, like the sun ? 
They prormVd me eternal happiness ; 
And brought me garlands, Griffith, which I feel 
I am not w r orthy yet to wear : I shall, 

GRIP. I am most joyful, madam, such good dreams 
Possess your fancy. 

9 And leave me here in wretchedness behind ye ?~] Perhaps 
Mr. Gray had this passage in his thoughts, when he made his 
Bard exclaim, on a similar occasion, (the evanescence of vision- 
ary forms) : 

" Stay, O stay ! nor thus forlorn 

" Leave me unbless'd, unp'Uied, here to mourn!" 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 165 

KATH. Bid the musick leave, 

They are harsh and heavy to me. \_Musick ceases. 

. PAT. Do you note, 

How much her grace is alter'd on the sudden ? 
How long her face is drawn ? How pale she looks, 
And of an earthly cold? Mark you her eyes? 1 

GRIP. She is going, wench ; pray, pray. 

PAT. Heaven comfort her ! 

Enter a Messenger. 

MESS. An't like your grace, 

KATH. You are a saucy fellow : 

Deserve we no more reverence ? 

GRIP. You are to blame, 

Knowing, she will not lose her wonted greatness, 
To use so rude behaviour : go to, kneel. 2 

MESS. I humbly do entreat your highness* pardon ; 
My haste made me unmannerly : There is staying 
A gentleman, sent from the king, to see you. 

1 Mark you ficr cyes?~\ The modern editors read 

Maik her eyes. But in the old copy, there being a stop of in- 
terrogation after this passage, as after the foregoing clauses of 
the speech, I have ventured to insert the pronoun you, which 
at once supports the ancient pointing, and completes the mea- 
sure. STKKVKXS. 

go in, l-uecL~\ Queen Katharine's servants, after the 
divorce at Dunstablc, and the Pope's curse stuck up at Dunkirk, 
were directed to be sworn to serve her not as a Queen, but as 
Princess Dmvfi^rr. Some refused to take the oath, and so were 
forced to leave her service; and as ibr those who took it and 
stayed, she would not. be served by them, by which means she 
was almost destitute of attendants. See Hall, fol. '21!*. Bishop 
Burnet says, all the women about her still called her Queen. 
Burntt, p. 162. UEI:D. 


KATH. Admit him entrance, Griffith : But this 

Let me ne'er see again. 

\JExeunt GRIFFITH and Messenger. 

Re-enter GRIFFITH, with CAPUCIUS. 

If my sight fail not, 

You should be lord ambassador from the emperor, 
My royal nephew, and your name Capucius. 

CAP. Madam, the same, your servant. 

KATH. O my lord, 

The times, and titles, now are alter'd strangely 
With me, since first you knew me. But, I pray you, 
What is your pleasure with me ? 

CAP. Noble lady, 

First, mine own service to your grace ; the next, 
The king's request that I would visit you ; 
Who grieves much for your \veakness, and by me 
Sends you his princely commendations, 
And heartily entreats you take good comfort. 

KATH. O my good lord, that comfort comes too 

late ; 

J Tis like a pardon after execution : 
That gentle physick, given in time, had cur'd me; 
But now I am past all comforts here, but prayers, 
How does his highness ? 

CAP. Madam, in good health, 

KATH. So may he ever do ! and ever flourish, 
When I shall dwell with worms, and my poor name 
Banish'd the kingdom ! Patience, is that letter, 
I caus'd you write, yet sent away ? 

PAT. No, madam. 

\_Giving it to KATHARINE. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 167 

KATH. Sir, I most humbly pray you to deliver 
This to my lord the king. 3 

CAP. Most willing, madam. 

KATH. In which I have commended to his 


The model of our chaste loves, 4 his young daugh- 
ter : 

3 This to my lord the king.~\ So, Holinshcd, p. 939: " per- 
ceiving hir selfe to waxe verie weak and feeble, and to teele 
death approaching at hand, caused one of hir gentlewomen 
to write a letter to the king, commending to him hir daughter 
and his, beseeching him to stand good father unto hir ; and fur- 
ther desired him to have some consideration of hir gentlewomen 
that had served hir, and to see them bestowed in marriage. 
Further that it would please him to appoint that hir servants 
might have their due wages, and a yeares wages beside." 


This letter probably fell into the hands of Polydore Virgil, 
who was then in England, and has preserved it in the twenty- 
seventh book of his history. The following is Lord Herbert's 
translation of it : 

" My most dear lord, king, and husband, 

" The hour of my death now approaching, I cannot choose 
but, out of the love I bear you, advise you of your soul's health, 
which you ought to prefer before all considerations of the world 
or flesh whatsoever : for which yet you have cast me into many 
calamities, and yourself into many troubles. But I forgive you 
all, and pray God to do so likewise. For the rest, I commend 
unto you Mary our daughter, beseeching you to be a good father 
to her, as I have heretofore desired. I must entreat you also to 
respect my maids, and give them in marriage, (which is not 
much, they being but three,) and to all my other servants a 
years pay besides their due, lest otherwise they should be un- 
provided for. Lastly, I make this vow, that mine eyes desire 
you above all things. Farewell." MALONE. 

The legal instrument for the divorce of Queen Katharine is 
i-till in being ; and among the signatures to it is that of Polydore 
Virgil. STEEVENS. 

The model of our cliaslc /oiw,] Model is image or rcpre- 
bee Vol. VI II. p. 'J,5'2, u. 2 ; and Vol. X. p. 532, n. 2. 



The dews of heaven fall thick in blessings on her! 
Beseeching him, to give her virtuous breeding ; 
(She is young, and of a noble modest nature ; 
I hope, she will deserve well ;) and a little 
To love her for her mother's sake, that lov'd him, 
Heaven knows how dearly. My next poor petition 
Is, that his noble grace would have some pity 
Upon my wretched women, that so long, 
Have followed botli my fortunes faithfully : 
Of which there is not one, I dare avow, 
(And now I should not lie,) but will deserve, 
For virtue, and true beauty of the soul, 
For honesty, and decent carriage, 
A right good husband, let him be a noble ; 5 
And, sure, those men are happy that shall have them. 
The last is, for my men; they are the poorest, 
But poverty could never draw them from me ; 
That they may have their wages duly paid them. 
And something over to remember me by ; 

* A right good &c.] I would read this line (not with a semi- 
colon, as hitherto printed,) but with only a comma : 

A right good husband, let him be a noble; 
i. e. though he were even of noble extraction. WH ALLEY. 

Let him be, I suppose, signifies, even though he should be ; or, 
admit that he be. She means to observe, that nobility superaddcd 
to virtue, is not more than each (tfhcr women deserves to meet with 
in a hiuiband. 

The same phraseology is found in King Richard II: 
" Setting aside his high blood's royalty, 
" And let him be no kinsman to my liege." STEEVEXS. 

This is, I think, the true interpretation of the line ; but I do 
not see why the words let him be a noble, may not, consistently 
with this meaning, be understood in their obvious and ordinary 
sense. We are not to consider Katharine's women like the 
attendants on other ladies. One of them had already been 
married to more than a noble husband ; having unfortunately 
captivated a worthless Ling. MALONE. KING HENRY VIII. icy 

If heaven had pleas'd to have given me longer life, 
And able means, we had not parted thus. 
These are the whole contents: And, good my lord, 
By that you love the dearest in this world, 
As you wish Christian peace to souls departed, 
Stand these poor people's friend, and urge the king 
To do me this last right. 

CAP. By heaven, I will ; 

Or let me lose the fashion of a man ! 

KATH. I thank you, honest lord. Remember me 
In all humility unto his highness : 
Say, his long trouble now is passing 
Out of this world : tell him, in death I bless'd him, 
For so I will. Mine eyes grow dim. Farewell, 
My lord. Griffith, farewell. Nay, Patience, 
You must not leave me yet. I must to bed ; 
Call in more women. When I am dead, good 


Let me be us'd with honour ; strew me over 
With maiden flowers, that all the world may know 
I was a chaste wife to my grave : embalm me, 
Then lay me forth : although unqueen'd, yet like 
A queen, and daughter to a king, inter me. 

I can no more. 

[Exeunt^ leading KATHARINE. 



A Gallery in the Palace. 

Enter GARDINER Bishop of Winchester, a Page 
with a Torch before him, met by Sir THOMAS 

GAR. It's one o'clock, boy, is't not ? 

BOY. It hatli struck. 

GAR. These should be hours for necessities, 
Not for delights ; 6 times to repair our nature 
With comforting repose, 7 and not for us 
To waste these times. Good hour of night, sir 

Thomas ! 
Whither so late ? 

Lov. Came you from the king, my lord ? 

GAR. I did, sir Thomas; and left him at primero 8 
With the duke of Suffolk. 

Not for delight,';;'] Gardiner himself is not much delighted. 
The delight at which he hints, seems to be the King's diversion, 
which keeps him in attendance. JOHNSON. 

7 These should be hours 

times to repair our nature 

With comforting repose ^\ Hence, perhaps, the following 
passage in the fifth Act of Rowe's Fair Penitent. Sciolto is the 
speaker : 

" This dead of night, this silent hour of darkness, 

" Nature for rest ordain'd and soft repose." STEEVENS. 

" at primero ] Primero and Primavista, two games 

at cards, H. I. Primcra, Primavista. La Prhniere, G. Prime, f. 
Prime veue. Primiim, et primum visum, that is, first, and first 
seen : because he that can show such an order of cards first, wins 
the game. Minsheu's Guide into Tongues, col. 575. GREY. 

sc. /. KING HENRY VIII. 171 

7, or. I must to him too, 

Before he go to bed. I'll take my leave. 

GAR. Not yet, sir Thomas Lovell. What's the 

matter ? 

It seems, you are in haste ; an if there be 
No great offence belongs to't, give your friend 
Some touch of your late business: 9 Affairs, that 


(As, they say, spirits do,) at midnight, have 
In them a wilder nature, than the business 
That seeks despatch by day. 

Lor. My lord, I love you ; 

And durst commend a secret to your ear 
Much weightier than this work. The queen's in 


They say, in great extremity ; and fear'd, 
She'll with the labour end. 

GAR. The fruit, she goes with, 

I pray for heartily ; that it may find 
Good time, and live : but for the stock, sir Thomas, 
I wish it grubb'd up now. 

Lor. Methinks., I could 

Cry the amen ; and yet my conscience says 
She's a good creature, and, sweet lady, does 
Deserve our better wishes. 

GAR. But, sir, sir, 

Hear me, sir Thomas : You are a gentleman 

So, in Wowan*s a Weathercock, 1G12: 

" Come will your worship make one &t primero?" 

Again, in the Preface to The Rival Friends, 1632: " when 
it may be, some of our butterfly judgments expected a set at 
maw or primavista from them." STEEVENS. 

" Some ioue/i of your late business .] Some hint of the busi- 
ness that keeps you awake so late. JOHNSON 


Of mine own way ; l I know you wise, religious j 
And, let me tell you, it will ne'er be well, 
'Twill not, sir Thomas Lovell, take't of me, 
Till Cranmer, Cromwell, her two hands, and she, 
Sleep in their graves. 

Lov. Now, sir, you speak of two 

The most remarked i'the kingdom. As for Crom- 

Beside that of the jewel-house, he's made 2 master 
O'the rolls, and the king's secretary ; further, sir, 
Stands in the gap and trade of more preferments, 3 
With which the time will load him : The archbishop 
Is the king'shand,and tongue; Andwho dare speak 
One syllable against him ? 

GAR. Yes, yes, sir Thomas, 

There are that dare ; and I myself have ventur'd 
To speak my mind of him : and, indeed, this day, 
Sir, (I may tell it you,) I think, I have 
Incens'd the lords o'the council, that he is 
(For so I know he is, they know he is,) 
A most arch heretick, 4 a pestilence 

1 mine otvn "way ;] Mine own opinion in religion. 


* he's made ] The pronoun, which was omitted in 

the old copy, was inserted by Mr. Theobald. M ALONE. 

3 Stands in the gap and trade of more preferments, ] Trade. 
is the practised method, the general course. JOHNSON. 

Trade has been already used by Shakspeare with this meaning 
in King Richard II : 

" Some way of common trade." 
See Vol. XI. p. 109, n. 5. STEEVENS. 

4 . I hare 

Incens'd the lords o'the council, that he /.; <Src. 

A most arch hcrdick,~] This passage, according to the old 
elliptical mode of writing, may mean I have incens'u the lords 
of the council 5i /o>' that he is, i. e. because. STEEVENS. 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 173 

That does infect the land : with which they moved, 
Have broken with the king ; 5 who hath so far 
Given ear to our complaint, (of his great grace 
And princely care ; foreseeing those fell mischiefs 
Our reasons laid before him,) he hath commanded, 6 
To-morrow morning to the council-board 
He be convented. 7 He's a rank weed, sir Thomas, 
And we must root him out. From your affairs 
I hinder you too long : good night, sir Thomas. 

Lor. Many good nights, my lord; I rest your ser- 
vant. [Exeunt GARDINER and Page. 

As LOVELL is going out, enter the King, and the 
Duke of SUFFOLK. 

A'. HEX. Charles, I will play no more to-night j 
My mind's not on't, you are too hard for me. 

SUF. Sir, I did never win of you before. 

I have roused the lords of the council by suggesting to them 
that he is a most arch heretick : I have thus incited them against 
him. MALOXE. 

Incensed, I believe, in this instance, and some others, only 
means, prompted, set. on. So, in King Richard III: 
" Think you, my lord, this little prating York 
" Was not incensed by his subtle mother ?" STEEVENS. 

broken m'th the king;"] They have broken silence; 

told their minds to the king. JOHNSON. 

So, in Much Ado about Nothing : " I will break with her." 
Again, in the Tico Gentlemen of I'erona : 

" I am to break with thee of some affairs." STEEVENS. 

he hnlh commanded,] He, which is not in the old 

copy, was inserted by Mr. Pope. He hath was often written 
contractedly h'ath. Hence probably the error. MAI. ONI:. 

' He be convented.] Cntivcntcd is summoned, convened, 
^ec Vol. VI. p. 'J ( J'A n. 5. STE EVENS. 


K. HEN. But little, Charles ; 
Nor shall not, when my fancy's on my play. 
Now, Lovell, from the queen what is the news ? 

Lov. I could not personally deliver to her 
What you commanded me, but by her woman 
I sent your message ; who return'd her thanks 
In the greatest humbleness, and desir'd your high- 
Most heartily to pray for her. 

K. HEN. What say'st thou ? ha ! 

To pray for her ? what, is she crying out ? 

Lov. So said her woman ; and that her sufferance 

Almost each pang a death." 

K. HEN. Alas, good lady ! 

SUF. God safely quit her of her burden, and 
With gentle travail, to the gladding of 
Your highness with an heir ! 

K. HEN. 'Tis midnight, Charles, 

Pr'ythee, to bed ; and in thy prayers remember 
The estate of my poor queen. Leave me alone ; 
For I must think of that, which company 
Will not be friendly to. 

SUF. I wish your highness 

A quiet night, and my good mistress will 
Remember in my prayers. 

K. HEN. Charles, good night. 


8 her sufferance made 

Almost each pang a death.~\ We have had nearly the same 
sentiment before, in Act II. sc. iii : 

" it is a sufferance panging 

" As soul and body's severing." MALONE. 

sr. i. KING HENRY VIII. 175 

Well, sir, what follows ? 

9 Enter Sir Anthony Denny.] The substance of this and the 
two following scenes is taken from Fox's Acts and Monuments 
of the Christian Martyrs, &c. 1563: 

" When night came, the king sent Sir Anthonie Denie about 
midnight to Lambeth to the archbishop, willing him forthwith to 
resort unto him at the court. The message done, the archbishop 
speedily addressed himselfe to the court, and comming into the 
galerie where the king walked and taried for him, his highnesse 
said, Ah, my lorde of Canterbury, I can tell you newes. For 
divers weighty considerations it is determined by me and the 
counsaile, that you to-morrowe at nine of the clocke shall be 
committed to the Tower, for that you and your chaplaines (as 
information is given us) have taught and preached, and thereby 
sown within the rcalme such a number of execrable heresies, 
that it is feared the whole realme being infected with them, no 
small contention and commotion will rise thereby amongst my 
*ubjects, as of late daies the like was in divers parts of Germanic ; 
and therefore the counsell have requested me for the triall of the 
matter, to suffer them to commit you to the Tower, or else no 
man dare come forth, as witnesse in those matters, you being a 

" When the king had said his mind, the archbishop kneeled 
down, 'and said, I am content, if it please your grace, with al 
my hart, to go thither at your highness commandment ; and I 
most humbly thank your majesty that I may come to my triall, 
for there be that have many waies slandered me, and now this 
way I hope to trie myselfe not worthy of such reportc. 

" The king perceiving the mans uprightnesse, joyned with 
such sirnplicitie, said; Oh Lorde, what maner o'man be you? 
What simplicitie is in you ? I had thought that you would rather 
have sued to us to have taken the paines to have heard you and 
your accusers together for your triall, without any such indurance. 
Do you not know what state you be in with the whole world, 
and how many great enemies you have ? Do you not consider 
what an easie thing it is to procure three or foure false knaves 
to witness against you ? Thinke you to have better lucke that 
waie than your master Christ had ? I sec by it you will run 
headlong to your undoing, it' I would suffer you. ^ our enemies 
shall not so prevaile against you; for I have otherwise devised 
with my selt'e to keep you out of their handes. Yet notwith- 


DEN. Sir, I have brought my lord the archbishop, 
As you commanded me. 

standing to-morrow when the counsaile shall sit, and send for 
you, resort unto them, and if in charging you with this matter, 
they do commit you to the Tower, require of them, because 
you are one of them, a counsailer, that you may have your 
accusers brought before them without any further indurance, 
and use for your selfe as good persuasions that way as you may 
devise ; and if no intreatie or reasonable request will serve, then 
deliver unto them this my ring (which then the king delivered 
unto the archbishop,) and saie unto them, if there be no remedie, 
my lords, but that I must needs go to the Tower, then I revoke 
my cause from you, and appeale to the kinges owne person by 
this token unto you all, for (saide the king then unto the arch- 
bishop) so soone as they shall see this my ring, they knowe it so 
well, that they shall understande that I have reserved the whole 
cause into mine owne handes and determination, and that i have 
discharged them thereof. 

" The archbishop perceiving the kinges benignity so much to 
him wards, had much ado to forbeare teares. Well, said the 
king, go your waies, my lord, and do as I have bidden you. 
My lord, humbling himselfe with thankes, tooke his leave of 
the kinges highnesse for that night. 

" On the morrow, about nine of the clocke before noone, 
the counsaile sent a gentleman usher for the archbishop, who, 
when hee came lo the counsaile-chamber doore, could not be let 
in, but of purpose (as it seemed) was compelled there to waite 
among the pages, lackies, and serving men all alone. D. Buts 
the king's physition resorting that way, and espying how my lord 
of Canterbury was handled, went to the king's highnesse, and 
said ; My lord of Canterbury, if it please your grace, is well 
promoted ; for now he is become a lackey or a serving man, for 
yonder hee standeth this halfe hower at the counsaile-chamber 
doore amongste them. It is not so, ( quoth the king, ) I trowe, 
nor the counsaile hath not so little discretion as to use the metro- 
politane of the realme in that sorte, specially being one of their 
own number. But let them alone (said the king) and we shall 
heare more soone. 

" Anone the archbishop was called into the counsaile-chamber, 
to whom was alleadged as before is rehearsed. The archbishop 
aunswered in like sort, as the king had advised him : and in the 
end when he perceived that no manor of persuasion or intreatie 
could serve, he delivered them the king's ring, revoking his cause 
into thi: king's hand?. The whole counsaile being thereat some- 

sc. i. KING HENRY VIII. 177 

A". HEN. I la! Canterbury? 

DEX. Ay, my good lord. 

K. HEX. 'Tis true : Where is he, Denny? 

DEX. He attends your highness* pleasure. 

what amazed, the carle of Bedford with a loud voice confirming 
his words with a solemn othe, said, when you first began the 
matter, my lordes, I told you what would come of it. Do you 
thinke that the king would suffer this man's linger to ake ? 
Much more (I warrant you) will he defend his life against 
brabling varlets. You doe but cumber yourselves to hear tales 
and fables against him. And incontinently upon the receipt of 
the king's token, they all rose, and carried to the king his ring, 
surrendring that matter as the order and use was, into his own 

" When they were all come to the king's presence, his high- 
ness, with a severe countenance, said unto them ; ah, my lordes, 
I thought I had wiser men of my counsaile than now I find you. 
What discretion was this in you thus to make the primate of 
the realme, and one of you in office, to wait, at the counsaille- 
chamber doore amongst serving men ? You might have con- 
sidered that he was a counsailer as wel as you, and you had no 
such commission of me so to handle him. 1 was content that 
you should trie him as a counsellor, and not as a meane subject. 
But now I well perceive that things be done against him mali- 
ciouslie, and if some of you might have had your mindes, you 
would have tried him to the uttermost. But I doe you all to 
wit, and protest, that if a prince may bee beholding unto his 
subject (and so solemnlie laying his hand upon his brest, said,) 
by the faith I owe to God I take this man here, my lord of 
Canterburie, to be of all other a most faithful subject unto us, 
and one to whome we are much beholding, giving him great 
commendations otherwise. And, with that, one or two of the 
chiefest of the counsaile, making their excuse, declared, that in 
requesting his indurance, it was rather ment for his triall and 
his purgation against the common fame and slander of the 
worlde, than for any malice conceived against him. Well, well, 
my lords, (quoth the king,) take him, and well use him, as bee 
is worthy to bee, and make no more ado. And with that, every 
man caught him by the hand, and made fa ire weather of alto- 
gethers, which might easilie be done with that man." 


vor. xv. \ 


K. HEN. Bring him to us. 

[Exit DENNY. 

Lov. This is about that which the bishop spake; 
I am happily 1 come hither. [Aside. 

Re-enter DENNY, with CRANMER. 

K. HEN. Avoid the gallery. 

^LOVELL seems to stay. 
Ha! I have said. Be gone. 
What ! [Exeunt LOVELL and DENNY. 

CRAN. I am fearful : Wherefore frowns he thus ? 
5 Tis his aspect of terror. All's not well. 

K. HEN. How now, my lord ? You do desire to 

Wherefore I sent for you. 

CRAN. It is my duty, 

To attend your highness* pleasure. 

K. HEN. 'Pray you, arise, 

My good and gracious lord of Canterbury. 
Come, you and I must walk a turn together ; 
I have news to tell you : Come, come, give me your 


Ah, my good lord, I grieve at what I speak, 
And am right sorry to repeat what follows : 
I have, and most unwillingly, of late 
Heard many grievous, I do say, my lord, 
Grievous complaints of you ; which, being con- 
sider J d, 
Have mov'd us and our council, that you shall 

1 happily ] The present instance, and another in 

p. 183, seem to militate against my former explanation of 
happily, and to countenance that of Mr. M. Mason. See p. 
154-, n. 2. STEEVENS. 

ac. t. KING HENRY VIII. 179 

This morning come before us ; where, I know, 
You cannot with such freedom purge yourself, 
But that, till further trial, in those charges 
Which will require your answer, you must take 
Your patience to you, and be well contented 
To make your house our Tower : You a brother 

of us, 2 

It fits we thus proceed, or else no witness 
Would come against you. 

CRAN. I humbly thank your highness ; 

And am right glad to catch this good occasion 
Most throughly to be winnow'd, where my chaff 
And corn shall fly asunder : for, I know, 
There's none stands under more calumnious 

Than I myself, poor man. 3 

K. HEN. Stand up, good Canterbury ; 

Thy truth, and thy integrity, is rooted 
In us, thy friend : Give me thy hand, stand up ; 
Pr'ythee, let's walk. Now, by my holy-dame, 
What manner of man are you? My lord, I look'd 
You would have given me your petition, that 
I should have ta'en some pains to bring together 
Yourself and your accusers ; and to have heard you 
Without indurance, 4 further. 

CRAN. Most dread liege, 

* You a brother of its, &c.] You being one of the 

council, it is necessary to imprison you, that the witnesses against 
you may not be deterred. JOHNSON. 

3 Than I myself, poor man.~\ Poor man probably belongs to 
the King's reply. GREY. 

4 indnrctnce,^ i. e. confinement. Dr. Johnson, how- 
ever, in his Dictionary, says that this word (which Shakspeare 
borrowed from Fox's narrative already quoted) means delay, 
procrastination. STEEVENS. 

N 2 


The good I stand on 5 is my truth, and honesty ; 
If they shall fail, I, with mine enemies,' 5 
Will triumph o'er my person ; which I weigh not, 7 
Being of those virtues vacant. I fear nothing 
What can be said against me. 

K. HEN. Know you not how 

Your state stands i'the world, with the whole world? 
Your enemies 

Are many, and not small ; their practices 
Must bear the same proportion : and not ever 8 
The justice and the truth o'the question carries 
The due o'the verdict with it : At what ease 
Might corrupt minds procure knaves as corrupt 
To swear against you ? such things have been done. 
You are potently oppos'd ; and with a malice 
Of as great size. Ween you of better luck, 9 

* The good I stand on ] Though good may be taken for 
advantage or superiority, or any thing which may help or sup- 
port, yet it would, 1 think, be more natural to say : 
The ground I stand on . JOHNSON. 

The old copy is certainly right. So, in Coriolanus : 
" Your franchises, tvhereon you stand, confin'd 
" Into an augre's bore." MALONE. 

Again, in The Merry Wives of Windsor : " Though Page be 

a secure fool, and stands so firmly on his wife's frailty ." 


/, ivith mine enemies,'] Cranmer, I suppose, means, 

that whenever his honesty fails, he shall rejoice as heartily as his 
enemies at his destruction. MALONE. 

7 / ivcigh not,~\ i. e. have no value for. So, in Love's 

Labour's Lost : 

" You iveigh me not, O that's, you care not for me." 
See King Richard III. Act III. sc. i. STEEVENS. 

8 and not ever ] Not ever is an uncommon expression, 

and does not mean never, but not always. M. MASON. 

- Ween you of better luck,'] To iveen is to think, to im- 
agine. Though now obsolete, the word was common to all our 
ancient writers. STEEVENS. 

*vf ^ f * \ f) 

D *. / c 1 7- 

i. ) ^ r; 1 

s<7. /. KING HENRY VIII. 181 

I mean, in perjur'd witness, than your master, 
Whose minister you are, whiles here he liv'd 
Upon this naughty earth ? Go to, go to ; 
You take a precipice for no leap of danger, 
And woo vour own destruction. 


CRAX. God, and your majesty, 

Protect mine innocence, or I fall into 
The trap is laid for me ! 

K. HEN. Be of good cheer ; 

They shall no more prevail, than we give way to. 
Keep comfort to you ; and this morning see 
You do appear before them : if they shall chance, 
In charging you with matters, to commit you, 
The best persuasions to the contrary 
Fail not to use, and with what vehemency 
The occasion shall instruct you : if entreaties 
Will render you no remedy, this ring 
Deliver them, and your appeal to us 
There make before them. Look, the good man 

weeps ! 

He's honest, on mine honour. God's blest mother ! 
I swear, he is true-hearted ; and a soul 
None better in my kingdom. Get you gone, 
And do as I have bid you. [Exit CRANMER.] 

He has strangled 
His language in his tears. 

Enter an old Lady. 1 

GENT. [Witlrin.~\ Comeback; What mean you ? 
LADY. I'll not come back ; the tidings that I 

1 an old Lady.'] This, I suppose, is the same old cat 

that appears with Anne Bullen, p. 77. STEEVENS. 


Will make my boldness manners. Now, good 


Fly o'er thy royal head, and shade thy person 
Under their blessed wings ! 2 

K. HEN. Now, by thy looks 

I guess thy message. Is the queen delivered ? 
Say, ay ; and of a boy. 

LADY. Ay, ay, my liege ; 

And of a lovely boy : The God of heaven 
Both now and ever bless her ! 3 'tis a girl, 
Promises boys hereafter. Sir, your queen 
Desires your visitation, and to be 
Acquainted with this stranger ; 'tis as like you, 
As cherry is to cherry. 

K. HEN. Lovell,* 

Enter LOVELL. 

Lor. Sir. 

K. HEN. Give her an hundred marks. I'll to 
the queen. [^nY King. 

LADY. An hundred marks ! By this light, I'll 
have more. 

good angels 

Fly o'er thy royal head, and shade thy person 

Under their blessed ixings!'] So, in Hamlet, Act III. sc. iv: 

" Save me, and hover o'er me with your wings, 

" You heavenly guards !" STEEVENS. 

3 Mess her !] It is doubtful whether her is referred to 

the Queen or the girl. JOHNSON. 

As I believe this play was calculated for the ear of Elizabeth, 
I imagine, her relates to the girl. MALONE. 

4 Lovcll,~] Lovell has been just sent out of the presence, and 
no notice is given of his return : I have placed it here at the in- 
stant when the King calls for him. STEEVENS. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 183 

An ordinary groom is for such payment. 

I will have more, or scold it out of him. 

Said I for this, the girl is like to him ? 

I will have more, or else unsay't ; and now 

While it is hot, I'll put it to the issue. [Exeunt. 


Lolly before the Council-Chamber. 

Enter CRANMER j Servants, Door-Keeper, 8$c. 

CRAN. I hope, 1 am not too late ; and yet the 


That was sent to me from the council, pray'd me 
To make great haste. All fast ? what means this ? 

Who waits there ? Sure, you know me ? 

D. KEEP. Yes, my lord ; 

But yet 1 cannot help you. 

CRAN. Why ? 

D. KEEP. Your grace must wait, till you be 
call'd for. 

Enter Doctor BUTTS. 

CRAN. So. 

BUTTS. This is a piece of malice. I am glad, 
'* I came this way so happily : The king 
Shall understand it presently. [Exit BUTTS. 

CRAN. [Aside."] 'Tis Butts, 

The king's physician ; As he past along, 


How earnestly he cast his eyes upon me ! 
Pray heaven, he sound not my disgrace ! For cer- 

This is of purpose lay'd, by some that hate me, 
(God turn their hearts! I never sought their malice,) 
To quench mine honour : they would shame to 

make me 

Wait else at door ; a fellow counsellor, 
Among boys, grooms, and lackeys. But their 

Must be fulfill' d, and I attend with patience. 

Enter, at a window above, 5 the King and BUTTS. 

BUTTS. I'll showyour grace the strangest sight, 
K. HEN. What's that, Butts ? 

BUTTS. I think, your highness saw this many a 

K. HEN. Body o'me, where is it ? 

BUTTS. There, my lord : 

The high promotion of his grace of Canterbury ; 

5 at a window above,~] The suspicious vigilance of our 

ancestors contrived windows which overlooked the insides of 
chapels, halls, kitchens, passages, &c. Some of these conve- 
nient peep-holes may still be found in colleges, and such ancient 
houses as have not suffered from the reformations of modern 
architecture. Among Andrew Horde's instructions for building 
a house, (see his Dictarie of Health,} is the following: " Many 
of the chambers to have a view into the chapel." 

Again, in a Letter from Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 1573: " And if it please her majestic, she may come 
in through my gallerie, and see the disposition of the hall in 
dynncr time, at a window opening thereunto." 

See Mr. Seward's Anecdotes of some distinguished Persons, 
Vol. IV. p. 270. 

Without a previous knowledge of this custom, Shakspeare's 
scenery, in the present instance, would be obscure. 


sc.n. KING HENRY VIII. 185 

Who holds his state at door, 'mongst pursuivants, 
Pages, and footboys. 

A'. HEX. Ha! 'Tis he, indeed: 

Is this the honour they do one another? 
'Tis well, there'sone above them yet. I had thought, 
They had parted so much honesty among them, 6 
(At least, good manners,) as not thus to suffer 
A man of his place, and so near our favour, 
To dance attendance on their lordships' pleasures, 
And at the door too, like a post with packets. 
By holy Mary, Butts, there's knavery : 
Let them alone, and draw the curtain close ; 7 
"We shall hear more anon. [Exeunt. 


Enter the Lord Chancellor, the Duke o/~ SUFFOLK, 
Earl of SURREY, Lord Chamberlain, GARDI- 
NER, and CROMWELL. The Chancellor places 
himself at the upper end of the table on the left 
hand ; a seat being left void above him, as for the 
Archbishop o/ Canterbury. The rest seat them- 
selves in order on each side. CROMWELL at t/ic 
loicer end, as secretary. 

CHAN. Speak to the business, 8 master secretary : 
AVhy are we met in council ? 

" They had parted Sfc.~] We .should now say They had 
shared, &c. i. e. had so much honesty among them. 


' dmu' the curtain r/<;.vr ;] i. e. the curtain of the bal- 
cony, or upper-stage, where the King now is. See The llistori- 
cftl Account of the English Siae, Vol. III. MALONK. 

Chan. Speak in the bi(xi>iex*,~] This Lord Chancellor, though 
a character, has hitherto had noplace in the Dramatis Persotue. 
\\\ the last scene of the fourth Act, we heard that Sir Thomas 


CROM. Please your honours, 

The chief cause concerns his grace of Canterbury. 

GAR. Has he had knowledge of it ? 
CROM. Yes. 

NOR. Who waits there ? 

D. KEEP. Without, my noble lords ? 9 
GAR. Yes. 

D. KEEP. My lord archbishop ; 

And has done half an hour, to knowyour pleasures. 

CHAN. Let him come in. 

D. KEEP. Your grace may enter now. 1 

[CRANMER approaches the Council-table. 

More was appointed Lord Chancellor : but it is not he whom 
the poet here introduces. Wolsey, by command, delivered up 
the seals on the 18th of November, 1529; on the 25th of the 
same month, they were delivered to Sir Thomas More, who 
surrendered them on the 16th of May, 1532. Now the conclu- 
sion of this scene taking notice of Queen Elizabeth's birth, 
(which brings it down to the year 1534,) Sir Thomas Audlie 
must necessarily be our poet's chancellor ; who succeeded Sir 
Thomas More, and held the seals many years. THEOBALD. 

In the preceding scene we have heard of the birth of Eliza- 
beth, and from the conclusion of the present it appears that she 
is not yet christened. She was born September 7, 1533, and 
baptized on the llth of the same month. Cardinal Wolsey was 
Chancellor of England from September 7, 1516, to the 25th 
of October, 1530, on which day the seals were given to Sir 
Thomas More. He held them till the 20th of May, 1533, 
when Sir Thomas Audley was appointed Lord Keeper. He 
therefore is the person here introduced; but Shakspeare has 
made a mistake in calling him Lord Chancellor, for he did not 
obtain that title till the January after the birth of Elizabeth. 


9 noble lords ?~\ The epithet noble should be omitted, 

as it spoils the metre. STEEVENS. 

1 Your grace may enter now.'] It is not easy to ascertain the 
mode of exhibition here. The inside and the outside of the 
council-chamber seem to be exhibited at once. Norfolk within 

sc.n. KING HENRY VIII. 187 

CHAN. My good lord archbishop, I am very sorry 
To sit here at this present, and behold 
That chair stand empty : But we all are men, 
In our own natures trail ; and capable 
Of our flesh, few are angels : 2 out of which frailty, 

calls to the Keeper "without, who yet is on the stage, and sup- 
posed to be with Cranmer, &c. at the outside of the door of the 
chamber. The Chancellor and counsellors probably were 
placed behind a curtain at the back part of the stage, and spoke, 
but were not seen, till Cranmer was called in. The stage-direc- 
tion in the old copy, which is, " Cranmer approaches the coun- 
cil-table," not, " Cranmer enters the council-chamber," seems 
to countenance such an idea. 

With all the " appliances and aids" that modern scenery fur- 
nishes, it is impossible to produce any exhibition that shall pre- 
cisely correspond with what our author has here written. Our 
less scrupulous ancestors were contented to be told, that the 
same spot, without any change of its appearance, (except per- 
haps the drawing back of a curtain,) was at once the outside 
and the inside of the council-chamber. See the Account of our 
old Theatres, Vol. III. MALONE. 

How the outside and inside of a room can be exhibited on the 
$tage at the same instant, may be known from many ancient 
prints in which the act of listening or peeping is represented. 
See a famous plate illustrating the Tale ofGiocondo, and intitled 
I'cro essempio d' Impudicitia, cavato da M. L. Ariosto ; and the 
engraving prefixed to Twelfth- Night, in Mr. Howe's edition. 


* and capable 

Of our flesh, few are angels: c.] If this passage means 
any thing, it may mcanj^/hw arc perfect, ivhilc they remain in 
their mortal capacity ; i. e. while they are capable [in a condi- 
tion] of being invested with flesh. A similar phrase occurs ia 
Chapman's version of the sixteenth Iliad : 

" That is no city libertine, nor capable of their owe?/." 
Shakapeare uses the word capable as perversely in King Lear: 

" and of my land, 

" Loyal and natural boy, I'll work the mean 
" To make thee capable." STEEVEXS. 

The word capable almost every where in Shakspeare means 
intelligent, of capacity to understand, or quick of apprehension. 
Mo, in King Richard III ; 


And want of wisdom, you, that best should teach us, 
Have misdemean'd yourself, and not a little, 
Toward the king first, then his laws, in filling 

" O, 'tis a parlous boy, 

" Bold, quick, ingenious, forward, capable!" 
Again, in Hamlet : 

" His form and cause conjoin'd, preaching to stones, 
" Would make them capable .'" 

In the same play Shakspeare has used incapable nearly in the 
sense required here : 

" As one incapable [i. e. unintelligent] of her own dis- 
So, Marston, in his Scourge of Villanie, 1599 : 

" To be perus'd by all the dung-scum rabble 
" Of thin-brain'd ideots, dull uncapable." 
Minsheu, in his Dictionary, 1617, renders the word by 

The transcriber's ear, I suppose, deceived him, in the passage 
before us, as in many others ; and the Chancellor, I conceive, 
means to say, the condition of humanity is such, that we are all 
born frail in disposition, and weak in our understandings. The 
subsequent words appear to me to add such support to this 
emendation, that I have ventured, contrary to my general rule, 
to give it a place in my text ; which, however, I should not 
have done, had the original reading afforded a glimmering of 
sense : 

tee are all men, 

In our own natures frail, incapable ; 
Of 'our flesh, few are angels ; out of which frailty, 
And want of wisdom, you, fyc. 

Mr. Pope, in his licentious method, printed the passage thus, 
and the three subsequent editors adopted his supposed reforma- 
tion : 

we are all men, 

In our own natures frail, and capable 

Of frailty, few are angels; from which frailly, &c. 


I cannot extort any kind of sense from the passage as it stands. 
Perhaps it should be read thus : 

we are all men, 

In our own natures frail and culpable : 

OfourJlesh,Jew are angels. 
That is, few are perfect. M. MASON. 

sc.ii. KING HENRY VIII. 189 

The whole realm, by your teaching, and your chap- 

(For so we are inform'd,) with new opinions, 
Divers, and dangerous ; which are heresies, 
And, not reform* d, may prove pernicious. 

GAR. Which reformation must be sudden too, 
My noble lords : for those, that tame wild horses, 
Pace them not in their hands to make them gentle; 
But stop their mouths with stubborn bits, and spur 


Till they obey the manage. If we suffer 
(Out of our easiness, and childish pity 
To one man's honour) this contagious sickness, 
Farewell, all physick : And what follows then ? 
Commotions, uproars, with a general taint 
Of the whole state : as, of late days, our neigh- 

The upper Germany, 3 can dearly witness, 
Yet freshly pitied in our memories. 

CRAX. My good lords, hitherto, in all the pro- 

Both of my life and office, I have labour'd, 
And with no little study, that my teaching, 
And the strong course of my authority, 
Might go one way, and safely ; and the end 
Was ever, to do well : nor is there living 
(I speak it with a single heart, 4 my lords,) 
A man, that more detests, more stirs against, 
Both in his private conscience, and his place, 

3 The upper Germany, &c.] Alluding to the heresy of 
Thomas Muntzer, which sprung up in Saxony in the year* 
1521 and Io22. GREY. 

4 a single In-art, ~\ A heart void of duplicity or guile. 


ft is a scriptural expression. See Act*, ii. !(>. UKKD. 


Defacers of a publick peace, 5 than I do. 

'Pray heaven, the king may never find a heart 

With less allegiance in it ! Men, that make 

Envy, and crooked malice, nourishment, 

Dare bite the best. I do beseech your lordships, 

That, in this case of justice, my accusers, 

Be what they will, may stand forth face to face, 

And freely urge against me. 

SUF. Nay, my lord, 

That cannot be ; you are a counsellor, 
And, by that virtue, no man dare accuse you. 

GAR. My lord, because we have business of more 

We will be short with you. 'Tis his highness* 


And our consent, for better trial of you, 
From hence you be committed to the Tower ; 
Where, being but a private man again, 
You shall know many dare accuse you boldly, 
More than, I fear, you are provided for. 

CRAN. Ah, my good lord of Winchester, I thank 


You are always my good friend ; if your will pass, 

I shall both find your lordship judge and juror, 

You are so merciful : I see your end, 

'Tis my undoing : Love, and meekness, lord, 

Become a churchman better than ambition ; 

Win straying souls with modesty again, 

Cast none away. That I shall clear myself, 

Lay all the weight ye can upon my patience, 

I make as little doubt, as you do conscience, 

In doing daily wrongs. I could say more, 

But reverence to your calling makes me modest. 

5 Defacers of a publick peace,] Read, the publick peace. 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 191 

GAR. My lord, my lord, you are a sectary, 
That's the plaintruth; your paintedgloss discovers,* 
To men that understand you, words and weakness. 

CROM. My lord of Winchester, you are a little, 
By your good favour, too sharp ; men so noble, 
However faulty, yet should find respect 
For what they have been : 'tis a cruelty, 
To load a falling man. 7 

GAR. Good master secretary, 

I cry your honour mercy ; you may, worst 
Of all this table, say so. 

CROM. Why, my lord ? 

GAR. Do not I know you for a favourer 
Of this new sect ? ye are not sound. 

CROM. Not sound ? 

GAR. Not sound, I say. 

CROM. 'Would you were half so honest! 

Men's prayers then would seek you, not their fears. 

GAR. I shall remember this bold language. 

CROM. Do. 

Remember your bold life too. 

CHAN. This is too much ; 

Forbear, for shame, my lords. 

GAR. I have done. 

CROM. And I. 

6 your painted gloss c.] Those that understand you, 

under this pa inted gloss, this lair outside, discover your empty 
talk and your false reasoning. JOHNSON*. 

7 'tis a cruelty. 

To load a falling man. } This sentiment had occurred be- 
fore. The Lord Chamberlain, checking the Earl of Surrey for 
his reproaches to Wolsey, says : 

" O, my lord, 

" Press not a falling man too fur.'* STEEVBNS. 


CHAN. Then thus for you, 8 my lord, It stands 


I take it, by all voices, that forthwith 
You be convey'd to the Tower a prisoner ; 
There to remain, till the king's further pleasure 
Be known unto us : Are you all agreed, lords ? 

ALL. We are. 

CRAN. Is there no other way of mercy, 

But I must needs to the Tower, my lords? 

GAR. What other 

Would you expect ? You are strangely troublesome. 
Let some o'the guard be ready there. 

Enter Guard. 

CRAN. For me ? 

Must I go like a traitor thither ? 

GAR. Receive him, 

And see him safe i'the Tower. 

CRAN. Stay, good my lords, 

I have a little yet to say. Look there, my lords ; 
By virtue of that ring, I take my cause 
Out of the gripes of cruel men, and give it 
To a most noble judge, the king my master. 

8 Chan. Then thus for you, &c.] This, and the little speech 
above " This is too much," &c. are in the old copy given to 
the Lord Chamberlain. The difference between Cham, and 
Chan, is so slight, that I have not hesitated to give them both to 
the Chancellor, who on Cranmer's entrance first arraigns him, 
and therefore, (without any consideration of his high station in 
the council,) is the person to whom Shakspeare would naturally 
assign the order for his being committed to the Tosver. The 
Chancellor's apologizing to the King for the committal in a 
subsequent passage, likewise supports the emendation now made, 
which was suggested by Mr. Capell. MALONE. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 193 

CHAM. This is the king's ring. 9 

Sun. 'Tis no counterfeit. 

SUF. 'Tis the right ring, by heaven : I told ye all, 
When we first put this dangerous stone a rolling, 
'Twould fall upon ourselves. 

NOR. Do you think, my lords, 

The king will suffer but the little finger 
Of this man to be vex'd? 

CHAM. 'Tis now too certain : 

How much more is his life in value with him ? 
'Would I were fairly out on't. 

CKOM. My mind gave me, 

In seeking tales, and informations, 
Against this man, (whose honesty the devil 
And his disciples only envy at,) 
Ye blew the fire that burns ye : Now have at ye. 

9 This is the king's ring.] It seems to have been a custom, 
begun probably in the dark ages, before literature was generally 
diffused, and before the regal power experienced the restraints of 
law, for every monarch to have a ring, the temporary possession 
of which invested the holder with the same authority as the 
owner himself could exercise. The production of it was suf- 
ficient to suspend the execution of the law ; it procured indem- 
nity for offences committed, and imposed acquiescence and sub- 
mission on whatever was done under its authority. Instances 
abound in the history of almost every nation. See Procopius c/e 
bell. Vandal. L. I. p. 15, as quoted in Farnworth's Machiavcl, 
Vol. I. p. 9. The traditional story of the Earl of Essex, Queen 
Elizabeth, and the Countess of Nottingham, long considered as 
an incident of a romance, is generally known, and now as 
generally credited. See Birch's Negotiations, p. 20(3. REED. 



Enter King, frowning on them ; takes his seat. 

GAR. Dread sovereign, how much are we bound 

to heaven 

In daily thanks, that gave us such a prince ; 
Not only good and wise, but most religious : 
One that, in all obedience, makes the church 
The chief aim of his honour ; and, to strengthen 
That holy duty, out of dear respect, 
His royal self in judgment comes to hear 
The cause betwixt her and this great offender. 

K. HEN. You were ever good at sudden com- 

Bishop of Winchester. But know, I come not 
To hear such flattery now, and in my presence j 
They are too thin l and base to hide offences. 2 

1 They are too thin &c.] i. e. the commendations above men- 
tioned. Mr. Pope, in the former line, clisaigedjlattery to flatte- 
ries, and this unnecessary emendation has been adopted by all 
the subsequent editors. I believe our author wrote 

They are too thin and bare ; 

and that the editor of the first folio, not understanding the word, 
changed it to base, as he did in King Henry IV. Part I. See 
Vol. XI. p. 222, n. 2. MALONE. 

To hear such flattery noic, and in mij presence; 
They are too thin and base to hide offences. &c.] I think the 
pointing of these lines preferable to that in the former edition, 
in which they stand thus : 

/ come not 

To hear such flatteries noiv: and in my presence 

They are too thin, &c. 
It then follows : 

To me you cannot reach : you play the spaniel, 

And tJiink with wagging of your tongue to "win me. 
But the former of these lines should evidently be thus written ; 

To one you cannot reach you play the spaniel, 
the relative whom being understood. WHALLEY. 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 195 

To me you cannot reach, you play the spaniel, 
And think with wagging of your tongue to win me; 
But, whatsoe'er tliou tak'st me for, I am sure, 
Thou hast a cruel nature, and a bloody. 
Good man, \_To CRANMER.] sit down. Now let 

me see the proudest 

He, that dares most, but wag his finger at thee : 
By all that's holy, he had better starve, 
Than but once think his place becomes thee not.* 

SUR. May it please your grace, 

K. HEX. No, sir, it does not please me. 

Iliad thought, I had had men of some understanding 
And wisdom, of my council ; but I find none. 
Was it discretion, lords, to let this man, 
This good man, (few of you deserve that title,) 
Tliis honest man, wait, like a lowsy footboy 
At chamber door ? and one as great as you are ? 
Why, what a shame was this ? Did my commission 
Bid ye so far forget yourselves ? I gave ye 
Power us he was a counsellor to try him, 
Not as a groom ; There's some of ye, I see, 
More out of malice than integrity, 
Would try him to the utmost, had ye mean ; 
Vvhich ye shall never have, while I live. 

I think the old copy is right. MAI.ONK. 

Surely, the first of these lines should be pointed thus: 

To me you can/Kit reach, you piny t/i>- spaniel, 
That is, you lawn upon me, who am above your malice. 


In the punctuation of this passage I have followed the con- 
curring advice of Mr. Whallcy and Mr. M. Mason. STEEVENS. 

; Than hut once i h ink his place becomes ihee not.~\ Who dares 
to suppose that the place or situation in which he is, is not suit- 
;ihl to thee also ? who supposes that them art not as lit for the 
i>i;:<v of a pnvv counsellor as he is. 

Mr. Howe and all the subsequent editors read this place. 

O '2 


CHAN. Thus far, 

My most dread sovereign, may it like your grace 
To let my tongue excuse all. What was purposed 
Concerning his imprisonment, was rather 
(If there be faith in men,) meant for his trial, 
And fair purgation to the world, than malice ; 
I am sure, in me. 

K. HEN. Well, well, my lords, respect him j 
Take him, and use him well, he's worthy of it. 
I will say thus much for him, If a prince 
May be beholden to a subject, I 
Am, for his love and service, so to him. 
Make me no more ado, but all embrace him ; 
Be friends, for shame, my lords. My lord of Can- 

I have a suit which you must not deny me ; 
That is, a fair young maid that yet wants baptism, 4 

4 That is, &c.] My suit is, that you would be a godfather to 
a fair young maid, who is not yet christened. Mr. Rowe reads 
There is, &c. and all the subsequent editors have adopted this 
unnecessary alteration. The final word her, we should now 
consider as superfluous ; but we have many instances of a simi- 
lar phraseology in these plays : or, the construction may be A 
fair young maid, &c. you must be godfather [fo], and answer 
for her. So before in this play : 

" whoever the king favours, 

" The cardinal instantly will find employment \_for~\, 

" And far enough from court too." 
Again, in The Merchant of Venice: 

" How true a gentleman you send relief [fo]." 
Again, in Julius Ccssar: 

" Thy honourable metal may be wrought 

" From what it is dispos'd [o]." 

See also Vol. X. p. 433, n. 8, and a note on Cymbeline, sc. ult. 

The superfluous pronoun in the text (if it be superfluous) 
may be justified by the following passage in Romeo and Juliet: 

" this reverend holy friar, 

" All our whole city is much bound to him." 


sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 19? 

You must he godfather, 5 and answer for her. 

CRAN. The greatest monarch now alive may glory 
In such an honour ; How may I deserve it, 
That am a poor and humble subject to you ? 

K. HEN. Come, come, my lord, you'd spare your 
spoons ; 6 you shall have 

5 You must be godfather,'] Our prelates formerly were often 
employed on the like occasions. Cranmer was godfather to Ed- 
ward VI. See Hall, fo. 232. Archbishop Warham to Henry's 
eldest son by Queen Katharine ; and the Bishop of Winchester 
to Henry himself. See Sandford, 479, 495. REED. 

6 you'd spare your spoons ;] It was the custom, long be- 
fore the time of Shakspeare, for the sponsors at christenings to 
offer gilt spoons as a present to the child. These spoons were 
called apostle spoons, because the figures of the apostles were 
carved on the tops of the handles. Such as were at once opu- 
lent and generous, gave the whole twelve ; those who were 
either more moderately rich or liberal, escaped at the expence 
of the four evangelists ; or even sometimes contented themselves 
with presenting one spoon only, which exhibited the figure of 
any saint, in honour of whom the child received its name. 

In the year 1560 we find entered on the books of the Sta- 
tioners' company, " a spoyne, of the gyfte of master Reginold 
Wolfe, all gylte with the pycture of St. John." 

Ben .lonson also, in his Bartholomew Fair, mentions spoons of 
this kind : " and all this for the hope of a couple of apostle 
xpoons, and a cup to eat caudle in." 

So, in Middleton's comedy of A chaste Maid of Cheapsidc, 
1620: " 2 Gos. What has he given her? what is it, gossip? 
'3 Gos. A faire high standing cup, and two great 'postle spoons, 
one of them gilt. 1 Pur. Sure that was Judas then with the red 
Again : 

" E'en the same gossip 'twas that, gave the spoons.'" 
Again, in Sir W r m. D'Avenant's comedy of The IVits, 1639: 

" my pendants, carcanets, and rings, 

" My christ'ning caudle-cup, and spoons, 

" Are dissolv'd into that lump." 
Again, in The Maid of the Mi/I, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Didst ask her name ? 

" Yes, nml who gave it her; 


Two noble partners with you ; the old duchess of 

" And what they promis'd more, besides a spoon, 

" And what apostle's picture" 
Again, in The Noble Gentleman, by the same authors : 

" I'll be a gossip, Bedford, 

" I have an odd apostle spoon." 

Mr. Pegge, in his preface to A Forme of Cnry, a Roll of 
ancient English Cookery, compiled about A. D. 1390, &c. ob- 
serves, that " the general mode of eating must either have been 
with the spoon or the fingers ; and this, perhaps, may have been 
the reason that spoons became the usual present from gossips to 
their god-children at christenings." STEEVENS. 

As the following story, which is found in a collection of anec- 
dotes, entitled Merry Passages and Jeasts, MSS. Har3. 6395, 
contains an allusion to this custom, and has not, I believe, been 
published, it may not be an improper supplement to this account 
of apostle spoons. It shows that our author and Ben Jonson were 
once on terms of familiarity and friendship, however cold and 
jealous the latter might have been at a subsequent period : 

" Shakspeare was godfather to one of Ben Jonson's children, 
and after the christening, being in deepe study, Jonson came to 
cheer him up, and ask'd him why he was so melancholy : No 
'faith, Ben, says he, not I ; but I have been considering a great 
while what should be the fittest gift for me to bestow upon my 
godchild, and I have resolv'd at last. I pr'ythee, what ? says he. 
I'faith, Ben, I'll give him a douzen good laiten [Latin] spoons, 
and thou shalt translate them." 

The collector of these anecdotes appears to have been nephew 
to Sir Roger L'Estrange. He names Donne as the relater of this 

The practice of sponsors giving spoons at christenings con- 
tinued to the latter end of the last century, as appears from a 
pamphlet written against Dryden, entitled The Reason of Mr. 
Baycs's Conversion, &c. p. 14. 

At one period it was the mode to present gifts of a different 
kind. " At this time," [the first year of Queen Elizabeth] 
says the continuator of Stowe's Chronicle, " and for many 
yccres before, it was not the use and custome, as now it is, 
[1631,] for godfathers and godmothers generally to give plate 
at the baptism of children, (as spoones, cups, and such like,) 
but only to give christening shirts, with little hands and cuffs 
wrought either with silk or blue thread ; the best of them for 
chief persons weare edged with a small lace of blacke silke and 

sc. ii. KING HENRY VIII. 199 

And lady marquiss Dorset; Will these pi ease you? 
Once more, my lord of Winchester, I charge you, 
Embrace, and love this man. 

GAR. With a true heart, 

And brother-love, I do it. 

CRAX. And let heaven 

Witness, how dear I hold this confirmation. 

A'. HEN. Good man, those joyful tears show thy 
true heart. 7 

The common voice, I see, is verified 

Of thee, which says thus, Do my lord of Canter- 

A shrewd turn, and he is your friend for ever. 

Come, lords, we trifle time away ; I long 

To have this young one made a Christian. 

As I have made ye one, lords, one remain ; 

So I grow stronger, you more honour gain. 


golde ; the highest price of which for great men's children were 
seldom above a noble, and the common sort, two, three, or four 
and five shillings a piece." 

Whether our author, when he speaks of apostle-spoons, has, 
as usual, attributed the practice of his own time to the reign of 
Henry VIII. I have not been able to ascertain. Probably, how- 
ever, he is here accurate ; for we know that certain pieces of 
plate were, on some occasions, then bestowed; I Tail, who has 
written a minute account of the christening of Elizabeth, inform- 
ing us, that the gifts presented by her sponsors were a standing 
cup of gold, and six gilt bowls, with covers. 

Citron. Hen. VIII. fol. '21 S. MALOXE. 

7 thy true heart.] Old copy hearts. Corrected by the 

editor of the second folio. MA LOVE. 



The Palace Yard. 

Noise and Tumult within. Enter Porter and his 


PORT. You'll leave your noise anon, ye rascals ; 
Do you take the court for Paris-garden ? 8 ye rude 
slaves, leave your gaping. 9 

* Paris garden ?~] The bear-garden of that time. 


This celebrated bear-garden on the Bankside was so called 
from Robert de Paris, who had a house and garden there in the 
time of King Richard II. Rot. claus. 16 R. II. dors. ii. Blount's 

So, in Sir W. D' Avenant's Neiusfrom Plimoutk : 

" do you take this mansion for Pict-hatch ? 
" You would be suitors : yes, to a she-deer, 
" And keep your marriages in Paris-garden ?" 
Again, in Ben Jonson's Execration on Vulcan : 

" And cried, it was a threatning to the bears, 
" And that accursed ground the Paris-garden.'* 
The Globe theatre, in which Shakspeare was a performer, stood 
on the southern side of the river Thames, and was contiguous 
to this noted place of tumult and disorder. St. Mary Overy's 
church is not far from London Bridge, and almost opposite to 
Fishmongers' Hall. Winchester House was over against Cole 
Harbour. Paris-garden was in a line with Bridewell, and the 
Globe playhouse faced Blackfriars, Fleet-ditch, or St. Paul's. It. 
was an hexagonal building of stone or brick. Its roof was of 
rushes, with a flag on the top. See a south view of London, (as 
it appeared in 1599,) published by T. Wood, in Bishop's Court, 
in Chancery Lane, in 1771. STEEVENS. 

9 K a pi n g'~\ ' e - shouting or roaring ; a sense which 

this word has now almost lost. Littleton, in his Dictionary, has 
however given it in its present signification as follows : " To 

sc. m. KING HENRY VIII. 201 

[ Wiihm.~\ Good master porter, I belong to the 

PORT. Belong to the gallows, and be hanged, 
you rogue : Is this a place to roar in ? Fetch me 
a dozen crab-tree staves, and strong ones ; these 
are but switches to them. I'll scratch your heads: 
You must be seeing christenings ? Do you look 
for ale and cakes here, you rude rascals ? 

MAX. Pray, sir, be patient j l 'tis as much im- 

(Unless we sweep themfromthe doorwith cannons,) 
To scatter them, as 'tis to make them sleep 
On May-day morning ; 2 which will never be : 
We may as well push against Paul's, as stir them. 

PORT. How got they in, and be hang'd ? 

gape or barvl, vociferor." So, in Roscommon's Essay on trans- 
lated Verse, as quoted in Dr. Johnson's Dictionary : 

" That noisy, nauseous, gaping tool was he." REED. 

Such being one of the ancient senses of the verb to papr, 
perhaps the " gaping pig" mentioned by Shyloek in The Mer- 
chant of Venice, has hitherto been misinterpreted. STEI.VENS. 

1 Pray, sir, be patient ;] Part of this scene in the old copy 
is printed as verse, and part as prose. Perhaps the whole, with 
the occasional addition and omission of a few harmless syllables, 
might be reduced into a loose kind of metre ; but as I know not 
what advantage would be gained by making the experiment, I 
have left the whole as I found it. STEEVENS. 

8 On May-day morning ;] It was anciently the custom for 
all ranks of people to go out a maying on the lirst of May. It 
is on record that King Henry VIII. and Queen Katharine par- 
took of this diversion. See Vol. IV. p. 15:5, n. 1. STEKVMNS. 

Stowe says, that, " in the month of May, namely, on May- 
day in the morning, every man, except impediment, would walk 
into the sweet meadows and green woods; there to rejoice their 
spirits with the beauty and savour of sweet flowers, and with 
the noise [i.e. concert] of birds, praising (iod in their kind." 
See also Brand's Observations (,>i popular Antiquities, Svo. 1777, 
p. 255. REED. 


MAN. Alas, I know not ; How gets the tide in? 
As much as one sound cudgel of four foot 
(You see the poor remainder) could distribute, 
I made no spare, sir. 

PORT. You did nothing, sir. 

MAN. I am not Sampson, nor sir Guy, nor Col- 
brand, 3 to mow them down before me : but, if 
I spared any, that had a head to hit, either young 
or old, he or she, cuckold or cuckold-maker, let 
me never hope to see a chine again j and that I 
would not for a cow> God save her. 

\_Within.~\ Do you hear, master Porter ? 

PORT. I shall be with you presently, good mas- 
ter puppy. Keep the door close, sirrah. 

MAN. What would you have me do ? 

PORT. What should you do, but knock them 
down by the dozens ? Is this Moorfields to muster 
in ? 4 or have we some strange Indian 5 with the 

* sir Guy, nor Colbrand,] Of Guy of Warwick every 

one has heard. Colbrand was the Danish giant, whom Guy 
subdued at Winchester. Their combat is very elaborately de- 
scribed by Drayton, in his Polyolbion. JOHNSON. 

"* Moorfields to muster in ?] The train-bands of the 

city were exercised in Moorfields. JOHNSON. 

6 some strange Indian ] To what circumstance this 

refers, perhaps, cannot now be exactly known. A similar one 
occurs in Ram- Alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611 : 

" You shall see the strange nature of an outlandish beast 
lately brought from the land of Cataia." 

Again, in The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Beaumont and 
Fletcher : 

" The Bavian with long tail and eke long TOOL." 


Fig. I. in the print of Morris-dancers, at the end of King 
Henri/ IV. P. I. has a bib which extends below the doublet; 
and its length might be calculated for the concealment of the 

sc. m. KING HENRY VHI. 203 

great tool come to court, the women so besiege us ? 
Bless me, what a fry of fornication is at door ! On 
my Christian conscience, this one christening will 
beget a thousand ; here will be father, godfather, 
and all together. 

MAN. The spoons will be the bigger, sir. There 
is a fellow somewhat near the door, lie should be a 
brazier by his face, 6 for, o'my conscience, twenty 
of the dog-days now reign in's nose ; all that stand 
about him arc under the line, they need no other 
penance : That fire-drake 7 did I hit three times on 

phallic obscenity mentioned by Beaumont and Fk-tcher, of 
which perhaps the Bavian fool exhibited an occasional view 
for the diversion of our indelicate ancestors. TOLLKT. 

he should be a brazier by his face,] A brazier signi- 
fies a man that manufactures brass, and a reservoir lor char- 
coal occasionally heated to convey warmth. Both these senses 
are understood. JOHNSON. 

7 That fire-drake ] A Jirc-drake is both a serpent, 

anciently called a brenning-drake, or dipsas, and a name for- 
merly given to a Will o'the ll'isp, or ignis fotuus. So, in 
Drayton's Nymphidia : 

" By the hissing of the snake, 

" The rustling of the Jire-drake." 
Again, in Cfcaar and I'onipeij, a tragedy, by Chapman, IfiOT; 

" So have I scene a jire-drakc glide along 

" Before a dying man, to point his grave, 

" And in it stick and hide." 
Again, in Aluertus Walli'iistew, IGtO: 

" Your wild irregular lust, which like those Jire~drakcs 

" Misguiding nighted travellers, will Irad you 

" Forth from the lair path," <!vc. 

A fire-drake was l:!c; .vise an artificial Jirwttrk. So, in Your 
Five Guild ills, by Miil'.ileton, KJOiS: 

" but like fire-drakex, 

" .Mounted a little, gave a crack, and ii-ll." 


A fire-drake is thus described by Bullokar, in Iii^- f-'.rfjnxitrir t 
Svo. KilfJ: " Firctfrake. A_//Vt' sometimes seen Hvinu' in the 
night, like a dragnii. Common people think it a spirit that 


the head, and three times was his nose discharged 
against me ; he stands there, like a mortar-piece, 
to blow us. 8 There was a haberdasher's wife of 
small wit 9 near him, that railed upon me till her 
pink'd porringer fell off her head, 1 for kindling 
such a combustion in the state. I miss'd the meteor 2 
once, and hit that woman, who cried out, clubs P 

keepeth some treasure hid ; but philosophers affirme it to be a 
great unequal exhalation, inflamed betweene two clouds, the 
one hot, the other cold, which is the reason that it also smoketh ; 
the middle part whereof, according to the proportion of the hot 
cloud, being greater than the rest, maketh it seeme like a bellie, 
and both ends like unto a head and taile." MALONE. 

* to blow MS.] Read to blow us up. M. MASON. 

I believe the old reading is the true one. So, in Othello ; 
" . the cannon, 

" When it hath blown his ranks into the air ." 
In another of our author's plays (if my memory does not 
deceive me) we have " and blow them to the moon." 


9 There was a haberdasher's wife of small wit ] Ben Jon- 
son, whose hand Dr. Farmer thinks may be traced in different 
parts of this play, uses this expression in his Induction to The 
Magnetick Lady: " And all haberdashers of small wit, I pre- 
sume." MALONE. 

1 till her pink'd porringer fell off her head,~\ Her 

pink'd porringer is her pink'd cap, which looked as if it had 
been moulded on a porringer. So, in The Taming of the 
Shrew : 

" Hab. Here is the cap your worship did bespeak. 
" Pet. Why this was moulded on a porringer." 


1 the meteor ] The fire-drake, the brazier. 


* who cried out, clubs !] Clubs ! was the outcry for as- 
sistance, upon any quarrel or tumult in the streets. So, in 
The Renegado : 

" if he were 

" In London among the clubs, up went his heels 
" For striking of a prentice." 

sc. in. KING HENRY VIII. 205 

when I might see from far some forty truncheoneers 
draw to her succour, which were the hope of the 
Strand, 4 where she was quartered. They fell on; 
I made good my place ; at length they came to the 
broomstaff with me, 5 1 defied them still ; when sud- 
denly a file of boys behind them, loose shot, 6 de- 
livered such a shower of pebbles, that I was fain to 
draw mine honour in, and let them win the work : 7 
The devil was amongst them, I think, surely. 

