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Daniel N. Eisendrath, M. D. 

Professor Clinical Anatomy, Medical Department, 
University of Illinois, Chicag-o. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

VOL. VII. " MAY 20th, 1901. NO. 1 

THE TIMELY DIAGNOSIS OF SURGICAL TUBER- 
CULOSIS. 
By Daniel N. Eisendrath, M, D. 

Professoi- Clinical Anatomy, MedicalDepartment University of Illinois, 
The timely diagnosis of surgical tuberculosis covers such a 
vast field that it will not be possible for me to do more than to 
refer briefly to the various forms of this formidable disease which 
shows itself in other portions of the body than those which we 
are accustomed to describe to-the domain of internal medicine 
The relation of these manifestations of tubercular disease to the 
duration of life is an exceedingly important one for the life in- 
surance examiner, for naturally enough cases will not present 
themselves, or rarely so, with active surgical tubercular lesions, 
at least, none of which the patient himself is aware of possessing- 
The majority will be those in which there has been some prece- 
ding disease in the skin, bones, joints, etc., and who desire in- 
insurance, in spite of such healed tubercular foci. The question 
at once arises, does not previous disease influence the duration of 
life? I am not prepared to answer such a question with statistics 
because none exist, except in the case of bone and joint disease 
where, as will be referred to later, 27 per cent, of those discharged 
as apparently healed, die later of pulmonory tuberculosis. We 
know% however, from general observation that the saying which 
is ascribed to von Bergmann, that every tubercular focus is a 
menace, is only too true, and no matter whether such a seat 
of disease ha« healed and remained so for a number of years, 
there is always considerable danger of recurrence in later life, or 



- :,.%'^c ^ The Phi^itsy;', 

of the development of pi(lmon^ry't\iDerculosis, so that we may in 
general say that if an applicant gives a history of a previous 
tubercular disease in any part of the body, he ought not to be ac- 
cepted on an equal footing with others. 

For purpose of life insurance the examiner must not go to 
work with the idea that he is going to make a diagnosis, but 
rather ascertain approximately how long will the applicant live. 
Many of the companies now^ have a class of what they call sub- 
standard or under-average lives, and based upon these cases are 
obsei'vations of all forms of impairment. Those who have been 
previously affiicated with surgical tuberculosis, in whom there has 
been no recurrence for a considerable number of years, say fifteen 
or twenty, might be accepted under this class. 

Surgical tubercular affections are seldom, if ever, primary. 
In the majority of cases there is some previous seat of disease 
elsewhere, as, for example, Koenig has pointed out, in the cases 
of tuberculosis of the bones and joints, to which I shall refer later, 
in only forty -pQY cent, of the cases is the disease primary; in over 
sixty per cent, foci are present in the lungs, glands, and otlier 
organs. This factor must also be thought of in considering long- 
evity, because the healing of the secondary focus does not neces- 
sarily imply the healing of the primary. The latter may remain 
latent for a number of years, and then suddenly the process be- 
comes active, often shortening life by a considerable period. 

In taking up the manifestations of sui-gical tuberculosis in 
the various organs. Lean of course only briefly refer to the diag- 
nosis and prognosis. As I have said before, the insurance exam' 
iner is not expected to be a diagnostician alone; but yet there are 
so many cases in which a surgical tuberculosis must be diag- 
nosed, that it will be of interest to take the organs up somewhat 
individually. I shall begin with the tubercular involvement of 
the lymph glands. 

The term scrofula was formerly applied to an enlargement 
of the cervicel lymph glands, and it and tuberculosis were re- 
garded as separate diseases. We now know that the majority of 
these cases are tubercular, and have abandoned the former term . 
The lymph glands are amongst the most susceptible tissues of 
the body to tuberculosis; next is the spleen, lung and the liver. 
Tubercle bacilli can remain virulent for years in glands without 
causing enlargement or symptoms, probably owing to the fact 



limeJji Dlagno^ii^ of Surgical Tiil>ercnl<i.fi!i. 8 

that the number of bacilli is too small. If the general nutrition 
is lowered, the few that are present have the opportunity to in- 
crease and the process may become quite active. Hereditary or 
acquired predisposition play but a slight role, especially in lym- 
phatic tuberculosis. 

With regard to age, it is most frequent between the ages of 
ten to twenty; in fact, seventy per cent, of the cases occur be- 
tween ten and thirty. The cervical- lymph glands are affected in 
ninety per cent, of the cases because the primary process is most 
frequent in the eyelids, the nose and mouth. 

Hyperplastic glands, which remain for years palpable in the 
neck, are almost invariably tubercular. Caries of the teeth is 
one of the most frequent causes, or. we might say more properly 
infection atrium for tuberculosis of the cervical lymph glands. 
The tonsils are also a frequent cause. The reason why tubercu- 
losis is so frequent in the young is sometimes explained by the 
fact that children in crawling on the floor inhale pulverized tu- 
bercular sputum. 

With reference to the significance of enlarged tubercular 
glands of the neck, the simple hyperplastic kind may remain 
perfectly normal; but in many of the cases pulmonary tubercu- 
losis develops later, the percentage from a large number of sta- 
tistics varying from ten to twenty-seven per cent. Prelat ob- 
served cases in which the glands enlarged one-half to one year 
prior to the development of the pulmonary tuberculosis. In 160 
cases observed in Heidelberg, twenty-six per cent, developed 
pulmonary tuberculosis, and fourteen tuberculosis elsewhere. 
Volland found in a large number of children examined 'v. the 
Swiss schools that between the ages of seven and nine years 
96.6 per cent, of the glandular enlargements were tubercular; 
between the ages of ten and twelve, 91.6 per cent. 

The bacilli in these cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are in 
all probability carried by the leucocytes to the lungs, becoming 
agglutinated to the capillary wall in the apex, especially if there 
is a coincident anemia. This is the indirect mode of infection. 
The direct mode of infection is that the leucocyte wanders 
through the lymph spaces into the pleural cavity, and then by 
an adhesive pleuritis attacks the lungs. The inhalation theory 
of tuberculosis has no longer as firm a foundation as it formerly 
had. 



5551)0 



4 The Plexus. 

Two-thirds of all persons carry tubercle bacilli latent in the- 
lymph glands through life. An isolated gland gives a better- 
prognosis than a diffuse and multiple enlargement. In children 
the prognosis is bad: later on it becomes better. Hereditary pre- 
disposition makes the prognosis worse. According to Von Berg- 
mann, every tubercular gland, every encapsulated tubercular 
focus is a menace. 

The differential diagnosis must be made from 

Syphilis. 

Hodgkins Disease. 

Pseudo Leukemia. 

Simple Inflammatory Enlargement. 

Suppurative Enlargement. 

Malignant Lymphadenitis. 

The peritoneum is especially susceptible to tubercular infec- 
tion, particularly in the female sex, due undoubtedly to the pri- 
mary disease being in the Fallopian tubes or uterus. The forms 
in which it occurs are tubercular ascitesj either encapsulated or- 
difl:'use, and fibrinoplastic peritonitis. In the first named, we 
have the ordinary evidences of a free fluid in the peritoneal cav- 
ity in the absence of the ordinary causes of ascites. There is 
not infrequently more or less elevation of temperature, and some- 
tenderness; in fact the temperature may sometimes completly 
resemble that of typhoid fever, as in one case which I saw, which 
was treated as a typhoid for several weeks before a cojrect diag- 
nosis was made. Such cases, with a slow onset, abdominal ten- 
derness, low continued fever resemble typhoid very closely. 
Other cases set in acutely with fever, abdominal tenderness, and 
the symptoms of an ordinary acute peritonitis. A striking pecu- 
liarity of tubercular peritonitis is the frequency with which it is 
mistaken for a tumor, due to the fact, (1st) that the omentum is 
frequently puckered up in this form of the disease; 2nd, to an en- 
capsulated exudate, the latter especially frequently being mis- 
taken for ovarian tumor, and, 3rd, by the great thickening of the 
intestinal coils. The enlarged mesenteric glands, which so fre- 
quently occur with peritoneal tuberculosis, may form quite large 
tumors. 

Primary intestinal tuberculosis arises most frequently from 
nfected ingesta. This is the form which occurs especially in 
nursing infants and young children because it is well known. 



Timely Diagnosis of Surgical Tuberculosis, 5 

that their intestinal tract is much less resistant than that of 
adults, and also on account of the fact that their nutrition is al- 
most exclusively milk. Undoubted cases of primary intestinal 
tuberculosis have been described in adults by Girode, Ronseff. 
Hermsdorf, Zahn, Wyss, and Melchior. In general, however, 
the majority of cases of intestinal tuberculosis in adults and 
older children are secondary. To show the frequency of intes- 
tinal tuberculosis as a secondary infection, Eisenhardt found it 
566 times in a thousand post-mortems of phthisical patients. Ac- 
cording to some authors the proportion is even larger. If the 
pulmonary tuberculosis improves, the intestinal form does so in 
direct ratio. 

In regard to the location of intestinal tuberculosis it does 
not equally aifect all portions of the alimentary canal. A favor- 
ite place is the lowermost portion of the ileum and the cecum 
which, according to some authors, is affected in eighty-five per 
cent, of the cases. In the esophagus and stomach it is rare, al- 
though it has been observed. The reason for its occurrence in 
the cecum is possibly on account of the stagnation of the fecal 
matter at this place, and also from the fact that the circulation 
both vascular and lymphatic, favors its development here The 
terminations of this form of tuberculosis may be either in re- 
covery, with or without the formation of strictures, in perfora- 
tion, in general infection, and death. Of chief interest from a 
surgical standpoint are the strictures. Perforation occurs in 
about five per cent, of the cases. 

In regard to the symptoms of intestinal tuberculosis, they 
are at first those of a simple catarrhal enteritis. In extensive 
disease the stools have a peculiar brownish-black color due to the 
admixture of blood. Diarrhoea is the most prominent symptom. 
The number of bowel movements 'varies from one to many, but 
always of very thin consistency. Constipation is very rare, but 
at times diarrhoea and constipation may alternate. There is sel- 
dom any spontaneous pain, but most frequently there is pain on 
movement of the bowels. If the pain is localized in the ileo-cecal 
region, there is frequently a tumor present, to which Durante 
and Billroth first called attention, and which has sometimes been 
taken for malignant growths. It has been maintained by some 
that many of the cases of carcinoma and lympho-sarcoma of the 
cecum have in reality been cases of tuberculosis. 



6 The Plexus 

In regard to the sex, Conrath in eighty-five cases found it 
thirty-six times in men, and forty-one times in women. As to 
age, over fifty per cent, were between twenty and forty years. 

The symptomatology of this form of localized tuberculosis is 
quite different from that of intestinal tuberculosis in general. 
There may at first be no symptoms; in fact, no abnormal pheno- 
mena from the alimentary tract in some cases. In others there 
may be dyspeptic symptoms; at times, an uncomfortable feeling 
in the ileo-cecal region. There is not the uncontrollable diarr- 
hoea of phthisical patients, but a constant change between con- 
stipation and diarrhoea. They are quite characteristic colickly 
l^ains, accompanied at times with visible peristalsis and borbor- 
ygmi. In the interval many cases have absolutely no pain; 
others have diffused pains in the abdomen, or in some the pain 
may be confined to the ileo-cecal tumor, the formation of an ab- 
scess and an external fistula. The tumor itself may not be felt 
for some time after these indefinite symptoms have appeared, 
and it may be frequently noticed by the patient himself. 

In regard to the duration, the tumor is usually observed one 
to two years before operation. 

In regard to the diagnosis, in the majority of cases the tumor 
is situated in the ileo-cecal region; it is hard and nodular, and 
does not move with respiration. On percussion there is a dull 
tympanitic sound. Upon filling the colon with air or water the 
tumor is made more prominent. A differential diagnosis must 
be made from actinomycosis, intussusception, sarcoma, fecal 
tumors, appendiceal tumors and carcinoma. 

These cases of localized tuberculosis should be absolutely 
refused as risks. 

GENITO URINARY TUBERCULOSIS. 

The epididymis is more frequently than the testicle the seat 
of acute infective processes which prepare the soil for the bacil- 
lus of tuberculosis. This fact may to a certain extent explain the 
greater frequency with which primary tuberculosis occurs in the 
former than in the latter. Councilman believes that the most 
common seat of the primary disease in uro-genital tuberculosis is 
the epididymis. From this the disease extends along the vas 
deferens to the seminal vesicles or prostrate. Prom the bladder 
the extension is in the direction opposite to the flow of secretion, 
with or without anv involvement of the ureter. From this infec- 



Timeh) Did gnosis: of SurgicnJ 7 uherculosis. 7 

tion of the pelvis of the kidney and of the adjoining kidney tissue 
takes place. Senn states that in his clinical experience the pri- 
mary starting point of urogenital tuberculosis has been in the 
epididymis in fifty per cent of the cases. Gonorrhojal epididymitis 
is mentioned frequently as a precursor and often imparts to the 
tubercular process a very malignant type. Such a case is re- 
ported by Birch-Hirschfeld. A soldier twenty-four years of age, 
in perfect health, contracted gonorrhoea vv^hich led to acute epi- 
didymitis, and in the course of eight days the patient died of 
miliary tuberculosis. Miliary tuberculosis v^^as found in the peri- 
toneum, pleura and other organs. The epididymis was trans- 
formed into a cheesy mass. The disease presents itself clinically 
in the form of a caseous inflammation or ulcerative suppurative 
catarrh. It is a very insidious disease. It is often overlooked 
by the patient for a long time; it is frequently preceded by a 
slight urethral discharge; usually begins in the globus major of 
the epididymis as a hard, almost painless, swelling, and the 
patient's attention is frequently called to it by a 
complicating hydrocele. The absence of any well- 
marked symptoms during the incipiency of the dis- 
ease is the reason why the cases come so rarely under the care of 
the surgeon at this time. Kocher regards as the most character- 
istic symptoms of tuberculosis of the testicle and epididymis 
rapid development of swelling, early softening of the inflamma- 
tory product, and the absence of acute subjective symptoms. 
Other authors, especially Senn, do not agree with this more rapid 
course of development, although cases of double galloping tuber- 
culosis of the testicle have been described. The disease may 
remain limited to one testicle, or after months or years may make 
its appearance in the opposite organ. As a rule, the vas deferens 
is early affected, infection extending along its entire length in a 
short time. From the vas defei'ens the disease extends to the 
seminal vesicles; from here to the lateral lob'^s of the prostrate. 
In the differential diagnosis we must consider acute and 
chronic inflammations and syphilitic affections. La tuberculosis 
the swelling in the epididymis is usually larger than in other 
forms of inflammation. Tenderness and pain, conspicuous symp- 
toms in gonorrhoeal epididymitis, are absent or slight in tubercu- 
losis. Tubercular inflammation is characterized by periodical 
exacerbations. The diagnosis of tuberculosis of the bladder is 



8 The Plexus. 

exceedingly difficult. It most frequently appears in the form of 
chronic inflammation, which, in the absence of tangible evidence- 
of infection from chronic obstruction, etc., should always lead to 
suspicion of the tubercular nature of the affection. The places 
where it most frequently commences are the ureteral orifices and 
the trigone of the bladder. Extension of the tubercular inflam- 
mation over the surface in the direction of the difterent coats of 
the walls of the bladder, is hastened in case the bladder becomes 
infected with pus microbes, which is so often the casvi. 

