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Full text of "The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrated animals form the states east of the Mississippi River and form the Canadian provinces east of longitude 95"

IJXJKUiiMlj LiSTAHH 1 5 1923 



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THE PLEISTOCENE OF NORTH AMERICA AND ITS YERTE- 

BRATED ANIMALS FROM THE STATES EAST OF THE 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND FROM THE CANADIAN 

PROVINCES EAST OF LONGITUDE 95°. 



BY 
OLIVER P. HAY 

Associate of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 





Publtshed'by the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Washington, February, 1923 



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CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 
Publication No. 322 



I FEB 2 4 l'92' 




TECHNICAL PRESS 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface ■ ■ • • vii-viii 

Conclusions regarding the divisions of the 

Pleistocene 1-15 

Limits of the Pleistocene 1 

The Blanco Pliocene 1 

Divisions of the Pleistocene 2 

Elevation of Continent 3 

Connections of North America with South 

America and Asia 3 

Sources of vertebrates 4 

Richness of Pleistocene life 4 

Evolution during the Pleistocene 5 

Extinction of species 6 

The earliest Pleistocene, the Nebraskan .... 7 

The Aftonian interglacial 10 

The Yarmouth interglacial 12 

The Illinois glacial 12 

The Sangamon interglacial 12 

The Peorian interglacial 13 

The Wisconsin and the Wabash beds 13 

Coastal Plain terraces 13 

Conspectus of Geology and Vertebrate Palae- 
ontology of the Pleistocene 14-15 

Finds of Pleistocene cetaceans in eastern 

North America 17-20 

Ontario 17 

Quebec 18 

Vermont 19 

New Brunswick 19 

North Carolina 20 

South Carolina 20 

Florida 20 

Finds of Pleistocene Pinnipedia in eastern 

North America 21-30 

Grinnell Land 21 

Nova Scotia 21 

New Brunswick 21 

Quebec 21 

Ontario 23 

Maine 23 

New Hampshire 25 

Massachusetts 25 

New Jersey 26 

Virginia 28 

North Carolina 29 

South Carolina 29 

Finds of Pleistocene Xenarthra in eastern North 

America 31—44 

New Jersey 31 

Pennsylvania 31 

Ohio 31 

Indiana 32 

IlUnois 33 

Virginia 34 

West Mrginia 34 

South Carolina 35 

Georgia 36 

Florida 37 

Alabama 40 

Mississiijpi 40 

Tennessee 41 

Kentucky 43 



PAGE 

Finds of mastodons in eastern North 

America 45-128 

Ontario 45 

Cape Breton Island 46 

Massachusetts 47 

Connecticut 47 

New York 43 

New Jersey 63 

Pennsylvania 68 

Ohio 70 

Michigan gQ 

Indiana 88 

Illinois 100 

Wisconsin 2 10 

Mai-yland j 12 

Virginia 113 

West Virginia 115 

North Carolina 115 

South Carolina ng 

Georgia 120 

Florida 121 

Alabama 124 

Mississippi i24 

Tennessee 127 

Kentucky 128 

Finds of Elephas primigenius in eastern North 

America 130-146 

Ontario 130 

New York 131 

New Jersey 132 

Pennsylvania 133 

Ohio 134 

Michigan 137 

Indiana 133 

Illinois 140 

Wisconsin 143 

Maryland 144 

Virginia 145 

North CaroHna 145 

Florida 145 

Tennessee 145 

Kentucky 145 

Finds of Elephas columbi in eastern North 

America 147-161 

Ontario 147 

Vermont 143 

New York 14^ 

New Jersey 149 

Pennsylvania 150 

Ohio 150 

Michigan 151 

Indiana 151 

Illinois 152- 

Maryland 154 

North Carolina 155 

South Carolina 155 

Georgia 157 

Florida 157 

Kentucky 16O 

Finds of Elephas imperator in eastern North 

America 162-164 

South Carolina 162 

Florida 1.62- 

Alabama 164, 



lU 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Finds of Elephas sp. indet. in eastern North 

America ^^^]ll 

TT „ 166 

Ungava 

Ontario J^^ 

Vermont 

New York {^^ 

Pennsylvania \^° 

y-v, • loo 

Ohio j_. 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois YrR 

Wisconsin • • • -. ^;° 

Marj'land and District of Columbia 178 

Virginia.... J^S 

West Virginia j'^ 

North Carolina ^^ 

Florida. . J^^ 

Mississippi :J°" 

Tennessee |^| 

Finds of Equidae in eastern North America. 183-202 

Massachusetts 183 

New York jg 

New Jersey j°^ 

Pennsylvania J°* 

Ohio \f 

Indiana |°^ 

Illinois l°l 

Maryland and District of Columbia 188 

Virginia.... 189 

West Virginia j^^ 

North Carolina jy'j' 

South Carolina 1^1 

Georgia 1^;^ 

Florida Ill 

Alabama f^ 

Mississippi ;^J^y 

Tennessee ;"1 

Kentucky .' ' ' ' o^; o?n 

Finds of tapirs in eastern North America. 203-^10 

Pennsylvania 203 

Ohio -^^-^ 

Indiana 203 

Maryland ^"^ 

Virginia 204 

South Carolina 204 

Georgia 206 

Florida 206 

Mississippi ^^° 

Tennessee ""^ 

Kentucky 209 

Rhinoceroses in Florida 211 

Finds of peccaries in eastern North 

America 212-223 

New York 212 

New Jersey i 213 

Pennsylvania 213 

Ohio 214 

Michigan 215 

Indiana '^^" 

- Illinois 218 

Wisconsin "1^ 

Maryland 220 

Virginia 221 

West Virginia 221 

South Carolina 221 

Florida 222 

Tennessee 222 

Kentucky 223 



PAGE 

Finds of camels in eastern North America. 224-225 

Pennsylvania 224 

Florida 224 

Tennessee 225 

Finds of Odocoileus in eastern North 

America 226-234 

Ontario 226 

New York 226 

New Jersey 226 

Pennsylvania 227 

Ohio 227 

Michigan 227 

Indiana 228 

Illinois 229 

Wisconsin 230 

Maryland 230 

Virginia 231 

West Virginia 231 

North Carohna 231 

South Carolina 231 

Florida 232 

Mississippi 233 

Tennessee 234 

Kentucky 234 

Finds of Cermis canadensis in eastern North 

America 235-243 

Ontario 235 

Vermont 235 

New York 235 

New Jersey 237 

Pennsylvania 237 

Michigan 237 

Indiana 238 

Illinois 239 

Wisconsin 240 

Maryland 242 

North Carolina 242 

South Carolina ' 242 

Georgia 243 

Florida 243 

Tennessee 243 

Kentucky 243 

Finds of Rangifer in the Pleistocene of eastern 

North America 244-247 

Grinnell Land 244 

Ontario 244 

Vermont 244 

Connecticut 244 

New York 245 

New Jersey 245 

Pennsylvania 246 

Illinois 246 

Wisconsin 247 

Kentucky 247 

Finds of musk-oxen in eastern North 

America 248-255 

Grinnell Land 248 

New Jersey 248 

Pennsylvania 248 

Ohio 249 

Michigan 250 

Indiana "^'^ 

Illinois 253 

West Virginia 254 

Mississippi 254 

Kentucky 255 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Finds of extinct bisons in eastern North 

America 256-265 

Ontario 256 

Pennsylvania 256 

Ohio 257 

Indiana 257 

Illinois 259 

Wisconsin 259 

Marjdand 259 

Virginia 259 

South CaroHna 260 

Georgia 261 

Florida 262 

Alabama 264 

Mississippi 264 

Kentucky 265 

Finds of Bison bison in eastern North 

America 266-271 

Ontario 266 

Massachusetts 266 

New York 266 

New Jersey 267 

Pennsylvania 267 

Indiana 268 

Illinois 268 

Wisconsin 270 

Kentucky 270 

Finds of Castoroides in eastern United 

States 272-280 

New York 272 

Pennsylvania 272 

Ohio 273 

Michigan 275 

Indiana 276 



PAGE 

Finds of Castoroides in eastern United 
States — continued. 

Illinois 278 

South Carolina 279 

Georgia 280 

Mississippi 280 

Tennessee 280 

Pleistocene Geology of eastern North America 

and its fossil vertebrates 281—406 

Ontario '. . 281 

Quebec 288 

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton 

Island 289 

New England 290 

New York 294 

New Jersey 299 

Pennsylvania 306 

Ohio 324 

Michigan 330 

Indiana 331 

Illinois 334 

Wisconsin 340 

Maryland and District of Columbia 344 

Virginia 351 

West Virginia 354 

North Carolina 355 

South Carolina 361 

Georgia 368 

Florida 372 

Alabama 384 

Mississippi 385 

Tennessee 393 

Kentucky 400 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plates 



Map 1. Pleistocene cetaceans in eastern North 
America. 

2. Pleistocene Pinnipedia in eastern North 

America. 

3. Pleistocene Xenarihra in eastern North 

America. 

4. Pleistocene Xenarihra in Florida. 

5. Pleistocene nia.stodons in eastern North 

America. 

6. Eastern New York, western Massachu- 

setts, and Connecticut, showing relation 
of mastodon localities to areas of sea- 
level in Late Wi-sconsin. 
6A. Pleistocene mastodons in New Jersey. 

7. Pleistocene mastodons in Oliio. 

8. Pleistocene mastodons in Michigan. 

9. Pleistocene mastodons in Indiana. 

10. Pleistocene mastodons in Florida. 

11. Elephas primigenius in eastern North 

America. 

12. Elephas columbi in eastern North America. 

13. Elephas columbi in Florida. 

14. Elephas imperator in southeastern United 

States. 

15. Elephas imperator in Florida. 

16. Elephas sp. indet. in eastern North 

America. 

17. Pleistocene lior.ses in eastern North 

America. 

18. Pleistocene horses in Florida. 

19. Pleistocene tapirs in eastern North 



20. 



21. 



America. 
Pleistocene 

America. 
Pleistocene 

America. 



peccaries in eastern North 
camels in eastern North 



22. 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 



32. 
33. 

34. 



35. 
36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 



40. 
41. 



Pleistocene species of Odocoileus in eastern 

North America. 
Cervus canadensis in Pleistocene of eastern 

Noith America. 
Rangifer in Pleistocene of eastern North 

America. 
Pleistocene musk-oxen in eastern North 

America. 
Extinct bisons in Pleistocene of eastern 

North America. 
Bison bison in Pleistocene of eastern North 

America. 
Castoroides in eastern North America. 
Castoroides in Ohio. 
Castoroides in Indiana. 
Areas in New York, Connecticut, Mas- 
sachusetts, and Vermont occupied by 

water at sea-level in Late Wisconsin stage. 
Isobases of Late Glacial uplift. 
J. W. Spencer's view of preglacial drainage 

of the region of the Great Lakes. 
Wisconsin glacier in New York, lakes 

Newberry and Maumee, and locaUties 

of mastodons. 
Glacial map of Ohio. 
Distribution of Pleistocene mammals in 

Ohio. 
Glacial map of Indiana. 
Glacial map of Illinois. Shows also 

localities of Pleistocene vertebrates. 
Coastal plain of North Carolina, with 

localities of Pleistocene animals and 

plants. 
Sketch map of Skiddaway Island, near 

Savannah, Georgia. 
Bigbone Lick and vicinity. 



TEXT-FIGUEE.S. 



PAGE 

Fig. 1. Geological section of Twin Creek, 

near Beecher, Will Co., lUinois. . . . 108 

2. Section across gulley at Whitehall, 

Wisconsin 242 

3. Region about Toronto, Ontario 282 

4. Eastern Ontario, showing limit of 

marine and fresh-water beaches. . . . 286 

5. South shore-line of the Champlain sea. 287 

6. Preglacial drainage of the Upper Ohio . 293 

7. Geologic section of Fish House beds 

at Camden, New Jersey 302 

8. Vicinity of Trenton, New Jersey, 

showing distribution of the Trenton 
gravels 305 

9. Geologic sections at Trenton, New 

Jersey 305 

10. Northern Pennsylvania, showing gla- 

ciated areas 309 

11. Section of Port Kennedy bone cave 

at time of first exploration, 1871. . . 318 

12. Section of Port Kennedy bone cav-e 

at time of last exploration, 1896. . . 318 

13. Metatarsal of Oris sp. indet., from 

Kendall Co.. Illinois 338 



PAGE 

14. Relation of the driftless area to the 

surrounding glaciated areas 342 

15. Diagram showing the supposed ter- 

races of the Maryland coastal plain. 345 

16. Section across Potomac River near Big 

Pool, Maryland, showing gravel- 
covered terraces 347 

17. Generalized .section across Allegheny 

Valley at Parkers Landing, W. Va.. 349 

18. Tooth of Hydrochoerus pinckneyi 365 

19. Jaw and tooth of a wolf from Charles- 

ton, South Carolina 366 

20. Coastal plain of Georgia 369 

21. Geologic section from north to south 

through the phosphate deposits of 
Florida 377 

22. Geological map of Mississippi embay- 

ment 388 

23. County map of Tennessee, to show 

where Pleistocene fossils have been 
found 395 

24. Vertical section of Bigbone Cave, 

Elroy, Van Buren Co., Tennessee. . 398 

25. Section on bank of Tennessee River 

at Nashville 400 



vi 



PREFACE. 

The writer has been engaged for several years on an investigation of the 
Pleistocene geology of North America and of the Vertebrata which have 
been discovered in the deposits of this epoch. It had been his expectation 
to publish the results of all his studies at the same date. However, on 
consultation with Dr. John C. Merriam, it was agreed that it would be 
better to publish immediately that part which pertains to the region lying 
east of the Mississippi River and, as to the country further north, that east 
of longitude 95°. 

At the outset the writer was convinced that, before just conclusions could 
be reached, it was necessary to know what fossil materials had been col- 
lected and under what geological and geographical conditions. He there- 
fore made as thorough a search as possible of the literature for reports of 
discoveries of fossil vertebrates. Also, when in scientific journals or in 
newspapers the finding of fossils was recorded, recourse was had to corre- 
spondence, thus securing much exact information as to locality, kind of 
matrix, depth, and other important data. Often photographs have been 
obtained and even the materials themselves. The writer has also visited 
many museums and colleges throughout the country and examined their 
collections. Even in the smaller institutions, where perhaps only a few 
objects have been secured and preserved, some of these have furnished 
important information. Regret may be expressed that in the larger museums 
and colleges, as well as the smaller ones, too often there have been preserved 
only meager or no records regarding the history of what would otherwise be 
valuable specimens. 

In order to show the geographical distribution of the most important 
species that occur in considerable numbers, a series of maps has been 
prepared, pertaining to the following: 

Whales and porpoises. Mastodons, mostly Mammut. Cervus. 

Seals and walruses. Horses, mostly Equus. Rangifer. 

The edentates. Tapirs. Musk-oxen. 

Elephas primigenius. Peccaries. Bisons, extinct. 

E. columbi. Camels. Bison bison. 

E. imperator. Odocoileus. Giant beavers. 
E. species undetermined. 

Where the map of a State has become too crowded with numerals, a 
special map of that State for that species or genus has been prepared. 
There are maps of the edentates in Florida; mastodons of Indiana, of New 
York, of Ohio, of Michigan, of Florida; Elephas columbi in Florida; Elephas 
imperator in Florida; horses in Florida. 

Other maps and figures for illustration of the Pleistocene geology will 
be found in their proper places. 

The first part of the present volume is occupied by a consideration of 
the specimens recorded on the maps. Such information is noted as could 
be secured, often satisfactory, little enough sometimes; but it has been 
found that one can not foresee what important information a given fossil 

VII 



VIII PREFACE. 

may furnish. At least, the presence of the fossil at a locality indicates the 
existence there of Pleistocene deposits of some kind. In cases where other 
species have been associated with the one mapped and described, these 
are noted. 

When the consideration of these mapped species and genera is completed, 
the Pleistocene geology of the various States and provinces is taken up, so 
far as it is related to the vertebrate palaeontology. This involved an exami- 
nation of much of the literature of the Glacial period; and here one soon 
finds himself in face of huge tomes and endless articles and detailed maps. 
Only somewhat less in amount is the literature of the States beyond the 
glaciated area. The opportunity to misunderstand and to commit errors is 
unlimited, and the writer can only hope for lenient criticism. 

An attempt has been made in the case of all vertebrate fossils to determine 
their geological relations and to derive some general conclusions regarding 
the history of our Pleistocene vertebrates and their relation to the divisions 
of the Pleistocene epoch. The conclusions reached are embodied in the 
immediately succeeding pages. 

Not much attention has been given to the fossil invertebrates and plants. 
It is evident that neither the mollusks nor the plants have undergone any 
considerable change during Pleistocene times and are therefore not avail- 
able as indicators of geological stages, though often useful for determining 
local climatic conditions. Their value can be better utilized by the 
palaeomalacologists and palaeobotanists. 

To the officers of museums and colleges and to the private individuals 
who have so freely offered the use of their materials and in other ways 
aided the writer, he takes pleasure in expressing his sincere thanks. Most 
of all, however, he is indebted to the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
for the generous support extended during the years of this investigation. 

June 1, 1922. Oliver P. Hay. 



A 



THE PLEISTOCENE OF NORTH AMERICA AND 
ITS VERTEBRATED ANIMALS. 



CONCLUSIONS REGARDING THE DIVISIONS OF 

THE PLEISTOCENE. 

I. Limits of the Pleistocene. 

The Pleistocene is regarded as being equivalent to what is known as the 
Glacial period. It began with the deployment of the ice-sheets which, pro- 
ceeding from their centers of accumulation in British America, laid down 
in the East the Jerseyan drift and in the West the Nebraskan. The more 
the Glacial period is studied the more one becomes impressed with the 
significance of its physical effects on the northern hemisphere and with its 
influence on the vertebrate life. Doubtless its effects on the world in general 
are only beginning to be comprehended. The writer knows of no other 
phenomena, geological or biological, which so well characterize the Pleisto- 
cene period as do those comprehended under the term Glacial. They con- 
stitute the key to the determination of the subdivisions of the epoch and 
of their succession and to the history of the vertebrates which during this 
time occupied the continent. 

II. The Blanco Pliocene. 

The Blanco is held to belong to the upper, or to the uppermost. Pliocene. 
It is at present assigned to the Middle Pliocene (Osborn, Bull. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. No. 361, p. 81; Matthew, ibid., p. 120). Until recently the oldest 
known Pleistocene vertebrates appeared to be represented by the collections 
which long ago were made at Fossil Lake, Oregon, and at Grayson (Hay 
Springs), Nebraska. These assemblages had formerly been referred to the 
Pliocene, and the belief that they belong there is not yet wholly without 
supporters. It seemed, therefore, proper to retire the Blanco somewhat. 
The discovery that the Fossil Lake and Grayson faunas were represented 
in the Aftonian deposits of Iowa, and belonged probably to the first inter- 
glacial stage, reveals the fact that the geological interval between the 
Blanco and the Aftonian is at least partly filled by the first glacial stage, 
the Nebraskan. Naturally, it is to be expected that the breach between 
the earlier and the later faunas will be occupied, in part at least, by the 
vertebrates of the Nebraskan. What these are is not yet well determined; 
but the writer believes that as the Blanco and its equivalent and closely 
related formations and faunas become better known, they will be attracted 
close to the Pleistocene. 



2 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 

Aside from the facts just mentioned, the Blanco fauna seems to the writer 
to be more closely related to the Aftonian than has been supposed. The 
genera which occur in the Blanco are the following: 

Megalonyx. Protohippus. Stegomastodon. 

Mylodon. Platygonus. Felis. 

Glyptotherium. Pliauchenia. Amphicyon? 

Hipparion. Anancus. Borophagus. 

Pliohippus. Gomphotherium. Canimartes. 

Of these, Megalonyx, Mylodon, Hipparion, Platygonus, Anancus, Gom- 
photherium?, Stegomastodon, and Felis are known from the first inter- 
glacial stage. Anancus includes mastodons with short, tuskless lower 
jaws and tre foiled molars. Gomphotherium, having long lower jaws with 
tusks, upper tusks with enamel band, and with trefoiled molars, may be 
represented by some of the early Pleistocene species. The same species of 
Stegomastodon appears to be present in the Blanco as in the Pleistocene, 
S. mirificus. The edentate Glyptotherium is not far removed from Glyp- 
todon of the early Pleistocene. The Blanco genera of horses are so close 
to Equus that Cope regarded them as belonging to this genus. 

The matter may be looked at from another point of view. If Mylodon, 
Megalonyx, and Glyptotherium are referred to the Middle Pliocene, we 
shall probably have them recorded as living in Texas before they existed 
in South America. It is true that Santiago Roth (Neues Jahrb., Min. Beil., 
Bd., vol. XXVI, table opposite p. 144) states that Glyptodon occm-s in the 
Lower Pampas beds, and these he refers to the Upper Miocene; but the 
writer believes that Wilckens (Neues Jahrb. Min. Beil, Bd., vol. xxi, p. 
193) is more nearly correct in placing them in the Pliocene. While the 
opinion may be correct that, when no obstacles intervene, the time required 
for mammals to spread over even a continent constitutes but a small part 
of a geological age, yet in making their way from South America, especially 
from Argentina, along the narrow bridge that appears to have been offered 
them, probably over mountain ranges, and across rivers and gorges, and 
in the face of the competing fauna advancing from the north, some of which 
were wolves and saber-tooth tigers, the slowly plodding and inoffensive 
edentates would have encountered too many hindrances to be able to make 
the journey in a short time. 

The writer, therefore, ventures to range the Blanco immediately below 
the Pleistocene. On about the same level may be placed the Tulare- 
Etchegoin and the Thousand Creek formations of Merriam (Bull. Dept. 
Geol. Univ. Calif., vol. x, pp. 425, 429). 

III. The Historical Divisions of the Pleistocene. 
The writer accepts the divisions of the Pleistocene which the geologists 
appear to have established. Formerly it was believed that North America 
had been subjected to a single glacial epoch; now it seems to be proved 
that there have occurred five such glacial epochs, or stages, and that there 
have intervened four interglacial stages of mild climate. The interglacial 
stages are italicized. The Nebraskan stage is the earliest, the Wisconsin 
the latest: Wisconsin, Peorian, lowan, Sangamon, Illinoian, Yarmouth, 
Kansan, Aftonian, Nebraskan. 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 3 

The characteristics of the various stages will be briefly discussed. The 
stages are not equally well understood and at present do not seem to be 
of equal importance in their relation to vertebrate paleontology. 

IV. Elevations of the Continent Immediately Preceding or 
Accompanying the Opening of the Pleistocene. 
In pursuing the study of the Pleistocene, one soon realizes that this period 
was one of great geological activity. Ranges of mountains, if not begun 
anew, were at least raised to greater altitudes. The Cascade Range appears 
to have begun to rear its head at the beginning of the epoch, or even a little 
later. Here and there the crust of the earth was ruptured and great sheets 
of lava were poured out over the land. Ice caps repeatedly accumulated 
over large areas in North America and Europe, and in their movements 
southward transported vast amounts of earthy debris and turned the 
courses of great streams. Apparently at times the rainfall was greatly 
increased. The rivers, quickened by greater slope and the increased volume 
of water, cut their channels deeper and in the mountains excavated profound 
gorges. Through elevation of the land North America was, late in the 
Pliocene or early in the Pleistocene, put into easy communication with 
Asia and South America, so that vertebrated animals passed freely to and 
fro. A part of these activities probably belonged to the latter part of the 
Pliocene. In the more elevated regions of the eastern United States, through 
the chemical, rupturing, and transporting properties of water, rocks were 
dissolved and their disintegrated materials produced what has been desig- 
nated the Lafayette formation; but it is possible that this belongs to the 
early Pleistocene. 

V. Connections with Asia and South America. 

Mention has just been made of a land connection with Asia at some time 
about the beginning of the Pleistocene. The evidence for this may be called 
circumstantial rather than direct. The geological evidence has not been 
developed. If any deposits containing marine fossils had been laid down 
along the Asiatic and Alaskan coasts during a time of elevation, they would 
now be covered by the sea. Our evidence for the connection is derived 
from the distribution of the vertebrate animals. During the early Pleisto- 
cene our country was invaded by a host of mammals whose home was 
originally in Asia. These included elephants, bisons, elk, goats, bears, 
wolves, and foxes, besides many mammals of smaller size. It is the pres- 
ence in America of the smaller animals, many genera of rodents of Asiatic 
origin, that shows that there must have been a land connection. These 
could not have made their passage across Bering Strait on the ice, as it 
might be imagined the larger animals did. 

The -way between the two continents had more than once before been 
open, but it was during the early Pleistocene that modern Asiatic genera 
entered North America in great numbers. Exactly where the land bridge 
between the two countries was situated is not certain; it may be that a 
large part of the area now occupied by Bering Sea was then dry land. 
Arldt (Entwicklung der Kontinente, plate 21) represents a connection 



4 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 

extending from the northern border of Alaska southward to include the 
Aleutian Islands. Where narrowest, this bridge, as represented by the 
author named, extended from latitude 60° to 70°, a distance of about 700 
miles. In such case the cold currents from the Arctic Ocean would have 
been prevented from entering the Pacific, while the Japan Current would 
have warmed up the southern side of the bridge. The route was then open 
on the north for the boreal animals of Asia to enter Alaska; while on the 
south the genera inhabiting the more temperate part of eastern Asia would 
have had free access to the American shore. Once on the continent, the 
boreal mammals might have spread along the shores of the Arctic Ocean 
and those of the temperate parts of Asia have made their way up the 
Yukon Valley, or possibly along the Pacific coast, to the warmer regions 
toward the south. We do not need to suppose that even during the first 
glacial, or Nebraskan, stage the climate of that part of North America was 
as inclement as now. 

At the other end of our continent a train of events not wholly dissimilar 
was in motion. Even in the latter part of the Pliocene some South American 
edentates, such as Megalonyx, Mylodon, and Glyptotherium, had reached 
Texas. Probably a little later the bridge had become widened so that other 
edentates and a few genera of South American hystricine rodents swarmed 
into our southern borders. At the same time a host of carnivores, tapirs, 
horses, camels, peccaries, deer, and cricetine and sciurine rodents made 
their way into South America. It is now certain that the land bridge over 
which the interchange took place did not include the West Indies. Possibly 
there yet remained along the western coast of Central America some of the 
border, now submerged, which Schuchert (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xx, 
plates 96 to 100) represents as being present during the Tertiary. 

VI. The Sources of the Vertebrates of the Pleistocene. 

The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of North America has been derived from 
three sources. One component had descended from the animals which occu- 
pied the continent during the late Tertiary, but even these were of mixed 
derivation. A few appear to have filtered in from South America during the 
Pliocene ; others had come from Asia during Tertiary invasions ; but a large 
element was native to the country. As such may be taken the camels, the 
peccaries, the three-toed horses, the prong-horn antelope, the deer of the 
genus Odocoileus. 

Upon a continent of vast extent and great fertility, possessing unbounded 
variety of climate and habitat, all these animals were thrown together to 
struggle for their existence. We must depend upon the imagination to pic- 
ture what the result would have been if nature had pursued a course which 
might have been predicted. What the result in reality was, we shall see. 

VII. The Richness of the Pleistocene Vertebrate Life. 

It will be profitable to consider briefly the character of the Pleistocene 

vertebrate fauna. The writer has compiled a list of the species which have, 

so far as he knows, been collected and described up to this time. There are 

in all 637 species; of these, 387 belong to the mammals, 154 to the birds, 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 5 

26 only to the reptiles, 7 to the amphibians, 56 to the bony fishes, and 7 to 
the group of sharks and rays. Certainly these form only a part of the--^ 
species which existed. At present there are known in our existing fauna 
north of Mexico 693 species of mammals, excluding the cetaceans — some- 
what more than twice the number of known Pleistocene species. It is, 
however, rather in the great variety of forms that the Pleistocene excelled. 
Following Gerrit S. Miller's Land Mammals of North America, 1912, we 
find in our present fauna north of Mexico 29 families; in the Pleistocene 
there are now known 37 families, not including the cetaceans. In our exist- 
ing mammalian fauna there are recognized 111 genera; in the Pleistocene, 
with hardly half as many species recorded, 138 genera are counted. In 
order to realize more vividly the variety of Pleistocene forms, we have only 
to recall the animals then present, now absent, namely, the great ground- <=- 
sloths, the glyptodons, the numerous species of horses, tapirs, numerous "^ 
peccaries, camels, the extinct relatives of the musk-oxen, extinct bisons,*^ 
elephants, mastodons of three or four genera, the giant beaver, and the "^ 
saber-tooth tigers. Among the birds, reptiles, batrachians, and fishes, there 
were few striking forms, and these were mostly among the birds and the 
tortoises. 

The above account shows the great richness of the vertebrate lif e during 
the Pleistocene; furthermore, this abundance evidently existed during the 
early _stages ol the e poch. It constituted the materials on which that com- 
bination of conditions which we call environment had to work during 
Pleistocene times. The comparison shows that th e result was an impover-. "^ 
ishment of the vertebrate fauna. Genera and families, even orders, were 
wiped out of existence, and these included some of the noblest animals that ^ 
have graced the face of the earth, the elephants, the mastodons, tapirs, 
many species of bison, horses, saber-tooth cats, huge tigers, and gigantic 
wolves. The following nine or ten families became either wholly extinct 
or continued to exist only in other more hospitable lands : the Megatheriidse, 
including several genera of ground-sloths ; the Hoplophoridae or glyptodons ; 
the Caviidse, which embraced one or more species of huge capybaras; the 
Elephantida?, under which are arranged three or four species of elephants 
and three genera of mastodons; the Equida?, represented by a dozen or more 
species of horses; the Camelidse, of which there were several Pleistocene 
species and probably three or four genera; the Hyaenidse, of which there 
appears to have been at least one genus, with one species; the Tapirida?, 
including three or four species; and probably the Rhinocerotidse. Besides 
these, the subfamily of Felidse known as Machairodontinse, embracing those 
wonderful carnivores the saber-tooth tigers, was suppressed. The Dasypo- 
didse, which included some armadillos 5 or 6 feet long, are now represented 
by only one small species in Texas. Of the Tagassuiclse, to which belonged 
several genera and stately species of peccaries, there exists now in North 
America north of Mexico but one species, an animal of only moderate size. 

VIII. On Evolution During the Pleistocene. 

We have seen that the Pleistocene fauna was very dift'erent from that 
which existed when white men first entered the country; also that the 



6 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. \ 

difference has in large part been due to the destruction of species, genera, 
and families. We may now inquire whether or not the loss has been to 
any considerable extent compensated by the development of new forms. 
Many of our existing genera and species have been found in the collections 
that represent the earliest Pleistocene known to us. The writer believes it 
would be unsafe to say that any living species that one might select may 
not hereafter be discovered in early Pleistocene collections. It is probably 
true, however, that some of those small changes by which we distinguish 
one species from another have been produced. Some small but persistent 
differences might, for example, have arisen in the teeth or in the form 
of the skull of a group of muskrats which would justify us in regarding it 
as forming a new species. It is extremely doubtful that any new genus of 
vertebrates has been developed since the first interglacial stage. Matthew 
has concluded (Science, n. s., vol. xl, pp. 232—235) that the evolution of \ 
the mammals during the Pleistocene amounts to about one-tenth of that 
achieved during the Pliocene. The present writer regards this as a liberal 
estimate. 

This failure to evolve new genera and species is not necessarily to be 
attributed to the shortness of the Pleistocene period; it may have been due 
^rather to the unfavorable conditions. In what direction could an animal 
make progress when, after being subjected for some thousands of years to 
one set of conditions, it was compelled for some other thousands to endure 
just the opposite conditions? If life in front of a glacier for some centuries 
led to the development of a coat of hair on an elephant, that coat would 
probably disappear during the succeeding interglacial stage, and in the end, 
if the elephant had not perished, he would be where he began. 

Too much stress must not, however, be placed on this suggestion. It may 
yet be possible to show that nowhere in the world was any considerable 
progress made by mammals during the Pleistocene, in the modification of 
their forms and structure. On the other hand, it is also possible that all 
over the world climatic conditions were at intervals unfavorably affected 
by the development of the great glaciers and that all life was retarded in 
its evolution. The writer believes, therefore, that it can not be shown with 
certainty that new forms of living things, especially vertebrates, were devel- 
oped in North America during the Pleistocene. It may be quite as difficult 
to prove that any genera or species of importance entered from other lands 
after the first invasion. Under these conditions there appears to be no 
means for determining successive faunas other than through recording the 
time of the disappearance of genera and species. 

IX. Did the Extinction of Species Take Place Mostly at the End of 

THE Pleistocene? 
At the beginning of the Pleistocene there existed, as has been shown, an 
abundant and highly varied mammalian fauna; at the close of the epoch 
_this fauna had become relatively impoverished. Did all those families and 
genera and species, that in the end were missing, perish during or after 
the last glacial stage, the Wisconsin? This opinion has been expressed by 
some. The writer believes that this view is wholly improbable. 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 7 

A glacial sheet, stretched across the continent or a large part of it, was 
not local in its effects; it was not a cap of ice merely concealing a part of 
the land and covered possibly by forests and allowing occupation by certain 
hardy animals, while beyond, up to its foot, the country was pleasantly 
cool, wooded, and abounding with animated creatures. In the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains of California (Lindgren, Folio 66, U. S. Geol. Surv.) 
and of Nevada (Knopf, Prof. Pap., U. S. Geol. Surv., 110, pp. 92-105) and 
in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado (Atwood and Mather, Jour. Geol., 
vol. XX, p. 385), at distances of approximately 600 or 700 miles from the 
glacial front, there existed, during more than one stage, extensive local 
glaciers. Along the Atlantic coast during at least one glacial stage the 
walrus was driven as far south as Charleston, South Carolina. One caiTN 
hardly doubt that the whole continent was chilled during each of the glaciajy 
stages. 

To mammals, which for perhaps various reasons had been with difficulty 
enduring the stress of existence, the glacial climates would give the final 
stroke; perhaps to others the interglacial climates would have been quite 
as fatal. We can not doubt that each glacial and each interglacial stage 
swept away a few of the less hardy genera and species. Nevertheless, 
several remarkable animals passed through the vicissitudes of all the glacial 
and interglacial times and left their bones in the deposits overlying the 
last, or Wisconsin, drift. Such are two species of elephants, the American 
mastodon, the giant beaver, and one or more species of peccaries. Why 
they succumbed at last is difficult to say. Possibly the return of a fifth 
warm era proved too much for their endurance. 

A reason for believing that the genera and species missing from the fauna 
found here when white men arrived, called sometimes the Columbian fauna, 
were exterminated gradually and not at one epoch is that certain ones are 
found in deposits overlying the earlier glacial drift sheets, but are not found 
in deposits on later drifts. Camels occur in Aftonian beds overlying the 
Nebraskan drift, but have not been collected in later interglacial deposits. 
Horses grow scarcer as the Pleistocene advances. They are known from 
deposits overlying the Illinoian drift, but do not appear after the Wisconsin. 

X. The Stratigraphical and Time Limits of the Earliest Pleistocene. 

It is necessary to determine, if possible, where the boundary-line shall 
be drawn between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. Room must be made 
for the first interglacial, the Nebraskan, and its fauna. How long this first 
glacial stage continued we do not know. Chamberlin and Salisbury have 
indicated (Geology, vol. iii, p. 420) that in a rough way the dates from 
the present of the culmination of the various glacial stages, except the 
Nebraskan, taken in order backward, may be represented by the geomet- 
rical series 1, 2, 4, 8, 16. That is, if the Illinoian stage had its culmination 
150,000 years ago, that of the Kansan occurred 300,000 years ago; if the 
Nebraskan should fall in the same series, it culminated 600,000 years ago; 
and it and the succeeding Aftonian interglacial held sway as long as all the 
rest of the Pleistocene put together. It would be rash to assert that this 
first glacial did last so long; but we see the possibilities. In a personal 



8 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE: 

communication Professor Frank Leverett writes that he estimates that the 
Kansan culmination took place at not less than 400,000 years ago and the 
Nebraskan at 500,000. This, as the present writer estimates, would leave 
for the Nebraskan itself somewhere near 40,000 or 50,000 years. Some 
changes in the life of the Pleistocene must have been wrought during those 
years. 

The glacial deposits of the Nebraskan stage are not as well known as 
one might wish. They appear to be in general overlain by the later drifts 
and are observed mostly where streams have cut through both the over- 
lying drift and the Nebraskan. The old drift found in New Jersey is thin 
and of no great extent. Moreover, we can hardly expect to find fossil 
vertebrates in the drift itself. We must therefore depend on studies of 
supposed Nebraskan fossils found mostly outside of the glaciated area and 
make comparison of them with earlier and later faunas. If we shall dis- 
cover collections of Nebraskan vertebrate animals, we may be sure that 
they will differ from those of the first interglacial, the Aftonian. We may 
be pretty certain that they will include autochthonous genera of the late 
Tertiary, which may be missing from the Aftonian, together with at least 
a few genera from South America and others from Asia. 

Now, have any formations and included fossil vertebrates been found 
which may be fitted into the Nebraskan interval? 

In this stage the writer places the beds which Cope designated the Idaho 
formation (Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1883, p. 135). Since Cope's 
time several new species have been added to his list from this formation. 
In 1917 (Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Calif., vol. x, p. 432), Dr. J. C. Merriam 
published a list of the fossils, except fishes, which had been secured up to 
that time. The list of species referred to the Idaho formation is as follows: 

Equus idahoensis. Procamelus, size of P. major. 

E. excelsu.s? Tragocerus? horn-core of antelope. 

Protoliippus? IschjTosmilus n. sp. 

Rhinoceros, probably Aphelops Morotherium leptonj'x. 

(Teleoceras) fossiger. Castor, possibly n. sp. 

Mastodon mirificus. Olor, size of O. paloregonus. 
Cervus, possibly new. Smaller and more Graculus idahoensis. 

slender than C. canadensis. 

In this collection the presence of horses of the genus Equus, of Cervus, 
Morotherium, and Castor, is strongly suggestive of the Pleistocene. The 
type of Mastodon mirificus was found in Pleistocene deposits of probably 
Aftonian age. Although rhinoceroses are supposed to have become extinct 
before the end of the Pliocene, this supposition may be an error. The list 
of Blanco vertebrates is a short one, and the absence of a genus from it is 
not decisive. One drawing of a seine in the sea-waters of Florida would 
furnish inadequate materials for conclusions about the fish fauna of that 
coast. 

The Thousand Creek fauna (Merriam, Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. Calif., 
vol. X, p. 429), which to the present writer appears of about the same age 
as the Blanco, contains a species of Teleoceras. The genera Protohippus 
and Procamelus might be supposed to have continued their existence and 
evolution until interrupted by an age of ice and by competitors from Asia. 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 9 

In 1917 (Bull, cit., vol. x, pp. 255-266) Merriam and Buwalda published 
a short list of fossils which they had collected along the Columbia River 
in Washington State. A horse was found which was referred to Equus or 
Pliohippiis; also two camelids, one of which was thought to be near Pliau- 
chcnia. Merriam concluded that the evidence on the whole favored the 
Pleistocene. The list will fit into the Nebraskan without difficulty. 

In 1889 (Amer. Naturalist, vol. xxiii, p. 253), Professor E. D. Cope 
published a list of fossil mammals collected in the "Oregon desert," appar- 
ently somewhere in the region of Silver Lake or Summer Lake. The list 
is as follows: 

Canis sp. indet. Holomeniscus or Auchenia. Hippotherium lelictum. 

Elephas or Mastodon. Aphelops sp. indet. Equus sp. indet. 

. Cope looked upon this collection as remarkable in that it showed the 
presence of true horses and camels associated with a rhinoceros. He con- 
cluded that the fossils belonged to his Idaho formation. Dr. W. D. Matthew 
thought that the collection was a mixture of fossils from two formations 
(Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xvi, p. 321). It may, however, have been 
made in Nebraskan deposits. 

In 1921 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lix, pp. 617-638), the writer 
described a collection of vertebrate remains from Anita, Coconino County, 
Arizona. These remains were found in a cave in making explorations for 
copper ore. The list follows: 

Equus occidentalis. Antilocapra americana? Brachylagus browni. 

E. giganteus? Marmota arizonse. Taxidea robusta. 

Mylohyus? sp. indet. Citelhis tuitus. Canis nubilus? 

Procamelus coconinensis. Neotoma cinerea. C. latrans? 

P. longuiio. Lepus benjamini. Chasmaporthetes ossifragus. 

The writer believes that this assemblage of mammals must be referred 
to the Pleistocene. It will be noted, however, that there are two species of 
the genus Procamelus. These resemble so much two species, P. major and 
P. minimus, described by Leidy and Lucas (Trans. Wagner Free Inst., vol. 
IV, pp. i-xiv, 15-61) from the Alachua clays of Florida, that it seemed at 
first necessary to identify them as such. The genus Procamelus seems, 
therefore, to be brought definitely into the early Pleistocene, probably the 
Nebraskan. 

The collections made in the Alachua clays in Florida were obtained in 
Alachua and Levy counties. On pages 195 and 375 will be found an account 
of the geological conditions under which the fossils were found, and lists of 
the species. The essential features are that such supposed Miocene or 
Pliocene genera as Gomphotherium, Procamelus, Teleoceras, and Aphelops 
were found associated with the Pleistocene genera Odocoileus, Tapirus, 
Megatherium, and Equus. This has been explained on the theory that the 
clays are of Tertiary age and that the Pleistocene species had become 
mingled with those of an earlier time. At a number of places in Florida 
where phosphate rock has been mined there have been secured similar 
associations of early camels, rhinoceroses, horses {Hipparion, Parahippus) 
with genera belonging undoubtedly to the Pleistocene. This has occurred 
so often that the writer doubts the correctness of the explanation given. 



10 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 

He ventures, therefore, to include in the Pleistocene of the Nebraskan stage 
the various deposits that have received the names Alachua clays, the Dun- 
nellon formation, and Bone Valley formation. The latter, called also the 
land-pebble phosphates, is believed by Sellards to be contemporaneous in 
age with the Dunnellon or hard phosphates, but to have accumulated under 
different conditions. Both the Alachuan and the Bone Valley formations 
were referred by Sellards to either the late Miocene or the early Pliocene, 
with an evident preference for the latter. It seems to have been the pres- 
ence of the rhinoceroses that most influenced him in his assignment of the 
deposits; but there were naturally other considerations. He wrote: 

The presence of rhinoceroses in the formation is believed to establish defiuitely the 
fact that the beds can not be later than the early Pliocene, since rhinoceroses in America 
apparently did not survive beyond that time (Fla. Geol. Surv., vol. vii, p- 73). 

According to Sellards the hard phosphate, belonging to the Alachua 
(Dunnellon) formation (Fla. Geol. Surv., vol. v, p. 37) resulted from a 
disintegration of underlying Upper Oligocene deposits and probably the 
Vicksburg limestone. Through chemical action these rocks were partly 
dissolved and the residual materials were mixed by local subsidence and 
by action of streams and later modified by chemical changes. 

The land-pebble phosphate of the Bone Valley formation had, Sellards 
concluded (Fla. Geol. Surv., vol. vii, p. 55), resulted from underlying phos- 
phate marls of Upper Oligocene age. This occurred during a time of general 
subsidence of sufficient extent to permit marine waters to reach the area 
covered by the Bone Valley phosphates. The presence of sea-water is 
indicated by the occurrence of bones of cetaceans. 

With regard to the effects of streams and of the chemical action of the 
water on the rocks, which contributed to the formation of the hard rock- 
phosphate and the production of sinks and caves, it may be remarked that 
we know of no time when rocks were dissolved and caves formed to the 
extent that they were during the Pleistocene. 

As shown on page 15, various deposits of marine marls along the 
Atlantic coast are referred by the writer to the Nebraskan. Among these 
marls are the coquina rock found at St. Augustine and the marine marl 
underlying the bed at Vero, which contained early Pleistocene vertebrate 
fossils. These marls are known to extend well inland, being found at 
Kissimmee, 50 miles from the coast. In some places they are met with at 
depths of 70 feet (Sellards, Fla. Geol. Surv., vol. viii, pp. 105-106). Marls 
of probably the same age occur on the western coast of Florida (Dall, Bull. 
84, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 152). The writer believes that some of these marls 
may yet be connected with the phosphate beds of the Bone Valley formation. 

A figure taken from Sellards (Geol. Surv. Fla., vol. vii, opp. p. 53) may 
be found on page 377. This illustrates the relation of the Dunnellon and 
Bone Valley formations to the underlying deposits. 

XI. The First Interglacial, or Aftonian, Stage. 
Mention has been made of collections of fossil vertebrates which long 
ago were secured at Fossil Lake, Oregon, and of others along Niobrara 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 11 

River, near Grayson, Nebraska. Lists of the species found at each locality 
were given by Dr. W. D. Matthew in 1902 (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. XVI, pp. 317-320). These deposits and animals were regarded by 
Cope and Marsh as belonging to the Pliocene, until G. K. Gilbert, in his 
work on Lake Bonneville (Monogr. I, U. S. Geol. Surv., pp. 393-402) showed 
that the Oregon fossils must belong to the Glacial epoch, but he referred 
them to a late time in this epoch, that of the last glaciation. It thus became 
quite impossible to determine the age of any collection of fossil vertebrates. 
In 1887 (Univ. Geol. Surv. Kansas vol. ii, pp. 299-308), Williston wrote: 

Every fact furnished from Kansas seems to substantiate Cope's conclusion that 
the Megalonyx fauna of the East and the Equus fauna of the West were contempor- 
aneous and that both occurred during the period of depression; that is, during late 
Pleistocene time. 

This paragraph was quoted by Osborn in 1910 ("Age of Mammals," p. 
453) , who appears to agree in part with Williston, although he expressed the 
opinion that some of the deposits were earlier than the others. Osborn 
supported the view of the existence of two faunas, that of the "Equus zone" 
and that of the "Megalonyx zone." The former fauna was regarded as 
the older, but overlapping somewhat during the "mid-Pleistocene" the 
Megalonyx fauna. He presented a catalogue of deposits belonging to his 
Equus zone (his page 453) and another of those of the Megalonyx zone 
(p. 467). In the latter he included deposits that he would now doubtless 
refer to the earliest Pleistocene, for example, the Ashley River beds. 

It was necessary for the geologists to come again to the rescue of the 
palaeontologists. They established the fact that there had passed, not a 
single glacial stage, but a series, and that these had been separated by 
corresponding interglacial stages. They were able to show also that between 
the drift sheets there were to be found remnants of old gravels and fossil- 
bearing soils. In Iowa, through the careful researches of Calvin and 
Shimek, numerous remains of fossil mammals were discovered in gravels 
lying between the earliest drift, the Nebraskan, and the second drift, the 
Kansan. Among these mammals were identified horses, camels, elephants 
{E. columbi, E. imperator) , Mylodon, Megalonyx, and a large ruminant 
which is certainly a species of bison. This fauna, known as the Aftonian, 
was correlated by Calvin with that of the Sheridan beds of Nebraska (Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xx, p. 354). The writer has had the opportunity to 
study this Aftonian material (Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxiri), and, although it 
is not as abundant as might be desired, he agrees with Calvin's correlation. 

Making due allowances for environment and the hazards attending preser- 
vation and collection, the Aftonian and Sheridan fauna is practically the 
same as that found at Fossil Lake, Oregon. Furthermore, it may be traced 
along the plains into Texas and to the shores of the Gulf. Here, at or near 
tide-level, or not far away, may be found horses, camels, elephants {E. 
columbi and E. imperator) , Mammut americanum, and mastodons with 
teeth presenting trefoils. In Texas, within a mile of the Louisiana line, 
Elcphas imperator has been collected. The fauna reappears on the west 
coast of Florida ; also on Peace Creek ; on the east coast at Vero ; at Bruns- 
wick and Savannah, Georgia; along Ashley River, near Charleston; prob- 



12 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 

ably also on the banks of Neuse River, 16 miles below New Bern, North 
Carolina; and again probably at Long Branch, New Jersey, where Mega- 
therium has been found; and finally at Port Kennedy, on Schuylkill River, 
about 25 miles above Philadelphia. All along the coast, apparently from 
the Rio Grande to Long Branch, the localities which furnish Aftonian 
fossils are within a few feet of sea-level. 

XIL The Yarmouth Interglacial Stage. 

Up to the present time the interglacial soils found in a few localities 
between the Kansan and the lUinoian drifts have furnished only scanty 
remains of vertebrate fossils — a rabbit and a skunk at the type locality in 
Iowa. Certainly, however, the same animals were living then that were 
found at later stages. 

XIIL The Illinoian Glacial Stage. 

To the Illinoian glacial stage the writer refers the collection of fossil 
vertebrates which was described in 1908 by Barnum Brown (Mem. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. ix, pp. 157-208) and which had been obtained in the 
Conard fissure near Willcockson, Newton County, Arkansas. It is placed 
here rather than in the Sangamon stage, because of the number of species 
present which suggest a rather cold climate. A list of these species will be 
found on pages 31-32 of volume xxiii, of the Iowa Geological Survey. 

XIV. The Sangamon Interglacial Stage. 

This was the warm stage which succeeded the glacial Illinoian. Between 
the Illinoian and the Wisconsin there passed a long period of time. It is 
now believed that it was interrupted by the lowan ice-sheet, but this appears 
not to have lasted long nor to have occupied any considerable area. Asso- 
ciated with it in some way was the accumulation of much loess. This was 
formerly supposed to have been deposited to a large extent at least during 
the Sangamon; but, as Leverett informs me, it appears to have been laid 
down at a time nearer the Wisconsin than the Illinoian. This lowan drift 
and the loess has been the subject of a special investigation by Alden and 
Leighton (Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxvi, pp. 49-212). Few vertebrate fossils 
have been found in the loess. Their bones may have been dissolved out by 
the percolating rain-water, and yet the delicate shells of land moUusks are 
abundant. A collection which the writer regards as belonging rightfully to 
the Sangamon was made at Alton, Illinois, many years ago, by William 
McAdams. A list of the species and an account of the geological conditions 
connected with it are presented on page 339. The remains appear to have 
accumulated in a pond on the Illinoian drift and to have been covered by 
loess. The horse was yet in existence, as well as the deer Sangainona and 
the antelope Taurotragus americanus. Two-thirds of the 15 species are 
extinct. A smaller number of species have been collected near Kimmswick, 
just below St. Louis, Missouri. The remains found in a cave in Bexar 
County, Texas, are believed to belong here (Hay, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. Lviii, p. 129). It is, however, in the Alleghany Mountains that most 
of the vertebrates have been collected which the writer refers to the Sanga- 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 13 

mon stage. These have been found in caves and fissures from northern 
Pennsylvania to northern Ahibama. Unfortunately, although mostly dis- 
covered several years ago, some of these collections have not yet been well 
studied and have not been accessible to the writer. They contain two or 
three species of horses, two or three genera of peccaries, tapirs, the deer 
Sangamona, the antelope Taurotragus, and one or more species of saber- 
tooth tigers. Half or more of the species are extinct. To the writer these 
assemblages seem to fit into the history nowhere so well as into the 
Sangamon stage. 

Another assemblage that probably belongs here is that made at Toronto 
(p. 282). This indicates a warm climate, since the papaw and the osage 
orange grew there. 

XV. The Peorian Interglacial Stage. 

This is the interglacial interval between the lowan glacial and the Wis- 
consin. It was probably not of long continuance and is chiefly remarkable 
for the deposition of loess. This has not furnished any important collec- 
tions of vertebrate fossils. The type locality for the Peorian stage is a 
locality east of Peoria, Illinois. Leverett (Monogr. xxxviii, U. S. Geol. 
Surv.) mentions several cases in which old soils believed to belong to the 
Peorian were observed in Illinois. None of these has furnished vertebrate 
fossils. It is usually difficult to distinguish the Sangamon from the Peorian 
soils. 

XVI. The Wisconsin Glacial Stage and the Wabash Beds. 

The next stage which furnishes abundant vertebrate fossils is the Wis- 
consin. These remains are found most abundantly in the old soils and 
mucks which accumulated in the swamps, ponds, and lakes left on the 
uneven surface of the Wisconsin drift as the ice retired. To such deposits 
the writer has given the name Wabash beds. They are often called post- 
glacial deposits; but that term ought in strictness to be applied only to 
deposits of the present epoch. They may be called Late Glacial, but that 
expression has been used for the drift and moraines produced by the second 
half of the Wisconsin glaciation. It might be better to use for the divkions 
of the Wisconsin the terms Lower and Upper. 

In the late Wisconsin, or the Wabash, deposits there may be found 
remains of any of the existing animals of the region; also often the bones 
and teeth of mammals now living in more northern regions. Besides tiiese, 
there may occur the relics of animals which were able to endure the rigors, 
changes, and competitions of the Glacial period, but succumbed at its end. 
These are, especially, two species of elephants, one or two species of mas- 
todons, four or more species of musk-oxen, the moose Cervalces, one or more 
species of peccary, and the giant beaver. 

XVII. On the Theory of the Pleistocene Terraces of the 

Coastal Plain. 
The writer will discuss briefly the widely accepted theory that along the 
sea-coast from New Jersey to southwestern Texas there occurs a series of 



14 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 



terraces and corresponding escarpments, three or more in number, repre- 
senting successive emergences of the borders of the continent from the sea. 
The theory was first proposed by Dr. W J McGee (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, 
vol. XXV, 1888, p. 367; 12th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., pt. i, 1891, pp. 353- 
521). He included in the initial submergence not only the area occupied by 
the supposed Pleistocene terraces, but also the borders of the coasts to an ele- 
vation corresponding to the Lafayette (Appomattox) formation, which he 

Conspectus of the Geology and Vertebrate Paleontology of the Pleistocene. 



1 

Drift-sheets and other deposits. 



Wisconsin Stage. 

Atlantic to Pacific in Wiscon- 
sin, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, 
Ohio, New York, New Jersey 
(Cape May. Trenton grav- 
els), Ontario, Quebec, etc., 
Maine, Massachusetts. 
Peorian Stage. 

Old soils between the lowan 
and the Wisconsin drifts 
where the former is present. 
Reported by Leverett (Men. 
U. S. Geol. Surv., vol. 
xxxviii) from locaUties in 
Illinois. U.sually hard to 
distinguish from Sangamon. 
Abundant loess in Mississippi 
Valley. 

lowan Stage. 

Known certainly only from 
Iowa and Wisconsin. Sup- 
posed to be present along 
New England coast. Gay 
Head to Maine. 

Sangamon Stage. 

Sangamon River, lUinois. Old 
soils just above the lUinoian 
drift. Some loess of this 
stage. Cave deposits in 
Texas and in the Alleghany 
Mountains. 



Illinoian Stage. 

In Illinois, Wisconsin, eastern 
Iowa, Indiana, Ohio. Sup- 
posed glacial drift from Long 
Island to Massachusetts 
(Montauk till, etc.). 
Yarmouth Stage. 

Interglacial soils and mucks 
between the Kansan and Il- 
linoian in Iowa and Ilhnois. 
Gardner clay and Sankaty 
from Long Island to Boston. 
Kansan Stage. 

Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and 
northwestward. Loess 
overlying the drift; Jerseyan 
drift. New Jersey (may be 
Nebraskan); Pensauken. 
Jameco gra^'els on Long 
Island, New York, and Cape 
Cod, Massachusetta. 



Representative collections. 



Made in swamps and old lakes 
on Wisconsin drift (Wabash 
beds) from Illinois to Massa- 
chusetta and Cape Breton 
Island. Leda clays, Canada. 



Fossil mammals rarely found. 



None. 



Alton, Illinois; Kimmswick, Mis- 
souri; cave in Bexar County, 
Texas; bluffs at Natchez, Mis- 
sissippi; salt mine at Petite 
Anse, Louisiana; Cavetown 
and Corriganville, Maryland; 
Ivanhoe, Virginia; Whites- 
burg, Tennessee; interglacial 
beds at Toronto, Ontario. 

Conard fissure, Newton County, 
Arkansas. Otherwise none 
recognized. 



Few vertebrates yet recognized. 
Skunk and rabbit at Yar- 
mouth, Iowa. 



Fossil vertebrates rarely found. 



Disappearance of genera and 
species. 



Megalonyx, Elephas, Mammut, 
Cervalces, Symbos, Boother- 
ium, Mylohyus, Platygonus 
Bison occidentalis, Casto- 
roides. 



None certainly known. 



Mylodon, Tapirus, Equus, 
Taurotragus, Sangamona, Bi- 
son latifrons, B. antiquus, 
iEnocyon, Dinobastis, 
Smilodon, Smilodontopsis. 

None known to have become 
extinct during this stage. 



Characteristic genera. 



May include some accredited to 

the Kansan. 



Not known. 



Megatherium, Glyptodon, 
Stegomastodon, Anancus, 
Gomphotherium?, Elephas 
imperator, Eschatius, 
Camelops, Camelus, Hy- 
drochoerus, Aftonius, 
I^eptochoerus, Trucifelis. 



Existing mammals, 
plus those of col- 
umn 3. 



Few recognized, 
general, those 
the Wisconsin. 



In 

of 



None known; but in 
general those of 
the later stages. 



Mylodon, a few- 
horses, tapirs, pec- 
caries, Sangamona, 
Taurotragus, 
Symbos, Bison 
latifrons, B. anti- 
quus, Elephas and 
Mammut. 



Equus, Mylohyus, 
Symbos, Felis, 
Smilodontopsis, 
Dinobastis. 



Few known. Doubt- 
less those which 
became extinct 
during Illinoian 
and lowan and 
later. 

Doubtle.ss those in 
the later stages of 
this column and 
some of those of 
this stage in col- 
umn 3. 



CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 



15 



referred provisionally to the late Pliocene. This submergence required a 
depression of the eastern half of the continent amounting to 500 feet or 
more. The theory was accepted especially by the geologists of Maryland 
in their excellent reports (Shattuck, Maryland Geol. Surv., Pliocene and 
Pleistocene volume, pp. 62-137, with maps). It has likewise been applied 
to the geology of Virginia (Clark and Miller, Va. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. iv, 
pp. 48-56, 179-189), North Carolina (Stephenson, N. C. Geol. Econom. 
Surv., vol. Ill, 1912, pp. 266-290), Georgia (Veatch, Geol. Surv. Ga., Bull. 
No. 26, 1911, pp. 35-50), as Okefenokee and Satilla; (Stephenson, ibid., pp. 
425-445), Florida (Matson and Clapp, Fla. Geol. Surv., vol. ii, 1909), and 
to Texas (Deussen, Water Supply Pap. U. S. Geol. Surv. 335, pp. 78-83). 



CoJispectus of the Geology and Vertebrate of the Pleistocene — Continued. 



1 

Drift-sheets and other deposits. 



Aftonian Stage. 
Gravels and soils between the 
Kansan and the Nebraskan 
in Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, 
and Kansas. Lake and river 
deposits in Nebraska and 
Oregon; river deposits, Pitt- 
bridge, Texas; asphalt beds 
near I^os Angeles, California. 
Sands, etc. bearing verte- 
brate remains at or near sea- 
level from mouth of the Rio 
Grande to Sandy Hook, New 
Jersey. 



Nebraskan Stage. 
Drift in Iowa and Nebraska 
beneath more recent drifts; 
Idaho formation, Idaho; New 
Jerseyan? and Bridgeton, 
New Jersey; Mannetto grav- 
els, New York, Long Island, 
and Cape Cod, Massachu- 
setts; "I'irst Glacial "atMar- 
thas Vineyard; Arcadia 
marls, on Peace Creek; 
Alachuan clays and phos- 
phates, and Bone Valley 
phosphates; marine marl bed 
at Vero; Coquina at St. 
Augustine, Florida; Quaran- 
tine Station, Southport, New 
Hanover County, North 
Carolina; Dismal Swamp, 
North Carolina and Virginia. 



Representative collections. 



Along Missouri River in Iowa; 
Fossil Lake, Oregon; Grayson, 
Sheridan County, Nebraska; 
La Brea, California; Lake 
I^ahontan and Walker River, 
Nevada; Lavaca and Galves- 
ton Bays, Texas; Peace Creek, 
Caloosahatchee River, and 
Vero, Florida; Brunswick and 
Savannah, Georgia; Beaufort 
and Ashley River, South 
CaroUna; Neuse River, North 
Carolina; Fish House clay 
near Camden, New Jersey; 
Long Branch, New Jersey; 
Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania. 

Collections made in southwest- 
ern Idaho; "Oregon Desert," 
Oregon; Anita, Coconino 
County, Arizona; Ringgold, 
Yakima County, Washington. 
In clays in Alachua and Levy- 
counties; Dunnellon, Ocala, 
Brewster, and Mulberry, 
Florida. Horse at Marthas 
Vineyard?. 



Disappearance of genera and 
species. 



None recognized. Probably 
some of those cited under the 
Kansan. 



Gomphotherium floridanum, 
Protohippus, Parahippus, 
Procamelus, Teleoceras, 
Aphelops. 



Characteristic genera. 



Mylodon, Mega- 
lonyx. Megathe- 
rium, Glyptodon 
Chlamytherium, 
Elephas impera- 
tor, Anancus, 
Gomphotherium. 
Tapirus, Equus, 
Hipparion, 
C a m e 1 o p s , 
Camelus, Bison 
regius, Hydro- 
choerus. 



Megatherium, 
Elephas impera- 
tor, Mammut, 
Gomphotherium 
floridanum, 
Protohippus, 
Parahippus, Hip- 
parion, Equus, 
Tapirus, Teleoce- 
ras, Aphelops, 
Procamelus, 
Agriotherium, 
Canis, Trucifelis 
floridanus, Chas- 
maporthetes. 



UPPER PLIOCENE— BLANCO, TEXAS; THOUSAND CREEK, NEVADA; ETCHEGOIN-TULARE, CALIF. 



Upper Pliocene Stage. 








Texas, Nevada, and California. 


Lists published by J. C. ^ler- 


Glyptotherium, Pliohippus, 


Glyptotherium, 




riam in Bulletin of Depart- 


Tephrocyon, Hyaenognathus, 


M e g a 1 n y X , 




ment Geology, University of 


Ilingoceros. 


Gompliotherium, 




California, vol. x, p. 425 




Pliohippus, Hip- 




(Etchegoin-Tulare) ; p. 425 




parion, Teleoceras, 




(Thousand Creek); p. 434 




Platygonus, 




(Blanco). 




Pliauchenia, 
Procamelus, 
Ilingoceros, 
Tephrocyon, 


• 






Hy:enognathus. 



16 CONCLUSIONS AS TO DIVISIONS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. 

In Marjdand and the District of Columbia there have been recognized 
three Pleistocene terraces (Shattuck, as cited above). The uppermost is 
the Sunderland, the next the Wicomico, the lowest the Talbot. These are 
not correlated by Shattuck definitely with glacial divisions of the Pleis- 
tocene, but the Sunderland is the oldest, while the Talbot is regarded the 
most recent, probably about the age of the last glacial stage, the Wisconsin. 

When the writer began his study of the Pleistocene he accepted the theory 
proposed b}' McGee and the Maryland geologists, and traces of this accept- 
ance may be found in this work ; but he is now convinced of its falsity. It 
is hardly to be believed that the coastal region could have been occupied, 
even at intervals, since the late Pliocene, when the depression is supposed 
to have been at least 500 feet, and 200 feet during the Sunderland, down 
to the end of the Wicomico and even the Talbot, without its having left 
other traces of marine occupation than the supposed terraces and escarp- 
ments. There ought to appear somewhere in the long border from New 
Jersey to Mexico abundant and extensive deposits of stratified materials, 
clays, sands, and gravels. Such deposits appear to be relatively rare. 

A still more serious objection to the theory of submergence beneath marine 
waters is the absence of marine fossils. In the materials forming these 
terraces one might with confidence expect to find at least marine mollusks, 
mussels, clams, and beds of oysters; probably also remains of fishes, of 
porpoises, and of whales. Leaving out of consideration the Talbot terrace, 
which is near sea-level (Shattuck, op. cit., p. 10), the supporters of the 
theory under consideration admit that not in the Lafayette, nor the Sunder- 
land, nor the Wicomico, have any traces of such fossils been met with. 
On the other hand, all over these terraces are found remains of land animals 
and plants. Mastodons, elephants, and horses are by no means rare. Con- 
ditions favorable for the preservation of teeth of proboscideans must have 
been quite as well adapted to preserve shells of oysters. In the Sunderland 
and Wicomico a few land plants have been secured, an abundance of them 
in the Talbot. Map No. 39 shows the distribution of Pleistocene mammals, 
mollusks, and plants on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. 

It seems evident, therefore, that the sea has had nothing to do with the 
formation of the Lafayette, the Sunderland, and the Wicomico terraces, and 
little with that of the Talbot. It was natural that the advocates of this 
theory of the formation of these terraces during the Pleistocene should dis- 
tribute them somewhat impartial^ over the time of this epoch, assigning 
the Talbot to a late interval. On page 11 the writer has called attention 
to the fact that in many places along the coast from southeastern Texas to 
New Jersey, at or near sea-level, there are beds which contain a vertebrate 
fauna of the Aftonian or first interglacial stage. Probably nowhere do these 
beds have any large amount of later materials overlying them; it is often 
extremely little. So far as the writer can judge, this means that all the 
terraces and escarpments were produced before the time of the first inter- 
glacial; not since that distant time has there occurred along the Gulf or 
Atlantic coasts south of New Jersey any considerable elevation or depression 
of the Coastal Plain. 



ONTARIO. 17 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE CETACEANS IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

(Map 1.) 

ONTARIO. 

1. Nepean Toivnship, Carleton County. — In 1914, Mr. L. M. Lambe, of 
the Canadian Geological Survey, stated (Summ. Rep. for 1913, p. 299) that 
Walter Billings, of Ottawa, had presented to the Survey a caudal vertebra 
of Delphinapterus leucas, found in Pleistocene gravel on lot 15, concession 5, 
of Nepean township. The locality is near Jock River, a stream which flows 
northeasterly and enters Rideau River about 11 miles south of Ottawa. 
With it was sent the lower end of a femur, supposed to belong to the bison. 

2. Ottawa East, Carleton County. — In 1910, Mr. L. M. Lambe reported 
(Summ. Rep. Geol. Surv. Can. for 1909, p. 273) that Mr. A. Penfold had 
presented to the Sui .t»y a caudal vertebra of Delphinapterus leucas, which 
he had found at Ottawa East, at a depth of 25 feet, while digging a well. 

3. Smith's Falls, Lanark County. — In 1883 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 
XXV, p. 200) Dr. J. W. Dawson announced the finding of two vertebrae, a 
part of another, and a fragment of a rib of a large whale, in a ballast pit 
at Welshe's, 3 miles north of Smith's Falls. This whale he identified as 
Megaptera longimana {M. boops) . The bones were found in gravel at a 
depth of 30 feet and about 50 feet from the original face of the pit. The 
elevation of the place is given as about 440 feet above sea-level. Dawson 
stated that this corresponds exactly with the height of one of the sea- 
terraces on Royal Mountain at Montreal. He added that this animal might 
have sailed past that mountain, then only a rocky islet, when a wide sea, 
400 feet above the lower levels of Montreal, covered all the plain of the 
lower St. Lawrence. Inasmuch as the highest terrace containing marine 
fossils at Montreal stands at a height of about 625 feet (Stansfield, Mem. 
73, Canad. Geol. Surv., 1915) above sea-level, the region had apparently 
risen about 160 feet at least above its lowest submergence when the whale 
was buried. The discovery of this whale is mentioned by Dawson in his 
"Canadian Ice Age," 1894, page 268; also by Professor G. H. Perkins in his 
Report of the State Geologist of Vermont, 1907-8, page 83. 

4. Pakenham, Lanark County. — This locality is about 42 miles north- 
northwest from Welshe's, where the whale remains just discussed were 
found. At Pakenham, in 1906, there were discovered bones, including a 
nearly perfect skull, of a white whale. The discovery was reported in 1900 
and 1907 by Dr. J. F. Whiteaves (Summ. Rep. Geol. Surv. Can. for 1908, 
p. 171; Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xx, pp. 214-216). The remains were found 
by a well-digger on a farm (lot 21, 11th concession), and were embedded 
in blue clay at a depth of 14 feet. Immediately about the bones was a 
mixture of clay and shells. The animal has been referred to Delphinapterus 
leucas. As one of the ear-bones was secured, the determination of the species 
would appear to be possible. According to Perkins, the ear-bone in the type 
of D. vermontanus differs from that of the existing white whale, D. leucas. 
The writer is unable to say more than that the whale found at Pakenham 
belongs to the Late Wisconsin. 



18 PLEISTOCENE CETACEANS. 

5. Cornwall, Stormont County. — In 1870 (Canad. Naturalist and Quart. 
Jour. Sci., vol. V, pp. 438-439), E. Billings gave an account of the discovery 
of remains of a white whale at Cornwall. Considerable parts of the skull 
were secured, including the lower jaws. Besides many vertebrae and some 
other parts, 8 teeth were saved, but the ear-bones were missing. The animal 
had been about 15 feet long. Whether it belonged to Delphinapterus leucas 
or D. vermontanus may be regarded as doubtful. Extracts from Billings's 
description are to be found in Professor Perkins's paper (Rep. State 
Geologist Vermont, 1907-8, pp. 81-82). 

6. Williamstoum, Glengarry County. — This place is about 10 miles north- 
east of Cornwall. In Professor Perkins's paper just cited it is stated that 
Edward Ardley, assistant curator at Redpath Museum, McGill University, 
Montreal, had found here a few bones of a white whale, the hyoid, a few 
phalanges, and rib fragments. It is impossible from such limited materials 
to determine whether the animal was Delphinapterus vermontanus or D. 
leucas. From Mr. Ardley, through Mr. Arthur Willey, curator of Redpath 
Museum, the present writer has learned that these bones were dug up from 
a depth of 14 feet, in a well sunken in the Leda clay. Under the surface 
soil was a band of sandy clay containing shells of Saxicava and Mya. 
Beneath this was a stiff blue clay showing stratification and containing 
shells of Leda. 

QUEBEC. 

7. Montreal.— In 1863 (Rep. Geol. Surv. Canada, p. 919), W. E. Logan 
announced the finding of some bones of a whale at the Mile-End quarries, 
Montreal, on a slight ridge, "where are found stratified sand and gravel 
holding boulders and shells in the lower part." In corresponding clays in 
a neighboring brickyard was found a pelvis of a seal, Phoca grcendlandica. 
In 1895 (Canad. Rec. Sci., vol vi, p. 351), Dr. J. W. Dawson reported the 
discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of another white whale at Montreal. 
This was found in brick-clay, near Papineau Road. The locality is said by 
Dawson to be about 100 feet above the St. Lawrence; the bones were in 
the clay at a depth of 22 feet. The clay itself was probably deposited at 
a depth of 50 to 80 fathoms. This is said by Dawson to correspond approxi- 
mately with a well-marked shore-line at Montreal, found at a height of 
about 470 feet above the sea and with the old sea-beach at Smith's Falls 
as related on page 17. In 1916, Mr. Edward Ardley, assistant curator of 
Redpath Museum, reported (Canad. Rec. Sci., vol. ix, pp. 490-493) the dis- 
covery of a large part of the skeleton of a white whale, supposed to belong 
to Delphinapterus leucas, at Montreal East. The skeleton was buried in 
Leda clay about 15 feet above St. Lawrence River. It was 10.5 feet long. 
The cranium and lower jaw were secured, besides parts of the trunk and 
limbs. 

8. Riviere du Loup, Temiscouata County. — In his work, "Canadian Ice 
Age," 1894, on page 268, Dr. J. W. Dawson reported that bones of Beluga 
catodon {Delphinapteriis leucas) had been found at the place mentioned. 
It is not probable that parts sufficient for making a definite determination 
were secured, nor did Dawson give any details regarding the geological 



NEW BRUNSWICK VERMONT. 19 

conditions connected with the discovery. Doubtless the remains were found 
in marine deposits of one of the terraces. 

9. Metis, Rimouski County. — In the work just cited (p. 269), Dawson 
stated that in the summer of 1891 he secured a large jawbone of a whale 
which had been found in digging a cellar in the shelly marl of the lower 
terrace at Metis. He did not identify the species, but appears to imply 
that it belonged to either the "humpback" {Megaptera boops) or to one 
of the finner whales (Balcenoptera) . 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

10. Jaquet River, Restigouche County. — In 1874 (Trans. Nova Scotia 
Inst. Sci., vol. Ill, pp. 400-404), Dr. J. B. Gilpin gave an account of the 
discovery of some cetacean bones in a railroad cut at the place named, but 
did not identify the bones otherwise than as those of a small cetacean. In 
the same year (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. vii, p. 597) , in a short, unsigned 
communication, this discovery was mentioned and the whale was identified 
as Beluga vermontana. In volume viii of the same journal (1874, p. 219). 
Dr. D. Honeyman described the deposit and gave a list of the shells found 
in it. Dawson (Canad. Ice Age, p. 268) refers the bones to Beluga catodon. 
The locality is a cut of the International Railway, on the north side of the 
Jaquet River, about 0.25 mile from the sea. Gilpin gives the elevation 
as 40 feet above the sea; the writer of the unsigned communication just 
mentioned gives it as 25 feet. 

Professor G. H. Perkins (Rep. State Geologist Vermont, 1907-8, pp. 102- 
112) studied the bones described b}^ Gilpin. They consisted of 18 vertebrae, 
some fragments of the skull, one of the ear-bones, a part of the lower jaw, 
some fragments of ribs, and some arm-bones. He identified the animal as 
belonging to the genus Monodon and probably M. monoceros, the existing 
narwhal. 

11. Mace's Bay, Charlotte County. — In 1879 (Geol. Survey of Canada, 
1877-78, EE, p. 23), Mr. G. F. Matthew reported the discovery of a 
ramus of the lower jaw of a whale, possibly a species of Delphinapterus, 
at the mouth of the Popologan (or Pocologan) River. It is now in the 
Mechanics' Institute at St. John. It had fallen from a bank of Leda clay. 
It probably belongs to the late Pleistocene. 

VERMONT. 

12. Charlotte, Chittenden County. — At this place were discovered con- 
siderable parts of a whale, described in 1850 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 
IX, pp. 256-263) by Zadock Thompson, under the name Beluga vermontana. 
The animal has by many been regarded as identical with the white whale, 
Delphinapterus leucas, now appearing sometimes as far up as Montreal. A 
more extended description of it was given in 1853 (Hist. Vermont, Append., 
p. 15, figs. 1-13). This was reproduced in Edward Hitchcock's Report on 
the Geology of Vermont, 1861, page 164, and was followed by remarks on 
the specimen by Edward Hitchcock jr. In the second volume of the work 
just cited (p. 938) Hager furnished a figure of the skeleton as mounted. In 



20 PLEISTOCENE CETACEANS. 

1908 (Rep. State Geologist Vermont, 1907-8, pp. 76-112, plates x-xix), 
Professor G. H. Perkins gave an extended description of the remains and 
reached the conclusion that D. vermontanus is distinct from D. leucas. 
Since Perkins's article gives a full history of the discovery and the litera- 
ture pertaining to the specimen, this account will be much abridged. The 
bones were found in making a cut for the Rutland and Burlington Railroad, 
at the town of Charlotte, about a mile east of the shore of Lake Champlain. 
The bones were 8 or 9 feet below the surface and "were very completely 
bedded in fine adhesive blue clay." The locality is 60 feet above the mean 
level of the lake and 150 feet above the sea. The deposits were laid down 
in the marine waters which took possession of Lake Champlain and the St. 
Lawrence Valley when the Wisconsin glacial ice had withdrawn north of 
St. Lawrence River. The geological age of the animal is therefore late 
Pleistocene. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

13. Below Neiv Bern. — In 1842 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xmi, p. 143), 
Richard Harlan reported regarding the species of fossil vertebrates found 
16 miles below New Bern. His list, which was long and consisted mainly 
of vernacular names, included "cetaceans." 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

14. Charleston. — In 1860 (Holmes's Post-Pliocene Foss. South Carolina, 
p. 117, plate XXIV, fig. 9), Leidy described a cetacean tooth which he called 
Physeter antiqun^s. Later the specific name was changed to vetus. At the 
same time he figured a tooth (fig. 8) found in the Ashley River deposits. 
He further stated that teeth apparently of the same species had been taken 
from the Miocene formations of Virginia, but found no characters by which 
they could be distinguished from those of the recent sperm whale. 

GEORGIA. 

15. Brunswick.— In 1911 (Bull. No. 26, Geol. Surv. Georgia, p. 436), 
Gidley reported from here, among other vertebrates, some teeth which he 
regarded as those of Physeter vetus; but this may not be correct and they 
may not belong to the Pleistocene. 

FLORIDA. 

16. Daytona, Volusia County. — In 1916 (Florida Geol. Surv., vol. viii, 
p. 105), Doctor Sellards stated that he had obtained from marl-pits worked 
at this place for road materials a proboscidean tusk and a rib of a whale, 
probably of the genus Baloenoptera. At the same place had been found a 
tooth of Elephas columhi. 

17. De Land, Volusia County. — At this place was obtained the dolphin 
skull which Sellards described as Globicephalus bcBreckeii (Florida Geol. 
Surv., vol. VIII, p. 107, plate xiv). It was found embedded in sand at a 
depth of 10 feet. This sand overlies marls which are regarded as Pliocene 
or Miocene. Sellards believed that the sands belonged to the Pleistocene. 
It is not improbable that the marls pertain to the Pleistocene of the first 
glacial time. 



GRINNELL LAND — NOVA SCOTIA NEW BRUNSWICK — QUEBEC. 21 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE PINNIPEDIA IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

(Map 2.) 
GRINNELL LAND. 

Dumbbell Harbor. — In 1877 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. xx, p. 
488) , Fielden published a paper on the Post-Tertiary beds of Grinnell Land 
and north Greenland. Fielden and De Ranee reported on the same subject 
in 1878 (Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. xxxiv, p. 566). In beds having 
an elevation of 400 feet, in latitude 82° 30', there were obtained meager 
remains of Phoca hispida and Ovibos moschatus. In latitude 82° 25' were 
secured remains of Rangifer tarandus, Ovibos moschatus, and Phoca 
barbata. The invertebrate fauna was found to be identical with that exist- 
ing there to-day. If the beds are of Pleistocene age, as the elevation appears 
to indicate, they may be referred to the Late Wisconsin. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

1. Sable Island. — In the collection of the Philadelphia Academy there is 
a walrus skull which was sent to the Academy from Sable Island about 
1871. According to Rhoacls (Proc. Phila. Acad., 1898, p. 197), Leidy 
regarded this skull as that of a recent individual; but Rhoads states that 
"the specimen is of precisely the same nature in color, texture, and specific 
gravity as the larger fossil specimen which Leidy described and figured in 
the Philosophical Transactions and which came from the beach at Long 
Branch, New Jersey." He thinks that it had been derived from an ancient 
raised sea-beach. This does not appear to be at all improbable. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

2. Fairville, Charlotte County. — In 1879 (Geol. Surv. Canada, Rep. for 
1877-8, EE, p. 23) , Dr. G. F. Matthew reported the discovery of a skeleton 
of Phoca groenlandica near Fairville, at the mouth of St. John River, New 
Brunswick. The fore limbs and several vertebrse were missing. The skele- 
ton was afterwards destroyed in a fire at St. John. The bones were found 
at a depth of about 25 feet, in the lower Leda clay. 

QUEBEC. 

3. Bic, Rwiouski County. — In Le Naturaliste Canadien (vol. xxxvi, 
1908, p. 51), the editor, V. A. Huard, in commenting on a letter written to 
him and announcing the capture of a walrus somewhere on the northern 
coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, recalled an article contributed in 1869 
by the former editor, a priest named Provancher (Le Naturaliste Canad., 
vol. II, p. 19). This writer stated that some workmen employed in the 
construction of the International Railway had discovered at Bic, Rimouski 
County, Quebec, on the southern shore of the St. Lawrence, a complete 
skeleton of a walrus. This skeleton had a length of 13 feet. It was found 
at a depth of 14 feet, in a compact clay, and at a height of more than 100 



22 PLEISTOCENE PINNIPEDIA. 

feet above sea-level. The skeleton was deposited in the museum of the 
Rimouski Seminary, but was destroyed in a fire in 1881. 

It is evident that when that animal died and was buried in the clay the 
land in that region stood at a level at least 100 feet lower than at present. 

Through the late Mr. L. M. Lambe, of the Canada Geological Survey, the 
writer has received from Mr. W. A. Jolmston, who made a special study of 
the Pleistocene, information regarding the age of the clays at Bic. He says 
that little can be said definitely regarding the age of the clays in which 
the walrus skeleton was found. Clays belonging to the Champlain sub- 
mergence stand now at an elevation of 311 feet in that vicinity; and marine 
shells occur in clays, supposed to belong to the Champlain, at an altitude 
of 120 feet. There is a possibility that some of the clays in that region are 
earlier than the time of the Wisconsin. Mr. Johnston cites Guide Book 
No. 1, part I, pp. 77-78, of the Canada Survey, and Dawson's Ice Age, 
1893, pp. 186-195. The first article was written by J. W. Goldthwait. On 
page 921 of Logan's Geology of Canada, 1863, it is stated that bones of 
whales and of the morse have been found partially embedded in the Leda 
clay in several places between Bic and Matanne, about 60 miles farther 
down the river. 

4. Montreal, Quebec— In 1863, Logan (Geol. Surv. Canada, p. 920) told 
of the discovery of a skeleton of Phoca groBtidlandica near Montreal. The 
exact locality appears to be about 0.75 mile east of what was then known 
as the Mile-end quarries. These quarries were about 100 feet above sea- 
level, and the spot where the skeleton was found was about 40 feet lower 
down. At a nearby brickyard some bones of a young seal were discovered 
which belonged probably to the same species. One of the pelvic bones of 
a seal was found also at the Mile-end quarries. Dr. J. W. Dawson ("Cana- 
dian Ice Age," 1844, p. 267) stated that the skeleton was found in the Leda 
clay; that it is in the collection of the Geological Survey, at Ottawa; and 
that detached bones are in the Peter Redpath Museum of McGill University 
at Montreal. The Leda clay, at least that of the upper portion of the St. 
Lawrence Valley, is now referred to the Champlain epoch, a time when the 
sea had invaded this valley and even Lake Ontario. 

5. Tetreauville, Ottawa County. — In 1897 H. M. Ami (Ottawa Natu- 
ralist, vol. XI, p. 24) announced that he and Ruggles Wright had found 
some bones which were probably those of a young harbor seal, Phoca 
vitulina. They were collected in 1888, in a sandy layer about 30 feet below 
the surface, on a hillside, at Wright's brick-clay pits, on Aylmer Road, 
Tetreauville, Quebec. This place is about 5 miles west of Hull, and within 
10 miles of Ottawa. These bones are in the Victoria Museum at Ottawa. 
Besides the left half of the lower jaw with teeth, there are both ear-bones, 
one exoccipital, the greater portion of the backbone, scapula, part of the 
pelvis, and some of the larger limb-bones. This species is abundant in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and also ascends the larger rivers to a great distance. 
Doubtless great numbers inhabited the inland sea which, during Champlain 
times, is believed to have occupied the valley of the St. Lawrence, Lake 
Ontario, and the valley of the Ottawa River nearly as far up as the city 
of Ottawa. 



ONTARIO — MAINE. 23 

ONTARIO. 

6. O^^aiya.— Remains believed to belong to Phoca groenlandica have 
been found near Ottawa, Ontario. In 1856 (Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
vol. VIII, p. 90, plate iii), Doctor Leidy described and figured the hinder 
limbs of a young aquatic animal which he regarded as a seal, but did not 
more exactly identify. He expressed the opinion that its descendants were 
yet sporting in the sea-borders of Canada. This specimen was found in 
Gloucester Township, Carleton County, about 9 miles east of Ottawa. The 
locality is on Green's Creek, a tributary of the Ottawa River, the bank of 
the creek being about 30 feet high and composed of clay. This is regarded 
as being of Champlain age, the close of the Wisconsin stage. Out of this 
clay were washed numerous nodules of hardened clay, many of which con- 
tained organic remains, such as marine shells and fishes. Among the latter 
are two species, the capelin (Mallotus villosiis) and the lump-sucker 
(Cyclopterus lumpus). 

Later, at the same locality, a lower jawbone of a young seal was found, 
which was identified as the harp seal ; and it was even thought that it might 
have belonged with the hinder limbs figured by Leidy. A figure of this 
jaw, with some of the teeth, was published by Dawson in his "Canadian 
Ice Age." 

MAINE. 

7. Addison Point, Washington County. — From the curator of the Port- 
land Society of Natural History, Arthur H. Norton, the information is 
received that some portions of the skeleton of a walrus, several ribs, parts 
of two limbs, and a phalanx of a digit, had been found at Reef Point, near 
Addison Point, Maine. These remains are now in the collection of the 
society just named. They had been collected in 1881 by C. H. Boyd, who 
pubHshed an account of them (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. iv, p. 234). 
They had washed out of the bank on the eastern side of Pleasant River, 
about 3 miles below Addison. They had been buried in a stiff blue clay, 
about 2 feet above high-water. Above them there was 6 feet of the clay, 
and above this gravel and soil. Mr. Boyd stated that he had seen a tusk, 
with a part of the socket, which had been washed out at the same place. 

8. Andrews Island, Knox County. — The American Museum Journal for 
1912 (vol. XII, pp. 269-270) contains an article which calls attention to a 
walrus skull preserved in the American Museum of Natural History in New 
York. It is reported as having been found by Sidney Norton, in December 
1912, in 50 fathoms of water, near Andrews Island, off Owl's Head, Penob- 
scot Bay. One of the tusks is complete, the other is gone; also the occiput 
and zygomatic arches are missing. The bone is said to be quite well 
petrified, which shows that the skull is not a recent one. 

9. Gardiner, Kennebec County. — In 1845 Charles Lyell visited ("Second 
Visit to the United States," vol i, p. 44) Gardiner, Maine, and examined a 
collection of fossil shells and Crustacea which had been made by Mrs. 
Frederic Allen from the glacial deposits of that vicinity. He recognized 
the tooth of a walrus, which he stated was similar to the one procured by 
him on Martha's Vineyard. This tooth is said by Packard (Mem. Bost. 



24 PLEISTOCENE PINNIPEDIA. 

Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. i, 1867, p. 246) to have been a tusk; and he was 
informed that it had been taken by Lyell to London and had been identi- 
fied by Professor Richard Owen. Inasmuch as Owen regarded the specimen 
found on Martha's Vineyard as a species distinct from the one now living 
on the Atlantic coast, it is to be supposed that the Gardiner specimen also 
was thought to be different from the latter. Packard, in another commu- 
nication (Amer. Naturalist, vol. i, 1868, p. 268), states that the tooth of 
the walrus and some teeth of a supposed bison were discovered in the clay- 
beds at Gardiner by Lyell, or at least during his visit, but it is evident that 
they had been collected before his arrival. 

In his discussion of the supposed bison teeth found in clay at Gardiner, 
Dr. J. A. Allen (The American Bisons, 1876, pp. 89, 91) gives us some 
information about the fate of Mrs. Frederic Allen's collection. At her death 
it passed into the possession of her daughter, by whom the greater part of 
it was presented to Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. Professor Manton 
Copeland, of this college, informs the writer that the walrus tusk is in their 
collection and bears the number FM20. It is badly shattered. The length 
is about 75 mm. 

The important matter concerning the remains of the walrus found at 
Gardiner is to determine when the animal lived there. It is to be assumed 
that the tusk had been buried in the Pleistocene clay at that locality. This 
appears to belong to the closing period of the Wisconsin stage, but there 
has been some dispute about its age. 

Packard (Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist , vol. i, pp. 245-246) gives a list of 
the species which had been found in the clay at Gardiner. These are 
nearly all invertebrates and indicate a climate somewhat colder than that 
now existing there. Whether the time when the walrus lived at Gardiner 
was before or after the culmination of the Wisconsin ice period, it was so 
long ago that those deposits of clay, made in sea-water of considerable 
depth, have since been lifted above sea-level to a height of perhaps 200 feet. 

10. Portland, Cu7nberland County. — In the American Naturalist, volume 
xn, 1878, page 633, it is recorded that the larger part of the skeleton of a 
walrus, including the skull, with tusks over 5 inches long, had lately been 
found in the Quaternary clays at Portland. It had been discovered by 
workmen excavating for the foundation of the transfer station of the Boston 
and Maine Railroad. The remains were partially embedded in a layer of 
blue clay a foot thick, itself overlain by 2 feet 2 inches of a lighter clay. 
The latter contained casts and shells of 11 species of mollusks. J. A. Allen, 
in his work already quoted, states that the skeleton was found at a depth 
of 7 feet. It was placed in the museum of the Portland Society of Natural 
History, and is still there, as reported by the curator, Arthur H. Norton. 

Mr. Norton has sent the writer an extract from the report of the com- 
mittee which investigated this discovery. The bed of blue clay in which 
the greater part of the skeleton was buried contained the following species 
of mollusks: My a arenaria, Macoma sabulosa {calcarea), Mytilus edulis, 
Cardium {Serripes) groendlandicum, Saxicava distorta, Nucula antiqua, 
Leda tenuisulcata, L. truncata {Yoldia glacialis), Natica clausa, N. pusilla, 
and Astarte striata. The lighter-colored clay above the blue clay was more 



NEW HAMPSHIRE MASSACHUSETTS. 25 

sandy and adhered strongly to the bones. This clay contained Mya arenaria, 
Mytilus edulis, Serripes grosndlandicus, Astarte striata, Macoma calcarea, 
Nucula antiqua, Natica, and Balanus. 

Above the lighter-colored clay just mentioned was a foot of a clay which 
contained wood and roots, the unused portion of the brick-clay that once 
existed there, but which had been removed for the manufacture of bricks. 

Inasmuch as the clay overlying the bed in which the remains were found 
contains marine shells, it is certain that since their deposition the land has 
been considerably elevated. 

George N. Stone '(Monogr. xxxiv, U. S. Geol. Surv., pp. 28G-291) has 
discussed the age of the glacial deposits at Portland. Professor M. L. Fuller 
has written to the author that on the Maine coast the chief clay is known 
as the Leda and is found at Portland and Gardiner, and that it probably 
antedates the Wisconsin. This is not to be correlated with the Leda clay 
of the St. Lawrence Valley. It corresponds rather to Clapp's "high-level 
clays" (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xviii, p. 505, seq.). 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

IL Jeffries Reef, off Portsmouth. — The specimen from this place consists 
of the greater part of the left side of the skull of a large individual. The 
occipital and the exoccipitals are missing. The bone and especially the 
tusk have suffered some decay. The fragment is labeled as having been 
dredged from a depth of 50 to 75 fathoms on Eastern Jeffries Reef. The 
bottom was hard. Jeffries Reef lies 5 or more miles off the southernmost 
part of the Maine coast and extends from the Isle of Shoals to Boon Island. 
The skull belonged to an old individual. The length from the rear of the 
mastoid process to the front of the premaxilla is 360 mm. The exserted part 
of the tusk measures 225 mm. in length. At its base the diameters are 
65 mm. and 42 mm. There are 4 large grinding teeth. There is no reason 
for supposing that the species represented is not 0. rosmarus. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

12. Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard. — In his "Travels in North America," 
volume I, 1845, page 257, plate v, figure 1, Lyell announced the finding of a 
part of a skull of a walrus at Gay Head. This he had purchased from a 
fisherman who lived there and who said it had fallen out of a conglomerate 
found at that place and which contains bones of cetaceans. The skull 
retained but a small portion of its animal matter. Richard Owen, to whom 
the skull was shown, regarded it as belonging to a species distinct from 
0. rosmarus. The upper jaw contained the base of one tusk, the socket for 
the other, and 3 molar teeth on each side. The reduced number of molars 
furnishes no distinctive character, for existing individuals sometimes present 
this number. The base of the tusk has its transverse diameter greater 
than usual relatively to the fore-and-aft diameter. According to Lyell's 
illustration of the specimen, the greater diameter was 70 mm., the shorter 
53 mm. The writer has seen no tusk of 0. rosmarus as thick as this; but 
the thickness is variable and may possibly attain to two-thirds of the 
greater diameter. 



26 PLEISTOCENE PINNIPEDIA. 

Inasmuch as the Tertiary deposits at Gay Head, rising above the sea to 
a height of about 150 feet, are capped by a sheet of glacial drift and clays, 
it is probable that the skull in question had fallen from some of these drift 
deposits. According to Professor J. B. Woodworth (17th Ann. Rept. U. S. . 
Geol. Surv., pt. i, p. 982), there are at Gay Head deposits of drift which 
represent some of the older glacial stages as well as the last one, the Wis- 
consin. It is possible, therefore, that this walrus lived there as far back 
as the middle of the glacial epoch or even earlier. For additional informa- 
tion on the geology of that island consult Woodworth 's paper, in which the 
literature is cited; also the important paper by N. S. Shaler (7th Ann. Rept. 
U. S. Geol. Surv., 1888, pp. 303-363.) 

The hooded seal, Cystophora cristata, has probably been found fossil at 
Ga}^ Head. The only reason for this supposition is found in a statement 
made by Charles Lyell (Proc. Geol. Soc. London, vol. iv, p. 32; Amer. Jour. 
Sci., vol. XLVi, 1844, p. 319). He says that with other remains on Martha's 
Vineyard he found a tooth having the crown fractured. Lyell submitted 
the tooth to Richard Owen, who pronounced it to be that of a seal which 
seemed to be nearly allied to the modern Cystophora proboscidea (C. cris- 
tata). It seems quite probable that this species lived there at the time when 
the walrus haunted the region. It is of course possible that the remains 
reported belonged to an animal that lived in that region as far back as the 
Miocene. The tooth was not described or figured. 

NEW JERSEY. 

13. Long Branch. — Portions of several walrus skulls have been found on 
the beach at Long Branch. Two of these were described and figured by 
Leidy in 1867 (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xi, p. 83, plate iv, figs. 1, 2, 
plate V, fig. 1). One skull, lacking the lower jaw, some of the right hinder 
part of the cranium, and the exserted portion of one tusk, was discovered in 
1853. The other specimen, discovered about 1856, furnished the front of 
the skull as far back as the middle of the palate. Both belonged to old 
individuals. Leidy concluded that the animals which had possessed these 
skulls belonged to the existing species Odobenus rosniarus. He surmised 
that they had been floated to the New Jersey coast on fields of ice or perhaps 
had lived there during the Glacial period. The skull which was found in 
1853 is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy; the other is in 
the collection of the New Jersey Geological Survey. Recently, Mr. Samuel 
N. Rhoads has studied these skulls. He had also for examination the skull 
from Sable Island, which has been mentioned. He concluded that these 
skulls belonged to a species distinct from 0. rosmarus and which might bear 
DeKay's name, 0. virginianus. 

It does not appear to the present writer that Rhoads has successfully 
maintained his proposition. He did not have at hand a sufficient number 
of skulls of the existing Atlantic walrus to present all the variations that 
occur in that species. Of course, the number of fossil specimens was very 
limited. In discussing Rhoads's conclusion, it will be of advantage to con- 
sider a part of a skull which belongs to tlie Marsh collection in Yale Uni- 
versity. This specimen consists of the anterior half of the skull, without 



NEW JERSEY. 



27 



the tusks and without the other teeth. It was found at Kitty Hawk, at 
the mouth of Albemarle Sound, just north of latitude 36°. It is thoroughly 
fossilized; and, having been found so far south, it may be safely regarded 
as having belonged to the species which inhabited the New Jersey coast 
during the Pleistocene. 

For purposes of comparison, such measurements are here given as can 
be obtained from the skull; likewise the corresponding measurements of a 
specimen from Sable Island, No. 199528 of the U. S. National Museum, and 
of another. No. 22014 of the National Museum, brought from Ungava Bay. 
Unfortunately, the basilar length of the fossil can not be determined, nor 
the width of the mastoids. 

Measurements of skulls of walruses, in millimeters. 



From front of premaxillse to rear of vomer 

From front of tusk to optic foramen 

From oral border of premaxilla to upper border of nasal 

opening 

Greatest width across maxillae 

Least width at front of orbits 

Least width at temporal fossse 

Width between the sockets for tusks 

Length of row of teeth 

Space between incisors 

Space between last molars 

Long diameter of tusk at base 



Kitty 


Sable 


Ungava 


Hawk. 


Island. 


Bay. 


183 


167 


205 


188 


177 


195 


110 


96 


100 


160 


136 


177 


105 


106 


146 


75 


62 


70 


75 


75 


85 


82 


60 


83 


40 


36 


32 


62 


60 


53 


34 


26 


38 



The nasal bones of the fossil are so thoroughly consolidated with each 
other and with the adjoining bones that their dimensions can not be deter- 
mined. There is no reason, however, for supposing that the length was 
greater than 70 mm. 

The grinding teeth of the fossil do not show the larger size that we might 
expect from Rhoads's determinations and from comparison with Leidy's 
illustrations. The second socket was almost exactly the diameter of the 
same socket in the Sable Island specimen measured. The third socket is 
larger than that of the skull from Sable Island. The sockets for the first 
molars are very small and shallow; the socket for the left incisor is still 
smaller, while that for the right incisor is wholly effaced. The diameter 
of the socket for the second molar is much shorter than that of the corre- 
sponding socket in the Ungava Bay specimen. In the latter, the left 
incisor is present and large, but the other is missing and the socket is nearly 
tilled up. It is evident that the teeth are extremely variable in both size 
and the number present. 

Rhoads has found that the incisive foramina of the fossil skulls in his 
hands are placed high above the alveolar borders. In the North Carolina 
specimen this height is 32 mm.; in the Sable Island specimen in the U. S. 
National Museum, 30 mm.; in the Ungava Bay specimen, about 22 mm. 
Nor does the distance between the sockets for the incisors in the fossil from 
North Carolina agree with that dimension in the two specimens from 
Long Branch. 



28 PLEISTOCENE PINNIPEDIA. 

Despite the differences shown in the measurements in the table given 
above, the writer must conclude that there are not as yet sufficient reasons 
for regarding the Pleistocene walrus of the Atlantic coast as specifically 
different from the existing form. 

Dr. Albert Reid Ledoux, mining engineer, of New York City, when a 
young man bathing at low tide at Long Branch, found a skull of a walrus. 
This was given to Professor John S. Newberry and is now probably at 
either Columbia University or the American Museum of Natural History. 
At the same time and at the same spot was a heel-bone of Megatherium, 
now in the American Museum (p. 31). It is very improbable that these 
two animals lived there at the same time. 

According to recent publications of the Geological Survey of New Jersey 
(Salisbury, Report for 1897, p. 19, pi. i; Lewis and Kiimmel, Bull. No. 14, 
p. 120, with Geologic Map of New Jersey, 1910-1912), Long Branch is 
situated on the Cape May formation. This is regarded by the geologists 
just quoted as corresponding in age, in great part at least, to the Wisconsin 
stage. When this deposit was laid down, the New Jersey coast was de- 
pressed from 35 to 50 feet below its present level. It seems very probable 
that at that time the walrus was living there and that the skulls found have 
been washed out of this deposit by the waves during storms. Nevertheless, 
the finding of Megatherium at Long Branch shows that there are deposits 
present which belong probably to early Pleistocene. 

Dr. H. B. Kiimmel, State Geologist of New Jersey, has informed the 
writer that a strip 0.25 to 0.75 mile back from the ocean in the region about 
Long Branch probably belongs to the Recent time. He states that one 
would be safe in concluding that the skulls of the walrus were found in 
deposits not older than the Cape May and that they may have occurred 
in more recent beds. Against the view that the walruses found along this 
coast lived there during the Recent period is their well-fossilized condition. 

14. Ocean Grove, Monmouth County. — In 1910, after a storm, a part of 
a skull of a walrus was found on the beach at Ocean Grove, New Jersey. 
This is still in the possession of the finder, Mr. W. S. Hidden, who furnished 
the writer with photographs of the specimen. It consists of the front of 
the skull extending back to the bases of the zygomatic arches, and containing 
portions of both tusks and most of the teeth. There is no likelihood that 
this specimen belonged to any other species than Odohenus rosmarus, and 
it was probably washed out of the same deposits as those which furnished 
the specimen found at Long Branch. 

VIRGINIA. 

15. Accomac County. — In the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History 
of New York, volume ii, 1828, page 271, Messrs. INIitchill, Smith, and Cooper 
made a report on a fossil walrus skull found along the Virginia coast some- 
where in Accomac County. Only the anterior half of the skull was secured. 
According to this report, portions of the tusks were preserved, but were much 
mutilated. There were present also 4 of the grinding teeth. The skull was 
described as being remarkably hard and heavy and the tusks were almost 
agatized. The sutures of the skull had mostly closed up; hence the animal 



NORTH CAROLINA SOUTH CAROLINA. 29 

was evidently an old one. The specimen bore the marks of having been in 
salt water, and was said to have been found on the beach. 

This is the specimen which DeKay, in 1842 (Zool. of N. Y., pt. i, p. 56, 
plate XIX, fig. 1), made the type of his Trichechus virginianus. Newberry, 
in 1873 (Proc. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, p. 71), identified the specimen 
as belonging to the existing Atlantic species. Cope (Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. XIV, 1874, p. 17) does not mention the presence of tusks. He sup- 
posed that there was, at that part of the coast, glacial drift, out of which 
the skull had been washed. There are, however, no such deposits in that 
region. This specimen was placed in the collection of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York, but according to Rhoads, was afterward 
destroyed in a fire. 

On examination of G. B. Shattuck's work on the Pleistocene of Maryland 
(Maryland Geol. Surv., Pliocene and Pleistocene volume, p. 95, plate i), 
it seems that the coast of Virginia in Accomac County is occupied by the 
Talbot formation. This, according to his theory, corresponds, at least the 
part nearest the coast, with the Cape May formation of New Jersey. Hence 
we might conclude that the walrus skull in ciuestion had become buried, 
probably during the Wisconsin glacial stage. The present writer regards 
the principal part of the Talbot terrace as being much older. 

Messrs. W. B. Clark and B. L. Miller (Virginia Geol. Surv. Bull., No. iv, 
p. 187) recognize the presence of the Talbot formation in Accomac County, 
where it seems to reach a thickness of 100 feet; but the authors add that 
part of this may belong to earlier Pleistocene formations. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

16. Kitty Hawk, Currituck County. — In the Marsh collection of fossils 
belonging to Yale University is a part of a skull found somewhere near 
Kitty Hawk. No particulars regarding the exact place of discovery accom- 
pany the specimen. It has already been described on page 27; and, while 
there are some differences between it and the recent skulls used for 
comparison, it is not believed that a distinct species is indicated. 

According to L. W. Stephenson's map of the Coastal Plain of North Caro- 
lina (North Carolina Geol. and Econom. Surv., vol. iii, plate xiii), the 
coast at Kitty HaM^k and for about 50 miles back of this is occupied by 
the Pamlico formation. This corresponds to the upper part of the Talbot 
of Maryland, and it, or part of it, may have been deposited at the close 
of the Pleistocene. So far as the present writer knows, there is nothing 
to show the character of the climate then prevailing. As this Pamlico 
nowhere rises more than 25 feet above sea-level, and as the thickness is 
usually only from 15 to 20 feet, it is possible that the walrus skull found at 
Kitty Hawk had been unearthed by the waves from the Chowan formation 
or some still earlier deposit. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

17. Charleston. — In 1876 Leidy announced (Proc. Phila. Acad., 1876, 
p. 80) that a complete tusk of a walrus had been found in the Ashley River, 



30 PLEISTOCENE PINNIPEDIA. 

near Charleston. This tusk Leidy described and figured in 1877 (Jour. 
Phila. Acad., vol. viii, fig. 6). It had evidently been dredged from the 
river in collecting phosphate rock, as have been most of the fossils of that 
region. The tusk was 13 inches long. Near the base it measured 3.62 
inches and transversely 1.75 inches. Leidy especially noticed the short- 
ness of the tusk as compared with the diameter, but concluded that the tusk 
might, during the life of the individual, have been broken off and worn 
obliquely at the end. 

In the collection of the Charleston Museum are some fragments of tusks 
of a species of walrus, probably 0. rosmarus. One of these. No. 1028, 
furnishes 184 mm. of the distal end. The width at the fracture is 60 mm., 
the thickness 29 mm. The distal end is worn off somewhat obliquely, but 
not so much as in the tusk figured by Leidy; also, the tusk appears to have 
been less curved than the one which he described. The original length can 
not be determined. 

Another fragment. No. 1029, was given to the Charleston Museum by 
Major E. Willis and was no doubt found in the region about Charleston. 
This gentleman has sent a fossil horse tooth and a part of a sirenian to the 
U. S. National Museum from Wando River. The fragment is short, but 
belonged to a large tusk, its long diameter being 81 mm., the shorter one 
51 mm. It was therefore a larger tusk and one whose thickness was rela- 
tively greater than that of the imperfect specimen found at Long Branch 
and figured by Leidy. 

Mr. Earle Sloan's collection at the Charleston Museum has two other 
fragments of tusks. One, No. 13497, is 113 mm. long, 60 mm. wide, and 
25 mm. thick; the other. No. 13296, is 140 mm. long, 60 mm. wide, and 

31 mm. thick. 

Considering that all of the remains of the walrus found about Charleston 
have been picked out of great quantities of phosphate rock collected for 
commercial purposes, and that no records of the exact locality where 
obtained have been kept, it is impossible to determine their exact geological 
age. It is to be supposed that this animal inhabited the region about 
Charleston at the time it frequented the coasts of North Carolina and 
New Jersey. This appears to have been during the Wisconsin stage; but 
it is possible that the walrus extended its range far southward during more 
than one of the glacial stages. All of the specimens appear to be thoroughly 
fossilized. 



NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA OHIO. 31 

FINDS OF XENARTHRA IN EASTERN NORTH 

AMERICA. 

NEW JERSEY. 
(Map 3.) 

1. Long Branch, Monmouth County. — In the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, there is a large heel-bone which was found at 
the place named and identified as having belonged to a species of Mega- 
therium, most probably to M. mirabile. It was presented by Dr. A. R. 
licdoux, of New York, who wrote that he found it about 40 years ago while 
bathing at Long Branch. With this bone were found a skull of a walrus 
and a tooth of a mastodon. The heel-bone is somewhat more than 15 inches 
long. It was incrusted with barnacles and small oyster shells. 

While one can not at present be certain that this animal did not live up 
to a late stage of the Pleistocene, it is improbable that it did so. It is also 
cjuite improbable that the megatherium and walrus lived at Long Branch 
at the same time. It is more likely that the megatherium had its existence 
there at the time when horses lived in the same region and when the Port 
Kennedy fauna existed; that is, at some time during the early Pleistocene, 
about the Aftonian stage. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
(Map 3.) 

1. Port Kennedy, Montgomery County. — From the noted bone cave at 
Port Kennedy a number of species of Megalonyx have been described. 
The presence of this genus was first announced by Wheatley (Amer. Jour, 
Sci., ser. 3, vol. i, p. 384). Cope, in 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 
vol. XI, pp. 211-219), admitted the occurrence of 4 species, Megalonyx 
wheatleyi, M. loxodon, M. tortulus, and M. scalper. It must be left to 
future investigations to determine the status of these species. M. jeffersonii 
was not recognized by Cope in the materials found in the cave. Of M. 
loxodon, only a single upper canine molar was found. Of M. wheatleyi, 
numerous specimens were secured, including considerable parts of crushed 
and decayed skulls. M. tortulus was represented by a considerable number 
of teeth; M. scalper by only a single "canine-molar." On page 312 will be 
found a list of the species of vertebrates associated with these sloths. Of 
Mylodon, Wheatley (op. cit., p. 384) had a single ungual phalanx which 
Cope (op. cit., p. 210) thought belonged probably to M. harlani. 

2. Frankstown, Blair County. — Remains of an undetermined species of 
Megalonyx have been reported from a bone cave at this place by Dr. W. J. 
Holland (Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. iv, 1908, p. 231). The associated species 
are listed on pages 321-322. 

OHIO. 

(Map 3.) 

1. North Fairfield, Huron County. — In the Norwalk, Huron County, 

Museum there are various bones of Megalonyx jejjersonii which were 

obtained about 7 miles from North Fairfield. The writer learned of the 

discovery of this skeleton from Mr. Roe Niver, a student of the University 



32 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

of Illinois. Unfortunately Mr. Niver died before the writer could obtain all 
the desired information. A part of the skeleton was in his possession and 
is probably in the possession of his family, but the writer has been unable 
to secure any information from them. The bones were found at a depth 
of a few feet in a hackberry swamp and were considerably scattered. In the 
search for these the bones which form the type of Bison sylvestris Hay 
were found. The locality is within the area of the Wisconsin drift-sheet and 
evidently the animal lived there after the ice had retired from the region. 
2. Millersburg, Holmes County. — In the University of Ohio there is a 
mounted specimen of Megalonyx jeffersonii containing a considerable part 
of the skeleton; the missing portions are replaced artificially. The remains 
were found in the eastern part of Holmes County just north of the terminal 
moraine of the Wisconsin drift-sheet. This moraine had led to the formation 
of a marsh, and in this the animal ended his life. The place was said by 
. Orton to be 6 miles east and a mile north of Millersburg. The skeleton 
lay on shell marl beneath 6 feet of peat. The remains have been described 
by Claypole (Amer. Geologist, vol. vii, 1891, pp. 122-132, 149-153) and 
by Hay (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, 1913, p. 558; Geol. Surv. Iowa, 
vol. XXIII, 1914, p. 110). 

INDIANA. 

(Map 3.) 

The only member of the order of Xenarthra that has yet been found in 
this State is Megalonyx jeffersonii, and this in only one place, viz, Evansville. 

1. Evansville, Vanderburg County. — In 1854 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
vol. VII, pp. 199-200), Leidy described a collection of vertebrate fossils 
secured by Mr. Francis A. Lincke from the banks of the Ohio River, near 
the mouth of Pigeon Creek, a short distance below Evansville. At that 
time and locality bones were usually found sticking out of the bank when 
the water in the river was low. The bones sent to Leidy were thoroughly 
impregnated with oxide of iron, which served as a cement to adhering 
pebbles, sand, and fragments of Unios and shells of other fresh-water 
mollusks. The remains of the megalonyx consisted of parts of two tibiae 
of young individuals, an atlas, a fragment of a heel-bone, a metacarpal and 
a metatarsal bone, and a claw phalanx. With these were discovered a frag- 
ment of a cervical vertebra of a species of bison, various bones of the 
Virginia deer, a vertebra of a horse, probably Equus cojnplicatus , a tooth 
of the tapir Tayirus haysii, and a part of the upper jaw of the wolf now 
known as ^nocyon dims, but at that time called by Leidy Canis pmncevv^. 

The principal interest in these remains is to determine at what time dur- 
ing the Pleistocene the megalonyx lived. Some indications may be obtained 
from a study of its companions. From a part of a cervical vertebra Leidy 
could not name the bison, but it belonged probably to one of the 
extinct species. The deer is yet living, but appears to have existed through 
most of the Pleistocene. The species of horse represented is extinct, and 
there is no evidence that it lived after the Wisconsin glacial stage. Its 
latest representatives probably lived during the Sangamon stage. No tapir 
is known to have lived after the Wisconsin stage. The wolf, ^nocyon 



ILLINOIS. 33 

dirus, is believed to be represented in the numerous individuals found in the 
asphalt beds of Los Angeles, California, probably equivalent in age to the 
Aftonian. 

Mr. Arthur C. Veatch (Jour. Geology, vol. vi, pp. 257-272) has given an 
account of changes which have occurred along the Ohio River in Spencer 
County, Indiana, about 25 miles above Evansville, since late Pliocene times. 
According to his investigations, the valley of the river was deeply excavated 
into the Carboniferous rocks during the Ozarkian uplift. Since that time, 
during the Pleistocene epoch, that great valley has been, to a large extent, 
filled up by alluvial deposits. While the greater part of these deposits 
were laid down during glacial stages, it is not improbable that some were 
made during the Aftonian stage and that a part of these yet exist along the 
borders of the river. It is still more probable that Sangamon beds yet 
exist there and that the bones Leidy described were found here. 

Many bones of the megalonyx were described by Leidy (Smithson. Con- 
trib. KnowL, vol. vii, article v) from a locality 5 or 6 miles below Hender- 
son, Kentucky, not much more than 10 miles in a straight line from the 
mouth of Pigeon Creek. The bone-bed was said by Dr. D. D. Owen (op. 
cit., p. 7) to be about 5 feet above ordinary low-water. In the sam.e bed 
Owen found abundant remains of the deer. He seemed to regard this bone- 
bed as a continuation of that existing at Pigeon Creek. 

Megalonyx has been found at Bigbone Lick, between Cincinnati and 
Louisville, associated with Equus complicatus, two species of extinct bisons, 
and the Virginia deer, in deposits overlying Illinoian drift and hence 
belonging, in part at least, to the Sangamon. These deposits are, however, 
at a higher level, being now submerged only at times of very high water in 
the Ohio River. If these and the Pigeon Creek beds are of the same age, 
we may suppose that the animals entombed at the latter place were buried 
low down in the deep valley along the river banks, while those at Bigbone 
became covered up around salt springs at a higher level. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Map 3.) 

\. Urbana, Champaign County. — In the fall of 1909 a claw phalange of 
Megalonyx jejjersonii was found near Urbana by Mr. Lindley, of Urbana. 
An excavation was being made at the eastern end of Crystal Lake, and the 
tooth, as reported to the writer by Professor C. C. Adams, was discovered 
in a blue clay. The writer has seen the tooth. The extreme length in a 
straight line had been close to 145 mm. The greatest thickness was 42 mm. 
This has been figured by the writer (Iowa. Geol. Surv., vol xxiii, plate iii, 
figs. 5, 6, text-figs. 28-29). 

Inasmuch as all this region is covered by Wisconsin drift and this tooth 
was found in a deposit Ijnng on the top of this drift, there can be no reason 
for denying that this species lived after, probably long after, the with- 
drawal of the Wisconsin ice. Two occurrences of the same species in Ohio 
confirm the conclusion. 

2. Alton, Madison County. — The U. S. National Museum contains a frag- 
ment of a molar of apparently Megalonyx jeffersonii, from a collection 



34 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

made long ago by William McAdams, at Alton, Illinois. It has on it 
McAdams's number 21. This collection, which was long in the hands of 
Professor 0. C. Marsh, as vertebrate palaeontologist of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, is said to have been made in the loess at Alton. Most of the teeth, 
with occasional bones, are inclosed in nodules of extremely fine sand and 
carbonate of calcium so hard that the teeth can not be removed without 
injury. They have been, however, partly exposed by weathering. The 
nodules which contained the fossils were found between the loess and the 
underlying Illinoian drift. 

The fragment of a megalonyx tooth has the diameters respectively 16 
mm. and 24 mm. It is thinner fore and aft than other specimens, but this 
may be an individual variation. 

It is believed that this loess belongs to the Sangamon interglacial stage. 
The geology of the locality and the species found there are discussed on 
page 339. Also, the fossils were described by the writer in 1920 (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, pp. 109-117). The presence of this sloth-like 
beast appears to indicate that the climate was at that time mild. 

3. Galena, Jo Daviess County. — In 1870 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1870, p. 13), Dr. Leidy brought to the notice of the Academy the fossil 
remains of two species of much interest. These had been presented to the 
Academy by Henry Green, of Elizabeth, Jo Daviess County, and were 
reported as having been found in a narrow crevice of the lead-bearing 
rocks in the vicinity of Galena, at a depth of 130 feet. One fossil was a 
metacarpal bone of Megalonyx jeffersonii, the other was identified as a last 
lower molar of Bison antiquus. Leidy mentioned three other species, 
Platygonus compressus, Procyon priscus, and Anomodon snyderi as having 
been found about Galena in similar situations. The geological age of the 
Vertebrata found in the lead crevices about Galena has not been well 
determined, but the present writer has regarded them as being probably of 
late Wisconsin time. The Bison tooth may have been that of the yet 
existing species. However, the possibility is that these fossils are pre- 
Wisconsin. 

VIRGINIA. 
(Map 3.) 

1. Saltville, Smyth County. — Mr. O. A. Peterson, in 1917 (Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., vol. XI, p. 472, figs. 4, 5), reported the discovery of the symphyseal 
portion of the lower jaw of Megalonyx at Saltville. It was referred with 
some doubt to M. dissimilis Leidy. Further mention of the specimen will 
be made on page 352. 

2. Ivanhoe, Wythe County. — On a page devoted to the consideration of 
a considerable number of species found by Cope near Ivanhoe, in Wythe 
County, mention will be made of Megalonyx jeffersonii. Only fragments 
of teeth were secured by Cope. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 
{Map 3.) 
1. Green Brier County. — In a cave situated somewhere in this county 
were found the bones described in 1799 by President Thomas Jefferson 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 35 

(Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. iv, pp. 246-260) under the name Megalonyx. 
Colonel John Stewart became interested and saved some of the bones from 
being carried away by curious inhabitants of the region. 

The bones, a distal end of a femur, a complete radius, a complete ulna, 
three claws, and some other foot-bones were secured and presented to the 
American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, from which they passed 
into the possession of the Academy of Natural Sciences, where they are 
still preserved. Some of these w^ere described by Dr. Caspar Wistar (Trans. 
Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. iv, 1899, p. 526, plates i, ii). 