PORT. These are the youths that thunder at a 
play-house, and fight for bitten apples j 8 that no 

Again, in Greene's Tu Qtioque : 

" Go, y'are a prating jack ; 

" Nor is't your hopes of crying out for clubs, 

" Can save you from my chastisement." WH ALLEY. 

So, in the third Act of The Puritan, when Oath and Skirmish 
are going to fight, Simon cries, " Clubs, clubs .'" and Aaron 
does the like in Titus Andronicus, when Chiron and Demetrius 
are about to quarrel. 

Nor did this practice obtain merely amongst the lower class 
of people : for in The First Part of Henry VI. when the Mayor 
of London endeavours to interpose between the factions of the 
Duke of Glocester, and the Cardinal of Winchester, he says : 
" I'll call for clubs, if you will not away." 


* the hope of the Strand,'] Sir T. Hanmer reads the 

forlorn hope. JOHNSON. 

5 to the broomstaff' with me,'] The old copy has to 

me. Corrected by Mr. Pope. MALOXK. 

6 loose' shot,'] i. e. loose or random shooters. See 

Vol. XII. p. H:5, n. :i. MALOXK. 

7 ///ework:] A term of fortification. STEEVKXS. 

* that thunder at a play-house, and fight for bitten 

apples ;~\ The prices of seats for the vulgar in our ancient 
theatres were so very low, that we cannot wonder if they were 
filled with the tumultuous company described by Shakspearc in 
this scene. 

So, in The G ul's Hornbook, by Decker, IGOf) : " Your 
groundling and gallery commoner buys his sport by the penny." 


audience, but the Tribulation of Tower-hill, or the 
limbs of Limehouse, 9 their dear brothers, are able 

In Wit without Money, by Beaumont and Fletcher, is the fol- 
lowing mention of them : " break in at plays like prentices, 
for three a groat, and crack nuts with the scholars in penny 
rooms again." 

Again, in The Black Book, 1604-, sixpenny rooms in play- 
houses are spoken of. 

Again, in The Bellman's Night Walks, by Decker, 1616 : 
" Pay thy tivopence to a player in this gallery, thou may'st sit 
by a harlot." 

Again, in the Prologue to Beaumont and Fletcher's Mad 
Lover : 

" How many tivopences you've stow'd to-day !" 
The prices of the boxes indeed were greater. 

So, in The Gul's Hornbook, by Decker, 1609 : " At a new 
playe you take up the tivelvepenny room next the stage, because 
the lords and you may seeme to be haile fellow well met," &c. 

Again, in Wit 'without Money : 

" And who extoll'd you in the half-crown boxes, 
" Where you might sit and muster all the beauties." 
And lastly, it appears from the Induction to Bartholomew 
Fair, by Ben Jonson, that tobacco was smoked in the same 
place : " He looks like a fellow that I have seen accommodate 
gentlemen with tobacco at our theatres." And from Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Woman Hater, 1607, it should seem that beer 
was sold there : " There is no poet acquainted with more shak- 
ings and quakings towards the latter end of his new play, when 
he's in that case that he stands peeping between the curtains so 
fearfully, that a bottle of ale cannot be opened, but he thinks 
somebody hisses." STEEVENS. 

See the Account of our old Theatres, Vol. III. MA LONE. 

9 the Tribulation of Tower-hill, or the limbs of Lime- 
house,] I suspect the Tribulation to have been a puritanical 
meeting-house. The limbs of Limehouse I do not understand. 


Dr. Johnson's conjecture may be countenanced by the follow- 
ing passage in " Magnificence, a goodly Interlude and a mery, 
devised and made by Mayster Skelton, Poete Laureate, lately 
deceasyd." Printed by John Rastell, fol. no date : 
" Some fall to foly them selfe for to spyll, 
" And some fall prechynge on toure hyll" STEEVENS. 

x. in. KING HENRY VIII. 207 

to endure. I have some of them in Limbo Patrum^ 
and there they are like to dance these three days; 

Alliteration has given rise to many cant expressions, consist- 
ing of words paired together. Here we have cant names for tin 1 
inhabitants of those places, who were notorious puritans, coined 
for the humour of the alliteration. In the mean time it must 
not he forgotten, that " precious limbs" was a common phrase 
of contempt for the puritans. T. WAKTOM. 

Limehouse was, before the time of Shakspeare, and has con- 
tinued to be ever since, the residence of those who furnish 
stores, sails, &c. for shipping. A great number of foreigners 
having been constantly employed in these manufactures (many 
of which were introduced from other countries) they assembled 
themselves under their several pastors, and a number of places 
of different worship were built in consequence of their respective 
associations. As they clashed in principles they had frequent 
quarrels, and the place has ever since been famous for the 
variety of its sects, and the turbulence of its inhabitants. It i.s 
not improbable that Shakspeare wrote the lambs of Lime- 

A limb of the devil, is, however, a common vulgarism ; and 
in A neiv Trick to cheat the Devil, 1639, the same kind of expres- 
sion occurs : 

" 1 am a puritan ; one that will eat no pork, 
" Doth use to shut his shop on Saturdays, 
" And open them on Sunday: a familist, 
" And one of the arch limbs of Belzebub." 
Again, in E-ccrij Man out of' his Humour: 

" I cannot abide these lirnbs of sattin, or rather Satan," 
c\.c. STF.EVENS. 

The word limb, in the sense of an impudently vicious person, 
is not uncommon in London at this day. in the north it is pro- 
nounced //////;, and means a mischievous boy. The alteration 
suggested by Mr.Steevens is, however, sufficiently countenanced 
by the word tribulation, if in fact the allusion be to the puritans. 

Ill I. SOX. 

It appears from Stowe's Survey that the inhabitants of Tower- 
Lin were remarkably turbulent. 

It may, houever, be doubted, whether this passMge was le- 
velled at the spectators assembled in any of the theatres in .mr 
author's time. It may have been pointed at. some apprentices 
and inferior citi/ens, who used occasionally to appear on the 


besides the running banquet of two beadles, 2 that 
is to come. 

stage, in his time, for their amusement. The Palsgrave, or 
Hector of Germany, was acted in 1615, by a company of citi- 
zens at the lied Bull ; and The Hog hath lost his Pearle, a 
comedy, 1614, is said, in the title-page, to have been publickly 
acted by certain London 'prentices. 

The fighting Jbr bitten apples, which were then, as at pre- 
sent, thrown on the stage, [See the Induction to Bartholomew 
Fair: " Your judgment, rascal; for what? Sweeping the 
stage? or, gathering up the broken apples ?" ] and the words 
' which no audience can endure," might lead us to suppose 
that these thunderers at the play-house were actors, and not 

The limbs of Limehouse, their dear brothers, were, perhaps, 
young citizens, who went to see their friends wear the buskin. 
A passage in The Staple of Neus, by Ben Jonson, Act III. 
sc. last, may throw some light on that now before us : *' Why, 
I had it from my maid Joan Hearsay, and she had it from a 
limb of the school, she says, a little limb of nine years old. 
An there were no wiser than I, I would have ne'er a cunning 
school-master in England. They make all their scholars play- 
boys. Is't not a fine sight, to see all our children made inter- 
luders ? Do we pay our money for this ? We send them to 
learn their grammar and their Terence, and they learn their 
play-books." School-boys, apprentices, the students in the inns 
of court, and the members of the universities, all, at this time, 
wore occasionally the sock or the buskin. However, I am by 
no means confident that this is the true interpretation of the 
passage before us. MALONE. 

It is evident that The Tribulation, from its site, must have 
been a place of entertainment for the rabble of its precincts, 
and the limbs of Limehouse such performers as furnished out the 
show. HENLEY. 

The Tribulation does not sound in my ears like the name of 
any place of entertainment, unless it were particularly designed 
for the use of Religion's prudes, the Puritans. Mcrcutio or 
True-wit would not have been attracted by such an appellation, 
though it might operate forcibly on the saint-like organs of 
Ebenezer or Ananias. 

Shakspcare, I believe, meant to describe an audience familiar- 
ized to excess of noise ; and why should we suppose the Tribu- 
lation was not a puritanical meeting-house because it was noisy? 

sc. m. KING HENRY VIII. 209 

Enter the Lord Chamberlain. 

CHAM. Mercy o'me, what a multitude are here! 

They grow still too, from all parts they are coming, 

As if we kept a fair here! Where are these porters, 

These lazy knaves ? Ye have made a fine hand, 


I can easily conceive that the turbulence of the most clamorous 
theatre, has been exceeded by the bellowings of puritanism 
against surplices and farthingales; and that our upper gallery, 
during Christinas week, is a sober consistory, compared with the 
vehemence of fanatick harangues against Bel and the Dragon, 
that idol Starch, the anti-christian Hierarchy, and the Whore of 

Neither do I see with what propriety the limbs of Limehouse 
could be called " young citizens," according to Mr. Malone's 
supposition. Were the inhabitants of this place (almost two 
miles distant from the capital) ever collectively entitled citizens? 
The phrase, dear brothers, is very plainly used to point out some 
fraternity of canters allied to the Tribulation both in pursuits 
and manners, by tempestuous zeal and consummate ignorance. 


1 in Limbo Pair urn, ~\ He means, in confinement. In 

limbo continues to be a cant phrase, in the same sense, at this 
day. MALOKE. 

The Limbns Pat mm is, properly, the place where the old 
Fathers and Patriarchs are supposed to be waiting for the resur- 
rection. See note on Titus Andronicns, Act III. sc. i. RI:KD. 

running banquet of two beadles,'] A publick whipping. 


This phrase, otherwise applied, has already occurred, p. 51 : 

" some of these 

" Should find a running banquet ere they rested." 

A banquet, in ancient language, did not signify citluT dinner 
or supper, but the desert alter each of them. So, in Thomas 
Newton's Herbal to the Bible, Svo. 1.-3S7 : " and are UM-d to 
be served at the end of meales lor a junket or banijiit'tting dish, 
as sucket and other daintie conceits likewise are." 

To the confinement, therefore, of these rioters, a whipping 
was to be the desert. STEEVEXS. 

VOL. XV. 1* 


There's a trim rabble let in : Are all these 
Your faithful friends o'the suburbs ? We shall have 
Great store of room, no doubt, left for the ladies, 
When they pass back from the christening. 

PORT. An't please your honour, 

We are but men ; and what so many may do, 
Not being torn a pieces, we have done : 
An army cannot rule them. 

CHAM. As I live, 

If the king blame me for't, I'll lay ye all 
By the heels, and suddenly ; and on your heads 
Clap round fines, for neglect: You are lazy knaves ; 
And here ye lie baiting of bumbards, 3 when 
Ye should do service. Hark, the trumpets sound j 
They are come already from the christening : 
Go, break among the press, and find a way out 
To let the troop pass fairly ; or I'll find 
A Marshalsea, shall hold you play these two months. 

PORT. Make way there for the princess. 

MAN. You great fellow, stand close up, or I'll 
make your head ake. 

PORT. You i'the camblet, get up o'the rail ; 4 I'll 
pick you o'er the pales else. 5 [Exeunt. 

3 here ye lie baiting of bumbards, } A bumbard is an 

ale-barrel ; to bait bumbards is to tipple, to lie at the spigot. 


It appears from a passage already quoted in a note on The 
Tempest, Act II. sc. ii. out of Shirley's Martyr' d Soldier, 1638, 
that bumbards were the large vessels in which the beer was car- 
ried to soldiers upon duty. They resembled blackjacks of lea- 
ther. So, in Woman's a Weathercock, 1612: " She looks like 
a black bombard with a pint pot waiting upon it." STEEVENS. 

4 get up o'the rail ;] We must rather read get up 

off the rail, or, get offthe rail. M. MASON. 

6 I'll pick you o'er the pales else.'} To pick is to pitch. 

" To pick a dart," Cole renders, jacidor. DICT. 1679. See a 

sc.iv. KING HENRY VIII. 211 


The Palace. 6 

Enter Trumpets, sounding; then two Aldermen, 
Lord Mayor, Garter, CRANMER, Duke O/^NOR- 
FOLK, tt'iY/j his Marshal's Staff, Duke of SUF- 
FOLK, two Noblemen bearing great slanding- 
boids" for the christening gifts ; then four No- 
blemen bearing a canopy, under which the 
Duchess of NORFOLK, godmother, bearing the 
child rich 1 1/ habited in a mantle, fyc. Train 
borne by a Lady : then follows the Marchioness 
of DORSET, Ihe other godmother, and Ladies. 
The Troop pass once about the stage, and Garter 

GART. Heaven, from thy endless goodness, 8 send 
prosperous life, long, and ever happy, to the high 
and mighty princess of England, Elizabeth ! 

note on Coriolanns, Act I. sc. i. where the word is, as I conceive, 
rightly spelt. Here the spelling in the old copy is peck. 


To pick and to pilch were anciently synonymous. So, in 
Stubbes's Anatomy of Abuses, 1595, p. l.'JS: " to catch him 
on the hip, and to pickc him on his necke." 

Again, ibid : " to pickc him on his nose," &c. STEEVEXS. 

The Palacc.~\ At Greenwich, when-, as we learn from 
Hall, fo. '217, this procession was made from the church of the 
Friars. REED. 

' standing-bowls ] i. e. bowls elevated on feet or 

pedestals. So, in Chapman's version of the 'Jl3d Iliad : 

" a great new standing-bawl, 

u To set downc both ways." STKKVKN^. 

v Heaven, from tJiij endless goodnc, &c.~] These words are 

l' 2 


Flourish. Enter King, and Tram. 

CRAN. [_KneeUng.~] And to your royal grace, and 

the good queen, 

My noble partners, and myself, thus pray ; 
All comfort, joy, in this most gracious lady, 
Heaven ever laid up to make parents happy, 
May hourly fall upon ye ! 

K. HEN. Thank you, good lord archbishop ; 9 
What is her name ? 

CRAN. Elizabeth. 

K. HEN. Stand up, lord. 

\_The King kisses the Child. 

With this kiss take my blessing: God protect thee ! 
Into whose hands I give thy life. 

CRAN. Amen. 

K. HEN. My noble gossips, ye have been too 

prodigal : 

I thank ye heartily ; so shall this lady, 
When she has so much English. 

CRAN. Let me speak, sir, 

For Heaven now bids me ; and the words I utter 
Let none think flattery, for they'll find them truth. 
This royal infant, (heaven still move about her !) 
Though in her cradle, yet now promises 
Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings, 
Which time shall bring to ripeness : She shall be 

not the invention of the poet, having been pronounced at the 
christening of Elizabeth. See Hall's Chronicle, Henry VIII. 
fol. 218. MALONE. 

fl Thank yon, goad lord archbishop ;] I suppose the word 
archbishop should be omitted, as it only serves to spoil the mea- 
sure. Be it remembered also that archbishop, throughout this 
play, is accented on the first syllable. STEEVENS. 

sc.iv. KING HENRY VIII. 213 

(But few now living can behold that goodness,) 
A pattern to all princes living with her, 
And all that shall succeed : Sheba was never 
More covetous of wisdom, and fair virtue, 
Than this pure soul shall be : all princely graces, 
That mould up such a might) 7 piece as this is, 
With all the virtues that attend the good, 
Shall still be doubled on her : truth shall nurse her, 
Holy and heavenly thoughts still counsel her : 
She shall be lov'd, and fear'd : Her own shall bless 

her : 

Her foes shake like a field of beaten corn, 
And hang their heads with sorrow : Good grows 

with her : 

In her days, every man shall eat in safety 
Under his own vine, 1 what he plants ; and sing 
The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours : 
God shall be truly known ; and those about her 
From her shall read the perfect ways of honour,* 

1 every man shall eat in safety 

Under his own vine,'] This part of the prophecy seems to 
have been burlesqued by Beaumont and Fletcher in The Beggar's 
fiuxh, where orator Higgin is making his congratulatory speech 
to the new king of the beggars : 

" Each man shall eat his stolen eggs, and butter, 

" In his own shade, or sunshine," &c. 

The original thought, however, is borrowed from the 4th chapter 
of the first Book of Kings : " Every man dwelt safely under his 
vine." STEEVENS. 

A similar expression is in Micah, iv. 4: " But they shall sit 
every man under his vine, and under his fig tree, and none shall 
make them afraid." REED. 

From her .shall read the perfect ways of honour,"] '\ he old 
copy reads UYJ//. The slight emendation now made is tully 
justified by the subsequent line, and by the scriptural expression 
which our author probably had in his thoughts: "Her ways 
.re ways of pleasantness, and all her paths arc peace." 



And by those claim their greatness, not by blood. 
[Nor shall this peace sleep with her: 3 But as when 

Thus, already in this play : 

" Wolsey, that once trod the -ways of glory ." 


By those, in the last line, means by those ways, and proves 
that we must read 'ways, instead of way, in the line preceding. 
Shall read from her, means, shall learn from her. M. MASON. 

3 [JVor shall this peace sleep with her: &c.] These lines, 
to the interruption by the King, seem to have been inserted at 
some revisal of the play, after the accession of King James. If 
the passage, included in crotchets, be left out, the speech of 
Cranmer proceeds in a regular tenour of prediction, and con- 
tinuity of sentiments ; but, by the interposition of the new lines, 
he first celebrates Elizabeth's successor, and then wishes he did 
not know that she was to die ; first rejoices at the consequence, 
and then laments the cause. Our author was at once politick 
and idle ; he resolved to flatter James, but neglected to reduce 
the whole speech to propriety ; or perhaps intended that the lines 
inserted should be spoken in the action, and omitted in the 
publication, if any publication was ever in his thoughts. Mr. 
Theobald has made the same observation. JOHNSON. 

I agree entirely with Dr. Johnson with respect to the time 
when these additional lines were inserted. See An Attempt to 
ascertain the Order of Shakspeare's Plays, Vol. II. I suspect 
they were added in 1613, after Shakspeare had quitted the stage, 
by that hand which tampered with the other parts of the play 
so much, as to have rendered the versification of it of a different 
colour from all the other plays of Shakspeare. MALONE. 

Such indeed were the sentiments of Mr. Roderick, though 
the examples adduced by him in support of them are, in my 
judgment, undecisive. See Canons of Criticism, edit. 1763, 
p. 263. But, were the fact as he has stated it, we know not 
how far our poet might have intentionally deviated from his 
usual practice of versification. 

If the reviver of this play (or tamperer with it, as he is 
styled by Mr. Malone,) had so much influence over its numbers 
as to have entirely changed their texture, he must be supposed 
to have new woven the substance of the whole piece ; a fact 
almost incredible. 

The lines under immediate consideration were very probably 
furnished by Ben Jonson ; for 

" When heaven shall call her from this cloud of dark- 

sc.iv. KING HENRY VIII. 215 

The bird of wonder dies, the maiden pha>nix, 

Her ashes new create another heir, 

As great in admiration as herself; 

So shall she leave her blessedness to one, 

(When heaven shall call her from this cloud of 


Who, from the sacred ashes of her honour, 
Shall star-like rise, as great in fame as she was, 
And so stand fixM: Peace,plenty,love, truth, terror, 
That were the servants to this chosen infant, 
Shall then be his, and like a vine grow to him ; 
Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine, 
His honour and the greatness of his name 
Shall be, and make new nations: 4 He shall flourish, 
And, like a mountain cedar, reach his branches 
To all the plains about him : Our children's 

Shall see this, and bless heaven. 

K. HEX. Thou speakest wonders.] 

CHAN. She shall be, to the happiness of England, 
An aged princess ; 5 many days shall see her, 

(meaning the "dim spot" we live in,) is a seeming imitation 
of the following passage in the 9th Book of Lucan (a poet from 
whose stores old lien has often enriched himself) : 

quanta sub node jaceret 

Nostra dies. STEEVEN.S. 

4 His honour and the greatness of his name 

Shall be, and make neiv nations:] On a picture of this 
contemptible king, which formerly belonged to the greal Bacon, 
and is now in the possession of Lord Grimston, lie is styled 
imperil Atlantic! conditor. The year before the revival of this 
play (1(U'2) there was 'a lottery for the plantation of Virginia. 
These lines probably allude to the settlement of that colony. 


5 She Khali be, to the happiness of England, 

An aged princess;] The transition here from the compli- 
mentary address to King James the First is so abrupt, that it 


And yet no day without a deed to crown it. 
'Would I had known no more ! but she must die, 
She must, the saints must have her ; yet a virgin, 
A most unspotted lily shall she pass 
To the ground, and all the world shall mourn her. 

K. HEN. O lord archbishop, 
Thou hast made me now a man ; never, before 
This happy child, did I get any thing : 
This oracle of comfort has so pleas' d me, 
That, when I am in heaven, I shall desire 
To see what this child does, and praise my Maker.- 
I thank ye all, To you, my good lord mayor, 
And your good brethren, 6 I am much beholden j 
I have received much honour by your presence, 

seems obvious to me, that compliment was inserted after the 
accession of that prince. If this play was wrote, as in my 
opinion it was, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, we may easily 
determine where Cranmer's eulogium of that princess concluded. 
I make no question but the poet rested here : 

And by those claim their greqtness, not by blood. 
All that the bishop says after this, was an occasional homage 
paid to her successor, and evidently inserted after her demise. 
How naturally, without this insertion, does the king's joy and 
satisfactory reflection upon the bishop's prophecy, come in ! 

King. Thou spcakest wonders. O lord archbishop, 
Thou'st made me noiv a man. Never, before 
This happy child, did I get any thing : &c. 

Whether the king would so properly have made this inference, 
upon hearing that a child of so great hopes should die without 
issue, is submitted to judgment. THEOBALD. 

6 And your good brethren^ Old copy you. But the alder- 
men were never called brethren to the king. The top of the 
nobility are but cousins and counsellors. Dr. Thirlby, therefore, 
rightly advised : 

And your good brethren, 

i. e. the lord mayor's brethren, which is properly their style. 


So, in King Henry V : 

" The mayor and all his brethren in best sort." 


sc. iv. KING HENRY VIII. 217 

And ye shall find me thankful. Lead the way, 

lords ; 

Ye must all see the queen, and she must thank ye, 
She will be sick else. This day, no man think 
He has business at his house ; for all shall stay, 
This little one shall make it holiday. 7 [Exeunt.* 

7 This little one shall make it holiday.] The old comedy of 
Grim the Collier of Croydon concludes with a similar idea : 

" And all hell o'er, we'll make it holiday.'" 
Hence, perhaps, the following stroke of infernal jocularity in 
Dryden's (Edipns: 

" . we play, 

" For hell's broke up, and ghosts have holiday" 


9 The play of Henry the Eighth is one of those which still keeps 
possession of the stage by the splendour of its pageantry. The 
coronation, about forty years ago, drew the people together in 
multitudes for a great part of the winter.* Yet pomp is not the 
only merit of this play. The meek sorrows and virtuous distress 
of Katharine have furnished some scenes, which may be justly 
numbered among the greatest efforts of tragedy. But the genius 
of Shakspeare comes in and goes out with Katharine. Every 
other part may be easily conceived and easily written. 


* Chetwood says that, during one season, it was exhibited 75 times. See I I'M 
History of the Stage, p. 68. STKXVENS. 


'Tis ten to one, this play can never please 
AH that are here : Some come to take their ease, 
And sleep an act or two ; but those, we fear, 
We have frighted with our trumpets ; so, 'tis clear, 
They'll say, 'tis naught: others, to hear the city 
Abus'd extremely, and to cry, that's nitty !. 
Which we have not done neither : that, I fear, 
All the expected good we are like to hear 
For this play at this time, is only in 
The merciful construction of good women; 1 
For such a one we show'd them ; 2 If they smile, 3 
And say, 'twill do, I know, within a while 

The merciful construction of good women;] A verse, with 
as unmusical a close, may be found in Burton's Anatomy of 
Melancholy, Part III. sect. ii. 

" Rose, the pleasure of fine ivomen," 

In Ben Jonson's Alchemist there is also a line in which the word 
teamen is accented on the last syllable : 

" And then your red man, and your white woman." 

Act II. sc. iii. STEEVENS. 

such a one me shoiu'd them ;] In the character of 

Katharine. JOHNSON. 

3 - If they smile, &c.] This thought is too much hacknied. 
It has been used already in the Epilogues to As you like it and 
The Second Part of King Henry IV. STEEVENS. 

Though it is very difficult to decide whether short pieces be 
genuine or spurious, yet I cannot restrain myself from expressing 
my suspicion that neither the Prologue nor Epilogue to this play 
is the work of Shakspeare; non vultus, non color. It appears 
to me very likely that they were supplied by the friendship or 


All the best men are ours; for 'tis ill hap, 
If they hold, when their ladies bid them clap. 

officiousness of Jonson, whose manner they will be perhaps 
found exactly to resemble. There is yet another supposition 
possible : the Prologue and Epilogue may have been written alter 
Shakspeare's departure from the stage, upon some accidental 
revival of the play, and there will then be reason for imagining 
that the writer, whoever he was, intended no great kindness to 
him, this play being recommended by a subtle and covert cen- 
sure of his other works. There is, in Shakspeare, so much of 
fool and fight ; 

" the fellow, 

" In a long motley coat, guarded with yellow," 
appears so often in his drama, that I think it not very likely that 
he would have animadverted so severely on himself. All this, 
however, must be received as very dubious, since we know not 
the exact date of this or the other plays, and cannot tell how 
our author might have changed his practice or opinions. 


Dr. Johnson's conjecture, thus cautiously stated, has been 
since strongly confirmed by Mr. Tyrwhitt's note, p. 5, by which 
it appears that this play was revived in H51.S, at which time, 
without doubt, the Prologue and Epilogue were added by Uen 
Jonson, or some other person. On the subject of every one of 
our author's historical pieces, except this, I believe a play had 
been written, before he commenced a dramatick poet. See the 
Essay at the end of The Third Part of king Henry II. 

MA i. ONE. 

I entirely agree in opinion with Dr. Johnson, that Hen Jonson 
wrote the Prologue find Epilogue to this play. Shakspeare had, 
a little before, assisted him in his St-janus ; and Hen was too 
proud to receive assistance without returning it. It is probable, 
that he drew up the directions lor the parade at tiic christening, 
&c. which his employment at court would teach him, and Shak- 
speare must be ignorant of. 1 think, I now and then perceive 
his hand in the dialogue. 

It appears from Stowe, that Robert Greene wrote somewhat 
on this subject. FAK.MKK. 

See the first scene of this play, p. 15. MAI.ONT. 

Tn support of Dr. Johnson's opinion it may not bo amiss to 
quote the following lines from old Hen's Prologue to his Every 
llun in hi* Humour: 


" To make a child new swaddled, to proceed 
" Man, and then shoot up, in one beard and weed, 
" Past threescore years : or with three rusty swords, 
" And help of some few foot-and-half-foot words, 
" Fight over York and Lancaster's long wars, 
" And in the tyring-house," &c. STEEVENS. 

The historical dramas are now concluded, of which the two 
Parts of Henry the Fourth, and Henry the Fifth, are among 
the happiest of our author's compositions; and King John, 
Richard the Third, and Henry the Eighth, deservedly stand in 
the second class. Those whose curiosity would refer the histori- 
cal scenes to their original, may consult Holinshed, and some- 
times Hall : from Holinshed, Shakspeare has often inserted whole 
speeches, with no more alteration than was necessary to the 
numbers of his verse. To transcribe them into the margin was 
unnecessary, because the original is easily examined, and they 
are seldom less perspicuous in the poet than in the historian. 

To play histories, or to exhibit a succession of events by ac- 
tion and dialogue, was a common entertainment among our rude 
ancestors upon great festivities. The parish clerks once per- 
formed at Clerkenwell a play which lasted three days, contain- 
ing The History of the World. JOHNSON. 

It appears from more than one MS. in the British Museum, 
that the tradesmen of Chester were three days employed in the 
representation of their twenty -four Whitsun plays or mysteries. 
The like performances at Coventry must have taken up a longer 
time, as they were no less than forty in number. The exhibi- 
tion of them began on Corpus Christi day, which was (accord- 
ing to Dugdale) one of their ancient fairs. See the Harleian 
MSS. No. 2013, 2124-, 2125, and MS. Cot. Vesp. D. VIII. and 
Dugdale's Warwickshire, p. 116. STEEVENS. 


* TROILUS AND CRESSIDA,] The story was originally writ- 
ten by Lollius, an old Lombard author, uud since by Chaucer. 


Mr. Pope (after Dryden) informs us, that the story of Troilua 
and Cressida was originally the work of one Lollius, a Lombard; 
(of whom Gascoigne speaks in Dan Bartholmnve his Jirst 
Triumph : " Since Lollius and Chaucer both, make doubt upon 
that glose,") but Dryden goes yet further. He declares it to 
have been written in Latin verse, and that Chaucer translated it. 
Lollius was a historiographer of Urbino in Italy. Shakspeare 
received the greatest part of his materials for the structure of 
this play from the Troyc Boke of Lydgate. Lydgate was not 
much more than a translator of Guido of Columpna, who wa3 
of Messina in Sicily, and wrote his History of Troy in Latin, 
after Dictys Cretensis, and Dares Phrygius, in 1287. On these, 
as Mr. Warton observes, he engrafted many new romantick in- 
ventions, which the taste of his age dictated, and which the con- 
nection between Grecian and Gothick fiction easily admitted ; at 
the same time comprehending in his plan the Theban and Argo- 
nautic stories from Ovid, Statins, and Valerius Flaccus. Guido'S 
work was published at Cologne in 1 1-77, again 1-1-80: at Stras- 
burgh, 1 1-86, and ibidem, 118!). It appears to have been trans- 
lated by liaoul le Feure, at Cologne, into French, from whom 
Caxton rendered it into English in 1171, under the title of his 
JJeciiyel, &c. so that there must have been yet some earlier edi- 
tion of Guido's performance than I have hitherto seen or heard 
of, unless liis first translator had recourse to a manuscript. 

Guido of Columpna is referred to as an authority by our own 
chronicler Grafton. Chaucer had made the loves ot'Troilus and 
Cressida famous, which very probably mitrht have been Shak- 
speare's inducement to try their fortune on thestage. Lyclgate's 
Troue Bokr was printed by Pynson, 1513. In the books of the 
Stationers' Company, anno 1581, is entered " A proper ballad, 
dialogue-wise, between Troilus and Cressida" Again, Feb. 7, 
1602: " Thj booke of Troilus and Cressida, as it is acted by 
my Lo. Chamberlain's men." The first of these entries i* in the 
name of Edward White, the second in that of M. Roberts. 
Again, Jan. 28, 1608, entered by Rich, ttoninn and Hen.Whalley, 
" A booke called the history of Troilu.f and Crcsrida." 


The entry in ICOS-f) was made by the booksellers for whom 
this play was published in 1(>0!>. It was written, I conceive, 
in 1602. See An Attempt to ascertain the Order of Shak.ycare's 
Plays, Vol. II. MA LONE. 

Before this play of Troilus and Cres.sicta, printed ui KJ09, i 

a bookseller's preface, showing that first impression to have been 
before the play had been acted, and that it was published with- 
out Shakspeare's knowledge, from a copy that had fallen into 
the bookseller's hands. Mr. Dryden thinks this one of the first 
of our author's plays : but, on the contrary, it may be judged, 
from the fore-mentioned preface, that it was one of his last ; and 
the great number of observations, both moral and politick, with 
which this piece is crouded more than any other of his, seems 
to confirm my opinion. POPE. 

We may learn, from this preface, that the original proprietors 
of Shakspeare's plays thought it their interest to keep them un- 
printed. The author of it adds, at the conclusion, these words : 
" Thank fortune for the 'scape it hath made among you, since, 
by the grand possessors wills, I believe you should rather have 
prayed for them, than have been prayed," &c. By the grand 
possessors, I suppose, were meant Heming and Condell, It ap- 
pears that the rival play-houses at that time made frequent de- 
predations 'on one another's copies. In the Induction to The 
Malcontent, written by Webster, and augmented by Marston, 
1606, is the following passage : 

" I wonder you would play it, another company having in- 
terest in it." 

" Why not Malevole in folio with us, as Jeronimo in decimo 
sexto with them ? They taught us a name for our play ; we call 
it One for another." 

Again, T. Heywood, in his Preface to The English Traveller, 
1638 : " Others of them are still retained in the hands of some 
actors, who think it against their peculiar profit to have them 
come in print." STEEVENS. 

It appears, however, that frauds were practised by writers as 
well as actors. It stands on record against Robert Greene, the 
author of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, and Orlando Furioso, 
1594 and 1599, that he sold the last of these pieces to two dif- 
ferent theatres : " Master R. G. would it not make you blush, &c. 
if you sold not Orlando Furioso to the Queen's player^ for twenty 
nobles, and when they were in the country, sold the same play 
to the Lord Admiral's men for as much more ? Was not this 
plain Coneycatching, M. G.?" Defence of Coneycatching, 1592. 

This note was not merely inserted to expose the crajt of 
authorship, but to show the price which was anciently paid for 
the copy of a play, and to ascertain the name of the writer of 
Orlando Furioso, which was not hitherto known. Greene ap- 
pears to have been the first poet in England who sold the same 
piece to different people. Voltaire is much belied, if he has not 
followed his example. COLLINS. 

Notwithstanding what has boon said by a late editor, Mr. 
Capell,] I have a copy of \hcjirstjblioj including Troilus and 
Cressida. Indeed, as I have just now observed, it was at first 
either unknown OT forgotten. It does not however appear in 
the list of the plays, and is thrust in between the histories and 
the tragedies without any enumeration of the pages; except, 
I think, on one leaf only. It differs entirely from the copy in 
the second Julio, FAKMER. 

I have consulted at least twenty copies of the fir si folio, and 
Troilus and Cressida is not wanting in any of them. 





A never Writer to an ever Reader. Newes. 

Eternall reader, you have heere a new play, never stal'd with 
the stage, never clapper-claw'd with the palmes of the vulger, 
and yet passing full of the palme comicall ; for it is a birth of 
your [r. that~\ braine, that never under-tooke any thing com- 
micall, vainely : and were but the vaine names of commedies 
changde for the titles of commodities, or of playes for pleas ; 
you should see all those grand censors, that now stile them such 
vanities, flock to them for the maine grace of their gravities : 
especially this authors commedies, that are so fram'd to the life, 
that they serve for the most common commentaries of all the 
actions of our lives, shewing such a dexteritie and power of witte, 
that the most displeased with playes, are pleasd with his comme- 
dies. And all such dull and heavy-witted worldlings, as were 
never capable of the witte of a commedie, comming by report 
of them to his representations, have found that witte there, that 
they never found in them-selves, and have parted better-wittied 
then they came : feeling an edge of witte set upon them, more 
then ever they dreamd they had braine to grind it on. So much 
and such savored salt of witte is in his commedies, that they 
seeme (for their height of pleasure) to be borne in that sea that 
brought forth Venus. Amongst all there is none more witty 
than this : and had I time I would comment upon it, though I 
know it needs not, (for so much as will make you thinke your 
testerne well bestowd) but for so much worth, as even poore I 
know to be stuft in it. It deserves such a labour, as well as the 
best commedy in Terence or Plautus. And beleeve this, that 
when hee is gone, and his commedies out of sale, you will 
scramble for them, and set up a new English inquisition. Take 
this for a warning, and at the perill of your pleasures losse, and 
judgements, refuse not, nor like this the lesse, for not being 
sullied with the smoaky breath of the multitude ; but thanke 
fortune for the scape it hath made amongst you : since by the 
grand possessors wills I believe you should have prayd for them 
[r. it~\ rather then beene prayd. And so I leave all such to bee 
prayd for (for the states of their wits healths) that will not 
praise it. Vale. 


In Troy, there lies the scene. From isles of 

The princes orgulous, 2 their high blood chaf'd, 

1 I cannot regard this Prologue (which indeed is wanting in 
the quarto editions) as the work of Shakspeare; and perhaps 
the drama before us was not entirely of his construction. It 
appears to have been unknown to his associates, Hemings and 
Condell, till after the h'rst folio was almost printed off. On this 
subject, indeed, (as I learn from Mr. Malone's Emendations and 
Additions, &c. see Vol. III.) there seems to have been a play 
anterior to the present one : 

" Aprcl 7, 1599. Lent unto Thomas Downton to lende unto 
Mr. Deckers, & harey cheattel, in earnest of ther boocke called 
Troydes and Crcassedaye, the some of iii Ib." 

" Lent unto harey cheattell, & Mr. Dickers, [Henry Chcttle 
and master Deckar] in pte of payment of their booke called 
Troyelles 8f Cresseda, the 16 of Aprell, 1599, xxs." 

" Lent unto Mr. Deckers and Mr. Chettel the 26 of maye, 
1599, in earnest of a booke called Troylles and Crescda, the 
some of xxs." STEEVENS. 

I conceive this Prologue to have been written, and the dia- 
logue, in more than one place, interpolated by some Kyd or 
Marlolue of the time; who may have been paid for altering 
and amending one of Shakspeare's plays : a very extraordinary 
instance of our author's negligence, and the managers' taste ! 


9 The princes orgulous,] Orgulous, i.e. proud, disdainful. 
Orgueilleux, Fr. This word is used in the ancient romance ot 
Richard Cueur de Lyon : 

" His atyre was orgulous." 

Again, in Froissart's Chronicle, Vol. II. p. 115, b: " but 
they wyst nat how to passe y c ryver of Derne whiche was fell 
and orgulous at certayne tymes," &c. STEEVKNS. 


Have to the port of Athens sent their ships, 
Fraught with the ministers and instruments 
Of cruel war : Sixty and nine, that wore 
Their crownets regal, from the Athenian bay 
Put forth toward Phrygia : and their vow is made, 
To ransack Troy ; within whose strong immures 
The ravish* d Helen, Menelaus' queen, 
With wanton Paris sleeps j And that's the quarrel. 
To Tenedos they come ; 

And the deep-drawing barks do there disgorge 
Their warlike fraughtage : Now on Dardan plains 
The fresh and yet unbruised Greeks do pitch 
Their brave pavilions : Priam's six-gated city, 3 
Dardan, and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan, 
And Antenorides, with massy staples, 
And corresponsive and fulfilling bolts, 4 
Sperr up the sons of Troy. 5 

3 Priam's six-gated city, &c.] The names of the gates 

are here exhibited as in the old copy, for the reason assigned by 
Dr. Farmer ; except in the instance of Antenorides, instead of 
which the old copy has Antcnom/chis. The quotation from Lyd- 
gate shows that was an error of the printer. MALONE. 

4 fulfilling bolts,~] To fulfill, in this place, means to 

fill till there be no room for more. In this sense it is now obso- 
lete. So, in Gower, De Confessions Amantis, Lib. V. fol. 11-1: 

" A lustie maide, a sobre, a meke, 
" Fulfilled of all curtosie." 
Again : 

" Fulfilled of all unkindship." STEEVENS. 

To be "fulfilled with grace and benediction" is still the lan- 
guage of our liturgy. BLACKSTONE. 

s Sperr up the sons of Troy.'] [Old copy Stirre.~\ This has 
been a most miserably mangled passage throughout all the edi- 
tions ; corrupted at once into false concord and false reasoning. 
Priam's six-gated city stirre up the sons of Troy? Here's a 
verb plural governed of a nominative singular. But that is 
easily remedied. The next question to be asked is, In what 


Now expectation, tickling skittish spirits, 
On one and other side, Trojan and Greek, 

sense- a city, having six strong gates, and those well barred and 
bolted, can be said lo stir up its inhabitants ? unless they may 
be supposed to derive some spirit from the strength of their for- 
tifications. But this eould not be the poet's thought. He must 
mean, 1 take it, that the Greeks had pitch. il thei.- tents upon 
the plains before Troy ; and that the Trojans were securely bar- 
ricaded within the walls and gates of their citv. This sense niv 
correction restores. To spci / r, or ,sy;r//\ from the old Teutonick 
word Sjwren, signifies to sliut up, defend by burs, <&c. 


So, in Spenser's Fain/ Queen, Book V. c. 10: 
" The other that was entred, labour'd fast 
" To sperre the gate" !vc. 
Again, in the romance of The Sqiihr of Loiv Dcgre ; 

" Sjjert/e with manie a dyvcrs pynne." 

And in The Vision of P. Plowman, it is said that a blind man 
" nntparryd his cine." 

Again, in Warner's Albion'' s England^ 1GO'2, Book 1 1. eh. 1'2 : 
" When chased home into his holdes, there sparred up 

in gates." 

Again, in the '2d Part of Bale's Aden of English Vutarycs : 
" The dore thereof oil tynies opened and speared agayne." 


^\Ir. Theobald informs us that the very names of the gates of 
Troy have been barbarously demolished by the editors; and a 
deal of learned dust he makes in setting them right again ; much 
however to Mr. Heath's satisfaction. Indeed the learning is 
modestly withdrawn from the later editions, and we are quietly 
instructed to read 

" Dardan, and Thvmbria, Ilin, .SV<rr/, Trojan, 
" And Antenoridcs." 

But had he looked into the Trnt/ /Juke of Lydg::te, instead of 
pu//!ing himself with ])ttre* I'/ifj/^iiif, he \vo;ild have found 
the horrid demolition to have betn neither t!u- ur.rk of Shak- 
v peare, nor his editors : 

" Thi-rto his cyte | compassed enuvrowne 

" Had gates VI to entre into the toune : 

" The first e of all | and strenge.-t i-ke \\itli all, 

*' Largest also | and nio>:e prmc\ pall, 

" Of myghty byld\nu | alone pereless, 

" Was bv the kinire. ealied I l)(iri/(t)ii/(li:< ; 


Sets all on hazard : And hither am I come 
A prologue arm'd, 6 but not in confidence 
Of author's pen, or actor's voice ; but suited 
In like conditions as our argument, 
To tell you, fair beholders, that our play 
Leaps o'er the vaunt 7 and firstlings 8 of those broils, 

And in storye | lyke as it is founde, 

Tymbria \ was named the seconde ; 

And the thyrde | called Helyas, 

The fourthe gate | hyghte also Cetheas ; 

The fyfthe Trojana, \ the syxth Anthonydes, 

Stronge and mighty | both in werre and pes." 

Lond. Empr. by R. Pynson, 1513, fol. B. II. ch. 1 1. 
The Troye Boke was somewhat modernized, and reduced into 
regular stanzas, about the beginning of the last century, under 
the name of, The Life and Death of Hector who fought a 
Hundred mayne Battailes in open Field against the Grecians ; 
wherein there were slaine on both Sides Fourteene Hundred and 
Sixe Thousand, Fourscore and Sixe Men. Fol. no date. This 
work Dr. Fuller, and several other criticks, have erroneously 
quoted as the original ; and observe, in consequence, that "if 
Chaucer's coin were of greater weight for deeper learning, 
Lydgate's were of a more refined standard for purer language : 
so that one might mistake him for a modern writer." 


On other occasions, in the course of this play, I shall gene- 
rally insert quotations from the Troye Booke modernized, as 
being the most intelligible of the two. STEEVENS. 

5 A prologue arm'd,~] I come here to speak the prologue, and 
come in armour ; not defying the audience, in confidence of 
either the author's or actor's abilities, but. merely in a character 
suited to the subject, in a dress of war, before a warlike play. 


Motteux seems to have borrowed this idea in his Prologue to 
Farquhar's Twin Rivals : 

" With drums and trumpets in this warring age, 
** A martial prologue should alarm the stage." 


7 the vaunt ] i. e. the avant, what went before. So, 

in King Lear : 

11 Fozw^-couriers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts." 



'Ginning in the middle ; starting thence away 
To what may be digested in a play. 
Like, or find fault ; do as your pleasures are ; 
Now good, or bad, 'tis but the chance of war. 

The vaunt is the vanguard, called, in our author's time, the 
vaunt-guard. PERCY. 

-Jirst lings ] A scriptural phrase, signifying thejirst 

produce or offspring. So, in Genesis, iv. ! : " And Abel, he 
also brought ot \he firstlings of his flock." STEEVENS. 


Priam, King of Troy : 






his Sons. 

j, ^ 1 

Antenor, \ Tr J an Commanders. 

Calchas, a Trojan Priest, talcing part with the 


Pandarus, Uncle to Cressida. 
Margarelon, a bastard So?i o/' Priam. 

Agamemnon, the Grecian General: 
Menelaus, his Brother. 


Grecian Commanders. 


Thersites, a deformed and scurrilous Grecian. 
Alexander, Servant to Cressida. 
Servant to Troilus ; Servant to Paris ; Servant to 

Helen, Wife to Menelaus. 

Andromache, Wife to Hector. 

Cassandra, Daughter to Priam ; a Prophetess. 

Cressida, Daughter to Calchas. 

Trojan and Greek Soldiers, and Attendants. 
SCENE, Troy, and the Grecian Camp before it. 



Troy. Bijbre Priam's Palace. 

Enter TROILUS armed, and PAXDARLS. 

TRO. Call here my varlct, 1 I'll unarm again: 
Why should I war without the walls of Troy, 
That rind such cruel battle here within ? 
Each Trojan, that is master of his heart, 
Let him to field ; Troilus, alas ! hath none. 

PAX. Will this ffccr ne'er be mended ?- 


1 my varlct,] This word anciently signified a servant or 

footman to a knight or warrior. So, Holinshed, speaking of the 
battle of Agincourt : " diverse were releeved by their "car- 
lets, and conveied out of the field." Again, in an ancient epi- 
taph in the church-yard of Saint Nicas at Arras: 

" Cy gist Ilakin et son :r//7/7, 

" Tout di.s-arnu! et tout di-pret, 

" Avec son espr et salloche," ivc. STKKVT.NS. 

Concerning the word rttr/et, see Reclu rclicx histnrit/ui'S xur /<'> 
cartes a joucr. Lyon, 1T.";7, p. <>1. M. (' TUTKT. 

* Will this gecr ne'er he inen(ic<l?~\ Tliere is somewhat pro- 
verbial in this question, which I likewise meet with in the inter- 
lude of Khi Dftf/ux, l.)()5: 

" \V\11 not yet tltix ^trrf lie anir/n/t'i/, 

" Nor your sinful acts ct'iTccted :" SrEtvrxs. 


TRO. The Greeks are strong, and skilful to their 

strength, 3 

Fierce to their skill, and to their fierceness valiant ; 
But I am weaker than a woman's tear, 
Tamer than sleep, fonder 4 than ignorance ; 
Less valiant than the virgin in the night, 
And skill-less 5 as unpractis'd infancy. 

PAN. Well, I have told you enough of this : for 
my part, I'll not meddle nor make no further. He, 
that will have a cake out of the wheat, must tarry 
the grinding. 

TRO. Have I not tarried ? 

PAN. Ay, the grinding ; but you must tarry the 

TRO. Have I not tarried ? 
PAN. Ay, the bolting j but you must tarry the 

TRO. Still have I tarried. 

PAN. Ay, to the leavening : but here's yet in the 
word hereafter, the kneading, the making of the 
cake, the heating of the oven, and the baking; nay, 
you must stay the cooling too, or you may chance 
to burn your lips. 

TRO. Patience herself, what goddess e'er she be, 
Doth lesser blench 6 at sufferance than I do. 

3 skilful to their strength, &c.] i. e. in addition to their 

strength. The same phraseology occurs in Macbeth. See Vol. X. 
p. 16, n. 2. STEEVENS. 

4 -fonder ] i. e. more weak, or foolish. See Vol. VII. 

p. 328, n. 8. MALONE. 

3 And skill-less #c.] Mr. Dryden, in his alteration of this 
play, has taken this speech as it stands, except that he has 
changed skill-less to artless, not for the better, because skill-less 
refers to skill and skilful: JOHNSON. 

6 Doth lesser blench ] To blench is to shrink, start, or fly 
off. So, in Hamlet : 


At Priam's royal table do I sit ; 

And when fair Cressid comes into my thoughts, 

So, traitor! when she comes! When is she 

thence? 7 

PAN. Well, she looked yesternight fairer than 
ever I saw her look, or any woman else. 

TRO. I was about to tell thee, When my heart, 
As wedged with a sigh, would rive in twain ; 
Lest Hector or my father should perceive me, 
I have (as when the sun doth light a storm,) s 
Bury'd this sigh in wrinkle of a smile : ; ' 
But sorrow, that is couch'd in seeming gladness, 
Is like that mirth fate turns to sudden sadness. 

PAN. An her hair were not somewhat darker 
than Helen's, (well, go to,) there were no more 
comparison between thewomen, But, for my part, 
she is my kinswoman ; I would not, as they term it, 
praise her, But I would somebody had heard her 
talk yesterday, as I did. I will not dispraise your 
sister Cassandra's wit ; but 

if he but blench, 

" I know my course- 

Again, in The Pilgrim, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" men that will not totter, 

" Nor blench much at a bullet." STEEVENS. 

7 when she comes! When is .she thcnce?~\ Roth the 

old copies read then she comes, when she is thence. Mr. 
Howe corrected the former error, and Mr. Pope the latter. 


a storm,)] Old copies a scorn. Corrected by Mr. 
Howe. MALONU. 

See King Lear, Act III. sc. i. STEKVENS. 

in wrinkle f,f a smile:] So, in Tu-c/ft/t-\/ht : " lie 
doth smite his face into more lines than the new map with the 
augmentation of the Indies." MAT. ONI:. 

^gain, in The Merchant of Venice: 

" With mirth and laughfcr let old winkles come." 



TRO. O Pandarus ! I tell thee, Pandarus, 
When I do tell thee, There my hopes lie drown'd, 
llepiy not in how many fathoms deep 
They lie indrench'd. I tell thee, I am mad 
In Cressid's love : Thou answer'st, kShe is fair ; 
Pour'st in the open ulcer of my heart 
Her eyes, her hair, her cheek, her gait, her voice; 
Handiest in thy discourse, O, that her hand, 1 

1 Handiest in tliy discourse, 0, tliat her hand, Sfc.~\ Handiest 
is here used metaphorically, with an allusion, at the same time, 
to its literal meaning ; and the jingle between hand and handiest 
is perfectly in our author's manner. 

The beauty of a female hand seems to have made a strong 
impression on his mind. Antony cannot endure that the hand of 
Cleopatra should be touched : 

" To let a fellow that will take rewards, 

" And say, God quit you, be familiar with 
** My playfellow, your hand, this kingly seal, 
" And plighter of high hearts." 
Again, in Romeo arid Juliet : 

" they may seize 

" On the white wonder of dear Juliet's hand." 
In The Winter's Tale, Florizel, with equal warmth, and not 
less poetically, descants on the hand of his mistress : 

" 1 take thy hand; this hand 

" As soft as dove's down, and as white as it ; 
" Or Ethiopian's tooth ; or the fann'd snow 
" That's bolted by the northern blasts twice o'er." 
This passage has, I think, been wrong pointed in the late edi- 
tions : 

Pour'st in the open ulcer of my heart 
Her eyes, her hair, her check, her gait; her voice 
Handiest in thy discourse; (hat her hand ! 
In whose comparison, &c. 

We have the same play of words in Titus Andronicus : 
" O handle not the theme, to talk of hands, 
" Lest we remember still, that we have none !" 
We may be certain therefore that those lines were part of the 
additions which our poet made to that play. MALONE. 

If the derivation of the verb to handle were always present to 
those who employed it, I know not well how Chapman could 
vindicate the following passage in his version of the 2i>d Iliad, 


In \vliosc comparison all whites arc ink, 
Writing their own reproach; To whose soft seizure 
The cygnet's down is harsh, and spirit of sense 
Hard as the palm of ploughman !'-' This thou tell'st. 


As true thou tell'st me, when I say I love her ; 
But, saying, thus, instead of oil and balm, 
Thou lay'st in every gash that love hath given me 
The knife that made it. 

where the most eloquent of the Greeks (old Nestor) reminds 
Antilochus that his horses 

" their slowji'et handle not." 

The intentionally quaint phrase "taste your legs," introduced 
in Twelfth-Night, is not more ridiculous than to talk of horses 
" handling theirs/erf." 

Though our author has many and very considerable obliga- 
tions to Mr. Malone, I cannot regard his foregoing supposition 
as one of them ; for in what does it consist ? In making Sliak- 
speare answerable for two of the worst lines in a degraded play, 
merely because they exhibit a jingle similar to that in the speech 
before us. STEEVENS. 

* and spirit of sense 

Hard as the palm of ploughman !~\ In comparison with Cressida'* 
hand, says he, the spirit of sense, the utmost degree, the most ex- 
quisite power of sensibility, which implies a soft hand, since the 
sense of touching, as Scaliger says in his Exercitations, resides 
chiefly in the fingers, is hard as the callous and insensible palm of 
the- ploughman. Warburton reads : 

spite of S'.' use. 

Ilanmer : 

to th' spirit of sense. 

It is not proper to make a lover profess to praise his mistress in 
spite of sense ; for though he often does it in spite of the sense 
of others, his own senses are subdued to his desires. JOHNSON. 

Spirit of sense is a phrase that occurs again in the third Act 
of this play : 

" nor doth the eye itself, 

" That, most pure spirit o/'senxe, behold itself." 
Mr. M. Mason ^ fro in whom I have borrowed this parallel) 
recommends Hanmer's emendation as a necessary one. 

Si i;r.\ I:N>. 


PAX. I speak no more than truth. 
TRO. Thou dost not speak so much. 

PAN. 'Faith, I'll not meddle in't. Let her be as 
she is : if she be fair, 'tis the better for her ; an she 
be not, she has the mends in her own hands. 3 

TRO. Good Pandarus ! How now, Pandarus ? 

PAN. I have had my labour for my travel ; ill- 
thought on of her, and ill-thought on of you : gone 
between and between, but small thanks for my 

TRO. What, art thou angry, Pandarus ? what, 
with me ? 

PAN. Because she is kin to me, therefore, she's 
not so fair as Helen : an she were not kin to me, 
she would be as fair on Friday, as Helen is on Sun- 
day. But w r hat care I ? I care not, an she were a 
black-a-moor ; 'tis all one to me. 

TRO. Say I, she is not fair ? 

PAN. I do not care whether von do or no. She's 

3 sh e has the mends ^} She may mend her complexion 

by the assistance of cosmeticks. JOHNSON. 

I believe it rather means She may make the best of a bad bar' 
gain. This is a proverbial saying. 

So, in Woman' 1 's a Weathercock, 1612: "I shall stay here and 
have my head broke, and then I have the mends in my own 

Again, in S. Gosson's School of Abuse, 1579 : " turne him 
with his back full of stripes, and his hands loden tvith his own 

Again, in The Wild Goose Chase, by Beaumont and Fletcher: 

" The mends are in mine oivn hands, or the surgeon's." 
Again, in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, edit. 163'2, p. 605: 
" and if men will be jealous in such cases, the mends is in their 
oiune hands , they must thank themselves." STEJUVEXS. 


a fool to stay behind her father; 4 let her to the 
Greeks; and so I'll tell her the next time I see her: 
for my part, I'll meddle nor make no more in the 

TRO. Pandarus, 

PAX. Not I. 

TRO. Sweet Pandarus, 

PAN. Pray you, speak no more to me ; I will 
leave all as I found it, and there an end. 

[Exit PANDARUS. An Alarum. 

TRO. Peace, you ungracious clamours ! peace, 

rude sounds ! 

Fools on both sides ! Helen must needs be fair, 
When with your blood you daily paint her thus. 
I cannot fight upon this argument ; 
It is too starv'd a subject for my sword. 
But Pandarus O gods, how do you plague me ! 
I cannot come to Cressid, but by Pandar ; 
And he's as tetchy to be woo'd to woo, 
As she is stubborn-chaste against all suit. 
Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphne's love, 
What Cressid is, what Pandar, and what we ? 

* to siny behind her father ;] Calchas, according to 

Shakspeare's authority, The Destruction of Troy, was " a great 
learned bishop of Troy," who was sent by Priam to consult the 
oracle of Delphi concerning the event of the war which was 
threatened by Agamemnon. As soon as he had made " his 
oblations and demaunds for them of Troy, Apollo (says the 
book) aunswered unto him, saying; Calchas, Calchas, beware 
that thou returne not back again to Troy ; but goe thou with 
Achylles, unto the Greckcs, and depart never from them, for 
the Greekes shall have victoric of the Troyans by the agreement 
of the Gods." Hint, of I lie. Dt-st ruction of Troy, translated by 
Caxton, ,3th edit. Ito. ^IGIT. This prudent bishop followed the 
advice of the Oracle, and immediately joined the Greeks. 



Her bed is India ; there she lies, a pearl : 
Between our Ilium, 5 and where she resides, 
Let it be call'd the wild and wandering flood ; 
Ourself, the merchant ; and this sailing Pandar, 
Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark. 6 

Alarum. Enter ^ 

MNE. How now, prince Troilus? wherefore not 
afield? 7 

TRO. Because not there j This woman's answer 

sorts, 8 

For womanish it is to be from thence. 
What news, ^Eneas, from the field to-day ? 

JENE. That Paris is returned home, and hurt. 

TRO. By whom, ./Eneas ? 

J&NE. Troilus, by Menelaus. 

TRO. Let Paris bleed : 'tis but a scar to scorn ; 
Paris is gor'd with Menelaus' horn. \_Alarum. 

s Ilium,'] "Was the palace of Troy. JOHNSON. 

Ilium, properly speaking, is the name of the city; Troy, that 
of the country. STEEVENS. 

6 . this sailing Pandar ', 

Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark."] So, in The 
Merry Wives of Windsor: 

" This punk is one of Cupid's carriers; 
" Clap on more sails," &c. MALONE. 

7 Hoiv no-uo, prince Troilus? wherefore i:oi ajield?~] Shak- 
speare, it appears from various lines in this play, pronounced 
Troilus improperly as a dissyllable ; as every mere English reader 
does at this day. 

So also, in his Rape of Lucrece: 

" Here manly Hector faints, here Troilus swounds." 


8 sorts,] i. e. fits, suits, is congruous. So, in King 

Henry V : " It sorts well with thy fierceness." STEEVKNS. 


JENE. Hark ! what good sport is out of town 
to-day ! 

Tuo. Better at home, if would I might, were 

But, to the sport abroad ; Are you bound thither? 

J&NE. In all swift haste. 

TRO. Come, go we then together. 



The same. A Street. 

CRES. Who were those went by ? 

ALEX. Queen Hecuba, and Helen. 

CRES. And whither go they ? 

ALEX. Up to the eastern tower, 

Whose height commands as subject all the vale, 
To see the battle. Hector, whose patience 
Is, as a virtue, fix'd, 9 to-day was mov'd : 

9 - Hector, rv/io*c patience 

Is, ax a virtue-, /z'.rV,] Patience sure was a virtue, and 
therefore cannot, in propriety of expression, he said to be like 
one. We should read : 

Is ax the virtue //'.rV, - 

i.e. his patience is as fixed as the goddess Patience itself. So we 
find Troilus a little before saying : 

" Patience herself, what goddess e'er she he, 

" Doth It-sser blench at sufferance than I do." 
It is remarkable that Drvden when he altered this play, and 
found this false reading, altered it with judgment to 

" - whose patience 

" Is lix'd like that of heaven." 

Which he would not have done had he seen the right reading 
VOL. XV. Jl 


He chid Andromache, and struck his armourer ; 
And, like as there were husbandry in war, 1 
Before the sun rose, he was harness' d light, 2 

here given, where his thought is so much better and nobler ex- 
pressed. WARBURTON. 

I think the present text may stand. Hector's patience was as 
a virtue, not variable and accidental, but fixed and constant. If 
I would alter it, it should be thus : 
Hector, ivhose patience 

Is all a virtue Jix'd,- 

All, in old English, is the intensive or enforcing particle. 


1 had once almost persuaded myself that Shakspeare wrote, 

. ivliose patience 

Is, a* a statue Jix'd, 
So, in The Winter's Tale, sc. ult: 

" The statue is but newly fx'd." 

The same idea occurs also in the celebrated passage in Twelfth- 
Night : 

" sat like patience on a monument." 

The old adage Patience is a virtue, was perhaps uppermost in 
the compositor's mind, and he therefore inadvertently substituted 
the one word for the other. A virtue fixed may, however, 
mean the stationary image of a virtue. STEEVENS. 

1 husbandry in war,'] So, in Macbeth : 

" There's husbandry in heaven." STEEVENS. 

Husbandry means economical prudence. Troilus alludes to 
Hector's early rising. So, in King Henri/ V : 

" our bad neighbours make us early stirrers, 

" Which is both healthful and good husbandry" 


2 Before, the sun rose, he was harness' d light,] Does the poet 
mean (says Mr. Theobald) that Hector had put on light ar- 
mour V Mean ! what else could he mean ? He goes to fight on 
foot ; and was not that the armour for his purpose ? So, Fairfax, 
in Tasso's Jerusalem : 

" The other princes put on harness light 

" As footmen use ." 

Yet, as if this had been the highest absurdity, he goes on, Or 
does he wean that Hector ivas sprightly in his arms even before 
sunrise? or is a conundrum aimed at, in sun rose and harness d 
light ? Was any thing like it ? But, to get out of this per- 


And to the field goes he ; where every flower 
Did, as a prophet, weep 3 what it foresaw 
In Hector's wrath. 

plexity, he tells us, that a very slight alteration makes all thete 
constructions unnecessary, and so changes it to harnets-dight . 
Yet indeed the very slightest alteration will, at any time, let 
the poet's sense through the critick's lingers : and the Oxford 
editor very contentedly takes up what is lett behind, and reads 
harness-dight too, in order, as Mr. Theobald well expresses it, 
to make all construction unnecessary. WARBUKTON*. 

How does it appear that Hector was to fight on foot rather 
to-day than any other day ? It is to be remembered, that the 
ancient heroes never fought on horseback ; nor does their man- 
ner of fighting in chariots seem to require less activity than on 
foot. JOHNSON. 

It is true that the heroes of Homer never fought on horse- 
back ; yet such of them as make a second appearance in the 
JEiifiti, like their antagonists the Kutulians, had cavalry among 
their troops. Little can be inferred from the manner in which 
Ascanius and the young nobility of Troy are introduced at the 
conclusion of the funereal games ; as Virgil very probably, at the 
cxpence of an anachronism, meant to pay a compliment to the 
military exercises instituted by Julius C'sesar, and improved by 
Augustus. It appears from different passages in this play, that 
Hector rights on horseback ; and it should be remembered that 
Shakspeare was indebted for most of his materials to a book 
which enumerates Esdras and Pythagoras among the bastard 
children of King Priamus. Our author, however, might have 
been k'd into his mistake by the manner in which Chapman hn* 
translated several parts of the Iliad, where the heroes mount 
their chariots or descend from them. Thus, Book VI. speaking 
of (Jlaucus and Diorned : 

" - irom home then both descend." STKEVKNS. 

If Dr. Warburton had looked into The Destruction <>f Trt>y, 
already quoted, he would have found, in every page, that the 
leaders on each side were alternated tumbled from tlu-ir /vvo 
by the prowess of their adversaries. MA LOST. 

inhere c\'cri/ flower 

/.?/</, us n propl/i t, weep ] > y i>, in A Midsmnmrr-Xight' 
DrctiDi, Vol. IV. p. K)(>: 

" And when she weeps, weeps every little Ji<i\ce>-, 
" Lamenting" &e. STICK vr.\s. 

1 1 l l 


CRES. What was his cause of anger ? 

ALEX. The noise goes, this: There is among the 


A lord of Trojan blood, nephew to Hector ; 
They call him, Ajax. 

CRES. Good ; And what of him ? 

ALEX. They say he is a very man per sef 
And stands alone. 

CRES. So do all men; unless they are drunk, sick, 
or have no legs. 

ALEX. This man, lady, hath robbed many beasts 
of their particular additions; 5 he is as valiant as the 
lion, churlish as the bear, slow as the elephant : a 
man into whom nature hath so crouded humours, 
that his valour is crushed into folly, 6 his folly 
sauced with discretion: there is no man hath a 

4 per se,~] So, in Chaucer's Testament ofCresseide: 

" Of faire Cresseide the floure and a per se 
" Of Troie and Greece." 

Again, in the old comedy of Wily Beguiled : " In faith, my 
SAveet honeycomb, I'll love thee a per se a." 
Again, in Blurt Master Constable, 1602: 

" That is the a per se of all, the creame of all." 


; their particular additions ; ] Their peculiar and cha- 

vacteristick qualities or denominations. The term in this sense 
is originally forensick. MALONE. 

So, in Macbeth : 

" whereby he doth receive 

" Particular addition, from the bill 

" That writes them all alike." STEEVENS. 

that his valour is crushed into folly,] To be crushed 

into folly, is to be confused and mingled with Jolly, so as that 
they make one mass together. JOHNSON. 

So, in Cymbeline : 

" Crush him together, rather than unfold 
" His measure duly." STEEVENS. 


virtue that he hath not a glimpse of; nor any man 
an attaint, but he carries some stain of it : lie i* 
melancholy without cause, and merry against the 
hair : 7 He hath the joints of every thing ; but every 
thing so out of joint, that he is a gouty Briareus, 
many hands and no use ; or purblind Argus, all eyes 
and no sight. 

CRES. But how should this man, that makes me 
smile, make Hector angry ? 

ALEX. They say, he yesterday coped Hector in 
the battle, and struck him down ; the disdain and 
shame whereof hath ever since kept Hector fasting 
and waking. 


CRES. Who comes here? 

ALEX. Madam, your uncle Pandarus. 

CRES. Hector's a gallant man. 

ALEX. As may be in the world, lady. 

PAN. What's that ? what's that ? 

CRES. Good morrow, uncle Pandarus. 

PAX. Good morrow, cousin Cressid : What do 
you talk of? Good morrow, Alexander. How 
do you, cousin ?* When were you at Ilium ?'' 

7 against the hair :~] I* a phrase equivalent to another 

now in use against the grain. The French say ti cuntrcpoil. 
See Vol. XL p. 371, n. 7. STKI- VENN. 

See Vol. V. p. lO.'i, n. 3. MAI.OXK. 