In regard to the symptoms, they frequently resemble those 
of stone in the bladder. If tubercle bacilli can be found in the 
urine the diagnosis is of course positive, in the absence of evi- 
dences of uro-genital tuberculosis elsewhere. Amongst other 
symptoms are frequent desire to urinate, vesical tenesmus and 
occasionally slight hematuria. Later on incontince of urine be- 
comes a conspicuous clinical symptom. Morphologically, the 
latter contains all the evidence of chronic cistitis. Senn states 
that the pain is to be compared with the pain in cases of stone in 
the bladder. It may be stated chat in tubercular disease of the 
bladder, pam is present before, during and after urination, but is 
not so much aggravated after emptying the bladder as in the case 
of stone. It is most acute about the middle of the act of urina- 
tion, increasing toward the termination, and subsiding slowly 
after the bladder is emptied. Tenesmus is also less severe than 
in vesical calculus. Pain at the end of the penis is also less con- 
stant and severe. Sudden stoppage of the flow of urine does not 
occur during urination, We must differentiate it from renal cal- 
culus, suppurative pyelitis, and tumors of the kidney and blad- 
der. Hematuria is never as profuse as in tumor of the bladder 
and usually is not constant. Pus appears in great quantity, 
especially when caseation and ulceration set in. In the sediment 
tubercle bacilli may be found. Not infrequently a cystoscopic 
examination, if it is possible to be made,' aids greatly in making 
the diagnosis. It is very difficult indeed to differentiate renal 
tuberculosis from vesical tuberculosis. The prognosis is always 
grave. Appropriate general and local treatment will prolong 
life. Cases in which permanent cures are effected are few. 

Through a more refined means of diagnosis we are now able 
to make the diagnosis fairly early in cases of renal tuberculosis. 
Many authors maintain that the kidney is' often the seat of pri- 



Timely Diagnosis of Surgical Tuherculosis. 9 

-mary tuberculosis; others that it is an ascending process, and 
that the kidneys are affected secondarily. The Jvidney may be- 
come infected by tubercle bacilli from the blood without demons- 
trable tuberculosis in any other part or organ of the body; sec- 
ondly, fi'om the blood as a secondary affection in pulmonary 
tuberculosis or other organ; thirdly, by continuity of surface and 
ascending tuberculosis of the genital organs. Roberts found it 
in 5.(3 per cent of 1,317 tubercular subjects which he examined 
out of a total of 6,000 bodies. 

In regard to the etiology, antecedent inflammatory infections 
and trauma are the conditions which most frequently determine 
tubercular infection. 

The symptoms of tuberculosis of the kidney are insidious in 
the onset, and none of them are pathognomonic. Often symp- 
toms of chronic cystitis precede those of the kidney for a long 
time, and in the absence of a local cause for the supposed cysti- 
tis renal tuberculosis should always be suspected. In the ascend- 
ing form the kidney affection is preceded by symptoms referable 
to the chronic inflammation of the lower portion of the urinary 
tract. In primary renal tuberculosis the extension from above 
downwards is, according to Senn, strong, if not positive, proof of 
the tubercular nature of the lesion. Pain is either slight or 
entirely absent unless there is obstruction of the ureter. There 
is usually more or less tenderness; vesical symptoms sometimes 
precede quite early the renal. There is always some rise of 
evening temperature, except in the advanced state, when there 
is more or less obstruction in the ureter if there is any swelling. 
Examination of the urine shows albumin, blood, pus, and debris. 
It rarely contains casts. Hematuria is seldom profuse, although 
several very interesting cases have been published lately of almost 
fatal hemorrhages as the first symptom of incipient tuberculosis 
of the kidney. One case is of sufficient interest to quote at some 
length. 

A young lady, twenty-four years of age, whose mother had 
a cough and hemoptysis, and whose two brothers died of pulmon- 
ary disease, was suddenly seized with severe pain in the right 
kidney, severe headache, and lassitude, followed by hematuria. 
The urine then became clear and the symptoms were repeated la 
three days. . The right kidney was palpable, but not enlarged or 
painful. Some catarrh of the apex of the lung; tubercle bacilli 



10 The riexus. 

were found in the urine: the kidney was cut down upon and tuber- 
culosis found. Bacteriological examination of the urinary sedi- 
ment is of great diagnostic value, and the tubercle bacillus can 
often, but not always, be found in the urine. General symptoms, 
such as anorexia, marasmus, hectic fever, etc , may be "present. 
Catheterization of the ureters is of the greatest value. The injec- 
tion of tubercular urine into the subcutaneous tissues or perito- 
neal cavity of guinea pigs or rabbits causes typical tuberculosis. 

The prognosis in tuberculosis of the kidneys is extremely 
grave owing to the progressive nature of the disease and the fre- 
quency with which it is bilateral. 

Tuberculosis of the bones and joints is seldom primary; that 
s to say, in abort sixty per cent, of the cases foci are found in 
other organs of the body, of which the lung comes first, with 
twenty-five per cent., other bones ten per cent., lymphatic 
glands ten per cent., peritoneum three per cent., and pleura two 
per cent. Trauma is a marked predisposing cause. The excit- 
ing cause, of course, is the tubercle bacillus. Pain is almost a 
constant symptom, but may vary greatly in intensity. Fre- 
quently it is more severe during the night. It may be referred 
to the affected bone or joint, or to some other point, as, for ex- 
ample, the in hip disease to the knee. There is usually more or 
less tenderness; not infrequently swelling; interference with the 
function of the joint, and evidences of an intraarticular effusion. 
The primary focus is more frequent in children in the bone; in 
adults, in the joint. Many neglected cases of joint of tubercu- 
losis die of pulmonary or general tuberculosis. Koenig, from a 
table of 117 operations for tuberculosis, found, after four years, 
sixteen per cent, had died from general tuberculosis. Every per- 
.son who has suffered from an attack of osteal or joint tubercu- 
losis during childhood or youth, even if an apparent cure has 
been effected spontaneously or by operative measures, is always 
in danger of becoming the subject of reinfection from the pri- 
mary or osteal focus at any subsequent period. The prognosis 
is more grave in persons advanced in years than in children on 
account of the rapidity with which the diseases spread in adults. 

According to the statistics of some authors the vertebrae are 
most frequently affected; next in order the knee and foot, hip, 
nand, elbow, etc. 

The x3rognosis of tubercular arthritis depends upon the treat. 



Timrhi Diagnosis of /Surgical Tni}erciih>sis. 11 

ment instituted and upon the degree of local disease. In general 
it is more favorable if in a bone than if in a joint or internal or-, 
gan. . Billroth stated that twenty -seven per cent, of those who 
had joint tuberculosis died within sixteen years of pulmonary 
disease. 

It is hardly necessary for me to refer to tuberculosis of the 
tendon sheaths further than to say that it is regarded in as seri- 
ous a light for insurance purposes, especially on account of the 
danger of future pulmonary or general tuberculosis, as previous 
joint or bone disease. 

Tuberculosis of the skin occurs in the form of lupus, which 
is now universally accepted as a tubercular affection, and in the 
form of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis lupusis, most freqi.ent in 
middle aged persons; it attacks the nose, eyelids, cheeks and 
hands. In this form the small, red vascular nodules may or may 
not ulcerate. In the other form of skin tuberculosis there is a 
marked tendency to ulceration, with the formation of wart- like 
projections, giving quite a characteristic clinical picture. There 
is also an inoculation form, the anatomical tubercle incurred in 
dissection operations, etc. All of these forms of cutaneous dis- 
ease have only slight effect on longevity, although the adjacent 
lymph gland and later general infection must not be forgotten in 
considering the possible duration of life. 

There are two forms of tuberculosis of the rectum. There 
is a form of ulceration in the tubercular subject which attacks 
the tissues in and about the rectum, manifesting no evidences on 
the outside. I had occasion to see such a case not lon^ since in 
a man, about thirty-five years of age. He discharged some mu- 
cus each day, which was accompanied by a good deal of tenes- 
mus, and, at times, blood. Examination of the rectum showed 
ulceration just above the sphincter muscle, oval in shape, hav- 
ing all the peculiar characteristics of a tubercular ulcer. It 
must be differentiated from syphilitic and gonorrheal ulcerations. 
Another form of tubercular disease of the rectum is the 
chronic fistula-in-ano. Among the old authors the idea was pre- 
valent that a discharge from this fistula in phthisical patients 
had a modifying influence on the disease. Consumptives are 
frequently the subject of fistula. But there are many cases in 
which tubercular fistula often precedes by a considerable length 
of time a demonstrable pulmonary disease, In any person in 



12 The Plexus. 

whom we have a long-standing fistulain-ano, and microscopical 
examination of the tissue conforms the suspicion of a tubercu- 
losis, the prognosis must be exceedingly guarded, owing to the 
fact that it is often only a forerunner of the pulmonary condi- 
tion. The ordinary fistula as the result of the rupture of an 
acute periproctitic abscess is not tubercular, and patients who 
have been operated upon three to five years before an insurance 
examination with such a history may be regarded as safe risks. 
Where, however, a fistula has existed for years without any pre- 
ceding acute symptoms the subject is to be regarded with sus- 
picion. Tuberculosis of the eye shows itself in the form of an 
iritis which often necessitates enucleation. 



INJURIES OF THE EYE. 
Oscar Dodd, M. D. 

"Surgeon (EyeDepartment), Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary. 

Wounds of the eye are of such a variety that it would be im- 
possible to even mention the different conditions that might 
occur. I shall therefore simply describe a few cases that have 
occurred in my practice, as illustrative of the different problems 
they present, and some of the means of handling them. 

WOUNDS OF THE EYELIDS. 

As the eyelids are easily drawn out of shape by any cicatrices 
that are left, it is of great importance to secure prompt healing in 
good position Whenever the lid is cut through it is necessary to 
sew up the conjunctiva as well as the skin in order to prevent re- 
traction as well as infection from the under surface. A few weeks 
ago a child, three years of age, was brought to me at the Eye and 
Ear Infirmary with a bad wound of the eyelids caused by falling 
from a high chair on a broken cup. The upper lid was torn 
loose at the outer end so that it was hanging by a narrow 
piece at the center and the lower lid was cut through. The cor- 
nea and ciliary body were so badly cut that the eyeball could not 
be saved. Alter sewing up the lids carefully, bringing both the 
conjunctiva and the skin into perfect position, I did an eviscera- 
tion of the eyeball and filled the sclera with iodoform and stitched 
it up. This was done to make as large a stump as possible and 
prevent sinking in of the lids until the child is old enough to wear 
an artificial eye. A glass ball is used for the same purpose but I 
have found the iodoform to answer very well. The eyelids 
healed well, leaving only a narrow scar, with no adhesions to 
prevent the wearing of an artificial eye, as would have been the 
case if the wound had been allowed to heal in bad position. The 
removal of an eye from a young child is to be avoided if possible 
as the orbit does not develop properly and they have much 
trouble in wearing an artificial eye. 

CONTUSIONS OF THE EYE- 

Blows on the eye with the fist or a blunt instrument may 
rupture the eyeball, although it is far more rare than one would 
think considering the number of such a,ccidents. As an illustra- 
tion of this kind of an injury: A man came under my care at the 



14 'ihe Plexus. 

hosp ital with the history of having been hit with a fist the night 
before. The lids were badly swollen and chemosed, the eyeball 
was soft and to the nasal side of the cornea, under the conjuncti- 
va, was a large mass consisting of part of the choroid and ciliary 
bod}^ that had been forced out. This portion of the sclera, near 
the corneal margin, is weakest and most likely to rupture from 
a blow. The eye was filled with blood and vision was gone. 
There was nothing to do but remove the eye to pi'otect the other, 
but he refused to have it done, preferring to take the risk of 
sympathetic ophthalmia. 

Blows on the eye do not have to be so severe in order to pro- 
duce serious results. A young man came to me a few months 
ago with the history of having been struck on the upper eyelid, 
over the eye, with a knotted whiplash. The lid was slightly 
marked but the eyeball had no outward sign of an injury. At 
the back of the eye, however, the choroid was torn for quite a 
distance. This is possible on account of the sclera being the 
more elastic coat. The rupture in his case was accompanied by 
a small hemorrhage and involved the macular region, which is so 
necessary for clear vision, so that his sight was permanently im- 
paired to a considerable extent. 

PENETRATING WOUNDS OF THE EYE. 

Penetrating wounds of the eye are always serious and usu- 
ally more so than they seem at first. Some time ago a little boy 
was brought to me to determine the nature of a spot that was 
growing on the front of the eye. Abut two weeks before he had 
fallen and cut the forehead and eyelids with broken glass, but 
they did not know that the eye was injured. The physician who 
attended him said there was nothing wrong with the eye, but "a 
few days later they noticed the spot, which was growing larger. 
I found a small cut in the cornea through which a part of the iris 
wa.s protruding, forming a d^irk colored cyst and preventing clos- 
ure of the wound. Such wounds are easily infected and it was a 
fortunate thing that the eye in this case had escaped such a fate. 
After removal of the encysted iris the wound closed leaving the 
iris adherent at one point to the posterior surface of the cornea, 
producing an irregular pupil but otherwise quite normal. 

When dressing a wounded eye care should be taken not to 
mistake the prolapsing iris for a foreign substance. A young 
man came to me recently who had been struck over his glasses, . 



Injuries of the Eye. 



15 



driving the pieces through the lid into the eyeball. The doctor 
who attended him, seeing the prolapsing iris, and thinking it a 
foreign body, pulled out nearly the whole iris. 

Should infection of the wound take place, so as to cause a 
loss of part of the cornea, the results are not only serious as re- 
gards sight, but may also necessitate the removal of the eye. 
When the cornea is perforated the iris falls against the back of 
the wound and fills the gap. The weakened cornea, with the iris 
adherent to it, is not able to withstand the pressure of the fluids 
in the eye and bulges, forming a staphyloma such as is seen in 




Cut No. 1. 
Staphyloma following ulcera- 
tion and perforation of the cor- 
nea. The iris is adherent to the 
back of the cornea completely 
shutting off the drainage through 
the angle between the cornea and 
iris into the canal of Schlemm. 
This produced the increase of 
tension which made it necessary 
to enucleate the eye. The lens 
is in place. The optic nerve was 
cupped but does not show in this 
specimen. 



cut No. 1. Another factor also entering into the production of 
the bulging is that when the iris falls forward in this way the 
principal source of drainage of the fluids from the eye, the spaces 
of Fontana at the angle between the iris and cornea, is closed. 
That causes the condition known as secondary glaucoma, in which 
the pressure of the fluids in eye is greatly increased. 