Inasmuch as this species may have existed during a large part of the 
Pleistocene and certainly after the passing of the Wisconsin epoch, and 
inasmuch as no other species were found associated with the megalonj^x 
bones, it is impossible to say to what part of the Pleistocene that particular 
animal is to be assigned. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 3.) 

1. Beaufort, Beaufort County. — In the Charleston Museum the writer 
has seen a left lower canine tooth of Megalonyx jefjersonii. The fore-and- 
aft diameter is 34 mm., the transverse 18 mm. It is recorded as found in 
dredging in Coosaw River. Tuomey (Rep. Geol. South Carolina, 1848, p. 
203) found fragments of bones, probably belonging to Megatherium, on 
Eddings Island, about 10 miles south of Beaufort. 

2. Charleston, Charleston County. — In 1855, Doctor Leidy (Smithson. 
Contrib. Knowl., vol. vii, p. 55) stated that Professor F. S. Holmes, of 
Charleston, had loaned him fragments of two very small teeth of Mega- 
therium found on the shores of Ashley River. These were figured by Leidy 
in 1860 (Holmes, Post-Pl. Foss. South Carolina, p. Ill, plate xx, figs. 8, 8a). 
In a collection belonging to Rev. Robert Wilson, in Charleston, the writer 
has seen a tooth of Megatherium found by the Charleston Mining Company 
in Ashley River. G. E. Manigault (Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist., 
1886, p. 91) reported the finding of a claw phalanx of Megalonyx at Cain- 
hoy, 12 miles from Charleston, on Wando River. 

In the Charleston Museum is a part of the right side of the upper jaw 
of Megatherium, with the second and third teeth and parts of the sockets 
of the first and fourth. It is recorded as having been found in the Bolton 
phosphate mine on or in Stono River. There is in the same museum a frag- 
ment of the left side of the lower jaw of the same animal. This jaw contains 
the second and third molars and parts of the socket of the first and fourth. 
It is recorded as having been found in the Kiawah phosphate mine. Cooper 
River. 

The Charleston Museum contains considerable parts of the skeleton of a 
megatherium of which no record has been preserved. In Holmes's "Post- 
Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina," page 111, plate xx, figures 7 to 76, 
Leidy mentioned briefly and figured two small fragments of lower teeth of 
Mylodon harlani, which had been obtained from the Pleistocene beds of 
Ashley River. The tooth figured was originally described as Eubradys 



36 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

antiquus. Figures of it are found also in the seventh volume of the 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, plate xvi, figures 21a to 21c. 
The Pleistocene geology of South Carolina is discussed on pp. 361 to 368. 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 3.) 

1. Brunswick, Glynn County. — In 1842 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
I, p. 189), Richard Harlan gave to the Academy of Natural Sciences a 
number of bones which had been collected in the Brunswick Canal by Mr. 
J. H. Couper and sent to the Academy. Among these was a number of 
bones of Megatherium. A part of a lower jaw contained 4 teeth. A list 
of the bones is presented by Couper on page 44 of William B. Hodgson's 
memoir on Megatherium published in 1846. There were, besides the part 
of a mandible, parts of 2 maxillae without teeth, parts of 6 or 7 femora, a 
part of an ilium, several dorsal vertebra, and several teeth. Lyell (Second 
Visit, ed. 2, 1850, vol. i, p. 347)' stated that a part of a skeleton of a Mega- 
therium, dug out in cutting the canal, was so near the surface that it was 
penetrated by the roots of a pine tree. Most of this material was sent to 
the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia (Leidy, Smithson. Con- 
trib. Knowl., vol. vii, art. 5, p. 54). 

The accompanying fossils will be named on page 370. 

2. Skidaivay Island, near Savannah, Chatham County. — The earliest 
announcement of the discovery of Megatherium in North America was 
made by Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill in 1824 (Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vol. i, 
pp. 58-61, plate vi). The announcement was based on a number of teeth 
which had been sent to him from Skidaway Island. In the same volume, 
on pages 114 to 124, plate viii, William Cooper described teeth and bones 
which had been sent to him from the same locality by Joseph E. Habersham. 
Cooper had some reason to conclude that all the bones and teeth found up 
to that time had come from the same individual. In 1828 (Annals cited, 
vol. II, pp. 267-270) Cooper described additional materials which he had 
received from Skidaway Island. 

In 1846 (Hodgson's Mem. Megath., p. 25), Habersham gave a list of the 
fossil bones and teeth found at the island mentioned. Lyell (op. cit., p. 313) 
gave a brief account of a visit to Skidaway Island and stated that Mega- 
therium, Mylodon, Mastodon, Elephas primigenius, and a species of the 
ox tribe had been found there. In 1855 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. 
VII, art. 5, p. 50) Leidy enumerated the specimens of Megatherium which 
had been found at Skidaway Island, and he gave an excellent figure (plate 
xv) of a ramus of the lower jaw containing all its teeth, which had been 
sent to the National Institute at Washington. These bones ought to be 
now in the National Museum, but the writer has not been able to find them. 
They may never have been transferred and may be lost. On the other 
hand, Leidy did not mention other specimens from Skidaway Island, given 
by Scriven, and now in the National Museum. One of these is the hinder 
part of a skull figured in Hodgson's memoir. Also, the same plate con- 
tains what is almost certainly the astragalus; its greatest diameter is 9 



FLORIDA. 37 

mches. Furthermore, there is present the distal end of a right humerus 
presented by Doctor Scriven. It is probably one of the two mentioned on 
page 27 of Hodgson's memoir. As in the one there measured, the distance 
across the condyles is 14 inches and that across the articular surfaces is 
7.75 inches. The Scriven collection also contains several teeth and frag- 
ments of others. A piece of the maxilla bears the small hindermost upper 
molar, no doubt the fragment mentioned by Habersham in his memo- 
randum, page 26. Many of the bones sent from the island show by the 
presence of barnacles and bryozoa that at one time they lay in salt water; 
but this was probably not long before they were discovered. 

Lyell stated that among other animals which had been found at Skid- 
away Island was Mylodon. Mylodon was reported by Lyell ("Travels in 
North America," vol. i, p. 164) as having been found at Heyner's Bridge. 
This is or was situated about 7 miles south of Savannah and about 5 miles 
northwest from the locality on Skidaway Island where the Megatherium 
and Mylodon remains were found. The map accompanying Hodgson's 
memoir is here reproduced as map 40. 

FLORIDA. 

(Maps 3, 4.) 

1. Archer, Alachua County. — Leidy mentioned (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1886, pp. 11, 12) the fact that an astragalus of Megatherium had 
been found at Archer. Several other species of vertebrates have been 
found there, among them Teleoceras fossiger, Gomiphotherium fioridanum, 
Hipparion plicatile, three species of Procamelus, and a species of Tapirus. 
The deposits are assigned to the Pliocene, but it is doubtful whether the 
megatherium and the tapir belonged among the others. The geology of the 
locality is discussed on page 375. The megatherium, as an undetermined 
species, is included in the list of fossils which is recorded by Leidy in Bul- 
letin 84 of the United States Geological Survey, page 129. It may be re- 
ferred provisionally to Leidy 's Megatherium mirabile. 

2. Almero Farm, St. John County. — In the collection of Mr. Fred Allen, 
at St. Augustine, the writer has seen a right tibia of a mylodon found in 
the Inland Waterway Canal about 28 miles south of St. Augustine. The 
bone is complete, except that a sliver has been split off the upper half of the 
outer border. The total length of the bone is 290 mm. ; the greatest width 
of the upper end 208 ram.; width at middle of length 105 mm.; width of 
surface for astragalus 130 mm. This appears to be a relatively stouter bone 
than the larger one described by Harlan (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xliv, 1842, 
p. 77). It is also larger and relatively stouter than a tibia found at Labelle, 
Lee County, described on page 40. It is referred to Mylodon harlani. 

11. Willisto7i, Levy County. — In the U. S. National JNIuseum there are 
some foot-bones of a large ground-sloth, which are labeled as having been 
collected in 1887 by the U. S. Geological Survey, in the county named. 
The collector was probably J. B. Hatcher. The astragalus had evidently 
been studied by Leidy. This bone was described by the writer in 1919 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lvi, p. 104, plate xxvii) as Thinobadistes segnis. 



38 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

Later, other parts of the foot were found in the museum and described 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lix, p. 638, plate cxix, figs. 6-11). 

3. Ocala, Marion County. — In 1888, in a fissure in a limestone quarry, 
probably Phillip's quarry, near Ocala, Mr. Joseph Willcox discovered some 
vertebrate remains which w^ere later described by Leidy (Trans. Wagner 
Free Inst., vol. ii, pp. 13-17, plate iii, figs. 1, 5, 6 to 9). The species as 
determined by Leidy were Elephas columbi, Equus fraternus, Auchenia 
minima, and Machairodus jloridanus. They were regarded as belonging to 
the Quaternary, but in Ball's paper of 1892 (Bull. 84, U. S. Geol. Surv., 
p. 129) they are referred to the age of the Alachua clays; that is, to the 
Pliocene. Sellards, in 1916 (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 103), 
regards the fossils as belonging to the Pleistocene, and he adds representa- 
tives of 4 genera to the list. These are undetermined species of Bison, 
Odocoileus, Dasypus, and Sylvilagus. The genus Dasypus is the one to 
which attention is especially called at this time. A list of the vertebrate 
animals found at this place is presented on page 378. 

4. Dunnellon, Marion County. — In Sellards's report just referred to, he 
prints a list of the Pleistocene vertebrates found in Withlacoochee River. 
Among these is the xenarthrid animal Chlamytherium septentrionalc. 
What parts were secured and exactly at what place the writer does not 
know. 

In the collection of the Florida Geological Survey is a foot-bone, No. 
1307, which appears to be the second right metacarpal of Megalonyx. It 
is smaller than the one figured by Leidy. The extreme length is 60 mm., 
the greatest diameter of the proximal end 27 mm., that of the distal end 
36 mm. It was found in the mine of the Dunnellon Phosphate Company. 
For a list of the associated species the reader is referred to page 376. 

5. Hillsboro River, Hillsboro County. — In 1915 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 
XL, p. 139), Sellards stated that the Jarman collection at Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, at Nashville, contains several dermal plates of Chlamytherium 
septentrionale, found in Hillsboro River. 

6. Sarasota Bay, Sarasota County. — In 1915, Sellards (op. cit., p. 143) 
reported that the collection of Wagner Free Institute at Philadelphia con- 
tains one dermal plate of Chlamytherium septentrionale found by Joseph 
Willcox at White Beach, on Sarasota Bay. 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York, possesses a dermal 
plate of a xenarthrid, collected by Barnum Brown 8 miles southeast of 
Sarasota. This probably belonged to the animal mentioned above. 

7. Zoljo, Hardee County. — Dr. W. D. Matthew has informed the writer 
that there are in the American Museum of Natural History some bones of 
a very large individual of Megatherium, reported as having been found 
near Zolfo. An astragalus, the proximal part of a humerus, the distal part 
of a radius, and the proximal part of a femur were mentioned. These bones 
may be referred provisionally to Megatherium mirabile Leidy. 

8. Vero, St. Lucie County. — At this place tliere have been found remains 
representing 4 genera of xenarthrids, as follows: Megalonyx, Mylodon, 
Chlamytherium, and Dasypus. 

Megalonyx jeffersonii is represented by a part of a lower jaw, a right 



FLOEIDA. 39 

upper canine tooth, a molar tooth, a part of a hyoid bone, an axis, an 
astragalus, a median phalanx, and a claw (Sellards, 8th Ann. Rep. Florida 
Geol. Surv., p. 148, plate xxv, fig. 2; plate xxx, fig. 6). These were all 
found in the stratum denominated No. 2 in the report just cited. 

Mylodon harlanif is known from a single claw, but from which stratum 
it was derived is not known. 

Chlamytherium is represented by a part of the right side of the lower 
jaw, a part of the left side, a foot-bone, and numerous dermal plates 
(Sellards, op. cit., p. 148, plate xxviii, figs. 4 to 6; plate xxx, fig. 7). 
Most of these remains have been taken from stratum No. 2, but some 
finely preserved dermal plates have been collected from No. 3. 

Dasypus remains, consisting of dermal scutes, have been found in both 
No. 2 and No. 3. 

In the collection of the Florida Geological Survey (No. 1795) is a bone, 
apparently the right parietal of an undetermined xenarthrid. It was found 
in the canal of the Indian River Farms Company, east of the railway and 
near Indian River. The length of the bone at the midline is 70 mm. and 
here the thickness is 22 mm. There appears to have been no median crest 
and only a feebly indicated occipital crest. There is no rough surface for 
the temporal muscles, as in Nothrotherium, and the bone is thicker than 
in that genus. 

For complete lists of the fossil vertebrates found at Vero, see page 382. 

9. Arcadia, De Soto County. — The Xenarthra are represented in the 
Pleistocene deposits about Arcadia by the genera Megalonyx, Glyptodon, 
and Chlamytherium. If these were not found at Arcadia they were col- 
lected along Peace Creek, not far from the town. A list of the species 
found in the vicinity of Arcadia is given on page 380. 

Leidy (Trans. Wagner Free Inst., vol. ii, p. 27) stated that a first phalanx 
of Megalonyx jejjersonii was among the fossils collected along Peace Creek. 
It was probably found on the sand-bar at Arcadia. Among the fossil verte- 
brates described by Leidy, the paper just cited included some dermal plates 
which he referred to the genus Glyptodon. Two of these plates were figured 
(op. cit., plate iv, fig. 9; plate vi, fig. 1) as those of G. petalijerus, a species 
based on half of a dermal scute described by Cope from southwestern Texas. 
The dermal scute shown on Leidy 's plate iv appears to be indistinguishable 
from similar plates which have been referred by the present writer to 
Cope's G. petalijerus (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. li, 1916, p. 107, plates 
III to v) . The scute represented by Leidy on his plate vi appears to be far 
less extensively pitted than any of those of the specimen just referred to. 
On Leidy's plate v are two views of a scute which he thought might have 
belonged on the tail of a glyptodon. It will be observed that this scute has 
a beak distinctly set off from the body of the scute. Among the few caudal 
scutes of the specimen which the writer described none presents such a beak, 
but such may have existed. It seems probable, however, that there was a 
single species of Glyptodon found on Peace Creek and that it was different 
from G. petalijerus. Leidy thought that these caudal scutes resembled 
those on the tail of the South American G. asper; but Burmeister's figures 
do not indicate exactly such keeled scutes. It is most probable that the 



40 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

Florida species requires a new name. It is to be called Glyptodon rivipacis 
Hay. 

Leidy referred another dermal scute to some glyptodont animal (op. cit., 
plate VI, figs. 2, 3) , but its nature is doubtful ; it may even belong to one of 
the large species of Testudo. A conical bone (plate iii, figs. 10, 11) belonged 
pretty certainly to Testudo. 

In the paper cited Leidy described and figured (p. 24, plate iii, figs. 3 to 
6) plates of an armadillo-like animal to which he gave the name Glyptodon 
septentnonalis. It is now known as Chlamytherium septentrionale. Leidy 
liad over 30 of these dermal scutes which had been found at Arcadia. They 
are now in the Wagner Free Institute at Philadelphia. 

Sellards (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xl, 1915, p. 143) states that there are 
3 dermal plates of this animal in the U. S. National Museum. In 1915 
(Florida Geol. Surv., vol. vii, pp. 77, 78, plate on p. 114) he described a 
lower jaw, a tooth, and 2 dermal plates of the same animal. 

10. Labelle, Lee County. — In the Florida Geological Survey is a right 
tibia of a mylodon, found on the bank of Caloosahatchee River, near 
Labelle, presented by Capt. F. H. Hendry. The total length is 266 mm.; 
on the inner border 236 mm. The width across the articulatory surface 
for the femur is 164 mm. The width at the middle of the length is 84 mm.; 
fore-and-aft diameter at the same place 38 mm. The side-to-side diameter 
of the surface for the astragalus is 57 mm. The bone is referred to Mylodon 
harlani. 

11. See page 37. 

ALABAMA. 

(Map 3.) 

1. Tuscumbia, Colbert County. — In his work on the "Extinct Sloth 
Tribe" in North America (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. vii, art. v, p. 6, 
plate XVI, fig. 13), Leidy, in recording the materials belonging to Megalonyx 
jeffersonii at his disposal, mentioned a supposed third upper molar, said to 
have come "from Tuscumbia County, Alabama." This was an error, as 
the name of the town is Tuscumbia. The tooth had been loaned to him 
by Dr. Jeffries Wyman. Nothing more is known about its history. Mercer 
(Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xxxvi, p. 38) stated that a well-preserved 
series of bones of Megalonyx had been sent to the Academy of Natural 
Sciences at Philadelphia by Mr. Tuomey. They had been obtained in 
a cave somewhere in northern Alabama. Leidy does not mention this 
collection in his work just cited. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 3.) 

1. Natchez, Adams County. — Dr. M. W. Dickeson (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1846, p. 106) exhibited before the Academy a large series of fossil 
bones secured by him near Natchez. Among these were noted especially 
what was described as an entire head with part of the lower jaw, and many 
parts of the skeleton of Megalonyx jeffersonii. This skull is still in the 



TENNESSEE. 41 

collection of the Academy. The lower jaw is missing. It appears that 
several skeletons were represented in Dickeson's collection. These, as 
Dickeson stated, had been found in a tenacious blue clay which underlies 
what he called diluvial drift, but now regarded as being at least principally 
loess. Associated with this animal were remains of Ursus, Bos {Bison), 
Cervus {Odocoileus) , Equus, and some other but undetermined genera. 

In his "Second Visit to the United States of North America," edition 2, 
1850, volume ii, p. 196, Lyell mentions the Megalonyx among other fossils 
found at Natchez. He states that the fossils found by Doctor Dickeson 
were obtained in the "Mammoth Ravine" 6 miles from Natchez. 

In Southall's "Recent Origin of Man," 1875, page 552, is a statement 
made by Professor C. G. Forshey (as quoted from Foster's "Prehistoric 
Races of the United States," p. 61) in which he says that he visited the 
locality where the human pelvis was found and that it was situated in 
Bernard's Bayou, 2.5 miles from Natchez. 

In his memoir of 1853 on "Extinct Species of American Ox" (Smithson. 
Contrib. Knowl., vol. v, art. iii, p. 10), Doctor Leidy included Mylodon 
among the genera found at Natchez. In his memoir of 1855 on the "Extinct 
Sloth Tribe of North America" (Smithson Contrib. Knowl., vol. vii, art. v, 
p. 48) he gave a list of the bones and brief descriptions of them. They all 
belonged to one individual, which was about half-grown. 

In a list furnished to B. C. L. Wailles by Doctor Leidy (Wailles, Agric. 
Geol., Mississippi, 1854, p. 286), 4 species of Xenarthra are included among 
the mammals found fossil in the Pleistocene of Mississippi. These are 
Megalonyx jeffersonii, M. dissimilis, Mylodon harlani, and Ereptodon 
priscus. Cope regarded M. dissimilis as the same as M. jeffersonii, and 
Leidy was disposed to consider his Ereptodon priscus as identical with one 
of the species of Megalonyx. 

A list of the fossil vertebrates found in the vicinity of Natchez will be 
given on page 392. 

TENNESSEE. 

(Map 3.) 

1. Elroy, Van Buren County. — In 1831 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
ser. I, vol. VI, pp. 269-286, plates xii to xiv; 1835, Med. Phys. Res., pp. 
319-331, plates xii to xv), Richard Harlan described a number of bones 
of Megalonyx jeffersonii which had been purchased for the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and which he reported had been found in 
"White Cave," Kentucky. This was supposed to be situated near Mam- 
moth Cave. It was ascertained later that the bones had been found in 
Bigbone Cave, Van Buren County, Tennessee. 

The bones mentioned by Harlan had belonged to a young animal and 
consisted of 5 vertebrae, a few fore-limb bones, a few hinder-limb bones, a 
scapula, a rib, and a part of a molar tooth. Some of the articulating sur- 
faces still retained their cartilage. In the same cave were found bones of 
"Bos" (Bison), "Cervus" {Odocoileus? ) , Ursus, and a human metacarpal. 
These were said to have been found on the surface, while the megalonyx 
bones were buried at a depth of 2 or 3 feet. The mandible of the bear 



42 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

(Harlan, op. cit., p. 283) was described as displaying appearances of 
antiquity equal to that of the megalonyx bones. The sloth bones were 
made the basis of the name Megalonyx laqueatus. In 1855 (Smithson. 
Contrib. Knowl., vol. vii, art. 5, p. 4), Leidy determined that these bones 
belonged to M. jeffersoiiii. He wrote that the collection consisted of one 
molar tooth, four dorsal vertebrse, one lumbar, a left humerus lacking the 
upper epiphysis, the proximal two-thirds of the right ulna, the right radius, 
the left scapula, the distal epiphysis of the right femur, the left tibia, and 
the distal epiphysis of the right tibia, a right calcaneum, two claws of a 
hinder foot, and some fragments of ribs. Leidy appears to have concluded 
that these bones had been those of a young animal, but that other bones in 
the collection had belonged to adult individuals. He stated that they had 
come from Bigbone Cave, White County. This adjoins Van Buren on the 
north and possibly at that time included the latter ; or Leidy may have been 
mistaken. Besides the bones above mentioned, Harlan described from this 
cave an ilium of Megalonyx (Med. and Phys. Res., p. 334). 

In 1892 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. iii, pp. 121-123), Professor J. M. 
Safford reported the discovery of some bones of a megalonyx in Bigbone 
Cave. They had been met with in the bat manure at a depth of about 3 
feet. The parts received by Professor Safford, and which are all probably 
in Vanderbilt University, were the skull, 17 vertebrse (including 5 sacrals), 
a fragment of a rib, a right scapula, a right humerus, the two ilia, a part of 
the right pubis, a part of the right ischium, and a left tibia. Safford con- 
cluded that these bones formed a part of the same young animal that 
Harlan had described. 

In 1897 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xxxvi, pp. 36-70), Dr. H. C. 
Mercer gave a detailed account of his explorations in this cave. It is situ- 
ated about a mile from the left bank of Caney Fork River, a mile above 
the mouth of a confluent called Dry Branch, and at an elevation of about 
1,000 feet above sea-level. It is excavated in Carboniferous limestone and 
opens into what is known as "Beech Cove." Thomas L. Bailey ("Resources 
of Tennessee," vol. viii, pp. 131-132) described it as being situated 3.5 miles 
south of Quebeck, near the head of a hollow or cove extending south from 
McElroy's store. The latter is probably the locality put down on the topo- 
graphic sheet of the quadrangle as Elroy. It is further said to be one branch 
of an extensive cave whose other branch is known as Arch Cave. Bigbone 
Cave is known to extend a distance of 3 miles. It appears that the cave 
had been exploited for saltpeter in the wars of 1776, 1812, and 1863 and 
immense amounts of the nitrous earth had been removed. Mercer found 
no bones until he had reached a small passage at a distance of 900 feet from 
the entrance. Here he found an epiphysis of a left humerus, 6 vertebrae, 
an astragalus, and a calcaneum of a sloth, evidently a young animal; and 
he concluded that they were probably parts of the same animal that Harlan 
had described many years before; also a part of a skeleton that had been 
found there in 1884, which is the one described by Safford. A remarkable 
feature of the bones of the young animal found in this cave, as noted by 
Harlan, Leidy, and Mercer, is the presence of some of the cartilage, some 
shreds of ligaments, and a part of the horny sheath of one claw. 



KENTUCKY. 43 

2. Lookout Mountain, Hamilton County. — In 1894 (Amer. Naturalist, 
vol. XXVIII, pp. 355-357) , Dr. H. C. Mercer reported his work, done in 1893, 
in a cave situated on Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga, Tennessee. In 
a brief report made June 4, 1896 (Dept. Amer. and Prehist. Archaeol. Univ. 
Penn.), Mercer stated that this cave is on the left bank of Tennessee River, 
0.25 mile below Chattanooga Creek. According to the report last quoted, 
the cave earth, ''with its culture layer," was removed by him to a distance 
of 58 feet from the entrance. According to the report of 1894, this was 
effected by digging 4 trenches, 6 feet 10 inches wide and with a depth of 
3 feet, in two cases to rock bottom. Near the bottom of the deposit Avere 
found a jaw of Tapirus haysii with teeth, and a jaw of a small Mylodon, 
identified as such by Professor E. D. Cope. A bone of the extinct peccary 
appears to have been found higher up in the layer of refuse. In a letter 
received by the writer in 1919, Doctor Mercer stated that later Cope 
expressed some doubt regarding the identity of the bone supposed to belong 
to Mylodon. 

A further reference to this cave and its contents will be found on page 396. 

3. Memphis, Shelby County. — In 1850 (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 
Ill, p. 280; Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. x, p. 58), Jeffries Wyman reported 
that a tooth and a claw of Megalonyx jeffersonii had been found in the 
"diluvium" of Mississippi River at Memphis. The tooth is a first upper 
molar of large size; the claw is that of the median digit. With these were 
found remains of mastodon, beaver, and Castoroides ohioensis. 

4. Nashville, Davidson County. — From Mr. William Edward Myer, 
Nashville, Tennessee, the writer has received for examination a fragment 
of a tooth of a mylodon which was found near Nashville, in sand or gravel, 
along Cumberland River, beneath 30 feet of gravel. This tooth appears 
to be the left lower penultimate molar of Mylodon harlani, but it is in some 
ways different. The antero-inner face has a broad, shallow groove, while 
the outer face makes a smaller angle with the inner hinder face than in the 
tooth figured by Leidy. 

The transverse section resembles that of the lower penultimate molar 
of M. sulcidens Cope (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xxxiv, plate x, fig. 
4a), and somewhat the tooth regarded by Cope as the upper fourth 
molar of M. sulcidens (op. cit., plate xi, fig. 7). It is probable that 
M. sulcidens and M. renidens of Cope are synonyms of M. harlani, as Stock 
(Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. viii, p. 331) is inclined to believe. 

The greatest length of a cross-section of the tooth found at Nashville is 
27 mm. ; the greatest width 14 mm. The tooth is the property of Mr. H. L. 
Ridge, of Nashville. 

At the same locality have been found remains of Equus leidyi, E. compli- 
catus, Mammut americanum, a camel {Camelopsf), a species of deer, and 
some turtle bones. The deposit seems to belong to a stage not far removed 
from the Aftonian. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 3.) 
1. Bighone Lick, Boone County.— In 1831, Dr. Richard Harlan (Monthly 
Amer. Jour. Geol., vol. i, p. 77, plate iii, figs. 1 to 3) described a left ramus 



44 PLEISTOCENE XENARTHRA. 

of the lower jaw of a ground-sloth which had been brought to New York. 
This jaw he referred to his Megalonyx laqueatus (M. jeffersonii) ; but it 
was later shown by Owen (Zool. Beagle, 1840, p. 68) to belong to Mylodon, 
and he named it M. harlani in honor of Dr. Harlan. From Cooper (Monthly 
Amer. Jour. Geol, vol. i, p. 172) it is learned that this bone had formed part 
of the Finnell collection at Cincinnati. So far as the present writer sees, 
there was nothing in Harlan's article to show where the jaw was discovered. 
In 1855 (Smithson. Contrib. KnowL, vol. vii, p. 47, plate xiv, figs. 1, 2), 
Leidy further described and illustrated the specimen and stated that it was 
found at Bigbone Lick. In 1903, Barnum Brown (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., vol. XIX, p. 511) stated that Harlan's specimen ought to be in Colum- 
bia University, but it could not be found. It is more probable that it was 
destroyed in a fire in the old American Museum of Natural History. 

In his report on Bigbone Lick (op. cit., p. 171), Cooper stated that he 
had seen in the "AVestern Museum," Cincinnati, a large humerus of a 
megalonyx. Cooper further wrote that he and a companion had found at 
the lick a metacarpal bone which he supposed belonged to the same animal. 
The humerus was described and figured by Harlan (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., ser. 1, vol. vi, p. 277, plate xiii, fig. 10). Cooper (op. cit., p. 172) 
mentions other bones of Megalonyx found at Bigbone Lick, but some may 
have belonged to Mylodon. This is the case with the fragment of lower 
jaw with 4 teeth which became the type of Mylodon harlani, as above 
mentioned. In Princeton University there is an ungual phalanx 167 mm. 
long, 66 mm. high, and 43 mm. thick at the middle of the height. This is 
labeled as having been found at Bigbone Lick. A list of the species 
discovered at this place will be found on page 403. 

2. Bluelick Springs, Nicholas County. — In the collection made by Mr. 
Thomas W. Hunter, in the sulphur spring at the place mentioned, the 
writer has seen two ungual phalanges which were identified as those of 
Megalonyx jeffersonii. 

3. Henderson, Henderson County. — A considerable part of a skeleton of 
Megalonyx jeffersonii was found at different times extending through some 
years, about 5 or 6 miles below Henderson, in the bank of Ohio River. This 
skeleton is now in the University of Indiana and was described by Leidy 
in 1855 (Smithson. Contrib. Know!., vol. vii, art. 3). This collection fur- 
nished a fine skull and lower jaw. In the same deposits were found many 
horns and bones of deer. The geology of the locality and the age of the 
bones will be discussed on page 405. 



ONTARIO. 45 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Essex County.— In 1898 (Science, n. s., vol. vii, p. 80), Dr. H. M. 
Ami reported that he had exhumed some mastodon remains in this county. 
The exact locahty was not given. It was north of the west end of Lake 
Erie. The section dug up was from 6 to 8 feet deep. At the bottom were 
clay and boulders; above this were found gravel and the bones, and above 
these sand, shell marl, peat, and other sands of various colors. The remains 
were fragmentary. 

2. Morpeth and Highgate, Elgin County. — In 1858 (Canad. Jour. Indust. 
Sci. Art, ser. 2, vol. iii, p. 356), E. J. Chapman announced the disccK'ery 
of a tooth of mastodon at or near this place. He had seen a drawing of the 
tooth. It appears that another man also had sent to the journal an account 
of the discovery, accompanied by drawings. These showed 5 distinct 
crown-ridges. 

In 1891 (Geol. Mag. London, ser. 3, vol. viii, p. 504; Brit. Assoc. Adv. 
Sci., 64th meeting, 1892, p. 654), Professor J. Hoyes Panton gave an account 
of the discovery of mammoth and mastodon bones at Highgate, only a 
few miles north of Morpeth. These were found in a bed of marl. Some 
measurements of the mastodon were given. 

3. St. Thomas, Elgin County. — In a private museum at Niagara Falls, 
owned at the time by Davis Brothers, the writer saw a quite complete 
lower jaw and a tusk, labeled as having been found at this place in 1856, 
on the farm of Isaac Barnard. The jaw had the last 3 teeth on the right 
side and the last 2 on the left side. In front was a tusk about 6 inches 
long which appeared to be in the middle of the jaw. The upper tusk is 
curved in a semicircle. Dr. J. W. Dawson (Geol. Mag. London, ser. 1, 
vol. VI, 1869, p. 39) mentions this find. He stated that there were 2 lower 
tusks. If this was the case the species M. 'progenium is indicated. 

4. London, Middlesex County. — In the article quoted above from the 
Geological Magazine of London, Dr. J. W. Dawson stated that there were 
in the Provincial Museum 3 mastodon molars which had been found at 
London. 

5. Marburg, Norfolk County. — In 1898 (Science, n. s., vol. vii, p. 80), 
Dr. H. M. Ami reported the exhumation of remains of a mastodon at some 
place in this county. The skull, 25 ribs, 40 foot-bones, 2 tusks, and many 
vertebrge were recovered. The remains were buried at a depth of from only 
3 to 4.5 feet. At the bottom was clay; above this, shell marl, and sands of 
different colors; and above all was peat. 

The writer has seen this skull in Victoria Museum, Ottawa. It is to a 
considerable extent restored. It appears to have been found at or near 
Marburg. A small label, somewhat injured, has the record : "West half lot 
15, R V, Tp. of [?]dhouse, Norfolk Co., Ont. Ami, 1897." The penulti- 
mate and ultimate molars are in place. The former is 113 mm. long; the 
latter is 174 mm. long, and has 4 crests and a talon. The tusks are present 



46 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

and the right one is 2,230 mm. long. The skull is a large one. The width 
across the rear is 760 mm. 

6. Dunnville, Haldimand County. — In 1869 (Geol. Mag. London, dec. 1, 
vol. VI, pp. 38, 39), Dr. J. W. Dawson gave an account of the finding of a 
mastodon, in 1868, at the place named, situated at the east end of Lake 
Erie. When he reached the place a large part of the animal had disap- 
peared, especially the tusks. He found 7 teeth, a few vertebrae, a few- 
fragments of ribs, and part of the right ramus of the lower jaw. These 
remains were buried in a swamp, partly embedded in a layer of fine sand. 
This contained fresh-water shells of species yet living in that region. The 
sand was 2.5 feet thick and rested on boulder clay. Over the sand was 
1.5 feet of black vegetable mold. He regarded it as clear that the animal 
lived long after the close of the Glacial period. 

7. St. Catharines and Welland Port, Lincoln County. — At Rochester 
University, New York, the writer has seen a cast of a lower jaw, labeled 
as having come from the place named above. On the left side the second 
and third molars are present, the former slightly worn, the hindermost not 
at all. On the right side the hindermost molar is not to be seen. The 
second molar is tilted up behind and lowered in front. The little wear of 
the tooth is on the hinder end. It is possible that the hindermost molar 
was yet in the bone and somewhat under the second one. The ramus has 
a length of 400 mm. 

8. Toronto, York County. — It does not appear to be wholly certain that 
the mastodon has been found at Toronto; but its occurrence there is prob- 
able. In some of his papers Coleman has reported that its presence was 
believed to be determined. 

9. Junction of Missinaibi and Moose Rivers, Algoma County. — In 1898 
(Science, n. s., vol. vii, p. 80), Robert Bell reported a mastodon tooth from 
the locality mentioned. It had been chopped out of a skull by an Indian. 
Later Bell attempted to obtain the skull, but could not, because of high 
water. A further account was given of this tooth by Bell in 1898 (Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. ix, p. 383). 

CAPE BRETON ISLAND. 

1. Middle River, Victoria County. — In 1912 (Proc. Trans. Nova Scotia 
Inst. Sci., vol. XIII, pp. 163-174), Mr. Harry Piers, curator of the Provincial 
Museum, Halifax, presented a paper in which he detailed the history of 
mastodon remains found on Cape Breton Island. At the place above named, 
in a meadow, at a depth of only 5 inches, was found a right femur. Accord- 
ing to Piers's account, this was discovered about the year 1834, possibly a 
few years earlier. It came into the possession of the Mechanics' Institute, 
at Halifax, and later of the Provincial Museum of Halifax, where it is now 
preserved. It was noticed and figured by J. W. Dawson in the four editions 
of his "Acadian Geology." 

2. Baddeck, Victoria County. — According to Piers's account, a molar 
tooth of a mastodon, now in the Provincial Museum, was found in 1859, 
at the place named. This tooth is figured by Dawson, with the femur. 
Piers states that Dawson was in error in crediting Honeyman with the 
discovery. Details regarding this are wanting. The molar has 3 crests. 



MASSACHUSETTS — CONNECTICUT. 47 

In the same museum is a part of a proboscidean tusk, but it is not certain 
where it was found. It is quite certain that all of these remains are of 
animals which lived there after the Wisconsin ice had retired. 
These localities are not indicated on the map. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

(Maps 5, 6.) 

1. Coleraine, Franklin County. — In 1872 (Araer. Jour. Sci., vol. iii, p. 
146) , Dr. Edward Hitchcock, in a letter to one of the editors, reported the 
discovery of a tooth of a mastodon at or near this place. It had been 
shoveled out of a muck-bed, on the farm of Elias Bardwell. Nothing more 
is known about the matter. This tooth was mentioned by B. K. Emerson 
in 1917 (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 597, p. 149). 

2. Shrewsbury, Worcester County. — In 1885 (Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
vol. V, pp. 14, 15) , N. L. Britton read before the Academy an extract from 
the New York Times, copied from the Worcester Spy of October 14, 1885, 
relating to the finding of a human skull near Shrewsbury, close to the spot 
where mastodon remains had been found the year before. In Science (vol. 
VI, 1885) , Professor F. W. Putnam gave an account of the investigations of 
the case made by himself and others. The conditions under which the 
mastodon was buried were incidentally described. In the same year 
Franklin P. Rice, a member of the Worcester Natural History Society, 
published a pamphlet of 8 pages, in which the discovery and exhumation 
of the remains were set forth; one molar, an upper penultimate, was well 
figured. A trench was being made in a meadow of a farmer, W. U. Maynard, 
about 2 miles from the center of Shrewsbury, on the road to Northborough. 
The teeth and some bones of the mastodon were met at a depth of 8 feet. 
Putnam stated that these remains, as well as the human skull, were resting 
on blue clay beneath a bed of peat. Rice reported that the mastodon bones 
and teeth were resting on bed-rock. Putnam believed that both skulls had 
been transported thither by water before the peat was laid down. From 
Mrs. Ella Horr, custodian of the Natural History Museum of Worcester, 
the writer has learned that the mastodon remains are preserved there. 
Mention was made of these remains by B. K. Emerson in 1917 (Bull. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. 597, p. 149). 

There is no reason to suppose that the mastodon in question lived before 
the Wisconsin stage, but at its close. The ice must already have retired 
beyond the State, and the land, which, according to Dr. Fairchild, was 
depressed at the latitude of Shrewsbury about 350 feet, must have been 
elevated enough to reduce considerably the area covered by water before 
conditions would have favored the presence of mastodon. It is possible, 
however, that the depression was not so great. 

CONNECTICUT. 

(Maps 5, 6.^ 

1. CJieshire, New Haven County. — In 1828 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xiv, 
p. 187), a note appeared which stated that in the summer of the preceding 
year 3 or 4 large molar teeth of a "mammoth" had been found near 
Cheshire. From the description it is evident that they were teeth of a 



48 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

mastodon. They were in fine condition but were immediately destroj^ed 
in a frolic of the workmen. The teeth had been found in gravel only a 
few feet under ground. Warren ("Monogr. on Mastodon giganteus," p. 3) 
stated that the mastodon teeth had been found in making a canal at 
Cheshire. He undoubtedly referred to the teeth mentioned above. Schu- 
chert (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. xiv, p. 321) states that one tooth was 
preserved and is now in the Yale University collection. 

2. NeiD Britain, Hartford County. — In 1835 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxvii, 
p. 165) , a report was published about the finding of a vertebra of a mastodon 
in digging a canal for a factory in Berlin, not far from New Britain. It 
appears to have been met with in a deposit of marl. Schuchert (op. cit., 
p. 322) mentions this find and says that the locality was not in Berlin, but 
in New Britain. The depth is given as 3 feet and the material as mud 
or clay. 

Schuchert, as cited, gave an account of the discovery, in 1852, of another 
mastodon in New Britain. Two or three teeth and some bones were found 
in a soft swampy soil. 

3. Farmington, Hartford County. — In 1914 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxvii, 
pp. 321-330), Schuchert and Lull described the exhumation of a mastodon 
near the town named. All of the principal bones of the skeleton were 
secured. One tusk and most of the foot-bones were missing. The account 
ought to be taken by collectors as a model for their reports. The exact 
position of the skeleton is given. A topographic map of the surrounding 
region is furnished, as well as the details concerning the materials occurring 
above and below the bones. These lay on boulder clay of Wisconsin age 
and were covered by materials washed in from the surrounding higher 
grounds. No mollusks were found in the excavation, and little vegetation. 
The bones, as shown by Lull's map, were remarkably little disturbed, not 
more than one might expect from the activities of wolves. One of the tusks 
was, however, removed from the skull a distance of 23 feet and left on 
ground 2 feet higher. Schuchert regarded this as being hard to explain. 
The other tusk was not found at all. 

4. Bristol, Hartford County. — In 1885 (Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. v, 
p. 14), 0. P. Hubbard stated that the remains of a mastodon had been 
found at Bristol, but no further information was furnished. 

5. Sharon, Litchfield County. — In 1828 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xiv, p. 
187), in a footnote, it was reported that, a good many years before that 
time, some remains of mastodon had been found near Sharon. In 1835 
(ibid., vol. XXVII, p. 166) it was stated that a mastodon bone, found prob- 
ably at Sharon, had been presented to the museum of Yale College. There 
seems to be no certainty that the bone was correctly identified. 

NEW YORK. 

(Maps 5. 6, 34.) 

1. New Dorp, Richmond County. — In 1901 (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 

XIV, p. 67), Dr. Arthur Hollick reported the discovery of some fragments 

of a molar of a mastodon in a swamp deposit in the Moravian cemetery 

immediately north of New Dorp, Staten Island. The molar was found at 



NEW YORK. 49 

a depth of 23 feet. The swamp, now drained, was located immediately on 
the moraine of the Wisconsin ice-sheet (Folio 157, U. S. Geol. Sur.). It 
had evidently at first been a pond about 25 feet deep; later it had become 
filled up with sandy silt, muck, and vegetable debris. At a depth of about 
8 feet Hollick found a stratum approximately 2 feet thick, in which were 
cones of white spruce {Picea canadensis), a tree now found not farther 
south than northern New England and the Adirondacks. Evidently the 
mastodon had lived there not long after the retirement of the ice, for the 
tooth appears to have been only about 2 feet above the bottom of the old 
pond. The spot is probably at an altitude above the submergence described 
by Fairchild (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxviii, p. 279). 

2. Ridgewood, Kings County. — In 1885 (Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. v, 
p. 15) , Mr. D. S. Martin stated that some 15 or 20 years before that time 
a mastodon skeleton had been exhumed in excavating for the Ridgewood, 
Long Island, reservoirs. No details were furnished. 

3. Jamaica, Queens County. — In 1859 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 
12th meeting, 1858, p. 232) , J. C. Brevoort reported the finding of 5 molar 
teeth and fragments of bones in removing pond-muck in the valley of a 
small stream which flowed into Baisley's pond, near Jamaica. In the pond 
itself was a deposit of mud, in some places 6 feet deep, which rested on 
gravel. This deposit of mud, mixed with vegetable matter, is continued 
up the valley mentioned. The bones and teeth were found about 20 yards 
from the channel of the stream, resting on the gravel and covered by about 
4 feet of the muck. 

According to Folio 83, of the U. S. Geological Survey, Jamaica and 
vicinity is situated on stratified drift which was laid down while the foot 
of the glacial ice was immediately north of the town. The mastodon must 
have lived there after the retreat of the ice from the island; it may have 
been a long time afterward. According to Fairchild, as above cited, this 
locality was submerged by the sea while the stratified materials were being 
laid down. 

4. Inwood, Nassau County. — In 1891 (Science, vol. xviii, p. 342), Pro- 
fessor R. P. Whitfield noted the finding near Inwood of a fragment of what 
he regarded as a mastodon tusk. It was met in cutting a ditch in a peat- 
swamp. While the probability is that the tusk was that of a mastodon, 
it might have been that of one of the elephants. 

5. Riverhead, Suffolk County. — In 1842 (Zool. of New York, Mamm., p. 
103), DeKay stated that in the year 1823 more than half of a lower jaw, 
with the teeth, of a mastodon had been found on the south beach, about 
4 miles east of Riverhead, between high and low water. This fossil was 
mentioned by Dr. John M. Clarke in 1904 (N. Y. State Mus., Bull. 69, 
p. 923) ; also by J. C. Brevoort in 1859 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 
XII, p. 233). This vicinity was evidently submerged while the foot of the 
glacier was in Long Island. Only after the emergence of the island did the 
animal probably have its existence. 

6. Morrisania, New York County. — In 1885, Dr. N. L. Britton (Trans. 
N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. v, p. 15) reported the discovery of a large portion of 
a mastodon's tusk in a cellar excavation in Morrisania 3 years previously. 



50 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Here, as in similar cases, one can not be certain that the tusk was not that 
of an elephant. 

7. New York City. — In 1891 (Science, vol. xviii, p. 342), Professor R. P. 
Whitfield recorded the finding of a supposed mastodon tusk at the upper 
end of New York Island. It was found at a depth of 16 feet below mean 
low-water mark, embedded in peat, with the socket end downward. It was 
met with in excavating the Harlem ship-canal and at the mouth of Dyck- 
man's Creek, an artificial waterway. The location is given as 15 feet from 
the north side of the canal and 10 feet west of the center of Broadway. 
At this particular spot there was found at the surface from 4 to 6 feet of 
meadow sod, with roots, etc. Below this was 12 feet of incipient pure peat, 
lying on 18 to 20 inches of sandy clay, which itself reposed on limestone. 
The tusk was in the peat, with its base in the sand. It appeared to have 
settled from above through the peat. 

8. Hartsdale, Westchester County.— In 1908, Dr. John M. Clarke (60th 
Ann. Rep. New York State Mus., for 1906, p. 60), reported that a tooth 
and some small fragments of bone of a mastodon had been found on the 
property of W. H. Fish of Hartsdale. No other information was given. 

9. New Antrim, Rockland County. — In 1818 (Cuvier's Essay Orig. Earth, 
p. 390, plate vi, figs. 1 to 4), Samuel L. Mitchill stated that he had received 
a set of grinding-teeth which had been found at the place named. It is 
described as being 11 miles west of the Hudson River and 32 miles from 
New York. The teeth had been found in mud at a depth of 3 feet. They 
are mentioned in J. D. Godman's "American Natural History." 

10. Arden, Orange County.— In 1903 (New York State Mus. Bull. 69, 
p. 926) , Dr. John M. Clarke stated that a tusk and a few other bones of a 
mastodon had been found at this place. In 1908 (66th Ann. Rep. New 
York State Mus., vol. i, p. 61), he gives the further information that the 
locality was on lands of Mr. E. H. Harriman. Only 2 teeth, some ribs, and 
a few fragments were secured. The soil was a peat or vegetable mold. 

11. Monroe, Orange County. — In 1903 (op. cit., p. 926), Clarke reported 
that about the year 1888 mastodon bones were found on land of Martin 
Konnight. Clarke himself continued excavations in 1901. About half of 
the skeleton was secured in all. These bones are now in the New York 
State Museum at Albany. They lay beneath 3 feet of clayey muck, at the 
bottom of a pond from 3 to 10 feet deep. 

12. Chester, Orange County. — In 1818 (Cuvier's Essay, etc., p. 376, plate 
viT, figs. 1 to 4) , Samuel L. Mitchill presented an account of the exhumation 
in 1817 of a part of a mastodon skeleton at Chester. This had been origi- 
nally discovered in a ditch made through a wet meadow. The surface soil 
was underlain by about 6 feet of black peat, and the bones lay in this at a 
depth of about 4 feet; beneath was a stratum of coarse vegetation. No 
marl underlay this muck. The upper jaw with teeth and tusks, lower jaw 
with teeth, shoulder-blade, vertebrae, and parts of the limbs were secured. 
An account of this discovery is to be found in Godman's "American Nat- 
ural History." J. C. Warren, in the second edition of his monograph on 
the mastodon, has some remarks on the food of this mastodon. In 1909 
(Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. xviii, p. 147, plate). Dr. E. 0. Hovey made 



NEW YORK. 51 

a contribution to the history of this specimen. What became of the bones 
is not known. 

13. Salisbury Mills, Orange County. — In 1903 (op. cit., p. 926), Clarke 
gives a brief account of a part of a mastodon skeleton which, in 1879, was 
found at this place, 9 miles southwest of Newburgh. It now forms the 
larger part of a movmt in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. The present writer has no further information regarding this 
specimen. 

14. New Windsor, Orange County. — In the Kansas City Review of 
Science and Industry, volume iii, 1879, page 241, is an item concerning the 
finding of a mastodon at this place. Nearly all the bones were secured. 
It was stated that a black vein of muck about 20 feet thick rested on a bed 
of blue clay. The bones lay at depths varying from 2 to nearly 5 feet from 
the surface. 

15. Newburgh, Orange County. — A considerable number of mastodons, 
some of them well preserved, have been discovered in the vicinity of New- 
burgh. The earliest one found was exhumed by Charles Wilson Peale, 
father of the artist Rembrandt Peale, in 1801. An account of the unearth- 
ing of this specimen is given by Rembrandt Peale in his "Historical Disqui- 
sition on the Mastodon," London, 1803. The locality was probably south 
or southwest of Newburgh, for in another paper (Tilloch's Philos. Mag., 
London, vol. xiv, 1802, p. 163) he states that it was in the neighborhood of 
New Windsor. Peale wrote that the specimen was found on the farm of 
John Masten. Peale's account is reprinted in the second volume of God- 
man's "American Natural History." The whole of that part of the country 
is spoken of as abounding in morasses, solid enough for cattle to walk upon, 
and containing peat underlain by a shell marl. The mastodon remains had 
been found in an effort to get at the marl. It appears that the bones were 
met with at a depth of 6 or 7 feet, and were lying on the marl. Although 
the spring of 1801 was an unusually dry one, the digging was greatly 
hindered by the incoming water, and the work was finally abandoned. A 
considerable part of the skeleton was secured and sent to Philadelphia. 

What is known as the W\arren mastodon was discovered in 1845. on the 
farm of N. Brewster, somewhere in the vicinity of Newburgh. It is an 
unusually complete and well-preserved skeleton, and gave occasion to the 
writing of Dr. John C. Warren's monograph entitled "Description of a 
skeleton of the Mastodon giganteus." Of this work there was an edition 
printed in 1852, a second in 1855. 

The spot where this skeleton was buried is described as being situated 
in a small valley 300 or 400 feet in length, in which was a pond of water 
30 or 40 feet in diameter. Around this the ground was wet and swampy. 
The summer of 1845 being unusually dry and the pond desiccated, a search 
was being made for marl. At a depth of about 4 feet the summit of the 
animal's head was encountered. For many years this skeleton was in 
Cambridge, but is now the property of the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York. 

According to Warren's description (Monograph, 1st ed., pj). 5, 211, 
vignette), there was a deposit of about 2 feet of bog-peat, then about a 



52 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

foot of peat of a reddish color. This was underlain by a bed of shell-marl 
of a thickness not given, but probably about 2 or 3 feet, while below this 
was mud changing downward into clay. Some parts of the skeleton were 
in this mud; but the head, the right fore-leg, the spinal column, part of the 
ribs, the pelvis, and the tail were embedded in the marl. However, Dr. 
Charles A. Lee (21st Ann. Rep. State Cabinet, New York, p. 108) affirmed 
that these bones were not in the marl, but were wholly embedded in the 
muck or peat. 

Dr. F. A. Lucas, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
stated in 1902 (Science, vol. xvi, p. 169) that there is in Vassar College a 
skeleton of a mastodon which is supposed to have been found at Newburgh. 

In the collection of the Brooklyn Institute, New York, is a partial 
skeleton which was found in 1899 on the farm of F. W. Schaeffer, 3 miles 
west of Newburgh. According to Dr. J. M. Clarke (Bull. 69, N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 926), the bones were found lying on a stony pavement under muck 
and marl. Osborn (Science, vol. x, 1899, p. 539) stated that the deposit 
is mostly dark and contains thoroughly decomposed vegetable matter 
mingled with a few stones and numerous remains of trees, some of which 
retain marks of beavers' teeth. The deposit appeared to consist of three 
layers, indicating, as supposed, the building of three distinct beaver-dams. 

Dr. John Mickleborough (Brooklyn Eagle, Mar. 9, 1901) stated that he 
had collected in this peat-swamp species of mollusks belonging to LimncBa, 
Physa, Planorbis, and Sphcerium. He regarded it as certain that the swamp 
had been for a long time a fresh-water lake. 

Eager (op. cit., p. 73) wrote that in 1838 a mastodon tooth had been 
found near Newburgh, on a farm owned by Samuel Dixon. No details. 

Clarke (Bull. 69, N. Y. State Mus., p. 926) stated that in 1902 a cranium 
and some other parts of a mastodon had been found at Balmville, just north 
of Newburgh. The bones lay at a depth of from 2 to 8 feet, some in the 
muck and some in the marl below. Under the marl was found a boulder 
pavement. 

In 1902 (Science, vol. xvi, pp. 594, 1033), Reginald Gordon gave accounts 
of the exhumation of a mastodon skeleton 1 mile north of the northern 
limit of Newburgh and 0.75 mile away from the Hudson. This certainly 
refers to the same mastodon as that reported by Clarke. The place is a 
swamp of about 2 acres and at a height of 180 feet above the level of the 
river. The bones were found 2 to 8 feet below the surface, a few of them 
inclosed in the muck, most of them in an underlying shell-marl. The muck 
averages 2 feet in thickness; the marl varies from a few inches to 12 feet 
in thickness. Beneath the marl a solid bottom is formed of pebbles and 
boulders. 

16. Northeast of Coldenham, Orange County. — In 1847 (op. cit., p. 73), 
Eager wrote that in 1800 remains of a mastodon were found about 7 miles 
northeast from Montgomery, on or near a farm owned by Dr. George 
Graham. This statement was based on Dr. J. G. Graham's letter (Med. 
Repos.. vol. IV, p. 213). This must have been in the vicinity of the town 
named. Dr. J. G. Graham stated that a vertebra had been found here. 
This may have been in the marshes along Bushfield Creek. 



NEW YORK. 53 

17. East Coldenham, Orange County. — Dr. James G. Graham (op. cit., 
p. 213) states that about 7 miles east of Montgomery (apparently about 
5 miles west of Newburgh), a grinding-tooth and some hair of a dun color 
had been found at a depth of 4 or 5 feet. Possibly the supposed hair was 
some sort of vegetable matter. The place may hav^ been on Bushfield 
Creek. Gordon (Science, n. s., vol. xvi, p. 1033) reported further the find- 
ing of large numbers of tree-trunks both in the muck and in the marl. 
Some mastodon bones were found resting on the trees. Red cedar and 
spruce were recognized. Some trees showed marks of the teeth of beavers. 

18. Montgomery, Orange County. — Several more or less well-represented 
skeletons of mastodons have been discovered in the vicinity of Montgomery. 
So far as the writer knows, the first were met with in 1782. An account 
of the discovery was given by Rev. Robert Annan in 1793 (Mem. Amer. 
Acad. Arts, Sci., vol. ii, pp. 160-164) . The town was not named, but Mather 
(Geol. N. Y., 1st Dist., pt. 1, 1843, p. 202) , on the authority of Dr. James G. 
Graham (Med. Repos., vol. iv, p. 213), stated that the place was 3 miles 
south of Ward's Bridge, an old name of Montgomery. This would be near 
the village of Neelytown, and probably in the swamps along Beaver Creek. 
A ditch was being made in a deep and wet swamp, and some large teeth 
were thrown out. The description of these shows that they belonged to a 
mastodon. Bones were present, but mostly so far decayed that few could 
be saved. 

Eager (op. cit., p. 73) stated that in 1803 mastodon remains had been 
found on a farm a mile east of Montgomery. These bones were dug out by 
Peale in 1805 or 1806, and Eager, then a boy, observed the work from day 
to day. Nothing was said about what remains were secured, or about the 
geological conditions; but Graham wrote that 3 or 4 ribs were found in a 
swamp at a depth of 8 feet. 

R. Peale, writing in 1803 (''Disquisition on Mammoth," pp. 27-29), 
reported that his father exhumed mastodon bones on a farm belonging to 
T. Barber, where 8 years before 4 ribs had been found in digging a pit. One 
may suppose that only one place is in question and that Eager was wrong 
in his date. Peale secured almost an entire set of ribs, two rotten tusks, 
3 or 4 small teeth, and some other parts. At the bottom of the excavation 
there was a shell marl; above this there w^as probably peat or muck. 

Dr. Graham further stated that about 3 miles east of Ward's Bridge 
(now Montgomery) some other bones had been discovered. This was quite 
certainly near the village of Berea, where swamps are indicated on the 
topographical map of that quadrangle. 

19. Hamptonburg, Orange County. — Eager (op. cit., p. 73) states that in 
1845 mastodon remains had been found in this town on the farm of Jesse C. 
Cleve, but no furtlier information was furnished. 

20. Bullville, Orange County. — Eager (op. cit., p. 73) says that in 1794 
remains of a mastodon had been found about 5 miles west of Montgomery, 
just east of the residence of Archibald Crawford, and near the line of the 
Cochecton turnpike. It appears probable that the place was east of Bull- 
ville on the Dwaar Kill. What was found was not stated. 

In 1830 (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. in, p. 478, plate xvii), J. D. God- 
man described a skull of a mastodon which, he said, had been disinterred 



54 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

a short time previously by Archibald Crawford, about 12 miles from New- 
burgh. Besides the head, some bones from the trunk and limbs were secured. 
Whether or not two discoveries had been made, and whether, if two, the 
localities were near each other, it is now impossible to say with confidence. 
Somewhere about Bullville, possibly farther north or northeast, the elder 
Peale (R. Peale, Hist. Disquis., p. 30) secured some mastodon bones. In 
arriving at the place, he crossed Wallkill River at the falls (Walden) and 
"ascended into a rudely cultivated country about 20 miles from the Hud- 
son." The bones were found in a morass on the farm of Peter Millspaw. 
The lower jaw found there was mentioned and figured by Hays (Trans. 
Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. iv, 1834, p. 321). 

21. Scotchtown, Orange County. — On the page just quoted, Eager 
reported that in 1844 some part of a mastodon had been found at the 
place named. In his work on Mastodon giganteus (first edition, pages 
110-117, plates xvi, xviii, xix). Dr. J. C. Warren described a very com- 
plete skull which had been found at this place. He stated that the 
magnificent head is remarkable for its size, whiteness, and the distinctness 
of its sutures. It is known as the "Shawangunk head." Warren wrote that 
the strata covering it were: first, gravel; second, marl; third, a layer of 
peat hard enough to be turned in a lathe. 

Eager, in his "History of Orange County," on page 348, stated that 
remains of Mastodon maximus were, in 1843, dug up from a marl-bed on 
the farm of William Connor, about 0.25 mile from Scotchtown, and were 
then in the cabinet of Professor Emmons, of Albany. This was quite 
certainly the "Shawangunk mastodon." 

22. Otisville, Orange County. — In Yale University there is a nearly 
complete skeleton of a mastodon which was described and figured by 
Professor O. C. Marsh in 1892 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xliv, p. 350, plate 
viii), but no statement was made as to its origin. Clarke (Bull. 69, New 
York State Museum, p. 925) stated that a mastodon found in 1874 was 
purchased by Professor Marsh. Professor R. S. Lull (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
vol. XXV, 1908, p. 193) refers to a mastodon at Yale which came from Otis- 
ville. In 1914 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxvii, p. 330) he presented some 
notes on the anatomy. 

A newspaper account of the discovery of this skeleton stated that the 
region of the stomach contained very fresh-looking, large leaves of odd 
form, and blades of strange grass of extreme length, and from 1 to 3 inches 
in width. It seems probable that a good deal of this was pure imagination. 
The vegetation which flourished there at the time the mastodon was living 
was certainly not different from that of to-day. 

23. Shaioangunk , near Wallkill, Ulster County.— Dr. James G. Graham, 
writing in 1801 (Med. Repos. New York, vol. iv, p. 213), reported that 
"a skeleton of a mastodon had been discovered about 3 miles east of his 
house, in the town of Shawangunk." The bones lay about 10 feet from the 
surface and were in a very sound state. Some parts of the head, much 
broken, were among the parts secured. 

24. Ellenville, Ulster County.— In 1861 (14th Ann. Rep. State Cabinet, 
pp. 7, 15) the discovery at this place of some mastodon remains was briefly 



NEW YORK. 55 

reported. A large tusk and parts of the skull, with teeth, were secured. 
The swamp is composed of about 2 feet of peat and 3 feet of marl, resting 
on a base of clay. The bones were lying in the marl. In 1871 (21st Ann. 
Rep., etc., p. 128) further mention of these bones was made. Clarke (Bull. 
69, State Mus.. p. 927) mentions these remains and adds that there is also 
a smaller tusk in the museum. 

In Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey, the writer has seen a 
tusk about 10 feet long, with a considerably spiral form, which is said to 
have been found at Ellen ville. It may, however, be the tusk of an elephant. 

25. Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County. — In 1854 (Amer. Jour. Sci.. vol. 
XVIII, p. 447), an editorial paragraph stated that a skeleton of a mastodon 
had been found buried in a marsh about 2 miles east of Poughkeepsie. It 
had then been only partly exhumed. Clarke (Bull. 69, State Mus., p. 927) 
quotes from a letter written by Professor W. B. Dwight, who stated that 
about 40, perhaps 45, years previously mastodon bones had been found 
m a small pond on the "Creek Road," from 2 to 3 miles northeast of the 
city named. Probably the same skeleton was referred to bj^ both writers. 
Clarke stated further that there is in the State Museum a vertebra of a 
mastodon from Poughkeepsie. 

26. Between Red Bridge and Wurtsboro, Sullivan County. — In 1828 
(Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xiv, p. 31), J. Van Rensselaer reported that remains 
of a mastodon had been found by workmen digging the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal, near the point named. A considerable part of the skeleton 
had been secured. Mather (Geol. 1st Dist., p. 233) adds that this was 
found in a peat bog. 

27. Claverack, Columbia County. — Somewhere near this place, not 
improbably on the opposite side of the river, in Greene County, were 
found apparently the first mastodon remains discovered in this country. 
In his "History of Orange County, New York," Eager published a letter 
addressed in 1706 by Governor Joseph Dudley to Cotton Mather. In this 
he told of having secured a tooth which was probably a penultimate molar 
of a mastodon. Dudley regarded it as the eye-tooth of a giant who had 
been destroyed by the flood. The locality was given as about 30 miles 
below Albany and was mentioned as Claverack. It appears that another 
tooth had been presented the year before to Lord Cornbury. In the account 
of this, found in a letter by Lord Cornbury, the locality is given as 20 miles 
below Albany. Clarke (op. cit., p. 928) thinks that this was probably near 
the present New Baltimore; but a letter from Abeel, recorder of Albany 
County, published by Clarke, shows that a man was sent to Claverack to 
make further search. It appears as if 2 teeth had been discovered at the 
same place near the town. Abeel stated that the tooth had been found 
near the bank of the river, and that other bones were met with 15 feet below 
the surface. It appears not improbable that these bones were buried in 
clays laid down during the Late Wisconsin submergence or in deposits 
overlying these clays. 

28. Freehold, Greene County. — Clarke (op. cit., p. 927) stated tliat there 
is in tlie American Museum of Natural History, New York, an atlas of a 
mastodon which was found at Freehold. 



56 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

29. Greeneville, Greene Counhj. — In 1843 (Geol. 4th Dist., p. 367), James 
Hall stated that he had visited this locality, where mastodon bones had 
been found embedded in a fresh-water marl. Lyell (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
vol. XII, 1843, p. 127) visited the locality with Hall and stated that the 
mastodon bones occurred in swamps at a depth of 4 or 5 feet. 

In 1843, Mather (Geol. 1st Dist., p. 44) wrote that bones supposed to 
belong to an elephant had been found at this place. It is doubtful whether 
the remains reported by Mather and Hall are those of an elephant or of 
a mastodon. 

30. Coeymans, Albany County.— Mo-th^r (Geol. 4th Dist., 1843, p. 44) 
recorded the finding of mastodon remains on Helderberg Mountain, on the 
farm of a Mr. Shear, 4 or 5 miles west of Hudson River, in the township of 
Coeymans. The remains were discovered in a bed of shell-marl, in the 
bank of a marsh. A tusk was taken to Albany. It was supposed that most 
of the skeleton was left in the ground. 

31. Cohoes, Albany County. — In the collection of the State Museum, at 
Albany, there is a mounted skeleton of a mastodon discovered in 1866. It 
was first announced by Robert Safely (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xlii, 1866, 
p. 426) and soon afterward noticed by Marsh (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 
XLiii, 1866, p. 115). It formed the subject of an essay by James Hall (21st 
Ann. Rep. New York State Cabinet, 1871, pp. 98-148, plates iii-vii) and 
was further mentioned by Clarke in 1903 (op. cit., pp. 929-930). Portions 
of it were found in two large potholes on the shore of Mohawk River. For 
the facts, and for Hall's and Clarke's conclusions, the reader must consult 
the publications cited. G. K. Gilbert (21st Ann. Rep. State Cabinet, 1871, 
pp. 129-148) discussed the geological conditions at Cohoes. He concluded 
(p. 140) that the potholes were not made during a glacial period, but were 
of pre-glacial age. Dr. H. L. Fairchild, who has studied the history of 
the Mohawk Valley more thoroughly than anyone else, has expressed in a 
letter to the present writer the opinion that the potholes are post-glacial 
formations. The matter is further discussed on page 297. Inasmuch as 
the glacial ice was not far away, it appears to the present writer that the 
geological stage may better be regarded as Late Wisconsin. 

Professor Fairchild's plate 16 of Bulletin No. 160 of the State Museum 
of New York gives the position of the Wisconsin ice-sheet in New York 
at the time that it had just withdrawn from the region about Cohoes. His 
plate 17 presents a later stage, when the upper part of the Hudson Valley 
was occupied by Lake Albany. 

Unfortunately, no evidences of other animal life, excepting the beaver, 
were found with the mastodon at Cohoes. Marsh, in his notice of the 
discovery, gave a list of the trees recognized in the potholes. There were 
white pine, hemlock, black spruce, larch, swamp maple, and white birch. 

In the American Museum of Natural History, New York, there is a lower 
jaw of a mastodon with second and third true molars, right and left, which 
is said to have come from Cohoes. 

32. Copenhagen, Lewis County. — In 1884 (Trans. Linn. Soc. N. Y., p. 
47), Dr. C. Hart Merriara stated that there had been found in 1877, in a 
marl bed about a mile west of Copenhagen, a tusk measuring 5 feet 9 ' 



NEW YORK. 57 

inches in length. It was purchased for the State Cabinet. It could not 
be determined whether this had belonged to an elephant or a mastodon. 

33. Center Lisle, Broome County. — In the Watkins Glen-Catatonk folio 
No. 169 of the U. S. Geological Survey, on page 28, Dr. Ralph S. Tarr 
stated that remains of a mastodon had been found a few hundred yards 
north of this town, in a boggy place where a spring emerges from the base 
of a gravel terrace. He did not tell what parts had been found. He 
remarked that one could not be certain whether the bones had been washed 
out of the gravel or had come from an animal which had mired there. In 
geological age it must be referred to the last half of the Wisconsin stage. 

34. Brookton, Tompkins County. — In the American Naturalist, volume v, 
1871, page 314, C. Fred Hartt gave an account of the discovery of mastodon 
bones at Mott's Corners, on Six-mile Creek. This is the former name of 
the present village of Brookton. Only 2 teeth and some fragments of bones 
were secured. The locality is situated in a deep valley of the creek, which 
had once been filled with drift, and through this the creek had cut down to 
solid rock. Where the bones were found was a small peat-bog consisting 
of a layer of peat varying from a few inches to 2 feet. This was full of 
sticks, pine knots, bark, etc., more or less decayed. Below this peat was a 
layer, a few inches thick, composed of clay mixed with pebbles and pieces 
of shale. In this were the teeth and decayed bones. The whole was under- 
lain by drift materials. Tarr, as cited above, stated that mastodon remains 
had been found in a swamp in the valley bottom at Brookton. He did not 
say when the discovery was made, nor what was found. It is not unlikely 
that the two cases are the same. 

In 1871 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, p. 58), Dr. Burt G. Wilder reported that 
5 teeth and many fragmentary bones had been found near Ithaca, in a 
deposit of modified drift. The writer has been informed by Miss Pearl 
Sheldon, of Cornell University, that these are the same remains as those 
reported by Professor Hartt. 

The mastodon found at Brookton could hardly have lived there before 
the stage when the waters that gathered at the southern edge of the 
retreating ice were reaching the sea by way of Mohawk and Hudson 
Rivers. 

35. Pony Holloiv, Tompkins County. — In 1915 (Science, vol. xli, pp. 
98-99), Pearl Sheldon, of the Department of Geology in Cornell University, 
reported that a tusk, probably of a mastodon, had been found at Pony 
Hollow, 12 miles southwest of Ithaca, on the farm of Bert Drake. This 
place, as shown on the Ithaca Quadrangle topographical sheet, is in the 
southwest corner of the county. As the writer is informed by Miss Sheldon, 
it is on Cantor Creek, near its junction with West Branch. The tusk was 
met with in a gravel pit at a depth of 24 feet. The radius of curvature 
was between 2 and 3 feet, the circumference from 10 to 13 inches. It may 
have been the tusk of an elephant. The pit was in the base of an extensive 
terrace which follows the valley-wall higii above the outwash gravel-plain 
occupying the floor of the valley. The reporter thought that the terrace 
was not later in origin than the end of the ice occupation of the valley, and 
might be earlier. 



58 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Miss Sheldon informed the writer that the terrace which contained the 
mastodon tusk is too high in the valley to have been formed by water 
backed up against the retreating ice-front. Furthermore, the locality is 
south of the divide. It was suggested that during the retreat of the ice the 
southward-flowing water in the Pony Hollow basin was backed up some- 
what by the ice in the Seneca basin. At any rate, the terrace and the 
mastodon contained in it belong to the latter part of the Wisconsin ice 
stage. 

36. Elmira, Chemung County. — Dr. John M. Clarke (60th Ann. Rep. 
New York State Mus., p. 59) referred to reports of the eighteenth century 
to the effect that tusks of proboscideans had been found in Chemung River, 
one of them just below Elmira. It is very probable that some or all of 
these had belonged to the mastodon. 

Apparently all that can be said about the geological age of these probos- 
cideans is that they lived during or after the last half of the Wisconsin 
drift stage. 

37. Lodi, Seneca County. — In the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, there are second and third upper mastodon molars, recorded as 
having been found at Lodi. The town is on the eastern shore of Seneca 
Lake. This animal belonged to the last half of the Wisconsin stage, or to 
a later one. Possibly it was living there at the early period when the 
impounded waters of the Finger Lake region were discharging through 
Susquehanna River. 

38. Macedon, Wayne County.— Dt. J. M. Clarke, in 1903 (Bull. 69, N. Y. 
State Mus., p. 930) reported for Professor H. L. Fairchild, that there 
are in the University of Rochester a few mastodon teeth from this place. 
There is no information on record about the geology of the place where 
they were found. The animal belonged to a relatively late stage of the 
Pleistocene and may have lived close to the beginning of the Recent. The 
glacier had withdrawn near to or within the basin of Lake Ontario. 

39. Seneca Castle, Ontario County. — Professor Edward Hitchcock jr., in 
1885 (Science, vol. vi, p. 450), announced the discovery of what was sup- 
posed to be remains of mastodon at the bottom of a peat morass, lately 
drained, at the town named. This place is near Flint Creek. No teeth 
and no part of the skull were found. The remains were taken to Amherst 
College. With these bones was found also an antler of an elk. In a letter 
written December 21, 1918, Dr. F. B. Loomis, of Amherst, states that he 
regards these bones as those of an elephant. 

In Dr. J. M. Clarke's report of 1903, on page 931, Mr. H. J. Peck gave 
an account of this mastodon, together with a plate representing the way in 
which the bones were scattered. They were found at a depth of about 3 
feet and are shown to have been lying in a deposit of clay and marl, above 
which came in succession clay and sand, sand, peat, and muck. Beneath 
the bones were, in order, sand, blue clay, sandy clay, and a thin layer of 
sand resting on boulder clay. 

The stage at or after which this mastodon or elephant lived was probably 
that represented by Fairchild's plate 38. 



NEW YORK. 69 

40. Perkinsville (Portway) , Steuben County. — Dr. John M. Clarke, in 
1908 (61st Ann. Rep. New York State Mus., vol. i, p. 44), reported the 
discovery of a part of a skeleton of a mastodon in a large swamp 0.75 mile 
north of Portway railroad station. The swamp occupies a depression in a 
mass of morainic drift. At the surface is from 6 to 12 inches of black muck, 
beneath which is a bed of nearly white marl from 6 inches to 6 feet in 
thickness. The bones were lying 4 or 5 rods from the border of the swamp. 
Those found were in a fine state of preservation. Among them was one 
ramus of the lower jaw with teeth. 

This and the following specimen lived after the Wisconsin glacier had 
withdrawn about half-way from its terminal moraine to the shore of Lake 
Ontario. 

41. Way land, Steuben County. — In 1874 (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. XVII, p. 91), a report by Dr. J. G. Hunt, of Philadelphia, was presented, 
which dealt with the contents of the stomach of a mastodon said to have 
been found at Wayland. No statement was made as to the skeleton of the 
animal, or the exact place where it had been discovered. No remains of 
trees of any kind were detected, but stems and leaves of mosses, confervoid 
filaments, a fragment supposed to belong to a rush, woody tissue, and bark 
of herbaceous plants. 

42. Pittsjord, Monroe County. — In 1831 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xix, p. 
358) , Mr. J. A. Guernsey, of Pittsford, wrote that a part of a tusk, sup- 
posed to belong to a mastodon, had been found on the bank of Irondequoit 
Creek, 2. 5 miles east of the town. The part secured was 7.5 feet long, and 
the whole tusk was thought to have been about 9 feet long. The figure 
accompanying the description seems to indicate a mastodon tusk rather 
than that of an elephant, but one can not be certain about the matter. A 
much-decayed cervical vertebra also was found. 

James Hall, in 1843 (Geol. 4th Dist., p. 364), reported that in the town 
of Perinton there had been found in the bank of a small stream, in gravel 
and sand, a tusk and several teeth. This place appears to be, or to have 
been, very near Pittsford. At Perinton, too, was found a tooth of the 
elephant Elephas primigenius, as mentioned on another page. It was near 
here probably that there were found parts of two skeletons of the peccary 
Platygonus compressus, as noted in its proper place. 

Inasmuch as all these animals, as well as those found nearer Rochester, 
were buried in deposits overlying Wisconsin drift, they must have lived 
after the withdrawal of the ice beyond Rochester, and at a time when the 
region had taken the present aspect or nearly so. 

43. Pochester, Monroe County. — In 1842 (Nat. Hist. N. Y. Mamm., p. 
103), J. E. De Kay stated that in 1817 remains of mastodon had been 
found in Rochester, 4 feet below the surface, in a hollow or water-course. 
He did not give his authority for this statement. James Hall, in 1843 
(Geol. 4th Dist., p. 364), reported that in 1838, during the excavation of 
the Genesee Valley Canal, at its junction with Sophia street, various bones 
of a mastodon had been discovered. They are said to have been inter- 
mingled with gravel and covered by clay and loam, above which was a 
deposit of shell marl. The bones were placed in the State Museum at 



60 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Albany. C. D. (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxiii, 1837, p. 201) says that these 
bones were Ijnng on and in a hard body of blue clay and about 2 feet above 
the limestone, which itself was polished. Clarke (Bull. 69, New York State 
Mus., p. 931) reported, on the authority of H. L. Ward, that a few remains 
of mastodon had been found at Mount Hope cemetery. In the collection 
of the University of Rochester is a proboscidean rib 837 mm. long, which 
is labeled as having been found January 27, 1913, at the corner of Charlotte 
boulevard and Miller street. It lay in gravel 12 feet below the surface. 
It seems to the writer to belong to Mammut americanum. 

44. Scottsburg, Livingston County. — Clarke (Bull. 69, etc., p. 932) re- 
ported that 20 bones and various fragments of bones of a mastodon had 
been collected here by F. H. Bradley and H. A. Green, and presented to the 
Yale collection by R. S. Fellows. No additional information was furnished. 
These remains include a hindermost lower molar (Cat. No. 11714) that had 
not yet come into use. The animal may be supposed to have lived during 
or after the last half of the Wisconsin stage. 

45. Fowlerville, Livingston County. — Dr. John M. Clarke (Bull. 69, etc., 
p. 932) stated, on the ^authority of Mr. H. J. Peck, that 3 or 4 teeth, tusks, 
and other bones, badly broken, had been found, in 1886, in an excavation on 
the bank of Genesee River, 80 feet above the water. No further informa- 
tion has been recorded. 

From Dr. I. Edward Line, Rochester, N. Y., the writer has received a 
photograph of an upper right penultimate molar, little worn, which he 
reports as having been found in 1887, near Genesee River, on the road from 
Avon to Fowlerville. It was discovered in a marshy part of the farm of 
Robert Boyd and was exhumed by the late Dr. William Nishet, of Avon. 
Other teeth, a tusk, and fragments of bone were found, some of which. Dr. 
Line states, were taken to Harvard University by Professor F. W. Putnam. 
Quite certainly this was the same mastodon as that reported by Mr. Peck. 
The animal could not have lived here until after a stage represented by 
Fairchild's plate 37 (Bull. 127, New York State Mus.). 

46. Geneseo, Livingston County. — In 1827 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xii, 
p. 380), Jeremiah Van Rensselaer reported that, in 1826, the skull, tusks, 
lower jaws with teeth, pelvis, and many other bones had been found at 
Geneseo. Later (1841) Lyell and James Hall made excavations at the same 
place, but discovered only some fragments of the skull and of other bones. 
These were at a depth of about 5 feet and were mixed with marl and yet- 
existing fresh-water shells. Over all was a layer of muck (Lyell, "Travels 
in North America," vol. i, p. 55). Hall (Geol. 4th Dist., p. 363, fig. 173) 
published a figure of one of the teeth, a hindermost molar. The remark as 
to the geological age of the Fowlerville specimen applies to this one. 

47. Nunda, Livingston County. — Clarke (Bull. 69, p. 932) stated, on the 
authority of Charles E. Beecher, that 10 bones and fragments of a mastodon 
had been secured here, and presented to Yale University collection. No 
exact locality and no geological information were furnished. The geological 
age is quite certainly late Wisconsin or still later. 

48. Belvidcrc, Allegany County. — In the American Geologist, vol. xxxiii, 
1904, page 60, an anonymous note states that some mastodon remains, 3 



NEW YORK. 61 

ribs and 4 vertebra?, had been unearthed at this place by James Johnson, 
oi Bradford, and Alban Stewart, of the Smithsonian Institution. Nothing 
was said as to the exact locahty and geological conditions. The time of the 
animal's life could hardly have been earlier than the last half of the 
Wisconsin stage. 

49. Pike, Wyoming County. — In 1876 (Guide to Genesee Valley Mus., 
Letchworth Park, Castile, N. Y., 1907, pp. 5-6), a part of a skull, the tusks, 
a few vertebrae, and some foot-bones were found on the farm of Charles 
Dennis, on the outskirts of the village of Pike. They were met with in 
making a ditch and hence were probably in a marsh. Their geological age 
is that of the last half of the Wisconsin stage or later. 

50. Attica, Wyoming County. — In 1887 (6th Ann. Rep. State Geologist, 
for 1886, p. 34), J. M. Clarke described briefly the finding of supposed 
mastodon bones at this place. A tusk had been encountered while a trench 
for a water-main was being dug on Genesee street. In 1888 (41st Ann. 
Rep. State Mus., for 1887, pp. 388-390, plate), Clarke reported the results 
of further digging. The tusk was exhumed, as well as two ribs and a frag- 
ment of the zygomatic arch. Nothing was found that distinguished the 
remains from those of an elephant. .The fragments were in a bog-hole and 
scattered over a space about 20 by 25 feet. Under the made ground was 
first a layer of loam 5 inches thick, then came in succession 1 foot 2 inches 
of clayey muck and 1 foot 5 inches of unlaminated clay and an undeter- 
mined thickness of laminated clay. The bones lay in the unlaminated 
clay, at a depth of 2 feet 6 inches from the natural surface. With the bones 
was what was thought to be an ankle-bone of an elk. At a distance of 75 
feet was another bog-hole, 75 feet in diameter, which was filled with muck 
lying on compact laminated clay. The muck had a maximum thickness of 
4 feet. At the deepest place was found a piece of pottery and, beneath 
and around it, about 30 fragments of thoroughly burned charcoal. 

The proboscidean remains here described must have been buried after 
(how long after one can not say) the Wisconsin glacier had retired about 
two-thirds the way from its southward limit to the shore of Lake Ontario. 

51. Leroy, Genesee County. — J. E. De Kay, in 1842 (Zool. N. Y., Mamm., 
p. 104) , stated that in 1841 a mastodon tooth weighing 2 pounds had been 
found in a bed of marl 3 miles south of Leroy. No other information 
appears to have been recorded. 

The mastodons found here and at Stafford and Batavia could have lived 
only after the ice-sheet had retired beyond these places. About this time 
the waters of the Finger Lake region found an outlet westward to the Mis- 
sissippi by way of lakes Warren and Chicago. 

52. Stafford, Genesee County. — James Hall, in 1843 (Geol. 4th Dist., 
p. 364) , reported that some years previously a small molar tooth had been 
found at this place. It was beneath muck and upon a deposit of clay and 
sand. There was found also a quantity of hair-like confervse, of a dun- 
brown color, which resembled hair so closely that a close examination was 
necessary to determine its real nature. 

53. Batavia, Genesee County. — In 1904 (Bull. 69, New York State 
Museum, p. 932) , Clarke reported for H. L. Ward, that in 1897 two tusks, 



62 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

a part of a skull with teeth, several vertebrae, and ribs had been found here. 
Nothing more is known about this case. 

54. Holley, Orleans County. — In 1843, James Hall (Geol. 4th Dist., 
p. 364) reported that during the excavation of the Erie Canal, a large molar 
tooth was found in a swamp near Holley. This, according to Clarke, was 
about 1820. At the earliest time assignable, this mastodon lived after the 
Wisconsin glacier had withdrawn nearly mto the basin of Lake Ontario. 
It may have had its existence nearly up to the Recent epoch. 

55. Medina, Orleans County. — In the Buffalo Society of Natural History 
is a part of the left ramus of the lower jaw of a mastodon, labeled as having 
been found in a swamp near Medina. It contains the second and third 
true molars. The remark about the geological age of the Holley mastodon 
is applicable to this one. 

56. Niagara, Niagara County.— In 1842 (Zool. N. Y., Mamm., p. 104), 
De Kay stated that a mastodon tooth had been found in digging a mill-race 
on Goat Island, 12 or 13 feet below the surface. Lyell, in 1843 (Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., vol. xii, p. 127) , alluded to the occurrence of remains of mastodon 
in a fresh-water formation on the right bank of the Niagara River at the 
Falls. The formation appears to have consisted of gravel. These are pos- 
sibly the same remains as those mentioned by De Kay. Hall (Geol. 4th 
Dist., p. 364) stated that the deposit was a line gravel and loam containing 
fresh-water shells, and evidently of fluviatile origin. These deposits were 
noted by W. E. Logan (Geol. Canada, 1863, pp. 913-914) . On the Canadian 
side of the gorge below the Falls, 16 species of fresh-water mollusks were 
found in the sand, evidently where they had lived. 

At the museum of Davis Brothers, at Niagara Falls, Mr. B. U. Davis told 
the writer that he owned 2 mastodon teeth which had been found in digging 
for the foundations of the Tower Hotel, which faces the Falls park. 

Ma.stodons could have lived where Niagara Falls is now located only after 
the Wisconsin ice-sheet had retired far enough to permit the waters of Lake 
Iroquois to fall somewhat below those of Lake Erie, the shrinkage of the 
latter to its present basin, and the formation of dry land or land not too 
swampy around the present Niagara Falls. 

57. Hinsdale, Cattaraugus County. — Hall (op. cit., p. 364) stated that at 
this place a tusk, with some horns of deer, had been found in gravel and 
sand, 16 feet below the surface. Clarke (Bull. 69, etc., p. 933) mentions 
this case and suggests that the antlers were possibly those of the elk. The 
tusk may quite as well have been that of an elephant. 

Lyell (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xii, 1843, p. 127) referred to this dis- 
covery as showing mastodon bones fU. the higliest elevation known at that 
time, 1,500 feet above the sea. 

58. Conewango, Cattaraugus County. — In 1908 (60th Ann. Rep. State 
Mus., p. 60), Clarke reported that part of a mastodon skeleton, consisting 
of from 40 to 50 bones, mostly vertebrte and foot-bones, had been unearthed 
in 1906 from the bank of the State ditch along Conewango Creek, close to 
the boundary between Cattaraugus and Chautauqua Counties. The remains 
lay on a shelf of hard clay. They were discovered and reported by C. N. 
Hoard and W. H. Hoard. The locality was probably not far from the town 



NEW JERSEY. 63 

indicated. This animal is to be referred to the last half of the Wisconsin 
glacial stage; that is, to the Wabash stage. 

59. Buffalo, Erie County.— In 1809 (Phila. Med. and Phys. Jour., vol. ii, 
p. 157), Dr. B. S. Barton reported that a tooth of a mastodon had been 
found on Buffalo Creek, near its mouth. Of this mastodon one can only 
say that it lived late in Wisconsin times, not earlier probably than when 
Lake Iroquois became the immediate predecessor of Lake Ontario. 

60. Jamestown, Chautauqua County. — In 1872 (Amer. Naturalist, vol. 
VI, p. 178), Mr. T. A. Cheney announced the finding of parts of 2 skeletons 
of the mastodon, in a swamp about a mile north of Jamestown. One was 
a small animal, probably a young one, the larger one an adult. Of the 
latter, 6 teeth in the lower jaw, the tusks, and various other bones were 
secured. The remains were lying in a soil composed of peat and marl, at 
a depth of 4 feet. A great mass, 8 or 9 bushels, of broken twigs was found 
and taken to be the contents of the animal's stomach. This mastodon 
belonged to the last half of the Wisconsin glacial stage. 

61. Westfield, Chautauqua County.— Dr. J. M. Clarke, in 1903 (Bull. 69, 
etc., p. 933), reported the discovery of a part of a skeleton at Westfield. It 
was on the property of Mrs. Alice Peacock, alongside the Nickel Plate Rail- 
road. A tusk, 6 feet 2 inches long and highly curved, 17 ribs, 8 pelvic 
and lumbar vertebrae, a patella, and parts of the scapula and pelvis were 
secured. The bones lay on a pavement of heavy boulders and under several 
feet of black clayey muck. This animal could have lived here only after 
the Wisconsin ice-sheet had withdrawn within, or nearly within, the basin 
of Lake Erie. 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Maps 5, 6-A.) 

1. Mannington Township, Salem County. — In Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, is a mounted mastodon said to have been found on 
the Hackett farm, Chestnut Hill, in Mannington. This township is north- 
west of the town of Salem. It is stated that about 75 per cent of the bones 
are present in the mounted skeleton; the missing parts are restored in 
plaster or some other material. Rhoads (Mamm. Penn. N. J., 1903, p. 235) 
was informed by Professor Valiant that this skeleton was excavated from 
a bed of gray marl, at a depth of from 6 to 8 feet below the surface. Accord- 
ing to Lewis and Kiimmel's geological map of New Jersey, 1912, this region 
appears to be overlain by the Cape May formation (see also Salisbury and 
Knapp, vol. viii, Final Rep. Geol. Surv. New Jersey, p. 194) . 

2. Harrisonville, Gloucester County. — In 1869, Cope (Cook's Geol. New 
Jersey, p. 740) stated that a mastodon had been found at this place, but no 
details were furnished. Harrisonville is on Oldman's Creek, and along this 
are distributed, according to the map above cited, materials belonging to 
the Pensauken formation. Bridgeton, Pensauken, and Cape May deposits 
are, however, not far away (Salisbury and Knapp, o\). cit., pp. 31, 96, 97, 
194,198). 



64 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

3. Mullica Hill, Gloucester County. — In Cook's "Geology of New Jersey," 
Cope reported also that mastodon remains had been found at Mullica Hill, 
on Raccoon Creek, but here again no details were given. Following the map 
cited, and Salisbury and Knapp, page 194, we find Cape May deposits at 
the town, but Pensauken is not far away, and it is not known exactly where 
the mastodon remains were met with. 

4. Woodbury, Gloucester County.— Mr. Samuel N. Rhoads (Mamra. 
Penn. N. J., 1903, p. 235) recorded the discovery of a mastodon near 
Woodbury. It was found on Mantua Creek and was in the possession of 
Dr. J. C. Curry, of Woodbury. Mantua Creek flows south of Woodbury, 
about 2.5 miles distant. On the map cited the region is indicated as being 
covered mostly by Pensauken materials, but there is some Cape May (Salis- 
bury and Knapp, pp. 100, 191). The Cape May is on a lower level along 
the streams. 

From Dr. Curry the writer learns that the remains of this mastodon passed 
into the possession of Mr. Herbert Twells, of Woodbury, New Jersey. 
Neither of these gentlemen is able to furnish any further information. 

5. Pemherton, Burlington County. — Professor E. D. Cope (Cook's Geol. 
New Jersey, 1869, p. 740) stated that mastodon remains had been found at 
Pemberton. Previously, Conrad (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. vol. i, 1832, 
p. 11) had reported that bones and teeth of this species had been found here. 
In the collection of the Academy at Philadelphia are a part of a skull and 
some bones and teeth which were collected at Pemberton in 1887 by J. C. 
Saltar and E. McConnell. Rhoads (Mamm. Penn. N. J., p. 234) mentioned 
this skeleton and said that it was exposed in the bed of a small stream. 
Mr. J. Coleman Saltar, now of Milford, Delaware, has kindly replied to the 
present writer's inquiries. He says that the skeleton was found about 1.5 
miles northwest of Pemberton, in the bank of a small stream lying partly 
in the water, partly embedded in the bank. The flood-plain is perhaps about 
10 feet below the tilled land along the stream. On the flood-plain is Recent 
silt. Below this appears to be a Pleistocene deposit which contains vege- 
table debris, including pine cones. The skeleton was in this layer, about 
3 feet below the surface. Professor Valiant informed Mr. Rhoads that 
another skull was found, a good many years ago, in a swamp near Pember- 
ton, and for a long time was used as a door-step before its real nature was 
discovered. Mr. Saltar, in the letter referred to above, stated that his 
understanding has been that this skull was found along the same stream and 
was used as a stepping-stone in crossing, until some progressive person 
sought to change its position. 

In the collection of the Academy, at Philadelphia, are 2 good teeth and 
parts of 2 others which are said to have been found at Pemberton. They 
are credited to G. C. Forsyth. At Princeton University is a nearly com- 
plete lower jaw. No. 8173, of a mastodon which was collected at Pemberton. 

Pemberton is on Rancocas River. In Salisbury and Knapp's work of 
1917, on page 184, it is stated that sands which seem to belong to the Cape 
May are found along the North branch of the Rancocas near Pemberton. 

6. Trenton, Mercer County. — Mr. S. N. Rhoads, in 1903 (Mamm. Penn. 
N. J., p. 235) stated that there is in Rutgers College Museum a specimen of 



NEW JERSEY. 65 

tusk of mastodon which was reported to have been found in 1878 associated 
with stone implements in the Trenton gravels, 12 feet below the surface. 
Cook (Rep. Stat. Geol. New Jersey, for 1878, p. 15) stated that the tusk 
was found at a depth of 14 feet, with the gravel and stones partly stratified 
over it. There may be a question whether the tusk belonged to a mastodon 
or to an elephant. Professor S. Lockwood (Pop. Sci. Monthly, vol. xxli, 
p. 344) wrote that he had seen a tusk, doubtless the one mentioned above, 
taken from the Trenton gravels. Whether or not this tusk was found 
immediately at Trenton was not stated, but Cook reported that it was 
found at Trenton. 

7. Freehold, Monmouth County. — Several mastodons have been reported 
from this place. Professor Samuel Lockwood, in 1882 (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
vol. xxiv, p. 291 ; Pop. Sci. Monthty, vol. xxii, p. 341 ; Proc. Amer. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci., vol. xxxi, 1883, p. 365) reported tliat he had exhumed a skeleton 
of a mastodon in a peat swamp 2 miles west of the town. It rested on hard- 
pan, beneath the peat. Over the neck were sticks which had been cut by 
beavers. Lockwood's complete account was published in the Popular 
Science Monthly, as quoted. The skeleton was in very bad condition. The 
lower jaw is not mentioned. According to the New Jersey map cited, the 
region about Freehold is occupied by the Pensauken formation; according 
to Salisbury and Knapp the identity of this is not wholly certain. It is 
impossible to say when the skeleton had fallen there. Some one, probably 
G. H. Cook (Geol. New Jersey, 1868, p. 741), stated that bones of mastodon 
had been found near Freehold by 0. R. Willis. Professor Valiant has told 
the writer of a milk-tooth of a mastodon found at "Hartshorne's mills" 
(Cook's Geol. New Jersey, 1868, p. 781). 

8. Englishtown, Monmouth County. — Mr. S. N. Rhoads (Mamm. Penn., 
N. J., p. 235) stated that Professor Valiant had informed him that remains 
of mastodon had been found in marl at Englishtown. The relations of the 
remains to the marl one can not now learn. According to the New Jersey 
geologists, the region about the place is occupied by Pensauken; but one 
can not be certain about the geological age of the mastodon. 

9. Marlboro, Monmouth County. — George li. Cook (Geol. New Jersey, 
1868, p. 741) reported that a portion of a jaw of a mastodon had been found 
in a mill-race at Marlboro; but when this happened we are not told. 
Rhoads, as cited, probably refers to the same specimen, where he mentions 
a ramus of a young mastodon containing the milk dentition. This is in 
Rutgers College. The gravels on the hills about Marlboro are referred by 
the New Jersey geologists to the Pensauken. It is not unlikely, however, 
that Cape May deposits are to be met with at lower levels. 

10. Long Branch, Monmouth County. — A number of mastodons have 
been found in the vicinity of Long Branch. In 1824 (Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., 
N. Y., vol. 1, pp. 143-147), De Kay, Van Rensselaer, and Cooper gave a 
detailed account of the exhumation of a mastodon skeleton on a farm called 
"Poplar," 3 miles southwest of Long Branch, and 2 miles from the sea-beach. 
The skeleton was found near the border of a marsh and so close to the sur- 
face that it was discovered by a molar sticking out of the turf. The verte- 
bral column lay only about 8 or 10 inches below the surface. These bones, 



66 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

including the skull, which lay near the surface, were more or less decayed. 
The tusks were not found at all. The bones were all buried in a stratum of 
black earth about 8 feet thick. Below this was a bed of sand, with rolled 
pebbles, of unequal thickness, but generally thicker than the bed of muck. 
Under this again was found a bed of marl of undetermined age. The im- 
pression received by the investigators was that the animal had sunken into 
the marsh and died in a standing position. In such a case, the bog had 
been formed before the animal was mired in it. There is an account by 
Van Rensselaer in the American Journal of Science, volume xi, 1826, page 
246, of the finding of this skeleton. Godman (Amer. Nat. Hist., vol. ii) 
gave an account of the same discovery. Cook (Geol. New Jersey, 1868, 
p. 741) thought that the bones had become exposed to view through sub- 
sidence of the peaty layer, due to its having been drained. 

James Hall (Geol. 4th Dist., N. Y., p. 365) states that he had assisted in 
exhuming a mastodon at Long Branch which was in a natural vertical posi- 
tion, his body supported by the turf soil or black earth and his feet resting 
upon a gravelly bottom. 

Lockwood (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxiv, 1882, p. 294; Pop. Sci. Monthly, 
vol. XXII, p. 344) reported that he had known of 2 teeth of the mastodon 
which at distant times had been taken up at sea ofY Long Branch. 

While it is very natural to refer to the latest Pleistocene these mastodons 
which lie so near the surface, it must not be concluded with too much 
assurance that they do belong to the Late Wisconsin. The discovery of 
horse-teeth in the Navesink Hills and of Megatherium at Long Branch 
shows that the older Pleistocene deposits are present in this region. 

11. Navesink Hills, Monmouth County. — In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol VII, p. 261), Leidy reported that remains of the mastodon had 
been found in this region, associated with a vertebra and some teeth of a 
fossil horse. This was based on Mitchill's statement (Cat. Organ. Remains, 
p. 7) that he had a part of a tibia of a mastodon. 

12. Manasquan Inlet, Monmouth County. — In 1882 (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
vol. XXIV, p. 294) , Lockwood stated that he had known of a tusk and some 
other bones of a mastodon which had been uncovered by sea-waves in a 
storm about 15 miles south of Long Branch. In another place (Pop. Sci. 
Monthly, vol. xxii, p. 344) he spoke of a tusk which had been thus unearthed 
in Monmouth County. The place was evidently north of Manasquan Inlet. 

Salisbury and Knapp (Geol. Surv. New Jersey, vol. viii) describe the 
region along the coast from Manasquan River to Long Branch as presenting 
Cape May deposits at elevations below 40 or 45 feet, while modern beach 
deposits occupy some areas below this level. It seems, however that some 
of these supposed Recent materials contain extinct vertebrates and are older 
than they appear to be. 

13. Verona, Essex County. — George H. Cook (Geol. New Jersey, 1868, 
p. 741) stated that a very perfect tooth of a mastodon had been picked up 
near Verona. This town is on Peckman Brook, and in the valley of this 
stream there is some stratified drift which is referred to the Wisconsin. 
Too little is known about the history of the tooth to enable one to determine 
with confidence its geological age. 



NEW JERSEY. 67 

14. Rockport, Warren County {Schooley's Mountain) . — In 1828 (Amer. 
Jour. Sci,, vol. XIV, p. 188), Thomas P. Stewart reported the discovery of 
what he called a mammoth on Schooley's Mountain. It was met with in 
1827, in excavating the Morris Canal. The locality must therefore be 
west of Musconetcong River and probably not far from Rockport. The 
bones lay at a depth of about 3 feet. The animal was evidently a mastodon. 
A tooth, a lower last molar, measured 3.5 inches in width and 7 inches in 
length. The enamel was well preserved. Other bones were found. 

15. Hackettstown, Warren County. — In the fourth volume of the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1844, on pages 118 to 121, 
there is an account, by J. B. Maxwell, of the discovery of the remains of 
5 mastodons near Hackettstown, about halfway on the road to Vienna. In 
this vicinity is a ridge of gneiss which runs in a northeast-and-southwest 
direction. On this ridge is a pond-like depression about 40 yards in length 
by 25 yards in width, which at one time was a marsh. After it was drained 
the owner began digging in it and discovered the mastodon skeletons. They 
are described as consisting of one animal pretty large, three of smaller size, 
and one a calf. From these were obtained a skeleton which became the 
property of Harvard University and has since been known as the Cambridge 
skeleton. It is described by Warren in both editions of his "Monograph on 
the Mastodon." Jackson (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 60) 
described these skeletons. A lower jaw of a young individual had two 
alveoli for lower tusks, 0.75 inch in diameter. 

Asa Gray (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, 1848, p. 92) examined wood 
which had been taken in the place occupied by the stomach of the skeleton 
referred to. He found no differences between it and that of the common 
hemlock spruce. While Gray speaks of this mastodon as being found on 
Schooley's Mountain, he evidently meant the ones found at Hackettstown. 

According to Maxwell's account there was at the surface 6 inches of vege- 
table deposit; below this was found about 6 inches of whitish sand; while 
below this came a bed of pure muck from 4 to 6 feet in depth. In this were 
buried the mastodon bones. 

Lyell (Second Visit to U. S., ed. 3, vol. ii, p. 363) mentions the skeletons 
found at Hackettstown. Between the ribs had been found about 7 bushels 
of vegetable matter supposed to have been contained in the stomach. He 
took some of it to London and had it examined microscopically. It ap- 
peared to belong to the white cedar, Thuja occidentalis. 

By consulting Lewis and Kiimmel's geological map of New Jersey, it will 
be seen that the locality where these mastodons were found is on the Wis- 
consin moraine. Plates xlv and xlv a of Salisbury's report (vol. v, Geol. 
Surv. New Jersey) present the topographical and geological details of this 
region. A "mastodon pond" is there mapped which is doubtless the one 
referred to above. We may be quite certain, therefore, that these mastodons 
lived after the retirement of the Wisconsin ice-sheet. 

A note, apparently by George Cook (Geol. New Jersey, 1868, p. 741), 
stated that some years previously a mastodon tooth had been found 0.5 mile 
east of Vienna, 4 miles west of Hackettstown. 



68 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

16. Hope, Warren County. — A note, probably by George H. Cook, in his 
"Geology of New Jersey," 1868, page 741, stated that a part of a mastodon 
skeleton had been found about 2 miles from Hope, on the road leading to 
Johnsonsburg and on the farm of Charles Howell. This would be northeast 
from Hope. On the New Jersey map referred to there is some Wisconsin 
drift indicated near this place. The remains are probably of late Wis- 
consin age. 

17. Greendell, Sussex County. — In Warren's "Monograph on the Mas- 
todon" (first edition, page 174; second edition, page 200) is an extract taken 
from the Sussex Register, of September 27, 1851, giving an account of the 
finding of bones, jaws, and teeth of a mastodon on the farm of Timothy H. 
Cook, near Greenville. This town was later called Cuttoff and this name 
has recently been changed to Greendell. In Cook's "Geology of New 
Jersey," 1868, page 741, the farm was said to belong to Jacob Voss. In a 
bog which had been drained a fire was made on a stump of a tree. The fire 
burned the roots, and the bones of the animal became exposed. The bones 
of the head especialty were apparently very near the surface. The town is 
on the Lackawanna Railroad, about 3 miles northeast of Johnsonsburg, 
Warren County. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Tunkhannock, Wyoming County. — In 1883 (2d Geol. Surv. Pennsyl- 
vania, G^ p. 20) , Dr. I. C. White reported that the tusks and the teeth of a 
mastodon had been found at Tunkhannock. At the mouth of Tunkhannock 
Creek a large gravel deposit rises to a height of 125 feet above Susquehanna 
River and then spreads out into a wide plain. In the valley of the creek 
mentioned it takes the form of a sharp, low kame-like ridge of gravel and 
boulders. In such deposits the mastodon remains were found. According 
to White, these gravels and boulders were laid down in the waters which 
came from the retreating glacier and which deeply flooded all the streams. 
In case this explanation is the correct one, this mastodon lived there after 
the beginning of the retreat of the Wisconsin ice-sheet. Possibly, however, 
those gravels, at a height of 125 feet, belong to an older glacial stage. 

White, on page 123 of his report quoted above, referred to a tusk which 
had been dug up in one of the streets of Tunkhannock. This was probably 
the one mentioned in connection with the teeth. 

2. Pittston, Luzerne County. — Dr. Joseph Leidy, in 1873 (Ext. Vert. 
Fauna West. Terrs., p. 238, plate xxviii, fig. 9), reported that there was in 
the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia 3 first premolars of 
apparently as many individuals of Mammut americanum, which had been 
found at Pittston, associated with Equus major {E. complicatus) and 
Symbos sp. indet. {"Bison latifrons" of Leidy). One of these he figured. 
The present writer has examined these teeth. Two are upper antepenulti- 
mate milk molars (pm-), right and left; another is an upper penultimate 
milk-molar, whose length is 45 mm. and whose width is nearly as much. 
They probably did not all belong to one individual. The geological age 
of these mastodons will be discussed on page 308. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 69 

3. Berwick, Columbia County. — The U. S. National Museum has a cast 
of a mastodon tooth sent there in 1904 by Professor A. U. Lesher. The 
tooth was an upper right last molar and only slightly worn. There were 4 
crests and a very strongly developed talon. No details were furnished 
regarding the conditions under which it was discovered. 

4. Reading, Berks County. — The collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia contains a lower left hindermost tooth of a mas- 
todon and some fragments of one or two other teeth, said to have been 
found on Schuylkill River at Reading. These remains appear not to have 
been accompanied by any details regarding the manner of their burial. 

5. Port Kennedy, Montgomery County. — Many remains of the mastodon 
have been found in the famous cave, or fissure, discovered at this place. 
The first accounts of these fossils were published in 1871 (Cope, Proc. Amer. 
Philos. Soc, vol. XII, pp. 15, 95; Wheatley, Amer, Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. i, 
pp. 235-237, 384^385). Cope (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ser. 2, vol. xi, 
pp. 193-267) presented the results of a thorough exploitation of the cave. 
For the nature of the remains of mastodon found there the papers mentioned 
may be consulted. A list of the associated fossils and a discussion of the 
geological features of the case will be found in its proper place on page 312. 

6. Jackson Township, York County. — In the collection of the Academy 
at Philadelphia there is a lower left hindermost molar of a mastodon which 
is labeled as having been found in the township mentioned, but no details 
regarding the exact locality and kind of deposit were furnished. Jackson 
Township is situated in the west and northwestern part of York County. 

7. Kishacoquillas Statipn, near Reedsville, Mifflin County. — In 1858 
Professor H. D. Rogers (Geol. Pennsylvania, vol. i, p. 480) wrote that 4 
grinders of a mastodon and a part of the skull had been found 3 miles south- 
west of Brown's Mills on Kishacoquillas Creek. The remains rested on 
rounded pebbles and were covered with a few feet of alluvium. Professor 
Mosheim Swartzell, of Washington, D. C, informs the present writer that 
Brown's Mills is located at the station Reedsville, and that the tooth must 
have been found near the station. 

8. Chambersburg, Franklin County. — In 1806, Dr. B. S. Barton (Phila. 
Med. and Phys. Jour., vol. ii, p. 157) recorded that a large grinder of 
Elephas americanus of Cuvier had been found in a field a few miles from 
Chambersburg. The tooth was evidently that of a mastodon. 

9. Frankstown, Blair County. — Dr. W. J. Holland, in 1908 (Ann. Car- 
negie Mus., vol IV, p. 233), reported remains of young mastodons from a 
cave at the place named. They were associated with many other species 
of mammals, a list of which will be presented on pages 321, 322. 

10. Bedford, Bedford County. — According to Cuvier (Oss. Foss., 4th ed., 
1834, vol. II, p. 274), Mitchill mentioned that remains of a mastodon had 
been found at or near this place. The present writer has not seen Mitchill's 
statement. 

11. Pittsburgh, Allegheny County. — In 1876, Professor J. J. Stevenson 
(2d Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania, K, p. 22), reported that numerous fragments 
of bones and teeth had been found in the river bank at the junction of 



70 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers. They were said to have been pre- 
sented to a Pittsburgh high school. 

12. Hickory, Washingto7i County. — In 1875, Professor J. J. Stevenson 
(2d Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania, K, p. 22) reported that a mastodon tooth 
had been found in Mount Pleasant Township, in the county named. It was 
said to have been discovered on the high divide between Raccoon and 
Chartiers Creeks. The tooth is preserved at Washington and Jefferson 
College, at Washington, in the county of the same name. Professor Edwin 
Linton has informed the writer that the tooth was found about 1 or 1.5 
miles southeast of Hickory. This indicates that it was found along West- 
land Run, probably about halfway down to the village of Westland. The 
geological position and possible age will be discussed on page 323. 

13. Erie, Erie County. — In the Erie Public Museum the writer has seen 
a part of a lower right hindermost molar of a mastodon which is labeled 
as having been found long ago on what was called Frontier farm, about 2 
miles west of the Public Library, below Eighth street and toward the lake. 
The discovery is credited to W. F. Leutzer. The locality would apparently 
be on Chase Creek, at an elevation of about 600 feet above sea-level, unless 
it had possibly been buried along the creek in some pre-Wisconsin forma- 
tion. In lack of the information that ought to have been preserved it may 
be impossible to arrive at any certain conclusion. Mr. Clyde C. Hill, civil 
engineer, North East, Erie County, has informed the writer that Chase 
Creek flows through the old Frontier farm. 

OHIO. 

(Maps 5, 7.) 
In Unglaciated Region. 

1. Pike County. — In 1875 (Cincinnati Quart. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, p. 154), 
J. H. Klippart wrote that the upper jaw of a mastodon, with a considerable 
part of the cranium, had been found somewhere in this county and had been 
on exhibition in the State Agricultural rooms. It was owned by a Mr. 
Faust, of Gallon or Crestline. Nothing more appears to be known about 
this specimen. 

2. Nashport, Muskingum County. — In 1837 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxi, 
p. 79), S. P. Hildreth, in an unsigned article, stated that mastodon remains 
had been found 2 miles north of this place, during the excavation of a canal. 
He recognized large portions of tusks and some molar teeth. At the same 
place were found the skull which became the type of Castoroides ohioensis, 
as well as a skull which Hildreth described and named Ovis mamillaris, 
but which probably belonged to a domestic sheep. 

47. Lisbon, Columbiana County. — In the Ohio University Department of 
Archaeology and History there are some remains of a peccary which, as 
reported by Professor W. C. Mills, was found associated with remains of a 
mastodon. The locality is said to be in the northwest quarter of the 
northeast quarter of section 24, township 18 north, range 3 west. This 
would be in the south edge of the town of Lisbon and probably on the south 
side of the Middle Fork of Little Beaver River. It would be just outside 
of the m.oraine of the Wisconsin drift sheet. 



OHIO. 71 

In Illinoian Drift Area. 

3. Cincinnati, Hamilton County. — In the first edition of his "Ossemens 
Fossiles," in 1812 (vol ii, Mastodons, p. 12) , Cuvier mentioned the discovery 
of a tooth of a mastodon on the right bank of Ohio River, between the two 
Miamis. In 1843 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. xii, p. 127), Lyell 
reported that teeth of the mastodon and of an elephant had been found 4 
miles north of Cincinnati, in gravel beds of the higher terrace. 

In his "Travels in North America," volume ii, page 60, Lyell wrote that 
several teeth of mastodons had been discovered on Mill Creek, and on what 
he indicated as the upper terrace. He presented a list of the genera of 
mollusks that had been found at the same place. He added that mastodon 
remains had been found in the strata of the upper terrace, both above and 
below Cincinnati. Professor Fenneman writes that in Mill Creek valley 
the Illinoian is distinctly terrace-like and composed of interbedded sheets 
of outwash and till, as though made during repeated advances of the ice. 
The teeth mentioned may belong, therefore, to the Illinoian or Sangamon. 

The most important discovery of mastodon remains is that recorded by 
Seth Hayes (Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xvii, 1895, p. 217) and by E. W. 
Claypole (Amer. Geol., vol. xv, 1895, p. 325). These remains form what 
is known as the "Shaw mastodon." They were discovered in Hyde Park, 
in the northeastern part of Cincinnati, in section 27 of Columbia Township. 
The spot is 1.4 miles away from the river, and just south of the upper part 
of Crawfish Creek. Remains of at least three mastodons were exhumed, in- 
cluding 3 tusks, a lower jaw with teeth, and many other bones. There were 
found also a tooth and a vertebra of a horse. An interesting matter regard- 
ing the lower jaw is the presence of 2 mandibular tusks of considerable 
size (Hayes, as cited, plates xi, xii). The diameter of each is given as 1.5 
inches. One projected beyond the jaw 9.75 inches; the other, 7.4 inches. 
They were curved rather strongly downward. The specimen is to be re- 
ferred to Manimut progenium Hay. The geology of the locality will be 
described on page 328. 

Under this number may be recorded the discovery of mastodon teeth in 
a well sunk at Mount Washington, about 8 miles east of the central part 
of Cincinnati (Fuller and Clapp, Water-Supply Paper 259, 1912, p. 27). 
The teeth were found in coarse gravel, which lies only 15 feet from the sur- 
face, and is overlain by old till and loess. The indications are that the age 
of the mastodon is early Pleistocene. 

In Area of Wisconsin Drift. 

4. Amanda, Butler County. — In the collection of the Piiiladelphia Acad- 
emy of Sciences the writer has seen 2 teeth of a mastodon, probably of the 
same individual, which are labeled as having been found on Dick's Creek, 
Butler Count^^ This creek is in Lemon Township, and flowing westward, 
empties into the Miami near Amanda. The teeth are credited to W. S. 
Vaux. No details regarding the circumstances of discovery are recorded. 
The locality is south of the Germantown moraine. 

5. Germantown, Montgomery County. — In 1875 (Cin. Quart. Jour. Sci., 
vol. II, p. 154) , Mr. J. H. Klippart reported that some years before that time 



72 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS, 

an account had been published in the Dayton Journal of the finding of teeth, 
tusks, and some other parts of the skeleton of a mastodon near Germantown. 
It is not known whether any competent person identified these remains, nor 
what has become of them. 

In 1870 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. l, pp. 54-57), Edward Orton de- 
scribed a geological section which was exposed along Twin Creek, a mile 
east of Germantown. Here were found precipitous walls of clay and gravel 
from 50 to 100 feet in thickness and extending 0.25 mile in each direction 
from a point. Beneath this was a bed of peat along 40 rods of the east bank 
of the creek, varying from 12 to 20 feet in thickness. In the peat-bed were 
found mosses, grasses, sedges, and wood and berries of red cedar. Orton 
reported that in 1870 there were taken from this bed two mastodon tusks 
each 8 feet in length; also a tooth which afterwards was shown to belong to 
Castoroides. Whether or not these tusks were those mentioned by Klippart 
is uncertain. 

This section is discussed by Leverett (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., xli, 
p. 363, plate xiv) and by G. F. Wright ("Ice age in North America," 5th 
ed., p. 592, fig. 151). The latter regards the peat-bed as having come into 
existence during a temporary recession of the Wisconsin ice and as having 
been covered up during another advance of it. Leverett thinks that there 
is good reason to believe that the peat-bed indicates a considerable interval 
of deglaciation, but that it remains to be determined whether this preceded 
the formation of the early Wisconsin moraine or succeeded it. Considering 
the great thickness of the overlying Wisconsin drift and the almost certainty 
that Illinoian drift underlies the Wisconsin, it seems probable that this 
peat-bed belongs to an interglacial deposit, probably the Sangamon. 

6. Dayton, Montgomery County. — In 1820 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser, i, 
vol. II, p. 245) , Caleb Atwater wrote that teeth of the mastodon had been 
found at Dayton. No details were given and the case is not illuminating. 
The weights given for some of the teeth make it doubtful whether or not 
he distinguished mastodon teeth from those of elephants. 

About the first of April 1921, Mr. C. E. Pickering, of Lake View, Ohio, 
sent to the Smithsonian Institution for identification a well-preserved upper 
right second molar of a mastodon. This had been found 4 miles east of 
Dayton in an excavation, 30 feet below the surface. The tooth is 130 mm. 
long and 95 mm. wide. The surfaces of the cones are furnished with welt- 
like ridges which descend from the summit to the bases. 

This whole region is occupied by Wisconsin drift. It is probable that the 
tooth was found in some river deposit, not in the drift itself. 

7. New Paris, Preble C oinity .—Proiessor Joseph Moore (Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. for 1886, p. 277) reported that many bones of a mastodon had been 
discovered by a farmer living 2 or 3 miles from New Paris. Two grinding- 
teeth and one tusk nearly 11 feet long were part of the remains. The bones 
became the property of Earlham College. Nothing was said regarding the 
circumstances of the discovery, but the bones were probably found in one 
of tlie marshes so common in that region. New Paris itself appears to be 
situated on the Germantown moraine. 



OHIO. 73 

8. West Sonora, Preble County. — In 1893 (Amer. Geologist, vol. xii, 
p. 73) Professor Joseph Moore reported that mastodon remains had been 
found near Sonora, Preble County, in company with a fragment of a tooth 
of Castoroides. He probably meant West Sonora, as there is, at present 
at least, no town by the name of Sonora in the county. He furnished no 
details as to topography or geology. West Sonora is on the Englewood 
glacial moraine. 

9. New Madison, Darke County. — The museum connected with the 
public library in Greenville, Darke County, contains a large lower jaw of a 
mastodon with the second and third molars, right and left, found near the 
headwaters of Mud Creek, on the farm of Elias Harter. The place was 
evidently near the village of New Madison. The township is number 10 
north, range 1 east, and is named Harrison. In the same collection is a 
part, about 4 feet long, of a tusk found on the farm of Daniel Ruh, about 2 
miles north of New Madison. It was met with at a depth of 3 feet in 
digging a ditch. For the geology of the region see page 326. New Madi- 
son is on the Englewood moraine. 

10. Fort Jefferson, Darke County. — In the collection at the public library 
in Greenville is a nearly complete mounted skeleton of a mastodon found 
about 1908, in Neave Township, 11 north, range 2 east, near the village 
named. The spot is on the Delaplaine farm and near the headwaters of 
Bridge Creek. The region is very flat and was originally swampy. 

11. Six miles west of Greenville, Darke County. — The writer has been 
informed by Mr. Calvin Young, living west of Greenville, that, a good many 
years ago, a considerable part of a skeleton of a mastodon had been 
exhumed on Kraut Creek, on the farm of Absalom Shade, in the southeast 
quarter of section 34, township 12 north, range 1 east. One tusk was 
broken up by the workmen in order to discover what kind of wood it was. 
A lower jawbone, containing large molars, was 3 feet 2 inches long. The 
remains were sold to John Collett, sent to a museum in Terre Haute, and 
finally destroyed in a fire. The remains were originally found at a depth 
of 5 feet and scattered about in sand and overlain by vegetable mold and 
peat. 

In a letter of March 9, 1915, Mr. Young wrote that another mastodon had 
been found 6 miles west of Greenville. The remains were buried at a depth 
of 2.5 feet and lay on a bed of sand and gravel. Teeth and a tusk 10 feet 
long were observed, but the skeleton was not exhumed. These fossils were 
found on or near the Sidney moraine. 

12. Greenville, Darke County. — The collection at Greenville contains an 
upper left hindermost molar of a mastodon said to have- been found in 
Greenville Creek, about 0.75 mile west of the town. Another tooth, an 
upper left second molar, was found nearly northeast of the town, but how 
far is not stated. Mastodon remains were said by Joseph Moore (Amer. 
Geologist, vol. xii, p. 73) to have been found associated with the giant 
beaver, somewhere near Greenville. 