* (.inod nii>rrou\ cunsiii Crcssiil : IV hat do 1/011 talk <>/ ? Good 
morrow, Alexander. //o;r tlo you, n .'] Cumtl iitormn-, 
Ak-xa-ntlcr, is added, in all the edition*, (says Mr. Tope,) very 
absurdly, Paris not heinj; on the sta^ r e. Wonderful acutencs* ! 


CRES. This morning, uncle. 

PAX. What were you talking of, when I came ? 
Was Hector armed, and gone, ere ye came to Ilium ? 
Helen was not up, was she ? 

CRES. Hector was gone j but Helen was not up. 
PAN. E'en so ; Hector was stirring early. 
CRES. That were we talking of, and of his anger. 
PAN. Was he angry ? 
CRES. So he says here. 

PAN. True, he was so ; I know the cause too ; 
he'll lay about him to-day, I can tell them that : 
and there is Troilus will not come far behind him ; 
let them take heed of Troilus j I can tell them that 

But, with submission, this gentleman's note is much more ab- 
surd ; for it falls out very unluckily for his remark, that though 
Paris is, for the generality, in Homer called Alexander ; yet, in 
this play, by any one of the characters introduced, he is called 
nothing but Paris. The truth of the fact is this : Pandarus is of 
a busy, impertinent, insinuating character; and it is natural for 
him, so soon as he has given his cousin the good-morrow, to pay 
his civilities too to her attendant. This is purely Jv r^:t, as the 
grammarians rail it ; and gives us an admirable touch of Pan- 
darus's character. And why might not Alexmder be the name 
of Cressida's man? Paris had no patent, I suppose, for engrossing 
it to himself. But the late editor, perhaps, because we have had 
Alexander the Great, Pope Alexander, and Alexander Pope, 
would not have so eminent a name prostituted to a common 
varlet, THEOBALD. 

This note is not preserved on account of any intelligence 
it brings, but as a curious specimen of Mr. Theobald's mode of 
animadversion on the remarks of Mr. Pope. STEEYENS. 

at Ilium ?] Ilium, or Ilion, (for it is spelt both ways,) 

was, according to Lydgate, and the author of The Destruction 
of Troy, the name of Priam's palace, which is said by these 
writers to have been built upon a high rock. See a note in 
Act IV. sc. v. on the words " Yon towers," &c. MALONE. 


CUES. What, is he angry too ? 

PAX. Wlio, Troilus? Troilus is the better man 
of the two. 

CRES. O, Jupiter! there's no comparison. 

PAN. What, not between Troilus ami Hector? 
Do you know a man if you see him ? 

CRES. Ay; if ever 1 saw him before, ami knew 

PAX. Well, I say, Troilus is Troilus. 

CRES. Then you say as I say ; for, I am sure, lie 
is not Hector. 

PAX. No, nor Hector is not Troilus, in some 

CRES. 'Tis just to each of them ; he is himself. 

PAX. Himself? Alas, poor Troilus! 1 would, lie 

CUES. So he is. 

2*AX. 'Condition, I had gone bare-foot to 


CRES. He is not Hector. 

PAX. Himself? no, he's not himself. 'Would 
'a were himself! Well, the gods are above ;' Time 
must friend, or end: Well, Troilus, we'll, I would, 
my heart were in her body! No, Hector is not a 
better man than Troiius. 

CRES. Excuse me. 

PAX. He is elder. 

CUES. Pardon me, pardon me. 

PAX. The other's not come to't ; von ^hall teil 

1 /f'V/, tin: <|0/A (if,' uln,\-f ;} So, in Ot/ic/ln: 
above all." MALONI.. 


me another tale, when the other's come to't. Hector 
shall not have his wit 2 this year. 

CRES. He shall not need it, if he have his own. 

PAN. Nor his qualities j 

CRES. No matter. 

PAN. Nor his beauty. 

CRES. 'Twould not become him, his own's better. 

PAN. You have no judgment, niece : Helen her- 
self swore the other day, that Troilus, for a brown 
favour, (for so 'tis, I must confess,) Not brown 

CRES. No, but brown. 

PAN. 'Faith, to say truth, brown and not brown. 
CRES. To say the truth, true and not true. 
PAN. She prais'd his complexion above Paris. 
CRES. Why, Paris hath colour enough. 
PAN. So he has. 

CRES. Then, Troilus should have too much : if 
she praised him above, his complexion is higher 
than his ; he having colour enough, and the other 
higher, is too flaming apraisefor a good complexion. 
I had as lief, Helen's golden tongue had commend- 
ed Troilus for a copper nose. 

PAN. I swear to you, I think, Helen loves him 
better than Paris. 

CRES. Then she's a merry Greek," indeed. 

s his wit ] Both the old copies have will. Corrected 

by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 

3 a merry Greek,'] Grcecari, among the Romans, signi- 
fied to play the reveller. STEEVENS, 

The expression occurs in many old English books. See Act IV. 
sc. iv: 

" A woeful Cressid 'mongst the merry Greeks." MALONE. 


PAX. Nay, I am sure she docs. She came to him 
the other day into a compassed window, 4 and, you 
know, he has not past three or four hairs on his 

CUES. Indeed, a tapster's arithmetick may soon 
bring his particulars therein to a total. 

PAN. Why, he is very young : and yet will he, 
within three pound, lift as much as his brother 

CUES. Is he so young a man, and so old a lifter ? 5 

PAX. But, to prove to you that Helen loves 
him ; she came, and puts me her white hand to 
his cloven chin, 

CUES. Juno have mercy ! How came it cloven ? 

PAX. Why, you know, 'tis dimpled : I think, 
his smiling becomes him better than any man in all 

4 compassed ivindoiv,~] The compassed toindau: is the 

same as the ooiv u-indoiv. JOHNSON. 

A compassed window is a circular bow window. In The 
Taming of the Shrew the same epithet is applied to the cape of 
a woman's gown : " a small compassed cape." STEEVEXS. 

A coved cieling is yet in some places called a compassed cieling. 


5 so old a lifter?] The word lifter is used for a thief, 

by Greene, in his Art ofConeycatching, printed 1.591 : on this 
the humour of the passage may be supposed to turn. \Ve still 
call a person who plunders shops, a shop-lifter. Hen Jonson 
uses the expression in Cynthia'* Hcrels . 

" One other peculiar virtue you possess is, lifting." 
Again, in The Roaring Cirf, liill: "cheaters, lifter*, 
nips, foists, piiiigards, courbers." 

Again, in Holland's Lca^n,-,-, 1633: "Broker or pandar, 
cheater or lifter.'''' STEEVENS. 

Illiftus, in the Gothick language, signities a thief. See 
olo^. Vol. V. p. 31 1. HI.ACKSTONE. 


CRES. O, he smiles valiantly. 

PAN. Does he not ? 

CRES. O yes, an 'twere a cloud in autumn. 

PAN. Why, go to then : But to prove to you 
that Helen loves Troilus, 

CRES. Troilus will stand to the proof, if you'll 
prove it so. 

PAN. Troilus? why, he esteems her no more than 
I esteem an addle egg. 

CRES. If you love an addle egg as well as you love 
an idle head, you would eat chickens i'the shell. 

PAN. I cannot choose but laugh, to think how 
she tickled his chin ; Indeed, she has a marvellous 
white hand, I must needs confess. 

CRES. Without the rack. 

PAN. And she takes upon her to spy a white hair 
on his chin. 

CRES. Alas, poor chin ! many a wart is richer. 

PAX. But, there was such laughing ; Queen 
Hecuba laughed, that her eyes ran o'er. 

CRES. With mill-stones. 6 
PAX. And Cassandra laughed. 

CRES. But there was a more temperate fire under 
the pot of her eyes ; Did her eyes run o'er too ? 

PAN. And Hector laughed. 
CRES. At what was all this laughing ? 
PAX. Marry, at the white hair that Helen spied 
on Troilus' chin. 

6 her eyes ran o'er. 

Cres. With mill-stones.] So, in King Richard III: 

" Your eyes drop mill-stones, when fools' eyes drop tears." 



CRES. An't had been a green hair, I should have 
laughed too. 

PAX. They laughed not so much at the hair, as 
at his pretty answer. 

CRES. What was his answer ? 

PAX. Quoth she, Here's but one andjifty hairs 
on your chin, and one of them is white. 

CRES. This is her question. 

PAX. That's true ; make no question of that. 
One and t fifty hairs? quoth he, and one white : 
That while hair is my father, and all tin' rest are 
his sons. Jupiter ! quoth she, which oj these hairs 
is Paris my husband ? Tliejorked one, quoth he ; 
pluck it out, and gire it him. But, there was such 
laughing! and Helen so blushed, and Paris so dialed, 
and all the rest so laughed, that it passed. 8 

CUES. So let it now ; for it has been a great while 
going by. 

PAX. Well, cousin, I told you a tiling yesterday ; 
think on't. 

CRES. So I do. 

PAX. I'll be sworn, 'tis true ; he will weep you, 
an 'twere a man born in April." 

7 One nndjijl ////<///>,] [Old copies Ttvn and fifty.] I have 
ventured to substitute One and ,//////, ' think with some cer- 
tainty. How else can the number make out Priam and his fifty 
sons ? THEOBALD. 

that it p issed.] i. e. that it went beyond bounds. So, 
in 'l'n>- M< /// /r/Vr.v n/' l''i>ir!*<- : "Why this /w.w.v, master 
Ford.'' Oessida plays on the word, as used by Pandarus, by 
employ in;.; it liersi it' in its common acceptation. Sn.i\i:\s. 

" an Vu- >'! a nin/t (mm ni .l/'i/.] i.e. a* [f 'twere, 

t Sr. So, in A Mi,( ,,w>rr-.Y/W//'A' l)i;/n: " I will roar you 
an 'twere anv ni^htintrale." 


CUES. And I'll spring up in his tears, an 'twere a 
nettle against May. [A Retreat sounded. 

PAN. Hark, they are coming from the field : 
Shall we stand up here, and see them, as they pass 
toward Ilium ? good niece, do ; sweet niece Cres- 

CRES. At your pleasure. 

PAN. Here, here, here's an excellent place ; here 
we may see most bravely : I'll tell you them all by 
their names, as they pass by ; but mark Troilus 
above the rest. 

sses over the Stage. 

CRES. Speak not so loud. 

PAN. That's ^neas ; Is not that a brave man ? 
he's one of the flowers of Troy, I can tell you ; But 
mark Troilus ; you shall see anon. 

CRES. Who's that ? 

ANTENOR passes over. 
PAN. That's Antenor ; he has a shrewd wit, 1 I 

The foregoing thought occurs also in Antony and Cleopatra ; 
" The April's in her eyes : it is love's spring, 
" And these the showers to bring it on." STEEVENS. 
1 That's Antenor ; he has a shrewd wit,'} 
" Anthenor was - 

" Copious in words, and one that much time spent 
" To jest, when as he Avas in companie, 
" So driely, that no man could it espie ; 
" And therewith held his countenaunce so well, 

" That every man received great content 
" To heare him speake, and pretty jests to tell, 
" When he was pleasant, and in merriment : 
" For tho' that he most commonly was sad, 
" Yet in his speech some jest he always had." 

Lydgate, p. 105. 


can tell you ; and he's a man good enough : he's 
one o'the soundest judgments in Troy, whosoever, 
and a proper man of person : When comes Troi- 
lus ? I'll show you Troilus anon j if he see me, 
you shall sec him nod at me. 

CRES. Will he give you the nod ? 

PAN. You shall see. 

CRES. If he do, the rich shall have more. 2 

HECTOR passes over. 

PAN. That's Hector, that, that, look you, that; 
There's a fellow ! Go thy way, Hector ; There's 
a brave man, niece. O brave Hector! Look, how 
he looks ! there's a countenance : Is't not a brave 

man ? 

CRES. O, a brave man ! 

PAN. Is 'a not ? It does a man's heart good 
Look you what hacks are on his helmet ! look you 
yonder, do you see ? look you there ! There's no 
jesting : there's laying on ; take't off who will, as 
they say : there be hacks ! 

CRES. Be those w r ith swords ? 

Such, in the hands of a rude English port, is the grave An- 
tcnor, to whose wisdom it was thought necessary that the art of 
Ulysses should be opposed: 

" Et jHoivo Priannim, Priamoque Antenorajunctunt." 


5 the rich shrill Jiavc wore."] The allusion is to the 

word noddy, which, as now, did, in our author's time, and 
long before, signify ft silly feline, and may, by its etymology, 
signify likewise full of nod?. Cressid means, that a noddy shall 
have more nod?. Of such remarks as these is a comim nt to 
consist! JOHNSON. 

To gin' the nod, was, I believe, a term in the game at cards 
called Noddy, This game is perpetually alluded to in the old 
comedies. See. Vol. IV. p. lttf>, n. 7. SII:IVKNS. 


PARIS passes over. 

PAN. Swords ? any thing, he cares not : an the 
devil come to him, it's all one: By god's lid, it 
does one's heart good : Yonder comes Paris, yon- 
der comes Paris : look ye yonder, niece ; Is't not 
a gallant man too, is't not ? Why, this is brave 
now. Who said, he came hurt home to-day ? he's 
not hurt: why, this will do Helen's heart good now. 
Ha ! 'would I could see Troilus now 1 you shall 
see Troilus anon. 

ORES. Who's that ? 

HELENUS passes over. 

PAN. That's Helenus, I marvel, where Troilus 
is : That's Helenus ; I think he went not forth 
to-day : That's Helenus. 

CRES. Can Helenus fight, uncle ? 

PAN. Helenus ? no ; yes, he'll fight indifferent 
well : I marvel, where Troilus is ! Hark ; do you 
not hear the people cry, Troilus ? Helenus is a 

CRES. What sneaking fellow comes yonder ? 

TROILUS passes over. 

PAN. Where ? yonder ? that's Deiphobus : J Tis 
Troilus ! there's a man, niece ! Hem ! Brave 
Troilus ! the prince of chivalry ! 

CRES. Peace, for shame, peace ! 

PAN. Mark him ; note him ; O brave Troilus ! 
look well upon him, niece j look you, how his 

sc. if. TllOILUS AND CRESSIDA. 255 

sword is bloodied, 3 and his helm more hack'd than 
Hector's ; 4 And how he looks, and how he goes ! 
O admirable youth! he ne'er saw three and twenty. 
Go thy way Troilus, go thy way ; had I a sister 
were a grace, or a daughter a goddess, he should 
take his choice. O admirable man ! Paris ? Paris 
is dirt to him ; and, I warrant, Helen, to change, 
would o-Jve an eve to boot/ 

Forces pass over the Stage. 

CRES. Here come more. 

PAX. Asses, fools, dolts ! chaff and bran, chaff 
and bran ! porridge after meat ! I could live and 
die i'the eyes of Troilus. Ne'er look, ne'er look ; 
the eagles are gone ; crows and daws, crows and 
tlaws ! I had rather be such a man as Troilus, than 
Aamemnon and all Greece. 

CHES. There is among the Greeks, Achilles; a 
better man than Troilus. 

PAN. Achilles ? a drayman, a porter, a very 

CUES. Well, well. 

3 - hole his sword is bloodied,] - y <, I-yilgate, describiii" 
Troilus, in a couplet that reminds us of Dryden, or Pope : 
" lie was so fer^e they might him not withstand, 
" When that lie helde his b/ody .MIYJ/V/C in hand." 
I always quote from the original poem, edit. l.">.5.~>. 

.M.\i DM.. 

- ///.v helm more hnckM than Hector's;} So, in Chaucer'- 
Troiln.s and Cr^.<ciu/', Book 111. (>!(>: 

" Hi--; fief in<- to /if;i-/,/ H.IS in twenty places," \e. 

S i i i v K v -'. 

th ll-S- 

I'oree, dire monrv In l 


PAN. Well, well ? Why, have you any discre- 
tion ? have you any eyes ? Do you know what a 
man is ? Is not birth, beauty, good shape, discourse, 
manhood, learning, gentleness, virtue, youth, libe- 
rality, and such like, the spice and salt that season 
a man ? 

CUES. Ay, a minced man : and then to be baked 
with no date in the pye, 6 for then the man's date 
is out. 

PAN. You are such a woman ! one knows not at 
what ward you lie. 7 

CRES. Upon my back, to defend my belly ; upon 
my wit, to defend my wiles ; 8 upon my secrecy, to 
defend mine honesty ; my mask, to defend my 
beauty ; and you, to defend all these : and at all 
these wards I lie, at a thousand w r atches. 

PAN. Say one of your watches. 

e no date in the pye, ~\ To account for the introduction 

of this quibble, it should be remembered that dates were an 
ingredient in ancient pastry of almost every kind. So, in 
Romeo and Juliet : 

" They call for dates and quinces in the pastry." 
Again, in All's well that ends well, Act I : " your date is 
better in your pye and porridge, than in your cheek.'* 


7 at what ward you lie.] A metaphor from the art of 

defence. So, Falstaff, in King Henry I V.P.I: " Thou know'st 
my old. ward; here I lay ;" &c. STEEVENS. 

8 upon my wit, to defend my wiles;] So read both the 

copies : and yet perhaps the author wrote : 

Upon my wit to defend my will. 

The terms wit and will were, in the language of that time, put 
often in opposition. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Rape of Lucrcce : 

" What wit sets down, is blotted straight with will." 
Yet I think the old copy right. MA LONE. 


CRES. Nay, I'll watch you for that ; and that's 
one of the cniefest of them too : if I cannot ward 
what I would not have hit, I can watch you for 
telling how I took the blow ; unless it swell past 
hiding, and then it is past watching. 

PAN. You are such another ! 

Enter TROILUS' Boy. 

BOY. Sir, my lord would instantly speak with you. 

PAX. Where? 

BOY. At your own house; there he unarms him.' 

PAX. Good hoy, tell him I come : [_E.iil Boy.] 
I doubt, he be hurt. Fare ye well, good niece. 

CRES. Adieu, uncle. 

PAX. I'll be with you, niece, by and by. 

CRES. To bring, uncle, 

PAX. Ay, a token from Troilus. 

CRES. By the same token you are a bawd. 

[/>// PANDARUS. 

Words, vows, griefs, tears, and love's full sacrifice, 
He otters in another's enterprize : 
But more in Troilus thousand fold I see 
Than in the glass of Pandar's praise may be ; 
Yet hold I off. Women are angels, wooing: 
Things won are done, joy's soul lies in the doing : ' 

9 At your ou'M house ; there lie unarms him.] These necessary 
words are added from the quarto edition. Poi'K. 

The words added are only ihcre If unarms him. JOHNSON. 

1 joy's soul Hex hi I /if doing :] So read both the old 

editions, tor which the later editions hnve poorly given: 
The soul's joy lies in doing, JOHNSON. 

It is the reading of the second folio. Krrsov. 


That she 2 belov'd knows nought, that knows not 


Men prize the thing ungain'd more than it is : 
That she was never yet, that ever knew 
Love got so sweet, as when desire did sue : 
Therefore this maxim out of love I teach, 
Achievement is command j ungain'd, beseech : 5 
Then though 4 my heart's content 5 firm love doth 

Nothing of that shall from mine eyes appear. 


Yet hold I off". Women are angels, wooing: 

Things won are done, joy's soul lies in me doing :] This is 
the reading of all the editions ; yet it must be erroneous ; for the 
last six words of the passage are totally inconsistent with the rest 
of Cressida's speech, and the very reverse of the doctrine she 
professes to teach. I have, therefore, no doubt that we ought 
to read : 

-joy's soul dies in the doing : 

which means, that the fire of passion is extinguished by enjoy- 

The following six lines sufficiently confirm the propriety of 
this amendment, which is obtained by the change of a single 
letter : 

That she belov'd &c. &c. M. MASON. 

5 That she ] Means, that woman. JOHNSON. 

3 Achievement is command; ungain'd, beseech :] The mean- 
ing of this obscure line seems to be " Men, after possession, 
become our commanders ; before it, they are our suppliants." 


4 Then though ] The quarto reads Then ; the folio and 
the other modern editions read improperly That. JOHNSON. 

3 my heart's content ] Content, for capacity, 


On considering the context, it appears to me that we ought to 
read " my heart's consent," not content. M. MASON. 

my heart's content ] Perhaps means, my heart's satis- 
faction or joy; my well pleased heart. So, in our author's De- 


The Grecian Camp. Before Agamemnon's Tent. 

Trumpets. Enter AGAMEMNON, NESTOR, 
ULYSSES, MENELAUS, and Otliers. 

AGAM. Princes, 

What grief hath set the jaundice on your cheeks ? 
The ample proposition, that hope makes 
In all designs begun on earth below, 
Fails in the promis'd largeness: checks and disasters 
Grow in the veins of actions highest rear'd ; 
As knots, by the conflux of meeting sap, 
Infect the sound pine, and divert his grain 
Tortive and errant from his course of growth. 
Nor, princes, is it matter new to us, 
That we come short of our suppose so far, 
That, after seven years* siege, yet Troy walls stand ; 
Sith every action that hath gone before, 
\Vhereof we have record, trial did draw 
Bias and thwart, not answering the aim, 
And that unbodied figure of the thought 
Thatgave't surmised shape. Why then, you princes. 
Do you with cheeks abash'd behold our works ; 
Andthink them shames, which are, indeed, nought 

But the protractive trials of great Jove, 

dication of his Vcnm and Adonh to Loril Southampton: " J 
leave it to your honourable survey, and your honour to' your 
heart's content'' This is the reading of the quarto. The toliu 
has contents. MAI. ONI-;. 

My heart's content, I believe, signifies I he acquiescence of 
nni heart. STKF.VJ;VS, 


To find persistive constancy in men ? 

The fineness of which metal is not found 

In fortune's love : for then, the bold and coward, 

The wise and fool, the artist and unread, 

The hard and soft, seem all affin'd 6 and kin : 

But, in the wind and tempest of her frown, 

Distinction, with a broad 7 and powerful fan, 

Puffing at all, winnows the light away ; 

And what hath mass, or matter, by itself 

Lies, rich in virtue, and unmingled. 

NEST. With due observance of thy godlike seat, 8 
Great Agamemnon, Nestor shall apply 
Thy latest words. 9 In the reproof of chance 

5 affirfd ] i. e. joined by affinity. The same adjective 

occurs in Othello: 

" If partially ciffin'd, or leagu'd in office." STEEVENS. 

7 broad ] So the quarto. The folio reads loud. 


s With due observance of thy godlike seat,'] Goodly [the 
reading of the folio] is an epithet that carries no very great com- 
pliment with it ; and Nestor seems here to be paying deference 
to Agamemnon's state and pre-eminence. The old books [the 
quartos] have it to thy godly scat: godlike, as I have reformed 
the text, seems to me the epithet designed ; and is very conform- 
able to what TEneas afterwards says of Agamemnon : 
" Which is that god in office, guiding men ?" 
So godlike seat is here, state supreme above all other com- 
manders. THEOBALD. 

This emendation Theobald might have found in the quarto, 
which has the godlike seat. JOHNSON. 

thy godlike seat,] The throne in which thou sittest, 

" like a descended god." MALONE. 

9 Nestor shall apply 

Thy latest words.] Nestor applies the words to another in- 
stance. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Nestor means, that he will attend particularly to, and 
consider, Agamemnon's latest words. So, in an ancient inter- 
lude, entitled, The Nice Wanton, 1560: 


Lies the true proof of men : The sea being smooth, 

How many shallow bauble boats dare sail 

Upon her patient breast, 1 making their way 

With those of nobler bulk ?* 

But let the ruffian Boreas once enrage 

The gentle Thetis, 3 and, anon, behold 

The strong-ribb'd bark through liquid mountains 


Bounding between the two moist elements, 
Like Perseus' horse:* Where's then the saucy boat, 

" O ye children, let your time be well spent ; 
" Applifc your learning, and your elders obey." 
See also Vol. IX." p. 4-0, n. 3. MALOXK. 

patient breast, ~\ The quarto, not so well ancient 

breast. Jon N.SOX. 

* With those of nobler bnlk?~\ Statins has the same thought, 

though more diffusively expressed : 

" Sic ubi magna novum Phario de littore puppis 

" Solvit iter, j.imque innumeros utrinque rudentes 

" Lataque velit'eri porrexit brachia mali, 

" Invasitque vias ; it eodem angusta phaselus 

" /Kquore, ct immcnsi partem sibi vendicat austri." 

Again, in The .SyAvr of the same author, Lib. I. iv. 1'JO: 

" immensoe veluti connexa carina? 

" Cymba minor, cum so?vit hyems 
" et eodem volvitur aiustro." 

Mr. Pope has imitated the passage. STFEVKXS. 

"' But let the ruffian Boreas once enrage 

The gentle Thetis,'} So, in Lord (.Vowinr//, IfiO'J: " When 
1 have seen Boreas begin U> play the r.iffian with us, then would 
1 down on my knees." M A LOST.. 

4 Bounding between the luso inoi^l elements, 

Like I'erxens? horte ;~\ iMi-rcury, according to the fable, 
presented JVrseus \\illi ,'nl:ii'/ !, but \vi> nowhere hear ot his 
horse. The only Hying horse u!' antiquity was I'eg.i^us; and he 
\vas the property, not oi' T.-I'M u<, lut llellerophon. Hut our 
poet followed a more modern fabuli>t, the author of I he Destruc- 
tion ti/'Troij, a liook which furnished him with .-onic other cir- 
cuni-t.inces of this play. Of the horse alluded to in the text he 
i'ouud in that book the following account : 


Whose weak untimber'd sides but even now 
Co-rivaPd greatness ? either to harbour fled, 
Or made a toast for Neptune. Even so 
Doth valour's show, and valour's worth, divide, 
In storms of fortune: For, in her ray and brightness, 
The herd hath more annoyance by the brize, 5 
Than by the tiger : but when the splitting wind 
Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks, 

" Of the blood that issued out [from Medusa's head] there 
engendered Pegasus, or thejlying horse. By the flying horse 
that was engendered of the blood issued from her head, is under- 
stood, that of her riches issuing of that realme he [Perseus] 
founded and made a ship named Pegase, and this ship was liken- 
ed unto an horse flying," &c. 

Again: " By this fashion Perseus conquered the head of 
Medusa, and did make Pegase, the most swift ship that was in 
all the world." 

In another place the same writer assures us, that this ship, 
which he always calls Perseus' flying horse, "jlew on the sea 
like unto a bird." 

Dest. of Troy, 4to. 1617, p. 155 164. MALONE. 

The foregoing note is a very curious one ; and yet our author 
perhaps would not have contented himself with merely compar- 
ing one ship to another. Unallegorized Pegasus might be fairly 
styled Perseus' horse, because the heroism of Perseus had given 
him existence. 

So, in the fable of The Hors, the Shepe, and the Ghoos, 
printed by Caxton : 

" The stede qfperseus was cleped pigase 
" With swifte wynges" &c. 
Whereas, ibid, a ship is called " an hors of tre." 

See University Library, Cambridge, D. 5. 42. STEEVENS. 

s by the brize,] The brize is the gad or horse-Jiy. So, 

in Monsieur Thomas, 1639 : 

" Have ye got the brize there ? 

** Give me the holy sprinkle." 

Again, in Vittoria Corombona, or The White Deri?, 1612: " I 
will put brize in his tail, set him a gadding presently." 
See note on Antony and Cleopatra, Act III. sc. viii. 



And flies fled under shade," Why, then, the thing 

of courage, 7 

As rous'd with rage, with rage doth sympathize, 
And with an accent turn'd in self-same key, 
Returns to chiding fortune. 8 

ULYSS. Agamemnon, 

Thou great commander, nerve and bone of Greece, 
Heart of our numbers, soul and only spirit, 
In whom the tempers and the minds of all 
Should be shut up, hear what Ulysses speaks. 
Besides the applause and approbation 
The which, most mightyfor thy place and sway, 


And thoumost reverend for thystretch'd-out life, 

[7o NESTOK. 

I give to both your speeches, which were such, 
As Agamemnon and the hand of Greece 
Should hold up high in brass ; and such again, 
As venerable Nestor, hatch'd in silver, 

And flies fled under shade,'] i. c. And flies are fled under 
shade. 1 have observed similar omissions in the works of many 
of our author's contemporaries. MALONE. 

ifie I fiing of courage,] It is said of the tiger, that in 

storms and high winds he rages and roars most furiously. 


h Returns to eluding fortune.] I ; or returns, Hanmor reads 
replies, unnecessarily, the sense being the same. The folio and 
quarto have retire.*, corruptly. JOHNSON. 

So, in King Richard II : 

" Northumberland, say thus the king return*;- 

STKKVI ,\s. 

The emendation was made by Mr. Pope. Chiding is noisy, 
clamorous. So, in King Henry \ III : 

" As dotii a rock against the e/iit/i>ig Hood." 
Seep. l'J7, n. (>. MAI. ONE. 

See also Vol. IV. p. I/JO, n. 5. 


Should with a bond of air (strong as the axletree 9 
On which heaven rides,) knit all the Greekish ears 
Tohisexperienc'dtongue, 1 yetletitpleaseboth, 

9 axletree ] This word was anciently contracted into 

a dissyllable. Thus in Beaumont and Fletcher's Bonduca : 

*< when the mountain 

" Melts under their hot wheels, and from their ax'trees 
" Huge claps of thunder plough the ground before them." 


1 speeches, "which were such, 

As Agamemnon and the hand of Greece 
Should hold up high in brass ; and such again y 
As venerable Nestor, hatch'd in silver, 
Shoidd with a bond of air 

-knit all the Greekish ears 

To his experienced tongue,~] Ulysses begins his oration with 
praising those who had spoken before him, and marks the cha- 
racteristick excellencies of their different eloquence, strength, 
and sweetness, which he expresses by the different metals on 
which he recommends them to be engraven for the instruction 
of posterity. The speech of Agamemnon is such that it ought 
to be engraven in brass, and the tablet held up by him on the 
one side, and Greece on the other, to show the union of their 
opinion. And Nestor ought to be exhibited in silver, uniting 
all his audience in one mind by his soft and gentle elocution. 
Brass is the common emblem of strength, and silver of gentle- 
ness. We call a soft voice a silver voice, and a persuasive 
tongue a silver tongue. I once read for hand, the band, of 
Greece, but I think the text right. To hatch is a term of art 
for a particular method of engraving. Hachcr, to cut, Fr. 


In the description of Agamemnon's speech, there is a plain 
allusion to the old custom of engraving laws and publick records 
in brass, and hanging up the tables in temples, and other places 
of general resort. Our author has the same allusion in Measure 
for Measure, Act V. sc. i. The Duke, speaking of the merit of 
Angelo and Escalus, says, that 

" it deserves with characters of brass 

" A forted residence, 'gainst the tooth of time 

" And razurc of oblivion ." 

So far therefore is clear. \Vhv Nestor is said to be hatch'd in 
silver, is much more obscure. I once thought that we ought to 
read, thatch'd in silver, alluding to his silver hair; the same 


Thou great, and wise, 2 to hear Ulysses speak. 

metaphor being used by Timon, Act IV. sc. iv. to Phryne and 
Timandra : 

thatch your poor thin roofs 

" With burthens of the (lead- 
But I know not whether the present reading may not be under- 
stood to convey the same allusion ; as I find, that the species of 
engraving, called hatching, was particularly used in the hilts of 
swords. See Cotgrave in v. Huc/ic ; hacked, &c. also, Hatched, 
as the hilt of a sword; and in v. Hacher ; to hacke, &c. also, 
to hatch a hilt. Beaumont and Fletcher's Custom of ihc Country, 
Vol. II. p. 90 : 

" When thine own bloody sword cried out against thce, 

" JIatch'd in the life of him ." 

As to what follows, if the reader should have no more con- 
ception than I have, of 

a bond of air, strong as the axle-tree 

" On which heaven rides ;- 

he will perhaps excuse me lor hazarding a conjecture, that the 
true reading may possibly be: 

a bond o/awe, . 

The expression is used by Fairfax, in his 1th Eclogue, Muses 
Library, p. "(>h : 

" Unty these bonds of awe and cords of duty." 
After all, the construction of this passage is very harsh and 
irregular; but with that I meddle not, believing it was left so by 
the author. TYKWHITT. 

Perhaps no alteration is necessary: haich'd in silver, may 
mean, whose white hair and beard make him look like a Hgurc 
engraved on silver. 

The word is metaphorically used by Jlevwood, in The Iron 

" Is ///(//'(/ \\ ith impudency three-fold thick." 
And again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Humorous Lieutenant; 

' His weapon hatched in blood." 
Again, literally, in 'ihc T\vn Mt-rrii Milkmaids, !(>''_!(): 

" Double and treble gilt, 

" Hatched and iniaid, not tube worn with time." 
Again, more appositely, in Lnvf in a Mnzt', !(>:>'_': 

" Thy hair is tint.' as uohl, thv chin is hatched 

" With silver ." ' 

Airam, m Chairman's version ol the '2">d Iliad.' 

" Shall win this i-wonl. \//;-('/'V and hutch'ti ; " 


AGAM. Speak, 3 prince of Ithaca; and be't of 
less expect 4 

The voice of Nestor, which on all occasions enforced atten- 
tion, might be, I think, not unpoetically called, a bond of air, 
because its operations were visible, though his voice, like the 
wind, was unseen. STEEVENS. 

In a newspaper of the day, intitled The Neives published for 
Satisfaction and Information of the People, Nov. 12, 1663, No. 
XI. p. So, is advertized, " Lost, in Scotland Yard, a broad 
sword hctcht tvith silver." REED. 

In the following verses in our author's Rape ofLucrece, nearly 
the same picture of Nestor is given. The fifth line of the first 
stanza may lead us to the true interpretation of the words 
hatch' d in silver. In a subsequent passage the colour of the old 
man's beard is again mentioned ; 

" I'll hide my silver beard in a gold beaver." 
Dr. Johnson therefore is undoubtedly mistaken in supposing that 
there is any allusion to the soft voice or silver tongue of Nestor. 
The pott, however, might mean not merely that Nestor looked 
tike a figure engraved in silver (as Mr. Steevens supposes)!; but 
that he should actually be so engraved. 

With respect to the breath or speech of Nestor, here called a 
bond of air, it is so truly Shakspearian, that I have not the small- 
est doubt of the genuineness of the expression. Shakspeare fre- 
quently calls words ivind, and air. So, in one of his poems : 

" sorrow ebbs, being blown with uind of words" 

Again, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" Three civil broils, bred of an airy word." 
Again, more appositely, in Much Ado about Nothing: 

11 Charm ache with air, and agony with words." 
The verses above alluded to are these : 

" There pleading you might see grave Nestor stand, 

" As 'twere encouraging the Greeks to fight ; 

" Making such sober action with his hand, 

" That it beguil'd attention, charm'd the sight; 

" In speech it seem'd, his beard all silver white 

" Wagg'd up and down, and from his lips did fly 

" Thin winding breath, which purl'd up to the sky. 

" About him were a press of gaping faces, 

" Which seem'd to swallow up his sound advice, 

" All jointly list'ning but with several graces, 

" As if some mermaid did their ears entice ; 

" Some high, some low ; the painter was so nice, 

" The scalps of many almost hid behind 

" To jump up higher seem'd, to mock the mind." 


That matter needless, of importless burden, 
Divide thy lips ; than we are confident, 

What is here called speech that bcguil'd attention, is in the 
text a bond of air ; i. e. breath, or words that strongly enforced 
the attention of his auditors. In the same poem we find a 
kindred expression : 

" Feast-finding minstrels, tuning my defame, 

" Will tie the hearers to attend each line." 
Again, more appositely, in Drayton's Mortimeriados, 4to. no 
date : 

" Torlton, whose tongue men's ears in chains could bind. 1 ' 
The word knit, which alone remains to be noticed, is often 
used by Shakspcare in the same manner. So, in Macbeth : 

" to the which my duties 

" Are with a most indissoluble lie 

" For ever knit." 

Again, in Othello : " I have profess'd me thy friend, and I 
confess me knit to thy deserving with cables of perdurable 

A passage in Puttenham's Arte of English Poesie, 1589, may 
illustrate that before us : " Whether now persuasions may not 
be said violent and forcible, especially to simple myndes, in spe- 
cial I refer to all men's judgement that hear the story. At least 
waies I finde this opinion confirmed by a pretie devise or em- 
bleme that Lucianus alleageth he saw in the portrait of Hercules 
within the citie of Marseilles in Provence ; where they had 
figured a lustie old man with a long chayne ti/cd by one end at 
Ids tong, by the other end at the people's cares, who stood afar 
off, and seemed to be drawen ' to him by force of that chayne 
fastened to his tong; as who would say, by force of his persua- 
sions." MA LONE. 

Thus, in Chapman's version of the 13th Odyssey : 

" He said; and silence all their tongues contain'd 
" (In admiration) when tc/V// j>! n-otrc chained 
" Their ears had long been to him." STKKVKNS. 

1 Thougm*/, and uv'.sr,] This passage is sense as it stands ; 
yet I have little doubt that Shakspeare wrote 

Though great and uv'xr, . M. MASOV. 

3 Agam. Speak, c.] This speech is not in the quarto. 


4 expect ] Expect for expectation. Thus, in our au- 
thor's works, wtj have suspect for .suspicion, &c. STITVKKS. 


When rank Thersites opes his mastiff jaws, 
We shall hear musick, wit, and oracle. 

ULYSS. Troy, yet upon his basis, had been down, 
And the great Hector's sword had lack'd a master, 5 
But for these instances. 
The specialty of rule 6 hath been neglected: 
And, look, how many Grecian tents do stand 
Hollow upon this plain, so many hollow factions. 7 
WTien that the general is not like the hive s 8 
To whom the foragers shall all repair, 
What honey is expected ? Degree being vizarded, 
The unworthiest shows as fairly in the mask. 

5 Hector's sword had lack'd a master,] So, in Cymleline: 

<( gains, or loses, 

" Your sword, or mine ; or masterless leaves both ." 


6 The specialty of rule ~\ The pc^rticular rights of supreme 
authority. JOHNSON. 

7 Hollow upon this plain, so many hollow factions."] The 
word hollow, at the beginning of the line, injures the metre, 
without improving the sense, and should probably be struck out. 


I would rather omit the word in the second instance. To 
stand empty, (hollow, as Shakspeare calls it,) is a provincial 
phrase applied to houses which have no tenants. These factions, 
however, were avowed, not hollow, or insidious. Remove the 
word hollow, at the beginning of the verse, and every tent in 
sight would become chargeable as the quondam residence of a 
factious chief; for the plain sense must then be there are as 
many hollow factions as there are tents. STEEVENS. 

8 When that the general is not like the hive,~\ The meaning 
is, When the general is not to the army like the hive to the 
bees, the repository of the stock of every individual, that to 
which each particular resorts with whatever he has collected 
for the good of the whole, what honey is expected? what hope 
of advantage ? The sense is clear, the expression is confused. 



The heavens themselves, 9 the planets, and this 

center, l 

Observe degree, priority, and place, 
Insistnre, course, proportion, season, form, 
Office, and custom, in all line of order: 
And therefore is the glorious planet, Sol, 
In noble eminence enthron'd and spher'd 
Amidst the other ; whose med'cinable eye 
Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil, 2 
And posts, like the commandment of a king, 
Sans check, to good and bad: But, when the planets, 
In evil mixture, to disorder wander, 3 

9 The heavens themselves,"] This illustration was probably 
derived from a passage in Hooker: " If celestial spheres should 
forget, their wonted motion ; if the prince of the lights of heaven 
should begin to stand ; if the moon should wander from her 
beaten way; and the seasons of the year blend themselves; what 
would become of man?" WAUBURTON. 

1 the planets, and ///A- center,] i. e. the center of the 

earth, which, according to the Ptolemaic system, then in vogue, 
L> the center of the solar system. WAHBUKTOX. 

By thin center, Ulysses means the earth itself, not the center 
Of the earth. According to the system of Ptolemy, the earth is 
the center round which the planets move. M. MASON. 

* Corrects ih<: ill asfKCtsnfp/anets rcil,~] So, the folio. The 
quarto reads : 

Corrects fh* influence of evil planets. MALONI:. 

* Hut, ichen the planet*, 

In evil mixture, to (lisirrder wander, eve.] I believe* the 
poet, according to astrological opinions, means, when the planets 
form malignant configurations, when their aspects are evil to- 
wards one another. This he terms c"il mixture. JOHNSON. 

The poet's meaning may be somewhat explained by Spenser, 
to whom he seems to be indebted for his present allusion : 
Fbr who so liste into the heavens lookc, 
And search the courses of the rowling spheres, 
Shall find that from the point where they lir>t tooLr 
Their setting forth, in these lew thousand ye:ir s 
They all are windird much ; that plaine appear,:-;. 


What plagues, and what portents? what mutiny? 
What raging of the sea ? shaking of earth ? 
Commotion in the winds ? frights, changes, horrors, 
Divert and crack, rend and deracinate 4 
The unity and married calm of states 5 

" For that same golden fleecy ram, which bore 
" Phrixus and Helle from their stepdames feares, 
" Hath now forgot where he was plast of yore, 
" And shouldred hath the bull which fayre Europa bore. 

" And eke the bull hath with his bow-bent home 
" So hardly butted those two twins of Jove, 
" That they have crush'd the crab, and quite him borne 
" Into the great Nemaean lion's grove. 
" So now all range, and do at random rove 
" Out of their proper places far away, 
" And all this world with them amisse doe move, 
" And all his creatures from their course astray, 
" Till they arrive at their last ruinous decay." 

Fairy Queen, B. V. c. i. STEEVENS. 

The apparent irregular motions of the planets were supposed 
to portend some disasters to mankind ; indeed the planets them- 
selves were not thought formerly to be confined in any fixed 
orbits of their own, but to wander about ad libitum, as the ety- 
mology of their names demonstrates. ANONYMOUS. 

4 deracinate ] i. e. force up by the roots. So again, 

in King Henry V : 

" the coulter rusts 

" That should deracinate such savag'ry." STEEVENS. 

married calm of states ] The epithet married, 

which is used to denote an intimate union, is employed in the 
same sense by Milton : 

" . Lydian airs 

" Married to immortal verse." 
Again : 

" voice and verse 

" Wed your divine sounds." 
Again, in Sylvester's translation of Du Bartas's Eden: 

" . shady groves of noble palm-tree sprays, 

" Of amorous myrtles and immortal bays ; 

" Never unleav'd, but evermore they're new, 

" Self-arching, in a thousand arbours grew. 

" Birds marrying their sweet tunes to the angels' lays, 

" Sum 

.1 V^llllll All Cl LllW Ui5C*llV*. CM. UWlAi >7 C^ * \^ 1 

marrying their sweet tunes to the angels' lays 
Adam's bliss, and their great Maker's praise.' TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 271 

Quite from their fixure? O, when degree is shak'd, 6 
Which is the ladder of all high designs, 
The enterprise 7 is sick! How could communities, 
Degrees in schools, and brotherhoods in cities, 8 
Peaceful commerce from dividable shores, 9 
The primogenitive and due of birth, 
Prerogative of age, crowns, sceptres, laurels, 
But by degree, stand in authentick place ? 
Take but degree away, untune that string, 
And, hark, what discord follows! each thing meets 
fn mere oppugnancy: 1 The bounded waters 
Should lift their bosoms higher than the shores, 
And make a sop of all this solid globe : 2 
Strength should be lord of imbecility, 
And the rude son shoidd strike his father dead : 
Force should be right; or, rather, right and wrong, 
(Between whose endless jar justice resides,) 

The subject of Milton's larger poem would naturally have led 
him to read this description in Sylvester. The quotation from 
him I owe to Dr. Farmer. 

Shakspeare calls a harmony of features, married lineaments^ 
in llomeo and Juliet, Act I. sc. iii. See note on this passage. 


6 O, when degree is shah V/,] I would read : 

So, when degree is shak'd. JOHNSON. 

The enterprise ] Perhaps we should read : 
Then enterprise is sick ! JOHNSON. 

* brotherhoods in cities,"] Corporations, companies, ro- 

fralernities. Jo n N so N. 

dividable shores,] i.e. divided. So, in Antony and 
Cleopatra, our author uses corrigible for corrected. Mr. M. 
Mason has the same observation. STEKVENS. 

1 mere oppugnancy :~\ Me re is absolute. So, in Hamlet-- 

" things rank and gross in natuiv 
" Possess it nierefy." STEKVKN.S. 

* And make a sop of all M/v solid globe :~\ So, in AV-/;, r I -car : 
" I'll make a sop o'the moonshine of jou." 

Si J K\ I N*. 


Should lose their names, and so should justice too. 
Then every thing includes itself in power, 
Power into will, will into appetite ; 
And appetite, an universal wolf, 
So doubly seconded with will and power, 
Must make perforce an universal prey, 
And, last, eat up himself. Great Agamemnon, 
This chaos, when degree is suffocate, 
Follows the choking. 
And this neglection 3 of degree it is, 
That by a pace 4 goes backward, with a purpose 
It hath to climb. 5 The general's disdain'd 
By him one step below ; he, by the next ; 
That next, by him beneath : so every step, 
Exampled by the first pace that is sick 
Of his superior, grows to an envious fever 
Of pale and bloodless emulation : 6 
And 'tis this fever that keeps Troy on foot, 
Not her own sinews. To end a tale of length, 
Troy in our weakness stands, not in her strength. 
NEST. Most wisely hath Ulysses here discover 'd 
The fever whereof all our power 7 is sick. 

this neglection ] This uncommon word occurs again 

in Pericles, 1609 : 

" if neglection 

" Should therein make me vile, " MALONE. 

4 That by a pace ~\ That goes backward step by step. 


ivith a purpose 

It hath to climb.'] With a design in each man to aggrandize 
himself, by slighting his immediate superior. JOHNSON. 

Thus the quarto. Folio in a purpose. MALONE. 

c bloodless emulation .-] An emulation not vigorous and 

active, but malignant and sluggish. JOHNSON. 

7 our power ] i. e. our army. So, in another of our 

author's plays : 

" Who leads his power?" STEEVENS. 


AGAM. The nature of the sickness found, Ulysses, 
What is the remedy ? 

ULYSS. The great Achilles, whom opinion 


The sinew and the forehand of our host, 
Having his ear full of his airy fame, 8 
Grows dainty of his worth, and in his tent 
Lies mocking our designs: With him, Patroclus, 
Upon a lazy bed the livelong day, 
Breaks scurril jests ; 

And with ridiculous and aukward action 
(Which, slanderer, he imitation calls,) 
He pageants us. Sometime, great Agamemnon, 
Thy topless deputation 9 he puts on ; 
And, like a strutting player, whose conceit 
Lies in his hamstring, anil doth think it rich 
To hear the wooden dialogue and sound 
'Twixt his stretch'd footing and the scarfbldage, 1 
Such to-be-pitied and o'er-wrested seeming ~ 

* his a\ry ftimc,~\ Verbal elogium ; what our author, in 

Macbeth, has called mouth honour. See p. -(it-, note. 


* Thy topless deputation ] Topless is that uhich has 
nothing topping or overtopping it: supreme; .so\ereign. 


So, in Doctor Faiisfns, 1601 : 

" Was this the face that launch'd a thousand .ships, 
" And burnt the toplt-s.t towers of Ilium :" 
Again, in 77/6' Ulind H.'-ggdr of Alexandria, 1.-19S: 

" And topi as honours be bestow'd on thee." STEEVI-:NS>. 

1 'Tn~i.rt ///x stretch* (if voting an./ lite scallbldage,] The galle- 
ries of the theatre, in the Line of our author, were sometimes 
termed the scaffolds. See Y'/a Account of the ancient Thi'uti-ts, 

2 oVv-wrested seeming ~] i. e. wrested beyond the truth ; 

overcharged. Both the old copies, as well as ;!! the modern 
editions, have o'er-rested, uhich aliords no meaning. 



He acts thy greatness in : and when he speaks, 
'Tis like a chime a mending; 3 with terms un- 

squar'd, 4 

Which, from the tongue of roaring Typhon dropped, 
Would seem hyperboles. At this fusty stuff, 
The large Achilles, on his press' d bed lolling, 
From his deep chest laughs out a loud applause j 
Cries Excellent ! 'tis Agamemnon just. 
Now play me Nestor ; hem, and stroke thy beard, 
As he, being 'drest to some oration. 
That's done ; as near as the extremest ends 
Of parallels ; 5 as like as Vulcan and his wife : 
Yet good Achilles still cries, Excellent ! 
3 Tis Nestor right! Now play him me, Patroclus, 
Arming to answer in a night alarm. 
And then, forsooth, the faint defects of age 
Must be the scene of mirth ; to cough, and spit, 
And with a palsy-fumbling 6 on his gorget, 

Over-wrested is wound up too high. A wrest was an instru- 
ment for tuning a harp, by drawing up the strings. See Mr. 
Douce's note on Act III. sc. iii. STEEVEXS. 

3 a chime a mending;'] To this comparison the praise 

of originality must be allowed. He who, like myself, has been 
in the tower of a church while the chimes were repairing, will 
never wish a second time to be present at so dissonantly noisy 
an operation. STEEVENS. 

4 unsquar'd,~] i. e. unadapted to their subject, as stones 

are unfitted to the purposes of architecture, while they are yet 

unsquar'd. STEEVENS. 

5 as near as the extremest ends 

Of parallels ;] The parallels to which the allusion seems to 
be made, are the parallels on a map. As like as east to west. 


6 a palsy-Jumbling ] Old copies gives this as two dis- 
tinct words. But it should be written palsy-fumbling, i. e. pa- 
ralytick fumbling. TYRWIIITT. 

Fumbling is often applied by our old English writers to the 
speech. So, in King John % 1591 : 


Shake in and out the rivet : and at this sport, 
Sir Valour dies; cries, O! enough, Putroclus; 
Or give me ribs of steel! I shall split all 
In pleasure of my spleen. And in this fashion, 
All our abilities, gifts, natures, shapes, 
Severals and generals of grace exact, 
Achievements, plots, 7 orders, preventions, 
Excitements to the field, or speech for truce, 
Success, or loss, what is, or is not, serves 
As stuff for these two to make paradoxes. 8 

NEST. And in the imitation of these twain 
(Whom, as Ulysses says, opinion crowns 
With an imperial voice,) many are infect. 
Ajax is grown self-will'd ; and hears his head 
In such a rein/ in full as proud a place 
As broad Achilles : keeps his tent like him ; 
Makes factious feasts ; rails on our state of war, 
Bold as an oracle : and sets Thersites 

hcjiimbleth in the month; 

" His speech doth fail." 
Again, in North's translation of Plutarch: " hr heard hi> 
wife Calphurnia being fast aslecpe, weepe and sigh, and put 
forth many fumbling lamentable specie/it's." 

Shakspeare, I believe, wrote in his gorget. M.U.ONK. 

On seems to be used for at. So, p. '2S5: " Pointing u/i him." 
i. e. at him. STEEVENS. 

7 All our abilities, gifts, natures, shapes, 
Severals and generals of grace exact, 

Achievements, plots, &c.] All our good grace exact, means 
our excellence irrcpnhensiile. JOHNSON. 

s to make paradoxes.] Paradoxes may have a meaning, 

but it is not clear and distinct. I \vish the copies had given : 
to make, parodies. JOHNSON. 

bears his head 

hi such a rein,] That is, holds up his head as haughtily. \\ e 
still say of a girl, she bridles. JOHNSON. 

T 2 


(A slave, whose gall coins slanders like a mint, 1 ) 
To match us in comparisons with dirt ; 
To weaken and discredit our exposure, 
How rank soever rounded in with danger- 2 

ULYSS. They tax our policy, and call it cow- 
ardice ; 

Count wisdom as no member of the war ; 
Forestall prescience, and esteem no act 
But that of hand : the still and mental parts, 
That do contrive how many hands shall strike, 
When fitness calls them on ; and know, by measure 
Of their observant toil, the enemies' weight, 3 
Why, this hath not a finger's dignity : 
They call this bed-work, mappery, closet-war : 
80 that the ram, that batters down the wall, 
For the great swing and rudeness of his poize, 
They place before his hand that made the engine ; 
Or those, that w r ith the fineness of their souls 
By reason guide his execution. 

NEST. Let this be granted, and Achilles' horse 
Makes many Thetis' sons. [Trumpet sounds. 

1 whose gall coins slanders like a mint,"] i. e. as fast as a 

mint coins money. See Vol. XI. p. 2-l<0 5 n. 7. MAL'ONE. 

2 //otu rank soever rounded in with danger. ~] A rank iveed is 
a high iKced. The modern editions silently read: 
Hoiv hard soever . JOHNSON. 

rounded in iviik danger.'] So, in King Henry V : 

" How dread an army hath unrounded him." STEEVENS, 

and Jcnofvo, by measure 

Of their observant, toil, the enemies' weight,"] I think it were 
better to read : 

and Jcnoiv the measure, 
By their observant toil, of the enemies' weight. 


1 i/ measure ] That is, " hi/ means of their observant 

toil." Jr. M\so\. 


Ac AM* What trumpet ? look, Menelaus.* 

Enter JE\EAS. 

MEX. From Troy. 

AGAM. What would you 'fore our tent ? 

JExE. Is this 

Great Agamemnon's tent, I pray ? 

^GVU/. Even this. 

JENE. May one, that is a herald, and a prince, 
Do a fair message to his kingly ears ? 5 

AGAM. With surety stronger than Achilles' arm 6 
'Fore all the Greekish heads, which with one voice 
Call Agamemnon head and general. 

JFjNE. Fair leave, and large security. How may 
A stranger to those most imperial looks 7 

4 What trumpet? look, Menclaus.] Surely, the name of 
Menelaus only serves to destroy the metre, and should therefore 
be omitted. STEEVENS. 

3 kingly ears ? J The quarto : 

-kingly eyes. JOHNSON. 

Achilles' arm ] So the copies. Perhaps the author 

wrote : 

Alcides' arm. JOHNSON. 

7 A stranger to (fiose most imperial looks ] And yet this was 
the seventh year of the war. Shakspeare, who so wonderfully 
preserves character, usually confounds the customs of all nations, 
and probably supposed that the ancients (like the heroes of 
chivalry) fought with beavers to their helmets. So, in the fourth 
Act of this play, Nestor says to Hector : 

" But this thy countenance, still lock'd in steel, 

" I never saw till now." 

Shakspeare might have adopted this error from the wooden 
cuts to ancient books, or from the illuminators of manuscripts, 
who never seem to have entertained the least idea of habits, 
manners, or customs more ancient than their own. There are 


Know them from eyes of other mortals ? 

AGAM. How ? 

MNE. Ay; 

I ask, that I might waken reverence, 
And bid the cheek 8 be ready with a blush 
Modest as morning when she coldly eyes 
The youthful Phoebus : 
Which is that god in office, guiding men ? 
Which is the high and mighty Agamemnon ? 

AGAM. This Trojan scorns us; or the men of 

Are ceremonious courtiers. 

JENE. Courtiers as free, as debonair, unarm'd, 
As bending angels ; that's their fame in peace : 
But when they would seem soldiers, they have galls, 
Good arms, strong joints, true swords; and, Jove's 

Nothing so lull of heart. 9 But peace, 

books in the British Museum of the age of King Henry VI; and 
in these the heroes of ancient Greece are represented in the very 
dresses worn at the time when the books received their decora- 
tions. STEEVENS. 

In The Destruction of Troy Shakspeare found all the chief- 
tains of each army termed knights, mounted on stately horses, 
defended with modern helmets, &c. c. MA LONE. 

In what edition did these representations occur to Shakspeare? 


s bid the cheek ] So the quarto. The folio has : 

on the cheek . JOHNSON. 

they have galls, 

Good arms, strong joints, true stoords ; and, Jove's accord, 
Not king so full of heart.] I have not the smallest doubt that 
the poet wrote (as I suggested in my SECOND APPENDIX, 8vo. 
1783) : 

they have galh, 

Good arms, strong joints, true sivordsj and, Jove's a god 
Nothing so full of heart. 


Peace, Trojan ; lay thy finger on thy lips ! 

So, in Macbeth : 

" Sleek o'er your rugged looks; be bright antljovw/ 

" Among your guests to-night." 
Again, in Antony and Cleopatra : 

" Caesar, why he's the Jupiter of men." 
Again, ibidem : 

" Thou art, if thou dar'st be, the earthly Jove. 1 * 
The text, in my apprehension, is unintelligible, though I have 
not ventured, on my own opinion, to disturb it. In the old copy 
there is no point after the word accord, which adds some sup- 
port to my conjecture. It also may be observed, that in peace 
the Trojans have just been compared to angels; and here /hneas, 
in a similar strain of panegyrick, compares them in war to that 
God who was proverbially distinguished for high spirits. 

The present punctuation of the text was introduced by Mr. 
Theobald. The words being pointed thus, lie thinks it clear 
that the meaning is They have galls, good arms, &c. and, Jove 
annucnte, nothing is so full of heart as they. Had Shakspeare 
written, " ivith Jove's accord," and " Nothing's so full," &c. 
such an interpretation might be received ; but, as the words 
stand, it is inadmissible. 
The quarto reads : 

and great Jove's accord &c. MALONE. 

Perhaps we should read : 

and Love's a lord 

Nothing so full of heart. 

The words Jove and Love, in a future scene of this play, are sub- 
stituted for each other, by the old blundering printers. In Love's 
Labour's Lost, Cupid is styled " Lord of ay-mees ;" and Itomeo 
speaks of his " bosom's Lord." In Othello, Love is commanded 
to "yield up his hearted throne." And yet more appositely, 
Valentine, in The Tico Gentlemen of I'erona, says, 

" love's a mighty lord ." 

The meaning of /Eneas will then be obvious. The most confi- 
dent of all passions is not so daring as we are in the field. So, in 
Itomeo and Juliet : 

" And what Lovr can do, that dares Love attempt." 
Mr. M. Mason would read " and Jove's own bird." 
Perhaps, however, the old reading may be the true one, the 
speaker meaning to say, that, iv/ien they have the accord <>/ Jove 
on their side, nothing is no courageous as the Trojans. Thus, in 


The worthiness of praise distains his worth, 
If that the prais'd himself bring the praise forth : l 
But what the repining enemy commends, 
That breath fame follows ; that praise, sole pure, 

AGAM. Sir, you of Troy, call you yourself yE 
JENE. Ay, Greek, that is my name. 
AGAM. What's your affair, I pray you? 2 

J&NE. Sir, pardon ; 'tis for Agamemnon's ears. 

AGAM. He hears nought privately, that comes 
from Troy. 

MNE. Nor I from Troy come not to whisper him : 
I bring a trumpet to awake his ear ; - 
To set his sense on the attentive bent, 
And then to speak. 

" The god of soldiers 

" (With the consent of supreme Jove] inform 
" Thy thoughts with nobleness." 

Jove's accord) in the present instance, like the Jove probantf 
of Horace, may be an ablative absolute, as in Pope's version of 
the 19th Iliad, 190: 

" And, Jove attesting, the firm compact made." 

1 The worthiness of praise distains his worth, 

If that the prais'd himself bring the praise forth ;] So, in 
Coriolanus : 

" -- power unto itself most commendable, 
" Hath not a tomb so evident as a chair 
" To extol what it hath done." MALOXE. 

' What's your affair, I pray you ?] The words I pray i/nn, 
are an apparent interpolation, and consequently destroy the mea- 

" JEn. Ay, Greek, that is my name, 
" Agam. What's your affair ? " 

These hemistichs, joined together, form a complete verse. 



Ac AM. Speak frankly as the wind ; 3 

It is not Agamemnon's sleeping hour : 
That thou shalt know, Trojan, lie is awake, 
He tells thee so himself. 

JNE. Trumpet, blow loud, 

Send thy brass voice through all these lazy tents; 
And every Greek of mettle, let him know, 
What Troy means fairly, shall be spoke aloud. 

[ Trumpet sounds. 

We have, great Agamemnon, here in Troy 
A prince call'd Hector, (Priam is his father,) 
Who in this dull and long-continued truce* 
Is rusty 5 grown ; he bade me take a trumpet, 
And to this purpose speak. Kings, princes, lords ! 
If there be one, among the fair'st or Greece, 
That holds his honour higher than his ease ; 
That seeks his praise more than he fears his peril ; 
That knows his valour, and knows not his fear ; 
That loves his mistress more than in confession,* 

' Speak frankly as the wind ;~\ So, Jaques, in As you like it : 

" 1 must have liberty 

" Withal, as large a charter as the wind 

" To blow on whom I please; ." STF.EVEXS. 

4 long-continued truce ] Of this long truce there has 

been no notice taken : in this very Act it is said, that A/ax coped 
I lector yesterday in the battle. JOHNSON. 

Here we have another proof of Shakspeare's falling into incon- 
sistencies, by sometimes adhering to, and sometimes deserting, 
his original : a point, on which some stress has been laid in the 
Dissertation printed at the end of The Third Part of Kin% 
Henry VI. See Vol. XIV. p. <2/j.> f5. 

Of this dull and long-continued truce (which was agreed upon 
nt the desire of the Trojans, for six months,) Sliakspeare found 
.in account in the .seventh chapter of the third Hook of The 
J)cxt ruction of'Troy. In the fifteenth chapter of the same book 
the beautiful daughter of (.'alchas is first introduced. M ALONE. 
rn.^l, I ] Quarto, resty. JOHNSON-. 

" mure titan in confession,] Confession for profession. 



(With truant vows to her own lips he loves, 7 ) 

And dare avow her beauty and her worth, 

In other arms than hers, 8 to him this challenge. 

Hector, in view of Trojans and of Greeks, 

Shall make it good, or do his best to do it, 

He hath a lady, wiser, fairer, truer, 

Than ever Greek did compass in his arms ; 

And will to-morrow with his trumpet call, 

Mid- way between your tents and walls of Troy, 

To rouse a Grecian that is true in love : 

If any come, Hector shall honour him ; 

If none, he'll say in Troy, when he retires, 

The Grecian dames are sun-burn'd, and not worth 

The splinter of a lance. 9 Even so much. 

AGAM. This shall be told our loversj lord JEneas ; 
If none of them have soul in such a kind, 
We left them all at home : But we are soldiers ; 
And may that soldier a mere recreant prove, 
That means not, hath not, or is not in love ! 
If then one is, or hath, or means to be, 
That one meets Hector ; if none else, I am he. 

NEST. Tell him of Nestor, one that was a man 
When Hector's grandsire suck'd : he is old now ; 
But, if there be not in our Grecian host 1 
One noble man, that hath one spark of fire 

7 to her otvn lips he loves,'] That is, confession made 

ivith idle voivs to the lips of her whom he loves. JOHNSON. 

8 In other arms than hers,~] Arms is here used equivocally 
for the arms of the body, and the armour of a soldier. 


9 and not worth 

The splinter of a lance.'} This is the language of romance. 
Such a challenge would better have suited Palmerin or Amadis, 
than Hector or ./Eneas. STEEVENS. 

1 in our Grecian host 3 So the quarto. The folio 

has Grecian mould. MALONE. 


To answer for his love, Tell him from me,- 
I'll hide my silver beard in a gold beaver, 
And in my vantbrace" put this wither* d brawn ; 
And, meeting him, will tell him, That my lady 
Was fairer than his grandame, and as chaste 
As may be in the world ; His youth in flood, 
I'll prove tliis truth with my three drops of blood. 5 

J&NE. Now heavens forbid such scarcity of youth ! 
ULYSS. Amen. 

. Fair lord yEneas, let me touch your 

hand ; 

To our pavilion shall I lead you, sir. 
Achilles shall have word of this intent ; 
So shall each lord of Greece, from tent to tent: 
Yourself shall feast with us before you go, 
And find the welcome of a noble foe. 

\_Exeunt all but ULYSSES and NESTOR. 

l r LYSS. Nestor, - 
NEST. What says Ulysses ? 

ULYSS. I have a young conception in my brain, 
Be you my time to bring it to some shape. 4 

* And in riiy vantbrace ] An armour for the arm, avant- 
bras. I J OPK. 

Milton uses the word in his Sampson Agonistcs, and Heywood 
in his Iron Age, 1632: 

" peruse his armour, 

" The dint's still in the rant brace." STKK.VENS. 

3 PR prove t/tis truth //// ?>/// three drops of blood.] So, 
in Coriulann^ one of the Volsci;in (iuard says to old Menenius, 
" Back, I say, po, lest I let forth your half pint of blood." 

Thus the quarto. The folio reads /'// p;i\ui this truth. 


4 lie you mif time &C.] i. e. be you to my present purpose 
what time is in respect of all other schemes, \ i/.. a ripcncr and 
bringer of them to maturity. STELVENS. 


NEST. What is't ? 

ULYSS. This 'tis : 

Blunt wedges rive hard knots : The seeded pride 5 
That hath to this maturity blown up 
In rank Achilles, must or now be cropp'd, 
Or, shedding, breed a nursery 6 of like evil, 
To overbulk us all. 

NEST. Well, and how ? 7 

ULYSS. This challenge that the gallant Hector 


However it is spread in general name, 
Relates in purpose only to Achilles. 

NEST. The purpose is perspicuous even as sub- 
Whose grossness little characters sum up : 8 

I believe Shakspeare was here thinking of the period of gesta- 
tion which is sometimes denominated a female's time, or rec- 
koning. T. C. 

3 The seeded pride &c.] Shakspeare might have taken 

this idea from Lyte's Herbal, 1578 and 1579. The Oleander 
tree or Nerium " hath scarce one good propertie." It may be 
compared to a Pharisee, " who maketh a glorious and beautiful 
show, but inwardly is of a corrupt and poisoned nature." " It 
is high time &c. to supplant it ( i. e. pharisaism ) for it hath 
already floured, so that I feare it will shortly seede, and fill this 
wholesome soyle full of wicked Nerium." TOLLET. 

So, in The Rape of Lucrece : 

" How will thy shame be seeded in thine age, 
" When thus thy vices bud before thy spring?" 


6 nursery J Alluding to a plantation called a nursery. 