If the lens should be injured the problem may be quite dif- 
ferent for we have the swollen lens to care for. In young people 
this is usually absorbed without any interference but in older 
people a comparatively simple wound may prove to be a hard 
problem to deal with. A few years ago I was called to see a 
woman, aged 37, who had injured her right eye two weeks before 
with a large needle. While sewing^^carpet the thread broke and 
the needle perforated the cornea near the centre and also went 



16 • The Plexus. 

through the lens capsule. She had no pain at first but later the 
lens swelled and at the time I was called the eye was very hard 
and the pain was intense. The swollen lens had pushed the iris 
up against the back of the cornea so it was impossible to open 
the eyeball as usual, to relieve the tension. I managed to make 
a small opening through the cornea, however, and relieved the 
tension by removing part of the lens, and the remainder was ab- 
sorbed. Unless the tension had been relieved at once the sight 
of the eye would have been destroyed, as such an increase is soon 
followed by destruction of the optic nerve. She was fortunate 
to save very fair vision in the eye after its recovery. There is 
one point that should always be remembered in estimating the 
damage of such an injury, namely, that an eye with the lens 
gone, even when good vision is obtained with a correcting glass, 
is of little assistance as long as the other eye remains as before, 
for they do not work well together. 

There is one region in the eye where even the smallest wound 
is very serious, not only to the injured eye but also to the other. 
We designate this region, over the ciliary body, as the "danger- 
ous zone," for when that is injured we have the double danger of 
shrinking of the globe of the eye and of sympathetic ophthalmia. 
Wounds in this region, which at the time appear insignificant, 
may be followed by the most serious results. A few years ago a' 
boy came to my clinic at the Eye and Ear Infirmary to see if any- 
thing could be done to restore his sight. About a year before he 
fell on the sidewalk and a small nail penetrated the eye in the 
region of the ciliary body. He was taken to an oculist who 
treated him and did not tell the parents the danger of such a 
wound or advise removal of the eye. A few weeks later trouble 
began in the other eyej and in spite of treatment his sight was 
destroyed in both eyes. At the time I saw him he could only see 
large objects, not enough to enable him to go about alone. Near 
the margin of the cornea was a very small scar where the nail 
had penetrated. Such a condition would have been a good basis 
for a mal-practice suit. The patient should always be warned of 
the danger of sympathetic trouble and the necessity of watching 
an injured eye carefully for a long time. Even if the eye quiets 
down after the injury, sympathetic trouble may begin at any 
time from a slight blow, or even without any known cause. 

That sympathetic trouble may occur a great many years after 



Injuries of the Eye. 



17 



the injury was well illustrated by a patient whom I had under 
observation for a long time. He had his right eye injured over 
16 years before I saw him and had an operation on it by a noted- 
oculist. It had shrunken into a small, hard lump, and he said it 
had never troubled him. He had tried to wear an artificial eye 
but the socket was so badly shrunken from the injury that it was 
impossible for him to do so. He had had a mild inflammation of 
the remaining eye for about a year, sufiicient to hinder him from 
working part of the time. I found an intiammation of the choroid 
and ciliary body which would subside under treatment but would 
return soon after the treatment was stopped. I did not at first 
think the stump of the injured eye had anything to do with the 
trouble, as he never had pain in it, and it was not inflamed or 




Cut No. 2. 
Injury of the lens and ciliary 
body. The part of the lens show- 
ing white is breaking down and 
near that point is an exudate 
from the ciliary body. The re- 
tina Is hazy from the inflamma- 
tion and the cloudiness behind 
the lens is an exudate into the 
vitreous. The ciliary body and 
iris on the side opposite to the 
injury appear about normal. 



tender to touch when under my observation. After having him 
under treatment for several months I saw one day that the stump 
was some inflamed and tender to touch. I immediately advised 
removal of it to which he consented a short time after. Follow- 
ing this the inflammation subsided and he has had no return of 
the trouble since, a period of over two years. Such a case is 
particularly instructive, for it was impossible to tell what had 
been done to the eye at the time of the the operation on account 
of the changes that had taken place in the stump, and also the 
fact that it had gone nearly 16 years without giving trouble. 

In cut No. 2 you will see the great damage that may take 



18 



The Plexut. 



place in the eye with very little outward sign. The eye was 
struck by the broken end of a wire rope near the margin of the 
cornea. The cut did not seem to extend through the cornea, and, 
although the eye was considerably inflamed at the time I was 
called in consultation, I did not advise removal. It was found 
necessary to remove the eye later, however, on account of the 
severe pain and irritation of the other eye. It can be seen by 
the cut how extensive the changes were. The ciliary body had 
been injured as w^ell as the margin of the lens. Such a wound 
would have produced atrophy of the globe even if sympathetic 
inflammation had not occurred. 

WOUNDS OF THE SCLERA. 

Penetrating wounds of the sclera back of the ciliary body 




Cut No. 3. 
Purulent exudate into the vit- 
reous following- a penetrating- 
wound. Back of the lens is a yel- 
low mass and the whole vitreous 
is opaque and filled with exudate. 
It has shrunken some, separating 
it from the coats of the eye. The 
eyeball was quite soft before re- 
moval. 



usually heal readily unless infection takes place. The vitreous 
is such a good medium for the growth of bacteria that infection 
must be guarded against very carefully until the w^ound heals 
completely. A good illustration of the condition when infection 
takes place is given in cut No. 3. The eye was struck with a 
piece of metal back of the ciliary body. About five days later it 
began to get soft and the pupil gave a yellow reflex; almost a 
sure sign of pus in the vitreous. You will see by referring to the 
cut that near the point of injury there is a yellow mass, a begin- 
ning purulent destruction of the vitreous. Removal as soon as 
we are sure that will be the result is advisable, for if the puru- 



Injuriesi of the Eye. 19 

lent destruction goes on and produces panophthalmitis there will 
be great pain and removal of the eye in that condition is attended 
with the danger of meningitis. 

FOREIGN BODIES IN THE VITREOUS 

Penetrating wounds of the eye with retention of the foreign 
body .usually require immediate attention in order to save the 
eye. When the lens has not been injured and there has not been 
too large an amount ol hemorrhage into the eye we can usually 
see the foreign body and locate it with the ophthalmoscope. If 
it is impossible to see the fundus of the eye we have two other 
means of determining the presence of a foreign body — the X ray 
and the Haab magnet. The Haab magnet is a large, stationary 
one, with a conical point, capable of lifting several pounds. 
When an eye in which is a piece of steel is brought near to it the 
patient can usually feel the pulling on the metal very distinctly. 

Cut No. 4. 
Detached retina, etc., following 
removal of metal from eye with 
magnet. The piece of metal is 
shown in front of eye. The eye 
had to be removed two years af- 
ter on account of a severe inflam- 
mation of iris and ciliary body. 
The retina is completely de- 
tached, being continuous from 
the optic nerve to the I'emains of 
the lens and the point at which I 
introduced the magnet in front. 
The iris can be seen fastened at 
its pupillary margin to the lens 
capsule and bulging forward 
forming an "iris bombe." 




This large magnet is also useful in removing the metal from the 
eye, as the entrance of the point of the magnet into the eye is 
not necessary as it is with a small one. The result of the mag- 
net extraction is very good in many cases, good sight being re- 
tained in a few, and the eyeball being saved in others with par- 
tial vision or none at all. About four years ago a young man 
came to me with the history of having betn struck in the eye by 
a piece of metal while at work in the machine shop of the State 



20 



The Plexus. 



University, about six months before. He did not have a great 
amount of trouble at the time but the sight of the eye had been 
growing dim. In the lower part of the fundus of the eye was a 
small piece of metal. About it there was a degeneration of the 
retina and choroid and the field of vision showed complete loss 
of sight in that area. Dr. Gradle and I operated on it by mak- 
ing an opening below, as near the metal as possible, and insert- 
ing the tip of a small magnet. After a few attempts the piece* 
measuring about one-eighth inch across, came out quite readily. 
The eye healed with no reaction and he wrote me recently that 
the sight had improved from what it was at the time of the oper- 
ation. While such results are quite frequently obtained, cut No. 
4 shows one of the less fortunate ones. The man from whom the 




Cut No. 5. 
Section of an eye in which a 
piece of steel was lodged for over 
four years before enucleation. 
The piece can be seen near the 
optic nerve. To the left of the 
lens is a light spot showing the 
place where it entered the eye. 
The lens was probably displaced 
in preparation of the specimen. 
There is atrophy of the retina 
and the entire uveal coat. 



The illustrations are made from 
photographs of half sections o 
eyes which were mounted in glyr 
cerine jelly according the Priest, 
ly Smith method. 



eye was removed, came to my clinic a few hours after having 
been struck in the eye by a piece of metal. It had entered near 
the margin of the cornea and wounded the lens in passing back 
into the vitreous. I made an opening in the sclera and extracted 
the piece with the magnet. The eye healed well but the heon- 
orrhage and destruction of the vitreous caused a detachment of 
the retina and loss of sight. This is the most frequent cause of 
failure in these cases, for if there is much disturbance of the vit- 
reous, detachment of the retina is sure to result. The eye was 
quiet until two years later when he had an accidental blow on it, 
producing such a violent inflammation it was necessary to enu- 



Injuries of the Eye. 21 

cleate it. I had saved the piece of metal which was extracted and 
so mounted it with the section of the eye. 

In the section of an eye shown in cut No. 5 is a piece of metal 
which had been in the eye for four years. At the time of the in- 
jury the eye was inflamed for some time and very painful, but the 
man did not know that a piece of metal had entered the eye. 
About four years later he again had a severe attaok of inflamma- 
tion and had the eye removed. The piece of metal about one- 
eighth inch in diameter can be seen lying at the back of the eye, 
having produced atrophy of the retina and other structures. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, 03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H. BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY, M. D.. D. N. EISBNDRATH, M. D., 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., THOMAS FAITH, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D. 

Associate Editors. L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editor, L- H. S. FRECHTLING, '03 

Class Editors: 

C. W. BURT, '01, W. M. FRENCH, 02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03 

M- R. MARTIN, '04. 



Faculty Departmetit, DR. W. A. PLSEY. Clinical Laboratory Dept , DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94. i Clinical Department, JOS. ZABOKRTSKY, '01 
Athletic " R. C. CUPLBR '01 Library Department. GRACE W. BRYANT. 

Advertising Solicitor, GEO. E. ROSENTHAL, '02. 
Publisher, H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, 813 W. Harrison St. 

Entered at Cliicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the .Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributionsof matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to tliat of publication. The publishers willnot hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS. unless sufflcient stamps are forwarded 



Some time ago we. sent out statements of indebtedness to the 
Plexus, and there are quite a number of subscribers who have 
not responded as yet. It will save us quite a little trouble by 
attending to this at once. 

» * 
* 

It was our plan to get out a change of design of cover with 

this issue and to make it more of a special number than we have 

but w^e have met with several reverses which we were unable to 



Editorial. I'i 

forestall and are disappointed in that we could not carry out our 
plan. Nevertheless we may be able in the near future to realize 
some of our anticipations. 

•X * 

* 

We are very desirous of sending the Plexus to each mem- 
ber of the senior class. We plan to make the Plexus a medium 
through which the members of the alumni may keep record of 
each other, and we can accomplish this to the greatest extent by 
the hearty co-operation of the alumni. Each alumnus should 
stand by the official organ of his Alma Mater. Be loyal. 

* * 
* 

Volume seven of The Plexus begins with this issue and we 
shall keep up the plan recently instigated and published at close 
of volume a Table of Contents, making it possible for our readers 
to have the volume bound in book form. We notice the number 
of subscribers is increasing who are going to have the Plexus 
thus bound. It makes a very neat book, giving the pictures of 
the members of the faculty and some of the alumni. 



•Alurppi Deparbmept, 



officers 1901-1902. 

President, A. J. Behrendt, '91, 93 Fowler St., Chicago; Vice- 
President, W. T. Stewart, '93, 978 Douglas Blvd., Chicago; Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, W. H. Berard, '94, 1107 W. Chicago Ave. 
' Chicago. 

'93. A. A. Absher, of Sibley, 111., was renewing acquaint- 
ances recently. The Dr. is enjoying a nice practice. 

'94. D. W. Evans, Scranton, Pa., was among the visitors to 
the college during commencement week. 

'94. E. J. Bradley is now located at Elkhorn, Mont. , having 
recently gone there from Iowa. He sent us a copy of the Mon- 
tana State Board examination questions recently, and any one de- 
siring to see them can do so by calling at the Plexus office. The 
Plexus wishes him success in his new field. 

'94. Joseph M. Dekraker, 61 W, Leonard St., Grand Ra pids 
-Mich,, was a recent visitor at the Plexus office. 



24 Th€ Plexus. 

95. Alfred Belitz is now located at Waumandeej Wis. He 
was formerly at Saa Jose, Cal. 

'96. T. J. O'Malley recently resigned his position as Physi- 
cian of State Penitentiary at Joliet, 111., and received most flat- 
tering testimonials from all those directly connected with the 
institution, showing that the Dr. has not only done his duty as a 
physician, but that he has made a great many friends. 

'99. F. D. Moore was recently appointed surgeon to Prazer 
& Chalmer's employee's aid association. 

"99. C. M. Coen was a recent visitor at the Plexus office 
He moves from Maroa, 111., to Belleflower, 111. 

99, J. W. Backus has passed examination to enter the navy, 
as surgeon. 

'00. P. E. North was a recent visitor at his Alma Mater. 



CLASS ROLL. 

Alexander, E. S. 

Amerson, W. H., 150 S. Sacramento Ave., Chicago. 

Ames, A. J., 1826 4th Ave., South, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Aplebaum, D., 589 N. Hoyne St., Chicago. 

Baumann, P., 703 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Bechtol, C. O., interne. Dunning Institution. 

Bennett, H. S., Moline, 111. 

Beyer, A. E., Guttenberg, la. 

Birk, J. W., interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 

Billig, G. W., with Dr. Webster, Euglewood, Chicago 

Boss, J. H., Plymouth, Ind. 

Bracken, G. P., Lemont, 111. 

Bradfield, J. H., LaHarpe, 111. 

Buechner, P. E. A., 1538 35th St., Chicago. 

Burke, E. W., Iowa Palls, la. 

Burt, C. W., Valley Junction, la. 

Buss, P. J., 634 Loomis St., Chicago. 

Cameron, W. L., Lead, S. Dak. 

Carpenter, Mrs. C. W., 1038 N. Clark St., Chicago 

Chassell, J. L., Iowa Palls, la. 

Church, E. E., LaPayette, 111. 

Clark, L. W. 



Class Roll. 25 

Couway, H. P., Elroy, Wis. 

Corbett, G. W., Depere, Wis. 

Corbus, B. C, interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 

Cory, W. B., 1056 13th St., Chicago. 

Coumbe, W. R., Muscoda, Wis. 

Coy, W. D., Canfield, O. 

Culver, Miss. L. L., Sycamore, 111. 

Cunningham, W. D., Youngstown, O. 

Cupler, R. C, Interne Chicago Hospital, Chicago. 

Dennert, P., Dubuque, la. 

Denny, A. R., 616 Foster St., Burlington, la. 

Diven, G. R., Augustina Hospital, Chicago. 

Dodson, C. A., 157 S. Wood St., Chicago. 

Dohrmann, G., Hamelsvorden, Prov. Hannover, Germany. 

Domer, W. A., Wabash, Ind. 

Donkle, A. DeF., Interne Augustina Hospital, Chicago. 

Dwyer, J. C, Women's Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. 

Eberhart, N. M. 

English, E. G., Interne German Hospital, Chicago. 