These remains also must have been buried near the Sidney moraine. 
probably in swamps along its border. 



74 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

13. Ansonia, Darke County. — In the collection at Greenville nearly com- 
plete ossa innominata, right and left, and some vertebrae are preserved, all 
found on the farm of Hezekiah Woods, in section 9 of township 13 north, 
range 2 east, at the headwaters of Stillwater Creek. A considerable part 
of the south of this section is occupied by a swamp. Around this runs the 
contour line of 1,000 feet above sea-level. 

14. Troy, Miami County. — Mr. H. C. Shetrone, of the Ohio Archaeological 
Museum, at Columbus, reported in 1914 that remains of a mastodon had 
been found in a depression about 3 miles from Troy. A company engaged 
in draining the pond and in digging found the bones. A lower jaw con- 
taining teeth was secured, as well as an upper tooth. The tusks had not 
been found. Troy is on the Loramie River, situated between the Engle- 
wood and Sidney moraines. The remains certainly belong to the latter 
part of the Wisconsin stage or later. Professor W. C. Mills writes that the 
remains were found on the farm of Mr. Wheeler, 3 miles southeast of Troy. 
A swampy kettlehole was being drained. 

15. Catawba, Clark County. — In 1875 (Cin. Quart. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, 
p. 154), J. H. Klippart wrote that a considerable part of a skeleton of a 
mastodon had been found in Clark County and had been placed in Witten- 
berg College, at Springfield. No details were furnished. 

From Mr. C. G. Shatzer, of Wittenberg College, in reply to an inquiry, 
the present writer has received the information that this mastodon is now 
mounted and in the collection of the Ohio State University at Columbus. 
It was found at the edge of a small marsh, on the farm of Mr. N. S. Conway, 
on or close to the line between Clark and Champaign counties, and about 
4.5 miles southwest of Mechanicsburg. This would be apparently about a 
mile northwest of Catawba and in the hills east of Buck Creek. Mr. 
Shatzer stated that it is in a rather strong knob-and-kettle country. This 
is shown, too, by the topographical sheet of the region. 

The writer has examined this mastodon. The tusks measure, following 
the curve, 9 feet 8 inches in length. At the base of one of them one diameter 
is 162 mm.; the other, 184 mm. The tusks are somewhat spirally curved. 
The animal was not aged, inasmuch as the second true molar is worn only 
on the first crest, and the third molar is not at all worn. 

49. Brighton, Clark County. — Mr. Shatzer reports that in 1905 or 1906 
he excavated a mastodon at a point about 5 miles southeast of the place 
where the other was found and about a mile due north of the village of 
Brighton. This skeleton was met in a marsh and lay at a depth of about 
18 inches, but one foreleg went straight down into the blue clay. The 
tusks were badly decayed, but many of the bones were well preserved. 

16. Urbana, Champaign County. — In 1908 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 
XXV, p. 193), Professor R. S. Lull wrote that the Yale University collection 
has a fairly complete skeleton of a young mastodon from Urbana. The 
present writer made a note on this specimen to the effect that it was found 
on a farm 5 miles north of Urbana. This would seem to be not far from 
Mad River. 

50. Woodstock, Champaign County. — Mr. J. H. Klippart (Cin. Quart. 
Jour. Sci., vol. II, p. 153) reported that in 1869 a farmer, W. A. Howard, of 



OHIO. 75 

Woodstock, while ditching in his meadow, dug up a finely preserved femur 
of a mastodon. For several years this was on exhibition in the State 
agricultural rooms at Columbus. Unfortunately one can not be sure that 
the bone was not that of one of the elephants. 

30. Fayette County, near Neio Holland, Pickaway County. — In 1875 
(Cin. Quart. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, p. 154), J. H. Klippart reported that por- 
tions of a skeleton of a mastodon had been discovered in a bog near New 
Holland. There appears to be no certainty that the remains were not 
those of an elephant. They had not been exhumed. 

17. South Bloomfield, Pickaway County. — In 1834 (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
ser. 1, vol. XXV, p. 256), in an unsigned article, S. P. Hildreth reported the 
discovery of mastodon teeth and ribs in an excavation for a culvert in a 
small stream, a mile east of Bloomfield, now called South Bloomfield, where 

' a canal was being constructed. The teeth were in a fine state of preserva- 
tion. At the same place was found the tooth of an elephant. These remains 
are said to have been embedded in a black boggy earth. 

18. Circleville, Pickaway County. — In 1820 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, 
p. 245), Caleb Atwater stated that a large thigh bone of a mastodon had a 
short time before been found near the town in digging a mill-race. Here 
again there must be doubt regarding the identification of the animal. 

19. Pickaivay Plains, Pickaway County. — This name is given to a level 
tract lying about 5 miles southwest of Circleville and east of Scioto River. 
In the article cited above, Caleb Atwater stated that he had 2 teeth of a 
mastodon^ one of which had been found in a small rivulet near the "Pick- 
away Plains." This tooth is illustrated by figures 1 and 2 b, of plate ii, of 
the paper cited. It is evidently a tooth of Mammut americanum. The 
locality would be not far from the broad terminal Wisconsin moraine. 

20. Salt Creek Township, Pickaway County. — The writer just quoted 
reported that the other mastodon tooth which he owned had been found in 
the bed of Salt Creek, 22 feet 9 inches below the surface. This tooth is 
figured on plate ii of Atwater's paper above cited. 

21. Shadeville, Franklin County. — In the collection of the University of 
Ohio, the writer has seen a tooth of a mastodon which was found at Shade- 
ville. This place is on Scioto River, a few miles below Columbus. It is 
probably of Late Wisconsin age. 

51. Granville, Licking County. — In 1873 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. v, 
p. 79) , L. E. Hicks reported that he had examined the left side of the pelvis 
of a mastodon found in the bank of Raccoon Creek, near Granville, along 
the route of the Atlantic and Lake Erie Railway. This place is on the 
west border of the Grand River moraine. 

22. Mount Gilead, Morrow County. — In Ward's Natural History Estab- 
lishment, at Rochester, New York, the writer has seen an upper left third 
molar of a mastodon, labeled as having been found at this place. No 
details accompanied the specimen. The tooth is 158 mm. long and 95 mm. 
wade, and has a large pulp cavity. Mount Gilead is on the moraine which 
forms the eastern limb of the Scioto lobe. The tooth may be with safety 
regarded as of Late Wisconsin age. 



76 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

23. Harper, Logan County. — In Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, 
are 2 molars of a mastodon, the lower second and the third, which were 
found somewhere in the vicinity of Harper. 

24. Roundhead, Hardin County. — In 1875 (Cin. Quart. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, 
p. 153), J. H. Klippart reported that considerable parts of the skeleton of 
a mastodon had been exhumed at Fort McArthur, in Hardin County, having 
evidently drifted out to the Scioto marsh and being widely scattered. Fort 
McArthur does not appear on recent maps; a gazetteer of 1835 locates the 
place in Logan County, 24 miles north of Urbana. The locality appears to 
be in the neighborhood of Roundhead and in the marshes in which Scioto 
and Miami Rivers take their rise. 

25. Washiiigton Township, Auglaize County. — In Bulletin No. 16 of the 
Geological Survey of Ohio, 1912, page 38, Mr. Alfred Dachnowski, quoting 
from C. W. Williamson, stated that in 1878 Mr. S. Craig, while engaged 
in surveying section 19 of Washington Township (Tp. 6 S., R. 5 E.) dis- 
covered a mastodon skeleton. No further search had been made in 1905 
(Williamson's Hist. West. Ohio and Auglaize County, p. 336). While 
doubtless a proboscidean was buried there, one can not be sure that it w^as 
not an elephant. This place is not far from New Knoxville. 

26. Piisheta Toiunship, Auglaize County. — From the same authorities it 
is learned that in 1894 a mastodon calf was discovered in section 29 of the 
township named (Tp. 6 S., R. 6 E.), embedded in a layer of muck at the 
bottom of a circular pond. The skeleton is reported as having been quite 
complete, but it went to pieces as it dried. The tusks were about 1 foot 
long. At this place the waters flow into Clear Creek, a branch of Auglaize 
River. 

27. Wapakoneta, Auglaize County. — The authorities quoted reported that 
a mastodon had been discovered in a ditch excavation in section 33 of 
Duchouquet Township (Tp. 5 S., R. 6 E.), not far from Wapakoneta. The 
remains crumbled on exposure and drying. They may have been those of 
an elephant. 

28. Duchouquet Township, Auglaize County. — The authorities on whom 
reliance is here put state that in 1891 a mastodon was discovered by some 
laborers who were deepening and widening the bed of a creek which extends 
through section 22 of the township mentioned. This creek must have been 
either Auglaize River or a branch of it, so unimportant that it is not down 
on the topographical sheet of that quadrangle. The tusks extended across 
the creek and were cut off by the workmen and carried away. 

29. St. Johns, Auglaize County. — Mastodons have been reported from 
two localities near the village of St. Johns and along the headwaters of 
Willow Creek. The one nearest the village is mentioned in Dachnowski's 
work "Peat Deposits of Ohio" (Bull. 16, Geol. Surv. Ohio, 1912, p. 38). It 
was found in section 4 of Clay Township (Tp. 6S., R. 7E.), some time 
about 1870. There is no certainty that the bone did not belong to an ele- 
phant. The other mastodon was found in 1870 and accounts of the discov- 
ery were given by Dr. G. K. Gilbert (Proc. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., vol. i, 
1871, p. 220; Rep. Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. i, pt. 1, 1873, p. 556) ; and by C. W. 
Williamson (Hist. West. Ohio and Auglaize County, 1905, pp. 334-336). 



OHIO. 77 

The locality is 2.5 miles east of St. Johns, in section 3, Clay Township. 
Farmers were engaged in running a broad ditch through a swamp. The 
depth of the swamp deposit at that point was 8 feet, of which the upper 
third was peat, the remainder, so far as shown, of marl or marly clay. 
The bones were in their natural relations and it was evident to Gilbert that 
the animal had mired there. The lower limb-bones were directed downward 
and well preserved, but the bones nearer the surface were badly decomposed. 
The presence of the teeth enabled Gilbert to identify the animal as the 
mastodon. The peat had evidently been deposited after the death of the 
animal, which had occurred after the deposit of the drift. Klippart (Gin, 
Quart. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, p. 153) stated that a part of the remains had been 
placed in the Wapakoneta High School. The remains must have been 
buried near the Loramie moraine. 

In Heidelberg Universitj^, TiiSin, Ohio, the writer examined teeth and 
bones of two mastodons which had been found in Auglaize County, but the 
exact localities were not known. 

30. See page 75. 

31. Ohio City, Van Wert County. — In 1848 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, 
vol. V, p. 215) , Whittlesey stated that a mastodon tooth had been found at 
this place, and further, that it had been mentioned by Charles Lyell. It 
was found in alluvium and rested on a blue marl. The locality is in the 
vicinity of the Lima moraine. 

32. Columbus Grove, Putnam County. — In 1913, Mr. H. B. Maple, of this 
town, sent to the U. S. National Museum for identification a lower left first 
molar, found in gravel 3 miles north of the town, near the border of ancient 
Lake Maumee. 

33. Liberty Toivnship, Putnam County. — In 1874, Professor N. H. 
Winchell (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 392) told of the finding of large 
bones, supposed to belong to a mastodon, just southeast of the center of sec- 
tion 6, in draining the Medary marsh, in the township named (Tp. 2 N., R. 
7 E.) The bones were in a sandy loam along the north side of the Leipsic 
ridge, a part of the Defiance moraine. Another was found in section 8 of 
the same township. The remains consisted of two teeth, bones of the pos- 
terior extremities, and a fragment of a tusk. The limb-bone was removed 
23 feet from the tusk. These remains lay at a depth of about 3 feet from 
the surface. Other large bones, mastodon or elephant, were found in sec- 
tion 7, Ottawa Township (Tp. IN., R. 7E.). This was evidently on the 
south side of the ridge mentioned, but yet probably north of Blanchard 
River. 

34. Springfield Township, Lucas County. — In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Ohio, 
vol. I, pt. 1, p. 556), Dr. G. K. Gilbert wrote that Dr. J. B. Trembley, of 
Toledo, had informed him that a tooth of a mastodon had been obtained 
from a marsh in Springfield, Lucas County. It is probable that Gilbert 
meant Springfield Township. He could not ascertain the exact locality, 
but he remarked that all the marshes of that township date from the for- 
mation of the lowest and most recent of the raised beaches and that it wa& 
almost certain tliat the tooth is not less recent than they. Springfield Town- 
ship is nearly in the center of this county. 



78 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

In 1886 (Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., vol. iv, p. 309 1, Dr. E. Sterling, of 
Cleveland, wrote that about 15 years previously a mastodon skeleton had 
been found in a cranberry swamp in Lucas County ; but no more exact loca- 
tion was given. A large ditch was being made where the muck of the bog 
was about 8 feet deep and rested on a layer of "hard pan." The skeleton was 
badly decayed. What proof the writer had that the remains belonged to 
the mastodon is not stated. 

35. Jackson Township, Wood County. — From a clipping taken from the 
Toledo Blade of January 15, 1919, with 2 illustrations, it is learned that 
Mr. John Welsh, of the township named, while digging a trench on his farm, 
unearthed a tooth of a mastodon. The pictures show that it was a con- 
siderably worn, lower right hindermost molar. Jackson Township (Tp. 3 N., 
R. 9 E.) is in the southwestern corner of the county. From Mr. Welsh 
the writer learns that the locality is 3.5 miles northeast of Deshler and 
in section 17. The tooth was buried at a depth of 4 feet. The locality is 
well within the area covered by old Lake Maumee. 

36. Carey, Wyandot Comity.— In April, 1911, Mr. 0. N. Copley, Cary, 
sent to the Smithsonian Institution a much-worn lower left first true molar, 
found at Cary, in muck, at a depth of 3 feet. With it was found also a 
canine tooth of a bear, apparently Ursus americanus. These were buried 
near the Defiance moraine. 

37. Old Fort, Seneca County. — At Heidelberg University, TiflSn, Ohio, 
the writer was told of a mastodon which had been found at Old Fort, and 
was in the possession of Mr. J. A. Gillmor, of Fremont, Ohio. Upon inquiry 
Mr. Gillmor stated that the tooth, of which he sent a sketch, had been 
found in 1909 in a low and marshy piece of tiled ground which lies east of 
Sandusky River, opposite Old Fort. The tooth was very superficially 
buried, for it v/as turned up by the plow. Mr. Gillmor stated that in con- 
structing the Nickel Plate Railroad, not far from where the tooth was found, 
some large bones had been discovered. The locality is north of Defiance 
moraine and on the old bed of Lake Maumee. 

38. Bucyrus, Crawford County. — In 1838, as told by the geologists 
C. Briggs (Second Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Ohio, pp. 127-129) and J. W. 
Foster (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. xxxvi, 1839, p. 189, fig. 1), a nearly 
perfect skull and various parts of the skeleton were found near Bucyrus, 
on the land of a Mr. Hahn, during the excavation of a mill-race, and in a 
bed of fresh-water shell marl about 4 feet thick. Both tusks were, how- 
ever, missing. There were secured also 6 cervical vertebrae, 6 dorsals, 1 
lumbar, 5 caudals, 28 ribs, most of the pelvis, and several limb-bones. The 
fine skull was sent to the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, 
and is now preserved in the Academy of Natural Sciences of that city. 
What was done with the remainder of the skeleton the present writer does 
not know. This specimen has been referred to by several authors. N. H. 
Winchell (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. ii, pt. 1, 1874," p. 247) stated that the 
skeleton was embedded in the muck and marl of a swamp and that what 
remained of it was then in possession of the Ohio Agricultural and 
Mechanical College. The locality was probably near Celina moraine. 

39. Sandusky, Erie County. — In 1848 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. v, 
p. 215), Whittlesey wrote that a tusk and a few bones of mastodon or 



OHIO. 79 

elephant had been uncovered at the deep cut of the Mansfield Railroad, a 
few miles from Sanduskj^, in a Recent bog of muck. J. H. Klippart (Cin. 
Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, 1875, p. 153) referred to the tusk and said that a 
part of it was preserved in the Homoeopathic College at Sandusky. It is 
impossible now to say whether this belonged to a mastodon or an elephant. 
If still preserved it may be possible to determine the genus from the micro- 
scopical structure of the ivory. 

40. Brownhelm Toivnship, Lorain County. — In the collection of Oberlin 
College are many bones of a mastodon, some jaws and teeth, and a part of 
the skull, collected about 1898, on the farm of a Mr. French, in the town- 
ship named, not far from the shore of Lake Erie. Professor Lynds Jones, 
of Oberlin College, has sent the information that this mastodon was found 
in a county ditch in township 6 N., range 19 W., about where the ditch 
crosses from lot 29 to 30, on what is known as the North Ridge road. This 
ridge is mentioned by J. S. Newberry (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. ii, 1874, p. 207, 
map opp. p. 58), and has an elevation of from 100 to 118 feet above Lake 
Erie. It represents the beach of old Lake Warren. According to Professor 
Lynds Jones, the mastodon had been buried in a morass between two 
branches of the North Ridge or old beach. This was of course well along 
toward the close of the Pleistocene period. 

41. Pittsfield Township, Lorain County. — In the collection at Oberlin 
College are some fragments of mastodon teeth, found somewhere in Pitts- 
field township (Tp. 4 N., R. 18 W.) at a depth of about 2 or 3 feet, in a 
ditch. No further details have been secured. 

In the American Museum of Natural History, at New York, is a lower 
right second molar which had been received from Mr. J. J. Crook. It had 
probably been found somewhere about Lagrange, but this is not certain. 

42. Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. — The geologist Charles Whittlesey 
(Smithson. Contrib. KnowL, vol. xv, art. 3, p. 15) stated that, many years 
before he wrote, a grinder of a mastodon had been found on the west side 
of Cuyahoga River, in the valley alluvium, resting on drift clay near the 
lake level. This might indicate one of three things : The mastodon belonged 
to some pre-Wisconsin stage; or the tooth had, after the retirement of the 
lake to its present level, been washed down from above; or the animal had 
lived there after the lake had reached about its present level. 

Newberry (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. i, pt. 1, 1873, p. 183) stated that his 
"Delta Sand Deposit," which forms the surface of the Cleveland plateau, 
had yielded numerous portions of the skeletons of elephant and mastodon. 
These could hardly have existed before the retirement of the lake within the 
Warren beach. 

Klippart (Cin. Quart. Jour. Nat. Sci., vol. ii, 1875, p. 153) says that a 
nearly complete skeleton of a mastodon was dug up in the immediate 
vicinity of Cleveland, but had been broken into pieces at once by the 
workmen. The identity of this specimen is doubtful and the exact locality 
is unknown. 

43. Medina County. — In 1875 (op. cit., p. 153) , Klippart reported that 
nearly 50 years before he wrote tusks, said to have been 12 feet long, and 
some parts of the skeleton of a mastodon had been taken out of a marl pit 



80 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

in this county. As in other cases, there is uncertainty about the locality 
and the identity of the animal. 

44. Green Township, Summit County. — Professor William C. Mills, of 
the State University of Ohio, has informed the writer that he had secured 
remains of a young mastodon in section 13 of this township (Tp. 2 N., R. 
9 W.). The bones were found at a depth of about 30 inches and were badly 
decayed. The region is fiat and lies in a bend of the headwaters of 
Tuscarawas River. 

45. Massillon, Stark County. — S. P. Hildreth, in 1837 (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
ser. 1, vol. XXXI, p. 56), reported that a year or two before he wrote some 
very large bones and tusks of a mastodon had been brought to light in 
excavating a mill-race near Massillon through a swamp or wet prairie. This 
city is situated on the Tuscarawas River. 

46. Canton, Stark County. — In the Cincinnati Inquirer of November 11, 
1910, a paragraph announced that some boys, while digging in the east end 
of the city, had found 2 mastodon teeth. On November 26 the writer 
received a letter from Mr. N. D. Bush, of Canton, who described the teeth, 
so that it is certain that they were those of the mastodon. Both Massillon 
and Canton are situated on the broad Grand River moraine. 

47. See page 70. 

48. Trumbull County. — Mr. John.T. Plummer, in 1843 (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
ser. 1, vol. XLiv, p. 302, footnote), stated that he owned a grinder with 10 
prominences which had been found in this county. Evidently the tooth 
was that of a mastodon, but the locality is somewhat vague. 

For 49 and 50 see page 74; for 51 see page 75. 

MICHIGAN. 
(Maps 5, 8.) 

1. Church, Hillsdale County. — In 1901 there was found, on the farm of 
Mr. Levi Wood, near Church, the greater part of the skeleton of a small 
mastodon. This was exhumed by an agent of the U. S. National Museum 
and is exhibited there. The animal is small and probably a female. The 
bones were found in a peat swamp, not far from the surface. Those most 
deeply buried were only 4 feet from the surface, while others were down 
only about 2.5 feet. 

The whole of the township in which Church is situated is occupied by a 
part of the Mississinawa moraine, the outermost one formed by the Erie 
lobe of the Wisconsin ice. So far as the ground is concerned, the mastodon 
might have lived there long before the close of the Wisconsin stage at any 
time after the exposure of the moraine. 

This mastodon was described and figured by Mr. C. W. Gilmore in 1906 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xxx, p. 610, plate xxxv). 

2. Adrian, Lenawee County. — In the American Journal of Science (vol. 
xxxviii, 1864, p. 223), Dr. Alexander Winchell reported the discovery of 
remains of a mastodon on section 7 of the township of Adrian, Lenawee 
County. The locality is said to have been about 7 miles northwest of the 
town of Adrian. The township must therefore be that designated as 6 
south, 4 east. Winchell gave a list of the bones, and this comprises probably 



MICHIGAN. 81 

about half of the skeleton, including the skull. According to Winchell, these 
remains were found at a depth of only about 2 feet in a peat-bog; beneath 
this peat, which was 2.5 feet thick, was marly clay, pas^ ng at the depth 
of 4 feet into loose sand. 

According to the glacial map of Leverett and Taylor, the locality would 
lie well outside the limits of Lake Maumee and would be on the Fort 
Wayne moraine. Probably a long while after the Wisconsin glacial sheet 
had retired from Michigan, this mastodon died there and became covered 
by the thin deposit of peat, as found. Here may be noted likewise some 
remains of a mastodon which Winchell, in the same paper, says had been 
found in Adrian. 

In the U. S. National Museum (No. 188) there is a lower jaw of a 
mastodon, reported to have been found in a lacustrine marsh in this county, 
in the "same locality as the Decker mastodon in Adrian College." A note 
states that with this were found bones of deer, elk, and castoroides. (See 
further, under the account of the skull of Castoroides found at Adrian.) 

In the annual report of the Michigan Geological Survey for 1901, page 
253, A. C. Lane mentioned that at Clinton, Lenawee County, Mr. P. B. 
Gragg had found several teeth and bones of mastodon. These seem to have 
been buried in the same glacial drainway as those found in Adrian township. 

27. Clayton, Lenawee County. — Mr. George Townsend, of Clayton, Mich- 
igan, has informed the writer that he has the lower jaw of a mastodon 
which he found while digging a posthole on his farm near that town. The 
locality is described as the middle of the line between the southeast and 
northeast quarters of southeast quarter of section 7, T. 7. S., R. 2 E., and 
near a creek. The township is Dover. According to Leverett and Taylor 
the immediate region is covered by glacial ground moraine. 

3. Howell, Livingston County. — Dr. A. C. Lane (op. cit., p. 252) reported 
that a lower tooth and a part of a pelvis had been obtained in dredging the 
Shiawassee River, in 1900. Mr. C. W. Gilmore, of the U. S. National 
Museum, tells the writer that he saw a mastodon tooth which had been 
found in a swamp 2 miles southwest of Howell. Alexander Winchell, in 
1864 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxviii, p. 224), reported mastodon remains 
from Green Oak, in Livingston County. No details were furnished. Most 
of this county is occupied by the Charlotte moraine system, formed by the 
ice-lobe which extended out from Saginaw Bay. 

4. Bellevue, Eaton County. — The writer has learned from Mr. N. A. 
Wood, of the University of Michigan, that mastodon remains had been 
described from near Bellevue by Mr. E. A. Foote, in the third volume of 
the Report of the Pioneer Society of Michigan, on pages 402-403. The 
animal was found on the farm of Mr. Charles Cummings. It was a large 
one, the femur having a length of 3 feet 10 inches and one tusk was over 
12 feet in length. Four teeth belonged to the upper jaw. The remains must 
have been found before 1879. 

Bellevue is situated on the Kalamazoo River, which here traverses the 
Kalamazoo moraine. As in other cases in the central regions of the State, 
mastodons may have lived at a rather early stage after the Wisconsin ice 
began to withdraw; but they may have kept farther from the glacial front. 



82 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

5. Olivet, Eaton County. — Dr. A. C. Lane (Ann. Rept. Board of Geol. 
Surv. Michigan for 1901, p. 253) reported the finding of mastodon bones 
near OHvet. A letter from Professor Samuel Rittenhouse, of Olivet College, 
gives the information that many of the bones of the skeleton had been 
secured. These were exhumed from a marsh on the northwest quarter of 
section 11, township 1 north, range 5 west. Following Leverett and Taylor's 
map, the locality seems to be on an esker through which flows Battle Creek. 
The country in this region is covered by the Kalamazoo morainic system 
of the Saginaw lobe. The mastodon must have been buried after the ice 
receded from that moraine. 

6. Stanton, Montcalm County. — Mr. N. A. Wood, preparator in the 
University of Michigan, informed the writer that Mr. L. C. Hodges, of 
Stanton, in 1911 found some mastodon teeth. Nothing more is known 
about these remains. Stanton is situated between the West Branch morainic 
system and the Charlotte system. 

7. Buchanan, Berrien County. — Mr. William Hillis Smith, of Niles, Mich- 
igan, informed the writer that many remains of mastodons were found in 
a large ditch made to drain the Bakerstown marsh. This ditch began south 
and west of Buchanan and emptied into Lake Michigan. It was 16 feet 
wide and 8 to 10 feet deep. In the course of the work bones and teeth 
were frequently thrown out by the steam shovel, especially bones of masto- 
dons. One skull was badly crushed, but was repaired by Mr. E. H. Crane, 
of Kalamazoo, and sold to the Ward Establishment, of Rochester, New 
York. Exact statements as to localities are wanting, but the ditch was 
evidently located on and within the Valparaiso moraine. It is this moraine 
which runs around the southern end of Lake Michigan and separates the 
St. Lawrence drainage from that of the Mississippi; east of the lake it 
extends far north into Michigan. Naturally, this moraine was formed 
before the withdrawal of the Lake Michigan lobe of the Wisconsin glacier 
into that lake, and the mastodons might have lived, died, and been buried 
there at any time after the exposure of the moraine and the development 
of climatal conditions that permitted their existence. 

Mr. Hillis Smith stated that a tooth of an elephant had been thrown out 
in making the ditch above mentioned. This tooth was in the possession 
of Mr. E. H. Crane, of Kalamazoo. The species is not known. 

The mastodons referred to above were mentioned by Lane in his report 
of 1901 , page 253. He also called attention to a list of the mollusks found 
in the muck beneath one of the mastodons, prepared by Bryant Walker 
(Nautilus, vol. XI, 1898, p. 121), in which 36 species were named. 

8. Eau Claire, Berrien County. — In the Joint Documents of the House 
of Representatives of Michigan, session 1841, page 559, Bela Hubbard 
stated that remains of a mastodon had been found on Paw Paw Creek, 
Berrien County. Lane (Rep. Geol. Surv. Michigan for 1901, p. 252) stated 
that there are in the Agricultural College at East Lansing, 6 teeth and half 
of a lower jaw, found near Eau Claire, and which may be the remains 
referred to bj' Hubbard. This appears, however, to be an error. On these 
teeth are the label: "Found at Eau Claire, Berrien Co., Mich. Found 



MICHIGAN. 83 

beneath several feet of muck while digging a ditch. B. L. Comstock, Aug. 
17, 1896." The teeth are extraordinarily large; M" right is 222 mm. long. 

The exact places where the remains mentioned were found have not been 
recorded. For an account of the small glacial lakes which occupied the 
depressions that existed between the Valparaiso moraine and the shore of 
Lake Michigan while the latter was j'^et filled with ice, see Leverett and 
Taylor's Monograph No. liii, pages 225-227. In the deposits of these lakes, 
but probably long after the glacial ice had retired, were buried the bones 
of the mastodon and other animals. 

From Mr. N. A. Wood, of the University of Michigan, the information 
has been received that a part of a skull of a mastodon was found in making 
a public ditch about 2 or 3 miles south of Barada. 

25. Galien, Berrien County. — In 1885 (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v, 
p. 133) , I. A. Lapham reported the discover}^ of the right ramus of the 
lower jaw of a mastodon at Terre Coupee. This place has disappeared from 
the maps; but it is said to have been situated on the railroad, 11 miles west 
of Niles, not far east of Galien. The jaw was found by Mr. A. H. Taylor, 
at a depth of 6 feet. It was peculiar in having a supernumerary molar, a 
seventh. The jaw was again described by Dr. J. C. Warren in 1855 (Amer. 
Jour. Sci. (2), vol. xix, pp. 348-353). 

9. Dorr, Allegan County. — A. C. Lane (Rep. Geol. Surv. Michigan for 
1901, p. 253) stated that Frank Fleser and others had secured a jawbone 
of mastodon and several teeth. The place is stated to be 4 miles west of 
Dorr, probablj' in the valley of Rabbit River, where it cuts through the 
Valparaiso moraine. 

10. Cannonsburg, Kent County. — In the Kent Scientific Museum at 
Grand Rapids is a lower left last molar, labeled as having been found at 
Cannonsburg, by Henry Detmer. The exact locality of the place where the 
tooth was found is unknown to the writer. The tooth is only slightly worn 
and is of a white color. Cannonsburg is on a great expansion of what 
Leverett and Taylor call the Charlotte morainic system, a system produced 
by the Saginaw lobe of the Wisconsin glacier. Being one of the more distant 
moraines of the Saginaw lobe, it W'as one of the earliest to be freed from 
ice and to offer itself to animal occupancy; but it may not have been 
invaded by mastodons until the glacial wall had moved much farther away. 

11. Moorland, Muskegon County. — In the Kent Scientific Museum at 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, is a mounted mastodon, the bones of which, except 
the limbs, belong to a specimen found about 1905 in a swamp nortii of 
Moorland. The exact locality, as given by Mr. C. L. McKay, the finder, 
is the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter, section 1(3, township 10 
north, range 14 west. The skull and the tusks are in good condition. 
Beneath the skeleton was found the skull which was made the type oi 
Bootherium sargenti Gidley. 

The Moorland swamp forms part of a great plain about 25 miles wide 
lying between the "Lake border morainic system" (Leverett and Taylor, 
p. 222) and the present eastern shore of Lake Michigan. This plain appears 
to have been occupied by either ice or the waters of old glacial lakes until 
well near the close of the Wisconsin stage. The animal must have been one 



84 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

of the latest of his tribe to inhabit the State of Michigan. It may have lived 
long after the time of the musk-ox on whose skull the mastodon's pelvis 
was lying. 

12. Williams Township, Bay County.— In the annual reports of the 
Geological Survey of Michigan (1901, p. 253; 1905, p. 354), the discovery 
of the skeleton of a mastodon in Bay County was announced. It had been 
found in a depression called a pot-hole. The locality more accurately given 
is in the southwest corner of section 3, township 14 north, range 3 east. 
There was a fragment of a tusk 8.75 feet long and but little curved, a femur 
and its socket 9.5 inches across, one vertebra, and one tooth. These were 
found 3 or 4 feet from the surface. The remains were sent to Ypsilanti. 
An examination of Leverett and Taylor's plate xvii (Monograph liii) indi- 
cates that the mastodon could not probably have lived there until after the 
time of Lake Warren. At that time the ice sheet occupied most of Lake 
Huron and a part of Saginaw Bay, but the climate of that region was 
probably, for a long time after the passing of Lake Warren, too raw and 
cold to please the mastodon, so that it was long afterward that this 
individual left his skeleton in the boggy hole. 

13. Near Saginaw, Saginaw County. — Dr. A. C. Lane has reported (Ann. 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Michigan for 1901, p. 252) that he had found in the 
possession of farmers in Tittabawassee Township, Saginaw County, parts 
of a tusk, said to have come from a ditch near the course of the Parker 
drain, about 0.25 mile north of the south line of section 20, township 13 
north, range 3 east, according to Mr. D. E. Williamson, of Saginaw. Dr. 
Lane also reported remains of a mastodon, including the lower jaw, found 
in digging a tile ditch on the "Willis farm." 

14. See page 85. 

15. Saginaw County.— In October 1910, Mr. Ralph McQuiston sent to 
the writer photographs of three mastodon teeth found on a farm about 8 
miles east of north of Elsie, Clinton County. He has since given this locality 
as being in the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 4, 
township 9 north, range 1 east. According to Leverett and Taylor's glacial 
map of Michigan, this would be about 6 miles within the old Lake Warren 
beach-line and in sandy deposits laid down in water. The teeth were found 
at a depth of 3 feet. It may be that the animal died at that spot after the 
waters of Lake Warren had retired. If so, it would be interesting to deter- 
mine the origin of the materials which covered the mastodon. On the other 
hand, the mastodon remains were possibly deposited there after the with- 
drawal of Lake Wayne and that the overlying materials were laid down 
by the water of Lake Warren, for this lake appears to have stood at a 
higher level than its predecessor. If the latter supposition is correct, 
mastodons could live not far away from the glacial front. 

Further correspondence with Mr. McQuiston makes it appear improbable 
that the overlying materials were deposited by lake waters. Professor 
Leverett suggests that the animal had died in an old swale and had after- 
wards been buried under fine material washed in from the somewhat higher 
ground in the neighborhood. In that case the mastodon may have lived 
at any time after the lake waters had retired from the locality. 



MICHIGAN. 85 

14. Alma, Gratiot County. — In Alma College, at Alma, Gratiot County, 
are some remains of a mastodon, found about 6.5 miles southeast of Alma, 
on the farm of Mr. Albert Smith. These remains were exhumed under the 
direction of Professor H. M. MacCurdy, of Alma College (Mich. Acad. Sci., 
Rep. XXI, p. 119). Various parts of the skull are preserved, one part showing 
beautifully the air-cells; also a fragment of a tooth, axis, three dorsal 
vertebra?, a few ribs, and a part of the pelvis. From Mr. Albert Smith it 
is learned that the remains were found on the southwest quarter of section 
17, township 11 north, range 2 west. This, following Leverett and Taylor's 
map, would be on the Owosso moraine, which here runs north from Ithaca, 
Gratiot County. A ditch was being dug through a peat-bog and the bones 
were met with at a depth of 4 feet or less from the surface. Professor 
MacCurdy wrote that the bones were lying on a bed of gravelly sand and 
were covered by a thin layer of mixed sand and vegetation, while over this 
was about 3 or 4 feet of well-decayed peat. The locality is about 2 miles 
from the shore-line of the glacial Lake Maumee, as mapped by Leverett 
and Taylor. 

In the collection at Alma College is a left ramus of the jaw of a mastodon, 
which contains the second and the third true molars and the socket for the 
first molar. This jaw is reported to have been found on the William Pitt 
farm, about 7 miles from Alma and in Seville Township. The exact locality 
is given the writer by Professor MacCurdy as being in the south half of the 
northeast quarter of section 22, township 12 north, range 4 west. Professor 
C. A. Davis contributed for the writer the information that these bones 
were discovered in constructing ditches from 18 inches to probably 3 feet 
in depth. 

In the Alma College collections are some mastodon remains, including 
three fine upper teeth, which were found in the southeast part of the village 
of Alma. The locality is described as being in the northeast quarter of the 
northeast quarter of section 3, township 11 north, range 3 west. Professor 
Charles A. Davis, deceased, formerly professor at Alma College, later con- 
nected with the Bureau of Mines at Washington, D. C, as peat expert, 
informed the writer that many years ago he exhumed parts of two skeletons 
of mastodons. Part of the bones lay in a small deposit of marl and were 
well preserved; the others lay on the edge of the marl-bed and above it 
and were not so well preserved. It appears that the locality had been 
covered permanently with water in which peat was growing. Associated 
with the bones in the marl were the fruits of the tamarack [Larix laricina) 
and of the black spruce {Picea mariana). These trees are growing there 
to-day, and extend far north into British America; hence, when those 
mastodons were living in the region about Alma the climate may have been 
as warm as it is to-day or much cooler. 

Professor C. A. Davis informed the writer that a large number of masto- 
don bones were found about 1885 by a farmer who lived half a mile west 
of Riverdale. This was in Seville Township, No. 12 north, range 4 west, 
apparently in section 31. The discovery was made by the owner of the 
land, who found a number of tcetli of a mastodon attached to tlie roots 
of a small elm tree which he pulled out of a swale on his farm. The bones 



86 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

were not more than 18 inches below the surface. Professor Davis regarded 
it as remarkable that remains of the mastodon should be so near the surface 
in ponds and swales where peat is growing. 

16. Bancroft, Shiawassee County. — Dr. A. C. Lane (7th Ann. Rep. Geol. 
Surv. Michigan, 1905, p. 553) reported that some ribs, tusks, teeth, and 
many bones of a mastodon had been found near Bancroft, at a depth of 4 
feet, in marl, above which were muck, marl, and sand. Lane gives the 
locality as being on the line between sections 36 and 25, township 6 north, 
range 5 east, but this would be about 12 miles east of Bancroft. The range 
is probably 3 east. The locality appears to be on the Fowler moraine. 

17. Venice, Shiawassee County. — In the agricultural school at East 
Lansing is a lower right hindermost molar, catalog No. 3392, which is 
said to have been found at Venice by Mr. Hiram Johnson. There are also 
parts of one or two tusks from the same place, probably of mastodon. 
Venice is just north of the Owosso moraine, and the mastodon must have 
lived there at a rather late time in the Wisconsin stage. A letter from Mr. 
Fayette Johnson, of Washington, D. C, son of Mr. Hiram Johnson, informs 
the writer that he saw the bones taken up about the year 1884. The place 
was about the center of section 21, township 7 north, range 4 east. This 
would be apparently on the Owosso moraine. 

18. Fenton, Genesee County. — Alexander Winchell (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 
xxxviii, 1864, p. 224) reported mastodon remains from this place. No 
details were given. Fenton is located on the Portland moraine, one of those 
})uilt up by the Saginaw lobe. 

19. Davison, Genesee County. — In the museum of the Michigan Agricul- 
tural School, at East Lansing, Michigan, is a large left femur, found near 
Davison, Genesee County. It was presented by Mr. A. B. Cullen, but no 
more exact information was furnished. A comparison of this femur with 
those of the mastodon and of a specimen of E. primigenius from Siberia 
indicates that the bone belonged to the American mastodon. The length is 
40.5 inches. Davison is situated on the border of an old lake which lay 
along the front of the ice which built up St. Johns moraine (Taylor, Monogr. 
Liii, p. 241). At this stage the earliest of the glacial lakes, Lake Maumee, 
had not yet come into existence ; but it must have been long after this time 
that the mastodon lived in the region about Davison. 

20. Utica, Macomb County. — In 1864, Alexander Winchell (Amer. Jour. 
Sci., vol. XXXVIII, p. 224) reported mastodon remains from near this town. 
A mention of this discovery is given in volume xvii, page 425, of the 
"Collections and Researches made by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical 
Society," by George H. Cannon. It is here stated that remains had been 
imearthed on the farm of Hon. P. K. Leech, and that specimens of the 
jawbone and several teeth were in the cabinet of Hon. W. W. Andrus. A 
letter to the present writer from Mr. A. F. Leech, son of Mr. P. K. Leech, 
states that the remains had been found on the east half of the northeast 
quarter of section 31, township 3 north, range 12 east, in a swale which runs 
across the land described. These teeth and bones were destroyed in a fire 
many years ago. According to Leverett and Taylor's Glacial Map of the 
Soutliorn Peninsula of Michigan, the locality where these remains were 



MICHIGAN. 87 

discovered is near the outer border of tlie glacial Lake Mauraee, at a 
point where there was a delta. This delta is mentioned by Leverett and 
Taylor (Monogr. liii, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 383). It is where Clinton River 
entered old Lake Maumee. It is evident that the animal did not live before 
the time of this lake; it probably existed long after this time, when the 
climate had much moderated. 

2L Plymouth, Wayiie County. — Alexander Winchell (First Bienn. Rep. 
State Geologist, 1861, p. 132) stated that a Mr. Shattuck had exhumed 
nearly an entire set of teeth of a mastodon, with a part of a tusk 7 feet in 
length. Winchell saw five of the teeth ; the other bones appear to have been 
destroyed. The exact location of this place is not known, but Plymouth is 
within the border of the glacial Lake Maumee; and the existence of the 
mastodon was possible only well toward the close of the Wisconsin stage. 

22. Wyandotte, Wayne County. — In the collection of the University of 
Michigan are many bones, including jaws with teeth, of a mastodon found 
in Monguegon Township, about 6 miles southwest of W^yandotte and about 
2 miles northwest of Sibley. The locality more accurately given is the 
northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 12, township 4 south, 
range 10 east. This was on the farm of Mr. James H. Vreeland. A county 
ditch was being made to drain what is known as the Big Marsh. As reported 
to the writer by Mr. R. A. Smith, Assistant State Geologist of Michigan, 
on a very coarse limestone gravel are 30 inches of blue clay and over this 
about 30 inches of muck. The bones were mostly in the blue clay; those 
lying in the muck were much decayed. Some teeth and an atlas are in 
the possession of Mr. Vreeland. 

According to Leverett and Taylor's map, this mastodon was buried within 
the borders of glacial Lake Lundy, just outside of that of Lake Rouge, a 
contemporary of Lake Algonquin. On page 442 of Leverett and Taylor's 
monograph it is stated that the altitude of the beach of Rouge Lake is 589 
feet. On the map just referred to the 600-foot contour-line runs at a con- 
siderable distance west of the locality of the mastodon find. The latter 
appears, then, to have been somewhere between the altitude of 589 and 600 
feet above sea-level, without considering the depth the skeleton may have 
lain below the surface. The altitude of Lake Erie is 573 feet. It is evident 
that the lake had attained nearly, if not quite, its present level when this 
mastodon lived. 

Dr. E. C. Case, who superintended the excavation of this specimen, 
informed the writer that the bones were found 4 feet from the surface. 

23. See page 88. 

24. Petersburg, Monroe County. — Alexander Winchell (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
vol. xxxviii, 1864, p. 224) reported mastodon remains from this place. The 
town is in township 7 south, range 6 east. According to Leverett and 
Taylor's map, Petersburg is within the beach which marks the old glacial 
Lake Warren. Probably, therefore, this mastodon lived after the retire- 
ment of this lake, unless it had lived during the time of Lake Waj'ne and 
been covered over by the deposits of Lake Warren when the waters of the 
latter made their advance on the land. The time of the mastodon was more 
probably after both lakes had ceased to exist. 



88 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

23. Saline, Washtenaiv County. — Mr. N. A. Wood, of the University of 
Michigan, informed the writer that he had seen some mastodon remains 
which had been found here in 1880. No exact statements were given 
regarding the place. Saline is very close to the beach of old Lake Maimiee, 
where this beach is crossed by Saline River and on the Defiance moraine. 

25. See page 83. 

26. Seven miles southeast of Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County. — In 1908 
(Folio 155, U. S. Geol. Surv., p, 9), Russell and Leverett stated that remains 
of a mastodon had been found a few years previously on the farm of Albert 
Darling, about 7 miles southeast of Ypsilanti, where laborers were digging 
a ditch across a swampy field. The lower jaw with molar teeth in place, 
the left tusk, teeth of the upper jaw, portions of the cranium, some vertebrae 
and ribs, and some of the larger bones of the limbs were found. With 
considerable restoration these parts were mounted and placed in the museum 
of Michigan University. The locality must be not far away from Huron 
River and within the beach of old Arkona Lake, a predecessor of the present 
Lake Erie. 

27. See page 81. 

INDIANA. 

(Maps 5, 9.) 
Mastodons Found in the Unglaciated Region. 

1. Posey County. — On page 341 of Blainville's "Osteographie des Mam- 
miferes," volume iii, it is stated that Lesueur had shown Blainville drawings 
of a fine vertebra and a femur, with its epiphyses, of a mastodon which 
had been found along the Wabash River. His language indicates that this 
was somewhere below New Harmony. He stated that these bones were 
in the library at Vincennes, Indiana. In answer to my inquiry about these 
bones, President Horace Ellis, of Vincennes University, informed me that 
some bones which appear to be those mentioned are in his university. 

These remains were found in digging a well, at a depth of 60 feet. One 
of the curators of the library at Vincennes, Mr. Badollet, states that with 
these bones were some skin and hair. We may suppose that there was 
some mistake about this. 

Unfortunately, as in so many other cases, it is now impossible to determine 
just where these remains were found. New Harmony is situated on the 
border of the Illinoian drift, and this continues nearly 10 miles farther 
south. This drift is covered by loess. A well sunk here would, at a depth 
of 60 feet, be in probably lowan loess. Nearer the river, in the low-lands, 
the depth given would probably be in Wisconsin outwash. 

2. Dubois County. — Some details regarding the specimen found here are 
given in the author's paper on the "Pleistocene of Indiana" (36th Ann. Rep. 
Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 702). A part of a mastodon was found long ago 
near the mouth of Wolf Creek, at the Rock House Ford of White River. 
This appears to be in Harrison Township (1 north, range 4 west). The 
valley of White River is here occupied by alluvial terraces older than the 
Wisconsin drift (Leverett, Monogr. xxxvii, U. S. Geol. Surv., plate vi). 
There is here too, no doubt, much outwash from the Wisconsin glacier itself. 



INDIANA. 89 

The writer has received a photograph of a mastodon tooth which Mr. 
Marshall Roberts, of Jasper, Indiana, found in 1912 in East White River, 
in the northwest part of Harrison Township. The tooth is 195 mm. long 
and 87 mm. wide and has four crests and a large talon. 

In Samuel L. Mitchill's "Observations on the Geology of North America," 
page 363, it is stated that a part of a mastodon had been found, in July 
1817, "near the falls of the east branch" of White River. No exact 
conclusion can be drawn from the facts known. 

3. Hindostan, Martin County. — Mastodon remains (36th Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Indiana, p. 707) have been found at Hindostan, on the east bank of White 
River, about 4.5 miles directly southwest of Shoals. A mastodon tooth was 
found in White River at Shoals (op. cit., p. 7091. It appears to be 
impossible to determine the age of this material. 

4. Orange County, west of Orleans. — The writer has given an account 
(36th Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 710) of mastodon remains found here, on 
the farm of Mr. Marion F. Mathers, apparently near the line between the 
townships of ranges 1 and 2 west and 3 north, and about 2 miles south of 
the line between Orange and Lawrence Counties. The remains appear to 
have been found in a valley and about 4.5 feet below the surface. Being 
found thus in an unglaciated region, they might have been deposited at 
any time during the Pleistocene. 

5. Sparksville, Jackson County. — Some j'ears ago teeth and ribs of a 
mastodon were found on the bank of White River, at Sparksville. The 
valley here is filled with outwash from the Wisconsin drift, but there is 
possibly some outwash from the Illinoian. 

6. Jackson County, 7 miles west of Tampico. — (See 36th Ann. Rep. State 
Geologist of Indiana, vol. xxxvi, p. 706.) A mastodon tooth was reported 
found on the bank of Judah Creek, a branch of Mill Creek, in section 9, 
township 4 north, range 4 east, not far from Muscatatuk River. This is at 
some distance outside of the border of the Illinoian drift. Along Mill Creek 
are alluvial deposits, but nearby is Chestnut ridge of probably Wisconsin 
age (32d Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 192). 

7. New Albany, Floyd County. — In the Fifth Annual Report of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Indiana, page 176, Mr. William W. Borden stated that 
mastodon remains had been frequently found on the bank of the Ohio River, 
at New Albany. As too often, there are lacking details as to localities and 
levels. It is quite probable that there is some outwash at this place from 
the Illinoian drift, and there is much from the Wisconsin. 

Mastodons Found Within Area Covered by Illinoian Drift. 

8. Princeton, Gibson County. — In 1910, three teeth of a mastodon were 
found in this village, at a depth of 6 feet, in a sewer which was being 
constructed in West Chestnut street. This region is covered by Illinoian 
drift. According to Leverett's map (Monogr. liii, 1914), Princeton is situ- 
ated on Illinoian ground moraine covered by loess. Dr. E. W. Shaw, of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, who is familiar with the region in question, informs 
the v.'riter that these teeth were almost certainly found in lowan loess, 
deposited at some time between the Illinoian and the Wisconsin glacial 
stages. 



90 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

52. Vincennes, Knox County. — At the State University of Colorado, at 
Boulder, there is an atlas of a mastodon which was taken there by Professor 
M. M. Ellis, formerly of Vincennes, who stated that this, with other bones, 
had been found at Vincennes, associated with a skull of a fossil bison. 

9. Knox or Gibson County. — In Blainville's "Osteographie des Mam- 
miferes," page 340, it was stated that the lower jaw of a mastodon had 
been found at some place between Vincennes and New Harmony. The 
locality would be in either Knox or Gibson County. The valley of the 
Wabash in all this region is filled with outwash from the Wisconsin glacier, 
and most probably the animal represented lived during the Wisconsin stage ; 
but our lack of knowledge of the conditions in which the jaw was found 
forbids any assumption of certainty in our conclusion. 

10. Parke County. — In the Forty-first Annual Report of the State 
Museum of New York it is reported that there was received, about 1888, 
the tooth of a mastodon, found in this county, at the junction of Raccoon 
and Little Raccoon Creeks. These creeks unite on section 23 of township 
14 north, range 8 west. The political name of the township is Florida. The 
region is covered by Illinoian drift; hence the tooth is quite certainh'' more 
recent than that epoch. The valleys of the creeks named are occupied by 
outwash from Wisconsin drift, and probably the teeth found lodgment there 
during the Wisconsin stage. 

11. Brookville, Franklin County. — The writer has given an account of 
the remains of mastodons found near Brookville (36th Ann. Rep. Geol. 
Surv. Indiana, 1912, p. 704). The information is derived from a report by 
Dr. Rufus Raymond, made in the First Annual Report, 1869, page 199. 
Two of these were found 8 or 9 feet below the surface, in the gravel of the 
upper terrace, along Whitewater River. One was discovered about half a 
mile below Brookville, the other about 3.5 miles below the village. Accord- 
ing to Mr. A. E. Taylor's account of this region (34th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Indiana) , the terrace in which the mastodon bones were buried is 100 feet 
above the present bed of Whitewater River. As Raymond speaks of skele- 
tons being found at these localities, it is probable that something more than 
isolated teeth or bones were buried there. If so, the bones were in their 
original place of interment, and since that interment the terrace was built 
up higher by about 8 feet. According to Leverett (Monogr. liii, p. 118), 
these terraces were made from the outwash of the Wisconsin glacier while 
it was forming the moraines which cross Wayne and the southern part of 
Randolph Counties. If this is true, these mastodons lived shortly after the 
culmination of the Wisconsin stage. This interpretation would imply that 
mastodons could live in very close proximity to the glacial front. However, 
not too much importance must be attached to this case, for it is possible 
that the animals were not correctly identified. 

According to Haymond, another skeleton was found about 3.5 miles 
northeast of Brookville, in a piece of marshy ground which the owner was 
ditching. This discovery must have been made either on the outer (Hart- 
well) moraine of the Wisconsin glacier or along East Honnas Creek, where 
it breaks through the moraine. In either case, the animal must have been 
buried there after the retirement of the ice from that moraine. 



INDIANA. 91 

12. Dearborn County. — In 1872 (3d and 4th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Indiana, p. 402), Professor R. B. Warder mentioned briefly that some 
remains of mastodon had been met with in this county. A part of a large 
pelvis was found at a salt spring on Tanner's Creek, below Guilford. This 
may have belonged to either a mastodon or an elephant. A mastodon's 
tooth is said to have been found on high ground on George Randall's farm, 
5 miles west of southwest of Aurora, lying on a stratum of blue clay 8 or 9 
feet below the surface. This region is occupied by Tllinoian drift and the 
mastodon probably lived there at some time after the Illinoian stage and 
before the Wisconsin. However, we can not be certain that the animal 
was not a mammoth, for no description was given of the tooth and it has 
almost certainly been destroyed. 

According to L. C. Ward's report on the soils of Dearborn County (32d 
Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 232), this immediate region is occupied 
by what he calls limestone upland soil, which has resulted from the decay 
of Silurian limestones and shales. Nothing is said about Illinoian drift 
there. Nevertheless, by some means, this proboscidean was buried there 
during the Pleistocene period. 

Warder mentioned other remains of proboscideans reported from Ohio 
County, adjoining Dearborn on the south, a piece of a tusk found near 
Patriot, a tusk on Laughery Creek above Hartford, and a tooth at Rising 
Sun, in the river bank; but these may have belonged to elephants. To an 
elephant may have belonged the tusks which Warder reported as having 
been found in the river bottom 5 miles below Vevay, in Switzerland County. 

54. Lawrenceburg, Dearborn County. — Mr. M. G. Mock, of Houston, 
Texas, formerly of Muncie, Indiana, a careful collector of mastodon and 
elephant teeth, in a letter informed the writer that in August 1887 a large 
mastodon tooth was found near Lawrenceburg, but the exact locality was 
not given. 

20. Charleston, Clark County. — In the Fifth Annual Report of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Indiana, 1874, page 176, Mr. William W. Borden reported 
the discovery of a skeleton of a mastodon on tract 55 of the ''Illinois Grant," 
about 2 miles southwest of Charleston Landing and about the same distance 
from the Ohio River. A part of the bones was sent to the old Louisville 
Museum; the others were, in 1874, in the possession of Mr. J. Coons, one 
of the finders. Probably the bones have long been lost or destroyed. 
According to Borden, they were found in a sand-bank. This region is 
occupied by Illinoian drift. 

According to R. W. Ellis's soil survey of this region (32d Ann. Rep. 
Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 245, map), this area is occupied by what is called 
New Washington clay loam. This is regarded as the residual soil of 
tlie disintegrated limestone of the Jeffersonville and Niagara formations. 
Nothing is said about any glacial drift here, but the sand of the sand-pit 
mentioned must have been deposited during the Pleistocene. 

Mastodons Found Between the Shelbyville and the Bloomingtgn 

Moraines. 

13. Greencastle, Putnam County. — The State collection at Indianapolis 
contains a last molar of a mastodon found somewhere near Greencastle. 



92 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

It is not known whether it was found on Wisconsin drift or on Illinoian, 
or in Wisconsin outwash along Eel River. 

50. Greensburg, Decatur County. — From Dr. W. D. Matthew, American 
Museum Natural History, New York City, the writer has received infor- 
mation, accompanied by drawings, that teeth and part of the jaw of a 
mastodon were found near Greensburg, by Mr. Roscoe Humphrey. The 
drawings show two teeth, one having a length of 102 mm., the other of 135 
mm. Mr. Humphrey states that the jaw and the teeth were found in a 
branch of Sand Creek, about 4.5 miles southeast of Greensburg. This is 
evidently on the Shelbyville moraine. 

14. Danville, Hendricks County. — The collection of the State Museum 
at Indianapolis contains a lower second true molar labeled as having been 
found near Danville. The specimen is credited to Dr. Vinnage. As this 
region is covered by Wisconsin drift, it is probable that the animal lived 
after the Wisconsin ice had retired. 

15. Attica, Fountain County. — Mr. J. E. Walker, of Attica, Indiana, has 
informed the writer that about October 1, 1895, a mastodon jaw was found 
near Newtown, in that county. Mr. Charles B. McKinney, of Newtown, 
wrote that the jaw was discovered in the bank of Coal Creek, about 4 rods 
from where the creek crosses into Montgomery County, in the northeast 
quarter of section 9, township 20 north, range 6 west. The bank rose 3 feet 
above the bed of the creek and was composed of a black loam; higher 
ground is found about 20 rods away. This jaw must have been biu-ied 
originally where it was found or near-by and after the ice which formed the 
Champaign moraine had withdrawn further north. It may have been long 
after this withdrawal. The description of the jaw and teeth leaves no doubt 
as to the correct identification of the animal. 

Former State Geologist John Collett, in 1880 (2nd Rep. Bur. Stat. Geol. 
Indiana, p. 386), stated that in digging a canal a few miles north of Cov- 
ington a skeleton of a mastodon had been found embedded in wet peat. 
Collett reported that the bones yet contained their marrow. The identity 
of the species and the details as to location and depths are not given. 
Doubtless the age of the animal was Late Wisconsin. 

M.\STODONS Found North of the Bloomington Morainic System and 
South of the Wabash River and the Mississinawa Moraine. 

The whole region is occupied by deposits from the Wisconsin glacial sheet. 

16. Bowers, Montgomery County. — Professor Donaldson Bodine of 
Wabash College, has informed the writer that about 1885 some remains 
of a mastodon were unearthed on the farm of Milton N. Waugh, near 
Bowers. The exact locality is said to be in section 12, township 20 north, 
range 3 west. This must be close to a stream named on the map Potato 
Creek. This lies north of the Bloomington morainic system or on its 
northern edge. The epoch of the animal is not earlier than Wisconsin. 

According to Jones and Orahood's soil survey of this county (37th Ann. 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 149) , the glacial drift is almost everywhere 
overlain by loess, varying in thickness from a few inches to nearly 3 feet. 
This loess was deposited after the ice had retired from that region. 

17. Indianapolis, Marion County. — In the State Museum at Indianapolis 
there is a lower right last molar labeled as having been found in Indian- 



INDIANA. 93 

apolis, at Pennsylvania and Thirtieth streets, by workmen who were dige;ing 
a sewer. This was probably in outwash materials brought down by Fall 
Creek from the northeast during the withdrawal of the Wisconsin ice from 
the Bloomington moraine to the one which passes through Union City and 
JMuucie, called the Union City moraine. 

18. Anderson, Madison County. — In the Indianapolis Star of July 30, 
1911, is an account of the finding of jawbones, with teeth, of a mastodon. 
The account was accompanied bj' reproductions of photographs, which make 
the identification certain. The remains were found on the farm of Louis 
Webb, but the exact location was not indicated. The animal certainly lived 
after the culmination of the Wisconsin stage. 

Leverett (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv. liii, p. 99) states that in parts of 
central Indiana the Wisconsin drift may be relatively thin, as little as from 
15 to 20 feet. In western Tipton and southern Clinton Counties a buried 
soil about 20 feet below the surface seems to represent the land surface 
previous to the Wisconsin invasion. In southern Madison County a black 
mucky soil, carrying pieces of wood large enough to be called logs, underlies 
the till at from 15 to 40 feet. Such a soil would be the product of the 
interval between the lUinoian glacial stage and the Wisconsin, probably 
either Sangamon or Peorian. In such deposits there might be found 
vertebrate remains, possibly even of horses. 

19. Fairmoimt Township, Grant County. — In 1883, A. J. Phinney, M. D., 
in describing the geology of Grant County (13th Ann. Rep. Geol. 
Surv. Indiana, p. 143), reported that some years previously the tooth of a 
mastodon was found in one of the marshes south of the lake in Fairmount 
Township, number 23 north, range 8 east. In another part of the report it 
is stated that the lake was in section 14. It covered at the time of writing 
about 10 acres, but had formerly covered about 30 acres. The drainage is 
now north into the Mississinawa River; but, before the Wisconsin ice had 
withdrawn to where the Mississinawa moraine now is, the drainage was 
toward the south into White River. At some time after the retirement of 
the ice from this region it became occupied by mastodons, elephants, giant 
beavers, and doubtless many other species of animals. 

For 20 see page 91. 

21. Muncie, Delaware County. — A. J. Phinney, in 1882 (11th Ann. Rep. 
Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 131), reported that a mastodon tooth was found 
4.5 miles west of Muncie, on the farm of Edward McKinley. No details 
as to depth or kind of soil were given. The tooth is said to have measured 
4 b}'- 5.5 inches, with a depth of 7 inches. Unless the roots were present 
and large it seems not unlikely that the tooth was that of an elephant. 
Phinney did not say that he saw the tooth. He reported other supposed 
mastodon remains which had been found in this county, but there is no 
assurance that they were correctly identified. Whatever proboscideans they 
were, they lived after the Wisconsin ice had retreated from that region. 

Mr. M. G. Mock, of Houston, Texas, formerly of Muncie, Indiana, has 
been interested in making collections of fossils and curiosities. He has kept 
a note-book of his finds and has illustrated it with sketches. He has a lower 
right last mastodon molar which was found near Muncie. It is 8.5 inches 
long, and has 4 crests and 5 roots. 



94 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

He reports having seen a mastodon tooth with 3 crests, which was found 
June 1887, about 1.75 miles east of Muncie, at tlie mouth of Hog Creek. 

Two teeth, of which Mr. Mock still owns one, were found August 8, 1894, 
2.5 miles south of Muncie, in a ditch near Buck Creek, on the farm owned 
by Oliver McConnell. 

53. Royerton, Delaivare County. — Mr. M. G. Mock, above referred to, 
showed the writer a drawing of a mastodon tooth which was found May 
24, 1890, near Royerton, 6 miles north of Muncie. With this were two 
other teeth; one 7 inches long and weighed nearly 4 pounds. These were 
discovered in excavating tile clay at a depth of about 3.5 feet. 

22. Henry County. — In the collection of Princeton University are two 
lower true molars, apparently the first of each side. The length of each is 

95 mm. They are labeled as having come from Henry County, Indiana, 
but there is nothing to indicate from what part of the county. 

23. Losantville, Randolph County. — Losantville is, according to Leverett 
(Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv. liii, plate vi), on the Bloomington moraine of 
the Wisconsin. As indicated on the map, the drift is covered with silt 
formed in local ice-border pools. Hence the mastodon in question left his 
bones in a depression on the top of the Wisconsin drift sheet, and later they 
were covered by a deposit of peat. 

In Nautilus, volume iv, page 131, Elwood Pleas, of Dunreith, Indiana, 
gave a list of six species of mollusks found associated with the mastodon. 
All are yet living. 

Dr. A. J. Phinney (Twelfth Ann. Rep. Ind. Geol. Surv., p. 181) stated 
that mastodon bones had been met in this county, but no details were 
furnished. 

24. Dalton, ]Vaync County. — In the Earlham College collection there is 
a lower jaw found in Nettle Creek, near Dalton. It contains the last two 
molars. The last one has five crests and a talon. The front of the 
symphysis is rough, but there are no alveoles for tusks. Dalton is in 
the northwestern corner of the county and on the southern border of the 
Shelbyville moraine, where this joins the Bloomington moraine. 

25. Jacksonburg, Wayne County. — Dr. John T. Plummer (Amer. Jour. 
Sci., ser. i, vol. xliv, 1843, p. 302) stated that he had obtained near Jack- 
sonburg, 18 miles west of Richmond, a tooth. It had four cross-ridges and 
was so well preserved that a dentist attempted to make artificial human 
teeth from it. According to Leverett's map, the tooth was probably on the 
surface of Wisconsin drift. It could not, therefore, have lived until after 
the Shelbyville moraine had been cleared of ice. 

26. Richmond, Wayne County. — In the twelfth volume of the American 
Geologist, page 73, Professor Joseph Moore, then of Earlham College, stated 
that some sound teeth and decayed bones of a mastodon had been found 
2 miles east of Richmond, in scooping out a fish-pond. A label on a lower 
last molar states that the remains were found on the Floyd farm. With 
them were found a fragment of an incisor of Castoroides. According to 
Leverett (Monogr. liii, plate vi), the locality would be outside of the 
Bloomington moraine of the Wisconsin drift. 



INDIANA. 95 

Mastodons Found Within the Mississinawa Moraine. 

27. Penn Township, Jay County. — Mr. David McCaslin (12th Ann. Rep. 
Ceol. Surv. Indiana, p. 169) stated that various remains of mastodon had 
been found in Jay County. He mentioned in particular fragments found 
in Penn Township (township 24 north, range 8 east) and which seemed to 
indicate the presence of an entire skeleton. It is, however, possible that 
this skeleton was that of an elephant. The Salamonie moraine passes 
diagonallj'^ through this township. 

28. Fort Wayne, Allen County. — Richard Lydekker (Foss. Mamm. Brit. 
Mus., pt. IV, p. 17) stated that there is in the British Museum of Natural 
History a cast of the left half of the brain of an immature specimen of 
mastodon which had been found at Fort Wayne. The cast had been sent 
to that museum by the Chicago Academy of Science. 

Professor C. R. Dryer (16th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 129) 
reported five skeletons of mastodons found in Allen County. No particulars 
were given. A note from Professor Dryer to the present writer states that 
he had been unable to obtain additional information. It is not unlikely 
that some of these remains belonged to elephants, but doubtless some were 
those of mastodons. It is to be regretted that so little of value is secured 
from such discoveries. 

29. DeKalb County, 5 miles west of Wateiioo. — In the Carnegie Museum 
at Pittsburgh there is a quite complete skeleton of a mastodon wiiich was 
found in 1897, in a peat-bog about 5 miles west of Waterloo. Dr. W. J. 
Holland gave a brief account of this skeleton in 1905 (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
vol. Ill, p. 464). The exact location of the place has not been ascertained 
by the writer. According to Leverett's map (Monograph liii, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey) this mastodon was buried on the eastern border of the 
Salamonie moraine, and it could not have lived there until well along in 
the latter part of the Wisconsin stage. 

55. DeKalb County, 5 miles northeast of Waterloo. — Dr. W. J. Holand 
(Popular Science, New York, vol. xxxiii, 1899, p. 233) described the finding 
and disinterment of three mastodons and had a figure of one skeleton. 
One of the nearly complete skeletons was found resting on "hard-pan," 
partly embedded in a thin layer of shell marl and muck under the peat, 
at points not more than 3 feet below the surface. 

56. Noble County. — Under this number may be mentioned the following 
discovery of mastodon remains: In the American Naturalist, volume ii, 
1868, page 56, was reported a communication made to the Chicago Academy 
of Science by Dr. Meyers, of Fort Wayne. He announced that he and Dr. 
Stimpson, of Chicago, had unearthed the skeletons of three mastodons 
somewhere in Noble County, in a basin-shaped depression in the middle of 
a corn-field, formerly a willow swamp. One of the animals was a yo\mg 
one. Some of the bones had been found by Mr. Thrush, in digging a ditch 
through his land. 

The skeletons lay at a depth of 4 or 5 feet, in a stratum of peat which 
overlay blue clay containing lacustrine shells. In the peat were found 
fragments of boughs and branches of several kinds of wood in a good state 
of preservation, and some fragments had been gnawed by beavers. 



96 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

30. Ashley, Steuben County. —The American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, contains the fine skull of a mastodon, found in Steuben Town- 
ship not far from Ashley. The finder of the skull, Mr. Walter F. Deller, 
of Ashley, informed the writer that it was discovered in a swamp which 
was bemg drained, about 5 feet from the surface. He states that the bones 
lay in a marl, itself overlain by muck, and on top of all some soil which 
had been washed in. So far as can be determined, the animal was buried 
between the Mississinawa and the Salamonie moraines. With the skull were 
found other parts of the skeleton, which shows that the remains were in 
their original place of burial. 

Mastodons Found Outside of Mississinawa Moraine and Between 

Wabash and Kankakee Rivers. 

31. Beaver Lake, Newton County. — In 1870 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. iv, 
p. 229) , Frank H. Bradley reported that in draining Beaver Lake, in Newton 
County, mastodon remains had been found, in company with Bootherium. 
No details were furnished, and it is not known what was done with the 
specimens. It is probable that the musk-ox belonged to the species Symbos 
cavifrons. It occurs over the country much more abundantly than any 
other musk-ox. 

Beaver Lake has disappeared from the maps, but it is shown on the 
geological map of Indiana, published in the Eighteenth Annual Report of 
the Geological Survej^ of Indiana. The lake occupied a part of the present 
township of McClellan (township 30 north, range 9 west). Doubtless this 
lake existed ever since the retirement of the ice from that region. The 
mastodon was probably found in making the ditch from the lake in a 
northwesterly^ direction into the Kankakee River. 

32. Jasper County. — John Collett, at that time State geologist, reported 
in 1882 (12th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 73) that remains of a 
mastodon had been found in this county, but no particulars were furnished. 
He stated that remains of this species, as well as those of the mammoth, 
were buried in deposits of peat. A portion of the county is occupied by the 
Marseilles morainic system, the remainder by the Kankakee marsh, perhaps 
largely a lake during the latter part of the Wisconsin stage. On the maps 
the number 32 is placed arbitrarily. 

33. Denham, Pulaski County. — In 1915 the U. S. National Museum se- 
cured a large part of the skeleton of a mastodon found about 2 miles west of 
Denham. The localitj'' is described to the writer by Mr. W. D. Pattison, of 
Winamac, as being on the half-section line between the southeast quarter 
of the northwest quarter and the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter 
of section 9, township 31 north, range 3 west. This would be not far west 
from the center of the section. The skeleton was thrown out by the shovel 
of the ditching machine, but most of the bones, including the skull, were 
obtained in quite good condition. They were found at a depth of about 
9 feet, in a marly deposit, itself overlain by sandy materials. 

On consulting Leverett's glacial map of Indiana it is seen that this skele- 
ton was found in a marshy tract, in which Monon River rises. It is 
represented by Leverett as a ground moraine plain, surrounded by plains 



INDIANA. 97 

covered by sand and displaying sand dunes. It forms a part of what has 
been called Kankakee Lake, but which, as Levcrett says, may have been 
in late Pleistocene times not greatly unlike what it has been within Recent 
times. It must have been well along in the afternoon of the Wisconsin 
stage when this mastodon tempted the insecure footing of these swamps. 

This skeleton has been mounted and is now on exhibition at the U. S. 
National Museum. 

34. Rich Grove Township, Pulaski County. — Mr. J. W. Gidley. of the 
National Museum, and Mr. F. M. Williams, of Winamac, Indiana, in 1915, 
saw some mastodon bones which had been found here. No details have been 
reported. 

49. Indian Creek Toumship, Pulaski County. — From Dr. E. S. Riggs, of 
Field Museum of Natural History, it has been learned that in June 1914. 
about half of the skeleton of a mastodon was found on the farm of 
Mr. William Battle, 5 miles west of Oak, Pulaski County. This would be 
in township 29 north, range 2 west. The skeleton was encountered by 
ditchers at a depth of 3 feet, in black loam. It was not secured for the 
Field Museum of Natural History. 

35. Royal Center, Cass County. — Mr. Gidley and Mr. Williams, as men- 
tioned under No. 34, saw also some mastodon remains which were from 
about 2 miles west of Royal Center. 

48. Fulton, Fulton County. — The American Museum of Natural History. 
New York, contains several mastodon bones secured b^?" Mr. Barnum Brown 
in 1915, but which had been found by Mr. Arthur Fry, in July 1913. These 
remains were met with in excavating for abutments for a bridge and had 
been thrown out of a drainage ditch. The bones were disassociated and 
scattered over a considerable area. They were all in black muck overlying 
compact quicksand and about 4 feet below the black loam surface-soil. 
From Mr. Fry it is learned that the locality is 2 miles southeast of Fulton. 
This is in township 29 north, range 2 east, and quite certainly in section 36. 
Mr. Fry wrote that in digging up these bones logs were found that had 
been gnawed by beavers. 

Dr. W. D. Matthew^ informs the writer that on cleaning up the materials 
there proved to be present at least four individuals. One was represented 
by a very complete skull with portions of the tusks. There was another 
skull; also two lower jaws which appeared not to belong to either of the 
skulls. From the shortness and the diameter of the tusks it is believed 
that all the individuals were females. Besides the skulls there were many 
bones belonging to the trunk and the limbs. 

36. Macy, Miami County. — Near this place was found the fine skeleton 
of a mastodon which is mounted and on exhibition in the Public Museum 
at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A figure of this has been published by the writer 
(36th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 659). 

This skeleton was found, according to Mr. H. L. Ward, director of the 
museum mentioned, in 1907, in the northwest quarter of section 29, town- 
ship 29, range 4 east, between Macy and Deedsville. This locality is on 
the great moraine which lies north of Eel River and was produced by the 
ice fronts of the Michigan, the Saginaw, and the Lake Erie lobes. Accord- 



98 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

ing to a sketch and some notes furnished to Mr. Ward by Mr. C. F. Fite, 
who secured the skeleton, it was lying at the lower end of an 8-shaped 
area of low muck land surrounded by rather high sandy land. The skeleton 
was buried at a depth of 4 or 5 feet, and the surface was miry and covered 
with water, Mr. Fite concluded from the position of the bones that the 
animal had become mired. He says in a letter to the present writer that 
the contents of the stomach had been preserved, but on exposure to the air 
became powdery like ashes. 

Mr. Fite writes that he took up portions of another mastodon in the 
southwest quarter of section 26, township 29 north, range 5 east (Perry 
Township), and that he has the lower jaw and teeth. This animal was 
found in an old pond which had a growth of buttonwood. The bones were 
in a blue clay, itself overlain by a rich black soil. 

Still another mastodon is reported by Mr. Fite from this region. This 
was found in the fall of 1915, in the northwest quarter of section 12, town- 
ship 29 north, range 3 east. The remains were found at a depth of 4 feet 
and were in a pretty fair state of preservation, except the skull. The 
animal had been a large one. 

37. Peru, Miami County. — In the collection of Yale University is a lower 
left last molar. No. 11689, labeled as having come from Peru, but there 
is no other information. Peru is on the Wabash River, a few miles south of 
Denver. 

51. Jackson Township, Miami County. — Mr. Fite reports having found 
another mastodon in the southeast quarter of section 11, Jackson Township, 
Miami County (T. 25 N., R. 5 E.). This would be not far from Pipe 
Creek, between Somerset and Amboy, and some miles outside of the 
Mississinawa moraine. The writer has seen these bones, mostly vertebrae, 
and agrees with the identification. 

38. Laketon, Wabash County. — Elrod and Benedict state (17th Ann. 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 240) that in 1872 a nearly complete skeleton 
of a mastodon was found about 2 miles west of this place, in digging a 
ditch at the roadside. The exact location is in section 8, township 29 north, 
range 6 east, near the bank of Silver Creek. The political name of the 
township is Pleasant. This would be on the southern border of the great 
moraine already mentioned as running northeastward and southwestward, 
north of Eel River. After some litigation the skeleton was put on ex- 
hibition at Fort Wayne. 

In throwing up an embankment for a bridge across Silver Creek, workmen 
found in the same township, as reported by Elrod and Benedict, bones of 
Elephas primigenius. They were under 5 feet of muck. 

39. North Manchester, Wabash County. — Elrod and Benedict, as cited 
above, reported that a jawbone with two teeth in it had been found on the 
northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 1, township 29, range 
7 east. This is about 3 miles east of North Manchester. The description 
given of these teeth shows that the jaw was that of a mastodon. It was 
found beneath 2.5 feet of solid blue clay. According to Leverett's map, 
the locality is not far west of the outer border of the Mississinawa moraine. 



INDIANA. 99 

40. Lagrange, Lagrange County. — Professor Donaldson Bodine, now 
deceased, formerly of Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana, informed 
the writer that there are in Wabash College some teeth and other parts of 
a mastodon, which were found in 1910 in some dredging operations near 
Lagrange. 

H. Pohlig (Bull. Soc. Beige Geol., etc., vol. xxvi, 1912, p. 187) described 
a lower jaw, found somewhere about Lagrange, which he referred to 
Tetracaulodon ohioticum. It contained a small tusk 230 mm. long and 40 
mm. in diameter. There was present also an alveolus for the other tusk. 
He accepts the genus Tetracaulodon for mastodons "a quatre defenses 
permanentes sans email represente par le Mastodon ohioticum." Indi- 
viduals without lower tusks are regarded by him as females. 

In Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Rochester, New York, there is, 
or was, a lower jaw of a mastodon from Lagrange County. 

The writer has received a photograph showing the right fore-leg, two 
ribs, two tusks, and a lower jaw of a mastodon found in 1884, in a swamp, 
4 miles northwest of Lagrange. The remains were embedded in a clayey 
marl deposit, at a depth of from 4 to 10 feet. They are said to have been 
exliumed by Dr. H. M. Betts. The hindermost lower molar shows five crests 
and a heel. On the right side is a small lower tusk. 

Lagrange is situated at the junction of moraines formed by the Saginaw 
and the Huron-Erie lobes of the Wisconsin glacier. From this the Lagrange 
moraine runs off northwestward (Leverett, Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., liii, 
p. 143). Parts of the county are occupied by till plains and others by sand 
and gravel plains and channels of glacial drainage. At the time these 
mastodons lived in Steuben and Lagrange Counties, the Wisconsin ice must 
have retired quite beyond the limits of the State. 

Mastodons Found North of Kankakee River. 

41. Lowell, Lake County. — Mr. M. W. Ponto, Lowell, Indiana, has sent 
to the U. S. National Museum a photograph of a lower right hinder molar 
(apparently not yet having come into use) of a mastodon. This was found 
at a depth of 2 feet 9 inches in a trench for a tile drain. The locality is in 
the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 36, township 33 
north, range 9 west. This is on the southern border of what Leverett 
(Monogr. liii, p. 175) regards as possibly the westward continuation of the 
Kalamazoo morainic system of the Lake Michigan glacial lobe. 

42 to 44. Porter County.— In 1898 (22d Rep. Geol. Surv. Ind.), Professor 
W. S. Blatchley reported mastodons from various localities in this county; 
he probably did not see these remains, and the identifications must be 
regarded as somewhat doubtful. Nevertheless it is more probable that the 
bones and teeth belonged to the mastodon than to any of the elephants. 
The latter, however, have been found in this same county. It is rather 
remarkable that so little definite knowledge has been preserved regarding 
the proboscideans found in this corner of Indiana. 

42. Hebron, Porter County. — One of the localities just mentioned is in 
section 25, township 33 north, range 7 west, about 3 miles southeast of 



100 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Hebron. No other information has been obtained about this specimen. 
Other remains are said to have been found in a marsh, by the side of Cobb's 
Creek, just east of Hebron. 

43. Kouts, Porter County. — Another find of mastodon remains, as 
reported by Professor Blatchley, was near Sandyhook, northwest of Kouts. 
Mr. C. H. Wolbrandt, of Kouts, has informed the writer that a tooth, 
probably that referred to by Professor Blatchley, was found some years 
ago in a ditch being made in the Sandyhook marsh. The tooth was found 
in a mucky soil at a depth of about 2 feet. 

The remains which were found east of Hebron and the tooth found near 
Kouts were buried near the northern border of the Kankakee marsh, which 
probably was, since the passing of the Wisconsin ice, no less a marsh than 
within historical times, and perhaps during some of the time a lake. 

44. Valparaiso, Porter County. — Professor Blatchley, as quoted above, 
reported that some remains of a mastodon were found about 2 miles south- 
west of Valparaiso. The locality is in the southwest quarter of section 27, 
township 35 north, range 6 west. This would be on the Valparaiso moraine. 

45. Valparaiso, Porter County. — The writer has learned from Mr. Jacob 
Davis, of Hebron, that in dredging at a point about 5 miles southeast of 
Valparaiso he met with a skeleton of a mastodon and secured a large number 
of bones at a depth of 8 feet; but some of them were carried off by curiosity 
hunters. It is depressing to think that such remains should be preserved 
for thousands of years only to be put to such trivial uses. This locality 
would be in the Kankakee marshes. 

46. Olive Township, St. Joseph County. — In the museum at Notre Dame 
University are considerable remains of a mastodon, found about 1902 in 
Olive Township, about 12 miles west or southwest of Notre Dame. Pro- 
fessor Kirsch has sent a photograph of a tooth of Elephas primigenius which 
was found in Olive Township. Apparently the mastodon and the elephant 
were living together late in the Wisconsin stage. 

47. Notre Dame, St. Joseph County. — From Rev. A. M. Kirsch the writer 
learns that remains of two mastodons have been found in the region about 
Notre Dame, within a few feet of the surface. All these localities are within 
the area of Kankakee marsh. These specimens are now in the fine collection 
of that university. 

For 48, 49 see page 97; for 50 see page 92; for 51 see page 98; for 52 
see page 90; for 53 see page 94; for 54 see page 91 ; for 55 and 56 see page 95. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 5, 38.) 
Outside of Area of Illinoian Drift. 

1. Shawneetown, Gallatin County. — In 1875 (vol. vi, Geol. Surv. Illinois, 
p. 214), Professor E. T. Cox reported that teeth of a mastodon had been 
found the preceding summer close to the water's edge in front of Shawnee- 
town. They w^ere embedded in a shallow deposit of bluish clay which rested 
upon yellow clay and gravel. Michael Robinson, of Shawneetown, states 



ILLINOIS. 101 

in a letter that he has in his cabinet teeth of mastodon and mammoth, found 
about that town. The bluffs bordering the Ohio River at Shawneetown 
were regarded by Leverett (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., xxxviii, plate vi) 
as of Wisconsin age, consisting of outwash from the ice-sheet lying farther 
north. 

A. H. Worthen (vol. vi, Geol. Surv. Illinois, p. 39) stated that a fine 
tooth of a mastodon, found in Gallatin County, had been presented to the 
State cabinet, but no exact history of it was known. 

2. Chester, Randolph County. — A note in the Kansas City Review of 
Science and Industry, volume vii, 1883, page 351, taken apparently from 
a newspaper at Chester, states that a mastodon's tusk and skull had been 
discovered in Chester. It was expected that Professor A. H. Worthen, State 
geologist of Illinois at that time, would arrive and conduct the exhumation. 
Later (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. viii, p. 8) Worthen stated that a mastodon 
had been found at Chester; but no details were added. With so little 
knowledge as to exact locality and the surroundings the discovery is of 
little value. 

Within Area Covered by Illinoian Drift. 

3. Beaucoup, Washington County. — In 1857, the geologist J. W. Foster 
reported (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science, vol. x, Nat. Hist., p. 163) that 
remains of a mastodon had been discovered by workmen in making an 
excavation along the Illinois Central Railroad, near the town of Beaucoup. 
The bones were at a depth of 18 feet in the prairie drift, below the yellow 
clay and in the older or reddish clay. No details were given as to what 
bones were found or what was done with them. 

Most of this county is covered by Illinoian drift. Leverett (Monogr. 
U. S. Geol. Surv., xxxviii, p. 770) states that on the higher lands this has 
a depth of from 10 to 20 feet. One might suppose that at a depth of 18 
feet some pre-Illinoian interglacial deposit had been encountered. It is not 
at all probable that the bones of the mastodon were inclosed in the drift 
itself. 

4. East St. Louis, St. Clair County. — Dr. F. V. Hayden (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 316) announced the finding of a tooth of a masto- 
don in the bluffs opposite St. Louis. This was probably in St. Clair County. 

In the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is a lower right 
last molar of a mastodon, labeled as having been found in St. Clair County, 
but there is no other information. 

In the collection of the St. Louis Academy of Science there are two teeth 
of a mastodon, right and left last upper molars, which had been brought in 
by a boy and presented to the Academy. He said that they had been found 
in East St. Louis and had been in the possession of the family for some 
time. The length of the left molar is 175 mm., the width 102 ram. While 
the valley of the Mississippi River is here filled by deposits laid down 
during the Wisconsin stage (Leverett, op cit., plate vi) and by later-formed 
alluvium, Illinoian drift enters into the bluffs, and perhaps pre-Illinoian 
interglacial soils. It is, therefore, of interest that there should be an exact 
record made of the place of discovery of every bone and tootli found, the 



102 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

character of the deposit, and the depth of burial In all the cases here 
recorded no such records have been kept. 

5. Alton, Madison County. — In 1866 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. i, p. 315; 
1871, Amer. Naturalist, vol. v, p. 607), A. H. Worthen reported that a part 
of a jawbone of a mastodon, with two teeth in it, had been found in the 
lower part of the loess, 30 feet below the surface, at some point just above 
Alton. The jaw was separated from the limestone by 2 or 3 feet of local 
drift. The bone was of a chalky whiteness and in a fine state of preser- 
vation. Worthen wrote that the loess on the bluffs in this region is from 
40 to 80 feet in thickness, but appears in places to have been removed by 
erosion, so that it comes down to the rock. 

Reference is made by Worthen later (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. viii, p. 8) 
to the discoveries of vertebrate fossils in the drift and loess of this region. 
He mentions that Hon. William McAdams found, at Alton and Chester, 
remains of mastodon, mammoth, megalonyx, castoroides, and "Bos primi- 
genius." McAdams's collection is now in the U. S. National Museum and 
a list of the species is presented on page 339. These species were 
described by the writer in 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol lviii, pp. 109- 
117). In it are only two fragments of molars of this species. 

In the collection at Yale University (No. 11713) is an upper left last 
molar of a mastodon, obtained from Mr. McAdams. The enamel is very 
white. There is on the label the date "Feb. 21, 1888." This may be one 
of the teeth referred to above, and the date may refer to the date of 
purchase. 

6. Sandoval, Marion County. — Before the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, at its meeting in 1856 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. 
Sci., vol. X, 1857, p. 163) , the geologist J. W. Foster stated that at Sandoval, 
on the Illinois Central Railroad, mastodon remains had been found at a 
depth of 12 feet, under conditions similar to those existing near Beaucoup, 
in Washington County. Here again there is a poverty of information. In 
this county there is, in many places, a very compact white clay overlying 
the Illinoian drift. The relations of this to the drift are not well understood. 
At a depth of 12 feet in this clay the Illinoian drift might not be reached 
in some places, while at this depth in the drift a pre-IUinoian deposit might 
be encountered. 

7. Near Niantic, Macon County. — In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. v, 
p. 308), A. H. Worthen gave an account of finding some remains of a 
mastodon in this county, near the line between it and Sangamon County 
and between Illiopolis and Niantic, on a farm then owned by Mr. William 
F. Correll. The American Journal of Science, volume 50, page 422, in a 
note regarding the discovery, states that the place is 1.5 miles southeast of 
Illiopolis. A well was being sunk in a low, spongy piece of ground, which 
had evidently been a pond filled up by wash from the surrounding higher 
ground. At a depth of 4 feet two tusks were found, one measuring 7 feet 
in length and about 8 inches in circumference, the lower jaw containing the 
teeth, the teeth of the upper jaw, and some small bones. Besides these 
remains of the mastodon, there were found some bones of the buffalo and 
deer, and two antlers of an elk. The bones of these yet existing species 



ILLINOIS. - 103 

are said to have been found at the same depth as the ma.Hodon bones, but 
were of a Hghter color and less decayed. 

The bones were partly embedded in a light-gray quicksand, filled with 
small fresh-water shells. Above this was 4 feet of black peaty soil. 

In the eighth volume of the Geological Survey of Illinois, on page 23, 
Worthen wrote that some of the smaller bones of the mastodon and those 
of the other animals, except the antlers of the elk, were preserved in the 
State Museum of Natural History, at Springfield. 

In the museum of the Chicago Academy of Science are, as reported hj 
the curator, Frank C. Baker, to Netta C. Anderson (Augustana Lib. Pubs. 
No. 5, p. 14), two rami of the lower jaw and several molars of a mastodon, 
all well preserved. They are labeled as having been found in Macon 
County, "6 miles from Abraham Lincoln's first home" and as having been 
presented by C. F. Giinther. With these is an upper tooth which probably 
belonged with the same lot as the lower jaw. There can hardly be a doubt 
that this jaw and these teeth are those described by Worthen. The finder 
had probably sold them to Mr. Giinther, of Chicago, who had a private 
collection. 

The region about Niantic is within the area of the Illinoian drift, so that 
the bones must have been deposited in the pond after the passing away of 
the Illinoian ice-sheet. 

Dr. F. C. Baker (Bull. Univ. Illinois, vol. xvii, p. 300), in speaking of 
this case, says that the deposit rests on Illinoian drift and hence it appears 
referable to the Sangamon interval. It seems to the present writer that 
these animals belong to a later time, possibly the Late Wisconsin. The 
locality is about 5 miles from Sangamon River. One might suppose that 
time enough had elapsed after the Illinoian for the drainage of the pond 
that must once have been there. Also, Worthen in his account states the 
uplands are covered by loess from 6 to 20 feet in thickness. One might 
expect that the pond would have been filled up with the loess which had 
blown into it and which had been washed into it from the surrounding 
higher land. These considerations are of course not final. The Wisconsin 
moraine is not far away, and it is possible that outwash from this was re- 
sponsible for the pond and that the animals lived after the glacier had 
passed away. 

8. Warsaw, Hancock County. — In Netta C. Anderson's "Preliminary List 
of Fossil Mastodon and Mammoth Remains in Illinois and Iowa" (Augus- 
tana Lib. Pubs. No. 5) it was reported by Mr. C. K. Worthen, of Warsaw, 
that a part of a mastodon tooth had been found sticking out of a bank of 
a creek 5 miles below the town mentioned. 

The writer has seen in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy, from 
near Warsaw, a part of a lower second molar, labeled as having been found 
at a depth of 10 feet, 3 miles east of the Mississippi River. It was presented 
by G. W. Hall. 

9. Manito, Mason County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a large 
upper right second molar. No. 7801, presented in 1913 by Mr. John Wiedmer, 
of St. Louis. This was found by his workmen near Manito, in a peat 
deposit, at a depth of 5 feet, embedded in the top of a layer of sand which 



104 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

underlies the peat. At about the same depth was found a part of the skull 
of Symbos cavijrons, also presented to the U. S. National Museum. The 
place of discovery more exactly given is in section 22, township 23, range 6. 
This locality is within the area of the Illinoian drift. On the east, a few 
miles away, is the foot of the great Shelby ville moraine; while very near, 
toward the west, there are, according to Leverett (op. cit., plate vi) widely 
spread deposits brought down by the Illinois River from the Wisconsin ice- 
sheet. The geological conditions here seem to make it probable that both 
animals lived near the close of the Wisconsin stage. There may, however, 
have been a considerable interval between the times of the two animals; 
for peat, sometimes at least, accumulates very slowly. In proof of this 
may be cited the case of mastodons found near the surface of peat-swamps 
in Michigan. In the same peat-swamp at Manito were found at depths of 
3 or 4 feet some Indian flint implements. These are in the collection of the 
U. S. National Museum. 

10. Knox County. — On page 14 of Netta C. Anderson's list, already 
mentioned. Professor Albert Hurd, curator of the museum of Knox College, 
Galesburg, reported that there was in the collection a well-preserved tooth 
of a mastodon found in the bed of Spoon River, which runs across the 
southeastern part of the county. Exactly where along this stream the tooth 
was discovereci- is not on record. 

11. Cambridge, Henry County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, on page 12, 
Professor Frank C. Baker, then curator of the Chicago Academy of Science, 
reported that there is in the collection a part of a tusk of a mastodon, found 
at Cambridge, in digging a well, at a depth of 16 feet. 

In this case one can not be certain that the tusk did not belong to one 
of the elephants. From information accompanying the specimen one can 
determine little about the exact geological age of the animal. It is probably 
post-Illinoian. 

12. Rural Township, Rock Island County. — Dr. J. A. Udden (in Netta 
C. Anderson's list, p. 18) reported that there is in the collection of Augustana 
College, Rock Island, a well-preserved tooth of a mastodon, found in 1900, 
in a creek in the township named, in the southeastern corner of the county. 
Udden gives the locality as being in section 19, township 16 north, range 
1 west. 

In the same institution (J. A. Udden, Augustana Coll., Pub. No. v, p. 12) 
is a part of a proboscidean tusk, referred to the mastodon, which Dr. Udden 
states was found near Milan, at the base of the loess, in the red oxidized 
layer of the Illinoian boulder clay. The locality is on the north side oi 
Rock River and on the east side of the Milan road south of Rock Island. 
The conditions would seem to indicate that the animal had lived about the 
close of the Illinoian drift stage. 

About June 15, 1916, Mr. A. Daxon, of Omaha, Nebraska, sent photo- 
graphs of two mastodon teeth to the U. S. National Museum for identifi- 
cation. These teeth were found in Bowling Township, Rock Island County, 
10 or 12 miles south of Rock Island, but no further information about them 
has been secured. 

Professor J. A. Paarniann, curator of the Davenport, Iowa, Academy of 
Sciences, has written that he had seen a finely preserved mastodon tooth 



ILLINOIS. 105 

which had been picked up on the surface of the ground a mile west of 
Milan. The land around about is swampy. The tooth was in the possession 
of Edward Herbert, Rock Island, Illinois, but the present writer has not 
been able to get any information from him. 

13. Sterling, Whiteside County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 
4222) is a mastodon molar, recorded as found near the town named. It 
was transmitted through the U. S. Geological Survey and credited to T. A. 
Schroder. It is said to have been found with other teeth and parts of the 
skeleton, so that there is little probability that the skeleton was disturbed 
after its original interment. It is to be regretted that so little information 
was allowed to come with the specimen. 

Sterling is in a region of very complicated Pleistocene geology. South 
of it is an extensive region of swamps and deposits referred by Leverett 
(op. cit., plate vi) to "sand and gravel plains of Wisconsin age." North 
of the town is drift mapped by Leverett as lowan, but which is now 
regarded as Illinoian. As to the age of the tooth in question, no probable 
conclusion can be formed, except that it is of post-Illinoian time. 

27. Walnut, Bureau County. — In the American Museum of Natural 
History, in New York City, there are three molars (No. 10666), belonging 
to each side of the upper jaw of a mastodon which was found somewhere 
near Walnut, in Bureau County. 

14. New Miljord, Winnebago County. — According to S. P. Lathrop 
(Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xii, 1851, p. 439), a large tooth of a mastodon, in 
a fine state of preservation, was found in the Kishwaukee River, being 
brought up in a seine. 

The geology about New Milford is not well worked out. The deposits 
along the Kishwaukee were probably laid down during or shortly after 
the Wisconsin stage. 

15. Byron, Ogle County.— In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. v, p. 110), 
James Shaw reported that a tooth identified as that of a mastodon had 
been found, in 1858, in a tributary of Stillman's Run, somewhere in the 
region about Byron. The locality is low and marshy. The tooth is 
described as having been a ponderous grinder, weighing 7.5 pounds, and to 
have been covered with a black and shining enamel. A large mastodon 
tooth, just out of the water, might attain such a weight. The statement 
regarding the enamel confirms the identification. 

Shaw reported further that a large leg bone, supposed to belong to a 
mastodon, had been found 2 or 3 miles above Byron, along the bank of 
Rock River, 5 feet below the surface and about 15 feet above ordinary 
water-level. It was sent to the State Museum at Springfield. This may 
have belonged to one of the elephants. 

Harper, Ogle County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, on page 15, is a 
report from Miss Abba Fager, of Forreston, concerning a tooth of a masto- 
don found on the farm of Mr. Gross, in Forreston Township, about a mile 
south of Harper, in the bed of a small stream. Another tooth had been 
found there a short time before. 

Byron is on Rock River, and the tooth was probably in alluvial deposits 
laid down after the recession of the Wisconsin ice. Harper is near the 
western border of the county and Illinoian drift covers the country. All 



106 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

that can be said in the case of the teeth found is that the possessors lived 
after the Illinoian stage. 

16. Urbana, Champaign County. — In the collection of the Illinois State 
University the writer saw a lower right last molar of a mastodon, found 
June 1, 1911, at Crystal Lake park, 1.5 miles northeast of the university. 

Pesotvm, Champaign County. — In 1909, Mr. Rufus M. Bagg (Univ. 
111. Bull., vol. VI, No. 17, p. 49) recorded the fact that a mastodon tooth 
with some bones had been found near Pesotum, on the farm of Mr. Pfeffer, 
at a depth of 3.5 feet, in digging a ditch. 

Inasmuch as this whole region is covered by Wisconsin drift, the animal 
could not have lived there before the ice which deposited the Champaign 
moraine had withdrawn. It probably lived there long after the ice had 
retreated, possibly about the time when the raegalonyx, whose claw alone 
is left as a memorial of his former existence, lived in that region. 

17. Edgar County.— In 1870 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. iv, p. 266), Frank 
H. Bradley, in describing the topography of Edgar County, stated that a 
nearly perfect skeleton of a mastodon had been found in one of the sloughs 
of the prairie region which prevails in the western part of the county. It 
was said that after having been exhibited over that region it was sold to 
some museum in Philadelphia, but the writer has been unable to obtain 
further information. 

In 1857 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science, vol. x, Nat. Hist., p. 10), 
J. W. Foster reported that a jaw and three teeth of a mastodon had been 
found in yellow clay, about 3 feet from the surface, at Bloomfield, in this 
county. This name has disappeared from the maps and gazetteers. 

A little of the southern border of the county is occupied by Illinoian 
drift, but the greater part is covered by drift of Wisconsin age. The 
mastodons reported probably lived after the retirement of the last ice of 
the Glacial period. 

18. Fairmount, Vermillion County. — In 1870, Frank H. Bradley (Geol. 
Surv. Illinois, vol. iv, p. 242) stated that in September 1868 remains of a 
mastodon were found 2 miles southeast of Fairmount. He described the 
locality as having a black soil, from 1 to 2 feet deep, and underlain by a 
light-brown tenacious clay, filled with the shells of Lymnea, Physa, 
Planorbis, Sphcerium, etc. The bones of the mastodon lay partly in this 
marly clay, but the tip of one tusk rose to within 13 inches of the surface. 
The bones were considerably decayed, but Bradley thought this had resulted 
from the previous draining of the land and the accession of air to the bones. 
Some fragments of this skeleton are in the collection of the Chicago Acad- 
emy of Science. The locality is very close to the northern edge of the 
Champaign moraine. 

19. Iroquois and Vermillion Counties. — Under this number must be 
recorded 3 mastodons found at as many different places. Hoopeston is in 
Vermillion County, but evidently the mastodon credited to this place was 
found in Iroquois County. 

Six miles northwest of Hoopeston. — In 1881 (2d Ann. Rep. Dept. Statist. 
and Geol. Indiana, p. 18; of complete report, p. 386), John Collett 
gave an account of the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a masto- 



ILLINOIS. 107 

don about 6 miles northwest of Hoopeston. The locahty is evidently in the 
southwestern corner of township 24 north, range 11 east. Each tusk formed 
a full quarter of a circle, was 9 feet long, 22 inches in circumference at the 
base, and weighed, while yet wet, 175 pounds. The lower jaw was well 
preserved, nearly 3 feet long, and contained a magnificent set of teeth. The 
leg-bones, when joined at the knee, made a length of 5.5 feet. What was 
supposed to be remains of herbs and grasses which the animal had eaten 
were found between the ribs. 

The following mollusks are reported as being found in the same clay 
as that which contained the bones: Pisidium abditumf, Valvata tricarinata, 
Valvata striata?, Planorbis parvus. It is stated that these shells live at 
present all over the States of Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan, and indicate 
that the climate of the mastodon's day was greatly like that of the present 
in that region. 

Dr. John M. Clarke (56th Ann. Rep. New York State Museum, publislicd 
in 1904, p. 926) states that the tusks of this mastodon are now in the 
American Museum of Natural History and form a part of a mounted 
mastodon. The lower jaw is also in that museum. The writer has seen 
this jaw, No. 14345, and there are in it 2 tusks of considerable size, such as 
the writer has supposed characterized Mammut progenium. In case this 
species shall prove to be a natural one it continued from the first interglacial 
or even earlier to the close of the Wisconsin. This is the mastodon to which 
Blatchley refers (22d Rep. Indiana Geol. Surv., p. 90). 

East Lynn, Vermillion County. — The writer has a note to the effect 
that some mastodon remains were found near this place in 1881, but the 
authority can not be cited. East Lynn is 7 miles west of Hoopeston. 

Rossville. — Dr. Rufus M. Bagg, jr. (Univ. 111. Bulletin, vol. vi. No. 17, 
1909, p. 49, plate iv, figs. 2, 3) reported the finding of a mastodon's tooth 
near Rossville, on the banks of the North fork of Vermillion River, about 
7 miles south of Hoopeston. The figures indicate that the tooth is the lower 
right first molar, 127 mm. long and 85 mm. wide. 

All three of the mastodons mentioned were evidently buried in pond and 
swamp deposits which lie on or near the Bloomington moraine of the 
Wisconsin drift. They lived, therefore, after the disappearance of the last 
glacial ice-sheet and probably long after that disappearance. 

20. Beecher, Will County. — At Hebron, Indiana, the writer has seen 
various bones of mastodons which had been unearthed in the region about 
Beecher by Mr. Jacob Davis, in dredging large ditches. He described these 
bones as amounting to "about two wagonloads." 

Mr. George Langford, of Joliet, Illinois, stated in a letter that it is 
reported that over a dozen mastodons have been found on one farm near 
Beecher in the last 10 years. Mr. Langford sent also a geological section 
(fig. 1) taken along Trim Creek. Besides the mastodon remains found there, 
he obtained a large part of an antler of Cervalces. The locality is given as 
the northwest quarter of the southwest c|uarter of section 11, township 33 
north, range 14 east, 3 miles north of east of Beecher. 



108 



PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 



This locality is on the Valparaiso moraine, the last formed before the 
Wisconsin ice withdrew into Lake Michigan. It was, however, probably 
long after this that the mastodons lived and died there. 

Mr. Langford's account seems to indicate that, after the deposition of the 
Valparaiso moraine and the withdrawal of the ice-sheet, there was left along 
what is now Trim Creek a shallow lake, which became gradually filled by 
washings from the moraine. This at length became a marsh and produced 
peat and other vegetable muck. At one stage the surface appears to have 
been occupied by a forest, which later became covered by about 4 feet of 
sandy soil. Over this is 2 feet of black peat, itself overlain by probably 
Recent deposits. 







Fig. 1. — Geological section of Trim Cieek. Beecher, Will County, Illinois. 



1. Moraine. 

2. Wisconsin drift. 

3. Alluvium. 

4. Black peat. 

5. Sandy soil, with bones. 



6. Peat, sand, vegetable mat- 

ter. 

7. Same stained brown ; with 

gravel. 



Mr. Langford has written that all the mastodon bones were found above 
the gravel, some of them 5 or 6 feet below the surface. Antlers of the elk 
occurred only above the mastodon bones. 

21. Morris, Grundy County. — In 1870, Frank H. Bradley (Geol. Surv. 
Illinois, vol. iv, p. 193) stated that in 1868 the remains of a mastodon were 
found at Turner's "strippings," about 3 miles east of Morris. These bones 
lay under 18 inches of black mucky soil and about 4 feet of yellowish loam, 
and rested on about a foot of hard blue clay, which itself covered the coal. 
The bones were mostly badly decayed and the greater part were broken and 
thrown away by the miners; but some, including a part of a lower jaw and 
3 teeth, were sent to the State Cabinet at Springfield. The locality was 
regarded by Bradley as part of an old river bottom. 

In 1871, Worthen referred to the same or another mastodon which had 
been found in the vicinity of Morris. He stated that it had been found 
in undisturbed drift, 8 feet below the surface. The blue clay on which lay 
the mastodon described by Bradley may have been brought down from the 
ice which deposited the Valparaiso moraine. The loam and muck were 
probably deposits of considerably later date. It is not probable that the 
Worthen mastodon was buried in undisturbed drift. 



ILLINOIS. 109 

22. Whiteivilloiu, Kendall County. — At a locality in this county, near 
Whitewillow, have been found many mastodon bones and those of various 
other animals. The place is 5 miles west by north of Minooka and 15 miles 
west of Joliet. Collections have been made there by Dr. E. S. Riggs, of 
the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and by Mr. George Lang- 
ford, of Joliet. Mr. Langford wrote that his collection was made in town- 
ship 35 north, range 8 east, and probably section 27. The farm belonged 
to John Bamford. Apparently Dr. Riggs's collection was made at the same 
place. Further details will be found on page 337. 

Dr. Riggs reported in Netta C. Anderson's list, already referred to several 
times, that in 1902 at least six skulls and numerous other bones had been 
found in a well 10 feet in diameter. Above these were bones of bison, 
deer, and elk. 

23. Yorkville, Keiidall County. — In the Field Museum of Natural History 
is a composite skull of a mastodon, part of which was found somewhere 
about Yorkville; but the writer knows nothing more definite. 

Yorkville is situated on Fox River, near the northwestern border of the 
Marseilles moraine. 

24. Aurora, Kane County. — H. M. Bannister, in 1870 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, 
vol. IV, p. 113) wrote as follows: "A portion of the remains of a mastodon, 
consisting of the tusks and several teeth, was obtained in excavating the 
track for the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad near the city of 
Aurora, and are now preserved in the museum of Clark Seminary at that 
place." 

These same remains were described by the geologist C. D. Wilbur (Trans. 
III. Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. i, p. 59, figs. 1 to 3). He stated that both tusks 
and seven teeth were found, all well preserved. The tusks were 10 feet long 
and 10 inches in diameter at the base; they were curved upward and con- 
siderably worn at the ends on the underside. Charles Whittlesey (Smithson. 
Contrib. Know!., vol. xv, art. 3, p. 16) probably referred to these remains. 
He stated that they were found in a swamp. 

Probably one of these teeth was sent to Dr. J. C. Warren, of Boston, 
the author of "The Mastodon giganteus of North America." It is described 
in the second edition of this monograph, on page 76. In the Proceedings of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, volume iv, page 376, Warren 
described a tooth, probably the same, which had been found 40 miles west 
of Chicago, at a depth of 8 feet. He said it was the largest mastodon tooth 
then known. 

In Netta C. Anderson's list, page 10, it is reported that in 1875 some 
mastodon remains were found about 8 miles southwest of Naperville, which 
is in Du Page County. The locality would be not far from the common 
meeting-point of Kane, Kendall, Will, and Du Page Counties; also prob- 
ably within 8 miles of Aurora. The remains, whatever they were, were 
donated to the museum of Jennings Seminary, Aurora. 

In Netta C. Anderson's list it is stated that teeth and a tusk of a mastodon 
were found, in 1853, by workmen extending the Burlington Railroad south 
of Aurora. They were in a swamp near Fox River, where the Burlington 



110 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

shops are situated. These remains, probably the same as those above 
described, were presented to Jennings Seminary. 

25. Batavia, Kane County. — This town is in Kane County, about 9 miles 
north of Aurora. In Netta C. Anderson's list, on page 13, Dr. E. S. Riggs, 
of the Field Museum of Natural History, reported that, somewhere in this 
vicinity, in cutting a ditch to drain a marshy lake of about 200 acres, 
some leg-bones and vertebrae of mastodon were found in a sticky clay 
from about 5 to 7 feet from the surface. Dr. Riggs writes that along the 
same ditch he picked up a jaw of the existing species of elk and some 
bison bones. 

Maple Park, Kane Comity. — Doctor Rufus M. Bagg recorded in 1909 
(Bull. Univ. 111. vol. vi, No. 17, p. 50, plate iv) the discovery of a large part 
of the skeleton of a mastodon. It was found at a depth of 6 feet. The 
exact location was not given. 

The whole of Kane County lies between or is covered by the Bloomington 
and Marseilles moraines, and the mastodons found there must have lived 
after the retirement of the ice which produced those moraines. 

26. Glencoe, Cook County.— In Netta C. Anderson's list, on page 9, 
Professor James G. Needham, of Lake Forest University, reported that a 
fragment of a mastodon's tooth had been dug up while a ditch in glacial 
drift was being made. 

Glencoe is situated on the eastern till ridge, as described by Leverett 
(Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv. xxxvm, p. 381), the one nearest the western 
shore of Lake Michigan. If the tooth mentioned really occurred in undis- 
turbed drift, it is possible that it was redeposited from some earlier inter- 
glacial deposit. 

In 1891, W. K. Higley (Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., vol. ii, pt. 1, p. xv) 
reported the finding of some bones of a mastodon, about 6 years previously, 
on the south side of Wicker Park, near Milwaukee Avenue, Evanston. The 
bones were in a layer of fine sand in which were trunks of oak trees. The 
depth was 13 feet. The remark was made that the level marked the upper 
or late limit of the mastodon. 

27. See page 105. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 5.) 

\. Dover, Racine County. — In the Milwaukee Public Museum is a tusk, 
identified as that of a mastodon, exhumed from a peat-bog at Dover, in 
1878. Both tusks and some fragments of a scapula, some ribs, and verte- 
brae were found, but apparently no teeth. Only one tusk was saved; 4 feet 
8 inches long and moderately curved, the middle of the concave surface 
being about 6 inches below a line joining the base and the tip of the tusk. 

Dover is situated near the southern border of Racine County, in the 
southwestern corner of township 3 north, range 20 east. It is. therefore, 
within the great composite moraine which runs along the western side of 
Lake Michigan. According to Alden's map (Prof. Paper 106, U. S. Geol. 
Surv., plate iii) the town is on a tract covered by ground moraine of the 
Lake Michigan glacier. 



WISCONSIN. Ill 

2. Waukesha, Waukesha County. — In the Milwaukee Public Museum is 
a slightly worn upper hindermost molar of a mastodon, No. 3867, labeled as 
having been found at Waukesha. There is no other history. The geological 
age is probably practically the same as that of the tooth found at Dover, 
Late Wisconsin. 

3. Madison, Dane County. — The records for mastodons at Madison are 
not very satisfactory. 

Professor Eliot Blackwelder informs the writer that there is in the collec- 
tion at the State University of Wisconsin a large vertebra, supposed to be 
that of a mastodon, brought up out of Lake Monona, in 1906. 

Professor C. A. Davis informed the author that in 1908 he visited the 
fill in one of the city parks made by pumping mud from Lake Monona and 
found fragments of ivory and parts of proboscidean bones. It is possible 
that these fragments belonged to an elephant. 

4. Bluemounds, Dane County. — In 1862 J. D. Whitney, in his "Report 
on the Geological Survey of the Upper Mississippi Land Region," page 132, 
mentions having found, at Bluemounds, the first 3 deciduous molars of the 
mastodon, exquisitely preserved and not at all discolored. Dr. Jeffries 
Wyman, in Whitney's report, on pages 421, 422, referred to these milk 
molars. Whitney in 1866 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. i, p. 162) stated that he 
had found in a crevice near Bluemounds bones and teeth of mastodon, 
peccary, buffalo, and wolf. 

5. Lone Rock, Richland County. — Professor Eliot Blackwelder, of the 
Wisconsin State University, informs the writer that there is in their collec- 
tion a pair of tusks, supposed to be of a mastodon. They were found some- 
where about Lone Rock in 1901, which is on the northern bank of the 
Wisconsin River, in the southeastern corner of Richland County. 

6. Sinsinawa, Grant County. — In his report on the geology of the lead 
region, already referred to, J. D. Whitney stated, on his page 133, that the 
greatest quantity of bones of the mastodon found in that region seems to 
have been near Sinsinnewa mound, but he had no exact particulars of depth 
or position. Some were preserved at the locality for several years; others, 
to the amount of several bushels, were carried off or destroyed. 

7. Wauzeka, Crawford County. — In the collection of the Public Museum 
of Milwaukee is an upper last molar, found at the place named. It is only 
slightly worn and nearly white in color. Nothing is known about the exact 
place or under what conditions it was found. 

8. Richland Center, Richland County.- — Professor George Wagner of the 
Wisconsin State University, has informed the writer that there is in that 
university an almost complete skeleton of a mastodon, found at the place 
named. No particulars are known to the present writer regarding the 
history of the specimen. 

9. Menomonie, Dunn County. — Professor S. Weidman, of the Wisconsin 
Geological and Natural History Survey, informed the writer that in the 
brick clays used at Menominee had been found a part of a leg-bone of a 
mastodon. Dr. Weidman was kind enough to send the bone for examina- 
tion. It proved to be the distal end of the right humerus, including the 
epiphysial part. The interior of the bone iiad been neatlj' excavated, as 
if by a tool of some kind, the marks of which remained, which proved to be 



112 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

the jaws of a wolf. He had evidently been after the marrow and had 
scraped out all of the part filled by cancellated bone. The explanation 
appears to be that the mastodon had in some way broken an arm and had 
died. The wolves then proceeded to devour him; they could not have 
broken the limb themselves. 

The finding of the bone shows that these clays belong to the Pleistocene. 
In a sand formation underlying the clays a caribou antler and bones of 
the Mackinaw trout, Cristivomer namaycush, have been found. Professor 
Weidman regards the clays as being of pre-Iowan age. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 5.) 

1. St. Mary's City, St. Mary's County.— The U. S. National Museum 
(No. 200) contains a fine upper left hindermost molar of Mammut ameri- 
canum, labeled as presented by Mr. J. Varden and as found many years 
ago in a marl-bed at or near the town named. It was probably met in 
digging for Miocene marl, but was doubtless inclosed in overlying Pleisto- 
cene materials. According to Shattuck's Pleistocene map of Maryland 
(Pleistocene volume, plate i) , St. Mary's City is situated on the Wicomico 
terrace; but because of absence of exact information whether the tooth was 
in the body of this deposit, or below it, or possibly in later materials above 
the Wicomico, its exact age can not be determined. Teeth from the locality 
were mentioned by Lucas on page 162 of the volume just cited. The geology 
of the county is described in a special volume of the Maryland Survey, 1907 

2. St. Clements, St. Mary's County. — The U. S. National Museum con- 
tains a lower right hindermost molar, found long ago, apparently 1837, and 
presented by A. McWilliams. It is recorded as having been discovered in 
digging a mill-race at or above St. Clements. This race must quite cer- 
tainly have been located along St. Clements Creek. The place is situated 
in the Wicomico plain; but possibly Talbot deposits extended up the creek 
farther than mapped. 

3. Towson, Baltimore County. — Professor F. A. Lucas (Maryland Plio- 
cene, Pleistocene vol., p. 163) stated that the collection of the Maryland 
Geological Survey contains a fine upper last molar of a mastodon found 
on the Ridgeley estate, at Hampton, near Towson, about 10 miles north of 
Baltimore. At present one can not determine the time during the 
Pleistocene when this tooth was part of a living creature. 

4. Lane's Creekf , Washington County. — The writer received, in 1912, a 
letter from Professor A. F. Bechdolt, of Bellingham, State of Washington, 
in which he stated that somewhat more than 37 years before, while teach- 
ing school in Washington County, Maryland, he saw the remains of a skull 
of a mastodon which some negroes had unearthed in making a mill-race, 
but they had broken it in pieces with sledgehammers. Professor Bechdolt 
recollected plainly the "mammillary face" of the tooth. The locality is 
described as being near the Pennsylvania line, south and somewhat west of 
Mercersberg, Pennsylvania, among the foot-hills of North Mountain, at a 
place locally known as "The Corner." It appears probable that the locality 
was somewhere along Lane's Creek. 



VIRGINIA 113 

4. Clear Spring, Waf<hingto7i County. — In circular No. 109, volume xiii, 
Johns Hopkins University, 1893, pages 26, 27, is an account of the findinj? 
of a mastodon tooth in 1863. It was discovered after a i^torm, lying on a 
pile of driftwood, in Conococheague Creek, at a point 2.5 miles south of 
Clear Spring, and a mile north of the entry of the creek into Potomac River. 
The tooth is in the collection of Johns Hopkins University. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Six miles east of Williamsburg, York County. — In Godman's Natural 
History {3d ed., 1860, vol. ir, p. 77) mention is made of the discovery, in 
-3811, of remains of a mastodon along the banks of the York River, 6 miles 
east of Williamsburg. The account was derived from Dr. S. L. Mitchill 
(Med. Repos., New York, vol. xv, p. 388; Cuvier's "Theory of the Earth,'" 
p. 399). He had received his information from Bishop James Madison, 
then president of College of William and Mary, at Williamsburg. The parts 
found consisted of the bones of the pelvis, a thigh bone, 2 vertebrae, 2 ribs, 
2 tusks, and 7 molar teeth, 4 of which were yet in a part of the jaw, probably 
the lower. The largest tooth is reported as weighing 7.25 pounds; the 
smallest between 3 and 4 pounds. It is probable that mastodon teeth in a 
wet condition would weigh the amount stated. Clark and Miller (Bull. 
IV, Virginia Geol. Surv., 1912, p. 20) refer this animal to the Pleistocene 
of the Talbot formation. 

Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, president of College of William and Mary, informs 
the writer that the fossils above mentioned were doubtless destroyed in a 
fire which consumed the main building in 1859. 

2. City Point, Prince George County. — The U. S. National Museum (No. 
539) contains a part of the upper second true molar of Mammut ameri- 
canum, sent there in 1888 by Mr. John S. Webb. The tooth is silicified. 
Mr. Webb reported that the fragment had been unearthed by laborers in 
making a ditch through some lowland which abounded in shells and blue 
marl. In a letter dated September 2, 1918, Mr. Webb informed the writer 
that his recollection is that the tooth was found about 12 miles north of 
Disputanta and near James River. 

3. Abingdon, Washington County. — An upper right second true molar in 
the U. S. National Museum (No. 8807) is recorded as having been received 
in January 1869 from Mr. Wyndham Robinson, but there is no inform.ation 
as to the exact locality, depth, and kind of soil inclosing it. With it were 
found some vertebra? and fragments of ribs and of tusks. 