7 Well, and hou? ?] We might complete this defective line 
by reading: 

Well, and horv then ? 
Sir T. Hanmer reads how now ? STEEVENS. 

1 The purpose is perspicuous even as substance, 
Whose grossness little characters sum up:'] That is, the 


And, in the publication, make no strain, 9 
But that Achilles, were his brain as barren 
As banks of Libya, though, Apollo knows, 
'Tis dry enough, will with great speed of judg- 

Ay, with celerity, find Hector's purpose 
Pointing on him. 

ULYSS. And wake him to the answer, think you ? 

NEST. Yes, 

It is most meet ; Whom may you else oppose, 
That can from Hector bring those honours 1 off, 
If not Achilles? Though't be a sportful combat, 
Yet in the trial much opinion dwells ; 
For here the Trojans taste our dear'st repute 
With their tin'st palate : And trust to me, Ulysses, 
Our imputation shall be oddly pois'd 
In this wild action : for the success, 

purpose is as plain as body or substance ; and though I have 
collected this purpose from many minute particulars, as ;i gross 
body is made up of small insensible parts, yet the result is ad 
clear and certain as a body thus made up i> palpable and visible. 
This is the thought, though a little obscured in the conciseness of 
the expression. WAHBUKTOK. 

Substance is estate, the value of which is ascertained by thy 
use of small characters, i.e. numerals. iSo, in the prologue ty 
king Henry V : 

" a crooked figure may 

" Attest, in little place, a million." 

The gross sum is a term used in 'ike Merchant of Venice. 
(irosxness has the same meaning in this instance. Srr.rvEXS. 

'-' And, in t/tc publication, nta ! :r no *lr(iin,~] Nestor goes on 
to say, make no diliicultv, no doubt, when this duel comes to. 
be proclaimed, but that Achillas, dull as he is, will disco\er th* 
drift of it. This is t!u meaning of the line. So afterwards, in 
this play, Ulysses says : 

" I do not yfrain at the position." 

i. e. I do not hesitate at, 1 no difficulty of it. THEOBALD. 
1 those fn^ifi^rs "1 Folio A/v honour. MALOM . 


Although particular, shall give a scantling 2 

Of good or bad unto the general ; 

And in such indexes, although small pricks 3 

To their subsequent volumes, there is seen 

The baby figure of the giant mass 

Of things to come at large. It is suppos'd, 

He, that meets Hector, issues from our choice : 

And choice, being mutual act of all our souls, 

Makes merit her election ; and doth boil, 

As 'twere from forth us all, a man distill' d 

Out of our virtues ; Who miscarrying, 

What heart receives from hence a conquering part, 

To steel a strong opinion to themselves ? 

Which entertain'd, 4 limbs are his instruments/ 

In no less working, than are swords and bows 

Directive by the limbs. 

ULYSS. Give pardon to my speech ; 
Therefore 'tis meet, Achilles meet not Hector. 
Let us, like merchants, show our foulest wares, 
And think, perchance, they'll sell ; if not, 6 

8 scantling ] That is, a measure, proportion. The 

carpenter cuts his wood to a certain scantling. JOHNSON. 

So, in John Florio's translation of Montaigne's Essays, folio, 
1603 : " When the lion's skin will not suffice, we must add a 
scantling of the fox's." MALONE. 

small pricks ] Small points compared with the 

volumes. JOHNSON. 

Indexes were, in Shakspeare's time, often prefixed to books. 


4 Which entertain'd, &c.] These two lines [and the COD* 
eluding hemistich] are not in the quarto. JOHNSON. 

5 limbs are his instruments,'} The folio reads : 

limbs are in his instruments. 

I have omitted the impertinent preposition. STEEVENS. 

if not, ~] I suppose, for the sake of metre, we should 

read : 

//'they do not. STEF.VF.NS. 


The lustre of the better shall exceed, 

By showing the worse first. 7 Do not consent, 

That ever Hector and Achilles meet ; 

For both our honour and our shame, in this, 

Are dogg'd with two strange followers. 

NEST. I see them not with my old eyes ; what 
are they ? 

ULYSS. What glory our Achilles shares from 


Were he not proud, we all should share 8 with him : 
But he already is too insolent ; 
And we were better parch in Africk sun, 
Than in the pride and salt scorn of his eyes, 
Should he 'scape Hector fair : If he were foiPd, 
Why, then we did our main opinion 9 crush 
In taint of our best man. No, make a lottery ; 
And, by device, let blockish Ajax 1 draw 

" The lustre of the letter shall exceed, 
Ry showing the -worse first. ~\ The iblio reads : 
The lustre of the better, yet to show, 
Sliall show the better. 

I once thought that the alteration was made by the author : 
but a more diligent comparison of the quartos and the first Iblio 
has convinced me that some arbitrary alterations were made in 
the latter copy by its editor. The quarto copy of this play is in 
general more correct than the folio. MA LONE. 

8 share ] So the quarto. The folio ttrnr. 


9 our nutin opinion ] is, our general estimation or 

character. Stv Vol. XI. p. l'2'J, n. 9. Opinion has already 
been used in this scene in the same sense. MALONE. 

1 blockish A/cue ] Shakspeare, on this occasion, ha 

deserted Lydgate, who gives a very different character of Ajax: 
" Another Ajax (surnameci Tdamon) 
" There was, a man that learning </itl ailorc," itc. 
" Who did so much in eloquence abound, 
" That in his time the like could not be found." 


The sort 2 to fight with Hector : Among ourselves, 

Again : 

" And one that hated pride and flattery" &c. 
Our author appears to have drawn his portrait of the Grecian 
chief from the invectives thrown out against him by Ulysses in 
the thirteenth Book of Ovid's Metamorphosis, translated by 
Golding, 1 587 ; or from the prologue to Harrington's Meta- 
morphosis of Ajax, 1596, in which he is represented as "strong, 
heady, boisterous, and a terrible fighting fellow, but neither 
wise, learned, staide, nor polliticke." STEEVENS. 

I suspect that Shakspeare confounded Ajax Telamonius with 
Ajax Oileus. The characters of each of them are given by 
Lydgate. Shakspeare knew that one of the Ajaxes was Hector's 
nephew, the son of his sister ; but perhaps did not know that he 
was Ajax Telamonius, and in consequence of not attending to 
this circumstance has attributed to the person whom he has 
introduced in this play part of the character which Lydgate had 
drawn for Ajax Oileus : 

" Oileus Ajax was right corpulent; 

" To be well cladde he set all his entent. 

" In rich aray he was full curyous, 

" Although he were of body corsyous. 

" Of armes great, with shoulders square and brode ; 

" It was of him almost a horse-lode. 

" High of stature, and boystrous in a pres, 

" And of his speech rude, and reckless. 

" Fidl many "worde in ydel hym asterte, 

" And but a coward was he of his herte." 
Ajax Telamonius he thus describes : 

" An other Ajax Thelamonyius 

" There was also, diserte and virtuous ; 

" Wonder faire and semely to behold, 

" Whose heyr was black and upward ay gan foldc, 

" In compas wise round as any sphere ; 

" And of musyke was there none his pere. 

" yet had he good practike 

" In armcs eke, and was a noble knight. 

" No man more orped, nor hardyer for to fight, 

" Nor desirous for to have victorye ; 

" Devoyde of pomp, hating all vayn glorye, 

" All ydle laud spent and blowne in vayne." 

Lydgate's Auncient Historic, &c. 1555. 

There is not the smallest ground in Lydgate for what the 
author of the Rifacimento of this poem, published in 161 1, hui 


Give him allowance for the better man, 
For that will physick the great Myrmidon, 
Who broils in loud applause ; and make him fall 
His crest, that prouder than blue Iris bends. 
If the dull brainless Ajax come safe oft', 
We'll dress him up in voices: If he fail, 
Yet go we under our opinion 3 still 
That we have better men. 13ut, hit or miss, 
Our project's life this shape of sense assumes, 
Ajax, employed, plucks down Achilles' plumes. 

introduced, concerning his eloquence and adoring learning. See 
Mr. Steevens's note. 

Perhaps, however, The Destruction of Troi/ led Shnkspeare to 
give this representation; for the author of that book, describing 
these two persons, improperly calls Ajax Oileus, simply Ajax y 
as the more eminent of the two: 

" Ajajcwas of a huge stature, great and large in the shoulders, 
great armes, and always was well clothed, and very richly ; and 
was of no great enterprise, and spake very quicke. Tlielamon 
Ajax was a marvellous faire knight ; he had black hayres, and 
he hadde great pleasure in musicke, and he sang him selfe very 
well : he was of greate prowesse, and a valiant man of warre, 
and without pompe." MALOXK. 

Mr. Malonc observes, that " there is not the smallest ground, 
&c. concerning his eloquence and adoring learning." Hut may 
we ask what interpretation this gentleman would give to the 

" dixerte and virtitmis?" 

F>y the first word, (formed from the Latin discrtitx^ eloquence 
must have been designed ; and by the latter, the arlcs in^t-niia', 
which in the age of Lydgate were often called the virtHon* arts. 


* The sort ] i.e. tlie lot. STKF.YF.XS. 

So, in Lyddite's Amieient Jl'^t'/rif, &c: 
" Calchas had experience 
" Especially of calculation ; 
" Of Korte also, and divynatinn." MAI.ONF. 

under our opinion ] Here again opinion means cha- 
racter. MAI.ONL. 



NEST. Ulysses, 

Now I begin to relish thy advice ; * 
And I will give a taste of it forthwith 
To Agamemnon : go we to him straight. 
Two curs shall tame each other ; Pride alone 
Must tarre the mastiffs on, 5 as 'twere their bone. 



Another Part of the Grecian Camp. 

AJAX. Thersites, 

THER. Agamemnon how if he had boils? full, 
all over, generally? 

AJAX. Thersites, 

THEE. And those boils did run ? Say so, did 
not the general run then ? were not that a botchy 
core ? 

AJAX. Dog, 

4 Ulysses, 

Noiv I begin &c.] The quarto and folio have A'orc, 

Ulysses, I begin, &c. The transposition was made by Mr. 
Steevens. MALONE. 

J Must tarre the mastiffs on,"] Tarre, an old English wt>rd, 
signifying to provoke or urge on. See King John, Act IV. so. i : 

" like a dog, 

" Snatch at his master that doth tarre him on." POPE. 

6 Act II.'] This play is not divided into Acts in any of the 
original editions, JOHNSON'. 


THER. Then would come some matter from him j 
I see none now. 

AJAX. Thou bitch-wolfs son, canst thou not 
hear ? Feel then. [Strikes him. 

THER. The plague of Greece upon thee, 7 thou 
mongrel beef-witted lord! 8 

AJAX. Speak then, thou tinsalted leaven, speak: 9 
I will beat thee into handsomeness. 

1 The plague of Greece upon thee,] Alluding perhaps to the 
plague sent by Apollo on the Grecian army. JOHNSON. 

The following lines of Lydgate's Auncicnt Historic of the 
War res between the Trojans and the Grecians, 1555, were pro- 
bably here in our author's thoughts : 

And in this whyle a great mortalyte, 
Both of sworde and of pestilence, 
Among Grcekes, by fatal influence 
Of noyou.s liete and of corrupt eyre, 
Engendrcd was, that tho in great dispayre 
Of theyr life in the fyelde they leye, 
For day by day sodaynly they deye, 
Whereby theyr nombre fast gan dyscrece ; 
And whan they sawe that it ne wolde sece, 
By theyr advyse the kyng Agamemnowne 
For a trewse sent unto the towne, 
For thirty dayes, and Priamus the kinge 
" Without abode graunted his axynge." MA LUXE. 

Our author may as well be supposed to have caught this cir- 
cumstance, relative to the plague, from the first Book of Hall's 
or Chapman's version of the Iliad. STEEVICNS. 

8 thou mongrel beef-witted /on/!] So, in Twelfth- 
Night : " I am a great eater of beef, and I believe that does 
harm to my it//." STEEVENS. 

He calls Ajax mongrel on account of his father's bring u 
Grecian and his mother a Trojan, See Hector's :-.peecli to Ajax, 
m Act IV. se. v: 

" Thou art, great lord, my father's sister's son," <!vc. 

MA i. ONI:. 

" Speak then, than unsalted leaven, speak :~\ Unsnltrd leaven 
means sour without, rait, malignity without wit. Shakspearc 

I 'J 


THER. I shall sooner rail thee intawit and holi- 
ness : but, I think, thy horse will sooner con an 
oration, than thou learn a prayer without book. 
Thou canst strike, canst thou ? a red murrain o'thy 
jade's tricks! 1 

AJAX. Toads-stool, learn me the proclamation. 

THER. Dost thou think, I have no sense, thou 
strikest me thus ? 

AJAX. The proclamation, 

THER. Thou art proclaimed a fool, I think. 

AJAX. Do not, porcupine, do not ; my fingers 

THER. I would, thou didst itch from head to 
foot, and I had the scratching of thee ; I would 

wrote first unsalted ; but recollecting that want of salt was no 
fault in leaven, changed it to vinew'd. JOHNSON. 

The want of salt is no fault in leaven ; but leaven without the 
addition of salt will not make good bread : hence Shakspeare 
used it as a term of reproach. MA LONE. 

Unsalted is the reading of both the quartos. Francis Beau- 
mont, in his letter to Speght on his edition of Chaucer's works, 
1602, says: " Many of Chaucer's words are become as it were 
lineiv'd and hoarie with over long lying." 

Again, in Tho. Newton's Herbal to the Bible, 8vo. 1587: 
" For being long kept they grow hore and vineived." 


In the Preface to James the First's Bible, the translators speak 
offenoivcd (i.e. vinewed or mouldy) traditions. 


The folio has thou ivhinid'st leaven ; a corruption undoubt- 
edly of vinnewdst, or vinniedst: that is, thou most mouldy leaven. 
In Dorsetshire they at this day call cheese that is become 
mouldy, vinny cheese. MALONE. 

* a red murrain &c.] A similar imprecation is found 

in Tkf Tempest : " The red nl/igiti: rid you !" 


make thee the loathsomest scab in Greece. 2 When 
thou art forth in the incursions, thou strikest as 
as another. 

AJAX. I say, the proclamation, 

THER. Thou grumblest and railest every hour 
on Achilles ; and thou art as full of envy at his 
greatness, as Cerberus is at Proserpina's beauty, 
ay, that thou barkcst at him." 

AJAX. Mistress Thersites! 

THER. Thou shouldest strike him. 

AJAX. Cobloaf! 4 

THER. He would pun thee into shivers 5 with his 
fist, as a sailor breaks a biscuit. 

* in Greece.'] [Thus far the folio.] The quarto adds 

ivhen thou art forth in the incursions, thou strikest as s/oiv as an- 
vthcr. JOHNSON. 

ay, ihat thou barkcst at him.'] I read, O that thou 

The old reading is /, which, if changed at all, should have 
been changed into ay. TYRWHITT. 

4 Cobloaf!~\ A crusty, uneven, gibbous loaf, is in sonic 
counties called by this name. STEEVKNS. 

A cob-loaf, says Minshcu, in his Dictionary, HJlfi, is " a 
bunne. It is a little loaf made with a round head, such as cob- 
Jrons which support the fire. (J. Bi^net, a bignc, a knob or 
lump risen after a knock or blow." The word liigtiets Cotgrave, 
in his Dictionary, 1611, renders thus : " Little round loaves or 
lumps, made of fine meale, oyle, or butter, and reasons: bunnes, 
lenten loaves." 

Cod-loaf ought, perhaps, to be rather written cop-loaf. 

-pun t/ier into sfiivrrs ] Pnn is in the midland coun- 

lics the vulgar and colloquial word for poinnL JOHNSON. 

It is used by P. Holland, in his translation of Pliny's \atnra! 
History, Book XXVIII. eh. xii : " punned altogether and 


AJAX. You whoreson cur ! [Beating him. 

THEE. Do, do. 

AJAX. Thou stool for a witch ! 6 

THER. Ay, do, do ; thou sodden-witted lord! thou 
hast no more brain than I have in mine elbows ; 
an assinego 7 may tutor thee : Thou scurvy valiant 

reduced into a liniment." Again, Book XXIX. ch. iv : " The 
gall of these lizards punned and dissolved in water." STEEVENS. 

Cole, in his Dictionary, renders it by the Latin words contero, 
contundo. Mr. Pope, who altered whatever he did not under- 
stand, reads pound, and was followed by three subsequent edi- 
tors. MALONE. 

5 Thou stool for a milch /] In one way of trying a milch they 
used to place her on a chair or stool, with her legs tied across, 
that all the weight of her body might rest upon her seat ; and 
by that means, after some time, the circulation of the blood 
would be much stopped, and her sitting would be as painful as 
the wooden horse. GREY. 

7 an assinego ] I am not very certain what the idea 

conveyed by this word was meant to be. Asinaio is Italian, says 
8ir T. Hannier, for an ass-driver: but, in Mirza, a tragedy, by 
Rob. Baron, Act III. the following passage occurs, with a note 
annexed to it : 

" the stout trusty blade, 

" That at one blow has cut an asinego 
" Asunder like a thread. " 

" This (says the author) is the usual trial of the Persian sham- 
sheers, or cemiters, which are crooked like a crescent, of so good 
rnetal, that they prefer them before any other, and so sharp as 
any razor." 

I hope, for the credit of the prince, that the experiment was 
rather made on an ass, than an ass-driver. From the following 
passage I should suppose asinego to be merely a cant term for a 
foolish fellow, an idiot : " They apparelled me as you see, made 
a fool, or an asinego of me." See The Antiquary, a comedy, by 
8. Marmion, 1641. Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful 
Lady ; " all this would be forsworn, and I again an asinego, 
as your sister left me." STEEVENS. 

Asincgo is Portuguese for a little ass. M use RAVE. 


ass ! thou art here put to thrasli Trojans; and thou 
art bought and sold 8 among those of any wit, like 
a Barbarian slave. If thou use to beat me, 9 I will 
begin at thy heel, and tell what thou art by inches, 
thou thing of no bowels, thou ! 

AJAX. You dog ! 
THER. You scurvy lord ! 

AJAX. You cur ! [Healing liiiu. 

THER. Mars his idiot ! do, rudeness; do, camel ; 
do, do. 


ACHIL. Why, how now, Ajax ? wherefore do 

you thus ? 
How now, Thersites ? what's the matter, man ? 

THER. You see him there, do you ? 
ACHIL. Ay; what's the matter ? 

And Dr. Musgravc might have added, that, in his native 
county, it is the vulgar name for an ass at present. HENLEY. 

The same term, as I am informed, is also current among the 
lower rank of people in Norfolk. STEEVENS. 

An asincgo is a he fiss. " A souldicrs wife abounding with 
more lust than love, complaines to the king, her husband did 
not satish'e her, whereas he makes her to be coupled to an 
asinegOf whose villainy and lust took away her life." 

Herbert's Trawl*, IG'M, p. ( JS. RITSOX. 

8 thou art bought and sold ] This was a proverbial 

expression. MALONE. 

So, in King Richard III : 

" For Dickon thy master is bought and sold." 
Again, in King Henry VI. Part I : 

" From bought and fold lord Talbot." STKKVKNS. 

" I/ thou use lo beat ',] i. e. if thou continue to beat me, 
or make a practice of beating me. 


THER. Nay, look upon him. 
ACHIL. So I do ; What's the matter ? 
THER. Nay, but regard him well. 
ACHIL. Well, why I do so. 

THER. But yet you look not well upon him : for, 
whosoever you take him to be, he is Ajax. 

ACHIL. I know that, fool. 

THER. Ay, but that fool knows not himself. 

AJAX. Therefore I beat thee. 

THER. Lo, lo, lo, lo, what modicums of wit he 
utters ! his evasions have ears thus long. 1 have 
bobbed his brain, more than he has beat my bones: 
I will buy nine sparrows for a penny, and his pia 
mater 1 is not worth the ninth part of a sparrow. 
This lord, Achilles, Ajax,- who wears his wit in 
his belly, and his guts in his head, I'll tell you 
what I say of him. 

ACHIL. W T hat? 

THER. I say, this Ajax 

ACHIL. Nay, good Ajax. 

[AJAX offers to strike him, ACHILLES 

THER. Has not so much wit 

ACHIL. Nay, I must hold you. 

THER. As will stop the eye of Helen's needle, 
for whom he comes to fight. 

ACHIL. Peace, fool ! 

1 his pia mater <ffc. J So, in Twelfth- Night : " here 

comes one of thy kin has a most weak pia mater." The pia 
mater is a membrane that protects the substance of the brain. 



THER. I would have peace and quietness, but the 
fool will not : he there ; that he ; look vou there. 


AJAX. O thou damned cur ! I shall 

ACHIL. "Will you set your wit to a fool's ? 

THER. No, I warrant youj for a fool's will 
shame it. 

PATR. Good words, Thersites. 
ACHIL. What's the quarrel ? 

AJAX. I bade the vile owl, go learn me the te- 
nour of the proclamation, and he rails upon me. 

THER. I serve thce not. 
AJAX. Well, go to, go to. 
THER. I serve here voluntary. 

ACHIL. Your last service was sufferance, 'twas not 
voluntary; no man is beaten voluntary;- Ajax was 
here the voluntary, and you as under an impress. 

THER. Even so ? a great deal of your wit too 
lies in your sinews, or else there be liars. Hector 
shall have a great catch, if lie knock out either of 
your brains ; 3 'a were as good crack a fusty nut with 
no kernel. 

ACHIL. What, with me too, Thersites ? 

THER. There's Ulysses, and old Nestor, whoso 
wit was mouldy ere your grandsires had nails* on 

is beaten voluntary;] i. c. voluntarily. Shakspeare olicn 

uses adjectives adverbially. See Vol. XI. p. :5,S(>, u. 5. 


3 Hector shall have ft great catch, if he kimcl; out cither iif i/uur 
brains; &c.] The same thought occurs in Cijtnbeline: 

" not I lercules 

" Could have knock'tl out his brains, lor he had none." 


r, n7/o.?c felt ii-itx mnitlt/i/ err your grand.*! res 

had nails ] [Old copies their jjramlsires.] This is one ol 


their toes, yoke you like draught oxen, and make 
you plough up the wars. 

ACHIL. What, what ? 

THER. Yes, good sooth j To, Achilles ! to, Ajax ! 

AJAX. I shall cut out your tongue. 

THER. 'Tis no matter ; I shall speak as much as 
thou, afterwards. 

PATH. No more words, Thersites ; peace. 

THER. I will hold my peace when Achilles' brach 
bids me, 5 shall I? 

these editors' wise riddles. What ! was Nestor's wit mouldy be- 
fore his grandsire's toes had nails ? Preposterous nonsense ! and 
yet so easy a change as one poor pronoun for another, sets all 
right and clear. THEOBALD. 

5 'when Achilles 1 brach bids me,~\ The folio and quarto 

read Achilles brooch. Brooch is an appendant ornament. The 
meaning may be equivalent to one of Achilles' hangers-on. 


Brach I believe to be the true reading. He calls Patroclus, 
in contempt, Achilles's dog. So, in Timon nf Athens: 
" When thou art Timon's dog" &c. 

A brooch was a cluster of gems affixed to a pin, and anciently 
worn in the hats of people of distinction. See the portrait of Sir 
Christopher Hatton. STEEVEXS. 

I believe brache to be the true rending. It certainly means a 
hitch, and not a dog, which renders the expression more abusive 
and offensive. Thersites calls Patroclus Achilles* brache, for the 
same reason that he afterwards calls him his male harlot, and his 
masculine whore. M. MASON. 

I have little doubt of broch being the true reading, as a term 
of contempt. 

The meaning of broche is well ascertained a spit a bodkin ; 
which being formerly used in the ladies' dress, was adorned with 
jewels, and gold and silver ornaments. Hence in old lists of 
jewels are found brotchcts. 

I have a very magnificent one, which is figured and described 
by Pennant, in the second volume of his Tourto Scolland,'m 1772, 


AcillL. There's for you, Patroclus. 

THER. I will see you hanged, like clotpoles, crc 
I come any more to your tents ; I will keep where 
there is wit stirring, and leave the faction of fools. 


PATH. A good riddance. 

ACHIL. Marry, tliis, sir, is proclaimed through 

all our host : 

That Hector, by the first 6 hour of the sun, 
Will, with a trumpet, 'twixt our tents and Troy, 
To-morrow morning call some knight to arms, 
That hath a stomach ; and such a one, that dare 
Maintain I know not what; 'tis trash: Farewell. 

p. 11, in which the spit or bodkin forms but a very small part of 
the whole. LOUT. 

Brock was, properly, a trinket with a pin affixed to it, and is 
consequently used by Shukspeare for an ornament in general. 
So, in Hamlet: 

" he is the brooch indeed 

" And gem of all the nation." 
So, in Antony and Cleopatra; 

" not the imperious show 

" Of the lull fortun'd Caesar, ever shall 
" Be broach' d with me." 

But Thcrsites could not mean to compliment Patroclus, and 
therefore this cannot, 1 think, be the true reading. lirach, which 
was introduced by Mr. I\o\ve, might serve well enough, but that 
it certainly meant a hitch. [Sec Vol. IX. p. 1(J, n. !).] It is 
possible, however, that Shakspeare might have used the word as 
.^ynonymous to follower, without any regard to sex. 

I have sometimes thought that the word intended might have 
been Achilles's brock, i. e. that over-weening conceited cox- 
comb, who attends upon Achilles. Our author has used this 
term of contempt in Twlflh-Xighl : " Marry, hang thce, 
/irock!" So, in Tin- Jests of dVi/r^r 7V<7r, quarto, l(i.;7: 
" This self-conceited brock had (ieorge invited," \e. 

A brock, literally, means a badger. S i\s. 

the first ] So the quarto. Folio \\\ej(flh . 

M.\ LONE. 


AJAX. Farewell. Who shall answer him ? 

ACIIIL. I know not, it is put to lottery ; other- 
He knew his man. 

AJAX. O, meaning you : I'll go learn more of 
it. [Exeunt. 


Troy. A Room in Priam's Palace. 


PRI. After so many hours, lives, speeches spent, 
Thus once again says Nestor from the Greeks ; 
Deliver Helen, and all damage else 
As honour, loss of time, travel, expence, 
Wounds, friends, and what else dear that is consumed 
In hot digestion of this cormorant tear, 
Shall be struck off: Hector, what say you to't ? 

HECT. Though no man lesser fears the Greeks 

than I, 

As far as toucheth my particular, yet, 
Dread Priam, 

There is no lady of more softer bowels, 
More spungy 7 to suck in the sense of fear, 
More ready to cry out Who knows what follows?* 
Than Hector is: The wound of peace is surety, 

7 spungy ] So, in Macbeth: 

" his spungy officers." STEEVENS. 

* Who knows what follows ?] Who knows what ill 

consequences may follow from pursuing this or that course ? 



Surety secure ; but modest doubt is call'd 
The beacon of the wise, the tent that searches 
To the bottom of the worst. Let Helen go : 
Since the first sword was drawn about this question, 
Every tithe soul, 'mongst many thousand dismes," 
Hath been as dear as Helen ; I mean, of ours : 
If we have lost so many tenths of ours, 
To guard a thing not ours ; not worth to us, 
Had it our name, the value of one ten ; 
What merit's in that reason, which denies 
The yielding of her up ? 

TRO. Fye, fye, my brother 1 

Weigh you the worth and honour of a king, 
So great as our dread father, in a scale 
Of common ounces? will you with counters sum 
The past-proportion of his infinite? 1 
And buckle-in a waist most fathomless, 
With spans and inches so diminutive 
As fears and reasons ? fye, for godly shame ! 

HEL. Xo marvel, though you bite so sharp at 

-' mam/ thousand disnies,] Dismc, Fr. is the tithe, the 

tenth. So, in the Prologue to Govver's Conjcssio Amantis t 

" The dismc goeth to the battaile." 

Again, in Holinshcd's Reign of Richard II: " so that there 
was levied, what of the dismc, and hy the devotion of the peo- 
ple," i!ve. STKEVEXS. 

1 The past-proportion of his />//?//?] Thus read both the 
copies. The meaning is, that ^rratnr.^ to which no incasu/c 
dears am/ proportion. The modern editors silently give : 
The vast proportion . JOHNSON. 

' though you bite so sharp at reasons, <$'<'] Here is u 

wretched quibble between reasons and raisins, which in Sh.ik- 
speare's time, were, I believe, pronounced alike. Dogberry, in 
Mitch Ado about J^ot/i/ng, plays upon the same words: " If 
Justice cannot tame you, she shall never weigh more rr<i"i\ in 
her balance." MAL.ON*:. 


You are so empty of them. Should not our father 
Bear the great sway of his affairs with reasons, 
Because your speech hath none, that tells him so ? 

TRO. You are for dreams and slumbers, brother 

You fur your gloves with reason. Here are your 

reasons : 

You know, an enemy intends you harm ; 
You know, a sword employ'd is perilous, 
And reason flies the object of all harm : 
Who marvels then, when Helenus beholds 
A Grecian and his sword, if he do set 
The very wings of reason to his heels ; 
And fly like chidden Mercury from Jove, 
Or like a star dis-orb'd ? 3 Nay, if we talk of rea- 

Let's shut our gates, and sleep: Manhood and ho- 
Should have hare hearts, would they but fat their 


With this cramm'd reason : reason and respect 
Make livers pale, and lustihood deject. 4 

The present suspicion of a quibble on the word reason, is 
not, in my opinion, sufficiently warranted by the context. 

3 And fly like chidden Mercury from Jove t 

Or like a star dis-orb'd?'] These two lines are misplaced in 
all the folio editions. POPE. 

* reason and respect 

Make livers pale, &c.] Respect is caution, a regard to con- 
sequences. So, in our author's Rape of Lucrece: 
Then, childish fear, avaunt! debating die ! 
Respect and reason wait on wrinkled age ! 
Sad pause and deep regard beseem the sage." 


n Timon of Athens : 

and never learn'd 

The icy precepts of respect, but follow'd 
" The sujjar'd uaine before thee." MAI.OM-:. 


HECT. Brother, she is not worth what she doth 

The holding. 

TRO. What is aught, but as 'tis valued ? 

HECT. But value dwells not in particular will ; 
It holds his estimate and dignity 
As w r ell wherein 'tis precious of itself 
As in the prizer : 'tis mad idolatry, 
To make the service greater than the god ; 
And the will dotes, that is attributive 5 
To what infectiously itself affects, 
Without some image of the affected merit. 6 

Tito. I take to-day a wife, and my election 
Is led on in the conduct of my will ; 7 
My will enkindled by mine eyes and ears, 
Two traded pilots 'twixt the dangerous shore* 
Of will and judgment : How may I avoid, 
Although my will distaste what it elected, 
The wife I chose ? there can be no evasion 
To blench 3 from this, and to stand firm by honour: 

5 And the ivill dotes, that is attributive ] So the quarto. 
The folio reads inclinable, which Mr. Pope says " is better." 


I think the first reading better ; the will dotes that attributes or 
gives the qualities ichich it affects; that first causes excellence, 
and then admires it. JOHNSON. 

c Without some image of the affected merit.'] We should 
read : 

the aftected's merit. 

i. e. without some mark of merit in the thing affected. 


The present reading is right. The will affects an objert for 
some supposed merit, which 1 'lector says is censurable, unless the 
merit so affected be really there. JOHNSON. 

in the conduct of mi/ :i-///;] i. e. under the guidance or' 

my will. MALOXI:. 

s blench] See p. '231, n. G. 


We turn not back the silks upon the merchant, 
When we have soil'd thcmj 9 nor the remainder 


We do not throw in unrespective sieve, 1 
Because we now are full. It was thought meet, 
Paris should do some vengeance on the Greeks : 
Your breath with full consent 2 bellied his sails ; 
The seas and winds (old wranglers) took a truce, 
And did him service : he touch'd the ports desir'd; 
And, for an old aunt, 3 whom the Greeks held cap- 

soil'd them i] So reads the quarto. The folio: 
spoil'd them. JOHNSON. 

1 unrespective sieve,] That is, unto a common voider. 

Sieve is in the quarto. The folio reads : 

unrespective same ; 

for which the second folio and modern editions have silently 
printed : 

unrespective place. JOHNSON. 

It is well known that sieves and half-sieves are baskets to be 
met with in every quarter of Covent Garden market ; and that, 
in some families, baskets lined with tin are still employed as 
voiders. With the former of these senses sieve is used in The 
Wits, by Sir W. D'Avenant : 

" -apple-wives 

" That wrangle for a sieve" 

Dr. Farmer adds, that, in several counties of England, the 
baskets used for carrying out dirt, &c. are called sieves. The 
correction, therefore, in the second folio, appears to have been 
unnecessary. STEEVENS. 

2 Your breath with full consent ] Your breaths all blowing 
together; your unanimous approbation. See Vol. XII. p. 217, 
n. 5. Thus the quarto. The folio reads o/*full consent. 


3 And, for an old aunt,'] Priam's sister, Hesione, whom 
Hercules, being enraged at Priam's breach of faith, gave to 
Telamon, who by her had Ajax. MALONE. 

This circumstance is alsp found in Lydgatc, Book II. where 
Priam says : 


He brought a Grecian queen, whose youth and 


Wrinkles Apollo's, and makes pale the morning. 4 
Why keep we her? the Grecians keep our aunt: 
Is she worth keeping? why, she is a pearl, 
Whose price hath laiinch'd above a thousand ships, 
And turn'd crown'd kings to merchants. 
If you'll avouch, 'twas wisdom Paris went, 
(As you must needs, for you all cry'd Go, ^o,) 
If you'll confess, he brought home noble prize, 
(As you must needs, for you all clapp'd your hands, 
And cry'd Inestimable /) why do you now 
The issue of your proper wisdoms rate ; 
And do a deed that fortune never did, 5 
Beggar the estimation which you priz'd 
Richer than sea and land ? O theft most base ; 
That we have stolen what we do fear to keep ! 

" My systcr eke, called Exiona 

" Out of this regyon ye have ladde away" &c. 


* makes pale the morning.'] So the quarto. The folio 

and modern editors 

makes stale the morning. JOHNSON'. 

5 And do a deed that fortune never did,^ If I understand 
this passage, the meaning is : " Why do you, by censuring the 
determination of your own wisdoms, degrade Helen, whom 
fortune hath not yet deprived of her value, or against whom, as 
the wife of Paris, fortune has not in this war so deelared, as to 
make us value her less ?" This is very harsh, and mueh strained. 

JOHN so v 

The meaning, I believe, is : " Act with more inconstancy 
and caprice than ever did fortune." HI;NI,KV. 

Fortune was never so unjust and mutable as to rate a tiling on 
one day above all price, and on the next to set no estimation 
whatsoever upon it. You arc- now going to do what fortune 
never did. Such, I think, i* the meaning. MAI.ONF. 

VOL. \V. X 


But, thieves, 6 unworthy of a thing so stolen, 
That in their country did them that disgrace, 
We fear to warrant in our native place ! 

CAS. \_Within.~] Cry, Trojans, cry! 

PRI. What noise ? what shriek is this ? 

TRO. 'Tis our mad sister, I do know her voice, 

CAS. [Within.'} Cry, Trojans! 

HECT. It is Cassandra. 

Enter CASSANDRA, raving? 

CAS. Cry, Trojans, cry ! lend me ten thousand 

And I will fill them with prophetick tears. 

HECT. Peace, sister, peace. 

CAS. Virgins and boys, mid-age and wrinkled 
elders, 8 

c But, thievcs,~] Sir T. Hanmcr reads Base thieves, . 


That did, in the next line, means that which did. 


Enter Cassandra, raving."] This circumstance also is from 
the third Book of'Lydgate's Anncient Historic, &c. 1555 : 
" This was the noise and the pyteous crye 
" Of Cassandra that so dredefully 
" She ganto make aboute in euery strete 
*' Through y e towne" &c. STIC EVENS. 

s winkled elders,] So the quarto. Folio wrinkled 

old. MALONE. 

Elders, the erroneous reading of the quarto, would seem to 
have been properly corrected in the copy whence the first folio 
was printed : but it is a rule with printers, whenever they meet 
with a strange word in a manuscript, to give the nearest word to 
it they are acquainted with ; a liberty which hab been not very 


Soft infancy, that nothing canst but cry, 

Add to my clamours ! let us pay betimes 

A moiety of that mass of moan to come. 

Cry, Trojans, cry ! practise your eyes with tears ! 

Troy must not be, nor goodly llion stand ;* 

Our fire-brand brother, 1 Paris, burns us all. 

Cry, Trojans, cry! a Helen, and a woe : 

Cry, cry ! Troy burns, or else let Helen go. [_Efit. 

HECT. Now, youthful Troilus, do not these high 


Of divination in our sister work 
Some touches of remorse ? or is your blood 
So madly hot, that no discourse of reason, 
Nor fear of bad success in a bad cause, 
Can qualify the same ? 

TRO. Why, brother Hector, 

We may not think the justness of each act 
Such and no other than event doth form it ; 
Nor once deject the courage of our minds, 
Because Cassandra's mad ; her brain-sick raptures 

sparingly exorcised in all the old editions of our author's plays. 
There cannot he a question that he wrote : 

mid-age and Crinkled eld. 

So, in The Merry Wives of Windsor : 

" The superstitious idle-headed eld.''' 
Again, in Measure for Measure : 

" Doth beg the alms of palsied </</." KITSON. 

11 Troy must not be, nor goodly llion stand ;] See p. 210, n. 
5, and p. 2 Mi, n. 9. This line unavoidably reminds us of another 
in the second Book of the .Tlueid : 

" Trujatjite nune stares, Priamiquc arx alia maiieres." 

S 1 1 i:\ i'N >. 

1 Our fire-brand brother,'} Hecuba, when pregnant with 
Paris, dreamed she should be delivered of a burning torch : 

" ct Jace pncgnans 

" ('ism-it regtttn I'arnt crcat." 

. l-'.neid X . 705. S r E E \ K x s . 


Cannot distaste 2 the goodness of a quarrel, 
Which hath our several honours all engag'd 
To make it gracious. 3 For my private part, 
I am no more touch' d than all Priam's sons : 
And Jove forbid, there should be done amongst us 
Such things as might offend the weakest spleen 
To fight for and maintain ! 

PAR. Else might the world convince of levity 4 
As well my undertakings, as your counsels : 
But I attest the gods, your full consent 5 
Gave wings to my propension, and cut off 
All fears attending on so dire a project. 
For what, alas, can these my single arms ? 
What propugnation is in one man's valour, 
To stand the push and enmity of those 
This quarrel would excite ? Yet, I protest, 
Were I alone to pass the difficulties, 
And had as ample power as I have will, 
Paris should ne'er retract what he hath done, 
Nor faint in the pursuit, 

PRI. Paris, you speak 

Like one besotted on your sweet delights : 
You have the honey still, but these the gall ; 
So to be valiant, is no praise at all. 

* distaste ] Corrupt ; change to a worse state. 


3 To male it gracious."] i. e. to set it off; to show it to ad- 
vantage. So, in Marston's Malcontent, 1604 : " he is most 
exquisite, &c. in sleeking of skinnes, blushing of cheeks, c. 
that ever made an ould lady gracious by torch-light." 


4 convince of levity ] This word, which our author 

frequently employs in the obsolete sense of to orcrporver, sub- 
due, seems, in the present instance, to signify convict, or sub- 
ject to the charge of levity. STEEVENS. 

4 your full consent ] Your unanimous approbation. 

See p. 304, n. 2. MA LONE,. 


PAH. Sir, I propose not merely to myself 
The pleasures sucn a beauty brings with it ; 
But I would have the soil of her fair rape 1 ' 
Wip'd off, in honourable keeping her. 
What treason were it to the ransack'd queen, 
Disgrace to your great worths, and shame to me, 
Now to deliver her possession up, 
On terms of base compulsion ? Can it be, 
That so degenerate a strain as this, 
Should once set footing in your generous bosoms? 
There's not the meanest spirit on our party, 
Without a heart to dare, or sword to draw, 
When Helen is defended ; nor none so noble, 
Whose life were ill beslow'd, or deatli imfam'd, 
Where Helen is the subject: then, I say, 
Well may we tight lor her, whom, we know well, 
The world's large spaces cannot parallel. 

HECT. Paris, and Troilus, you June both said 

well ; 

And on the cause and question now in hand 
Have gloz'd, 7 but superficially ; not much 
Unlike young men, whom Aristotle^ thought 

" hcrffiir rape ] Rape, in our author's time, com- 
monly signified the carrying aivaij of a female. MALUXK. 

It has always borne that, as one ol' i< siirniiieation* ; /./;/.". 
Hcfi'iuc (without any idea ofper.MtMal violence) bu'nj; constantly 
rendered the rape of Helen. S i KKVKN^. 

7 Hirer glo/'d,] So, in Spenser's i'liiri/ (luccii, Hook III. 
viii. 1 1 : 

" could well \\\s glazing spec'ches frame." 

To gf'izi't in this instance, iiuans to insinuate ; but, in Sliak- 
?pcare, to ciiiicnf. So, in A///^ llrnri/ I : 

" Which Saliquc land the I-'ri'iich unjustly ^A : 
" To bi' the realm of 1'Yance." Si KKVK.NS. 

Arittntlc- - ] Let it be remembered, as often as Sliak- 
.-peave's anachronisms occur, tlut errors in tomputinj; time \M i>- 


Unfit to hear moral philosophy : 

The reasons, you allege, do more conduce 

To the hot passion of distemper 'd blood, 

Than to make up a free determination 

'Twixt right and wrong ; For pleasure, and revenge, 

Have ears more deaf than adders 9 to the voice 

Of any true decision. Nature craves, 

All dues be render* d to their owners ; Now 

What nearer debt in all humanity, 

Than wife is to the husband ? if this law 

Of nature be corrupted through affection ; 

And that great minds, of partial indulgence l 

To their benumbed wills, 2 resist the same ; 

very frequent in those ancient romances which seem to have 
formed the greater part of his library. I may add, that even 
classick authors are not exempt from such mistakes. In the fifth 
Book of Statius's Thebaid, Amphiaraus talks of the fates of 
Nestor and Priam, neither of whom died till long after him. 
If on this occasion, somewhat should be attributed to his augural 
profession, yet if he could so freely mention, nay, even quote 
as examples to the whole army, things that would not happen 
till the next age, they must all have been prophets as well as 
himself, or they could not have understood him. 

Hector's mention of Aristotle, however, (during our ancient 
propensity to quote the authorities of the learned on every occa- 
sion) is not more absurd than the following circumstance in The 
Dialogues of Creatures Moralised, bl. 1. no date, (a book which 
Shakspeare might have seen,) where we find God Almighty 
quoting Cato. See Dial. IV. I may add, on this subject, that 
during an altercation between Noah and his Wife, in one of the 
Chester Whitsun Playes, the Lady swears by Christ and Saint 

more deaf than adders ] See Vol. XIII. p. 283, n. 4-. 


1 of partial indulgence ] i. e. through partial indul- 
gence. M. MASON. 

- benumbed uv7/*-,] That is, inflexible, immoveable, 
no longer obedient to superior direction. JOHNSON. 


There is a law 3 in eacli well-order* d nation, 

To curb those raging appetites that are 

Most disobedient and refractory. 

If Helen then be wife to Sparta's king, 

As it is known she is, these moral laws 

Of nature, and of nations, speak aloud 

To have her back return'd : Thus to persist 

In doing wrong, extenuates not wrong, 

But makes it much more heavy. Hector's opinion 

Is this, in way of truth : 4 yet, ne'ertheless, 

J\Jy spritely brethren, I propend to you 

In resolution to keep Helen still ; 

For 'tis a cause that hath no mean dependance 

Upon our joint and several dignities. 

TRO. Why, there you touch'd the life of our de- 
sign : 

Were it not glory that we more affected 
Than the performance of our heaving spleens,'' 
I would not wish a drop of Trojan blood 
Spent more in her defence. But, worthy Hector, 
She is a theme of honour and renown; 
A spur to valiant and magnanimous deeds ; 
Whose present courage may beat down our foes, 
And fame, in time to come, eanoni/e us :" 
For, 1 presume, brave Hector would not lose 

'/'here /v a Ian.' ] What the l;i\v does In evcrv nation he- 
i \vivn individuals, justice ought to do between nations. 

.Ion NM>N. 

' /v this, hi ivay of truth :~\ Though considering truth and 
JU<I'HT in this question, this is my opinion ; yet as a question ot 
honour, I think on it ns you. JOHNSON. 

the performance of our heaving spleens,'] T!K- execu- 
tion of spirit and resentment. JOHNSON. 

canoni/e MS-.-] The hope of heinir rr^i^tfr-i/ /,\v /: 
.-ft/nf, is rather out of its place at so early a period, a> this is ol' 
the Trojan war. Sri:i:vNs. 


So rich advantage of a promis'd glory, 
As smiles upon the forehead of this action, 
For the wide world's revenue. 

HECT. I am yours, 

You valiant offspring of great Priamus. 
I have a roisting challenge sent amongst 
The dull and factious nobles of the Greeks, 
Will strike amazement to their drowsy spirits : 
I was advertis'd, their great general slept, 
Whilst emulation 7 in the army crept ; 
This, I presume, will wake him. \J&xeunt. 


The Grecian Camp. Before Achilles' Tent. 

THEE. How now, Thersites ? what, lost in the 
labyrinth of thy fury ? Shall the elephant Ajax 
carry it thus ? he beats me, and I rail at him : O 
worthy satisfaction ! 'would, it were otherwise ; that 
I could beat him, whilst he railed at me : 'Sfoot, 
I'll learn to conjure and raise devils, but I'll see 
some issue of my spiteful execrations. Then there's 

7 emulation ] That is, envy, factious contention. 


Emulation is now never used in an ill sense ; but Shakspeare 
meant to employ it so. He has used the same with more pro- 
priety in a former scene, by adding epithets that ascertain its 
meaning : 

" so every step, 

" Examplcd by the first pace that is sick 
" Of his superior, grows to an envious fever 
" Of pale and bloodless emulation." MALONE. 


Achilles, a rare engineer/ If Troy be not taken 
till these two undermine it, the walls will stand till 
they fall of themselves. O thou great thunder- 
darter of Olympus, forget that thou art .Jove the 
king of gods ; and, Mercury, lose all the serpentine 
craft of thy Caduccu.s ; 9 if ye take not that little 
little less-tlian-little wit from them that they have! 
which short-armed ignorance itself knows is so 
abundant scarce, it will not in circumvention deliver 
a fly from a spider, without drawing their massy 
irons, 1 and cutting the web. After this, the ven- 
geance on the whole camp ! or, rather, the bone- 
ache! 2 for that, methinks, is the curse dependant 

' a rare engineer.] The okl copies have en^iner, which 

was the old spelling of engineer. So, tritncheoncr, pioner, nni- 
tiner, sounder, &c. MALOXE. 

the serpentine craft J 'thy Caducous ;] The \\ and of 

Mercury is v reuthed with serpents. So Martial, Lib. VII. Kpig. 
Ixxiv : 

Cyllcnes ecelif/ae decus ! facunde minister, 

Aurea cui torto vir<^a dracone \-iret. STFKVF.NS. 

without drawing the/r massy irons,"] That is, without 

drawing their sword* to cut tin- web. They use. no means but 
those of violence. JOHNSON*. 

Thus the quarto. The folio reads the massy irons. In the 
late editions iron has been substituted for irons, the word found 
in the old copies, and certainly the true reading. So, in AY/;<j 
Richard III: 

" I'ut in their hands thy bruisinj* irons of wrath, 

" That they may crush down with a heavy fall 

" The usurping helmets of our adversaries." M \i ovr. 

ii/'nisift'^ irons, in this quotation, as Mr. Ilcnky ha 'll ob- 
served in tiico, signify maci's, weapons fonnerlv u>nl b\ our 
Lnglish cavalry. Sei- druse an ancient Armour, \i. .'>:'>. 

S i 1:1: \ KXS. 

- the bone-ache .'] In the quarto the Neapolitan tiniii'- 
iictit! JOHNSON. 


on those that war for a placket. 3 I have said my 
prayers ; and devil, envy, say Amen. What, ho ! 
my lord Achilles ! 


PATH. Who's there? Thersites? Good Thersites, 
come in and rail. 

THER. If I could have remembered a gilt coun- 
terfeit, thoti wouldest not have slipped out of my 
contemplation : 4 but it is no matter ; Thyself upon 
thyself! The common curse of mankind, folly and 
ignorance, be thine in great revenue ! heaven bless 
thee from a tutor, and discipline come not near 
thee ! Let thy blood be thy direction 5 till thy death ! 
then if she, that lays thee out, says thou art a fair 

3 that war for a placket.] On this occasion Horace 

must be our expositor : 

-fuit ante Helcnain ****** tcterrima belli 

Sat. Lib. I. iii. 107. STEEVEXS. 

In mine opinion, this remark enlumineth not the English 
reader. See mine handling of the same subject, in the play of 
King Lear, Act III. sc. iv. Vol. XVII. AMNER. 

1 If I could have remembered a gilt counterfeit, thou wouldest 
r.t)l have slipped out of my contemplation:'] Here is a plain 
allusion to the counterfeit piece of money called a slip, which 
occurs again in Romeo and Juliet, Act II. sc. iv. and which has 
been happily illustrated by Mr. Reed, in a note on that passage. 
There is the same allusion in Every Man in his Humour, Act II. 


5 Let thy blood be thy direction ] Thy blood means, thy 
passions ; thy natural propensities. See Vol. VIII. p. 17$, n. 4. 


So, in The Yorkshire Tragedy : " for 'tis our blood to love 
what we are forbidden." This word has the same sense in 
Timon of Athens and Cymbeline. 


corse, I'll be sworn and sworn upon't, she never 
shrouded any but lazars. Amen. Where's Achilles? 

PATR. What, art tliou devout ? wast thou in 
prayer ? 

THER. Ay ; The heavens hear me ! 


ACHIL. Who's there ? 
PATH. Thersites, my lord. 

ACHIL. Where, where ? Art thou come ? 
Why, my cheese, my digestion, why hast thou 
not served thyself in to my table so many meals ? 
Come ; what's Agamemnon ? 

THER. Thy commander, Achilles; Then tell 
me, Patroclus, what's Achilles? 

PATR. Thy lord, Thersites ; Then tell me, I 
pray thee, what's thyself? 

THER. Thy knower, Patroclus ; Then tell me, 
Patroclus, what art thou ? 

PATR. Thou mayest tell, that knowest, 
ACIIIL. O, tell, tell. 

TIIER. I'll decline the whole question.' 1 Aga- 
memnon commands Achilles ; Achilles is my lord; 
I am Patroclus' knower ; and Patroclus is a fool.' 1 

PATR. You rascal ! 

THER. Peace, fool ; I have not done. 

' ik-cline tin- icliolc <yw.s7/o>/.] Deduce' the <jui>t ion from 

the first case to the last. JOIINMJN. 

See Vol. XIV. p. \-.~>:}, n. <>. MAI. ONI:. 

7 Putrochtx is a Jo'.l.^ The tour next speeches are not 

in the quarto. JOHNSON. 


ACHIL. He is a privileged man. Proceed, Ther- 


THEN. Agamemnon is a fool ; Achilles is a fool ; 
Thersites is a fool ; and, as aforesaid, Patroclus is 
a fool. 

ACHIL. Derive this ; come. 

THER. Agamemnon is a fool to offer to command 
Achilles ; Achilles is a fool to be commanded of 
Agamemnon ; Thersites is a fool to serve such a 
fool ; and Patroclus is a fool positive. 8 

PATR. Why am I a fool ? 

THER. Make that demand of the prover. 9 It 
suffices me, thou art. Look you, who comes here ? 


ACHIL. Patroclus, I'll speak with nobody: 
Come in with me, Thersites. \_Exit. 

THER. Here is such patchery, such juggling, and 
such knavery ! all the argument is, a cuckold, and 
a whore ; A good quarrel, to draw emulous fac- 
tions, 1 and bleed to death upon. Now the dry 

8 a fool positive.] The poet is still thinking of his gram- 
mar ; the first degree of comparison being here in his thoughts. 


of the prover. ~] So the quarto. JOHNSON. 

The folio profanely reads to thy creator. STEEVENS. 

There seems to be a profane allusion in the last speech but one 
spoken by Thersites. MALONE. 

to draw emulous factions,'] i. e. envious, contending 
factions. See p. 312, n. 7. MALONE. 

Why not rival factions, factions jealous of each other ? 


,vc. ///. TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. si? 

serpitro on the subject ! 2 and war, and lechery, con- 
found all ! [Exit. 
Ac AM. Where is Achilles ? 

PATH. Within his tent; but ill-dispos'd, my 

AGAM. Let it be known to him, that we are here. 
He shent our messengers ; 3 and we lay by 
Our appertaininents, visiting ot'liim : 
Let him be told so ; Jest, perchance, he think 
We dare not move the question of our place, 
Or know not what we arc. 

PATH. I shall say so to him. 


ULYSS. We saw him at the opening of his tent ; 
lie is not sick. 

" Now the dry scrpigo ftc.] This is added in the folio. 

JOHN sox. 

The serpigo is a kind of tetter. The term has already oc- 
curred in Measure for Measure. STKFVENS. 
' He shent our messengers ;] 1. c. rebuked, rated. 


This word is used in common by all our ancient writers. So, 
in Spenser's Fain/ (}HCC//, Book IV. e. vi : 

" Yet for no bidding, not for being shent, 
" "Would he restrained be from his attendement." 
Again, ibid : 

" lie for such baseness shamefully him .s7;c;//." 
Again, in the ancient metrical romance of The Suic.tun of Ba- 
bijloijne, p. -11 : 

" hastowc no mynde 

" How the cursed Sowd.-m Laban 
" All messenger is he dot /i shetule." STEEVEXS. 
The quarto reads sale; the folio xrnl. The correct ion \VM 
made by Mr. Theobald. Sir T. Hanmer reads ll< sent u> nifs- 
srn^cr.s. 1 have great doubts concerning the emendation now 
adopted, though I have nothing satisfactory to propose. Though 
tent might easily have been misprinted for s/icnt, hmv could sate 
^the reading of the original copy) and thcnl have been con- 
lounded ? MALONK. 


AJAX. Yes, lion-sick, sick of proud heart : you 
may call it melancholy, if you will favour the man ; 
but, by my head, 'tis pride : But why, why ? let 
him show us a cause. A word, my lord. 

[Takes AGAMEMNON aside. 

NEST. What moves Ajax thus to bay at him ? 

ULYSS. Achilles hath inveigled his fool from him. 

NEST. Who ? Thersites ? 


NEST. Then will Ajax lack matter, if he have 
lost his argument. 

ULYSS. No you see, he is his argument, that has 
his argument ; Achilles. 

NEST. All the better ; their fraction is more our 
wish, than their faction : But it was a strong com- 
posure, 4 a fool could disunite. 

ULYSS. The amity, that wisdom knits not, folly 
may easily untie. Here comes Patroclus. 

Re-enter PATROCLUS. 

NEST. No Achilles with him. 

ULYSS. The elephant hath joints, 5 but none for 
courtesy: his legs are legs for necessity, not for 

4 composure,] So reads the quarto very properly ; but 

the folio, which the moderns have followed, has, it was a strong 
counsel. JOHXSOX. 

6 The elephant hath joints, &c.] So, in All's lost by Lust, 

" Is she pliant ? 

" Stubborn as an elephant's leg, no bending in her." 
Again, in All Fools, 1605 : 

" I hope you are no elephant, you have joints." 
In The Dialogues of Creatures Moralised, &c. bl. 1. is men- 
tion of " the olefawnte that bowyth not the hncys ;" a curious 
specimen of our early Natural History. STEEVENS. 


PATH. Achilles bids me say he is much sorry, 
If any thing more than your sport and pleasure 
Did move your greatness, and this noble state, 1 ' 
To call upon him ; he hopes, it is no other, 
But, for your health and your digestion sake, 
An after-dinner's breath. 7 

AGAM. Hear you, Patroclus ; 

We are too well acquainted with these answers : 
But his evasion, wing'd thus swift with scorn, 
Cannot outfry our apprehensions. 
Much attribute he hath ; and much the reason 
Why we ascribe it to him : yet all his virtues, 
Not virtuously on his own part beheld, 
Do, in our eyes, begin to lose their gloss ; 
Yea, like fair fruit in an unwholesome dish, 
Are like to rot untasted. Go and tell him, 
We come to speak with him: And you shall not sin, 
If you do say we think him over-proud, 
And under-honest; in self-assumption greater. 

noble state,} Person ofhigh dignity ; spoken oi' Aga- 
memnon. JoiIX.SOK. 

Noble slate, rather means I In' xtalelij train of attending ;.oi:V.v 
H'hom i/on bring with you. Patroclus hud already addressed 
Agamemnon by the title of " your greatness" STKKVKN*. 

Stale w;:s formerly applied to a single person. So, in ll'it.*;, 
I'its, (unl [-'a iicit'i, Kill: " The archbi.-'hop of Grenada saving to 
the archbishop of Toledo, that he much marvelled, he being 
so great a tlulf, would hospital* ." 

Again, in Harrington's translation of .Irioxto, 15JM : 
" The Cireek demand^ her, whither she was uoiiv.;, 
" And which of these two great exlutcs her keep-." 
Vet Mr. Steevens's interpretation appears to me to ng<ve bi-f- 
ter \vitli the context hero. M.w.oN':, 

brmlfi.] liffnth, in the present instance, stands lor 
}>rentlii)i<r, i. e. exercise. So, in ILnnli't.' *' it is the breathing 
time of day with me." Si r.Kvr.xs. 


Than in the note of judgment ; 8 and worthier than 


Here tend the savage strangeness 9 he puts on ; 
Disguise the holy strength of their command, 
And underwrite 1 in an observing kind 2 
His humorous predominance ; yea, watch 
His pettish limes, 3 his ebbs, his flows, as if 
The passage and whole carriage of this action 
Rode on his tide. Go, tell him this ; and add, 
That, if he overhold his price so much, 

8 Than in the note &c.] Surely the two unnecessary words 
in the, which spoil the metre, should be omitted. STEEVENS. 

9 tend the savage strangeness ] i. e. shyness, distant 

behaviour. So, in Venus and Adonis : 

" Measure my strangeness with my unripe years." 
Again, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" I'll prove more true, 

" Than those that have more cunning to be strange" 
To tend is to attend upon. MA LONE. 

1 underwrite ] To subscribe, in Shakspeare, is to 

obey. JOHNSON. 

So, in King Lear : " You owe me no subscription." 


* in an observing kind ] i. e. in a mode religiously 

attentive. So, in A Midsummer- Night's Dream: 

" To do observance to a morn of May." STEEVENS. 

3 His pettish lunes,"] This is Sir T. Hanmer's emendation of 
his pettish lines. The old quarto reads : 

His course and time. 
This speech is unfaithfully printed in modern editions. 


The quarto reads : 

His course and time, his ebbs andjtoivs, and if 
The passage and tvhole stream of his commencement 

Rode on his tide. 

His [his commencement] was probably misprinted for this, 
as it is in a subsequent passage in this scene in the quarto copy: 
" And how his silence drinks up his applause." 



We'll none of him ; but let him, like an engine 
Not portable, lie under this report 
Bring action hither, this cannot go to war : 
A stirring dwarf we do allowance give 4 
Before a sleeping giant : Tell him so. 

PATR. I shall ; and bring his answer presently. 


AGAM. In second voice we'll not be satisfied, 
We come to speak with him. Ulysses, enter. 5 


AJAX. What is he more than another ? 
AGAM. No more than what he thinks he is. 

AJAX. Is he so much ? Do you not think, he 
thinks himself a better man than I am ? 

AGAM. No question. 

AJAX. Will you subscribe his thought, and say 
he is ? 

AGAM. No, noble Ajax ; you are as strong, as 
valiant, as wise, no less noble, much more gentle, 
and altogether more tractable. 

AJAX. Why should a man be proud ? How doth 
pride grow? I know not what pride is. 

AGAM. Your mind's the clearer, Ajax, and your 
virtues the fairer. He that is proud, eats up him- 
self: pride is his own glass, his own trumpet, his 

4 allowance give ] Allowance is approbation. So, 

in King Lear : 

" if your sweet sway 

" Allow obedience." STEEVENS. 

* enter. ~\ Old copies, regardless of metre, enter ymi. 



own chronicle ; and whatever praises itself but in 
the deed, devours the deed in the praise. 6 

AJAX. I do hate a proud man, as I hate the en- 
gendering of toads. 7 

NEST. And yet he loves himself: Is it not strange? 


Re-enter ULYSSES. 

ULYSS. Achilles will not to the field to-morrow. 
AGAJM. What's his excuse ? 

ULYSS. He doth rely on none ; 

But carries on the stream of his dispose, 
Without observance or respect of any, 
In will peculiar and in self-admission. 

AGAM. Why will he not, upon our fair request, 
Untent his person, and share the air with us ? 

ULYSS. Things small as nothing, for request's 

sake only, 

He makes important: Possess'd he is with greatness; 
And speaks not to himself, but with a pride 
That quarrels at self-breath : imagin'd worth 
Holds in his blood such swoln and hot discourse, 
That, 'twixt his mental and his active parts, 

whatever praises itself but Li the deed, devours the deed 

in the praise.'] So, in Coriohinus ; 

" power, unto itself most commendable, 

" Hath not a tomb so evident as a cluiir 
" To extol what it hath done." MALONE. 

7 the engendering of toads.~] Whoever wishes to com- 
prehend the whole force of this allusion, may consult the late 
Dr. Goldsmith's History of the Earili^ and animated Nalun , 
Vol. VII. p. 9293. STEEVKNS. 


Kingdom'd Achilles in commotion rages, 8 
And batters down himself: What should I say? 
He is so plaguy proud, 9 that the death-tokens of it 1 
Cry No recovery. 

AGAM. Let Ajax go to him. 

Dear lord, go you and greet him in his tent : 
'Tis said, he holds you well ; and will be led, 
At your request, a little from himself. 

ULYSS. O Agamemnon, let it not be so ! 
We'll consecrate the steps that Ajax makes 
When they go from Achilles : Shall the proud lord, 
That bastes his arrogance with his own seam j a 

8 Kingdom'd Achilles in commotion rages,"] So, in Julius 
Carsar : 

" The genius and the mortal instruments 
" Are then in council ; and the state of man, 
" Like to a little kingdom, suffers then 
" The nature of an insurrection." MALOXE. 

* He is so plaguy proud, &c.] I cannot help regarding the 
vulgar epithet plaguy, which extends the verse beyond its 
proper length, as the wretched interpolation of some foolish 
player. STEEVENS. 

1 the death-tokens of it ] Alluding to the decisive 

spots appearing on those infected by the plague. So, in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's Valentinian : 

" Now, like the fearful tokens of the plague, 

" Are mere fore-runners of their ends." STEEVEKS. 

Dr. Hodges, in his Treatise on lh'- Plague, says : " Spots of 
a dark complexion, usually called tokens, and looked on as the 
pledges or forewarnings of death, are minute and distinct blasts, 
which have their original from within, and rise up with a little 
pyramidal protuberance, the pestilential poi*on chiefly collected 
at their bases, tainting the neighbouring parts, and reaching to 
the surface." REED. 

ivith his oii-n scam ;] Ku-itic-scaw, in the North, is 

See Sherwood'e English and French Dictionary, folio, 1650. 

y 2 


And never suffers matter of the world 

Enter his thoughts, save such as do revolve 

And ruminate himself, shall he be worshipped 

Of that we hold an idol more than he ? 

No, this thrice worthy and right valiant lord 

Must not so stale his palm, nobly acquired ; 

Nor, by my will, assubjugate his merit, 

As amply titled as Achilles is, 

By going to Achilles : 

That were to enlard his fat-already pride ; : ' 

And add more coals to Cancer, when he burns 

With entertaining great Hyperion. 4 

This lord go to him ! Jupiter forbid ; 

And say in thunder Achilles, go to him. 

NEST. O, this is well ; he rubs the vein of him. 


Dio. And how his silence drinks up this applause ! 


AJAX. If I go to him, with my arm'd list 1*11 

pash him 
Over the face. 5 

. 3 That mere to enlard &c.] This is only the well-known 
proverb Grease a fat sow &c. in a more stately dress. 


4 to Cancer, ichen he burns 

With entertaining great Hyperion.] Cancer is the Crab^ u 
sign in the zodiack. 

The same thought is more clearly expressed by Thomson, 
whose words, on this occasion, are a sufficient illustration of our 
author's : 

" And Cancer reddens with the solar blaze" 


5 Pll pash him 

Over the face.'] i.e. strike him with violence. So, hi The 
Virgin Martyr, by Massinger, 1623 : 

" when the batt'ring ram 

" Were fetching his career backward, to push 
" Me with his horns to pieces." TROILUS AND CRESSIDAv 335 

AGAM. O, no, you shall not go. 

AJAX. An he be proud with me, I'll pheezc his 

pride : 6 
Let me go to him. 

ULYSS. Not for the worth 7 that hangs upon our 

AJAX. A paltry, insolent fellow, 

NEST. How he describes 

Himself! \_Aside. 

AJAX. Can he not be sociable ? 

ULYSS. The raven 

(.'hides blackness. [Aside. 

Again, in Churchyard's Challenge, 159ft, p. 91 : " the pot 
which goeth often to the water comes home with a knock, or at 
length h'pasked all to pieces." REED. 

h phceze his pride :~\ To p/icczc is to tomb or curry. 


Mr. Steevcns has explained the \\-on\_feazc, as Dr. Johnson 
does, to mean the untwisting or unravelling a knotted skain of 
silk or thread. I recollect no authority for this use of it. To 
Jcize is to drive away ; and the expression Vllfchc his pride, 
may signify, I'll humhle or lower his pride. See Vol. IX. 
p. 11, n. 1. WIIALLEY. 