Fernow, J. A. W., 752 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Frank, M. 

French, G. M., Danville, 111. 

Galloway, G., 500 70 State St., Chicago. 

Garnett, Miss J. M., 753 Austin Ave., Chicago. 

Garraghan E. P., Interne St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Chicago 

Gorrell, T. J. H., 475 Oakley Blvd., Chicago. 

Gould, Miss H., 266 S. Lincoln St., Chicago. 

Gustafson, J. A., Galesburg, 111. 

Hanshus, J. W. 

Heintz, E. L., 518 Adams St., Chicago. 

Heilman, E. S., Ida Grove, la. 

Henbest, G. M., Black Creek, Wis. 

Hess, W. C, Yale, la. . . 

Hews, L. D., Rockwell City, la. 

Hoerrmann, B. A. , Augustina Hospital, Chicago. 

Hombach, W. P., Carroll, la, 

Howe, F. S., Interne Augustina Hospital, Chicago 

Hoxsey, R. P., Storm Lake, la. 

Hubbard, C. W., 1417 A Ave, Cedar Rapids. la 

Hunt, H. H., Independence, la. 



26 The Flexus. 

Irish, H. E., 2787 N. Robey St., Chicago 

Jacobs, M., Perth, Kau. 

Johnson, A. C, Horace, 111. 

Johnson, C. C, Wilton Junction, la. 

Jordan, M. S., Grand Mound, la. 

Kaeser, A. F., Highland, 111. 

Kellogg, J. R., Portage City, Wis. 

Kennedy, Miss J. C, Rochelle, 111. 

Kerrigan, G. P., 229 Walnut St., Chicago. 

Kinder, R. G. W., Elgin, 111. 

Kisecker, D. E., 376 Jefferson Ave., Greencastle, Pa. 

Koch, W. A., Pekin, 111. 

Kubicek, A. C, 435 S. Paulina St., Chicago. 

Little, Z., 363 State St., Chicago. 

Lampe, H. G., interne St. Anthony's Hospital, Chicago 

Lemon, H. K., 3031 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Lennon, A. J., 700 Herkimer St., Joliet, 111. 

Leonard, H. S., Liberty, Ind. 

Liggitt, F. L., Clinton, 111. 

Ling, P. B., 431 Ogden Ave., Chicago. 

Lockhart, C. W., Chicago Hospital, Chicago. 

Loope, T. R., Ironwood, Mich. 

Lorch, G. J., Bangor, Wis. 

Luehrs, H. E., Hay ton. Wis. 

Lanting, D. B., Drenthe, Mich. 

Major, W., Santa Mesa, Mexico. 

Martin, W. B., Weldon, 111. 

Martin, H. R., Bement, 111. 

Maxwell, J. C. 

Meadows, L. H., Waverly Junction, la. 

Meyer, E. F., 363 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago. 

Morton, F. R., interne Cook County Hospital Chicago 

McAuliffe, A. F., 1976 Fillmore St., Chicago. 

McCall, H. K., Ft. Dodge, la. 

McCall, F. B., 945 Turner Ave., Chicago. 

McClellan, C, 1301 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

McCoy, W. M., Clinton, la. 

McDonald, R. J., Columbus, Wis. 

McDowell, W. O., Waterloo, la. 

McDowell, W. D., Monmouth, 111. 



Class Roll. 27 

McGuinn, J. J., Interne Alexian Bros. Hospital, Chicago. 

McPherson, W. G., Toledo, 111. 

Nelson, E., 170 Locust St., Chicago. 

Newman, W. M., Deek Park, Wash. 

Noble, C. M., Interne Pon du Lac, Wis. 

Noland, P. D., Kouts, Ind. 

Oliver, C. I., Gilbert, la. 

Orcutt, D. C, 103 Adams St., Chicago. 

Palmer, J. M., Milton, Wis. 

Parker, W. R., Sterling, 111. 

Parry, I. A., Mankato, Wis. 

Peterson, H. P.. 133 Humboldt Blvd., Chicago. 

Petry, F., Akron, Ind. 

Peth, Mrs. V. W. W., 750 W. North Ave., Chicago. 

Poison, Miss N. D., Interne Francis Willard Hospital, Chicago. 

Pratt, Mrs. I. R., Austin, 111. 

Rhodes, O. M., Bloomingtoa, 111. 

Rich, Miss. K. B. 

Ridenour. J. E., Garrison, la. 

Ringo, G, R., Interne Cook County Hos^jital, Chicago. 

Robertson, W. F., Eagle Grove, la. 

Rolfs, T. H., Interne St. Mary's Hospital, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sage, E. D., Gobleville, Mich. 

Sawyer, F. B., Sidney, O. 

Scholtes, T. W., Read's Landing, Minn. 

Scofield, C. J., 7221 Jeffery Ave., Chicago. 

Sears, C. E., Rock Island, 111. 

Seifert, M. J., 803 N. Leavitt St., Chicago. 

Severson, W. R., North and Kedzie Aves., Chicago. 

Shaw, R. H., Lyndon, 111. 

Shanks, J. W., 41 Long Court, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Sherwood, H. H. 

Shook, W. E., Auburn, Neb. 

Smith, H. E., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Smith. J. T., 6365 Washington St., Chicago. 

Smedley, Miss I., Nashua, la. 

Sommers, J. C, Madison, Wis. 

Soegaard, E., 638 Clermont, Ave., Chicago. 

Sternberg, W. A., Mitchelville, la. 

Stilwill, H. R., Tyndall, S. Dak. 



28 The Plexus. 

Stober, A. M., Interne Cook County Hospital. 

Storck, W. 

Struthers, H. R., 240 N. Kedzie Ave., Chicago. 

Streich, E. A., Oshkosh, Wis., 563 7th St. 

Talmage, G. C, Brushy Prairie, Ind. 

Thorwick, Mrs. M. G., 622 N. Hoyne St., Chicago 

Tillmont, C. P., Centrevilie, la. 

Tracy, F. A., Lewiston, Mont. 

Turner, Miss A., South Bend, Ind. 

Turner, D. A, 773 E. 1st St.. Salt Lake, Utah. 

Ulrich, J. H., 709 Hay ward St,, Peoria, 111. 

Urquhart, R. T., South Bend, Ind. 

Van Horn, J. A., Ft. Sheridan, 111. 

Vestling, V, I., Marquette, Kansas. 

"Von Wadelstaedt, B., Deadwood, S. Dak. 

Wallace, F. L., 458 E. 45th St., Chicago. 

Wells, W. B., Milton, Wis. 

Wheat, F. C, Ida Grove, la. 

Willing, Miss B. L., 534 Adams St., Chicago. 

Wiltfong, C. O., 89S W. Harrison St., Chicago. 

Wiudrone, Mrs. A. S. 

Wright, C. F., Rock Island, 111. 

Yelton, Miss W. A., Yale, 111. 

Zabokrtsky, Joseph, Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 



HOSPITAL APPOINTMENTS. 

The following members of the class of '01 have received ap- 
pointments for hospital internships: 

Frank R. Morton. Cook County Hospital, exam., 4th place. 

A. M. Stober, Cook County Hospital, exam. ; 6th place. 

G. R. Ringo, Cook County Hospital, exam., 16th place. 

C. E, Sears, Cook County Hospital, (alternate 3rd). 

J. J. McGainn, Alexian Bros. Hospital, Chicago, exam., 1st 
place. 

H, G. Lampe, St. Anthony's Hospital, Chicago, exam., 1st 
place. 

E. G. English, German Hospital, Chicago. 

E. F. Garraghan, St. Elizabeth Hospital, Chicago, exam. 

J. W. Birk, West Side Hospital, Chicago, exam., 1st place. 



Hosp!t((l Appoint ments. 29 

Joseph Zabokrtsky, West Side Hospital, Chicago, exam., 
2nd place. 

B. C. Corbus, West Side Hospital, Chicago, exam., 3rd place. 
Carl Lockhart, Chicago Hospital, appointment. 
R. C. Cupler, Chicago Hospiial, appointment. 
Geo. R. Diven, Augustana Hospital, appointment. 
F. S. Howe, Augustana Hospital, appointment. 

B. A. Hoermann, Augustana Hospital, appointment 
A. DeF. Donkle, Augustana Hospital, appointment. 

C. M. Noble, St. Agne's Hospital, Fon du Lac, Wis., ap- 
pointment. 

T. H. Rolfs, St. Mary's Hospital, Milwaukee, Wis., exam- 
Ist place. 

Miss Nina D. Poison, Francis Willard Hospital, Chicago, ap- 
pointment. 



CLASS DAY PROGRAM. 
Piano Duo, Morceau de Concert - Rive-King 

Miss Alice M. Borgmeier, Dr. M. J. Seifert 
Invocation, 

Rev. William J. McCaughan 
Piano Solo, Polonaise No. 2 - Liszt 

Miss Alice M. Borgmeier 

Violin Solo, (a) Adagio de Concerto No. 5 - David 

(b) Polish Dance - - - Drake 

Mr. Robert Morris Staples 

Address, - - - Dr. William A. Evans. 

Ouartettp ^ ^ Zither, Violin ) Fantasie aus H Trovatore 

^ [11 Zither, Piano \ Feyertag- Verdi 

Mrs. M. J. Seifert, Mr. R. M. Staples 

Miss Anna Knutzen, Dr. M. J. Seifert 

Vocal Solo, Gipsy Love Song - - Herbert 

Miss Francesca Bairn 
Piano Solo, Rhapsodie Hongroise - - Liszt 

Miss Alice M. Borgmeier 
Presentation of Class Picture and Tablet, W. D. McDowell 
Response by the Dean, Dr. Wm. E. ,Quine, 



COMMENCEMENT WEEK. 

ISTotification of standing of graduates, Monday, May 20. 
Class day (C. A.) 2:30 P. M.. Monday, May 27. 
Alumni meeting (C. A.) 8 P. M., Monday, May 27. 
Graduating exercises, Studebaker Building, 2:30 P. M., Tues- 
day, May 28. 

Alumni banquet, Auditorium Hotel, 6:30 P. M., May 28. 



SENIOR NOTES. 

As with this issue my duties as class editor shall be severed, 
I wish to take this last opportunity to express my gratitude and 
thanks to those members of the class who were willing and did 
come to my assistance by sending in some news items when 
asked. Many do not realize what a task it is some months to 
collect news items especially in a quiet month. In such a time a 
few notes from outsiders is to the editor what a draft from home 
is to the freshman. Again I wish to thank the class as a whole 
for the courtesy they have shown toward the work. Of course I 
fully realize that some members of the class have taken offense 
at certain articles which were nor intended to be personal at all 
and were given with sincere respect toward the said individual 
or individuals. There never has lived an individual who could 
take a class of 180 men and women and exactly coincide in 
thought and action for one year and please each individual. I 
do not pretend to be an exception to the rule. I trust I have 
made no personal enemies, and I assure you all that you have my 
deepest respect and good wishes for your future success. There 
is a passage of scripture which says "Love your enemies," and I 
believe this a good time to apply the quotation. So if any one 
feels that he has been offended why "forget it," by knowing that 
it was not intended to be taken so seriously. Soon we shall be 
cast to the four winds, and perhaps some of us may at least be 
blown to the same state and perhaps county — so let us go out 
holding the memories of these past 3 or 4 years as sacred memo- 
ries and ever be loyal to the members of the class and the insti- 
tution of which we are a member. 

Too much reward cannot be given to the executive commit- 



N(Aes. 31 

"tee of the senior class. Their work has been much more ardu- 
ous and time-consuming than most of us are aware, yet every 
thing has been done in time and satisfactorily. They have met 
with the least opposition in their suggestion of any like commit- 
tee in the history of the institution. Meeting opposition only 
once I believe, and that was in regard to a class motto which was 
immaterial — otherwise their sailing has been . unobstructed by 
squalls. The programs which they selected are substantial and 
unique in every detail and are worthy to represent the institution 
from which they are sent. Any words that might be said in be- 
half of this committee are insufficient to express our gratitude 
toward them for the interest they have taken in the work, and 
with what efficiency they have carried it to completion. The 
class is to be congratulated that they have as their executive 
committee composed of such men that know just what the class 
wants and what they will be willing to put up for the same. In 
behalf of the class I wish to thank the committee for their un- 
tiring efforts in carrying forward their work as best they were 
able and to the best interest of the class. 

Dr. Quine, quizzing. Mr. Sternberg, give treatment for 
arthritis deformans. 

Mr. Sternberg. It is chiefly climateric. 
Dr. Quine. Is it climateric or climatic? 

Mr. Kisecher contemplates striking for Wisconsin just as 
soon as he has his diploma. He has in mind a town of about 
1,000 inhabitants and only one physician. We wish him much 
success in that cold climate, and trust we shall learn in the fu- 
ture that he is doing well. 

Mr. Jordan reports that he has awaiting his readiness a po- 
sition as assistant to his preceptor which guarantees him a sala- 
ry of $4,500 per year. Can you blame him -for not wanting a 
hospital job? If Mr. Jordan undertakes the work, its a cinch it 
will be done, and done well. The class rejoice with Mr. Jordan 
and congratulate him that he has awaiting such an opportunity. 
While he is waxing fat in his field of labor, he must not forget 
the number of his own class who are on the contrary becoming 
anaemic in the anticipation of an opportunity to test their ability. 
As the father of the class we all shall look to him for succor in 
-case of need. 



32 The Plexus. 

Dr. Lydslon, during the month, gave the boys two beneficiaT 
and certainly practical talks. Dr. Lydston is his student's friend 
and one to whom a student may approach without feeling that 
perhaps he has offended him by so doing. Dr. Lydston is truly 
a student in the full sense of the word. His command of the 
English language is self evident, that the words which are need- 
ed to best express his thoughts seem to flow readily from the 
fountain of knowledge which he has accumulated by his travels 
and careful stud3^ May we hear more of him. 

Mr. Gustafson was caF.ed home for a few days owing to the 
illness of his mother. Returning he reports that she was taken 
with an attack of pneumonia. We rejoice with him that no seri- 
ous results in cervened, but that his mother is now convalescent 
and prospects for return of health are evident. 

The great event of the year has come. We saw and we con- 
quered. Out of the eight men who wrote the examination for 
internship in the Cook County Hospital, five received places- 
Two of these go in the first of June, viz. : Messrs. Morton and 
Stober. Two others go in six months later who are Messrs. 
Ringo and Sears. Mr. McGuinn, receiving first place at the 
Alexian Bro.'s Hospital, resigned his place as first alternate in 
the Cook County Hospital, and accepted the position at the Alex- 
ian Bro.'s Hospital in preference. Our main competitor was 
Rush with her 22 men. Out of those 22 eight received places — 
giving us a better percentage for the number of men entering for 
the examination. All that we ask is our share. 

On May the 4th occurred the competetive examination for 
internship at the West Side Hospital. There are three places 
to be won. Five men reported for the examination. The three 
men receiving places in order were J. W. Birk, Joe Zabokrstky 
and B. C. Corbus. Mr. Birk and Mr. Corbus serve each an. 
eighteen months term while Mr. Zabokrstky will serve two years. 