4. Saltville, Smyth County. — In the U. S. National Museum is the hori- 
zontal part of the right ramus of the lower jaw of a young mastodon, found 
at the place named. This, with some remains of an undetermined species 
of Bison and some teeth of Elephas primigenius, were presented to the 
museum in 1914 by Mr. H. D. Mount. They had been found about 1896, 
in making an excavation for the water reservoir of the town. It is said 
that within less than a century the valley at Saltville was at times a lake. 
The reservoir is situated at the edge of this former lake. The bones were 
found at a depth of not more than 8 feet. Mr. 0. A. Peterson (Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., vol. xi, 1917. p. 474) records the finding of mastodon remains 



114 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

in the Saltville deposit. He states that fragmentary remains of mastodon 
have for many years been picked up in that valley. A list of the species 
of vertebrates found at this place is given on page 353. 

About 100 years ago (Med. and Physic. Jour., Phila., xv, 1806, 1st Supp., 
p. 388) an account of the discovery of mastodon remains in Wythe County, 
Virginia, was published by B. S. Barton. The details had been communi- 
cated to him by Bishop James Madison, president of William and Mary 
College, Williamsburg, Virginia. According to the bishop, not only were 
bones discovered but also the stomach of the animal in a state of perfect 
preservation, and containing a large quantity of half-masticated food (God- 
man's Amer. Nat. Hist., 3d ed., 1860, vol. ii, p. 74). Later, the bishop 
admitted that he had been misinformed. It is probable that something was' 
found there, at least some bones. Bishop Madison had made arrangements 
to have the bones sent to Williamsburg; but if they reached there they were 
doubtless destroyed by a fire in 1859. The supposed discovery is mentioned 
in Cuvier's "Ossemens Fossiles," volume ii, page 270, and is discussed in 
Barton's "Archa?ologia Americana," 1814, page 41. 

Wythe County at that time occupied far more territory than at present, 
and possibly the bones described by Madison had really been found in 
Washington or Smyth Counties; but Saltville, as the writer is informed by 
Mr. E. C. Hutton, suryevor, never was in Wythe County. 

5. Covington, Alleghany County. — In 1901 there was sent to the U. S. 
National Museum by Dr. A. C. Jones, of Covington, a lower last molar of 
a mastodon found at that place. This tooth differs from the ordinary teeth 
of Mammut americajium in having the crown more depressed. The writer 
has observed similar teeth which have been found elsewhere. It is possible 
that they belonged to a species distinct from M. americanuni. Dr. Jones 
informed the writer that the tooth was found within the city limits of 
Covington, about 300 yards from Jackson River, at a depth of 12 feet, in 
brick clay. 

6. Hot Springs, Bath County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a part 
of an upper left second true molar, recorded as having been found about a 
mile from the Hot Springs Hotel. The tooth is silicified. It was presented 
by Mr. J. F. ]\IcAllister. Hot Springs is at the head of Wilson Creek, a 
tributary of Jackson River. In the folio of Monterey Quadrangle coming 
down nearly to Hot Springs, no mention is made of any Pleistocene; but 
the presence of occasional deposits of soils along some of the streams is 
recorded. Evidently some of these deposits were laid down in Pleistocene 
times. 

7. Edom, Rockingham County. — The American Geologist in 1891 (vol. 
VII, p. 335), contains an account of the finding at this place of bones of 
what was called a mammoth, but which was more probably a mastodon. 
It Avas said to have been discovered on the land of a Mr. Frank. The 
information was furnished by Dr. Zirkle, who stated that a nearly complete 
skull had been found. 

In the U. S. National Museum is the symphysis of the lower jaw of a 
mastodon, recorded only as having been found in Virginia. The specimen 
(No. 21 Oj would not be worth mentioning were it not that it presents in 



WEST VIRGINIA — NORTH CAROLINA. 115 

front two sockets for tusks of considerable size. The bases of the tusks 
are retained at the bottom of the sockets. The left socket has a diameter 
of about 35 mm.; the other is slightly smaller. From the outside of one 
socket to the outside of the other is 94 mm. The front of the symphsis is 
damaged, so that its length can not be determined. Its lower face is quite 
flat. The height of the jaw at the front of the tooth which was present is 
about 150 mm. It seems to the writer that this jaw belonged to the species 
Mammut progcnium. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Stewartstown, Monongalia County. — Dr. G. F. Wriglit, in his "Ice Age 
in Northern America," fifth edition, page 378, wrote that Dr. I. C. White 
had reported (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. xxxiv, pp. 378-379) the finding 
of a tooth of a mastodon at this place; but in the article quoted nothing is 
said about a mastodon. Evidently White published this article elsewhere. 

The tooth is said to have been dug up on the fifth and highest terrace 
along Monongahela River. In White's article, page 378, it is stated that 
in the region of Morgantown the high-terrace deposits are about 275 feet 
above low-water in the Monongahela and 1,065 feet above tide. It is 
probable that the mastodon lived there during the early Pleistocene. 

2. Parkersburg, Wood County. — In 1902 the present writer received from 
Mr. J. W. Miller, of the High School of Williamstown, West Virginia, a 
letter inclosing photographs of a mastodon tooth, found on Neal Island, 
3 miles above Parkersburg. The tooth appears to be the upper left second 
molar and is furnished with all of its roots. The writer does not know 
under what conditions the tooth was found. Its perfect state of preserva- 
tion shows that it could not have been carried far by the stream. For a 
discussion of the Pleistocene of some parts of West Virginia the reader 
may consult the paragraphs on pages 354-355. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 
(Maps 5, 39.) 

1. Neiv Hanover County. — Under this number must be mentioned that 
a tooth of Mammut americanum has been found about 10 miles below 
Wilmington, near the Fort Fisher road. This tooth is in the possession of 
Captain E. D. Williams, of Wilmington. 

2. Pender County. — Professor H. H. Brimley, of the State Museum at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, has informed the writer that tliere are in that 
museum some remains of mastodon from Pender County; but nothing more 
is known to the present writer about the nature of these remains or about 
the locality where they were found. 

3. Duplin County. — From the same source it is learned that there are in 
the collection at Raleigh teeth of mastodon which had been found in 
Duplin County. 

4. Goldsboro, Wayne County. — In the State Museum at Raleigh is a left 
ramus of a mastodon, collected near Goldsboro. The writer has examined 
this important specimen and has also received a photograph of it, sent by 



116 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Professor H. H. Brimley. This is evidently the jaw described by Leidy 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1871, p. 113) from photographs received from 
Professor W. C. Kerr, then State geologist of North Carolina. This jaw 
was recorded as having been obtained from gravel overlying Miocene marl, 
near Goldsboro. 

This specimen presents the peculiarity of having two tusks at the front 
of the symphysis. The diameter of these is 45 mm. How long the}^ were 
originally can not be determined. The form of this jaw and presence of two 
large incisor tusks indicates that this specimen belongs to Mammut pro- 
genium. The front molar present, M^, has a length of 122 mm. and a width 
of 88 mm. Leidy regarded this jaw as having belonged to a male animal. 
Professor E. Emmons (Geol. Surv. North Carolina, 1858, p. 199) mentions 
that a large number of bones had been found in a marl pit near Goldsboro. 

5. Jacksonville, Onslow County. — In the collection of the State Museum 
at Raleigh the writer has seen a part of a skeleton of a mastodon, found 
near Jacksonville and exhumed by Mr. T. W. Adicks. A considerable part 
of the skull, including upper teeth, both upper tusks, lower jaw, and some 
limb-bones, were secured. The animal was evidently a fully mature one, 
as there were present in the jaws the last and the next to the last molars; 
but these were not greatly worn. In the lower jaw there were no tusks, but 
the tip of the jaw seemed to indicate that earlier in life these might have 
been present. The upper tusks are unusually short. One is 33 inches (841 
mm.) long, 94 mm. in diameter at the base, and 120 mm. about the middle 
of the length. At the base is a pulp-cavity whose depth is 230 mm. The 
distal end of this tusk is much worn, evidently during the life of the animal. 
On one side is a flat surface 120 mm. long and 75 mm. wide which is directed 
obliquely to the plane of the curvature of the tusk. Opposite this surface 
is another whose plane is parallel with that of the curvature of the tusk. 
About 50 mm. from its tip the tusk is crossed by a groove nearly 20 mm. 
wide and 42 mm. deep, which appears to have been produced by the draw- 
ing of branches or roots across the tusk. About 60 mm. further back there 
is another groove, broader and shallower. The other tusk is 940 mm. long. 
Near its extremity it is crossed by three grooves, one of which, about 55 mm. 
behind the tip, runs two-thirds of the way around the tusk. 

The small size of the tusks makes it pretty certain that this animal was 
a female. The jaw does not differ especially from that of a Late Wisconsin 
mastodon, apparently about one-sixth taller, found near Winamac, Indiana, 
and now mounted in the U. S. National Museum. 

6. Maysville, Jones County. — From Professor H. H. Brimley, of the 
State Museum, at Raleigh, the writer has learned that tusks and teeth of 
Mammut americanum had been secured for that museum at Maysville. 
This is situated on White Oak River. Photographs show the teeth are lower 
hindermost molars, right and left. The writer has seen these teeth; like- 
wise upper second and third molars and the tusks. The latter are of medium 
size, having a diameter of 120 mm. at the base. The pulp-cavity is 190 
mm. deep. The enamel of all the teeth is rather rough and corrugated. 

7. Sixteen miles southeast of Newbern, Pamlico County. — On the left 
bank of Neuse River, at a point said to be 16 miles below Newbern, several 



NORTH CAROLINA. 117 

vertebrate fossils were collected many years ago. The collection appears 
to have been made by the botanist Nuttall; but the first mention found by 
the writer is a paper by H. B. Croom, in 1835 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, 
vol. XXVII, pp. 168-171. He stated that the locality was on the north 
bank of Neuse River, on the land of Mr. Benners, who had dug several pits 
in order to obtain marl. In these pits, some reaching a depth of 25 feet, 
many fossil shells, sharks' teeth, and bones of marine fishes were found. 
These marls appear to belong to the Pleistocene (Stephenson, North Caro- 
lina Geol. and Econom. Surv., vol. iii, p. 289). In the same pits were found 
teeth and bones of various Pleistocene mammals. A few of the fossils, as 
the great shark tooth, certainly belonged to Tertiary deposits. Croom states 
that there were fragments of the horns of a fossil elk; also a mastodon tooth 
which had a breadth of 7 inches and a depth of 9.5 inches. It is not im- 
probable that this was a tooth of an elephant. Teeth, supposed to belong 
to a fossil elk and which had a breadth of 3 inches and a depth of 4.5 inches, 
were probably hindermost milk molars of Mammut americanum. Harlan 
(Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xliii, 1842, p. 143) indicated that he had seen in the 
collection made bj'' Nuttall remains of the mastodon; also of a supposed 
Sus, an elephant, elk, deer, horse, seal, cetaceans, a tortoise, shark, skate, 
snake, and fish. This collection apparently passed into the hands of T. A. 
Conrad. J. W. Foster (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. x, p. 166) stated 
that Conrad had many years previously obtained these animals near 
Newbern. Besides those mentioned he included a hippopotamus. This 
identification was probably based on milk tusks or lower tusks of the 
mastodon. 

8. Harloice, Carteret County.— In 1828 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xiii, p. 348), 
Elisha Mitchell wrote that in digging the Clubfoot and Harlowe Canal, 
remains of both the elephant and the mastodon had been found. Under this 
number may be mentioned the finding of a jaw of a mastodon in the Inland 
Waterway Canal, which appears to run some miles east of the old Clubfoot 
and Harlowe Canal. This specimen is, or was recently, in the laboratory 
of the U. S. Fish Commission at Beaufort. 

9. Pitt County.— In 1871 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 113), Leidy 
reported that an isolated lower last molar tooth of Mammut americanum, 
but accompanied by the jaw, had been obtained in Pitt County. No more 
exact locality was mentioned. In the U. S. National Museum (No. 202) 
is a lower right hindermost molar which was found in Pitt County. 

10. Wilson County. — From Professor H. H. Brimley the writer learned 
that there are in the museum at Raleigh some remains of mastodon from 
Wilson County. The writer has seen at Raleigh a lower second left molar, 
from Wilson County. 

11. Tarhoro, Edgecombe County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 
205) is a lower right last molar of Mammut americanum, recorded as having 
been sent by Dr. Pitman, of Tarboro. It is black and very heavy. 

12. Rocky Mount, Nash County. — Professor E. Emmons (Geol. Surv. 
North Carolina, 1852, p. 56) mentioned the finding of mastodon bones in 
marl-pits, on the farm of Mr. Knight, on the bank of Tar River, 3 miles 
west of Rocky Mount. The Pleistocene is here supposed to belong prin- 



118 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

cipally to the Sunderland, but partly to the Wicomico formation. Emmons, 
in 1858 (Rep. North Carolina Geol. Surv., Agric. East Cos., p. 199), figured 
and briefly described a molar of a mastodon which he referred to Mastodon 
giganteus. This was found in a Miocene marl-pit in Halifax County; but 
so many Pleistocene species have been reported from such marls that it 
is possible that the tooth belonged to a Pleistocene animal. 

Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, 1869, p. "396) referred this 
tooth with doubt to his Mastodon obscurus; but the type of the latter, 
a lower molar (Leidy op. cit., plate xxvii, fig. 13), presents no such double 
series of trefoils. 

Leidy (op. cit., p. 247, plate xvii, fig. 16) referred some fragments of 
mastodon teeth found at Tarboro to his Mastodon obscurus; but these seem 
to the writer to belong to Gomphotherium rugosidens. We do not know that 
G. obscurum is a Pleistocene species, nor is it certain that it has been found 
in North Carolina. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Beaufort, Beaufort County. — In the region about Beaufort numerous 
remains of mastodons have been found, most of which are to be referred 
to Mammut americanum. In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia the writer has seen a fine left lower last molar of this species. The 
collection of Rutgers College contains a part of a tooth from Coosaw River. 
At Princeton University there is an upper second true molar from some- 
where about Beaufort. Field Natural History Museum has 3 teeth of 
Mammut, recorded as having been found in the phosphate bed at Beaufort. 

Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, p. 98) stated he had seen, in 
the collection of C. N. Shepard at Amherst College, bones, fragments of 
jaws, and teeth of mastodon from the marl at the head of Hilton Harbor, 
on St. Helena Island, on which Beaufort is situated. Among these were 2 
inferior tusks about 10 inches long and 2 inches in diameter at the base. 
If the molars which accompanied them had differed from those of Mammut 
americanum, Leidy would have been quick to note the fact. Evidently the 
bones and teeth mentioned by Leidy are those now in the mounted skeleton 
at Amherst College, described by Professor F. B. Loomis (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
ser. 3, vol. xlv, p. 437, figs. 1, 3, 4) as Mastodon americanus. This was a 
very large animal and the two large lower tusks show that it belonged to 
Mammut progenium. 

In the Academy's collection at Philadelphia is a large hindermost molar, 
180 mm. long and 96 mm. wide, which had been sent to the Academy in 
company with the type of Gomphotherium rugosidens. 

2. Ashley River, above Charleston, Charleston County. — In 1860 
(Holmes's Post-Pl. Foss. South Carolina, p. 109), Leidj'- stated that frag- 
ments of teeth and bones had been found in the Post-Pliocene deposits of 
Ashley River, apparently referable to Mastodon ohioticus {Mammut 
americanum) . In a footnote to this statement, F. S. Holmes says that since 
Leidy 's statement was written several perfect teeth have been discovered, 
and referred to plate xix, figures 1, 2, 3. These figures illustrate the teeth 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 119 

which belonged to Dr. L. F. Klipstein, Christ Church. In the preface to 
Holmes's work he refers to the teeth on this plate as being those associated 
with teeth of a horse, remains of a deer, and a piece of pottery. On page iii 
of the introduction there is further explanation of the discovery. Exactly 
where the swamp which Klipstein was draining was situated seems not to 
have been stated, but the context appears to indicate that it was somewhere 
along Ashley River. 

In 1918 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. xlv, p. 438, fig. 2, not "fig. 3") 
Professor Loomis described and figured 2 lower tusks, found in Nine Mile 
Bottom, 9 miles above Charleston, probably along Ashley River. On page 
441 Loomis correctly described these, except that what he called enamel is 
only a dense outer layer of dentine. Evidently these tusks had been used 
for punching against hard objects. One may surmise that the animal had 
been accustomed to bark trees with them. 

Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, p. 98) states that he saw 
in the collection of C. N. Shepard, at Amherst College, remains of mastodons, 
etc., which had been found on Ashley River. 

In the collections at Charleston, both the private ones and that of the 
Charleston IMuseum, there are teeth of Mammut americanwn, but records 
of exact localities are usually wanting. 

3. Head of Cooper River, Berkeley County. — John Drayton, in his "View 
of South Carolina," in 1802, page 39, plate, figure 4, mentions the discovery 
of fossil bones in Biggin Swamp, made in digging a canal between Santee 
and Cooper Rivers. It appears probable that this swamp is not far from 
Monks Corner. Drayton's figure shows that the tooth was one of Mammut 
americanum. It is said to have been buried at a depth of 8 or 9 feet. B. S. 
Barton (Archseologia Amer., 1814, pp. 22-23) stated that he had examined 
teeth of both mastodon and elephant from this swamp. George Turner 
(Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. iv, 1899, p. 511) speaks of the discovery of 
bones of what is called the mammoth in the construction of the Santee and 
Cooper River Canal. Cuvier (Oss. Foss, ed. 4, vol. ii, p. 275) stated that 
the naturalist M. Bosc had witnessed the exhumation of 5 molars of masto- 
don during the excavation of the "canal de Caroline," 15 miles from 
Charleston. They were found in pure sand at a depth of 3 feet. It is 
possible that there is here an error in the distance from Charleston. 

4. Lee County. — Tuomey (Rep. Geol. Surv. South Carolina, 1848, p. 178) 
states that between Lynch's Creek and Black River, "near Concord church," 
he found a bed of Pliocene marl about 4 feet thick, which, like the Darling- 
ton deposit, rests on black shale. In an excavation made in this marl, he 
found a portion of a tusk of a mastodon. This might, indeed, have belonged 
to an elephant, but more probably to Mammut americanum. 

b: Darlington County. — In 1848 (Rep. Geol. Surv. South Carolina, 1848, 
pp. 177-180), Tuomey reported that 2 perfect molars of Mastodon maximus 
{=Mam7nut americanum) had been found on land of G. W. Dargan, some- 
where near Darlington. They were found in a swamp and covered with 
3 or 4 feet of mud, but lying in a marl which he regarded as belonging to the 
Pliocene. One was sent to the college at Columbia. In a note to the 
geologist J. W. Foster (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. x, 1856, p. 167) , 



120 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Tuoraey stated that he had placed in the cabinet of South Carohna College 
a fine tooth of mastodon, found in Darlington district. At an earlier date 
Robert W. Gibbes (same Proceedings, vol. iii, 1850, p. 67) exhibited before 
the association teeth of a horse found at Darlington, associated with bones 
of Mastodon. 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Brunswick, Glynn County. — In Richard Harlan's list (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., vol. I, 1841-43, p. 189) of fossil vertebrates which had been 
exhumed in making the Brunswick Canal were mentioned teeth of Mastodon 
giganteum {^Mammut americanum) . About this time J. H. Couper (Proc. 
Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. iv, p. 33) read a paper in which he mentioned the 
occurrence of the same species in the canal referred to. Lyell (Second 
Visit, etc., p. 348) included the mastodon among the species discovered here. 
Richard Owen (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1846, p. 93) reported the result 
of an examination of a collection submitted to him through Lyell. Hippo- 
potamus had been recognized in a supposed incisor; but Owen showed that 
it was a small tusk of a proboscidean, probably of Mammut americanum. 
Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, p. 248) stated that he had 
examined in the collection of the Academy the hinder part of a tooth of 
the American mastodon. 

Gidley (Bull. 26, Geol. Surv. Georgia, p. 436) recognized Gomphotherium 
fioridanum and Mammut americanum in a collection which had been made 
some years ago at Brunswick, probably in dredging in the harbor. Inas- 
much as only fragments of these teeth were present, the identification was 
difficult. The writer has, through the kindness of Professor S. W. McCallie, 
had the opportunity to examine these fragments. They appear all to 
belong to Gomphotherium rugosidens, a species rather common in that 
region. This species probably does not belong to the Pleistocene, but to 
the upper Miocene or the Lower Pliocene. It is possible, however, that it 
belongs to the lowermost Pleistocene, the Nebraskan. 

2. Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Chatham County. — Remains of 
Mammut americanum have been found at two places in Chatham County, 
Heyner's Bridge and Skidaway Island. Lyell (Travels in N. A., 1845, vol. 
I, p. 163) records his visit to Heyner's Bridge, on White Bluff Creek, about 
7 miles south of Savannah. In Hodgson's memoir this locality is said to 
be on Vernon Creek (map 40). Lyell had learned from Dr. Habersham 
that bones of mastodons and other extinct mammals had already been 
found there. Lyell himself secured a grinder of a mastodon. It was found 
in a bed of clay about 6 feet thick exposed only at low water. The tooth 
referred to may be the one mentioned by Lydekker (Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. 
Mus., pt. IV, p. 23). Hodgson (''Memoir on Megatherium," p. 12) reported 
the discovery of mastodon remains at this place, specifying a section of a 
tusk 3.25 feet long and nearly 11 inches in circumference; also a femur, 
which was sent to Paris. Reference is made to the mastodon remains on 
page 42 of the memoir mentioned. For the geology of this locality and a 
list of the species found there the reader is referred to page 371. 



FLORIDA. 121 

FLORIDA. 

(Maps 5, 10.) 

It has not been practicable to arrange the figures on the map of masto- 
dons in Florida in an orderly manner. Below, the localities are described 
by beginning at the northern end of the State and ending at the southern end. 

1. Marianna, Jackson County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 324) 
is a tooth of Mammut americanum, recorded as having been sent to the 
National Institute, September 25, 1847, by Walter Yonge, from Marianna. 
No additional information has been preserved. It is a large upper right 
last molar, with 5 cross-crests, a hinder talon, and nearly complete roots. 
Marianna is situated on Chipola River. 

12. Little River, Gadsden County. — Dr. E. H. Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. 
Florida Geol. Surv., 1916, p. 104) reported that a tooth of Mammut ameri- 
canum had been obtained from Little River. 

2. Fort White, Columbia County. — Dr. E. H. Sellards reported to the 
writer the discovery of a tooth of Mammut americanum at a point 3 miles 
northwest of Fort White. No details have been received. The town is 
on Santa Fe River. 

3. Citra, Marion County. — In Ward's Natural History Establishment, at 
Rochester, New York, the writer saw in January 1914, 2 cross-crests of a 
probably hindermost upper molar of Mammut americanum. There had 
been present a large pulp-cavity. Nothing definite about the history of 
the specimen could be obtained, except that it had been found at Citra. 

15. Neals, Alachua County. — From this locality Sellards (5th Ann. Rep. 
Florida Geol. Surv., p. 58) reported the discovery of a mastodon, probably 
Gomphotherium jioridanum. Associated with this species was an undeter- 
mined species of Hipparion. At the same place has been found Tapirus 
terrestrisf On his plates iv and v of the same volume, Sellards has figured 
teeth belonging to two undetermined species of mastodons. All of these 
fossils came from the phosphate deposits at Neals. 

16. Archer, Alachua County. — Dr. Joseph Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1886, p. 11) reported that Dr. W. H. Dall had discovered at Archer 
remains of a mastodon to which Leidy gave the name Mastodon floridanus. 
It is here referred to the genus Gomphotherium. It was associated in the 
Alachua clays with a species of Hipparion, three species of Procamelus, and 
a rhinoceros; also an astragalus of Megatherium. All of these, except the 
last, are usually referred to the Lower Pliocene or the Upper Miocene. The 
writer believes that they belong to the lowest Pleistocene, the Nebraskan. 

17. Williston, Levy County. — Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1887, 
p. 309) reported the finding of several species of fossil vertebrates in the 
Mixon bone-bed, at or near Williston. The species were Gomphotherium 
jloridanum, Hipparion plicatile, Procamelus major, and Teleoceras proterus. 
These were found in the Alachua clays at depths from 2.5 to 6 feet. In 
Dall's list of 1892 (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 84, p. 129) Hipparion in- 
genuum is included. 

18. Jidiette, Marion County. — Sellards, in 1913 (5th Ann. Rep. Florida 
Geol. Surv., p. 58), stated that Gomphotherium jloridanum had been found 



122 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

in hard phosphate in a mine at this place. As in other such cases, he re- 
ferred the species to the Upper Miocene or the Lower Pliocene. 

5. Diinnellon, Marion County. — In the collection of the Florida Geologi- 
cal Survey is a fragment of a molar of Mammut americanum which was 
dredged up from Withlacoochee River during operations by the Schilman 
and Bene Phosphate Company. It was presented by John D. Robertson. 

In the possession of Mr. J. D. Robertson of Ocala, Florida, is a part of a 
skull of Mammut americanum, reported by him to have been found in the 
northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 17 south, 
range 19 east. This would be about 6 miles east of Dunnellon and not far 
from Withlacoochee River. 

In the region about Dunnellon the mastodon Gomphotherium fioridanum 
has been collected. For the list of species found at Dunnellon and in 
Withlacoochee River the reader may consult page 376. 

19. Near San Pablo Beach, Duval County. — From station 120, on the 
Inland Waterway, near San Pablo Beach, Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Florida 
Geol. Surv., p. 106) reported the discovery of a tooth of Mammut ameri- 
canum in place in the bank of the canal. Remains of Elephas columbi and 
undetermined species of Bison and Odocoileus had been thrown out by the 
dredge. 

4. Almero Farm, St. John County. — At the residence of Mr. Fred R. 
Allen, 113 King street, St. Augustine, Florida, the writer had the privilege 
of examining seven teeth of Mammut americanum which had been found 
near Mr. Allen's farm, 28 miles south of St. Augustine, in the Inland Water- 
way Canal. At the same place Mr. Allen had found remains of a fossil 
horse, a mylodon, alligator, and a part of the plastron of Terrapene antipex. 
The deposits are to be regarded as belonging to some part of the first half 
of the Pleistocene, probably the first interglacial. 

6. Daytona, Volusia County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 2150) 
is an upper left last molar of Mammut americanum, sent in August 1901 
from Daytona by E. T. Conrad & Company. It had been found at a depth of 
5 feet in an old oyster-bed which was being dug up for surfacing the streets. 
The locality is within the limits of the town and about 2 miles from the 
Atlantic coast. The senders reported a little later that they had found four 
other teeth, a piece of tusk 40 inches long and 7 inches in diameter, and 
about a bushel of bones and fragments. There appeared to be other bones 
in the pit, but nothing more is on record. Since that mastodon died there, 
the land appears to have been depressed beneath the sea, permitting the 
growth of the oyster-bed, after which there was again an elevation. 

13. Fellsmere, St. Lucie County. — Dr. E. H. Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. 
Florida Geol. Surv., p. 105) stated that Mammut americanum, represented 
by a tooth or teeth, had been found at Fellsmere in connection with the 
construction of drainage canals. 

7. Vera, St. Lucie County. — At this place have been found well-preserved 
remains of Mammut americanum. Besides a part of a lower jaw, there are 
some parts of tusks and fragments of other parts. The right side of a 
palate containing the second and the third true molars, found in what has 
been called stratum No. 2, has been figured by Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. 



FLORIDA. 123 

Florida Geol. Siirv., plate xxxi). The age of these will be discussed on 
pages 381-384. 

14. Palm Beach, Palm Beach County. — In his report of 1916, already 
cited, Dr. Sellards noted the fact, on page 105, that several teeth of Mammut 
americanum had been obtained by him, 8 miles west of the Florida East 
Coast Railroad, in the canal constructed to drain the Everglades. From the 
same canal had been secured Elephos columbi, Equus complicatus, and a 
femur of a species of Bison. Sellards informs us that the vertebrate fossils 
here, as at Vero and many other localities, are embedded in the sand and 
muck beds which lie above the Pleistocene marls. 

8. Hillsboro County. — Remains of mastodon have been reported from 
various places in this county, but the localities have not been very exactly 
defined. 

In the National Museum (No. 6726) is a lower left hindermost molar of 
Mammut americanum which was sent by Mr. W. L. Spitler, of Tampa. 
Exactly where it was found is not recorded. The tooth is white and well 
preserved. There are five cross-crests. The cones are unusually low, and 
such teeth may possibly represent an undescribed species. 

At Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio, the writer has seen a mastodon 
tooth, labeled as having come from Tampa Bay. The tooth is heavy and 
rock-like. A part of an atlas of the mastodon is from the same place. 

In the collection of Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, is a lower right last 
molar of a mastodon, labeled as having been found at Sulphur Springs, Hills- 
boro County. The writer has not found where this place is situated. All 
of the specimens mentioned belong to Mammut americanum. 

9. Alafia River, Hillsboro County. — Dr. E. H. Sellards (7th Ann. Rep. 
Florida Geol. Surv., p. 112, fig. 45) records the finding of an upper right last 
molar of Mammut americanum in this river. The tooth is unworn and has 
four cross-crests and a large talon. It was preserved in the collection of 
S. A. Robinson. With a collection of teeth of Equus found in Alafia River 
and preserved in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is 
a single cross-crest of Mammut americanum. 

20. Brewster, Polk County.— In his report of 1915 (p. 106, fig. 36) Dr. 
E. H. Sellards figured a fragment of a tusk, found in a phosphate mine, 
which he supposed might belong to Gomphotherium floridanum. He figured 
also a tooth (p. 104, fig. 34) which he definitely referred to this species, but 
it is not clear that it was found at Brewster. A list of the species found 
associated with the tusk will be found on page 380. Am.ong these species 
is Mammut progenium, a species ranging from the Aftonian to the Late 
Wisconsin. While all the species of the list are referred by Sellards to the 
Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene, M. progenium appears to favor a later 
reference. 

10. Pains Creek, Polkf County. — In the collection of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelpliia, is a tooth of Mammut americanum recorded 
as having been found on Pains Creek, 50 miles from Tampa. It appears 
to be a second milk molar; the length is 43 mm., the width at the second 
crest likewise 43 mm. 

There is a Big Pains Creek in the northwestern corner of Polk County, 
which empties into Peace Creek. A little further south is Little Pains 



124 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

Creek, which empties into Peace Creek in De Soto County, near Bowling 
Green. On which of these the tooth was found can not be determined. 

11. Peace Creek, De Soto County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 
1990) is an upper right hindermost molar recorded as having been found on 
Peace River. It was a part of the exhibit of the Plant System at the Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Atlanta, Georgia. It is credited also to the Peace 
River Phosphate Company. Probably the tooth was found somewhere not 
far from Arcadia. Leidy (Bull. 84, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 129) does not 
record the species from Arcadia, but his undetermined species of the genus 
may have been M. americanum. 

"The tooth mentioned above has five cross-crests and a conical talon. 
At the ends of the transverse valleys are large tubercles. 

ALABAMA. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Bogue Chitto, Dallas County. — The U. S. National Museum contains 
3 or 4 fragments of large molars of Mammut americanum found not far 
from the town named. One fragment is labeled as having been found in 
section 10, township 17 north, range 7 east. This would probably be 6 or 7 
miles west of north from the town named. Another fragment is said to 
have been found in the bed of Bogue Chitto. The teeth were sent to the 
U. S. Geological Survey by Crawford P. Lewis. From this same region 
there have been collected remains of Elephas imperator and Equus leidyi. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Perthshire, Bolivar County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a frag- 
ment, the rear end, of an upper left hindermost molar of Mammut ameri- 
canum, received from Pertshire in August 1914. It is the gift of Mr. S. D. 
Knowlton and was reported as having been sucked up with gravel from 
the bed of Mississippi River. This place is in the northern part of Bolivar 
County and immediately south of latitude 34°. 

2. Caseilla, Tallahatchie County. — The writer has seen a lower left last 
molar of a mastodon, found in 1915, near this place. It was sent to the 
U. S. National Museum for identification by Dr. B. Franklin, of Caseilla. 
He stated that the tooth had been found in Avant Creek, about 3 miles 
above its entrance into Yalobusha River, apparently in the southeastern 
corner of Tallahatchie County, in township 23 north, range 7 west. The 
tooth had been buried in joint clay. The banks of the creek are usually 
about 10 feet high, but where the tooth was found, on the south side of the 
creek, the bluff is about 50 feet high. 

3. Jackson, Hinds County. — In the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia is a lower left last milk molar, presented by Dr. 
Isaac Lea and reported to have been found near Jackson, Mississippi. No 
additional information was furnished. The tooth is but slightly worn and 
has complete roots. 

4. Vicksburg, Warren County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 344) 
is a fragment of an upper right last molar, said to have been found at Vicks- 



MISSISSIPPI. 125 

burg. The fragment consists of the hindermost crest and the talon. In 
Wailles's report on the geology of Mississippi, 1854, page 284, there is a 
statement to the effect that mastodon remains had been found in the deep 
cut of the railroad at Vicksburg. 

5. Bovinaf, Warren County. — In Wailles's report, just cited, it is stated 
that mastodon bones had been found in the vicinity of Big Black River, 
near the eastern line of Warren County. While the statement is rather 
indefinite, the locality is probably somewhere in the region about Bovina, 
on the railway from Vicksburg to Jackson. 

6. Claiborne County. — According to Dr. Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1859, p. Ill), portions of jaws with teeth of mastodons have been 
found in this county, associated with a skull of a bear which he could not 
distinguish from that of Ursus americanus. 

7. Jefferson County. — In Wailles's report of 1854 (p. 284) , already cited, 
it is stated that remains of the mastodon had been found in this county, 
near the former town of Greenville. The writer has not been able to learn 
more exactly where this town was situated. 

8. Natchez, Adams County. — The region about Natchez is a fertile one 
for remains of mastodons and various other fossil vertebrates. The first 
mention of the finding of fossils here appears to be a note by S. L. Mitchill 
in 1826 (Cat. Organ. Remains, p. 10), who presented two teeth to the 
Lyceum of Natural History, New York. G. Troost, in 1835 (Trans. Geol. 
Soc. Penn., vol. i, p. 143), stated that he had in his cabinet a tooth of a 
mastodon, found near Natchez. 

In 1845 (Proc. 6th Meet. Assoc. Amer. Geologists and Naturalists, pp. 
77-79), M. W. Dickeson read a paper on the geology of the Natchez 
bluffs, in which he mentioned the occurrence of mastodons. 

In 1846 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1846, p. 106), the same writer 
exhibited at the Academy a large collection of fossil bones which had been 
made near Natchez. His account treats especially of the remains of 
Megalony.v jeffersonii and a human pelvis; but it is mentioned that the 
deposit abounds in bones and teeth of the mastodon. Dickeson stated that 
the stratum which contained these organic remains is a tenacious blue clay 
which underlies what he called the diluvial drift east of Natchez. This 
"drift" is now regarded as being mostly loess. 

Lyell, in 1846 (Second Visit to U. S. N. A., ed. 2, vol. ii, p. 195), wrote 
that mastodon remains had been found in the loam (loess) which contained 
land-shells at different depths. 

Hilgard in 1860 (Geol. Agric. Mississippi, p. 196) gives a list, furnished 
by Dr. Leidy, of the mammalian fossils which had been found "in a solid 
blue clay said to belong to this formation" (the Bluff formation). Masto- 
dons are said to be by far the most common. At Pine Ridge, 6 miles north 
of Natchez, in townships 7 and 8 north, range 3 west, mastodons and other 
mammals occurred at a depth of about 20 feet from the surface, in a ravine. 
The list referred to was quoted from Wailles's report of 1854 (Agric. Geol. 
Mississippi, pp. 285, 286). 

Leidy, in 1889 (Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. ii, p. 9), in speaking of the 
occurrence of human remains at Natchez, referred to the occurrence of the 
mastodon at this place. McGee, in 1891 (12th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv.. 



126 PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

pt. I, p. 399) , in discussing the geological conditions at Natchez, stated that 
several nearly perfect skulls of the mastodon and at least one of the 
American elephant had been discovered at Natchez. His idea was that 
some of these remains had been found in the brown loam and some in the 
gravelly beds well down toward the Port Hudson clays. 

In his discussion of the loess at Natchez, Shimek, in 1904 (Bull. Labs. 
Nat. Hist., Univ. Iowa, p. 305), expressed doubt about the occurrence of 
mastodons and other vertebrates in the loess. 

In the collection at Yale University is a large lower jaw of Mammut 
americanum, labeled as found at Natchez. Both rami are represented and 
each has in it the second and third molars. The hinderraost molar is but 
little worn. Tlie second molar is 115 mm. long and 87 mm. wide, the 
third molar 188 mm. long and 93 mm. wide. The spout at the front of the 
jaw is cut off square and is rough, but there are no sockets for tusks. 

For further consideration of the Pleistocene geology at Natchez and a 
list of the species of vertebrates found there, the reader is referred to 
pages 389 to 393. 

9. Pinckneyville, Wilkinson County. — On page 284 of Wailles's report 
of 1854 he stated that mastodon bones had been obtained in Bayou Sara, 
near Pinckneyville. 

10. Between Zeiglerville and Pearcc, Yazoo County. — In the U. S. 
National Museum (No. 10275) is a right ramus of the lower jaw of a 
mastodon, found on the farm of Mr. R. L. Fisher, about 8 miles northwest 
of Vaughan. This jaw was sent to the U. S. National Museum by Mr. 
R. H. Douthat, secretary of the Yazoo Commercial Club, of Yazoo City. 
The specimen had been washed out of its place of burial along a creek. 
From Mr. Fisher the writer has received the information that the jaw was 
found along Teshacah Creek, in section 9, township 12 north, range 1 east. 
It appears to have been buried at a depth of about 15 feet. 

The length of the jaw from the rear to the front of the penultimate molar 
is 630 mm., to the front of the beak 808 mm. A part of the front of the 
jaw has been broken off during exhumation, as shown by the photographs. 
The height at the middle of the length is 195 mm. The coronoid process 
rises 400 mm. above the lower border of the jaw. There are present the 
hindermost and the penultimate molars. The hindermost is 220 mm. long 
and has five crests and a low rough talon. In the front of the jaw is a part 
of the socket for an incisor tusk which had a diameter of about 40 mm. 
Apparently the jaw is to be referred to Mammut 'progenium. 

11. Woodville, Wilkinson County. — From Mr. W. L. Ferguson, of Wood- 
ville, the writer has received a letter, with a photograph showing jaw-bones, 
with teeth, of one or more mastodons found near Woodville. Some frag- 
ments of tusks, a part of a skull, and some vertebra were also found. The 
information is sent that these remains were buried under 30 feet of deposit. 
They were found on the bank of Dunbar Creek, a tributary of Bayou Sara, 
in township 1, range 3, section 24. 

On pages 385 to 389 will be treated the geology of this region; but at the 
present it would be unsafe to refer these mastodons to any particular stage 
of tlie Pleistocene. 



TENNESSEE. 127 

TENNESSEE. 
(Map 5. Fig. 23.) 

1. Kingsport, Sullivan County. — The writer was informed by Mr. George 
P. Torbett, a newspaper man, that D. M. Lafitte, of Bristol, Tennessee, 
had a tooth of a mastodon, found near Kingsport. Mr. Torbett had seen 
the tooth and recognized its similarity to a mastodon tooth shown him. 

2. St. Clair, Hawkins County. — Dr. S. W. McCallie, State Geologist of 
Georgia, writing in 1892 (Science, vol. xx, p. 333) , reported that a mastodon 
tooth had been found somewhere in that county. On making inquiry of 
Dr. McCallie the writer received the information that the tooth was found 
about 3.5 miles nearly due east from St. Clair and about 7 or 8 miles south 
of Rogersville. The tooth was presented to the University of Tennessee. 

3. Mossy Creek, Jefferson County. — The writer has received from Mr. 
W. C. Bayless the information that a mastodon tooth had been found 3 
miles south of the place named. The more exact locality is given as the 
farm of John Silver, 0.75 mile north of Bays Mountain. The tooth was 
discovered under a white oak stump, at a depth of 6 feet. It was 7.5 
inches long and had 5 cross-crests. 

4. Dandridge, Jefferson County. — The geologist G. Troost, writing in 
1835 (Trans. Geol. Soc. Pa., vol. i, p. 142), stated that he had in his cabinet 
a tooth of a mastodon from the locality named. 

5. Neuberts Springs, 7 miles Southeast of Knoxville. — Doctor McCallie, 
as cited above, reported the discovery of four molars of a mastodon in a 
fair state of preservation at a point 7 miles southeast of Knoxville. They 
were found beneath 30 inches of a yellow tenacious clay, in which occurred 
water-worn stones. In a communication to the writer. Dr. McCallie indi- 
cates that the remains had been buried at a time when Tennessee River 
flowed at a higher level than at present. 

6. Eleven miles West of Nashville, Davidson County. — From Mr. William 
A. Nelson, a member of the Tennessee Geological Survey, the information 
has been received that some mastodon remains, including teeth, had been 
found 11 miles west of Nashville, just west of Mill Creek and about 200 
yards from Cumberland River. The remains occurred in a very tough 
yellowish clay which occupied a solution channel in the Carter Creek 
limestone. This was at a depth of about 15 feet from the surface. 

Under this number may be recorded the finding of a part of a lower 
molar of a young mastodon near Nashville, sent to the writer for exami- 
nation by Mr. W. E. Myer, of Nashville, in 1920. It had been found in 
the north bank of Cumberland River, about 300 yards upstream from Lock 
A, in a bed of sand beneath nearly 30 feet of gravel. With it were found 
a calcaneum of a camel and some fragments of a shell of a turtle. In a 
thin bed of gravel just below this were discovered a tooth of Equus leidyi, 
a femur of a probably larger horse, and an antler of a small probably 
undescribed deer. Apparently these fossil-bearing deposits belong some- 
where near the Aftonian interglacial stage. Remarks on the geology of 
this locality will be found on page 399. 

7. Williamson County, 11 miles Southeast of Nashville. — The geologist 
Troost (vol. cit., p. 139) recorded the finding of mastodon bones and teeth 



128 - PLEISTOCENE MASTODONS. 

in the region noted. The locality was said to be about 0.5 mile from Liberty 
meeting-house. It must be in the extreme northeastern corner of William- 
son County. In another spot not far away were found a tusk and a part 
of a tooth. 

8. Fayetteville, Lincoln County. — From Mr. Wilbur A. Nelson, above 
mentioned, the writer learned in 1913 that Mr. W. F. Myer, of Carthage, 
had dug up, near Fayetteville, about two-thirds of the skeleton of a 
mastodon. Nothing more has been learned about this. 

9. Memphis, Shelby County. — In 1850 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. x, 
p. 57), Dr. Jeffries Wyman reported that teeth of a mastodon had been 
found somewhere about Memphis. They were supposed to have been 
obtained from the diluvium of Mississippi River, and were found associated 
with Castoroides, Castor, and Megalonyx. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 5.) 

1. Ludlow, Kenton County. — In the Sunday Star of Washington, D. C, 
for January 3, 1919, there appeared a reproduction of a photograph of a 
tusk, believed to belong to a mastodon, which had been found at Ludlow, 
opposite the lower end of Cincinnati. It was unearthed by the steam shovel 
in the course of excavating for the Southern Railroad, at a depth of 35 feet, 
in a gravel bank. It is reported to have a length of 6 feet 10 inches and a 
diameter of 7 inches. A part of the distal end is missing. According to 
the photograph, the tusk forms somewhat more than half the circumference 
of a circle whose radius is about 23.5 inches. The curvature and the thick- 
ness, as compared with the length, appear to indicate that it belonged to a 
mastodon, but the identity is not certain. 

2. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — At this place there have been collected 
an almost incredible number of teeth, skulls, and other bones of Mammut 
americanum; and these have been sent to many museums of this country 
and Europe. While skulls are said to have been found, no complete skele- 
tons have ever been collected. In 1805, Dr. B. S. Barton (Med. Phys. Jour. 
Phila., vol. I, pp. 154-159) wrote of bones he had seen from this place. He 
quoted from a letter written by John Bartram to James Logan. Some 
Shawanese Indians had brought to Pittsburgh a tooth and a piece of tusk. 
They described a head as having a long nose and a mouth on the underside. 
They reported that there were at the Lick five whole skeletons; also a 
shoulder-blade which, when stood on end, came to the shoulders of a tall 
man. What they regarded as the long nose may be interpreted as a tusk. 
Probably some tons of mastodon bones have been collected at this place, 
but it is quite certain that nearly the whole of this important material has 
been lost. Further reference to the locality, its geology, and the species 
collected there will be made on pages 401 to 404, map 41. 

3. Bluelick Sprijigs, Nicholas County. — From an excavation made at this 
place by Mr. Thomas W. Hunter, in an attempt to restore the springs which 
supplied the once popular watering-place, there were taken a large quantity 
of bones of various animals, perhaps as much as two farm-wagon loads. 
The greater number of these bones belonged to the mastodon. Portions 



KENTUCKY. 129 

of skulls were found, but no complete skull. There were in the collection 
perhaps 100 mastodon teeth and many tusks, but some of these maj^ have 
belonged to elephants. In some cases the tusks show at the distal end 
evidences of abrasion by use. Several tusks are planed off on opposite sides, 
as if they had lain buried in the bottom of a stream, had been worn down 
flat by sand and gravel, and had then been turned over and planed on the 
other side. In Mr. Hunter's collection, seen by the writer, there are small 
tusks, probably deciduous upper or lower ones, which vary from 87 mm. to 
115 mm. in length. Each one is slightly flattened, and has an outer layer 
of hard dentine or possibly enamel, which is smooth. When this has peeled 
off the underlying dentine is grooved and ridged longitudinally. The trans- 
verse diameters vary from 20 to about 27 mm. Some of these small tusks 
are straight, others are slightly curved. On page 405 v/ill be given a list of 
the associated animals and remarks on the geology. 

4. Harrisonville, Harrison County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a 
lower left penultimate molar of a mastodon said to have been found some- 
where near this place. It was presented by Hon. M. L. Ross, through Mr. 
R. L. Garner. No details are known. The village mentioned is said to be 
near Cynthiana, but it is not on the maps at hand. 

5. Fayette County. — In Kentucky University there is a lower left hinder- 
most molar of a mastodon, labeled as having been found somewhere in the 
county. 

6. Drennon Springs, Henry County. — In 1881, Mr. G. K. Greene, (2d Ann. 
Rep. Bur. Statist, and Geol. Indiana, 1880, p. 428) stated that the collection 
of the State University of Indiana contains a remarkably fine half of a 
lower jaw of a mastodon, found at the place named. Nothing more is known 
about it. In 1831, C. S. Rafinesque (Monthly Amer. Jour. Geol., vol. i, 
p. 354) wrote that "Drennon's Licks had bones and mounds," indicating 
that at that early time fossil bones had been found there. 

7. Louisville, Jefferson County. — In 1835, Dr. Richard Harlan (Med. and 
Phys. Res., p. 256) referred to statements made to the effect that several 
mastodon skeletons had been found in digging the canal around the falls 
of the Ohio, at Louisville. They were taken from the river banks, at a 
depth of several feet beneath the present soil. It was added that several 
pairs of tusks were arranged in a circle within which were remains of a fire 
and Indian tools. The authority for this story is hardly what one could 
desire. 

8. S'tnithlandf , Livingston County. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences 
at Philadelphia is a part of a lower left hindermost mastodon molar, labeled 
as having been found at the mouth of Cumberland River. It is credited 
to Dr. P. B. Goddard. No details have been preserved. Smithland is at 
the mouth of Cumberland River, but how far away from this town the 
tooth was found is not known. 



130 ELEPHAS PRIMI GENIUS. 

FINDS OF ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

ONTARIO. 

- (Map 11.) 

1. Toronto, York County. — In 1863 (Canad. Naturalist and Geo!., vol. 
VIII, p. 399), Professor Alex. Winchell wrote that he had a cast of a 
tooth found at Toronto, and thought by him to belong to Elephas primi- 
genius. The writer saw this cast at Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is evidently 
a lower right penultimate molar of the species mentioned. It is to be 
regretted that more information was not furnished as to the exact locality 
and the beds; it would be of interest to know whether it had been found in 
the interglacial deposits that occur about Toronto. 

2. Amaranth, Dufferin County. — In 1908 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. ix, 
p. 387), Dr. Robert Bell reported the finding of the greater part of the 
skeleton of an elephant in a swamp in lot 9, range 7, of the township of 
Amaranth. The tusk was said to be 14 feet long and 8 inches in diameter. 
The context indicates that the remains were found at a moderate depth in 
shell marl. 

In 1891 (Geol. Mag., dec. 3, vol. viii, p. 504), Professor J. Hoyes Panton 
reported the discovery, in 1890, of bones of a mammoth at this place, 
impliedly in a bed of marl. There were 31 ribs, several vertebrae, a tusk 
12.66 feet long, with a portion broken off; also a tooth weighing 16.75 
pounds. From Mr. Simon Jelly, of Shelburne, the writer learns that the 
bones reported to have been found at Shelburne are the same as those 
reported from Amaranth. They had been exhumed by his brother, John 
Jelly, and were taken to Owen Sound and from there exhibited at county 
fairs for several years. 

These bones, or a part of them, are at present in possession of Mr. 
Alexander Duke, of San Diego, California. A photograph of the tusk shows 
it has quite the length given for it. It is relatively slender, the base having 
a diameter said to be 9.5 inches. It is spirally twisted in the distal half. 
The atlas is present and stated to measure 16 by 9 inches. There is a small 
but distinct photograph of a hindermost molar, apparently an upper one. 
The tooth is 16 inches long, 7 inches high, and 3 inches wide. This is 
the length from the front of the grinding-surface to the base behind. The 
plates are not worn to the base in front. There appear to be 22 ridge-plates 
present, and 6 in a 4-inch line. The base of the tooth is straight; the ridge 
plates curve forward slightly as they ascend. The hyoid arch is preserved. 
The writer regards the specimen as being a large individual of Elephas 
primigenius. 

This elephant lived after the Wisconsin ice-sheet had begun to withdraw. 
According to Taylor's map (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., liii, plate xix), 
this region had become cleared of ice while the basin of Lake Ontario was 
still fully occupied by the glacier; but it is doubtful that the animal could 
have lived there at that time. 



NEW YORK. 131 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Minoa, Onondaga County.— Dt. Burnett Smith, of Syracuse Univer- 
sity, sent the writer photographs of a lower hindermost molar of an elephant 
which, associated with a tusk, was found at this place, 8 miles east of 
Syracuse. Dr. Smith has ascertained that the tooth and the tusk were 
dug up during the construction of the West Shore Railroad. The tooth is 
quite certainly that of Elephas primigenius. It is worn down to the base in 
front, but retains a part of its large posterior root. 

2. Williamson, Wayne County. — In the collection of Rochester University 
is a lower left hindermost molar tooth found at this place. Professor H. L. 
Fairchild informed the writer that the tooth was found on the Iroquois 
beach, but whether on the northern or southern side is not known. 

3. Pittsford, Monroe County.— In 1842 (Zool. New York Mamm., p. 101, 
plate XXXII, fig. 2), J. E. De Kay described, under the name Elephas ameri- 
canus, a tooth found at Perinton, about 10 miles east of Rochester and near 
Irondequoit River. A description of the discovery and of the locality had 
been given in 1837 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxii, p. 377) by an anonymous 
writer. Two teeth and a tusk had been found in a sandy bank on the 
stream mentioned while a race was being made for a saw-mill. The tusk, 
and probably the teeth also, lay at a depth of 4 feet. The exact locality 
was described as being 2 miles north of the crossing of Erie Canal. This 
is in reality southeast of Rochester and near Pittsford. On page 59 is 
described a tusk of a supposed mastodon found at Pittsford in 1830. 

De Kay regarded the animal as belonging to an undescribed species, but 
his name Elephas americanus had been applied to the mastodon by Cuvier 
in 1799. 

On examining Fairchild's plates showing the recession of the Wisconsin 
ice-sheet (Bull. 127, State Mus. New York) it will be seen that the localities 
where the three specimens of Elephas primigenius have been found are 
close to the south shore of the ancient Lake Iroquois. The animals could 
not, therefore, have lived before the ice had nearly or quite withdrawn into 
the basin of the present Lake Ontario. They may have lived long after 
this, possibly up to, or near to, the beginning of the Recent. It is to be 
noted further that the locality of the molar tooth found at Williamson, 
Wayne County, is closer to the shore of Iroquois Lake than is that of any 
of the mastodons; so possibly this species existed somewhat longer than did 
the mastodon. 

4. Buffalo, Erie County. — From the director of the Buffalo Society of 
Natural History, Dr. William L. Bryant, the writer has received photo- 
graphs of a right upper hindermost molar of Elephas primigenius dredged 
from near the middle of Niagara River, opposite Buffalo. The tooth is 275 
mm. long and 100 mm. wide on the worn surface. It is worn to near the 
base in front, but probably no plates are wholly lost. There appear to be 
about 24 present. It appears probable that the tooth had not been carried 
far after being washed from its resting-place. Although it probably belongs 
to the Wisconsin stage, there is a possibility that it was washed out of some 
older Pleistocene deposit. 



132 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

5. Queensbury, Warren County. — Mr. C. A. Hartnagel, assistant State 
geologist of New York, informed the writer of the discovery, some 60 years 
ago, of a tooth of an elephant near Queensbury, situated near the southern 
end of Lake George. The tooth is labeled as found on the John Harris 
farm. The nature of the deposit in which it was buried is not known. It 
was found during the excavation of a cellar, therefore at no great depth. 

The tooth is a lower right hindermost molar, worn on only about 8 plates 
and not to the base in front. About 7 plates are missing from the rear. 
There are present 17 ridge-plates. The length along the base is 250 mm.; 
originally it must have been close to 350 mm. On a lateral face there are 
only about 7 of the plates in a 100-mm. line. Nevertheless, the writer 
regards the tooth as belonging to E. priniigenius. It is unusually long for 
the species; hence the plates are thicker, quite as thick as some specimens 
of E. columbi. However, the enamel, as shown on the worn face, is much 
thinner than that of E. columbi and comparatively little folded. The plates 
are only moderately concave on the hinder face. The height of the tooth 
at the ninth plate is 140 mm. 

6. Lewiston, Niagara County. — From Mr. C. A. Hartnagel the writer 
received information of the finding of a tooth of an elephant at Lewiston; 
and later the tooth was sent for examination. It proved to belong to E. 
primigenius and to be the upper right hindermost molar. Inasmuch as it is 
worn to the base in front and as the large anterior root is missing, some 
plates, probably at least two, are missing. There are 22 present. The tooth 
is worn back to the tenth from the rear. The length, as the tooth is pre- 
served, is 275 mm. The height at the tenth plate from the rear is 160 mm., 
not including the base of the roots. The greatest thickness is 85 mm. On 
the lateral face are 9 plates in a 100-mm. line. The base of the tooth is 
straight; the hinder border of the crown, arched. 

Mr. Hartnagel stated that besides the tooth some fragments of other 
teeth and two atlases were found at the same place. Evidently more than 
one animal was present. The remains here described were discovered at 
least 20 feet below the gravel-bed at that place and 80 feet below the level 
top of the terrace at points where it was not eroded. The bones and teeth 
appear to have been scattered through a bed of sediments at least 6 feet in 
thickness. The remains described above were mentioned by Kindle and 
Taylor on page 13 of Folio 190 of the U. S. Geological Survey, but were 
referred to a mastodon. The writers described the deposit in which the 
tooth was found. The geological age was believed to be that of the Iroquois 
episode of the Wisconsin. 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Trenton, Mercer County. — In the collection at Princeton University 
is an upper right last molar of this species recorded as having been found 
at Trenton. It was discovered in the bluff of Delaware River, just outside 
the fence of the Riverview cemetery, about 12 feet from the surface. The 
tooth was given to Dr. Marcus S. Farr by Dr. C. C. Abbott, and to him 



PENNSYLVANIA. 133 

by Dr. Ward, of Trenton. Dr. Abbott was certain that it was found in the 
Trenton gravels. Further mention will be made of this on page 304. 

2. North Plainfield, Union County. — In Rutgers College is a considerably 
weathered elephant tooth referred to this species. It was found on Green- 
brook road, 2 miles east of North Plainfield. There are about 12 ridge- 
plates present in the specimen. This locality is on the border of the 
Wisconsin drift moraine, and the elephant tooth was probably buried in 
outwash from the moraine. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Brookfield, Tioga County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 193) 
is a part of an upper molar of Elephas primigenius sent in 1889 by Mr. Ira 
Sayles, of Brookfield. It was found along the north fork of Cowanesqua 
Creek. The hinder 13 plates are present. Mr. Sajdes, in a letter to the 
present writer, stated that originally the tooth had 8 more enamel plates. 
This would seem to indicate that the tooth is the hindermost molar. Ten 
of the plates on the side of the tooth are crossed by a line 100 mm. long. 
The animal probably belonged to the Late Wisconsin stage. 

2. Chadd's Ford, Chester or Delaware County. — In the collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, is a fragment of an elephant 
tooth labeled as found in kaolin deposits owned by W. W. Jeffries and G. B. 
Dillingham. The specimen was described by Leidy (Proc. Phila. Acad., 
1875, p. 121). In this fragment are six ridge-plates, and a line crossing 
them measures 60 mm. The tooth appears to have belonged to Elephas 
primigenius. Leidy stated that it had been found lying on the kaolin bed, 
8 feet below the surface. 

In the same collection is a fragment of a tooth to be referred to E. primi- 
genius, consisting of three plates, apparently presented bj^ I. McClure. It 
is said to have been found in Chester County, but no more exact locality 
was named. 

3. Harvey's, Greene County. — From Mr. x\ndrew J. Waychoff, of 
Waynesburg, the writer has received for examination a lower jaw of a 
young individual of Elephas primigenius found near the place named. 
Professor Edwin Linton sent the information that it was discovered in the 
bed of Gray's Fork of Ten-mile Creek, about 0.25 mile west of Graysville. 
In the jaw are the second true molars, right and left, slightly worn. The 
length of each is 165 mm., the width 62 mm. 

4. Lone Pine, Washington County. — From Professor Edwin Linton, of 
Washington and Jefferson College, the writer received a photograph of an 
elephant tooth found at Lone Pine. This place is located on Little Ten- 
mile Creek, 7.25 miles southeast of Washington. Professor Linton writes 
that a 100-mm. line crosses ten of the ridge-plates on the side of the tooth. 
The photograph shows that there are 20 plates present, of which 12 are 
worn more or less. 

5. Beaverdam, Erie County. — In 1828 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xiv, p. 31), 
Mr. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer described a tooth which must have been that 



134 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

of Elephas primigenius. It had been found near Lake Erie, at a place 
called Beaverdam, near a small rivulet, and at a height of 600 feet above 
the lake. He stated that there were 13 layers of enamel in a line 4.5 inches 
long. The tooth was sent to the Lyceum of Natural History, New York, 
but was probably destroyed in a fire at the old American Museum of 
Natural History. 

OHIO. 
(Maps 11, 36.) 

1. Waverly, Pike Countij. — In the U. S. National Museum is an upper 
molar of an elephant said to have been found in a gravel-pit of the Norfolk 
and Western Railroad, at Waverly. It was sent to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution in 1900 by Mr. E. Sehon, who stated that the tooth had been picked 
up along the railroad mentioned, about 30 miles south of Kenova, West 
Virginia, but that the gravel had been loaded on the cars at Waverly. The 
tooth is believed to be the hindermost milk molar. There are 10 plates in 
a line 100 mm. long. The Pleistocene geological conditions at Waverly may 
to some extent be learned by consulting Leverett's paper forming Mono- 
graph XLi of the U. S. Geological Survey, pages 101-104. There is a 
possibility that this tooth was buried in gravels older than the last glacial 
stage. 

2. Zanesville, Muskingum County. — In 1853 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, 
vol. XV, pp. 146-147) is found a brief account of the discovery of elephant 
remains at Zanesville. One tusk and four molars were found. Two of the 
latter weighed (probably while wet) 20 pounds each and two others 14 
pounds each. They had been found on the line of what was then called 
the Ohio Central Railroad and in the eastern part of the city. At about 
the same time (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv, p. 377) Warren 
exhibited a tooth of an elephant, one of three received by him from Zanes- 
ville (misprinted Lanesville). In the second edition of his monograph on 
''Mastodon giganteus" Warren figured one of these teeth (his plate xxviii). 
It was stated that he had four of the teeth, all belonging to Elephas primi- 
genius. These are now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. The right upper hindermost molar is a fine large tooth. The large 
front root is missing, as are quite certainly about 3 plates. There are now 
28 present. The length along the nearly straight base is 335 mm. The 
rear is high and arched. There are 9 plates in a 100-mm. line and the 
enamel is little festooned. Foster, in 1857 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 
10th meeting, p. 156), described the discovery and exhumation of these 
remains, publishing a geological section illustrated by a figure. The ele- 
phant bed is 37 feet above the river and over 20 feet from the surface. In 
the collection of the State University at Columbus (No. 5296) is a fine 
upper hindermost molar of Elephas primigenius credited to T. W. Lewis and 
said to have been found at Zanesville. There are nine or ten plates in a 
100-mm. line. Zanesville is situated in the unglaciated part of the State; 
but outwash from both the Illinoian and the Wisconsin glaciers has been 
deposited along the river. For a knowledge of the Pleistocene epoch in that 
region, Leverett's work may be consulted (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., vol. 
XLI, p. 158, plate ii). 



OHIO. 135 

3. Duncan Falls, Muskingum County. — In the U. S. Kutional Museum 
(No. 308) is a tooth, apparently the first true molar, of Elephas primigenius 
labeled as having been found on Salt Creek, in the county named. Salt 
Creek is situated in the eastern part of the county, flows southward, and 
empties into Muskingum River at Duncan Falls. This tooth is probably 
the one mentioned by J. W. Foster in 1857 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 
10th meeting, 1856, p. 158) as having been found near the mouth of Salt 
Creek and then owned by Mr. A. C. Ross. 

4. Millport, Columbiana County. — From Professor Edwin Linton, of 
Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pennsylvania, the writer 
received a letter stating that there is in that institution a tooth of an 
elephant found in section 7 of Franklin Township (17 north, range 3 west), 
apparently about 2 miles northeast of Millport and on or near the stream 
Nancy Run. The locality is outside of the glaciated area. Probably the 
animal had lived during the Wisconsin stage, but there is a chance that it 
belonged to an earlier time. 

5. Mount Healthy, Hamilton County. — In 1914, the writer received the 
photograph of a skull of Elephas primigenius which was found some years 
before at Mount Healthy. Professor N. M. Fenneman informed the writer 
that it was discovered on the farm of Barney Miller, in the bank of Whisky 
Run. Professor C. A. Hunt, of Mount Healthy, has sent the information 
that it was found in the bed of Taylor Creek, a branch of West Fork of 
Mill Creek, in the northeast quarter of section 28, township 3, range 1, of 
the Miami purchase. Taylor Creek is probably another name for Whisky 
Run. The skull was met with in deep alluvial sediment. At the time of 
Professor Hunt's writing it was in the possession of Mr. Jacob Kismer, 
North Side, Cincinnati. In 1920 it was purchased for the U. S. National 
Museum (No. 10261). 

The front of the skull is preserved from the vertex to the front of the 
premaxilla. A part of one tusk, about 4 inches in diameter, is present. 
An upper molar was detached and later lost or otherwise disposed of. The 
one present has 10 ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line. Leverett (Monogr. xli, 
p. 283), in speaking of drift deposits in Mill Creek Valley, stated that the 
greater part of the drift is Illinoian. Professor Fenneman (Bull. 19, Geol. 
Surv. Ohio, p. 158) refers the deposit to the Wisconsin stage. 

15. Butler County. — In the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
at Philadelphia is an elephant tooth which is accredited to W. S. Vaux and 
labeled as having been found in Butler County. The tooth has now a length 
of 230 mm., but is worn down to the base in front and the large anterior root 
is missing. The width is 105 mm. It appears to be a large hindermost 
upper molar of E. primigenius. Nothing more definite is known about the 
locality. The whole country is covered with Wisconsin drift. 

6. Dayton, Montgomery County. — In the collection of the Society of 
Archaeology and History at the University of Ohio is a tooth of Elephas 
primigenius which, as reported by Professor W. C. Mills, was found near 
the middle of the eastern boundary of Montgomery County. This would 
not be far from Dayton. The locality is within the area covered by Wis- 
consin drift and the animal lived probably not far away from the foot of 
the retiring glacier. 



136 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

7. Selma, Clark County. — In Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, are 
two upper last molars, right and left, said to have been collected at Selma. 
There are nine ridge-plates in a line 100 mm. long. Nothing is known 
regarding the geological conditions connected with the discovery, except 
that the locality is within the Wisconsin area. 

8. Versailles, Darke County. — In the U. S. National Museum is an upper 
hindermost molar of Elephas primigenius (No. 4761), recorded as found in 
Wayne Township, on the farm of Foster Compton, in the northeast corner 
of the township. This would be probably about 4 miles north of east of 
Versailles. The country is level and was doubtless originally swampy. This 
tooth is apparently the one mentioned by A. C. Lindemuth in 1878 (Geol. 
Surv. Ohio, vol. iii, pt. 1, p. 509). He stated that it had been picked up in 
the creek bottom just north of Versailles. 

Under this number may be recorded a tooth of E. prirnigenius found 
many years ago by George H. Teaford, about 2 miles southeast of Palestine. 
in Darke County, and now in the collection in the public library at Green- 
ville. It is a lower left hindermost molar. There are 20 plates present and 
evidenth' a few are missing from the front. 

9. Jersey, Licking County. — In the collection of the Ohio State Univer- 
sity, Columbus, are two large teeth of Elephas prirnigenius labeled as sent 
from this place and credited to D. D. Condit. The length along the base 
of one of the teeth is 286 mm. There are nine plates in a 100-mm. line and 
the enamel is unusually thin. This locality is on the western border of the 
Wisconsin terminal moraine and the animal belongs therefore to the Late 
Wisconsin stage. 

10. Chicago, Huron County. — In the collection of the Society of Archae- 
ology and History, at the University of Ohio, the writer has seen a tooth 
of Elephas prirnigenius, labeled as having been found at this place, which 
is located on or close to the Defiance moraine. 

11. Kamms, Cuyahoga County. — About May 1, 1911, Mr. F. W. Glenn, 
of Kamms, sent to the U. S. National Museum a photograph of a tooth 
which the present writer identified as belonging to Elephas prirnigenius. 
This town is about 4 miles from the shore of Lake Erie. 

12. Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. — In the collection of Adelbert College, 
Cleveland, is a lower jaw of Elephas prirnigenius which was obtained here. 
Professor H. P. Gushing has furnished the writer photographs of this jaw, 
which belonged to a young animal, inasmuch as the hindermost milk molar 
had not wholly appeared above the bone. Of this tooth, six ridge-plates 
were crossed by a line 50 mm. in length. 

This jaw was found in 1909, in making a sewer, in hitherto undisturbed 
materials, 22 feet from the surface. In the section at that point is found 
22 feet of sand resting on till, the latter being the upper part of the glacial 
filling of the preglacial Cuyahoga Valley, 300 feet down to the rock. The 
jaw was at the base of the sands. Professor Gushing regarded the jaw 
as older than old Lake Warren and presumably as belonging to the time of 
Lake Whittlesey. 

13. New Berlin, Stark County. — At Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio, 
the writer has seen a well-preserved specimen of an upper second true molar 



MICHIGAN. 137 

of Elephas primigenius found near New Berlin. There were counted 16 
ridge-plates, of which 11 are in a 100-mm. line. 

From Rev. J. P. Stahl, Alliance, Ohio, the writer has learned that this 
tooth was found about a mile south of New Berlin, in a small gravel hill 
along the Canton and New Berlin highway. The gravel was being removed 
to make a road-bed. New Berlin is on the Grand River moraine and the 
elephant belongs therefore to the Late Wisconsin stage. 

14. Amboy, Ashtabula County. — In the Buffalo, New York, Natural His- 
tory Society, the writer examined a tooth of Elephas primigenius, discovered 
at this place. It is the front half of the right upper hindermost molar. 
There are nine ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line. At the same place, and 
probably under the same geological conditions, were found teeth of Elephas 
columbi. These conditions will be described on page 329. 

15. See page 135. 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Three Oaks, Berrien County. — Mr. C. K. Warren, of Three Oaks, has 
in his possession the upper and lower last molars, right and left, of an 
elephant which appears to have been found somewhere in the neighborhood 
of Three Oaks. These are large teeth and seem to the writer to belong to 
E, primigenius. The left upper tooth is 300 mm. long and 100 mm. wide. 
There are 22 plates. The tooth is worn back to the fourteenth plate, 170 
mm. high. There are only seven plates in a 100-mm. line, but it must be 
taken into account that the tooth is a large one for the species. The plates 
are parallel with one another and the base of the tooth is straight. The 
enamel is thin. 

One of the lower teeth has a length of 342 mm. The height at the first 
unworn plate, about the fourteenth, is 135 mm. On the outer face there 
are six plates in a 100-mm. line. 

Not knowing exactly where these teeth were found or at what depth, not 
much can be said regarding them. However, the region about Three Oaks 
is occupied by Wisconsin drift and the animal quite certainly lived during 
the Late Wisconsin stage. 

As shown by the map of mastodons in Michigan (map 8) , at least three 
specimens of the American mastodon have been found in this county. It 
is extremely probable that the two species lived together. 

2. Eaton Rapids, Eaton County.— In the Michigan Agricultural School, 
at East Lansing, is a lower jaw (No. 8260) of Elephas primigenius, found 
at Eaton Rapids, on the Grand River. Dr. A. C. Lane (Ann. Rep. Geol. 
Surv. Michigan for 1905, p. 553) says that it was found 2 miles below the 
town. It was found in 1904 by Charles H. Fry. The jaw contains a tooth 
on each side, and in front of each is a socket for a missing tooth. Behind 
the tooth is a cavity in the jaw for a succeeding tooth. The one present is 
taken to be the first true molar. There are present 13, possibly 14, plates. 
The length of the tooth is 123 mm., its width 51 mm. The enamel is thin 
and little crinlcled. The jaw is 100 mm. high at the rear of the tooth present. 



138 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

Eaton Rapids is situated on the Grand River, where the latter breaks 
through the Charlotte morainic system. In this county there have been 
found two mastodons, one about Belleview, the other in the vicinity of 
Olivet. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 11.) 
In Area Covered by Illinoian Drift. 

1. Otter Creek Township, Vigo County.— In Ward's Natural History 
Establishment, Rochester, New York, the writer saw a pair of upper second 
molars which, in 1885, were found in Otter Creek Township. They were 
dug up on the farm of W. H. Stewart, while making a ditch in low ground. 
From information received from Mr. S. D. Humphrey, North Terre Haute, 
it appears that the locality is not far from the common meeting-point of 
sections 8, 9, 16, 17 of township 13 north, range 8 west. The complete 
tooth, the one of the left side, had 22 plates and a front and a rear talon. 
The length was 248 mm., the width 96 mm. There were 10 plates in a line 
100 mm. long. This thinness of the plates is evidence as to the specific 
identity of the animal. 

2. Madison, Jefferson County. — The collection of the Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences, at Philadelphia, contains a large lower last molar of the right 
side, presented by Dr. Hallowell in 1840, and labeled as coming from 
Madison. The length is 245 mm., and there are 9 plates in 100 mm. This 
tooth was mentioned by Dr. Leidy in 1869. From the information furnished 
one can conclude only that Elephas primigenius once lived in southern 
Indiana. 

3. Vevay, Switzerland County. — Professor E. Danglade, of the U. S. Fish 
Commission, presented the U. S. National Museum a tooth (No. 7913), 
apparently a second true molar, possibly the first, of E. primigenius. There 
are 10 plates present. The tooth was found on the shore of Ohio River 
about 1.5 miles below Vevay, having been washed out of a gravel bank, 
and is much weathered. No exact conclusions about the age of the tooth 
can be drawn from the known facts. 

In Area Between the Shelbyville and the Bloomington Moraines. 

10. Webster, Wayne County. — In the collection of Earlham College are 2 
elephant teeth, credited to Jehiel Bond and found on Nolands Fork, near 
Webster, Wayne County. One is the second molar of the right side of the 
upper jaw and is much worn; the other is the third upper molar of appar- 
ently the same side and is but little worn. These teeth were mentioned 
by the author in his report on the "Pleistocene Vertebrata of Indiana" 
(33d Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 750), but he had not then deter- 
mined to what species they belonged. A renewed study shows that they 
certainly belong to Elephas primigenius. With these teeth is a tusk which 
measures 1,800 mm. along the convex curve. 

Webster is situated south of the Bloomington moraine, in a tract of 
country indicated by Leverett as covered by undulating drift, in part 
morainic. 



INDIANA. 139 

The greater part of this political township, made up apparently of parts 
of townships numbered 13 north and ranges 8 and 9 west, is occupied by 
outwash deposits laid down by the Wabash River and brought from further 
north during the Wisconsin stage; but at present, at least, it is impossible 
to assign the animal to any particular division of that stage. 

In Area North of Bloomington Moraine and South of the 
MississiNAWA Moraine and the Wabash River. 

4. Windsor, Randolph Comity. — In the collection at Earlham College, 
Richmond, Indiana, is a part of a tooth referred to this species. It is either 
the last milk molar or the first true molar of the right side of the lower 
jaw. There are present eleven plates and one or more is missing from the 
rear. The length along the base is 100 mm., the width is 55 mm. There 
are six plates in a line 50 mm. long. This tooth was found August 20, 1893, 
in the bed of Stony Creek, near Windsor. According to Leverett's glacial 
map of Indiana, this is just south of the Union City moraine near its 
junction with the Bloomington moraine. By what is known of the habits 
of this species it may have lived even when the glacial sheet was forming 
the Union City moraine. 

5. Winchester, Randolph County. — In the collection of Earlham College 
is a lower molar of the right side, apparently the first, labeled as found at 
Winchester. No details are furnished. Winchester lies on the border of 
the Union City moraine and all the country about is occupied by Wisconsin 
drift. It is quite certain, therefore, that this mammoth lived at some time 
between the formation of the moraine mentioned and the end of the 
Pleistocene epoch. 

6. Fairniount, Grant County. — Here was found, in 1904, the nearly 
complete skeleton of the mammoth mounted in the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York City. It has been described and figured by 
the writer (36th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 718, figs. 63, 64; Iowa 
Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, p. 396, fig. 133). It was found on the farm of Mrs. 
Dora C. Gift, about 4 miles east of Fairmount. The location is in the 
southeast quarter of section 23, township 23 north, range 8 east. This 
information has been furnished by Mr. George Swisher, surveyor of Grant 
County. 

This whole region is mapped by Leverett as being occupied by ground 
moraine of till plains, and the animal must have lived after the Wisconsin 
ice cleared away. A tract more or less morainic, an extension of the Union 
City moraine, is indicated by Leverett on his latest map as passing further 
south than Fairmount. At the earliest it must have been after the with- 
drawal of the ice from the Union City moraine that the animal lived. 
Considering the character of the surrounding country, the nature of the 
deposit inclosing the skeleton, and the depth at which it was buried, it 
might be supposed that it was not long after the formation of the Union 
City moraine that this elephant existed. 

9. North Liberty, St. Joseph County. — From Professor A. M. Kirsch, of 
Notre Dame University, the writer received a photograph of an upper molar 
of Elephas primigenius found at New Liberty about 1905. This tootii is 



140 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

worn to the base in front and to the fourth plate from the rear. Evidently 
several plates are gone from the front. Apparently 18 remain. The extreme 
length is 215 mm. The edges of the plates, as seen on the side of the tooth 
present a sigmoid curve. The enamel was evidently thin. 

In Area North of Kankakee River. 

8. Crown Point, Lake County. — Mr. G. W. Stose, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, informed the writer that about 1888 he helped in exhuming some 
bones of an elephant near Crown Point, discovered in the construction of a 
large ditch in township 34 north, range 8 west. The bones lay in a swamp 
clay at a depth of 8 to 10 feet. A part of a tusk, one tooth, and one large 
bone were put in Guenther's Museum, Chicago. Another tooth (M^) owned 
by Mr. Stose (No. 8067) was presented to the U. S. National Museum in 
1914. It is worn to the base in front; 22 plates remain. The length of the 
tooth is 285 mm., and the width 100 mm. There are 8 plates in a 100 mm. 
line. The enam^el is thin and little folded. 

In Area Between the Wabash and Kankakee Rivers. 

7. Near Francisville, Pulaski County. — The writer has received from 
Mr. W. D. Pattison, of Winamac, Indiana, two photographs of a tooth of 
an elephant which quite certainly belonged to Elephas yrimigenius. The 
locality is in the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 20, 
township 30 north, range 4 west. According to Leverett's map, this is in a 
tract covered by Wisconsin ground moraine and but little above the level 
of the Kankakee marshes, the 700-foot contour-line being not far awa5\ 
Just west of the place is a part of the Marseilles moraine. The spot must 
be very near Metamonong Creek. 

11. Rochester, Fulton County. — The American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, has a well-preserved skull of Elephas primigenius which 
had been exhumed in the vicinity of Rochester. The exact locality is not 
known to the writer. 

The specimen is supposed to have been a female. The tusks are slender 
and only 700 mm. long. The hindermost upper molar is present. It is 
245 mm. long and 75 mm. wide. There are 10 plates in a 100-mm. line. 
There appear to be 25 or 26 plates present. The second molar was still in 
use and about 130 mm. long. This was a large elephant, the measurements 
falling only slightly below the specimen in that museum which was obtained 
near Fairmount, Grant County. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 11, 38.) 

1. Cairo, Alexander County. — The collection of the Buffalo Society of 
Natural History contains a tooth of an elephant, an upper left second true 
molar, apparently belonging to Elephas primigenius. It is reported to have 
been found at Cairo, at a depth of 95 feet below the bed of Ohio River. It 
was probably discovered in preparing the foundations of a, railroad bridge. 
It has 15 ridge-plates, besides the front and rear talons. The length of the 
base, in a straight line, is 156 mm. There are 10 plates in a line 100 mm. 



ILLINOIS. 141 

long, a number too great for E. columhi. The tooth is unworn. It has 
suffered no injury, as from being rolled along the river bed; hence the animal 
probably died near where the tooth was found. It is impossible to assign 
the tooth with certainty to any particular stage of Pleistocene times. It 
seems most probable that the animal lived at the time the Illinoian ice-sheet 
was only a few miles away; the depth at which it was buried in the filling 
of the river channel appears to lend confirmation to this view. 

2. Ashland, Cass County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 2195) 
are some remains of an elephant, referred to Elephas primigenius, found at 
Ashland in the spring of 1901. The remains consist of pieces of one tusk, 
the symphysis of the lower jaw, the right and left upper hindermost molars, 
the right lower last molar, a fragment of the rear of a much-worn upper 
second molar, and another of a correspondingly worn lower second molar. 
They were found in tilling a farm near Ashland by Mr. J. W. Arnold, of 
Jacksonville, Illinois. 

The upper teeth resemble greatly those figured by the writer in his report 
on the Pleistocene Mammalia of Iowa (Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, plate 
Lix) ; but the teeth from Ashland are more worn than those found in 
Milwaukee. The last molars from Ashland are worn back to about the 
eleventh ridge-plate, and the second molar is worn so that only its rear 
portion remained. The length of the upper molars is about 275 mm. The 
height of the eleventh plate is 185 mm. ; the breadth of the grinding-surface 
is 90 mm. One or two of the hinder plates are missing, but evidently there 
were at least 24. There are 9 or 10 ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line on the 
worn surface; farther towards the base 8 plates in the same space. The 
ridge-plates are little bent; the enamel is thin and little sinuous in its way 
across the worn surface of the tooth. 

The lower last molar is 315 mm. long, 152 mm. high, and 85 mm. wide. 
It is thus longer than the upper molars, slightly narrower, and not so high. 

A fragment of the hinder end of what appears to be the lower left second 
molar shows 7 ridge-plates remaining. These form two series, an inner 
and an outer, entirely separate from each other. This condition is some- 
times seen in little-worn teeth. 

The geology of this region may be studied on the Tallula-Springfield Folio, 
No. 188 of the U. S. Geological Survey. The Tallula Quadrangle includes 
a narrow strip of the eastern border of Cass County. Here the surface forms 
a nearly level prairie. According to the geologists Shaw and Savage, the 
surface in the region next to Cass County and much of the rest of the quad- 
rangle is covered by a blanket of loess. Its thickness varies from 4 to 20 
feet; under this, sometimes, in wells, is to be found a dark-colored ill- 
smelling deposit, of no great thickness, which is believed to represent the 
Sangamon stage. Underlying the loess everywhere is the Illinoian drift. 

As regards the geological age of the elephant described above, it is quite 
certain that it lived after the Illinoian stage. It is quite probable, too, that 
its teeth and bones were found in the loess which overlies the Sangamon, 
soil in some places in the quadrangle. This loess may have accumulated 
during the lowan glacial stage or during the succeeding Peorian interglacial. 
Considering what we know about the habits of Elephas primigenius, it. 



142 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

appears most probable that the animal in question passed its life during 
some part of the lowan. 

3. Kewanee, Henry County. — In the collection of the University of Illi- 
nois, at Champaign, is a fragment of an upper molar of Elephas priniigenius, 
found at Kewanee. It was discovered in 1910, in making an excavation 
for the National Tube Company, and was presented to the university by 
Mr. J. E. Kemp, at that time engineer in charge of the work of excavation. 
This gentleman has furnished very exact information regarding the dis- 
covery of the tooth and the nature of the deposits passed through. 

Mr. Kemp himself saw the tooth taken out and states that it was found 
at a depth of about 12 feet. As to the materials passed through, Mr. Kemp 
writes : 

"After the first 2 feet of soil carrying organic matter we have 5 feet of yellow clay 
above the ground-water level, and below this approximately 3 feet of yellow clay 
which becomes very soft unless carefully drained before working. This yellow clay 
then merges into bluish clay, hard and better packed, going to a depth of approxi- 
mately 20 to 21 feet. At this level we meet with that black soil which is known 
locally as 'the chip yard' and which contains vegetation and pieces of wood, as you 
describe. This 'chip yard' is a softer stratum than the overlying blue clay and 
caused difficulty in the excavation of a hole approximately 20 feet by 30 feet and 
20 feet deep, as the vibration of the reciprocating engines in the building caused the 
bottom to rise in little hillocks over night, and the last 2 feet of excavation had to be 
dug out and 24 inches of concrete placed in the bottom, in order to preserve the 
excavation." 

At Galva, 10 miles southwest of Kewanee, in cuttings along the railroad, 
is found a section which illustrates the geological situation at Kewanee 
(Monogr. xxxviii, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 126, plate x). There is at the top 
4. feet of loess, 1 foot of Sangamon soil, 4 feet of Illinoian drift; in another 
section nearby there are 12 feet of loess, 2 feet of Sangamon soil, and 40 
feet of Illinoian drift. 

Another section at Galva is described by Leverett (op. cit., p. 130). The 
loess is 15 feet thick, beneath which is a mucky soil about 1 foot in depth, 
which caps the Illinoian till sheet. In this soil a log about a foot in diameter 
and several feet long was found embedded. Alden and Leighton (Iowa 
Geol. Surv., vol. xxvi, p. 170) mention this occurrence. 

From these examples it becomes evident that the "chip bed" at Kewanee 
is a Sangamon soil overlain by loess. The elephant tooth at a depth of 12 
feet must have been buried in the blue clay. This, however, is probably 
the unweathered part of the loess. If so, the mammoth tooth found at 
Kewanee is to be referred to the early Peorian stage. 

4. Penny's Slough, Henry County. — In the collection of the Davenport 
Academy of Science is a large upper left hindermost molar tooth, labeled 
as having been found in Penny's Slough. It is very large, the length along 
the base being 357 mm. (about 14 inches), and the height of the eighteenth 
plate is 175 mm. There is an unusual number of the plates, apparently 27. 
There are 7 plates in a line 100 mm. long. The tooth is moderately worn. 
There are 2 large roots in front and 2 rows of smaller ones behind these. 
The base is straight and the plates little warped. 



WISCONSIN. 143 

Mr. C. C. Martin, of Geneseo, Illinois, county surveyor of Henry County, 
has informed the writer that Penny's Slough is located in sections 17, 18, 
19, and 20 of township 18 north, range 3 east, in the northern part of the 
county and on Rock River. On Leverett's glacial map of this region 
(Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., xxxviii, plate vi) the area is indicated as being 
occupied by sand and gravel plains and terraces of Wisconsin age. It seems 
most probable that this elephant lived when the Wisconsin glacier was not 
far away. However, there is a variety of Pleistocene formations in that 
region and the elephant in question may belong to the lowan or to the 
Illinoian glacial stage. 

5. Kendall County. — In the collection of the National Museum is a 
plaster cast made from a tooth of Elephas primigenius, found somewhere 
in Kendall County, but the present location of the original tooth is not 
known. It had a length of 280 mm. along the base. There appears to have 
been 20 plates, 8 in a 100-mm. line. The tooth seems to have resembled 
greatly one of E. primigenius which was brought from Alaska. 

Kendall County is mostly occupied by moraines formed during the 
Wisconsin stage of the Pleistocene, especially moraines which were built up 
just before the retirement of the ice into the basin of Lake Michigan. Prob- 
ably the elephant which possessed the tooth lived during the latter part of 
the Wisconsin stage. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Milwaukee. — In the Public Museum of Milwaukee are considerable 
parts of a mammoth skeleton (No. 5351) found within the limits of the city. 
These were secured in May 1898, in excavating for a sewer along Cold 
Spring avenue and between Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth streets. On learning 
of the discovery, Mr. George B. Turner, then taxidermist of the Milwaukee 
Public Museum, afterwards chief taxidermist in the U. S. National Museum, 
took charge of the excavations for the skeleton. He furnished the writer 
with an account of his work, giving a list of the bones, a plan of the area 
excavated, and a section of the deposits passed through. A description of 
the remains is given below: 

Feet. Indies. 

Filled-in materials 4 

Clay and peat, mixed 1 

Peat 1 3 

Peat and clay, mixed 1 

Peat, clay, and shells 1 

Clear blue clay with the elephant bones at the bottom 4 6 

Gravel and cobblestones undetermined. 

As indicated in Turner's sketch, the surface of the gravel and stones 
sloped downward toward the north. 

It will be seen that the bones were buried about 9 or 10 feet below the 
natural surface of the ground. The head of the elephant was directed 
toward the east, the hinder end toward the west. The parts found were 
within a distance of 10 feet from east to west. Later the excavations on 
each side of the sewer were extended eastward, as shown on the plan, in 



144 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

an effort to find the skull, but without success, and iron rods 10 feet long, 
in two sections, were driven their full length horizontally everywhere around 
the excavation in the hope of recovering the skull. 

For some time after the finding of these bones the theory prevailed that 
they had belonged to an elephant of one of the circuses which had made use 
of the ground near there. The fact that the lower jaw was found, but not 
the upper jaw and the brain-case, and only a part of the vertebrae and a 
part of the foot-bones, is sufficient to dispose of this theory. Also, some 
of the bones lack the epiphyses. Besides this, the elephant was neither the 
African nor the Asiatic species. It is evident that the animal after dying 
had lain on the surface for some time, so that the bones were somewhat 
scattered, perhaps by wolves or waves, and some were injured by exposure 
to the weather. 

The following is a list of the bones found: Lower jaw, 5 cervicals, 9 
presacrals, 31 ribs, both scapulse, both humeri, both ulnse, both radii, 9 
wristbones, 14 metacarpals and phalanges, 1 femur and a fragment of the 
other, 2 tibiae, 2 fibulae, 17 metatarsals and phalanges. 

It is evident that this elephant lived and died after the Lake Michigan 
ice-lobe had withdrawn from that vicinity. It may, however, not have been 
long after that withdrawal; for it is probable that the muddy waters from 
the foot of that glacial lobe furnished the blue clay which enveloped the 
bones. Later peat and muck and mixtures of these with clay accumulated 
over the blue clay. The place is within the area of what Alden has mapped 
as ground moraine of Lake Michigan glacier. The occurrence of peat and 
shells seems to show that there was a pond in which the elephant had been 
buried and afterwards covered with clay and peat. 

Under this number must be included the fine palate and teeth found in 
excavating for a sewer on the South Side, at Milwaukee. The record as to 
exact location, depth, and kind of materials overlying it is missing. A 
description of it, with illustrations, was published by the present writer in 
1912 (Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, p. 409, plate lix). 

This individual probably had a history not greatly different from that of 
the Cold Spring Avenue elephant. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Oxford Neck, Talbot County. — In 1869, Cope (Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. XI, p. 178) stated he had seen in the collection of the Baltimore 
Academy of Natural Sciences two molars, the tusk, maxillary and pre- 
maxillary bones, and parts of frontals, with fragments of other bones, which 
he referred to Elephas americanus Leidy. These, it is supposed, were 
remains of E. primigenius. Lucas (Maryland Geol. Surv., Pliocene and 
Pleistocene, 1906, p. 164) refers to these remains and identifies them as 
certainly those of E. primigenius. He found a smaller tooth of this species 
which had come from Oxford Neck. Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
vol. VII, 1869, p. 255) speaks of the teeth, tusks, and the other parts men- 
tioned above. 



VIRGINIA NORTH CAROLINA FLORIDA. 145 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Saltville, Smyth County. — In 1914, Mr. H. D. Mount, of the Mathieson 
Alkali Works, of Saltville, sent to the U. S. National Museum some remains 
of an elephant, identified as Elephas primigenius. These were found about 
1896 in making an excavation for the water reservoir. The most important 
parts sent are teeth, whole or fragmentary, and appear to represent three 
or four individuals. Among the teeth is a complete but considerably worn 
upper left hindermost molar and an unworn upper second true molar. The 
former indicates the presence of 23 ridge-plates; the latter 16 of them. 
Remarks on this discovery and a list of all the species secured will be found 
on page 352. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

(Maps 11, 39.) 

1. Inland Waterway Canal, Carteret County. — In the collection of the 
State Museum, at Raleigh, the writer has seen an upper hindermost molar 
(A. N. 1326) which certainly belongs to this species and which is said to 
have been dredged up in Core Creek. The creek forms a part of the 
Inland Waterway which joins Neuse River with the harbor at Beaufort. 
The molar was presented to the State collection by Mr. H. T. Paterson, 
U. S. assistant engineer, now of Newbern, North Carolina. From the 
director of the museum, Professor H. H. Brimley, the writer has received 
photographs of this fine tooth. In the same canal was found a jaw of a 
mastodon which is mentioned on page 117. From Mr. Paterson the writer 
has received the important information that the tooth was found in Core 
Creek about 8.5 miles from Beaufort, in 1909, while dredging a sedimentary 
deposit varying from 6 to 8 feet in depth, containing numerous cypress 
stumps and roots and underlain by a deposit of sand mixed with shells and 
other fossils. Into this the dredge went from 6 to 8 feet. 

The tooth is worn to the base in front and a very few plates are probably 
missing. Nevertheless, there are still 22 or 23 remaining. The base of the 
tooth is nearly straight and the ridge-plates are but little curved. The 
length of the base is 232 mm. Measured along the side of the tooth are 11 
ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line. The enamel is unusually thin, being about 
1.3 mm. in thickness, and but little undulating across the grinding surface. 

It is believed that the deposit containing this elephant tooth and the 
cypress stumps belongs to the first interglacial, while the underlying sands 
containing marine fossils belong to the Nebraskan glacial stage. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Palma Sola, Manatee County. — Mr. Charles T. Earle, an enthusiastic 
collector living at this place, sent to the U. S. National Museum in 1921 
various lots of vertebrate fossils which had been washed up on the beach at 
Palma Sola. Among the fossils belonging to the Pleistocene is a tooth, a 
right lower second milk molar, which must apparently be referred to 
Elephas primigenius. It is much worn, the plates present rising above the 



146 ELEPHAS PRIMIGENIUS. 

base only about 10 mm. The anterior root and the posterior had been con- 
siderably absorbed. Only 4 ridge-plates remain; evidently at least 1 had 
wholly disappeared from the front, and 2, possibly 3, from the rear. The 
original length of the tooth can not be determined. The width is 30 mm. 
The 4 enamel plates present, together with the portion of cement belonging 
to each, occupy a length of 30 mm. The enamel is thin. 

It would be more surprising to find this species in Florida had it not 
already been discovered in North Carolina and at two places in Texas, 
Temple and near San Antonio. One can not state with certainty the stage of 
the Pleistocene during which this individual lived, but the writer believes 
that it was during an early stage, perhaps the first interglacial. 

TENNESSEE. 

(Map 11. Figure 23.) 
1. Whitesburg, Hamblen County. — In a collection of fossil vertebrates 
sent many years ago to the U. S. National Museum and described by the 
writer in 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 85) is a fragment con- 
sisting of two plates from the rear of a penultimate milk molar, probably of 
the lower jaw. This is referred to Elephas -primigenius. Of page 395 will 
be found a list of the accompanying species. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 11.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences at 
Philadelphia is a fine upper left hindermost molar, sent from the place 
named. There are present 23 or 24 plates. It is worn back to the apex of 
the eighteenth plate. The length along the base in a straight line is 253 
mm.; there are therefore about 9 plates in a 100-mm. line. Some other 
teeth from the same place, now in the collection, were regarded as belonging 
to the same species. 

In William Cooper's account of collections made at Bigbone Lick 
(Monthly Amer. Jour. GeoL, vol. i, pp. 168-171) he showed that great 
numbers of teeth as well as bones of elephants had been collected at various 
times at this locality. He refers all to Elephas primigenius, but certainly 
many of them must have belonged to the species now known as E. columbi. 
Cooper mentions the discovery of a fine and nearly entire skull of an 
elephant, 4 feet long, having all of the teeth and one tusk in it. In the 
nearly 100 years that have elapsed this specimen has probably suffered 
destruction. 



ONTARIO. 147 

FINDS OF ELEPHAS COLUMBI IN EASTERN 
NORTH AMERICA 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 12.) 

1. St. Catharines, Lincoln County. — In 1898 (Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xii, 
p. 137) , Mr. L. M. Lambe stated that there was in the collection of the 
Geological Survey of Canada from this place a molar of a mammoth, pur- 
chased in 1887 by Mr. Whiteaves. It had been found while excavating 
under the opera house for a sewer, on Queen Street. In the collection of 
the Buffalo Society of Natural History the writer has seen a cast of a lower 
right hindermost molar, the original of which is said to have been found at 
St. Catharines. It was probably made from the tooth now in the collection 
at Ottawa. There are 22 plates; probably one or two may be missing from 
the front, and the wear extends over only 6 plates. Of these there are 7 in 
a 100-mm. line. The plates of the hinder half are considerably curved, 
and the hindermost ones lean strongly forward. The writer, regards the 
tooth as that of Elephas columbi. 

As shown by Fairchild's plate 17 (Bull. 160, New York Geol. Surv.) and 
Coleman's plate 22 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., xv, p. 347) this town is situated 
within the Iroquois beach. The elephant could, therefore, hardly have 
lived at or before the time of the formation of the beach ; in reality it prob- 
ably lived long after the lake had retired to its present limits. 

In his "Catalogue of Casts of Fossils," 1866, page 37, Henry A. Ward 
gave a figure of a cast of an elephant tooth. No. 143, the original of which 
was said to have been found at St. Catharines. This tooth may be the one 
now at Ottawa, but if so the figure is incorrect. 

2. Hamilton, Wentworth County. — In 1863 (Canad. Nat. and Geol, vol. 
VII, p. 135), a lower jaw of an elephant was described under the name 
Euelephas jacksoni Briggs and Foster. This had been found near Hamilton, 
at the extreme western end of Lake Ontario. It was mentioned and figured 
as Euelephas jacksoni in the same j^ear by W. E. Logan (Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Canada, p. 914, figs. 495, 497). The specific name, however, is not to be 
credited to Briggs and Foster, -for it was proposed by W. W. Mather in 
1838 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxiv, p. 362, figures) for a lower jaw of an 
elephant found in Jackson County, Ohio. This jaw is, however, from the 
description and the figure, wholly indeterminable. Lambe (Ottawa Natu- 
ralist, vol. XII, p. 136) presents a short history of the specimen found at 
Hamilton. It was reported first by T. Cottle in 1852 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
ser. 2, vol. x, p. 395; reprint in Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xv, 1853, p. 282). 
Besides the jaw, lacking most of the left ramus, there was found a much- 
curved tusk nearly 7 feet long. 

The writer has had the opportunity to examine this jaw, now in the 
Victoria Museum at Ottawa. It is believed to belong to Elephas columbi. 
The finely preserved last molar has been worn on about 9 of the ridge-plates, 
and this worn surface is about 110 mm. long. There are 24 plates jiresent, 
and 8 of these occupy a 100-mm. line. The hinder plates lean forward and 
the base of the tooth is very convex. 



148 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

Cottle reported that the remains were discovered at a depth of 40 feet 
from the surface and at an elevation of 60 feet above the level of the lake. 
It is stated on the label that the elevation above the lake was 70 feet, and 
this is the height given by Logan (Geol. Canada, 1863, p. 914). The 
author stated also that at an elevation of 7 feet more were found antlers of 
Cervus canadensis and the jaw of a beaver. 

VERMONT. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Mount Holly, Butland County.— In 1849 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. 
Sci., vol. II, p. 100), Professor Louis Agassiz exhibited before the members 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science a tooth and a 
tusk of an elephant, discovered in making excavations for the Rutland and 
Burlington Railroad, somewhere on the slope of Mount Holly, Rutland 
County. It was said to have been found lying under an erratic boulder. 
Agassiz was doubtful as to the specific identity of the animal. In 1850 
(Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. ix, p. 256), Zadock Thompson gave a brief 
account of this discovery. The remains were found, he said, in Mount 
Holly Township, at an elevation of 1,360 feet above sea-level, in a deposit 
of muck, at a depth of about 9 feet. This muck-bed is located on the 
divide between the streams which flow into Connecticut River and those 
which empty into Lake Champlain. In 1853 ("History of Vermont," App., 
p. 14) Thompson presented a more extended report on the discovery. This 
is reprinted m Edward Hitchcock's 'Heport on the Geology of Vermont," 
1861, page 176. The elevation is given here as 1,415 feet; the location is 
said to be east of the summit station. On the Wallingford topographic sheet 
of the U. S. Geological Survey the station named Summit is shown to have 
an elevation of 1,500 feet. First, there was found a tooth lying on gravel 
beneath 11 feet of peat; soon afterward a tusk was discovered at a distance 
of 80 feet, and later the other tusk and some bones were met with not far 
away. The grinder was in an excellent state of preservation. The length 
of one tusk along the convexity of the curve is given as 80 inches, while the 
distance direct from the base to the tip was 60 inches. A figure of the 
tusk was given by Hager in the second volume of the 1861 report just 
referred to, on page 934. According to Agassiz 's statement, the tooth and 
tusk were taken to the Lawrence Scientific School, Cambridge. 

Dr. J. C. Warren ("Monogr. on Mastodon giganteus," ed. 2, 1855, p. 162, 
plate xxviii, fig. b) figured and described the tooth. The length was given 
as 11 inches at the base, and the number of ridge-plates as 22. This would 
give an average of 8 plates in a 100-mm. line. This number and the gen- 
eral appearance of the tooth indicate that the animal was Elephas columbi, 
instead of E. primigeniu^s. The difference between this tooth and that of 
E. primigenius is well shown by the figure of a tooth of E. primigenius from 
Zanesville, Ohio, figured on the same plate with the Vermont tooth. This 
tooth is now in the American Museum at New York. 

Thompson reported the presence of many billets of wood, about 18 inches 
long, in the bottom of the muck, the work of beavers. 



NEW YORK — NEW JERSEY. 149 

At the Davenport (Iowa) Academy of Natural Science the writer exam- 
ined a tooth of an elephant labeled as having been found on Mount Holly 
in excavating for the Vermont Central Railroad. The length along the 
base is 300 mm., the height of the ninth plate is 160 mm., the length of tlie 
grinding-surface 160 mm. There are in all 24 plates, the 10 anterior ones 
of which are worn. There are 7 ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line, measured 
on one side of the tooth. This tooth is regarded as belonging to Elephas 
columbi; it certainly belonged to another individual than the one that 
Warren figured. It is almost certain that the animals represented by the 
teeth and skeletal remains found on Mount Holly lived after the retreat of 
the ice from those mountains; and one may suppose that local glaciers 
lingered long after the main ice-front had abandoned the region. The 
animals lived certainly as late as near the close of the Pleistocene, if not at 
the beginning of the Recent; they may have been living on those mountains 
while the basin of Lake Champlain was an arm of the sea. 

NEW YORK. 
(Map 12.) 

1. Homer, Cortland County. — In 1847 (Amer. Jour. Agric. and Sci., vol. 
VI, p. 31, fig.), Samuel Woolworth reported that an elephant tooth had been 
found on the bank of a small stream, about 2 miles northwest of Homer. 
Emmons, in 1858 (Geol. Surv. North Carolina, East. Cos., p. 200), figured 
the same tooth. In his Manual of Geology (ed. 2, 1860, p. 242, fig. 207) 
he stated that this tooth was found in Cortland County. Henry A. Ward, 
of Rochester, advertised and sold casts of this elephant tooth, as the writer 
is informed by Mr. Frank H. Ward, of Ward's Natural Science Establish- 
ment. It is almost certain that this elephant lived in the neighborhood of 
Homer after the Wisconsin glacial ice had begun its retreat to the far north. 

2. Elmira, Chemung County. — In the collection of the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York is a part of an elephant tooth (Cat. No. 
10488) which the writer identifies as belonging to Elephas columbi, and 
which is recorded as having been found at Elmira. There are only 3 ridge- 
plates in the fragment. As to the time during the Pleistocene when this 
species lived in New York, all that can be said is that it was during the last 
half of the Wisconsin stage. No specimens have been found as close to 
the glacial lakes preceding Lake Ontario as in the cases of Elephas primi- 
genius, but this may be due to accidents of preservation or to failures of 
discovery. 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Middletown, Monmouth County. — In 1818 (Cuvier's "Theory of the 
Earth," p. 384, plate i, figs. 2, 5), S. L. Mitchill referred to a tooth of an 
elephant found somewhere about Middletown. In his "Catalogue of 
Organic Remains," 1826, page 10, Mitchill mentioned a singular boat- 
shaped tooth of an elephant, found on Bennett's farm, Middletown, New 
Jersey. Both references are to the same tooth; the shape was due to the 
wear the tooth had suffered. It was said to come from the region where 



150 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

the horse remains were obtained. This tooth was a lower right hindermost 
molar, much worn. It evidently belonged to Elephas columbi. We have 
no other information about the specimen. It appears probable that the 
deposits which yielded remains of horses and of elephants are to be referred 
to an interglacial stage, at least as old as the Sangamon. The finding of a 
bone of Megatherium along the New Jersey coast suggests that the Aftonian 
may be represented there. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Rogersville, Greene County. — The writer has received from Mr. An- 
drew Waychoff, of Waynesburg, a small photograph of a lower hindermost 
molar, found 3 miles south of Rogersville, in the bed of Hargus Creek. 
The tooth was found about 1909 or 1910 and passed into the possession of 
Mr. Waychoff; but it had been broken by the finder, who wished to see 
what was in it. The tooth has 8 ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line and the 
form and arrangement of the plates indicate that it belonged to Elephas 
columbi. It is impossible to determine, with the knowledge at command, 
the stage of the Pleistocene to which this animal is to be assigned. 

2. Pittsburgh, Allegheny County. — In 1910 (Science, n. s., vol. xxxi, 
p. 31), an anonymous note stated that there was in Carnegie Museum of 
Natural History an enormous tusk, supposed to be of this species, found 
in the banks of the Allegheny River, in a suburb of Pittsburgh. There is, 
however, no certainty that the tusk was not that of E. primigenius or of 
Mammut am.ericanum. In either case it would be difficult to refer the 
animal to any definite Pleistocene stage. 

3. Tryonville, Crawford County. — In 1892, Mr. H. Roberts sent to the 
Smithsonian Institution considerable parts of a skeleton of Elephas columbi, 
including the hinder part of a lower molar, probably the penultimate. These 
remains had been found in digging a cellar in Tryonville, at a depth of 7 feet. 
Tryonville is on Oil Creek and in the eastern part of the county. From Mrs. 
A. A. O'Dell, Niagara Falls, New York, daughter of Mr. Roberts, the writer 
learns that the cellar was at a height of 80 feet above the level of Oil 
Creek. Since that time the creek has abandoned its channel at that point. 

OHIO. 
(Maps 12, 36.) 

1. Stark County. — In Princeton University is a large lower left hinder- 
most molar catalogued as having been found in Stark County. The tooth 
has 24 ridge-plates and is worn back to the fourteenth from the front. The 
length from the front of the tooth to the base of the last plate is 315 mm. 
There is no exact record of the locality. The Grand River moraine of the 
Wisconsin ice covers most of this county, so that the animal probably lived 
after the ice had disappeared from that vicinity. 

2. Amboy, Ashtabula County. — In the collection of the Buffalo (New 
York) Natural History Society is a small elephant tooth, evidently a 
second milk molar, found at Amboy. It is regarded by the writer as 
belonging to Elephas columbi. There are present 7 ridge-plates and all 
have suffered wear. The length from front to rear is 114 mm. 



MICHIGAN — INDIANA. 151 

In the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, is a large lower right 
hindermost molar of an elephant found at Amboy, in the extreme north- 
eastern corner of the State. There is a description and figure of this tooth 
in the Scientific American for January 23, 1904, on page 60. It is there 
called Elephas priniigenius. It presents 23 plates and front and rear talons; 
the length from the base in front to the rear of the hinder talon is 295 mm. 
There are from 6 to 8 plates in a 100-mm. line. The tooth was found 
between 1890 and 1900 in a gravel-pit near Amboy, worked by the Lake 
Shore Railroad. In the same pit was discovered a tusk which may have 
belonged to the same animal. A tooth of Elephas primigenius at the 
Buffalo Society of Natural History was probably found at the same place. 
The writer is informed by Professor Frank R. Van Horn, of the Case School 
of Applied Science, that the deposit consists of interstratified sands and 
gravels and is supposed to be the delta formation of the old Conneaut River. 
Its thickness was from 50 to 75 feet. In this deposit was driftwood, 
arranged in such regular order that it suggested the idea that it had formed 
part of a corduroy road. 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Jackson County. — In 1863 (Canad. Naturalist and Geologist, vol. viii, 
p. 399), Alexander Winchell described an elephant tooth (No. 3163), found 
in this county. This is now in the collection at the University of Michigan, 
labeled Elephas jacksoni. The writer regards it as belonging to E. colu7nbi. 
It is the much- worn hindermost tooth of the left side of the lower jaw. 
There are present 17 plates, and about 7 are missing from the front end. 
Above the bases of the rear plates are only 5 in a 100-mm. line; on 
the worn face are 7 plates in this distance. The anterior plates lean back- 
ward with respect to the base, while the hinder ones lean forward. The 
plates are more or less bent between base and apex. The Kalamazoo 
morainic system crosses the middle of Jackson County, running east and 
west. 

In 1861 (1st Bien. Rep. Geol. Surv. Michigan, p. 132), Professor Winchell 
mentioned this tooth and stated that it had been found in the northern part 
of the county while a ditch was being made. The locality is, therefore, north 
of the moraine referred to above. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Terre Haute, Vigo County. — In the State Museum at Indianapolis is 
a fine lower left molar of E. columbi, labeled as found, in 1896, near Terre 
Haute, on the farm of Aaron Conover, and presented by Earl Conover. 
Mr. Herbert C. Anderson, county surveyor of Vigo County, informed the 
writer that the farm is located in the southwest quarter of section 9, town- 
ship 12 north, range 9 west. This is 3.5 miles north of Terre Haute. The 
place is near Wabash River and the deposit is probably outwash from one 
of the ice-sheets. The depth at which the tooth was found is given as 18 
feet. The length from the top of the anterior plate to the base of the hinder- 



152 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

most is 380 mm.; width of worn face 100 mm. The hinder plates lean 
strongly toward the front and there are 6 plates in 100 mm. 

2. Monrovia, Morgan County. — The collection of the State Museum at 
Indianapolis contains the hinder half of what appears to be the lower right 
last molar. This was presented January 10, 1911, by David Hobson, of 
Monrovia, Indiana, and is labeled as found 1.5 miles southeast of Monrovia, 
in a gravel bar in Sycamore Creek. There are present 13 plates, con- 
siderably flexed as they rise from base to summit. 

According to Leverett's glacial map of Indiana, Monrovia is situated on 
the northern edge of the Shelbyville moraine. The tooth seems to have 
been found in Sycamore Creek, on the moraine or near its southern border, 
not far from the northern border of the Illinoian drift area. While the 
possessor of this tooth probably lived during some period of the Wisconsin 
stage, it is possible that the tooth had been washed out of some deposit of 
the Illinoian or of some interglacial deposit laid down between the Illinoian 
and the Wisconsin stages. 

3. Windfall, Tipton County. — In the Morrill collection, in the University 
of Nebraska, Lincoln, there are two teeth, an upper and a lower last molar, 
secured at Windfall by Professor Erwin H. Barbour. These teeth have been 
described and illustrated by the writer (36th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, 
p. 742, plates xxv, xxvi). Windfall is situated on Wisconsin drift, some 
miles west of the more or less morainic belt which marks the northwestward 
continuation of the Union City moraine. 

4. Bringhurst, Carroll County. — In the State Museum at Indianapolis is 
a last molar found some years ago near Bringhurst and presented by Mr. 
John Flora. There are 27 plates present, an unusual number. The length 
of the tooth is 320 mm. from the summit of the first to the base of the 
twenty-sixth. No information was furnished as to the exact place where 
the tooth was found, nor as to the depth and kind of materials. Bringhurst 
is situated on Wisconsin drift, and the animal must have lived at some time 
after the ice retired from the Fowler-Lafayette moraine. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 12, 38.) 

1. Staley, Champaign County. — In the collection at the Universit}^ of 
Illinois the writer has seen a lower last molar recorded as having been 
found by John Early at a point 5.5 miles west and 1.5 miles south of 
Champaign, apparently not far from Staley. It is said to have been 
picked up by a dredge; hence probably in some ditching operations. The 
writer regarded the tooth as belonging to Elephas columbi. 

Apparently this tooth was found very near the outer border of the 
Champaign moraine; hence the animal might have lived at any time 
after the deposition of this moraine. It is more probable, however, that 
this species did not affect such a cold environment, and haunted those 
regions when the climate had greatly ameliorated. 

2. Stronghurst, Henderson County. — In the summer of 1914, Mr. John 
Shick discovered near Stronghurst, in a well, at a depth of 20 feet, four 
elephant teeth. A letter, with photographs of these teeth, sent to the 



ILLINOIS. 153 

U. S. Geological Survey, was shown the writer, who identified the teeth 
as belonging to Elephas columbi, apparently the second and third upper 
deciduous molars, right and left. Tliey were reported to have been found 
in a dark soil. All the region about Stronghurst is occupied by Illinoian 
drift. Since at a depth of 20 feet an old soil was reached it becomes quite 
certain that this represents a pre-Illinoian interglacial deposit, probably 
the Yarmouth stage; and to that must be assigned the time of the ele- 
phant in question. 

3. Chillicothe, Peoria County. — In the palaeontological collection of 
the University of Iowa is a tooth of Elephas columbi, recorded as col- 
lected at Chillicothe by Fred Wachs. It was found in gravel, at a depth 
of 40 feet, but the exact locality is not known. The tooth is the first 
lower true molar. 

It is impossible to determine the geological age of this tooth. Chillicothe 
is situated on Illinois River and within. the area of the Wisconsin drift. The 
valley is filled with deposits brought down from the Wisconsin ice-sheet 
and by late alluvium; but at a depth of 40 feet there might possibly be 
some earlier gravels. 

4. Chicago Heights, Cook County. — From J. H. Knapp, Chicago 
Heights, the writer has received photographs of a lower hindermost molar 
of Elephas columbi, found in Second Creek, 2.5 miles east of Chicago 
Heights. This locality is situated on the Valparaiso moraine and we must 
refer the time of the existence of the elephant to the Late Wisconsin 
stage. 

5. Pawpaw, Lee County. — In the collection of the palaeontological de- 
partment of the University of Nebraska the writer saw a lower molar 
of Elephas columbi (apparently the left second), found at Pawpaw. It 
was presented by Dr. M. H. Everett, of Lincoln, Nebraska. There are 
present 19 ridge-plates, and there are 7 plates in a 100-mm. line. 

On inquiry by the writer Mr. Frank Wheeler, of Pawpaw, furnished 
detailed information. In constructing an ice-pond there was found at a 
depth of 4 feet parts of both hip-bones, a femur 4 feet 4 inches long, 
some much decayed footbones, some vertebrse and ribs, and the head 
and lower jaw. The head is said to have been nearly 3 feet long and 
the lower jaw 26 inches long. In the latter were two huge teeth. It ap- 
pears that the forelegs were present, but much decayed. No tusks were 
found, nor any upper teeth. It was concluded that the animal was 22 
feet 6 inches long and between 15 and 16 feet high; but the dimensions 
were undoubtedly exaggerated. Certain "streaks and mossy fibers" led 
to the conclusion that the animal had been covered with a coat of hair. 
It is probable that all of these remains except the tooth in Lincoln have 
been lost. Undoubtedly, had an expert in exhuming such skeletal remains 
been called in there might have been rescued a large part of the skeleton. 
Up to this time no good skeleton has been secured of E. columbi. 

The place where the skeleton was found is in the southwest quarter 
of the southeast quarter of section 10, township 37 north, range 2 east. 
This is situated on a member of the Bloomington morainic system, a 
moraine left by the Wisconsin ice-sheet. It is evident, therefore, that 



154 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

the skeleton of the elephant liad, during some Late Wisconsin time, fallen 
in a pond and become slowly covered up. 

There is an account of this discovery in F. E. Stevens's "History of Lee 
County, Illinois," 1914, page 527. 

6. Woodhull, Henry County. — In the Galesburg, Illinois, Register of 
May 14, 1911, appeared an account of the finding of three large molars 
and some bones of a supposed mastodon in a clay of a brick and tile 
factory at Woodhull. 

Professor Page L. Baker, superintendent of schools in Woodhull, states 
that first a part, 6 feet 10 inches long, of a tusk was found, 9 inches in 
circumference at the base, 6 inches at the other end. Some scattered 
bony plates supposed to belong to the skull were observed, but no limb- 
bones were found. Five teeth were secured, varying in weight from 6 to 16 
pounds; one had 20 enamel plates, and there were 6 of these plates in 
a 100-mm. line. It can hardly be doubted that the species represented 
was Elephas columhi. 

Professor Baker stated that the pit was about 14 feet deep, the upper 2 
feet consisting of prairie soil, possibly loess. Below this is 10 feet of red 
clay, and then about 2 feet of white clay, resting on a layer of muck. The 
bones were in the white clay, but resting on the muck. The teeth were 
wholly in the white clay. The tusk was removed about 15 feet from the 
teeth. This region is covered by Illinois drift, overlain by loess, sometimes 
of considerable thickness. It does not appear from the depth and char- 
acter of the deposits that the Illinoian drift had been penetrated. The 
muck bed belongs probably to the Sangamon stage, possibly to the lowan. 
The reader is referred to the geological sections found at Galva, about 
18 miles further east (see p. 142). 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Oxjord Neck, Talbot County.— In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 
vol. XI, p. 178), Cope wrote that there had been found on the farm of 
Lambert Kirby, in Oxford Neck, a molar tooth resembling that of a 
half-grown Elephas primigenius or E. columhi. Besides this tooth were 
remains of what Cope called Elephas americanus Leidy. These, it is 
supposed, belonged to Elephas primigenius. The collection referred to had 
been placed in the cabinet of the Baltimore Academy of Sciences; but 
the writer has not seen it. Lucas (Maryland Geol. Surv., Pliocene and 
Pleistocene, 1906, p. 167) describes the teeth from this locality. He iden- 
tified one small tooth as belonging certainly to E. columhi, and a large 
one as probably belonging to tlie same species. 

2. Queen Anne County. — In 1820, Horace H. Hayden (Geolog. Essays, 
p. 121) wrote that he had an enormous grinder of the Asiatic elephant, dug 
up in the county named, on the plantation of Mr. Carmichael. It was 
said to have been enveloped in a stiff blue clay. 

Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill (Cuvier's "Theory of the Earth," 1818, p. 394, 
plate I, figs. 3, 5) mentions and figures the tooth, apparently that of 
Elephas columhi. It is said to have been dug out of the ground by the 
side of a marsh. It was the last upper molar of probably the right side. 



WEST VIRGINIA — NORTH CAROLINA — SOUTH CAROLINA. 155 

WEST VIRGINIA. 
(Map 12.) 
1. Wirt County. — From Professor John L. Tilton, of the University of 
West Virginia, the writer has received for examination a fragment of a 
tooth of Elephas columhi reported to have been found many years ago, 
somewhere in Wirt County along Little Kanawha River. No details have 
been preserved. The thick ridge-plates and the heavy crimped enamel 
betray the species. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 
(Maps 12, 39.) 