To cnmh or curry, undoubtedly, is the meaning of the word 
here. Kersey, in his Dictionary, 170S, says that it is a sea- 
term, and that it signifies, to separate a cable by untwisting the 
ends ; and Dr. Johnson gives a similar account of its original 
meaning. [See the reference at the end of the foregoing note.] 
I>ut whatever may have been the origin of the expression, it 
undoubtedly signified, in our author's time, to beat, knock, 
strike, or whip. Cole, in his Latin Dictionary, 1679, renders it, 
flagcllarc, rirgix cfrr/crc, as he does to fcn^c, of \\hich the 
modern school-boy term, to ///:;, N a corruption. MAI. ONI-:. 

7 \<>tfnr I//'- \\-orth ] Not fur the value of all for which 
we are fiuhtinur. JOHNSON. 


AJAX. I will let his humours blood. 8 

AGAM. He'll be physician, 9 that should be the 
patient. [Aside. 

AJAX. An all men 
Were o'my mind, 

ULYSS. Wit would be out of fashion. 


AJAX. He should not bear it so, 
He should eat swords first : Shall pride carry it ? 

NEST. An 'twould, you'd carry half. [Aside. 

ULYSS. He'd have ten shares. 


AJAX. I'll knead him, I will make him sup* 

NEST. He's not yet thorough warm : force him 

with praises : * 
Pour in, pour in ; his ambition is dry. [Aside. 

8 I will let his humours blood.] In the year 1600 a collec- 
tion of Epigrams and Satires was published with this quaint 
title : The Letting of Humours Blood in the Head-vaine. 


9 He'll be physician, ~] Old copies the physician. 


1 Til knead him, c.] Old copy : 

Ajax. Pll knead him, Fll make Mm supple, he's not yet 
thorough warm. 

Nest. force him with praises : &c. 

The latter part of Ajax's speech is certainly got out of place, and 
ought to be assigned to Nestor, as I have ventured to transpose 
it. Ajax is feeding on his vanity, and boasting what he will do 
to Achilles ; he'll pash him o'er the face, he'll make him eat 
swords, he'll knead him, he'll supple him, &c. Nestor and 
Ulysses slily labour to keep him up in this vein ; and to this end 
Nestor craftily hints that Ajax is not warm yet, but must be 
crammed with moxe flattery. THEOBALD. 

Nestor was of the same opinion with Dr. Johnson, who, 
speaking of a metaphysical Scotch writer, said, that he thought 


ULYSS. My lord, you feed too much on this dis- 
like. [To AGAMEMNON. 
NEST. O noble general, do not do so. 
DIG. You must prepare to fight without Achilles. 

ULYSS. Why, 'tis this naming of him does him 


Here is a man But 'tis before his face ; 
I will be silent. 

NEST. Wherefore should you so ? 

lie is not emulous, 2 as Achilles is. 

ULYSS. Know the whole world, he is as valiant. 
AJAX. A whoreson dog, that shall palter' 3 thus 

with us ! 
I would, he were a Trojan ! 

NEST. What a vice 

Were it in Ajax now 

ULYSS. If he were proud? 

Dio. Or covetous of praise ? 

ULYSS. Ay, or surly borne ? 

there was " as much charity in helping a man down hill as up 
hill, if his tendency be downwards." Sec Boswell's Tour lo the 
Hebrides, third edit. p. 2k5. MALONE. 

force him ] i. e. stuff him. Farcir, Fr. So, again, 

in this play : " mnYiceJbrccd with wit." STEEVENS. 

* He is not emulous,] Emulous is here used, in an ill sense, 
for envious. See p. 316, n. 1. MALONE. 

Emulous, in this instance, and perhaps in some others, may 
well enough be supposed to signify ^Vrt/owi- oj higher authority. 


' that shall palter ] That shall juggle with us, or fly 

from his engagements. So, in ,/u/in.i Ccrsar: 
" what other hand 

" Than secret Romans, who have spoke the word, 
" And will not palter?" MAI.ON. 


Dio. Or strange, or self-affected ? 

ULYSS. Thank the heavens, lord, thou art of 

sweet composure ; 

Praise him that got thee, she that gave thee suck : 4 
Fam'd be thy tutor, and thy parts of nature 
Thrice-fam'd, beyond all erudition : 5 
But he that disciplin'd thy arms to fight, 
Let Mars divide eternity in twain, 
And give him half: and, for thy vigour, 
Bull-bearing Milo his addition yield 6 
To sinewy Ajax. I will not praise thy wisdom, 
Which, like a bourn, 7 a pale, a shore, confines 
Thy spacious and dilated parts : Here's Nestor, 
Instructed by the antiquary times, 
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise ; 
But pardon, father Nestor, were your days 
As green as Ajax', and your brain so temper'd, 
You should not have the eminence of him, 
But be as Ajax. 

AJAX. Shall I call you father ? 

4 she that gave tare suck :] This is from St. Luke, 

xi. 27 : " Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps that 
thou hast sucked." STEEVENS. 

beyond all erudition .-] Thus the folio. The quartos, 

erroneously : 

beyond all thy erudition. STEEVENS. 

6 Bull-bearing Milo his addition yield ] i. e. yield his 
titles, his celebrity for strength. Addition, in legal language, 
is the title given to each party, showing his degree, occupation, 
&c. as esquire, gentleman, yeoman, merchant, &c. 

Our author here, as usual, pays no regard to chronology. 
Milo of Croton lived long after the Trojan war. M ALONE. 

7 like a bourn,] A bourn is a boundary, and sometimes 

a rivuk-t dividing one place from another. So, in King Lear, 
Act III. sc. vi: 

" Come o'er the bourn, Bessy, to me." 
See note on this passage. 


NEST. Ay, my good son. 8 

Dio. Be rul'd by him, lord Ajax. 

ULYSS. There is no tarrying here ; the hart 


Keeps thicket. Please it our great general 
To call together all his state of war ; 
Fresh kings are come to Troy : 9 To-morrow, 
We must with all our main or power stand fast : 
And here's a lord, come knights from east to west, 
And cull their flower, Ajax shall cope the best. 

AGAM. Go we to council. Let Achilles sleep: 

Light boats sail swift, though greater hulks draw 

deep. 1 [Exeunt. 

8 Ajax. Shall I call yon father ? 

Nest. Ay, my good son.~] In the folio and in the modern 
editions Ajax desires to give the title of father to Ulysses; in the 
quarto, more naturally, to Nestor. JOHNSON. 

Shakspeare had a custom prevalent about his own time in his 
thoughts. Ben Jonson had many who called themselves his 

Mr. Vaillant adds, that Cotton dedicated his Treatise on Fish- 
ing to his father Walton; and that Ashmole, in his Diary, ob- 
serves " April 3. Mr. William Backhouse, of Swallowrield, in 
com. Berks, caused me to call him father thenceforward." 


9 Fresh kings are come to Troy: &c.] We might complete 
this imperfect verse by reading : 

Fresh kings are come to succour Troy : &C. 
So, Spenser : 

" To succour the weak state of sad afflicted Troy." 


1 draw deep."] So, in the Prologue to this play : 

" the deep-drawing bark^." STI:KVENS. 



Troy. A Room in Priam's Palace. 

Enter PANDARUS and a Servant. 

PAN". Friend ! you ! pray you, a word : Do not 
you follow the young lord Paris ? 

SERV. Ay, sir, when he goes before me. 
PAN. You do depend upon him, I mean ? 
SERV. Sir, I do depend upon the lord. 

PAN. You do depend upon a noble gentleman ; 
J must needs praise him. 

SERV. The lord be praised ! 
PAN. You know me, do you not ? 
SERV. 'Faith, sir, superficially. 

PAN. Friend, know me better; I am the lord 
Pan darns. 

SERV. I hope, I shall know your honour better. 2 

PAN. I do desire it. 

SERV. You are in the state of grace. 

[Mustek within. 

PAN. Grace ! not so, friend ; honour and lord- 
ship are my titles : What musick is this ? 

2 I hope, I shall know your honour better.] The servant 
means to quibble. He hopes that Pandarus will become a bet- 
ter man than he is at present. In his next speech he chooses to 
understand Pandarus as if he had said he wished to row better, 
and hence the servant affirms that he is in the state of grace. 
The second of these speeches has been pointed, in the late 
editions, as if he had asked, of what rank Pandarus was. 



SERF. I do but partly know, sir ; it is musick in 

PAX. Know you tlie musicians ? 

SERV. Wholly, sir. 

PAX. Who play they to ? 

SERV. To the hearers, sir. 

PAN. At whose pleasure, friend ? 

SERV. At mine, sir, and theirs that love musick. 

PAX. Command, I mean, friend. 

SERV. Who shall I command, sir ? 

PAN. Friend, we understand not one another ; 
I am too courtly, and thou art too cunning : At 
whose request do these men play ? 

SERV. That's to't, indeed, sir : Marry, sir, at 
the request of Paris my lord, who is there in per- 
son ; with him, the mortal Venus, the heart-blood 
of beauty, love's invisible soul, 3 

PAN. Who, my cousin Cressida ? 

SERV. No, sir, Helen ; Could you not find out 
that by her attributes ? 

PAN. It should seem, fellow, that thou hast not 
seen the lady Cressida. I come to speak with Paris 
from the prince Troilus : I will make a compli- 
mental assault upon him, for my business seeths. 

SERV. Sodden business ! there's a stewed phrase, 4 
indeed ! 

3 love's invisible soul,'] may mean, the soul of lore in- 
visible every where else. JOHNSON. 

4 Sodden business! there's a stewed phrase,'] The quibbling 
speaker seems to mean that sodden is a phrase fit only lor the 
stews. Thus, says the Btncd in Pericles: " The stuff we have, 
a strong wind will blow it to pieces, they are so pitifully sodden" 



Enter PARIS and HELEN, attended. 

PAX. Fair be to yon, my lord, and to all this 
fair company! fair desires, in all fair measure, fairly 
guide them ! especially to yon, fair queen ! fair 
thoughts be your fair pillow ! 

HELEN. Dear lord, you are full of fair words. 

P./LV.YOU speak your fair pleasure, sweet queen. 
Fair prince, here is good broken musick. 

PAR. You have broke it, cousin : and, by my 
life, you shall make it whole again ; you shall piece 
it out with a piece of your performance : Nell, he 
is full of harmony. 

PAN. Truly, lady, no. 

HELEN. O, sir, 

PAN. Rude, in sooth ; in good sooth, very rude. 
PAR. Well said, my lord! well, you say so in fits. 5 

PAN. I have business to my lord, dear queen:- 
My lord, will you vouchsafe me a word ? 

HELEN. Nay, this shall not hed^e us out : we'll 
i i 

near you sing, certainly. 

PAN. Well, sweet queen, you are pleasant with 
me. But (marry) thus, my lord, My dear lord, 
and most esteemed friend, your brother Troilus 

' i fits.] i. e. now and then, by fits ; or perhaps a quibble 

is intended. A. Jit was a part or division of a song, sometimes a 
strain in musick, and sometimes a measure in dancing. The 
reader will find it sufficiently illustrated in the two former senses. 
by Dr. Percy, in the first volume of his Rdiqiu's of ancient Eng- 
lish Poetry : in the third of these significations it occurs in 
All for Money, a tragedy, by T. Lupton, 1578 : 

" Satan. Upon these chearful words I needs must dance a 



HELEN. My lord Pandanis ; honey-sweet lord, 

PAX. Go to, sweet queen, go to: commends 
himself most affectionately to you. 

HELEN. You shall not bob us out of our melody j 
If you do, our melancholy upon your head ! 

PAN. Sweet queen, sweet queen that's a sweet 
queen, i'faith. 

HELEN. And to make a sweet lady sad, is a sour 

PAN. Nay, that shall not serve your turn ; that 
shall it not, in truth, la. Nay, I care not for such 
words ; no, no. And, my lord, he desires you, 6 
that, if the king- call for him at supper, you will 
make his excuse. 

HELEN. My lord Pandanis, 

PAN. What says my sweet queen, my very very 
sweet queen ? 

PAR. What exploit's in hand ? where sups lie 
to-night ? 

HELEN. Nay, but my lord, 

PAN. What says my sweet queen ? My cousin 
will fall out with you. You must not know where 
he sups. 7 

6 And, mij lord, he desires you,"] Here I think the speech of 
Pandarlis should begin, and the rest of it should be added to that 
oi' Helen, but I have followed the copies. JOHNSON*. 

Mr. Howe had disposed these speeches in this manner. Ilaii- 
mer annexes the words, " And to make a sweet lady" !v:c. to the 
preceding speech of Pandartis, and in the rest follows Rowe. 


~ You must not knoiv wlicrc he sups. &c.] These words are 
in the quarto given to Helen, and the edit\)r of the folio did not 
perceivet he error. In like manner, in Act II. se. i. p. '_'!);', four 
belonging lo different persons are all in thy quarto- 

PAR. I'll lay my life, with my disposer Cressida. 

assigned to Ajax. " Cobloaf ! He would pun thee," &c. and in 
the last scene of the same Act, words that evidently belong to 
Nestor are given to Ajax, [see p. 326, n. 1,] both in the quarto 
and folio. I have not therefore hesitated to add the words, 
" You must not know where he sups," to the speech of Pan- 
darus. Mr. Steevens proposes to assign the next speech, " I'll 
lay my life," &c. to Helen instead of Paris. This arrangement 
appeared to me so plausible, that I once regulated the text ac- 
cordingly. But it is observable that through the whole of the 
dialogue Helen steadily perseveres in soliciting Pandarus to sing: 
** My lord Pandarus" " Nay, but my lord" &c. I do not 
therefore believe that Shakspeare intended she should join in the 
present inquiry. Mr. M. Mason's objection also to such an ar- 
rangement is very weighty. " Pandarus, (he observes,) in his 
next speech but one, clearly addresses Paris, and in that speech 
he calls Cressida his disposer." In what sense, however, Paris 
can call Cressida his disposer, I am altogether ignorant. Mr. M. 
Mason supposes that " Paris means to call Cressida his governor 
or director, as it appears, from what Helen says afterwards, that 
they had been good friends" 

Perhaps Shakspeare wrote despiser. What Pandarus say? 
afterwards, that " Paris and Cressida are twain," supports this 

I do not believe that deposer (a reading suggested below) was 
our author's word ; for Cressida had not deposed Helen in the 
affections of Troilus. A speech in a former scene, in which 
Pandarus says, Helen loves Troilus more than Paris, (which is 
insisted on by an anonymous Itemarker,) [Mr. Ritson,] proves 
nothing. Had he said that Troilus once loved Helen better than 
Cressida, and afterwards preferred Cressida to her, the observa- 
tion might deserve some attention. 

The words, I'll lay my life, are omitted in the folio. The 
words, You must not know where he sups, I find Sir Thomas 
Hanmer had assigned to Pandarus. MALO;S~E. 

I believe, with Sir Thomas Hanmer, that You must not knoia 
ichere he sups, should be added to the speech of Pandarus ; and 
that the following one of Paris should be given to Helen. That 
Cressida wanted to separate Paris from Helen, or that the beauty 
of Cressida had any power over Paris, are circumstances not evi- 
dent from the play. The one is the opinion of Dr. Warburton, 
the other a conjecture of Mr. Heath's. By giving, however, 
this line, /'// lay my life, ivit/i my disposer Cressida, to Helen, 
and by changing the word disposer into deposer, some meaning 


PAX. No, no, no such matter, you are wide;* 
come, your disposer is sick. 

PAR. Well, 1*11 make excuse. 
PAN. Ay, good my lord. Why should you say* 
Cressida ? no, your poor disposer's sick. 

PAR. I spy. 9 

PAN. You spy ! what do you spy ? Come, give 
me an instrument. Now, sweet queen. 

HELEN. Why, this is kindly done. 

PAN. My niece is horribly in love with a thing 
you have, sweet queen. 

HELEN. She shall have it, my lord, if it be not 
my lord Paris. 

may be obtained. She addresses herself, I suppose, to Pandarus, 
and, by her deposer, means she who thinks her beauty (or, 
whose beauty you suppose) to be superior to mine. But the 
passage in question (as Arthur says of himself in King John,) 
is " not worth the eoil that is made for it." 

The word disposer, however, occurs in 77/6- Epistle Dcdica- 
toric to Chapman's Homer : 

" Nor let her poore disposer (learning) lie 
" Still bed-rid." STEEVENS. 

The dialogue should perhaps be regulated thus : 

" Par. Where sups he to-night ? 

*' Helen. Nay, but my lord, 

** Pan. What sa} r s my sweet queen ? 

" Par. My cousin will fall out with you. [To Helen. 

" Pan. You must not know where he sups. [ To Paris. 

" Helen. I'll lay my life with my deposer Cressida." 
She calls Cressida her deposer, because she had deposed IKT in 
the affections of Troilus, whom Pandarus, in a preceding scene, 
is ready to swear she loved more than Paris. RITSON. 

B yon arc wide ;] i. e. wide of your mark ; a common ex- 
clamation when an archer missed his aim. So, in Spenser's State 
of Ireland : " Surely he shoots tuide on the bow-hand, and very 
far from the mark." STEEVENS. 

" Par. /.wy.] This is the usual exclamation at o childish 
game culled Hie, spy, hie. STEEVENS. 


PAN. He ! no, she'll none of him ; they two are 

HELEN. Falling in, after falling out, may make 
them three. 1 

PAN. Come, come, I'll hear no more of this ; 
I'll sing you a song now. 

HELEN. Ay, ay, pr'ythee now. By my troth, 
sweet lord, 2 thou hast a fine forehead. 3 

PAN. Ay, you may, you may. 

HELEN. Let thy song be love : this love will undo 
us all. O, Cupid, Cupid, Cupid ! 

PAN. Love ! ay, that it shall, i'faith. 

PAR. Ay, good now, love, love, nothing but love. 

PAN. In good troth, it begins so : 

Love, love, nothing but love, still more ! 

For, oh, love's bow 

Shoots buck and doe : 

The shaft confounds , 4 

Not that it wounds 5 
But tickles still the sore. 

1 Falling in, after falling out, &c.] i. e. the reconciliation and 
wanton dalliance of two lovers after a quarrel, may produce a 
child, and so make three of two. TOLLET. 

s sivcet lord,] In the quarto sweet lad. JOHNSON. 

. 3 a fine foreliead.~\ Perhaps, considering the character 

of Pandarus, Helen means that he has a forehead illuminated 
by eruptions. To these Falstaff has already given the splendid 
names of brooches, pearls, and ouches. See notes on King 
Henry IF. Part II. Vol. XII. p. 80, 81, n. 5. STE EVENS. 

4 The shaft confounds ] To confound, it has already been 
observed, formerly meant to destroy. MALONE. 

5 that it icoundx,'] i. e. that which it wounds. 



These lovers cry Oh ! oh ! they die ! 

Yet that which seems the wound to kill, 
Doth turn oh ! oh ! to ha ! ha ! he ! 

So dying love lives still : 6 
Oh ! oh ! tf while, hut ha ! ha ! ha ! 
Oh ! oh ! groans outj'or ha ! ha ! ha ! 

Hey ho ! 

HELEN. In love, i'i'aitli, to the very tip of the 

PAH. He eats nothing but doves, love ; and that 
breeds hot blood, and hot blood begets hot 
thoughts, and hot thoughts beget hot deeds, and 
hot deeds is love. 

Both Malone and Musgrave have mistaken the sense of this 
passage. Pandarus means to say, that " the shaft confounds," 
not because the wounds it gives are severe, but because " it 
tickles still the sore." 

To confound does not signify here to destroy, but to annoy or 
perplex; and that it txonnds does not mean thatrr/i/c/J it wounds, 
but in that it wounds, or because it wounds. M. MASON. 

These lovers cry ()/i ! uh ! they die ! 

Yet that 'which seems the wound to kill, 
Doth turn oh ! oh ! to ha ! ha ! he ! 

So dying love //Vt.v still:'] So, in our author's I'ainis 
(i tit! Ad 01 tift : 

" For I have heard, it [love] is a life in death, 
" T\n\t laughs and weeps, and all but in a breath !" 


The wound to kill may mean the wound that seems mortal. 


The wound to kill is the kiUiti* wound. M. MASON. 

A passage in Massinger's I'\tt<it Dowry may prove the aptcst 
comment on the third line of this despicable ditty : 
" fieaiune/le. [Within.] Hal ha! hit! 
" Chard/oil. How's this? It is my lady's lait^h 
" When first 1 pleas'd her, in this ,i t ci'ry language 
" She gave me thank-.." S ri.L\ ENS. 
VOL. XV. / 


PAN. Is this the generation of love? hot blood, 
hot thoughts, and hot deeds ? Why, they are vi- 
pers : Is love a generation of vipers ? 7 Sweet lord, 
who's a-field to-day ? 8 

PAR. Hector, Deiphobus, Helenus, Antenor, 
and all the gallantry of Troy : I would fain have 
armed to-night, but my Nell would not have it so. 
How chance my brother Troilus went not ? 

HELEN. He hangs the lip at something ; you 
know all, lord Pandarus. 

PAN. Not I, honey-sweet queen. I long to hear 
how they sped to-day. You'll remember your bro- 
ther's excuse ? 

PAR. To a hair. 

PAN. Farewell, sweet queen. 

HELEN. Commend me to your niece. 

PAN. I will, sweet queen. [Exit. 

A Retreat sounded. 

7 a generation of vipers ?~] Here is an apparent allusion 

to the whimsical physiology of Shakspeare's age. Thus, says 
Thomas Lupton, in The Seventh Bookc of Notable Thinges, 4to. 
bl. 1 : " The female vyper doth open her mouth to receyve y e 
generative &c. of the male vyper, which receyved, she doth byte 
oft' his head. This is the maner of the froward generating of 
vypers. And, after that, the young vipers that springs of the 
same, do eate or gnaw asunder their mother's belly, therby 
comming or bursting forth. And so they (being revengers of 
theyr father's iniurye) do kyll theyr owne mother. You may 
see, they were a towardly kynde of people, that were called 
the generation of vipers." St. Matthew, iii. 7, &c. STEEVENS. 

& Pan. h this the generation of love ? c. Sweet ford, icho's 

a-field to-day ?~\ However Pan. may have got shuffled to the 
head of this speech, no more of it, I am confident, than the 
last five or six words belongs to that character. The rest is* 
clearly Helen's. RITSON. 


PAR. They are come from field : let us to 

Priam's hall, 
To greet the warriors. Sweet Helen, I must woo 


To help unarm our Hector : his stubborn buckles, 
With these your white enchanting fingers touch'd, 
Shall more obey, than to the edge of steel, 
Or force of Greekish sinews ; you shall do more 
Than all the island kings, disarm great Hector. 

HELEN. 'Twill make us proud to be his servant, 

Paris : 

Yea, what he shall receive of us in duty, 
Gives us more palm in beauty than we have ; 
Yea, overshines ourself. 

PAR. Sweet, above thought I love thec. 9 



The same. Pandarus' Orchard. 
Enter PAXDARUS and a Servant, meeting. 

PAX. How now ? whcre's thy master ? at my 
cousin Cressida's ? 

Y. No, sir; he stays for vou to conduct him 

... > > 


Enter Tuo ILUS. 

PAX. O, here lie comes. How now, how now ? 
TRO. Sirrah, walk oiK \_Ejrit Servant. 

9 _ _ above thought / Imr ///re.] So, in Antony and Clco 
patra : 

" She's cunning past man's t/ioitghi." STKEVENS. 

z 2 


PAN. Have you seen my cousin ? 

TRO. No, Pandarus : I stalk about her door, 
Like a strange soul upon the Stygian banks 
Staying for waftage. O, be thou my Charon, 
And give me swift transportance to those fields, 
Where I may wallow in the lily beds 
Propos'd for the deserver ! O gentle Pandarus, 
From Cupid's shoulder pluck his painted wings, 
And fly with me to Cressid ! 

PAN. Walk here i'the orchard, I'll bring her 
straight. \JExit PANDARUS. 

TRO. I am giddy ; expectation whirls me round. 
The imaginary relish is so sweet 
That it enchants my sense ; What will it be, 
When that the watry palate tastes indeed 
Love's thrice-reputed nectar ? death, I fear me ; 
Swooning destruction ; or some joy too fine, 
Too subtle-potent, tun'd too sharp 1 in sweetness, 
For the capacity of my ruder powers : 
I fear it much ; and I do fear besides, 
That I shall lose distinction in my joys; 2 
As doth a battle, when they charge on heaps 
The enemy flying. 

1 tun'd too sharp ] So the quarto, and more accu- 
rately than the folio, which has and too sharp. JOHNSON. 

The quarto has to instead of too. MALONE. 
9 That I shall lose distinction in my joys ;] Thus, in Sappho's 
Epistle to Phaon : 

" ubi jam amborum fuerat confusa voluptas, " 



Re-enter PANDARUS. 

PAN. She's making her ready, she'll come 
straight : you must be witty now. She does so 
blush, and fetches her wind so short, as if she were 
frayed with a sprite : 3 I'll fetch her. It is the pret- 
tiest villain : she fetches her breath as short as a 
new-ta'en sparrow. [Exit PANDARUS. 

TRO. Even such a passion doth embrace my bo- 
som : 4 

My heart beats thicker than a feverous pulse ; 
And all my powers do their bestowing lose, 
Like vassalage at unawares encount'ring 
The eye of majesty. 5 


PAN. Come, come, what need you blush? shame's 
a baby. Here she is now : swear the oaths now to 

-frayed ] i. c. frighted. So, in Chapman's version of 

the 21st Iliad: 

" all the massacres 

" Left for the Greeks, eould put on looks of no more 

" Than now fraifd life." STEEVENS. 

4 Even sncli a passion doth embrace my bosom :~\ So, in The 
Merchant of I' mice: 

"- - rash-,- -mbraccd despair." MAI.ONE. 

4 Like vassalage at unawares encountering 

The eye of majesty.'] Mr. Rowe seems to have imitated 
this passage in his Ambitious S/epniot/icr, Act I: 
" Well may the ignoble herd 
" Start, if with heedless steps they unawares 
" Tread on the lion's walk : a prince's genius 
" Awes with superior greatness all beneath him." 



her, that you have sworn to me. What, are you 
gone again ? you must be watched ere you be made 
tame, 6 must you ? Come your ways, come your 
ways ; an you draw backward, we'll put you i'the 
fills. 7 Why do you not speak to her? Come, 
draw this curtain, and let's see your picture. 8 Alas 
the day, how loath you are to offend daylight ! an 
'twere dark, you'd close sooner. So, so ; rub on, 

you must be watched ere you be made tame,~\ Alluding 

to the manner of taming hawks. So, in The Taming of the 
Shrew : 

" to match her as we watch these kites." 


Hawks were tamed by being kept from sleep, and thus Pan- 
darus means that Cressida should be tamed. MALONE. 

7 i'the fills.] That is, in the shafts. Fill is a provin- 
cial word used in some counties for thills, the shafts of a cart or 
waggon. See Vol. VII. p. 269, n. 9. 

The editor of the second folio, for Jills, the reading of the 
first folio, substituted files, which has been adopted in all the 
modern editions. The quarto \\asfilles, which is only the more 
ancient spelling of Jills, The words " draw backward" show 
that the original is the true reading. MALONE. 

Sir T. Hanmer supports the reading of the second folio, by 
saying put you in the files, " alludes to the custom of putting 
men suspected of cowardice [i. e. of drawing backward,"] in the 
middle places." Thus, Homer, Iliad IV. 299: 

" Kaxz; o e; fj,<r<rov \a,<ra'ev i 

" "O<ppa xaisx. eSfAwv n$ ava/ka/ij itQ\e[j*l/}" 


The word files does not mean the middle places, but the 
ranks. The common soldiers of an army are called the rank 
and file ; and when the Serjeants or corporals misbehave, it is 
usual to punish them by reducing them to the files, that is, to 
the rank of private men. To draw backward, is merely to Jail 
back, and has no reference to drawing in a carriage. 


s Come, draw this curtain, and let's see your picture.'] It 
should seem, from these words, that Creesida, like Olivia in 
Twelfth-Night, was intended to come in veiled. Pandarus how- 
ever had, as usual, a double meaning. MALONE. 


and kiss the mistress. 9 How now, a kiss in fee- 
farm ! ' build there, carpenter ; the air is sweet. 2 
Nay, you shall fight your hearts out, ere I part you. 
The falcon as the tercel, for all the ducks i'the 
river : 3 go to, go to. 

9 So, so ; rub on, and kiss the mistress.] The allusion is to 
bowling. What we now call the jack, seems, in Shakspeare's 
time, to have been termed the mistress. A bowl that kisses the 
jack or mistress, is in the most advantageous situation. Rub on 
is a term at the same game. So, in No Wit like a Woman's, 
a comedy, by Middleton, 1657 : 

" So, a fair riddance ; 

" There's three rubs gone ; I've a clear way to the 

Again, in Decker's Satiromastix, 1602 : 

" Mini. Since he hath hit the mistress so often in the fore- 
game, we'll even play out the rubbers. 

" Sir Vaugh. Play out your rubbers in God's name ; by Jesu 
I'll never bowl in your alley." MALONE. 

An instance to the same effect was long ago suggested in a 
note on Cymbeline, Act II. sc. i. STEEVENS. 

1 a kiss in fee-farm!] Is a kiss of a duration that has 

no bounds ; a fee-farm being a grant of lands in fee, that is, for 
ever, reserving a certain rent. MALONE. 

How much more poetically is the same idea expressed in 
Coriolanus, when the jargon of law was absent from our author's 
thoughts ! 

" O, a kiss, 

" Long as my exile, sweet as my revenge !" 


build tlicre, carpenter ; the air is sivcct,~] So, in 
Macbeth : 

" does approve 

" By his lov'd mansionry. that heaven's breath 
" Smells wooingly here." STEEVENS. 

3 The falcon as the tercel, for nil the ducks i'the river :~\ 
Pandarus means, that he'll match his niece against her lover for 
any belt. The tercel is the male hawk; by \\\(.\fiiLun we gene- 
rally understand \\\e female. THEOBALD. 

1 think we should rather read : at the ten. .-1 . 



Tuo. You have bereft me of all words, lady. 

PAN. Words pay no debts, give her deeds : but 
she'll bereave you of the deeds too, if she call your 
activity in question. What, billing again ? Here's 
In witness whereof the par ties interchangeably 11 ' 
Come in, come in \ I'll go get a tire. 

\_Eoclt PANDARUS. 

CRES. Will you walk in, my lord ? 

TRO. O Cressida, how often have I wished me 
thus ? 

CRES. Wished, my lord ? The gods grant ! O 
my lord ! 

In Chaucer's Troilus and Cresseide, L. IV. 410, is the following 
stanza, from which Shakspeare may have caught a glimpse of 
meaning, though he has not very clearly expressed it. Panda- 
rus is the speaker : 

" What ? God forbid, alway that eche plesaunce 

" In o thing were, and in non othir wight ; 
" If one can singe, anothir can wel daunce, 
" If this he godely, she is glad and light, 
" And this is faire, and that can gode aright ; 
" Eche for his vertue holdin is full dere, 
" Both heroner and faucon for rivere." 

Again, in Fenton's Tragical! Discourses, bl. 1. 4-to. 1567: 
" how is that possible to make a froward kite a forward 
hatvke to the ryver ?" P. 159, b. 

Mr. M. Mason observes, that the meaning of this difficult 
passage is, " I will back the falcon against the tiercel, I will 
wager that the falcon is equal to the tiercel." STEEVENS. 

4 the parties interchangeably ] have set their hands 

and seals. So afterwards : " Go to, a bargain made : seal it, 
seal it." Shakspeare appears to have had here an idea in his 
thoughts that he has often expressed. So, in Measure for 
Measure : 

" But my kisses bring again, 

" Seals of love, but seal'd in vain." 
Again, in his Venus and Adonis : 

" Pure lips, sweet scats in my soft lips imprinted, 

" What bargains may I make, still to be sealing ?" 



TRO. What should they grant ? what makes this 
pretty abruption ? What too curious dreg espies my 
sweet lady in the fountain of our love ? 

CRES. More dregs than water, if my fears have 
eyes. 5 

TRO. Fears make devils cherubins ; they never 
see truly. 

CRES. Blind fear, that seeing reason leads, finds 
safer footing than blind reason stumbling without 
fear : To fear the worst, oft cures the worst. 

TRO. O, let my lady apprehend no fear : in all 
Cupid's pageant there is presented no monster. 6 

CRES. Nor nothing monstrous neither ? 

TRO. Nothing, but our undertakings ; when we 
vow to weep seas, live in fire, eat rocks, tame tigers; 7 
thinking it harder for our mistress to devise im- 
position enough, than for us to undergo any diffi- 
culty imposed. This is the monstruosity in love, 
lady, that the will is infinite, and the execution 
confined ; that the desire is boundless, and the act 
a slave to limit. 

' // 'my fears have eyes."} The old copies have tears. 

Corrected by Mr. Pope. MAI.OKK. 

" no fear : in all Cupid 9 s pageant there is presented no 

monster."} From this passage, however, a Fear appears to have 
been a personage in other pageants ; or perhaps in our ancient 
moralities. To this circumstance Aspatia alludes in The Maid's 
Tragedy : 

" and then a Fear: 

" Do that Fear bravely, wench." 
See also Antony and Cleopatra, Act II. sc. ii. STKEVKXS. 

iveep seas, five, in jire, eat rocks, tame tigers;} Here 
we have, not a Trojan prince talking to his mistress, but Orlando 
Furioso vowing that lie will endure every calamity that can be 
imagined: boasting that he will achieve more than ever knight 
performed. MALOM". 


CRES. They say, all lovers swear more perform- 
ance than they are able, and yet reserve an ability 
that they never perform ; vowing more than the 
perfection of ten, and discharging less than the 
tenth part of one. They that have the voice of 
lions, and the act of hares, are they not monsters? 

TRO. Are there such ? such are not we : Praise 
us as we are tasted, allow us as we prove ; our head 
shall go bare, till merit crown it: 8 no perfection in 
reversion shall have a praise in present: we will not 
name desert, before his birth ; and, being born, his 
addition shall be humble. 9 Few words to fair faith : 
Troilus shall be such to Cressid, as what envy can 
say worst, shall be a mock for his truth ; * and what 
truth can speak truest, not truer than Troilus. 

CRES. Will you w r alk in, my lord ? 

Re-enter PANDARUS, 

PAN. What, blushing still ? have you not done 
talking yet ? 

8 our head shall go bare, till merit crown it .] I can- 
not forbear to observe, that the quarto reads thus : Our head 
shall go bare, till merit louer part no affection, in reversion, &c. 
Had there been no other copy, how could this have been cor- 
rected ? The true reading is in the folio. JOHNSON. 

//is addition shall be humble.'] We will give him no 

high or pompous titles. JOHNSON. 

Addition is still the term used by conveyancers in describing 
the quality and condition of the parties to deeds, &c. REED. 

1 ivliat envy can say ivorst, shall be a mock for his 

truth ;] i. e. shall be only a mock for his truth. Even malice 
(for such is the meaning of the word envy] shall not be able to 
impeach his truth, or attack him in any other way, except by ri- 
diculing him for his constancy. See p. 61-, n. 2. MAI.ONE. 


CRES. Well, uncle, what folly I commit, I dedi- 
cate to you. 

PAN. I thank you for that ; if my lord get a boy 
of you, you'll give him me : Be true to my lord : 
if he flinch, chide me for it. 

Tito. You know now your hostages; your uncle's 
word, and my firm faith. 

PAN. Nay, I'll give my word for her too ; our 
kindred, though they be long ere they are wooed, 
they are constant, being won : they are burs, I can 
tell you ; they'll stick where they are thrown. 2 

CRES. Boldness comes to me now, and brings me 

heart : 

Prince Troilus, I have lov'd you night and day 
For many weary months. 

TRO. Why was myCressid then so hard to win? 

CUES. Hard to seem won ; but I was won, my 


With the first glance that ever Pardon me ; 
If I confess much, you will play the tyrant. 
I love you now ; but not, till now, so much 
But I might master it : in faith, I lie ; 
My thoughts were like unbridled children, grown 
Too headstrong for their mother: See, we fools! 
Why have I blabb'd ? who shall be true to us, 
When we are so unsecret to ourselves ? 
But, though I lov'd you well, I woo'd you not ; 
And yet, good faith, I wisli'd myself a man ; 
Or that we women had men's privilege 
Of speaking first. Sweet, bid me hold my tongue ; 

thry'llstick where thri/ arc //mm-;?.] This allusion has 
already occurred in Measure Jbr Measure; 

" Nay, friar, I am a kind of bur, I shall stick." 



For, in this rapture, I shall surely speak 
The thing I shall repent. See, see, your silence, 
Cunning in dumbness, 3 from my weakness draws 
My very soul of counsel : Stop my mouth. 

TRO. And shall, albeit sweetmusick issues thence. 
PAN. Pretty, i'faith. 

CRES. My lord, I do beseech you, pardon me ; 
'Twas not my purpose, thus to beg a kiss : 
I am asham'd ; O heavens ! what have I done ? 
For this time will I take my leave, my lord. 

TRO. Your leave, sweet Cressid ? 

PAN. Leave ! an you take leave till to-morrow 

CRES. Pray you, content you. 

TRO. What offends you, lady ? 

CRES. Sir, mine own company. 

TRO. You cannot shun 


CRES. Let me go and try : 4 
I have a kind of self resides with you ; 5 
But an unkind self, that itself will leave, 

3 Cunning in dumbness,'] The quarto and folio read Coming 
in dumbness. The emendation was made by Mr. Pope. 


4 Let me go and try :~\ This verse being imperfect, I suppose 
our author to have originally written : 

Let me go in, my lord, and try. STEEVENS. 

s I have a kind oj~ self resides with you ;] So, in our author's 
123d Sonnet: 

" for I, being pent in thcc, 

" Perforce am thine, and all that is in me." MALOXE. 

A similar thought occurs in Antony and Cleopatra : 

" That thou, residing here, go'st yet with me," &c. 



To be another's fool. I would be gone : 
Where is my wit ? I know not what I speak. 6 

TRO. Well know they what they speak, that 
speak so wisely. 

CRES. Perchance, my lord, I show more craft 

than love ; 

And fell so roundly to a large confession, 
To angle for your thoughts : But you are wise ; 
Or else you love not ; For to be wise, and love, 
Exceeds man's might; that dwells with gods above. 7 

/ would be gone : 

Where is my wit? I know not what I speak.'] Thus the 
quartos. The folio reads : 

To be another', sjbol. Where is my wit ? 

I would be gone. I speak I know not what . MALONE. 

- But you are wise ; 

Or else you love not ; For to be tvisc, and love, 
Exceeds man's might; c.] I read: 

but we're not wise, 

Or else we love not ; to be wise, and lore, 
Exceeds man's might ; 

Cressida, in return to the praise given by Troilus to her wisdom, 
replies : " That lovers are never wise ; that it is beyond the 
power of man to bring love and wisdom to an union." 


I don't think that this passage requires any amendment. 
Cressida's meaning is this : " Perchance I fell too roundly to 
confession, in order to angle for your thoughts ; but you are not 
so easily taken in ; you are too wise, or too indifferent ; for to 
be wise and love, exceeds man's might." M. MASON. 

to be wise, and love, 

Exceeds man's might ;~\ This is from Spenser, Shepherd's Ca- 
lendar, March ; 

" To be wise, and eke to love, 

" Is granted scarce to gods above." TYRWHITT. 

This thought originally belongs to Publius Syrus, amon^ 
whose sentences we find this : 

" Amare et sapere vix Deo conceditur." 

Marston, in 77(6- Dutch Courtezan, 160J, has the same 
thought, and the line is printed as a quotation : 


TRO. O, that I thought it could be in a woman, 
(As, if it can, I will presume in you,) 
To feed for aye her lamp and flames of love ; 8 
To keep her constancy in plight and youth, 
Outliving beauty's outward, with a mind 
That doth renew swifter than blood decays ! 9 
Or, that persuasion could but thus convince me, 
That my integrity and truth to you 

" But raging lust my fate all strong doth move ; 

" The gods themselves cannot be wise, and love" 
Cressida's argument is certainly inconsequential : " But you 
are wise, or else you are not in love ; for no one who is in love 
can be wise." I do not, however, believe there is any corrup- 
tion, as our author sometimes entangles himself in inextricable 
difficulties of this kind. One of the commentators has endea- 
voured to extort sense from the words as they stand, and thinks 
there is no difficulty. In these cases, the surest way to prove 
the inaccuracy, is, to omit the word that embarrasses the sentence. 
Thus, if, for a moment, we read : 

But you are ivise ; 

Or else you love ; for to be idse, and love, 

Exceeds man's might : &c. 

the inference is clear, by the omission of the word not: which 
is not a word of so little importance that a sentence shall have 
just the same meaning whether a negative is contained in it or 
taken from it. But for all inaccuracies of this kind our poet 
himself is undoubtedly answerable. Sir T. Hanmer, to obtain 
some sense, arbitrarily reads : 

A sign you love not. MALOXK. 

9 To feed for aye her lamp #c.] Troilus alludes to the perpe- 
tual lamps which were supposed to illuminate sepulchres : 

" lasting flames, that burn 

" To light the dead, and warm th' unfruitful urn." 
See my note on Pericles, Act III. sc. i. STEEVENS. 

- siciftcr than blood decays /] Blood, in Shakspeare, 
frequently means desire, appetite. MALONE. 

In the present instance, the word blood has its common sig- 
nification. So, in Much Ado about Nothing: 

" Time hath not yet so dry'd this blood ." STEEVENS. 


Might be affronted with the match 1 and weight 
Of such a winnow'd purity in love ; 
How were I then uplifted ! but, alas, 
I am as true as truth's simplicity, 
And simpler than the infancy of truth. 5 

CRES. In that I'll war with you. 

TRO. O virtuous fight, 

When right with right wars who shall be most right! 
True swains in love shall, in the world to come, 
Approve their truthsby Troilus: when their rhymes, 
Full of protest, of oath, and big compare, 3 
Want similes, truth tir'd with iteration, 4 

1 Might be affronted with the match ] I wish " my integri- 
ty might be met and matched with such equality and force of 
pure unmingled love." JOHNSON. 

So, in Hamlet : 

" - that he, as 'twere by accident, may here 
" Affront Ophelia." STEEVENS. 

2 And simpler than the infancy of trtith.~\ This is fine ; and 
means, " Ere truth, to defend itself against deceit in the com- 
merce of the world, had, out of necessity, learned worldly 
policy." WAUBURTON. 

3 compare,^ i. e. comparison. So Milton, Paradise 

Lost, B. Ill: 

" Bey o\\d compare the son of God was seen ." 


' True mains in love, shall, in the world to come, 
Approve their truths by Troilus : when their rhi/ntes, 
Full of protest , of oath, and l^ compare. 
Want .similes, truth tir'd, with iteration, ] The metre, as 
well as the sense, of the last verse, \\ill be improved, I think, b\ 
reading : 

" ll'ant similes oi' truth, lir'd u-ith iteration, ." 
So, a little lower in the same speech: 

Yet after all comparisons of truth. TYKWHITT. 

This is a very probable conjecture. Truth at present has no 
verb to which it can relate. MALONK. 


As true as steel, 5 as plantage to the moon, 6 

3 As true as steel,] As true as steel is an ancient proverbial 
simile. I find it in Lydgate's Troy Book, where he speaks of 
Troilus, L. II. c. xvi : 

" Thereto in love treive as any stele." 
Virgil, JEneid VII. 64-0, applies a similar epithet to a sword : 

" Jldoque accingitur ense." 

i. e. a weapon in the metal of which he could confide ; a trusty 
blade. It should be observed, however, that Geo. Gascoigne, in 
his Steele Glass, 1576, bestows the same character on his Mirrour: 

" this poore glass which is of trustie steele." 
Again : 

" that steele both trusty was and true." 


Mirrors formerly being made of steel, I once thought the 
meaning mighfbe, " as true as the mirror, which faithfully ex- 
hibits every image that is presented before it." But I now think 
with Mr. Steevens, that As true as steel was merely a prover- 
bial expression, without any such allusion. A passage in an old 
piece entitled The Pleasures of Poetry, no date, but printed in 
the time of Queen Elizabeth, will admit either interpretation : 
" Behold in her the lively glasse, 
" The pattern, true as steel." MALONE. 

6 as plantage to the moon,~\ Alluding to the common 

opinion of the influence the moon has over what is planted or 
sown, which was therefore done in the increase : 
" Rite Latonae pueruni canentes, 
" Rite crescentem face noctilucam, 

" Prosperam frugum, ." //or. Lib. IV. Od. vi. 


Plantage is not, I believe, a general term, but the herb which 
we now call plantain, in Latin, plantago, which was, I suppose, 
imagined to be under the peculiar influence of the moon. 


Shakspeare speaks of plantain by its common appellation in 
Romeo and Juliet; and yet, in Sapho and Phao, 1591, Mate- 
drake is called Mandrage : 

" Sow next thy vines mandragc." 

From a book entitled The profitable Art of Gardening, &c. by 
Tho. Hill, Londoner, the third edition, printed in 1579, 1 learn, 
that neither sowing, planting, nor grafting, were ever under- 
taken without a scrupulous attention to the encrease or waning 


As sun to day, as turtle to her mate, 

As iron to adamant, 7 as earth to the center, 

Yet, after all comparisons of truth, 

As truth's authenticlvauthor to be cited, 8 

As true as Troilus shall crown up the verse, 9 

And sanctify the numbers. 

CUES. Prophet may you be ! 

If I be false, or swerve a hair from truth, 
When time is old and hath forgot itself, 
When waterdrops have worn the stones of Troy 9 
And blind oblivion swallow' d cities up, 1 
And mighty states characterless are grated 
To dusty nothing; yet let memory, 
From false to false, among false maids in love, 

of the moon. Dryden does not appear to have understood the 
passage, and has therefore altered it thus : 

As true as flowing tides are to the moon. STEEVENS. 

This may be fully illustrated by a quotation from Scott's 
Discoverir of Witchcraft : " The poore husbandman perceiveth 
that the increase of the moonc maketh plants frutefull : so as in 
the full moonc they are in the best strength ; decaieing in the 
tuane ; and in the conjunction do utterlie wither and vade." 


7 As iron to adamant,"] So, in Greene's Tu Quoque, 1614? ; 

" As true to thee as steel to ada.nant" MALONE. 

8 As truth's authentick author to Le cited,~] Troilus shall 
crown the verse, as a man to be cited as the authentick author of 
truth ; as one whose protestations were true to a proverb. 


9 crown np the verse,"] i. e. conclude it. Finis coronal 

r>j)us. So, in Chapman's version of the second Iliad : 

" We flie, not putting on the croivne of our so long-held 
warre." STEEVKNS. 

1 And blind oblivion swallow'd cities up,~\ So, in AY;? 
Jiichard III. quarto, 1598: 

" And almost shoulder'd in this swallowing gulph 
" Oi' blind forgetful ness and dark oblivion." MAI.ONF. 
VOL. XV. '2 A 


Upbraid my falsehood! when they have said as 


As air, as water, wind, or sandy earth, 
As fox to lamb, as wolf to heifer's calf, 
Pard to the hind, or stepdame to her son ; 
Yea, let them say, to stick the heart of falsehood, 
As false as Cressid.'' 

PAN. Go to, a bargain made : seal it, seal it ; 
I'll be the witness. Here I hold your hand ; here, 
my cousin's. If ever you prove false one to an- 
other, since I have taken such pains to bring you 
together, let all pitiful goers-between be called to 
the w r orld's end after my name, call them all 
Pandars; let all constant men 3 be Troiluses, all false 

* Tro. zvkeit their rhymes. 

Want similes 

As true as Troilus shall crown up the verse 


Yea, let them say 

As false as Cressid.~] This antithesis of praise and censure 
appears to have found an imitator in Edmund Smith, the author 
of Phcedra and Hippolytus : 

" Theseus. . 

*' And when aspiring bards, in daring strains, 
" Shall raise some matron to the heavenly powers, 
" They'll say, she's great, she's true, she's chaste a? 

" Pliadra. 

" And when th' avenging muse with pointed rage, 
" Would sink some impious woman down to hell, 
" They'll say, she's false, she's base, she's foul as Phaedra.'* 


-' constant men ] Though Sir T. Hanmer's ehienda- 

tion [inconstant] be plausible, I believe Shakspeare wrote 
constant. He seems to have been less attentive to make Pandar 
talk consequentially, than to account for the ideas actually 
annexed to the three names. Now it is certain that, in his 
time, a Troilus was as clear an expression for a constant lover, 
as a Cressida and a Pandar were for a jilt and a pimp. 



women Cressids, and all brokers-between Pandars ! 
say, amen. 

I entirely agree with Mr. Tyrwhitt, and am happy to have 
his opinion in support of the reading of the old copy, from 
which, in my apprehension, we ought not to deviate, except in 
cases of extreme necessity. Of the assertion in the latter part 
of his note, relative to the constancy of Troilus, various proofs 
are furnished by our old poets. So, in A gorgeous Gallery of 
gallant Inventions, &c. 4to. 1578: 
" But if thou me forsake, 

" As Cressid that forgot 
" True Troilus, her make," &c. 
Again, ibid : 

" As Troilus'' truth shall be my shield, 

" To kepe my pen from blame, 
" So Cressid's crafte shall kepe the field, 

" For to resound thy shame." 

Mr. M. Mason objects, that constant cannot be the true 
reading, because Pandarus has already supposed that they should 
both provefalse to each other, and it would therefore be absurd 
for him to say that Troilus should be quoted as an example of 
constancy. But to this the answer is, that Shakspeare himself 
knew what the event of the story was, and who the person was 
that did prove false ; that many expressions in his plays have 
dropped from him, in consequence of that knowledge, that are 
improper in the mouth of the speaker ; and that, in his licen- 
tious mode of writing, the words, " if ever you- prove Jcdsc to 
one another," may mean, not, if you both prove false, but, if 
it should happsn that any Jalshood or breach of faith should dis- 
ttiir!c you, who are noiv thus attached to each other. This might 
and did happen, by one of the parties proving false, and break- 
ing her engagement. 

The modern editions read if ever you prove false to one 
another ; but the reading of the text is that of the quarto and 
folio, and was the phraseology of Shakspeare's age. MALONK. 

It is clearly the intention of the poet that this imprecation 
should be such a one as was verified by the event, as it is in 
part to this very day. But neither was Troilus e\vr used to 
denote an inconstant lover, nor, if we believe the story, did he 
ever deserve the character, :>s both the others did in truth de- 
serve that shame here imprecated upon them. Besides, Pandarus 
seems to adjust his imprecation to those of the other two pre- 

2 A 2 


TRO. Amen. 
CRES. Amen. 

PAN. Amen. Whereupon I will show you a 
chamber and a bed, 4 which bed, because it shall 
not speak of your pretty encounters, press it to 
death : away. 

And Cupid grant all tongue-tied maidens here, 
Bed, chamber, Pandar to provide this geer ! 



The Grecian Camp. 


CAL. Now, princes, for the service I have done 


The advantage of the time prompts me aloud 
To call for recompense. Appear it to your mind, 5 

ceding, just as they dropped from their lips ; as false as Cressid, 
and, consequently, as true (or as constant) as Troilus. 


4 and a bed,'] These words are not in the old copy, but 

what follows shows that they were inadvertently omitted. 


This deficiency was supplied by Sir Thomas Hanmer. He 
reads, however, " a chamber ivith a bed ; which bed, be- 
cause" &c. STEEVENS. 

* Appear it to your mind,] Sir Thomas Hanmer, very 

properly in my opinion, reduces this line to measure, by 
reading : 

Appear it to you,-. STEEVENS. 


That, through the sight I bear in things, to Jove 6 
I have abandoned Troy, 7 left my possession, 

6 through the sight I bear in things, to Jove <S:c.] Thi* 

passage, in all the modern editions, is silently depraved, and 
printed thus : 

through the sight I bear in things to come, . 

The word is so printed that nothing but the sense can determine 
whether it be love or Jove. I believe that the editors read it as 
/ore, and therefore made the alteration to obtain some meaning. 


I do not perceive why love, the clear and evident reading of 
both the quartos and folios, should be passed over without some 
attempt to explain it. In my opinion it may signify " No 
longer assisting Troy with my advice, I have left it to the do- 
minion of love, to the consequences of the amour of Paris and 
Helen." STEEVENS. 

; Tlint, through the sight I bear in things, to Jove 

/ have abandoned Troy, &c.] This reasoning perplexes Mr. 
Theobald : " He foresaw his country was undone ; he ran over 
to the Greeks; and this he makes a merit of (says the editor). 
I own (continues he) the motives of his oratory seem to be 
somewhat perverse and unnatural. Nor do I know how to re- 
concile it, unless our poet purposely intended to make Calchas 
act the part of a trite priest, and so from motives of self-interest 
insinuate the merit of service." The editor did not know how 
to reconcile this. Nor I neither. For I do not know what he 
means by " the motives of his oratory," or, " from motives of 
self-interest to insinuate merit." But if he would insinuate, that 
it was the poet's design to make his priest self-interested, and to 
represent to the Greeks that what he did for his own preserva- 
tion, was done for their service, he is mistaken. Shakspeare 
thought of nothing so silly, as it would be to draw his priest a 
knave, in order to make him talk like nj'uol. Though that be 
the fate which generally attends their abusers. But Shakspeare 
was no such ; and consequently wanted not this cover for dul- 
ness. The pcrverxencss is all the editor's own, who interprets, 

through the. sight- I have in things to conn', 

I have aban'/oit'd Troy, 

to signify, " by my power of prescience finding mv country 
must be ruined, I have therefore abandoned it to sci-k refuge 
with you ;'' whetvns the true sense is, " Be it known unto you, 
that on account of a gift or faculty I have of seeing things to 


Incurr'd a traitor's name ; expos'd myself, 
From certain and possessed conveniences, 

come, which faculty I suppose would be esteemed by you as 
acceptable and useful, I have abandoned Troy my native coun- 
try." That he could not mean what the editor supposes, ap- 
pears from these considerations : First, if he had represented 
himself as running from a falling city, he could never have said : 

" I have expos'd myself, 

" From certain and possess'd conveniences, 

" To doubtful fortunes ; ." 

Secondly, the absolute knowledge of the fall of Troy was a 
secret hid from the inferior gods themselves ; as appears from 
the poetical history of that war. It depended on many contin- 
gencies, whose existence they did not foresee. All that they 
knew was, that if such and such things happened, Troy would 
fall. And this secret they communicated to Cassandra only, but 
along with it, the fate not to be believed. Several others knew 
each a several part of the secret ; one, that Troy could not be 
taken unless Achilles went to the war ; another, that it could 
not fall while it had the palladium ; and so on. But the secret, 
that it was absolutely to fall, was known to none. The sense 
here given will admit of no dispute among those who know how 
acceptable a seer was amongst the Greeks. So that this Calchas, 
like a true priest, if it needs must be so, went where he could 
exercise his profession with most advantage. For it being much 
less common amongst the Greeks than the Asiaticks, there would 
be a greater demand for it. WARBURTON. 

I am afraid, that after all the learned commentator's efforts 
to clear the argument of Calchas, it will still appear liable to 
objection ; nor do I discover more to be urged in his defence, 
than that though his skill in divination determined him to leave 
Troy, yet that he joined himself to Agamemnon and his army 
by unconstrained good-will ; and though he came as a fugitive 
escaping from destruction, yet his services after his reception, 
being voluntary and important, deserved reward. This argu- 
ment is not regularly and distinctly deduced, but this is, I think, 
the best explication that it will yet admit. JOHNSOX. 

In p. 239, n. 4, an account has been given of the motives 
which induced Calchas to abandon Troy. The services to which 
he alludes, a short quotation from Lydgate will sufficiently ex- 
plain. Auncieut Hut. &c. 1555 : 


To doubtful fortunes ; sequest'ring from me all 
That time, acquaintance, custom, and condition, 

" He entred into the oratorye, 
" And besily gan to knele and praye, 
" And his things devoutly for to saye, 
" And to the god crye and call full stronge ; 
" And for Apollo would not tho prolonge, 
" Sodaynly his ans\vere gan nttame, 
" And sayd Calchns twies by his name ; 
" Be right well 'ware thou ne tourne agayne 
" To Troy townc, for that were but in vayne, 
" For finally lerne this thynge of me, 
" In shorte tyme it shall destroyed be : 
" This is in sooth, whyeh may not be denied. 
" Wherefore I will that thou be alyed 
" With the Greekcs, and with Achilles go 
" To them anone ; my will is, it be so : 
" For thou to than shall lie necessary, 
" In counseling and in giving rede, 
*' And be right helping to their good spcde" 
Mr. Theobald thinks it strange that Calchas should claim any 
merit for having joined the Greeks after he had said that he 
knew his country was undone ; but there is no inconsistency : 
he had left, from whatever cause, what was dear to him, his 
country, friends, children, c. and, having joined and served 
the Greeks, was entitled to protection and reward. 

On the phrase As new into the \vorld, (for so the old copy 
reads,) I must observe, that it appears from a great number of 
passages in our old writers, the word into was formerly often 
used in the sense of unto, as it evidently is here. In proof of 
this assertion the following passages may be adduced : 

" It was a pretty part in the old church-playes when the 
nimble Vice would skip up nimbly like a jackanapes into the 
devil's necke, and ride the devil a course 1 ." Harsnel's Declara- 
tion of Popish Impostures, 4-to. 1(>0'2. 

Again, in a letter written by .1. Pashm, July 8, 1 l<f>8 ; Past on 
Letters, Vol. II. p. ~) : " and they that have justed with him 
'>!<> this dav, have been as richly beseen," &e. 

Again, in Laneham's Account of tltc Entertainment a! Kan-J- 
u-orlh, 1,37.~>: " what time it pleased her to rvde forth into 
the chase, to hunt the hart of tors ; which found, anon," iSrc. 

Chase, indued, may mean here, the place in which t!ie Queen 
hunted ; but I believe it is employed in the more ordinary 


Made tame and most familiar to my nature ; 

And here, to do you service, am become 

As new into the world, strange, unacquainted : 

I do beseech you, as in way of taste, 

To give me now a little benefit, 

Out of those many register' d in promise, 

Which, you say, live to come in my behalf. 

AGAM. What woitld'st thou of us, Trojan? make 

CAL. You have a Trojan prisoner, call'd Antenor, 3 

Again, in Daniel's Civil Warres, B. IV. st. 72, edit. 1602 : 
" She doth conspire to have him made away, 
" Thrust thereinto not only with her pride, 
" But by her father's counsell and consent.'* 
Again, in our author's All's -well that ends well : 

" I'll stay at home, 

" And pray God's blessing into thy attempt." MALONE. 

The folio reads 

in things to love, 

which appears to me to have no meaning, unless we adopt the 
explanation of Mr. Steevens, which would make sense of it. 
The present reading, though supported by Johnson and Malone, 
is little better than nonsense, and there is this objection to it, 
that it was Juno, not Jove, that persecuted the Trojans. Jove 
wished them well ; and though we may abandon a man to his 
enemies, we cannot, with propriety, say, that we abandon him 
to his friends. Let me add, that the speech of Calchas would 
have been incomplete, if lie had said that he abandoned Troy, 
from the sight he bore of things, without explaining it by adding 
the words to come. I should, therefore, adhere to that read- 
ing, Avhieh I consider as one of those happy amendments which 
do not require any authority to support them. 

The merit of Calchas did not merely consist in his having 
come over to the Greeks ; he also revealed to them the fate of 
Troy, which depended on their conveying away the palladium, 
and the horses of Rhesus, before they should drink of the river 
Xanthus. M. MASON. 

! Antenor,'] Very few particulars respecting this Trojan 

arc preserved by Homer. But as Professor Heyne, in his seventh 
Excursus to the first JEneid, observes, " Fuit Antenor inter 


Yesterday took ; Troy holds him very dear. 
Oft have you, (often have you thanks therefore,) 
Desir'd my Cressid in right great exchange, 
Whom Troy hath still denied : But this Antenor, 
I know, is such a wrest in their affairs, 9 

eos, in quorum rebus ornantlis ii maxime scriptores laborarunt, 
qui narrationes Ilomericas novis commentis de suo onerarunt ; 
non alitcr ac si delectatio a mere fabulosis & temere effusis tig- 
mentis proficisceretur." STEEVEN.S. 

9 such a wrest in their affairs,'] According to Dr. 

Johnson, who quotes this line in his Dictionary, the meaning is, 
that the loss of Antenor is such a violent distortion of their 
affairs, &c. But as in a former scene [p. 273 see n. '2,] we 
had o'er-rested for o'er-wrested, so here I strongly suspect wrest 
has been printed instead of re>t. Antenor is such a stay or sup- 
port of their affairs, &c. All the ancient English muskets had 
rests by which they were supported. The subsequent words 
wanting his manage appear to me to confirm the emendation. 
To say that Antenor himself (for so the passage runs, not the 
loss of Antenor,) is a violent distortion of the Trojan nego- 
ciations, is little better than nonsense. MAI.ONE. 

I have been informed that a wrest anciently signified a sort of 
tuning-hammer, by which the strings of some musical instru- 
ments were screwed or wrested up to their proper degree of ten- 
sion. Antenor's advice might be supposed to produce a conge- 
nial effect on the Trojan councils, which otherwise 

" . must slack, 

" Wanting his manage; ." SFEEVEXS. 

Wrest is not misprinted for rest, as Mr. Malone supposes, in 
his correction of Dr. Johnson, who has certainly mistaken the 
sense of this word. It means an instrument for tuning the harp 
by drawing up the strings. Laneham, in his Letter from 
Kenilworth, p. 50, describing a minstrel, says, " his harp in 
good grace dependaunt before him : his wreast tyed to a green 
lace and hanging by." And again, in Wynne's History of the 
(iwedir l-'a/nilij: " And setting forth very early before day, 
unwittingly carried upon his finger the wrest of his cosen's 
linrpe" To wrest, is to wiiid. See Minsheu's Dictionary, 
The: form of the wrest may be seen in some of the illuminated 
service books, wherein David is represented playing on his 
harp ; in the second part of Mersenna's Harmonics, p. 69 ; and 
iu the Syntagmata of Praetorius, Vol. II. Fig. xix. DOUCE. 


That their negotiations all must slack, 
Wanting his manage ; and they will almost 
Give us a prince of blood, a son of Priam, 
In change of him : let him be sent, great princes, 
And he shall buy my daughter ; and her presence 
Shall quite strike off all service I have done, 
In most accepted pain. 1 

AGAM. Let Diomedes bear him, 

And bring us Cressid hither ; Calchas shall have 
What he requests of us. Good Diomed, 
Furnish you fairly for this interchange : 
Withal, bring word if Hector will to-morrow 
Be answer* d in his challenge : Ajax is ready. 

Dio. This shall I undertake j and 'tis a burden 
Which I am proud to bear. 


Enter ACHILLES and PATROCLUS, before their 

ULYSS. Achilles stands i'the entrance of his 


Please it our general to pass strangely by him, 
As if he were forgot ; and, princes all, 
Lay negligent and loose regard upon him : 
I will come last : 'Tis like, he'll question me, 
Why such unplausive eyes are bent, why turn'd on 

him : 2 

1 In most accepted pain.] Sir T. Hanmer, and Dr. Warburtou 
after him, read : 

In most accepted pay. 

They do not seem to underst?.nd the construction of the passage. 
Her presence, says Calchas, shall strike off, or recompense the 
service I have done, even in those labours which were most 
accepted. JOHNSON. 

" Why such unplausive eyes are bent, why turn'd on him :~\ 
If the eyes were bent on him, they were turn'd on him. This 


If so, I have derision med'cinable, 
To use between your strangeness and his pride, 
Which his own will shall have desire to drink ; 
It may do good : pride hath no other glass 
To show itself, but pride ; for supple knees 
Feed arrogance, and arc the proud man's fees. 

AGAM. We'll execute your purpose, and put on 
A form of strangeness as we pass along; 
So do each lord ; and cither greet him not, 
Or else disdainfully, which shall shake him more 
Than if not look'd on. I will lead the way. 

ACHIL. What, comes the general to speak with 

me ? 
You know my mind, I'll fight no more 'gainst Troy. 

AGAM. What says Achilles ? would he aught 
with us ? 

NEST. Would you, my lord, aught w r ith the 

general ? 


NEST. Nothing, my lord. 

AGAM. The better. 


ACHIL. Good day, good day. 

ME\\ II ow do you ? how do you ? 

\_Ej'it MENELAUS, 

Acini.. What, docs the cuckold scorn me ? 

AJAX. How now, Patroclus ? 
ACHIL. Good morrow, Ajax. 

AJAX. I la? 

tautology, therefore, together with the redundancy of the line, 
plainly show that we ought to read, with Sir Thomas Ilamner : 

H7;y such unplausive ciji's are bent on him : 



ACHIL. Good morrow. 3 

AJAX. Ay, and good next day too. 

\_Exit AJAX. 

ACHIL. What mean these fellows? Know they 
not Achilles ? 

PATR. They pass by strangely : they were us'd 

to bend, 

To send their smiles before them to Achilles j 
To come as humbly, as they us'd to creep 
To holy altars. 

ACHIL. What, am I poor of late ? 

*Tis certain, greatness, once fallen out with fortune, 
Must fall out with men too: What the declin'd is, 
He shall as soon read in the eyes of others, 
As feel in his own fall : for men, like butterflies, 
Show not their mealy wings, but to the summer ; 
And not a man, for being simply man, 
Hath any honour ; but honour 4 for those honours 
That are without him, as place, riches, favour, 
Prizes of accident as oft as merit : 
Which when they fall, as being slippery standers, 
The love that lean'd on them as slippery too, 
Do one pluck down another, and together 
Die in the fall. But 'tis not so with me : 
Fortune and I are friends ; I do enjoy 
At ample point all that I did possess, 
Save these men's looks; who do, methinks, find out 
Something not worth in me such rich beholding 
As they have often given. Here is Ulysses ; 

3 Good morrotv.'] Perhaps, in this repetition of the salute, 
we should read, as in the preceding instance, Good morrow, 
Ajax; or, with more colloquial spirit, I say, good morrow. 
Otherwise the metre is defective. STEEVF.XS. 

bui honour ] Thus the quarto. The folio reads- 

but honoured. MALONE. 