Messrs. Diven and Howe immediately upon graduating go in 
the Augustina Hospital under Dr. Ochsner as externes to serve a 
term of four months. This is an excellent opportunity for them,, 
and we have no hesitancy in saying that Dr. Ochsner will find in 
them good and apt material out of which he can mold excellent 
doctors. They are to be congratulated that they^were the first. 



Xotes. 33 

to hand in their names for the position. It is an opportunity 
seldom picked up. 

Mr., W. G- Cameron, slyly but not secretly, of recent date 
took unto himself a wife. Mrs. Cameron is a graduate nurse of 
the West Side Training School. This alone speaks much in her 
behalf, for we always hear of the special fitness of the West Side 
nurses. Mr. Cameron is to be congratulated upon his selection 
of so amiable and competent a helpmate. We wonder why he 
had to take her away so early and not stay with his class to re- 
ceive his honors publicly and as a class? The congratulations of 
the class go with Mr. and Mrs. Cameron, and while we regret 
very much their absence on Commencement Day, we neverthe- 
less believe that they will be with us in spirit if not in body. 
May God's blessings go with them. 

One extreme follows another. First there is joy and happi- 
ness, then on the next mail a message comes reporting the death 
of a father. Just such news came to E. W. Burke early in May. 
Mr. Burke took the first train for home. The sympathies of the 
class go with him. More and more are we brought to the reali- 
zation that how uncertain is life. A shadow of darkness will con- 
front Mr. Burke during Commencement time, while many will 
seem never to have had sorrow to confront them in any form. 
Let us all join in with Mr. Burke and share this burden with him 
and perhaps by so doing we can make it seem lighter. This may 
be done in many ways which may be as gentle sun-beams and not 
as a veil of darkness. 

Mr. Geo. Dohrmann came to America from Hamelworden, 
Germany, when but 14 years old. He landed on American soil 
not knowing a single person and with but a few shillings in his 
jeans. Success as his aim he fought desperately onward, work- 
ing during the day and attending night school in the evening. 
His first study was stenography and typewriting. Having mast- 
ered these he received employment which brought him good 
money. His desire was to obtain a scientific education as well, 
so he began the medical course at Jenner Medical College of Chi- 
cago. Completing his' Junior year here he concluded to finish 
his course at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Yet not 
satisfied, and as soon as he receives his M. D., he expects to re- 
turn home and visit his parents and do a year's work in some 



34 The Fltxus. 

good school in Germany. Mr. Dohrmann is evidently what may-^ 
be termed a self made man, and may success be meted out to him 
in every undertaking. 

Dr. Wells to Miss Willing: '-Give a prescription containing 
Salicylic acid for rheumatism.'' 

Miss Willing: "Why, I'd give 10 grs. three times per day/ 

Dr. Wells: -'Yes 'um," how would you give it?" 

Miss Willing: "By the mouth.'" 

Von Wedelstaedt loaned his knife to Domer that he might in- 
vestigate the interior of a Dermoid tumor. Ask "Von" if he has 
succeeded in sterilizing his knife since? 

Dr. Ferguson came to his clinic one day and desiring to know 
what he did at his last clinic, so aslred Mr. Jacobs. Jacobs told 
him that he operated on a young man. You removed the vas 
differens and the vesiculse "semi-lunaris." 

Mr. Ames is the only member of the class who so far this 
year has gone against a state board. He took the Minnesota 
State Board in April, and reports that his returns were favor- 
able. Mr. Ames has a hospital position awaiting him in Minne- 
apolis. Andy is a lucky boy. 

Mr. Urquhart expects to locate at South Bend, Ind. , just as 
soon as he is foot free from Cliicago. 

W. D. McDowell, our class president, has gone and done like- 
wise, i. e., he has purchased a new covering for his head. It will 
be a question whether or not the old one was too tight or too old. 
There is no question in our president's case but that he concluded 
the old one too antique. If there is any person in the class which 
by the acquiring of knowledge will affect less than our president, 
why bring him forward. His head does not take those periodical 
spells of expanding in circumference and contracting. Of all the 
level headed men, "Mack" has proved himself to be one. As the 
wielder of the gavel he has carried the class tlirough the entire 
year in perfect peace and harmony, ever ready to comply to the 
wishes of the class if it were sanctioned by the majority. Too 
much honor and respect cannot be tendered McDowell for his 
kindness and interest he has shown toward the members of the 
class. We shall ever look back to our senior year and its class 
leader with respect and reverence. May success lay at his 
threshold of life. 



A'^otes. 35 

Mr. Fernow having demonstrated to Dr. Ferguson that he 
knows where the canal of Nuck is located, thinks now that he too 
will stop in Chicago. 

Many of the class have either hospital positions or are located 
already. Some have so designated. 

Mr. Geo. Galloway has located here in the city at 70 State 
St. No. 500. 

Mr. English has an interneship in a German Hospital here in 
the city. 

D. B. Lanting sets sail for Michigan. 

Mr. Heintz intends to remain in the city and make a specialty 
in Gynecology. 

Drs. Kaeser and Rhodes are going in together as partners. 
They may be found in Bloomington, 111., after June 15, 1901. 
This is nice that two classmates can have confidence in each oth- 
er's ability and thus go in "cahoots." We shall expect some 
good reports from the firm. 

Mr. Bradfield also intends locating here in Chicago. 

It is the intention of Dr. Von Wederstaedt to sail for Hono- 
lulu. Von says he wants some practice before operating on the 
civilized. 

Mr. F. A. Treacy may be found in Lewiston, Montana, a few 
weeks hence. 

Mr. Bracken has a hospital position on the North Side. 



THE LEGEND OF THE DOCTOR. 




Henry Herbert Slater, Class Poet, 
i. the country. 

Far beyond the western ocean with its glimmering gleam of 
light, 

At an age long since forgotten in time's swift and ceaseless 
flight, 

In a land where lavish nature spread her best gifts wild and free, 
In most wonderful profusion, yet with rarest harmony, — 
Lived a quiet race of people running out their sands of life,' 
Far secluded from the tumult of the world's unceasing strife. 
Hei'e no spirit born of envy sowed the seeds of discord wide. 
Here no haggard wolf of hunger swam the sea of famine's tide; 
Here no tempest's blast or earthquake drove the dweller to his 

death, 
Here no hot wind of the desert blew its torrid, withering breath; 
But a teeming .soil gave answer to the suns alluring heat, 
And a recompense unbounded rose the peasant's toil to greet. 

Flowers of fairest form and fancy shed their perfumesonthe air, 
Birds of bright and brilliant plumage colored gay the foliage 
fair: 



* Class Poem, Clafs of 1902, Collego of I'liysicians and Surgeons. Chicago 



Junior Poem. 37 

Mingled with melodious music of the songsters of the trees, 
Came the busy song of labor, wafted by the balmy breeze. 
Southward lay the dimpling ocean sending back the sky's bright 

blue, 
Ever changing with the sunlight, ever showing beauties new: 
Sprinkled o'er its ample bosom far as keenest eye could reach. 
Multitudes of tiny islands lured the boatmen from his beach, 
Step by step, enticing onward, with their beckoning beautie s 

grand, — 
Drawing the resistless wand'rer to the South's enchanted land 

Miles away toward the northland, with their glittering peaks of 

white 
Lifting to the arch above them one long line of glistening light 
Rising first by gentle stages from the peaceful plain below. 
Then abruptly leaping skyward, ending in perpetual snow, — 
Stood a range of lofty mountains, with their moss-grown ru n 

old, 
Keeping from the quiet valley's warriors fierce and bandit's bo 
Glistening in the changing sunlight like a stream of silver 

bright. 
Rushing down the rocky gorges from the snow-line's misty 

height, 
Rivulets of sparkling water sought the valley's restful shade, 
Passing onward to the ocean, slaking thirst of man and maid. 

II. THE LEGEND. 

Every Eden has its serpent — life goes hand in hand with death,. 
Summer's smiles are always followed by the chilly winters 

breath: 
And this land by nature perfect had its heavy load of grief; 
Life w^as but a scene of sadness — death meant but one long relief- 

Towering high above his fellows rose a mighty, massive peak, 
Those beside it but appearing dwarf-like pygmies, small and 

weak; 
Round its head the storm clouds linger, lightnings play and 

thunders crash, 
People look aloft with terror, starting at each vivid flash. 
Men rush round in helpless horror wildly seeking vain relief, 
Women kneel and clasp their children, trembling like a shaken 

leaf; 



iiS Ihe Plexus. 

For a fearful, frightful monster, with a hundred hands and feet. 
Made his den upon the mountain where the snows and vapors 

meet; 
And, refused an awful tribute by the multitude below, 
Swore aloud a mighty vengeance — vowed them deep, relentless 

woe. 
So he went to distant regions and for many weary days 
Gathered up the deadliest poisons — seeking out their devious 

ways; 
Found the insects that would torture and not take their victim's 

life, 
Keeping him in constant torment with the pain of endless strife. 
Then returning to his mountain thundered out his sentence loud, 
Unaffected by the pleadings of the hosts beneath him bowed. 
With a hundred hands he labored, stopping not to sleep nor eat. 
Heeding not the cold of winter nor the summer's scorching heat: 
Poison put into the rivers, caught the insects large and small, 
Blew his breath into their bodies, poisoned raindrops in their 

falL 
As the terrible tornado rushes on in furious haste, 
As the livid, lurid tire-cloud onward sweeps o'er blackened 

waste, — 
So disease with all its anguish wrought its havoc through the 

land, 
From the sunny, verdant foot-hills to the whitening wave- washed 

strand. 
Babes with sweetly smiling faces, dreaming of their toys and 

play, 
Woke with harsh and cruel choking, and ere came the dawn of 

day,— 
Lay with little forms enshrouded while their parents sadly said: 
" Twas the vile breath of the monsterfound our baby in his bed."" 
People drinking of the water from the rivers' pebbly shores, 
Siezed with burning, wasting fevers, lay for months within their 

doors; 
Others, bitten by the insects, when they sought the evening's 

breeze. 
Sickening in the warmest weather seemed to feel their life blood 

freeze; 
Peasants following the furrow bruised their feet upon the stones, 



Junior Poem. 39 

Seized with spasms and convulsions, died with most heart-rend- 
ing groans. 

Every form of human tortur§ had this awful poison brought; . 

Minds without the light of reason constantly for succor sought. 

Hideous sores their victims covered, breaking out with sickening 
stench; 

Bodies blackened by the roadside with no one to dig their trench. 

All the while the sun above them shed his choicest, lovliest 
smiles; 

And the breezes still swept landward, perfume laden from the 
isles. 

Pleadings went unto the monster, but in rage he listened not; 
And with crafty cunning added worse afflictions to their lot. 
Desperate grown, a youth of courage sought the spoiler in his 

den. 
Thinking he could slay the tyrant— bringing happiness again. 
Back he came, with face distorted, tongue extended cleft in 

twain; 
Eyes like fire from sockets bursting, body bent and racked with 

pain. 
But when asked about his journey, pointed to the mountain 

height, 
Crouching as he wildly muttered, quaking as in fearful fright. 

Living happy with her parents by the bright and billowy beach, 
Was a modest, mirthful maiden scarce beyond her girlhood's 

reach; 
Close beside them where the waters of the river reach the sea, 
Lived a youth by nature quiet, thoughtful far beyond degree, 
When the blissful days of childhood found them gleeful at their 

Oft he looked into the future, trying to divine its way; 

When the mark and mein of manhood changed the lighter form 

of youth. 
Oft he sought the merry maiden, gazed into her eyes of truth; 
Oftentimes, when tired and moody, seeking wisdom's ways to 

learn; 
Felt the impulse of her spirit, lighting up his visage stern; 
But at length a mutual feeling, taught them that they both were 

one 



40 The Plexus. 

And they pledged their love together 'neath the smiling summer 

sun. 
By her husband's side she wandered in his search for nature's 

lore, 
Soothing him in times of sorrow, adding to his learning's store. 
Often on some snowy summit caught the first bright beam of day 
Often in the shadowy twilight lost its last faint fading ray. 

When the summer's sunny solstice from the south returned once 

more, 
A new life with theirs was mingled, and their cup of joy ran o'er; 
How they planned its little future, thought of joys that it would 

bring; 
Life looked one eternal sunshine — hope breathed but the breath 

of spring, 
But the future had its shadow, and when scarce a week had 

passed, 
After hours of pain and struggling, child and mother breathed 

their last. 
As from place of final resting turned the father's saddened face; 
He had pledged ]-evenge undying on the slayer of his race. 

Where the human foot w^as stranger, built a habitation lone, 
Studied barks and leaves and rootlets, substances from earth and 

stone. 
Delved into their deepest darkness, walked the paths before un- 
bidden; 
Drew by long and tireless labors mysteries from others hidden. 
Then went back from depth of forest, over desert, hill and plain 
To release his loved country from the demon's direful stain; 
Made the people cleanse their houses, driving out the hidden 

foe. 
Taught them how to make the water harmless as the mountain 

.snow, 
Gave them dark, mysterious ointments to destroy the insects' 

bite, 
Kept the breath of mountain monster from the children in the 

night; 
Cured the sick ones of their illness, taught them of the ways of 

health. 
Also how to meet the cunning of the sly old monster's stealth. 



Junior Poem. 41 

So, a race of happy people occupy that land once more, 
Nature sending food and plenty to that shining sandy shore; 
Bu"" the demon of the mountain from his cave is watching still,~ 
Ever ready with his weapons, ever vigilant to kill. 
Many a time they think him sleeping, or forget and careless 

grow; 
But his ever ready poison seeks them out and lays them low, 

III. OUK CLASS. 

With our eyes upon the rainbow of the future's promise cast. 

And our backs toward the sunset of the dark and dismal past; 

With the goal of our ambition scarce beyond the reach of hand, 

Through the dim delusive hazes, look toward the promised land. 

We have passed through tearful trials, while with paper spread 
before, 

Racked our brains to find an answer from our mind's much mud- 
dled store. 

We are human — like all others — and with sorrow and remorse. 

Some have offered, like King Richard, all their kingdom for a 
horse; 

And for fear its size too ample was for passage strait and stony, 

Satisfied themselves by riding a more unpretentious pony. 

But while thinking that their broncos were unseen in stable 
tucked, 

Were perceived by the professors and like beauteous lilies 
plucked. 

This is painful — let's forget it — 'tis the nightmare of a dream; 

Turn our thoughts into the future, join its onward rushing stream. 

We have heard the wails of anguish rising from a stricken world, 
Heard the moans of dying warriors where the battle bolts were 

hurled, 
Seen the weeping widow watching lone beside her husband dead. 
Heard the plaintive voice of orphans in their feeble cry for 

bread; 
So, with souls detp stirred with pity, and with aim and purpose 

high, 
Have prepared us for our mission, answering the world's great cry. 
Though the bright and dazzling dollar feed the flame of hunger's 

fire, 
It will ne'er requite the longings of a soul by nature higher; 



42 The Plexus. 

Though it build a costly mansion, though it stem the nortn 

wind's cold, 
May our worth be never measured by a piece of gaudy gold. 