L New Hanover County. — In the State Museum at Raleigh, the writer 
has seen a part of a molar tooth of this species consisting of 9 ridge-plates. 
It is said to have been found in the quarry of Ross and Larry. There 
are 8 ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line and the enamel is rather thick. 

Captain E. D. Williams, of Wilmington, has informed the writer tliat 
this quarry is situated about 9 miles below Wilmington, near the Fort 
Fisher road. From a point a little below this Captain Williams secured 
a tooth of Mammut americanum. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Beaufort, Beaufort County. — In 1877, Dr. Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., vol. viii, p. 213) stated that there was in the exhibit of the 
Smithsonian Institution at the exposition at Philadelphia, in 1876, a last 
lower molar of this species, found at Beaufort. The present writer has 
not recognized the tooth in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. 

In Rutgers College are six or more teeth or parts of teeth of E. columbi, 
recorded as coming from Coosaw River. In the collection of Amherst 
College the writer has seen two lower hindermost molars, labeled as col- 
lected in Coosaw River. 

2. Edisto River.- — In the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia there is a fragment of a molar of Elephas columhi, com- 
prising only 2 ridge-plates, recorded as having been found in or on Edisto 
River. The specimen is credited to Dr. H. C. Chapman. While the locality 
is indefinite, it probably was somewhere around Edisto Island. 

3. Charleston, Charleston County. — Numerous teeth of Elephas columhi 
have been found in the region surrounding Charleston. Godman (Amer. 
Nat. Hist., vol. n, p. 257) referred to a statement made by Catesby to 
the effect that negroes had found teeth along Stono River which they 
recognized as those of an elephant. This had previously been mentioned 
by Barton in his "Archa^ologia Americana," 1814. In Holmes's "Post- 
Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina," page 108, Leidy stated that small 
fragments of teeth and bones, usually much water-worn, of the extinct 
elephant are not infrequently found in the Post-Pliocene deposits in the 
vicinity of Ashley River. In a foot-note to this remark, F. S. Holmes 
stated that later a perfect tooth had been discovered and was figured on 
plate XVII ; but the tooth there figured came from Texas. 

In 1870 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, p. 98), Leidy reported that 
he had seen in the collection of C. N. Shepard, at Amherst College, 



156 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

remains of elephant from Ashley River. It is certain that at least a part 
of these remains belonged to Elephas columhi. In the U. S. National 
Museum are teeth, recorded as having been secured from the phosphate 
beds about Charleston. As an example vafxy be mentioned No. 2105, a 
large upper right molar, with 20 ridge-plates. Another has the number 
1614 (Hay, Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, p. 413, plate lxi, fig. 4). 

In the Charleston Museum the writer has seen a lower second milk 
molar (No. 13504) of this species. There are 9 ridge-plates and front 
and rear talons. The length is 123 mm., the width 52 mm., with 8 plates 
in a 100-mm. line. In the same museum is an upper left second milk 
molar (No. 1109) with 8 plates present. The length along the base is 
95 mm.; from the base in front to the rear of the crown 117 mm.; width 
55 mm. This tooth appears to have been found somewhere about Charles- 
ton. In the same museum are other teeth of this species, mostly parts of 
the hindermost molars. Other teeth are found in the private collections 
of Charleston. 

In the American Museum of Natural History, New York, there are 
some teeth (Nos. 13707, 13708) from the vicinity of Charleston which 
are referred to Elephas columhi. One is an upper hindermost molar, worn 
to the base in front and having left 18 plates. There are 6 plates in a 
100-mm. line. The enamel is thick. The length of the tooth is 292 mm.; 
the width, 90 mm. Another is a worn lower tooth with 16 plates. 

Another tooth, either a last milk molar or a first true molar, is not 
worn to the base and retains the front root. There are 12 plates and a 
large talon and a 100-mm. line crosses 8 plates. The enamel is thick and 
considerably festooned. The greatest length of the tooth is 173 mm. 
There is another lower right tooth, probably the last milk molar, which 
presents 11 plates and front and rear talons. There are nearly 8 plates 
in a 100-mm. line. 

Another right lower tooth, apparently the first true molar, 165 mm. 
long on the grinding face, has likewise 8 plates in 100 mm. A part of 
an upper hindermost molar preserves 11 plates. There are 6 plates in 100 
mm. and the enamel is thick and folded. 

For a list of the vertebrate fossils found in the region about Charleston, 
and their geological age, the reader is referred to page 363. 

4. Head of Cooper River, Berkeley County.— In 1802, John Drayton 
(•'A View of South Carohna," p. 40, plate, fig. 5) wrote that elephant 
bones had been discovered in the excavation of a canal joining Santee 
and Cooper Rivers. Drayton's illustration shows that this tooth must 
have belonged to Elephas columbi. The locality was in Biggin Swamp, 
apparently not far from Monks Corner. At the same time and place 
were found remains of Mammut americanwn. The materials are said to 
have been deposited in the Charleston Library. Barton (x^rchseologia 
Amer., p. 22) stated he had examined teeth of both the mastodon and 
the elephant from this place. Richard Harlan (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., ser. 1, vol. iii, p. 66, plate v, fig. 3; Med. Phys. Res. p. 359, plate, 
fig. 3) stated that a tooth of an elephant from the Santee Canal had been 
sent to the Academy at Philadelphia. 



GEORGIA — FLORIDA. 157 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 12.) 

1. Brunswick. Glynn County. — This is the type locality of Elephas 
columbi. This species was based by Falconer (Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
Lond., XIII, 1857, table opposite p. 219) on a part of a tooth received from 
the geologist Charles Lyell and which had been found in the Brunswick 
Canal. The specimen consisted of 10 median plates of a lower second or 
third molar. Falconer figured it in 1868 (Palaeont. Mem., vol. ii, pp. 214, 
221, plate x). Lyell (Second Visit, etc. vol. i, p. 348) noted that an ele- 
phant had been found in excavating the canal. Richard Harlan, in 1842 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. i, p. 189) , stated that a large collection 
of bones of various animals had been presented to the Academy by J. 
Hamilton Couper, of Darien, Georgia. Among these were teeth of E. 
primigenius. Couper, in 1848 (Hodgson's Memoir, etc., p. 45), stated 
that two lower jawbones with teeth, several loose teeth, two tusks, and 
several vertebrae of Elephas primigenius had been collected in the canal 
during 1838 and 1839. These remains quite certainly belonged to Elephas 
columbi unless possibly some belonged to E. imperator. 

Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, 1869, p. 254) records the 
presence in the collection of the Academy of a lower molar of E. columbi. 
The present writer has seen in this collection parts of four teeth of this 
species which had been sent from the Brunswick Canal, doubtless parts of 
the Couper collection. The species are listed on page 369. 

2. Skidaioay Island, near Savannah, Chatham County. — Lyell (Second 
Visit, etc., vol. i, p. 314) reported that Elephas primigenius had been 
found at this place, with Megatherium, Mylodon, Mastodon, and what 
was doubtless a species of Bison. Habersham, in 1846 (Hodgson's 
Memoir, etc., p. 29), mentioned two teeth which he identified likewise 
as E. primigenius. These elephant teeth are all to be referred with much 
certainty to E. columbi. 

For the examination of the geology about Savannah the reader is 
referred to page 371, map 40. 

FLORIDA. 

(Maps 12, 13.) 

1. &t. Marks River, Wakulla County. — In 1870 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1870, p. 98), Leidy stated that from this place there was in the 
collection of the Natural History Society of Boston a molar of the thick- 
plated variety of elephant. The grinding-surface, irregular and worn so 
as to present a terraced appearance, has a length of 8.5 inches and in- 
cluded 11 ridge-plates. The species is quite certainly Elephas columbi. 

It may be mentioned that Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., 
p. 103) reported that part of a skeleton of a mastodon or of an elephant 
had been obtained from Wakulla Spring by Mr. John L. Thomas. This 
is near Crawfordville. 

2. Station 120, Duval Cowni?/.— Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Florida, p. 106) reported that Elephas columbi had been discovered at 
Station 120, on the Inland Waterway Canal. At the same place had been 



158 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

found Mammut americanum, an undetermined species of Bison, and an 
undetermined si3ecies of Odocoileus. The locality is probably 5 miles south 
of Pablo Beach. 

3. Citra, Marion County. — In January 1914, the writer saw at Ward's 
Establishment, at Rochester, New York, the hinder half of a lower left 
hindermost molar of Elephas columhi, labeled as found at Citra. No 
details were preserved respecting the history of the tooth. There were 6 
ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line. 

4. Near Mantanzas, St. John County. — At the residence of Fred R. Allen, 
St. Augustine, Florida, the writer has seen parts of four hindermost molars, 
three upper and one lower, of Elephas columhi, found in the Inland Water- 
way Canal, near his farm, 28 miles south of St. Augustine, apparently not 
far from Mantanzas. At the same place have been found Mammut 
americanum, E quits sp., Mylodon harlani, and Terrapene antipex. Sellards 
(8th Rep. p. 106) adds to this list an undetermined species of Bison and one 
of Odocoileus. 

5. Ocala, Marion County. — From this place Leidy (Trans. Wagner Inst., 
vol. II, p. 17, plate iii, figs. 6-9) has described and figured a first and a 
second milk molar. The figures have been reproduced by the writer (Iowa 
Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, plate lxi, figs. 2, 3, 5, 6). These teeth certainly 
belong to Elephas columhi. They were found in a fissure in a limestone 
rock, near Ocala, in the property of Mr. F. M. Phillips. With them were 
a part of a skull of Smilodon fioridanus, teeth of a horse which Leidy 
referred to his Equus fraternus (=£/. leidyi) , and teeth supposed to belong 
to the little camel Procamelus (Auckenia) minimus. These fossils were 
referred to the Pliocene, but apparently there is not sufficient reason for 
doing so. The geology of the locality is treated on page 378. 

6. Dunnellon, Marion County. — In the collection of the Florida Geological 
Survey, No. 2232, is a part of the rear of what is regarded as a hindermost 
upper molar, found in a phosphate mine near Dunnellon. There are 7 
ridge-plates, but some are missing from the front and some from the rear. 
The height of the front plate present is 210 mm. ; the width is 82 mm. There 
are 6 plates in a 100-mm. line. This tooth is rem.arkable because of its 
thinness. It is possibly a more anterior tooth, but is rather high to be such. 

The geology of the neighborhood of Dunnellon and a list of the species 
collected there are to be found on page 376. 

7. Holder, Citrus County. — In the collection of Dr. PI. G. Bystra, chemist 
of the Buttgenbach river mine, is a fragment of a tooth of Elephas columhi, 
found in the mine, on Withlacoochee Ptiver, a few miles north of Holder, in 
section 29, township 17 south, range 19 east. In the same collection are a 
fragment of an upper and one of a lower molar, found in the same place in 
dredging for phosphate rock. 

21, Sumterville, Sumter County. — In the collection of the Florida Geo- 
logical Survey (No. 240) is a single plate of a tooth of Elephas columhi, 
found by Dr. Sellards 3 miles east of Holder. 

16. Daytona, Volusia County. — In 1916 (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. 
Surv., p. 105), Sellards stated that Mr. Morris, of Daytona, had found in a 
marl-pit a tooth of Elephas columhi. As stated on page 122, remains of 



FLORIDA. 159 

Mammut americanum have been found in similar pits. In these pits were 
collected a piece of a tusk of a proboscidean and a rib of a whale, thought 
to belong to the genus Balcenoptera. 

In the Fifth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey, on pages 
222 to 225, are presented the logs of artesian wells put down at Daytona. 
In one well was found a bed of white marl at a depth of 6 feet, having a 
thickness of 9 feet. It is possible that this corresponds to the marl-bed 
which furnished the elephant and whale, and it may belong to the first 
glacial stage. 

8. Tampa, Hillsboro County. — In the collection of Heidelberg University, 
TiflSn, Ohio, the writer has seen a fragment consisting of two plates of an 
upper molar of Elephas columbi, labeled as having been found at Tampa. 

9. St. Petersburg , Pinellas County. — In the museum of the State Univer- 
sity at Gainesville, Florida, is an upper left second molar of Elephas columbi 
recorded as having been found at Indian Rock, a village near St. Peters- 
burg, in the peninsula west of Tampa Bay. The tooth is covered with 
barnacles and had evidently been in salt-water. No other information was 
secured respecting the tooth. 

10. Kingsford, Polk County. — In the collection of Yale University is a 
fragment of a lower molar of Elephas columbi, recorded as having been 
found at Kingsford. It was obtained under 19 feet of phosphate rock and 
sand. The collector was Juan C. Edmundoz. There are present 5 coarse 
plates. The tooth belongs possibly to E. imperator. As recorded on 
another page, teeth of horses have been found in the same situation. If 
correctl}'- reported, they belong, with the phosphate, to the Nebraskan stage 
of the Pleistocene. 

20. Palma Sola, Manatee County. — There has been sent to the U. S. 
National Museum, with other fossils, a fragment of a tooth of Elephas 
columbi, washed up on the beach at Palma Sola, and found by Mr. Chas. T. 
Earle. Besides the elephant tooth were fragments of deer antlers, several 
teeth of Equus complicatus, a few of E. leidyi, one of E. littoralis, and an 
astragalus and a metapodial of Bison latijronsf . These all belong appar- 
ently to early Pleistocene. With them came teeth of sharks, a beak of a 
porpoise, and the distal end of a metapodial of a camel, all probably washed 
out of Miocene or Pliocene deposits in the neighborhood. 

11. Sarasota, Sarasota County. — In the American Museum of Natural 
History are two fragments of teeth of Elephas columbi collected about 8 
miles southeast of Sarasota by Mr. Barnum Brown, in 1911; one consists 
of three, the other of two plates. With them were found fragments of 
extinct turtles and a dermal plate of an edentate, possibly of Chlamy- 
therium; also several teeth of horses. 

18. Eau Gallie, Brevard County. — Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. 
Surv., p. 105) announced that teeth of Elephas columbi and of Equus com- 
plicatus had been found in the Hopkins Drainage Canal. 

17. Fellsmcre, St. Lucie County. — Sellards (op. cit., p. 105) reported a 
tooth or teeth of Elephas columbi found in a drainage canal at this place. 

12. Vero, St. Lucie County. — Numerous fragments of teeth of Elephas 
columbi have been found at Vero. The geology will be discussed on pages 



160 ELEPHAS COLUMBI. 

381 to 383, and a list of the fossil vertebrates that have been found at Vero 
will be presented. 

13. Zolfo, Hardee County. — In the American Museum of Natural History 
(No. 15546) is the right ramus with the symphysis and one tooth of Elephas 
columbi. The tooth is quite certainly the hindermost one. Thirteen plates 
are present and a number must have worn out and disappeared from the 
front. Zolfo is on Peace Creek. 

14. Arcadia, De Soto County. — Numerous remains of Elephas columbi 
have been found at Arcadia and vicinity, mostly in the course of dredging 
for phosphate. Tlie geology of the region is discussed on pages 380—381 
and a list presented of fossil vertebrates found there. 

Leidy (Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. ii, p. 22, plate vii) figured a very large 
tooth found at Arcadia. It has 27 plates and is 400 mm. long. There are 
6 plates in a 100-mm. line. This tooth is in the collection of the Wagner 
Institute in Philadelphia. Leidy recorded also a part of a last molar, 
now in the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. 

In the collection of the Public Museum at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an 
upper, left, hindermost molar labeled as found in the phosphate beds of 
Peace Creek, probably at Arcadia. It was presented by Mr. Ad. Meinecke. 
There are 6 plates and a little more in a 100-mm. line. Teeth, Nos. 319 and 
1991, from Arcadia, are in the U. S. National Museum. No. 1571 of the 
Florida Geological Survey was found 6 miles north of Arcadia. 

15. Tourner's, Glades County — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 
8088) is a part of a tooth of Elephas columbi sent by J. M. Purvis, 
Tourner's, Florida. It was reported as having been collected on the 
Calloosahatchie River at the place named. This place (spelled also 
Turner's) appears to be near Thompson's and probably in township 43 
south, range 29 east. This tooth appears to be the penultimate milk molar; 
there are 9 ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line. The enamel is thin and much 
folded. 

Leidy (Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. ii, p. 23) recorded the discovery of a 
last molar tooth of E. columbi at some point on the river mentioned. The 
tooth is in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Dall (Bull. 
84, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 129) on the authority of Leidy stated that Bison 
latifrons and Equus jraternus had been found in the Pliocene beds along 
this river. It is probable that he used B. latifrons in a wide sense. Sellards 
(8th Rep., p. 102) shows that at least the elephant and the horse were from 
the Pleistocene. 

19. Palm Beach, Palm Beach County. — Sellards, in his Eighth Annual 
Report, page 105, stated that there had been secured from the Palm Beach 
Canal for the drainage of the Everglades, teeth of Elej)has columbi, as well 
as those of Equus complicatus and Mammut americanwn, and a femur of a 
species of Bison. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 12.) 
1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences 
at Philadelphia the writer has seen a number of teeth which belong to 
Elephas cohimbi, found at Bigbone Lick. Whether or not these are part 



KENTUCKY. 161 

of the collection given by President Thomas Jefferson the writer has 
not learned. One of these teeth has been described and figured by the 
writer (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, p. 737, plate xxii, fig. 1). It is 
identified as the upper hindermost milk molar, is wholly unworn, and shows 
well the form of the crown before it came into action. In that stage the 
roots are almost wholly undeveloped. The length taken at right angles 
with the plates is 145 mm. For remarks on the geology of this locality and 
a list of the species of vertebrates the reader is referred to pages 401 to 404. 
2. Mouth of Big Twin Creek, Oicen County. — In the American Museum of 
Natural History are two fine teeth and a lower jaw, with the ascending rami 
missing, found where the creek opens into Kentucky River. From the 
finders, Mr. H. B. Ogden and his son, the writer learned that the jaw was 
about on a level with the water. They had fastened their boat to it, think- 
ing it was a stump. The top of the bluff was about 35 feet above the water. 
Some other bones were secured, among them a humerus. The bones were 
in a mixture of what Mr. Ogden called hardpan and sand. No certain state- 
ments can be made about the geological age of this specimen. It might well 
be pre-Wisconsin. 



162 ELEPHAS IMPERATOR. 

FINDS OF ELEPHAS IMPERATOR IN SOUTHEASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 14.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — A number of teeth of Elephas im- 
perator have been seen by the writer in the collections made in the vicinity 
of Charleston. 

No. 13557 of the Charleston Museum is a right ramus of the lower jaw 
containing the hindermost molar. Sixteen plates are counted, but it is 
probable that about two are missing from the front. There is no indica- 
tion that there was another tooth behind it. The exact locality of discovery 
is not known. In the Frost collection is a part (8 plates) of a lower right 
last molar, which must be referred to this species. Seen on the inner face 
are only four ridge-plates in a 100-mm. line. In the collection of Rev. 
Robert Wilson is a fragment of a molar of E. imperator. The four plates 
present occupy 100 mm. of the length of the tooth. 

2. Head of Cooper River, Berkeley County. — Richard Harlan (Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. iii, 1823, p. 66, plate v, fig. 2; Med. Phys. Res., 
p. 359, plate, fig. 2) described briefly and figured an elephant tooth found 
in constructing the Santee Canal, probably in Biggin Swamp, where the 
remains of Mammut americanum and Elephas columbi were discovered. 
The tooth was a large one, the greatest diagonal length being 14.5 inches 
(368 mm.). It had been worn back quite to the rear, the trituration having 
affected 15 ridge-plates. This worn face measured 9 inches (228 mm.). 
Harlan stated that on this grinding-face 5 inches was occupied by 6 enamel 
plates and 7 plates of cement. An estimate shows that a 100-mm. line 
would cross 5 of the ridge-plates. Had this tooth possessed the number 
(24) of ridge-plates usually found in E. columbi, its length would have 
been 20 inches or more. 

FLORIDA. 

(Maps 14, 15.) 

1. Dunnellon, Marion County. — In the collection of the Florida Geologi- 
cal Survey (Nos. 2233, 2234) are two fragments of teeth of an elephant 
dredged from Withlacoochee River at Dunnellon, presented by Mr. F. J. 
Titcomb. The teeth are regarded by the writer as being lower last molars, 
although the plates run nearly directly across the grinding-surfaces. They 
may belong to one individual. No. 2233 presents six plates; five of these 
occupy a line 100 mm. in length. They are much bent as they ascend, so 
that their hinder faces are very concave. The enamel is moderately thick. 

The tooth (No. 2234) has been figured by Dr. Sellards of the natural size 
(8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 85, fig. 12). As shown by that figure, 
the ridge-plates of the rear portion have a thickness of 25 mm. or even more. 
Taken all together there are hardly 5 in 100 mm. If that tooth had 
belonged to Elephas colmnhi and had had 24 plates, the length would have 
been about 25 inches, which is hardly to be supposed. 



FLORIDA. 163 

2. Vero, St. Lucie County. — In the eiglith Annual Report of the Geologi- 
cal Survey of Florida, Dr. E. H. Sellards described and figured (p. 150, 
plate XXV, fig. 1) a lower jaw of an elephant which had been found near 
Vero. He referred it to Elephas columhi, but noted the coarseness of the 
plates and its resemblance to E. imperator. The specimen was found 3 
miles west of Vero, along the bank of the drainage canal. It was embedded 
in a matrix of brown sand, a stratum of which rests on the marine shell- 
marl which underlies that region. It is evident that a number of plates 
are missing from the front and that the tooth is the hindermost one. If the 
jaw had belonged to E. columhi with 24 plates, the length of the teeth 
would have been about 440 mm. In case the tooth is that of E. imperator, 
there were probably about six more plates in front originally and the tooth 
had a length of about 330 mm. The width appears to be about 90 mm. 
In the collection at Amherst College is a fragment of a lower right molar, 
probably the hindermost, of this species. Six plates are represented. It is 
well worn down, with a very concave grinding-surface. The plates are close 
to 25 mm. thick. The exact place where the tooth was found is not men- 
tioned on the label, but it was somewhere about Vero. 

3. Labelle, Lee County. — In the report just cited (p. 112, fig. 46), Sellards 
described briefly and illustrated a tooth he secured in Caloosahatchee River 
in 1914. Notes taken by the writer are to the effect that it was found on 
the north bank of the river, at the first bend above Labelle, probably in 
Lee County and in township 43 south, range 29 east. 

The length of this tooth, as preserved, is 310 mm. from the base in front 
to the rear of the talon. There are 12 ridge-plates present, but evidently 
some are gone from the front. There are 5 of these plates in a 100-mm. 
line, taken at the middle of their height. Sellards's statement that his figure 
is one-fifth the natural size is evidently an error for one-third. 

If this tooth belonged to E. columhi and had the usual number of plates, 
24, the length would have been near 600 mm., a size not probable. If it 
belonged to E. imperator, as the writer thinks it did, the original length was 
somewhere near 450 mm., a more reasonable, but at the same time, an 
unusual dimension. ' 

4. Everglades. — In the American Museum of Natural History, New York 
(No. 8068), is a part of a tooth once supposed to belong to the Indian 
elephant and said to have been mentioned somewhere by the geologist J. D. 
Dana as having been found in the Everglades. It appears to be well fossil- 
ized. It is apparently the second true molar of the right side. There are 
12 plates, of which 5 occupy a line 100 mm. long. Some plates are evi- 
dently missing from the front. The writer believes that this tooth belongs 
to Elephas imperator. 

5. Arcadia, De Soto County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 189) 
is a part of the left ramus of the lower jaw of an elephant recorded as 
having been found on Peace Creek. This jaw was collected by J. Eras 
Le Baron, and in a report made to Professor S. F. Baird in 1881, he indi- 
cated that this fossil, with many others which he had sent to the Smith- 
sonian Institution, had been found somcv^'here along Peace Creek between 
the mouth of Little Charlie Apopka Creek and tide-water, but the place 



164 ELEPHAS IMPERATOR. 

is no more exactly designated; in am'' case not many miles away from 
Arcadia. It, with other Pleistocene fossils, was found in gravel overlying 
a soft yellow limestone about 4.5 feet thick. 

The jaw has been described and figured by Leidy (Trans. Wagner Inst., 
vol. II, p. 23, plate viii, fig. 2) as Elephas columbi. He stated that eight of 
the ridges occupy a space of 6.4 inches. His estimate was, however, made 
near the grinding-surface of the tooth, where the plates converge. The 
writer has removed the bone and some of the cement from the inner face 
of the tooth, so as better to expose the edges of the plates. It is found that 
four of the enamel plates, with the corresponding cement plates, occupy 
100 mm. The plates are too coarse for the tooth to be that of Elephas 
columbi. The length of the tooth, in a straight line along the base, is 260 
mm. Had the tooth originally had 22 plates, a moderate number for E. 
columbi, the total length would have been 500 mm. or more. Meanwhile, 
the width is only 85 mm. There are now 12 plates left, and there were at 
first probably 18. The original length was probably about 400 mm. or 
less. Leidy thought that the 12 plates present represented the complete 
number entering into the constitution of the tooth, but the exposure of the 
base of the tooth in front shows that a number of plates had been worn 
out and lost. 

The species of vertebrates found along Peace River in the vicinity of 
Arcadia and their geological age are discussed on pages 380-381. 

6. Palmetto, Manatee County. — From Mr. J. C. Hennessy, of Palmetto, 
the U. S. National Museum has received a part of a lower left hindermost 
molar of Elephas im.perator, found by him on January 10, 1917, on the 
north shore of Manatee River, within the corporate limits of Palmetto. 
The specimen presents seven ridge-plates and part of an eighth. Portions 
of the tooth are missing from both ends. The distance across five plates 
is 106 mm. The width across the worn face is 100 mm., the height of the 
hindermost plate present 150 mm. The enamel is strongly plicated. The 
tooth certainly belongs to Elephas imperator. The whole length of the 
tooth in its complete state was about 360 mm. Had it belonged to E. 
columbi, with 24 plates, the length would have been about 480 mm. (19 
inches). 

ALABAMA. 

(Map 14.) 
1. Bogue Chitto, Dallas County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a 
lower left molar which belongs to this species. It was collected by Law- 
rence Johnson, of the U. S. Geological Survey. It is worn down to the 
base in front and some plates have thus disappeared. Parts of seven plates 
and the hinder talon remain. The width of the grinding-face is 90 mm. 
At the third plate from the rear the height of the crown is 97 mm. The 
hinder border of the tooth is obtusely keeled and there are no indications 
that there was another tooth behind it. It seems necessary, therefore, to 
regard it as the hindermost molar. The large hinder root was developed, 
but hollow to contain the pulp. The anterior root is entirely missing. The 
plates of the crown turn backward strongly. Of these plates there are on 



ALABAMA. 165 

the inner face of the tooth hardly four in a 100-mm. hnc; on the outer face, 
only four. The enamel is rather strongly folded and of moderate thickness. 

With this tooth there came from the same place a molar of Equus leidyi 
and some fragments of teeth of Mammut americanum. The writer believes 
that these species show the presence, along Bogue Chitto, of Pleistocene 
deposits of about Aftonian age. 

2. "Near Gulf of Mexico." — J. C. Warren, in the second edition of his 
work, "The Mastodon giganteus of North America," 1855, page 162, plate 
XXVIII, figure a, described and figured a part of a large upper molar, prob- 
ably the hindermost, of an elephant which, as the writer believes, belongs 
to Elephas imperator. Warren stated merely that this tooth had been 
found in Alabama, near the Gulf of Mexico. He regarded the tooth as 
belonging to Elephas primigenius and representing a form with extremely 
thick plates. Falconer (Pala^ont. Mem., vol. i, p. 227) described the tooth 
with somewhat more accuracy than did Warren, although he had only a 
cast of the tooth. He stated that the specimen presented the middle por- 
tion of an enormous last upper molar of the right side. This tooth had lost 
part of the front by wear and the rear by fracture. There were preserved 
eight complete ridges and a half of another in front. Falconer said that 
it bore a close resemblance to the Bollaert tooth found at San Filipe, in 
Texas, a tooth described in The Geologist, of London, in 1861, 1862, volumes 
IV and V. He gave the length of the fragment, measured at the base, as 7 
inches; the length of the eight hinder ridges, at the base, 6.6 inches; the 
width of the crown at the third ridge, 4.6 inches; the greatest width behind, 
4.9 inches; the height of the last ridge, 8 inches. The average thickness of 
the plates, including the cement, was 0.8 inch. Warren's figure shows that 
the enamel is well crimped. Falconer referred the tooth, with some doubt, 
to Elephas columhi, but he was not well acquainted with E. imperator. The 
present writer believes that the tooth belongs to the last species named. 
It is now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. The 
width of the grinding surface is 110 mm. There are 5 plates in a 100-mm. 
line. The plates are not curved. The enamel is thick and festooned. 



166 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

FINDS OF ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES 
IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

The rather numerous specimens of elephants here described are those 
whose specific identity can not at present be determined. Often the dis- 
covery of elephant remains, especially of teeth, has been reported without 
any attempt at description or identification; or they may have been 
referred to Elephas primigenius at a time when no specific distinctions were 
recognized among our elephants. In probably most cases the specimens 
reported have been lost. The great majority of them belonged either to 
Elephas primigenius or to E. columhi. It has seemed worth while to keep 
record of these unidentified specimens; for equally with the others they 
show the presence of Pleistocene deposits. 

UNGAVA. 

1. Long Island, James Bay. — In 1898 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. ix, 
p. 371, fig. 1), Robert Bell reported the discovery of an elephant tooth on 
Long Island, identified by Boyd Dawkins as that of Elephas columbi; 
by Cope as probably a variety intermediate between E. columbi and E. 
primigenius. No measurements were given by Bell, and the tooth was 
figured obliquely, so its proportions can hardly be determined. Cope 
regarded it as a hindermost molar, but it appears to be a last milk molar 
or a first true molar. It is remarkable for the great thickness of the ce- 
ment between the enamel plates. 

The tooth was reported found on the naked rock of an island nearly 
bare of soil. It might be supposed that a tooth thus exposed would soon 
have been destroyed by weathering. Lucas (Geol. Surv. Maryland, 
Pleistocene vol., p. 151) expressed the opinion that it had been carried there 
by water or ice. One might suppose it had been brought to the island by 
human agency. Of its geological age nothing can be said, except that it 
is Pleistocene. This locality is not marked on the map of elephants of 
undetermined species, as it lies somewhat too far north. 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 16.) 

1. St. Catharines, Lincoln County. — In 1866 (Cat. Casts Foss., p. 37, 
fig.), Henry A. Ward represented a cast of an elephant tooth which ap- 
pears to be the lower right hindermost molar. The original is stated to 
have been found at St. Catharines and to be in a museum at Niagara. 
It is possible that this is the tooth described on another page as Elephas 
columhi and now in the Victoria Museum at Toronto; but, while Ward's 
figure represents the greater length of the tooth as worn, in the other 
tooth only 6 plates are worn. It is possible that the figure is incorrectly 
drawn. 

2. Hamilton, Wentworth County.— In 1904 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 
vol. XV, p. 352), Coleman mentioned the finding of mammoth remains in 
a tunnel excavated through Burlington Heights, near Hamilton, and in a 
gravel-pit about a mile farther westward. A tusk and some bones were 



VERMONT NEW YORK. 167 

secured, but nothing by means of which tlie species may be identified. 
One page 147 is described the jaw of E. columbi, discQ-scred at Burling- 
ton Heights. Logan (Geol. Canada, 1863, pp. 966, 967) illustrated the 
jaw just mentioned by two figures, 496, 498, of the symphysis of an ele- 
phant, found at Hamilton. Possibly this bone belonged to E. primigenius. 

3. Toronto, York County. — In 1895 (Jour. Geol., vol. in, p. 641), Cole- 
man reported that in 1894 a tooth of a mammoth had been found on Don 
River, north of Toronto, at a point where the stream flows over the middle 
till of the region and cuts away banks showing stratified sand and in some 
cases the upper till. The tooth may, therefore, belong to the interglacial 
beds, but possibly to the late glacial. In 1901 (Jour. Geol., vol. ix, p. 
291), the same author indicated the possible occurrence of mammoth or 
mastodon in the Don Valley beds. This was recorded in 1900 (Rep. Brit. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci., p. 330). On page 300 (Jour. Geol., vol. ix) it is stated 
that an ulna of a mammoth or mastodon had been found in interglacial 
beds in Toronto, possibly in deposits representing the cold-climate Scar- 
boro beds; but as it showed glacial scratches it may have been lying on 
the surface at the time of the Wisconsin ice advance. Even in the latter 
case the bone can, it would seem, be referred to an interglacial stage. 

In 1899 (Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xii, p. 194), Coleman stated that 
teeth of mammoths had been discovered in a bar, a part of the Iroquois 
beach at York, east of Toronto. 

VERMONT. 

(Map 16.) 
1. Richmond, Chittenden County. — Edward Hitchcock (Geol. Surv. 
Vermont, 1861, p. 176) stated that in 1858 remains of an elephant had 
been found in Richmond, but no details were furnished. One of the teeth 
is still preserved in the University of Vermont. The writer regards the 
species as indeterminable. 

NEW YORK. 
(Map 16.) 

1. Seneca Lake. — In 1858 (Geol. Surv. North Carolina, East. Counties, 
p. 200), Emmons stated that a tooth belonging to the elephant had been 
taken from the beach of Seneca Lake. When this happened, exactly 
where, and what was done with the tooth, the present writer does not 
know. 

2. Wellsburg, Chemung County. — In 1793 (Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., 
vol. II, pt. 1, p. 164), Timothy Edwards reported a horn or bone of some 
animal had been found in Chemung, or Tyoga, River, about 12 miles from 
Tyoga Point. Mr. F. W. Ashley, of the Library of Congress, informed the 
writer that Tyoga Point was a former name of the present town of Athens, 
Pennsylvania. Whether the tusk was really found in Pennsylvania or in 
New York is uncertain, nor is it any more certain that the tusk was that 
of an elephant and not of a mastodon. The fragment was 6 feet 9 inches 
long, with a circumference of 21 inches at the base and 15 inches at the 
other extremity. It was estimated to have formed an arc 10 or 12 feet 
long of a semicircle. 



168 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

Mather, in 1843 (Geol. 4th Distr., pp. 233, 636), stated that bones of 
both the mastodon and the elephant had been found in Orange County. 
On page 44 of the same volume he stated that bones supposed to belong 
to an elephant had been found 2 miles west of Greenville, in Greene 
County. Hall regarded them as belonging to a mastodon. The case is 
doubtful. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Chmnbersburg, Franklin County. — In 1806 (Phila. Med. and Phys. 
Jour., vol. II, pt. 1, p. 157) , Dr. B. S. Barton reported remains of a mammoth 
foimd at Chambersburg. 

2. Pittsburgh, Allegheny County. — In 1875 (Proc. Acad. Natural Sci., 
Phila., p. 121), Leidy exhibited drawings of an elephant tooth, dredged up 
at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at Pittsburgh. 
The tooth was nearly entire and weighed slightly less than 16 pounds. 
Leidy referred the tooth to Elephas americanus, but whether it was E. 
primige?iius or E. columbi can not be determined. 

3. Meadville, Crawjord County. — In the Geologist, of London, volume 
V, 1862, on page 431, it was stated that Mr. A. B. Ruhmond, of Mead- 
ville, had reported to the Scientific American the discovery of mammoth 
remains in the excavation of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad 
at French Creek. No further information was furnished. In this case 
the remains might have been those of a mastodon. 

4. Girard, Erie County. — In the Erie Public Museum are three tusks, 
said to have been found near Girard; one is about 4 feet long; another 
somewhat longer. They are slender and probably belonged to Elephas 
primigenius, but there is no certainty about this. 

OHIO. 
(Maps 16, 36.) 

1. Little Salt Creek, Jackson County. — Somewhere along this creek was 
discovered the lower jaw and its teeth, to which was first given the name 
Elephas jacksoni. The creek, with its branches, gathers up the waters of 
the central part of the county and leaves the county at its northwest corner. 

The first notice of this jaw appears to have been given in 1838 (First 
Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Ohio, pp. 96, 97) by C. Briggs, assistant geologist 
of the survey. He stated that with some other bones it had been found, 
by unnamed persons, about 1835, in the bank of a branch of Salt Creek, 
in the northwest part of the county. A second search, made by Briggs 
and Foster, brought to light fragments of the skull, two teeth, and some 
other parts of the skeleton. Parts of the tusk in a frail condition were 
secured. It is interesting to learn that the tusk measured on the outer 
curve 10 feet 9 inches. The writer has been unable to learn what has 
become of these bones; none is in the collection of the State University 
at Columbus. The report made by Briggs on this specimen was reprinted 
in the American Journal of Science, volume xxxiv, 1838, page 358, in a 
review of Mather's First Annual Report. The author of the review was 
almost certainly J. W. Foster. An unsigned letter, apparently also by 



OHIO. 169 

Foster, follows, in which are poor figures of the jaw and one of the teeth. 
In this letter the name Elephas jacksoni is applied to the remains. In 
1839 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxvi, p. 190), Foster contributed a figure 
of one of the teeth, probably a hindermost molar, but it is uncertain 
whether it represents the whole tooth or the remaining part of a worn 
one; nor is the amount of reduction indicated. The present writer finds 
it impossible to decide whether the tooth belongs to Elephas primigenius 
or E. columbi. 

2. Beverly, Washington County. — In 1874 (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. ii, 
pt. 1, p. 471), Mr. E. B. Andrews reported that, several years before he 
wrote, parts of the skeleton of a huge mammoth had been dug up in 
Beverly. Among other parts were several large teeth in good preserva- 
tion, one of which was deposited in the cabinet of Marietta College; but 
the writer has not been able to learn anything about it. A Dr. Bowen, 
of Water ford Township, was said to have found, somewhere farther up 
Muskingum River, a shoulder-blade of a mammoth; but this locality 
must have been in Morgan County. The identification of the species is 
also questionable. 

3. Nashport, Muskingum County. — J. W. Foster (Geol. Surv. Ohio, 
vol. II, 1838, p. 80) reported a molar and a tusk of an elephant had been 
dug up at Nashport, in excavating a canal. With these had been found 
remains of a mastodon, of Castoroides, and of a supposed sheep. More 
probabty the latter was an intrusion of a domestic sheep. These remains 
had been preserved in the Zanesville Athenaeum, but the writer can get 
no trace of them. 

4. Ross County. — In 1866 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. xv, art. 3, 
p. 15), Charles Whittlesey reported he had seen remains of elephant in 
alluvial muck in Ross County, at an elevation of about 50 feet above 
the bottom land of the Scioto Valley. The locality was no more exactly 
defined and one can not determine whether it is within the Wisconsin 
area, that of the Illinoian, or that not glaciated. According to Leverett 
(Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv. xli, p. 259), what appears to be an Illinoian 
terrace along Scioto River opposite Chillicothe stands 120 feet above 
the river, while the Wisconsin terrace is 60 feet lower. The elephant 
remains were probably on the Wisconsin terrace. 

5. Cincinnati, Hamilton County. — In 1843 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 
XII, p. 127), Lyell wrote that both elephant and mastodon teeth had been 
found in the gravelly beds of the higher terraces on the right bank of 
the river at Cincinnati. In his "Travels in North America" (vol. ii, 1845, 
p. 59), Lyell was more definite in his statement. He stated that near 
the edge of the higher terrace, in digging a gravel-pit, which he saw open 
at the end of Sixth street, a tooth of Elephas primigenius had been dis- 
covered not long before. Dr. E. 0. Ulrich informs the writer that tliis 
w^as probably at the eastern end of the street. Inasmuch as all the ele- 
phant remains of our country were at that time referred to E. primigenius, 
it is doubtful whether the specimen belonged to this species or to E. 
columbi. Professor N. M. Fenneman writes that the "higher terrace" 
here mentioned can be nothing more than the terrace on which the lower 



170 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

city stands, namely, the Wisconsin outwash. He knows of no fragments 
of Illinoian terrace there. 

6. Fort Jefferson, Darke County.— In 1878 (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. in, 
pt. 1, p. 508), Mr. A. C. Lindemuth wrote that Dr. G. Miesse had in 
his collection an almost perfect skeleton of a mammoth, as well as por- 
tions of a mastodon, both of which were found in the peat deposits of 
Mud Creek "prairie." This mastodon is doubtless the one described on 
page 73 and preserved in the Greenville Public Library. Where the 
elephant remains are the writer does not know. The locality appears 
to be in Neave Township (township 11 north, range 2 east). 

7. Circleville, Pickaway County. — In 1834 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxv, 
p. 256), in an unsigned article, the geologist S. P. Hildreth told of having 
a tooth of an elephant which had been found in gravelly diluvium back 
of Circleville. This meant probably somewhere east of the town. 

8. South Bloomfield, Pickaioay County. — In the article just cited, Hil- 
dreth told of securing, near South Bloomfield, teeth of the "American 
elephant," in association with those of the mastodon. They were found 
in excavating for a culvert over a small branch near the town. Hildreth 
described the teeth, so that it is certain that they belonged to an elephant; 
but the species can not be determined. A tooth is described as being 7 
inches broad, 6 inches long, and 3 inches thick. 

9. Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. — In 1886 (Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., 
vol. IV, p. 308), Dr. E. Sterling reported the finding of an elephant 
in a small swamp 3 miles from Cleveland and 2 miles from the lake. The 
swamp had originally occupied about 2 acres of surface. A well-pre- 
served tusk, two vertebrae, three ribs, part of the sacrum, and a molar 
were secured. In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. i, pt. 1, p. 183), J. S. 
Newberry stated that the delta sand deposits, the gravel and sand, which 
form the surface of the Cleveland plateau, had yielded numerous parts 
of the skeletons of mastodon and elephant. 

10. Montville, Geauga County. — In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Ohio, vol. i, 
pt. 1, p. 526), M. C. Read recorded the discovery of remains of an elephant 
at this place. Two tusks were secured, also all the bones of the pelvis, 
seven or eight vertebrae, some ribs, fragments of the skull, and a part 
of one tooth; the latter was not described. The remains were found 
in a small marsh; at the surface was a deposit which had resulted from 
the growth of swamp vegetation; at the bottom was clay; and in this 
clay the bones were buried. They were supposed to have belonged to 
a young animal. 

11. Canton, Stark County. — In Mount Union-Scio College the writer 
has examined a right tibia of a proboscidean reported to have been found 
3 miles northeast of Canton. It is believed to have belonged to one of the 
elephants and not to a mastodon. The following measurements were taken. 

mm. 

Total length 675 

Side-to-side diameter of lower end across the articular surface 200 

Fore-and-aft diameter of lower end across the articular surface 160 

Circumference at middle of length 345 

Side-to-side diameter at middle of length 110 

Fore-and-aft diameter at middle of length 104 

Side-to-side diameter at extreme upper end 245 



MICHIGAN — INDIANA. 171 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 16.) 

1. East Saginaw, Saginmv County. — In 1902 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Michigan for 1901, p. 252), Dr. A. C. Lane reported the tooth of a mam- 
moth found in ditching close to the Pere Marquette shaft No. 2, in East 
Saginaw, and that this had been identified by the taxidermist William 
Richter. The size given, 11 by 5 inches, indicates that it belonged to one 
of the elephants. It was found at a depth of 3 feet or less, and at an 
elevation of about 25 feet above the lake. The writer has been unable 
to get any additional information about this tooth. The locality is within 
the beach-line of the glacial Lake Algonquin, which appears, according to 
Leverett and Taylor (Monogr. liii, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 397), to have stood 
at a lower level than our present Lake Erie. 

2. Macomb County. — Alexander Winchell (1st Bienn. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Michigan, 1861, p. 132), in speaking of an elephant molar found in the 
northern part of Jackson Countj^ added that other remains had been 
found in Macomb County. A. C. Lane (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Michigan 
for 1901, p. 252, foot-note) takes this to refer to the remains of the mam- 
moth. Here again a discovery is made of little value, through the neglect 
to collect accurate information and to preserve the specimen. Macomb 
County, situated on Lake St. Clair, is nearly wholly occupied by deposits 
laid down by the falling glacial lakes from Lake Maumee to Lake Erie. 

3. Grand Ledge, Eaton County. — Former State Geologist A. C. Lane 
(Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Michigan for 1901, p. 252) made the following 
statement : 

"Mr. E. R. Grinold, of Grand Ledge, noticed in ditching north of that town that 
they had cut through a tusk; and through Mr. C. V. Fuller my attention was called. 
I went there and found the remains barely a foot from the surface, in a little low 
swale which Mr. Frank Tabor, the owner, said was a duck pond 40 years ago ; in other 
words, a good place for a large, heavy animal to get mired. We exposed three teeth 
which were plainly those of a mammoth, and were lying just exposed. The teeth 
were, two of them, 8 inches long, the third 6. The tusk had flattened into an ellipse 
about 9 by 5 inches near the butt, and 6 or 7 feet long." 

Grand Ledge is on the south bank of Grand River, in the northern edge 
of the county; likewise on the Lansing moraine, one of the concentric 
moraines laid down by the retreating Saginaw lobe of the Wisconsin ice. 

4. Buchanan, Berrien County. — Mr. W. Hillis Smith, of Niles, Michi- 
gan, informed the writer that in 1899 a drainage ditch was being made 
through the Bakerstown marsh, south and west from Buchanan, and in 
the course of the work many mastodon bones were thrown out; also that 
one tooth of a mammoth was found. This came into the possession of 
Mr. E. H. Crane, of Kalamazoo. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 16.) 
In Driftless Area. 

1. Vanderburg County. — John Collett (7th Ann. Report Indiana Geol. 
Surv., pp. 245, 246) stated that mammoth remains had been found in 
Vanderburg County. Nothing more is known about these. 



172 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

2. Shoals, Martin County. — Mr. M. F. Mathers, of Orleans, Indiana, 
informed the writer that in 1880, while at Shoals fishing, a part of the 
upper jaw of an elephant, with two large teeth in it, was found, in White 
River below the shoals. Mr. Mathers assures the writer that the teeth 
were of a kind very different from those of a mastodon found on his 
place. He did not know what became of the specimen. 

E. T. Cox (2d Ann. Rep. Indiana Geol. Surv., 1871, p. 103) stated that 
remains of the mammoth and of the mastodon had been found in Martin 
County embedded in marsh clay resting on the drift. The only drift 
in the county is the Illinoian. These animals must have lived after the 
Illinoian stage; but not necessarily immediately after. 

On Area Covered by Illinoian Drift. 

3. Vigo County. — John Collett, in 1881 (2d Ann. Rep. Bur. Statist, and 
Geol., 1880, p. 385), stated that elephant remains had been found in 
Vigo County. 

4. Gosport, Owen County. — In 1859, Professor T. A. Wylie (Amer. 
Jour. Sci., vol. XXVIII, p. 283) gave an account of the discovery of parts 
of the skeleton of an elephant in the bank of White River, about a mile 
southeast of Gosport. Two tusks, four teeth, and some fragmentary 
parts of the skeleton were exhumed, from a bed of sand, overlain by 
8 feet of stiff bluish clay. The sand appeared to rest on bed-rock. One 
tusk had a length of about 9 feet and a diameter of 8 inches, and this 
diameter was maintained to near the tip. The teeth were evidently the 
second and third molars, probably of the upper jaw. The largest molar 
measured 11 inches on the longest diagonal and had 20 plates. "The dis- 
tance between the plates and the interval between the pairs is about 
one-fourth inch." 

This specimen was probably taken to the University of Indiana and 
destroyed in a fire. It seems most likely that the remains belonged to 
E. primigenius. They were apparently buried in outwash materials from 
the Wisconsin ice-sheet. 

17. Wailesboro, Bartholomew County. — In 1902 (Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 
1901, p. 247), J. J. Edwards, a physician, reported a tooth of Elephas 
primigenius found in a gravel-pit 0.5 mile south of Wailesboro at a depth 
of 7 feet. The tooth weighed 9 pounds. It was afterwards destroyed in 
a fire. Although this was quite certainly the tooth of an elephant, the 
identification of the species may be doubted. 

5. Brookville, Franklin County. — Dr. R. Raymond (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
ser. 1, vol XLvi, p. 294), under the name Megatherium, described a tooth, 
evidently of an elephant. In 1869 (1st Ann. Rep. Indiana Geol. Surv., p. 
200) Raymond stated that he had the tooth in his possession; but the 
family does not now (1910) know what became of it. It measured 13 
inches in length, 6 inches in height, and 4 inches in thickness. It probably 
belonged to E. columbi. No statement was made as to the exact place of 
discovery. 



OHIO. 173 

John T. Plummer, in 1843 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. xiv, p. 302), 
described a tusk found in digging a ditch near Brookville, 15 feet from 
the surface. It was nearly 6 feet long, had a diameter of 4 inches, and 
was strongly curved. This might have belonged to a mastodon. 

On Area Between the Shelbyville and the Bloomington Moraines. 

6. Parke, Vermillion, and Putnam Counties. — John Collett, State geolog- 
ist in 1881 (2d Ann. Rep. Bur. Statist, and GeoL, p. 385) made the bare 
statement that mammoth remains had been found in these counties. The 
southern portions of Parke and Putnam Counties are occupied by Illi- 
noian drift; the northern portion of each by Wisconsin. Collett's state- 
ment is not of great value for us. Some remains might have been buried 
on the area covered by the Illinoian drift. 

In Area North of the Bloomington Moraine and South of the 
Wabash River and the Mississinawa Moraine. 

7. Montgomery County. — W. H. Thompson, in 1886 (15th Ann. Rep. 
Indiana Geol. Surv., p. 159), reported the lower jaw of a mammoth found 
in the bed of Black Creek, on the land of Milton N. Waugh, who was not 
willing to part with it. Thompson thought that a lake had formerly occu- 
pied parts of Sugar Creek and Madison Townships. The jaw contained 
two teeth; besides this jaw, there were two tusks nearly 11 feet long. 

The writer was informed by the late Professor Donaldson Bodine that 
the locality was on section 12, township 20 north, range 3 west. The teeth 
and bones were unearthed by a Mr. Parish and afterwards sold by him; 
but it has been found impossible to trace their history. The locality is on 
or very near a portion of the Bloomington morainic system, so that it is 
evident that the animal lived during the latter portion of the Wisconsin 
stage. 

16. Connersville, Fayette County. — M. G. Mock has shown the writer a 
sketch of an elephant tooth found some years ago 3 miles southwest of 
Connersville. The tooth was 9 inches long, 7 inches high, and weighed 8 
pounds. Whether it belonged to E. primigenius or to E. columhi is not 
known. 

8. Wayne County. — John Collett, as mentioned under No. 6, stated that 
mammoth remains had been found in this county, but he did not enter into 
details. 

9. Noblesville, Hamilton County. — John Collett, in the report cited in the 
last paragraph, on page 385. gave a detailed account of the finding of some 
remains of a mammoth 4 miles southeast of Noblesville, on the farm of 
John H. Caylor. The locality is given as on the east half of the northeast 
quarter of section 16, township 18, range 9 west; but evidently the range 
is 5 east. In the summer of 1880 a large ditch was being made for the 
drainage of a swamp, situated, according to Collett, in a valley 20 rods 
wide and extending several miles from southeast to nearly northwest. The 
higher land on each side is glacial drift and contains gravel and large 



174 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

boulders. The ditch was 4 feet deep, 3 feet of which was in recent peat or 
bog, and the bottom extended down 1 foot into fine blue clay. In this clay 
were found two well-preserved teeth of a mammoth, a hip bone, a thigh 
bone, and the tips of two vertebrae. These bones and teeth were scattered 
along the line of the ditch a distance of 80 feet and in a width of less than 
2 feet. What became of these bones we are not informed. According to 
Leverett's map, this region is covered by Wisconsin ground moraine. I am 
informed by Professor Leverett that the valley mentioned by Collett Avas 
probably originally a subglacial drainage channel. 

15. Muncie, Delaware County. — M. G. Mock, of Houston, Texas, for- 
merly of Muncie, Indiana, showed the writer a sketch of an elephant tooth, 
a lower hinderraost molar, with considerable parts of the skeleton, found 
on the farm of S. N. Priddy, July 1, 1895. The tooth was 12 inches long 
and 5 inches across. This belonged probably to Elephas columbi, but of 
this there is no certainty. 

10. Dora, Wabash County. — Elrod and Benedict, in 1892 (17th Ann. Rep. 
Indiana Geol. Surv., p. 241), reported two large teeth of a mammoth found 
on the farm of John H. Peffley, in the east half of the southwest quarter 
of section 18, township 27, range 8 east. The writers of the report saw one 
of the teeth and identified it as Elephas primige?iius; but probably they did 
not consider the differences between this species and E. columbi. 

In Area North of Wabash River. 

11. Jasper County. — John Collett (12th Ann. Rep. Indiana Geol. Surv., 
p. 73) reported that mammoth remains had been found in Jasper County. 
Nothing was added. 

12. Pleasant Township, Wabash County. — Elrod and Benedict, as noted 
above, state on their page 240 that some years previously mammotli 
bones had been discovered while throwing up an embankment for a bridge 
across Silver Creek. The bones were found under 5 feet of muck. We have 
no assurance that these bones were not those of a mastodon. It was reported 
to Elrod and Benedict that some were in Wabash College, at Crawfords- 
ville. On this same creek, near Laketon, were found some mastodon 
remains, for which see page 98. This township, in the northwestern 
corner of Wabash County, lies on the great moraine which runs along the 
north side of Eel River. 

13. St. John's, Lake Count?/.— Professor W. S. Blatchley, in 1898 (22d 
Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, p. 90), stated that an almost complete 
skeleton of a mammoth had been found in a marsh at the headwaters of 
Deep River, in the north half of section 35, township 35 north, range 9 west. 
This would be very close to St. John's and on the Valparaiso moraine. 

It is not probable that Professor Blatchley saw this skeleton, and we can 
not, therefore, be certain that it was not that of a mastodon. If it did 
belong to one of the elephants it is to be regretted that such rare materials 
have not been preserved. 

14. Allen County. — Professor C. R. Dryer (16th Ann. Rep. Indiana Geol. 
Surv., p. 129) recorded the finding of a single mammoth tooth in Allen 
County. Nothing more is known about this. 



ILLINOIS. 175 

ILLINOIS. 
(Maps 16, 38.) 

Within the Area of the Illinoian Drift. 

1. Equality, Gallatin County. — In 1875, E. T. Cox (Geol. Surv. Illinois, 
vol. VI, pp. 213-214) , in his report on Gallatin County, Illinois, stated he had 
picked up numerous plates of elephant teeth at what was called "Half- 
moon," located near Equality, in section 19, township 9, range 8 east. It is 
an excavation made many years ago to obtain salt-brine, near the Saline 
River, as the region thereabout furnishes salt springs. It is implied in 
Cox's account that other remains of elephants had been found there, but 
usually in a bad condition. It is impossible to determine to which species 
of elephant the fragments belonged. 

According to Leverett's glacial map of the region (Monogr. xxxviii, U. S. 
Geol. Surv., plate vi), the locality is occupied by alluvial terraces older 
than the Wisconsin drift. Not far away is the border of the Illinoian drift. 
Most probably the elephants there represented lived after the Illinoian 
stage, but they may have lived at any time thereafter up to the Late 
Wisconsin. 

2. Chester, Randolph County. — Professor A. W. Worthen, former State 
geologist of Illinois, made (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. viii, p. 8) the statement 
that Hon. William McAdams had found at Chester and Alton remains of 
mammoth, Megalonyx, Bos {= Bison) , Castoroides ohioensis, and other 
extinct animals. He did not, however, say what species had been found at 
each place. 

A newspaper statement was published in 1911 to the effect that William 
Rade, of Belleville, had a large tooth, found in the lowlands along Missis- 
sippi River south of Chester. It was described as a molar a foot in length, 
6 inches in diameter (in height probably), weighing over 5 pounds, and 
having several parallel ridges across the face. It was doubtless the tooth 
of a species of elephant. A letter addressed to William Rade brought no 
response. It is probable that the tooth had been washed down from higher 
ground at some time. Its geological age is indeterminable. 

3. Calhoun County. — William McAdams reported in 1883 (Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. Sci., vol. iv, p. lxxix) that he had recovered from the clay in 
a ravine in Calhoun County, Illinois, "the jaw of an elephant beside which 
Jumbo would seem small." One of the teeth from this fossil jaw, and which 
McAdams presented before the Academy for inspection, weighed nearly 18 
pounds. It is not known what became of this jaw and the teeth; nor can 
we determine the geological age of the animal. Such discoveries lose most 
of their value through lack of exact statements regarding the origin of the 
objects. 

15. Christian County. — In 1866 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. i, p. 39), 
Worthen stated that a tooth of a mammoth had been found by David 
Miller in a sand drift near the South Fork of Sangamon River, in Christian 
County. It was presented to the State cabinet. The tooth is said to have 
been of a chalky whiteness. The drift which covers this county belongs 



176 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES, 

to the Illinoian. It is not probable that the animal in question lived before 
the Illinoian stage. 

4. Sangamon County. — In 1873, Worthen (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. v, 
p. 308) stated that the tooth of a mammoth had been found some years 
before in the bluffs of the Sangamon River and near the surface. He 
concluded that it had not come from beds older than the loess. While the 
probability is that the tooth was found in the Sangamon loess, there can 
be no certainty about it. The animal might have lived there while the 
Wisconsin ice was nearby. 

5. Fulton County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list of 1905 (Augustana 
Library Pubs. No. 5, p. 10), Professor Albert Hurd, of Knox College, 
reported that there was in the museum of that college a poorly preserved 
tooth of some species of elephant, found in Fulton County. All that can 
be said about the geological age of this find is that the county is covered 
by Illinoian drift and that the tooth is probably not older. Nevertheless, 
it might have been found in some excavation or along some ravine which 
had reached the Yarmouth. 

6. Galesburg, Knox County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list referred to, 
page 14, Professor Albert Hurd reported there was in the cabinet of Knox 
College a much decayed elephant tooth, found near Galesburg in the making 
of a ditch. The presumption is that the ditch had not passed through the 
Illinoian drift and that the animal had lived after the Illinoian stage; it 
may be during the Sangamon stage. 

14. Pekin, Tazewell County.— Inl^m (Bull. 506, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 61), 
Dr. J. A. Udden reported remains of a proboscidean found in Adam Saal's 
gravel-pit, between Illinois River and Dead Lake, a mile south of Pekin, 
at a depth of 18 feet. There were two tusks, two teeth, a part of a jaw, 
and a few other bones. One tooth is reported to have weighed 18 pounds, 
the other 8 pounds. These were doubtless weighed while wet. Only the 
teeth of an elephant would weigh so much. It is impossible to determine 
the species. Udden stated that the gravel probably belongs to the latest 
Wisconsin terrace. The locality is on the border of the Shelbyville moraine. 

9. Peoria, Peoria County. — In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. v, p. 237), 
A. H. Worthen reported two molar teeth, with a portion of the jaw, found 
in a gravel bed in the bluff in the city of Peoria. A part of one of these 
teeth was then in the State Cabinet at Springfield. According to Worthen, 
these remains were found at a depth between 12 and 48 feet. According to 
Udden's map (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., 506, plate i) the locality would 
probably be on the early Wisconsin terrace. The animal must have lived 
during the formation of this terrace. It would seem that this must have 
been after the Wisconsin ice had begun to retire and while the region was 
yet much depressed. Baker (Univ. 111. Bull, xvii, p. 299) stated that this 
animal was a mastodon. 

7. Pock Island, Rock Island County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list of 
mastodons and elephants it is stated that in laying the overflow pipe from 
the basins of the Rock Island waterworks on the bluff south of the city, a 
cut was made in the loess to a depth of about 22 feet near the edge of the 
bluff. In the lower part of this cut were found a part of a tooth of an 



ILLINOIS. 177 

elephant and a piece of a leg-bone. These were given to the museum of 
Augustana College. The loess at this point is said to be about 35 feet thick 
and the lower part is somewhat peaty in cuts in the streets further west. 
Probably this loess belongs to the lowan stage and that beneath it was an 
old soil deposited in peat swamps. The fossil seems to belong to the lowan 
glacial stage, possibly to the Peorian interglacial. 

Elephants Found Within the Area of the Wisconsin Drift. 

8. Atwood, Piatt County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, page 17, it is 
stated that in the museum of Northwestern University there is a tooth of 
a mammoth found near Atwood in 1879. It was dug up from about 6 feet 
from the surface. Atwood is in the extreme southeastern corner of Piatt 
County; the region round about is occupied by what Leverett (Monogr. 
XXXVIII, plate vi) calls the Shelbyville till sheet, belonging to the early 
Wisconsin stage. The animal may have lived at any time since that till 
was deposited up to Late Wisconsin. The tooth was probably buried in 
some old peat-swamp and unearthed during tiling operations. 

13. Wheaton, Du Page County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, page 10, it 
was reported on the authority of Charles A. Blanchard, president of Whea- 
ton College, that about 1890 the remains of a mammoth were found in 
ditches on the Jewell farm, near Wheaton. The remains consisted of about 
a dozen ribs, as many vertebra?, a femur, and other parts of legs. It appears 
to the writer that the remains may have belonged to a mastodon. 

Wheaton is situated on that part of the Valparaiso moraine which runs 
parallel with the western shore of Lake Michigan. Whatever the animal 
was it must be regarded as belonging to the Late Wisconsin stage. 

13. Oak Park, Cook County. — Under this number 13 must be recorded a 
mammoth tooth found in a gravel-pit at Oak Park, at a depth of several 
feet. Only parts of it were secured and the species is unknown. The pit 
was in the Glenville beach, laid down during the waning of the Wisconsin 
glacial sheet (Baker, F. C, Univ. 111. Bull, xvii, p. 70). 

10. Evanston, Cook County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, page 9, Pro- 
fessor U. S. Grant, of Northwestern University, reported that the museum 
contains the tooth of a mammoth, taken from a gravel-pit near Evanston. 
The animal must have lived after the Wisconsin glacier had withdrawn into 
the basin of Lake Michigan. 

11. Rochelle, Ogle County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, pages 15, 16, 
Professor Frank Leverett reported that in July 1886 he had seen a collec- 
tion of mammoth fossils at the house of F. G. Ptossman, a farmer living 
near Rochelle, which he had obtained in a bog in the northwestern part of 
section 33, Lynnville Township. The materials consisted of a tusk, two 
teeth, a piece of the jawbone, a few ribs, and some fragments of bones. The 
fragment of tusk was about 5 feet long, 20 inches in circumference at one 
end, about 18 inches at the other. The tooth was from 12 to 13 inches long 
and 4 inches wide. 

Rochelle is on the border between the Wisconsin drift sheet and the earlier 
one lying west of it. On Leverett's map this is put down as being lowan; 



178 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

but no lowan is now recognized in Illinois. Mr. F. N. Rice, county sur- 
veyor, reported that Lynnville Township is number 41 north, range 2 west. 

In the Unglaciated Region in the Northwest Corner of the State. 

12. Galena, Jo Daviess County. — The geologist J. D. Whitney reported 
in 1866 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. i, p. 162) that a few teeth of the elephant 
had been found near Galena, on the surface. These are said to be pre- 
served in a collection in Galena. Whitney stated that these were all that 
he had met with in the lead region. In his Geology of the Lead Region 
(Wisconsin Geol. Surv., vol. i, pp. 129-133) the same author said that, so 
far as he knew, elephant remains never were found in the lead crevices. 
The teeth mentioned above had been found within the limits of the city 
of Galena. 

Galena is situated in the driftless region and no conclusion is reached 
about the geological age of those teeth. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Stockholm, Pepin County. — All that is known regarding the occurrence 
of an elephant at this place was published by Professor N. H. Winchell in 
1910 (Bull. Minn. Acad. Sci., vol. iv, p. 417), as follows: "Capt. Jos. Buisson 
stated that a mammoth tooth was found opposite Lake City, near Stock- 
holm, on the shore of Lake Pepin." The tooth may have been that of a 
mastodon. 

MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County. — In B. L. Miller's geological 
report on this county (Maryland Geol. Surv., 1911, pp. 125, 126) it is 
stated that a right humerus of a mammoth, as determined by J. W. Gidley, 
liad been found at the road crossing of Cabin Branch, near the western 
branch of Patuxent River. The bone was sent to Georgetown L^niversity, 
Washington, D. C. 

2. Washington. — In the Prince George's Coimty volume of the Maryland 
Geological Survey, 1911, page 123, Dr. B. L. Miller stated that a tooth 
of Elephas americanus {E. piimigenius probably) had been found in Wi- 
comico materials in the pits of a Washington brick company, at a depth 
of 35 feet. The brickyard was bounded by Florida and Trinidad avenues 
and the Bladensburg turnpike. What has become of this tooth is not 
known, nor can one be certain that the tooth was not that of E. columbi. 
It may with safety be referred to an early stage of the Pleistocene. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Warrenton, Fauquier County. — In 1831, Richard Harlan (Monthly 
Amer. Jour. Geol., vol. i, pp. 58-67), in a letter to the editor, stated that a 
''Dr. W." of the village presented him with a fossil molar tooth of an 
elephant found in that vicinity. Nothing more is known of this specimen. 



WEST VIRGINIA NORTH CAROLINA FLORIDA. 179 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Wheeling, Ohio County. — The geologist J. W. Foster (Proc. Amer. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci., 10th meeting, p. 160) reported that Alfred Sears had 
deposited in the Smithsonian Institution some elephant remains obtained 
4.5 miles below Wheeling Creek. They were found on the second bottom or 
terrace and at a depth of 17 feet from the surface. Within a few feet of 
this place was an Indian mound. When the mound was built, 17 feet of 
sediment had accumulated over the elephant remains. One can, however, 
hardly refer the bones to a time farther back than the Wisconsin. A record 
in the U. S. National Museum shows that Mr. Sears, in 1852, sent a tusk 
and a tooth of an elephant to Washington. These were doubtless placed 
in the collection of the Old National Institute. If they were transferred 
to the Smithsonian Institution the record has apparently been lost. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

(Maps 16, 39.) 

1. 16 miles below Newbern, on Neuse River, in Pamlico County. — Harlan, 
in 1842 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xliii, p. 143), stated that he had seen, in the 
collection made by Nuttall on Neuse River, remains of an elephant. Elisha 
Mitchell, in the same year (Elements of Geol., p. 128), stated that there 
was in the cabinet of the University of North Carolina a tooth of an ele- 
phant from the locality mentioned. Possibly the tooth referred by Croom 
(Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxvii, 1835, p. 170) to the mastodon and which was 
7 inches wide and 9.5 inches deep, was really that of an elephant. Were it 
not for the fact that Elephas primigenms has been found in this region of 
North Carolina, one might, with confidence, refer the tooth found below 
Newbern to E. columbi. For other species found at this place the reader 
may consult pages 358 to 359. 

2. Harlowe, Carteret C ounty .—EYisha Mitchell (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 
XIII, 1827, p. 347) stated that in digging the Clubfoot and Harlowe Canal 
remains of both the mastodon and the elephant had been found. Nothing 
more definite was communicated. The probability is that the animal was 
Elephas columbi. 

3. Duplin County. — At the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1850, Dr. R. W. 
Gibbes reported that he had obtained a part of a molar of an elephant 
found somewhere in Duplin County. He spoke of its resemblance in nar- 
rowness and in thinness of plates to a tooth found in Vermont and 
exhibited by Agassiz. Possibly it belonged to Elephas primigenius. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Wakulla Springs, Wakulla County. — In the collection of the Florida 
Geological Survey is a right tibia of an elephant reported found at the place 



180 



ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 



named. The measurements shown in the accompam'ing table were secured. 
For comparison the dimensions of the tibia of the great Elephas primigenius 
in the American Museum of Natural History at New York are presented. 

Measurement of tibias, in millimeters. 





Wakulla Springs 
elephant. 


E. piimigenius. 


Total leneth 


813 
266 
106 
132 
215 


735 
245 
100 
106 
205 


Orpatpst width across UDDer end 


Fore-and-aft diameter at middle of length . . 
Side-to-side diameter at middle of length . . . 
Oi'eatpst w'idth across lower end 





With the tibia from Wakulla Springs is the distal half of an immense 
femur of the left side. The distance across the articular surface of the 
distal end was at least 241 mm., but the bone has suffered some abrasion. 
The outer articular surface measures 115 mm.; the inner 1,202 mm. When 
the bone is placed on a table with the hinder face downward the inner ridge 
which bounds the patellar groove rises 280 mm. above the table. Whether 
these bones belong to Elephas imperator or to E. columbi is uncertain. 

2. Stokes Ferry, St. Mary's River, Nassau County. — In 1909, Sellards 
(2d Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 147) stated that Dr. L. W. Stephenson, 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, had found at this place, in a phosphate 
deposit, a fragment of an elephant tooth together with 3 teeth of a fossil 
horse and some ear-bones of a whale. The elephant belonged probably to 
E. columbi, but possibly to E. imperator. 

3. Bartow, Polk County.— Br. W. H. Dall (Froc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1891, p. 120) has recorded the discovery at this place of tusks supposed to 
be those of Elephas columbi. Possibly the tusks were those of E. imperator 
or even those of Mammut americanum. 



MISSISSIPPI. 
(Map 16.) 

1. Natchez, Adams County. — In his report on the Geology and Agricul- 
ture of Mississippi, 1854, page 284, Wailles wrote that fossil remains of the 
elephant were not then known to have been found in the State. However, 
on page 286, Elephas primigenius is included in the list of fossil Mammalia 
furnished by Leidy. The latter does not say where in Mississippi elephant 
remains had been discovered, but it was probably at Natchez. 

In his work on the Lafayette formation (12th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., 
part 1, p. 400), McGee stated that at least one skull of the American 
elephant had been found at Natchez in gravel, well down toward the Port 
Hudson clays, and that to this adhered some of the coarse gravel of the 
matrix. Probably the species was Elephas columbi. It is likely that the 
skulls referred to by McGee were not as complete as he supposed. 



TENNESSEE KENTUCKY. 181 

TENNESSEE. 

(Map 16. Figure 23.) 

1. Gallatin, Sumner County. — In 1835, Professor G. Troost (Trans. Geol. 
Soc. Penn., vol. i, 1835, p. 144) reported that a Mrs. Ephraim Foster pos- 
sessed a tooth of Elephas primigenius found in a well at a depth of 40 feet. 
The identification followed the opinion of that time that only one species 
of elephant had existed in the country. It more probably belonged to 
E. columbi. 

2. Columbia, Maury County. — In the publication just referred to the 
geologist G. Troost stated that he owned a tooth of Elephas primigenius, 
found a few miles below Columbia, probably near Duck River, but no 
details as to the exact locality and kinds of deposits were furnished. Hayes 
and Ulrich (Folio 95, U. S. Geol. Surv.) appear not to have recognized any 
Pleistocene in this quadrangle. On page 6 they stated that narrow strips 
of bottom lands occur along the larger streams, particularly along Duck 
River. The tooth was probably that of E. columbi. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 16.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — Remains belonging certainly to both 
Elephas primigenius and E. columbi have been found here, and there is no 
reason for supposing that any other species has ever been collected. Many 
specimens have, however, been mentioned in the literature of the subject 
whicli one may have difficulty in referring to either of these species. The 
difficulty arises from the insufficiency of the descriptions and of the 
illustrations when there are any. 

Two elephant molars from America were figured by Cuvier (Oss. Foss., 
ed. 4, plate xv, figs. 9, 11), without any exact locality being given, so far 
as the present writer can discover. Adams (Palseontograph. Soc, vol. 
XXXIII, p. 122) says of these that one was from Mississippi, the other from 
Bigbone Lick, but which is from the latter place is not indicated. Caspar 
Wistar (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, n. s., vol. i, 1818, p. 376) reported that 
in the Jefferson collection there were teeth which he referred to the Siberian 
elephant. Among these were some which belonged to a young animal. 

William Cooper (Monthly Amer. Jour. Geol., vol. i, 1831, pp. 168-171) 
recalled the quantity of elephant remains found at Bigbone Lick before his 
visit. In the Finnell collection was a tusk with part of the base missing, 
which was still 11 feet 10.5 inches long and 22 inches in circumference. It 
was much curved, a fact which induced him to refer it to an elephant. In 
the same collection were numerous other parts of elephants, including 20 
or more teeth. A Mr. Bullock secured a skull nearly entire. It is pretty 
certain that the greater part of all this fine material has been lost. Many 
of the bones and teeth collected in early times went to the museums of 
Europe; some are mentioned by Leith Adams (Palsontograph. Soc, vol. 
XXXIII, pp. 75, 122) and Lydekker (Cat. Foss. INIamm. Brit. Mus., pt. iv, 
p. 191). 



182 ELEPHANTS OF UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

2. Newport, Campbell County. — In 1871 Professor Shaler (Amer. Natu- 
ralist, vol. IV, p. 160) stated that he had a tooth of Elephas primigenius, 
which had been found in the uppermost terrace of the alluvial plane opposite 
Cincinnati, at a depth of over 60 feet from the surface. 

In 1877 (Geol. Surv. Kentucky, vol. iii, p. 79), the same writer stated 
that a molar tooth of Elephas primigenius had been found in the city of 
Newport, about 25 feet above high-water mark and at a depth of 40 feet. 
It is not improbable that the two accounts refer to the same specimen. 

3. Bluelick Springs, Nicholas County. — In the collection of Mr. Thomas 
W. Hunter, made at this place, were several much water-worn teeth of 
elephants, the species not determined. 

4. Eminence, Henry County. — The geologist David D. Owen, in 1857 
(3d Geol. Surv. Kentucky, p. 103), reported that bones and teeth of the 
mammoth had, at times, been found here. They do not appear to have 
been preserved. 



MASSACHUSETTS NEW YORK 183 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE EQUID/E IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

(Map 17.) 

Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard. — In 1900 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 
XI, p. 459, plate xlii, fig. 2), J. B. Woodworth reported finding an astragalus 
of a horse in an osseous conglomerate, regarded as belonging to the Miocene. 
It was identified by Professor H. F. Osborn, who remarked that it resembled 
closely the same bone of some Pleistocene horses. From this conglomerate 
have been obtained bones of whales, supposedly also a skull of a walrus. 
While the size of the astragalus suggests more that of a Pleistocene horse, 
it is possible that there was some large Miocene equid that lived there. The 
present writer is inclined to believe it will be found that the astragalus 
came from one of the older Pleistocene deposits recognized as present at 
Gay Head. 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Throg's Neck, New York County. — In 1866 (Smithson. Contrib. 
Knowl., vol. XV, art. 3, p. 16), Charles Whittlesey stated he had a tooth 
of a horse, taken from the compact marine drift at Throg's Neck. It was 
obtained by J. A. Bailey from excavations at Fort Schuyler, 18 feet below 
the surface. 

According to Folio No. 83 of the U. S. Geological Survey, Harlem Quad- 
rangle, Throg's Neck is occupied by till which usually thinly covers, or 
leaves exposed, the underlying Hudson schist; Salisbury gives an account 
of the drift on page 14 of the folio cited. At the depth indicated the tooth 

Note.— In 1858 (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. vi, p. 303), Dr. Skilton, of Troy, 
wrote that a farmer had dug up, in what had been marshy ground, 17 teeth of a horse. 
These, Skilton stated, belonged to Equus major. The teeth were greatly decayed. The 
writer of the report said that the enamel of the first upper molar, meaning the anterior 
of the six grinding teeth, measured 1.9 inches (47.5 mm.) ; that of the corresponding 
lower teeth 2.33 inches (58 mm.). If these measurements were taken correctly, they 
indicate a horse much larger than any yet known, unless it be Equus giganteus of 
Texas. There is no evidence that Dr. Skilton had made any serious study of the 
dentition of horses and the teeth were probablj' those of a domestic horse, or even of 
some other animal. 

In 1884 (Trans. Linn. Soc. N. Y., vol. ii, p. 47), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, in his paper 
"The Vertebrates of the Adirondack Region," stated he had examined several fossil 
molar teeth of Equus major exhumed at Keenes Station, near the Oswegatcliio Ox 
Bow, in Jefferson County, New York. He compared them with the corresponding 
teeth of an immense dray horse and found them much larger. 

Professor G. C. Manse, of St. Lawrence Universitj% Canton, New York, sent me for 
exammation 4 upper teeth of a horse which must be those examined by Dr. C. H. 
Merriam. They are labeled as having been collected at Gouvemeur, a town not far 
from Keenes Station. After a careful study of these teeth and comparison with those 
of the domestic horse, the writer concludes that they belonged to the latter. Domestic 
horses are known to have larger teeth. Professor Manse has unfortunately been unable 
to trace the history of the teeth back to Dr. C. C. Benton, of Ogdensburg. who isiiowed 
them to Dr. Merriam. 



184 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 

was probably lying in pre-Wisconsin deposits ; and taking into consideration 
the geological age of other horse remains, one may reasonably conclude 
that the tooth at Throg's Neck was of a horse that lived during the middle 
or earty Pleistocene. That there may be materials of a pre-Wisconsin stage 
underlying the surface drift at Throg's Neck is indicated b}^ Woodworth's 
discovery (Bull. 48, N. Y. State Mus., p. 626, plate i) of deposits older than 
the Wisconsin along Hempstead Bay, Long Island. 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Swedesboro, Gloucester County. — In 1868 (Cook's Geol. New Jersey, 
p. 741), Cope stated that Equus complicatus was represented in New Jersey 
by a series of teeth obtained while a milldam at Swedesboro was being 
cleared. No further information has been secured. At the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the writer has seen a horse-tooth labeled 
as coming from the town named; but whether or not it is one of those 
referred to by Cope it is impossible to say. 

2. Fish House, Camden, Camden County. — In 1869 (Trans. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. XIV, p. 250, fig. 55), Cope wrote that a partial skull of Equus 
jraternus had been found at Fish House in a blackish clay at a depth of 
20 feet from the top of the clay. Over the clay was imposed a bed of sand 
from 8 to 15 feet thick. This important skull appears to have been lost 
(fig. 7). 

In 1897 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. New Jersey for 1896, p. 208, plate x), 
Lewis Woolman described other remains of horses supposed to belong to 
Equus complicatus, secured in the same Fish House claj^s. The writer has 
seen these and regards them as belonging to the species just named. These 
remains of horses will be mentioned on pages 302-303. 

3. Navesink Hills, Monmouth County. — Somewhere in the northeastern 
part of Monmouth County, in the region of the Navesink (or Neversink) 
Hills, have been found remains of a fossil horse. They were first mentioned 
by S. L. Mitchill (Cat. Organ. Remains, 1826, pp. 7, 8). He mentioned a 
cervical vertebra and teeth in sound condition. Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phila., vol. vii, p. 261) wrote that a vertebra and teeth were associated 
with remains of a mastodon. Mitchill mentions only a part of a tibia of a 
mastodon. These objects were all presented by Mitchill to the Lyceum of 
Natural Historj^ in New York. The writer believes these teeth had been 
buried in an early Pleistocene deposit. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

fMap 17.) 

1. Pittston, Luzerne County. — In the collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences at Philadelphia are 2 horse-teeth found at or near Pittston. 
They were described and figured by Leidy in 1873 (Monograph U. S. Geol. 
Surv., I, pp. 245-246, plate xxxiii, figs. 16, 17) as E. major ( = E. cojnpli- 
catus). He stated they were found on the banks of the Susquehanna River, 
associated with remains of mastodons and Bison latifrons. The last was, 
however, a species of Syinbos. In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. 



OHIO. 185 

VII, p. 262), Leidy stated that it was reported these remains had come from 
a stratum "full of bones." This stratum belonged probably to an early or 
middle Pleistocene interglacial stage. 

2. Stroudsburg, Monroe County. — In 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Penn- 
sjdvania for 1887, p. 6) , Leidy reported the finding of "a pair of teeth of a 
horse, which were yet incompletely developed," in Hartman's Cave, near 
the town mentioned. He thought they belonged to an indigenous species. 
The position of the cave, its fossils, and their age will be considered in 
discussing the Pleistocene geology of the State on pages 308 to 311. 

3. Port Kennedy, Montgomery County. — As long ago as 1871 (Amer. 
Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. i, pp. 235, 384), Wheatley announced the discovery 
of 2 unidentified species of horses in the great bone-cave at the place named. 
They were associated with the remains of 40 other species of vertebrates, 
besides many insects. In 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., ser. 2, vol. n, 
pp. 193-267, plates xviii-xxi). Cope described the materials collected up 
to that time from the same cave. Of horses he recorded 2 forms, which he 
named Equu^ fraternus fraternus and E. fraternus yectinatus. He was 
inclined to believe the latter would prove to be a distinct species. It is 
not certain whether this conclusion was correct; but if not a species, it is 
probably a subspecies of Equus comylicatus. The teeth referred to E. 
fraternus fraternus are pretty certainly those of E. complicatus. Of this 
species Cope had a decayed skull of a young animal with teeth, besides a 
considerable number of other teeth and some bones of the skeleton. The 
geological relations of these remains and those of the other species will be 
discussed on pages 311 to 320. 

4. Rutherford, Dauphin County. — In 1868 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1868, 
p. 195), Leidy described a horse-tooth, loaned him by Mr. W. Lorenz and 
found somewhere between Rutherford and Highspire. It was met in a 
depression 6 feet deep and 20 feet across, filled with diluvium. Leidy 
thought the tooth might have belonged to a contemporary of the mastodon, 
but this was equally improbable. All the cement was dissolved from the 
tooth, and the latter was stained by iron, but not petrified. It was an upper 
second true molar. It has probabl}' suffered the fate of such specimens as 
are retained in private hands. 

5. Frankstown, Blair County. — From Mr. 0. A. Peterson, of the Car- 
negie Museum, Pittsburgh, the writer learns that some part of an unidenti- 
fied species of horse has been found in the collection made some years ago 
at Frankstown. For a list of the species page 321 may be consulted. 

OHIO. 

(Maps 17, 36.) 
1. Cincinnati, Hamilton County. — In 1895 (Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. xvii, p. 217), Mr. Seth Hayes recorded the discovery of a molar tooth 
and a vertebra of a horse, identified as Equus fraternus. It was met with 
in exhuming the remains of the "Shaw mastodon" in Hyde Park, in the 
northeastern part of Cincinnati. The details of the exhumation are given 
in the description of the mastodon. The geological age of these animals 
dates probably from about the Sangamon stage. The writer has not been 



186 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 

able to examine the horse remains referred to. It is probable that the tooth 
belonged to Equus complicatus. 

2. Columhus, Franklin County. — In 1848 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. v, 
p. 215) , Charles Whittlesey stated that bones and teeth of a horse had been 
found in fissures or "clay seams" of the Cliff limestone at Columbus. In 
1866 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. xv, art. 3, p. 16), the same geologist 
reported that Joseph Sullivant, of Columbus, had, many years before, 
obtained from the crevices of the Cliff lime rock, on the west side of Scioto 
River, a number of bones embedded in red clay. Among these was the tooth 
of a horse. The crevice had not been open since the date of the white 
settlement of the country and it was wholty filled by the red clay which 
results from the decomposition of the limestone. Probably all the remains 
mentioned by Whittlesey have been lost. 

In 1875 (Cin. Quart. Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 154), Klippart wrote that, 
in excavating the exterior wall at the Ohio penitentiary, the warden, Mr. 
Burr, found the fossil jaw of a horse with the molars in good condition. 
He stated the horse must have been one-third larger than the ordinary horse 
of to-day. 

From Professor Clinton R. Stauffer, of Adelbert College, Cleveland, the 
writer received for examination a horse-tooth, labeled: "Catalogue No. 356. 
Horse tooth. Given by Robert Cartwright. Found at Columbus, Ohio, in 
excavating in a peat bed for a gas holder in the penitentiary grounds, 
October 30, 1873." It is possible that this is the same tooth mentioned by 
Klippart, but probably it is another. The present writer identifies the 
tooth as that of Equus co7nplicatiis. The geological age is probably 
approximately that of the Sangamon stage. 

3. Salt Creek, Columbiana County. — In 1866 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., 
art. 3, vol. v, p. 16), Charles Whittlesey reported a tooth of a horse found, 
about 20 years before, in making the Sandy and Beaver Canal, along Sandy 
Creek, in Columbiana County, at a depth not exceeding 12 or 15 feet. 
Probably the locality was in the southwestern corner of the county. The 
sources of Salt Creek are in Hanover Township, not far from the sources 
of Little Beaver Creek. From this vicinity Salt Creek flows westward. This 
county lies within the Illinoian drift region and the horse probably lived 
during the Sangamon stage or earlier. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Evansville, Vanderburg County. — So far as the writer knows, remains 
of extinct horses have been found in Indiana only at the mouth of Pigeon 
Creek, a short distance below Evansville. Only a single vertebra, a last 
cervical, was secured. This formed part of a collection made at the place 
named by Mr. Francis A. Lincke. The collection was described by Dr. 
Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 199). The bone was referred 
to Equus americanus, a name employed at that time for the horse now 
known as Equus complicatus. Although it would usually be impossible to 
identify a species of horse on such materials, it is probable that Leidy was 
correct. The geological age of the bone-bed is discussed on page 32. It 



ILLINOIS. 187 

is concluded that the age is most probably the Sangamon, but possibly 
Aftonian. The same species has been found at Bigbone Lick, above Louis- 
ville, on the Kentucky side. The deposits there overlie the Illinoian drift 
and are, in part at least, Sangamon. 

Associated with the horse bone at Pigeon Creek were megalonyx, a 
probably extinct bison, the Virginia deer, a tapir, and the extinct wolf 
^nocyon dims. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Map 17.) 

1. On the line between Bond and Fayette Counties. — In 1899, Leidj 
(Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. ii, p. 39, figure) described under the name of 
Equus major an equine maxilla, containing 4 premolars, sent him by A. H. 
Worthen, State geologist of Illinois. This maxilla had been found in a bog 
between Bond and Fayette counties. It was referred by Gidley (Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv, p. 135, fig. 24) to Equus pectinatus Cope. The 
specimen is in the collection of the State museum at Springfield and has 
been studied by the writer, who regards it as belonging to Equus com^ 
plicatus. A fossil horse-tooth found at Bigbone Lick, Kentucky, greatly 
resembles one of the premolars of this jaw. 

The region where this jaw was found lies within the area of the Illinoian 
drift; and, inasmuch as the specimen was found on a bog lying on this drift, 
the animal must have lived after the withdrawal of the Illinoian ice-sheet. 
The bog deposit belonged probably to the Sangamon stage. 

The writer has endeavored earnestly, but in vain, to obtain more exact 
details regarding the locality where the jaw was found and the depth of 
interment. 

2. Alton, Madison County. — At a meeting of the St. Louis Academy of 
Science, December 4, 1882 (Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., vol. iv, p. lxxx), 
William McAdams reported he had seen the fossil tooth of a horse from 
near Alton. No details were added, except that all the horses he had seen 
from the drift were large animals, while those from the bad lands of 
Dakota were mostly quite small. 

In the McAdams collection, an account of which will be given on page 
339, is a fragment of an incisor of a horse. It has on it McAdams's No. 25. 
It is doubtful that this tooth was found in the loess. All the fossils of that 
collection purporting to have been found in the loess are very white, while 
this is of a brownish color, and there is a coat of iron oxide adhering to 
some parts of it. This may or may not be the tooth mentioned by McAdams 
as above reported. 

3. Greene County. — At the meeting of the St. Louis Academy of Science 
just referred to, Mr. McAdams stated that teeth of an extinct horse had 
been brought up from the bottom of a well being dug in Greene County. 
More exact situation and the depth of the well were not mentioned. 

Both Greene and Madison counties are occupied by the Illinoian drift- 
sheet. The horse-teeth found in these counties might have come from 
Sangamon deposits; or possibly the Illinoian drift had been passed through 
and Yarmouth interglacial had been entered. 



iS8 



PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 



The geologists J. A. Udden and E. W. Shaw (Belleville-Breese Folio, 
No. 195, U. S. Geol. Siirv., p. 7) have noted in those quadrangles deposits 
which may consist of pre-Illinoian till; also old black soils which may- 
belong to the Yarmouth. The quadrangles mentioned lie along the southern 
border of Madison County. The old soils were found at depths varying 
from 30 to 75 feet. In this region, too, the Illinoian drift is over- 
lain by a blanket of loess. To arrive at any valuable conclusion, one 
ought to know just where specimens are found and at what depths and in 
what kind of deposits. On the other hand, the information is of the most 
meager kind. The specimens mentioned are not in a collection made by 
McAdams and now in the National Museum. 



MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Marshall Hall, Charles County. — In the U. S. National Museum is an 
upper right molar, first or second, of a horse labeled as found at this place. 
It is credited to Mr. 0. N. Bryan, who, some years ago, contributed many 
articles to the museum. The conditions of discovery are not known. The 
length of the grinding-surface is 28 mm., the width 27 mm. It probably 
belongs to Equus leidyi. According to Shattuck's map of the Pliocene and 
Pleistocene of Maryland (Maryland Geol. Surv., 1906, plate i) this locality 
IS occupied by Talbot deposits. Shattuck regards the Talbot as belonging 
to late Pleistocene times. The present writer does not accept this view. 

2. Georgetown, District of Columbia.— In 1835 (Med. and Phys. Re- 
searches, p. 267), Dr. Richard Harlan acknowledged the receipt, at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, of remains of a fossil horse 
found at Georgetown in constructing the canal along the Potomac. These 
were probably teeth and had been sent by Colonel I. J. Abert, of Wash- 
ington. They ought now to be in the Academy mentioned. In 1850, R. W. 
Gibbes (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. iii, p. 67) presented before the 
American Association of Sciences a specimen (a tooth?) which he said 
came from the bank of the Potomac and was associated with a tooth of Bos 
(Bison). How he came to have this was not related, nor is it certain that 
it was found near Washington. 

3. Mitchellville, Prince George's County. — In the U. S. National Museum 
are 2 upper teeth, molars or premolars (No. 8813), of a horse found on his 
estate northwest from the town named, by Mr. Edward S. Walker. They 
were presented to the National Museum by Dr. Edward W. Berry, of 
John Hopkins University. These teeth, apparently first and second molars, 
seem to belong to an undescribed species. The table gives the height of 
the teeth and dimensions of the grinding surface in millimeters. 



Tooth. 


Height. 


Length. Width. 


Protocone. 


Ml 

M2 


70 
73 


29.5 
30 


25 
23 


12 
14.5 



VIRGINIA. 



189 



The teeth present the appearance of having been little worn. Measure- 
ments of the crown taken about one-third the distance to the base are as 
follows : 



Tooth. 


Length. 


Width. 


Protocone. 


Ml 

M2 


25 
26 


25 

25.2 


11 
13 



The teeth are moderately curved, so that the outer face is convex, the 
inner concave. Some of the cement is retained and is colored blue with 
vivianite. The enamel presents less complication than is usually found in 
either Equus complicatus or E. leidyi. The dimensions of the teeth and 
the narrowness, especially of the second molar, seem to exclude reference 
to either of the species mentioned. 

4. Chesapeake Beach, Calvert County. — Mr. William Palmer, of the 
U. S. National Museum, had for many years been making collections, mostly 
of Miocene vertebrates, along the cliffs at Chesapeake Beach. Among other 
fossils found there are some remains of horses, among them one much 
worn upper tooth, probably a premolar. The height is only 21 mm., the 
length of the grinding-surface 22.4 mm., the width 24 mm. It may be 
referred provisionally to E. leidyi. Mr. Palmer had also an ungual phalanx 
and a cervical vertebra and various other bones and teeth of horses. The 
geological situation at the place and the other Pleistocene species found 
there will be discussed on pages 347-348. 

5. Cavetown, Washington County. — In his work on the exploration of 
Bushy Cavern, near Cavetown, Mr. Charles Peabody (Bull, iv, Dept. 
Archaeol., Phillips Acad., p. 12) stated that in a limestone quarry, south 
of the cave, in the red earth, was found a tooth which J. W. Gidley identified 
as probably Equus complicatus. In 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
Lviii, pp. 96-109) , the writer described a collection made at Cavetown. In 
this were other remains referred to Equus complicatus. Some fragments 
of a large tooth were referred with doubt to Equus gigantcus. 

6. Corriganville, Allegany County. — In a crevice in a limestone rock, at 
a point about 3 miles west of north of Cumberland, taken in a straight line, 
J. W. Gidley, in the fall of 1912, made a large collection of fossil verte- 
brates. In this collection is a first phalanx of an extinct horse. The species 
has not been determined. A list of the accompanying species, so far as 
determined, will be presented on pages 349-350. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Abingdon, Washington County. — In the U. S. National Museum is the 
outer half of an upper hindermost molar of a horse sent, in 1869, by Mr. 
Wyndham Robinson. With it were remains of Mam.mut americanum. The 
length of the grinding-surface is 30 mm. It belongs pretty certainly to 
Equus complicatus. 



190 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 

2. Saltville, Smyth County. — Mr. O. A. Peterson (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
vol. XI, p. 474) reported the occurrence of an upper left molar of a horse 
at Saltville. The species has not been determined. The matter will be 
referred to again on pages 352-353. 

3. Ivanhoe, Wythe County. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xi, 
pp. 171—182) , Cope gave an account of the discovery of remains of numerous 
fossil vertebrates somewhere along New River, in the county named. 
Among these animals were upper and lower milk and permanent molars of 
a horse. Cope identified these as belonging doubtfully to Equus com- 
plicatus. One page 353, the Pleistocene geology of the region and a list 
of the accompanying vertebrates will be presented. 

4. Staunton, Augusta County. — From Dr. W. F. Deekens, surgeon dentist 
of Staunton, a tooth of a horse found somewhere in that vicinity, was sent 
to the U. S. National Museum. It had been found in a limestone quarry, 
70 feet below the surface, in a narrow stratum of clay. Probably the tooth 
had been carried down into a crevice in the limestone by a current of water. 
The length of the grinding-surface is 31 mm. The arrangement of the 
enamel folds is simple, but the tooth had only just begun to be worn. The 
narrowness of the tooth is remarkable and it may belong to an unrecognized 
species. 

5. Denniston, Halifax County. — From Mr. G. W. Joyner, living near 
this place, the U. S. National Museum in 1920 received a left lower 
grinding-tooth of a horse, found by the donor in a little stream on his farm. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Point Pleasant, Mason County. — From Dr. L. V. Guthrie, superinten- 
dent of the West Virginia Asylum, at Huntington, the U. S. National 
Museum received for examination a horse-tooth dredged up with gravel 
from Ohio River at Point Pleasant. The writer has not been able to 
distinguish this tooth (either the last or the next to the last premolar) 
from that of Equus niobrarensis. If further discoveries confirm this pro- 
visional determination, the known range of the species will be greatly 
extended. The tooth has been deposited in the U. S. National Museum by 
the owner, Captain H. S. Wert, of Point Pleasant. The presence of this 
tooth proves that there are, somewhere not far away, some early Pleistocene 
deposits, probably in some high terrace along the Ohio, such as are found 
in abundance along the upper part of the river and its affluents. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 
(Maps 17, 39.) 

1 Elizahethtoum, Bladen County. — The geologist E. Emmons (North 
Carolina Geol. Surv., 1858, p. 197, fig. 18) described and figured an upper 
left second or third molar tooth of a horse which he called Equus caballus, 
the domestic animal. It, with a tooth from the lower jaw, had been found 
in a bed of Miocene age at Elizabethtown. Whatever may have been the 
age of the marl-bed, the horse lived during the Pleistocene. Conrad, how- 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 191 

ever (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xlvii, 1869, p. 359), insisted on the Miocene age 
of the animal. The same tooth was, in 1860 (Holmes's Post-Pl. Foss. South 
Carolina, plate xv, fig. 16), figured by Leidy and referred to E. fraternus. 
It is now known as E. leidy i. Miller (North Carolina Geol. and Econom. 
Surv., vol. Ill, p. 248) points out that patches of Miocene marl do occur 
in the vicinity of Elizabethtown. 

2. Sixteen miles Southeast of Newbern, on the Neuse River, in Pamlico 
County.— In a locality on the left bank of Neuse River, about 16 miles 
below Newbern, bones of Equus and various other animals were first found 
long ago, apparently by Nuttall. T. A. Conrad, in 1838 (Fossils Medial 
Tert. U. S., p. x), spoke of great numbers of bones of horse, mastodon, etc. 
Harlan (Med. Phys. Res., p. 267) says that Conrad possessed specimens 
from the locality. Lydekker (Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. part 3, p. 89) 
states that there is in that museum an upper cheek-tooth from Newbern. 
So far as the writer knows, none of the teeth found here has been figured 
or accurately described. 

On pages 358-359 will be found a list of the vertebrate fossils collected at 
Newbern and a consideration of the geology. 

3. Greenville, Pitt County. — In 1852, E. Emmons (Geol. Surv. North 
Carolina, p. 106) said he had procured a grinder of a horse at Greenville, in 
the sandy stratum just above the Miocene marl. In 1858 (Geol. Surv. 
North Carolina Agric, Eastern Counties, p. 197, fig. 21), the same writer 
figured an incisor tooth found in the Miocene of Pitt County. Conrad 
(Amer. Jour. Sci. 1871, vol. i, p. 468) spoke of the finding of black and 
mineralized teeth of a horse, which he regarded as E. fraternus, in Miocene 
marl. Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1871, p. 113) reported on the 
upper molar tooth which Conrad had found. He regarded it as occurring 
accidentally in the Miocene and as belonging to E. complicatus; but as the 
tooth was injured, Leidy thought it might belong to Hipparion. In the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia the writer 
has seen quite certainly the same tooth. It appears to be an upper pre- 
molar, the third or the fourth. It has a height of about 50 mm. and a 
length of 30 mm. The inner half has been split off. It is that of E. 
complicatus. 

4. Plymouth, Washington County. — E. Emmons, in 1858 (North Caro- 
lina Geol. Surv. Agric, Eastern Counties, p. 197, figs. 19, 20), figured 2 
teeth, an upper left molar or premolar and a hindermost left molar, which 
had been washed up on the beach at Plymouth. This place is on the south 
bank of Roanoke River. Judging from Emmons's figures, one must 
conclude that these teeth belong to Equus leidyi. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Beaufort, Beaufort County. — In the museum of Rutgers College, at 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, the writer has seen 6 teeth of Equus, pre- 
sented by Mr. G. U. Shepard jr., and obtained on Coosaw River; but no 
more detailed information has been furnished. In the Charleston Museum 



192 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^.. 

is a tooth of Equus complicatus which was found by Mr. Earle Sloan, in 
Coosaw River. 

2. Charleston, Charleston County. — The remains of horses, especially 
teeth, are among the most abundant Pleistocene fossils in the region around 
Charleston. Most of the specimens have been discovered in dredging for 
phosphate rock, and usually nothing is recorded about the exact locality 
where found or about the conditions of burial. A considerable number of 
well-preserved teeth have, however, been discovered in known localities 
and under defined conditions. 

The earliest collection of fossils described from about Charleston was 
made by Professor F. S. Holmes, of Charleston, and Captain A. H. Bowman, 
U. S. Army. These fossils were sent to Dr. Joseph Leidy and described 
by him as early as 1858, but more fully in 1860, in Holmes's "Post-Pleiocene 
Fossils of South Carolina." Most of these fossils were obtained on the 
shores of Ashley River, about 10 miles above Charleston. From this locality 
were described 5 upper teeth of Equus comylicatus (Leidy, op. cit., p. 102, 
plate XV, figs. 2-5, 7) and 2 lower ones (plate xvi, figs. 19, 21). 

Oi Equus leidyi {^E. fraternus Leidy) the author quoted described from 
Ashley River 2 lower teeth (op. cit., plate xvi, figs. 20, 22). Leidy (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, p. 98) reported that there were in the collection 
of C. N. Shepard, at Amherst College, teeth of Equus major {^=E. com- 
plicatus) and E. fraternus {=E. leidyi) secured in the Ashley River 
deposit. Leidy, in 1873 (Contrib. Ext. Vert. Fauna West. Terrs., p. 245, 
plate XXXIII, figs. 14, 15) reported an upper molar and a lower one of 
E. complicatus, found in the "phosphate beds" of Ashley River. 

From Doctor Swamp, Johns Island, southwest of Charleston, Leidy (op. 
cit., p. 103, plate xv, fig. 6) described an upper tooth as that of his Equus 
fraternus. This was afterwards made by Cope the type of this species; but 
Gidley (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xiv, p. Ill) determined that this type 
belongs itself to E. complicatus. It was this determination which made it 
necessary to give a new name, E. leidyi, to the teeth of medium size which 
had gone under the name of E. fraternus. 

In the National Museum is a finely preserved upper right third or fourth 
premolar of what appears to be Equus complicatus which is recorded having 
been found in Wando River, northwest from Charleston. The tooth is 
75 mm. high, 31 mm. long on the grinding-face, and 27 mm. wide. The 
enamel is much complicated. In Holmes's "Post-Pleiocene Fossils of South 
Carolina," on pages 102 and 104, Leidy mentions an upper second pre- 
molar of Equus fraternus found on Goose Creek, about 12 miles from 
Charleston. He added a paragraph on the geology. Further reference 
to this will be found on page 363. In the Charleston Museum and in the 
private collections about Charleston the writer has seen many teeth of 
horses found in that region, most of them without statements about exact 
localities, though some were found in Stono River. The teeth of E. leidyi 
appear to be more numerous in the collections than those of E. complicatus. 
Many teeth of both species are contained in the Scanlan collection, made 
in the region about Charleston and now owned by Yale University. In 



GEORGIA. 193 

this collection are found also two lower molars which the writer refers to 
Equus littoralis. The reader is referred to pages 362 to 366. 

3. Richland County. — On the occasion referred to in the next paragraph, 
Robert W. Gibbes presented a tooth of a horse found in Richland district 
at a depth of 17 feet, in a slough, supposed to have been a former bed of 
Congaree River. 

4. Darlington, Darlington County. — In 1850 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. 
Sci., vol. Ill, p. 67), Gibbes showed before the Association several specimens 
of horse-teeth, referred to Equus americanus {E. complicatus) , found in 
supposed Pliocene at Darlington. They were reported as having been dis- 
covered associated with bones of a mastodon, presumably of Mamniut 
americanum. No additional information was furnished. Darlington is 
situated on a branch of Black Creek, an affluent of Great Pedee River. 
The teeth were probably found in a Pleistocene terrace deposit. 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 17.) 

Apparently remains of extinct horses have been found in Georgia in only 
two places, as follows : 

1. Brunswick, Glynn County. — During the construction (in 1838-39) of 
a canal which connected Altamaha and Turtle Rivers, remains of various 
fossil vertebrates were discovered. A list of these will be given on page 370. 
Among the remains was a lower left last premolar or first molar of an 
ex-tinct horse, described by Leidy in 1847 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1847, 
p. 266) and again in 1860 (Holmes's Post-Pleiocene Foss. South Caro- 
lina, p. 104, plate XVI, fig. 23) . In the first publication he referred the tooth 
to his species Equus americanus {=zE. complicatus) ; but in 1860 he re- 
ferred it to his Equus jraternus i=E. leidyi). The size of the tooth appears 
to justify his later conclusion. 

Lyell, in his "Second Visit to the United States," made in 1845 (ed. 2, 
vol. 1, p. 348), stated that remains of Equus had been found in the Bruns- 
wick Canal. He referred it to Equus curvidens, and stated that this 
species had the upper teeth more curved than any living horse. 

On page 436 of Bulletin No. 26 of the Geological Survey of Georgia, 
J. W. Gidley furnished a list of vertebrates dredged up somewhere near 
Brunswick. Among the species are 3 horses, Equus fraternus (=£J. leidyi), 
E. complicatus, and E. tau (probably E. littoralis). Through the liberality 
of Professor S. W. MacCallie, State Geologist of Georgia, the writer has 
been permitted to study these teeth. There is one damaged upper molar 
which belongs to E. complicatus ; 4 upper and 1 lower grinders belong to 
E. leidyi; 2 upper left molars are certainly those of E. littoralis; one having 
a height of 72 mm., a crown-length of 23 mm., and a width of 22 mm. 
The length is slightly greater than that of the type of the species. 

In the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
the writer has examined an equine tibia presented by J. H. Couper, prob- 
ably found in the Brunswick Canal with the other remains presented by 
Mr. Couper. It is compared in size with a tibia of the horse Edwin For- 



194 



PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 



rest, with that of a draft horse in the U. S. National Museum, and with that 
of E. scotti, No. 10628, in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Measurements of tibice of horses, in millimeters. 





Brunswick 
horse. 


Edwin 
Forrest. 


Draft 
horse. 


E. 
scotti. 


Total length of tibia 


455 
65 


365 
42 


420 
50 


370 
49 


Side-to-side diameter at middle of length 



The Brunswick horse was evidently a very large one, but it may have 
been an unusually large specimen of Equus complicatus. 

2. Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Chatham County. — On page 27 of 
William B. Hodgson's "Memoir on the Megatherium," in Joseph Haber- 
sham's memorandum, is noted the fact that among the fossils found here 
was a well-preserved tooth of a horse. The height of the tooth is given as 
being 2.75 inches, greatest diameter 1.2 inches, the least 1 inch. The tooth 
was evidently an upper premolar or molar. It belonged probably either 
to Equus complicatus or E. leidyi, but to which is uncertain. 

In 1850 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. iii, p. 67), Robert W. Gibbes 
reported the discovery of horse remains, probably a tooth, in the alluvium 
of Skidaway Island, a few miles southeast of Savannah. No further infor- 
mation was furnished. The geological conditions at this island and the 
fossils found there will be considered on pages 370 to 372. 

FLORIDA. 

(Maps 17, 18.) 

1. Stokes Ferry, St. Mary's River, Nassau County. — In 1909 {2d Ann. 
Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 147), Sellards stated, on authority of notes 
received from Dr. L. W. Stephenson, that 3 teeth of a fossil horse had been 
found at the place named. At the same place was discovered a fragment 
of a tooth of an elephant, most probably Elephas columhi, and some ear- 
bones of a whale. The writer has not seen these and does not know to what 
species they belonged. 

Measurements of tibice of horses. 



Dimensions taken. 



Total length of bone 

Length on outer border 

Length on inner border 

Width across upper end 

Fore-and-aft diameter at middle of length 
Side-to-side diameter at middle of length. 
Greatest width at lower end 



Equus sp. 


E. 


E. 


Florida. 


scotti. 


caballus. 


396 


370 


392 


360 






378 






125± 


107 


108 


45 


40 


37 


56 


49 


43 


94 


93 


86 



2. Almero Farm, St. John County. — In the collection of Mr. Fred R. 
Allen, of St. Augustine, Florida, the writer has examined a left tibia of an 



FLORIDA. 195 

extinct horse, found in the Inland Waterway Canal, about 28 miles south 
of St. Augustine. The species has not been determined, but it may be well 
to put on record the measurements. It apparently belonged to a rather 
large horse. For comparison, other corresponding measurements are given, 
taken from Equus scotti, No. 10628 of the American Museum of Natural 
History, and from Equus caballus, No. 74 of Mr. Chubb's collection at the 
museum mentioned, a trotting stallion. 

It will be seen that the tibia found below St. Augustine is a relatively 
stouter bone than those it is compared with. The large horse, known to 
have existed in Florida, is Equus complicatus. 

3. Neals, Alachua County. — This place is near Newberry. Here have 
been collected Gomphotherium fioridanum, Tapirus terrestrisf, and Hip- 
parion sp. indet. 

4. Wade, Alachua County. — The writer has seen at Tallahassee, 4 fossil 
Equus teeth, found at this place. One is No. 1470 of the Florida Geological 
Survey and labeled as found in the Buttgenbach "cummer" mine. It is 
a lower left second premolar, 40 mm. high, 31 mm. long, and 14.5 mm. 
wide, not including the cement present. Another tooth, No. 1462, from 
Buttgenbach's river mine, near Wade, is the hindermost left molar of the 
lower jaw, 32 mm. long, and 13 mm. wide in front. It is thought these 
teeth belonged to Equus Icidyi. 

5. Newberry, Alachua County. — This is the locality mentioned by Dall 
(Bull. 84, U. S. Geol. Survey, p. 128) under the name of Hallowells; 
but he mentioned no fossils from this place. In the Report of the Florida 
Geological Survey, volume v, page 58, Sellards stated that a species of 
Hipparion had been discovered in the hard phosphate. In the eighth report 
of the same survey, on page 42, the present writer described a specifically 
undetermined species of Parahippus, also from the phosphate deposits. On 
page 94 Dr. Sellards reported Equus littoralis and Odocoileus from New- 
berrj'. The writer has identified as Equus littoralis, a horse represented by 
a lower left hindermost molar, found at Newberry. 

6. Archer, Alachua County. — Dr. Joseph Leidy, in 1885 (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., pp. 32, 33), described from this place a rhinoceros, Rhi- 
noceros proterus, and Hippotherium ingenuum. In 1886 (ibid., pp. 11, 12) 
he again mentioned these species and described in addition to them Mas- 
todon floridanus and 3 species of camels which he referred to the genus 
Auchenia. In a list furnished by Leidy to Dr. W. H. Dall (Bull. U. S. 
Geol. Surv., No. 84, p. 129), there are listed, besides the species mentioned, 
Megatherium and Cervus virginianusf , all found in the Alachua clays and 
usually referred to the Lower Miocene or Upper Pliocene. In the list pre- 
sented on page 375, under the geology of Florida, a species of tapir is 
added. At present the writer assigns the deposits known as the Alachua 
clays to lowermost Pleistocene. 

7. Williston, Levy County. — In the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, is an upper last molar of Equus, found at the place named 
and presented by E. Mixon. The enamel is not much plicated. The size of 
the tooth indicated that it belonged to E. leidyi. In the list of vertebrates 
unearthed at Mixon's (near Williston), furnished by Leidy to Dall, were 



196 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 

included two species of Hippotherium, H. ingenuum and H. plicatile. These 
species are now referred to the genus Hipparion. H. plicatile was de- 
scribed by Leidy in 1887 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 309). A list of 
the species at present known to have been obtained here is to be found on 
page 375 under the geology of Florida. They have all been found in the 
Alachua clays and are usually regarded as belonging to the late Tertiary. 

8. Ocala, Marion County. — In 1889 (Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. ii, p. 13), 
Leidy reported the discovery of some fossil vertebrates in a fissure in a 
limestone rock near Ocala. Some equine teeth he referred to Equus fra- 
ternus {=E. leidyi). The other species were identified as Smilodon fiori- 
danus, Elephas columbi, and (with some doubt) Procamelus minimus. 
For conclusions regarding the geology of the locality see page 378. 

9. Dunnellon, Marion County. — The writer has examined 2 fossil horse- 
teeth found near Dunnellon, now the property of the Florida Geological 
Survey. No. 1366 is from the Camp Phosphate Company's Blue Run mine. 
It is a first or second upper molar, worn down to a height of only an inch 
and having a grinding-surface 26 mm. long and 25 mm. wide and with a 
protocone 12 mm. long fore and aft. No. 1444, also a first or second upper 
molar, has a height of 47 mm., a length of 24 mm., a width of 23 mm., and 
a protocone of 11.5 mm. The enamel of the lakes is much plicated. The 
teeth are identified as those of Equus leidyi. No. 1444 has been figured 
by Sellards (7th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. Ill, fig. 40) and described 
as dredged from the Schilmann and Bene river mine, on Withlacoochee 
River. 

On page 376, under the geology of Florida, will be found a list of the 
species obtained at Dunnellon and the surrounding region. In this list is 
included Parahippus sp. indet. and Hipparion plicatile. Dr. Sellards be- 
lieves that many species of that list belong to the Pleistocene. The horse- 
like species, the rhinoceros, and the camel are held by him as being older 
than the Pleistocene. 

10. Hernando, Citrus County. — At this place have been secured Gompho- 
therium jioridanum, Hipparion sp. indet., and Procamelus sp. indet., all from 
the phosphate deposits and referred by Sellards to the Upper Miocene or 
the Lower Pliocene. 

11. Holder, Citrus County. — In the collection of Dr. H. G. Bystra, of 
Holden, is a fossil horse-tooth dredged from Withlacoochee River, in sec- 
tion 29, township 17 south, range 19 east. The species to which the tooth 
belonged has not been determined. 

12. Orange County. — The writer has seen, in the collection of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, an upper right last molar of 
Equus, labeled as found in the county named. Nothing more is known by 
the writer about the tooth. 

13. Eau Gallie, Brevard County. — In 1916 (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. 
Surv., p. 105), Sellards stated that at this place, in the Hopkins drainage 
canal, had been collected teeth of Elephas columbi and Equus complicatus. 

14. Kingsjord, Polk County. — In the U. S. National Museum are 3 horse- 
teeth collected in 1903 by Mr. Juan C. Edmundoz, from some of the phos- 
phate mines in the region about Kingsford. Although most of the fossils 



FLORIDA. 197 

from these mines have been supposed to belong to the late Miocene or early 
Pliocene, these horse-teeth are certainly of Pleistocene age. One tooth, 
No. 8620, is an upper right true molar, either the first or the second. It is 
worn down to about half its original length. The length of the grinding- 
surface is 25 mm. ; its width is 26 mm. The enamel surrounding the lakes 
is extremely complicated. Another tooth. No. 8619, is a right hindermost 
molar with the protocone missing. A third tooth, No. 8618, is a little-worn 
lower molar, probably the second. The height is 83 mm., the length 25 mm., 
width 14 mm. The teeth are to be referred to Equus leidyi. 

15. Brewster, Polk County. — In volume viii of the Florida Geological 
Survey, pages 95, 96, Dr. Sellards states that from the phosphate mines at 
Brewster have been obtained teeth of Hipparion minor. A list of the asso- 
ciated species is to be found in the discussion of the Pleistocene geology of 
Florida on page 380. 

16. Alafia River, Hillsboro County. — In the American Museum of Natu- 
ral History, New York, is a collection of 10 teeth of Equus, said to have 
been dredged in Alafia River. Some belong to E. leidyi. One, a right third 
or fourth upper premolar worn down to a height of 40 mm., has still a 
length of 30 mm. and a width of 27 mm. ; apparently it belongs to E. com- 
plicatus. The writer has described an extinct species of box-tortoise, Ter- 
rapene putnami (Fossil Turtles, N. A., p. 360) dredged by Professor F. W. 
Putnam in Alafia River about a mile above its entrance into Tampa Bay. 
With the bone, which forms the type of the species, were dredged a periph- 
eral bone of a Testudo, possibly T. crassiscutata, and remains of horses 
and tapirs. It is pretty certain that the 10 teeth above mentioned were 
secured by Professor Putnam. 

In Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio, is a part of a lower right pre- 
molar of Equus, apparently E. leidyi, said to have been found near 
Tampa Bay. 

17. Palmetto, Manatee County.— At several places about tlie mouth of 
Manatee River have been found relics of fossil horses. Mr. Ernest Leitzel, 
of Palmetto, sent to the U. S. National Museum for identification some 
teeth found in Manatee River, others in Terra Ceia Bay. The teeth are all 
well fossilized; some are upper teeth, others belong below. The writer 
regards them as belonging to Equus leidyi. 

In the same museum are 2 lower right true molars, a second and a third, 
sent from Manatee by Mr. N. B. Moore. The teeth are moderately worn. 
The length of the grinding surface of the hindermost molar is only 23 mm., 
the width 12 mm. They must have belonged to a small horse and are 
referred to Equus littoralis. 

From Mr. Charles T. Earle the U. S. National IMuseum received in 
February 1921, several teeth of Equus leidyi, 2 of E. eomplicatus, and 1 
of E. littoralis, which had been washed up on the beach at Palma Sola, about 
10 miles below Palmetto. With these teeth came parts of antlers of a deer, 
a part of a metacarpal and an astragalas of Bison latifronsf, a part of a 
beak of a platanistid porpoise, a part of a tooth of Elephas columbi, a 
fragment or two of a terrapin (Trachemys sp. indet.) a frtigment of the 
carapace of a soft-shelled turtle, and teeth of sharks. The porpoise and 



198 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 

the sharks, also a part of a metapodial of a camel, may belong to Miocene 
or Pliocene deposits near the locality. 

18. Sarasota Bay, Sarasota County. — The region a little further south 
than Manatee River has furnished remains of extinct horses. Sellards (7th 
Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 112, fig. 47) has figured a lower tooth of 
a large horse, found by Mr. Joseph Willcox, at White Beach, on Sarasota 
Bay. Inasmuch as the fore-and-aft dimension of the tooth is 30 mm., it 
very probably belonged to Equus complicatus. Mr. Willcox has submitted 
to the writer 2 large lower teeth, regarded as belonging to the species just 
mentioned. Another lower tooth, apparently a third or fourth lower pre- 
molar, found on the same beach, has the fore-and-aft dimension only 26 
mm., the width 15 mm. This is referred to Equus leidyi. At Blackburn's 
place, 12 miles south of White Beach, Mr. Willcox secured a tooth of Equus 
apparently little worn. The height is 83 mm., the length at the summit 28 
mm., but a little further down only 26 mm.; the width 12 mm. This tooth 
is to be referred to Equus leidyi. 

In the American Museum of Natural History, New York, are 7 teeth of 
Equus, collected in 1911 by Mr. Barnum Brown at a place 8 miles south- 
east of Sarasota. Thej'- appear to belong to the Florida horse of medium 
size, Equus leidyi. 