I'll interrupt his reading. 
How now, Ulysses ? 

ULYSS. Now, great Thetis' son ? 

ACIIIL. What are you reading ? 

ULYSS. A strange fellow here 

Writes me, That man how dearly ever parted, 5 
How much in having, or without, or in, 
Cannot make boast to have that which he hath, 
Nor feels not what he owes, but by reflection ; 
As when his virtues shining upon others 
Heat them, and they retort that heat again 
To the first giver. 

ACIIIL. This is not strange, Ulysses. 

The beauty that is borne here in the face 
The bearer knows not, but commends itself 
To others' eyes : nor doth the eye itself 6 
(That most pure spirit 7 of sense,) behold itself, 

5 hoiv dearly ever parted,] However excellently cndoived t 

with however dear or precious parts enriched or adorned. 


Johnson's explanation of the word parted is just. So, in Ben 
Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour, he describes Macilente 
as a man well parted; and in Massinger's Great Duke of Florence, 
Sanazarro says of Lydia : 

" And I, my lord, chose rather 

" To deliver her better parted than she is, 

" Than to take from her." M. MASON. 

So, in a subsequent passage : 

" no man is the lord of any thing, 

" (Though in and of him there is much consisting,) 
" Till he communicate Ins parts to others." MALONE, 

* nor doth the eye itself &c."\ So, in Julius Ca-sar : 

" No, Cassius ; for the eye sees not itself, 

" But by reflexion, by some other things." SxKEVEN'St. 

7 To others' ei/ex : 

( That most pure spirit &c.] These two lines are totally 
omitted in all the editions but the first quarto. I'oi'K. 


Not going from itself; but eye to eye oppos'd 
Salutes each other with each other's form. 
For speculation turns not to itself, 8 
Till it hath travelled, and is married there 
Where it may see itself: this is not strange at all. 

ULYSS. I do not strain at the position, 
It is familiar ; but at the author's drift : 
Who, in his circumstance, 9 expressly proves 
That no man is the lord of any thing, 
(Though in and of him there be much consisting,) 
Till he communicate his parts to others : 
Nor doth he of himself know them for aught 
Till he behold them form'd in the applause 
Where they are extended; which, like 1 an arch, 


The voice again ; or like a gate of steel 
Fronting the sun, 2 receives and renders back 
His figure and his heat. I was much rapt in this; 
And apprehended here immediately 
The unknown Ajax. 3 

Heavens, what a man is there ! a very horse ; 
That has he knows not what. Nature, what things 

there are, 

* For speculation turns not <Src.] Speculation has here the 
same meaning as in Macbeth : 

" Thou hast no speculation in those eyes 
" Which thou dost glare with." MALOXE. 

in his circumstance,'] In the detail or circumduction 
of his argument. JOHNSON. 

1 which, like ] Old copies to/to, like . Corrected 

by Mr. Howe. MALOXE. 

s a gate of steel 

Fronting the sun,~\ This idea appears to have been caught 
from some of our ancient romances, which often describe gates 
of similar materials and effulgence. STEEVEXS. 

3 The unknown Ajfu:.~\ Ajax, vho has abilities, which were 
never brought into view or use. JOHNSON. TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 367 

Most abject in regard, and dear in use ! 
What things again most dear in the esteem, 
And poor in worth ! Now shall we see to-morrow, 
An act that very chance doth throw upon him, 
Ajax renown'd. 4 O heavens, what some men do, 
While some men leave to do ! 
How some men creep in skittish fortune's hall, 5 
Whiles others play the idiots in her eyes ! 
How one man eats into another's pride, 
While pride is fasting 6 in his wantonness! 
To see these Grecian lords ! why, even already 
They clap the lubber Ajax on the shoulder; 

* Now shall we .v;"; to-morrow. 

An act that rcn/ chance doth throw t'pon him, 

Ajax >rn<mviV.J I once thought that we ought to read 

renown, lint by considering the middle line as parenthetical, 

the passage is sufficiently clear. MALONE. 

By placing a break after him, the construction v/ill be : Now 
we shall see to-morrow an act that very chance doth throw upon 
him [we shall see] Ajax renown'd. HENLEY. 

4 How some men creep in skittish fortune's hall,'] To creep 
is to keep out of sight from whatever motive. Some men keep 
out of notice in the hall of fortune, while others, though they 
butyj/rty the idiot, are always in her eye, in the way of distinc- 
tion. JOHNSON. 

I cannot think that creep, used without any explanatory word, 
can mean to keep out of sight. While some men, says Ulysses, 
remain tamely inactive in fortune's hall, without any efiort to 
excite her attention, others, \c. Such, I think, is the meaning. 


fasting ] Quarto. The folio has feasting. Either 

word may bear a good sense. JOHNSON. 

1 have preferred fasting, the rending of the quarto, to feasting, 
which we find in the folio, not only because the quarto copies 
are in general preferable to the folio, but because the original 
reading furnishes that kind of antithesis of which our poet w;is 
M) fond. One man eats, while 1 another fasts. Achilles is he who 
fasts ; who capriciously abstains from those active exertions which 
would furni>h m.>w food tor his pride. M 


As if his foot were on brave Hector's breast, 
And great Troy shrinking. 7 

ACHIL. I do believe it : for they pass'd by me, 
As misers do by beggars ; neither gave to me 
Good word, nor look : What, are my deeds forgot ? 

ULYSS. Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back, 8 
Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 
A great-sized monster of ingratitudes : 
Those scraps are good deeds past : which are devour' d 
As fast as they are made, forgot as soon 
As done : Perseverance, dear my lord, 
Keeps honour bright : To have done, is to hang 
Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail 
In monumental mockery. Take the instant way j 
For honour travels in a strait so narrow, 
Where one but goes abreast : keep then the path ; 
For emulation hath a thousand sons, 

7 And great Troy shrinking.] The quarto shrieking. The 
folio has, less poetically, shrinking. The following passage in 
the subsequent scene supports the reading of the quarto : 

" Hark, how Troy roars ; how Hecuba cries out ; 
" How poor Andromache shrills her dolours forth ; 
" And all cry Hector, Hector's dead." MALONE. 

I prefer the reading of the folio. That the collective body of 
martial Trojans should shrink at sight of their hero's danger, is 
surely more natural to be supposed, than that, like frighted 
women, they would unite in a general shriek. 

As to what Cassandra says, in the preceding note, it is the 
fate of that lady's evidence never to be received. STEEVENS. 

8 Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back,~\ This speech is 
printed in all the modern editions with such deviations from the 
old copy, as exceed the lawful power of an editor. JOHNSON. 

This image is literally from Spenser : 

" And eeke this wallet at your bache arreare 
a * 

" And in this bag, which I behinde me don, 
" I put repentaunce for things past and gone." 

Fairy Queen, 13. VI. c. viii. st. 24*. BOADEN. 


That one by one pursue : If you give way, 

Or hedge aside from the direct forthright, 

Like to an enter'd tide, they all rush by, 

And leave you hindmost ; 

Or, like a gallant horse fallen in first rank, 

Lie there for pavement to the abject rear,'' 

O'er-run ! and trampled on : Then what they do in 


Though less than yours in past, must o'ertop yours: 
For time is like a fashionable host, 
That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand; 
And with his arms out-stretch'd, as he would fly, 
Grasps-in the comer : Welcome ever smiles, 2 
And farewell goes out sighing. O,letnotvirtueseek 
Remuneration for the thing it was ; 
For beauty, wit," 

to tin' abject rear,] So Hanmcr. All the editors be- 

fore him read to the abject, near. JOHNSON. 

1 O'er-run &c.] The quarto wholly omits the simile of the 
horse, and reads thus : 

And leave you hindmost, then tvhat they do at present 
The folio seems to have some omission, for the simile begins, 

Or, like a gallant horse . JOHNSON. 

The construction is, Or, like a gallant horse, &c. you lie there 
for pavement ; the personal pronoun of a preceding line being 
understood here. There are many other passages in these plays 
in which a similar ellipsis is found. So, in this play, p. !3()5 : 
" but commends itself ," instead of" but // commends 
itself." MA LONE. 

Welcome ever smiles,"] The compositor inadvertently 

repeated the word the, which has just occurred, and printed 
the welcome, &c. The emendation was made by Mr. J'ope. 

J Fur bra uly, tr//, &c.] The modern editors read : 

For beauty, nit, high birth, desert in service, <X:c. 
I do not deny but the changes produce a more easy lapse of 
numbers, but they do not exhibit the work of Shakspeare. 


Dr. Johnson might have said, the work of Shakspeare. ;;* 
VOL. XV. '2 F, 


High birth, vigour of bone, desert in service, 
Love, friendship, charity, are subjects all 
To envious and calumniating time. 
One touch of nature makes the whole world kin, 
That all, with one consent, praise new-born gawds, 
Though they are made and moulded of things past; 
And give to dust, that is a little gilt, 
More laud than gilt o'er- dusted. 4 

mangled by theatres, ignorant transcribers, and unskilful printers. 
He has somewhere else observed, that perhaps we have not re- 
ceived one of our author's plays as it was originally written. 

4 And give to dust, that is a little gilt, 

More laud than gilt o'er-dusted.] [The old copies goe to 
dust.] In this mangled condition do we find this truly fine ob- 
servation transmitted. Mr. Pope saw it was corrupt, and there- 
fore, as I presume, threw it out of the text ; because he would not 
indulge his private sense in attempting to make sense of it. I owe 
the foundation of the amendment, which I have given in the text, 
to the sagacity of the ingenious Dr. Thirlby. I read : 
And give to dust, that is a little gilt, 
More laud than they will give to gold o'cr-dus'cd. 


This emendation has been adopted by the succeeding editors, 
but recedes too far from the copy. There is no other corruption 
than such as Shakspeare's incorrectness often resembles. He 
has omitted the article to in the second line : he should have 
written : 

More laud than to gilt o'er-dusted. JOHNSON*. 

Gilt, in the second line, is a substantive. See Coriofanus, 
Act I. sc. iii. 

Dust a little gilt means, ordinary performances ostentatiously 
displayed and magnified by the favour of friends and that admi- 
ration of novelty which prefers " new-born gawds" to " things 
past." Gilt o'er-dusted means, splendid actions of preceding 
ages, the remembrance of which is weakened by time. 

The poet seems to have been thinking either of those monu- 
ments which he has mentioned in All's ucll that endsiuell: 
" Where ditzt and damn'd oblivion is the tomb 

" Of honoured bones indeed; ." 

or of t\\e gildrrl armour, trophies, banners, &c. often hung up in 
churches in " monumental mockery." MALONE. 


The present eye praises the present object : 
Then marvel not, thou great and c6inplete man, 
That all the Greeks begin to worship Ajax ; 
Since things in motion sooner catch the eye, 
Than what not stirs. The cry went once on thee, 5 
And still it might ; and yet it may again, 
If thou would* st not entomb thyself alive, 
And case thy reputation in thy tent ; 
Whose glorious deeds, but in these fields of late, 
Made emulous missions 6 'mongst the gods them- 
And drave great Mars to faction. 

ACHIL. Of this my privacy 

I have strong reasons. 

ULYSS. But 'gainst your privacy 

The reasons are more potent and heroical : 
'Tis known, Achilles, that you are in love 
With one of Priam's daughters. 7 

ACHIL. Ha! known? 5 

ULYSS. Is that a wonder ? 
The providence that's in a watchful state, 

iKCnt once on ihce,~\ So the quarto. The folio went 

Made emulous missions ] The meaning of mission seems 
to he dispatches of the gods from hcu-ccn about mortal business, 
such as often happened at the siege of Troy. JOHNSON*. 

It means the descent of deities to combat on either side ; an 
idc'.i which Shakspcare very probably adopted from Chapman's 
translation of Homer. In the fifth 1'on'c, Diomed wounds Mars, 
who on his return to heaven i;; rated by Jupiter for having inter- 
fered in the battle. This disobedience is the faction which I 
suppose Ulysses would describe. STKI;VKKS. 

nnc of Priam's (htnghlcrs.~] Polyxena, in the act of 

marrying whom, he was afterwards killed by Paris. STEEVENS. 

" Jin! known?] I must suppose that, in the present instance, 
lome word, wanting to the metre, has been omitted. Perhaps 
the poet wrote IIu! is't known? STI;I:VF,\S. 

'J 15 2 


Knows almost every grain of Plutus' gold ; 9 
Finds bottom in the uncomprehensive deeps ; 
Keeps place with thought, 1 and almost, like the 

Does thoughts unveil in their dumb cradles. 2 

9 Knows almost every grain of Plutus' gold ;] For this ele- 
gant line the quarto has only : 

Knoivs almost every thing. JOHNSON. 

The old copy has Pluto's gold ; but, I think, we should 
read of Plutus* gold. So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Phi' 
luster, Act IV: 

" 'Tis not the wealth of Plutus, nor the gold 

" Lock'd in the heart of earth ." STEEVENS. 

The "correction of this obvious error of the press, needs no 
justification, though it was not admitted by Mr. Steevens in his 
own edition. The same error is found in Julius Ccesar, Act IV. 
sc. iii. where it has been properly corrected : 

" . within, a heart, 

" Dearer than Pluto's mine, richer than gold." 
So, in this play, Act IV. sc. i. we find in the quarto to 
Caicho^s house, instead of to Calchas* house. MALONE. 

J Keeps place tuitk thought,'] i. e. there is in the providence 
of a state, as in the providence of the universe, a kind of ubi- 
quity. The expression is exquisitely fine ; yet the Oxford editor 
alters it to Keeps pace, and so destroys all its beauty. 


Is there not here some allusion to that sublime description of 
the Divine Omnipresence in the 139th Psalm? HENLEY. 

2 Does thoughts unveil in their dumb cradles.'] It is clear, from 
the defect of the metre, that some word of two syllables was 
omitted by the carelessness of the transcriber or compositor. 
Shakspeare perhaps wrote : 

Does thoughts themselves unveil in their dumb cradles. 

Docs infant thoughts unveil in their dumb cradles. 
So, in King Richard III : 

" And turn his infant morn to aged night." 
In Timon of 'Athens, we have the same allusion : 
" Joy had the like conception in my brain, 
" And at that instant, like a babe sprung itp." MALOXE. 
Sir Thomas Hanmer reads : 

Does even our thoughts &c. STEEYKVS. 


There is a mystery (with whom relation 
Durst never meddle 3 ) in the soul of state ; 
Which hath an operation more divine, 
Than breath, or pen, can give expressure to : 
All the commerce 4 that you have had with Troy, 
As perfectly is ours, as yours, my lord j 
And better would it fit Achilles much, 
To throw down Hector, than Polyxena : 
But it must grieve young Pyrrhus now at home, 
AVhen fame shall in our islands sound her trump ; 
And all the Greekish girls shall tripping sing, 
Great Hector's sister did Achilles tviti; 
But our great Ajax bravely beat down him. 
Farewell, my lord : I as your lover speak ; 
The fool slides o'er the ice that you should break. 


PATH. To this effect, Achilles, have I mov'd you: 
A woman impudent and mannish grown 
Is not more loath'd than an effeminate man 
In time of action. I stand condemn'd for this ; 
They think, my little stomach to the war, 
And your great love to me, restrains you thus : 
Sweet, rouse yourself; and the weak wanton Cupid 
Shall from your neck unloose his amorous fold, 
And, like a dew-drop from the lion's mane, 
Be shook to air. 5 

ACHIL. Shall Ajax fight with Hector? 

' (with lu/iom relation 

Durst never meddle] ] There is a secret administration of 
affairs, which no history was ever able to discover. JOHNSOM. 

4 All the commerce ] Thus also is the word accented by 
Chapman, in his version of the fourth Book of Homer's Odyssey: 
" To labour's taste, nor the commerce of men." 


' to ciir.'] So the quarto. The folio ayric air. 



PATR. Ay ; and, perhaps, receive much honour 
by him. 

ACHIL. I see, my reputation is at stake ; 
My fame is shrewdly gor'd. 6 

PATH. O, then beware ; 

Those wounds heal ill, that men do give themselves: 
Omission to do what is necessary 7 
Seals a commission to a blank 01 danger ; 
And danger, like an ague, subtly taints 
Even then when we sit idly in the sun. 

ACHIL. Go callThersites hither, sweet Patroclus: 
I'll send the fool to Ajax, and desire him 
To invite the Trojan lords after the combat, 
To see us here unarm'd : I have a woman's longing, 
An appetite that I am sick withal, 
To see great Hector in his weeds of peace ; 
To talk with him, and to behold his visage, 
Even to my full of view. A labour sav'd ! 


THER. A wonder ! 
ACHIL. What? 

THER. Ajax goes up and down the field, asking 
for himself. 

ACHIL. How so ? 

c My fame is skretodly gor'd.] So, in our author's 110th 
Sonnet : 

" Alas, 'tis true ; I have gone here and there, 
" Gor'd mine own thoughts, " MALONE. 

7 Omission to do c.J By neglecting our duty we commission 
or enable that danger of dishonour, which could not reach us 
before, to lay hold upon us. JOHNSON. 


THER. He must fight singly to-morrow with 
Hector; and is so prophetically proud of an lie- 
roical cudgelling, that he raves in saying nothing. 

ACHIL. How can that be ? 

THER. Why, he stalks up and clown like a pea- 
cock, a stride, and a stand : ruminates, like an 
hostess, that hath no arithmetick but her brain to 
set down her reckoning : bites his lip with a poli- 
tick regard, 8 as who should say there were wit in 
this head, an 'twould out ; and so there is ; but it 
lies as coldly in him as fire in a flint, which will 
not show without knocking. 9 The man's undone 
for ever ; for if Hector break not his neck i'the 
combat, he'll break it himself in vain-glory. He 
knows not me : I said, Good-morrow, Ajax ; and 
lie replies, Thanks^ Agamemnon. What think you 
of this man, that takes me for the general ? He is 
grown a very land-fish, languageless, a monster. A 
plague of opinion ! a man may wear it on both sides, 
like a leather jerkin. 

Acini,. Thou must be my ambassador to him, 

THER. Who, I ? why, he'll answer nobody ; lie 
professes not answering ; speaking is for beggars ; 
he wears his tongue iu his arms. 1 I will put on his 
presence ; let Patroclus make demands to me, you 
shall see the pageant of Ajax. 

ici'ilt a politick regard,"] With a ,s/y hole. JOHNSON. 

it l/cs a;; coldly in Ji'nn as j'.rc in <t Jliiil, ivuick If/// no 

icilhout knocking.'] So, in Julius Ccctnr: 
" That carries anger, as ihcjlint bears jirc; 
" Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark, 
" And straight is cold again." STKF.VKNS. 

iif wars his tongue in hi* arms.] So, in Macbeth; 
" My "voice is in my ,mwr/." STKEVKNS. 


ACHIL. Tohim,Patroclus: Tell him, I humbly 
desire the valiant Ajax, to invite the most valorous 
Hector to come unarmed to my tent ; and to pro- 
cure safe conduct for his person, of the magnani- 
mous, and most illustrious, six-or-seven-times-ho- 
noured captain-general of the Grecian army, Aga- 
memnon. Do this. 

PATR. Jove bless great Ajax. 

THER. Humph! 

PATR. I come from the worthy Achilles,: r- 

THER. Ha! 

PATR. Who most humbly desires you, to invite 
Hector to his tent, 

THER. Humph! 

PATR. And to procure safe conduct from Aga- 

THER. Agamemnon? 

PATR. Ay, my lord. 

THER. Ha! 

PATR. What say you to't ? 

THER. God be wi* you, with all my heart. 

PATR. Your answer, sir. 

TIIER. If to-morrow be a fair day, by eleven 
o'clock it will go one way or other ; howsoever, he 
shall pay for me ere he has me. 

PATR. Your answer, sir. 

THER. Fare you well, with all my heart. 

ACHIL. Why, but he is not in this tune, is he ? 

TIIER. No, but he's out o'tune thus. What mu- 
sick will be in him when Hector has knocked out 
his brains, I know not : But, I am sure, none ; TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 377 

unless the fiddler Apollo get his sinews to make 
catlings on. 2 

ACHIL. Come, thou shalt bear a letter to him 

THER. Let me bear another to his horse ; for 
that's the more capable creature. 3 

ACHIL. My mind is troubled, like a fountain 

stirr'd ; 
And I myself see not the bottom of it.* 


THER. 'Would the fountain of your mind were 
clear again, that I might water an ass at it ! I had 
rather be a tick in a sheep, than such a valiant 
ignorance. \_Exit. 

' to make catlings on."] It has been already observed 

that a catling signifies a small lute-string made of catgut. One 
of the musicians in Romeo and Juliet is called Simon Catling. 


3 the more capable creature."] The more intelligent 

creature. So, in King Richard III: 

" Bold, forward, quick, ingenious, capable.*' 
See also Vol. XV. p. 187, n. 2. M ALONE. 

4 And I myself see not the bottom ofil.~\ This is an image 
frequently introduced by our author. So, in King Henri/ IV. 
Part II : "I ace the bottom of Justice Shallow.*' Again, in 
King Henry VI. Part II : 

" we then should sec the bottom 

" Of all our fortunes." STEEVENS. 



Troy. A Street. 

Enter, at one side, ./ENEAS and Servant, with a 
Torch ; at the other, PARIS, DEIPHOBUS, ANTE- 
NOR, DIOMEDES, and Others, with Torches. 

PAR. See, ho ! who's that there ? 

DEI. 'Tis the lord .^Eneas. 

JENE. Is the prince there in person ? 
Had I so good occasion to lie long, 
As you, prince Paris, nothing but heavenly business 
Should rob my bed-mate of my company. 

Dio. That's my mind too. Good morrow, lord 

PAR. A valiant Greek, JEneas ; take his hand : 
Witness the process of your speech, wherein 
You told how Diomed, a whole week by days, 
Did haunt you in the field. 

J&NE. Health to you, valiant sir, 5 

During all question of the gentle truce : 6 

* valiant sir,'] The epithet valiant, appears to have 

been caught by the compositor from the preceding speed), and 
is introduced here only to spoil the metre. STEEVENS. 

c During all question of the gentle truce :~] I once thought 
to read : 

During all quiet of the gentle truce : 

But I think question means intercourse, interchange of conver- 
sation. JOHNSON. 

See Vol. VII. p. 349, n. 9. Question of the gentle truce is, 
conversation while the gentle truce lasts. MALONE. 


But when I meet you arm'd, as black defiance, 
As heart can think, or courage execute. 

Dio. The one and other Diomed embraces. 
Our bloods are now in calm ; and, so long, health : 
But when contention and occasion meet, 
By Jove, I'll play the hunter for thy life, 
With all my force, pursuit, and policy. 

JENE. And thou shalt hunt a lion, that will fly 
With his face backward. In humane gentleness, 
Welcome to Troy ! now, by Anchises' life, 
Welcome, indeed ! By Venus' hand I swear, 7 
No man alive can love, in such a sort, 
The thing he means to kill, more excellently. 

Dio. We sympathize : Jove, let ^Eneas live, 
If to my sword his fate be not the glory, 
A thousand complete courses of the sun ! 
But, in mine emulous honour, let him die, 
With every joint a wound ; and that to-morrow ! 

JENE. We know each other well. 

Dio. We do ; and long to know each other worse. 

PAR. This is the most despiteful gentle greeting, 
The noblest hateful love, that e'er I heard of. 
What business, lord, so early ? 

jENE. I was sent for to the king ; but why, I 
know not. 

PAR. His purpose meets you; 8 'Twas to bring 
this Greek 

7 7?y Venus 1 hand I sircar,"] This oath was used to 

insinuate his resentment lor Diomedes' wounding his mother in 
the hand. WAKBUKTOX. 

I believe Shakspeare had no such allusion in his thoughts. 
He would hardly have made /Eneas civil and uncivil in the 
same breath. STEEVE.VS. 

8 His purpose meets you ,-] I bring you his meaning and his 
orders. JOHNSON. 


To Calchas' house ; and there to render him, 
For the enfreed Antenor, the fair Cressid : 
Let's have your company ; or, if you please, 
Haste there before us : I constantly do think, 
(Or, rather, call my thought a certain knowledge,) 
My brother Troilus lodges there to-night ; 
Rouse him, and give him note of our approach, 
With the whole quality wherefore : I fear, 
We shall be much unwelcome. 

J&NE. That I assure you ; 

Troilus had rather Troy were borne to Greece, 
Than Cressid borne from Troy. 

PAR. There is no help ; 

The bitter disposition of the time 
Will have it so. On, lord ; we'll follow you. 

J&NE. Good morrow, all. [Exit. 

PAR. And tell me, noble Diomed ; 'faith, tell me 


Even in the soul of sound good-fellowship, 
Who, in your thoughts, merits fair Helen best, 
Myself, or Menelaus ? 

Dio. Both alike : 

He merits well to have her, that doth seek her 
(Not making any scruple of her soilure,) 
With such a hell of pain, and world of charge ; 
And you as w r ell to keep her, that defend her 
(Not palating the taste of her dishonour,) 
With such a costly loss of wealth and friends : 
He, like a puling cuckold, would drink up 
The lees and dregs of a flat tamed piece ; 9 

9 a flat tamed piece ;] i.e. a piece of wine out of 

which the spirit is all flown. WARBURTON. 

This word, with a somewhat similar sense, occurs in Con'o- 
lanus : 

" His remedies are tame i'thc present peace " 



You, like a lecher, out of whorish loins 
Are pleas'd to breed out your inheritors : 
Both merits pois'd, each weighs nor less nor more ; 
But he as he, the heavier for a whore. 1 

PAR. You are too bitter to your countrywoman. 

DIG. She's bitter to her country : Hear me, 


For every false drop in her bawdy veins 
A Grecian's life hath sunk ; for every scruple 
Of her contaminated carrion weight, 
A Trojan hath been slain : since she could speak, 
She hath not given so many good words breath, 
As for her Greeks and Trojans sufler'd death. 

PAR. Fair Diomed, you do as chapmen do, 
Dispraise the thing that you desire to buy : 

1 Both merits pois'd, eack weighs nor less nor mort ; 
But he as he, the heavier Jbr a whore.] I read : 

But lie as he, each heavier for a whore. 

Heavy is taken botli tor weighty^ and for sad, or miserable. 
The quarto reads : 

But he as he, the heavier for a whore. 

I know not whether the thought is not that of a wager. It must 
then be read thus : 

But he as he. Which heavier, for a whore ? 
That if, for a whore staked down, which in the heavier ? 


As the quarto reads, 

the heavier for a whore, 

I think all new pointing or alteration unnecessary. The souse 
appears to be this : the merits of either arc sunk in value, be- 
cause the contest between them is only for a strumpet. 


The merits of each, whatever they may be, being weighed 
one against the other, are exactly equal; in each of the scales, 
however, in which their merits are to be weighed, a harlot must 
be placed, since each of them has been equally attached to one. 
This is the reading of the quarto. The folio reads, 
which heavier for a w/iurt: 


But we in silence hold this virtue well, 
We'll not commend what we intend to sell. 2 
Here lies our way. \_Exeunt. 

8 We'll not commend tvhat IKC intend to sell.] I believe the 
meaning is only this : though you practise the buyer's art, we 
will not practise the seller's. We intend to sell Helen dear, yet 
will not commend her. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Warburton would read not sell. STEEVENS. 

The sense, I think, requires we should read condemn. 


When Dr. Johnson says, they meant to sell Helen dear, he 
evidently does not mean that they really intended to sell her at 
all, (as he has been understood,) but that the Greeks should pay 
very dear for her, if they had her. We'll not commend what 
we intend to make you pay very dear for, if you have her. So 
Ajax says, in a former scene : " however, he shall pay for me, 
ere he has me." 

Commend is, I think, the true reading, our author having in- 
troduced a similar sentiment in two other places. In Love's 
Labour's Lost, we have 

" To things of sale a seller's praise belongs." 
Again, in his 21st Sonnet: 

" I will not praise that purpose not to sell." 

This passage favours Dr. Warburton's emendation ; but intend 
not sell sounds very harsh. However, many very harsh com- 
binations may be found in these plays, where rhymes are intro- 
duced. MALONE. 

Surely Dr. Warburton's reading is the true one. 
We'll not commend what ive intend not sell, 
is evidently opposed to 

" Dispraise the thing that you desire to buy .*" 
in the same speech. 

Of such elliptical phraseology as is introduced by Dr. War- 
burton's emendation, our author's plays will afford numerous 
examples. STEEVENS. 



The same. Court before the House o/* Panel am s. 

TRO. Dear, trouble not yourself; the morn is cold. 

CRES. Then, sweet my lord, I'll call mine uncle 

down ; 
He shall unbolt the gates. 

TRO. Trouble him not ; 

To bed, to bed : Sleep kill 3 those pretty eyes, 
And give as soft attachment to thy senses, 
As infants' empty of all thought! 4 

CUES. Good morrow then. 

TRO. Pr'ythce now, to bed. 

CRES. Are you aweary of me : 

TRO. O Cressida ! but that the busy day, 
\Vak'd by the lark, hath rous'd the ribald crows, ?1 
And dreaming night will hide our joys 6 no longer, 
I would not from thce. 

CRES. Night hath been too brief. 

1 Sleep kill ] So the old copies. The moderns have 

Sleep seal. JOHNSON. 

Sea! was one of the numerous innovations introduced by Mr. 
Pone. MA i, ONE. 

And give as so/? attachment to thy sense*, 
As infants' empty of all thought !] So, in The Mcrn/ 
Wives oj Windsor: 

" Sleep she as sound as careless wftinci/." STEF.VENS. 

ribald crmi's,'] See note on Antony and Cleopatra, 

Act III. sc. viii. HARRIS. 

hide our joys ] Thus the quarto. The folio has 
l;ulc our eyes. MALONE. 


TRO. Beshrew the witch ! with venomous wights 6 

she stays, 

As tediously 7 as hell; but flies the grasps of love. 
With wings more momentary-swift than thought. 
You will catch cold, and curse me. 

CRES. Pr'ythee, tarry ; 

You men will never tarry. 

foolish Cressid ! I might have still held off, 
And then you would have tarried. Hark 1 there's 

one up. 

PAN. [_Within.~] What, are all the doors open 
here ? 

TRO. It is your uncle. 


CRES. A pestilence on him ! now will he be 
mocking : 

1 shall have such a life, 

6 venomous wights ] i. e. vcncfici ; those who practise 

nocturnal sorcery. STEEVENS. 

' As tediously ] The folio has : 
As hideously as hell. JOHNSON. 

Sir T. Hanmer, for the sake of metre, with great probability, 
reads : 

Tedious as hell ; &c. STEEVKN.S. " 

8 Enter Pandarus.] The hint for the following short con- 
versation between Pandarusand Crcssidui.s taken from Chaucer's 
Troilus and Cresseide, Book III. v. 1561 : 

" Pandare, a niorowe which that common was 

" Unto his nece, gan her faire to gretc, 
" And saied all this night so rained it alas ! 
" That all my drcdc is, that ye, nece .swete, 
" Have little leisir had to slepe and mete, 
" All night (quod he) hath rain so du me wake, 
" That some of us I trowe their heddis ake. 


y. How now, how now? how go maidenheads? 
Here, you maid ! where's my cousin Cressid ? 

CRES. Go hang yourself, you naughty mocking 

uncle ! 
You bring me to do, 9 and then you flout me too. 

PAN. To do what ? to do what ? let her say 
what : what have I brought you to do ? 

CRES. Come, come ; beshrew your heart ! you'll 

ne'er be good, 
Nor suffer others. 

PAN. Ha, ha ! Alas, poor wretch ! a poor ca- 
pocchia ! ' hast not slept to-night ? would he not, 
a naughty man, let it sleep? a bugbear take him! 


CRES. Did I not tell you ? 'would he were 
knock'd o'the head ! 

" Cresseide answcrde, ncvir the bet for you, 
" Foxe that ye ben, God yevc your herte care, 
" God help me so, ye causid all this fare," &c. 


9 to do, 3 To do is here used in a wanton sense. So, 

in The Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio says: " I would fain 
be doing" 

Again, in All's well that ends well, Lafeu declares that he is 
" past doing." COLLINS. 

a poor capocchia !] Pandarus would say, I think, in 

English Poor innocent ! Poor fool ! hast not slept to-night ? 
These appellations are very well answered by the Italian word 
capocchio: for capocchio signifies the thick head of a club; and 
thence metaphorically, a head of not much brain, a sot, dullard, 
heavy gull. TIIKORALD. 

The word in the old copy is cJiinnchia, for which Mr. Theo- 
bald substituted capocchio, whiclt lie has rightly explained. 
Capochia may perhaps be used with propriety in the same sense, 
when applied to a female ; but the word has also an entirely 
different meaning, not reconcilable to the context here, tor 
whic-h I choose to refer the reader to Florio's Italian Dictionary, 
159S. MA LONE. 

VOL. XV, 2 C 


Who's that at door ? good uncle, go and see. 
My lord, come you again into my chamber : 
You smile, and mock me, as if 2 I meant naughtily. 

TRO. Ha, ha! 

CRES. Come, you are deceiv'd, I think of no 
such thing. [Knocking. 

How earnestly they knock ! pray you, come in; 
I would not for half Troy have you seen here. 


PAN. \_Going to the door.'} Who's there? what's 
the matter ? will you beat down the door ? How 
now ? what's the matter ? 


. Good morrow, lord, good morrow. 

PAN. Who's there ? my lord ^Eneas ? By my 
troth, I knew you not : what news with you so 
early ? 

E. Is not prince Troilus here ? 
Here ! what should he do here ? 

. Come, he is here, my lord, do not deny 

It doth import him much, to speak with me. 

PAN. Is he here, say you ? 'tis more than I know, 
I'll be sworn : For my own part, I came in late : 
What should he do here ? 

4 - as if ] Here, I believe, a common ellipsis has been 
destroyed by a playhouse interpolation : As, in ancient language, 
has frequently the power of as if. I would therefore omit the 
latter conjunction, which encumbers the line without enforcing 
the sense. Thus, in Spenser's Fain/ Queen : 

" That with the noise it shook as it would fall." 



Who 1 . nay, then : 
Come, come, you'll do him wrong ere you are 'ware: 
You'll be so true to him, to be false to him : 
Do not you know of him, yet go fetch 3 him hither; 

As PANDARUS is going out, enter TROILUS, 

TRO. How now ? what's the matter ? 

JXE. My lord, I scarce have leisure to salute you, 
My matter is so rash: 4 There is at hand 
Paris your brother, and Deiphobus, 
The Grecian Diomcd, and our Antenor 
Deliver'd to us ; 5 and for him forthwith, 
Ere the first sacrifice, within this hour, 
"We must give up to Diomedes' hand 
The lady Cressida. 

TRO. Is it so concluded ? 

JExE. By Priam, and the general state of Troy: 
They are at hand, and ready to effect it. 

TRO. How my achievements mock me! 6 

- y t 8 fetch &c.] Old copy, redundantly but yet &c. 


4 - matter is so rash :] My business is so hasty and so 
abrupt. JOHNSON. 

So, in King Henri/ IV. Part II : 

" aconitum, or rash gunpowder." STEEVENS. 

Again, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" It is too rash, too unadvis'd, too sudddn ; 
" Too like the lightning," &c. MA LONE. 

'' Delivered to us ; &c.] So the folio. The quarto thus: 
Delivered to him, and forthwith. JOHNSON. 

6 //OTU my achievements mock me /] So, in Antony and 
Cleopatra : 

" And mock our eyes with air." STEEVENS. 

2 C 2 


I will go meet them : and, my lord ^neas, 
We met by chance ; you did not find me here. 7 

MNE. Good,good, my lord; the secrets of nature 
Have not more gift in taciturnity. 8 

\_JLxeunt TROILUS and ^NEAS. 

PAN. Is't possible ? no sooner got, but lost ? The 
devil take Antenor ! the young prince will go mad. 
A plague upon Antenor ! I would, they had broke's 

7 We met by chance ; you did not Jlnd me here.~\ So, lit 
Antony and Cleopatra; 

" See where he is, who's with him, what he does : 
" / did not send you." MALONE. 

9 the secrets of nature 

Have not more gift in taciturnity.'] This is the reading of 
both the elder folios ; but the first verse manifestly halts, and 
betrays its being defective. Mr. Pope substitutes : 

the secrets of neighbour Pandar. 

If this be a reading exjide codicum (as he professes all his vari- 
ous readings to be) it is founded on the credit of such copies' 
as it has not been my fortune to meet with. I have ventured to 
make out the verse thus : 

The secret's things of nature, &c. 

i. e. the arcana natures, the mysteries of nature, of occult phi- 
losophy, or of religious ceremonies. Our poet has allusions of 
this sort in several other passages. THEOBALD. 

Mr. Pope's reading is in the old quarto. So great is the ne 
cessity of collation. JOHNSON. 

I suppose the editor of the folio meant the secretest of na- 
ture, and that secrets was an error of the press. So, in Mac- 
beth : 

" The secret'st man of blood." MALONE. 

I suppose our author to have written secrecies. 
A similar thought occurs in Antony and Cleopatra : 

" In nature's infinite book of secrecy ." 

Wherever there is redundant metre, as in the reading of the 
quarto, corruption nrny always be suspected. STEEVENS. 



CRES. How now? What is the matter? Who 
was here ? 

PAX. Ah, ah ! 

CRES. Why sigh you so profoundly? where's my 

lord gone ? 
Tell me, sweet uncle, what's the matter ? 

PAX. 'Would I were as deep under the earth as 
I am above ! 

CRES. O the gods ! what's the matter ? 

PAX. Pr'ythee, get thee in ; 'Would thou had'st 
ne'er been born ! I knew, thou would'st be his 
death : O poor gentleman ! A plague upon An- 
tcnor ! 

CRES. Good uncle, I beseech you on my knees, 
I beseech you, what's the matter ? 

PAX. Thou must be gone, wench, thou must be 
gone ; thou art changed for Antenor : thou must 
to thy father, and be gone from Troilus ; 'twill be 
his death ; 'twill be his bane ; he cannot bear it. 

CRES. O you immortal gods ! I will not go. 
PAX. Thou must. 

CRES. I will not, uncle: I have forgot my father; 
I know no touch of consanguinity ; 9 
No kin, no love, no blood, no soul so near me, 
As the sweet Troilus. O you gods divine ! 

9 / knmv no touch of consanguinity ;~^ So, in jMacbeth : 

" He wants the natural touch." 
Touch of consanguinity is sense or Je cling of relationship. 



Make Cressid's name the very crown of falsehood, 1 

If ever she leave Troilus ! Time, force, and death, 

Do to this body what extremes you can ; 

But the strong base and building of my love 2 

Is as the very center of the earth, 

Drawing all things to it. I'll go in, and weep; 

PAN. Do, do. 

CRES. Tear my bright hair, and scratch my 

praised cheeks ; 

Crack my clear voice with sobs, and break my heart 
With sounding Troilus. I will not go from Troy. 3 


1 the very crown of falsehood,"] So, in Cymbeline : 

" my supreme crown of grief." 

Again, in The Winter's Tale: 

" the crown and comfort of my life." MALONE. 

See page 353, note 9. STEEVENS. 

the strong base and building of my love ] So, in 
our author's 119th Sonnet: 

" And ruin'd love, when it is built anew, ." 

Again, in Antony and Cleopatra: 

" Let not the piece of virtue, which is set 

" Betwixt us as the cement of our love, 

" To keep it builded, be the ram to batter 

" The fortress of it." MALONE. 

3 I will not go from Troy.~\ I believe the verb go 

(which roughens this line) should be left out, in conformity to 
the ancient elliptical mode of writing, which, in like instances, 
omits it as unnecessary to sense. Thus, in p. 383, we find 

" I would not from thee ;" 
i. e. I would not go from thee. STEEVENS. 



T/ie same. Before Pandarus* House. 


PAR. It is great morning ; 4 and the hour prefixed 
Of her delivery to this valiant Greek 
Comes fast upon : 5 Good my brother Troilus, 
Tell you the lady what she is to do, 
And haste her to the purpose. 

TJRO. Walk in to her house ; 6 

I'll bring her to the Grecian presently : 
And to his hand when I deliver her, 
Think it an altar ; and thy brother Troilus 
A priest, there offering to it his own heart. [Exit. 

PAR. I know what 'tis to love ; 
And 'would, as I shall pity, I could help! 
Please you, walk in, my lords. \_Exeunt. 

' great morning;'] Grand jour ; a Gallicism. 


i Comes fast upon :~\ Though fast upon, only signifies fast 
on, 1 must suppose, with Sir T. Hantner, we ought to read : 

Come* Just upon us : 

The metre, as it stands at present, is obviously defective. 


6 Walk in to li< r house ;~] Here, I believe, we have an inter- 
polation similar to those in p. S86 and in the preceding page. 
in elliptical language the word ii'alk (which in the present 
instance destroys the measure) is frequently omitted. iSo, in 
King Henry IV. Part I : 

" I'd in and haste the writer." 

). e. I'll 7iY///r, or go in. Again, in The Mrrn/ Wires of 
Windsor: " /'// in', I'll in: follow your friend's advice; /'// 
in." In, therefore, in the speech of Troilus, will signify walk 
or go in, the omitted verb being understood. 



The same. A Room in Pandarus* House. 

Be moderate, be moderate. 

CRES. Why tell you me of moderation ? 
The grief is fine, full, perfect, that I taste, 
And violenteth in a sense as strong 
As that which causeth it: 7 How can I moderate it? 
If I could temporize with my affection, 
Or brew it to a weak and colder palate, 
The like allayment could I give my grief: 

7 The grief &c.~\ The folio reads : 

The grief is Jine, full, perfect, that I taste t 

And no less in a sense as strong 

As that uohich causeth it. 

The quarto otherwise : 

The grief 'is jine, full, perfect, that I taste, 

And violenteth in a sense as strong 

As that ivhich causeth it. 

Violenteth is a word with which I am not acquainted, yet per- 
haps it may be right. The reading of the text is without au- 
thority. JOHNSON. 

I have followed the quarto. Violenceth is used by Ben Jonson, 
in The Devil is an Ass: 

" Nor nature violenceth in both these." 

And Mr. Toilet has since furnished me with this verb as spelt in 
the play of Shakspeare : " His former adversaries violented any 
thing against him." Fuller's Worthies in Anglesea. 

Dr. Farmer likewise adds the following instance from Latimer. 
p. 71 : " Muister Pole violentes the text for the maintenance ot 
the bishop of Rome." 

The modern and unauthorized reading was : 
And in its sense is no less strong, than that 
Which causeth it. STEEVEKS. 


My love admits no qualifying dross : 

No more my grief, in such a precious loss. 


PAN. Here, here, here he comes. Ah sweet 
ducks ! 

CRES. O Troilus ! Troilus ! [Embracing him. 

PAN. What a pair of spectacles is here ! Let 
me embrace too : O heart, as the goodly saying 


o heart, o heavy heart* 

Why sigh'st t/iou without breaking? 
where he answers again, 

Because tliou canst not ease thy smart, 

By friendship, nor by speaking. 
There never was a truer rhyme. Let us cast away 
nothing, for we may live to have need of such a 
verse ; we see it, we see it. How now, lambs ? 

TRO. Cressid, I love thee in so strain'd' 1 a purity, 
That the blest gods as angry with my fancy, 
More bright in zeal than the devotion which 
Cold lips blow to their deities, take thee from me. 

CUES. Have the gods envy ? 

PAN. Ay, ay, ay, ay ; 'tis too plain a case. 

CRES. And is it true, that I must go from Troy ? 

TRO. A hateful truth. 

CRES. What, and from Troilus too ? 

o heavy heart,'] O, which is not in the old copy, 
U:IK added, for the sake of the metre, by Mr. Pope. MALONE. 

strain'd ] So the quarto. The folio and all the 
moderns have strange. JOHNSON. 


TRO. From Troy, and Troilus. 

ORES. Is it possible ? 

TRO. And suddenly; where injury of chance 
Puts back leave-taking, justles roughly by 
All time of pause, rudely beguiles our lips 
Of all rejoindure, forcibly prevents 
Our lock'd embrasures, strangles our dear vows 
Even in the birth of our own labouring breath : 
We two, that with so many thousand sighs 
Did buy each other, 1 must poorly sell ourselves 
With the rude brevity and discharge of one. 
Injurious time now, with a robber's haste, 
Crams his rich thievery up, he knows not how : 
As many farewells as be stars in heaven, 
With distinct breath and consign'd kisses to them, 2 
He fumbles up into a loose adieu ; 
And scants us with a single famish'd kiss, 
Distasted with the salt of broken tears. 3 

1 Did buy each other,] So, in our author's Venus and Adonis : 
" A thousand kisses buys my heart from me, 
" And pay them at thy leisure, one by one." MALONE. 

* With distinct breath and consign'd kisses to them,'] Consigned 
means sealed; from consigno, Lat. So, in King Henry V ; " It 
were, my lord, a hard condition for a maid to consign to." Our 
author lias the same image in many other places. So, in 
Measure for Measure: 

" But my kisses bring again, 

" Seals of love, but seal'd in vain." 
Again, in his Venus and Adonis : 

" Pure lips, sweet seals in my soft lips imprinted." 


3 Distasted ivith the salt of broken tearsJ] i. e. of tears to 
which we are not permitted to give full vent, being interrupted 
and suddenly torn from each other. The poet was probably 
thinking of broken sobs, or broken slumbers. This is the reading 
of the quarto. The folio has distasting. MALONE. 


My lord ! is the lady ready ? 

TRO. Hark ! you are call'd : Some say, the Ge- 

nius so 

Cries, Come ! to him that instantly must die. 4 
Bid them have patience ; she shall come anon. 

PAN. Where are my tears? rain, to lay this wind,* 
or my heart will be blown up by the root ! 6 


CRES. I must then to the Greeks ? 

TRO. No remedy. 

Broken tears is sufficiently explained by interrupted tears. 
So, in King Henri/ VIII : " You have now a broken banquet ;" 
i. e. an interrupted one. STEKVENS. 

4 Hark ! yon are call'd : Some say, the Genius 50 

Cries, Come ! to him that instantly must die.~\ An obscure 
poet ( Flatman ) has borrowed this thought : 

" My soul just now about to take her flight, 

" Into the regions of eternal night, 

" Methinks I hear some gentle spirit say, 

" Be not fearful, come away .'" 
After whom, Pope : 

" Hark ! they whisper ; angels say, 

" Sister spirit, come au-ay." MALONE. 

Again, in Eloisa to Abelard : 

" Come, sister, come ! (it said, or scem'd to say,) 
" Thy place is here, sad sister, come aicay .'" 


1 Wlicre arc my tears ? rain, tu lay thin ivind,"] So, in 
Macbeth : 

" That tears will drown the uvW." 

Perhaps, rain, to lay this wind ! is an optative, and as if lie 
had said O for tears &c. ! and so I have pointed it. 


So, in The Rape nf Lxcrece : 

" This windy tempest, till it blow up rain, 

" Holds back his sorrow's tide, to make it more; 

" At last it rains, and busy winds give o'er." MALONE. 

* - by the root!] So the folio. Quarto by mi/ throat. 



CRES. A woeful Cressid 'mongst the merry 

Greeks! 7 
When shall we see again ? 

TRO. Hear me, my love : Be thou but true of 

CRES. I true ! how now ? what wicked deem is 
this? 8 

TRO. Nay, we must use expostulation kindly, 
For it is parting from us : 
I speak not, be thou true, as fearing thee ; 
For I will throw my glove to death 9 himself, 
That there's no maculation in thy heart : 
But, be thou true, say I, to fashion in 
My sequent protestation ; be thou true, 
And I will see thee. 

CRES. O, you shall be exposed, my lord, to dan- 
As infinite as imminent ! but, I'll be true. 

TRO. And I'll grow friend with danger. Wear 
this sleeve. 

CRES. An d you this glove. When shall I see you ? 

TRO. I will corrupt the Grecian sentinels, 
To give thee nightly visitation. 
But yet, be true. 

CRES. O heavens ! be true, again ? 

7 A woeful Cressid Amongst the merry Greeks !] So, in A mad 
World my Masters, 1608, a man gives the watchmen some 
money, and when they have received it he says : " the merry 
Creeks understand me." STEEVENS. 

See p. 248, n. 3. MALONE. 

8 ichat -wicked deem is this?"] Deem (a word now 

obsolete) signifies, opinion, surmise. STEEVENS. 

9 For I ivill throw my glove to death ] That is, I will 
challenge death himself in defence of thy fidelity. JOHNSON. 


TRO. Hear why I speak it, love ; 
The Grecian youths are full of quality ; 
They're loving, well compos'd, with gifts of nature 

flowing, 1 

And swelling o'er with arts and exercise ; 
How novelty may move, and parts with person, 8 
Alas, a kind of godly jealousy 
(Which, I beseech you, cull a virtuous sin,) 
Makes me afeard. 

CRES. O heavens ! you love me not. 

TRO. Die I a villain then ! 
In this I do not call your faith in question, 
So mainly as my merit : I cannot sing, 
Nor heel the high lavolt, 3 nor sweeten talk, 
Nor play at subtle games j fair virtues all, 

1 They're loving, &c.] This line is not in the quarto. The 
folio reads Their loving. This slight correction I proposed 
some time ago, and I have lately perceived it was made by Mr. 
Pope. It also has gift of nature. That emendation is Sir T. 
Hamner's. In the preceding line "full of quality," moans, I 
think, absolute, perfect, in their dispositions. So, in Pericles^ 
Prince of Tyre : 

" So buxom, blithe, and full of face, 

" As heaven had lent her all his grace." MALOXE. 

The irregularity of metre in this speech, (unless the epithet 
loving be considered as an interpolation,) together with the ob- 
scure phrase full of (jiutl/ti/, induce me to suspect the loss of 
some words which are now irretrievable. Full of quality, how- 
ever, may mean highly accomplished. So, in Chapman's version 
of die fourteenth Iliad: 

" Besides all this, he was well qtialiticd." 

The construction, indeed, may be <>f'J'nll aualiti/. Thus, in 
the same translator's version of the third / iad, "full of size" is 
apparently used for tffull *izc. STKKVKNS. 

* uv'/// person,] Thus the folio. The quarto reads 

u-it/i portion. STKF.VKNS. 

ihc high lavolt,] The ta-jolta was a dance. See 

Vol. XII. p. 'J87', n. 9. STKKYI-.VS. 


To which the Grecians are most prompt and preg- 
nant : 

But I can tell, that in each grace of these 
There lurks a still and dumb-discoursive devil, 
That tempts most cunningly: 4 but be not tempted. 

CRES. Do you think, I will ? 

TRO. No. 

But something may be done, that we will not : 
And sometimes we are devils to ourselves, 
When we will tempt the frailty of our powers, 
Presuming on their changeful potency. ' 

JNE. \_Within.~] Nay, good my lord, 

TRO. Come, kiss ; and let us part. 

PAR. \_Within.~\ Brother Troilus! 

TRO. Good brother, come you hither ; 

And bring JEneas, and the Grecian, with you. 

CRES. My lord, will you be true ? 

TRO. Who, I ? alas, it is my vice, my fault : 
While others fish with craft for great opinion, 
I with great truth catch mere simplicity ; 5 
Whilst some with cunning gild their copper crowns, 
With truth and plainness I do wear mine bare. 
Fear not my truth ; the moral of my wit 
Is plain, and true, 6 there's all the reach of it. 

1 There lurks a still and dumb-discnnrsire devil, 

That tempts most cunningly :] This passage may chance to 
remind the reader of another in Othello: 

" For here's a young and sweating devil here, 
" That commonly rebels." STF.EVKNS. 

5 catch mere simplicity ;~\ The meaning, I think, is, 

"while others, by their art, gain high estimation, I, by honesty, 
obtain a plain simple approbation. JOHNSON. 

the moral of mi/ icit 

Is - plain, and trnc,^\ Moral, in this instance, has the same 
meaning as in Muck Ado about Noticing, Act 111. sc. iv ; 



Welcome, sir Diomed ! here is the lady, 
Which for Anterior we deliver you : 
At the port, 7 lord, I'll give her to thy hand ; 
And, by the way, possess thee what she is. 8 
Entreat her fair ; and, by my soul, fair Greek, 
If e'er thou stand at mercy of my sword, 
Name Cressid, and thy life shall be as safe 
As Priam is in Ilion. 

Dio. Fair lady Cressid, 

So please you, save the thanks this prince expects : 
The lustre in your eye, heaven in your cheek, 
Pleads your fair usage ; and to Diomed 
You shall be mistress, and command him wholly. 

TRO. Grecian, thou dost not use me courteously, 
To shame the zeal of my petition to thee, 

" Benedictus ! why Benedictus ? you have some moral in this 


Again, in The Taming nfthc Shrew, Act IV. sc. iv: 

" he has left me here behind to expound the meaning 

or moral of his signs and tokens." TOLLET. 

7 At the port,] The port is the gate. So, in King Henry IV. 
Part II : 

" That keeps the ports of slumber open wide." 


possess thcc ichat she is.~\ I will make ilicc fully 

understand. This sense of the word possess is frequent in our 
author. JOHNSON. 

So, in The ^Icrclianl of Venice : 

" Is he yet possess'd 

" How much you would ?" STEKVEN.S. 


In praising her : 9 I tell thee, lord of Greece, 
She is as far high-soaring o'er thy praises, 1 
As thou unworthy to be call'd her servant. 
I charge thee, use her well, even for my charge j 
For, by the dreadful Pluto, if thou dost not, 
Though the great bulk Achilles be thy guard, 
I'll cut thy throat. 

D/o. O, be not mov'd, prince Troilus : 

Let me be privileg'd by my place, and message, 
To be a speaker free ; when I am hence, 
I'll answer to my lust : 2 And know you, lord, 

9 To shame the zeal of my petition to thee, 

In praising her ] [Old copies the seal.'] To shame the 
seal of a petition is nonsense. Shakspeare wrote : 

To shame the zeal 

and the sense is this : Grecian, you use me discourteously : you 
see I am a passionate lover by my petition to you ; and therefore 
you should not shame the zeal of it, by promising to do what I 
require of you, for the sake of her beauty : when, if you had 
good manners, or a sense of a lover's delicacy, you would have 
promised to do it in compassion to his pangs and sufferings. 


Troilus, I suppose, means to say, that Diomcde does not use 
him courteously by addressing himself to Cressida, and assuring 
her that she shall be well treated for her own sake, and on 
account of her singular beauty, instead of making a direct 
answer to that warm request which Troilus had just made to him 
to " entreat her fair." The subsequent words fully support this 
interpretation : 

" I charge thee, use her well, even for my charge" 


1 She is as Jar high-soaring o'er thy praises,"] So, in The 
Tempest : 

" she will outstrip all praise ." STEEVENS. 

* my lust:] List, I think, is right, though both the 

old copies read lust. JOHNSON. 
Lust is inclination, mil. HENLEY. 

So, in Exodus, xv. 9 : " I will divide the spoil ; my lust shall 
be satisiied upon them." 


I'll nothing do on charge : To her own worth 
She shall be priz'd ; but that you say be't so, 
I'll speak it in my spirit and honour, no. 

TRO. Come, to the port. I'll tell thee, 3 Diomed, 
This brave shall oft make thee to hide thy head. 
Lady, give me your hand ; and, as we walk, 
To our own selves bend we our needful talk. 


[Trumpet heard. 

PAR. Hark ! Hector's trumpet. 

JNE. How have we spent this morning ! 

The prince must think me tardy and remiss, 
That swore to ride before him to the field. 

PAR. 'Tis Troilus* fault : Come, come, to field 
with him. 

In many of our ancient writers, lust and list are synonymously 
employed. So, in Chapman's version of the seventeenth Iliad . 

" Sarpedon, guest and friend 

" To thee, (and most deservedly) thou flew'st from in 

his end, 

" And left'st to all the lust of Greece." 
/'// answer to my lust, means I'll follow my inclination. 


Lust was used formerly as synonymous to pleasure. So, in 
The Rape of Lucrecc : 

" the eyes of men through loopholes thrust, 

" Gazing upon the Greeks with little lust." MALONE. 

I'll tell thec,~\ This phraseology (instead of " / tell 

' _1 A tk/X 

thee" ) occurs almost too frequently in our author to need exem 
plification. One instance of it, however, shall be given from 
King John, Act V. sc. vi : 

" /'// tell thee, Hubert, half my power this night 
" Passing these flats are taken by the tide." 
Again, in the first line of Kin<r Henri/ V : 

" My lord, /'// tell you, that self bill is urg'd ." 
Mr. Malone, conceiving this mode of speech to be merely a 
printer's error, reads, in the former instance " / tell thee," 
though, in the two passage's just cited, he retains the ancient, 
and perhaps the true reading. STKICVENS. 
VOL. XV. <2 D 


DEI. Let us make ready straight. 4 

J&NE. Yea, with a bridegroom's fresh alacrity, 
Let us address to tend on Hector's heels : 
The glory of our Troy doth this day lie 
On his fair worth, and single chivalry. [Exeunt. 

4 Dei. Let us make ready straight. &c.] These five lines are 
not in the quarto, being probably added at the revision. 


But why should Diomed say Let us make ready straight ? 
Was HE to tend with them on Hector's heels? Certainly not. 
Dio. has therefore crept in by mistake ; the line either is part of 
Paris's speech, or belongs to Deiphobus, who is in company. 
As to Diomed, he neither goes along with them, nor has any 
thing to get ready : he is now walking with Troilus and 
Cressida, towards the gate, on his way to the Grecian camp. 


This last speech cannot possibly belong to Diomede, who was 
a Grecian, and could not have addressed Paris and ^Eneas, as 
if they were going on the same party. This is, in truth, a con- 
tinuation of the speech of Paris, and the preceding stage direc- 
tion should run thus : " Exeunt Troilus, Cressida, and Diomed 
tvho had the charge of Cressida." M. MASON. 

To the first of these lines, " Let us make ready straight," is 
prefixed in the folio, where alone the passage is found, Dio. 

I suspect these five lines were an injudicious addition by the 
actors, for the sake of concluding the scene with a couplet ; to 
which (if there be no corruption) they were more attentive 
than to the country of Diomed, or the particular commission he 
was entrusted with by the Greeks. The line in question, how- 
ever, as has been suggested, may belong to Deiphobus. From 
jEneas's second speech, in p. 387, and the stage-direction in the 
quarto and folio prefixed to the third scene of this Act, Deipho- 
bus appears to be now on the stage ; and Dio. and Dei. might 
have been easily confounded. As this slight change removes 
the absurdity, I have adopted it. It was undoubtedly intended 
by Shakspeare that Diomed should make his exit with Troilus 
and Crtssida. MA LONE. 



The Grecian Camp. Lists set out. 

and Others. 

AGAM. Here art thou in appointment fresh and 

fair, 5 

Anticipating time with starting courage. 
Give with thy trumpet a loud note to Troy, 
Thou dreadful Ajax ; that the appalled air 
May pierce the head of the great combatant, 
And hale him hither. 

AJAX. Thou, trumpet, there's my purse. 

Now crack thy lungs, and split thy brazen pipe : 
Blow, villain, till thy sphered bias cheek 6 
Out-swell the colick of puff'd Aquilon : 

5 in appointment fresh and fair,"] Appointment is pre- 
paration. So, in Measure for Measure ; 

" Therefore your best appointment make with speed." 
Again, in King Henri/ V. Parti: 

" What well-appointed leader fronts us here ?" 
i. e. what leader well prepared with arms and accoutrements ? 


On the other hand, in Hamlet : 

" Unhousell'd, disappointed, unanneal'd." MALOXE. 

" Inns check ] Swelling out like the bins of a bowl. 


So, in Vittoria Corombona^ or the White Dcril, 1612: 

" - - 'Faith his check 

" Has a most excellent bins ." 

The idea is taken from the puffy cheeks of the winds, a> re- 
presented in ancient prints, maps, &c. STEEYEXS. 

2 D 2 


Come, stretch thy chest, and let thy eyes spout 

blood ; 
Thou blow'st for Hector. [Trumpet sounds. 

ULYSS. No trumpet answers. 

ACHIL. 'Tis but early days. 

AGAM. Is not yon Diomed, with Calchas* daugh- 
ter ? 

ULYSS. 'Tis he, I ken the manner of his gait ; 
He rises on the toe : that spirit of his 
In aspiration lifts him from the earth. 


AGAM. Is this the lady Cressid ? 

Dio. Even she. 

AGAM. Most dearly welcome to the Greeks, sweet 

NEST. Our general doth salute you with a kiss. 

ULYSS. Yet is the kindness but particular ; 
'Twere better, she were kiss'd in general. 

NEST. And very courtly counsel : I'll begin. 
So much for Nestor. 

ACHIL. I'll take that winter from your lips, fair 

Achilles bids you welcome. 

MEN. I had good argument for kissing once. 

PATE. But that's no argument for kissing now : 
For thus popp'd Paris in his hardiment ; 
And parted thus you and your argument. 

ULYSS. O deadly gall, and theme of all our scorns! 
For which we lose our heads, to gild his horns. 


PATR. The first was Menelaus' kissj this, mine: 
Patroclus kisses you. 
MEN. O, this is trim ! 

PATR. Paris, and I, kiss evermore for him. 
MEN. I'll have my kiss, sir: Lady, by your leave. 
CRES. In kissing, do you render, or receive ? 7 
PATR. Both take and give. 8 

CRES. I'll make my match to live, 9 

The kiss you take is better than you give ; 
Therefore no kiss. 

MEN. I'll give you boot, I'll give you three for 

CRES. You're an odd man ; give even, or give 

MEN. An odd man, lady ? every man is odd. 

CRES. No, Paris is not ; for, you know, 'tis true, 
That you are odd, and he is even with you. 

MEN. You fillip me o'the head. 

CRES. No, I'll be sworn. 

ULYSS. It were no match, your nail against his 

May I, sweet lady, beg a kiss of you ? 

7 In kissing, do you render, or receive ?] Thus, Bassanio, in 
The Merchant of Venice, when he kisses Portia : 

" 1'air lady, by your leave, 

" I come by note, to #v, and to receive.''* STEF.VENS. 

* Pair. Doth take and pivc.~\ This speech should rather be 
given to Menelaus. TYKWHITT. 

9 /'// make my watch to live,'] I will make such bargains 
as I may live by, such ax may bring me projit, therefore will 
not take a worse kiss than I give. JOHNSON. 

I believe this only means /'// lay my life. TYRWHITT. 


CUES. You may. 

ULYSS. I do desire it. 

CRES. Why, beg then. 1 

ULYSS. Why then, for Venus' sake, give me a kiss, 
When Helen is a maid again, and his. 

CRES. I am your debtor, claim it when 'tis due. 
ULYSS. Never* s my day, and then a kiss of you. 2 

Dio. Lady, a word ; I'll bring you to your fa- 
ther. [DIOMED leads out CRESSIDA. 

NEST. A woman of quick sense. 

ULYSS. Fye, fye upon her ! 

There's language in her eye, her cheek, her lip, 
Nay, her foot speaks ; 3 her wanton spirits look out 

1 Why, beg then.] For the sake of rhyme we should read : 

Why beg two. 
If you think kisses worth begging, beg more than one. 


* Never's my day, and then a kiss of you.'] I once gave both 
these lines to Cressida. She bids Ulysses beg a kiss ; he asks 
that he may have it, 

" When Helen is a maid again, ." 

She tells him that then he shall have it, When Helen is a maid 
again : 

" Cres. I am your debtor, claim it when 'tis due. 

" Ulyss. Never's my day, and then a kissyor you." 
But I rather think Ulysses means to slight her, and that the 
present reading is right. JOHNSON. 

3 There's language in her eye, her cheek, her Up, 

Nay, her foot speaks; &c.] One would almost think that 
Shakspeare had, on this occasion, been reading St. Chrysostom, 
who says " Non loquuta es lingua, sed loqmda es gressu ; non 
loquida es voce, sed oculis loquuta es clnrius quam vocr;" i. e. 
" They say nothing with their mouthes, they speake in their gate, 
they speake with their eyes, they speake in the carriage of their 
bodies." I have borrowed this invective against a wanton, as 
well as the translation of it, from Burton's Anatomy of Melan- 
choly, Part III. Sect. ii. Memb. 2. Subs. 3. STEEVENS. 

sc. v. TROILUS AND CRESSlfcA. 407 

At every joint and motive of her body. 4 
O, these encounterers, so glib of tongue, 
That give a coasting welcome ere it comes, 5 

4 motive of her body.~\ Motive, for part that contributes 

to motion. JOHNSON. 

This word is also employed, with some singularity, in AWs 
well I hat ends well: 

" As it hath fated her to be my motive 
" And helper to a husband." STEEVENS. 

5 0, these encounterers, so glib of tongue, 

That give a coasting welcome ere it comes,~\ Ere what comes? 
As this passage stands, the pronoun it has no antecedent. 
Johnson says, a coasting means an amorous address, courtship, 
but he has given no example to prove it, or shown how the 
word can possibly bear that meaning. I have no doubt but we 
should read: 

And give accosting welcome ere it come. M. MASON. 

Mr. M. Mason's conjecture is plausible and ingenious ; and 
yet, without some hesitation, it cannot be admitted into the 

A coasting welcome may mean a side-long glance of invitation. 
Ere it comes, may signify, before such an overture has reached 
her. Perhaps, therefore, the plain sense of the passage may be, 
that Cressida is one of those females who throw out their lure, 
before any like signal has been made to them by our sex. 