We shall meet man on his coming bare and naked to the earth, 
Wrap the first unshapen garment round his tiny body's girth; 
And when babies' croup and colic he has safely shaken off, 
Watch him through the scarlet fever, measles, mumps and 

whooping cough. 
0"er him watching in his boyhood, or, if he should be a she. 
Guarding o'er her growing girlhood just the same as if 'twere he 
Soothe the pains of indigestion from his wedding dinner's wealth, 
Praise his red-faced, unbleached infant, bring the mother back 

to health. 
When the strength of manhood weakens, and the gray of age 

appears. 
Ease the aches and pains of parting, cheer him in his failing 

years; 
When the dew of death has gathered on the ashen brow of age, 
Peel the last weak flickering heart beat, finishing his life's last 

page. 
Though the world be oft ungrateful, and hold back our rightful 

due, 
Though man cavil and abuse us, holding up to laughter's view; 
He will get quite deferential when he feels Death's icy clasp, 
And implore our skill and wisdom'to cast oif his tightening grasp 

When the moon in all her splendor sheds her pale light over- 
head. 
When all nature lies in slumber and to outward aspect dead, — 
On a lone and quiet roadway we shall view the starry skies. 
See the beautiful aurora with its shifting, changiug dyes; 
Scan the glorious eastern heavens, eager catch the dawn's first 

ray: 
See more glories in the moonlight, find new beauties in the day 
Learning more of our Creator, by his works in nature shown 
Never jarring tune harmonic with a harsh discordant tone. 
Ever true to Alma Mater, may we duty's pathway plod, 
Never sending luckless mortal prematurely to his Gcd 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

Miss Jones, who has been trying to renew her youth with a 
case of measles, has recovered sufficiently to resume her studies. 
Eddy also took an enforced vacation for the same reason. 

Hall is with us again, having recovered from an infection of 
the finger, contracted, supposedly, in the Pathological prepara- 
tion room. He had rather a serious illness, which necessitated 
removal of the axillary glands. We congratulate him on his re- 
covery. 

West furnished some amusement by stating the diet he would 
recommend in Bright's disease. He will doubtless do better next 
time, 

Butterfield stirred up something when he inquired about the 
"cure," but realizing that there is nothing like keeping everlast- 
ingly at it, he finally succeeded in finding out what he wanted. 
He pleaded not guilty, however, to the charge of sending in the 
repeated requests, but frankly admitted to being the author of 
the first note. 

Poorman, C, W , has, we are informed, transferred his base 
of operations from the Chemical Laboratory to the Anatomical 
Amphitheater, where, it is rumored, he is reviewing the subjects 
of materia medica and anatomy. This however, is not thought 
to have any connection with Dr. Shaw's request that the sewing 
work be left at home. 

The lectures on Pathology, given by Prof. Evans and other 
members of the faculty, as well as representatives of Rush and 
Northwesten colleges, have been highly instructive and greatly 
appreciated by the class. Probably no branch of instruction dur- 
ing the winter term has furnished more entertainment than these 
lectures, the stereoptican slides enhancing their enjoyment not a 
little. 

The baseball team has had a somewhat disastrous experience 
with their out-of-town games, sustaining defeat at both Valpar- 
aiso and Kankakee. The members of the team report a pleasant 
social time at both places, however, particularly at Valparaiso, 
where they were met at the depot with carriages and escorted to 
their headquarters The Normal boys are represented as thor- 



44 Ihe Plexus. 

ough gentlemen and true sportsmen. This was demonsuratecl to 
the satisfaction of the visitors when the details of the game were 
arranged, the home team courteously offering to allow the visi- 
tors to name the umpire. This was in strong contrast to. the 
action taken at Kankakee, where the home team not only insisted 
upon having one of their men referee the game, but refused to 
alternate their umpire with that of the opposing team until the 
last two innings, when the odds were hopelessly against us. The 
final result was not materially affected by the umpiring done in 
the former game, but the same could not be truthfully said of the 
latter contest. 

The boys have been unfortunate, too, as regards the weather 
conditions this spring, nearly all their dates falling on cold, raw 
days, when only a seasoned "fan" would go to see the best game 
of ball on earth. It is hoped another season may prove more 
auspicious in this respect, and that the team will have the sup- 
port it justly deserves by both students and faculty. 

At this writing there seems to be an evident desire on the 
part of the students to get away at least ten days ahead of sched- 
ule time, and it is doubtful if many classes are held after the 18th 
inst. In fact, the hegira has already commenced, and goodbyes 
are being said. As the laboratories have all been closed, and 
keys turned in, there really seems little to hold the class togeth- 
er. In some cases the expected letter from home has not yet ar- 
rived, but it is only a little delayed, and many dreams of bud- 
ding trees and green fields in the country are replacing the hid- 
eous nightmares of the chemical and bacteriological laboratories. 

The duties of your class editor practically cease with this 
issue of the Plexus, and he embraces this opportunity to ex- 
press to the members of the class grateful appreciation of the 
patience and forbearance accorded him during the last six 
months, and a hope that his successor may meet with the same 
courteous treatment. It is hoped that we shall all be classed 
again next October — not in "A. A.", but in a splendidly equipped 
modern building, — ready and willing to take up -the duties of the 
Junior course, and to enjoy all the good things provided by the 
faculty and management for our physical and mental comfort 
and advancement. 



FRESHMAN NOTES. 

Twohig was called home the latter part of last month ou ac- 
count of the serious illness, and which proved fatal, of his sister. 
The class extends its sympathy. 

Case spent two weeks at home. We wonder if he got all the 
oats in in good shajDe. 

The freshman class received an invitation from Mrs. Dr. 
Eekley to spend Friday evening at their home. The invitation 
was not extended to the freshman class alone, but also tq the 
better halves of the married members and those that would be 
married before Friday. An enjoyable time is anticipated with 
our pleasant instructors both at the examination in dissectino- 
Friday morning and their party in the evening, and the class 
wishes partly to show its appreciation of their cordiality by pre- 
senting to them a small token of remembrance. 

THE RECEPTION. 

To say that we spent an enjoyable evening at Dr. Eckley's 
on the tenth inst., is expressing it mildly. Almost the entire 
class accepted their kind invitation and together with a part of 
the faculty and a few friends outside the college, a large number 
was present. 

The fore part of the evening was spent in social chat. Later 
we listened to Supt. Brown's talk to Mrs. and Dr. Eekley. It 
was a characteristic address, being full of wit and humor in which 
our superintendent excels. His adress was followed by stories or 
short talks or recitations from Dr. Eekley, Dr. O'Byrne, Dr. 
Coates, Dr. Santee and Mr. Eisendrath, Wood and Rietman. 
Then came the refreshments of which I dare not speak, in as 
much as that when men are tantalized they sometimes make 
trouble. 

Mrs. Eekley fully repaid the class for its effort in presenting 
to her a token of its respects. 

Each member of the class contributed generously and trusted 
to Miss Sherlock and Miss Ketcham in selecting the present. 
They were equal to the occasion and selected a handsome library 
table. 

At a late hour the crowd began to disperse, each feeling that 
it would be well to fail in dissecting, if the next year's class 
would be favored by having this year's instructor. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

For Sale — Tution to Post Graduate College, 2400 Dearborn- 
St. Chicao-o. Address L. M. H. care of Plexus. 

P. J. Buss of the Senior Class received the Davison medal for 
best record of work in his clinics. Mr Buss has a good record in 
all his work. 

M. J. Seifert of the class of '01 had full charge of the musical 
entertainment given on May the 15 at Central Music Hall, for the 
Alexian Bros. Hospital. Dr. Seifert is a Musician that has re- 
ceived quite a little honor and has proven himself thoroughly 
capable on every occasion. 

M. S. Jordan "01 was recently operated on for appendicitis 
and is getting along nicely. 

H. O. Shafer has been appointed House Surgeon. R. E 
Brown, tirst assistant, and L. R. Sleyster. second assistant. 
These apointments are well received as the appointees are well 
deserving men. 

The members of the graduating class were loyally entertained 
by Searle Hereth & Co. on Friday May 24 at their laboratories. 

A great many of the students are t-iking advantage of the 
time offer of the Api)leton Company upon their Medical library 
books. 

ROLL OF HONOR, CLASS "01. 

1. Jno. W. Birk. 

2. Marion S. Jordan. 

3. Warren D. Coy. 

4. Mortimer Frank. 

o: Miss Agnes Turner. 

(). Albert G. Kaeser. 

7. Francis J. Buss. 

8. Miss Irene Smedley. 

9. Mrs. Irene Pratt. 
10. C. I. Oliver. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

VOL. VII. .JUNE 20th, 1901. NO. 2 

MAX MULLER (1823-1900.) 

[From "My Autobiography," by Prof. F. Max Muller, Coiivriaht 1901, by 
Charles Scribner's Sons.] 

As far back as I can remember I was a martyr to headaches. 
No doctor could help me; no one seemed to know the cause. It 
was a migraine, and though I watched it carefully I could not 
trace it to any fault of mine. The idea that it came from over- 
work was certainly untrue. It came and went, and if it was one 
day on the right side, it was always the next time on the left, 
even though I was free from it sometimes for a week or a fort- 
night, or even longer. It was strange also that it lasted beyond 
one day, and that I always felt jjarticularly strong and well the 
day after I had been prostrate. For prostrate I was, and gener- 
ally quite unable to do anything. I had to lie down and try to 
sleep. After a good sleep I was well, but when the pain had been 
very bad I found that sometimes the very skin of my forehead 
had peeled off. In this way I often lost two or three days in a 
week, and as my work had to be done somehow, it was often done 
anyhow, and I was scolded and punished, really without any 
fault of my own. After all remedies had failed which the doctor 
and nurses prescribed 4;. ^ ^ I was handed over to Hahne- 
mann, the founder of homeopathy. Hahnemann (born 1755) had 
been practising as doctor at Dessau as early as 1780 * 
but had left it, and when in 1820 he had been prohibited by the 
government from practicing and lecturing at Leipzig, he took 
refuge once more in the neighboring town of Coethen. From 
there he paid visits to Dessau as consulting physician, and after 



48 The Plexus. 

I had explained to him as well as I could all the symptoms of my 
chronic headache, he assured my mother that he would cure it at 
once. He was an imposing personality, a powerful man with a 
gigantic head and strong eyes and a most persuasive voice. I 
can quite understand that his personal influence would have gone 
far to effect a cure of many diseases, People forget too much, 
how strong a curative power resides in the patient's faith in his 
doctor, in fact how much the mind can do in depressing and in 
reinvigorating the body. I shall never forget in late years con- 
sulting Sir Andrew Clarke and telling him of ever so many, to 
my mind, serious symptoms. I had lost sleep and appetite, and 
imagined myself in a very bad state indeed. He examined me 
and knocked me about for full three-quarters of an hour, and 
instead of pronouncing my doom, as I fully expected, he told me 
with a bright look and most convincing voice, that he had exam- 
ined many men who had worked their brains too much, but had 
never seen a man at my time of life so perfectly sound in every 
organ. I felt young and strong at once, and meeting my old 
friend Morier on my way home, we ate some dozens of oysters 
together and drank some pints of porter without the slightest 
bad effect. In fact, I was cured without a pill or a drop of medi- 
cine. * * * 

However, Hahnemann did not succeed with me. I swallowed 
a number of his silver and gold globules but the migraine kept 
its regular course, right to left and left to right, and this went 
on till about the year 1860. Then my doctor, the late Mr. 
Symonds of Oxford, told me exactly what Hahnemann had told 
Qje— that he could cure me, if I would go on taking some medi- 
cine regularly for six months or a year. He told me that he and 
his brother had made a special study of headaches, and that there 
were ever so many kinds of headache, each requiring its own 
peculiar treatment. When I asked him to what category of head- 
aches mine belonged, I was noL a little abashed on being told that 
my headache was what they called the Alderman's headache. 
"Surely," I said, "I don't overeat or overdrink." I had thought 
that mine was a mysterious, nervous headache, arising from the 
brain; but no, it seemed to be due to turtle soup and port wine. 
However, the doctor, seeing my surprise, comforted me by telling 
me that it was the nerves of the head which affected the stomach, 
and thus produced indirectly the same disturbance in my diges- 



Max Mailer. 49 

tion as an aldermanic diet. Whether this was true or was only- 
meant as a solatium, I do not know. But what I do know is that 
by taking the medicine regularly for about half a year, the fre- 
quency and violence of my headaches were considerably reduced, 
while after about a year they vanished completely. I was a new 
being and my working time was doubled. 

One lesson may be learned from this, namely, that the Eng- 
lish system of doctoring is very imperfect. In England we wait 
till we are ill then go to a doctor, describe our symptoms as well 
as we can, pay one guinea or two, get our prescription, take dras- 
tic medicine far a month, and expect to be well. My German doc- 
tor when he saw the prescription of my English doctor told me 
that he would not give it to a horse. If after a month we are not 
better, we go again, he possibly changes our medicine and we 
take it more or less regularly for another month. The doctor 
cannot watch the effect of his medicine, he is not sure even 
whether his prescriptions have been carefully followed, and he 
knows but too well that anything like a chronic complaint re- 
quires chronic treatment. 

The important thing, however, was that my headaches yielded 
gradually to the continued use of medicine. It would hardly have 
produced the desired effect if I had taken it by fits and starts. 
All this seems to me quite natural, but though my English doctor 
cured me and my^ German doctors did not, I still hold that the 
German system is better. Most families have their doctor in 
Germany, who calls from time to time to watch the health of the 
old and young members of the family, particularly when under 
medical treatment, and receives his stipulated annual payment, 
which secures him a safe income that can be raised, of course, by 
attendance on occasional patients. Perhaps the Chinese system 
is the best; they pay their doctor while they are well and stop 
payment as long as they are ill. ^ ^ ^ 

But to return to Hahnemann. He was very kind to me, and 
I looked up to him as a giant both in body and in mind. But he 
could not deliver me from my enemy, the ever recurrent migraine. 
The cures, however, both at Dessau and at Coethen, where he had 
been made a Hofrath by the reigning Duke, were very extraordi- 
nary. Hahnemann remained in Coethen till 1835, and in that year, 
when he was eighty, he married a young French lady, Melanie 
d'Hervilly, and was carried off by her to Paris, where he soon 



50 The Plexus. 

gained a large practice and died in 1843, that is at the age of 
eighty-eight. Much of his success I feel sure was due to his pres- 
ence, and to the confidence which he inspired. How do I know 
that Sir x\ndrew Clarke, seeing that I was in low spirits about 
my health, did not think it right to encourage me, and by encour- 
aging me did certainly make me feel confident about myself, and 
thus raised my vitality, my spirits, or whatever we like to call it? 
"Thy faith hath made thee w^hole" is a lesson which doctors 
ousrht not to neglect. 




James Moreau Brown, M. D. 

Surtfeon Continental Guard. Instructor Rhino-Laryngology and Otology Col- 
lege of Physicans and Surgeons. Asst. Laryngology Chicago Policlinic. 



A CASE OF SUB-GLOTTIC STENOSIS. 
James Moreau Brown, M. D. 

Surgeon Continental Guard. Instructor Rhino-Laryngology and Otology Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons. Asst. Larynarology Chicago Policlinic. 

The following case, being one of particular interest from a 
medical standpoint, was recently placed under my care by Prof. 
M. R. Brown. 