19. Calvenia, Hardee County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 
4838) is an upper right last molar of a horse labeled as found near the 
mouth of Charlie Apopka Creek and as having been presented by Captain 
Le Baron through L. C. Johnson. The tooth belongs to Equus leidyi. 
Another tooth found at the same place, at the same time (December 16, 
1883), and presented in the same way, is a lower grinder. The height is 
75 mm., the length, 27 mm., the thickness 12.3 mm. It is to be referred 
to E. leidyi. 

20. Arcadia, De Soto County. — Many remains of horses, especially teeth, 
have been collected at and near this place, by Mr. Joseph Willcox, on a 
sand-bar at Arcadia being explored for phosphate. The first published 
description of these remains appears to be that of Leidy in 1889 (Trans. 
Wagner Inst., ii, p. 19). Leidy had at hand 17 upper molars, 2 lower 
molars, and 2 incisors. He was, at that time, uncertain whether these 
teeth pertained to an indigenous species of Equus or to the domestic horse. 
The manager of the Arcadia Phosphate Company, Mr. T. S. Moorhead, 
informed Mr. Willcox that the main source of the materials of the bar 
extended for miles along the shores of Peace Creek and was about 8 feet 
thick. 

Among the materials examined by Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1890, p. 182) was a tooth which he regarded as belonging to Equus major 
{^E. complicatus), but, on the suggestion of Professor Cope, he described 
and figured as Hippotherium pnnceps. Later, Lucas (Trans, cit., vol. iv, 
p. 49, plate xix, figs. 12, 13) concluded that Leidy's first opinion was 
correct. The tooth is abnormal in having the column of the protocone free 
from the other cusps of the tooth for a short distance from the grinding- 
surface. In Bulletin No. 84 (p. 129) of the U. S. Geological Survey, Leidy 
referred the Peace Creek horses to his Equus jraternus {=^E. leidyi), and 



FLORIDA. 199 

it is found tliat in size and other respects the type of Hippotherium prin- 
ceps agrees with this species. It is retained, however, as Equus princeps. 

In the U. S. National Museum are 6 teeth collected on Peace Creek, 
probably not far from Arcadia, which all apparently belong to E. leidyi. 
J. W. Gidley (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv, 1901, p. 121) stated 
that there is in the American Museum a tooth from Peace Creek, much too 
small to be referred to any species at that time reported from the United 
States, but resembling closely Equus tau, from Mexico. This tooth prob- 
ably belongs to Equus littoralis. 

Besides the horses of the genus Equus, there have been found at or near 
Arcadia the 3-toed horse Hipparion ingenuum. Whether this is to be 
referred with the great majority of the fossils found in this region to the 
Aftonian fauna of the first interglacial or to the Nebraskan stage it is 
impossible to say. 

21. Vero, St. Lucie County. — Numerous remains of extinct horses have 
been found here, but they always consist of single bones or teeth, some- 
times in fine condition, sometimes somewhat waterworn. The remains 
occur in both deposits, designated as No. 2 and No. 3, but in the latter the 
materials are more fragmentary and not specifically identifiable. Sellards 
has figured some of the teeth in his seventh Annual Report (1915, pp. 110, 
111, figs. 40-43). In his eighth report, on page 149, he has recognized 
the occurrence here of 3 species, Equus complicatus, E. leidyi, and E. 
littoralis. 

The writer has examined a large canine tooth found in the stratum of 
sand. No. 2. From its size it is referred to Equus complicatus. Its fore- 
and-aft diameter is 14 mm. Another tooth from the stratum, an upper right 
third true molar, finely preserved and retaining some of the cement, is 
regarded as belonging to E. leidyi. Two lower teeth from No. 2 are water- 
worn, but retain their structure. The fore-and-aft diameter of each is 
21 mm. They must have belonged to the little horse called E. littoralis. 
A fragment of an upper tooth is referred to this species. It is not water- 
worn, but has been split from the crown to the root. A hinder first phalan- 
geal bone found in the canal (No. 1802 of the Florida Geological Survey) 
is 96 mm. long. This indicates a horse as large as our ordinary domestic 
horses and it probably belonged to Equus complicatus. 

22. Labelle, Lee County. — In 1889 (Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. ii, p. 17), 
Leidy stated that Mr. Joseph Willcox had obtained, from a Pliocene shell- 
bed on Caloosahatchee River, some remains of a fossil horse, consisting of 
two cervical vertebrae and a part of a lower jaw, which contained the first 
and second molar teeth. These teeth are probably what would be called 
premolars 2 and 3. Leidy referred the remains to his Equus jraternus 
{=E. leidyi). 

Dall (Bull. No. 84, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 129) stated that Equus jraternus. 
Bison latifrons, and Elephas columbi were found in Pliocene beds on the 
Caloosahatchee, but Sellards (8th Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 102) corrects 
this error as to the age. 

The writer has received a letter from Mr. Willcox in which he states that 
the fragment of lower jaw was found about 2 or 3 miles below Labelle. 



200 PLEISTOCENE EQUID^. 

23. Palm Beach, Palm Beach County. — In 1916 (8th Ann. Rep. Florida 
Geol. Surv.. p. 105), Sellards wrote that Mr. J. L. Hayes had secured for 
the Florida State Geological Survey, from the Palm Beach Canal, teeth of 
Elephas columhi and Equus complicatus and a femur of a species of Bison. 

ALABAMA. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Newhern, Hale County. — In August 1914, there was received at the 
U. S. National Museum, from Mr. J. W. White, of Newbern, a lower left 
first incisor of a horse. This, with a lower molar of a species of Bison, had 
been found in a creek. The incisor is somewhat worn, but still retained 
a part of the cup. The grinding-face is 14 mm. from side to side. The 
species can not be determined. 

2. Bogue Chitto, Dallas County. — In the U. S. National Museum is an 
upper right true molar, first or second, of a horse, found at this place in 
1883, by L. C. Johnson, of the U. S. Geological Survey. The tooth is 
identified as that of Equus leidyi. The enamel is much crenated. At the 
same place was found a tooth (a lower molar) of Elephas imperator, and 
teeth of Mammut americanum. It seems to the writer that the presence 
of these species indicates that the deposits along Bogue Chitto belong 
to the early part of the Pleistocene, about equivalent to the Aftonian. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Orizaba, Tippah County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 1907) 
is a fossil tooth of a horse, a third or fourth right premolar, found apparent^ 
not far from this little town. It is labeled as having been picked up at 
Lander's mill, 9 miles south of Ripley, on Cane Creek, out of debris of 
Cretaceous marl, and given to Dr. T. E. Stanton. How it came to be 
mingled with the marl is not known. The tooth is only moderately worn, 
the height being 75 mm. The length of the gfinding-surface is 28 mm., 
the width 27 mm. It has the enamel unusually strongly folded. The tooth 
is referred provisionally to Equus leidyi. 

2. Natchez, Adams County. — Elsewhere will be found an account of the 
discovery of fossil vertebrates near Natchez by Dr. M. W. Dickerson (p. 
390), among which were found horse teeth, referred to two species. One of 
these horses, represented, as supposed, by 12 teeth, was at first called by Leidy 
Equus americanus (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1847, vol. iii, p. 265, plate 
ii) ; but later Equus complicatus (Proc. cit., 1858, p. 11). In 1901 (Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv, p. 109, fig. 7), Gidley selected one of the 
teeth, that of Leidy's plate ii, figs. 1, 6, referred to above, as the special type 
of the species Equus complicatus. These Natchez teeth are now in the 
collection of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Some of the teeth from Natchez were described by Leidy in 1860 (Holmes's 
Post-Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina, pp. 100-105, plate xv, figs. 11- 
15, plate XVI, figs. 24-26, 30, 31) as Equus complicatus. Others (pp. 100- 



TENNESSEE. 201 

105, plate XV, figs. 17, 18, plate xvi, fig. 27) were referred to a hitherto 
unrecognized species Eqmis fraternus. 

« 

TENNESSEE. 
(Map 17. Figure 23.) 

1. Rogersville, Hawkins County. — In the U. S. National Museum (No. 
520) is a single horse-tooth found many years ago in a crevice in a marble 
quarry at this place. It is referred by the writer to Equus leidyi (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 84 ) . With it were sent a canine tooth and a 
few bones of a peccary, described as Mylohyus setiger (p. 394). 

2. Whitesburg, Hamblen County. — In 1885 Mr. Ira Sayles collected at 
this place a lot of bones and teeth of vertebrates, described by the present 
writer (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 87). Among them is an upper 
right second premolar of a horse, identified as Equus leidyi. A list of the 
species will be found on page 395. E. littoralis also is present. 

3. Lookout Mountain, Hamilton County. — In the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, is an upper second molar tooth brought from 
Lookout Mountain (Gidley, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv, p. 121). 
Under what conditions this tooth was found have not been recorded. It 
belongs probably to the species Equus littoralis. 

4. Nashville, Davidson County. — From William Edward Myer, of Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, the writer received, June 26, 1920, some fossils collected near 
Nashville, about 300 yards upstream from Lock A, in Cumberland River, 
at a depth of nearly 30 feet beneath a bank of gravel. Below this gravel is 
a bed of sand apparently 2 or 3 feet thick and this is underlain by another 
bed of gravel apparently about 2 feet thick. This itself lies on bed rock at 
about the level of low water in the river. In the lower gravel were found 
a lower molar of Equus leidyi, a part of a left femur of a large horse, and 
an antler of a small undetermined and probably undescribed deer. In the 
layer of sand were discovered a heel bone of a camel, a part of a tooth of a 
young mastodon, and some fragments of turtle bones. The equine tooth 
belongs to the right side. It has a height of about 80 mm., a length of 28 
mm. on the grinding-surface, and a width of 16 mm. It is black, and like 
the others thoroughly fossilized. 

The fragment of femur appears to have belonged to a horse perhaps 
larger than Equus leidyi. It begins at the lower border of the third 
trochanter and descends to the lower part of the deep fossa for the plantaris 
muscle. Immediately above the fossa the side-to-side diameter of the bone 
is 50 mm., the fore-and-aft 00 mm. In a horse of medium size these 
diameters are respectively 45 mm. and 53 mm. 

Later there was discovered at the same locality the upper two-thirds of 
the right metatarsal. The fragment is 230 mm. long. The upper articular 
end is somewhat injured; 75 mm. below the upper end the fore-and-aft 
diameter is 45 mm., the side-to-side diameter 38 mm. The latter diameter 
was somewhat greater, as the bone appears to be slightly crushed. The 
specimen is referred to Equus complicatus. Probably the femur men- 
tioned above belonged to this species. 



202 PLEISTOCENE EQUID.E. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 17.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — In their report published in 1831 (Amer. 
Jour. Sci., vol. XX, p. 371), Cooper, Smith, and Dekay reported they found 
in the collection from this place large teeth and bones of a horse. They 
regarded these as being of equal antiquity with the extinct animals asso- 
ciated with them. In 1847 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. iii, p. 263, 
264) Leidy stated that there were in the Academy 10 permanent molars of 
a horse from Bigbone Lick. These he referred to Equus curvidens. In 
1853 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, p. 263) he wrote that several 
teeth supposed to have come from this locality had possibly been obtained 
elsewhere. 

In 1851 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 140), he spoke of foot-bones of 
the horse, a calcanum and first phalanx, from the same place. In 1860 
(Holmes's "Post-Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina," p. 104), Leidy men- 
tioned several horse-bones from Bigbone Lick presented to the American 
Philosophical Society by President Jefferson. In Rochester University are 
2 hoof phalanges labeled from Bigbone Lick. Osborn ("Age of Mammals," 
p. 478) puts down Equus from Bigbone Lick as being doubtful. There 
appears to be no good reason for this. 

The remains of horses from this locality appear all to belong to Equus 
complicatus. 

2. Monday's Landing, Mercer County. — From Professor Arthur M. 
Miller, of the University of Kentucky, the writer has received for examina- 
tion a much-worn upper left molar or premolar of a horse found at the 
place named. It was met with in a fissure filled with crystallized calcite, 
near the bank of Kentucky River. The vein of calcite was about 6 feet 
wide. Similar veins at this locality have been worked down to a depth of 
200 or 300 feet. A part of a lower jaw of a deer-like animal was found 
in one of these veins. The horse-tooth is badly worn, but it appears to 
have belonged to a small species, the fore-and-aft length of the crown being 
only 19 mm.. The enamel of the anterior lake is considerably complicated. 
It is impossible, from the lack of other fossil remains, to determine the 
geological age of this horse. 



PENNSYLVANIA — OHIO INDIANA. 203 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE TAPIRID E IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Port Kennedy, Montgomery County. — In 1871, Wheatley announced 
(Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. i, p. 384) that he had discovered in the Port 
Kennedy bone cave 2 species of tapirs (Tapirus americanus and T. haysii). 
In 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. ii, p. 253), Cope stated that 
remains of 35 or more tapirs had been discovered in this cave. He referred 
all to T. haysii. These tapirs will be mentioned again on page 312, where 
the geological relations of the cave and its contents are considered. 

2. Frankstown, Blair County. — In 1908, Dr. W. J. Holland reported (Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., vol. iv, p. 231) found in a bone cave at Frankstown the third 
and fourth lower premolars of a tapir about the size of Tapir americanus, 
which name is a synonym of T. terrestris. This will be mentioned in the 
discussion of the geology of the region on page 321. 

OHIO. 

(Maps 19, 36.) 

1. New Salisbury?, Columbiana County. — Somewhere in the region prob- 
ably of the town named was found, about 1850, a jaw of a tapir, apparently 
mentioned first by Louis Agassiz (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. v, 1851, 
p. 179), who referred to it as a jaw of a pachyderm. Leidy, in 1860 
(Holmes's "Post-Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina," p. 107), reported that 
he had studied a much-mutilated fragment of the lower jaw of the smaller 
variety of the extinct tapir, which had belonged to Professor J. Brainerd, of 
Cleveland. It had been found in the valley of Yellow Creek, in Columbiana 
County, in an erosion of the coal series. It was covered with 30 feet of 
clay, at a height of 186 feet above low-water in Ohio River. Charles 
Whittlesey, in 1866 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. xv, art. 3, p. 16), 
stated that this specimen was taken from "valley drift," of Yellow Creek, in 
Columbiana County, by Mr. E. White, C. E., in a cut of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. Inasmuch as Yellow Creek itself does not enter the county 
named, reference must be to what is called, on the topographical sheet of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, North Fork of Yellow Creek. The railroad 
follows this creek for many miles in the county. The town of New Salisbury 
is taken as being probably not far from the locality. It is not known what 
became of this specimen, nor is it possible to say to which species it 
belonged. It is to be referred probably to the Sangamon stage. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Evansville, Vanderburg County. — Tapir remains have been found at 
only one place in Indiana, viz, in the banks of the Ohio River at the mouth 
of Pigeon Creek, a short distance below Evansville. A single lower hinder 



204 PLEISTOCENE TAPIRID^. 

molar formed part of a collection made by Mr. Francis A. Lincke and 
described by Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 199). This tooth 
was figured by Leidy in 1860 (Holmes's "Post-Pliocene Fossils of South 
Carolina," p. 107, plate xvii, figs. 9, 10) under the name Tapirus haysii. 
Associated with the tooth were remains of Megalonyx jeffersonii, a bison 
of probably an extinct species, the Virginia deer, the horse known as Equus 
comylicatus , and the large extinct wolf Mnocyon dims. 

On page 32 is discussed the probable age of the bone-bed which con- 
tained the animals named above. It is concluded that the age is possibly 
the Aftonian, but more probably the Sangamon. This species of tapir has 
been found at Bigbone Lick, Kentucky, between Louisville and Cincinnati, 
in deposits containing Equus complicatus, 2 extinct species of Bison, deer, 
etc. The deposits lie on lUinoian drift and are in part, at least, of Sanga- 
mon age. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Corriganville, Allegany County. — In a crevice in limestone rock, at a 
point about 3 miles west of north of Cumberland, Mr. J. W. Gidley found a 
tooth of a tapir. The tooth has never been specifically identified. A list 
of the associated species, as far as determined, will be given on page 350. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Ivanhoe, Wythe County. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xi, 
p. 176), Cope announced the discovery of several lower molars of a tapir 
in what he regarded as cave breccia, along New River. These teeth he 
found to be somewhat larger than those of T. terrestris, the Central and 
South American species, and he referred them to Tapirus haysii. A list 
of the species found here is given on page 353. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — In 1860 (Holmes's "Post-Pliocene 
Fossils of South Carolina," p. 106, plate xvii, figs. 2, 3), Leidy described 
briefly and figured 2 injured upper cheek-teeth of a tapir found in the 
Pleistocene of Ashley River, and referred by him to Tapirus americanus 
jossilis, on the supposition that they were not different from those of the 
existing South American tapir, but larger. The larger of the two teeth 
(jfig. 2) appears to have had a fore-and-aft diameter of about 29 mm. It 
seems, therefore, to belong to Leidy 's species Tapirus haysii. Under the 
same name, T. americanus Jossilis, Leidy illustrated (figs. 11, 12) a lower 
molar found on Ashley River. This appears to be too small to have 
belonged to T. haysii. Instead, however, of referring it to T. americanus 
{ = T. terrestris) it may possibly be found to belong to T. veroensis Sellards, 
the lower molars of which are not certainly known. The length of the tooth 
figured by Leidy is that of a second molar of T. terrestris, but the width 
is greater than in the latter. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



205 



In the Charleston Museum is a part of a left ramus of the lower jaw of 
a tapir likewise referred to T. veroensis Sellards. This fragment contains 
all 3 of the true molars. 



The following measurements were secured: 



Measurements, in millimeters, of lower molars of tapirs in the 

Charleston Museum. 





Tapirus veroensis? 


Tapirus haysii. 


Length. 


Width. 


Length. 


Width. 


Length of all 3 molars combined. . . . 

First molar 

Second molar 

Third molar 


66 
20 
23 
24 


17 

18.5 

18 


79 
25 
26 
28 


28 

31.5 

32 



In the collection of Charles C. Pinckney, at Lambs, South Carolina, 
are 2 tapir teeth, one of which is an upper molar, not yet come into use, 
apparently the last tooth of the right side. The length of the crown is 
25.5 mm., the width in front 27.5 mm., behind about 23 mm. In front 
is a pretty strong cingulum, but there is none behind. This tooth is referred 
to Tapirus haysii. 

In the Scanlan collection from Charleston, now the property of Yale 
University, are various specimens of tapirs. An upper left second molar is 
slightly worn. The length is 24 mm., the width 30 mm. The outer border 
of the crown makes a right angle with the anterior border; in T. terrestris 
the outer anterior corner is considerably less than a right angle. In the 
latter the hinder faces of the protocone and of the hypocone are concave; 
in the tooth here described both hinder faces are swollen, and the crests 
appear more depressed than in T. terrestris. It is regarded as belonging 
to T. haysii. 

In the Scanlan collection are 3 lower molars which the writer refers to 
T. haysii. The following are the measurements: 



Measurements, in millimeters, of lower molars of tapirs 
the Scanlan collection. 



m 





Length. 


Width. 


Left third? molar, with the rear 
cingulum broken off 


28=fc 
25.5 
27 


22.5 

21 

21 


Left second molar 

Right second molar 





In the Scanlan collection is a fragment of the left maxilla with 4 teeth 
the last premolar and the 3 molars. The specimen resembles figure 1 of 
Leidy's plate xvii of Holmes's "Post-Pliocene Fossils of Soutli Carolina." 
The teeth of the Scanlan specimens are, however, less worn. The hinder 



206 



PLEISTOCENE TAPIRID^. 



molar had not yet come through the gum. The specimen is referred to 
T. terrestris. The following are the measurements: 

Measurements, in millimeters, of upper teeth of Tapirus terrestris. 



Tooth. 


Tapir from 
Charleston. 


T. terrestris, 
U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 238110 


Length. 


Width. 


Length. 


Width. 


Pm» 

M' 


19 
20 
22.5 
24.5 


24.5 
25.5 
28 
27.5 


19 
21 

23.5 
25.5 


25 
23 

27 
26 


]VP 


M^ 





The molar teeth have an acute angle between the anterior and the outer 
borders, and the front and the hinder faces of the protocone and the 
hypocone are not so swollen as in the tooth referred to T. haysii. In appar- 
ently every respect the teeth of the fossil agree with the teeth of Tapirus 
terrestris from Brazil. It is to be hoped that before long a good skull of 
the Pleistocene tapir whose teeth so closely resemble those of T. terrestris 
will be discovered. If the two prove to be the same species it will seem 
that only the descendants of those which migrated to North America perished 
during the Glacial period. 

There is another tooth, an upper left second molar, of T. terrestris in the 
Scanlan collection; also the rear half of an upper molar labeled as coming 
from Bull River. Other fragments of teeth are recorded as coming from 
Ashley River. 

In the Charleston Museum (No. 13495) is a part of the left ramus of the 
lower jaw with the 3 molars. On measurement it is found that the teeth 
and jaw agree closely with those of T. terrestris. 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Brunswick, Glynn County. — In Bulletin No. 26 of the Geological 
Survey of Georgia, Mr. J. W. Gidley published a list of species of vertebrate 
fossils which belong to the State collection at Atlanta, secured during 
some dredging operations at Brunswick. This list, with modifications, is 
incorporated in that presented on page 370. Among the fossils examined 
by Gidley, a tooth was recognized as that of Tapirus haysii. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Neals, Alachua County. — Through the kindness of Dr. E. H. Sellards, 
State geologist of Florida, the writer has been permitted to examine various 
teeth (No. 1186, Florida Geological Survey) taken from the T. A. Thompson 
phosphate mines at Neals. Among these is a lower left milk molar of a 



FLORIDA. 207 

tapir. The length of the crown is 21 mm., the width at the front lobe 
14 mm., at the hinder lobe 12.5 mm. The buttresses are well developed. 
The tooth may be provisionally referred to Tapirus terrestris, yet living in 
Brazil. Although this tooth Avas found in phosphate materials, it seemed 
to Dr. Sellards more probable that it was an intrusion from Pleistocene 
deposits. The present writer refers the Alachua clays to the Nebraskan 
stage of the Pleistocene. Sellards has referred to this tooth in his Eighth 
Annual Report, 1916, p. 94. 

2. Archer, Alachua County.— In 1884 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1884, 
p. 119), Leidy briefly described a tooth of a tapir found by Dr. J. C. Neal, 
of Archer, Florida. This is now in the U. S. National Museum, No. 3329. 
The tooth is the third premolar of the left side, implanted in a fragment 
of maxilla. The crown is 23 mm. long and 27 mm. wide. Leidy stated that 
it differed neither in form nor size from the corresponding tooth of the living 
Tapirus americanus {T. terrestris) ; but in a specimen of this the corre- 
sponding tooth is only 18.5 mm. long and 25 mm. wide. The fossil agrees 
in size with the same tooth of T. haysii from the Port Kennedy Cave in 
Pennsylvania (Hay, Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxiii, p. 593). With this 
tooth had been found teeth of a young mastodon, remains of several indi- 
viduals of a species of rhinoceros, some foot-bones of a llama, a calcaneum 
which Leidy thought possibly belonged to the extinct Cervus americarms 
{Cervalces scotti), and vertebral centra of a small crocodile. The cer- 
valces was afterwards dropped from the lists. These remains had been 
found in a bed of clay, occupying a ridge in a pine forest. The deposits are 
now known as the Alachua clays, and they, as well as the contained fossils, 
will be discussed on page 375. The tapir remains are not included in 
Leidy's list given in Bulletin 84 of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

3. Dunnellon, Marion County. — The writer has examined a number of 
tapir teeth found in phosphate beds in Withlacoochee River, at Dunnellon. 
From the Florida geological survey an upper left second premolar (No. 
1440) has been received which is considerably larger than the corresponding 
tooth of Tapirus terrestris and presents other peculiarities. It may have 
belonged to T. haysii. An upper second true molar (No. 1440) has the 
crown 23 mm. long, 27 mm. wide across the front lobe, and 23 mm. across 
the hinder lobe. The corresponding dimensions of a specimen of T. ter- 
restris from Surinam are 24 mm., 25.5 mm., and 21.5 mm. A tooth (No. 
1378) which appears to be the lower left second molar is 22.5 mm. long, 
19 mm. wide in front, and 20 mm. wide behind. The corresponding measure- 
ments of T. terrestris are 22.5 mm., 18.5 mm., and 17.5 mm. The buttresses 
which descend from the outer ends of the crests of the fossil tooth are not 
so strongly developed as in T. terrestris. Probably these teeth belong to 
an undescribed species. An upper molar having a length of 23 mm. has 
been shown the writer by Dr. L. W. Stephenson; it was found in phosphate 
deposits at Dunnellon and sent to him by Sister M. Catherine, of St. Joseph's 
Academy, at St. Augustine. 

4. Near Ocala, Marion County. — -Mr. J. D. Robertson, of Ocala, pre- 
sented to the National Museum a tooth of a tapir, found in phosphate 
deposits a few miles from Ocala, section 5. township 15 south, range 23 east. 



208 PLEISTOCENE TAPIRID^. 

5. Tampa, Hillsboro County. — In the collection of fossils, at Vanderbilt 
University, made from the phosphate-producing beds in Hillsboro County, 
is part of the left ramus of a lower jaw of a tapir containing the first and 
second true molars. The first molar has a length of 24 mm. and a width 
of 20 mm. in front. This is smaller than the corresponding tooth of 
T. terrestris and near that supposed to belong to T. veroensis. The second 
molar has lost its hinder crest. Under the first molar the jaw is 54 mm. 
deep and 37 mm. thick. 

The writer (Fossil Turtles of North America, p. 361) reported the finding 
of tapir teeth in Alafia River, in this county. 

6. Vero, St. Lucie County. — At this important locality remains of tapirs 
have been found in the bed of sands known as No. 2, and likewise in the 
bed of muck mentioned in discussions of the locality as No. 3. From the 
latter have been secured parts of 2 lower jaws and a number of detached 
teeth (Sellards, 8th Ann. Rep., p. 149). One at least of these (No. 6943) 
appears to belong to Topirus haysii. From No. 2 Dr. Sellards has obtained 
a nearly complete skull of a tapir, described (10th and 11th Ann. Rep. Fla. 
Geol. Surv., p. 57, plates i-iv) as Tapirus veroensis. From the same stratum 
he (8th Ann. Rep., p. 139) secured a part of a tooth which he referred with 
some doubt to T. haysii. 

7. Arcadia, De Soto County. — Dr. Joseph Leidy (Trans. Wagner Free 
Inst., vol. II, p. 19) stated he had examined 3 crowns of upper molars and 
fragments of others. In no way did he find them differing from those of 
the South American tapir, T. americanus (T. terrestris). On page 380 
will be found a list of the vertebrate fossils found in this vicinity. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Natchez, Adams County. — In 1849 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
IV, p. 182), Dr. Leidy wrote that there was in the collection of the Academy 
a tooth of a tapir discovered b}^ Dr. M. W. Dickeson near Natchez. It had 
been found in association with remains of the mastodon and the horse 
Equus americanus ( = E. complicatus) . The tooth was pronounced a lower 
molar of the left side, apparently the third milk molar, and was referred 
to Tapirus americanus fossilis; that is, it was looked upon as a fossil tooth 
of the existing South American tapir. The molar was mentioned by Leidy 
in 1860 (Holmes's "Post-Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina," p. 106). The 
writer has seen this tooth in the Academy of Natural Sciences at Phila- 
delphia. 

In 1852 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vi, p. 148), Leidy called the 
attention of the Academy to a fragment of a left lower jaw with 2 teeth 
of a tapir found in the Pleistocene near Natchez and sent to Leidy by the 
geologist B. L. C. Wailles. It was referred to Tapirus haysii. This speci- 
men was figured and described by Leidy in 1860 (Holmes's "Post-Pliocene 
Fossils of South Carolina," p. 107, plate xvii, figs. 4, 5). Wailles mentioned 
this jaw in his work (Agric. Geol. Mississippi, 1854, p. 285), and stated 
that it was found in a ravine on Pine Ridge, which runs through townships 
7 and 8, range 3 west, about 6 miles north of Natchez. 



TENNESSEE— KENTUCKY. 209 

In a list (furnished by Dr. Joseph Leidy) of fossil mammals found in 
the Pleistocene of Mississippi, 2 species of tapirs are included, viz, Tapirus 
americanus ( = T. terrestris) and T. haysii (Wailles, op. cit., p. 286; 
Hilgard, Agric. Geol. Mississippi, 1860, p. 196). The associated species will 
be listed on page 391. 

TENNESSEE. 
(Map 19. Figure 23.) 

1. Whitesburg, Hamblen County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a 
collection of bones and teeth of several species of vertebrates, made in what 
may once have been the floor of a cave, near the village mentioned. On 
page 395 will be found a list of the species. Among the remains are 10 
teeth, in fine preservation, of a young tapir, described by the writer (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 88, plate iii, figs. 4 to 11), and made the type 
of a new species, Tapirus tennessece. 

2. Dandridge, Jefferson County. — On the left bank of Dumplin (or 
Dumpling) Creek, about 5 miles above its entrance into French Broad 
River, and apparently about as many miles northwest from Dandridge, is 
a cavern known as Zirkel's Cave. Dr. H. C. Mercer briefly described 
(Dept. Amer. and Prehis. Archaeology, Univ. Penn., 1896) his investigation 
of the cave. He reported the finding of remains of tapir, peccary, bear, and 
small rodents; but these were not specifically determined. 

3. Lookout Mountain, Hamilton County. — In 1894 (Amer. Naturalist, 
vol. XXVIII, p. 356) , Mercer reported that he had found teeth of a tapir in 
a cave on Lookout Mountain. Cope, on page 597 of the same volume, 
identified these teeth as those of T. haysii. With them was found a bone, 
thought to belong to a mylodon. 

According to a letter received by the writer from Dr. Mercer, the tapir 
specimen consisted of a lower right ramus, 1 left incisor, and 5 molars. 
The teeth appear all to have been loose and the jawbone was broken into 
about 8 fragments. The cave and its contents will be discussed on page 396. 

4. Bristol, Sullivan County. — In the U. S. National Museum are 2 tapir 
teeth in a fragmient of the left maxilla. These are the fourth premolar and 
the first molar, both considerably worn. The size of these teeth indicates 
that they belong to Tapirus haysii. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 19.) 

1. Bigbonc Lick, Boone County. — The evidences for the occurrence of a 
species of tapir at this place are not as convincing as might be desired. 
In 1852, Dr. I. Hays (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vi, p. 53) presented 
to the Academy a tooth of a tapir which he had had in his possession two 
years and which was said by him to have come from the bed of a canal in 
North Carolina. This tooth was named by Leidy Tapirus haysii on page 
106 of the volume cited and again on page 148, but without description. It 
was again mentioned by him in 1853 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, 
p. 201) and again without description. In 1860, Leidy (Holmes's "Post- 
Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina," p. 106, plate xvi, figs. 7, 8) described 



210 PLEISTOCENE TAPIRID/E. 

and figured the tooth and stated that it was supposed to have come from 
Bigbone Lick. Which of the statements was correct the writer does not 
know. 

2. Stamping Ground, Scott County. — In 1910 the writer received for 
examination from Professor Arthur M. Miller, professor of geology in the 
State University at Lexington, Kentucky, a part of a lower jaw of Tapirus 
haysii, found between the town named and Georgetown, in the bottom of a 
filled-up sink-hole encountered in lead-mining operations, on McConnell's 
Run. In this specimen all the molars are complete and the roots of the 
3 hinder premolars are present. 

3. Yarnallton, Fayette County. — From Professor Miller there was received 
with the specimen above described pieces of the jaws of Tapirus haysii, dis- 
covered in an old stream-deposit at the place named. A fragment of a lower 
jaw was sent; also a piece of a right maxilla, with the anterior true molar 
complete and parts of the second molar and of the hindermost premolar. 
Some other parts of the skeleton were found, but they seem not to have 
been cared for. 



FLORIDA. 211 

FINDS OF RHINOCEROSES IN EASTERN NORTH 

AMERICA. 

FLORIDA. 

1. Archer, Alachua County. — Two species of rhinoceros have been de- 
scribed from this locality. In 1884 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 118), 
Dr. Joseph Leidy reported the discovery, with other fossils, of remains of a 
species of the genus Rhinoceros in Alachua clays, but he gave it no name. 
This was, however, done in 1885 (same Proceedings, 1885, p. 32) . In 1896, 
after the death of Leidy, his unfinished paper, completed and edited by 
Professor F. A. Lucas, was published (Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 
IV, p. 41 seq., with numerous figures). This species is now referred to 
Teleoceras, as Teleoceras proterus. 

In 1890 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 94), Leidy described 
another species which he called Rhinoceros longipes, from the same place 
and deposit. This species is now called Aphelops longipes. 

These species are usually credited to the Upper Miocene or Lower Plio- 
cene. The reader is referred to page 376, where the geological position 
of these beds is discussed. 

2. Williston, Levy County.— In his list of 1892 (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., 
No. 84, p. 129), furnished by Leidy, W. H. Dall included Rhinoceros 
proterus among the fossils found at Mixon's, near the village of Williston. 

3. Dunnellon, Marion County. — In 1913 (5th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. 
Surv., p. 58), Dr. E. H. Sellards stated that some remains of a rhinoceros 
had been found in the mines worked along Withlacoochee River, in the 
region about Dunnellon. In volume viii of the Florida Survey, page 94, 
Aphelops malacorhinus ( = A. longipes) is included among the fossils found 
in the Dunnellon formation. It is not included in his list of Pleistocene 
species found in the Withlacoochee River (Florida Geol. Surv., vol. vin, 
p. 104). This was doubtless because he regarded it as belonging to an 
earlier formation. 

4. Mulberry, Polk County. — In 1915 (7th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., 
p. 72), Sellards stated that a tooth of Teleoceras fossiger (in the present 
work recognized as T. proterus) had been discovered in the Bone Valley 
phosphate formation, at the place named. As in other cases, the Bone 
Valley formation was referred to the Late Tertiary. 

5. Brewster, Polk County. — In the volume last referred to, on page 72, 
Sellards mentions parts of jaws and teeth found in a phosphate mine at 
Brewster which are different from those of Teleoceras proterus. Some of 
these are figured by Sellards on his pages 107 and 108. They have not been 
specifically or generically determined. 



212 PLEISTOCENE TAGASSUID^. 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE PECCARIES IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Rochester, Monroe County. — In 1889 (Trans. Wagner Inst. Sci., vol. 
II, pp. 33-40) , Leidy described and figured a skull of Platygonus compressus, 
purchased of Ward's Natural Science Establishment, at Rochester, and said 
to have been found in a gravel bank in a railroad excavation, a few miles 
from Rochester. This skull was a part of 2 incomplete skeletons found 
lying together. 

The writer received word from Professor Henrj' L. Ward, director of the 
Milwaukee Public Museum, that he recollects that, when a small boy, about 
1873 or 1874, he went with his father, Henry A. Ward, to some point on 
the New York Central Railroad, where peccary remains had been found. 
He thinks the place was at or near Pittsford. Dr. F. A. Lucas, director 
of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, then in the employ 
of the elder Ward, writes that the place was at Pittsford, and in a gravel 
bank being worked by the railroad company to obtain materials for a fill. 
The exact depth at which the bones were found is not recalled, but it was 
not great. 

The locality, according to Fairchild's plate 42 (Bull. 127, State Mus., 
New York), is on the predecessor of Irondequoit Bay, extending out from 
Lake Iroquois. The peccaries possibly lived rather early in the late Wis- 
consin stage; but more probably their time of existence was considerably 
later, when the climate had become milder. 

2. Gainesville, Wyoming County. — From Mr. C. A. Hartnagel, assistant 
State geologist of New York, the writer received notice of the discovery, in 
1914, of the remains of 2 peccaries at a point about one-third of a mile 
northwest of Gainesville. The remains consist of 2 nearly complete skulls, 
l)arts of 5 ribs, 2 scapulae, 2 metacarpals, 1 innominate bone, 1 ilium, 1 
radius, 1 ulna, and 2 tibiae. These have been identified by Dr. John M. 
Clarke as belonging to Platygonus compressus. 

The manner of burial of these peccaries is puzzling and interesting. They 
were found in a hill, or drumlin, which stands out on a plain of considerable 
extent and whose long axis runs north and south. The elevation is 1,625 
feet above sea-level. The drumlin is about 600 feet long, about 300 feet 
wide, and 40 feet high. It is composed of sand, gravel, and stones up to a 
foot in diameter. The bones are said to have been discovered by a con- 
tractor who was removing sand and gravel. The bones were at the south 
end of the drumlin and buried in a considerable pocket of sand. Those 
reporting the position of the bones place them at least 10 feet from the 
surface, and perhaps as much as 30 feet. Mr. Hartnagel thinks it is almost 
necessary to suppose that the skeletons were there when the drumlin was 
built. To the writer it would appear still more difficult to explain how they 
happened to be there at that time. 



NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA. 213 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Shark River, Monmouth County. — In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. VII, p. 387), Leidy described a tooth of a peccary shown to him 
by Timothy Conrad, but found by Dr. P. Knieskern, supposedly in a Mio- 
cene formation of Shark River. Leidy expressed the conclusion that the 
tooth resembled very closely a premolar of Dicotyles nasutus, now called 
Mylohyus nasutus. It is very probable that the tooth had gotten into 
Miocene materials by accident or that there was some error in the history, 
and that it really belonged to a Pleistocene peccary. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 20.) 

L Stroudsburg, Monroe County. — Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1880, p. 347) reported Dicotyles nasutus from the Crystal Hill (Hartman's) 
cave near Stroudsburg; but later (Ann. Rep. for 1887, Pennsylvania Geol. 
Surv., p. 8, plate ii, figs. 3-6) he described the teeth and parts of the jaws 
as Dicotyles pennsylvanicus. This species will be found on page 310 under 
the name Mylohyus pennsylvanicus, in the list of fossils found in this cave. 
There too will be found a discussion of the location of the cave and the 
probable age of the remains. 

2. Port Kennedy, Montgomery County. — In the bone cave at this place 
have been found 3 species of peccaries. Cope, in 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., ser. 2, vol. ii, pp. 259-263) described these under the names 
Mylohyus tetragonus, M. pennsylvanicus, and M. nasutus. The first was a 
new species, based on a damaged lower jaw with some of the teeth (op. cit., 
plate XXI, figs. 3-36). For the present the writer refers it to the genus 
Tagassu, inasmuch as the interval between the canine and the first pre- 
molar (pm^) is only half the length of the whole tooth row, and the molars 
have the structure found in Tagassu. Some teetli belonging to an upper 
jaw were referred with doubt to this species. They may have belonged to 
Mylohyus pennsylvanicus. Of the species last named. Cope had fragments 
of 2 lower jaws with some teeth in them and some teeth free from the jaws. 
Of Mylohyus nasutus, Cope had from the cave only an upper canine and 
its reference to this species is uncertain. 

On page 312 will be found a list of the species of vertebrates found in 
the Port Kennedy Cave; also remarks on their geological age. 

3. Milroy, Mifflin County. — In 1882, Leidy described (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1882, p. 302) a species of peccary found in a limestone cave in 
the county named, but he gave no more exact information; nor did he do 
so in his two subsequent references to it in 1889 (Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. 
II, p. 49; Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania for 1887, p. 12, plate ii, figs. 
1, 2). The specimen is in the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. 
In the Pennsylvania survey, as quoted, the giver is called John Schwarzer. 
The name of the species is Platygonus veins. The writer has been informed 
by J. C. Swigart, county surveyor of Mifflin County, that the proper name 



214 PLEISTOCENE TAGASSUID^. 

of the donor of the specimen was John Swartzell, a former sm'veyor who 
lived near Milroj^ and who was much interested in geology. 

From Professor Mosheim Swartzell, of Washington, D. C, son of John 
Swartzell, the writer has received a letter in which are given this son's 
recollections regarding the finding of the specimen in question. He states 
that it was discovered in Naginey's limestone quarry, 1.5 miles south of 
Milroy. It came from a considerable, but now unknown, distance from the 
surface and was first noticed in the debris of the quarry. While Mr. John 
Swartzell was observing it, an ignorant workman struck it with a tool and 
damaged it, exclaiming that it was only the jaw of a hog. It was later 
sent to Philadelphia. Professor Swartzell writes that there was a cave not 
far away, but that the jaw was not found in it; it probably had fallen down 
into a crevice of the limestone. 

4. Frankstown, Blair County. — In 1908 (Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. iv, 
p. 231), Dr. W. J. Holland reported remains of a number of peccaries found 
in a bone cave at the place named. He mentioned especially Dicotyles 
pennsylvanicus, but thought it belonged properly in Platygonus. It is 
probably to be referred to Mylohyus as M. yennsylvanicus. 

OHIO. 
(Maps 20, 36.) 

1. Wilmington, Clinton County. — In the collection of the Archseological 
and Historical Museum of the University of Ohio, at Columbus, are con- 
siderable parts of the jaws, teeth, and other parts of the skeleton of a 
specimen of Platygonus compressus exhumed at a point about 4.5 miles 
north of west of Wilmington. The locality is given as being in the northeast 
corner of Adams Township, south of the road running northeast and south- 
west between Todd and Dutch Creeks; also about 0.6 mile south of the 
north line of Adams Township and about 0.75 mile from the east line. It 
would therefore be near the second northwesterly directed loop of Todd 
Creek in that neighborhood. 

2. Columbus, Franklin County. — In 1875 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 
vol. XXIII, Hartford, pp. 1-6; also in Cin. Quart. Jour. Sci., vol. ii, pp. 1-6), 
J. H. Klippart gave an account of the finding of about a dozen skeletons 
of Platygonus compressus. These were buried in 2 "nests" not far from 
each other. The bones were rather brittle and were damaged somewhat 
in exhuming them. The place of burial was in the bank (apparently the 
right) of Olentangy River, at the crossing of Olentangy and Montgomery 
streets. The remains were here buried in a sand bank. One lot of 6 of 
the smallest animals was found in penetrating the sand bank about 20 feet 
from the entrance and at a depth of 8 feet from the surface. They were 
embedded in calcareous clay and sand. The other 6 and largest animals 
were found about 6 feet farther in and about 4 feet deeper. It appears 
that all the animals were lying with their snouts directed toward the south- 
east. Klippart thought that they had been destroyed suddenly and vio- 
lently. It is, however, probable that they had been frozen in their beds 
during a winter storm. Of these skeletons it appears that half went to 
Professor 0. C. Marsh, of Yale University, and the present writer has had 



MICHIGAN, 



215 



the privilege of studying them. The geological age of the animals will be 
considered on page 330. 

3. Chaljants, Perry County. — In the collection of the Archseological and 
Historical Museum at the University of Ohio are considerable parts of a 
specimen of Platygonus compressus found not far from Jonathan Creek, 
about a mile northeast of Chalfants. The locality, as given the writer by 
Professor W. C. Mills, is as follows: center of southwest quarter of section 
14, township 17 north, range 16 west. The name of the political township 
is Hopewell. The locality appears to be on the area covered by Illinoian 
drift. This fact makes it possible that the animals lived during the 
Sangamon stage. 

4. Lisbon, Columbiana County. — In the collection just mentioned is the 
eft ramus of a lower jaw of a peccary which the writer referred with doubt 

to Mylohyus nasutus Leidy. It lacks so much of the front end that only 
18 mm. of the symphysis is present; also, the ascending ramus is broken off. 
There are present the 3 milk molars and the first molar, but this is yet in 
its cavity in the bone. A comparison with Leidy 's M. pennsylvanicus seems 
to show that the jaw did not belong to that species. Of M. nasuttis no lower 
jaw is known. 

Table of measurements, in m,illimeters. 



Specimen. 


Lisbon jaw. 


M. penn. 


Length. 


Width. 


Length. 


1 
Width. 


Dmz 

Dma 

Dm4 

Ml 


9 
12 

19.5 
16.5 


5 

8 

11 

12 


7 
11 
18 
16 


4.5 

7 
10.5 
13 



This specimen was found near the southern edge of Lisbon, on Middle 
Fork of Little Beaver Creek, in the northwest quarter of the northeast 
quarter of section 24, township 18 north, range 3 west. The locality is 
apparently outside of the glaciated area; and it is at present impossible to 
determine the geological age of the animal beyond that it undoubtedly 
belongs to the Pleistocene. The writer believes that Mylohyus nasutus 
did not survive the Wisconsin ice-stage. The specimen was described and 
figured by the writer in 1914 (Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, p. 226, plate xxv, 
figs. 4-6). 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 36.) 

1. Belding, Ionia County. — So far as the writer knows, no species of 
peccary has been found in the State of Michigan, except at Belding. The 
remains are in the palseontological collection of the University of Michigan, 
at Ann Arbor, and belong to the species Platygonus compressus Le Conte. 
The remains are said to consist of bones of 5 individuals; and Mr. N. A. 
Wood, preparator at the university, informed the writer there are 294 bones. 



216 PLEISTOCENE TAGASSUIDiE. 

The skull of one of the 5 individuals was missing when the collection was 
made. The skeletons were found in a peat swamp, in 1877, and were sent 
to Professor Alexander Winchell by Mr. A. Tuttle. A skull belonging to 
this collection was described in 1903 (Jour. Geology, vol. xt, p. 777, figs. 
1-4) by Mr. George Wagner. 

It seems probable that there, as in two or three other known cases, a herd 
of these animals, asleep together, had succumbed to rigorous weather, 
probably to a winter blizzard. 

Belding is situated on Flat River, a tributary of Grand River. It lies 
close to a part of the Charlotte moraine system, thought to be correlated 
with the Valparaiso system. These peccaries could not have lived in that 
region until after the Wisconsin ice had retired into Lake Michigan, or 
nearly so. It is more probable that they lived there long after this retire- 
ment, at a time when the climate had become much warmer. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 36.) 

1. Gibson County. — The type specimen of Mylohyus nasutus was found 
somewhere in this county. The specimen was first mentioned by Leidy in 
1860 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 416), but without other designation 
than peccary. Leidy wrote that it had been sent to him by Dr. David D. 
Owen, who informed him that it had been discovered in Gibson County, in 
digging a well, at a depth of between 30 and 40 feet. No more exact locality 
has ever been determined. The specimen consisted of the front of the skull 
only. It was later described by Leidy (Proc. same Academy, 1868, p. 230), 
under the name Dicotyles nasutus; and in 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. VII, p. 385, plate xxviii, figs. 1,2) was further described and illus- 
trated. The figures referred to have been reproduced by the present writer 
in 1912 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxiii, p. 607, text-figs. 42, 43), and 
again in 1914 (Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. xxiii, plate xxvi, figs. 1, 2). 

It is unfortunate that Owen and Leidy did not more accurately establish 
the locality where this jaw was found. In Gibson County there is a con- 
siderable variety of geological deposits, even considering only those belong- 
ing to the Pleistocene and Recent. The eastern and the southeastern portion 
lies outside the drift-covered region. A strip along the Wabash is occupied 
by alluvial deposits belonging to the Recent epoch. Outside of this is 
another strip covered mostly by Illinoian drift. 

The Patoka Quadrangle, described in Folio No. 105 of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, published in 1904, covers nearly the whole of Gibson County. An 
examination of this folio shows how complicated are the later geological 
features of the region. It is fair to suppose that a well from 30 to 40 feet 
in depth was dug, especially at that time, in the higher parts of the county, 
where the elevation is somewhere near 500 feet above sea-level. Here such 
a well would probably go through the rather scattering Wisconsin deposits 
of various kinds or through the loess referred to the lowan stage, reaching 
perhaps the Sangamon; or through later Illinoian or early Sangamon lake 
deposits and Illinoian glacial accumulations into pre-IUinoian deposits. The 
folio cited notes (p. 3) the presence of deposits supposed to belong to the 



INDIANA. 217 

beginning of the Illinoian stage. These contained zones of black muck and 
other organic materials; and in places were found logs and what were 
thought by the well-diggers to be "black-oak" leaves. All these might have 
been of Aftonian age; and in deposits of that time might have been found 
the jaw of Mylohyus nasutus. 

This species has been reported from a mmiber of other localities; but the 
remains have been of so imperfect character that the identifications may 
have been erroneous. Professor Cope reported in 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. XI, p. 176) that he had found several molars and canine teeth of 
this animal in cave breccia in Wythe County, Virginia. The breccia 
appeared to be very old, and in them were found a species of Megalonyx, 
Equus complicatusf , Tapirus haysii, Ursus amplideiis, and many other 
extinct species. 

Cope in 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. xi, p. 263) announced 
this species from the Port Kennedy cave in southeastern Pennsylvania. In 
this case there were found only a canine and 4 molars ; hence not too much 
reliance must be placed on the identification. A large majority of the 
numerous species found in the Port Kenned}^ cave are extinct. Among 
these are species of Megalonyx, a mylodon, a bear, 2 species of saber-tooth 
tigers, a tapir, 1 or 2 species of horse, and 3 species of peccaries. One can 
hardly doubt that the animals belonged to the early part of the Pleistocene. 
The indications are that the known examples of Mylohyus nasutus belonged 
to the first half of the Pleistocene ; that is, to the Sangamon stage or to the 
Aftonian. 

2. Near Williams, Lawrence County. — In the collection of the University 
of Indiana are some peccary remains found in Rock Cliff quarry, not far 
northwest from Williams. These were described by the writer in 1912 
(Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxiii, pp. 596, 605). The remains were secured 
by Professor J. W. Beede. A part of a lower jaw which contained a first 
true molar and impressions of the second and third molars was referred to 
Leidy's species Tagassu lenis. A large last upper molar (op. cit., p. 605, 
plate IV, fig. 2) was referred with some doubt to Platygonus vetus. 

These remains, together with some bones of one or the other of these 
species and a carapace of the box-tortoise still living in that region, were 
inclosed in masses of stalagmite which appear to have pretty completely 
filled an old cave in the limestone, encountered in quarrying operations. 
According to Professor Beede, the cave had, when he saw it, been all 
quarried away except one corner. This was from 20 to 30 feet below the 
general surface at that place. It was about 100 feet above the present level 
of White River, about on a level with the highest terrace along that stream. 
The probabilities are that the peccaries and the box-tortoise belong to one 
of the earlier Pleistocene interglacial stages. Professor Beede is inclined to 
believe that the cave was filled during the Illinoian glacial stage by streams 
carrying in mud and sand and gravel. If this view is correct the inclosed 
remains would be at least as old as the Yarmouth. 

The species Tagassu lenis is closely related to the peccary which now 
lives in southwestern Texas and Mexico, and it has been regarded as iden- 
tical with it; but there appear to be reasons why it should be retained under 



218 PLEISTOCENE TAGASSUID^. 

its own name. It was first described from teeth found among materials 
coming from the phosphate deposits about Charleston, South Carolina. 
Certainly many of the species found there lived during the early part of 
the Pleistocene. 

It is possible that certain teeth referred by Cope (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., 1867, p. 155) to the existing peccary belonged to T. lenis; but there 
is nothing known regarding their exact geological age. Other teeth found 
in the lead region of Illinois were identified by Wyman as those of the 
existing peccary. They too may have been those of T. lenis. The writer 
regards the animals found in the lead crevices as belonging to rather late 
Pleistocene, possibly to Peorian or Sangamon times. As to the remains 
found in the cave in Lawrence County it is probable that they date back 
to the Sangamon stage. 

3. Laketon, Wabash County. — In the Fourteenth Annual Report of the 
Geological Survey of Indiana, page 20, Cope and Wortman stated there 
was in the Survey's collection the symphyseal portion of the lower jaw and 
a large part of the left ramus with all the premolar teeth, except the last. 
This had been found at Laketon, in Wabash County. There were given no 
further details, and the writer failed to find the specimen in the collection. 
In the collection of Earlham College, Richmond, are photographs of prob- 
ably this specimen and of a part of the upper jaw. The latter bone shows 
3 premolars and the first molar; the lower jaw presents the symphysis, the 
right canine, and the 2 anterior premolars. The photographs are labeled 
as those of Platygonus compressus, determined by Cope, and as made from 
the Wabash County specimen. 

All the region about Laketon is covered with Wisconsin drift or mate- 
rials derived from it. The peccary found must have lived after the retire- 
ment of the border of the glacier beyond the Wabash River. It was prob- 
ably long after this and when the climate was perhaps warmer than it is now. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 20, 38.) 

1. Galena, Jo Daviess County. — In 1848, Dr. John L. Le Conte (Amer. 
Jour. Sci., vol. v, pp. 102-106) described what he regarded as 5 new species 
of fossil mammals from the lead region of Illinois. These had been secured 
by Mr. Wm. Snyder, of Galena, in a lead crevice 50 feet below the surface, 
filled with a mixture of clay and sand cemented by oxide of iron into a 
hard mass from which the specimens could not be removed without great 
injury. The species described were called Platigonus coinpressus, Hyops 
depressifrons , Protochozrus prismaticus, Procyon priscus, and Anomodon 
snyderi. The last was regarded as related to the moles. Procyon priscus 
resembled closely the existing P. lotor. The 3 species first mentioned are 
now regarded as belonging to a single species, which takes the name Platy- 
gonus compressv^. It may be remarked that the original spelling of the 
generic name was due perhaps to a lapsus calami or to a printer's error. 
In the complete paper published shortly afterward the name was spelled 
Platygonus. It is to be added that the teeth which served as the type of 



WISCONSIN. 219 

the so-called species Protochoerus prismaticus were found at a locality 15 
miles from the place where the other remains were obtained; but as to 
where this place was nothing is said. 

In 1848 (Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, Sci., vol. iii, pp. 257-274, plates i to iv) 
Platygonus cojnpressus was more completely described. Various teeth and 
parts of the skull and some limb-bones were figured. In this article it is 
stated that the remains described had been found in a lead crevice a few 
miles from Galena. A portion of the bones had been preserved by the 
miners and had at length found their way into the hands of Mr. Snyder, a 
merchant in Galena. 

In 1852 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vi, pp. 3-5) Hyops depressi- 
frons and Protochoerus prismaticus were further described, the first being 
placed in the genus Dicotyles. Both of these are now regarded as belonging 
to Platygonus compressus. 

The writer has considered it as probable that the peccary remains, as well 
as Procyon prisons and Anomodon snyderi, are of Late Wisconsin age; but 
it is possible that they are somewhat older. The leader is referred to page 
343, where the Pleistocene of the lead region is discussed. 

2. Alton, Madison County. — In the McAdams collection, of which a 
general account has been given on page 339, is a part of a lower canine 
tooth which apparently differs in no way from the corresponding canine of 
Platygonus cumberlandensis, found by Mr. J. W. Gidley in a limestone 
fissure near Cumberland, Maryland. On page 350 will be found a list of 
the species found in this fissure and their geological age. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Bluemounds, Dane County. — In 1862, Professor J. D. Whitney reported 
(•Geol. Surv. Wisconsin, vol. i, pp. 135, 136) that he had discovered in a 
crevice at Bluemounds, accompanied by bones and some teeth of the masto- 
don, a buffalo, and a wolf, several fragments of jaws and some teeth and 
other bones of a peccary, in an excellent state of preservation. At the top 
of his page 134 Whitney indicates that these remains belonged to the species 
now called Platygonus cojnpressus. On page 422 of tiie same volume 
Jeffries Wyman, in reporting on the vertebrate remains collected in the 
lead region, mentions only 3 teeth; and these, he said, differed much from 
either of the fossil species and agreed with the existing peccary. From 
Whitney's note at the bottom of his page 135 we may suppose that these 
3 teeth were found in Iowa, near Dubuque. It is probable that the teeth 
found at Bluemounds belonged to Tagassu lenis. 

In 1866 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. i, p. 162), Whitney stated that from 
a crevice near Bluemounds he got peccary bones and teeth which were 
supposed to be identical with the animals now living. Leidy (Jour. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, p. 384) stated that he believed that teeth found in 
Wisconsin belonged to Dicotyles lenis. One can not be certain regarding the 
age of these animals found in this lead region. They are probably pre- 
Wisconsin. The age will be discussed on page 343. 



220 PLEISTOCENE TAGASSUID^. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Benedict, Charles County. — More than 50 years ago Cope (Proc. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 155) reported the finding of peccary jaws mingled with 
remains of Miocene vertebrates collected by James T. Thomas, near his 
residence in Charles County, not far from Patuxent River, near Benedict. 
Cope recognized that the peccary and a part of a jaw of Grison macrodon 
(referred by Cope to Galera) belonged to the Pleistocene. The peccary 
was referred to the existing species Dicotyles (Tagassu) torquatus; like- 
wise their similarity to the remains described by Leidy from Charleston, 
South Carolina, was noted. They are assigned here to Tagassu lenis. The 
jaws from the Patuxent locality are now in the Academy of Natural Sciences 
at Philadelphia. 

2. Chesapeake Beach, Calvert County. — Mr. William Palmer, of the 
U. S. National Museum, has shown the writer 3 teeth of a peccary secured 
at the place named. These will be mentioned in the discussion of the 
geology of the locality. A left third premolar is 10.3 mm. long and 6.2 mm. 
wide. A left second molar is 12 mm. long and 10 mm. wide. These appar- 
ently belonged to Tagassu lenis. 

In March 1921, Dr. Adolph H. Schultz, of the Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, presented to the U. S. National Museum a part of the left ramus 
of the lower jaw of a peccary found at Chesapeake Beach. This fragment 
contains the first and second molars and the sockets of the fourth premolar 
and the third molar. This jaw and the teeth have been compared with 
the corresponding parts of a specimen of Tagassu angulatus (No. 35815, 
U. S. Nat. Mus.), secured along the boundary between the United States 
and Mexico. In size the fossil teeth differ little from those of T. angulatus; 
the first molar is, however, somewhat wider; the conule between the two 
liindermost cones, the hypoconulid, is much smaller than in the existing 
peccary used for comparison. The inner face of each tooth is not so flat 
in the fossil as in the other species. In the fossil the height of the jaw at 
the second molar is 28 mm. ; in T. angulatus 35 mm. The specimen is 
referred to I'agassu lenis. 

3. Corriganville, Allegany County. — In a rock crevice 3 miles west of 
north of Cumberland, J. W. Gidley found abundant remains of peccaries. 
These were described by him in 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lvii, 
pp. 651-678, plates liv, lv, 13 text-figs. ) . He recognized 4 species, 2 belong- 
ing to Platygonus and 2 to Mylohyus. The new species, Platygonus cum- 
berlandensis and P. intermedius and Mylohyus exortivus, are based on 
materials found in the fissure. With the other materials he recognized a 
part of a lower jaw, which he referred to M. pennsylvanicus. 

4. Cavetown, Washington County. — In 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. LVii, pp. 96-109), the writer described a collection of fossil vertebrates 
made at Cavetown by the officers of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachu- 
setts. Among the species are 6 which belong to the group of peccaries, as 
follows: Mylohyus nasutus (Leidy), M. exortivus Gidley, M. obtusidens 
Hay, Tagassuf tetragonusf (Cope), Platygonus vetus Leidy, P. cumber- 
landensis Gidley. 



VIRGINIA WEST VIRGINIA SOUTH CAROLINA. 221 

These and the associated species apparently lived here during approxi- 
mately the Middle Pleistocene, probably the Sangamon stage. A list of 
the species found in the fissure and their geological relations are presented 
on page 348. The specimen above referred provisionally to Tagassu 
tetragonus was called, in the paper cited above, Platygonus tetragonus. It. 
appears, however, to be nearer Tagassii. It may even belong to an unnamed 
genus. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Ivanhoe, Wi/the County. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xi, 
p. 176), Cope reported he had found several molar and canine teeth of 
Dicotyles nasutus, in cave breccia on New River, with remains of many 
other species of vertebrates. This now bears the name Mylohyus nasutus. 
A list of the species is given on page 353, where the Pleistocene geology of 
Virginia is discussed. 

2. Augusta County. — In 1857 (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xi, p. 104), 
Leidy stated he had examined a fragment of a lower jaw of a young indi- 
vidual of Platygonus compressus, found in the county named. The jaw 
contained the last milk molar, unworn. The first true molar had not yet 
begun to protrude. The writer has seen this specimen in the collection of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. No other information 
regarding its place of origin has been secured. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Renicks, Greenbrier County. — In 1920 (Rep. Smithson. Inst, for 1918, 
p. 288, plates i-vi), J. W. Gidley reported on a visit he had made to a cave 
situated on Greenbrier River, near Renicks. The cave was discovered 
during quarrying operations in limestone. The greater part of the bones 
had been destroyed before the workers appreciated their value. Only a 
part of a skull of a peccary was secured, probably of the species Platygonus 
intermedius (Gidley, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lvii, p. 669). It has the 
catalogue No. 8003 of the U. S. National Museum. This animal is to be 
referred to the Middle Pleistocene. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — In 1860 ("Holmes's Post-Pliocene 
Fossils of South Carolina," p. 108, plate xvii, figs. 13, 14), Leidy reported 
the finding of teeth of a peccary in the Ashley River deposits. These teeth, 
a lower third molar and probably a lower second molar, were described 
under the name Dicotyles fossilis and were said to have the size and form 
of the corresponding teeth of the collared peccary, Dicotyles torquatus 
{^Tagassu tajacu). Fragments of some upper teeth were said to have the 
size of those of D. labiatus. In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ser. 2, 
vol. VII, p. 384), the fossil teeth just mentioned were referred, with some 



222 PLEISTOCENE TAGASSUID^. 

others, to the new species Dicotyles lenis. The principal character distin- 
guishing the teeth of this species from those of the existing peccaries men- 
tioned is the absence of accessory tubercles. This is shown also in an upper 
hindermost molar of the same species, described by the writer (9th Ann. 
Rep. Florida Geol. Sur., 1917, p. 48, plate iii, fig. 2) under the name Tayassu 
lenis. The name should have been Tagassu lenis. 

In the Pinckney collection, at the Pinckney residence, Lambs, South Caro- 
lina, near Charleston, the writer examined a tooth of a peccary, which 
apparently belongs to another species. It is taken to be a lower hinder- 
most molar. A part of the anterior crest and a part of one side are broken 
off. The heel is relatively large, consisting of a hinder and 2 anterior 
tubercles; between the anterior tubercles is another minute one. In the 
middle of each cross-valley is a tubercle. The length of the fragment is 
20.2 mm., the width 9.5 mm. This was evidently a larger animal than 
Tagassu lenis. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Vero, St. Lucie County. — Apparently 2 species of peccaries have been 
found in the deposits along the drainage canal, near Vero, in the uppermost 
stratum (No. 3). One, represented by a canine tooth, has not been deter- 
mined (Hay, Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., vol. ix, p. 50). It appeared to be 
too large to belong to Tagassu lenis. 

The other remains belonged to a small peccary and have been referred 
to Tagassu lenis. In 1916 (Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., vol. vin, p. 149), 
Sellards reported the finding of 2 cheek-teeth and a tibia. One of the teeth 
was taken from the stratum called No. 2; the other teeth and the tibia had 
washed out of the bank and it was uncertain from which stratum they had 
come. In 1917 (Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., vol. ix, pp. 45, 48, plate in, fig. 2) , 
the writer reported the finding of a hindermost molar of a small peccary, 
believed to be T. lenis, in stratum No. 2; also the discovery by Isaac M. 
Weills of a small canine of T. lenis in stratum No. 3 (op. cit., plate iii, fig. 3). 
On page 50 of the same paper the writer referred provisionally to T. lenis 
the tibia above mentioned. 

2. Palma Sola, Manatee County. — From this place have been sent to the 
U. vS. National Museum many specimens of fossil vertebrates, a list of which 
will be found in the discussion of the Pleistocene geology of Florida (p. 379) . 
Some of these belong to the Pleistocene, others apparently to the Miocene. 
Among the specimens is a right astragalus of a peccary. While it is possible 
that the original possessor of this astragalus lived during the Miocene, it 
does not seem probable. It may have belonged to Tagassu lenis. The 
length of the bone is 32 mm., the width across the lower end 19 mm. 

TENNESSEE. 
(Map 20. Figure 23.) 
1. Rogersville, Haivkins County.— In the U. S. National Museum is a 
part of a lower left canine tooth of a peccary found near the place men- 
tioned. With it came an upper molar of Equus leidyi. The tooth lacks 



KENTUCKY. 223 

most of the crown. It has been described by the writer under the name 
Mylohyus setiger (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 84, plate iii, figs. 21- 
23). The root of the tooth is 93 mm. long, measured along the convexity 
of the curve. A little of the tip of the root is missing. The size of the 
tooth indicates a very large animal. 

2. Whitcsburg, Hamblen County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a 
considerable collection of bones and teeth made in 1885 near Whitesburg. 
This locality and the accompanying species will be discussed on another 
page. Among the remains are 3 upper canine teeth, referred by the writer 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 90, plate iii, figs. 12-13) to Mylohyus 
nasutus Leidy. A list of the associated species will be found on page 395. 

3. Dandridge, Jefferson County. — In 1896 (Dept. Amer. and Prehist. 
Archaeol. Univ. Penn.), Dr. H. C. Mercer reported he had found remains of 
the tapir, peccary, bear, and small rodents in Zirkel's Cave. The cave is 
situated on the left bank of Dumplin Creek, about 5 miles above its 
entrance into French Broad River. The species to which the peccary 
remains belonged was not determined. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 20.) 

1. Rockcastle County. — In 1853, Dr. Leidy (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 
X, p. 331, plates xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvii, figs. 5-8, 17, 19) described under the 
name Euchoerus macrops, a fine skull of a peccary which had been lying for 
47 years in the collection of the society. It had been sent there by Dr. 
Samuel Brown, of Lexington, Kentucky, and was said to have been found in 
one of the nitrous caves of that State. The writer is informed by Dr. Arthur 
M. Miller, Professor of Geology in the University of Kentucky, that it is 
unlikely that the skull came from any of the caves in the region about 
Lexington, as he had never heard any of them had been worked for salt- 
peter. In the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society for 1804 
(vol. VI, pp. 235-247) is a paper by Samuel Brown, in which he describes 
a cave in what is now Rockcastle County. In this and some other neighbor- 
ing caves were found immense quantities of saltpeter. Probabl}^ the skull 
which Leidy afterward described from this region was brought to light. It 
appears to have been mentioned by Dr. B. S. Barton as early as 1806 (Phila. 
Med. and Phys. Jour., vol. ii, plate i, p. 158). It is now in the collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. It was recognized 
by Leidy as belonging to Platygonus compressus. 



224 PLEISTOCENE CAMELIDiE. 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE CAMELID/E IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 21.) 

1. It is not certain that any fossil camel remains have ever been found 
in Pennsylvania. In 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ser. 2, vol. xt, 
p. 264, plate xxi, figs. 4, 4a) Cope described Teleopternus orientalis and 
referred it to the Camelidae. This was found in the Port Kennedy cave, 
and whatever its relationships it belongs to the early Pleistocene. Matthew 
(Osborn, Age of Mamm., p. 469) suggested that its affinities might be with 
the musk-oxen. 

FLORIDA. 
(Map 21.) 

L Archer, Alachua County.— In 1886 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1886, 
p. 12), Dr. Joseph Leidy briefly described three species of the genus Pro- 
camehis from materials collected near Archer by Dr. W. H. Dall. The teeth 
and bones had been found in what has been called the Alachua clays, and 
were associated with a considerable number of species of vertebrates. The 
list will be found on page 375, where the Pleistocene geology is considered. 
The three species of camels were called Auchenia major, A. minor, and 
A. minimus. They are now referred to the genus Procamelu^. In 1896 they 
were (Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. iv, pp. vii-xiv, 15-61, with plates) 
described in more detail and illustrated by Leidy and Lucas. The error 
of calling P. minor by the name P. medius, first introduced by Cope, was 
followed in the paper just mentioned ; and some authors have continued this 
practice. Dr. W. H. Dall included these camels in his list (Bull. U. S. 
Geol. Surv. No. 84, p. 129). Authors have in general referred to the Ter- 
tiary the deposit which furnished these camels; the present writer believes 
that the Alachua beds belong to the first glacial stage. The matter is 
further discussed on pages 376 to 378. 

2. Williston, Levy County.— In 1892 (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 84, 
p. 129) , Dr. W. H. Dall published a list, furnished by Joseph Leidy, of the 
vertebrate fossils found at what was then known as Mixon's bone-bed. 
Tlie species, with some additions, are listed on page 375. Among others is 
Procamelus major. The species were found in the Alachua clays, and these 
clays are referred by Sellards to the Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene. 

3. Ocala, Marion County.— In 1889 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1889, 
p. 31; Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. ii, pp. 13-17), Leidy mentioned 
the discovery of a tooth of a camel, regarded by him as belonging to 
Procamelus, in a limestone cjuarry at Ocala. With it were described the 
saber-tooth tiger Machairodus floridanus. Teeth were found also of a horse 
which is referred to Equus leidyi. A list of the species found at this locality 
is on page 378. In the Philadelphia Academy paper Leidy called the camel 
Auchenia minor. In the next paper cited he regarded it as A. minimus. 

4. Dunnellon, Marion County. — In 1916 (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. 
Surv., pp. 94, 104), Dr. Sellards presented a list of the species of vertebrates 
discovered in the Dunnellon formation at Dunnellon and vicinity. Among 



TENNESSEE. 225 

the species is the camel Procanielus minor. This, ho\yever, he did not 
include among the Pleistocene animals. 

Undetermined teeth of a camel are mentioned by Sellards as found in 
the phosphate mines at Dunnellon (5th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., p. 58 1. 

5. Hernando, Citrus County. — Sellards (5th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., 
p. 58) reported a discovery of teeth of an undetermined species of camel in a 
phosphate mine at Hernando. These probably are of the genus Procamclus. 

6. Vero, St. Lucie County. — Some remains of a camel have been found in 
the stratum at Vero known as No. 2, the one immediately overlying the 
bed of marine marl. Sellards (8th Rep., p. 149) states there had been 
secured up to that time two upper cheek-teeth, a distal end of a cannon- 
bone, and a phalanx. The latter, a hinder first phalanx, is figured (plate 
XXX, fig. 5). It resembles considerably the bone figured by Leidy and 
Lucas (Trans. Wagner Free Inst., vol. iv, plate xviii, fig. 8), but it presents 
important differences. 

The anterior phalange figured by Leidy and Lucas is 85 mm. long; a 
hinder phalange of the same animal would have been shorter. The hinder 
phalange found at Vero is 104 mm. long. The probability is that its owner 
was an animal considerably larger than Leidy's Procanielus minimus. The 
phalanx referred by Leidy and Lucas to Procamelus medius {=P. minor) 
has exactly the length of that of P. minimus, but is a much stouter bone, the 
side-to-side diameter at the middle of the length being one-half greater. 
The Vero camel appears, therefore, to be distinct from any of the Pliocene 
camels of Florida. It probably belongs to the genus Camelops. 

TENNESSEE. 

(Map 21. Figure 23.) 

1. Nashville, Davidson County. — From Mr. W. E. Myer, of Nashville, 
the writer has received for examination a right calcaneum of an undeter- 
mined species of camel, belonging probably to the genus Camelops. This 
was found near Nashville, in the bank of Cumberland River. At the same 
locality were found part of a tooth of a young mastodon, a tooth of Equus 
leidyi, a fragment of a femur of a probably larger horse, an antler of a 
young deer, a tooth of Mylodon, and some fragments of turtle bones. How- 
ever, the horse remains and the antler are said to have been lying in a layer 
of gravel, while the camel and mastodon were in a bed of sand just above 
the gravel. Over these beds are nearly 30 feet of gravel. 

The total length of the calcaneum is 138 mm., the greatest height 67 mm., 
and the thickness at the rear of the articular surface for the astragalus, 
45 mm. From the rear end to the surface for the astragalus is 85 mm. 
The surface for union with the cuboid is 19 mm. wide, considerably narrower 
than in the dromedary and in an astragalus from Denver, Colorado, which 
apparently belongs to Camelops huerfanensis. The outer face of the bone 
is considerably less concave than in either of the two species referred to. 
The tuberosity is relatively thicker at the middle of its length than is either 
of the species mentioned; its height at its middle is relatively less than in the 
Denver specimen. It is believed that the age of the beds containing these 
fossils is about that of the Aftonian interglacial. 



226 PLEISTOCENE DEER, GENUS ODOCOILEUS. 

FINDS OF PLEISTOCENE DEER OF THE GENUS 
ODOCOILEUS IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Toronto. — In the Guide-book No. 6, issued by the Ontario Bureau of 
Mines in 1913, and prepared by Professor A. P. Coleman, it is recorded on 
page 18 that in the Don beds at Toronto, supposed to belong to the Sanga- 
mon stage, had been found bones of a deer resembling those of the Virginia 
deer. On page 29 deer bones are reported as found in other beds situated 
in the western part of Toronto. The age of these is uncertain; they may be 
older than the Don beds or younger than the Scarboro beds. In these same 
beds have been found also a lower jaw of a bear, possibly Ursus americanus; 
an atlas of a bison, a part of an antler of Cervalces horealis, and some parts 
of either a mastodon or a mammoth. 

The geology of the Pleistocene in the region about Toronto is treated on 
pages 281 to 283, figure 3. 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Orange Cown^i/.— Emmons, in 1858 (Geol. Surv. North Carolina, East. 
Counties, p. 201), stated he had found, in a fresh-water marl-bed in Orange 
County, a horn of an extinct deer, associated with remains of mastodon. 
The exact locality is unknown. 

2. Greenville, Greene County. — In 1846 (Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. v, 
p. 390), James Hall mentioned the findmg of a jawbone, with teeth, of a 
deer in Greene County. It was associated with remains of a mastodon. 

3. Cuba, Allegany County.— In 1843 (Geol. 4th Dist., p. 367), Hall 
reported that an engineer of the Genesee Valley Canal informed him that 
near New Hudson, 4 miles from Cuba, several antlers of deer and one of 
an elk had been found 12 feet below the surface, in a muck deposit. New 
Hudson appears to be about 10 miles north of Cuba, and not on the canal. 
The locality is said to be at the summit of the canal. 

4. Hinsdale, Cattaraugus County. — James Hall (op. cit., pp. 364, 366) 
stated that a tusk, supposed to belong to a mastodon, with some horns of 
deer, had been found at Hinsdale in sand and gravel, 16 feet below the 
surface. Clarke (Bull. 69, N. Y. State Mus., p. 933) suggested that these 
may have been antlers of the elk. 

There appear to be no good reasons for suspecting that any of the deer 
remains found in New York are older than Late Wisconsin. 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Woodstown, Salem County. — In the palajontological collection at Yale 
University is a fragment of an antler of a deer, most probably of Odocoileus 
virginianus, discovered in Salem County. It is not accompanied by any 
information as to the exact locality where found or as to the conditions of 



PENNSYLVANIA — OHIO MICHIGAN. 227 

burial. The fragment 'of the shaft is 135 mm. long, and from it springs 
a tine, the partial length of which is about 45 mm. 

2. Vincentown, Burlington County. — In the collection of the Academy of 
Natural Science at Philadelphia are some fragments of antlers labeled as 
having been found at Vincentown. 

In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. vii, p. 376), Dr. Joseph Leidy 
stated that remains of the deer had been found in Burlington and Monmouth 
Counties, but no exact localities were mentioned. Many of the specimens 
seem to have been found, as accidental occupants, in marl-beds of Cretace- 
ous age. In the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia there are 
specimens from Pemberton. 

3. Deal, Monmouth County. — In the Academy's collection, at Phila- 
delphia, there is a specimen labeled as having been found at this place. 
No details are recorded. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Stroudsburg, Monroe County. — In 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Penn- 
sylvania for 1887, p. 6), Dr. Joseph Leidy reported on a collection which 
many years before had been found in Hartman's Cave, near Stroudsburg. 
Nearly all the species still exist, but in the collection was included Cas- 
toroides and Rangifer. Among the fossils were jaw-bones, with teeth, and 
broken bones of the Virginia deer. It seems possible that the remains had 
collected there at the close of the Pleistocene; but some may belong to 
the Recent. 

2. Frankstown, Blair County. — In 1908 (Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. iv, 
p. 231), Dr. W. J. Holland reported the discovery of remains of a deer, 
possibly Odocoileus virginianus, in a cave at Frankstown. With this deer 
were many other species of mammals. A list is presented on page 321. 

OHIO. 

(Map 22.) 

1. New Knoxville, Auglaize County. — In his "History of Ohio and of 
Auglaize County," 1905, on page 338, C. W. Williamson, in describing the 
finding of a skull of Castoroides near New Knoxville, stated that some 
bones of the deer had been found in what was believed to have been the 
house of the giant beaver. They were supposed to have been brought there 
by carnivorous animals ; but the deer may have died there before the house 
was covered up. 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 22.) 
1. Adrian, Lenawee County. — In 1880 the U. S. National Museum re- 
ceived from Professor Kost, then of Adrian College, a skull of Castoroides 
ohioensis discovered at the place named above. In his communication he 
wrote that at the same place there had been found previous^ a mastodon 
and bones of an elk and of a deer. The place was in a marsh, in Adrian, 
and the fossils were at a depth of 4 feet. 



228 PLEISTOCENE DEER, GENUS ODOCOILEUS. 

2. Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County. — In 1908, Russell and Leverett (Folio 
155, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 9) reported the discovery of bones of deer and 
elk in a peat-swamp, 3 miles south of Ann Arbor. In the same swamp had 
been found, at a depth of 5 feet, a skull of Castoroides ohioensis. The bones 
of the deer and elk were at a somewhat higher level, so that it is not wholly- 
certain they belong to the Pleistocene. 

The specimens found both at Adrian and Ann Arbor lived there after the 
retreat of the Wisconsin ice. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Evansville, Vanderburg County. — In a collection of bones and teeth 
made at the mouth of Pigeon Creek, a short distance below Evansville, and 
described by Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1854, pp. 199-200) were 
included remains of the Virginia deer. With these bones were parts of the 
skeleton of Megalonyx jeffersonii, a bison of probably an extinct species, 
a cervical vertebra of the horse known as Equus complicatus, a tooth of a 
tapir, and the type upper jaw of the extinct wolf Mnocyon dims. 

On page 32 is discussed the age of the bone-bed. It is concluded that 
it belonged possibly to the Aftonian stage, but more probably to the Sanga- 
mon. Although this species of deer yet exists, abundant remains of a species 
not yet distinguishable from it are found in early Pleistocene deposits in 
Florida and elsewhere. According to D. D. Owen (Smithson. Contrib. 
Know!., vol. VII, art. v, p. 7), this deer was found associated with megalonyx 
bones a few miles below Henderson, Kentucky. Also, these two species, 
together with Equus complicatus and an extinct species of Bison and other 
extinct species of mammals, have been exhumed at Bigbone Lick, halfway 
between Louisville and Cincinnati, on the Kentucky side. 

Under this number may be considered the deer Odocoileus dolichopsis, 
which Cope described in 1878 (Amer. Naturalist, vol. xii, p. 189). This 
was represented by a left ramus of the mandible, found, as reported by the 
State geologist, John Collett, in a late lacustrine deposit in Vanderburg 
County. In the same deposits was found an ulno-radius of a species of 
Bison. The deer jaw was further described and figured by Cope and 
Wortman in 1884 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xiv, p. 22, plate ii). Here, in 
quoting Cope's description found in volume iv of Bulletins U. S. Geological 
Survey, page 379, the authors substituted Harrison County for Vanderburg 
County. In 1912 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, p. 615), the present 
writer accepted Cope and Wortman's statement as to the county; but it 
appears that the locality was really in Vanderburg County. Cope and 
Wortman's plate was reproduced by the writer in 1912 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, 
vol. xxxvi, p. 615, plate vi, figs. 2, 25). Figure 1 of the plate represents 
a part of an upper jaw which may or may not belong to the same species. 
It was supposed to have been found in the same deposits. 

2. Harrisville, Randolph County. — In the collection at Earlham College, 
Richmond, Indiana, the writer has examined some bones which apparently 
belonged to the Virginia deer, Odocoileus virginianus. The distal end of 
the radius, a right calcaneum, and a sacrum have been identified. These 



ILLINOIS. 229 

were found in a swamp known as "The Dismal," situated about 6 miles 
nearly east of Winchester. This would not be far from the village of 
Harrisville. In this swamp were collected the fine specimen of the giant 
beaver, preserved at Earlham College, and the bones of an elk. The swamp 
is located near the Union City moraine, and the animals buried there must 
have lived at some time after the retirement of the Wisconsin ice-sheet; 
probably the time was long enough after that retirement for the climate to 
become relatively mild. 

3. Roann, Wabash County. — In 1892 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xvii, 
p. 241), Elrod and Benedict reported that in 1882 a Mr. Rantz, while 
digging a ditch on the farm of William Runkle, 3 miles north of Roann, 
unearthed, at a depth of 9 feet, the antlers and part of the skeleton of the 
deer Odocoileus virginianua. The locality is evidently north of Eel River 
and near the southern border of the great moraine which runs parallel with 
this stream and north of it. Undoubtedly this deer lived after the Wisconsin 
ice had withdrawn from the vicinity. In similar situations in that region 
have been found several mastodons. It is probable, therefore, that the deer 
belonged to the late Pleistocene. 

From Mr. B. E. Galtry, of Roann, the writer learns that Mr. Runkle 
informed him that none of the bones found has been preserved. There were 
many found, shin-bones, ribs, and antlers, from 3 to 4 feet below the surface. 
Large numbers of poles were found, and the ditch diggers got the notion that 
these poles had formed a bridge. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 22, 38.) 

1. Niantic, Macon County. — In 1873, Worthen, State geologist of Illinois, 
reported (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. v, p. 308) that he had found some deer 
bones in a bog near Niantic; with them were remains of the mastodon, 
buffalo, and elk. What is known regarding the locality and the geology is 
here recorded on page 102. All these remains were probably buried near 
the close of the Wisconsin glacial stage. 

2. Whiteivillow, Kendall County. — In Netta C. Anderson's list, page 11. 
E. S. Riggs, assistant curator of palseontology in Field Museum of Natural 
History, reported that in 1902 Mr. John Bamford, in enlarging a spring in a 
bog, encountered a layer of about 2 feet of bison, deer, and elk bones at a 
depth of about 5 feet. With these were found skulls of at least 6 mastodons. 
From Mr. George Langford, of Joliet, the writer has received a base of a 
large antler and a nearly complete small antler of the right side. These 
are not to be distinguished from those of 0. virginianus. Mr. Langford 
wrote that the mastodon bones were mingled with the other bones to the 
bottom of the pit dug. In the same excavation were found remains of 
mastodon, Cervalces, the existing moose, the elk, the buffalo, and the cannon- 
bone of a large sheep-like animal. The exact levels in which these bones 
occurred is not known. The reader may consult page 109. 

3. Ottawa, La Salle County. — J. D. Caton ("Antelopes and Deer of 
North America," p. 227) tells of having found a nearly complete skeleton 
and three antlers of the Virginia deer in the valley of Fox River, near 



230 PLEISTOCENE DEER, GENUS ODOCOILEUS. 

Otta^va. These remains were in a stratum of gravel at a depth of more than 
16 feet. Over this was the surface loam, then sand, sand and clay, then 
more sand. It seems probable that these deposits belonged to the Late 
Wisconsin. 

4. Evanston, Cook County. — Dr. Frank C. Baker (Univ. Ills. Bull, xvii, 
pp. 4, 86) presented a geological section taken in the Toleston beach at 
Evanston. This beach was laid down after the withdrawal of the Wis- 
consin ice. At the depth of about 9 feet was found a bone of a deer. In 
1891, W. K. Higley (Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., vol. ii, No. 1, p. xiv) reported 
that a pelvis, referred to a deer, had been found in Late Wisconsin deposits 
at Evanston. He had in mind the bone found in Toleston beach. At the 
same place was found a femur of a deer at a depth of 9 feet (Leverett, Bull. 
Chicago Acad. Sci. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv., ii, 1897, pp. 76, 77). Apparently 
the femur and the pelvis had been discovered by Dr. Oliver Marcy in 1864, 
from whom both Leverett and Baker quote the geological section. 

5. Lcmont, Cook County. — Dr. F. C. Baker (op. cit., pp. 56, 89) reported 
the finding of a portion of a skull of Odocoileus virginianus and a skull of 
the muskrat in the Des Plaines Valley, at Lemont, in a bed of peat. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Lead region. — In 1862 (Geol. Surv. Wisconsin, p. 421) , Jeffries Wyman, 
in his report on the vertebrate animals found by J. D. Whitney, stated that 
there was a series of several molar teeth which, in form and size, corre- 
sponds exactly with those of the red deer {Cervus virginianus) . He men- 
tioned also various bones which seemed to belong to the same species, but 
some were larger than those of the Virginia deer. 

In 1876 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xi, p. 49), Allen described as a new species 
Cervus whitneyi, basing the name on a left humerus, a left radius, and a 
right metatarsal found in tlie Whitney collection. It appears probable that 
these bones are those mentioned by Wyman as being larger than the existing 
Virginia deer and the mule deer. Allen does not, however, mention what 
Wyman wrote. Allen's species is now referred to the genus Odocoileus. 
It is not stated by either Wyman or Allen even from what State the remains 
were secured. It is most probable that it was Wisconsin. 

From the Pleistocene of that region two species of Odocoileus are there- 
fore known, 0. virginianus and 0. whitneyi. 

2. Menomonie, Dunn County. — In a letter to the author dated January 
21, 1917, Dr. S. Weidman, State geologist of Wisconsin, noted that a 
vertebra of a deer had been found in brick clay at Menomonie. It was sent 
to the American Museum of New York and identified by Dr. W\ D. Mat- 
thew. This clay is at present regarded by Dr. Weidman as probably belong- 
mg to the Sangamon interglacial. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Oxford Neck, Talbot County. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 
vol. XI, p. 178) , Cope reported that fragments of antlers not distinguishable 



VIRGINIA W. VIRGINIA N. CAROLINA S. CAROLINA. 231 

from those of the Virginia deer, OclocoUcus virninianus, hf.d been found on 
the farm of Lambert Kirby, in Oxford Neck. These, with remains of other 
vertebrates, were placed in the Baltimore Academy of Sciences. 

2. Cavetown, Washington County. — In 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
LViii, p. 104), the writer described the distal end of two radii found at 
Cavetown in a fissure in a limestone quarry. These were associated with 
remains of 24 other species of vertebrates, mostly mammals. The radii 
appeared to be those of Odocoileus virginianus. Another deer, Sangamona 
fugitiva, was found in the same fissure. 

A list of the accompanying species is given on page 348. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Saltville, Smyth County. — Mr. 0. A. Peterson (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
vol. XI, p. 474, fig. 7) reported the finding of an astragalus of some deer-like 
animal at Saltville. He states that the bone agrees with that of Odocoileus 
virginianus, but is larger. To the present writer the bone is not only too 
large to be that of the Virginia deer, but is relatively too narrow, it being 
assumed that Peterson's figure is correct. In both the Virginia deer and the 
elk the width of the bone is about 70 per cent of the greatest length, while 
the figure given is only 60 per cent as wide as long. It is not improbable 
that the animal belonged to another genus. 

2. Ivanhoe, Wythe County. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xi, 
p. 176) Cope stated that molars and other fragments of Cariacus {Odocoil- 
eus) virginianus were abundant in the cave breccia which he examined. A 
list of the accompanying species will be found on page 353. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Wood County. — In 1835 (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxix, p. 147), Hildreth 
stated that bones of a deer had been found in this county, then a part of 
Virginia, involved in the travertine on the floor of the cave. No facts are 
known that give any clue to the geological age of these bones. They prob- 
ably belong to some early or middle stage of the Pleistocene. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

(Maps 22, 39.) 

1. On Neuse River, Pamlico County, 16 Miles beloiv Neivbern. — Accord- 
ing to both Croom (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxvii, 1835, p. 168) and Harlan 
(op. cit., vol. XLiii, 1842, p. 143), remains of deer had been found at tliis 
locality. For want of more exact information we may refer them to 
Odocoileus virginianus. On page 359 will be found a list of the species 
collected here. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — Numerous fragmentary remains of 
Odocoileus have been found in the region about Charleston. F. S. Holmes, 
as early as 1859 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1859, p. 177), announced 



232 PLEISTOCENE DEER, GENUS ODOCOILEUS. 

the discovery of remains of deer in the vicinity of Charleston. Leidy 
(Holmes's Post-Pliocene Foss. South Carolina, p. 109, plate xx, figs. 1-4) 
stated that the collections of Professor Holmes and Captain Bowman con- 
tained fragments of antlers, portions of jaws, and teeth which had been 
found in the Post-Pliocene beds of Ashley River. Leidy concluded these 
remains did not differ from the corresponding parts of the existing white- 
tailed deer (0. virginianus) . Many fragments of antlers belong in the 
Scanlan collection at Yale University. They are thoroughly fossilized and 
are hard and heavy. 

In the Charleston Museum (No. 1047) is an anterior cannon-bone of a 
deer, but no definite locality is recorded. It is black and apparently'' 
phosphatized, as are the numerous fragments of antlers found in the private 
collections at Charleston. The cannon-bone mentioned is 188 mm. long. 

While the materials so far discovered do not enable us to distinguish the 
deer remains found about Charleston from Odocoileus virginianus, it is not 
improbable that they belonged in reality to another species, some perhaps 
to the Floridan Pleistocene species 0. sellardsioe. 

Antlers of the white-tailed or Virginia deer are common in the collections 
about Charleston. In the Scanlan collection are bases of antlers of adult 
bucks and two simple spikes of young deer. One base is different from 
the others in being much flattened in one border, probably the one on which 
the first tine arose. It is possible that it represents a distinct species. 

2. Darlington, Darlington County. — In 1848, Tuomey (Rep. Geol. South 
Carolina, pp. 177-180) stated that on the land of a Rev. Mr. Campbell, 
somewhere in the vicinity of Darlington, he had found fragments of the 
horns of a deer. He regarded the beds as belonging to the Pliocene.. In the 
neighborhood, in a similar deposit, had been found molars of Mastodon 
maximus {=Mammut americanum) . Both species may belong to the early 
Pleistocene. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Pablo Beach, Duval County. — Dr. Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Florida 
Geol. Surv., p. 106) reported remains of Odocoileus found at station 120 
of the Inland Waterway Canal, about 5 miles south of Pablo Beach. 
Further mention is made of this on page 374. 

2. Neals, Alachua County. — In his eighth report (page 94) Sellards 
stated that at Neals, near Newberry, teeth had been collected which prob- 
ably belonged to a species of Odocoileus. These were found while phos- 
phate rock was being mined; but they, with a tooth of a tapir and one of 
Equus littoralis, doubtless belong to the early Pleistocene. 

3. Archer, Alachua County. — In 1896 Leidy (Trans. Wagner Free Instit., 
vol. IV, p. x), in a note on the species of vertebrates found in the Alachua 
clays, included among these a tapir, a mastodon, and a megatherium. In 
his list furnished for Dr. W. H. Dall's report (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 84, 
p. 1291, is included Cervus virginianus?. The tapir, the deer, and the 
megatherium have been regarded as Pleistocene fossils which became mixed 
witli those of the Pliocene. For that reason Odocoileus is here credited 



FLORIDA. 233 

to Archer. See also Sellard's conclusion (6th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., 
p. 162). It is not certain exactly where the species above named were 
found. One locality mentioned by Leidy is 10 miles south of Archer, now 
Williston; another is 10 miles north of the same town, now Newberry. For 
the geological age of the species found at Archer, consult page 375. 

4. Ocala, Marion County. — From a fissure in a limestone rock at Ocala, 
Sellards (8th Ann. Rep., p. 103) secured some remains of Odocoileus, but it 
was not determined to what species they belonged. 

5. Dunnellon, Marion County. — The writer (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. 
Surv., p. 43, plate viii, figs. 3-5) described some teeth of a deer found near 
Dunnellon, in the "Cullens river mine." These were referred provisionally 
to the species or subspecies now living in that region, Odocoileus osceola. 

6. Palmetto, Manatee County. — In a small collection of fossil vertebrates 
sent from this place by Mr. Ernest Leitzel to the U. S. National Museum 
for identification were some fragments of antlers of Odocoileus.. 

7. Palma Sola, Manatee County. — From Mr. Charles T. Earle the U. S. 
National Museum received, in 1921, many fragments of antlers found on 
the beach at Palma Sola, about 10 miles below Palmetto and on the south 
side of Manatee River. With these came teeth of Equus leidyi, E. compli- 
catus, E. littoralis, teeth and bone of Bison latifronsf, a tooth of Elephas 
columhi, and a fragment of the beak of a ziphoid porpoise. The last 
and various sharks' teeth probably originated in Miocene deposits not far 
away. A list of the species found at this place and believed to belong to 
the Pleistocene is presented on page 379. 

8. Arcadia, De Soto County. — In 1889 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
1889, p. 96; U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 84, p. 129), Leidy reported the dis- 
covery of antlers of deer, Odocoileus (Cervus) virginianus, at Arcadia. 
These may have belonged to 0. osceola or 0. sellardsice. In 1884 (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. vi, p. 428), Mr. S. T. Walker reported the finding of 
fossils, among them fragments of deer antlers, on sand-bars in Peace River, 
from a point about where the town of Hull now is to a point 8 miles by 
land above Fort Ogden, apparently not far from the present town of Owens. 
On this matter see Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., p. 109). 
This locality and its fossils are further described on page 381. 

9. Vero, St. Lucie County. — Numerous remains belonging to one or two 
species of Odocoileus have been found at Vero. Fragments of various parts 
of the skeleton and some teeth have been found in the two upper strata, 
No. 2 and No. 3, which lie above the marine marl. The writer (9th Ann. 
Rep. Florida Geol. Surv., 1917, pp. 50-57, plate iii, fig. 3) referred some of 
these bones to the new species, 0. sellardsice. Possibly only this species is 
represented at that locality, but probably some of the bones belong to 
0. osceola. Lists of the species found in the two deposits bearing fossil 
vertebrates will be found on pages 381 to 383. 



234 PLEISTOCENE DEER, GENUS ODOCOILEUS. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Natchez, Adams County. — Dr. Leidy wrote (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., 1854, p. 199) as follows: 

"Fossil bones of a deer not larger than the Cervus virginianus have been found in 
association with bones of the Megalonyx, Mastodon, etc., in the vicinity of Natchez, 
Mississippi. In the cabinet of the Academy mentioned there are several specimens 
from the locality, consisting of a portion of a lower jaw, a fragment of an antler, and 
the posterior and inferior portions of two crania." 

The geology of this important locality is discussed on pages 389 to 393. 

2. Aberdeen, Monroe County. — In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., ser. 2, 
vol. VII, p. 376), Leidy stated that remains of a deer had been found at 
this place in a railroad cutting. No details were given. 

TENNESSEE. 

(Map 22. Figure 23.) 

Whiteshurg, Hamblen County.— In 1920 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, vol. 
Lviii, pp. 85-95) , the writer described bones and teeth of Pleistocene animals 
which had been found at Whitesburg. A list of the species is given on 
page 395. In the collection are 21 teeth which were referred to Odocoileus 
virginianus, but their small size suggests that they may belong to another 
species of deer. 

Nashville, Davidson County. — On page 201 is presented an account of a 
collection made at Nashville. Among the fossils was an antler of a deer 
which is referred by the writer to an undetermined species of Odocoileus 
(p. 399). 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 22.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — The bones and teeth of the Virginian 
deer have been reported with some doubt from Bigbone Lick; even if 
found it is not certain that they belonged to Pleistocene deposits. 

2. Bluelick Springs, Nicholas County. — In the collection made in cleaning 
out Bluelick Springs, in Nicholas County, remains of a deer were secured. 
The geological age of these can not be determined with certainty, but they 
were probably of Late Wisconsin time. For a list of the associated species 
see page 405. 

3. Henderson, Henderson County. — In a letter to Dr. Joseph Leidy, pub- 
lished by the latter (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. vii, art. 5, p. 7), Dr. 
D. D. Owen stated that many antlers and bones of deer had been found 
about 6 miles below Henderson, associated with bones of Megalonyx 
jejjersonii. 



ONTARIO VERMONT — NEW YORK. 235 

FINDS OF CERVUS CANADENSIS IN THE PLEISTO- 
CENE OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Hamilton, Wenttvorth County. — On Burlington Heights, near Hamil- 
ton, many years ago antlers of the elk were found associated with a jaw 
of a beaver. They were discovered 30 feet from the surface and at a level 
7 feet higher than the jaw of Elephas columbi described on page 147. The 
age of all these bones is late Pleistocene. The elk had, therefore, spread 
over the northern part of our country before the close of the Wisconsin stage. 

The geology of this locality and the species found there are considered 
on pages 284-285. 

2. Near Strathroy, Middlesex County. — In 1901 (Ottawa Naturalist, vol. 
XV, pp. 95-97, fig.) L. H. Smith wrote on the occurrence of the elk in Ontario. 
None had been known to exist there since the settlement by white men. 
The writer of the article had a number of specimens of antlers collected in 
the neighborhood of Strathroy and the neighboring county, Lambton. A fine 
pair of antlers and a part of a skeleton of an elk had been discovered in a 
boggy spring in lot 15, 12th concession, township of Lobo. It was evidently 
not deeply buried. This and the others, notwithstanding shallowness of 
burial, may have been buried in Late Pleistocene times; but there is no 
assurance that they did not live during the early Recent. 

3. Kingston, Frontenac County. — In 1898 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. ix, 
p. 377), Robert Bell stated that remains of the elk had been found in shell 
marl in at least two places near Kingston. 

VERMONT. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Grand Isle, Champlain Lake. — In 1840 (Rep. on Quadrupeds, Mas- 
sachusetts, p. 82) , Emmons reported the finding of an antler on this island, 
which he concluded belonged possibly to a young elk. It had been thrown 
out by the plow from an elevated piece of ground, near a spring of water. 
He concluded that it was the antler of the second year, and stated that it 
had no branches. It was somewhat curved and had a total length of 849 
mm. The diameter just above the burr was given as 183 mm.; but this is 
much greater than that in any specimens of young elks at hand. Possibly 
some other species is represented and it may not have belonged to Pleistocene. 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Racket River, St. Lawrence County. — J. E. De Kay, in 1842 (Zool. 
N. Y., Mamm., p. 120, plate xxix, fig. 1), described a part of a skull, to 
which were attached the damaged antlers of an elk, which had been dug up 
near the mouth of Raquette River. Tliis must have been not far from 
the town of Racket River. Nothing appears to be known regarding the 
conditions under which the skull was found. Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., 



236 PLEISTOCENE DEER, CERVUS CANADENSIS. 

Phila., vol. VII, 1869, p. 377) refers to the specimen. It was at one time 
in the Lyceum of Natural History, New York, but is probably no longer in 
existence. 

2. Seneca Castle, Ontario County. — Mr. E. Hitchcock (Science, vol. vi, 
1885, p. 450) reported the finding of an antler of an elk at this place. It was 
associated with supposed remains of a mastodon, in a peat morass, near 
Flint Creek. It is to be credited to the Late Wisconsin. 

3. Farmington, Ontario County. — James Hall, in 1887 (6th Ann. Rep. 
State Geologist, New York, p. 391), reported the discovery of about two- 
thirds of the skeleton of an elk at the place named, in a cedar swamp, 
buried in peat at depths of from 6 to 18 inches. The antlers had projected 
above the surface and had been gnawed by rodents. Hall remarked that 
the elk had not been known to live in that region since the coming of the 
white race. The skeleton may or may not have been deposited there 
during the late Pleistocene. 

4. Livingston County. — In the collection at Princeton University is a 
calvarium of an elk labeled as found in Livingston County. The finder had, 
with a tool, chopped off the antlers and otherwise hacked the skull. One 
can not be certain as to the geological age of the specimen. 

5. Cuba, Allegany County. — In 1843, James Hall (Geol. 4th Dist., p. 367) 
reported that several horns of deer and one of an elk had been found at the 
summit of the Genesee Valley Canal. The place given was New Hudson, 
4 miles from Cuba; but this town is about 10 miles from Cuba and appar- 
ently not on the canal. The antlers were found at a depth of 12 feet, in 
muck. 

6. Jamestown, Chautauqua County. — Hall (op. cit., p. 365) stated that 
Dr. Emmons had in his possession a tooth which he regarded as belonging 
to this species. De Kay (Zool. N. Y., Mamm., p. 120, plate xxix, fig. 4) 
describes and figures this tooth. Emmons, in 1840 (Rep. Quadrupeds of 
Massachusetts, p. 82) , first mentioned the tooth and said it had been found 
in a clay bed with several others. The tooth may belong to the Pleistocene, 
but this can not be proved. It is of value, as are the other cases, as showing 
the former distribution of the species. 

7. Boonville, Oneida County. — In 1884 (Trans. Linn. Soc. N. Y., vol. ii, 
p. 46), Dr. C. Hart Merriam reported that Mr. Calvin V. Graves, of 
Boonville, had parts of elk horns, plowed up in an old beaver meadow. 
These may have belonged to very late Pleistocene time or to any part of 
the Recent. 

8. Third Lake of Fulton Chain, Herkimer County. — In the publication 
just referred to and on page 45, Merriam stated he had seen a number of 
elk antlers, found in a bog near the place mentioned. Their geological age 
can not be determined any more closely than in the preceding case. 

9. Steele's Corners, St. Lawrence County.- — On page 46 of the paper just 
cited, Merriam reported that Dr. C. C. Benton, of Ogdensburg, had parts of 
antlers discovered at the place named. No details as to mode of occurrence 
were given. The antlers were discarded by their owners some time after 
the clearing away of the Wisconsin drift. 



NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA MICHIGAN. 237 

NEW JERSEY. 
(Map 23.) 

1. Deal, Monmouth County. — In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
VII, p. 377), Leidy stated that there were in the museum of the Philadelphia 
Academy portions of two antlers of the elk obtained in the earth just above 
the Cretaceous greensand near Deal. No further information was fur- 
nished. Deal is about 5 miles south of Long Branch. The antlers may 
have belonged to the Pleistocene or to the Recent. 

2. Trenton, Mercer County. — In 1911 (Papers Peabody Mus., vol. v, p. 
123), Mr. Ernest Volk detailed the finding of a fragment of an antler of 
an elk in the glacial gravels at Trenton, at a depth of 5.5 feet. For the 
geology of this locality see page 304, 

Cope (Cook's Geol. N. J., 1868, p. 742) wrote that this species has left 
antlers and bones in various parts of the State in the gravel drift, but he 
mentions no localities. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Stroudsburg, Monroe County.— In 1899 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv., Penn- 
sylvania, for 1887, p. 6), Leidy reported the discovery of various frag- 
mentary remains of this species in the Crystal Hill (Hartman's) Cave, near 
Stroudsburg. This cave and its contents will be considered on page 310. 

2. Riegelsville, Bucks County. — From Durham Cave, situated near 
Riegelsville, there was sent to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, about 70 years ago, a collection of bones. They were examined 
by Leidy, who reported on them (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1880, p. 349). 
In this list the elk was not mentioned. In 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Pennsylvania, 1887, pp. 18, 19), further attention was given to the collec- 
tion, and the elk was included. The bison, which was mentioned in the first 
list, was omitted in the second. 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Adrian, Lenawee County. — In 1880, Professor J. Kost, of Adrian 
College, sent to the U. S. National Museum a skull of Castoroides ohioensis 
and a jaw of a mastodon found in a marsh in the town of Adrian, at a 
depth of 4 feet. At the same place another mastodon, together with bones 
of a deer and of an elk, had previously been secured. These belong to a 
late period in the Wisconsin. 

2. Ann Arbor, Washtenaiv County. — In 1908 (Folio 155, U. S. Geol. 
Surv., p. 9), Russell and Leverett told of the finding of bones of elk and 
deer in a peat-swamp, 3 miles south of Ann Arbor. In the same swamp, 
at a depth of 5 feet, a skull of Castoroides ohioensis had been discovered. 
The bones of the elk and deer were at a somewhat higher level. While they 
are probably of late Pleistocene age, one can not be wholly sure of it. 



238 PLEISTOCENE DEER, CERVUS CANADENSIS. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Cambridge City, Wayne County. — In the collection of Earlham Col- 
lege, at Richmond, Indiana, is a part of the skull of an elk (No. 5070) 
labeled as found a mile northwest of Cambridge City, and as presented by- 
Lee Ault, superintendent [of schools?]. It is recorded on the specimen 
that it was found in Little Simond's Creek and lay partly exposed in a 
bed of gravel 4 rods below the mill-dam, and 0.25 mile from where the 
creek empties into the West Fork of Whitewater River. The specimen is 
pretty thoroughly mineralized and stained with iron oxide. The geological 
age of the skull is uncertain, but it has the appearance of being old. Found 
in that region, it must, however, be younger than the Shelby ville and 
Bloomington moraines, which are nearby. 

2. Fountain City, Wayne County. — In Earlham College is the rear of 
the skull of an elk recorded as found on Nolan's Fork, near the border of 
the Bloomington moraine. It has the No. 5069 and is credited to Mr. Isaac 
Thomas. The remark made in the preceding paragraph about the age of 
the specimen from Cambridge City may be repeated here. 

3. Harrisville, Randolph County. — In the collection at Earlham College, 
Richmond, are some bones which belong to Cervus canadensis and reported 
found in May 1893, by Messrs. Shoemaker, Graves, and Moore, in a ditch 
or canal being put through the swamp known then by the name of "The 
Dismal," apparently about 6 miles east of Winchester, near the town of 
Harrisville. It was here that was found the fine specimen of Castoroides 
ohioensis which is at Earlham. Just at what depth the elk bones were 
found is not known. With them came some bones of the white-tailed deer, 
Odocoileus virginianus. Of the elk there are a dorsal and two lumbar 
vertebrae, most of the sacrum, some pieces of ribs, the articular end of the 
scapula, a complete humerus, most of the right side of the pelvis, most of 
the left pubis, the left cubo-navicular bone, the distal end of the left cannon- 
bone, and three phalanges. 

We can not be certain that the animal lived at that place during Pleisto- 
cene times. At most, it lived after the Wisconsin ice had withdrawn from 
that vicinity. Dr. A. J. Phinney (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxi, p. 181) 
stated that in draining swamps in this county elks' antlers had been found, 
but no details were given. At any rate, in that region all such remains 
would belong to a time following the middle of the Wisconsin stage. 

4. Pennville, Jay County. — McCaslin, in his report on the geology of Jay 
County (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xii, p. 169) , stated that the bones of the 
mastodon and post-glacial deer, or elk, had been frequently met with. 
"The gigantic antlers of the latter have been found in size indicating an 
animal 8 or 9 feet high and 10 or 11 in length. These have been picked 
up in a bog north of Camden." Making proper allowances for miscalcula- 
tions, we must conclude that these antlers belonged to the elk {Cervus 
canadensis). The antlers had probably been laid out so as to give their 
maximum extent. This township (24 north, range 12 east) is in the north- 
west corner of the county. The name Camden no longer appears on the 
maps, being apparently a former name for Pennville. The bog referred to 



ILLINOIS. 239 

was evidently north of the Salamonie River and close to or on the moraine 
bearing the same name. The elk must have lived there after, probably a 
long time after, this moraine was laid down. 

5. Wabash County. — Elrod and Benedict reported in 1892 (Geol. Surv. 
Indiana, vol. xvii, p. 240) that a Mr. Longnecer had unearthed the head and 
antlers of an elk in a swamp on his farm "near the west county line." The 
antlers measured 8 feet from tip to tip. In this case they probably were 
given their greatest possible span. It is to be regretted that no more definite 
locality was given. For those in that region who might be interested, it 
would be possible to learn the location more accurately by searching the 
office of the county surveyor or of the county clerk. At any rate, the 
animal lived there in Late Wisconsin time. 

6. Foresman, Newton County. — In the State Museum at Indianapolis is 
the left antler of an elk said to have been found in 1884, at Foresman. It 
is credited to D. E. Howe, and the writer has not been able to get any 
additional information. Foresman is on Iroquois River; and, according to 
Leverett's map (Monogr. liii, plate vi), the region about there is Occupied 
by clay of a glacial lake bottom. The antler may be of the Recent period, 
but more probably of Late Wisconsin times. 

7. Rensselaer, Jasper County. — In the State collection at Indianapolis 
just mentioned is a part, about 16 inches long, of the antler of an elk, 
presented by Dr. Loughridge. of Rensselaer, but no additional information 
is furnished. The animal may have lived at any time during or since the 
Late Wisconsin stage. 

8. Lake County. — In the Twenty-second Annual Report of the State 
Geologist of Indiana, page 90, Blatchley stated that antlers of the elk had 
been found in this county, but no details were given. 

9. Kouts, Porter County. — In the report just cited, on page 90, Blatchley, 
State geologist, reported antlers of a large elk found close to teeth of a 
mastodon. This was somewhere near Kouts. 

The reports of fossil remains of Cervus canadensis in Indiana are not very 
satisfactory. In few cases has any effort been made to record anything 
like exact information as to the locality and the depth of burial and the 
nature of the deposit and to preserve the specimens. Nevertheless, in most 
instances at least, it is quite certain that the remains referred to this species 
were really such. While, again, some of the remains have possibly belonged 
to the Recent period, probably most of them date back to late Pleistocene; 
that is, Late Wisconsin times. In many cases the remains have been found 
at a depth of several feet in swamps that were being drained. It is certain 
that these swamp deposits accumulated with exceeding slowness. Not infre- 
quently fossil mastodon bones and teeth have been found within a few 
inches of the surface. In the case of none of the finds of elk materials is 
there any indication of an age beyond that of the Late Wisconsin. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 23, 38.) 

1. Niantic, Macon County. — In 1873 (Geol. Surv. Illhiois, vol. v, p. 308), 
A. H. Worthen reported the discovery of remains of mastodon, elk, buffalo, 



240 PLEISTOCENE DEER, CERVTJS CANADENSIS. 

and deer in a bog near Xiantic. The exact locality and the conditions are 
described on page 102. In that account it is concluded that the mastodon 
remains went to the museum of C. F. Giinther, of Chicago, and from there 
to the collection of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. T\niat became of the 
bones of the elk, the buffalo, and the deer is not known. As no record 
appears to have been kept of the depths at which each of the species was 
found, we do not know whether or not the others were as old as the mastodon. 
However, it is certain that these old ponds and marslies left on the surface 
of the Wisconsin drift filled up very slowly. 

2. Near Whitewillow, Kendall County, 5 miles west by north oj Minooka. — 
Dr. E. S. Riggs, of the Field Museum of Natural History, informed the 
writer that he had found here bones of the elk. These were also reported 
by him in Netta C. Anderson's list (Augustana Coll. Publ., No. 5, page 11). 
Mr. George Langford, of Joliet, has likewise found elk antlers here and 
remains of Cervalces and Alces americanus. 

For the location of this place and its geological situation page 337 may 
be consulted. All the species found are without doubt of Late Wisconsin 
age. Riggs's statement referred to appears to indicate that the elk, buffalo, 
and deer bones found are of more recent age than those of the mastodons, 
but Mr. Langford writes that the antlers were mixed up with the mastodon 
bones. 

3. Palos Park, Cook County. — This place is on the Wabash Railway, 
about 20 miles southwest of Chicago. Dr. E. S. Riggs wrote the author 
that in October 1915, the Field Museum of Natural History had received 
a fine head and antlers of the elk from the Sag Drainage Canal near Palos 
Park. It was found in peat at a depth of 13 feet. One can hardly doubt 
that the animal lived there during the latter part of the Wisconsin stage. 

4. Batavia, Kane County. — Dr. E. S. Riggs, writing April 3, 1916, 
informed the author that he had picked up the jaw of an elk along a ditch, 
somewhere about Batavia, in which mastodon bones had been found. At 
what depth the bones had been buried could not be determined. In this case 
all that can be said is that the animal lived there after the Wisconsin ice 
had retired from that place. 

5. Union Grove, Whiteside County. — In the U. S. National Museum, No. 
7335, is a right astragalus of an elk found near Union Grove, 3 feet below 
the surface of a bed of peat, in an old channel of the Mississippi River. 
This astragalus was presented by Mr. Leo B. Lincoln, of Chicago, through 
the peat expert of the U. S. Geological Survey'- , Professor Charles A. Davis. 

The locality is said to be in the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter 
of section 7, Union Grove Township, apparently township 21 north, range 
4 west. This section appears to be about 5 miles away from the present 
bed of the river. Although the area is outside of the Wisconsin drift-sheet, 
it is not probable that the elk antedates the Wisconsin stage. Its age is 
more probably Late Wisconsin. 

6. Lead Region of Illinois. — In 1876, J. A. Allen (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 
XI, p. 48) stated he found in a collection made in this region by J. D. 
Whitney an imperfect radius that seemed not to differ at all from that of a 
young male Cervus canadensis. This collection is that reported on by 



WISCONSIN. 24] 

Jeffries Wyman in 1862 (Geol. Surv. Wisconsin, vol. i, pp. 421-423). It is 
impossible to say whether the specimen was found in Wi^'onsin, Iowa, or 
Illinois. 

As elsewhere stated, the writer formerly regarded the vertebrate fossils 
found in that region as belonging mostly to the Late Wisconsin; but it now 
appears possible they lived during a pre- Wisconsin time. 

7. BeecJier, Will County. — Mr. George Langford, of Joliet, Illinois, an 
intelligent collector of the fossils of that region, informed the author that he 
obtained an antler of the Cervus canadensis at a place along Trim Creek, 
about 3 miles north of east of Beecher. The fragment included the base 
and two tines. The exact locality and the geological conditions are discussed 
on page 107. Mr. Langford reported that the antlers were above the 
mastodon bones. At the same place v/as found a fragment of an antler of 
Cervalces. All these species belonged probably to very late Pleistocene 
time. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Wauwatosa^ Milwaukee County. — In the Public Museum of Milwaukee 
are parts of both antlers of an elk found at Miller's brewery, in Wauwatosa, 
at a depth of 4 feet. 

Wauwatosa is a suburb west of Milwaukee, on the Menomonie River, 
situated principally on one of the moraines laid down just before the Wis- 
consin ice-sheet retired into Lake Michigan. The elk must have lived there 
since that withdrawal of the ice. It is possible that the antlers were found 
in marsh deposits of Recent age along the Menomonie River. 

2. Pewaukee, Waukesha County. — This town is situated about 20 miles 
north of west of Milwaukee. In the Public Museum at Milwaukee is an 
antler which was plowed up somewhere about Pewaukee by Stanley G. 
Haskins and presented by him to the museum. Probably the antler belongs 
to the Recent epoch. 

3. Whitehall, Trempealeau County. — From Dr. S. Weidman, State 
geologist of Wisconsin, the writer received a tibia found near Whitehall 
and which he identifies as belonging to Cervus canadensis. The following 
account of the discovery has been furnished by Dr. Weidman: 

"The gully (fig. 2) in which the tibia was found is eroded out of stratified sand, 
containing fragments of local sandstone and cherts. The stratified sand, with local 
small fragments of sandstone, is, of course, pre-Ioessial in origin, but the erosion of the 
lower terrace is post-1 oessial, and the gully is verj^ recent. The libia wa^ tak n 2 
feet below the lower terrace, along the side of the gully about 5 or 6 fett deep at the 
lower end and 3 or 4 feet deep at the upper end; length of gullj^ 300 or 400 feet. The 
bone may possibly have been inserted after the development of the lower terrace, but 
I could see no indication of disturbance or change in the upper 2 feet of the lower 
terrace further exposed by the gull}' at this point, the upper 2 feet being essentially 
the same at this point as elsewhere along the side of the gully. If the bone was de- 
jiosited along with the small fragments of sandstone in the stratified formation, the 
fragments being usually flat, about 0.5 inch thick by 1 to 2 inches wide, then the bone 
is evidently pre-loessial in age. I am inclined to think the bone was deposited with 
the sandstone fragments during the process of the filling up of the valley with the 



242 



PLEISTOCENE DEER, CERVUS CANADENSIS. 



stratified surface, long before the Joess was deposited in the region, rather than after 
the loess and the lower terrace was formed." 



1 












Uppsr- 


^ 




Terrace 


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V,-n W'-<^< < > -L£ 


/<R4;4-f;K'T" 








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-'.\ V ^ovyer 


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ed Sand ^ 


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. . •. •.-.•. : •. . ■. ; .•.■-•■ 




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Fig. 2. — Diagrammatic section of gully near Wliitehall, Wis- 
consin, showing place of burial of elk bone. 

According to this account the specimen belonged to the Peorian stage or 
an earlier one. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Oxjord Neck, Talbot Comity. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 
XI, p. 178), Cope stated that a collection of vertebrate fossils had been 
found on the farm of Lambert Kirby, in Oxford Neck, including parts of 
antlers. These were not distinguishable from those of the elk and the 
Virginia deer. They were placed in the Baltimore Academy of Natural 
Sciences. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

(Maps 23, 39.) 

1. On Neuse River, Pamlico County, 16 miles below Newbern. — On page 
117, in discussing the occurrence of mastodons at this place, it is stated 
that H. B. Croom had reported also the presence of elk remains. A more 
competent witness was Richard Harlan, who included the elk in his list of 
species (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xliii, 1842, p. 143). The reader is referred 
to page 358, where the locality and the species are further considered. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — Dr. Joseph Leidy does not seem to 
mention the occurrence of the wapiti at Charleston. F. S. Holmes, in the 
introduction to his work on Post-Pliocene fossils of South Carolina, page 7, 
mentions the elk among the animals found in the Pleistocene beds which 
still have living representatives. 

In the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, at Philadelphia, 
are two teeth, labeled as from Ashley River and credited to Captain A. H. 
Bowman. It is possible that Leidy did not mention them because he 
regarded them as teeth of elk that lived within Recent times. 