I always advance with reluctance what I cannot prove by 
examples ; and yet, perhaps, I may be allowed to add, that in 
some old book of voyages which I have formerly read, I remem- 
ber that the phrase, a coasting salute, was used to express a 
salute of guns from a ship passing by a fortified place at which 
the navigator did not design to stop, though the salute was in- 
stantly returned. So, in Othello : 

" They do discharge their shot of courtesy; 

" Our friends, at least." 
Again : 

" They give this greeting to the citadel : 

" This likewise is a friend." 

Cressida- may therefore resemble a fortress which salutes before 
it has been saluted. STKF.VKNS. 

A. coasting icelcomc is a conciliatory welcome ; that makes 


And wide unclasp the tables of their thoughts 

To every ticklish reader ! set them down 

For sluttish spoils of opportunity, 5 

And daughters of the game. [Trumpet within. 

ALL. The Trojans' trumpet. 

AGAM. Yonder comes the troop. 

Enter HECTOR, armed; ^ENEAS, TROILUS, and 
other Trojans, with Attendants. 

Hail, all the state of Greece ! what shall 

be done 
To him that victory commands ? 6 Or do you 


A victor shall be known ? will you, the knights 
Shall to the edge of all extremity 7 
Pursue each other ; or shall they be divided 
By any voice or order of the field ? 
Hector bade ask. 

AGAM. Which way would Hector have it ? 

J*ENE. He cares not, he'll obey conditions. 

fcilent advances before the tongue has uttered a word. So, ia 

our author's Venus and Adonis : 

" Anon she hears them chaunt it lustily, 

" And all in haste she coasteth to the cry." MALONE. 

4 - sluttish spoils of opportunity,'] Corrupt wenches, of 
whose chastity every opportunity may make a prey. JOHNSON. 

6 - what shall be done 

To him that victory commands ?"] This phrase is scriptural, 
and signifies what honour shall he receive ? So, in I. Samuel 
xvii. 26 : " What shall be done to the man that killeth this Phi- 
listine?" STEEVENS. 

to the edge of all extremity ] So, in All's well that 
ends well; " To the extreme edge of hazard." STEEVENS. 


ACHIL. 'Tisdonelike Hector; but securely done, 8 

8 'Tis done like Hector, but securely done,] This speech, in 
the old copies, is given to Agamemnon. MALONE. 

It seems absurd to me, that Agamemnon should make a re- 
mark to the disparagement of Hector for pride, and that ^Eneas 
should immediately say 

" If not Achilles, sir, what is your name ?" 
To Achilles I have ventured to place it ; and consulting Mr. 
Dryden's alteration of this play, I was not a little pleased to 
find, that I had but seconded the opinion of that great man 10 
this point. THEOBALD. 

Though all the old copies agree in giving this speech to Aga- 
memnon, I have no doubt but Theobald is right in restoring it 
to Achilles. It is this very speech, so much in character, that 
makes /Eneas immediately recognize Achilles, and say in 

" If not Achilles, sir, what is your name ?" 
And it is to Achilles he afterwards addresses himself in reply to 
this speech ; on which he answers the observation it contains on 
Hector's conduct, by giving his just character, and clearing him- 
self from the charge of pride. I have already observed that the 
copies of this play are uncommonly faulty with respect to the 
distribution of the speeches to the proper persons. M. MASON. 

securely done,'] In the sense of the Latin, securus 

srcurus admodum de hello, animisecuri homo. A negligent secu- 
rity arising from a contempt of the object opposed. 


Dr. Warburton truly observes, that the word securely is here 
used in the Latin sense : and Mr. Warner, in his ingenious letter 
to Mr. Garrick, thinks the sense peculiar to Shakspeare ; " for 
(says he) I have not been able to trace it elsewhere." Thia 
gentleman has treated me with so much civility, that I am 
bound in honour to remove his difficulty. 

It is to be found in the last act of '1 tie Spanish Tragedy : 
" O damned devil, how secure he is." 

In my Lord Bacon's Essay on Tumults, " neither let any 
prince or state be secure concerning discontents." And besides 
these, in Drayton, Fletcher, and the vulgar translation of the 

Mr. Warner had as little success in his researches for the word 
religion in its Latin acceptation. I meet with it however in 
Moby's translation of Casti/io, 1561 : " Some be so scrupulous, 
as it were, with a religion of this their Tuscane tung." 


A little proudly, and great deal misprizing 
The knight oppos'd. 

J<ENE. If not Achilles, sir, 

What is your name ? 

ACHIL. If not Achilles, nothing. 

JENE. Therefore Achilles : But, whatever, know 

this ; 

In the extremity of great and little, 
Valour and pride excel themselves in Hector ; 
The one almost as infinite as all, 
The other blank as nothing. Weigh him well, 
And that, which looks like pride, is courtesy. 
This Ajax is half made of Hector's blood : l 
In love whereof, half Hector stays at home ; 
Half heart, half hand, half Hector comes to seek 
This blended knight, half Trojan, and half Greek. 2 

ACHIL. A maiden battle then ? O, I perceive 

Ben Jonson more than once uses both the substantive and the 
adjective in this sense. 

As to the word Cavalcro, with the Spanish termination, it is 
to be found in Heywood, Withers, Davies, Taylor, and many 
other writers. FARMER. 

a Valour and pride excel themselves in Hector ;] Shakspeare's 
thought is not exactly deduced. Nicety of expression is not his 
character. The meaning is plain: " Valour (says ./Eneas,) is in 
Hector greater than valour in other men, and pride in Hector is 
less than pride in other men. So that Hector is distinguished by 
the excellence of having pride less than other pride, and valour 
more than other valour." JOHNSON. 

1 This Ajax is half made of Hector's blood:'] Ajax and 
Hector were cousin-germans. MALONE. 

* half Trojan, and half Greek.] Hence Thersites, in a 

former scene, called Ajax a mongrel. See p. 291, n. 8. 



Re-enter DJOMED. 

AGAM. Here is sir Diomed: Go, gentle knight, 
Stand by our Ajax : as you and lord JEncas 
Consent upon the order of their fight, 
So be it ; either to the uttermost, 
Or else a breath : 3 the combatants being kin, 
Half stints 4 their strife before their strokes begin. 
[AjAX and HECTOR enter the lists. 

VLYSS. They are oppos'd already. 

AGAM. What Trojan is that same that looks so 
heavy ? 

ULYSS. The youngest son of Priam, a true knight; 
Not yet mature, yet matchless ; firm of word ; 
Speaking in deeds, and deedless in his tongue ; 5 
Not soon provok'd, nor, being provok'd, soon 

calm'd : 

His heart and hand both open, and both free ; 
For what he has, he gives, what thinks, he shows ; 
Yet gives he not till judgment guide his bounty, 
Nor dignifies an impair thought'' with breath : 
Manly as Hector, but more dangerous ; 

a breath :] i. e. a breathing, a slight exercise of arms. 

Sec p. 319, ii. 7. STEEVENS. 

1 stints ] i. e. stops. So, in Timon of Athens : 

" make peace, stint war- ." STEEVEXS. 

'Iced/ess in his tongue;'] i. e. no boaster of his own 

deeds. STEEVEXS. 

an impair thought ] A thought unsuitable to the 

dignity of his character. This word 1 should have changed to 
iijutre t were I not overpowered by the unanimity of the editors, 
ami concurrence of the old copies. JOHNSON. 

So, in Chapman's preface to his translation of the Shield of 
Homer, 159S: " nor is it more inipairc to an honest and 
absolute man" &c. STEEVENS.. 


For Hector, in his blaze of wrath, subscribes 
To tender objects ; 7 but he, in heat of action, 
Is more vindicative than jealous love : 
They call him Troilus ; and on him erect 
A second hope, as fairly built as Hector. 
Thus says ^neas ; one that knows the youth 
Even to his inches, and, with private soul, 
Did in great Ilion thus translate him to me. 8 

\_Alarum. HECTOR and AJAX Jight. 

AGAM. They are in action. 

NEST. Now, Ajax, hold thine own ! 

TRO. Hector, thou sleep'st ; 

Awake thee ! 

AGAM. Hisblows are well disposed: there, Ajax! 
Dio. You must no more. [Trumpets cease. 

JENE. Princes, enough, so please you. 

AJAX. I am not warm yet, let us fight again. 
Dio. As Hector pleases. 

HECT. Why then, wdll I no more : 

Thou art, great lord, my father's sister's son, 
A cousin-german to great Priam's seed j 
The obligation of our blood forbids 
A gory emulation 'twixt us twain : 
Were thy commixtion Greek and Trojan so, 
That thou could'st say This hand is Grecian alt, 

Hector, subscribes 

To tender objects ;] That is, yields, gives way. JOHNSON. 

So, in King Lear: " subscribed his power;" i. e. sub- 
mitted. STEEVENS. 

8 thus translate him to me."] Thus explain ftis character. 

So, in Hamlet : 

" There's matter in these sighs, these profound heaves ; 

" You must translate." STEEVENS. 


And this is Trojan; the sinews of this leg 
All Greek, and this all Troy ; my mother's blood 
Rims on the dexter cheek, and this sinister 
Rounds-in my father* s ; by Jove multipotent, 
Thou should'st notbear from me a Grcekish member 
Wherein my sword had not impressure made 
Of our rank feud : But the just gods gainsay, 
That any drop thou borrow'st from thy mother, 
My sacred aunt, 9 should by my mortal sword 
Be drain'd ! Let me embrace thee, Ajax : 
By him that thunders, thou hast lusty arms ; 
Hector would have them fall upon him thus : 
Cousin, all honour to thee ! 

AJAX. I thank thee, Hector : 

Thou art too gentle, and too free a man : 
I came to kill thee, cousin, and bear hence 
A great addition 1 earned in thy death. 

HECT. Not Neoptolemus so mirable 
(On whose bright crest Fame with her loud'st O yes 
Cries, This is //<?,) could promise to himself 2 
A thought of added honour torn from Hector. 


9 My sacred aunt,"] It is remarkable that the Greeks give to 
the uncle the title of Sacred, f<o?. Patruus avunculus I mfi$ 
Tral^o;, 9s(oc, Gaz. de Senec. patruus"o TfOf pr't^o; *)SM$, avun- 
culus, Budxi Lexic. >TSJOC is also used absolutely for 'o rtgos 
ra7foc Zcfjc, Euripid. Iphigen. Taurid. 1. 930 : 

" KS. *H iron voo-o'jv7a? -SrsTo,' J^ijtrev ooaoi';." 
And Xenoph. Kyccy irziS. Lib. I. passim. VAILLAXT. 

This circumstance may tend to establish an opinion I have 
elsewhere expressed, that this play was not the entire composi- 
tion of Shakspeare, to whom the Grecism before us was proba 
bly unknown. STKEVENS. 

1 A great addition ] i. e. denomination. See p. 214, n. 5. 


* \nt Neoptolemus so mirable 

( On whose bright crest Fame with her lond'st O i/cs 
Cries, This is he,) could promise to himself &c.J Dr. War- 


. There is expectance here from both the 

What further you will do. 

burton observes, that " the sense and spirit of Hector's speech 
requires that the most celebrated of his adversaries should be 
picked out to be defied, and this was Achilles himself, not his 
son Neoptolemus, who was yet but an apprentice in warfare." 
In the rage of correction therefore he reads : 

Not Neoptolemus' s sire irascible. 
Such a licentious conjecture deserves no attention. MALONE. 

My opinion is, that by Neoptolemus the author meant Achilles 
himself; and remembering that the son was Pyrrhus Neoptole- 
mus, considered Neoptolemus as the nomen gentilitium, and 
thought the father was likewise Achilles Neoptolemus. 


Shakspeare might have used Neoptolemus for Achilles. Wil- 
fride Holme, the author of a poem called The Fall and evil 
Successe of Rebellion, &c. 1537, had made the same mistake 
before him, as the following stanza will show : 

" Also the triumphant Troyans victorious, 
" By Anthenor and /Eneas false confederacie, 

" Sending Polidamus to Neoptolemus, 
" Who was vanquished and subdued by their conspiracie. 

" O dolorous fortune, and fatal miserie ! 
" For multitude of people was there mortificate 

" With condigne Priamus and all his progenie, 
" And flagrant Polixene, that lady delicate." 
In Lydgate, however, Achilles, Neoptolemus, and Pyrrhus, 
are distinct characters. Neoptolemus is enumerated among the 
Grecian princes who first embarked to revenge the rape of 
Helen : 

" The valiant Grecian called Neoptolemus, 
" That had his haire as blacke as any jet," &c. p. 102. 
and Pyrrhus, very properly, is not heard of till after the death 
of his father : 

" Sith that Achilles in such traiterous wise 
" Is slaine, that we a messenger should send 
" To fetch his son yong Pyrrhus, to the end 
" He may revenge his father's death," &c. p. 237. 


I agree with Dr. Johnson and Mr. Steevens, in thinking that 
Shakspeare supposed Neoptolemus was the nomen gentilitinm ; 
an error into which he might have been led by some book of the 


HECT. We'll answer it; 3 

The issue is embracement : Ajax, farewell. 

AJAX. If I might in entreaties find success, 
(As seld I have the chance,) I would desire 
My famous cousin to our Grecian tents. 

Dio. 'Tis Agamemnon's wish: and great Achilles 
Doth long to see unarm'd the valiant Hector. 

HECT. JEncus, call my brother Troilus to me : 
And signity this loving interview 
To the expecters of our Trojan part ; 
Desire them home. Give me thy hand, my cousin; 
I will go eat with thee, and see your knights. 4 

AJAX. Great Agamemnon comes to meet us here. 

HECT. The worthiest of them tell me name by 

name ; 

But for Achilles, my own searching eyes 
Shall find him by his large and portly size. 

time. That by Neoptolemus\\c meant Achilles, and not Pyrrhus, 
may be interred from a former passage in p. 373, by which it 
appears that he knew Pyrrhus had not yet engaged in the siege 
of Troy : 

" But it must grieve young Pyrrhus, note at home," &c. 


J We'll ansiver it ;~] That is, answer the expectance. 


your knighls.~] The word knight, as often as it occurs, 
is sure to bring with it the idea of chivalry, and revives the 
memory of Amadis and his fantastick followers, rather than that 
of the mighty confederates who fought on either side in the 
Trojan war. I wish that cqucs and armiger could have been 
rendered by any other words than knight and 'squire. Mr. 
Pope, in his translation of the Iliad, is very liberal of the 
latter. STKEVEVS. 

These knights, to the amount of about tivo hundred thousand, 
(lor there were not less in both armies,) Shakspearc found, with 
all the appendages of chivalry, in The Three Destructions of 
Troy. M ALONE. 


AGAM. Worthy of arms ! 5 as welcome as to one 
That would be rid of such an enemy ; 
But that's no welcome : Understand more clear, 
What's past, and what's to come, is strew'd with 


And formless ruin of oblivion ; 
But in this extant moment, faith and troth, 
Strain'd purely from all hollow bias-drawing, 
Bids thee, with most divine integrity, 6 
From heart of very heart, 7 great Hector welcome. 

HECT. I thank thee, most imperious Agamem- 
non. 8 

AGAM. My well-fam'd lord of Troy, no less to 
you. [To TROILUS. 

MEN. Let me confirm my princely brother's 

greeting ; 
You brace of warlike brothers, welcome hither. 

HECT. Whom must we answer ? 

MEN. The noble Menelaus." 

5 Worthy of arms /] Folio. Worthy all arms ! Quarto. 
The quarto has only the first, second, and the last line of this 
salutation ; the intermediate verses seem added on a revision. 


divine integrity,] i. e. integrity like that of heaven. 


7 heart of very heart,"] So, in Hamlet : 

" In my heart's core, ay in my heart of heart" 


8 most imperious Agamemnon.'] Imperious and imperial 

had formerly the same signification. So, in our author's Venus 
and Adonis : 

" Imperious supreme of all mortal things." MA LONE. 

Again, in Titus Andronicus ; 

" King, be thy thoughts imperious, like thy name." 


g Men. The noble Menelaus.~] Mr.Ritson supposes this speech 
to belong to Mneas. REED. 


HECT. O you, my lord ? by Mars his gauntlet, 

thanks ! 

Mock not, that I affect the imtraded oatli ; 
Your quondam wife swears still by Venus' glove : ! 
She's well, but bade me not commend her to you. 

MEN. Name her not now, sir j she's a deadly 

HECT. O, pardon ; I offend. 

NEST. I have, tliou gallant Trojan, seen thee oft, 
Labouring for destiny, make cruel way 
Through ranks of Greekish youth : 2 and I have 
seen thee, 

As I cannot suppose that Menelaus would style himself" the 
noble Menelaus," I think llitson right in giving this speech to 
JEncas. M. MASON. 

1 Mock not, &c.] The quarto has here a strange corruption : 

l\lock not thy affect, the untreaded earth. JOHNSON". 

the untraded oath ;] A singular oath, not in common 

use. So, in King Richard II: 

" some way of common trade" 

Under the lady's oath perhaps more is meant than meets the 
ear ; unless the poet caught his idea from Grange's Golden 
Aphroditis, 4-to. 1577, sign. M ij : " At this upper horde next 
unto Jupiter on the right hande sat Juno, that honourable and 
gracious goddessc his wyfe : Nexte unto hyr satte Venus, the of love, ivith a (-I.OVE made oj~ floures sticking in hyr 
bosomc." MA LONE. 

Glove, in the preceding extract, must be a corruption of some 
other word, perhaps of Globe. A flowery globe might have 
been worn by Venus as an emblem of the influence of Love, 
which, by adding graces and pleasures to the world, may, 
poetically, be said to cover it with flowers. 

Our ancient nosegays also (as m^y lie known from several old 
engravings) were nearly <rlo/>nl<ir. But what idea can be com- 
municated by a glove made of flowers ? or how could any form 
resembling a glove, be produced out of such materials ? 


2 Labouring for destiny, &c.] The vicegerent of Fate. So, in 
Coriolanus : 

VOL. XV. 2 


As hot as Perseus, spur 3 thy Phrygian steed, 
Despising many forfeits and subduements, 4 
When thou hast hung thy advanced sword i'the air, 
Not letting it decline on the declined ; 5 
That I have said to some my standers-by, 
Lo, Jupiter is yonder, dealing life! 
And I have seen thee pause, and take thy breath, 
When that a ring of Greeks have hemm'd thee in, 
Like an Olympian wrestling : This have I seen j 
But this thy countenance, still lock'd in steel, 
I never saw till now. I knew thy grandsire, 6 
And once fought with him : he was a soldier good; 

His sword, death's stamp, 

Where it did mark, it took ; from face to foot 
He was a thing of blood, whose every motion 
Was tim'd with dying cries : alone he enter'd 
The mortal gate of the city, which he painted 
With shunless destiny." MALONE. 

3 As hot as Perseus, spur ] As the equestrian fame of Per- 
seus, on the present occasion, must be alluded to, this simile will 
serve to countenance my opinion, that in a former instance his 
horse was meant for a real one, and not, allegorically, for a ship. 
See p. 261, n. 4. STEEVENS. 

4 Demising many forfeits and subducments,~\ Thus the quarto. 
The folio reads : 

" And seen thee scorning forfeits and subduemcnts." 


3 When thou hast hung thy advanced sword i'thc ah; 

Not letting it decline on the declined;'] Dr. Young appears 
to have imitated this passage in the second Act of his Busiris: 

" . my rais'd arm 

" Has hung in air, forgetful to descend, 

" And for a moment spar'd the prostrate foe." 


So, in King Henry IV. Part II: 

" And hangs resolv'd correction in the air, 
" That was uprear'd to execution." 
The declined is \\icfallcn. So, in Timon of Athens: 

" Not one accompanying his declining foot." MALONE. 

6 thy grandsire,"] Laomedon. STEEVENS. 


But, by great Mars, the captain of us all, 
Never like thee : Let an old man embrace thee ; 
And, worthy warrior, welcome to our tents, 

MNE. 'Tis the old Nestor. 7 

HECT. Let me embrace thee, good old chronicle, 
That hast so long walk'd hand in hand with time: 
Most reverend Nestor, I am glad to clasp thee. 

NEST. I would, my arms could match thee in 

As they contend 8 with thee in courtesy. 

HECT. I would they could. 

NEST. Ha ! 

By this white beard, I'd fight with thee to-morrow. 
Well, welcome, welcome! I have seen the time 

ULYSS. I wonder now how yonder city stands, 
When we have here her base and pillar by us. 

HECT. I know your favour, lord Ulysses, well. 
Ah, sir, there's many a Greek and Trojan dead, 
Since first I saw yourself and Diomed 
In Ilion, on your Greekish embassy. 

ULYSS. Sir, I foretold you then what would ensue: 
My prophecy is but half his journey yet j 

'Tis the old AV.s/or.] So, in Julian Cccsar : 

" Old Cassius still." 

If the poet had the same idea in both passages, TEneas means, 
" Nestor is still the same talkative old man, we have long 
known him to be." lie may, however, only mean to inform 
Hector that Nestor is the person who has addressed him. 


I believe, that /Eneas, who acts as master of the ceremonies, 
is now merely announcing Nestor to Hector, as he had before 
announced Menelaus to him ; for, as Mr. Uitson has observed, 
the last speech in p. 416, most evidently belongs to /Eneas. 


* As they contend ] This line is not in the quarto. 



For yonder walls, that pertly front your town, 
Yon towers, whose wanton tops do buss the clouds,* 
Must kiss their own feet. 

HECT. I must not believe you : 

There they stand yet ; and modestly I think, 
The fall of every Phrygian stone will cost 
A drop of Grecian blood : The end crowns all j 
And that old common arbitrator, time, 
Will one day end it. 

ULYSS. So to him we leave it. 

Most gentle, and most valiant Hector, welcome : 
After the general, I beseech you next 
To feast with me, and see me at my tent. 

ACHIL. I shall forestall thee, lord Ulysses, thou ! ' 

9 Yon totvers, u-hose leant on tops do buss the clouds,'] So, in our 
author's Rape ofLucrece: 

" Threatening cloud kissing Ilion with annoy." 
Again, in Pericles, Prince of Tyre, 1609 : 

" Whose touers bore heads so high, they Jciss'd the 


Ilion, according to Shakspeare's authority, was the name of 
Priam's palace, " that was one of the richest and strongest that 
ever was in all the world. And it was of height five hundred 
paces, besides the height of the toivers, whereof there was great 
plenty, and so high as that it seemed to -them that saw them 
from farre, they raught up unto the heaven," The Destruction 
of Troy, Book II. p. 4-78. 

So also Lydgate, sign. F 8, verso : 

" And whan he gan to his worke approche, 
" He made it builde hye upon a rocJic, 
" It for to assure in his foundation, 
" And called it the noble Ylion." 

Shakspeare was thinking of this circumstance when he wrote, in 
the first Act, these lines. Troilus is the speaker : 

" Between our Ilium, and where she resides, [i. e. Troy] 
" Let it be call'd the wild and wandering Hood." 


1 / shall forestall thee, lord Ulysses, thou!] Should we not 
read though? Notwithstanding you have invited Hector to 


Now, Hector, I have fed mine eyes on thee; 2 
I have with e,\act view perus'd thee, Hector, 
And quoted joint by joint. 3 

HF.CT. Is this Achilles ? 

ACHIL. I am Achilles. 

HECT. Stand fair, I pray thee : let me look on thee. 

your tent, I shall draw him first into mine. So, in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge, Act III. sc. i : 

" O dissembling woman, 

" Whom I must reverence though ." TYUWIIITT. 

The repetition of thou! was anciently used by one who meant 
to insult another. So, in Twelfth- Night ; " it' thou thou'st 
him some thrice, it shall not be amiss." 

Again, in The Tempest: 

" Thou ly'st, thou jesting monkey, thou!" 
Again, in the first scene of the fifth Act of this play : " thou 
tassel of a prodigal's purse, thou.'" STEEVEXS. 

Steevens's observations on the use of the word thou are per- 
fectly just, and therefore I agree with Tyrwhitt that we ought 
to read: " lord Ulysses, though !" as it could not be the inten- 
tion of Achilles to affront Ulysses, but merely to inform him, 
that he expected to entertain Hector before he did. 


Mr. Steevens's remark is incontrovertibly true ; but Ulysses 
had not said any thing to excite such contempt. MALOXE. 

Perhaps the scorn of Achilles arose from a supposition that 
Ulysses, by inviting Hector immediately after his visit to Aga- 
memnon, designed to represent himself as the person next in 
rank and consequence to the general of the Grecian forces. 


" Aou-, Hector, I have fed mine ei/r-s on thee ;~\ The hint for this 
scene of altercation between Achilles and Hector is taken from 
Lydgate. See p. ITS. STKKVEXS. 

1 And quoted joint luj joint. ~\ To (/note is to observe. So, in 
ilamlet : 

" I'm sorry that with better heed and judgment 

" I had not (fioteil him." 
Again, in The Tivo Gentlemen of Verona: 

" Tl/n. And how quote you my lolly ? 

" I'n/. I ijiiole it in 3 our jerkin." STJ;EY.T:X.S. 


ACHIL. Behold thy fill. 

HECT. Nay, I have done already. 

ACHIL. Thou art too brief; I will the second 

As I would buy thee, view thee limb by limb. 

HECT. O, like a book of sport thou'lt read me 

o'er ; 

But there's more in me than thou understand'st. 
Why dost thou so oppress me with thine eye ? 

ACHIL. Tell me, you heavens, in which part of 

his body 

Shall I destroy him? whether there, there, or there? 
That I may give the local wound a name ; 
And make distinct the very breach, whereout 
Hector's great spirit flew : Answer me, heavens ! 

HECT. It would discredit the bless' d gods, proud 


To answer such a question : Stand again : 
Think'st thou to catch my life so pleasantly, 
As to prenominate in nice conjecture, 
Where thou wilt hit me dead ? 

ACHIL. I tell thee, yea. 

HECT. Wert thou an oracle to tell me so, 
I'd not believe thee. Henceforth guard thee well; 
For I'll not kill thee there, nor there, nor there ; 
But, by the forge that stithied Mars his helm, 4 
I'll kill thee every where, yea, o'er and o'er. 
You wisest Grecians, pardon me this brag, 
His insolence draws folly from my lips ; 

4 But, by the forge that stithied Mars his helm,~\ A stithy is 
an anvil, and from hence the verb slit/tied is formed. 


The word is still used in Yorkshire. MALONE. 

A stith is an anvil, a tilth y a smith's shop. See Hamlet, 
Act III. sc. ii. Vol. XVIII. STEEVENS. 


But I'll endeavour deeds to match these words, 
Or may I never 

AJAX. Do not chafe thce, cousin ; 

And you, Achilles, let these threats alone, 
Till accident, or purpose, bring you to't : 
You may have every day enough of Hector, 
If you have stomacn ; the general state, I fear, 
Can scarce entreat you to be odd with him. 5 

HECT. I pray you, let us see you in the field ; 
We have had pelting wars, 6 since you refus'd 
The Grecians' cause. 

ACHIL. Dost thou entreat me, Hector ? 

To-morrow, do I meet thce, fell as death j 
To-night, all friends. 

HECT. Thy hand upon that match. 

AGAM. First, all you peers of Greece, go to my 

tent ; 

There in the full convive 7 we : afterwards, 
As Hector's leisure and your bounties shall 
Concur together, severally entreat him. 

the general state, I Jear, 

Can scarce entreat you to be odd with him.] Ajax treats 
Achilles with contempt, and means to insinuate that he was 
afraid of fighting with Hector. " You may every day (says he) 
have enough of Hector, if you choose it ; hut I believe the 
whole state of Greece will scarcely prevail on you to engage with 

To have a stomach to any thing is, to have an inclination to 
it. M. MASON. 

pelting wars,'] i. e. petty, inconsiderable ones. So, in 

A Midsummer-Night's Dream : 

" Have every pelting river made so proud," &c. 
See Vol. IV. p. ,'5.57, n. .3. STEKVENS. 

' convive ] To coircire is to feast. This word is not 

peculiar to Shakspeare. I find it several times used in The 
History of Helyas Kitig/it oj the Sivanne t b\, 1. no date. 



Beat loud the tabourines, 8 let the trumpets blow, 
That this great soldier may his welcome know. 9 
[_Excunt all but TROILUS and ULYSSES. 

TRO. My lord Ulysses, tell me, I beseech you, 
In what place of the field doth Calchas keep ? 

ULYSS. At Menelaus' tent, most princely Troilus: 
There Diomed doth feast with him to-night ; 
Who neither looks upon the heaven, nor earth, 
But gives all gaze and bent of amorous view 
On the fair Cressid. 

TRO. Shall I, sweet lord, be bound to you so 


After we part from Agamemnon's tent, 
To bring me thither ? 

ULYSS. You shall command me, sir. 

As gentle tell me, of what honour was 
This Cressida in Troy ? Had she no lover there 
That wails her absence ? 

TRO. O, sir, to such as boasting show their scars, 
A mock is due. Will you walk on, my lord ? 
She was belov'd, she lov'd ; she is, and doth : 
But, still, sweet love is food for fortune's tooth. 


8 Beat loud the tabourines,] For this the quarto and the 
latter editions have 

To taste, your bounties. 

The reading which I have given from the folio seems chosen at 
the revision, to avoid the repetition of the word bounties. 


Tabourines are small drums. The word occurs again in 

Antony and Cleopa t ra . S x E E v E x s . 

9 That this great soldier may his ivelcomc ou\] So, in 
Macbeth : 

" That this great king may kindly say, 

" Our duties did his welcome pay." STEEVENS. 



The Grecian Camp. Before Achilles' Tent. 


ACHIL. I'll heat his blood with Greekish wine 


Which witli my scimitar I'll cool to-morrow. 1 
Patroclus, let us feast him to the height, 2 

PATR. Here comes Thersites. 


ACHIL. How now, tliou core of envy? 

Thou crusty hatch of nature, 3 what's the news ? 

1 /'// heat his blood with Greckish wine to-night, 

Which with my scimitar I'll cool to-morruw.~] Grammar 
requires us to read 

With Greekish wine to-night I'll heat his blood, 
Which <S'c. 

Otherwise-, Achilles threatens to cool the wine, instead of Hec- 
tor's blood. STEEVEXS. 

- to the height. ~\ The same phrase occurs in King 

Henry VIII: 

" He's traitor to the height." STEEVEXS. 

3 Thou crusty batch (>f nature,'] Batch is changed by Theo- 
bald to botch, and the change is justified by a pompous note, 
which discovers that he did not know the word batch. NVhat is 
more strange, Ilanmer has followed him. Batch is any thing 
Lulied. JOHNSON. 

Balcli does not signify any thing baked, but all that is baked 
at one time, without heating the oven afresh. So, Ben Joiison, 
in his Catiline: 

" Except he were of the same meal and batch.'" 


THER. Why, thou picture of what thou seemest, 
and idol of idiot- worshippers, here's a letter for 

ACHIL. From whence, fragment ? 
THER. Why, thou full dish of fool, from Troy. 
PATR. Who keeps the tent now? 
THER. The surgeon's box, 4 or the patient's 

PATR. Well said, Adversity! 5 and what need 
these tricks ? 

THER. Pr'ythee be silent, boy ; I profit not by 

thy talk : thou art thought to be Achilles' male 


PATR. Male varlet, 6 you rogue ! what's that ? 

Again, in Decker's If this he not a good Play the Devil is in it, 
1612 : " The best is, there are but two batches of people 
moulded in this world." 

Again, in Summer's Last Will and Testament, 1600: " Hast 
thou made a good batch ? I pray thee give me a new loaf." 

Again, in Every Man in his Humour: " Is all the rest of 
this batch ?" 

Thersites had already been called cobloaf. STEEVENS. 

4 The surgeon's box,'] In this answer Thersites only quibbles 
upon the word tent. HANMER. 

s Well said, Adversity!] Adversity, I believe, in this in- 
stance, signifies contrariety. The reply of Thersites has been 
studiously adverse to the drift of the question urged by Patroclus. 
So, in Love's Labour's Lost, the Princess, addressing Boyet, 
(who had been capriciously employing himself to perplex the 
dialogue,) says " avaunt, Perplexity!" STEEVENS. 

6 Male varlet,'] Sir T. Hanmer reads Male harlot, plausi- 
bly enough, except that it seems too plain to require the ex- 
planation which Patroclus demands. JOHNSON. 

This expression is met with in Decker's Honest Whore: 
" 'tis a male varlet, sure, my lord!" FARMER. 

The person spoken of in Decker's play is Bellafronte, a har- 
lot, who is introduced in boy's clothes. I have no doubt that 
the text is right. MALONE. 


THER. Why, his masculine whore. Now the 
rotten diseases of the south, the guts-griping, rup- 
tures, catarrhs, loads o'gravel i'the back, lethar- 
gies, cold palsies, 7 raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, 
wheezing lungs, bladders full of imposthume, sci- 
aticas, limekilns i'the palm, incurable bonc-ach, 
and the rivelled fee-simple of the tetter, take and 
take again such preposterous discoveries ! 

PATH. Why thou damnable box of envy, thou, 
what meanest thou to curse thus ? 

TUER. Do I curse thee ? 

PATH. Why, no, you ruinous butt; 8 you whore- 
son indistinguishable cur, 9 no. 

THER. No ? why art thou then exasperate, thou 

There is nothing either criminal or extraordinary in a male 
varlet. The word preposterous is well adapted to express the 
idea of Thersites. The sense therefore requires that we should 
adopt Ilanmer's amendment. M. MASON. 

Man-mistress is a term of reproach thrown out by Dorax, in 
Dryden's Don Sebastian, King of Portugal. See, however, 
Professor Heyne's 17th Excursus on the first Book of the JEneid^ 
edit. 1787, p. 161. STEEVENS. 

7 cold palsies,'] This catalogue of loathsome maladies 

ends in the folio at cold palsies. This passage, as it stands, is 
in the quarto : the retrenchment was, in my opinion, judicious. 
It may be remarked, though it proves nothing, that, of the few 
alterations made by Milton in the second edition of his wonder- 
ful poem, one was, an enlargement of the enumeration of dis- 
eases. JOHNSON. 

you ruinous butt ; &c.] Patroclus reproaches Thersites 
with deformity, with having one part crouded into another. 


The same idea occurs in The Second Part of King Henry If: 
" Croud us and crush us to this monstrous form." 


' indistinguishable c:ir,~] i. C. thou cur of au undeter- 

minate shape. 


idle immaterial skein of sleive silk, 1 thou green 
sarcenet flap for a sore eye, thou tassel of a prodi- 
gal's purse, thou ? Ah, how the poor world is pes- 
tered with such water-flies; 2 diminutives of nature! 3 

PATR. Out, gall! 4 

THEE. Finch egg ! 5 

ACHIL. My sweet Patroclus, I am thwarted quite 
From my great purpose in to-morrow's battle. 
Here is a letter from queen Hecuba ; 
A token from her daughter, my fair love ; 6 
Both taxing me, and gaging me to keep 

1 thou idle immaterial skein of sleive silk,'] All the 

terms used by Thersites of Patroclus, are emblematically ex- 
pressive of flexibility, compliance, and mean officiousness. 


Sleive silk has been already explained. See Vol. X. p. 112, 
n. 9. MALONE. 

3 such water-flies ;] So, Hamlet, speaking of Osrick : 

" Dost know this icater-fly?" STEEVENS. 

'diminutives of nature !~] So, in Antony and Cleo- 

patra ; 

" be shown 

" For poor'st diminutives, for dolts, " STEEVENS. 

4 Out, gall!'] Sir T. Hanmer reads wz^-gall, which an- 
swers well enough to finch-egg ; it has already appeared, that 
our author thought the nut-gall the bitter gall. He is called nut, 
from the conglobation of his form ; but both the copies read 
Out gall ! JOHNSON. 

5 Finch rgg /] Of this reproach I do not know the exact 
meaning. I suppose he means to call him singing bird, as im- 
plying an useL-ss favourite, and yet more, something more 
worthless, a singing bird in the egg, or generally, a slight thing 
easily crushed. JOHNSON. 

A finch's egg is remarkably gaudy; but of such terms of 
reproach it is difficult to pronounce the true signification. 


A token from her daughter, &c.] This is a circumstance 
taken from the story book of The Three Destructions of Troy. 



An oath that I have sworn. I will not break it : 
Fall, Greeks ; fail, lame ; honour, or go, or stay; 

My major vow lies here, this I'll obey. 

Come, come, Thersites, help to trim my tent ; 
This night in banqueting must all be spent. 
Away, Patroclus. 


THER. With too much blood, and too little brain, 
these two may run mad ; but if witli too much 
brain, and too little blood, they do, I'll be a curer 
of madmen. Here's Agamemnon, an honest fel- 
low enough, and one that loves quails ; but he has 
not so much brain as ear-wax : And the goodly 
transformation of Jupiter there, his brother, the 
bull, the primitive statue, and oblique memorial 
of cuckolds; 7 a thrifty shoeing-horn in a chain, 
hanging at his brother's leg, to what form, but 
that he is, should wit larded with malice, and ma- 
lice forced with wit, 8 turn him to ? To an ass, were 

7 And the goodly transformation of Jupiter there, Jiis brother, 
thr bull, the primitive statue, and oblique memorial of cuckolds ;] 
He calls *\lcii{'laits the transformation of Jupiter, that is, as him- 
self explains it, the bull, on account of his horns, which he had 
as a cuckold. This cuckold he calls the primitive statue of cuck- 
olds ; i. e. his story had made him so famous, that he stood a> 
the great archetype of his character. WARBUKTON. 

Mr. Heath observes, that " the memorial is called oblique, be- 
cause it was only indirectly such, upon the common supposition, 
that both bulls and cuckolds were furnished with horns." 


Perhaps Shakspeare meant nothing more by this epithet than 
horned, the bull's horns being crooked or oblique. Dr. War- 
burton, I think, mistakes. It is the bull, not Menclaus, that is 
the primitive slatuc, <!vc. MALONT. 

forced icith re//,] Stuffed with wit. A term of 

cookery. In this speech I do not well understand what is 
meant by loving (/nails. .JOHNSON. 

By loving quails the poet may mean loving the company of 


nothing ; he is both ass and ox : to an ox were 
nothing ; he is both ox and ass. To be a dog, a 
mule, a cat, a fitchew, 9 a toad, a lizard, an owl, 
a puttock, or a herring without a roe, I would 
not care : but to be Menelaus, I would conspire 
against destiny. Ask me not what I would be, if 
I were not Thersites ; for I care not to be the 
louse of a lazar, so I were not Menelaus. Hey- 
day! spirits and fires I 1 

with Lights. 

AGAM. We go wrong, we go wrong. 

AJAX. No, yonder 'tis ; 

There, wiiere we see the lights. 

harlots. A quail is remarkably salacious. Mr. Upton says that 
Xenophon, in his memoirs of Socrates, has taken notice of this 
quality in the bird. A similar allusion occurs in The Hollander, 
a comedy, by Glapthorne, 1640: 

" the hot desire of quails, 

" To yours is modest appetite." STEEVENS. 

In old French, caille was synonymous to Jille de joic. In the 
Diet. Comique par le Roux, under the article caille, are these 
words : 

" Chaud comme une caille. 

" Caille coeffee, Sobriquet qu'on donne aux femmes. Sig- 
nifie femme eveillee, amoureuse." 

So, in Rabelais: " Cailles coiffees mignonnement chantans ;" 
which Motteux has thus rendered (probably from the old trans- 
lation) : " coated quails and laced mutton, waggishly singing." 


9 a fitchew,] i. e. a polecat. So, in Othello : " 'Tis 

such another Jitcheiv, marry a perfum'd one ." STEEVENS. 

1 spirits and fires !~\ This Thersites speaks upon the first 

sight of the distant lights. JOHNSON. 


HECT. I trouble you. 

AJAX. No, not a whit. 

ULYSS. Here comes himself to guide you. 


ACHIL. Welcome, brave Hector ; welcome, 
princes all. 

AGAM. So now, fair prince of Troy, I bid good 

Ajax commands the guard to tend on you. 

HECT. Thanks, and good night, to the Greeks' 

MEN. Good night, my lord. 

HECT. Good night, sweet Menelaus.* 

THER. Sweet draught: 3 Sweet, quoth J a! sweet 
sink, sweet sewer. 

ACIIIL. Good night, 
And welcome, both to those that go, or tarry. 

AGAM. Good night. 


ACHIL. Old Nestor tarries; and you too,Diomed, 
Keep Hector company an hour or two. 

Dio. I cannot, lord ; I have important business, 
The tide whereof is now. Good night, great 

HECT. Give me your hand. 

' su-eel Mcnelan*.~] Old copy, redundantly, sweet lord 

Menelaus. STE EVEN: s. 

' Nrtvr/ draught:] Draught is the old word for forica. It 
is used in the vulgar translation of the Bible. MAI.ONE. 

So, in Iloliushed, and a thousand other places. STEEVKXS. 


ULYSS. Follow his torch, he goes 

To Calchas' tent ; I'll keep you company. 

\_Aside to TROILUS. 
TRO. Sweet sir, you honour me. 

HECT. And so good night. 


ACHIL. Come, come, enter my tent. 


THER. That same Diomcd's a false-hearted 
rogue, a most unjust knave ; I will no more trust 
him when he leers, than I will a serpent when he 
hisses : he will spend his mouth, and promise, like 
Brablerthe hound; 4 but when he performs, astro- 
nomers foretell it; it is prodigious, 5 there will 
come some change ; the sun borrows of the moon, 
when Diomed keeps his word. I will rather leave 
to see Hector, than not to dog him : they say, he 
keeps a Trojan drab, 6 and uses the traitor Calchas* 
tent : I'll after. Nothing but lechery ! all incon- 
tinent varlets ! \_Exit. 

4 he will spend his mouth, and promise, like Brablcr 

the hound ;] If a hound gives his mouth, and is not upon the 
scent of the game, he is by sportsmen called a bailor or brnbler. 
The proverb says " Brabling curs never want sore ears." 


5 prodigious,'] i.e. portentous, ominous. So, in King 

Richard III: 

" Prodigious, and untimely brought to light." 


6 they say, he keeps a Trojan drab,'] This character of 

Diomed is likewise taken from Lydgate. STEEVENS. 



The same. Before Calchas' Tent. 

Dio. What are you up here, ho ? speak. 
CAL. Within.] Who calls? 

Dio. Diomed. Calchas, I think. Where's 
your daughter ? 

CAL. [ Within.] She comes to you. 

Enter TROILUS and ULYSSES, at a distance ; after 

ULYSS. Stand where the torch may not discover us. 


TRO. Cressid come forth to him ! 
Dio. How now, my charge ? 

CUES. Now, my sweet guardian ! Hark! a word 
with you. [ Whispers. 

Tno. Yea, so familiar! 
ULYSS. She will sing any man at first sight. 7 
THER. And any man may sing her, if he can take 
her cliff; 8 she's noted. 

7 She Kill sing any mnn at frsl sight."] We now say sing 
fit sight. The meaning is the same. MAI.ONK. 

8 her cliff;] That is, her key. Clef, French. 


VOL. xv. -> r 


Dio. Will you remember ? 

CRES. Remember ? yes. 

Dio. Nay, but do then;' 

And let your mind be coupled with your words. 

TRO. What should she remember ? 
ULYSS. List! 

CRES. Sweet honey Greek, tempt me no more 
to folly. 

THER. Roguery! 

Dio. Nay, then, 

CRES. I'll tell you what : 

Dio. Pho ! pho ! come, tell a pin : You are for- 

CRES. In faith, I cannot : WTiat would you have 

me do ? 

THER A juggling trick, to be secretly open. 
Dio. What did you swear you would bestow on 

me ? 

CRES. I pr'ythee, do not hold me to mine oath ; 
Bid me do any thing but that, sweet Greek. 

t i. e. a mark in musick at the beginning of the lines of a 
song ; and is the indication of the pitch, and bespeaks what 
kind of voice as base, tenour, or treble, it is proper for. 


So, in The Chances, by Beaumont and Fletcher, where An- 
tonio, employing musical terms, says : 

" - Will none but my C. cliff" serve your turn ?" 
Again, in The Lover's Melancholy, 1629 : 
" - that's a bird 

" Whom art had never taught cliffs, moods, or notes." 


9 Nay, but do then ;"] I suppose, for the sake of metre, the 
Word Nay, should be omitted. Yet such is the irregularity or 
mutilation of this dialogue, that it is not always easy to deter- 
mine how much of it was meant for prose or verse. STEEVENS. 


Dio. Good night. 

TRO. Hold, patience ! 

ULYSS. How now, Trojan ? 

CRES. Diomed, 

Dio. No, no, good night : I'll be your fool no 

TRO. Thy better must. 

CRESS. Hark ! one word in your ear, 

TRO. O plague and madness ! 

ULYSS. You are mov'd, prince ; let us depart, I 

pray you, 

Lest your displeasure should enlarge itself 
To wrathful terms : this place is dangerous ; 
The time right deadly ; I beseech you, go. 

TRO. Behold, I pray you ! 
ULYSS. Now, good my lord, go off: 

You flow to great destruction - 9 l come, my lord. 

TRO. I pr'ythee, stay. 

ULYSS. You have not patience ; come. 

1 You Jlow to great destruction ;] Means, I think, your 
impetuosity is such as must necessarily expose you to imminent 
danger. MALONE. 

The folio has : 

You flow to great distraction ; . 

The quarto : 

Youjlow to great destruction; . JOHNSON. 

I would adhere to the old reading: You flow to great destruc- 
tion, or distraction, means the tide of your imagination will 
hurry you either to noble death from the hand of Diomedes, or 
to the height of madness from the predominance of your own 
passions. STEEVENS. 

Possibly we ought to read destruction, as Ulysses has told 
Troilus just before : 

" this place is dangerous ; 

" The time right deadly." M. MASON. 

'2 r 2 


TRO. I pray you, stay ; by hell, and all hell's tor- 
I will not speak a word. 

Dio. And so, good night. 

CRES. Nay, but you part in anger. 

TRO. Doth that grieve thee ? 

wither'd truth ! 

ULYSS. Why, how now, lord ? 

TRO. By Jove, 

1 will be patient. 

CRES. Guardian ! why, Greek ! 

Dio. Pho, pho ! adieu ; you palter. 2 

CRES. In faith, I do not ; come hither once again. 

ULYSS. You shake, my lord, at something ; will 

you go ? 
You will break out. 

TRO. She strokes his cheek ! 

ULYSS. Come, come. 

TRO. Nay, stay; by Jove, I will not speak a word: 
There is between my will and all offences 
A guard of patience : stay a little while. 

THER. How the devil luxury, with his fat rump, 
and potatoe finger, tickles these together! 3 Fry, 
lechery, fry ! 

Dio. But will you then ? 

8 palter. ,] i. e. shuffle, behave with duplicity. So, in 

Antony and Cleopatra ; 

" And palter in the shifts of lowness." STEEVENS. 

3 Horv the devil luxury, with hisjht rump, and potatoe Jinger, 
tickles these together.'^ Potatoes were anciently regarded as 
provocatives. See Mr. Collins's note, which, on account of its 
length, is given at the end of the play. STEEVENS. 


ORES. In faith, I wilj, la ; never trust me else. 
DIG. Give me some token for the surety of it. 
CRES. I'll fetch you one. [Exit. 

ULYSS. You have sworn patience. 

TRO. Fear me not, my lord ; 

I will not be myself, nor have cognition 
Of what I feel ; I am all patience. 

Re-enter CRESSIDA. 

THER. Now the pledge ; now, now, now ! 
CRES. Here, Diomed, keep this sleeve. 4 

4 keep this sleeve.] The custom of wearing a lady's 

sleeve for a favour, is mentioned in Hall's Chronicle, fol. 12: 
" One ware on his head-piece his lady's sleeve, and another 
bare on his helme the glove of his deareling." 

Again, in the second canto of The Barons' Wars, by Drayton: 
" A lady's sleeve high-spirited Hastings wore." 

Again, in the Morte Arthur, p. 3, ch. 119: " When Queen 
Genever wist that Sir Launcelot beare the red sleeve of the faire 
maide of Astolat, she was nigh out of her mimic for anger." 
Holinshed, p. 884, says, King Henry VIII. " had on his head 
a ladies sleeve full of diamonds." The circumstance, however, 
was adopted by Shakspeare from Chaucer, T. and C. 1. 5. 1010: 
" She made him were a penccll of her sleeve." A pcnccll is a 
small pennon or streamer. STEEVENS. 

In an old play, (in six acts,) called Histriomastix, 1610, 
this incident seems to be burlesqued. Trail tu and Crcssida arc 
introduced by way of interlude ; and Crcssida breaks out : 
" O Knight, with valour in thy face, 
" Here take my skreene, wear it for grace ; 
" Within thy helmet put the same, 
" Therewith to make thine enemies lame." 
A little old book, The Hundred Hystorycs of Trot/e, tells us, 
" Bryscude whom master Chaucer calleth Cresseyde t was a 
damosell of great beaute ; and yet was more quayute, mutable, 
and full of vagaunt coudysions." FAKMEU. 


TRO. O beauty ! where's thy faith ? 

ULYSS. My lord, 

TRO. I will be patient ; outwardly I will. 

CRES. You lookupon that sleeve; Behold it well. 
He loved me O false wench ! Give't me again. 

Dio. Who was't ? 

CRES. No matter, now 5 I have't again. 

I will not meet with you to-morrow night : 
I pr'ythee, Diomed, visit me no more. 

THER. NOW T she sharpens; Well said,w r hetstone. 

Dio. I shall have it. 6 

CRES. What, this ? 

Dio. Ay, that. 

CRES. O, all you gods ! O pretty pretty pledge ! 
Thy master now lies thinking in his bed 
Of thee, and me ; and sighs, and takes my glove, 

This sleeve was given by Troilus to Cressida at their parting, 
and she gave him a glove in return. M. MASON. 

What Mr. Steevens has observed on the subject of ladies' 
sleeves is certainly true ; but the sleeve given in the present in- 
stance was the sleeve of Troilus. It may be supposed to be an 
ornamented cuff, such perhaps as was worn by some of our 
young nobility at a tilt, in Shakspeare's age. 

On second consideration, I believe, the sleeve of Troilus, 
which is here given to Diomedes, was such a one as was formerly 
worn at tournaments. See Spenser's View of Ireland, p. 43, 
edit. 1633: "Also the deepe smocke sleive, which the Irish 
women use, they say, was old Spanish, and is used yet in Bar- 
bary ; and yet that should seeme rather to be an old English fa- 
shion, for in armory the fashion of the manche which is given in 
armes by many, being indeed nothing else but a sleive, is fa- 
shioned much like to that sleive." MALONE. 

* No matter, now &c.] Old copies, redundantly, It is no 
matter, &c. STEEVENS. 

/ shall have it.] Some word or words, necessary to the 
metre, are here apparently omitted. STEEVENS. 


And gives memorial dainty kisses to it, 

As I kiss thee. 7 Nay, do not snatch it from me j 

He, that takes that, must take my heart withal. 

Dio. I had your heart before, this follows it. 
TRO. I did swear patience. 

CRES. You shall not have it, Diomed ; 'faith you 

shall not ; 
I'll give you something else. 

Dio. I will have this ; Whose was it ? 

CRES. 'Tis no matter. 

Dio. Come, tell me whose it was. 

CRES. 'Twas one's that loved me better than you 

But, now you have it, take it. 

Dio. Whose was it? 

CRES. By all Diana's waiting-women yonder, 8 
And by herself, I will not tell you whose. 

' As I kiss thee. &c.] In old editions : 
As I kiss thee. 

Dio. AVzy, do not snatch it from me. 
Cres. He, that takes that, must take my heart withal. 
Dr. Thirlby thinks this should be all placed to Cressida. She 
had the sleeve, and was kissing it rapturously ; and Diomedes 
snatches it back from her. THEOBALD. 

* By all Diana's ivaiting-tvomen yondcr,~\ i. e. the stars, 
which she points to. WARBURTOX. 

So, in our author's Rape of Lucrcce : 

" The silver-shining queen he would distain ; 
" Her twinkling hand-maids too, by him defil'd, 
" Through night's black bosom should not peep again." 


Milton, in his Elegy I. v. 77, has imitated Shakspeare : 
" ca-lo scintillant astra sereno 
" Endymionete turbo, ministradccc." STEKVENS. 


Dio. To-morrow will I wear it on my helm ; 
And grieve his spirit, that dares not challenge it. 

TRO. Wert thou the devil, and wor'st it on thy 

It should be challenged. 

CRES. Well, well, 'tis done, 'tis past ; And yet 

it is not ; 
I will not keep my word. 

Dio. Why then, farewell j 

Thou never shalt mock Diomed again. 

CRES. You shall not go : One cannot speak a 

But it straight starts you. 

Dio. I do not like this fooling. 

THER. Nor I, by Pluto : 9 but that that likes not 
you, pleases me best. 

Dio. What, shall I come ? the hour ? 

CRES. Ay, come : O Jove ! 

Do come : I shall be plagu'd. 

Dio. Farewell till then. 

CRES. Good night. I pr'ythee, come. 


Troilus, farewell I 1 one eye yet looks on thee ; 
But with my heart the other eye doth see. 2 

9 Ther. Nor /, by Plulo: &c,~] Sir Thomas Hanmer gives this 
speech to Troilus. It does not very much resemble the lan- 
guage of Thersites. If indeed it belongs to the former character, 
it should assume a metrical form, though it is here given as it 
stands in the folio, and the quarto 1609, " imprinted by G. Eld, 
for R. Bonian and H. Walley." STEEVENS. 

1 Troilus, farewell /] The characters of Cressida and Pan- 
darus are more immediately formed from Chaucer than from 
Lydgate ; for though the latter mentions them both characteristi- 
cally, he does not sufficiently dwell on either to have furnished 


Ah ! poor our sex ! this fault in us I find, 
The error of our eye directs our mind : 
What error leads, must err ; O then conclude, 
Minds, sway'd by eyes, are full of turpitude. 


THER. A proof of strength she could not publish 

more, 3 
Unless she said, My mind is now turn'd whore. 

ULYSS. All's done, my lord. 

TRO. It is. 

ULYSS. Why stay we then ? 

TRO. To make a recordation to my soul 
Of every syllable that here was spoke. 
But, if I tell how these two did co-act, 
Shall I not lie in publishing a truth ? 
Sith yet there is a credence in my heart, 
An esperance so obstinately strong, 
That doth invert the attest of eyes and ears ; 4 

Shakspcare with many circumstances to be found in this tragedy. 
Lydgate, speaking of Cressida, says only : 

" She gave her heart and love to Diomcde, 
" To shew what trust there is in woman kind; 

" For she of her new love no sooner sped, 
" But Troilus was cleane out of her mind, 

" As if she never had him known or seen, 

" Wherein I cannot guess what she did mean." 


J But icith my heart &c.] I think it should he read thus : 
But my heart with the other eye doth sec. JOHNSON'. 

Perhaps, rather: 

But ic/th the other eye my heart doth sec. TYUWHITT. 

The present reading is right. She means to say " one eye 
yet looks on thee, Troilus, hut the other corresponds icith my 
heart, and looks after Diomedes." M. MASON. 

3 A proof of strength she could not publish more,'] She could 
not publish a stronger proof. JOHNSON. 

4 That doth invert the attest of eyes and cars;'] i. c. that 


As if those organs had deceptious functions, 
Created only to calumniate. 
Was Cressid here ? 

ULYSS. I cannot conjure, Trojan. 5 

TRO. She was not sure. 
ULYSS. Most sure she was. 6 

TRO. Why, my negation hath no taste of madness. 

ULYSS. Nor mine, my lord : Cressid was here but 

TRO. Let it not be believ'd for womanhood ! 7 
Think, we had mothers ; do not give advantage 
To stubborn criticks apt, without a theme, 
For depravation, 8 to square the general sex 
By Cressid's rule : rather think this not Cressid. 

ULYSS. What hath she done, prince, that can 
soil our mothers ? 

TRO. Nothing at all, unless that this were she. 

THER. Will he swagger himself out on's own 
eyes ? 

TRO. This she ? no, this is Diomed's Cressida : 

turns the very testimony of seeing and hearing against them- 
selves. THEOBALD. 

5 / cannot conjure, Trojan.] That is, I cannot raise spirits in 
the form of Cressida. JOHNSON. 

6 Most sure she was.~\ The present deficiency in the measure 
induces me to suppose our author wrote : 

It is most sure she was. STEEVENS. 

7 for womanhood.'] i. e. for the sake of womanhood. 


* do not give advantage 

To stubborn criticks apt, without a theme, 
For depravation,] Critick has here, I think, the significa- 
tion of Cynick. So, in Love's La/tour's Lost : 

" And critick Timon laugh at idle toys." MALONE. 


If beauty have a soul, this is not she ; 

If souls guide vows, if vows be sanctimony, 

If sanctimony be the gods' delight, 

If there be rule in unity itself, 9 

This was not she. O madness of discourse, 

That cause sets up with and against itself I 1 

Bi-fold authority! 2 where reason can revolt 

Without perdition, and loss assume all reason 

Without revolt ; 3 this is, and is not, Cressid ! 

Within my soul there doth commence a fight 4 

9 If there be rule in unity itself,'] may mean If there be 
certainty in unity, if there be a rule that one is one. 


If it be true that one individual cannot be two distinct per- 
sons. M. MASON. 

The rule alluded to is a very simple one ; that one cannot be 
two. This woman therefore, says Troilus, this false one, can- 
not be that Cressida that formerly plighted her faith to me. 


1 against itself!] Thus the quarto. The folio reads 

against thyself. In the preceding line also I have followed the 
quarto. The folio reads This is not she. MALONE. 

* Bi-fold authority /] This is the reading of the quarto. The 
folio gives us : 

By foul authority ! 

There is madness in that disquisition in which a man reasons at 
once for and against himself upon authority which he knows not 
to be valid. The quarto is right. JOHNSON. 

This is one of the passages in which the editor of the folio 
changed words that he found in the quartos, merely because he 
did not understand them. MA LONE. 

1 where reason can moll 

Without perdition, and loss assume all reason 

Without revolt ;~] The words loss and perdition arc used in 
their common sense, but they mean the loss or perdition of 
reason. JOHNSON. 

4 Within my soul there doth commence a fight ~\ So, in 
Hamlet : 

" Sir, in my heart, there was a kind o?Jighting." 



Of this strange nature, that a thing inseparate 6 
Divides more wider 6 than the sky and earth ; 
And yet the spacious breadth of this division 
Admits no orifice for a point, as subtle 
As is Arachne's broken woof, to enter. 7 

3 a thing inseparate ] i. e. the plighted troth of lovers. 

Troilus considers it inseparable, or at least that it ought never to 
be broken, though he has unfortunately found that it sometimes 
is. MALONE. 

6 more wider ] Thus the old copies. The modern 

editions, following Mr. Pope, read -far wider ; though we have 
a similar phraseology with the present in almost every one of 
these plays. MALONE. 

So, in Coriolanus : 

" He bears himself more proudlier" 
See note on this passage. STEKVENS. 

7 As is Arackne's broken woof, to enterJ} Is, the syllable 
wanting in this verse, the modern editors have supplied. I hope 
the mistake was not originally the poet's own ; yet one of the 
quartos read with the folio, Ariachna's broken woof, and the 
other Ariathna's. It is not impossible that Shakspeare might 
have written Ariadne's broken woof, having confounded the 
two names, or the stories, in his imagination : or alluding to the 
clue of thread, by the assistance of which Theseus escaped from 
the Cretan labyrinth. I do not remember that Ariadne's loom is 
mentioned by any of the Greek or Roman poets, though I find 
an allusion to it in Humour out of Breath, a comedy, 1607 : 

" instead of these poor weeds, in robes 

" Richer than that which Ariadne wrought, 

" Or Cytherea's airy-moving vest." 
Again, in The Spanish Tragedy : 

" thy tresses, Ariadne's twines, 

" Wherewith my liberty thou hast surpriz'd." 
Again, in Mulcasses the Turk, 1610: 

" Leads the despairing wretch into a maze ; 

" But not an Ariadne in the world 

" To lend a clew to lead us out of it, 

" The very maze of horror." 

Shakspeare, however, might have written Arachnea; great 
liberties being taken in spelling proper names, and especially 
by ancient English writers. Thus we have both Alcmene 
Alcumene, Alcmcna. and Alcumena. STEEVENS. 


Instance, O instance ! strong as Pluto's gates ; 
Cressid is mine, tied with the bonds of heaven : 
Instance, O instance! strong as heaven itself; 
The bonds of heaven are slipp'd, dissolved, and 

loos'd ; 

And with another knot, five-finger-tied, 8 
The fractions of her faith, orts of her love, 
The fragments, scraps, the bits, and greasy reliques 
Of her o'er-eaten faith, are bound to Dioined. 9 

My quarto, which is printed for R. Bonian, 1609, reads 
Ariachna's broken woof; the other, which is said to be undated, 
reads, as Mr. Steevens says Ariathna's. The folio Ariachnc's. 
Mr. Steevens hopes the mistake was not originally the author's, 
but I think it extremely probable that he pronounced the word 
as a word of four syllables. MALONE. 

knot, Jive-Jinger-ticd,~\ A knot tied by giving her hand 
to Diomed. JOHNSON. 

So, in The Fatal Dowry, by Massinger, 1632: 

" Your ' Jingers tie my heart-strings with this touch, 
" In true-love knots, which nought but death shall loose." 


* The fractions ofherjcdth, orts of her love, 
Thejragments, scraps, the bits, and greasy rcliques 
Of her o'er-eaten faith, are bound to Diomcd.~\ Vows 
which she has already swallowed once over. We still say of a 
faithless man, that he has eaten his words. JOHNSON. 

The image is not of the most delicate kind. " Her o'cr-calt'ii 
faith" means, I think, her troth plighted to Troilus, of which 
she was surfeited, and, like one who has over-eaten himself, 
had thrown off'. All the preceding words, the fragments^ 
wraps, &c. show that this was Shakspcare's meaning. So, in 

1 (iive me excess of it [musick] ; that surfeiting 

' The appetite may sicken, and so die." 


more appositely, in King Henri/ IV. P. II : 
' The commonwealth is sick of their own choice ; 
' Their over-greedy LOYF. hath surfeited. 
' () thou fond many ! with what loud applause 
' Didst thou beat heaven with blessing Uolinghroke, 
Before he was what thou would'st have him be ! 


ULYSS. May worthy Troilus 1 be half attached 
With that which here his passion doth express ? 

TRO. Ay, Greek ; and that shall be divulged w r ell 
In characters as red as Mars his heart 
Inflam'd with Venus : never did young man fancy 
With so eternal and so fix'd a soul. 
Hark, Greek ; As much as I do Cressid love, 
So much by weight hate I her Diomed : 
That sleeve is mine, that he'll bear on his helm j 
Were it a casque compos'd by Vulcan's skill, 
My sword should bite it : 2 not the dreadful spout, 
Which shipmen do the hurricane call 3 , 
Constring'd in mass by the almighty sun, 
Shall dizzy with more clamour Neptune's ear 
In his descent, than shall my prompted sword 
Falling on Diomed. 

" And being now trimm'd in thine own desires, 

" Thou, beastly feeder, art so full of him, 

*' That thou provok'st thyself to cast him up." 


1 May "worthy Troilus ] Can Troilus really feel, on this 
occasion, half of what he utters ? A question suitable to the 
calm Ulysses. JOHNSON. 

* My sword should bite it :~] So, in The Merry Wives of 
Windsor : " I have a sword, and it shall bite," &c. 
In King Lear we have also " biting faulchion." STEEVENS. 

3 the dreadful spout, 

Which shipmen do the hurricano caH,~\ A particular ac- 
count of " a spout," is given in Captain John Smith's Sea 
Grammar, quarto, 1627 : " A spout is, as it were a small river 
falling entirely from the clouds, like one of our water-spouts, 
which make the sea, where it falleth, to rebound in flashes ex- 
ceeding high ;" i. e. in the language of Shakspeare, to dizzy the 
ear of Neptune. 
So also, Drayton : 

" And down the shower impetuously doth fall 

" Like that which men the hurricano call." STEEVKNS. 


THER. He'll tickle it for his concupy. 4 

TRO. OCressid! OfalseCressid! false, false, false! 
Let all untruths stand by thy stained name, 
And they'll seem glorious. 

ULYSS. O, contain yourself; 

Your passion draws ears hither. 


I have been seeking you this hour, my 

lord : 

Hector, by this, is arming him in Troy ; 
Ajax, your guard, stays to conduct you home. 

TRO. Have with you, prince : My courteous 

lord, adieu : 

Farewell, revolted fair ! and, Diomed, 
Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head ! 5 

ULYSS. I'll bring you 6 to the gates. 

concupy.'] A cant word, formed by our author from 
soncupisccncc. STEEVENS. 

1 - and wear a castle on thy head!] i. e. defend thy head 
with armour of more than common security. 

So, in The most ancient and famous History of the renowned 
Prince ArtJtur, <!vc. edit. 1631, ch. clviii : " Do tliou thv host, 
said Sir Gawaine, therefore hie tliee fast that tliou wcTt gone, 
and nit thou well we shall soone come after, and breake the 
strongest castle that, thou hast upon thy head." II', -/tr a <v/ .<//, 
therefore, seems to he a figurative expression, signifying, AVv/j 
a castle aver your head ; i. e. live' within the walls of your castle. 
In Urry's Chaucer, Sir Thopas is represented with a caslli- by 
way of crest to his helmet. See, however, Titttx Andronicus t 
Act III. sc. i. STKKVKNS. 

6 I'll bring you &c.~] Perhaps this, and the following short 
speech, originally stood thus: 

Ulyss. /'// bring yon to the gates, my lord. 
Tro. Accept 

Distracted ihunks. STEEVEXS. 


TRO. Accept distracted thanks. 


THER. 'Would, I could meet that rogue Diomed! 
I would croak like a raven ; I would bode, I would 
bode. Patroclus will give me any thing for the 
intelligence of this whore : the parrot will not do 
more for an almond, than he for a commodious 
drab. Lechery, lechery ; still, wars and lechery ; 
nothing else holds fashion : A burning devil take 
them! 7 [Exit. 