A. D., aged eleven years; American born, school boy; father 
dead, cause unknown; mother alive and healthy. Had diphtheria 
at two years of age, was intubed twice, tube remaining in first 
time seven days, second time three days. 

The effects of the diphtheria seemed to have continued even 
nine years after recovery, at which time he came under ourobser 
vation. His general appearance at this time was anything but 
healthy. Growth stunted, aneamic, breathing labored, constant 
wheezing, and has vomited large quantities of mucous and pus 
during the past three years. However, at times he engages in 
active exercise, goes to school but is unable to articulate above a 
whisjDer. 

When first seen he was constantly coughing a quantity of 
foul smelling pus, which upon microscopical examination was 
found to be free of tubercular baccilli. 

Upon examination, the larynx and pharynx were found to be 
in a condition of mild inflammation, the vocal cords being thick- 
ened, but their action not impeded. Immediately below the cords 
there was seen a membrane extending entirely across the larynx 
with two small openings through which air passed during respi- 
ration. 






\.y 






It was thought advisable to keep him upon local treatment 
for a short time in order to accustom him to the presence of in- 
.struments in the larynx, so that the membrane could be divided 



54 The Plexus. 

Internal treatment was also administered, together with deep 
inhalations. 

During the first month marked improvement was shown 
under this treatment; the expectoration decreased greatly, but lit- 
tle headway was gained in controlling the child so that he would 
submit to the introduction of instruments in the throat. Later 
he rapidljT- became so weak that it was impossible for him to leave 
his bed and immediate tracheotomy was decided upon. 

In consultation with Dr. E. T. Dickerman it was determined 
to perform a low tracheotomy and give the patient time to gain, 
a little strength before attacking the larynx. 

The operation was performed at the Policlinic by Doctor 
Dickerman and myself, the usual coughing fit occurred when the 
trachea was opened and a quantity of muco-purulent matter was 
expelled through the wound nearly suffocating the patient. At 
the time. Dr. Dickerman was inclined to think that there was an 
empyema with a fistula into the bronchus; an aspirating needle 
was used to explore the suspected area of the left pleural cavity, 
there being a dullness over the lower part of the left lung poster- 
iorly, but with negative result. Temperature at this time 100 to 
102 degrees. A later diagnosis of bronchiectasis was made. The 
patient was put to bed, given an infusion of normal salt solu- 
tion, and placed upon nutritive treatment. 

Laryngeal examination was now less difficult and the web 
was seen to lie about one-half inch below the true cords within 
the cricoid ring. It was decided to split the crico-thyroid mem- 
brane; this was done and the web was exposed at the level of the 
cricoid cartilage; this cartilage was now cut through in the- 
median line, the web removed and its seat of attachment cauter- 
zed. A large tracheal tube was then introduced through the- 
crico-thyroid membrane; and the lower wound allowed to heal. 

The patient remained in the hospital about two weeks after 
the operation, during which time he steadily improved; expector- 
ation became less, voice more distinct and general health seemed 
much better. The parents were anxious to take the child to the 
country, to which I consented, giving them strict instructions as 
to the cleansing of the tube and above all to keep the opening 
clean. 

Shortly after this I received a letter from the patient stating 
that he was growing stout and could talk much better, but did 



Suh-Glottic Stenosis. 55 

not like to wear the tube, it being expelled several times and 
having lost the inner tube. 

Soon after this the mother and patient appeared at my office. 
Upon examining the opening into the trachea it was found to 
have healed beautifully by granulation; he explained that the 
tube had blown out and the mother was afraid to replace it. The 
patient was in such a good condition I thought it best not to per- 
form another tracheotomy at that time. Local treatment was 
administered, and upon examination no signs of the membrane 
could be found. Voice at this time was greatly improved. 

An interval of a week passed during which I saw the child a 
couple of times and he seemed to be improving. Two days after 
this the boy became worse, expectorating quantities of muco-pus, 
and there were frequent paroxysms of coughing, which were 
almost suffocating. I was sent for but being out of the city a 
physician in the neighborhood was summoned, prescribed an 
emetic and went in search of someone to perform tracheotomy. 
When he returned the child had died during one of the paroxysms. 

I regretted exceedingly that a post mortem was not held, as 
I am sure that more points of interest could have been brought 
out. 

34 Washington St. 



TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ULCERS. 
By C. J, Drueck, M. D., Chicago, Illinois. 

Professor of Physiology and Histology at Illinois School of Dentistry and 
"Liecturer to the Nurses of Mercy Hospital, Chicago. 

In the following lines I desire to speak of a few cases the 
counterpart of which are occurring constantly in every physi- 
cian's practice. Some of these were seen in connection with my 
work at the Mercy Hospital, Chicago, and the remainder in pri- 
vate practice. 

In the treatment of chronic ulcers I do not rely w^holly on 
local applications, but supplement these with special attention to 
the lymphatic circulation and bowels, for I believe that if the 
bowels are kept oi)en the capillary circulation is- rendered more 
active in consequence of more blood being diverted to the ab- 
domen, and the flow of lymph also accelerated. In all ulcerating 
surfaces we have to depend almost if not wholly upon the lymph- 
atic circulation to carry away the inflammatory products in and 
around the ulcer and to carry medicaments into the affected 
structures. I have noticed that nearly all such cases, and especi- 
ally^ the chronic ones, require a laxative. Even those that do not 
appear to need it will do better under its administration. This is 
as essential as the use of local applications that are absorbable 
Many of the local remedies are only slowly absorbed, and some 
are even insoluble. Moreover, the prolonged use of some exerts 
a toxic and irriiating effect on the adjoining tissue, and while 
they may not produce an actual necrosis, they impair the granu- 
lating surface. 

Granulations are well supplied with capillaries and lymph- 
atics from the surrounding tissues. Unless these act freely the 
new formed tissue will be of low vitality. I have used all sorts 
of powders, lotions and ointments with variable results, especi- 
ally in slow, indolent and poorly nourished structures. Of late I, 
have resorted to europhen with gratifying results. The iodine 
which it contains seems sufficient to stimulate healthy granula- 
tion without any caustic action. I believe it acts as an altera- 
tive. I find it a bland, non-irritating, and even sedative applica- 
tion. Its odor is slight but pleasant. These are properties in 
which it favorably contrasts to iodoform, boric acid, etc. 



Tr^.atnoenf of Chto^iiG Ulcers. ] 57 

Around all ulceratiiig surfaces we have the caking of the dis- 
charges with a subsequent derm-itiVitj. This In itself produces a 
congestion of the deeper structures. ' We have all noticed the 
ecchymosis and edema around a varicose ulcer. I always apply a 
bland but mild antiseptic ointment all over the hyperemic area, 
usually five per cent europhen. This keeps the secretions from 
the skin and promotes healing. The removal of this source of 
irritation is often sufficient to subdue the congestion. The skin 
itself absorbs only slowly, and I doubt if the deeper structures 
are affected directly by this ointment. To furthur promote cir- 
culation I have recourse daily to the hot bath of at least one half 
hour's duration. At night the hot water bag is applied, always 
a small one and not too heavy. A light weight bag as hot as can 
be comfortably borne is my rule. As to the ulcerating surface, I 
always cover it with a dry dressing, and of late have used euro- 
phen almost exclusively, because I have never yet seen any toxic 
or untoward effect resulting from large amounts of the powder, 
or from its use for a long time. Then having applied the above 
ointment to the surrounding surface for at least two inches and 
more, I ccver the whole with a piece of gauze, and over this 
place a piece of absorbent cotton. This dressing is always loosely 
applied. If it is an arm or leg in an ambulatory patient I prefer 
to draw on a stocking to hold the dressing rather than use a 
bandage. Sometimes, to prevent edema, I apply a bandage dis- 
tally to the ulcer, but never cover the whole area with a firm 
bandage which leaves its mark when removed. I prefer a stock- 
ing even on the arm, because it is easily rolled on or off, and if I 
want the hand exposed I cut off the toe. 

Caution should be exercised by the patient when dressing the 
ulcer himself. I never allow him to meddle with it. If he uses 
the hot bath he dries the rest of the body, but not the ulcer. 
When changing the dressing he simply removes it and applies 
another. When I see the ' case I remove the crusts, etc., that 
may be present. However, I find by using the ointment that 
crusts do not form to any extent. I believe that promiscuous 
rubbing and disturbing of the surface is likely to implant infec- 
tion, and besides lacerate the granulations, which by bleeding 
cause the gauze to adhere to the surface. By applying plenty of 
europhen the gauze becomes covered with serum powder, and this 
coating prevents adhesion. 



Under this di-essiug I find that invariably the edema and hy- 
peremia around the ulcer ^le promptly relieved; that the dis- 
charge lessens, and the circulation in the parts is accelerated. 
The nutrition of the tissues is improved, and the ulcer grows 
smaller and more shallow. I dwell upon the details because these 
cases are usually stubborn things to treat. I believe all treat- 
ment should aim toward a mild stimulation of the ulcer, a sooth- 
ine; protection to the surrounding tissues, and an alterative action 
upon the w^hole area. The twenty-eight per cent iodine in euro- 
phen acts as an alterative, but is not caustic even in prolonged 
use. The employment of caustics in any form I consider out of 
the question, because such treatment destroys the delicate new 
structures, and immediately the surface is covered with a closely 
adhering slough. Streptococci and staphylococci are always 
present under such a slough, which keeps the discharge of the 
ulcer penned up. I therefore use a light absorbent dressing 
which carries aw^ay the discharge. 

The condition of the tissue replacing the ulcer is important. 
The more the deeper structures are involved the denser will be 
the scar. The leucocytosis around the ulcer always assists in the 
formation of new connective tissue. I have often been impressed 
that the greater the discharge of an ulcer the denser the cicatrix. 

In the foregoing plan of treatment we promptly remove the 
peripheral congestion, and allow the granulations to develop rap" 
idly. Since using europhen I have. seen tliat the scars are softer, 
the capillary circulation is more active, and subsequent contrac- 
tion moderate. 

Every physician constantly meets cases of obstinate chancers, 
etc., which positively resist all ordinary treatment. These are 
usually of the phagedenic order, and besides being aggravatingly 
chronic, are also destructive of tissue and leave ugly and perma- 
nent scars. I remember such a case observed a few years ago, in 
which, after tw^o w^eeks hospital confinement with both local and 
constitutional treatment, including inunctions daily, the patient 
could be classed as improved only. When the following case 
came under- observation I feared I had another of the above class: 

Case I. — Mr. J. H., aged 30; family history good. The chan- 
cer appeared angry from the beginning and rapidly grew worse. 
He consulted his family physician promptly, and was given mixed 
treatment, internally and lotions locally. As the sore did not 



Treat mrmt of Chronic Ulcers. 59 

improve various jDOwders a^d ointments were used, including 
iodoform, which was very objectionable. When he came to me 
he presented a deep phagedenic ulcer, involving all of the lower 
half of the glands. He begged me not to use iodoform. I dusted 
the surface freely with europhen, or rather plastered it on and 
into the ulcer with a spatula. The discharge was quite free, and 
a large part of the powder applied in the morning w^as gone at 
nighi. On retiring the penis was bathed in hot water, but 
the ulcer was not wiped or touched at all. Europhen being 
insoluble in water, any that remained was not disturbed but acted 
as a protection. More powder was applied. This treatment was 
continued daily. He called on the third day, and his first re- 
mark was: "Doctor I feel lots better." The aching and soreness 
was almost gone, and in that short time a decided improvement 
was shown. In three weeks the whole surface had cicatrized. 
This w^as remarkably prompt in that a case that had so resisted 
treatment began immediately to improve and healed quickly. 

Case II. — Mrs. O. H., aged 34 years, height five feet five 
inches, weight ll06 pounds. Varicose veins were present on both 
legs, and an ulcer about the size of a dollar was situated about 
the middle of the shin and just external to the tibia on the right 
side. Considerable ecchymosis existed over an area of about 
three inches all around. The leg became edematous on standing. 
The ulcer was a dark blue color. She had had the sore for over 
three months, and had used several powders and salves. As in 
the preceding case, I filled the ulcer with europhen and over the 
surrounding ecchymosed surface applied a 10 per cent, 
ointment of europhen. I also incorporated a small 
amount of parafine in this ointment, as I find that 
by making its melting point higher it will not tend to run, 
and makes a more durable coating. Improvement at first was 
rather slow. The patient could not be kept off her feet. But 
any improvement is gratifying in these cases. The ulcer became 
more shallow and narrow, and finally healed. When healing was 
fairly under way I*applied an elastic bandage as high as the knee, 
and placed a large wad of absorbent cotton over the ulcer. 

Case III. — BabyR., eczematous eruption on the nates. The 
child at birth appeared well nourished and healthy, but in about 
one month began to have eczema. The father had had syphilis 
and had treated himself. The eruption began at the anus and 



60 The Plexus. 

spread rapidly all over the nates. Blebs and scabs covered the 
whole buttock. Of coui-se, there was considerable secretion and 
the clothing constantly stuuk to the parts. The child was peevish 
and crying. Salves and lotions had been used to no avail. I 
ordered all water kept from the parts and used sweet oil for 
cleansing. But do not wash in these cases except for visible 
dirt. I then dusted the parts freely with europhen. When the 
surface became moist more of the power was applied. The cruF;ts 
were removed as much as would easily come off each time I saw 
the patient. I was always careful not to try to remove any that 
were very adherent, so as to prevent bleeding, because I believe 
that this will do more harm than the benefit to be derived from a 
week's treatment. Improvement in this case was slow, but grad- 
ual and steady. Finally, however, I was repaid by a complete 
cure, at least as far as the local symptoms are concerned. 

Case IV. — Bedsores; Mr. A. R., aged 3(*, physically a fine 
specimen. In about the third week of typhoid bed sores de- 
veloped, and after he had recovered from his illness the ulcers 
had little tendency to heal. They were bluish in color with dense 
and various margins. The discharge was profuse. Europhen 
was applied freely twice daily, and attention paid to the patient's 
hygiene. The appearance of the ulcers was altered in a few days. 
Granulations began to appear and soon filled up the whole space. 
All that remains today is the scar, and it is not as dense as one 
would expect from a deep ulcer that had existed a long time. 

Case V. — Chas. C, fireman in a packing house. While stand- 
ing before the boiler a steam pipe broke and drenched him with 
scalding steam and water. The burnt parts had been dressed 
with carron oil on cloth and cotton. The blebs had broken and 
the resulting ulcers were bathed in pus. I trimmed off all the 
loose skin and applied a ten per cent ointment of europhen. 
When first seen he had a daily chill and suffered agonizing pain. 
The pain was greatly relieved in two days. By the fourth day 
many patches showed granulations, and I applied europhen pow- 
der freely. These areas in a few days had so ceased discharging 
as to need dressing only every two days — a relief which was ap- 
preciated by all. The reaction in this case was extraordinary. 
The pain was relieved almost immediately, suppuration began to 
decrease, and the resulting scars are remarkably soft and pliable. 

Case VI. — G. O., .several chancroids discharging freely. 



Treatment of Chronic Ulcers. 61 

Europhen was dusted on freely twice daily, and the parts bathed 
at night, the ulcers being washed without touching them or 
mechanically removing any of the adhering powder. The sores, 
healed rapidly from the beginning and had cicatrized in ten days. 
The scars are small and almost imperceptible. 