GEORGIA FLORIDA — TENNESSEE — KENTUCKY. 243 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Brunswick, Glynn County. — In a list of fossil vertebrates dredged, 
probably, from the harbor at Brunswick, Gidley (Bull. No. 26, Geol. Surv. 
Georgia, p. 436) announced the finding of some part, supposedly a tooth, 
of a cervuline, "probably belonging to the genus Cervus." That C. cana- 
densis might have lived in that region during some part of the Pleistocene 
is not at all improbable; that it lived there during the time that Mega- 
therium existed we ]la^'c not at present sufficient evidence. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Alafia River, Hillsboro County. — From the late Professor F. W. 
Putnam the writer learned that he had obtained from Alafia River some 
part of the elk. The present writer has not seen the specimen. 

TENNESSEE. 
(Figure 23.) 
Whitesburg, Hamblen County. — In a collection of fossil vertebrates 
secured at Whitesburg and described by the writer in 1920 are some frag- 
ments of teeth which were referred to Cervus canadensis (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. LViii, p. 92). A list of the species is presented on page 395. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 23.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — In his report of 1831 on Bigbone Lick, 
William Cooper (Monthly Amer. Jour. Geol., vol. i, p. 207) stated that he 
had found remains of Cervus canadensis; but he did not appear to be wholly 
certain of this. Shaler was likewise in doubt regarding the presence of the 
elk (Geol. Surv. Kentucky, vol. iii, n. s., p. 197). Other authors have men- 
tioned the elk as occurring here, but not in a convincing way. Nevertheless, 
it is not at all improbable that this species was represented here. The 
geology of this locality is considered on pages 401 to 404 and a list of the 
species is presented. 

2. Bluelick Springs, Nicholas County. — In the collection of fossil verte- 
brates secured by Mr. Thomas W. Hunter, living near Bluelick Springs, 
were teeth, some bones, and fragments of antlers. This collection had been 
secured in an attempt to clean out and restore the failing springs. Whether 
or not these remains date back to the Pleistocene is uncertain. They are 
reported to have been found above the bones of the mastodon. 



244 PLEISTOCENE DEER OF THE GENUS RANGIFER. 

FINDS OF RANGIFER IN THE PLEISTOCENE OF 
EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

GRINNELL LAND. 

Dumbbell Harbor.— In 1877 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. xx, 
p. 488), Fielden published a paper on the post-Tertiary beds of Grinnell 
Land and north Greenland. In 1878 (Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 
XXXIV, p. 566), Fielden and De Ranee presented a report on the same 
subject. 

At a station in latitude 82° 30' N., in beds at an elevation of 400 feet, 
there were secured meager remains of Ovibos moschatus and Phoca hispida. 
At another station, in latitude 82° 25', there were obtained remains of 
Rangifer tarandus, Ovibos moschatus, and Phoca barbata. The inverte- 
brate fauna was found to be identical with that now existing there. In 
case the beds are Pleistocene they are probably those of a late stage. 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 24.) 

1. Toronto, York County. — In 1899 (Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xii, p. 195), 
Coleman stated that horns of the caribou were common in the Carleton 
Bar, just west of Toronto. This bar belonged to the Iroquois beach. In 
the same bar near York, east of Toronto, mammoth teeth had been found. 
In 1904 (Jour. Geol., vol. xv, p. 366), the same writer states that antlers 
are very common at Toronto Junction. This is probably the same locality 
as that spoken of as Carleton Bar. 

In 1901 (Jour. Geol, vol. ix, pp. 290, 298), Coleman wrote that a shed 
horn of a caribou had been found at Taylor's brick-yard. This is nearly 
a mile north of the Gerard street bridge in Toronto (Amer. Geologist, vol. 
XIII, p. 87). It was in a blue peaty clay, in which were found also unios 
and wood. This clay is about 4 feet 6 inches thick and near the top of the 
warm-climate beds. Notwithstanding the presence of the antler of a cari- 
bou, the stratum is assigned by Coleman to the warm-climate beds, because 
of the character of the vegetation. At present the caribou is not known to 
come nearer than 150 or 200 miles to Toronto. 

VERMONT. 

(Map 24.) 
1. Woodbury, Washington County. — In 1910 (Rep. Geol. Surv. Vermont, 
p. 7), Professor G. H. Perkins stated that there are in the State Cabinet at 
Burlington a fully developed antler and a part of the upper jaw, with five 
molars, oi Rangijer caribou found at Woodbmy in a peat-bog at a depth 
of 7 feet. Probably the animal lived at about the close of the Pleistocene 
epoch. The species has not been known in the State since historical times. 

CONNECTICUT. 

(Map 24.) 

1. New Haven, New Haven County. — In 1875 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, 
vol. x), Professor J. D. Dana gave an account of the finding of a humerus 



NEW YORK NEW JERSEY. 245 

and a tibia of a reindeer in the Quinnipiac Valley, near New Haven. The 
humerus was discovered in a bed of clay at a depth of 11 feet; the tibia 
at a depth of 7 feet. The two bones belonged to different individuals. 
Marsh, as quoted by Dana, thought that the tibia resembled more closely 
that of Rangifier tarandus of Europe than it did that of R. caribou, but that 
the humerus was more similar to that of the caribou. Dana concluded that 
the clays had been laid down after the glacier had retreated from the valley, 
but while it was yet near enough to send down ice-floes. Woodworth (17th 
Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., pt. 1, p. 978) was inclined to refer the clays 
to some pre-Wisconsin time. 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 24.) * 

1. Ossining, Westchester County. — In 1859, Dr. Joseph Leidy (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. xi, p. 194) read a letter from Dr. G. J. Fisher, 
of Ossining (then Sing Sing) , in which was reported the finding of an antler 
of a reindeer in that vicinity, in excavating a peat-bed, 6 feet from the 
surface. The peat-bed had an area of about an acre, was surrounded by 
high ground, and looked as if it had been the site of an ancient lake. It is 
to be regretted that the situation of the place was not more accurately 
given. 

Woodworth (Bull. 84, New York State Mus., 1905, p. 187) remarked 
that he did not know the circumstances under which the reindeer remains 
had been found; but its occurrence there was consonant with his views of 
the nonsubmergence of the lower Hudson valley. On the other hand, there 
appears to be no good reason why the caribou might not have occupied 
that region step by step as the glacier retired, and have remained there 
long enough for its bones to become buried in mucks overlying the deposits 
laid down in the Hudson while it was at sea-level. 

2. Racket River, St. Lawrence County. — In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. VII, p. 377), Leidy mentioned the occurrence of caribou ("Cervus 
tarandus") remains at Racket River, basing his statement on a remark of 
S. L. Mitchill (Cat. Organ. Remains, 1826, p. 26) . On the same page Leidy 
referred to Mitchill's skull of the elk found at Racket River, and to De 
Kay's figure of it. In De Kay's description (Zool. N. Y. Mamm., p. 120) 
of the skull he stated that it bore a label in Mitchill's handwriting purporting 
that the skull belonged to the reindeer. It looks, therefore, very much as 
if the crediting of the caribou to this locality is due to an error of identifi- 
cation on the part of Mitchill; on the other hand, it is barely possible that 
Mitchill had remains of both animals from the locality, 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 24.) 

1. Vincentown, Burlington County. — In 1869 (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. VII, p. 377, plate xxviii, fig. 9), Leidy described and figured a 
part of an antler of a reindeer found at Vincentown. It was discovered 
4 feet from the surface in soil overlying greensand. According to Lewis and 
Kummel's geological map, the region about Vincentown is occupied by Cape 



246 PLEISTOCENE DEER OF THE GENUS RANGIFER. 

May deposits resting on Manasquan marl, of Cretaceous age. It may be 
supposed, therefore, that this reindeer was in that region during the preva- 
lence of the Wisconsin glacial stage (Geol. Surv. New Jersey, vol. viii, p. 
183). This antler is peculiar in having no brow-tine, in having the bez-tine 
placed at an unusual height, 6 inches above the base, and in having no tine 
arise from the rear of the shaft up to a height of about 2 feet from the base. 
Where the last-mentioned tine might be expected is simply a sharp ridge. 
Leidy thought that the antler resembled more closely that of the barren- 
ground reindeer than that of the woodland reindeer. It may, however, 
belong to a distinct but as yet unnamed species. 

2. Trenton, Mercer County. — In 1884 (17th Ann. Rep. Peabody Mus., 
Harvard Univ., for 1883, p. 372), Professor F. W. Putnam reported as 
follows on a fragment of antler of Rangifer found at Trenton by Dr. C. C. 
Abbott: "A piece of worked antler, probably a handle to a stone knife, 
from the gravel in the railroad cut where the human tooth (No. 27798) was 
found. Collected and presented by Dr. C. C. Abbott." 

This specimen is mentioned by Mr. S. N. Rhoads (Mamm. of Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey, 1903, p. 241) as belonging to Rangifer groenlandicus. 
From Dr. C. C. Willoughby, director of Peabody Museum, the writer learns 
that this part of an antler is yet in that museum. He writes that it has 
been a handle for apparently a steel knife and that he sees nothing what- 
ever about the specimen to indicate a prehistoric origin. It may, he thinks, 
have been washed out of some recent Indian grave. In a personal letter 
to Mr. S. N. Rhoads, Professor Putnam wrote that the fragment had been 
identified by Dr. J. A. Allen as belonging to Rangifer. In 1883 (Jour. 
Franklin Inst., vol. cxv, pp. 366, 374), H. C. Lewis stated on the authority 
of Dr. C. C. Abbott that remains of Rangifer had been discovered in the 
Trenton gravels. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 24.) 

1. Stroudsburg, Monroe County. — In Crystal Hill (Hartman's) Cave, 
near Stroudsburg, there was found, many years ago, bones and teeth of 
what Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1880, p. 347) called Rangifer 
caribou. In 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania for 1887, p. 5) the 
remains are spoken of as fragments of jaws and teeth. 

2. Riegelsville, Bucks County. — In his earliest mention of remains found 
in Durham Cave, near Riegelsville, Leidy included the woodland caribou 
(Rangifer caribou). In his list published in 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Pennsylvania for 1887, p. 18) this species is not included, but the writer 
does not know why it was not. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Map 24.) 

1. Alton, Madison County. — In the collection of fossils made in the region 
about Alton by William McAdams, a list of which will be given on page 
339, is a single upper right molar, the first or second, which belongs to this 
genus. The tooth has McAdams's No. 11. To the base of the tooth a mass 



WISCONSIN — KENTUCKY. 247 

of very hard matrix adheres and a part of the grinding-surface is covered 
by the same material. The tooth is likewise somewhat shattered. The 
length of the tooth is 19 mm., the width across the anterior lobe 13.5 mm. 
From the materials at hand it is not possible to determine to what species 
the tooth belonged. It is referred provisionally to Rangifer muscatinensk. 
This tooth differs from other Rangifer teeth observed in having the front 
of the protocone, at its base, less fully rounded out, and in that the mesostyle, 
on the inner face of the tooth, widens m.ore extensively as it approaches the 
base than in any other species observed. Nevertheless, the width of the 
mesostyle varies in species and individuals. 

WISCONSIN. 

(Map 24.) 

1. Menomonie, Dunn County. — From Professor S. Weidman, of the Wis- 
consin Geological and Natural History Survey, the writer received a part of 
an antler of a female or a young individual of some species of Rangifer. 
Professor Weidman sends the information that this was obtained in a sand 
formation just below the clays worked at Menomonie for brick. He regards 
the brick-clays as being of Sangamon interglacial age. He states, too, 
that a part of a leg-bone believed to belong to a mastodon had been found 
in the claj's ; also bones of a fish, which have been identified by Dr. Hussakof 
as the Mackinaw trout, Cristivomer namaycush (Jour. Geology, vol xxiv, 
pp. 685-689, figs. 1,2). 

Probably the caribou represented by this specimen lived in that region 
at the beginning or at the close of some one of the glacial stages, when the 
climate was yet severe. The supposed mastodon bone may have belonged 
to Elephas primigenius. It is described on page 111. 

At a later time Dr. Weidman sent the writer a large part of the beam of 
an antler of a caribou which likewise had been found in the lacustrine clay 
at Menomonie. It was met with in the red clay, near the top of the 
lacustrine clay bed. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 24.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — The presence of reindeer bones at this 
place appears first to have been mentioned by William Cooper (Monthly 
Amer. Jour. Geol., vol. i, p. 207). He wrote that "antlers, jaws, and other 
remains of Cervus canadensis, C. virginianus, C. alces, and perhaps C. 
tarandus are not very rare." Shaler (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xiii, 
1871, p. 167; Geol. Surv. Kentucky, n. s., vol. iii, p. 197) reported that 
antlers of the caribou had been found by him here. A list of the species 
found at Bigbone Lick will be given on page 403. 



248 PLEISTOCENE MUSK-OXEN. 

FINDS OF MUSK-OXEN IN THE PLEISTOCENE OF 
EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

GRINNELL LAND. 

Dumbbell Harbor. — In 1877 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. xx, p. 488) , 
H. W. Fielden presented a paper on the post-Tertiary beds of Grinnell 
Land and north Greenland. He reported the discovery of a bone and a 
tooth of Ovibos moschatus and a bone of Fhoca hispida in deposits at an 
elevation of 400 feet. This was in latitude 82° 30' N. At another station, 
in latitude 82° 25', Fielden procured fossil remains of Rangifer tarandus, 
Ovibos moschatus, and Phoca barbata. A report to the same effect was 
presented by Fielden and De Ranee in 1878 (Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
vol. XXXIV, p. 566) . 

NEW JERSEY. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Trenton, Mercer County. — In 1900 (Ann. Rep. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
for 1899, p. 16), Professor F. W. Putnam stated that Mr. Ernest Volk, of 
Trenton, had found in the Trenton gravels a part of the scapula of a musk- 
ox, now at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. The part 
present is that bearing the glenoid cavity. This report is reprinted on pages 
248 to 249 of Volk's "Archaeology of the Delaware Valley" (Papers Pea- 
body Mus., vol. v). On page 111 of this work, Mr. Volk gives an account 
of the discovery of the bone, and illustrates it by plates lxxxvi and 
Lxxxvii. The bone was identified by Putnam, Matthew, Allen, Boas, Lambe, 
True, and Lucas. Inasmuch as the comparison must have been made with 
the scapulas of Ovibos moschatus, the fossil probably belonged to this 
species. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Pittston, Luzerne County. — In 1872 (Contrib. Ext. Fauna West. Terrs., 
p. 255, plate xxviii, fig. 8), Leicly briefly described and figured a molar tooth 
which he referred to Bison latifrons. It had been found along the bank of 
Susquehanna River at Pittston, associated with the mastodon and a horse. 
Dr. J. A. Allen (Amer. Bisons, 1876, p. 12) expressed the opinion that the 
tooth belonged to some species of Ovibos. The present writer agrees that 
the tooth is not that of Bison. It seems to agree more nearly with teeth 
of Symbos cavijrons; but it differs from the teeth of that species in some 
respects. The writer has examined this tooth at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences at Philadelphia. It is worn almost to the roots and is 34 mm. long 
and 32 mm. thick at the base of the hinder lobe. It agrees in form more 
closely with the first molar of both Ovibos and Symbos; but it is much 
larger than the same tooth in Ovibos moschatus and somewhat larger than 
that of Symbos cavijrons. The inner face of the anterior lobe is much more 
rounded than in Symbos, and the inner face of the hinder lobe forms an 
angle with the hinder face, instead of rounding into it, as it does in Symbos 
cavijrons. The teeth appear to have been packed together more closely, 



OHIO. 249 

on the lingual side, than in Bison, Symbos, and Ovibos. The tooth is prob- 
ably worthy of being given a new name. 

Mr. S. W. Rhoads has examined this tooth and concluded that it belonged 
to Bison bison. To this view it seems sufficient to say that in Bison teeth 
the outer face of each of the lobes is very convex and column-like, while 
the parastyle and especially the mesostyle are relatively small. In the 
Pittston tooth the mesostyle stands out beyond the outer face of the hinder 
lobe, and the latter is nearly flat; this is also the condition in Symbos. The 
writer will say further that the accessory column is not always present in 
teeth of Syyjibos. 

2. Riegelsville, Bucks County. — Mr. Rhoads, as cited above, on pages 
246 to 248, described a part of a horn-core of a bovine animal to which he 
applied the name Bison appalachicolus. Later (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., 1897, p. 492) he concluded that the horn-core had belonged to an 
animal of the genus Ovibos; and according^ it bears the name 0. appa- 
lachicolus. Leidy had in 1889 called attention to a collection of bones made 
in Durham Cave, near Riegelsville (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv., Pennsylvania, 
for 1887, pp. 18-19). He recorded 20 species, all of which lived there or 
at most, not far away, when the country was discovered. These may have 
all entered the cave at a later period, but the musk-ox may have antedated 
the others. A list of these fossils is presented on page 311. 

OHIO. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Urbana, Champaign County. — At Urbana, Ohio, in the possession of 
Mr. Charles McDarg, the writer has seen a skull of Symbos cavifrons which 
had been found on the farm of Ed. Jennings, while a ditch was being dug. 
It was buried in mud at a depth of 10 feet. This region is covered by the 
Wisconsin drift, and the animal must have lived not long after the ice had 
withdrawn from the neighborhood. 

2. Youngstown, Mahoning County. — In the geological collection of the 
Ohio State University is a part of a skull of Ovibos moschatus secured at 
Youngstown. The specimen shows the base of the skull and the forehead. 
Between the bases of the horns is a narrow channel, characteristic of Ovibos. 
The specimen shows the effects of abrasion, the horn-cores being worn down 
to their bases. The specimen is said to have been found in gravel at a depth 
of 60 feet. It appears to have been presented in 1890 by H. McGinnis. 
It is probable that this skull was found along Mahoning River, but the 
elevation was, unfortunately, not given. The probability is that the deposits 
inclosing the fossil were laid down during the Wisconsin stage. 

According to Leverett (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., xli, p. 149), the old 
trough of Beaver River was filled with gravel during the Wisconsin glacial 
stage, and this filling is now in process of excavation. The same is probably 
true of its tributary, the Mahoning. If the skull was buried in this gravel 
its age is thereb}'- determined. 

3. Trumbull County. — In 1853 (Smith. Contnb. Knowl., vol. v, art. 3, 
p. 16), Leidy stated that he had received, for inspection, from Professor 
Samuel St. John, of Hudson, Ohio, a fragment of a skull, with one horn-core 



250 PLEISTOCENE MUSK-OXEN. 

attached, which had been found in Trumbull County. No further details 
M^ere given as to the locality or of the geological conditions. The skull 
appeared to be much waterworn. It belongs to Symbos cavifrons. Trum- 
bull County is wholly occupied by Wisconsin drift. The animal is, then, 
probably to be credited to the Late Wisconsin. It is possible, however, 
that this skull was found in an older deposit exposed in the valley of some 
stream. 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 25.) 

Up to the present time it appears that remains of musk-oxen have been 
found in Michigan in only two localities, Manchester, Washtenaw County, 
and near Moorland, in Muskegon County. These remains belonged to two 
different genera, Symbos and Bootherium. 

1. Manchester, Washtenaw County. — In No. 13 of the Occasional Papers 
of the Museum of Zoology, pages 1-3, plates i, ii, issued by the University 
of Michigan, November 12, 1915, Dr. E. C. Case reported the finding of a 
fine skull of Symbos cavifrons at a place near Manchester. This was given 
by Case as being about 3 miles northeast of Manchester, but Mr. Schlicht. 
owner of the farm, has sent the writer a description and plat of the section 
which show that the spot is situated about 0.5 mile northwest of the town. 
It is near the center of the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of 
section 1, township 4 south, range 3 east. A drain was being made in a 
swampy tract and the skull was found at a depth of 4 feet, lying on a bed 
of clay. This was covered by a black muck filled with plant remains and 
interrupted by a few thin layers of fine gravel. 

The skull was in fine condition, but lacked the lower jaw. The spade of 
a workman struck the nose and injured the bones so that some parts were 
lost. The teeth were almost perfectly preserved. 

The locality which furnished this skull is in the valley of the Raisin 
River. According to Leverett's glacial map of Michigan (Monogr. U. S. 
Geol. Surv., liii, plate vii), this valley crosses, at this point, the northern 
end of the Fort Wayne moraine. It is not improbable that this musk-ox 
lived when the foot of the ice-sheet was not far removed. Even in case the 
skull had gotten into a drainage channel it could not, because of its fine 
state of preservation, have been moved far from where the animal died. 
The circumstances appear to indicate that the skull had been left on the 
clayey bottom of a shallow pond of a tundra and become covered by the 
muck of a milder epoch. 

2. Moorland, Muskegon County. — In 1908 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
xxxiv, p. 683, plate lxxix ) , J. W. Gidley described, as belonging to a new 
species, Bootherium sargenti, a skull of a musk-ox found on the farm of 
Mr. Charles McKay, reported to be near Grand Rapids. Further inquiry 
showed that the farm is located near Moorland, in the northeast quarter 
of section 16, township 10 north, range 14 west. The skull was found in a 
marsh at a depth of 2 or 3 feet and lying beneath the pelvis of a mastodon. 
It and the mastodon are now preserved in the Kent Scientific Museum, at 
Grand Rapids, Michigan. 



INDIANA. 251 

In 1915 (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xlviii, p. 525, plate xxxi), the writer 
redescribed the specimen. Dr. J. A. Allen, in 1913 (Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., vol. I, pp. 214, 215), referred to this skull and concluded that it had 
belonged to the female of Syjnbos cavifrons. The writer does not accept 
this opinion. He has examined more than 25 skulls of S. cavifrons, some 
of which must have been females. In none did the rough surfaces for the 
horns fail to meet at the midline as it does fail in the Moorland specimen. 

The Moorland marsh is surrounded by what Leverett has called the Lake 
Border moraines. It is probable that this musk-ox existed there after, but 
not long after, the ice had withdrawn into Lake Michigan. From what is 
known about the habits of musk-oxen in general, we must conclude that 
the climate was yet cold. 

The fact that the mastodon remains were so closely associated with the 
musk-ox skull does not prove that tlie animals lived there together. Near 
Alma, in Gratiot County, the late Charles A. Davis found mastodon bones 
in a peat-bog within a few inches of the surface. If by chance the pelvis 
of a modern horse or cow had fallen on that spot, it might easily have been 
pressed down into contact with those bones. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Wailesboro, Bartholomew County. — ^In the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, is a portion of a skull of a musk-ox which the 
writer identifies as Symbos cavifrons. It is labeled as found along the 
East Fork of White River, in 1904, near Wailesboro, Bartholomew County, 
Indiana. This locality is about 45 miles east of south of Indianapolis. 
The skull is reported to have been washed out of a bank composed of 
alluvium which overlies from 10 to 20 feet of glacial gravel. It is also said 
that out of the same gravel a tooth of Elephas primigenius had been secured. 
It seems to be implied that the musk-ox skull came from the gravel; but 
the record is not clear. It was presented to the museum in New York by 
Dr. J. J. Edwards, of Columbus, Indiana. He is said to have been interested 
to some extent in collecting palaeontological materials. It is likely that he 
depended on others for his knowledge of the origin of the skull. 

The specimen presents the brain-case to the rear of the orbits, including 
the basioccipital bone and the bases of the horn-cores. It has been rolled 
somewhat and many ridges and processes have been eroded off. Measure- 
ments were given by the writer in his paper on the "Pleistocene Period in 
Indiana and its Vertebrata" (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, pp. 638-639). 
Dr. J. A. Allen (Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. i, p. 201) has examined 
this skull and concluded that it is not specifically determinable, but the 
writer, after re-examining the specimen, sees no reason for changing his 
original conclusion. 

This skull was found within the area of Illinoian drift; but the border of 
the Wisconsin forms the high ground just east of the river. According to 
Leverett's glacial map of Indiana (Monogr. lii, U. S. Geol. Surv., plate vi), 
the valley of the river is filled with sands and gravels resulting from glacial 



252 PLEISTOCENE MUSK-OXEN. 

drainage, and this came mostly, if not all, from the Wisconsin ice. Most 
probably the animal which possessed this skull lived there at some time 
when the Wisconsin glacial ice was not far away. 

2. Richmond, Way^ie County. — In the collection at Earlham College, 
Richmond, Indiana, is the brain-case of a skull identified as that of Ovibos 
moschatus. This fragment was described and figured by the wTiter in 1912 
(Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, p. 641, plate ix, fig. 2). The skull was 
unearthed by some workmen in the vicinity of Richmond and put into the 
hands of Professor D. W. Dennis, who loaned it to the writer. It is referred 
to Ovibos moschatus, the species now existing in the Arctic region of North 
America. Possibly if we had more complete remains specific differences 
might be found. 

This animal probably lived in the region about Richmond at a time when 
the Wisconsin moraine was yet lingering in Indiana and when the climate 
was yet severe. 

3. Randolph County. — In the collection belonging to Earlham College is 
the rear portion of the skull of a musk-ox, identified as belonging to Symbos 
cavifrons. At what place in Randolph County it was found is not known. 
It had been somewhat eroded and injured. Measurements approximately 
correct were given by the writer in 1912 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, 
p. 638). We may suppose that the animal lived in that region at some time 
during the last half of the Wisconsin stage. 

4. Beaver Lake, Newton County. — In 1870, F. H. Bradley (Geol. Surv. 
Illinois, vol. iv, p. 229), reported that upon the bottom of Beaver Lake, just 
east of the State line, since the lake had been partially drained, skeletons 
of Mastodon and Bootherium had been found by Dr. H. M. Keyzer, of 
]\Iomence, Illinois, and others. Unfortunately, we do not know what became 
of these valuable materials. Probably the "Bootherium" was the animal 
now known as Symbos cavifrons, inasmuch as it is far more abundant than 
any other species of musk-ox. If any parts of the skeleton of this musk-ox 
were really found the loss is great, inasmuch as very few bones have ever 
been discovered. 

The time when the mastodon and the musk-ox lived about Beaver Lake 
must have been after the withdrawal of the Wisconsin glacial sheet beyond 
that region. For remarks on this locality see page 96. The name Beaver 
Lake has disappeared from the maps, but it was in township 30 north, range 
9 west. 

5. Hebron, Porter County. — In the American Museum of Natural History 
is a nearly complete skull of the musk-ox known as Symbos cavifrons, col- 
lected about 6 miles east of Hebron. It was found by workmen while 
making excavations for a railroad bridge.^ The exact location is given as 
section 16, township 33 north, range 6 west, in the marshy lands just north 
of Kankakee River. The depth was about 7 feet and the deposit was 
described as a mixture of sand and clay. Doubtless the animal died near 
the spot where its skull was found, inasmuch as this had undergone little 
injury. 

This skull was described and figured by the writer in 1912 (Geol. Surv. 
Indiana, vol. xxxvi, pp. 635-638, figs. 49, 50) and in 1914 (Iowa Geol. 



ILLINOIS. . 253 

Surv., vol. XXIII, pp. 299-302, figs. 98, 99) ; also by Dr. J. A. Allen (Mem. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. i, p. 214, plates xvii, xviii). 

On Leverett's glacial map of Indiana this region is represented as being 
occupied by sand and gravel deposits resulting from glacial drainage. The 
musk-ox must have lived after the foot of the glacier had withdrawn nearly 
to the end of Lake Michigan. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Bondville, Champaign County. — In the collection of the University of 
Illinois, at Champaign, is the rear portion of the skull with the horn-cores 
of a specimen of Synibos cavifrons. It is reported as found on the farm of 
John Busey, southwest of Champaign and 4 miles from Bondville. Pro- 
fessor S. A. Forbes informed the writer that the locality is in section 31, 
township 19 north, range 8 east. No details are known regarding the con- 
ditions under which the skull was found. The region is occupied by the 
Champaign moraine and it was after the retirement of the ice from this 
moraine that the animal lived. It may, however, have been not long after 
that time. 

2. Manito, Mason County. — Mr. John Wiedmer, of St. Louis, presented 
to the U. S. National Museum (No. 7800) the rear half of the skull of a 
specimen of Symbos cavifrons found near Manito, at a depth of 5 feet, 
by workmen who were cutting out peat. A tooth of a mastodon, Mammut 
avfiericanum, sent with the skull, is said to have been embedded in the upper 
part of the sand which underlies the peat. The skull was reported as found 
at about the same depth, but it was quite certainly not in the sand. 

The exact location of the skull was in section 22, township 23 north, 
range 6 east, within the area of the Ulinoian drift sheet, but the Wisconsin 
drift is not far away. The valley of the Illinois River in this county is 
mapped by Leverett as occupied by sands and gravels of Wisconsin age. 
Probably the animal lived when the Wisconsin ice-sheet was not far distant. 

The skull described apparently belonged to a rather small, perhaps not 
fully grown individual. For purposes of comparison with other skulls, as 
the one found at St. Louis, Missouri, and the one found at Hebron, Indiana 
(p. 252), the following measurements have been taken of this skull: 

mm. 

From tip to tip of horn-cores 437 

Height of rear of skull from bottom of condyles 168 

Width across the mastoid region 183 

Width between hinder ends of temporal fossae 117 

Width at space between bases of horn-cores and orbits 127 

Width at the rear border of orbits 231 

Length of rough surface of forehead, at midline 200 

Fore-and-aft width of base of horn-core 98 

Vertical thickness of base of horn-core 78 

From front of foramen magnum to rear of nasal bones 260 

The exostosis between the bases of the horn-cores is longitudinally deeply 
excavated, the excavation being 50 mm. wide and 27 mm. deep. The tips 
of the horn-cores come forward only even with the rear border of the orbits. 



254 PLEISTOCENE MUSK-OXEN. 

In some other cases the horn-cores come forward to the front, or even in 
advance of the front border of the orbits. It is possible that this Manito 
skull was that of a cow. 

3. Alton, Madison County. — In a collection of fossil mammals made at 
Alton by William McAdams and now in the U. S. National Museum is a 
single tooth, a lower left second molar, referred with some doubt to Symbos 
promptus. The crown is 34 mm. long and 25 mm. wide at the base. The 
tooth has been described briefly by the writer (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
Lviii, p. 115). A list of the species accompanying it will be found on 
page 339. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Mahan, Brooke County. — In 1902 (Science, n. s., vol. xvi, pp. 707- 
709, fig.), J. B. Hatcher reported the finding of a part of a skull of 
Symbos cavijrons at a point in Brooke County, somewhat over a mile below 
Steubenville, Ohio. The locality is further defined as being the sand-pit 
of the Steubenville Sand Companj^ on the Thomas Mahan farm, on the 
east side of the Wheeling branch of the "Panhandle" Railroad. The details 
regarding the locality were furnished by Mr. Sam Huston. The sand-pit 
was located in the glacial terrace which rises about 70 feet above low-water 
mark and from about 35 to 40 feet above high water. The river has never 
been known to rise as high as to the spot where the skull was found. It 
had doubtless been brought down by the waters which built up the terrace. 
These waters probably came from the Wisconsin ice-sheet. The skull is 
now in the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh. 

The interesting geology of this region is described on page 355. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Natchez. — The first notice of the occurrence of any species of the 
OvibovincB at Natchez seems to be the inclusion of Symbos {Bootherium) 
cavijrons in Leidy's list of fossil Mammalia found in the State of Missis- 
sippi (Wailles's Rep. Agric. Geol. Mississippi, 1854, p. 269), but the locality 
is not mentioned. The occurrence of the species in the State was not 
mentioned by Leidy in 1853 in his "Memoir on Extinct Species of Fossil 
Ox" (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. v, art. 3). Leidy's list mentioned 
above was quoted by Hilgard in 1860 (Agric. Geol. Mississippi, p. 196). 
In neither place was any statement made regarding the part preserved. 
In his "Memoir on the Extinct Sloth Tribe of North America," published 
in 1855 (Smithson. Contrib. KnoMd., vol. vii, art. 5, p. 6), Leidy stated that 
Bootherium had been found at Natchez. Five years later (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, p. 73) Leidy reported that an isolated tooth, a last 
lower molar not yet protruded from the jaw, had been received from 
Natchez and was preserved in the museum of the Philadelphia Academy. 
On comparison with a last molar in a jaw of a supposed Ovibos cavijrons 
received at the Smithsonian Institution and found near Woodbine, Iowa, 
Leidy concluded that the Natchez tooth belonged to the same species. 



KENTUCKY. 255 

Probably he had already based on this tooth the announcement of the 
presence of this species at Natchez. At least, the writer knows of no other 
parts of Sy77ibos cavifrons found at Natchez, and he has seen neither the 
tooth from Natchez nor the jaw from Woodbine, Iowa. 

Leidy stated that the tooth in question had a height of 2.25 inches, a 
length antcro-posteriorly of 2 inches. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 25.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — In his account of Bigbone Lick and the 
collections made there (Monthly Amer. Jour. GeoL, vol. i, pp. 158-174, 
205-217), William Cooper included in his list of species both Bos bombi- 
jrons [Bootherium bombijrons) and Bos pallasii {Symbos cavifrons). 
Already in 1818 Wistar (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, .ser. 2, vol. i, p. 379, 
plate XI, figs. 10, 11) had described, without systematic name, the skull 
which later was made the type of Bos bombifrons by Harlan (Fauna Amer., 
p. 271). This skull was a part of the collection made at Bigbone Lick by 
Governor William Clark for President Thomas Jefferson. In the account 
presented by Cooper (p. 173) he stated that in the Finnell (sometimes 
spelled Phinnell) collection, made in 1830, he had found a second head of 
the species, but what became of it is not known. Harlan, as cited (p. 272) , 
stated that in the collection of fossils made at Bigbone Lick by Major Long 
were teeth which probably belonged to the musk-ox. They differed little 
from those of the bison, but were thicker at the crown, more deeply grooved 
at the sides, and altogether more robust. In 1870 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., p. 97), Dr. Leidy mentioned that in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, in Cambridge, he had seen a skull of Symbos cavifrons which 
Professor Shaler had collected at Bigbone Lick. The present writer has 
seen this skull. A list of the species found at this locality is recorded on 
page 403. 

2. Bluelick Springs?, Nicholas County. — In the collection at Yale Uni- 
versity is the hinder part of a skull of Symbos cavifrons, bought in 1876 
from Henry Ward, Rochester, and labeled as found in the Bluelick region. 
The locality is not more definitely known. 

3. Winchester, Clark County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a part 
of the rear of the skull of Symbos cavifrons labeled as found at Winchester. 
It is credited to J. W. Fitch. It shows well the condyles, some of the base 
of the skull, and the base of the right horn-core. 

Besides the remains above described a part of a cranium of Symbos 
cavifrons from Kentucky is preserved in the Boston Society of Natural 
History. Leidy (Smithson. Contrib. KnowL, vol. v, art. 3, p. 16) stated 
that it had been found in the alluvium of Kentucky River. 



256 EXTINCT PLEISTOCENE BISONS. 

FINDS OF EXTINCT BISONS IN THE PLEISTOCENE 
OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Toronto, York County. — Through the kindness of Professor B. A. 
Bensley, of the University of Toronto, the writer has had the opportunity 
to examine a malar bone of a bison found in the Don interglacial beds at 
Toronto. It is slightl}'' waterworn and the edges are somewhat injured. 
The bone has been compared with the corresponding one of a large speci- 
men of Bison bison, No. 22374 of the U. S. National Museum, and with 
a complete skull of Bison alleni from Alaska. The Toronto bone is about 
one-third larger than that of the Bison bison and about one-tenth larger 
than that of B. alle7ii. The projecting outer plate, immediately below the 
orbit, narrows little if any from behind forward, while in both the other 
species referred to it becomes much narrower toward the front. The bone 
quite certainl}^ belonged to an extinct species, but without the horn-cores 
it is impossible to determine to which one. 

In 1901 (Jour. Geol., vol. ix, p. 301), Coleman stated that a large atlas 
vertebra of a bison which he thought might belong to B. americanus had 
been found in interglacial beds in Toronto. It is more probable, however, 
that it belonged to one of the extinct species. It is uncertain whether the 
deposits belonged to the Don series or the Scarboro. 

The geology of this region is treated on pages 281 to 283. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Pittston, Luzerne County. — In 1873 (Contrib. Ext. Fauna West. Terrs., 
p. 255, plate xxviii, fig. 8), Leidy described and figured a tooth as that of 
Bison latifrons. This has been referred here to an undetermined species of 
Symbos. In a paper on the distribution of the American bison in Pennsyl- 
vania, Mr. S. N. Rhoads (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1895, p. 245) con- 
cluded that this tooth belonged to the existing bison. He stated also that 
the Academy had two other teeth, lower molars, from the same place, which 
Leidy had labeled as "Bison americanus" and regarded as more recent than 
the figured tooth. Rhoads thought the identification correct, but that they 
belonged to the same individual as did the tooth figured by Leidy. The 
writer has not seen these lower teeth and admits them here only provision- 
ally. They were found along Susquehanna River, in association with 
remains of Mammut americanum and Equus complicatus? {"E. major'). 
If any of the bovine teeth belong to Bison the species belonged to early or 
middle Pleistocene and is now extinct. 

2. Port Kennedy, Montgomery County. — The presence of Bison in the 
famous cave at this place was announced by Wheatley in 1871 (Amer. Jour. 
Sci., ser. 3, vol. i, p. 384). Cope, in his account of 1899 (Jour. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., vol. xi), does not mention the genus; but Mercer, on page 280 
of the same volume, credits Wheatley with having found remains of three 
individuals of one undetermined species. He used the generic name Bos. 



OHIO— INDIANA. 257 

A description of the Port Kennedy Cave and its contents and remark^ 
on the geological age of the fossils will be given on pages 311 to 320. 

OHIO. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Fincastle, Broum County. — In 1887 (Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. x, 
p. 20), Horace P. Smith, curator of the society, described a fine pair of 
horn-cores of Biso7i latifrons found in Brown County and which had come 
into the possession of the society. They were discovered at a depth of 18 
feet, in making excavations for the piers of a bridge across Brush Creek. 
Inasmuch as nearly the whole of the course of this stream is in Adams 
County, the locality must have been in the northeastern corner of Brown 
County, near Fincastle, where the creek has its source, and within the area 
of the Illinoian drift. Smith thought that the horn-cores were in the drift; 
but, if so, the overlying materials must have been washed down over them 
after their burial. It is improbable that they were ever beneath or in the 
glacier. The animal probably lived during the Sangamon interglacial stage ; 
quite certainly before the Wisconsin. 

2. No7'th Fairfield, Huron County. — In the Norwalk Museum, at Nor- 
walk, are some skull-bones of a bison found at some point not known to the 
writer, about 7 miles from North Fairfield, while search was being made 
for bones of the megalonyx which belongs partly to the museum at Norwalk, 
partlj^ to the Niver family at North Fairfield. These bison bones served as 
the type of Bison sylvestris, described by the writer in 1915 (Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Museum, vol. xlviii, p. 515, plate xxx). This is the only species of 
extinct bison known that lived after the close of the Wisconsin stage. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Evansville, Vanderburg County. — Many years ago Dr. Leidy (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, pp. 199-200) described a collection of mam- 
malian remains made on the banks of Ohio River at the mouth of Pigeon 
Creek, a short distance below Evansville. Among these materials was a 
fragment of a cervical vertebra of a species of Bison, which Leidy identified 
with doubt as Bison americanus, the existing bison, now known as Bison 
bison. It would be impossible to determine to which of our several species 
of the genus Bison this bone belonged; but it probably did not belong to 
B. bison. This species is not known from times preceding the Wisconsin 
drift and the bone-bed at Pigeon Creek is undoubtedly older. On page 32 
is a discussion of the probable age of the bone-bed. It may be as old as the 
Aftonian stage, but more probably it belonged to the Sangamon. 

The other species found at the locality named are Megalonyx jejjersonii, 
the Virginia deer, the extinct horse known as Equus complicatus, Tapirus 
haysii, and the exi:inct wolf Mnocyon dirus. At Bigbone Lick, midway 
between Louisville and Cincinnati, on the Kentucky side, have been found 
two extinct species of Bison, B. antiquus and B. latifrons. At the same 
place has been found Equus complicatus. The beds there overlie the 
Illinoian drift and belong, in part at least, to the Sangamon. 



258 EXTINCT PLEISTOCENE BISONS. 

Under this number may be included mention of a bone of a species of 
Bison which Cope reported in 1878 (Amer. Naturalist, vol. xii, p. 189) from 
Vanderburg County. Cope stated that John Collett, then State geologist 
of Indiana, had discovered in a late Pleistocene deposit a number of fossils. 
One of these was the ulno-radius of a Bos (now to be referred to Bison) ; 
another was a part of the mandible of the deer Odocoileus dolichopsis. In 
1884 (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol xiv, p. 22), Cope and Workman, inaccu- 
rately quoting Cope's original description of the deer Odocoileus dolichopsis, 
state that this deer and the bison bones were found in Harrison County. 

By consulting the Patoka Folio, No. 105, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
it will be seen that the northern part of Vanderburg County, four townships, 
Nos. 4 and 5 south, ranges 10 and 11 west, are included. The two northern 
townships are largely occupied by lacustrine deposits which the geologists 
Fuller and Clapp regarded as having been laid down in lakes produced by 
the damming of the drainage by the Illinoian ice-sheet. Farther south, 
along the streams emptying into Pigeon Creek, are wide areas which are 
covered by "fine silts, mainly of pre- Wisconsin age, but including some of 
more recent age." Whether or not the bison bone and the jaw of Odocoileus 
dolichopsis were found in any of these deposits we are unfortunately left 
in the dark. It is most probable that the bison and the deer lived there 
after the Illinoian stage and before the Wisconsin. 

2. Vincennes, Knox County. — In the geological collection of Earlham 
College, Richmond, Indiana, is preserved the greater part of the skull of a 
bison which belonged to the species known as Bison antiquus. This skull 
was first described and figured by Mr. W. G. Middleton and Professor 
Joseph Moore (Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1899, pp. 178-181, with a plate) ; 
afterwards by the writer (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xxxvi, p. 651, figs. 
50, 51). 

This fine skull is said to have been found in 1896 by a Mr. Brower, a few 
miles from Vincennes, in a ditch, at a depth of 6 feet. Beyond this the 
writer has not been able to learn. It would be of value to know exactly 
where this place was, for then some conclusion miglit be reached as to the 
geological age of the animal. The greater part of the county is occupied 
by drift of Illinoian age, which appears in some places to have on it some 
loess, and doubtless its surface has been much modified since the materials 
were laid down. Even in this area there may be some deposits of later 
times, interglacial and glacial. 

According to Leverett's glacial map of the region, there are along Wabash 
River sand and gravel terraces of Wisconsin age; while along White River 
there are said to be alluvial terraces older than Wisconsin. 

At present one can arrive at a conclusion only from general knowledge. 
The writer knows of no extinct bison (except one rather peculiar species) 
which lived after the Wisconsin glacial stage. It appears most probable 
that the skull at Earlham College came from some interglacial deposits 
laid down about the middle of the Pleistocene, most likely during the 
Sangamon stage. 

The writer has been informed that another skull of a buffalo was for 
years on exhibition in a business house conducted by Mr. T. L. Cheney, 
but it seems to have disappeared. Mr. J. Gimble, of Vincennes, informs the 



ILLINOIS — ^WISCONSIN^MARYLAND — VIRGINIA. 259 

writer that it was found in the bed of Wabash River, near St. Francisville, 
Illinois, about 10 miles below Vincennes. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Alton, Madison County. — In the U. S. National Museum are four 
teeth of an undetermined species of Bison found somewhere in the vicinity 
of Alton. They are part of a collection made many years ago by Mr. 
William McAdams, and afterwards passed into the hands of Professor 0. C. 
Marsh, then vertebrate palaeontologist of the U. S. Geological Survey. It 
now belongs to the U. S. National Museum. Nearly all of these fossils 
were originally inclosed, wholly or partially, in nodules of fine sand, 
cemented together with carbonate of calcium. Where the teeth are exposed 
to view they are shown in a beautifully white condition; but the remaining 
matrix is so hard and adheres so strongly that it is practically impossible 
to remove it without greatly damaging the teeth. A list of the species found 
at Alton will be given on page 339; also a discussion of their geologic age. 

The bison teeth consist of four upper molars and the hinder half or more 
of the left hindermost molar. They were described by the writer (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. lviii, p. 115). They are somewhat larger than any 
belonging to the existing buffalo measured. They are larger, too, than those 
of the commonest extinct species, B. occidentalis. It is impossible to say 
at present to which extinct species they belonged. One naturally thinks 
of Bison latifrons, the bearer of the immense horns, but teeth have not yet 
been found associated with the horn-cores of that species. 

WISCONSIN. 
(Map 26.) 
1. Coon Valley, Vernon County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a 
well-fossilized tooth of a species of bison which was sent, in 1899, by Rev. 
P. Moe, of Coon Valley. This tooth has been regarded as belonging to 
Bison bison, but its fossilization seems to indicate that it antedates the time 
of this species. It was found in section 26, township 14 north, range 6 west. 
This would be between the towns of Coon Valley and Chaseburg. This 
locality lies within the "driftless area," and it would probably be difficult 
for the geologist, even on the ground, to determine the age of the deposit, 
especially as no details were furnished regarding the depth at which the 
tooth was found or the nature of the inclosing materials. 

MARYLAND. 

(Map 26.) 
1. Chesapeake Beach, Calvert County. — Mr. William Palmer, of the U. S. 
National Museum, collected at this place, in 1912, a fragment of a lower 
last molar which apparently belonged to some species of Bison. A few other 
remains have later been secured. 

VIRGINIA. 

(Map 26.) 
1. Saltville, Smyth County. — In the U. S. National Museum is an upper 
second molar of a species of Bison, found at Saltville. It was sent in 1904 
by Mr. H. D. Mount, of Saltville, with remains of Elephas primigenius and 



260 



EXTINCT PLEISTOCENE BISONS. 



Mammut americanum. It is understood that all were found in excavating 
for the water reservoir of the town. The bison tooth is little worn,, the 
height being still 46 mm. At the summit the crown is 34 mm. long, at the 
base 23 mm. long and 29 mm. wide. It resembles closely that of Bison 
bison, but is slightly larger than the same tooth in a large specimen of the 
existing species. The base of the skull is present, with the occipital con- 
dyles. The latter are slightly larger than in the specimen of B. bison just 
mentioned. The species can not be determined, but it probably was not 
B. bison. A list of the associated species found at this locality is presented 
on page 352. 

2. Ivanhoe, Wythe County. — In 1869 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xt, 
p. 176), Professor Cope stated that he had found molar teeth of a bison 
which he identified with doubt as Bison antiquus. The animal may quite 
as well have belonged to any one of four or five other extinct species. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — In 1860, Leidy (Holmes's Post-Pl. 
Foss. South Carolina, p. 110, plate xvii, figs. 15, 16) described briefly and 
figured a tooth of a bovine animal found in the Pleistocene of Ashley River. 
This he suspected belonged to Bison latifrons, but he added that it presented 
nothing to distinguish it from that of the existing bison. Numerous teeth 
resembling those of the domestic ox and the bison have been found on 
Ashley River and have been regarded as those of the domestic animal. 
(See letter of Agassiz to Professor F. S. Holmes in the Introduction to 
Holmes's work cited above.) While the teeth of our cattle may have been 
picked up along the shores of Ashley River, it is highly probable that the 
great majority of similar teeth belonged to some extinct species of Bison. 
Probably only the discovery of horn-cores will lead to the determination 
of the species. Leidy probably used the name Bison latifrons in a very 
wide sense. In the collection at Amherst College the writer has seen an 
upper molar of a bison, apparently the second molar, which is 38 mm. long 
on the outer face. This length is too great for B. bisoii and the tooth 
probably belongs to B. latifrons. It was probably found in the region 
about Charleston. 

In the Charleston Museum the writer has seen an anterior cannon-bone 
of Bison which had quite certainly been found somewhere about Charleston. 
The following measurements were secured, and corresponding measurements 
of B. bison are added for comparison: 

Measurements of anterior cannon-bones of bisons, in millimeters. 





Fossil 
bison. 


B. 

bison. 


Length along the outer border 


242 
90 
64 
39 
96 


206 

52 
33 
91 


Width of upper articular surface 


Side-to-side diameter at middle of length 

Fore-and-aft diameter at middle of length .... 
Width of lower articular surface 



GEORGIA. 



261 



Other measurements may be found in J. A. Allen's work, "The American 
Bisons," page 45. Apparently the bison which possessed the bone described 
above had a height about one-eighth greater than the large individual of 
the existing bison compared with it. Fossil remains found elsewhere show 
that at least one large species of Bison formerly inhabited this country. 
B. latifrons was a species with very large horns, and its body may also have 
been larger than that of the existing bison. To this species may have 
belonged the large cannon-bone described above. 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 26.) 
1. Brunswick, Glynn County.^— Remv^ins of an undetermined species of 
Bison were found at the time of excavating the Brunswick Canal, south of 
Darien, in 1838-39. In a communication to the Academy of Natural 
Sciences (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. i, pp. 216-217) , Mr. J. Hamilton 
Couper gave an account of the geology of the locality and mentioned the 
fact that remains of Megatherium, Elephas primigenius, Mastodon gigan- 
teus, Hippopotamus, horse, Bos, and Sus ainericana had been secured. As 
was later determined by Owen (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1848, p. 93), 
the supposed hippopotamus incisor was a lower tusk of a mastodon. Sus 
americana was referred by Owen to his genus Harlanus; but was afterwards 
found to belong to Bison. Owen (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ser. 2, vol. t, 
p. 20, plate vi) described and furnished an excellent figure of the jaw. The 
jaw is now in the collection of the Academy of Sciences at Philadelphia. 
Measurements show that it is larger than the jaw of Bison bison, corre- 
sponding well with the other bones of Bison found at the same place. Leidy 
regarded it as belonging to B. latijrons; but he used this name in a very 
wide sense. In the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia is a part 
of the right ramus of the lower jaw labeled "Bison latijrons, Darien canal. 
Ga." The teeth are badly worn. The jaw itself is larger than that of Bison 
bison. The following measurements were taken: 

Measurements of bison jaws, in 7nilli7neters. 





B. 

latifrons. 


i 
B. 
bison.] 

1 


Height of jaw just behind third molar 

Thickness of jaw just behind third molar. . . 

Height of jaw in front of third molar 

Thickness of jaw in front of third molar. . . . 


91 
36 
63 
31 


83 
32.5 
52 
29 



The jaw has the appearance of being much more massive than that of 
B. bison. 

In his work on the "Extinct Species of American Ox" (Smiths. Contrib. 
Knowl., vol. v, p. 11), Leidy stated that Couper had presented to the 
Academy in Philadelphia a tibia and a part of a humerus of Bison, which 
bones he reported were larger than those of the existing American bison, 
and he referred them to the species Bison latiirons. The tibia was 456 mm. 



262 EXTINCT. PLEISTOCENE BISONS. 

long and 87 mm. wide at the lower end ; in a large Bison bison in the U. S. 
National Museum the tibia is 412 mm. long and 78 mm. wide below. 

Couper presented to the Boston Society of Natural History an atlas and 
a metatarsus from the same locality. The atlas had a width of 247 mm.; 
that of the existing bison just referred to is 220 mm. wide. The metatarsal 
is said to have been 272 mm. long; that of the living bison mentioned is 
255 mm. A front cannon-bone at Harvard is 256 mm. long. In a collection 
determined by J. W. Gidley (Bull. No. 26, Geol. Surv. Georgia, p. 436) 
some bison remains, probably a tooth or teeth, were referred with doubt to 
Bison bison. It is far more probable that they belonged to an extinct 
species, and that B. latijrons. 

2. Skidaway Island, near Savaujiah, Chatham County. — On page 29 of 
Joseph Habersham's Memorandum, forming a part of William B. Hodgson's 
"Memoir on the Megatherium," published in 1846, a portion of the humerus 
of a Bos is listed among the fossils found at Skidaway Island. This bone 
is to be assigned to an undetermined species of Bison. The width across 
the condj'les is given as 4.5 inches, which is not greater than in B. bison; 
but it is not probable that it was this species. Lyell (Second Visit, etc., 
ed. 3, vol. I, p. 348) includes "a species of the ox-tribe" among the fossils 
found at this locality. 

For further remarks on the species of vertebrates found at Brunswick, 
the reader may consult page 371, where also the geology of the locality 
is discussed. 

FLORIDA. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Wade, Alachua County. — In the collection of the Florida Geological 
Survej^ is an upper left last molar of Bison, found in the Buttgenbach river 
mine, in Santa Fe River, 6 miles north from Wade. Although this tooth 
was found in a phosphate mine, it certainly belongs to Pleistocene time. 
The tooth is but little worn and is well fossilized. Its height is 45 mm., the 
length on the outer face 30 mm., the length at the middle of the width 27 
mm., the width at the base of the first lobe 24 mm. 

There is another tooth in the collection, apparently the second upper 
molar of the left side, from the same place and fossilized in the same way. 
For a list of the species found at this locality and the writer's view regarding 
their geological age, the reader is referred to page 376. 

2. Pablo Beach, Duval County. — In the collection just mentioned there 
are, from near Pablo Beach, three bones which apparently belonged to some 
extinct species of Bison. No. 4444 is the left fibular bone; No. 4443 the 
left third cuneiform of the hinder foot; and No. 4442, a first phalange of a 
hinder foot. These were found along the Inland Waterway Canal, about 
20 miles north of St. Augustine. The locality appears to be about 5 miles 
south of Pablo Beach. At the same place have been found Mammut 
americanum, Elephas coluinbi, and remains of a species of Odocoileus. 

3. Ocala, Marion County. — Sellards (op. cit., p. 103) reported remains of 
an undetermined species of Bison found in a fissure in limestone rock near 
Ocala. 



FLORIDA. 263 

4. Dunnellonf, Marion County. — Sellards (op. cit., p. 104) presented a 
list of Pleistocene vertebrates, found in or along Withlacoochee River, but 
the exact localities are not given. Among these is an undetermined species 
of Bison. Lucas (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xxi, 1898, p. 767) stated that 
there is in the U. S. National Museum an imperfect skull of Bison latijrons, 
obtained from Withlacoochee River. The writer has not seen this skull. 
On page 376 the other species found here are listed and their geological age 
discussed. 

5. Tampa, Manatee County. — In the Jarman collection, now in Vander- 
bilt University, and made in the region about Tampa, is a right lower third 
molar of Bison. It is well fossilized, but structurally does not appear to 
differ from a tooth of the existing American bison. It belonged, however, 
quite certainly to an extinct species. In the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, is a well-worn lower left last molar of a bison, dredged 
up in Alafia River. With it were a mastodon tooth, teeth of two or three 
extinct horses, and various extinct tortoises. The reader is referred to 
page 379. 

6. Palmetto, Manatee County. — Mr. Ernest Leitzel, of Palmetto, sent 
from that place to the U. S. National Museum some teeth for determination. 
Teeth of the horses are described on page 379. With these was a part of 
a lower right molar, possibly the last molar, of Bison. 

From Palma Sola, on the south side of Manatee River and about 10 miles 
below Palmetto, there has been sent to the U. S. National Museum, bj'' Mr. 
Charles T. Earle, the distal end of a metacarpal bone. This has a width 
of 93 mm. It may have belonged to Bison latijrons. With it came teeth 
of Equus complicatus, E. littoralis, and E. leidyi, a part of an antler of a 
deer (Odocoileus) , a part of a beak of a platanistid porpoise, and a tooth of 
Elephas columhi. Probably the porpoise and teeth of sharks came from 
Miocene deposits somewhere in the neighborhood. 

7. Grove City, Charlotte County. — Leidy, in 1889 (Trans. Wagner Free 
Inst., vol. II, p. 12), stated that Mr. Joseph Willcox had found, on Rocky 
Creek, 30 miles north of Sarasota Bay, some remains of the great extinct 
Bison latijrons. Sellards (8th Rep., pp. 103, 112) learned that the locality 
was really Stump Pass, near Grove City. The horn-core was lost by 
accident, but Leidy speaks of it as being huge. With it was the proximal 
part of a radius whose upper end measured transversely 1.4 times that of 
an existing bison. 

In a letter to the author, Mr. Willcox writes that, as nearly as he can 
recollect, the diameter of the horn-core was about 5 or 6 inches. 

8. Vera, St. Lucie County. — Sellards (8th Rep., Florida Geol. Surv., p. 
150) stated that an extinct bison is represented in tlie collection of the 
Florida Geological Survey by a number of teeth, the distal end of a 
humerus, and some foot-bones. They were supposed to have been derived 
from stratum No. 2. 

When in Vero in 1910, the writer secured a much-worn upper left premolar 
3 of Bison from the base of the muck layer No. 3. It is in some respects 
different from the corresponding tooth of the existing bison. For lists of 
the species found at Vero and for a discussion of the geological age the 
reader may consult pages 381 to 383. 



264 EXTINCT PLEISTOCENE BISONS. 

9. Arcadia, De Soto County. — In the U. S. National Museum are some 
teeth of Bison, obtained at or near Arcadia, on Peace Creek. In general, 
these resemble closely the corresponding teeth of B. bison. Leidy (Trans. 
Wagner Free Inst., vol. ii, p. 22) mentioned a tooth and a first phalanx of 
Bison from Peace Creek. These are probably in the collection of the 
Wagner Free Institute. 

In the U. S. National Museum (No. 1989) is a hinder cannon-bone from 
Arcadia. It resembles the corresponding bone in B. bison, but doubtless 
belonged to a species now extinct. Lucas (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xxi, 
p. 767) referred the teeth and the metacarpal to B. latijrons. 

In the same museum is a calcaneum labeled as collected on Peace Creek 
by J. F. Le Barron. The reader may consult page 381 for further 
information. 

10. Labelle, Lee County. — Remains of Bison apparently have been found 
at Labelle, or near there. Leidy, in Dall's report (Bull. No. 84, U. S. Geol. 
Surv., p. 129, referred this to B. latijrons. The bison, Elephas columbi, 
E quits fraternus, and a mylodon were supposed to have been buried in 
Pliocene deposits, but this opinion appears to be erroneous. Sellards (8th 
Rep., p. 102) has shown that the elephant and probably the horse were 
in Pleistocene marls. As shown on page 384, the elephant is Elephas 
imperator. 

11. Palm Beach, Palm Beach County. — In his eighth report, Sellards 
(p. 105) stated that a femur of an undetermined species of Bison was found 
near this place, in the Palm Beach Drainage Canal. In the collection of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoologj^, at Harvard University, are a front 
cannon-bone, lacking the epiphyses, and the proximal end of a humerus. 
The size of these indicate that they belong to B. latijrons. The glenoid 
cavity measures 80 mm. by 60 mm. The neck of the humerus is 100 mm. 
wide. 

ALABAMA. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Newbern, Hale County. — In August 1914, there was received at the 
U. S. National Museum, from Mr. J. W. White, of Newbern, a lower right 
last molar of a species of bison reported found in a creek, and an incisor 
tooth of a horse, which appear to be fossilized. The bison tooth had just 
begun to wear. The fore-and-aft length of the crown is 37 mm. The 
locality is somewhat outside of the range of Bison bison as given by Allen 
on his map ("American Bisons, Living and Extinct") . The fossil may well 
belong to some extinct species and have lived in that region in middle 
Pleistocene times. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Natchez, Adams County. — In Dr. M. W. Dickeson's account of a col- 
lection of bones and teeth made near Natchez (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
18-16, p. 106) he included remains of the genus Bos. To-day these would 
be referred to the genus Bison. 



KENTUCKY. 



265 



In 1854 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. v, art. in, p. 9, plate ii, figs. 2-7), 
Leidy described and figured bovine teeth from Natchez, which he referred 
to Bison latifrons. Two of these teeth had been found, as Leidy stated, 
by M. W. Dickeson, in association with remains of Mastodon {Mainmiit) , 
Equus, Ursus, Cervus {Odocoileus) , Megalonyx, and Mylodon. Three 
others had been presented by W. H. Huntington, who discovered them in 
association with remains of Mammut americanum, Equus com'plicatus, and 
Felix atrox. Three of the teeth were upper molars, the others, lower molars. 
Leidy gave the measurements of most of these. The following measure- 
ments are those of an upper second and an upper third molar: 

Measurements oj bovine teeth, in millimeters. 



Tooth. 


Height. 


Length. 


Width. 


Second molar 

Third molar 


67 

75 


37.5 
42.5 


27 
29 



These teeth are considerably larger than those of Bison bison and B. occi- 
dentalis (Geol. Surv. Iowa, vol. xxiii, p. 320). 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 26.) 

1. Woolper Creek?, Boone County. — The type of Bison latifrons is 
usually regarded as having been found at Bigbone Lick, but Leidy (Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vii, p. 372) stated it had been found a dozen 
miles or more north of Bigbone Lick, in the bed of a creek that enters into 
the Ohio River. It seems probable that this creek is the one named above. 

2. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — It was at this place that was found 
the horn-core and attached part of skull which forms the type of Bison 
antiquus. It was a part of the Jefferson collection and was described by 
Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. vi, 1852, p. 117). Richard Lydek- 
ker (Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus., pt. 2, p. 27) wrote that there is in that 
museum a fragment of a right mandible, probably belonging to Bison lati- 
frons. However, the identification is hardly to be relied on. Shaler (Geol. 
Surv. Kentucky, n. s., vol. in, p. 197) reported the finding of bones of Bison 
latifrons, but it is doubtful in what sense lie used this name; and he did 
not indicate how these bones differed from those of other bisons. He 
probably had in mind B. antiquus. Hence the presence of the species with 
the widely spread horns at Bigbone Lick is doubtful. 

A list of the species of mammals collected at this place will be found on 
page 403. 



266 BISON BISON IN THE PLEISTOCENE. 

FINDS OF BISON BISON IN THE PLEISTOCENE 
OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

ONTARIO. 

(Map 27.) 

1. North Bay, Nipissing County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a 
horn-sheath, found at this place. It was sent by Dr. Charles E. Cook, of 
Lockport, New York, who himself saw it thrown out of a ditch, about 5 feet 
deep, which was being made from the shore of the lake. The horn was 
found at a distance of 600 feet from the lake and in front of the Hotel 
Queen's. It certainly belongs to the existing species. Bison bison. Whether 
the presence of the horn at that spot is due to the former existence of the 
American buffalo there or to its introduction by man it is impossible to say 
at present. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

(Map 27.) 

1. Orleans, Cape Cod. — In 1920 (Jour. Mamm., vol. i, pp. 161-164, 
figs. 1-3), Dr. 0. M. Allen presented an account of the discovery of a 
maxilla containing the penultimate and the hindermost milk teeth of a calf 
of Bison bison, at Orleans, Cape Cod. This specimen had been collected 
about 20 years previously by Dr. A. W. Grabau and presented by him to 
the Boston Society of Natural History. The bone and teeth were found 
"wholly embedded in till about halfway up on a section of a glacial moraine, 
situated on Town Cove and about 70 or 80 feet high." With the specimen 
were associated many fragments of the shells of the mollusk Venus. Dr. 
Allen suggested that this bison calf had either come to its end while wander- 
ing on the moraine or had more likely lived and died during the preceding 
Peoria interglacial stage. It might be questioned whether bones which had 
been buried and thereby become softened would have endured the rough 
treatment of a glacial mill. 

NEW YORK. 
(Map 27.) 

1. Albany, Albany County. — Dr. John M. Clarke, State geologist of New 
York, sent the writer some teeth of a species of Bison, probably B. bison, 
for which he gives the assurance that they were found somewhere in the 
vicinity of Albany, and in the "Albany clays." These clays are supposed 
to belong to the Champlain stage. While this is somewhat further east 
than the bison has extended within historical times, it is entirely reasonable 
to suppose that at some time in the not distant past its range went to the 
Hudson. Indeed, Dr. G. M. Allen has recentlj^ shown (Jour. Mamm., vol. i, 
pp. 161-164) that at some time during the late Pleistocene a bison lived in 
the region of Cape Cod. The specimens sent by Dr. Clarke must have 
occupied eastern New York late in the Wisconsin stage. 

2. Syracuse, Onondaga County. — In 1890 (Amer. Naturalist, vol. xxiv, 
p. 953), Professor Lucien Underwood reported the discovery of a skull of a 
bison in Syracuse, while a sewer was being excavated. Underwood stated 



NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA. 267 

that it was found at a depth of 10 feet, in a black muck. Professor E. D. 
Cope identified the skull as that of Bison bnon. The present writer, in 
1914, examined the skull at Syracuse Uniyersit3^ He also talked with Mr. 
John Cunningham, who bought the skull from the finder, a laborer, paying 
him one dollar. Mr. Cunningham stated that he went to the spot and 
measured the depth from the surface, and found it to be 17 feet. Above the 
muck that inclosed the skull was what he regarded as clay. Dr. Burnett 
Smith has examined the deposits in a cellar dug within a few rods of the 
spot where the skull was found. The upper 7 or 8 feet was a mixture of 
shells and clay, and had been used to make a kind of cement. This dis- 
covery appears to make it certain that the bison lived in New York shortly 
after the Wisconsin ice had retired from the Finger Lake region. 

3. Jamestown, Chautauqua County. — In the American Journal of Science, 
volume xxvii, 1835, page 166, is an account, by Knight, of the discovery, at 
Jamestown, of what were probably two teeth of a bison in a fragment of 
the jaw. These were encountered by John Hazeltine, in digging for a 
foundation of a building at the outlet of Chautauqua Lake, and at a depth 
of 10 feet. The soil was mostly gravel, but the jaw was said to have been 
lying in black muck. It was sent to Yale College, but was not recognized 
as belonging to Bison. Reasons were suggested why it did not belong to a 
3'oung mastodon. The measurements given of the teeth agree well with the 
upper molars of an American buffalo. Joseph Leidy (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., vol. VII, 1869, p. 371) quoted Knight's account as indicating a buffalo. 
The discovery is interesting, taken in connection with the finding of the 
specimen at Syracuse. 

NEW JERSEY. 
(Map 27.) 

1. Trenton, Mercer County. — Mr. Ernest Volk (Papers Peabody Mus., 
vol. v, 1911, p. 209, plate cxx) reported the discovery of a part of a femur 
of Bison (probably B. bison) in the "yellow drift," at Trenton, 2.5 feet from 
the surface. A first right upper molar, identified as that of Bison, was found 
in another sand-pit at a depth of 9 feet (op. cit., p. 136). This appears to 
have belonged in the Trenton gravel, but at that point the materials were 
apparently a mixture of sand and loam. The reader is referred to page 
304, where the geology of this locality is described and a list of the species 
is given. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
(Map 27.) 

1. Stroudsburg, Monroe County. — In Crystal Hill (Hartman's) Cave, near 
Stroudsburg, was found a lower jaw containing the last molar, as noted by 
Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1880, p. 347; Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Pennsylvania for 1887, p. 5). Mercer (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 
98), mentions a tooth of the existing bison found in Hartman's Cave. 

2. Riegelsville, Bucks County. — From a cave near Riegelsville, was sent 
to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, more than 70 years 
ago, a collection of bones, reported on by Leidy in 1880 (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phila., 1880, p. 349) and in 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv., Pennsylvania, 



268 BISON BISON IN THE PLEISTOCENE. 

1887, pp. 18-19). In the contribution of 1880, Leidy included Bison among 
the animals represented, but this is not included in the list of 1887. Why 
this was omitted is not known. If Bison occurred there, the probability is 
that it was represented by the existing buffalo. 

INDIANA. 

(Map 27.) 

1. Jasper County. — The only record known to the writer of the finding of 
buffalo bones worthy to be regarded as fossil is that of the former State 
geologist, John Collett (Geol. Surv. Indiana, vol. xii, p. 73), who makes the 
statement that in Jasper County bones of the buffalo, the beaver, and the 
bear are common. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Map 27.) 

1. Sullivan, Moultrie County. — In 1875 (Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. vi, 
p. 186) , the geologist George C. Broadhead reported that he had found the 
skull of a bison on the west bank of Kaskaskia River, about 3 miles south- 
east of Sullivan, on the land of John Purvis. The locality appears, there- 
fore, to have been somewhere near the south half of the eastern line of 
township 13 north, range 5 east. The summit of the bluff here is described 
as rising about 25 feet above the stream. At the height of about 8 feet 
was a bench approximately 10 feet wdde, and the skull was found on this 
bench, "a few feet from the top." The surrounding clay was described as 
being a rich black loam. 

Broadhead stated that the skull measured 12 inches across the forehead 
above the eyes and the same between the roots of the horns. The latter 
were short, thick, and slightly curved. In the Transactions of the St. Louis 
Academy of Science, volume in, page xxiii, practically the same account is 
given of the discovery. Here Broadhead expressed the idea that the skull 
belonged to Bison latifrons, and said that the horns were short, thick, and 
curved upwards and forwards. It is not known where the skull now is. 
To the writer it appears most probable that the skull was that of Bison 
bison. There is nothing in the description to indicate any of the other 
known species. As to the age of the deposits, the presumption is reasonable 
that they belong to the Late Wisconsin or Recent, for the locality is north of 
the Shelbyville moraine. It is possible that the bench belongs to the 
Illinoian; but the nature of the material, "a rich black loam," seems to show 
that the bench is an alluvial deposit laid down since Wisconsin times. 

2. Homer, Champaign County. — In the collection at the State University 
of Illinois, at Champaign, are the horn-cores and the rear of the skull of 
Bison bison, reported to have been thrown out of a ditch near Homer. The 
writer is informed by Professor R. M. Bagg, of Appleton, Wisconsin, that 
the specimen was found in excavating a ditch, at a depth of 4 feet, according 
to the report made to him. Homer is situated on a part of the Champaign 
moraine and the bison in question must be not older than Late Wisconsin. 
If it was really found at a depth of 4 feet it would seem to date well back 
in the Recent, if not into the Pleistocene. 



ILLINOIS. 269 

3. Niantic, Macon County.— Froiessor A. H. Worthen reported (Geol. 
Surv. Illinois, vol. v, p. 308) the presence of bones of the buffalo in an old 
filled-up marsh near Niantic. The situation is more particularly described 
on page 102. With the bison bones were found those of the mastodon, the 
elk, and the Virginia deer. The bones of these animals are said to have 
been found under 4 feet of black muck, partly embedded in a light-gray 
quick-sand filled with shells of Planorbis, Cyclas, and Physa. 

Inasmuch as Niantic is situated near the border of the Shelbyville moraine, 
all these remains probably belong to Late Wisconsin times. It would be 
useful to know whether the bones of the buffalo, the elk, and the deer were 
found above those of the mastodons or mingled with them. 

4. East of Whitewillow, Kendall County. — In township 35 north, range 8 
east, probably in section 27, on land owned by John Bamford, in clearing 
out a well in a bog, have been found the bones of mastodons and other 
species of vertebrates. For a description of the locality and the species 
found there see page 337. Mr. George Langford, of Joliet, has reported 
the occurrence of bones of the existing bison there and has sent to the writer 
a maxilla which contained finely preserved teeth. 

Unfortunately, no thorough and systematic examination of the place has 
yet been made. All of the species and the deposit belong to the Late Wis- 
consin, that part of it following the withdrawal of the ice. Mr. George 
Langford informed the author that he found the bison and deer bones mixed 
up more or less with the mastodon bones. At a depth of about 4 to 5 feet the 
owner of tlie place began to strike bones of the bison, which appeared very 
fresh, retaining considerable animal matter. From about 6 feet down to 
gravel, about 13 feet, mastodon and other bones were literally packed 
together. 

5. Batavia, Kane County. — Dr. E. S. Riggs, of the Department of 
Palaeontology, Field Museum of Natural History, wrote to the author that 
he had picked up some bison bones along a ditch in which mastodon bones 
had been found ; but the depth at which they had been met with could not 
be determined. At the same time bones of the elk were found. Undoubt- 
edly the mastodon remains belong to Late Wisconsin times ; and it is prob- 
able that the bison and elk remains are to be referred to the same. 

6. Galena, Jo Daviess County. — In tlie collection of the Academy of 
Natural Science of Philadelphia is a lower hindermost molar collected in a 
lead crevice somewhere near Galena. It was presented to the Academy 
by Mr. Henry Green, of Elizabeth, a town near Galena. This, with a 
metacarpal bone of Megalonyx jeffersonii, had been found at a depth of 130 
feet from the surface. It was described and figured by Leidy (Contribu- 
tions to Extinct Vert. Fauna, etc., 1873, p. 255, plate xxxvii, fig. 4). Leidy 
thought that it might have belonged to Bison bison, but not improbably to 
B. latifrons. J. A. Allen (The American Bisons, etc., p. 13) concluded that 
it belonged undoubtedly to the existing American species. The structure 
of the tooth will apparently not decide this matter. It is probable that 
most of the animals found in those lead crevices belong to pre-Wisconsin 
times; and the tooth in question may belong to an extinct species. A list 
of the species found in the lead region of Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin is 
to be found on page 343. 



270 BISON BISON IN THE PLEISTOCENE. 

7. Mitchell, Madison County. — In "Records of Ancient Races in the 
Mississippi Valley" (1887), William McAdams, of Alton, Illinois, stated 
that in a large mound, square in shape, 300 feet on each side and 30 feet 
high, through which the railroads pass in the American bottom, at Mitchell, 
had been found, in contact with a number of copper implements and orna- 
ments, a number of teeth of the buffalo. These McAdams had in his pos- 
session. While these teeth can not be regarded at all as belonging to Pleis- 
tocene times, the fact is of interest in connection with McAdams's state- 
ment that in all his explorations during a period of more than 30 years, in no 
other case had he been able to find any evidences of the buffalo associated 
with the remains of the ancient people of tliis country. In this connection 
may be considered Shaler's views on the modern coming of the buffalo east 
of the Mississippi River. On the other hand, account must be taken of the 
fincTmg of a skull of a buffalo deep in lake deposits at Syracuse, New York, 

WISCONSIN. 
(Map 27.) 

1. Bluemounds, Dane County. — In his report, made in 1862, on the 
geofogj^ of the lead region of Wisconsin (Geol. Surv. Wisconsin, vol. i, p. 136), 
J. D. Whitney recorded the finding of bison bones in a crevice at Blue- 
mounds. From the same crevice were obtained bones and teeth of the 
mastodon and of a peccary, and bones of a wolf. It was supposed that these 
remains were found at a depth of about 40 feet and embedded in the red 
clay commonly found in such crevices. These bones were put into the 
hands of Jeffries Wyman for identification, who, on page 421, stated that 
the bison bones were all of the size of the same parts of the existing buffalo 
and closely resembled them. J. A. Allen (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xi, 1876, 
p. 47), in referring probably to the same bones, speaks of "an extinct bison," 
without, however, giving any reasons for his conclusion. It is nevertheless 
possible that he was correct. 

The writer formerly believed that the fossil vertebrates, collected in the 
fissures in the lead region, had lived after the close of the Wisconsin glacial 
stage. It seems now more probable that they belong to a pre- Wisconsin 
time. 

2. Oshkosh, Winjiebago County. — The writer has received from Dr. S. 
Weidman, State geologist of Wisconsin, a humerus, found in a marsh near 
Oshkosh, quite evidently that of Bison bison. Although stained by iron on 
the outside, the remainder of the bone is white and full of animal matter. 
The animal may have lived during the Recent period. 

KENTUCKY. 

(Map 27.) 

1. Bigbone Lick, Boone County. — Great numbers of individuals of Bison 
bison have been found at Bigbone Lick. Cooper (Monthly Amer. Jour. 
Geol., vol. I, pp. 207, 211) reported numerous bones of buffaloes and even an 
entire skeleton, but they appear to have been near the surface or even on it. 
Lyell ("Travels in North America," Murray's ed., vol. ii, p. 65) stated that 



KENTUCKY. 271 

he had seen great quantities of remains of the bison in a superficial stratum 
in the river bank ; but he was left in doubt whether or not the animals had 
been contemporaneous with the mastodon. Shaler (Geol. Surv. Kentucky, 
n. s., vol. Ill, p. 197) found abundant remains of the buffalo at this place; 
but the bones were not found at any great depth, except in the bog about the 
spring. He regarded it as proven that the musk-ox and the caribou did 
not come into contact with the recent buffalo, but were extinct before it 
came. Some of the bison materials collected by Shaler were described by 
Dr. J. A. Allen, in 1876 (Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. iv; Mem. Geol. Surv. 
Kentucky, vol. i, pt. 2). It may be difficult to prove that any of the bison 
bones and teeth found here are of Pleistocene age; but there appears to be 
no good reason why this species might not have reached that region at the 
close of the Wisconsin ice stage. A list of the species of mammals found 
here is given on page 403. 

2. Bluelick Springs, Nicholas County. — In the mass of materials collected 
in the spring at Bluelick Springs by Mr. Thomas W. Hunter, were skulls and 
parts thereof, teeth, limb-bones, and vertebrae. The actual geological age 
of these remains can not be established; but they were of probably late 
Wisconsin aee. 



272 GIANT BEAVERS, GENUS CASTOROIDES. 

FINDS OF CASTOROIDES IN PLEISTOCENE OF 
EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

NEW YORK. 

(Map 28.) 

1. Clyde, Wayne County. — A skull of the giant beaver was found, about 
the year 1846, near Clyde, on the farm of Gen. W. H. Adams. The locality 
and the geological conditions were described by James Hall (Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, 1846, p. 167; Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. v, p. 385). 
The region is on the divide between the streams flowing north into Lake 
Erie and those flowing southward into Clyde River. The actual spot was 
at the head of a shallow stream which flows into Lake Ontario. At this 
point the Sodus Canal was cut and ran in a north-and-south direction. 
The farm was only partly swampy. Hall's section is as follows from above 
downward : 

1. Vegetable soil, 2 feet or more. 

2. Fine sand, with some alternating layers of clay, containing t"wigs, leaves, etc., 2 to 

3 feet. 

3. Muck, or peaty soil, with decayed wood, bark, leaves, and even trunks of large 

trees, about 4 feet. 

4. Fine sand, vnth fresh-water shells, 2 to 3 feet. 

5. Drift, with boulders; depth unknown. 

The skull was found at the bottom of No. 3, at a depth of 8 feet. It is 
evident that this animal lived here near, or after, the close of the Wisconsin 
stage, and after the old Lake Iroquois had withdrawn from the region. 

2. Canastota, Madison County. — In 1914, Dr. Burnett Smith, of Syra- 
cuse University, reported (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxxviii, p. 463) the dis- 
covery, at this place, of an incisor tooth of the giant beaver. The exact 
locality is given as about 225 paces northwest from the southeast line of lot 
10, town of Lenox, on Cowaselon Creek, otherwise known as the "State 
ditcli." The tooth was found at a depth of 9 feet, in a sticky blue clay, 
containing a few fresh-water shells. Just above this, at a depth of 7 feet, 
is a layer made up principally of shells, with some vegetable matter. This 
animal could not have lived here until after the withdrawal of Lake Iroquois, 
and therefore not till near the close of the Wisconsin stage. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

(Map 28.) 

1. Stroudsburg, Monroe County. — In 1889, Dr. Joseph Leidy reported 
(Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania, 1887, p. 14, plate ii, figs. 7-20) the 
discovery of teeth of Castoroides ohioensis in Hartman's (or Crystal Hill) 
Cave, about 3 miles southwest of Stroudsburg and 5 miles from Delaware 
Water Gap. Its elevation is about 800 feet above the level of Delaware 
River. The species associated with this giant beaver will be listed on page 
309. The parts figured by Leidy are a portion of a palate, with the molars 
and some of the premolars, and both rami of the lower jaw, showing the 



OHIO. 273 

three temporary molars and the first true molars, with some incisors and 
the permanent canines. 

OHIO. 

(Maps 28, 29, 36.) 

1. Nashport, Muskingum County. — In 1836 (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, 
vol. XXXI, pp. 79-83) , S. P. Hildreth, in an unsigned article, gave an account 
of the finding of remains of the type specimen of the giant beaver, in asso- 
ciation with remains of mastodon and of a supposed fossil sheep, at a point 
2 miles north of Nashport. A canal, now abandoned, was being constructed, 
which followed two small streams, one of which flowed into Licking River, 
the other into Wakitomika Creek. The land traversed was flat and swampy. 
The distance from Nashport to Wakitomika Creek is nearly 4 miles, so that 
in saying that the spot was on this creek Hildreth spoke in general terms. 
The bones of the mastodon and the right halves of the lower jaws of two 
giant beavers were found resting on a bed of gravel at a depth of 14 feet. 
Foster (2d Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Ohio, 1838, p. 80) stated that a molar and 
a tusk of an elephant had also been found here. Hildreth concluded that 
the jaws and teeth were perhaps those of an animal of the beaver family; 
"or, from the grooved outer surfaces of the incisors, a marine animal of 
the walrus or seal race, and a borderer of the ancient ocean." It was after- 
wards described by J. W. Foster (2d Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Ohio, 1837, 
p. 80, figs.) under the name of Castoroides ohioensis. The remains de- 
scribed consisted of the front end of one side of a lower jaw with its incisor, 
an upper incisor, and a radius. They showed signs of some attrition; but 
in a region like that they could not have been transported any considerable 
distance. 

In the mud in which the canal at this point was cut, there were found 
three skulls of a species of sheep, which Hildreth thought were different from 
those of the domestic sheep and to which he gave the name of Ovis mamil- 
laris. They are said to have been discovered at a depth of 8 feet. It seems 
quite possible that they had been lying on or near the surface and had made 
their way to the side of the canal by the flow of the mud, which gave much 
trouble by filling up the canal during the night. Most, if not all, of the 
differences thought to separate these skulls from the domestic sheep dis- 
appear on comparison. The specimens of both Castoroides and of the sheep 
have probably been lost. They appear not to be at Zanesville. On page 
82 of the article above cited, Hildreth stated that he had received, from some 
point on Wills Creek, a portion of a tooth similar to the one found at Nash- 
port; the place was said to be about 40 miles east, apparently, of Zanesville. 
This would seem to be in Noble Countv. The tooth was described as being 
embedded in dark-colored carbonate of lime and as having fallen from a 
calcareous rock which lies near the tops of the hills, 150 feet above the bed 
of the creek. It is very probable that this was not a tooth of Castoroides. 
It may have been the spine of a palaeozoic shark. 

2. Wilmington, Clinton County. — From Professor W. C. Mills, of the 
Ohio State University, the writer in 1913 obtained information that a fine 
skull of Castoroides, without the lower jaw, had been found on the farm 



274 GIANT BEAVERS, GENUS CASTOROIDES. 

of Mr. J. M. Richardson, on the western border of Wilmington. Nothing 
more has been learned about the discovery. The locality is north of 
the Hartwell moraine, and the animal must have lived there after the 
withdrawal of the ice-sheet from that region. 

3. Germantown, Montgomery County. — One mile east of Germantown, 
Edward Orton, State geologist of Ohio, found along Twin Creek a large 
tooth which (Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. l, 1870, p. 54) he compared with 
the tusk of a hog. It was later identified by J. S. Newberry (Proc. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. New York, vol. i, 1870, p. 83) as belonging to Castoroides. It 
was found in a bed of peat which is overlain by from 50 to 100 feet of 
glacial drift. One might conclude that the animal had lived there at some 
time between the Illinoian and Wisconsin stages. Hov/ever, opinions have 
differed. 

The geology along Twin Creek has been studied by Orton, Wright, and 
Leverett. The last named published his views in 1902 (Monogr. U. S. Geol. 
Surv., XLi, pp. 363-365, plate xiv, fig. 1). He states (p. 365) that there 
seem to be good reasons for believing that the peat-bed indicates the lapse 
of a considerable interval of deglaciation. Whether the interval preceded 
or followed the formation of the early Wisconsin moraine is yet to be 
determined. That seems to mean that the interval may be mid- Wisconsin 
or pre-Wisconsin. Wright thought that but a few hundred years had 
elapsed between the deposit of the till below the peat and that above. 
Orton's description of the locality was published in 1870 (Amer. Jour. Sci., 
ser. 2, vol. l, p. 54) . 

4. West Sonora, Preble County. — In 1893 (Amer. Geologist, vol. xii, 
p. 73), Professor Joseph Moore reported that a fragment of an upper 
incisor of Castoroides had been found at West Sonora. It was associated 
with remains of a mastodon. West Sonora is on the Englewood moraine. 

5. Greenville, Darke County. — In 1883 (Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. vi, 
p. 238), F. W. Langdon described a tooth of Castoroides, found at a depth 
of 4 feet, in a swampy locality near Greenville. In 1893 (Amer. Geol., 
vol. XII, p. 73), Joseph Moore stated that this tooth belonged to Dr. J. W. 
Jay, of Richmond. It may now possibly be in the collection of Earlham 
College. Moore said tb.at it had been found associated with mastodon. 

In the public library at Greenville is a fragment of an upper incisor of 
Castoroides, found in making a ditch along Bridge Creek, in 1889, by Mr. 
Leo Katzenberger, who writes that the place is in the northwest corner of 
section 1, township 11, range 2 west, 1.5 miles southwest of Greenville. 
These animals likewise lived on or near the Sidney moraine. 

6 New Knoxville, Auglaize County. — In C. W. Williamson's "History of 
Ohio and Auglaize County," 1905, on page 338, with a figure, is an account 
of the finding of a skull of Castoroides ohioensis in section 29 of Washington 
Township, which is in township 6 south, range 5 east, and near New Knox- 
ville. The discovery had been made that beneath a bed of humus there 
was a stratum of gravel of a quality for road making. In removing the 
upper peaty layer, the head of the giant beaver was discovered, near the 
south margin of the pond. AVilliamson stated that the house of the animal 
was uncovered. It was between 3 and 4 feet high and about 8 feet square ; 



MICHIGAN. 275 

the poles of which it was constructed were about 3 inches in diameter and 
were laid after the manner of the houses of modern beavers. Apparently 
the beaver died in the house, and it was thought tliat after the death of 
the beaver wolves or other carnivorous animals had inhabited the house, 
since bones of deer and other animals were strewn over the floor. It is to 
be regretted that the house, if such it was, was not taken up in a way that 
it might have been accurately reconstructed. Williamson's account is re- 
produced in Bulletin 16, Geological Survey of Ohio, 4th series, 1912, page 39. 
In Heidelberg University, Tiffln, Ohio, the writer has seen a very- large 
skull of Castoroides, labeled as found at Wapakoneta, but it is quite cer- 
tainly the one found at New Knoxville. Both incisors are broken off close 
to their insertion in the skull. Williamson's figure represents at least the 
left one present. 

MICHIGAN. 

(Map 28.) 

1. Berrien County. — In the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, is a nearly complete skull with the left ramus of the lower jaw, pur- 
chased from Mr. George A. Baker. The exact place in the county where 
it was found is unknown, and the writer has been unable to get into com- 
munication with Mr. Baker. 

As to the time in the Pleistocene when this individual lived, we may be 
sure that it was after the Wisconsin glacial ice-sheet had abandoned this 
county. How long after this retirement it is impossible to say. It is to 
be noted that both mastodons and mammoths have been found in this 
county, in what appear to be deposits of the same age. 

2. Adrian, Lenawee County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a skull 
of Castoroides (Cat. No. 197), of which the lower jaw is missing. This was 
received June 10, 1880, from Professor J. Kost, then of Adrian College, 
Michigan. In his letter Professor Kost wrote as follows: 

"Found in freshwater marsh, 4 feet under, in Adrian, Lenawee Co., Michigan. 
In same place as the Decker mastodon, now in Adrian CoUege; also of lower jaw of 
smaller mastodon (sent in this consignment), Mith various bones of elk, deer, etc." 

The mastodon jaw referred to is in the U. S. National Museum (No. 188). 
The present writer has not been able to learn exactly where all these bones 
were obtained. It would be interesting to know whether all — mastodons, 
giant beaver, elk, and deer — were found in the same excavation. It is prob- 
able that they were at least in nearly the same spot. For remark on the age 
of the deposits at Adrian see page 81. 

3. An7i Arbor, Washtenaiv County. — In the collection of the Department 
of Geology in the University of Michigan is a skull which lacks the lower 
jaw and is otherwise slightly injured. A report of this specimen was made 
in 1914 by Mr. N. A. Wood (Science, n. s., vol. xxxix, p. 759). This was 
found several years ago in a peat-bog on the farm of Professor J. B. Stcere, 
3 miles south of Ann Arbor, at a deptii said to h.ave been about 3 feet. 
Beneath the peat and muck is a gravelly marl. According to th.e Ann 



276 GIANT BEAVERS, GENUS CASTOROIDES. 

Arbor Folio (No. 155, U. S. Geol. Surv.), there is, running south from the 
city, a strip of low ground designated as occupied by peat and muck. This 
borders on the east a part of the Fort Wayne moraine, and must have pro- 
vided an ideal spot for colonies of these great beavers. Naturally these 
specimens must be credited to the Late Wisconsin stage. 

4. Attica, Lapeer County. — In the collection of Alma College, Alma, 
Michigan, is a fragment of an upper incisor, found at a depth of 7 feet, in 
digging the tail-race of a mill in Attica. The statement was made that at 
the same place there were often found what appeared to have been beaver 
dams made of wood. This wood crumbled on coming to the air. In cases 
like this there is a fine opportunity to determine whether or not the wood 
had been gnawed by the broad incisors of Castoroides or by the narrower 
ones of the existing beaver. The wood might easily be prevented from 
crumbling by replacing the water with a solution of gum arable or even 
of glue. 

Attica is situated some distance outside of the beaches of old Lake 
Maumee, and on low ground between morainic tracts left by the Saginaw 
lobe in its retreat. These gigantic beavers must, therefore, have lived near 
the close of the Pleistocene. 

5. Owosso, Shiawassee County. — In the collection of the University of 
Michigan (No. 3109) is the greater part of a lower jaw of a giant beaver, 
found somewhere near Owosso, in a swamp deposit. An account of this 
specimen was given in 1914 by Mr. N. A. Wood (Science, n. s., vol. xxxix, 
p. 758). It was received from Mr. A. G. Williams in 1892. According to 
Leverett and Taylor's glacial map of Michigan, Owosso lies a few miles 
outside of the beach of old Lake Saginaw. This is supposed to have come 
into existence about the close of the period of Lake Maumee. The earliest 
time when this beaver might have existed, leaving out the question of the 
climate, would coincide closely with the time when the one found at Attica 
might have lived. It is most probable that both lived at a time when the 
glacier front was farther away. 

INDIANA. 

(Maps 28, 30.) 

1. Vanderburg County. — In 1884 (14th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, 
pt. 2, p. 37) , in a foot-note written probably by John CoUett, State geologist, 
it is stated that remains of Castoroides ohioensis had been found in this 
county. Inasmuch as this county lies outside of the drift region, and as 
no details as to place and depth were given, we can arrive at no conclusion 
as to the stage of the Pleistocene in which the possessor of this tooth lived. 
The reader may consult page 258. 

2. Richmond, Wayjie County. — About 2 miles east of Richmond, where 
a farmer was scooping out wet earth for a fish-pond, there was found by 
Joseph Moore (Amer. Geologist, vol. xii, p. 73) a fragment of an upper 
incisor of this species. With it were sound and decayed teeth of the 
mastodon. Most probably this fish-pond was being excavated in low 
ground where a marsh had existed. Richmond is situated just south of the 
Bloomington moraine, on an area which is undulating and more or less 



INDIANA. 



277 



morainic. The animal must have Hved at some time after the culmination 
of the Wisconsin stage. 

3. Greenfield, Hancock County.— In 1893 (Amer. Geologist, vol. xii, 
p. 73), Joseph Moore mentioned the fact that some remains of Castoroides 
had been found near Greenfield and that these were in the possession of 
Dr. M. M. Adams. In 1900 (Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1899, p. 171, plates 
I, ii) , Moore presented figures of the skull and made some brief statements 
regarding it. At that time the skull had come into the possession of Earl- 
ham College. If restored this skull would have had a length of 13 inches. 
Nothing is known as to the exact place where it was found, but it can not 
be doubted that the animal lived after the Wisconsin ice had retreated 
further north. 

4. Jamestown, Boone County. — In the State Museum at Indianapolis is 
a lower jaw of a giant beaver which has all of the molars, but whose incisors 
are broken off at the border of the bone. This specimen was presented by- 
Mr. A. E. Deatley, of Lizton, Hendricks County, who found it in earth 
thrown out by a dredging machine, but the exact locality was not stated. 
Jamestown is situated on Eel River where it crosses the Champaign moraine. 
The geological age of the animal is therefore Late Wisconsin. 

5. Summitville, Madison County. — In the State Museum at Indianapolis 
is an upper right incisor of the giant beaver in its premaxilla, labeled as 
presented by Mr. J. F. Cartwright. Nothing more is known of the history 
of the specimen. 

Summitville is surrounded by plains of Wisconsin drift. It is about 12 
miles from the place where was found the fine mounted specimen of Elephas 
primigenius now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

6. Union City, Randolph County. — Here was found the nearly complete 
skeleton of Castoroides ohioensis at Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana. 
This was secured by Professor Joseph Moore, who described and figured it. 
It was discovered on the farm of John M. Turner, about 8 miles nearly east 
of Winchester. Mr. Turner has informed the writer that the farm is a 
part of section 15, township 17, range 1. 

The bones occurred in a layer of fine-grained marly silt from 2 to 3 feet 
thick, overlain by from 3 to 4 feet of dark loose mold abounding in frag- 
ments of shrubby stems and vines in various stages of decay. Under the 
silt containing the bones were coarser and finer drift gravels which formed 
the bottom of the ditch. In the silts were found fresh-water gasteropods 
and bivalve shells. Along the same ditch, within a distance of 30 rods, 
other fragments were found which were supposed to indicate 9 individuals 
of Castoroides. As this region is covered by Wisconsin drift, the animal 
evidently lived after the Wisconsin ice-sheet had retired from the Union 
City moraine, possibly a long time thereafter. 

7. Fairmount, Grant County. — Near Fairmount were found some limb- 
bones and other parts (but no skull) of the giant beaver. These were 
obtained not far from where the large specimen of Elephas primigenius was 
discovered which is mounted in the American Museum of Natural History 
in New York. The remains of this castoroides are in the Field Museum of 
Natural History. No details regarding the find have been published. It 



278 GIANT BEAVERS, GENUS CASTOROIDES. 

was stated that near the bones were parts of trees, as though a dam had 
been built there; but this interesting matter appears not to have been 
investigated. 

The elephant mentioned above was found on the farm of Dora C. Hitt, 
in the southeast quarter of section 23, township 23 north, range 8 east. 

8. Carroll County. — In 1884 14th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Indiana, pt. 2, 
p. 37) the State geologist, John Collett, wrote that Castoroides had been 
found in this county; but nothing was added to this statement. On the 
map the number is placed arbitrarily. 

9. Logansport, Cass County. — In the U. S. National Museum is a fine 
skull of Castoroides, without lower jaw, which, according to the newspaper 
report accompanying it (dated January 30, 1894) , was found 2 or 3 miles 
north of Logansport, by Mr. S. L. McFadin, who sold it to the National 
Museum. It lay at a depth of 7 feet on a fine sand, above which was a 
foot of solid gravel, then 3 feet of solid clay, and at the top 3 feet of alluvium. 
According to Leverett and Taylor's map of the region (Monogr. U. S. Geol. 
Surv., vol. Liii, plate vi) , this place would be on the moraine which lies 
north of the Wabash River, the meeting-place of the ice-lobes coming from 
Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, and Saginaw Bay. 

10. Macy, Miami County. — From Mr. C. F. Fite, Denver, Indiana, the 
writer received a photograph of a tooth of Castoroides, apparently the 
lower right incisor. This was found in Allen Township. Mr. Fite gives as 
the exact locality section 23, township 29, range 3 east. This would be not 
far from Macy. It lies, therefore, on or near the northern border of the 
great moraine which extends from Delphi, Indiana, to the northeastern 
corner of the State. 

11. Kosciusko County. — As in the case of Cass County, we depend for 
our knowledge of the discover}^ of Castoroides in Kosciusko County on the 
statement made by John Collett, in the place there cited. 

12. Grovertown, Starke County. — From Dr. E. S. Riggs, of Field Museum 
of Natural History, the information has been received that there is at that 
museum a fine skull, with the right half of the mandible, of a giant beaver 
which was found 1.5 miles west of Grovertown, in making an excavation 
for the abutment of a bridge, 6 feet below the surface in township 34 north, 
range 1 west. This is within the region of the Pleistocene Lake Kankakee. 

ILLINOIS. 

(Maps 28, 38.) 

1. Shawneetoion, Gallatin County. — In the collection of the Academy of 
Natural Science of Philadelphia are a part of one incisor, two molars, and 
two petrous bones which were many years ago obtained by a Dr. Feucht- 
wanger, from a well at a depth of 40 feet. These were mentioned by 
Le Conte in 1852 (Proc. Acad. Phila., vol. vi, p. 53). Leidy has figured the 
incisor (Holmes's "Post-Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina," 1860, plate 
xxn, fig. 5; Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania, 1887, plate ii, fig. 10). 
Leverett (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., vol. xxxviii, p. 65) states that at 
Shawneetown a boring for gas and oil penetrated 112 feet of alluvial and 
other deposits before reaching rock. His map (plate vi) indicates that 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 279 

here the valley of the Ohio is composed of sand and gravel plains of 
Wisconsin age. Under the conditions it seems impossible to form any 
certain conclusions regarding the geological age of this specimen. It belongs 
possibly to the later half of the Pleistocene. 

2. Alton, Madison County. — In the McAdams collection, described on 
page 338, is a part of a large upper incisor, in two pieces, of a specimen of 
Castoroides, with McAdams's Nos. 209, 210, and a small fragment of another 
incisor. All three specimens are more or less enveloped in nodules of hard 
materials. In 1883 (Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., vol. iv, p. lxxx) McAdams 
stated that he had seen, both in true and modified drift, remains of rodents 
large and small, but one, an extinct beaver, was of monstrous size. 

For conclusions as to the age of the fauna secured by McAdams see 
page 339. 

3. Charleston, Coles County.— In 1867 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
p. 97) , Leidy briefly described a skull of Castoroides, sent to him for exami- 
nation by Professor A. H. Worthen. It lacked both zygomatic arches and 
the incisor teeth. The length of the skull was 10.5 inches. This skull had 
been found by someone while he was plowing in a field near Charleston. 
The region about Charleston is covered by the Shelbyville lobe of the early 
Wisconsin drift. The animal must have lived at some time after the 
deposition of that drift. 

4. Naperville, Dupage County. — H. M. Bannister (Geol. Surv. Illmois, 
vol. IV, p. 113) reported a skull and other parts of the skeleton of Castoroides, 
found by a farmer in a slough not far from Naperville. The skull went to 
Colonel Wood's Museum in Chicago, and it was probably destroyed in the 
great fire of 1871. This animal quite certainly lived after the retirement 
of the Wisconsin ice-sheet. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

(Map 28.) 

1. Charleston, Charleston County. — In 1860, Dr. Joseph Leidy (Holmes's 
Post-Pl. Foss. South Carolina, p. 114, plate xx, figs. 6-8) recorded the fact 
that fragments of the teeth of the giant beaver had been found in the 
Pleistocene deposit of Ashley River. 

In the Pinckney collection is an upper cheek-tooth, the fourth premolar. 
The height of the tooth is 37 mm., the length is 16 mm., the width 11.5 mm. 
It was found in the vicinity of Charleston. 

In the Scanlan collection, the property of Yale University, and made in 
the vicinity of Charleston, are five more or less injured teeth. One is a 
left upper molar, either the second or the third. The length of the grinding- 
surface is 12 mm., the width 13 mm. Two fragments of upper right incisors 
are interesting. One of these, 140 mm. long, bears the oblique excavated 
surface worn by the lower incisors. Each diameter of the tooth is 25 mm. 
The other fragment is 123 mm. long and comes from the middle of the tooth. 
The two diameters of this tooth are, as in the other one, 25 mm. Both of 
these teeth appear to be more strongly curved than the teeth of more north- 
ern specimens. Also, the striation on the outer face of the tooth is finer, 
finally becoming hair-like lines as the rear face is approached. More of 



280 GIANT BEAVERS, GENUS CASTOROIDES. 

the larger ridges in the front of the tooth are directed obliquely and ter- 
minate along a front groove than in specimens hitherto observed. It is 
possible that an undescribed species is indicated. The two teeth present 
some differences between themselves. Another fragment, 103 mm. long, 
has a diamter of 20 mm. At the base is seen a part of the pulp-cavity. 

GEORGIA. 

(Map 28.) 

1. Brunswick, Glynn County. — In a small collection of vertebrate 
fossils made during dredging operations at Brunswick not many years ago, 
and which now belongs to the Geological Survey of Georgia, Gidley found 
a fragment of an incisor tooth of Castoroides ohioensis. The accompanying 
species will be recorded on page 370. Gidley's list is found on page 436 
of Bulletin No. 26 of the Geological Survey of Georgia. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

(Map 28.) 

1. Natchez, Adams County. — James Hall, in 1846 (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. II, p. 168; Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v, p. 380), announced 
that remains of this animal had been found in the neighborhood of Natchez. 
The exact locality is unknown and likewise the conditions under which the 
specimens were discovered. This species is not included by Leidy in his 
list of fossil mammals found in Pleistocene deposits in Mississippi up to 
1854 (Wailles, Agri. Geol. Mississippi, p. 196). 

A list of the species found in the vicinity of Natchez is presented on 
page 392. 

TENNESSEE. 
(Map 28. Figure 23.) 
1. Memphis, Shelby County. — In 1850, Dr. Jeffries Wyman reported 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii, p. 281) that a part of a lower jaw of 
Castoroides had been found at Memphis. With it were a toe-bone of 
Megalonyx, a tooth of a young mastodon, and a part of the lower jaw of a 
beaver. It was thought that these remains had been buried in the deposits 
laid down by Mississippi River. It is to be regretted that the locality and 
the height above the river were not more exactly specified. The specimen 
of Castoroides, a right ramus of the lower jaw, is now in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



ONTARIO. 281 

ON THE PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY OF NORTH 

AMERICA AND ITS RELATION TO ITS 

FOSSIL VERTEBRATES. 

ONTARIO. 

For a knowledge of the Pleistocene of Canada, the student ought first to 
read Dr. J. W. Dawson's "Canadian Ice Age," published in 1894. In this 
will be found references to the earlier literature of the subject. For the 
results of more recent studies the reports of the Canadian Geological Survey 
are to be consulted, as well as papers published in the scientific journals. 
For the more important of these papers the reader may consult the list 
published by Dr. H. L. Fairchild in 1918 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxix, 
pp. 229). 

To state the matter briefly, one may say that almost everywhere iu 
Ontario are deposits of glacial drift of Wisconsin age. In a few localities 
have been discovered beds which belong to earlier glacial and interglacial 
epochs. On the other hand, around Hudson Bay, around the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, along St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers, and the Bay of Fundy 
are marine deposits, laid down after the Wisconsin ice had retired from 
those localities and while the region which had been occupied by this ice- 
sheet was depressed so much that the sea could enter the basins named. 

The most interesting locality in Canada for the student of vertebrate 
palaeontology is doubtless Toronto, because of the presence there of Pleisto- 
cene deposits belonging to more than one stage, and because of the dis- 
covery of several species of extinct vertebrates and of many mollusks, 
insects, and plants. For an understanding of the geology of the region 
Coleman's papers must be studied, as well as those of authors cited by him. 
On the interglacial deposits three of Coleman's papers may be especially 
cited (Jour. Geol., vol. ix, 1901, pp. 285-310; 10th Internat. Cong. GeoL, 
1906, Mexico, pp. 1237-1258; Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxvi, 1915, pp. 
243-254) . 

According to Coleman's figure 1 of the first paper cited, the known inter- 
glacial deposits in that region extend from the mouth of Humber River 
eastward beyond the mouth of Rouge River, a distance of about 22 miles, 
and away from the lake a distance of about 8 miles. Deposits have been 
found even 14 miles north of Toronto (Coleman, 1915, p. 246). Coleman's 
sketch map of the region, taken from his paper of 1901, is here reproduced 
(fig. 3). 

According to Coleman (paper of 1915, p. 243) there are known at Toronto 
five well-defined sheets of boulder clay, with four sheets of interglacial sand 
and clay separating them. So far as the writer knows, only the lowest of 
these beds have been described with any particularity. These lowest beds 
constitute the Toronto formation, and it is these which have furnished 
nearly all the fossil animals and plants discovered in that region. This 
Toronto formation is divisible into two portions, and these have been desig- 
nated as the Don beds and the Scarboro beds. They are regarded as having 
been deposited in the valley of an ancient river running from Georgian Bay 



282 



PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



to Scarboro. Of these the Don beds are the older. Sections of these are 
found in Toronto and outside, especially along Don River. They have been 
laid down usually on a boulder clay, 1 to 9 feet thick, which itself reposes 
on Hudson River shales. At one point along the Don an interglacial river 
had cut through both the boulder clay and the shale to a depth of 16 feet. 
The Don deposits consist of varying layers of sands, gravels, and clays. 





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Fig. 3. — Region about Toronto, Ontario, showing location of To- 
ronto and Scarboro Heights Pleistocene beds. From Coleman. 

At one point the section obtained amounted to about 27 feet; but this, 
combined with another, made up about 44 feet. At one place trunks, 12 or 
15 feet long, of trees have been found, which were flattened into the surface 
of the boulder till; also shells of unios, which are embedded in clay close 
to the boulder till. 

In 1913 (Ontario Bur. Mines. Guide Book No. 6, pp. 15-18), Professor 
Coleman presented a list of the species found in the Don beds. Of the 
plants 32 species of trees had been secured, among them the papaw, the 
red cedar, and the osage orange; 41 species of fresh-water mollusks were 
listed, of which 12 were Unionidse. 

As bearing on the climate, it may be said that there are 12 species of 
the genus IJnio listed, of which 4 species are now known only from localities 
south of the St. Lawrence drainage ; while 3 other species live in Lake Erie, 
but not in Lake Ontario. The plants are mostly trees ; and several species, 
as the osage orange and the papaw, are now found only considerably farther 
south. One species of maple no longer exists. Penhallow gave it as his 
opinion that the flora points conclusively to the existence of climatic con- 
ditions of a character more nearly like that of the middle United States 
to-day. The unios now missing from that region give evidence to the same 
fact. For these reasons the Don deposits are spoken of as the warm-climate 
beds. 



ONTARIO. 283 

The Scarboro beds are finely displayed at Scarboro heights, a few miles 
east of Toronto. The thickness of the clay here amounts to about 94 feet. 
In these deposits have been found possibly mammoth or mastodon and 
caribou, but there is some uncertainty about these. Only 14 species of 
plants have been secured and these are trees; but apparently no mollusks 
have been reported. As an offset there are great numbers of beetles. Of 
these there have been described 72 species, and all are extinct except 2. 

The trees, according to Penhallow, indicate a climate somewhat cooler 
than that now prevailing in that region. The same conclusion was reached 
by Scudder from his study of the insects. In his paper of 1901, Coleman 
took the view that the Toronto formation had been laid down in the interval 
between the lowan and the Wisconsin glacial stages, that is, during what 
is now known as the Peorian. In the address of 1906, page 44, he appears 
to have been inclined to accept Leverett's view that at least the Don beds 
belonged to the Sangamon stage. By 1915 (paper cited, p. 252) he had 
about concluded that the Toronto beds were as old as the Aftonian stage. 

Dr. G. F. Wright, in 1912 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxv, pp. 205-218), 
accounted for the deposits and fossil animals and plants found at Toronto 
in a different way. At a certain time in the Pleistocene the region about 
Toronto was occupied by some species of animals and plants now found 
only considerably further south. An ice-sheet from the Keewatin center 
extended thither and laid down the Don beds. Later the Labrador glacier 
pushed into that region and deposited the Scarboro beds. According to 
this view the wiiole succession of events would be much shortened. 

The writer is disposed to accept Leverett's estimate of the geological 
position of the interglacial beds at Toronto. The presence there of Elephas 
'primigenius, Mammut americanum, and the probable Ursus americanus 
hardly counts in the determination of the geological age, for all these 
animals appear to have continued on from at least the Aftonian interglacial 
to the close of the Wisconsin. There are no specimens that show that either 
Rangifer or Cervalces existed during the Aftonian, although one can hardly 
doubt that they did then exist. In order to show that the Toronto forma- 
tion belongs to the Aftonian, it would be necessary to produce satisfactory 
stratigraphical evidence or to find there genera and species of mammals 
which characterize the Aftonian, such as camels, Elephas imperator, and 
those horses which belong to the early Pleistocene. If the deposits belong 
to the Sangamon stage, such horses as Eqiius complicatus and E. leidyi 
ought in time to be discovered there. 

Coleman has discussed the interglacial beds that occur elsewhere in 
Canada (10th Internat. Geol. Congr. 1906, Mexico, pp. 1237-1258; Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxvi, 1915, pp. 243-254). He refers to Chalmers's 
account of interglacial deposits along Lake Erie; but so far as the writer 
has been able to determine, most of the deposits referred to are of Late 
Wisconsin age. However, as he says, Spencer found interglacial materials 
near Niagara Falls. Other beds have been discovered along Moose River, 
south of James Bay; but their geological position has not been definitely 
determined, and the fossils discovered there, mostly proboscideans, are not 
referred with certainty to the interglacial deposits. 



284 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS, 

Most of the vertebrate fossils found in Ontario, excepting many of those 
found at Toronto, belong to the Late Wisconsin stage; and in studying their 
geological relations one must, as in the States of New York, Ohio, Indiana, 
and Michigan, take into consideration the history of the Great Lakes after 
the Wisconsin ice-sheet began to retire. According to Leverett and Taylor's 
maps (Monogr. liii, U. S. Geol. Surv., plate xiv), as early as the time when 
the glacial ice had just begun to withdraw from Lakes Michigan and Erie, 
a considerable area of land had become cleared of ice in the peninsula 
bounded by Georgian Bay, Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario. We can hardly 
suppose, however, that anj' mastodons or any elephants, except possibly 
Elephas 'primigenius, could have made their way to that area. Even the 
last-mentioned species would have had to travel over many miles of glacial 
ice. Conditions were hardly more fa^'orable when Lake Whittlesey had 
come into existence (op. cit., plate xvi). At a later stage (op. cit., plate 
xvn) the ice-free parts of the peninsula could have been reached only by 
crossing the lakes or over wide stretches of glacier. It is possible that some 
of the mastodons and elephants that have been found had crossed over into 
Ontario at about the stage represented by plate xix of the work cited, but 
it is more probable that they lived there at a later time. 

Brief mention is here made of the fossil vertebrates found in Ontario and 
their localities. More detailed statements will be found on the pages cited. 

Beginning in the west, a mastodon has been found at Blythewood, Essex 
County (p. 45). In Elgin County a mastodon has been met with at 
St. Thomas (p. 45), and a mastodon (p. 45) and an undetermined species 
of elephant at Highgate (p. 45). A little farther back from the lake, at 
London, Middlesex County, has been found a mastodon (p. 45). At 
Marburg, not far from the shore of Lake Erie, Dr. H. M. Ami exhumed a 
mastodon (p. 45). The writer has not learned how this locality is related 
to the ancient beaches. At Dunnville, Haldimand County, a mastodon has 
been secured (p. 46). It could hardly have lived there before the lake 
had assumed nearly its present level. The same remark will apply to the 
time when the mastodon (p. 46), Elephas columbi (p. 147), and possibly 
E. primigenius (p. 166) lived at St. Catharines. From Hamilton, at the 
extreme western end of Lake Ontario, have been described remains of 
Elephas columbi (p. 147), E. sp. indet. (p. 166), elk, Cervus canadensis 
(p. 235), and the beaver. Elephas primigenius has been found at Toronto, 
(p. 130); also Cervalces, a bison (p. 256), and a reindeer (p. 244). The 
same elephant has been discovered at Amaranth, in Dufferin County 
(p. 130). The elk, Cervus canadensis, has been reported from Strathroy, 
Middlesex County, and Kingston, Frontenac County (p. 235). At Smith's 
Falls, Lanark County, the humpback whale, Megaptera hoops, has been 
discovered (p. 17). White whales, Delphinapterus leucas and D. ver- 
montanv^, have been found at Pakenham, Lanark County (p. 17), at 
Cornwall, Stormont County (p. 18), Nepean Township (p. 17), Ottawa 
East, Carleton County, and Williamston, Glengarry County (p. 18). At 
Ottawa has been discovered an assemblage of species, as listed on page 287. 

The geology of the Hamilton locality has been described by Logan (Geol. 
Canada, 1863, p. 914), by Spencer (Canad. Naturalist, vol. x, 1883, pp. 



ONTARIO. 285 

222-230, 306-308). and by Coleman (Bull. Gcol. Soc. Amer., vol. xv, 1904, 
p. 351). The remains mentioned were found in deposits forming what is 
called Burlington Heights. Here Dundas Valley opens into the extreme 
western end of Lake Ontario. The valley is about a half mile wide. Across 
this had been formed a bar, interrupted only at its northern end, with a 
height of 108 feet above the level of the lake and a width varying from a 
few hundred yards to less than a half mile. Its height is almost that of the 
Iroquois beach found on the south shore of the lake and continuing on the 
northern shore. Many years ago a canal was cut through the narrowest 
part of the bar, and it was in the construction of this that the elephant 
(p. 166), elk (p. 235), and beaver bones were found. It is evident that the 
bones were deposited there while the bar was being built and at a time 
when it lacked 38 feet of being as high as it now is. The elephant jaw is 
in good condition, and this indicates that the animal died near the spot. 

Coleman (op. cit., p. 352) stated that afterwards a railroad cut had been 
made across the southern end of the bar, exposing 30 feet of coarse stratified 
gravel, followed below by 2 feet of brown clay (evidently an old soil) and 
8 feet of blue till. In the old soil were found quantities of decayed wood, 
as well as bones of mammoth and other animals. About a mile farther 
west, pits were opened for clay, sand, and gravel. Coleman gives the 
following geological section at this place. The column at the right gives 
the heights above the lake level. 

feet. feet. 

Clay making red brick 6 78 

Gravel 30 72 

White sand 5 42 

Hard pan 4 37 

WWte sand ^"ith mammoth tusks and bones 33 

Covered to level of the bay 

The mammoth tusks and bones were not waterworn. It will be observed 
that they were found 83 feet below the top of the Iroquois beach (116 feet 
above the present lake), while the jaw was only about 45 feet below the 
beach. Both Coleman, as cited, and Fairchild (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 
xxvii, p. 247) regard the formation of the bar at Hamilton as showing that 
during Iroquois times the lake became flooded to a height of about 82 feet. 

Besides the interglacial species found at Toronto, which have already 
been mentioned, there may be noted a tooth of Elephas jmmigenius (p. 
130), a cast of which was reported by Winchell. Whether this was 
derived from interglacial or late Wisconsin beds is not known. Coleman, 
as elsewhere cited, reported the finding of remains of one of the elephants 
on the Iroquois beach. On the same beach have been collected antlers of 
reindeer (p. 244). These animals must have lived there not earlier than 
the time when that beach was forming, perhaps later. 

In a buried gorge extending in a northwestern direction from the whirl- 
pool at Niagara to the Niagara escarpment, Dr. J. W. Spencer (Bull. Geol. 
Amer., vol. xxi, p. 433) has discovered what he regards as deposits equiva- 
lent to the Toronto formation, while older glacial and interglacial beds are 
found below and more recent ones above. No fossils were met with except 
wood. At Amaranth have been secured considerable parts of a skeleton of 



286 



PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



Elephas primigenhis (p. 130). This elephant must have existed rather late 
in the Wisconsin stage. About Kingston in Frontenac County, at two 
places, have been secured remains of the elk (p. 235), but lack of details 
as to places and conditions precludes certainty as to their geological age. 
The fact that they were found in shell marl is favorable to the idea that 
they belonged to the Pleistocene. Here may be mentioned again the bison 
horn of uncertain geological age which was found on the north shore of 
Nipissing Lake (p. 266). In Algoma County, on the banks of Moose 
River, was found a part of a skull of a mastodon, but there is uncertainty 
whether it had been buried in interglacial deposits or in marine Champlain 
beds. The region in the extreme eastern end of Ontario is interesting because 
it furnishes a considerable fauna belonging to the Champlain stage. During 




Freshwater beaches 

Z4e' 

Elevation in feet above sea level 



O 10 20 30 
' ' 1 I 



60 MILES 



Fig. 4. — Eastern Ontario, showing limit of freshwater beaches and marine fossils. 

Redrawn from Coleman. 



the last glacial stage the region on which the Wisconsin ice-sheet was resting 
became depressed to such an extent that when this ice retreated bej'ond the 
St. Lawrence River, marine waters occupied the basin nearly to the eastern 
end of Lake Ontario and Ottawa River as far as Lake Coulonge. Cole- 
man's figure of the region (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xii, pp. 129-146, 
fig. 1) is here reproduced (fig. 4) to show the western limits of the marine 
waters, so far as known, and the corresponding fresh-water beach along 
tlie north shore of Lake Ontario. Figure 5 from Coleman shows how the 
Champlain Sea was limited on the south. Marine fossils, especially mol- 
lusks, have been found along the upper St. Lawrence as far as Brockville, 
Quebec, and on the opposite side of the river, in New York. On Coleman's 
map the present elevations of the old beaches at important localities are 
marked, that at Ottawa having an elevation of 450 feet and at Coulonge 



ONTARIO. 