Troy. Before Priam's Palace. 

AND. When was my lord so much ungently tem- 


To stop his ears against admonishment ? 
Unarm, unarm, and do not fight to-day. 

HECT. You train me to offend you ; get you in : 
By all the everlasting gods, I'll go. 

AND. My dreams will, sure, prove ominous to 

the day. 8 
HECT. No more, I say. 

7 A burning devil take them /] Alluding to the venc- 

real disease, formerly called the brenning or burning. 


So, in Isaiah, iii. 24 : " and burning instead of beauty." 


8 My dreams "will, sure, prove ominous to the day.] The hint 
for this dream of Andromache might be either taken from 
Lydgate, or the following passage in Chaucer's Nonnes Prestes 
Tale, Mr. Tyrwhitt's edit. v. 15, 147: TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 449 


CAS. Where is my brother Hector ? 

AXD. Here, sister ; arm'd, and bloody in intent : 
Consort with me in loud and dear petition, 9 
Pursue we him on knees ; for I have dream' d 
Of bloody turbulence, and this whole night 
Hath nothing been but shapes and forms of slaugh- 

CAS. O, it is true. 

HECT. Ho ! bid my trumpet sound ! 

CAS. No notes of sally, for the heavens, sweet 

" Lo hire Andromacha, Hcctores wif, 

" That day that Hector shuldc lesc his lif, 

" She dremed on the same night beforne, 

" How that tlie lit' of Hector shuld be lorne, 

" Il'thilke day he went Into battaile: 

" She warned him, but it might not availle ; 

" He went forth for to tighten natheles, 

" And was yslain anon of Achilles." STEEVEXS. 

My dreamt of last night will prove ominous to the da i/ ; 
forebode ill to it, and show that it will be a fatal day to Troy. 
So, in the seventh scene of this Act: 

" Uie quarrel's most ominous to us." 

Again, in King Richard III : 

" . () thou bloodv prison, 

" Fatal and ominous to noble peers !" 

Mr. Pope, and all the subsequent editors, read trill prove 
ominous to-day. MALOXE. 

Do we gain any thing more than rough versification by re- 
storing the article the? The meaning of Andromache (without 
it) is My dreams u-ill to-day bfjlitally \erijied. STI: EVENS. 

9 dear petition,^ ])cur, on this occasion, seems to mean 

important, consequential. So, in King Lear ; 

" some dear cause 

" Will in concealment wrap me up awhile." STEEVEVS. 
VOL. XV. '2 G 


HECT. Begone, I say : the gods have heard me 

CA$. The gods are deaf to hot and peevish 1 vows ; 
They are polluted offerings, more abhorr'd 
Than spotted livers in the sacrifice. 

AND. O I be persuaded : Do not count it holy 
To hurt by being just : it is as lawful, 
For we would give much, to use violent thefts, 2 
And rob in the behalf of charity. 

1 peevish ] i. e. foolish. So, in King Henry VI. 

Part II : 

" I will not so presume, 

" To send such peevish tokens to a king." STEEVEXS. 

* For ive iKould give &c.] This is so oddly confused in the 
folio, that I transcribe it as a specimen of incorrectness : 

" do not count it holy, 

" To hurt by being just ; it is as lawful 

" For tve mould count give much to as violent thefts, 

" And rob in the behalf of charity." JOHNSON. 

I believe we should read : 

For tve would give much, to use violent thefts, 
1. e. to use violent thefts, because we would give much. The 
word count had crept in from the last line but one. 


I have adopted the emendation proposed by Mr. Tyrwhitt. 
Mr. llowe cut the knot, instead of untying it, by reading : 

For us to count we give what's gain'd by theft, 
and all the subsequent editors have copied him. The last three 
lines are not in the quarto, the compositor's eye having probably 
passed over them ; in consequence of which the next speech of 
Cassandra is in that copy given to Andromache, and joined with 
the first line of this. 

In the first part of Andromache's speech she alludes to a doc- 
trine which Shakspeare has often enforced. " Do not you think 
you are acting virtuously by adhering to an oath, if you have 
stvorn to do amiss." So, in King John ; 

" where doing tends to ill, 

" The truth is then most done, not doin<? it." MAI.OXE. 


CAS. It is the purpose, 3 that makes strong the vow; 
But vows, to every purpose, must not hold : 
Unarm, sweet Hector. 

HECT. Hold you still, I say ; 

Mine honour keeps the weather of my fate :* 
Life every man holds dear ; but the clear man 5 
Holds honour far more precious-dear than life. 


How now, young man ? mean'st thou to fight to- 
day ? 

AND. Cassandra, call my father to persuade. 


HECT. No, 'faith, young Troilus ; doff thy har- 
ness, youth, 

3 // is the purpose,"] The mad prophetess speaks here with 
all the coolness and judgment of a skilful casuist. " The essence 
of a lawful vow, is a lawi'ul purpose, and the vow of which the 
end is wrong must not be regarded as cogent." JOHNSON. 

4 Muic honour keeps the weather of my Jale i\ If this be 
not a nautical phrase, which I cannot well explain or apply, 
perhaps we should read : 

Mine honour keeps llic weather off my fair : 

i. e. I am secured by the cause I am engaged in ; mine honour 
will avert the storms of late, will protect my life amidst the 
dangers of the field. A somewhat similar phrase occurs in The 
Tempest : 

" In the lime grove that iccathcr-fends our cell." 


5 dear man ] Valuable man. The modern editions 

read brave man. The repetition of the wonl is in our author's 
manner. JOHNSON. 

So, in Jlnmeo and Juliet .- 

" This is dear mercy, and thou seest it not." 


Brave was substituted for dear bv Mr. Pope. MALONK. 

"' ' 


I am to-day i'the vein of chivalry : 
Let grow thy sinews till their knots be strong, 
And tempt not yet the brushes of the war. 
Unarm thee, go ; and doubt thou not, brave boy, 
I'll stand, to-day, for thee, and me, and Troy. 

TRO. Brother, you have a vice of mercy in you, 
Which better fits a lion, 6 than a man. 

HECT. What vice is that, good Troilus ? chide 
me for it. 

TRO. When many times the captive Grecians fall, 
Even in the fan and wind of vour fair sword, 

V ' 

You bid them rise, and live. 7 
HECT. O, 'tis fair play. 
TRO. Fool's play, by heaven. Hector. 

e Which better Jits a lion,"] The traditions and stories of the 
darker ages abounded with examples of the lion's generosity. 
Upon the supposition that these acts of clemency were true, 
Troilus reasons not improperly, that to spare against reason, by 
mere instinct of pity, became rather a generous beast than a 
wise man. JOHNSON. 

Thus, in Philemon Holland's translation of Pliny's Natural 
History, ch. 16 : " The lion alone of all wild beasts is gentle to 
those that humble themselves before him, and will not touch 
any such upon their submission, but spareth what creature so 
ever lieth prostrate before him." STEEVENS. 

Hence Spenser's Una, attended by a lion. Fairy Queen, ! 
iii. 7. See also Sir Perceval's lion in Morte Arthur, B. XIV. 
c. vi. T. WARTON. 

7 When many times the captive Grecians fatt, 

You bid them, and live.'] Shakspeare seems not to have 
studied the Homeric character of Hector, whose disposition was 
by no means inclined to clemency, as we may learn from An- 
dromache's speech in ^he 24th Iliad .* 

" For thy stern father never spar'd a foe." Pope, 

" Thy father, boy, bore never into fight 

" A iailkv mind, ." Co:rner. STEEVJEN*. 


HECT. How now ? how now ? 

TRO. For the love of all the gods, 

Let's leave the hermit pity with our mother; 
And when we have our armours buckled on, 
The venom'd vengeance ride upon our swords ; 
Spur them to ruthful work, rein them from ruth. 

HECT. Fye, savage, fyc ! 

TRO. Hector, then 'tis wars.* 

HEcr.Troilus, I would not have you fight to-day. 

TRO. "Who should withhold me ? 
Not fate, obedience, nor the hand of Mars 
"Beckoning wiiu fiery truncheon 9 my retire ; 
Not Prianms and Hecuba on knees, 
Their eyes o'ergalled with recourse of tears; 1 
Nor you, my brother, with your true sword drawn, 

* Hector, then 'tis tiws.] I suppose, for the sake of metre, 
\\c ought to read : 

Why, Hector, then 'tis ivars. 

Shakspeare frequently uses this adverb emphatically, as in 
A Midsummer-Night's Dream: " Ninus' tomb, man: Why, 
you must not speak, that yet." STEEVEXS. 

9 -with fiery truncheon ] We have here but a modern 

Mars. Antiquity acknowledges no such, ensign of command as 
a truncheon. The spirit of the passage however is such as might 
atone for a greater impropriety. 

In Elizabetha Triimiphans, 13S8, a poem, in blank verse, 
written by James Aske, on the defeat of the Spanish armada, 
the Queen appears, indeed, 

" Most brauely mounted on a stately steede, 
" With truncheon in her hand, ." STEEVENS. 

' with recourse <>f tears ;~\ i.e. tears that continue to 

course one another down the i'ace. WAKBUIITOX. 

So, in As you like it : 

" the big round tears 

il Cours'd one another down his innocent nose- 



Oppos'd to hinder me, should stop my way, 
But by my ruin. 

He-enter CASSANDRA, with PRIAM. 

CAS. Lay hold upon him, Priam, hold him fast : 
He is thy crutch ; now if thou lose thy stay, 
Thou on him leaning, and all Troy on thee, 
Fall all together. 

PRI. Come, Hector, come, go back : 

Thy wife hath dream' d ; thy mother hath had visions ; 
Cassandra doth foresee ; and I myself 
Am like a prophet suddenly enrapt, 
To tell thee that this day is ominous : 
Therefore, come back. 

HECT. ^Eneas is a-field ; 

And I do stand engag'd to many Greeks, 
Even in the faith of valour, to appear 
This morning to them. 

PRI. But thou shalt not go. 

HECT. I must not break my faith. 
You know me dutiful ; therefore, dear sir, 
Let me not shame respect ; 2 but give me leave 
To take that course by your consent and voice, 
Which you do here forbid me, royal Priam. 

CAS. O Priam, yield not to him. 

AND. Do not, dear father. 

HECT. Andromache, I am offended with you : 
Upon the love you bear me, get you in. 


* shame respect ; ] i. e. disgrace the respect I owe you, 

by acting in opposition to your commands. STEEVENS. TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 

TRO. This foolish, dreaming, superstitious girl 
Makes all these bodements. 

CAS. O farewell, dear Hector. 3 

Look, how thou diest ! look, how thy eye turns pale! 
Look, how thy wounds do bleed at many vents ! 
Hark, how Troy roars ! how Hecuba cries out ! 
How poor Andromache shrills her dolours v forth! 
Behold, destruction, frenzy, and amazement, 5 
Like witless anticks, one another meet, 
And all cry Hector ! Hector's dead ! O Hector ! 

TRO. Away ! Away ! 

CAS. Farewell. Yet, soft : Hector, I take my 

leave : 
Thou dost thyself and all our Troy deceive. [Exit. 

HECT. You are amaz'd, my liege, at her exclaim : 
Go in, and cheer the town : we'll forth, and fight ; 
Do deeds worth praise, and tell you them at night. 

PRI. Farewell : the gods with safety stand about 


\_Exeimt severally PRIAM and HECTOR. 

1 O farewell y dear Hcctor.~\ The interposition and clamorous 
sorrow of Cassandra were copied by our author from Lydgate. 


4 - lirills Jicr dolours ] So, in Spenser's F.pithalamiiwi : 
" I lark, how the minstrel* gin to shrill aloud 
" Their merry musiek" t\c. 
Again, in I ley wood's .SV/rrr //iff, 1 (>!': 

" Through all th' abyss I have shrilTd \\\\ daughter's loss, 
" \Vith my concave trump." S ri:i:\ KNS. 

l, destruction, /)rry, &c.~\ So the- ([iiarto. The 
editor of the folio, for di'stritctioii substituted dht ruction. The 
original reading appears to me far ]>referable. MAI.ONK. 


TRO. They are at it ; hark ! Proud Diomed, be- 
I come to lose my arm, or win my sleeve. 6 

As TROILUS is going out, enter, from the other side, 

PAN. Do you hear, my lord ? do you hear ? 

TRO. What now ? 

PAN. Here's a letter from yon' poor girl. 

6 In the folios, and one of the quartos, this scene is continued 
by the following dialogue between Pandarus and Troilus, which 
the poet certainly meant to have been inserted at the end of the 
play, where the three concluding lines of it are repeated in the 
copies already mentioned. There can be no doubt but that the 
players shuffled the parts- backward and forward, ad libitum; 
for the poet would hardly have given us an unnecessary repetition 
of the same words, nor have dismissed Pandarus twice in the 
same manner. The conclusion of the piece will fully justify the 
liberty which any future commentator may take in omitting the 
scene here, and placing it at the end, where at present only the 
few lines already mentioned are to be found. STEEVENS. 

I do not conceive that any editor has a right to make the 
transposition proposed, though it lias been done by Mr. Capell. 
The three lines alluded to by Mr. Steevens, which are found in 
the folio at the end of this scene, as well as near the conclusion 
of the play, (with a very slight variation,) are these: 

" Pand. Why but hear you 

" Tro. Hence, broker lacquey ! Ignomy and shame 
" Pursue thy life, and live aye with thy name !" 
But in the original copy in quarto there is no repetition (except 
of the words But hear you] ; no absurdity or impropriety. In 
that copy the following dialogue between Troilus and Pandarus 
is found in its present place, precisely as it is here given ; but 
the three lines above quoted do not constitute any part of the 
scene. For the repetition of those three lines, the players, or 
the editor of the folio, alone are answerable. It never could 
have been intended by the poet. I have therefore followed the 
original copy. M ALONE. 


TRO. Let me read. 

PAN. A whoreson ptisick, a whoreson rascally 
ptisick so troubles me, and the foolish fortune of 
this girl ; and what one thing, what another, that 
I shall leave you one o'these days : And 1 have a 
rheum in mine eyes too ; and such an ache in my 
bones, that, unless a man were cursed, 7 I cannot 
tell what to think on't. What says she there ? 

TRO. Words, words, mere words, no matter from 
the heart ; [Tearing the letter. 

The effect doth operate another way. 
Go, wind, to wind, there turn and change toge- 

My love with words and errors still she feeds ; 
But edifies another with her deeds. 

\_Ejceunt severally. 


Between Troy and the Grecian Camp. 

Alarums: Excursions. Enter THER SITES. 

TIIER. Now they are clapper-clawing one ano- 
ther; I'll go look on. That dissembling abominable 
varlet, Diomed, has got that same scurvy doting 
foolish young knave's sleeve of Troy there, in his 
helm : [ would fain see them meet ; that that same 
young Trojan ass, that loves the whore there, might 
send that Greekish whoremasterly villain, with the 

ci(rard,~\ i. c. under the influence of a malediction, 

such as mischievous beings have been supposed to pronounce 
upon those who had offended them. 


sleeve, back to the dissembling luxurious drab, on 
a sleeveless errand. O* the other side, The policy 
of those crafty swearing rascals, 8 that stale old 
mouse-eaten dry cheese, Nestor ; and that same 
dog-fox, Ulysses, is not proved worth a black- 
berry : They set me up, in policy, that mongrel 
cur, Ajax, against that dog of as bad a kind, 
Achilles : and now is the cur Ajax prouder than 
the cur Achilles, and will not arm to-day ; where- 
upon the Grecians begin to proclaim barbarism, 9 
and policy grows into an ill opinion. Soft ! here 
come sleeve, and t'other. 

Enter DIOMEDES, TROILUS following. 

TRO. Fly not ; for, shouldst thou take the river 

I would swim after. 

Dio. Thou dost miscall retire : 

I do not fly ; but advantageous care 
Withdrew me from the odds of multitude : 
Have at thee ! 

* 0' the other side, The policy of those crafty swearing rascals, 
&c.] But in what sense are Nestor and Ulysses accused of being 
swearing rascals ? What, or to whom, did they swear ? I am po- 
sitive that sneering is the true reading. They had collogued 
with Ajax, and trimmed him up with insincere praises, only in 
order to have stirred Achilles's emulation. In this, they were 
the true sneerers ; betraying the first, to gain their ends on the 
latter by that artifice. THEOBALD. 

Sneering was applicable to the characters of Nestor and 
Ulysses, and to their conduct in this play ; but swearing was 
not. M. MASON. 

9 to proclaim barbarism,"] To set up the authority of 

ignorance, to declare that they will be governed by policy no 
longer. JOHNSON. 


THER. Hold thy whore, Grecian ! now for thy 

whore, Trojan ! now the sleeve, now the sleeve ! 

[Exeunt TUOILUS and 

Enter HECTOR. 

HECT. What art thou, Greek? art tliou for 

Hector's match ? 
Art thou of blood, and honour ? * 

THER. No, no : I am a rascal ; a scurvy railing 
knave ; a very filthy rogue. 

HECT. I do believe thee ; live. [Edit. 

THER. God-a-mercy, that thou wilt believe me ; 
But a plague break thy neck, for frighting me! 
"What's become of the wenching rogues? I think, 
they have swallowed one another : 1 would laugh 
at that miracle. Yet, in a sort, lechery eats itself. 
I'll seek them. [Edit. 

1 Art t/ion of blond, rind honour ?~\ This is an idea taken from 
the ancient books of romantick chivalry, as is the following one 
in the speech of Diornedes : 

" And am her knight by proof." STF.EVENS. 

It appears from ,SVw on Honor, Military and Ch'i', folio, 
1G()'2, p. l'2'2, that a person of superior birth might not be chal- 
lenged, by an inferior, or if challenged might refuse the combat. 

Alluding to this circumstance Cleopatra says : 

" These hands do lack nobility, that they strike 
" A meaner than myself." 

We learn from Melvil's Mrnioir*, p. !(>.">, edit. 173.", that 
" the Laird of Grange offered to right Bothwell, who answered, 
that he was neither Karl nor Lord, but a Baron ; and so was 
not his equal. The like answer made he to Tullibardine. Then 
my Lord Lindsay offered to light him, whieh he could not well 
refuse. Hut his heart failed him, and he grew cold on the 

These punctilios are well ridiculed in Albumazar, Act I\ r . 
:C. vii. 



Tlie same. 
Enter DIOMEDES and a Servant. 

Dio. Go, go, my servant, take thou Troilus' 

horse ; 2 

Present the fair steed to my lady Cressid : 
Fellow, commend my service to her beauty ; 
Tell her, I have chastis'd the amorous Trojan, 
And am her knight by proof. 

SERJ\ I go, my lord. 

\_Exit Servant. 


AGAM. Renew, renew! The fierce Polydamus 
Hath beat down Menon : 3 bastard Margarelon 4 

-take thou Troilus' horse;] So, in Lydgate: 

" That Troilus by mainc and mighty force 
" At unawares, he cast down from his horse, 
" And gave it to his squire for to beare 
" To Cressida," &c. STEEVENS. 

3 Hath beat down Mcnon:'] So, in Caxton's Recttyl, &c. : 
" And by gretc yre assayllid the kynge Mown, cosyn of Achilles, 
and gaf hyin so many strokes wyth his sword upon hys helme, 
that he slewe hym," &c. STEEVENS. 

4 bastard Margarelon ] The introduction of a bastard 

son of Priam, under the name of Margarelon, is one of the cir- 
cumstances taken from the story book of The Three Destructions 
of Troy. THEOBALD. 

The circumstance was taken from Lydgate, p. 194: 
" Which when the valiant knight, Margareton, 
" One of king Priam's bastard children," &c. 



Hath Doreus prisoner ; 
And stands colossus-wise, waving his beam/ 
Upon the pushed corses of the kings 
Epistrophus antl Cedins : Polixenes is slain ; 
Amphimachus, and Thoas, deadly hurt ; 
Patroclus ta'cn or slain ; and Palamcdes 
Sore hurt and bruis'd : the dreadful Sagittary 
Appals our numbers ; 7 haste we, Diomed, 
To reinforcement, or we perish all. 

-wring his beam,] i. e. his lance like a weaver's beam, 

as (ioliath's spear is described. So, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, 
13. III. vii. 40: 

*' All were the bcattic in bigncs like a mast." 


poshed ] i. e. bruised, crushed. So, before, Ajax 
says : 

" I'll pash him o'er the face." STEF.VI:NS. 

' the dreadful Sagittan/ 

Appals our number* ; ] " lieyonde the royalme of Amasonna 
came an auneyent kynge, wvse and dyscreete, named Kpystro- 
phus, and brought a .M. knyghtes, and a bc.-te that 
was called SAGITTAYHK, that hehvnde the mv tides was an horse, 
and to fore, a man : this beste was beery like an horse, and had 
his even rede as a eole, and shotte well with a bo\ve : //;i.v beste 
made the Grckes yore qfenle, aiul ?le\i:e ni<r:i/ oj' then with /its 
Aou'f." The Three Destructions nf Troy, printed !>\ ('avion. 

Til l.OH.M.D. 

A more circumstantial account ofthis Sagittary is to be found 
in Lydgate's Annctent Historic, i\e. 1 ",")."): 

" And with hym (Juydo saytli th:it he hadde 

" A wonder archer ot" sy^ht meruaylous, 

" Ot' t'ourme and shap in maner monstruous: 

" For lyke mync auctour as 1 re!u T^I- can, 

" ITO the nauel vpwanle he \\ as man, 

" And lower downe lyke a horse yshaped : 

" And thilke parte that alter man was makcd, 

" Of skinne Mas black and rough a^ anv here 

" Couered with here 1'ro eolde him for to were. 

" Passyng foule and horrible ot'syglit, 

" NN hose even twain were sparkeling as bright 

" As is a fnrneis with liis rede leucue, 

" Or the lyghtnyn^r that falleth from \' heauen 


Enter NESTOR. 

NEST. Go, bear Patroclus' body to Achilles ; 
And bid the snail-pac'd Ajax arm for shame. 
There is a thousand Hectors in the field : 
Now here he fights on Galathe his horse, 8 
And there lacks work ; anon, he's there afoot, 
And there they fly, or die, like scaled sculls 9 

" Dredeful of loke, and rede as fyre of chere, 

" And, as I reade, he was a goode archer ; 

" And with his bowe both at euen and morowe 

" Upon Grekes he wrought moche sorrowe, 

" And gasted them with many hydous loke : 

" So sterne he was that many of them quoke," &c. 


-on Galathe his horse,"] From The Three Destructions 

of Troy is taken this name given to Hector's horse. 


" Cal'd Galathe (the which is said to have been) 

" The goodliest horse," &c. Li/dgatc, p. 14-2. 
Again, p. 175 : 

" And sought, by all the means he could, to take 

" Galathe, Hector's horse," c. 

Hey wood, in his Iron Age, 1632, has likewise continued the 
same appellation to Hector's horse : 

" My armour, and my trusty Galatee." 

Heywood has taken many circumstances in his play from Lyd- 
gate. John Stephens, the author of Cinthia's Revenge, 1613, 
(a play commended by Ben Jonson in some lines prefixed to it,) 
has mounted Hector on an elephant. STEEVEXS. 

9 scaled sculls J Sculls are great numbers of fishes 

swimming together. The modern editors, not being acquainted 
with the term, changed it into .shoals. My knowledge of this 
word is derived from Bullokar's English Expositor, London, 
printed by John Legatt, 1616. The word likewise occurs in 
Lyly's Midas, 1592: " He hath, by this, started a covey of 
bucks, or roused a scull of pheasants." The humour of this 
short speech consists in a misapplication of the appropriate terms 
of one amusement to another. Again, in Milton's Paradise Lost, 
B. VII. v. 399, &c. : 


Before the belching whale ; ' then is he yonder, 

each bay 

" With fry innumerable swarms, and shoals 
" Offish, that with their tins and shining scales 
" Glide under the green wave, in sculls that oft 
" Bank the mid sea." 

Again, in the 26th Song of Drayton's Polyolbion : 

" My silver-scaled scnls about my streams do sweep." 


Scaled means here dispersed, put to flight. See Vol. VI. 
p. 312, n. 5; and Vol. XVI. p. <), n. 8. This is proved decisively 
by the original reading of the quarto, scaling, which was either 
changed by the poet himself to scaled, (with the same sense,) 
or by the editor of the folio. If the latter -was the case, it is 
probable that not being sufficiently acquainted with our author's 
manner, who frequently uses the active for the passive participle, 
he supposed that the epithet was merely descriptive of some 
quality in the thing described. 

The passage quoted above from Drayton does not militate 
against this interpretation. There the added epithet silver shows 
that the word scaled is used in its common sense ; as the context 
here (to say nothing of the evidence arising from the reading of 
the oldest copy) ascertains it to been employed with the less 
usual signification already stated. 

" The cod from the banks of Newfoundland (says a late 
writer) pursues the whiting, which Hies before it even to the 
southern shores of Spain. The cachalot, a species of whale, is 
said, in the same manner, to pursue a shoal of herrings, and to 
swallow hundreds in a mouthful." Knox's I Union/ of Fish, Svo. 
1787. The throat of the cachalot (the species of whale alluded 
to by Shakspeare) is so large, that, according to Goldsmith, he 
could with ease swallow an ox. MALONK. 

Hcull.f and shoals have not only one and the same meaning, 
but are actually, or at least originally, one and the same word. 
A .scull of herrings (and it is to those 1 ti>h that the speaker al- 
ludes) so termed on the coast of Norfolk and Sutfolk, is else- 
where called a shoal. IIITSON. 

1 the belching ;i7/r//t';] So, in I'criclcs: 

" the belching whale, 

" And humming water, muM o'erwhelm thy corse." 

Homer also compares Achilles to a dolphin driving other fishes 
before him, Iliad XXI. v. 22 : 


And there the strawy Greeks, 2 ripe for his edge, 
Fall down before him, like the mower's swath : 3 
Here,there, and every where, he leaves, and takes j 
Dexterity so obeying appetite,; 
That what he will, he does ; and does so much, 
That proof is call'd impossibility. 


ULYSS. O, courage, courage, princes! great 


Is arming, weeping, cursing, vowing vengeance : 
Patroclus* wounds have rous'd his drowsy blood, 
Together with his mangled Myrmidons, 
That noseless, handless, hack'd and chipp'd, come 

to him, 

Crying on Hector. Ajax hath lost a friend, 
And foams at mouth, and he is arm'd, and at it, 
Roaring for Troilus ; who hath done to-day 
Mad and fantastick execution ; 
Engaging and redeeming of himself, 
With such a careless force, and forceless care, 
As if that luck, in very spite of cunning, 
Bade him win all. 

the strawy Greeks,^ In the folio it is- the straying 

Greeks. JOHNSON. 

the mower's swath :] Swath is the quantity of grass 
cut down by a single stroke of the mower's scythe. So, Tusser: 
" With tossing and raking, and setting on cocks, 
" Grass, lately in swathes, is meat for an ox." 



Enter AJAX. 

AJAX. Troilus! thou coward Troilus ! [Exit. 
Dio. Ay, there, there. 

NEST. So, so, we draw together. 4 


ACIIIL. Where is this Hector? 

Come, come, thou boy-queller, 5 show thy face ; 
Know what it is to meet Achilles angry. 
Hector ! where's Hector ? I will none but Hector. 



Another Part oftlie Field. 
Enter AJAX. 

AJAX. Troilus, thou coward Troilus, show thy 
head ! 


Din. Troilus, I say ! where's Troilus ? 

AJAX. What would'st thou? 

4 - wr draw together.] This remark seems to be matle 
by Nestor in consequence of the return of Ajax to the field, he 
having lately refused to co-operate or (frtm< lu^ctlicr \viih the 
(/reeks, though at present lie is routed from his sullen fit by 
tlu- i;vs of a friend. So, in Ci/ntJiia'a /iVrr/.v, by Ben Jonson : 
" ' 1 is the swaggering coach-horse Anaides, that (Int-o u'it/i liiin 
there." STKI-; vr.xs. 

/"^7-(|iu-l!cr, ] i.e. nnirderi-i- of a boy. So, in Ki 


Henri/ II. ! J ar1 11: " a man-y,v<7/fT and a 
See \ oi. X. p. 'Jj, n.9. SIKI:VI s^. 

VOL. XV. '2 II 


Dio. I would correct him. 

AJAX. Were I the general, thou should* st have 

my office 
Ere that correction : Troilus, I say ! what, Troilus ! 


TRO. O traitor Diomed! turn thy false face, 

thou traitor, 

And pay thy life thou ow'st me for my horse ! 
Dio. Ha ! art thou there ? 
AJAX. I'll fight with him alone : stand, Diomed. 
Dio. He is my prize, I will not look upon. 6 

TRO. Come both, you cogging Greeks ; 7 have at 
you both. [Exeuntijightmg. 

* / ivill not look upon.] That is, (as we should now 

speak,) I will not be a looker-on. So, in King Henry VI. 
Part III : 

" Why stand we here 
" Wailing our losses, 
" And look upon, as if the tragedy 
" Were play'd in jest by counterfeited actors ?" 
These lines were written by Shakspeare. MALONE. 

7 you cogging Greeks ;~\ This epithet has no particular 

propriety in this place, but the author had heard of Grcccid 
mendax. JOHNSON. 

Surely the epithet had propriety, in respect of Diomedes at 
least, who had defrauded him of his mistress. Troilus bestows 
it on both, unius ob culpam. A fraudulent man, as I am told, 
is still called, in the North, a gainful Greek. Cicero bears wit- 
ness to this character of the ancient Greeks : " Testimoniorum 
feligionem & fidem nunquam ista natio coluit." 

Again : " Graecorum ingenia ad fallendum parata sunt." 



Enter HKCTOR. 

HECT. Yea,Troilus? O,well fought, my youngest 
brother ! 


ACHIL. Now do I see thee : Ha 1 Have at thec. 

HECT. Pause, if thou wilt. 

ACHIL. I do disdain thy courtesy, proud Trojan. 
Be happy, that my arms are out of use : 
My rest and negligence befriend thee now, 
But thou anon shalt hear of me again j 
Till when, go seek thy fortune. [Exit. 

HECT. Fare thee well : - 

I would have been much more a fresher man, 
Had I expected thee. How now, my brother ? 

Re-enter TROILUS. 

TRO. Ajax hath ta'en ^Eneas ; Shall it be ? 
No, by the flame of yonder glorious heaven, 8 
He shall not carry him ; y I'll be taken too, 
Or bring him oft': Fate, hear me what 1 say! 
I reck not though I end my life to-day. [Exit. 

8 by the flame of yonder glorious Jiearcn,~] So, in 

f\.i>ig John : 

" . "by the light that shines above our heads." 


carry him ;] i. e. prevail over him. So, in AiC 
thai ends TIT// . 

-The count he wooes your daughter, 

" Resolves to <v/ '/// her ; 

'2 ]\ '1 


Enter one in sumptuous Armour. 

HECT. Stand, stand, thou Greek ; thou art a 

goodly mark : 
No ? wilt thou not? I like thy armour well ; 2 

* I like thy armour iKcll;~] This circumstance is taken 

from Lydgate's poem, p. 196: 

" Guido in his historic doth shew 

" By worthy Hector's fall, who coveting 

" To have the sumptuous armour of that king, &c. 

" So greedy was thereof, that when he had 
" The body up, and on his horse it bare, 

" To have the spoil thereof such haste he made 
" That he did hang his shield without all care 
" Behind him at his back, the easier 
" To pull the armour oif at his desire, 
" And by that means his breast clean open lay," &c. 
This furnished Shakspeare with the hint for the following line : 
" I am unarmed ; forego this vantage, Greek." 


I quote from the original, 1555 : 

in this while a Grekish king he mette, 

Were it of hap or of adventure, 

The which in sothe on his cote armoure 

Embrouded had full many ryche stone, 

That gave a lyght, when the sonne shone, 

Full bryght and cleare, that joye was to sene, 

For perles white and emerawdes grene 

Full many one were therein sette. 

Of whose arraye when Hector taketh hede, 

Towardes him fast gan him dvawe. 

And fyrst I fynde how ho hath him slawe, 

And after that by force of his manheade 

He hent him up afore him on his stede, 

And fast gan wyth him for to rycle 

From the wardes a lytell out of syde, 

At good leyser playnly, if he niaye, 

To r;.ovlc him of his rych arraye. 

On boi's-j-hacke out whan he him ladde, 

Ji'jcLkiMV ti-o sh)i-yc maketh myndt- 

lie caste his sheldc at his backe iK-hynde, 

To weld him selfe at more liberty e, 

So that his brest disarmed was and bare." MALONE. 


I'll f'rush it, 1 and unlock the rivets all, 

: /'// frush //,] The word fnt *h I never found elsewhere, 
nor understand it. Sir T. Hamner explains it, to break or 
bruise. JOHNSON. 

Air. M. Mason observes, that " Ilanmer's explanation appears 
to be right : and the word J] -HX/I, in this sense, to be derived 
IVoin the verb />/Wr, to bruise, or break to pieces." 

To frnxh a chicken, &c. is a term in carving, as ancient as 
Wvnkvn de Worde's book on that subject, 1508 ; and was suc- 
ceeded by another phrase, which we may suppose to have been 
synonymous, \i/.. to " break v.p a capon ;" words that occur 
in I.ii-cc's Labour's Lost. 

Ilolinshed (as Mr. Toilet has observed) employs the verb to 
frux/i, in his Description of Ireland, p. '29 : "\\hen they are 
sori-J'ritx/it with sickness, or too t'arre withered with age." 

The word seems to be sometimes used ibr any action of vio- 
lence by which things are separated, disordered, or destroyed. 
So, in Ilinde's Elionto Libidinoso, 1606: " High cedars are 
J'rutlied with tempests, when lower shrubs are not touched with 
the wind." 

Again, in Hans Beer-pot's Invisible Comedy, &c. 1618: 

" And with mine arm tofrush a sturdy lance." 
Again, in The Hilton/ of II> lijax Knight of the .Suv/w, bl. 1. no 
date : " smote him so courageously with his sworde, that he 
Jrushed all his helm, wherewith the trie fell backward," \c. 

Au:ain, in Stanyhurst's translation of the first Book of Virgil's 
JEntid, 15S2: 

" All the frxslie and leavings of Greeks, of wrathful 

Again : 

" yf that knight Antheus haplye 

" \\\.'Tt.\frit.i/il, or retnanent," i\e. 

Ayain, in Sir .lolin Manduvile's account of the magical enter- 
tainments exhibited before the (Inic (.'Inin, p. '2^5 : " And 
then they make knyghts to joustcn in armes full lustyly, i\e. 
and thuyfntxc/ien togidere full liercelv." 
Again, in 1'airi'ax's 'I'axso : 

" Kinaldo's armour jin\li\l and hack'd they had." 


Tin 1 meaning of the word is ascertained by the following 
]-;i->age in The Dextnictiou o/'Y'/v//, a book which Shakspeare 
ceitainly had belt-re him wlien Iu- wrote ibis play: " Saying 
these wordes, Hercules c night bv the head poor Lvclms, and 


But I'll be master of it : Wilt thou not, beast, 

abide ? 
Why then, fly on, I'll hunt thee for thy hide. 



The same. 
Enter ACHILLES, with Myrmidons, 

ACHIL. Comehere about me, you my Myrmidons j 
Mark what I say. Attend me where I wheel : 
Strike not a stroke, but keep yourselves in breath ; 
And when I have the bloody Hector found, 
Empale him with your weapons round about ; 
In fellest manner execute your arms. 4 
Follow me, sirs, and my proceedings eye : 
It is decreed Hector the great must die. [Exeunt, 

threw him against a rocke so fiercely that hee to^frushed and all 
to-burst his bones, and so slew him." MALONE. 

* execute your arms.~] To execute their arms is to em- 
ploy them ; to put them to use. A similar expression occurs in 
Othello, where lago says : 

Witness that here lago doth give up 

The execution of his wit, hands, heart, 

To wrong'd Othello's service." 

And in 

Love's Labour's Lost, Rosaline says to Biron : 

Full of comparisons and wounding flouts, 

Which you on all estates will execute" M. MASON. 

A phrase nearly similar occurs in Froissart's Chronicle, Vol. II. 
cap. Ixxviii : " Then the nexte daye Syr John Holande and Syr 
Raynolde Roy were armed and mounted on theyr horses and 
soo came to a fayre place redy sanded where they sholde doo 
thcyr armcs," Fo. Ixxxx. STEEVENS. 



Tlic same. 

Enter MENELAUS and PARIS, Jighting : then 

.Tlie cuckold, and the cuckold-maker, are 
at it : Now, bull ! now dog ! 'Loo, Paris, 'loo ! 
now my double-henned sparrow ! 'loo, Paris, 'loo ! 
The bull has the game : 'ware horns, ho ! 

[Exeunt PARIS and MENELAUS. 


MAR. Turn, slave, and fight. 

THER. What art thou ? 

MAR. A bastard son of Priam's. 3 

TIIER. I am a bastard too ; I love bastards : I am 
a bastard begot, bastard instructed, bastard in mind, 
bastard in valour, in every thing illegitimate. One 
bear will not bite another, and wherefore should one 
bastard ? Take heed, the quarrel's most ominous to 
us : it' the son of a whore fight for a whore, he 
tempts judgment : Farewell, bastard. 

MAR. The devil take thec, coward! [Exeunt. 

s A bastard son of Priam's. ~] Rnstard, in ancient times, was 
a reputable appellation. So, in Khi^ Ilcury I'l, Part I: 

" Kastnrrt of Orleans, thrift' welcome to us." 
See note on this passage, Vol. XIII. p. '21. See also Pope's note 
on v. <J;(, linui V. ami on v. :>l-:5, Iliad VIII. STEEVENS. 



Another Part of the Field. 
Enter HECTOR. 

HECT. Most putrified core, so fair without, 
Thy goodly armour thus hath cost thy life. 
Now is my day's work done ; I'll take good breath : 
Rest, sword ; thou hast thy fill of blood and death ! 
\_Puts off his Helmet, and hangs his Shield 
behind him. 

Enter ACHILLES and Myrmidons. 

ACIHL. Look, Hector, how the sun begins to set; 
How ugly night comes breathing at his heels : 
Even with the vail 6 and dark'ning of the sun, 
To close the day up, Hector's life is done. 

HECT. I am unarm' d ; forego this vantage, 
Greek. 7 

6 Even with the vail ] The vail is, I think, the sinking 
of the sun ; not veil or cover. JOHNSON. 

So, in Measure for Measure, " vail your regard upon," signi- 
fies, Let your notice descend upon &c. STEEVEN.S. 

7 / am. unarm' d ; forego thin vantage, Greek.'] Hector, in 
Lydgate's poem, falls by the hand of Achilles ; but it is Troilus 
who, having been inclosed round by the Myrmidons, is killed 
after his armour had been hewn from his body, which was after- 
wards drawn through the field at the horse's tail. The Oxford 
editor, I believe, was misinformed ; for in the old story-book of 
The Three Destructions of Troy, I find likewise the same account 
given of the death of Troilus. Hey wood, in his Rape ofLucrcce, 
1638, seems to have been indebted to some such work as Sir T. 
Hamuer mentions : 


ACHIL. Strike, fellows, strike ; b this is the man 
I seek. [H.KCTOH Jails. 

So, Ilion, fall thou next! now, Troy, sink down; 
Here lies thy heart, thy sinews, and thy bone. 
On, Myrmidons ; and cry you all amain, 
Achilles hath the mighty Hector slain? 

[ // Retreat sounded. 
Hark ! a retreat upon our Grecian part. 

~MYR. The Trojan trumpets sound the like, my 
lord. ' 

ACHIL. The dragon wing of night' o'erspreads 
the earth, 

" Had puissant Hector by Achilles' hand 
" Dy'd in a single monomachie, Achilles 
" Had been the worthy ; but being slain by odds, 
" The poorest Myrmidon had as much honour 
" As faint Achilles, in the Trojan's death." 
It is not unpleasant to observe with what vehemence Lydgate, 
who in the grossest manner has violated all the characters drawn 
by Homer, takes upon him to reprehend the Grecian poet as the 
original offender. Thus, in his fourth Book : 

" Oh thou, Homer, for shame be now red, 

" And thee aniase that boldest thy selfe so wyse, 

" On Achylles to set suche great a pryse 

" In thy bokes for his chivalrye, 

" Above echone that dost hyin magnyfye, 

" That was so sleyghty and so full of fraude, 

" ^ I'} gevest thou liym so bye a prayse and lander" 


^ Strike, fellows, strike ;~] This particular of Achilles over- 
powering Hector by numbers, and without armour, is taken 
from the old story-book. HAXMI.K. 

On, Myrmidons; and cry you all amain, 

Ac/ii/lc.s hath the ni/^/i/// Hector xlui>i.~\ 

" ll'.y.'J.!:')?. u^yy. xC j'j; m 7Tc~: :;.;' Kxr: :'. /.,:, 
" 'Ll'i'Uct'xyrz "a^: zex'v;, jysro:'A/i." 

Iliad XXII. v. I',!):). MAI.ONK. 

1 The dragon u-/w< r of /;////] See Vol. XIII. p. .')), n. <). 

a J o -i 



And, stickler like, 2 the armies separates. 

My half-supp'd sword, 3 that frankly would have 


Pleas'd with this dainty bit, thus goes to bed. 

[Sheaths his Sicord. 

* And, stickler-tote,] A stickler was one who stood by to part 
the combatants when victory could be determined without blood- 
shed. They are often mentioned by Sidney. " Anthony (says 
Sir Thomas North, in his translation of Plutarch, ) was himself 
in person a stickler to part the young men when they had fought 
enough." They were called sticklers, from carrying sticks or 
Staves in their hands, with which they interposed between the 
duellists. We now call these sticklers sidesmen. So, again, in 
a comedy, called, Fortune by Land and Sea, by Hey wood and 
Rowley : " 'tis not fit that every apprentice should with his 
shop-club play between us the stickler." Again, in the tragedy 
of Faire Mar jam, 1613 : 

" And was the stickler 'twixt my heart and him." 
Again, in Fuimus Troes, 1G3S: 

" As sticklers in their nation's enmity." STEEVENS. 

Minsheu gives the same etymology, in his Dictionary, 1617: 
" A stickler betweene two, so called as putting a stick or staffe 
between two fighting or fencing together." MALONE. 

Sticklers are arbitrators, judges, or, as called in some places, 
sidesmen. At every wrestling in Cornwall, before the games 
begin, a certain number of sticklers are chosen, who regulate the 
proceedings, and determine every dispute. The nature of the 
English language, as I conceive, does not allow the derivation 
of stickler from stick, which, as a word, it has not the remotest 
connection with. Stickler (stic-kle-er) is immediately from the 
verb stickle, to interfere, to take part with, to busy one's self in 
any matter. 11 IT SDK. 

3 My half-supp'd siuord, &c.] These four despicable verses, 
as well as the rhyming fit with which " the blockish Ajax" is 
afterwards seized, could scarce have fallen from the pen of our 
author, in his most unlucky moments of composition. 


Whatever may have been the remainder of this speech, as it 
came out of Shakspeare's hands, we may be confident that this 
bombast stuff made no part of it. Our author's gold was stolen, 
and the thief's brass left in its place. RITSON. 

Perhaps this play was hastily altered by Shakspeare from sn 


Come, tie his body to my horse's tail ; 

Along the field I will the Trojan trail. 4 [Exeunt. 


The same. 

DIOMEDES, and Others, marching. Shouts nit/tin. 

AGAM. Hark! hark! what shout is that? 
NEST. Peace, drums. 

\_irWiln.'} Achilles! 

Achilles ! Hector's slain ! Achilles ! 

Dio. Thehruit is Hector's slain, and by Achilles. 

AJAX. If it be so, yet bra "'less let it be ; 

7 */ C? 

Great Hector was as good a man as he. 

AGAM. March patiently along: Let one be sent 
To pray Achilles see us at our tent. 
If in his death the gods have us befriended, 
Great Troy is ours, and our sharp wars are ended. 

[ Exeunt, marching. 

tkler piece, which the reader will find mentioned in p. 22'5, n. 2. 
iSome of the scenes therefore he might have fertilized, and left 
others as barren as lie found them. STEEVEXS. 

4 Atom* llic field 1 ''.'ill the Trojan trail.] Such almost 
(changing the name of Troilus for that of I lector) is the argu- 
ment of Lydgate's ;>lst chapter, edit, l.l/'.-'j: " I low Achilles 
.slewe the worthy Troylus unknyghtly, and after trailed his body 
through the fyclde tyed to his horse." 



Another Part of the Field. 
Enter yExEAs and Trojans. 

JENE. Stand, ho! yet are we masters of the field : 
Never go home ; here starve we out the night. 5 


TRO. Hector is slain. 

ALL. Hector ? The gods forbid ! 

TRO. He's dead ; and at the murderer's horse's 


In beastly sort, dragg'd through the shameful field. 
Frown on, you heavens, effect your rage with speed! 
Sit, gods, upon your thrones, and smile at Troy! 6 

6 Never go home; c.] This line is in the quarto given to 
Troilus. JOHNSON. 

-smile at Troy!~\ Thus the ancient copies ; but it would 

better agree with the rest of Troilus's wish, were we to read, 
with a former editor : 

smite at Troy ! 

I say, at once! STEEVEXS. 

There can be no doubt but we should read smite at, instead 
of smile. The following words, " I say, at once," make that 
unquestionable. To call upon the heavens toy>otc, and on the 
Gods to smile, at the self-same moment, would be too absurd 
even for that violent agitation of mind with which Troilus is sup- 
posed to be actuated. M. MASON. 

Smite was introduced into the text by Sir Thomas Hanmer, 
and adopted by Dr. Warburton. I believe the old reading is 
the true one. 

Mr. Upton thinks that Shakspeare had the Psalmist in view: 
" He that dwellcth in heaven shall laugh them to scorn ; the 


I say, at once let your brief plagues be mercy, 
And linger not our sure destructions on ! 

JExE. My lord, you do discomfort all the host. 

TRO. You understand me not, that tell me so : 
I do not speak of flight, of fear, of death ; 
But dare all imminence, that, gods and men 
Address their dangers in. Hector is gone! 
Who shall tell Priam so, or Hecuba ? 
Let him, that will a screech-owl aye be call'd, 
Go in to Troy, and say there Hector's dead: 
There is a word will Priam turn to stone ; 
Make wells and Niobes of the maids and wives, 7 
Cold s statues of the vouth ; and, in a word, 


Scare Troy out of itself. But, inarch, away : 
Hector is dead ; there is no more to say. 
Stay yet ; You vile abominable tents, 
Thus proudly pight ' upon our Phrygian plains, 

Lord shall have them in derision." Ps. ii. 1. " The Lord shall 
laugh him to scorn ; for he hath seen that his day is coming." 
Pa. xxxvii. 1:5. In the passage before us, (he adds,) " the 
heavens arc the ministers of the Gods to execute their vengeance, 
and they are bid tojrorcn on ; but the Gods themselves smile at 
Tro;j ; they hold Troy in derision, for lis day is cumins*" 


7 Main- wells and ~Sio!iCs nflli- wr.vY. 7 .- an>l 7i-/;r.,] I adopt the 
conjecture of a dec .;-:.;! friend, v.-im would read ivcUnnd. i. e. 
ueephii; Niobes. The Saxon termination off!:;. 1 participle in 
and, t'or /;;o, is common in our old poets, and o!t-_:i corrupted at 
the press. So, in Spenser : 

" His glitter.'.- W armour sliined far away." 
Where the common editions have -jlittcr and. WIIAI.LKY. 

There is surely no need of emendation. STKF.VI:N.S. 

" Culd ] The old copy Can/c. STI:I:VI:NS. 

])/<r/i/ ] i.e. pitclied, fixed. The obsolete preterite and 
participle passive of to uitch. So, Spenser: 

" Then broii;_ r lit she me into this drsrrt vast, 
" And by my wretched lover's .side me w/^A/." 



Let Titan rise as early as he dare, 

I'll through and through you ! And thou, great- 

siz'd coward ! 

No space of earth shall sunder our two hates ; 
I'll haunt thee like a wicked conscience still, 
That mouldeth goblins swift as frenzy thoughts. 
Strike a free march to Troy ! with comfort go : 
Hope of revenge shall hide our inward woe. * 

\_Exeunt ./XEAS and Trojans. 

As TROILUS is going out, enter ', jro)ti the other side, 

PAN. But hear you, hear you ! 

TRO. Hence, broker lackey! 2 ignomy and shame 3 
Pursue thy life, and live aye with thy name ! 


faith comfort go: 

Hope of revenge shall hide our inward uoc."] This couplet 
affords a full and natural close of tlie play; and though I once 
thought differently, I must now declare my firm belief that 
Shakspeare designed it should end here, and that what follows 
is either a subsequent and injudicious restoration from the elder 
drama, mentioned in p. 223, or the nonsense of some wretched 
buffoon, who represented Pandarus. When the hero of the 
scene was not only alive, but on the stage, our author would 
scarce have trusted the conclusion of his piece to a subordinate 
character, whom he had uniformly held up to detestation. It is 
still less probable that he should have wound up his story with a 
stupid outrage to decency, and a deliberate insult on his audi- 
ence. But in several other parts of this drama I cannot persuade 
myself that I have been reading Shakspeare. 

As evident an interpolation is pointed out at the end of 
Twelfth-Night. See Vol. V. p. 119. STEEVEXS. 

2 Plence, broker lackey!'] Thus the quarto and folio. For 
Lrolcr the editor of the second folio substituted broihcr, which, 
in the third, was changed to brothel. 


PAN. A goodly med'cine for my aching bones ! 
O world ! world ! world ! thus is the poor agent 
despised ! () traitors and bawds, how earnestly are 
you set a' work, and how ill requited ! "Why should 
our endeavour be so loved, 4 anil the performance so 
loathed ? what verse for it ? what instance for it? 
Let me see : 

Full merrily the humble-bee doth sing, 
Till he hath lost his honev, and his stino; : 

*' 7 

And being once subdued in armed tail, 
Sweet honey and sweet notes together fail. 
Good traders in the flesh, set this in your painted 
cloths. 5 

As many as be here of pander's hall, 
Your eyes, half out, weep out at Pandar's fall: 
Or, if you cannot weep, yet give some groans, 
Though not for me, yet for your aching bones. 
Brethren, and sisters, of the hold-door trade, 
Some two months hence my will shall here be 


made : 

It should be now, but that my fear is this, 
Some galled goose of Winchester" would hiss : 

Broker, in our author's time, signified a ba\vd of either sex. 
So, in /W//IJ John : 

" This bawd, this broker, this all-changing word," <!vc. 
See Vol. X. p. 108, n. 9. MAU>NK. 

3 ignomy and shame f<rnonn/ was used, in our au- 
thor's time, ibr ignominy. See Vol. XI. p. !'_'(>, n. }). 

4 /orrr/,] Quarto; rA'.wYV, folio. JOHNSON. 

1 xct this in ijour painted eloths.] i.e. th paint. 't! canvas 

with which your rooms are hung. See Vol. Vill.p. r)-;. \\. s. 

S r i . i \ K \ <. 

Some galled goose i>f Winchester "] The puMielv ^t^\vs 
were anciently under the jurisdiction of the Ihshop of \\"in- 
cliester. POIM-. 


Till then I'll sweat, 7 and seek about for eases ; 
And, at that time, bequeath you my diseases. 

Mr. Pope's explanation may be supported by the following 
passage in one of the old plays, of which my negligence has lost 
the title : 

" Collier! how came the goose to be put upon you ? 
" I'll tell thee : The term lying at Winchester in Henry the 
Third's days, and many French women coming out of the Isle 
of Wight thither, &c. there were many punks in the town," 

A particular symptom in the lues vene r ea was called a Win- 
chester goose. So, in Chapman's comedy s( Monsieur D* Olive, 
1606: " the famous school of England call'd Winchester, 
famous I mean for the goose," &c. 

Again, Ben Jonson, in his poem called An Execration on 
Vulcan : 

" - this a sparkle of that fire let loose, 
" That was locked up in the Winchcstrian goose, 
" Bred on the Bank in time of popery, 
" When Venus there maintain'd her mystery." 
In an ancient satire, called Cocke Lorclles Bote, bl. 1. printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde, no date, is the following list of the dif- 
ferent residences of harlots : 

" There came such a wynd fro Winchester^ 
" That blewe these women over the ryver, 
" In wherye/, as I wyll you tell : 
' Some at (faynt Kateryns stroke agrounde, 
' And miny in Holborne were founde, 
' Some^ft sainte Gyles I trowe : 
' Also, in Avc Maria Aly, and at Westmenster ; 
' And some in Shorcdychc drewe thcder, 
" With grcte lamentacyon ; 
" And by cause they have lost that fayre place, 
" They wyll bylde at Colman hedge, in space," &c. 
Hence the old proverbial simile " As common as Coleman 
Hedge:" now Coleman Street. STEEVENS. 

As the publick stews were under the controul of the Bishop of 
Winchester, a strumpet was called a Winchester gontc, and a 
galled Winchester goou.' may mean, either a sin'.m/ict that had 
the venereal disease, or one that felt herself hurt by what Pan- 
darus luul said. It is probable that the word was purposely used 
to express both these senses. It does not appear to me, from 


the passage cited by Steevcns, that any symptom of the venereal 
disease was called a Winchester goose" M. MASON. 

Cole, in his Latin Diet. 1669, renders a Winchester goose by 

pudendagra. MA LONE. 

There are more hard bombastical phrases in the serious part of 
this play, than, I believe, can be picked out of any other six 
plays of Slmkspcare. Take the following specimens : Tortive, 
periistive, protractive, importless, insisture, deracinate, 
dividable. And in the next Act: Past-proportion, unrespec- 
the, propugnation, self-assumption t self-admission, assubju- 
gate, kingdom'd, &.c. TYRWIUTT. 

7 /'// .vrc/,] i.e. adopt the regimen then used for 

curing what Pistol calls " the malady of France." Thus, says 
the Bawd, in Measure for Measure: " what with the sweat, 
&c. I am custom-shrunk." See note on Timon of At/tens, 
Act IV. sc. iii. STKEVKNS. 

7 This play is more correctly written than most of Shak- 
spearo's compositions, but it is not one of those in which either 
the extent of his views or elevation of his fancy is fully dis- 
played. As the story abounded with materials, he has exerted 
little invention ; but he has diversified his characters with great 
variety, and preserved them with great exactness. His vicious 
characters disgust, but cannot corrupt, for both Cressida and 
Pandarus are detested and contemned. The comick characters 
seem to have been the favourites of the writer ; they are of the 
superficial kind, and exhibit more of manners than nature; but 
they are copiously filled and powerfully impressed. Shakspeare 
has in his story followed, for the greater part, the old book of 
Caxton, which was then very popular; but the character of 
Thersites, of which it makes no mention, is a proof that this 
play was written after Chapman had published his version of 
Homer. JOHNSON. 

The first seven Books of Chapman's Homer were published 
in the year 1596, and again in 1.59B. They were dedicated as 
follows : To the most honoured noiv living instance oj' the 
Achilleian virtues eternized hi/ divine Homere, the Kurle ttf 
/v'.v.sY'xi', Karl Marshall, <!vc. The whole twenty-four Books of 
the Iliad appeared in Kill. An anonymous interlude, called 
THKKSYTKS his Humour* and Conceit*, had bc-en published in 
1598. Puttenham also, in his Arte oj' Englishe I'oexie, 1589, 
p. 35, makes mention of" T/icrnles the glorious Noddle" <&c. 


The interlude of Thersites was, I believe, published IOIILT be- 
iore 1598. That date was one of the numerous forgeries ut 
VOL. XV. '2 \ 


Chetwood the Prompter, as well as the addition to the title of 
the piece " Thersites his Humours and Conceits}" for no such 
words are found in the catalogue published in 1671, by Kirk- 
man, who appears to have seen it. MALONE. 

P. 436. Hoto the devil luxury, with his fat rump, and potatoe 
Jinger, tickles these together.'] Luxuria was the appropriate 
term used by the school divines, to express the sin of inconti- 
nence, which accordingly is called luxury in all our old English 
writers. In the Summce Theologia; Compendium of Thomas 
Aquinas, P. 2. II. Quaest. CLIV. is de Luxuries Partibus, which 
the author distributes under the heads of Simplex Fornicatio, 
Adidterium, Incest us, Stuprum, Raptus, &c. and Chaucer, in his 
Parson s Tale, descanting on the seven deadly sins, treats of 
this under the title De Luxuria. Hence, in King Lear, our 
author uses the word in this particular sense : 

" To't, Luxury, pell-mell, for I want soldiers." 
And Middleton, in his Game of 'Chess: 

" in a room fill'd all with Aretine's pictures, 

" (More than the twelve labours of Luxury,] 
" Thou shalt not so much as the chaste pummel see 
" Of Lucrece' dagger." 

But why is luxury, or lasciviousness, said to have a potatoe 
Jinger? This root, which was, in our author's time, but newly 
imported from America, was considered as a rare exotick, and 
esteemed a very strong provocative. As the plant is so common 
now, it may entertain the reader to see how it is described by 
Gerard, in his Herbal, 1597, p. 780: 

" This plant, which is called of some Skyrrits of Peru, is 
generally of us called Potatus, or Potatoes. There is not any 
that hath written of this plant ; therefore, I refer the descrip- 
tion thereof unto those that shall hereafter have further know- 
ledge of the same. Yet I have had in my garden divers roots 
(that I bought at the Exchange in London) where they flou- 
rished until winter, at which time they perished and rotted. 
They are used to be eaten roasted in the ashes. Some, when 
they be so roasted, infuse them and sop them in wine; and 
others, to give them the greater grace in eating, do boil them 
with prunes. Howsoever they be dressed, they comfort, nou- 
rish, and strengthen the bodic, procure bodily lust, and thativith 
great greediness." 


Drayton, in the 20th Song of his Polyolbion, introduces the 
same idea concerning the fkirret : 

" The skirret, which, some say, in sallets stirs the blood" 
Shakspcarc alludes to this quality of potatoes in The Merry 
Wives of Windsor: " Let the sky rain potatoes, hail kissing 
comfits, and snow eringoes ; let a tempest of provocation 

Hen Jonson mentions potatoe pies in Every Man out of his 
Humour, among other (rood unctuous meats. So, T. Heywood, 
in The English Traveller, 1633: 

" Caviare, sturgeon, anchovies, pickled oysters ; yes 
" And a pntatoe pie: besides all these, 
" What thinkest rare and costly." 

Again, in The Dumb Knight, 1633: " truly I think a mar- 
row-bone pye, candied eringoes, preserved dates, or marmalade 
of cantlmrides, were much better harbingers ; cock-sparrows 
stew'd, dove's brains, or swans' pizzles, are very provocative; 
ROASTKD POTATOES, or boiled skirrcts, are your only lofty 

Again, in Decker's Honest Whore, 1635: " If she be a 
woman, marrow-bones and potatoe-pies keep me," &c. 

Again, in A Chaste. Maid of Cheapside, by Middleton, 1620: 
" You might have spar'd this banquet of eringoes, 
" Artichokes, potatoes, and your butter'd crab ; 
" They were fitter kept for your own wedding dinner." 
Again, in Chapman's May-Day, 161 1 : " a banquet of oyster- 
pies, skirret-roots, potatoes, eringoes, and divers other whet- 
stones of venery." 

Again, in Decker's If (his be not a good Play the Devil is iu 
it, 1612: 

" Potatoes eke, if you shall lack 
" To corroborate the back." 

Again, in Jack Drum' '.v Entertainment, 1601 : " by Gor, an 
me had known dis, me woode have eat som potatos, or ringoe." 
Again, in Sir W. D'Avenant's I. me and Honour, 16 19: 
" You shall find me a kind of sparrow, widow; 
" A barley-corn goes as Ikr as a potatoe" 
Again, in The Ghost, 1'ilO: 

" Then, the fine broths 1 daily had sent to me, 
" Pntatoe pasties, lusty marrow-pies," ,!vc-. 
Again, in Histriomastix, or the Player ivhipl, 1610: 

" (iive your play-gull a stool, and your lady her fool, 

" And her usher potatoes and marrow." 

Nay, so notorious were the virtues of this root, that W. W. 
the old translator of the Menirc/nni of Plautus, 1595, lias in- 
troduced them into that comedy. \Vhen Mena-dimus goos to 

'2 1 '1 


the house of his mistress Erotium to bespeak a dinner, he adds, 
" Harke ye, some oysters, a mary-bone pie or two, some 
artichockes, and potato-roots; let our other dishes be as you 

Again, in Greene's Disputation between a Hee Coneycatcher 
and a Shec Coneycatcher, 1592 : " I pray you, how many badde 
proffittes againe growes from \vhoores. Bridewell woulde have 
verie fewe tenants, the hospitall would wante patientes, and the 
surgians mueh woorke : the apothecaries would have surphaling 
water and potato-roots lye deade on their handes." 

Again, in Cynthia's Revels, by Ben Jonson : " 'tis your 
only dish, above all your potatoes or oyster-pies in the world." 
Again, in The Elder Brother^ by Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" A banquet well, potatoes and eringoes, 

" And as I take it, cantharides Excellent !" 
Again, in The Loyal Subject, by the same authors : 

" Will your lordship please to taste a fine potato ? 

" 'Twill advance your wither' d state, 

" Fill your honour full of noble itches," &c. 
Again, in The Martial Maid, by Beaumont and Fletcher: 
" Will your ladyship have a potatoe-pie? 'tis a good stirring dish 
for an old lady after a long lent." 

Again, in The Sea Voyage, by the same authors : 

" Oh, for some eringoes, 

" Potatoes, or cantharides !" 
Again : 

" See provoking dishes, candied eringoes 

" And potatoes." 
Again, in The Picture, by Massinger : 

" he hath got a pye 

" Of marrow-bones, potatoes and eringoes." 
Again, in Massinger's New Way to pay old Debts: 

" 'tis the quintessence 

" Of five cocks of the game, ten dozen of sparrow?, 

" Knuckles of veal, potatoe-roots and marrow, 

" Coral and ambergris," &c. 
Again, in The Guardian, by the same author: 

" Potargo, 

" Potatoes, marrow, caviare ." 
Again, in The City Madam, by the same : 

" prescribes my diet, and foretells 

" My dreams when I eat potatoes." 

Taylor the Water-poet likewise, in his character of a Bawd, 
ascribes the same qualities to this genial root. 

Again, Decker, in his Gul's Hornbook, 1609: "Potato-pies 
and custards stood like the sinful suburbs of cookery," &c. 


Again, in M&rston's Satires, 1599: 

" camphire and letticc chaste, 

" Arc now cashier'd now Sophi 'ringoes eatc, 
" Candi'd potatoes are Athenians' ineate." 

Again, in Holinshed's Chronicle, Description of England, 
p. 167: " Of the potato and such vencrous roots, &c. I speake 

Lastly, in Sir John Harrington's Metamorphosis of Ajar, 
1596: " Perhaps you have been used to your dainties of pota- 
toes, of cavcare, eringus, plums of Genowa, all which may well 
encrease your appetite to scverall evacuations." 

In The good llttswircs Jewell, a book of cookery published 
in 1596, I find the following receipt to make a tarte that is a 
courage to a man or tcoman : " Take two quinces, and twoo or 
three burre rootes, and a POTATON ; and pare your POTA- 
TON and scrape your roots, and put them into a quartc of wine, 
and let them boyle till they bee tender, and put in an ounce of 
dales, and when they be boiled tender, drawe them through a 
strainer, wine and all, and then put in the yolkcs of eight eggs, 
and the braynes of three or four cocke-sparrotxes, and straine 
them into the other, and a little rose-water, and seetli them all 
with sugar, cinnamon, and ginger, and cloves, and mace ; and 
put in a little sweet butter, and set it upon a chafing-dish of 
coles between two platters, to let it boyle till it be something 

Gerard elsewhere observes, in his Herbal, that " potatoes 
may serve as a ground or foundation whereon the cunning con- 
fectioner or sugar-baker may worke and frame many comfort- 
able conserves and restorative sweetmeats." 

The same venerable botanist likewise adds, that the stalk of 
clotburre, " being eaten rawe with salt and pepper, or boiled in 
the broth of fat meat, is pleasant to be eaten, and stirreth i/p 
icitereal motions. It likewise strengthened) the back," <!vc. 

Speaking of dates, he says, that " thereof be made clivers 
excellent cordial comfortable and nourishing medicines, and 
that procure lust of the body very mightily." lie al^o mentions 
quinces as having the same virtues. 

\Ve may likewise add, that Shakspeare's own authority for the 
efficacy of (jitittcfs and tlalcs is not wanting. He Iris certainly 
introduced them both as proper to be employed in the wedding 
dinner of Paris and Juliet : 

" They call for diitcs and tpiiiiccs in the pastry." 

Il appears from Dr. t'ampbell's Pnlitvnl Surrei/ /'('/./ 
Uritciu, that potatoes were brought into Ireland about the yi ar 
1610, and that they came first from Ireland into Lancashire. 
It was, however, forty years before they were much cultivated 


about London. At this time they were distinguished from the 
Spanish by the name of Virginia potatoes, or battatas, which 
is the Indian denomination of the Spanish sort. The Indians in 
Virginia called them openank. Sir Walter Raleigh was the first 
who planted them in Ireland. Authors differ as to the nature 
of this vegetable, as well as in respect of the country from 
whence it originally came. Switzer calls it Sisarum Peruvi' 
anum, i.e. the skirret of Peru. Dr. Hill says it is a solarium; 
and another very respectable naturalist conceives it to be a native 
of Mexico. 

The accumulation of instances in this note is to be regarded as 
a proof how often dark allusions might be cleared up, if com- 
mentators were diligent in their researches. COLLINS. 


Primed hy S. Hamilton, Weybridge. 




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