287 



370 feet. According to Johnston, who has described the Pleistocene geology 
in the vicinity of Ottawa (Mem. 101, Canad. Dept. Mines, 1917), there is 
a point about 8 miles northwest of the city where a marine terrace is found 
at a height of 690 feet above sea-level. The marine beds at Ottawa are 
divided into the Leda clays at the base and Saxicava sands above. The 
former have a maximum thickness of about 200 feet, the Saxicava sands, 
a thickness of about 40 feet. The fossils occur mostly in the Leda clays. 
In 1897, Dr. H. M. Ami (Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xi, pp. 20-26), and again 
in 1901 (Geol. Surv. Ann. Rep., xii, g, pp. 51-56), published lists of the 
fossils found in the Ottawa Valley, nearly all of them in the vicinitv of 



A/ol-e: 


- FtQures show heights O ,*h»r^ 


z 


1* 


in fecf above sea -level of the " "3 


p^ 


/ 


hi'^hesl' marine beach. ^^^^^^^ 


63i 


/ 






.^^^/ 


^ 






A 










/ 

ri 


^7 /? 








oJ 


iu £ BU E C 








'f^/ 


y^^ 








s ^ / 












S60 SS2 ,/gf 








ijI 








^1 


J-IS ^\ 1^ 


r^ 


'\> 




■^ 


1 ^ •-^' 






Cq/sy 




■^oaJj- j 






^jjU-^^ 


-^1-A 


, /7^ ..■ , 






*rrr_T?i^ 


















C|.> 


ggJMw 








A'r w 


]ESz. 


Cham pi a in i ^ 
VERMONT J ^ 












*v. 


YORK 


iF 









M 



100 MILES 



Fig. 5. — South shore-line of ancient Champlain sea. 
Redrawn from Coleman. 

Ottawa. There were listed 26 species of plants, about 13 species of marine 
mollusks, and the following vertebrates: 



Mallotvis villosus, capelin. 
Cyclopterus lumpus, lump-sucker. 
Osmerus mordax, smelt. 
Artcdiellus atlanticus (Cottus uncinatus), 
sculpin. 



Gasterosteus aculeatus, stickleback. 
Phoca vitulina, common seal (p. 22). 
Phoca gicenlandica, Greenland seal (p. 

23). 
Tamias striatus, chipmunk. 



The aquatic forms are all species existing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and along the northern Atlantic coast. The chipmunk lives at Ottawa. 
Specimens of feathers of birds also have been found in nodules, but the 
species have not been determined. The remains of the chipmunk were 
probably washed in by some fresh-water stream. 



288 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

According to Johnston's paper just cited, there are deposits of glacial 
drift underlying the marine Champlain beds, but they have furnished no 
fossils. The marine deposits extend up the Ottawa Valley at least as far 
as Coulonge Lake, and here has been found Mallotus villosus. At Welshe's, 
3 miles north of Smith's Falls, Lenark County, have been found some 
remains of the humpback whale, Megaptera boops (Dawson, Amer. Jour. 
Sci., vol. XXV, 1883, p. 200). It was met with (p. 17) at an elevation of 
440 feet above present sea-level. It appears to have been left there during 
the time when the Saxacava sands and gravels were being laid down 
(Coleman, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xii, p. 133). 

QUEBEC. 

The Pleistocene of Quebec was described by Logan in 1863 (Geol. Canada, 
pp. 917-926) and by J. W. Dawson, 1894, in his "Canadian Ice Age." Daw- 
son divided the epoch, as represented in Canada, into the early Pleistocene, 
the mid-Pleistocene, and the later Pleistocene. He did not accept the glacial 
theory as it is now understood, admitting only great local glaciers. His 
early Pleistocene deposits embraced the great bulk of the boulder clays. 
His mid-Pleistocene represents an interglacial period, during which were 
deposited the marine Leda clays, Saxicava sands, and their fresh-water 
equivalents. The climate was supposed to be milder than at present. Dur- 
ing the later Pleistocene there was to some extent a recurrence of local 
glaciation and of deposition of boulder clay. This stage was followed, 
according to Dawson, by the Early Modern, which he regarded as the age 
of the mammoth and mastodon. 

Mr. J. Stansfield has described with some detail the Pleistocene and 
Recent deposits of the island of Montreal (Mem. 73, Geol. Surv. Canada, 
1915). The boulder clay is of variable thickness and does not appear to 
be divisible into beds of different epochs. The Leda and Saxicava deposits 
are present. When the latter were laid down the region about Montreal 
was depressed about 600 feet below its present elevation. This has been 
confirmed by Goldthwaite (Summary Rep. for 1913, p. 211). Later it began 
to rise; and Stansfield thinks that when the elevation had reached about 
100 feet less than that of the present the water of the St. Lawrence at that 
point had become fresh. He found some apparent evidences of a recurrence 
of glaciation after the Champlain stage, but, on the whole, left the question 
undecided. He published a list of about 85 species of marine invertebrate 
fossils, collected from the Leda clay about Montreal, and 22 species obtained 
from the Saxicava sands. Besides the invertebrates secured from the Leda 
clays at that place, there are two vertebrates, Phoca groenlandica (p. 22) 
and Delphinapterus leucas, or D. vermontana (p. 18). At Riviere du 
Loup, in Temiscouta County, whale remains were reported in 1894 (p. 18) , 
whicli were thought to belong to Delphinapterus leucas. At Metis, Rimou- 
ski County, a jawbone of a whale has been discovered in the shelly marl 
of the lower terrace (p. 19) ; whether or not it belonged to Megaptera boops 
is not certain. The specimen of the former species was described by Leidy 
in 1856. 



NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, AND CAPE BRETON ISLAND. 289 

According to Logan's report of 1863 (Geol. Canada, p. 920), the single 
bone was found in a brickyard. At the same place was found some vertebrae 
of the whale. At Bic, Rimouski County, has been found a nearly complete 
skeleton of a walrus, at an elevation of more than 100 feet (p. 21). 
Dawson (Canadian Record Sci., 1895, vol. vi, p. 352) described a nearly 
complete skeleton of the whale which had been found at Montreal in the 
Leda clay, 22 feet below the surface. This Leda clay was supposed by 
Dawson to have been deposited at a depth of from 50 to 80 fathoms, which 
depth, he said, corresponded approximately to the marine shore-lines at 
Montreal at an elevation of about 470 feet above sea-level, and to the sea- 
beach at Smith's Falls, above referred to. Hence at the time that the whale 
was buried the mountain at Montreal was only a rocky islet in the sea 
which prevailed then over the region from the Laurentian hills on the north 
to the highlands of Quebec, south of the St. Lawrence. 

At Tetreauville, in Ottawa County, on Ottawa River, have been found 
some bones, supposed to belong to the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina. 

NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, AND CAPE BRETON ISLAND. 

All three of these regions were involved in the glaciation of the Wisconsin 
stage. According to Goldthwait (Summary Rep. for 1913, pp. 244-250) , 
New Brunswick was the center from which the ice flowed out over the other 
two lands. From this center it moved southward over the western end of 
Nova Scotia, more and more southeastward over the rest of the peninsula, 
while over Cape Breton Island the direction was eastward and northeast- 
ward. Some indications were observed of an earlier glaciation. As regards 
post-glacial submergence, Goldthwait found that at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, this had amounted to about 190 feet, while on Cape Breton Island 
no signs of any submergence were found. Robert Chalmers had arrived at 
similar conclusions; and these agree well with the theoretical isobases drawn 
by Taylor for that region (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv. liii, 1915, p. 503). 
G. F. Matthew in 1879 (Geol. Surv. Canada, Rep. for 1877-78, ee, pp. 1-36) 
described the geology of southern New Brunswick. Few fossil vertebrates 
of Pleistocene age have been discovered in these countries. On Cape Breton 
Island mastodon remains have been found in two places, Middle River and 
Baddeck (p. 46). As long ago as 1874 remains supposed to belong to 
Delphinaptcrus were found near the mouth of the Jaquet River, in the 
northernmost part of New Brunswick; but Professor G. H. Perkins has 
shown that the animal was probably the narwhal, Monodon monoceros. 
The discovery is discussed here on page 19. At the southern extremity 
of New Brunswick, along Mace's Bay, Charlotte County, a jaw supposed 
to belong to a species of Delphinapterus was found, which had been buried 
in the Leda clay (p. 19). Near Fairville, at the mouth of St. John River, 
there has been discovered some bones of the seal Phoca groenlandica (p. 
21). In the Academy of Sciences at Philadephia is a skull of a walrus 
(p. 21) found apparently in the water near Sable Island about 50 years 
ago. It is not certain that it is a Pleistocene fossil. 



290 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

NEW ENGLAND. 

Inasmuch as relatively few vertebrates belonging to the Pleistocene have 
been discovered in the New England States, it will not be necessary to enter 
into details regarding the geology of the glacial period in this region. 
Nevertheless, the subject is one of great interest and one which has engaged 
the attention of many geologists. For those who wish to enter on the study, 
fhe writer recommends first a paper written in 1906 (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 
vol. XVIII, pp. 505-556) by Frederick G. Clapp, entitled "Complexity of the 
Glacial Period in Northeastern New England," which gives a brief histor}'' 
of the development of the idea that in the region mentioned there are evi- 
dences of more than one glacial and of more than one interglacial stage. 
There are also citations of the principal papers written on the subject. 
Among the writers cited are Shaler, Woodworth, Fuller, Upham, Stone, and 
Tarr. Clapp concluded that New England had been invaded by at least 
three ice-sheets and that these invasions had been separated by two inter- 
glacial intervals of long duration. On account of the greater thickness of 
the drift and because of fewer favorable exposures, due to the rocky nature 
of the coast and other causes, many difficulties are encountered in studying 
the deposits. He regarded absolute correlations as not yet possible. The 
last glaciation he accepted as corresponding closely with the Wisconsin, as 
displayed in States further west. What is known as Montauk drift, form- 
ing a part of the Gay Head interval of Woodworth, appeared to Clapp to 
correspond possibly to the Illinoian. Still older drifts would seem to have 
their place nearer the pre-Kansan (Nebraskan) than to the Kansan. What 
have been called "Leda clays" are found from Boston north into the St. 
Lawrence Valley. Clapp divides them into the "high-level" and the "low- 
level" clays. The former are the older and regarded as being about the 
equivalent to the lowan stage. The "low-level clays" are referred to the 
Wisconsin stage. Another body of clays named by Fuller (Bull. Geol. Soc. 
Amer., vol. xvi, p. 375) the Gardiner clays, from their type locality, Gardi- 
ner Island, near the east end of Long Island, lies beneath the Montauk till 
and has been referred by Fuller to the Yarmouth interglacial. 

In his paper cited Clapp presents (pp. 520-523) a list of the fossils, 
mostly mollusks, which have been collected in the Pleistocene deposits from 
New Brunswick to New York. 

Along the New England coast are evidences of uplift which followed the 
retirement of the Wisconsin ice. Katz (Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 
viii, 1918, p. 410) reported elevations of 155 feet at Stratham, New Hamp- 
shire, and 300 feet at Pawnal, Maine. Fairchild (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 
vol. XXIX, p. 214) records the elevations at various localities in Maine. 

A brief interesting account of the Pleistocene epoch as recorded in Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island may be found in an article by B. K. Emerson 
(Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 597, pp. 134-149). It deals in part with the 
geology of the valley of the Connecticut River. 

Goldthwait (Appalachia, vol. xiii, pp. 1-23) and Foshay (Amer. Jour. 
Sci., ser. 4, vol. xxxviii, pp. 345-348) have found evidences of an early 
Pleistocene glaciation in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. 



NEW ENGLAND. 291 

Vermont is interesting especially on account of the Pleistocene history of 
Lake Champlain. This history has been recently discussed by Professor 
H. L. Fairchild (Rep. State Geologist Vermont, vol. x, 1916, pp. 1-41, with 
maps and views), who presents (pp. 40-41) a list, 37 in number, of the more 
important papers relating to the subject. 

While the Wisconsin ice-sheet was resting upon Canada and the northern 
part of the United States, the land thus occupied, and probably a consider- 
able area beyond the ice, became depressed. The valleys of the St. Law- 
rence, the Ottawa, the Hudson, and the Connecticut had been pressed down 
to such an extent that, as the ice-sheet retired these valleys became filled 
with water standing at sea-level. When at length the glacial front had 
retreated beyond the St. Lawrence, sea-water entered Lake Ontario and 
passed up Ottawa River far above the city of Ottawa (Leverett, Monogr. 
U. S. Geol. Surv., liii, plate xxi). South of the St. Lawrence, marine waters 
occupied what is now Lake Champlain and as much of the surrounding 
land as was then at or below sea-level. In his account Fairchild makes 
use of the plate which is here reproduced (map 31) from his article of 1917 
(Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxviii, p. 279, plate xi) . This geologist believes 
that the Hudson formed for a while a connection with Lake Champlain, 
although the Hudson waters may not have been actually saline. But in 
Lake Champlain the presence of fossil marine moUusks and at least one 
whale skeleton shows that its waters were salt. The lines crossing the plate 
obliquely are the isobases which show the amount of elevation which has 
taken place along those lines since the end of the Pleistocene. South of 
New York City this is zero. At the northern end of Lake Champlain the 
elevation is 800 feet. This means that the north end of the lake for a while 
stood 800 feet lower than now. Marine fossils have, however, been found 
at an elevation of only about 300 feet. The waters which first occupied the 
lake and stood at the highest level were of glacial origin and fresh. When 
the ice-front had receded so as to open the St. Lawrence and admit sea- 
water, the northern end of the lake had been uplifted about 500 feet. It 
was then that the marine animals entered. 

Other important papers to be consulted in this connection are as follows: 
One by J. B. Woodworth (Bull. 84 New York State Mus.) ; one by Charles 
E. Peet (Jour. Geol, vol. xii, 1904, pp. 415-469; 617-660), and two by 
Professor Fairchild (Bulls. 105, 127, New York State Mus.). 

It is proper to say that certain glacial geologists maintain that the 
depression in the New England States has been less than supposed by 
Fairchild, and that the isobases curved around toward the north as the 
New England coast was approached, somewhat as represented by Taylor 
(Monogr. liii, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 503). Fairchild, in a later paper (Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxix, 1918, pp. 187-244), has reached the same 
conclusion and presented a map on which are drawn the isobases, or lines 
passing through points affected by the same amount of postglacial uplift; 
from this map 32 has been prepared. On his map the location of the 
heavy or solid lines is regarded by Fairchild as being- based on clear 
evidence. Where the lines become thin the evidence is less trustworthy; 
where the lines are broken their positions are hj-pothetical. The numerals 



292 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

on the lines show the amount of uplift along those lines. Two points of 
importance are brought out on the map. The first is that Newfoundland 
formed an independent center of glaciation and of subsequent uplift, a con- 
clusion based on good geological evidence. The second point is that the 
center of the Wisconsin glaciation was located southeast of James Bay, 
considerably farther south and west than is usually supposed. The con- 
firmation of this is left to the future. 

It does not seem to have been demonstrated that there are in Connecticut 
any Pleistocene deposits older than those laid down by the Wisconsin ice- 
sheet. In case Fuller (U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 82) is correct in his 
determination of beds of the early, middle, and late Pleistocene on Long 
Island, it is to be expected that beds of corresponding ages will yet be 
recognized in Connecticut. Woodworth (17th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., 
pt. 1, p. 978) mentions deposits of clay at Berlin and at New Haven that 
may be older than the Wisconsin. 

While the correlations recorded above of the Pleistocene of the New 
England States with the glacial and interglacial stages of the Mississippi 
Valley may be subject to modifications, it is interesting to learn that the 
presence of Middle and Early Pleistocene deposits in the Eastern States 
has received the recognition of so many students of glacial geology. The 
hope is awakened that in New England there may yet be found interglacial 
deposits which will furnish remains of Pleistocene vertebrates, as these 
have come to light from Throg's Neck, New York, to southern Florida. 
It is possible that the astragalus of an equine animal (p. 183) , found at 
Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard, belongs to a species of Equus of early 
Pleistocene age. 

In order to illustrate still further the events connected with the history 
of the Pleistocene in the region of the Great Lakes, three additional figures 
are introduced. One of these (map 33) shows J. W. Spencer's conception 
of the drainage of the region in preglacial times. The areas now occupied 
by the lakes were then traversed by rivers. It will be observed that the 
rivers above Pittsburgh now discharging into the Ohio then emptied north- 
ward into the Erigan. This is shown also by a map (fig. 6) taken from 
Leverett (U. S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. xli, p. 89). Figure 5, on page 287, 
shows the position of the shore of this Champlain Sea. 

The number of Pleistocene vertebrates found in the New England States 
is limited, and most of them have been mentioned. 

Somewhere on the coast of Maine have been found specimens of the fish 
Mallotus villosus (Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii, 1848, p. 67). 
At Charlotte, Vermont, a white whale, Delphinapterus vermontanus, was 
found many years ago (p. 19). Some bovid teeth were found many years 
ago at Gardiner, Maine, and referred to Bison bison, but it is now believed 
that they are teeth of the domestic ox. However, Dr. G. M. Allen has 
reported from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, teeth of a young bison (p. 266). 
At Woodbury, Washington County, Vermont, at a depth of 7 feet, an 
antler and a piece of the upper jaw with five molars of Ratigifer caribou 
(p. 244) have been discovered (Rep. Geol. Surv. Vermont, vol vi, p. 7). 
Mastodons have been discovered in Massachusetts at Coleraine and Shrews- 



NEW ENGLAND. 



293 



bury (p. 47). Many years ago a tooth and a tusk and some l)ones of an 
elephant were found at Mount Holly, Vermont (p. 148) ; the writer refers 
the animal to Elephas columbi. An undetermined elephant has been found 
in Vermont at Richmond (p. 167). Walrus remains have been recovered 




39 



(fcM.Mar'ansviiie /^/ivA.P/k ' MARVi^ND 

, — ^ 




Fig. 6. — Probable preglacial drainage of the Upper 
Ohio. From Leverett. 

at Addison Point (p. 23), Andrews Island (p. 23), Gardiner (p. 23), and 
Portland (p. 24), all in Maine; off Portsmouth, New Hampshire (p. 25 1; 
and on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts (p. 25). At the latter place a 
tooth supposed to belong to the hooded seal (p. 26) was found long ago. 
With respect to the specimens found at this place there is some doubt as to 
their geological age. With the exception that the reindeer bones (p. 244 1 
found near New Haven may be of pre-Wisconsin age, no Pleistocene verte- 
brate fossils older than Late Wisconsin appear to have been discovered 
anywhere in Connecticut. As shown elsewhere (p. 48), there were found 



294 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

long ago at Sharon, Litchfield County, remains which were identified as 
those of mammoth, but these have since been regarded as those of the 
common mastodon. Only a single vertebra was preserved. 

Mastodons have been found in four other places, Cheshire, New Britain, 
Bristol, and Farmington (pp. 47, 48). The animals which left their bones 
at those places certainly lived after the last glacial sheet had withdrawn 
from the State. As mentioned on page 291, Fairchild has found reasons 
for believing that, while the Wisconsin ice-sheet was withdrawing from the 
Hudson and Connecticut Valleys, the whole region was so depressed that 
these valleys became occupied by water at sea-level. In these waters there 
were laid down thick deposits which now stand at levels much above tide, 
varying, in Connecticut, from nearly 200 to about 300 feet. Map 31, 
reproduced from Professor Fairchild (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol xxviii, 
1917, plate xi) is intended to show how wide an extent of territory along 
the Connecticut Valley was then submerged. It is probable that the 
emergence of these deposits was not accomplished until after the glacier 
had retired beyond the State. 

It will be observed (map 6) that the localities just mentioned, where 
the mastodons have been found, lie very close to or on the areas covered 
by the deposits mentioned. The pond in which the Farmington mastodon 
(fig. 6, No. 3) was buried is in a range of hills which must have stood as an 
island in the Connecticut inlet. While it is possible that mastodons lived 
on this island while the land was depressed, it is more likely that they lived 
there after it had been more or less elevated. Judging from the topo- 
graphical maps, one may conclude that the mastodons that have been 
found at Cheshire (fig. 6, No. 1) and New Britain (fig. 6, No. 2) were buried 
in deposits that overlie those laid down at sea-level. Their time of existence 
must have been near the end of the Pleistocene. Too little is known about 
the mastodons reported from Bristol and Sharon to form any definite opinion 
about the stage of the Pleistocene when they lived; but it was probably 
after the withdrawal of the last ice-sheet. 

NEW YORK. 

From the geologist's point of view there is hardly, if at all, another State 
which presents for solution more numerous or more interesting problems 
connected with the Pleistocene than does New York. Among these are the 
geography and topography of the State at the beginning of the Pleistocene; 
the number and identity of the glacial stages which affected its surface; 
the origin and development of the bordering Great Lakes, of the numerous 
interior lakes, and of the river courses, actual and abandoned. For a knowl- 
edge of these one must consult the various reports issued by the Geological 
Survey of the State; above all, the numerous and instructive papers that 
have been published by Professor H. L. Fairchild, of the University of 
Rochester. 

For the student of Pleistocene vertebrate paleontology, the State of New 
York is not so attractive as some others ; but it is far from being devoid of 
interest. Few species of vertebrates of Pleistocene age have been found in 
its deposits, and these, with one exception, belong to the latest episodes 



NEW YORK. 



295 



of the last glacial stage. So far as the writer is aware, t'le following list 
comprises all of the Pleistocene vertebrates known to have been found 
within the borders of the State; those marked with an asterisk (*) are 
now extinct: 



*Equus sp. indet (p. 183). 
*Platygonus compressus (p. 212). 
Bison bison (pp. 266, 267). 
Odocoileus virginianus (p. 226). 
Cervus canadensis (pp. 235, 236). 
Rangifer caribou? (p. 245). 



*Mammut americanum (pp. 48-63). 
*Elephas columbi (p. 149). 
*Elephas primigenius (pp. 131, 132). 
Castor canadensis. 
*Castoroides ohioensis (p. 272). 



Deposits of materials belonging to Pleistocene stages older than the 
Wisconsin are apparently of rare occurrence in the State. If existing they 
are usually concealed beneath the widely spread Wisconsin drift. On Long 
Island, Fuller (U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 82) has described beds of 
gravels, sands, and clays, which he regards as belonging to the Nebraskan, 
Aftonian, Yarmouth, and Illinoian. None of these has furnished any verte- 
brate fossils. However, in 1866 (Smithson. Contrib. Knowl., vol. xv, art. 3, 
p. 16), Whittlesey reported that he had a tooth of a horse (p. 183) found 
at Fort Schuyler, Throg's Neck, 18 feet below the surface. This must have 
been lying beneath the Wisconsin drift. Inasmuch as Fuller has found the 
Manhassett formation, regarded as equivalent to the Illinoian, around Man- 
hassett Baj'', within 4 or 5 miles of Throg's Neck, it seems entirely reason- 
able to suppose that deposits of similar or earlier age exist at Throg's Neck. 

With the exception of small areas, the whole of the State was at one time 
covered by the ice-sheet of the Wisconsin stage. The glacial ice filled the 
basins of the Great Lakes, and overrode even the peaks of the Adirondack 
and Catskill Mountains. Only along the southern side of Long Island 
and in the loop formed in Cattaraugus County by Allegheny River does 
the ice-sheet appear to have been absent. 

Nearly everywhere, even on the southern coast of Long Island as out- 
wash, it left its burden of clay, sand, gravel and boulders, usually many 
feet in thickness; in the mountainous regions this drift material is present, 
at least in the valleys. At the extreme southern edge of the glacial sheet 
there was laid down the terminal moraine, which, more or less distinctly 
determinable, has been traced from the eastern end of Long Island to the 
southwestern corner of Cattaraugus County, and onward into Pennsylvania. 
This moraine is shown here on maps 3 and 6-A. 

As the ice-sheet withdrew toward the north, the surface which it had 
occupied was, for many reasons, very uneven, and in the depressions there 
were formed numerous lakelets and lakes. Into the smaller lakes and ponds 
especially, were swept, by running water and blown by winds, coarse mate- 
rials and dust, so that they began at once to fill. Water-loving plants in 
due time took possession of their borders, and in time marshes were formed. 
In some of these bodies of waters are now found deposits of shell marl, 
which show that for a long period the lakes and ponds were inhabited by 
fresh-water mollusks. Sometimes below this marl, but usually above it, 
is found a layer of peat, the product of the partial decay of the vegetation. 
It is in such peat-bogs, sometimes buried in the peat, sometimes in the marl, 



296 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

that have been found most of the bones and teeth of the fossil animals 
recovered. Inasmuch as such deposits lie upon the Wisconsin drift, it is 
certain that these animals lived, at the localities where found, after the 
retirement of the glacier from that locality ; how long afterward one usually 
can not be certain. 

It is in such Late Wisconsin deposits that have been found the numerous 
remains of mastodons on Long Island, on Staten Island, around New York 
City, and especially in Orange County (pp. 48-54). This county has 
furnished some of the most complete skeletons of mastodons ever discov- 
ered. Whether or not the conditions for their existence were more favorable 
in this region than in that between this county and the Finger Lake region 
may be regarded as doubtful; but it is certain that the conditions for the 
preservation of skeletons were extremely favorable. 

A remarkable case is presented at Cohoes, where a part of a skeleton of 
a mastodon was found in one of the great pot-holes existing there, and 
another part of the same skeleton in a neighboring pot-hole. The case is 
discussed below. 

In the western half of the State, after the foot of the glacier had retired 
beyond the divide between the present northward and southward flowing 
streams, bodies of water began to collect between the divide and the foot 
of the glacier. To these bodies, regarded as lakes, changing from time to 
time their dimensions and their outlets, have been given various names. 
At first, the waters that collected in the Finger Lake region found their 
outlet southward through the Susquehanna River; later through the 
Mohawk and Hudson; then westward into the Mississippi drainage; after- 
ward through a channel leading around west and north of the Adirondacks 
and into Lake Champlain and down the Hudson; and finally, as now, into 
the St. Lawrence River ( map 34 ) . 

The waters of the Erie basin, for most of the time, found their outlet 
toward the west into the Mississippi; but at a later time they escaped 
for a while eastward through central New York into the Mohawk. For 
information regarding these lakes one must consult Leverett and Taylor 
(Monogr. liii, U. S. Geol. Surv.) and Fairchild (Bulls. 127, 160, N. Y. 
State Mus.). 

From a study of the geological history we may arrive at some approxi- 
mately correct ideas as to the time when the mastodons, elephants, horses, 
giant beavers, etc., lived within the limits of the State. Of these animals, 
apparently none of the specimens discovered up to this time belongs to any 
pre-Wisconsin stage, except the horse whose tooth was found at Throg's 
Neck (p. 183). The history of our extinct horses and the depth at which 
the specimen was found indicate that the animal had lived either during the 
first or the second third of the Pleistocene. 

We may be certain that none of the mastodons (p. 49) which have been 
reported from Long Island lived there while the northern border was occu- 
pied by the glacier, and the remainder by the ocean. Not until the land 
had risen to about its present level could mastodons have become buried 
in the muck-filled ponds where they have been met with. Where the glacier 
front was when mastodons got foothold on the island we can not tell cer- 



NEW YORK. 297 

tainly; but it required perhaps hundreds or probably thousands of years 
for the elevation of the island to the extent of about 100 feet. We can 
hardly doubt that the mastodon lived on up to near, possibly into, the 
Recent period (see map 34). 

It is interesting to speculate on the time and manner of entombment of 
the skeleton, described on page 56, which was found at Cohoes, part in 
one pot-hole, part in another not far away. Hall adopted the theory that 
the carcass of the mastodon had been frozen in the glacial ice and, on the 
thawing of this ice, had been dropped into the pot-holes. In fact, he thus 
explained the frequent presence of mastodon skeletons in swamps. We 
have, however, no evidence that mastodons were ever thus frozen up in the 
ice of the glacier; but there is a possibility that this happened sometimes. 
If a skeleton should thus have been engaged in the moving stream of ice 
it is not probable that it would ever have emerged in a recognizable con- 
dition. In the production of cracks and crevices in the glacial ice, of which 
Hall spoke, the bones would have been broken up and scattered, if not 
ground to powder. If a cadaver had been frozen in the ice for any con- 
siderable time it would certainly have come out in such a waterlogged 
condition that it would hardly have floated. Weighted down by its heavy 
tusks, it would have drifted against rocks and at least the tusks would 
probably have been broken off. If we exclude the idea that the mastodon 
had first been frozen in the glacier, the writer sees no reason for denying 
that it might thus have been transported for some distance; but little is 
gained by granting it. The animal could as well have lived near Cohoes 
as farther up the Mohawk. 

As stated on another page, James Hall concluded that the pot-holes 
belonged to some pre-glacial time. Professor H. L. Fairchild has expressed 
in a letter to the present writer the following opinion: 

"When the ice-sheet melted from Cohoes the locality was 355 feet lower than it is 
to-day. Deep estuary deposits partially filled the Hudson Valley and buried the 
Cohoes district. The Mohawk channel at Cohoes is excavated tlirough marine sedi- 
ments. There is no suggestion of any river channel there previous to the present river 
work. The pot-holes are post-glacial, but they probably represent a more copious 
and vigorous flow than that of the present river. That was supplied by the diminish- 
ing Iromohawk, the latest outflow through the Mohawk Valley of the Iroquois water. 
In this view the pot-holes were drilled by the latest glacial waters." 

It appears that, when the mastodon skeleton fell into the pot-holes, these 
had been drilled long before; for the principal one had become filled with 
gravel to a depth of at least 10 feet. They were, therefore, probably well 
above the stream-level, except in times of high-water. However the carcass 
reached the locality, it must have arrived in a complete state. Had it 
already attained an advanced stage of decay, some limbs or the feet or 
the lower jaw, probably the whole head, weighted down as it was by the 
heavy tusks, would have dropped off. It may be assumed that the skeleton 
was lying on land or in some pond not far above the pot-holes. The flesh 
was not wholly decayed, and the bones were held together by the ligaments. 
While the skeleton was in this condition the river rose and swept it over 
the first pot-hole, where the right leg dropped off; and then onward over 



298 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

the second, where more of it was deposited. Some unimportant parts may 
have been carried farther, and some of the missing bones may have decayed 
in the pot-holes. After the bones were deposited there the pot-holes became 
slowly filled up, probably mostly during times of high-water, with muck 
and branches and trunks of trees of several species (Hay, Science, n. s., 
vol. XLix, 1919, p. 378). 

The retreat of the Wisconsin ice-sheet far beyond the St. Lawrence and 
the rise of the land to its present elevation, 350 feet above the sea at 
Cohoes, belong to the closing chapter of Pleistocene history. When the 
Cohoes mastodon was buried the ice-sheet was probably already north of 
the St. Lawrence and, as Professor Fairchild writes, 150 feet of the rise 
of the land had already occurred. The time could, therefore, not have been 
long before the beginning of the Recent epoch. If these animals lived at 
such a late time at Cohoes they doubtless existed at the same time in all 
parts of the eastern region w^here their remains have been discovered. They 
may have been able to occupy Long Island a little earlier than places 
further north, but the interval would be geologically inconsiderable. 

The writer has learned of no discoveries of mastodon bones in materials 
laid down by the marine waters that occupied Lake Champlain, the St. 
Lawrence Valley, and that of Ottawa River, or in deposits overlying these 
marine beds. 

On the basis of one of Professor H. L. Fairchild's plates (Bull. 127, 
N. Y. State Mus., plate xxxv) the writer has prepared map 34, which is 
intended to show the position of the Wisconsin ice-sheet in New York after 
it had retired somewhat north of the divide. This divide is marked by a 
line of dots. The area then occupied by the ice is stippled. Lake Erie was 
already nearly free from ice and was discharging its water by way of the 
Mississippi. Impounded waters from the melting glacial ice were collecting 
in the region of the Finger Lakes, forming Newberry Lake, and escaping 
down the Susquehanna. The Mohawk afforded outlet for the water from 
the southeastern lobe of ice. Fairchild's plates 36 to 42 show the successive 
positions occupied by the ice-front as it retired northward and the various 
lakes that were formed. 

Although not many species of vertebrate animals have been found in the 
Pleistocene deposits of New York, a large number of localities have fur- 
nished remains of the mastodon, Mammut americanum. These localities 
are recorded and brief descriptions of the remains and their geological 
environment have been presented on pages 48-63. The localities are indi- 
cated on map 34. It will be seen that several specimens have been found 
on Long Island and many in Orange County, in the southeastern corner of 
the State. In the western half of the State most of the finds occur within 
the area once occupied by the successive lakes. The animals could have 
lived there only after the ice-sheet and the lake waters had disappeared. 
It will be seen that a few finds have been made close to the shores of the 
present lakes. The animals must have lived there at the very end of the 
Pleistocene, if not within the Recent epoch. 

The finds of other vertebrates are recorded on the following pages: 
Equus sp. indet. on page 183; Platygonus co7npressus on page 212; Bison 



NEW JERSEY. 299 

biso7i on page 266; Odocoileus virginianus on page 226; Cervus cana- 
densis on page 235; Rangifer caribou on page 245; Elephas columhi on 
page 149; Elephas prvmigenius on page 131; Castor canadensis on page 
272; Castoroides ohioensis on page 272. 

In 1850 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. ii, pp. 255-256), W. C. Red- 
field reported that he had received remains of a fox of the genus Vidpes 
from Gulf Summit, Broome County. The lower jaw and other bones had 
been discovered in a cutting of the New York and Erie Railroad, 40 feet 
below the natural surface. The deposit above these bones was evidently 
the Wisconsin drift. The fine clay inclosing the bones may have belonged 
to the Sangamon, or even some older interglacial deposit. It is impossible 
to say whether this fox was Vulpes fulvus or Urocyon cinereoargenteus. 

NEW JERSEY. 
(Map 6-A.) 

In the consideration of the problems of Pleistocene geology and palaeon- 
tology, New Jersey is one of the most important States. Its northern part 
is occupied by glacial drift deposits, while the southern two-thirds is covered 
more or less completely by materials laid down beyond the limits of the 
glaciers. The glacial materials appear to belong to two widely separate 
epochs. The geologists who have been connected with the geological survey 
of New Jersey recognize in the materials composing the Pleistocene deposits 
south of the glacial region three formations, the Bridgeton, oldest; succeeded 
by the Pensauken; and the Cape May, the youngest. The geologists of 
Maryland recognize in New Jersey three formations which correspond to 
the three of Maryland, the Sunderland, the Wicomico, and the Talbot. 
However, the author of the Maryland Pliocene and Pleistocene volume, 
Professor Shattuck, insists that parts of Salisbury's Bridgeton, Pensauken, 
and Cape May all enter into the Sunderland; parts of the Cape May, 
Pensauken, and possibly of the Bridgeton, into the Wicomico; and parts 
of the Pensauken and Cape May into the Talbot. 

There are wide divergences in the views of the two groups of geologists 
regarding the manner in which the materials have been laid down. The 
Maryland geologists hold that their three terraces represent three epochs 
of submergence, and that the gravels, sands, and clays were deposited in 
the salt waters of the ocean or of estuaries. Salisbury and Knapp (Geol. 
Surv. New Jersey, vol. viii, 1917, p. 3) adopt the view that the formations 
are partly of subaerial and partly of marine and estuarine origin, with 
emphasis on the subaerial mode. Of the Bridgeton, the authors referred to 
say (their p. 18) that the accessible parts are primarily of terrestrial origin. 
A part of what remains may be marine or estuarine, and part of what has 
been removed may have been so. No palaeontological evidences of marine 
deposits of this epoch are found in the State. The writer records his dissent 
from the theory that the terraces and the deposits called the Sunderland, 
Wicomico, and Talbot have been the product of marine submergence. A 
part only of the Talbot can be referred to deposition in the sea. 

Of the Pensauken, Salisbury and Knapp say (p. 87) : "There is nothing 
in its constitution to negative the hypothesis of the whole formation being 



300 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

river work; nor is there anything, as now understood, to prove it." As to 
the deposits which they refer to the Cape May, the authors quoted say 
(p. 162) that the southern part of the State seems to have stood a few feet 
(30 to 50) lower than at present; but that it could not have stood long at 
this height, for sea-cliffs are essentially wanting. At one point, near Mill- 
ville, Cumberland County, marine fossils are met with at an elevation of 
about 10 feet above tide. 

The Cape May was, according to Salisburv'^ and Knapp, laid down during 
the last glacial epoch, the Wisconsin (p. 162). This determination of age 
would doubtless gain the acceptance of the Maryland geologists and their 
adherents, although the latter would include under this name many local 
deposits which Salisbury puts in the Pensauken. 

It is remarkable that, so far as the writer knows, no remains of Pleistocene 
vertebrates have ever been discovered in that portion of New Jersey which 
is mapped as occupied by the Cohansey sands, an area including nearly 
half the State. It lies southeast of a straight line which would run from 
Navesink River to Salem. The reason for this lack of fossil vertebrates 
does not occur to the writer. A large portion of this region is mapped as 
being covered with deposits of all three of the Pleistocene formations, 
Bridgeton, Pensauken, and Cape May. On or near to the line of outcrop of 
the Cretaceous deposits from Salem to Raritan Bay, not fewer than ten 
localities are known where mastodon remains have been discovered, besides 
two localities which have furnished horses and two which have furnished 
elephants. Since the southeastern part of the State has yielded no verte- 
brate fossils and little else to throw light on the age of its deposits, we shall 
dismiss it from consideration. 

The glacial geology of the State has been studied by Professor Rollin D. 
Salisbury, of the University of Chicago, and his assistants, Henry B. 
Kiimmel, Charles E. Peet, and George N. Knapp. The results of their 
studies on the glacial-drift deposits have been published in volume v of the 
final report of the State geologist, 1902. 

The Quaternary formations of the southern part of the State are described 
in volume viii of the final report. A more succinct description of the events 
of the Quaternary period is found in Bulletin 14 (1915) of the New Jersey 
Survey. The authors are J. Volney Lewis and Henry B. Kiimmel. 

In the vicinity of Perth Amboy is a heavy glacial moraine which may be 
traced eastward through Staten and Long Islands. West of Perth Amboy 
it turns northward, and swinging around it reaches Springfield. Thence it 
runs northwestward to Rockaway, and continues west by south to Delaware 
Ptiver, at Belvidere. This moraine marks, in New Jersey, the southward 
limit of the last ice-sheet, the Wisconsin. All the drift deposits of the 
State north of this moraine are regarded as belonging to the Wisconsin stage. 
It is to be supposed that this is, at least to some extent, underlain by older 
drift deposits. 

South of the moraine just described are scattered deposits of glacial drift 
and other evidence of glacial action which are referred to a much older ice- 
sheet, one supposed to correspond to the Kansan drift of the Mississippi 
Valley (Salisbury, Geol. Surv. New Jersey, vol. v, p. 781). On the other 



NEW JERSEY. 301 

hand, it is sometimes referred (Chamberlin and Salisbury, Geology, vol. iiL 
pp. 383, 384) to the first glacial (sub-Aftonian). 

As has been said, three formations are recognized which were laid down 
otherwise than by glacial ice-sheets, the Bridgeton, the Pensauken, and the 
Cape May. The deposition of the Cape May is regarded as being con- 
temporaneous with the Wisconsin ice-sheet (Salisbury and Knapp, New 
Jersey Geol. Surv., vol. viii, p. 162; Lewis and Kiimmel, Bull. 14, p. 120). 
The Pensauken formation is believed to be much older than the Cape May ; 
it may (Salisbury and Knapp, op. cit., p. 78) be older than the extra- 
morainic drift, mentioned above as being of about Kansan times; but it 
may have coincided in part only with the Kansan. According to Lewis and 
Kiimmel (op. cit., p. Ill) the old, extra-morainic, Jerseyan drift was coin- 
cident with at least the later stages of the Pensauken. Hence, we may 
believe that the Pensauken corresponds somewhat to the Aftonian stage of 
Iowa. The Bridgeton formation is still older than the Pensauken and, being 
Quaternary, must be referred either to the early part of the first inter- 
glacial or to the first glacial ; but the New Jersey geologists are not specific 
on this point. 

It is unfortunate that nowhere in New Jersey has any considerable number 
of species of Pleistocene vertebrates been found buried together. We are 
thus deprived of one means of estimating the age of the species and of the 
beds. Most of the specimens found, as the mastodon and the two elephants, 
belong to species which lived during the whole or a large part of the Pleisto- 
cene and hence do not testify definitely to the age of the deposits in which 
they occur. Too often the information we have regarding the place and 
conditions of burial is extremely meager. 

In Salem County a mastodon has been found in Mannington Township, 
at Chestnut Hill (p. 63) ; and a deer, probably Odocoileus virginianus, at 
Woodstown (p. 226). Although the geological map shows that in Manning- 
ton Township Cape May Pleistocene prevails, while about Woodstown there 
is Pensauken, one can not well conclude that the animals are of correspond- 
ing age. 

In Gloucester County Mammut americanum has been found at Harrison- 
ville (p. 63), Mullica Hill (p. 64), and Woodbury (p. 64) ; Equus at Swedes- 
boro (p. 184). As to the former species, we can not be certain of the age, 
either from our knowledge of the age of the deposits inclosing the remains 
or from the history of the species. As to the horse found at Swedesboro, one 
may, from the history of the genus in this country, arrive at some conclu- 
sion; but this will be deferred to page 303. 

In Camden County, so far as the writer has knowledge, no vertebrate 
remains have been found except in the Fish House beds, along Delaware 
River, just above Camden; but the horse remains (p. 184) are of great 
importance. These beds were originally supposed to be of Cretaceous age, 
but in 1869 (Trans. Amer. Philos. See, vol. xiv, p. 250), Cope expressed 
the conviction that they belonged to the Pliocene period. He presented a 
geological section (fig. 7) of the beds which sliows a thin stratum of soil 
above, then from 8 to 15 feet of light-brown sand, followed below by a 
blackish clay about 25 feet in thickness. Near the bottom of the latter was 



302 



PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



found a layer containing shells of several species of Unio and Anodonta. 
Just above this bed of unios there was discovered a large part of a skull of 
an extinct horse which Cope referred to Equus fraternus. This was 
deposited in the collection of the Academy at Philadelphia, but later 
disappeared. 




Ll^ht brown sand 



Blackish clay 



Equus Unios and Anodontas 



High tide line 



Coarse red sand 



atolS 
feet 

inches 

25 ft 

'/sft. 
,/6 /n. 
'Z in- 
9 ft 



Fig. 7. — Geologic section of Fish House beds, Camden, New Jersey. 

Redrawn from Cope. 



In 1897 (Rep. State Geologist, New Jersey, for 1896, pp. 201-247, plates 
x-xiv) Woolman published a paper on the stratigraphy of the Fish House 
beds and described and illustrated other horse-teeth which he referred to 
Equiis complicatus. These teeth were found at a depth of 12 feet below the 
top of the black cla}*; 6 feet of surface gravels had been removed from 
the clay. The teeth are now in the collection of the Academy, at Phila- 
delphia. Woolman stated that in the same collection are a patella and a 
fragment of a long bone of a horse found in the black clay, in 1892. 

Woolman regarded the clay in question as belonging to Pensauken times. 
Salisbury and Knapp (op. cit., p. 104, fig. 49) state that there is here 20 
feet of black clay overlying Pensauken sand and that the claj^ is overlain 
by Pensauken gravel. If this judgment of the geological age of the cla^' 
is correct, the horses probably lived during the first interglacial (Aftonian) 
or the beginning of the second glacial stage (Kansan). There are, however, 
those who insist that these Fish House clays belong really to the Cape May 
formation. This would make the geological age of the horse about that of 
the Wisconsin drift. 

Besides the horse remains, only some bones of a wolf have been found in 
the clays mentioned, and these too have disappeared. They probably 
would have thrown little light on the age of the beds. We must reach 
conclusions from other data. 

This fact seems to be pretty certain: Had horses lived at Fish House dur- 
ing the deposition of the Cape May they would (as did the mastodon, 
Elephas primigenius, and E. columbi) quite certainly have spread out over 
northern New Jersey and over the grassy plains of New York and Ohio; 
and their remains would somewhere have been found, as are those of the 
other species just mentioned, in old swampland lake deposits overlying the 
Wisconsin drift; but no horse remains have ever been reported from such 
deposits. Furthermore, in all the digging that has been done at Trenton, in 
deposits acknowledged by all to belong to Wisconsin times, no trace has been 
found of horse remains. 



NEW JERSEY. 303 

Near the bottom of the Fish House clay bed, just below the level of the 
horse remains, there is found a layer which contains river clams repre- 
sented by the genera Unio and Anodonta. Ten species of Unio have been 
recognized and two of Anodonta. When these were first studied the beds 
were believed to belong to the Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the close resem- 
blance of the shells to still living species was recognized ; and to them were 
given names differing from those of the related existing forms by the ending 
oides. The species were described by Lea and Whitfield and have been 
restudied by Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia. The species are probably identical with forms yet living; but half 
of them no longer exist in the region of Delaware River. Pilsbry (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1896, pp. 567-570) stated that five of them have no 
longer any representatives in the Atlantic drainage south of the St. Lawrence 
River system. It is probable that these species had, when they lived at 
Fish House, spread into other rivers south of the Delaware and thus were 
not trapped in this river by the Wisconsin ice. It seems certain, therefore, 
that a longer period of time and a longer series of vicissitudes must have 
intervened to produce such changes in geographical distribution. According 
to C. T. Simpson's work, "Descriptive Catalogue of the Naiades," 1914, 
Unio {Quadrida) subrotundus now inhabits the Ohio, Cumberland, and 
Tennessee Rivers; U. {Lampsilis) anodontoides occupies the Mississippi 
River and Gulf drainage regions; while Anodonta corpulenta is found in 
the Upper Missouri region. The Wisconsin ice-sheet and the short period 
of time since its disappearance are hardly sufficient to explain this wide 
dispersion of species, while others have been able to retain their place in 
the Delaware. 

Opposed to this view regarding the identity of the unios of the Fish House 
beds, see Ortmann (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol lii, p. 280, 1913) and Baker 
(Univ. Ills. Bull., XVII, p. 205, 1920). These writers contend that the species 
have no especial relationship to western forms. According to Baker the 
deposits are older than the earliest glacial stage. On the other hand, accord- 
ing to Dr. E. W. Berry (quoted by Baker) , who has studied the plants, the 
beds belong to the late Pleistocene. 

We have, then, these reasons for holding that the Fish House clays are 
of early Pleistocene age: (1) Competent geologists have determined them 
as belonging to the Pensauken formation, laid down at or before the time 
of the Kansan stage; (2) the presence of remains of horses, evidences of 
whose existence during or after the Wisconsin have not been produced; 
(3) the presence of many species of naiades, some of which yet live in that 
region, but the majority of which now live only in far-distant regions. 

We may confidently conclude that the horse remains which were found at 
Swedesboro belonged likewise to the Pensauken. 

In Burlington County mastodons have been found at Pemberton (p. 64), 
but one can not be certain of their geological age. A reindeer has been 
unearthed at Vincentown (p. 64). It seems highly probable that it lived 
there while the Wisconsin ice-sheet occupied the northern part of the State; 
but there is a possibility that it is older. In the Academy of Natural 



304 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

Sciences at Philadelphia are some remains of Odocoileus found at Vincen- 
town (p. 227). 

In the vicinity of Trenton, Mercer County, scant remains of six species of 
Pleistocene mammals have been reported. These are Mammut americanum 
(p. 64), Elephas primi genius (p. 132), Bison bison (p. 287), Ovibos moscha- 
tus (p. 248), Cervus canadensis (p. 237), and Rangifer caribouf (p. 248). 
All are known to have existed elsewhere during late Pleistocene times, and 
three indicate a cold climate. The presence of fossil vertebrates here is of 
special interest because many evidences have been found of man's occupa- 
tion of the region in apparently late Pleistocene times. 

At and in the vicinity of Trenton are found both Pensauken and Cape 
May deposits, the latter overlying the former (Salisbury and Knapp, op. cit., 
pp. 120, 165). The Cape May rises about 60 feet above sea-level. At 
various places the Pensauken protrudes through the mantle of Cape May 
and rises to a height of as much as 130 feet above sea-level. Its base is 
about 20 feet above sea-level. The materials consist of sand, gravel, and 
cobblestones. So far as the writer knows, no fossils have been found in 
the Pensauken about Trenton. 

The Cape May at Trenton is held to have been laid down principally 
during the presence of the Wisconsin ice-sheet in the northern part of the 
State; and naturally it consists mostly of sands, gravels, coarse and line, and 
some boulders. In the localities where excavations have been made for sand 
and gravel for building purposes, for sewers, and for railroads, and in search 
for relics of man, two principal divisions are recognized. Below are strata 
of clays, sands, gravels, and boulders which are believed to have been 
deposited by the floods of varying intensity which issued from the glacial 
moraine then about 60 miles above Trenton (figs. 8, 9). Over this lies a 
bed of what is called yellow drift, which reaches a thickness of about 3 feet. 
It consists mostly of fine sand, but there are many pebbles and occasionally 
some large boulders. It is everywhere characterized by wavy red bands. 
While some geologists have held the opinion that this deposit had been 
produced by winds, it appears to be definitely determined that it was water- 
lain (Wissler, Scient. Monthly, vol. ii, p. 237). This "yellow drift" is over- 
lain by about a foot of black soil which belongs to the Recent epoch and 
is the result of cultivation by whites. For details regarding the Trenton 
gravels and the yellow sands above it the reader should consult Ernest 
Volk's work, "Archaeology of the Delaware Valley" (Papers Peabody Mus., 
vol. v, 1911). 

All the species mentioned above have been reported from the beds known 
as the Trenton gravels. A femur of a bison was found also in the yellow 
drift (see p. 287). 

Monmouth County has furnished more fossil vertebrates of the Pleistocene 
than any other county. Mastodons have been discovered at Englishtown, 
Freehold, Marlboro, Long Branch, Manasquan, and in the Navesink Hills 
(pp. 65, 66). Many specimens, as those about Freehold and Long Branch 
and Manasquan, are in such superficial positions in peat that they do not 
seem to be very old, probably of Cape May age; and yet of this one can not 
be wholly certain. The discovery of a heel-bone of a megatherium (p. 31) 
at Long Branch appears to indicate the presence there of early Pleistocene 



KEW JERSEY. 



305 



deposits. At Englishtown the remains had apparently become mixed with 
marl, and they may belong to an older stage of the Plei-tocene. In the 
Navesink Hills, according to Leidy, the mastodon remains were associated 




Fig. 8. — Sketch of vicinity of Trenton, showing distribution 
of Trenton gravels. Redrawn from SaUsbury and Knapp. 

with those of an extinct horse (p. 184). If so, both species probably were 
buried in Pensauken deposits. In this same region there was found long 
ago a tooth of Elephas columbi (p. 149) ; but it is useless to speculate on its 





Fig. 9. — Sections taken at Trenton, New Jersey. 
Upper figure taken along the line 3 of Fig. 8. 
Lower figure taken along the line 2 of Fig. 8. 
The black represents the glacial gravel. A, the crystaline rock of the 
region; T, Trias; K, Cretaceous; Pp, Pensauken; O, sea-level. 



30G PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

geological age. At Long Branch (p. 26), damaged skulls of walruses, 
probably of the existing species, have been met with. It seems natural 
to associate this southward migration, which extends to South Carolina, 
with the Wisconsin epoch; but it is possible that it was earlier. At Deal 
(p. 227) have been found remains of a deer, probably Odocoileus virginianus. 

Somewhere about Shark River, a tooth of a peccary (p. 213) was found, 
as was supposed, in Miocene marl. Leidy could not distinguish this tooth 
from that of Mylohyus nasutus. So far as our evidence goes, this species 
belongs to the early and middle Pleistocene. 

Near North Plainfield a tooth was found which is referred to Elephas 
primigenius (p. 133). The locality is very close to the moraine of the Wis- 
consin ice-sheet, and the animal probably lived there when the Plainfield 
outwash plain (Salisbury, Geol. Surv. New Jersey, vol. v, 1902, p. 738) 
was being laid down. 

Near Schooley's Mountain, but west of Musconetcong River and in 
Warren County, remains of a mastodon (p. 67) were encountered in excavat- 
ing the Morris Canal. It is probable that these were buried in a swamp 
left over from the Wisconsin times; but Lewis and Kiimmel's map of 1910- 
1912 indicate in this region only drift older than the Wisconsin. 

The mastodons found at Hackettstown and Hope, in Warren County, are 
probably of Late Wisconsin origin (pp. 67, 68). 

Near Mount Hermon, about 5 miles northeast from Delaware, in Warren 
County, and about 2 miles northwest of Hope, was found the splendid 
skeleton of the moose Cervalccs scotti, which forms one of the treasures of 
Princeton University (Scott, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1885, p. 174). It 
was discovered in a bog. All this region is (Salisbury, Geol. Surv. New 
Jersey, vol. viii, plate xxviii) occupied by Wisconsin drift and the bog 
doubtless rested on this drift. It seems certain, therefore, that this stately 
relative of our existing moose lived after the disappearance of the Wisconsin 
ice-sheet. 

A mastodon (p. 68) which was found at Greendell in Sussex County 
quite certainly lived there after the last glacial stage. 

Berry (Torreya, vol. x, p. 261) has studied a collection of nine species of 
plants which had been obtained in peat from near Long Branch. Only 
three of these now range north of Long Branch. He concluded that the last 
glacial stage had been followed by a period of climate warmer than the 
present climate. This is in accord with views which the present writer has 
held. It ought not, however, to be assumed with too much confidence that 
the peat-bed is of Late Wisconsin origin. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

About half of the area of Pennsylvania lies outside of the region which 
was glaciated. Figure 10 is a map taken from Folio 172 of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, published in 1910 and compiled by Dr. W. C. Alden in 
1901. A broad strip along the southern part of the State, being non- 
glaciated, is not represented. The areas shaded by parallel ruling and 
stippling are those which present evidences of glacial action. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 307 

The glaciated area consists of two principal portions. One of these, that 
subjected to the action of the Wisconsin ice-sheet, is represented on the map 
by means of oblique parallel lines coming down to an interrupted heavy line. 
This line, representing the Wisconsin terminal moraine, starts on Delaware 
River north of Easton, runs northwestward to Potter County, thence into 
New York, thence back into Pennsylvania, in Warren County, and then 
enters Ohio north of the Ohio River. The course of this moraine was 
worked out especially by H. C. Lewis and G. F. Wright and was described 
in report l of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, in 1881. The moraine 
crosses the Delaware at Belvidere, New Jersey, and passes through the 
following counties: Northampton, Monroe, Carbon. Luzerne, Columbia, 
Sullivan, Lycoming, Tioga, Potter, Warren, Crawford, Venango, Butler, 
Lawrence, and Beaver. 

South of this moraine are two areas which, on this map, are represented 
by stippling. These are occupied by drift materials, usually forming a 
considerably thinner covering, which are believed by most glaciologists to 
belong to an older Pleistocene stage, probably about as old as the Kansan. 
Especially in the valleys these older drift-deposits may reach thicknesses 
of 200 or 300 feet. These old glacial deposits are represented also by 
terraces along the margins of the valleys. Some of these in the vicinity 
of Warren stand at a height of about 1,400 feet above the sea. Figure 17 
is taken from Shaw and Munn (Folio 178, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 12). The 
uppermost gravels are supposed to represent the Kansan stage. A few 
small patches lying in the angle of the unglaciated area are of doubtful 
age, as indicated on the map. It must be stated, however, that there is 
some dissent from this conclusion as to the age of this outer drift. Professor 
E. H. Williams has published a number of papers in which he takes the posi- 
tion that this drift is a deposit laid down by the same ice-sheet that later 
on built up the Wisconsin moraine (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xlvii, 1894, 
pp. 32-36; Science (n. s.), vol. xxxvii, pp. 447-450; Pennsylvanian Glac'a- 
tion, first phase, 1917, pp. 1-101). Profes.sor G. F. Wright appears to take 
the same view. The writer sees no sufficient reason for distrusting the 
opinions of Dr. Alden and his colleagues. 

It must not be assumed that an animal whose remains have been found 
within the area occupied by the Wisconsin drift lived during or after that 
stage. Even within this area there may occur fossil-bearing deposits of an 
older Pleistocene time. These older deposits may underlie the Wisconsin 
drift or they may occur as old terraces high up on the sides of the valleys 
of rivers. Cases of the latter kind are found along Allegheny River 
(Leverett. Monogr. xli, U. S. Geol. Surv., pp. 229-252; Shaw Jour. Geol., 
vol. XIX, 1911, pp. 140-156; folio 178, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 8). On the other 
hand, an animal of very late Pleistocene age, or even of the Recent, may be 
buried in deposits which overlie an old Pleistocene deposit. It is necessary, 
if it can be done, to determine the actual age of the deposit containing the 
remains; otherwise one must depend on the geological age of the species 
involved, or be content to wait for further information. Unfortunately, but 
few of the quadrangles in the glaciated area have had their geological 



308 



PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



structure studied and reported on. At present the U. S. Geological Survey- 
has published only Folios 92 (Gaines) and 93 (Elkland and Tioga), lying 
mostly in Tioga County, partly in Potter; also Folio 172 (Warren), occupy- 
ing a part of Warren County. Information may sometimes be secured from 
the numerous volumes which have been published by the Geological Survey 
of Pennsvlvania and from articles in the scientific journals. 




Intramorainlc drift of Wisconsin terminal moraine 
the Wisconsin stage (Aftir H.C.Lewis and 

G. F. Wrijrht. Kept. Z. 
Socond Gt'ol. Sun'cy 
Pennsylvania, ISSl 



M 



Drift regarded by 
Leverett as also of 
Wisconsin age 



Scattered deposits of 
extra morainic drift, 
probably much older 
than Wi=cor.3in 



Area regarded by 
Leverett as doubt-, 
fully driftlei? 



Fig. 10. — Glaciated areas of northern Pennsylvania. From W. C. Alden. 



The Pleistocene deposits which lie outside of the glaciated areas have been 
mostly laid down along rivers. Some of the materials were transported by 
the streams which carried away the drainage from the glaciers; in other 
cases the materials were brought down from the higher lands and laid down 
along the lower and less sloping parts of the streams. In the unglaciated 
area many of the quadrangles have been surveyed by the U. S. Geological 
Survey and the folios aid in determining the age of deposits which contain 
fossil vertebrates. 

Important collections have been made in a few localities, and these will 
now be considered: 

At Pittston, in Luzerne County, on Susquehanna River, have been found 
teeth of the horse Equus complicatus (p. 184), remains of mastodon (p. 68), 
and of a musk-ox (p. 248). The presence of the horse makes it evident that 
the deposit containing the fossils belongs to a stage older than the Wisconsin, 
although the locality is within the area of the Wisconsin. 

W^e consider now the contents of a cave found near Stroudsburg, Monroe 
County. The Hartman (or Crystal Hill) Cave was discovered in 1880 
and explored first by Mr. T. Dunkin Paret, of Stroudsburg. It was soon 
afterward examined by Dr. Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia, and Dr. Thomas 



PENNSYLVANIA. 309 

C. Porter, of Easton. Leidy published the first description of it in 1880 
(Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., pp. 346-348) and presented a list of the species 
of animals which had been secured by Mr. Paret. In 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. 
Surv. Pennsylvania, for 1887, pp. 1-18, plates i, ii) , a more detailed report 
was made by Leidy, including descriptions and illustrations of some of the 
vertebrates and of certain artifacts which had been discovered. 

In 1894, Dr. H. C. Mercer made a re-exploration of the cave and gave 
a more extended description of it (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. pp. 
96-104). 

Combining the statements of Leidy and Mercer with data obtained from 
the Delaware Water Gap topographical sheet issued by the U. S. Geological 
Survey, one finds that the cave is situated on Crystal Hill, about 3.5 miles 
in a straight line southwest of Stroudsburg and close to the village of 
Stormville. Crystal Hill is a part of an anticlinal fold, Godfrey Ridge, of 
the Helderberg limestone. South of the fold runs Cherry Creek; north 
of it, Mt. Michaels Creek. On the northeast the hill is cut off from the 
rest of the ridge by a valley about 300 feet deep. Mercer's account states 
that the cave is on the top of the hill, about 0.25 mile from Cherry Creek, 
but the topographical map locates the top of the hill about 0.75 mile away 
from this stream. Mercer also wrote that the cave was 800 feet above 
Delaware River, 5 miles away. However, the hill has an elevation of some- 
what less than 840 feet above sea-level, while the river at the nearest point 
is somewhat more than 280 feet above sea-level. Inasmuch as the cave is 
probably somewhere on the southern slope of the hill, it is about 500 
feet above the Delaware and about 300 feet above the bed of Cherry Creek. 

The opening of the cave in the rock was wide (Mercer, p. 96, fig. 1), but 
had become almost wholly choked by debris. Nevertheless, a hole large 
enough for adventurous boys to enter remained (Leidy, op. cit., 1880, 
p. 346). After a few feet descent the cave extended nearly horizontally 
more than 100 feet. It had become filled nearly to the roof by various 
deposits. Excavations showed that on top was a layer, about a foot, of 
"black friable earth mingled with animal and vegetal remains" (Leidy). 
Mercer describes it as a "top layer of limestone roof-splinters and down- 
slidden outer talus thinning inward into less stony cave earth." Beneath 
this layer was a thin stratum of stalagmite. Further digging showed that 
below this stalagmite flooring the cave was filled to a thickness of as much 
as 14 feet in one place. This deposit is described by Mercer as being a 
continuous homogeneous bed of exquisitely fine clay deposited in thin 
laminae rarely sprinkled with sand pockets and underlain with a thin film 
of sand. Neither in this deposit nor in the stalagmite was there found a 
trace of any formerly living thing. All the remains of animals and all 
the artifacts were discovered in the uppermost layer. 

It should be noted at this point that this cave is situated about 5 or 6 
miles north of the Wisconsin moraine. 

The following is a list of the species of vertebrates identified by Leidy. 
When his names differ from those now in use they are inclosed in 
parenthesis. 



310 



PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



List oj species oj vertebrates. 



Chelj'dra serpentina. 

Terrapene Carolina (Cistudo clausa). 

Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris (M. gal- 

lopavo). 
Equus sp. indet (p. 185). 
MyloliA^is pennsylvanicus (Dicotyles (p. 

213)!^ 
Rangifer caribou (p. 246). 
Odocoileus virginianus (Cervus) (p. 237). 
Cervus canadensis (p. 237). 
Bison bison? (B. americanus) (p. 267). 
Marmota monax (Arctomj-s). 
Tamias striatus. 
Sciurus carolinensis. 
Castor canadensis (C. fiber). 
Peromyscus leucopus (Hesperomj's). 
Neotoma magister (N. floridana). 



Microtus pennsylvanicus (Arvicola lipar- 
ius). 

Erethizon dorsatum. 

Castoroides ohioensis (p. 272). 

Syhilagus floridanus (Lepus sylvaticus). 

Myotis subulatus (Vespertilio). 

Eptesicus fuscus (Vespertilio). 

Scalopus aquaticus (Scalops). 

Procyon lotor. 

Mustek noveboracensis (Putorius ermin- 
eus) . 

Mephitis putida (M. mephitica). 

Urocyon cinercoargenteus (Canis virgini- 
anus). 

Canis lycaon? (C. lupus). 

Lynx canadensis (Felis). 



Besides these vertebrates, there were reported by Leidy the land snails 
Helix albolabris, H. alternata, and H. tridentata; also a pair of valves of 
the river mussel Margaratina margaritifera and a fragment of another valve. 
Leidy regarded these as showing that this mussel formerly lived in Dela- 
ware River; whereas in his view it no longer existed there; but specimens 
of it from Philadelphia are in the U. S. National Museum. 

An examination of the list shows that nearly all of the species of verte- 
brates are yet in existence and most of these still living in that general region. 
Fangijer caribou lives now far to the north and Lynx canadensis has its 
range somewhat further north. The two indicate a colder climate, especially 
the reindeer. Both got into the cave probably after the glacial front had 
withdrawn from that vicinity. The remains of Castoroides may have been 
carried in there at about the same time. The type specimen of Mylohyus 
'pennsylvanicus was found in this cave. Cope referred specimens of a 
peccary found in Port Kennedy Cave to the same species with doubt. 
Undetermined species of the genus were recognized by Barnum Brown in 
his collection made in the Conard fissure in northwestern Arkansas. Dr. 
W. J. Holland reported Mylohyus pennsylvanicus from the cave at Franks- 
town, Pennsylvania. The type of the genus, M. nasutus, was found in 
Indiana. Beyond the testimony furnished by the Crystal Hill Cave, we 
have no evidence that the genus Mylohyus existed after the Wisconsin 
stage; the possibility exists that this species got into the cave before this 
stage. 

The specimen of Equus is still more doubtful. It consisted of two isolated 
first and second milk molars of a very young colt. Leidy was in doubt 
whether the colt belonged to the domestic horse or to an indigenous species. 
The specimen had been collected with no record as to the part of the cave 
or of the depth in the upper layer of soil where it was buried. A fragment 
of a jaw of a colt might easily have been carried into the cave by some 
carnivorous animal since the coming of the whites. A fragment of the lower 
jaw of a bison also was found which had in it the last molar; and this was 
referred by Leidy to the existing buffalo. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 311 

It can hardly be doubted that this cave was hollowed out before the 
Wisconsin ice period. It may have been formed during the early Pleisto- 
cene. The fact that it was filled to a depth of 14 feet, in some places, with 
a fine laminated clay devoid of all traces of organic beings seems to indicate 
that for ages it had been shut off from the outer world, and that streams 
charged with fine sediment were permitted to pass through it. During 
possibly some glacial stage preceding the Wisconsin, erosion may have 
opened the cave so that the horse remains, those of a bison, and of Casto- 
roides were dragged into it. The evidence for these suppositions is slender, 
but so too is that for a late Wisconsin indigenous species of horse in 
Pennsylvania. It is probable that most of the species found in the cave 
belong to the late Pleistocene or even to the Recent. 

Fossil vertebrates found in a cave in Bucks County require our attention. 

In 1880 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1880, p. 349), Leidy presented a 
list of vertebrate remains which had been lying unstudied for 40 years in 
the collection of the Academy. These had been found in Durham Cave, 
somewhere near Riegelsville, in Bucks County. It is not improbable that 
the cave took its name from the village of Durham, about 2 miles southwest 
of Riegelsville. Leidy stated that the cave appeared to have been obliter- 
ated in the quarrying of limestone. In 1889 (Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Penn- 
sylvania, for 1887, pp. 18-19) Leidy published a list of the species which 
he had identified. 

List of fossil vertebrates from Durham Cave. 

Acipenser sturio. Marmota mona.x (Arctomys). 

Ameiurus nebulosiis (Amiurus atrarius). Sciurus carolinenyis. 

Thamnophis sirtalis (Euta^nia). Castor canadensis (C. fiber). 

Chelj'dra serpentina. Neotoma pennsylvanica (N. floridana). 

Terrapene Carolina (Cistudo clausa). Ondatra zibethica (Fiber). 

Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris (M. gal- Sylvilagus floridanus (Lepus sylvaticus). 

lopavo). Ursiis americanus. 

Rangifer caribou (p. 246). Procyon lotor. 

Cerviis canadensis (p. 237). Mephitis putida (M. mephitica). 

Alces americanus (Alee). Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Viilpes virgini- 
Odocoileus virginianus (Cerviis) (p. 227). anus). 

Erethizon dorsatum. 

This list differs in its species from Leidy's list of 1880 only in the exclu- 
sion of the bison and the inclusion of the elk, Cerviis canadensis. All the 
species are still in existence, most of them in that region. The presence of 
the reindeer, the moose, and the porcupine suggests a cooler climate than 
now prevails there. These animals may all have become buried in that 
cave during the latest times of the Wisconsin stage or even during the 
Recent. 

We are now to study a case which furnishes us with a store of knowledge 
regarding the life of the Pleistocene. In 1871 there was found at Port 
Kennedy, Montgomerj'- County, a cave which was worked for its fossils by 
Charles Wheatley and later by Dixon, Mercer, and Cope, the latter having 
devoted himself to the description of the vertebrates. First of all will be 
given a list of the species of vertebrates, mostly mammals which have been 
recognized in the materials found in the cave. When Cope's names differ 
from those employed here they are put in parenthesis. 



312 



PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



Ldst of species of vertebrates found in Port Kennedy Cave. 



Ranidae : 

Rana sp. indet. 
Emydida; : 

Clemmys insculpta. 

C. percrassa. 

Terrapene eurypj''gia (Toxaspis an- 
guillulatus). 
Colubridse : 

Coluber acuminatus (Zamenis). 
Meleagridse: 

Meleagris superbus (M. alt us). 
Megatheriida; : 

Megalonyx (p. 31). 

M. scalper (p. 31). 

M. tortulus (p. 31). 

M. wheatleyi (p. 31). 

Mylodon harlani? (p. 31). 
Equidae: 

Equus complicatus (E. fraternus) (p. 
185). 

E. pectinatus (E. f. pectinatus) (p. 
185). 
Tapiridse : 

Tapirus haysii (p. 203). 
Tagassuida? : 

Mylohyus nasutus (p. 213). 

M. pennsylvanicus? (p. 213). 

Tagassu tetragonus (Mylohyus) (p. 
213). 
Camelidse?: 

Teleopternus orientalis (p. 224). 
Cervidae : 

Odocoileus Isevicornis. 

O. virginianus? 
Bovidae : 

Bison sp. indet. (Bos) (p. 256). 
Elephantidse : 

Mammut americanum (Mastodon) (p. 
69). 
Sciuridae : 

Sciurus calj'cinus. 
Castoridae : 

CaiBtor canadensis (C. fiber). 
Cricetidae : 

Peromyscus leucopus? (Hesperomys). 

Anaptogonia hiatidens. 



Cricetidae — continued, 

Sycium cloacinum. 

Microtus dideltus. 

M. diluvianus. 

M. involutiLS. 

M. speothen. 
Zapodidae : 

Zapus hudsonius? 
Erethizontidae : 

Erethizon dorsatum? 
Ochotonidse : 

Ochotona palatina (Lagomys). 
Leporidse : 

Sylvilagus floridanus (Lepus sylvfiti- 
cus). 
Talpidae : 

Scalopus sp. indet. (Scalops). 
Soricidai : 

Blarina simplicidens. 
Vespertilionidae : 

Myotis? sp. indet. (Vespertilio) . 
Ursidae : 

Ursus americanus. 

Arctotherium haplodon. 
Mustelidae: 

Taxidea taxus (T. americana). 

Mephitis fossidens. 

M. laptops. 

M. obtusata. 

M. orthostica. 

M. putida. 

Osmotherium spelaeum. 

Pelycictis lobulatus. 

Mustela diluviana. 

Gulo luscus. 

Lutra rhoadsii. 
Canidae : 

Canis priscolatrans. 

C. dirus? (C. indianiensis) . 

Urocyon ciuereoargenteus. 

U. latidentatus. 
Felidffi : 

Machairodus gracilis. 

Smilodontopsis mercerii (Smilodon). 

Folis eyra. 

F. inexpectata (Uncia). 

Lynx calcaratus. 



Into this list there are admitted 60 species, of which 54 are mammals. Of 
these, 41 are extinct, not counting the doubtful species unless there is good 
reason for it. There are, therefore, 68 per cent of the species extinct. 

No remains of Rana were mentioned by Cope in his list of 1899. One 
species unnamed was recorded by Wheatley in his lists of 1871 and by 
Mercer in his paper of 1899. The turkey (Meleagris superbus) was not 
included by Cope in 1899, but it was included by Wheatley and Mercer and 
Cope in their papers of 1871 and in that of Cope in 1896 (p. 378). Mercer 



PENNSYLVANIA. 313 

(1899, p. 280) mentions a leg-bone of a turkey, with spur, found by 
Wheatley. Remains of Megalonyx were abundant, but of M. loxodon 
only a single tooth was met with. Mylodon, believed to be M. harlani, 
was found only by Wheatley and was represented, as stated by Cope, by 
only a claw phalanx. The horse remains were originally (Cope, 1895, 
p. 447) referred to Equus major {=E. complicatus). Mercer, in 1899, in 
his figure 9, following Cope's nomenclature, uses the name E. complicatus. 
In 1899, Cope concluded that the equine remains represented two races of 
Equus jraternus, E. /. fraternus and E. /. pectinatus. The present writer 
believes that the teeth referred to the subspecies jraternus are too large to 
belong to the species which was called E. fraternus, but which is now called 
E. leidyi. Only a single species of tapir, Tapirus haysii, was recognized. 
Cope (1895, p. 447) stated that it was the most abundant of the larger 
mammals. Cope (1899, p. 257) reported that 18 individual peccaries were 
represented by teeth, while bones were numerous. He recognized the pres- 
ence of three species. The identifications of Mylohyus nasutus and M. 
pennsylvanicus were uncertain. A new species, M. tetragonus, was based on 
a ramus of a lower jaw. Milk molars were yet present and the third molar 
had not appeared. Cope spoke of the long diastema; but, to judge from 
his figure, the diastema equals only about the length of the milk molars 
and the first molar. 

Cope, in 1899, described Teleopternus orientalis, basing it on a few teeth 
which belonged to three individuals. He was doubtful about the family 
position of the animal, but put it provisionally in the Camelidse. In many 
respects the teeth resembled those of the Cervidse. Matthew (Osborn, 
Age of Mammals, p. 469) has suggested its affinity to Ovibos. 

Two species of deer were found in the cave, of which one was not distin- 
guishable from Odocoileus virginianus. In Wheatley 's second list of 1871 
and that of Cope of the same year there was recorded an undetermined 
species of Bos (Bison). Mercer (1899, p. 280) recorded from the Wheatley 
collection remains of three individuals of one species of the same genus. 
In Cope's paper on the remains of this cave nothing is said about the genus; 
but in 1872 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, xii, p. 96) he stated that Bos was 
represented by a part of a femur and some other bones. Hence in the list 
given above an undetermined species of Bison is included. 

Abundant remains of the mastodon occurred in the cave, but none of any 
of the elephants. One need not, however, on that account conclude that 
elephants were not living in that region at that time. 

It will be observed that a considerable number of rodents is included in 
the list. One species of porcupine is recognized. This was at first regarded 
by Cope as an extinct form and called Erethizon cloacinum; but in 1899 
he referred all the remains, with some doubt, to the existing species, 
E. dorsatum. Cope found remains of about 50 individuals of a species of 
rabbit which he determined as Lepus sylvaticus, but this is now called 
Sylvilagus fioridanus. In the Wheatley collection a species of bat was 
recognized and put in Vespertilio. Probably it belonged to Myotis. 

Bears were abundantly present in the cave. One species, Arctotherium 
haplodon, was larger than the grizzly bear and represented by parts of 



314 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

about 25 individuals. A smaller bear, indicated by 8 individuals, appeared 
to be in no way different from the existing black bear, Ursus americanus. 
Of skunks there are listed 7 species, belonging to 3 genera, all the species 
being extinct except a supposed Mephitis putida. Besides these mustelids, 
there have been identified remains of the existing badger, the existing 
glutton, an extinct weasel, Mustela diluviana, and an extinct otter, Lutra 
rhoadsii. Remains of true dogs were not abundant in the collection. Cope 
recognized, however, 2 species of the genus Canis, one of about the size 
of the more common form of the existing wolf; the other exceeding in size 
the largest wolf known to him. This he thought might belong to Leidy's 
Canis indianensis (=C dims Leidy). There were present 2 foxes, the 
existing gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and an extinct species, 
U. latidentatus. Of the cat family a species, thought at first to be a 
hyaena {Crocuta), received the name Felis inexpectata. It had the size 
of the jaguar, and was represented by teeth and various bones. An extinct 
lynx, much like Lynx rufjus, was present. Another cat was identified as 
Felis eyra. Of this species G. S. Miller (Bull. 79, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 116) 
remarks that its type locality is Paraguay and that it is supposed to range 
north to Central America. It appears somewhat doubtful, therefore, that 
the fossil remains belong to this species. Nevertheless, the progenitors of 
the species, in their wandering from Asia or Alaska to Central America and 
Paraguay, might have sent a colony into Pennsylvania, later to become 
extinct. Cope stated (1899, p. 250) that there was an isolated calcaneum in 
the collection which was of the proper size for Felis eyra, but which differed 
from that of this species. Two species of saber-tooth cats were found, 
Smilodontopsis gracilis and S. mercerii. The former is represented by 
various bones and teeth, especially by a damaged skull which presents the 
dentition. The crown of the great canine is 113 mm. long. 

Besides the species included in the list given above, there are a few whose 
presence for one reason or another is doubtful. In both of his lists of 1871 
Wheatley reported the presence of Crotalus, Coluber, and Tropidonotus 
(Natrix). Cope (1871, p. 98) said that the reptiles included three or four 
serpents, but in 1895 (p. 447) he wrote that two species of Ophidia were 
recognized. In his final paper he mentioned only his Zamenis acuminatus, 
here referred to Coluber. Wheatley (1871, p. 255) recorded an unidentified 
snipe as belonging to Scolopax. Cope (1871, p. 98) wrote that a snipe was 
one of two species of birds present. Mercer (1889, p. 280) recognized the 
same remains as belonging to a species of Gallinago. Wheatley in his last 
list (1871, p. 384) and Cope (1871, p. 98) reported Scalopvs (Scalops) as 
being represented by an undetermined species. It is catalogued by Mercer 
in the same way. Cope (1895, p. 447) stated that the raccoon was very 
rare; but it was not mentioned in any of his later papers. On the same 
page he wrote that there were fragments of teeth closely similar to those of 
Bassariscus astutus; but the species was not mentioned afterward. 

As already said, there are admitted into the list given above, as identified 
in a reasonably good manner, 60 species, of which 54 belong to the Mam- 
malia. It is a matter of interest to compare these with the species of 
mammals which were living in that general region before the fauna was 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



315 



disturbed by the arrival of the whites. The number of species of the 
existing mammals, as shown in the second column, is obtained from Rhoads's 
"Mammals of Pennsylvania and New Jersey." The subspecies are not 
included. 

Families of land mammals represented in Port Kennedy Cave and those 
that have lived in that region within Recent times, together with the 
number oj known species in each family at each of the two epochs. 



Families. 


No. of 
species. 

Port 
Kennedy. 


No. of 
recent 
species. 


Families. 


No. of 
species. 

Port 
Kennedy. 


No. of 
recent 
species. 


Megatheriidse . . . 

Didelphidse 

Equidae 

Tapiridse 

Tagassuidae 

Camelidae? 

Cervidae 

Bovidse 

Elephantidae . . . . 

Sciuridae 

Castoridae 

Cricetidse 


5 

2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
7 


1 

2 
1 

6 

1 
9 


Zapodidae 

Erethizontidae . . . 

Ochotonidae 

Leporidae 

Soricidae 

Talpidae 

Vespertilionidae. . 

Procyonidae 

Ursidse 

MusteUdae 

Canidae 

Felidse 


2 

11 

4 

5 


2 
1 

2 
5 
3 
8 
1 
1 
9 
3 
3 





In the column of fossils there are 54 species; in that of the Recent there 
are 58 species. Of two families represented at present in the region, but not 
included in the Pleistocene column, Didelphidse and Procyonidae, the latter 
named has had remains referred to it with doubt. Without doubt members 
of both families existed there at that time. 

Of the families of the Pleistocene column two no longer live anywhere 
near the region; four nowhere on the continent; one nowhere on the earth. 
Even of such families as the Ursidae and the Felidae important elements, as 
Arctotherium and the saber-tooths, are extinct. Of the 54 species admitted 
in the Pleistocene column 40 are extinct; that is, 74 per cent. 

If we consider the sizes of the animals in question we gain this result: 
Only 15 of the existing species are of any considerable size, ranging from 
that of a raccoon to that of a bison, about 26 per cent. Of the 54 fossil 
species of mammals, about 30 vary in size as indicated, about 57 per cent. 
It is hardly to be doubted that this preponderance is due to the poorer 
chances which the smaller skeletons had of preservation and of rescue 
from the matrix. Had the smaller fossil species been preserved and col- 
lected in the same proportion that the smaller existing ones have to the 
larger, the cave ought to have furnished twice as many species of mammals 
as it did. It is, of course, possible that the larger species are more liable 
than the smaller ones to become extinct as time passes on. We can hardly 
doubt, in any case, that when the Port Kennedy animals were being buried 
in that cave there lived in that region a considerably larger number of 
species than within Recent times. There must have existed in that region 
more moles, more rabbits, more cricetids, more squirrels, and many more 



316 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

bats. Certainly there is no adequate record of the number of birds, snakes, 
turtles, and am])hibians that must have existed about Port Kennedy and 
have perished in that cave. 

From the collection that has been made in the cave at Port Kennedy some 
definite conclusions ought to be reached regarding their time of existence. 
In his account of the cave and of the exhumation of the animal and vege- 
table remains, Mercer (1899, pp. 269-286) has shown what extrem'e care 
was taken in recording the position which each specimen occupied in the 
deposits. In his figure 9 he has noted the levels which the various species 
occupied. While the existence of four beds of materials makes it evident 
that the deposition went on for some time, it is noted that few or no differ- 
ences exist in the character of the species included. Possibly Mercer's 
subdivision 1 is to be excepted in this statement. Certainly no great changes 
went on in the fauna while the cave was being filled; no such changes as 
occurred in the glaciated region from the Aftonian interglacial stage up to 
the Late Wisconsin. It appears more probable that the deposits in the cave 
and the animals entombed there appertain to about a single Pleistocene 
stage. Is, then, the stage the Late Wisconsin? 

This cave is situated only about 55 miles south of the Wisconsin moraine. 
At the time the species found in the cave existed they must each have 
occupied a wide extent of territory. It is not to be doubted that the range 
of nearly every species extended northward far beyond the moraine men- 
tioned. Why, then, in deposits overlying the Wisconsin drift have there 
never been found any remains of the four Port Kennedy species of Mega- 
lonyx, of Mylodon, of the two species of horses, of the tapir, of the three 
species of peccaries, of the deer Odocoileus Icevicornis, of the five extinct 
species of cricetids, of Ochotona, of the extinct species of Blarina, of the 
great bear Arctotherium, of the six extinct species of skunks, of the extinct 
otter, of the extinct dog, of the extinct fox, of any species of saber-tooth 
tiger, or of the extinct cats Felis inexpectata and Lynx calcaratus? The 
absence of so many species of animals, most of them of large siz«, from 
deposits so well adapted to preserve bones and teeth, render it very certain 
that the animals no longer existed there. 

Did the extinct species which are referred to above exist in eastern Penn- 
sylvania at some time during the Wisconsin glacial stage and perish before 
the close? 

A few of the species found in the cave and still existing are at present 
inhabitants of regions somewhat more northerly than Port Kennedy. Such 
are Erethizon dorsatum and Gulo luscus; but the great majority, living and 
extinct, indicate a climate at least as warm as that of the present; many 
of them suggesting a still milder condition. Within historical times both 
of the species just named have inhabited the Alleghany Mountains at least 
as far south as Port Kennedy. Cope, in 1871 (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 
vol. XII, p. 99), concluded that he had then identified in the cave remains 
of 11 neotropical species. It appears, therefore, wholly improbable that 
this assemblage of animals lived in that region, so close to the foot of the 
glacier, during the Wisconsin stage. These animals must have- had their 
time of existence previous to this inhospitable epoch. It seems to the 



PENNSYLVANIA. 317 

writer that the proportion of extinct species, three- fourths, and the history 
of many of the genera and species, indicate a time about equivalent to the 
Aftonian. 

Professor A. Heilprin (Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1895, p. 451) expressed 
himself as being inclined to refer this cave fauna to the Pliocene. An 
examination of this opinion would show that it is no more tenable than 
the opinion that the fauna is of the Wisconsin stage. It will not be discussed 
here beyond saying that deposits containing a similar fauna are found along 
the Atlantic coast from New Jersey to the Gulf, and that at one place at 
least, Vero, Florida, these are underlain by abundant Pleistocene sea-shells. 

Besides the vertebrates which have been listed, a number of beetles were 
found and about 10 specifically determined plants. Wheatley (1871, p. 385) 
presents a list of the beetles as determined by Dr. G. H. Horn, but the names 
were not accompanied by descriptions. When later (Trans. Amer. Entom. 
Soc, vol. V, 1876, pp. 241-245) Horn came to describe them he reduced the 
number of species and, in some cases, gave them other names. The follow- 
ing is a list as given in Horn's paper just cited: Cychrus wheatleyi, C. 
(minor), Pterostichus (spp. indet.) Cymindis aurora, Chloenius punctidatus, 
Diccelus alutaceus, Choeridiumf ebeninum, Phanmus antiquus, Aphodeus 
precursor. All of these, as the writer is informed by Dr. E. A. Schwarz, 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, are regarded as extinct, but as 
closely allied to species now living in that general region. The plants, as 
reported by Mercer, are Quercus palustris, Q. alba, Q. macrocarpa, Fagus 
ferruginea, Corylus americana, Pinus rigida, Carya porcina, C. alba, 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Crataegus crus-gallif , and all still flourish in east- 
ern Pennsylvania. 

Mercer (1899, p. 269) has given a description of the cave found in quarry- 
ing operations. It was located on the right bank of the Schuylkill River, 
at the village of Port Kennedy and about 2 miles below Valley Forge. 
Wheatley (1871, p. 236) gave a map which showed the position of the 
quarries. A comparison of this with the topographical map of Folio 162 of 
the U. S. Geological Survey shows that they were situated about 800 feet 
away from the river and facing the valley of an unnamed streamlet. None 
of the descriptions give the elevation of the cave above the river or above 
the sea. The river at that place is apparently about 70 feet above sea-level. 
The 100-foot contour-line runs along near the location of the quarries, but 
these may have extended back to a higher level. Putting all of the state- 
ments together, it appears probable that the mouth of the cave was, in 
Wheatley's time, about 50 feet above the level of the river. Originally the 
surface elevation may have been still greater, but may have been reduced 
by erosion of the hill. The surface rock here is red shale of the Stockton 
formation, belonging to the Triassic, and is underlain by the Shenandoah 
limestone, a member of the Cambro-Ordovician series. This limes.tone was 
being quarried in 1871, when a cave was broken into, filled with incoherent 
materials and exposing fossil bones in abundance. It was visited by Charles 
Wheatley, who proceeded to make excavations and collect the fossils. In 
studying the fossils he worked with Professor E. D. Cope and Dr. G. H. 
Horn. The results were published in Wheatley's two papers of 1871 and in 



318 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 



two papers by Cope in the same year (Proc. Arner. Philos. Soc, vol. xii, 
pp. 15, 73-102). According to Wheatley's description and his figures, the 
part of the cave seen was about 20 feet wide at the top, expanded below to 
about 30 feet, and then narrowed at the bottom, as then recognized, to about 
10 feet. The depth was given as 40 feet, but Mercer thinks that this was 

improbable and that Wheatley's 
measurements were to some extent 
guesses. Mercer (1899, p. 271) 
stated that this cave might be com- 
pared to a bottle of unknown size. 
It had opened to the surface; and 
on his page 283 Mercer spoke of it 
as forming a well-like hole that 
might have been as much as 70 feet 
deep. Evidently Mercer here in- 
cluded that part of it which he 
himself excavated. The materials 
filling it were, according to Cope 
(1871, p. 73), the debris of the 
neighboring Triassic strata. Figure 
11 is taken from Mercer's paper 
and is a reproduction of a sketch 
made by Wheatley in 1871. After 
Wheatley had made his collection 
the cave was covered over by 
debris from the quarry and for- 
gotten. 

In the course of further quarrying operations the same cave was broken 
into again in 1893. Excavations in the materials that filled the cave were 

EARTH 




Fig. 11. — Section of Port Kennedy bone cave 
at time of fiist exploration, 1871. Re- 
drawn from Mercer. 

M, M, Triassic shale; AL, Triassic shale; B, 
black clay, with leaves, etc. 







Fig. 12. — Section of Port Kennedy bone cave at time 
of last exploration, 1894. Redrawn from Mercer. 

made in 1894 by Dr. Samuel Dixon, H. C. Mercer, and others, resulting in 
the securing of the collection which formed the subject of Cope's paper of 
1894 and his final report of 1899. At this time, according to Mercer, the 



PENNSYLVANIA. 319 

quarrying operations carried on from 1855 had transformed a gently sloping 
hillside into an amphitheater several acres in extent, walled with perpen- 
dicular escarpments of rock, sometimes a hundred feet high. At this time 
the floor of the quarry had been lowered and the cave was broken into at a 
level below that reached by Wlieatley. Figure 12, reproduced from Mercer's 
figure 5, shows the relation of the later excavations to those of 1871. As 
already stated, Mercer concluded that Wheatley's dimensions were prob- 
ably results of guesses, inasmuch as the top of Mercer's exposure v;as not 
more than 30 or 33 feet below the original level of the hilltop. According 
to Mercer's figure 5, his own excavation probably extended down about 16 
feet below the level reached by Wheatley; but other statements appear to 
make this somewhat greater. 

Mercer wrote that the materials filling the cave had been stratified by 
the action of water. He recognized four subdivisions, most of which stood 
higher around the walls than at the center of the cave. Of these subdivi- 
sions, the first and uppermost was supposed to mark the lowest level 
attained by Wheatley. It consisted of fine clay and loam of black color, 
intermingled with fine and coarse muck, in which were found some remains 
of small mammals, just what species was not stated. On his chart, his 
figure 9, a tapir is indicated as occurring in it. Subdivision 2 was com- 
posed of from 4 to 11 feet of sandy clay, with fragments of sandstone and 
limestone, from small ones up to about 2 feet in diameter. In this matrix 
there were numerous bones and teeth of large animals, but it lacked small 
ones and vegetal matter. Subdivision 3 was a sandy clay, blackened by 
vegetable matter and containing numerous bones of vertebrates, large and 
small. The lowest subdivision, 4, was a zone which was followed down 
about 10 feet and which consisted of sand, clay, and stones, all of a yellow 
color. In this were found remains of the larger mammals, better preserved 
than in the upper subdivisions. At the lowest depth reached the excava- 
tion appears to have extended below the level of the Schuylkill River and 
the water came in so rapidly that further descent was not practicable. 

Mercer's theory of the filling of the cave is expressed in these words, on 
his page 277: 

"Enough had been seen to convince us that a fresh- water flood, rising to a level of 
from 15 to 20 feet above the present level of the hill-top, hence a general inundation of 
the whole surrounding country, bearing in its current the clay, stones, and earth of 
neighboring levels, had tumbled into the fissure, carrying with it the bones of creatures 
previously denuded of flesh and softened by decomposition." 

And further, on page 284: 

"Not unreasonably, therefore, we may suppose, not only that the creatures had 
perished together, but also that they had perished on the spot or at the chasm — not 
meeting this fate during a long interval of time, and through a long series of chance 
tumbles, but suddenly and by force of a common event." 

Are we to suppose that during some summer freshet animals in such 
numbers were swept away that those that were found in the cave, and 
doubtless many more which decayed utterly, were only the relatively few 
that happened to pass over that 20-foot hole? Where, then, were picked 
up all the other animals that must have burdened the swollen Schuylkill? 



320 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

Or did it possibly happen that all the animals that were swept away were 
in some unaccountable manner directed into that hole? If the current was 
strong enough to sweep along stones up to 2 feet in diameter, how did it 
happen to deposit there fine sand and clay, leaves, cones, seeds, and sticks? 
It is difficult to accept the theory that the filling of the cave was due to a 
catacylsm such as has been invoked. It seems far more probable that the 
mouth of the cave was open for many hundreds of years, possibly thou- 
sands of them, so that animals, plants, stones, and fine and coarse earth 
could in various ways get into it. Animals wandering about might inad- 
vertently fall in or be pushed in by the herd. Doubtless at some former 
time the Schuylkill flowed at a higher level than now, and during times of 
unusually high water might have risen to the level of the mouth of the 
cave and carried into it at each rise some mud, some vegetation, and some 
animals. The filling was quite certainly a slow process. 

To the writer the part of the cavern which was worked and pictured by 
Wheatley has all the marks of an enormous pot-hole, such as those which 
have been discovered at Cohoes, New York. While the latter appear to 
have been drilled out in late Pleistocene times, the Port Kennedy hole must 
have been fashioned during the early Pleistocene or even in the Pliocene, 
One may suppose that, after the pot-hole had reached the depth where the 
constriction was found, the water began to find its way out at the bottom 
through fissures or passages in the limestone. When this happened, the 
passages may have been enlarged mechanically or by means of solution, 
resulting in the formation of the various lower caverns. When the river 
had been lowered enough to reach only occasionally the mouth of the pot- 
hole, the latter became choked first by the coarse materials now found in 
subdivision 4, and afterwards by finer sand and mud. 

Some vertebrates of the late Pleistocene or early Recent observed at 
Carlisle deserve consideration. 

In 1850 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. ii, 1849, pp. 352-355) Professor 
S. F. Baird gave an account of his explorations in the caves in the region 
about Carlisle, Cumberland County. One of these caves was near Carlisle, 
and in it Baird found a large number of animal remains. A second cave, 
the situation of which was not given, was on the top of a hill and was a 
vertical shaft 30 feet deep, which opened into a large gallery. It furnished 
a skeleton of a bear, but this appeared to have only recently fallen into the 
cave. Another cave was on the bank of the Susquehanna, 0.5 mile below 
a railroad bridge. It was, therefore, probably near Harrisburg. The 
entrance was in limestone rock, nearly vertical, and 20 feet deep. Here 
Baird found many bones, embedded in mud, but of these he obtained only 
a few. Another cave, apparently nearby, which Baird spoke of as "the main 
cave," furnished some of his specimens. Still another cave, probably in 
the same neighborhood, was the source of his most perfect specimens. This 
presented a series of galleries near the roof and these were reached by 
ladders. These galleries were filled with mud, and in this mud the bones 
were buried. The number of species w^hich he obtained, he reported, was 
nearly twice the number living there at the present time. Of these fossil 
species he estimated that about 5 per cent were extinct. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 321 

Baird appears never to have completed his study of his collection. His 
list designates the animals only by their vernacular names. The mammals 
consisted of panthers, lynxes, wolves, foxes, otters, bears, muskrats, deer, 
beavers, and rabbits. There were bird remains in great quantities, and 
these included wild turkeys, some of great size, swans, wild ducks, and 
pcficans?. There appeared to be 8 or 10 species of tortoises. Bones of 
snakes were quite common; also scales and vertebrae of fishes, and a lower 
jaw of a salamander. In the uppermost 2 or 3 inches of mud were many 
relics of Indians. 

Baird supposed that these bones had in most cases been washed in from 
above through sink holes. This collection, or some of it, was brought by 
Baird to the Smithsonian Institution; and they, or some of them, are in 
the collection of mammals; but the bulk of the collection has apparently 
been lost. All of these animals belong evidently to either the very late 
Pleistocene or to the Recent period. 

A cave at Frankstow^n has furnished fossils of about Middle Pleistocene 

time. In 1908 (Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. iv, pp. 228-233) and again in 

1912 (Proc. Internat. Zool. Congr., Boston, 1907, pp. 748-752), Dr. W. J. 

Holland gave an account of the discovery of vertebrate fossils in a fissure 

in limestone rock at Frankstown, Blair County. This village is situated on 

the Frankstown Branch of Juniata River, a little more than 2 miles north 

of east of Hollidaysburg. The fissure was excavated in a Devonian rock 

known as the Lewistown limestone. The quarries are reported to be in the 

village and on the top of a hill that rises about 400 feet above the banks of 

the Juniata. According to the Hollidaj'sburg topographical sheet, the 

920-foot line crosses the river just above the village. The highest hill, 

1,260 feet above sea-level, is 0.3 mile away toward the northwest. In this 

hill, as Dr. Holland stated, there are several small caves. The one which 

furnished the fossils appeared to be about 40 feet in length, averaging from 

6 to 8 feet in width, and at the most was not more than 10 or 12 feet high.. 

The floor was about 30 feet below the top of the hill. The fissure appeared 

to have once continued up to the surface, but the opening had been filled 

with fallen blocks of limestone. The floor of the cave is described as being 

occupied by about 2 feet of red soil, everywhere traversed by bands and 

layers of dark materials charged with organic matter. With the finer 

deposits were mingled fragments of rock, some being large blocks. The 

fossil remains appear to have been carefully collected, but were mostly 

fragmentary. They were only cursorily studied at the time of Holland's 

writing and nothing has since been published on them. The number of 

species obtained was estimated to be from 30 to 40. The following genera 

and species are mentioned: 

Melcagris sp. indet. Ondatra sp. indet. 

Megalonyx sp. indet. (p. 31). Erethizon sp. indet. 

Tapirus sp. indet. (p. 203). Lepus sp. indet. 

Mylohyus pennsylvanicus (p. 214). Ursus americanus. 

Odocoileus virginianus (p. 227). Arctotheriiim haplodon. 

Cervalces? sp. indet. Mephitis sp. indet. 

Bison sp. indet. Canis sp. indet. 

Mamraut americanum (p. 69). Felis? sp. indet. 
Sciurus sp. indet. 



322 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

After the foregoing had been put in type Mr. O. A. Peterson, of tlie 
Carnegie Museum, sent the writer a revised list in which additions are 
made. The following are the most important: 

Cryptobranchus sp. indet. Cania priscolatrans? 

Rana catesbiana? Spilogale putorius. 

Clemmys insculpta. Brachyprotoma putorius. 

Blarina sp. indet. Bootherium bombifrons. 

.(Enocyon dirus. Equus sp. indet. 

Besides these forms, remains belonging to bats, various birds, snakes, and 
batrachians have been recognized. Of the fossils identified generically or 
specifically those belonging to Megalonyx, Tapirus, Mylohyus, Cervalces, 
Mammut, and Arctotherium are certainly extinct. Probably, too, the bison 
and the species of Felis are extinct. There are, therefore, pretty certainly 
close to 50 per cent of the species which are no longer living. This per- 
centage and the history of some of the genera make it improbable that the 
assemblage belongs to the Late Wisconsin stage. Some of them could hardly 
have been living during the Wisconsin, when the foot of the glacier was 
within 100 miles toward the northeast and northwest. On the other hand, 
there are no species or genera present which make it necessary to refer the 
collection to the first interglacial. The assemblage probably belongs to the 
middle Pleistocene. 

Coming now to the very southwestern corner of the State, we find that 
Elephas columbi has been met with in the bed of Hargues Creek, 3 miles 
above Rogersville, in Greene County (p. 150) , and E. primigenius on Gray's 
Fork of Ten Mile Creek, near Graysville (p. 133). In the Rogersville 
Folio (No. 146, U. S. Geol. Surv.), Dr. F. G. Clapp described the geology of 
this quadrangle. On his page 10 he briefly discussed the meager Quaternary 
deposits of the area. These he referred to the Carmichaels formation, and 
indicated his opinion that it belonged to very early Pleistocene. On the 
geological map it is represented as occurring along Ten Mile Creek at and 
just below Rogersville. The occurrence of a tooth of Elephas columbi just 
above this town and of E. primigenius just above Harveys (p. 133) renders 
it probable that other patches of the formation exist further up the stream 
and along some of its branches, and that the fossils were derived from that 
formation. It is, of course, possible that small patches of a later deposit 
exist there. 

Reference has been made to the Carmichaels formation. The type locality 
is found at Carmichaels, on Muddy Creek in Washington County. The 
geological description of the locality has been presented by Marius R. 
Campbell in the Masontown-Uniontown Folio (No. 82, U. S. Geological 
Survey). The formation occurs extensively along Monongahela River and 
other streams of western Pennsylvania. For information the reader should 
consult the Geological Survey Folios Nos. 144, 146, 121, 82, and 177. The 
deposits occur at levels considerably above the present streams and are 
regarded as having been laid down in old and now abandoned river chan- 
nels and in tributaries of these. The time when this occurred is believed by 
many, if not most geologists to belong to the early Pleistocene, the Kansas 



PENNSYLVANIA. 323 

stage, or possibly the Nebraskan. In the opinion of some geologists the 
glacial ice dammed the streams and caused their valleys to be filled with 
detritus. More recent Pleistocene deposits, possibly of Wisconsin age, 
occur at lower levels in some places south of the Wisconsin moraine; and 
perhaps the age of some of them has not yet been recognized. When 
remains of vertebrate animals are discovered, it is of great importance to 
determine, if possible, the exact levels of their origin. 

On another page mention is made of the finding of a tooth of Elephas 
primigenius at Lone Pine (p. 133) , 7.25 miles south of southeast of Wash- 
ington. This village is on Little Ten Mile Creek. No details of the dis- 
covery have been received. From Folio 144 of the U. S. Geological Survey 
it is learned that patches of the Carmichaels formation are found for sev- 
eral miles along Ten Mile Creek, near the southern boundary of the quad- 
rangle. It seems probable that there may be patches of the same deposit 
along Little Ten Mile Creek, in the neighborhood of Lone Pine. 

As detailed on page 70, a mastodon tooth was found many years ago 
about 1.5 miles south of the village of Hickory, Washington Countj^ about 
twenty miles southwest of Pittsburgh. Westland Run empties into 
Chartiers Creek, and this into the Ohio at Pittsburgh. The geology of 
Burgettstown and Carnegie Quadrangles has been described by E. W. Shaw 
and M. J. Munn (Folio 177, U. S. Geol. Surv. 1911). No Pleistocene 
deposits are mapped on the stream mentioned; but just a little lower down, 
on Chartiers Creek, is a patch of the Carmichaels formation. Below Hick- 
ory somewhere there must be a Pleistocene deposit of some kind, and it is 
more probably early than late Pleistocene. 

From the vicinity of Pittsburgh there have been reported remains of the 
mastodon (p. 69), of Elephas columbi (p. 150), and of an undertermined 
species of elephant (p. 168). Neither of the elephants is certainly deter- 
minable. The mastodon, represented by fragments of bones and teeth, is 
said to have been found in the river-bank, at the junction of Monongahela 
and Allegheny Rivers. It is impossible to determine the Pleistocene stage to 
which any of these proboscidean remains belong. As shown on the geologi- 
cal map of the Carnegie Quadrangle (Folio 177, U. S. Geol, Surv.) there are 
indicated here Pleistocene deposits of early, intermediate, and late stages. 

Little information is furnished by a mastodon reported found on Dicks 
Creek in Butler County. The statements regarding the finding of elephant 
remains on French Creek near Meadville are vague and valueless (p. 168). 
Some remains of Elephas columbi have been found at Tryonville, at a depth 
of 7 feet (p. 150). The town is on the Wisconsin moraine and the elephant 
probably belongs to the Late Wisconsin. 

Nearly a hundred years ago a tooth of Elephas primigenius was reported 
from a place in Erie County, called Beaverdam (p. 133). From Mr. 
Clyde C. Hill, civil engineer, Northeast, Erie County, the information is 
received that Beaverdam is a cross-roads hamlet about 23 miles south of 
the lake, near the prolongation of the western New York boundary line. 
This is within the area covered by Wisconsin drift, and it is pretty certain 
that the animal lived there after or near the close of the Wisconsin stage. 



324 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

Just west of Erie a mastodon tooth has been found along Chase Creek 
(p. 70). Unless there are some unrecognized pre-Wisconsin deposits along 
this creek, the animal must have lived there at a time after the lake had 
retired to about its present limits. This would be near the very close of the 
Pleistocene epoch. The same conclusion must be arrived at from a study 
of the proboscidean remains (supposed to be those of an elephant) found 
at Girard. 

Brief mention is made here of finds of fossil vertebrates in Pennsylvania 
which have not yet been mentioned ; also, the localities are given where they 
are found, and citations of the pages where fuller descriptions are furnished: 

A horse has been reported from Rutherford, Dauphin County (p. 185), 
and a peccary, Platygonus vetus fp. 213), from Milroy, Mifflin County. 
Mastodons have been reported from Tunkhannock, Wyoming County; 
Berwick, Columbia County; Reading, Berks County; Jackson Township, 
York County; near Reedsville, Mifflin County; Chambersburg, Franklin 
County, and Bedford, Bedford County (see pp. 68, 69). Elephas primi- 
genius has been met with at Brookfield, Tioga County (p. 133) ; and 
somewhere about Chadd's Ford, in Chester or Delaware County (p. 133). 

OHIO. 
(Maps 35, 36.) 
The State of Ohio is partly glaciated, partly not. The unglaciated por- 
tion forms the southeastern border and constitutes close to 28 per cent of 
the whole surface. The glaciated area is mostty covered by the Wisconsin 
drift, which makes up 60 per cent of the whole surface. The remainder is 
covered by that part of the Illinoian drift-sheet which projects beyond the 
edge of the Wisconsin. This occupies about 12 per cent of the surface of 
the State. The unglaciated area contains Pleistocene deposits along the 
streams, especially along Ohio, Muskingum, Hocking, and Scioto Rivers. 
Probably the greater part of the materials forming these deposits were 
brought down the rivers which headed at the foot of the Illinoian and 
Wisconsin glacial ice-sheets. However, all that part of the country which 
was not covered by glacial ice was acted on by atmospheric agencies and 
suffered erosion. Hence abundant materials of non-glacial origin were 
swept down those tributaries of the Ohio which had their sources in the 
Alleghany region and down those which flowed through the unglaciated 
part of the State. Much of these materials was deposited along the banks 
of these streams and mingled with the debris from the glacial ice-sheet. 
Doubtless such deposits were being made during the whole Pleistocene epoch 
and were mostly swept away; or they may have been covered up by sub- 
sequent deposits; or the deposits of one stage may in many cases not be 
distinguishable from those of other stages. A perusal of chapter v of 
Leverett's monograph of 1902 (Monogr. U. S. Geol. Surv., vol. xli, 1902, 
pp. 228-252) and of the papers there cited, also of others published since 
that time, will impress the reader with the fact that an old drift, probably 
of Kansan or pre-Kansan age, has left traces of itself in Ohio just outside of 



OHIO. 325 

the terminal moraine of the Wisconsin drift. This is found especially in 
Columbiana County; but, according to Wright (2d Geol. Surv. Pennsylvania, 
Z, p. 207) it extends as far westward as Canton, Stark County. 

It is shown in Leverett's paper that the streams, especially the larger 
ones, of southwestern New York, western Pennsylvania, and eastern Ohio 
had, at some time preceding that of this old drift, been deeply excavated 
into the underlying rocks, and that these ancient channels had become filled 
b}^ the outwash from the older drift. Furthermore, terraces composed of this 
drift are now found along rivers of the region mentioned, at heights vary- 
ing from 150 to as much as 500 feet above the present streams. Those old, 
deeply excavated valleys may therefore have once been filled to the highest 
terraces and since that time have been re-excavated to the level of the 
present streams. The ancient rocky floors in many cases lie now from 
a few to some hundreds of feet below the beds of the existing rivers. It is 
easily possible that the bones and teeth of early Pleistocene animals may 
have been buried in such valley fillings and such terrace deposits. Again, 
remains of such vertebrates may have been buried beneath the glacial 
"fringe" that has been mentioned. In such cases it may be impossible for 
one who is not a glaciologist, perhaps not even for him, to determine the 
real age of the fossils. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance that a 
record be kept of the exact spot where the fossil was found, so that at some 
future time the geology of the locality may be studied by a competent 
person. Naturally, other information, as that relating to the kind of deposit, 
depth of burial, elevation of place of burial, and the like, is valuable. 

A discussion of the Illinoian drift-sheet, including that part found in 
Ohio, forms chapter vi of Leverett's work of 1902 (Monogr. cit., pp. 253- 
291). As shown by his plate ii, Illinoian drift covers a small area in the 
southwestern corner of the State, along Ohio River; then leaving the river 
and running first in a northeasterly direction, then directly north, it forms 
a narrow strip outside the border of the Wisconsin as far north as Richland 
and Holmes Counties. If it extends further east than this, it is concealed 
beneath the Wisconsin. It is to be expected that Illinoian drift will be 
discovered here and there in the greater part of the State beneath the 
Wisconsin where the latter shall have been penetrated in digging wells, in 
borings, and where streams have cut down through the later drift-sheet. 
In such places it will be possible to find remains of animals and plants 
buried in interglacial deposits laid down before the Wisconsin stage; that is, 
in either Sangamon or Peorian or even more remote times. On page 269 
of the work just quoted, Leverett mentions a case near Lancaster, Fairfield 
County, where a black mucky soil was found between the Wisconsin and 
the Illinoian drifts. On page 273 of the same work is mentioned the 
occurrence of logs and pieces of wood at Bethel, Clermont County, in a 
gravel-bed beneath the Illinoian drift. This might be interpreted as indi- 
cating a deposit belonging to the earliest part of the Illinoian or to the 
Yarmouth. 

The general aspects of the Illinoian drift are described by Leverett on 
his pages 270 to 285. 



326 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

Deposits of Illinoian age may occur bej'ond the border of the ice-laid 
Illinioan drift and even beyond the Wisconsin as the result of outwash. 
Leverett (op. cit., p. 285) mentions the occurrence of what appears to be 
an Illinoian terrace along Sandy Creek, near Waynesburg, Stark County, 
at 70 feet above the stream, while the Wisconsin terrace is hardly 40 feet 
above the creek. High-level terraces are found along Licking and Mus- 
kingum Rivers from Hanover, Licking County, to McConnellsville in Mor- 
gan County, and are thought to be possibly of Illinoian age, while lower 
ones belong to the Wisconsin. Illinoian gravels and cobble are likewise 
met with along Hocking River (Leverett, op. cit., p. 288) ; also along the 
Scioto from Chillicothe nearly to its mouth. On lower-level terraces other 
deposits of Wisconsin age are to be looked for. Again it is seen how 
important it is that accurate information should be sought regarding the 
exact spot of interment of any vertebrate remains, as well as the elevation, 
the depth, and kind of materials passed through. 

Map 35 has been prepared to show the distribution of the Wisconsin and 
Illinoian drift-sheets in Ohio. The driftless area, shown without shading 
of any kind, occupies the southeastern side of the State and forms a broad 
tract somewhat parallel with Ohio River. The Illinoian belt lies between 
this driftless area and the Wisconsin. Naturally it passes beneath the 
Wisconsin drift and probably underlies most of it. A part of the map is 
shaded by horizontal lines in order to show the position and extent of 
former Lake Maumee. This lake was an early predecessor of Lake Erie 
and emptied into Wabash River. The moraines laid down by the Wisconsin 
ice on its gradual withdrawal from the State are indicated by the stippled 
areas and by the letters at the sides of the map. Most of the names 
applied to these moraines in Ohio differ from the parts of the same moraines 
in Indiana. The Germantown, Eaton, and Englewood correspond to the 
Bloomington of Indiana; the Sidney to the Union City; the Loramie to 
the Salamanie ; the Celina to the Wabash ; and the Lima to the Fort Wayne. 

Map 36 shows the localities where Pleistocene mammals have been dis- 
covered in the State and the relation of these localities to the drift-sheets 
and the moraines. 

It is to be supposed that any animal whose remains are found in deposits 
overlying the Wisconsin drift lived there after the retreat of the ice-sheet 
from that locality. Any mastodon (maps 5, 7) that has been discovered 
within the area covered by the old Lake Maumee probably lived there 
after that lake had subsided. However, it might be possible to find along 
rivers, or deep cuts along railroads, animals that had lived there during 
Sangamon times; but this may be supposed to occur rarely. Mastodons, 
Nos. 34, 37, and 39 of map 7, probably lived and died after later Lake 
Warren had shrunken into Lake Erie. 

Most of the fossil vertebrates that have been found in Ohio belong to the 
Late Wisconsin; that is, they lived in their respective localities after the 
glacial ice had retired from those localities. A few fossils may be credited 
to an interglacial stage, Sangamon or Peorian, which intervened between 
the Illinoian and the Wisconsin. Inasmuch as in the area occupied by the 



OHIO. 327 

Illinoian drift this deposit may be cut through by rivers or railroads, it is 
possible that pre-Illinoian fossils might be discovered. 

A tooth of Elephas primigenius has been found at Waverly, Pike County, 
on Scioto River, as recorded on page 134. Along that river there are 
deposits of gravel and sand which were derived apparently from Illinoian 
drift, while below these Illinoian deposits is a Wisconsin terrace. The 
tooth above mentioned appears to have been found in a gravel-pit of the 
Norfolk and Western Railroad about the year 1900. The writer has not 
been able to secure any information as to the elevation of the pit. The 
elephant remains observed by Whittlesey along Scioto River, as mentioned 
on page 169, were probably buried in the Wisconsin terrace. A mastodon 
has been found in Pike County (p. 70) , but the more exact locality is not 
recorded. 

An important but apparently now lost and therefore indeterminable speci- 
men of elephant is that to which was given the name Elephas jacksoni, 
described on page 168. It was found in the northwestern corner of Jackson 
County, on Little Salt Creek, probably a short time before 1838. The 
probability is that it was found in Wisconsin deposits, but its age is possibly 
greater. According to Leverett (op. cit., pp. 120, 121, 289), there are in 
this valley deposits which were probably laid down during the Illinoian 
stage. An elephant skeleton is reported to have been dug up many years 
ago in the village of Beverly, Washington County (p. 169), on Muskingum 
River. Leverett (Monogr. xli, p. 157) states that glacial deposits belonging 
probably to the Wisconsin stage are found here at a height of 119 feet above 
the river. Inasmuch as the greater part of the village is below this level, 
the elephant probably belongs to Wisconsin time. 

Further up the Muskingum, at or near Duncan Falls, there was found 
about 1857 a tooth of Elephas primigenius (p. 135). The animal probably 
lived and died there at a time when the Wisconsin glacier was not far away. 
Other remains of the same species have been described from Zanesville. 
The bed which contained these is said to be at a height of 37 feet above 
the river and 20 feet from the natural surface of the ground. Inasmuch as 
drift outwash, believed to be of Wisconsin age, is built up here to a height 
of 100 feet above the river (Leverett, op. cit., p. 157), it is wholly probable 
that the elephant, like the one just described, lived in the vicinity of the 
Wisconsin ice-front. At Nashport have been discovered in swampy ground 
remains of Castoroides (p. 273) and of Mammut (p. 70). Although there 
is at Hanover, Licking County, across Licking River, a great dam of sup- 
posed Illinoian age and probably more or less hidden deposits of the same 
age along the river, the giant beaver and the mastodon just mentioned may 
not be older than the Wisconsin. Nevertheless, as they were found lying 
on gravel at a depth of 14 feet, they may have been buried there during 
the Sangamon stage. Along the eastern border of the State, in Columbiana 
County, on Salt Creek, in the southwestern part of the county, there was 
found, about 1845, a tooth of a horse (p. 186). It was discovered while 
a canal was being excavated and at a depth not to exceed 12 or 15 feet. 
The locality is apparently some miles south of the Wisconsin moraine. The 
animal lived there evidently at some time preceding the Wisconsin drift 



328 PLEISTOCENE GEOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE FOSSILS. 

stage, possibly after the Illinoian, but quite as likely before the Illinoian. 
Not far away from where the horse was discovered, apparently on Little 
Yellow Creek, and probably not far from New Salisbury, there was found, 
about 1850, a fragment of the lower jaw of a tapir (p. 203). It probably 
lived at about the same time that the horse did. Near Millport a tooth, 
referred to Elephas primigenius, has been found (p. 135). The locality 
is beyond the Wisconsin moraine, but it is impossible to determine whether 
the beast lived there early or late in the Pleistocene. 

At this point may be mentioned the discovery of remains of a peccary, 
supposed to be Mylohyus nasutus (p. 215) , and of Mammut americanum 
(p. 70) in the southern edge of Lisbon, Columbiana County, apparently 
along Middle Fork of Little Beaver River. This locality is on the border 
of the Wisconsin drift-sheet, and the peccary and the mastodon might well 
have lived there with the horse and the tapir mentioned above. 

Not many localities within the area of the Illinoian drift in Obio have 
furnished vertebrate fossils. 

Lyell in 1843, as stated on page 71, reported that teeth of mastodons 
and of elephants had been found on the Cincinnati side of the river, on the 
high terraces. 

From Professor N. M. Fenneman the writer learns that Lyell's reference 
could hardly apply to any other locality than Terrace Park or Milford. 
Here are found some fragments of an Illinoian terrace that would hardly 
be spoken of casually as such, while the Wisconsin deposit is present as an 
upper and a lower terrace. 

In Hyde Park, as detailed on page 71, considerable parts of a mastodon 
and some remains of a horse (p. 185), probably Equus complicatus, have 
been discovered. The age of these remains certainly antedates that of the 
Wisconsin ; and it is not improbable that the excavation was carried through 
the Illinoian drift into an older and probably interglacial deposit. Pro- 
fessor Fenneman writes that this area is only thinly covered by Illinoian 
drift and is also far beyond the limits of the Wisconsin outwash. 

The occurrence of Bison latifrons near Fincastle, in Brown County (p. 
257), must be noted. The fine pair of horn-cores now in the Cincinnati 
Society of Natural History may have been buried in deposits of Sangamon 
age. It is not, however, impossible that they were in an interglacial bed 
below the Illinoian drift. 

On page 135 there has been given an account of the finding of a skull 
of Elephas primigenius, somewhat more than a mile east of New Burlington. 
The locality is treated in proper detail in N. M. Fe