In the above cases I have tried to describe my treatment in 
detail, because they represent a number of common conditions, 
w^hich are often bug bears, and in w^hich I believe my method 
gives more than ordinary good results. 



MEDICO-FRAI ERNAL RELATIONS.* 

'•'■Treason does never i^rosper; What's the reason? 
Why, if it prospers, none dare call it tieason.'^ 

Mr. Toastmaster and Members of the Association: I am un- 
certain whether our toastmaster intended I should speak on pros- 
perity and its effect on treason, or on treasonable prosperity. 
Judging from the appearance of the company I am addressing, 
prosperity is too familiar to merit discussion, while the require- 
ments for membership in this association preclude the possibility 
of even a suspicion of treason obtaining against this body indi- 
vidually or collectively. I will, therefore, speak only on the topic 
assigned me. 

The subject of this toast is not strange to gatherings of med- 
ical men. On the contrary, its frequent consideration under cir- 
cumstances similar to the present, together with the amount of 
literature embodied in the code of our national association, would 
seem to postulate either certain moral phases peculiar to the 
practice of medicine, or an insidious tendency on the part of the 
disciples of Esculapius to lapse from the higher tenets of moral 
philosophy. 

This is not the proper occasion for a critical discussion of the 
practical workings of the code of ethics which is supposed ta 
govern the professional relations of physicians, but the struggle- 
which has ever been going on in connection to their fraternal 
relations brings up the question as to why, in this respect, physi- 
cians differ from their brothers of the other learned professions. 

*A response to a toast at a banquet of the Western Alumni Association of 
the University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, by Joseph M. Patton, 
M. D. 



'62 Ihe Plexus. 

'There is a proverbial distinction between odium medicum and 
•odium theologicum to the extent of recognizing the former as the 
opprobrium medicorum. I am not competent to analyze this 
question, and am, therefore, not prepared to prove that the cler- 
ical brethren contains room to whom the sarcastic lines of Cowper 
may be applied: 

' ^From such apostles, 0, ye mitered heads, 
Preserve the church! and lay not careless hands 
On skulls that cannot teach and will not learn.''^ 

No more would I deny the appropriateness of the paraphrase 
of Bacon to the effect that "Lawyers should be more witty than 
learned, more plausible than reverend, and more confident than 
advised." Nevertheless it is apparent that medical men are more 
lax in regard to ethical matters or are more concerned in their 
breach. It is possible that the fault may be educational, and this 
calls up the force of Pope's lines: 

"^ little learning is a dangerous thing; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring. 

This idea was given by Bacon as follows: 

"It is true that a little philosophy inclineth man's mind to 
-atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds to re 
ligion.'* 

But, you say, it is not only the lowly of the profession that 
^are unetherial. Quite true. There are those in high places that 
do not realize the falsity of: "If it prospers, none dare call it 
treason,"' nor have they learned the force of South's epigram: 
"Prosperity is but a bad nurse to virtue.*' 

I claim that however renowned and brilliant a man may be 
for his knowledge of and ability to practice the art of medicine, a 
•deficiency in his knowledge and application of the ethical princi- 
ples of the science of medicine marks him as one of its most lowly 
and unworthy members. 

Time was, in the beginning of medicine, when the fraternal 
relations of medical men was one of the strongest elements of the 
profession, as is shown by the teachings of Hippocrates, and yet 
even at that time there were backsliders, for Hippocrates in his 
tract on "The Sons," in which he gave a description of the ideal 
physician, says: "Physicians are many in title, but very few in 
reality." The cause he attributes both to deficient education and 
.to imperfect legal requirements. 



Medico- Fraternal Relations. 63 

Later in the history of medicine, with the development of 
medical education, a spirit of independence developed, which 
diminished the degree of fraternal dependence, but the rapid 
development of modern medical science, which places it beyond 
the mental or physical energy of the individual to keep abreast 
of the times in all the departments of medicine, and which is the 
strongest factor in the development of specialism in modern med- 
icine, creates an interdependence of medical men, and a demand 
for such fraternal relations as will allow of reciprocal use of each 
others talents and knowledge to the benefit of the profession and 
of the public. The evidence of such necessity may be seen in 
such discussions as recently occupied the attention of a local 
society, which though futile and to which we might apply the 
proverb: ^^Portitriunt monies, nascetur rediculus mus.'' — The moun- 
tains are in travail, a ridiculous mouse will be born, — yet indi- 
cates the signs of the times. 

Ethics has been called the science of morals. The word 
originally meant simply that which arises from use or custom. 
Aristotle first employed it to designate the science of moral duty 
based on unchanging laws and not on changing custom. The 
principles of ethics are as old as the j^hilosophy of Leucip- 
pus, the Abderian philosopher, and are interwoven in the physi- 
cal philosophy of his disciple, Democritus, and of the Athenian 
philosopher, Epicurus. Indeed much of the ethics as well as of 
the theories of medicine inculcated by that father of medicine, 
Hippocratus, were derived from the philoso^Dy of the Pythagore- 
ans, Peripatetics, Platorists, Stoics and Epicureans. Thus we 
are told that medical ethics is as old as medicine itself. 

Medical ethics embraces the physicians moral duty to his 
family and himself, to his patients, the public, and to his profes- 
sional associates. The tendency for a spirit of commercialism to 
creep into the practice of medicine has been blamed for the low- 
ering of ethical standards. To some extent this may be true, for 
here there is an unconscious assimilation of an aphorism of Sen- 
aca that "the good things which belong to prosperity are to be 

wished, but the good things which belong to adversity are to be 

admired." 

It has been successfully contended that moral honesty and 

success in business life are perfectly compatible, and to hold the 
re verse in relation to the practice of medicine is a libel on human 



64 The Plexus. 

nature and a total disregard for the teachings of the fathers of 
medicine. It is probable that the supurlative quality of abstract 
virtue indicated in the lines of Dryden: 

"T/ie golden age was first, luhen nia}}, yet new, 
No rule but uncorrupted reason knew: 
And. with a native beat, did good inirsue.'^ 

is not to be applied to contemporary ethics, but we must remem- 
ber that Aristotle taught that every virtue is a mean between 
two vices, and a golden mean in which the virtue of moderation 
as taught in Cooke's lines: 

^^Let every action prove a man confessed, 
A moderation is in all the best," 

-can be adapted to both worldly circumstances and moral duties- 
That summary of the teachings of the prophets emanating 
from the Sermon on the Mount, "Therefore all things whatsoever 
ye would that men should do to you, do you even so to them,"' is 
an epitome of ethics. Four hundred years before its promulga- 
tion this axiomatic rule had been adopted by the occidental phil- 
osopher, Socrates, and likewise by Theng tsen, a disciple of the 
oriental philosopher, Confucius. The latter was asked if there 
was a word in the language which would answer for a guide for 
our life. He answered, "There is, the word chon, of which the 
meaning is that what we would slioald not be done to us let us 
not do to others.'" 

Therefore if we but illumine our ethical pathway with amber 
glints from the golden rule, each and every alumnus of the asso- 
ciation may close his medical career with an ethical record, a 
source of pride to his alma mater which gave him professional 
being. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL'ORGANiOF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 

Plexus Cotutnittee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, 03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY. M- D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D., 

yt. A. EVANS, M. D., THOMAS FAITH, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M D. 

Associate Editors. L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editor, L- H. S. FRECHTLING, '03 

Class Editors: 

W. M. FRENCH, 02, R. L. ELDREDGE, 03 

M R. MARTIN, 04. 



Faculty Department, DR. W. A. PLSEY. Clinical Laboratory Dept-, DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94.3 Clinical Department, JOS. ZABOKRTSKY, '01 
Athletic " R. C. CUPLER '01 Library Department. GRACE W. BRYANT. 

Advertising Solicitor, GEO. E. ROSENTHAL, '02. 
Publisher. H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, 813 W. Harrison St. 

Entered at Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desirins the Journal discontinued at tlie expiration of his subscription 
■should so notify the Publisliers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publication are Invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers willnot hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS unless sufficient stamps are forwarded 



We appreciate greatly the interest shown in the Plexus by 
Dr. Thomas J. Jackson, of 521 E. 39th street, Chicago, as it is 
through his effort that we are able to present to our readers Max 
Mueller's ideas concerning medicine. 

* * 
* 

At 11:15 P. M. on Tuesday, .June 25, during an electrical 

storm, the dome of the old P. &. S. was struck by lightning, and 

In a few moments the upper part of the building was ablaze. 



66 The Plexus. 

The fire alarm was sent in and about a dozen engines promptly 
responded and lended aid to the many willing hands, and soon 
the flames were under control, and by :2:30 A. M. the last glim- 
mer of a most exciting fire was extinguished. The fire burned 
out the dissecting rooms, Dr. Eckley s laboratory, the carpenter's 
rooms, the anatomical amphitheater and the upper part of the 
clinical amphitheater. The entire building was thoroughly 
water soaked, but there was little loss so far as apparatus was 
concerned. There was practically no loss in the library, patho- 
logical, bacteriological, physiological and chemical laboratories. 
This was greatly due to the effective manipulation of the tarpau- 
lins In the hands of Chicago's most efficient firemen. There were 
no serious accidents in connection with the fire but the greatest 
excitement prevailed among the patients at the West Side Hos- 
pital. The hospital was crowded and for fear that it would 
catch fire or the walls of the Medical College would fall toward 
it, the sixty or more patients were hurriedly moved, some to 
their homes if they lived near, but the great majority to Cook 
County Hospital, where they remained for the night and were 
brought back the next morning. The nurses deserve great 
credit for the manner in which they conducted themselves. They 
were calm, heroic and stuck to duty throughout the entire ordeal. 
The fire came at a most opportune time for the Medical De- 
partment of the University of Illinois assumes control of their 
new buildifig July 1st, and the Dental Department of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois will occupy the building new occupied by the 
Medical Department. The summer work is now in progress and 
there are about 150 students enrolled, over 50 of which are en- 
rolled in the senior class. The senior class work was immedi- 
ately taken up in the clinical amphitheater of the West Side 
Hospital, and there was but a couple of days lost by the remain- 
ing students, and now things are moving on as if there had not 
been any disturbance. The Junior, Sophomores, Freshmen and 
Dispensary work is being done in the new building (West Divi- 
sion High School). 



•Alurppi Deparbmepb. 



'87. G. J. Kaumheimer, Milwaukee, Wis., was one of the 
visitors at commencement time. There is no alumnus who is 
more enthusiastic than is Dr. Kaumheimer. 

'89. Jay H. Radley is now located at 225 High street, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

'92. J. H. Cole has moved to Council Bluffs, la., from Cedar 
Rapids, la. 

'94. G. A. Woodcock has moved from Milledgeville, 111., to 
Armstrong, la. He has gone through an epidemic of smallpox, 
having treated about thirty cases. 

'94. W. P. Burke, Iowa Falls, la., was in the city to attend 
the commencement exercises, his brother E. W. being one of 
the graduates. 

■95. E. A. Matthsei of 626 W. Chicago Ave., will spend a 
year in research work and pleasure abroad. 

'96. T. Lidd, of Marinett, Wis., was a commencement visitor. 
He is connected with the railroad hospital and is enjoying a good 
practice. 

'99. B. Fantus is doing some special work at Ann Arbor, 
Mich , with Dr. Gushing. 

'97. S. B. Dickinson has moved to Watertown, S. Dakota, 
from Austin, 111. 

'99. W. E. Young, of Rockford, la., is in the city doing post 
graduate work. 

'99. W. L. Irwin of Plymouth, 111., was a recent visitor at 
his Alma Mater. 

'00. E. O. Church, Henry, S. Dakota, was a recent visitor at 
the Plexus office. He had been attending National Association 
at St. Paul, Minn. 

'00. O. B. Dunham is now located at 3500 Cottage Grove 
Ave., Chicago. 

fil. J. A. W. Fernow, locates at 2330 Michigan, Ave., 
Chicago. 

'01. W. E. Shook is located for the summer at Hot Springs. 
S. Dakota. 



68 The Plexus. 

'01. W. Major is surgeon for a mining company at Villa! - 
damme, Mexico. 

'01. E. L. Heintz has taken the practice of Dr. E. A. 
Matthtei at 626 W. Chicago Ave., while the latter spends one 
year abroad. 

•01. C. O. Wiltfong, Chesterton, Ind. 

"01. J. A. Van Horn has passed the examination as surgeon 
U. S. A. and has received an appointment to post at Ft. Wayne, 
Mich. 

"01. B. C. Corbusis now interne in Lake Side Hospital, 4147 
Lake Ave., Chicago. 

'01. W. P. Hombach is now located at ,o31 1st Ave., Council 
Bluffs, la. 

■93. Elmer E. Goldthorpe died at his home, Englewood, 
Chicago, May 18, age 35. 

■94. J. W. Townsend, Malcolm, la., died recently of pulmon- 
ory tuberculosis. 

Dr. E. A. Gansel, who served for a year as interne at the 
Emergency Hospital, died Sunday evening at the home of his 
parents, 773 Twenty sixth St. He had suffered from weak lungs 
for a long time, but was confined to his bed only four weeks. Dr. 
Gansel was 27 years old. He graduated from the Milwaukee 
normal school in 1894, and after teaching for a time at Schlesin- 
gerville, took up the study of medicine at the Chicago College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. He graduated from that institution 
in 1900 and soon after receiving his medical degree was appointed 
interne at the Emergency hospital. His character and mental 
equipment were such that he was certain to have succeeded in 
his profession, had he lived. The funeral will be held Wednes- 
day afternoon from the family residence. — From Milwaukee Eve- 
ning Wisconsin, June 3, 1901. 

Dr. Gansel carried off the class honors and was one of the 
most popular members and his death will be a shock to the mem- 
bers of his class. He also served as editor of the clinical depart- 
ment of the Plexus and proved himself very efficient. The 
Plexus extends heartfelt sympathy to the bereaved parents and 
family of the deceased. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 
Grace W. Bryant, Librarian. 

The following articles by members of the Faculty have been 
noted in the journals: 

Dr. W. L. Ballenger, Functional tests of hearing, Phil. Med. 
Jour., May, 1901, p. 972. 

Dr. Carl Beck, Case of atresia ani vesicalis, Chic. Med. Re 
corder. May, 1901, p. 479. 

Dr. Sanger Brown, Etiology of neurasthenia, Chic. Med. Re- 
corder, April, 1901, p. 316. 

Dr. D. N. Eisendrath, Surgical cases, Chic. Med. Recorder, 
April, 1901, p, 354. 

Dr. W. A. Evans, A short consideration of some of the points 
n the pathology of ulcer of the stomach, Chic. Med. Recorder, 
May, 1901, p. 441. 

Dr. A. H. Ferguson, Removal of the superior maxilla through 
the mouth. Western Med. Rev. April 15, 1901, p. 39. 

Dr. Adolph Gehrmann, Effect of physical conditions and 
sera on the typhoid bacillus. Chic. Med. Recorder, April, 1901, 349. 

Dr. G. F. Lydston, Briefs on the surgery of the genito-urin- 
ary organs. Interstate Med. Jour., April, 1901, p. 138, 

Dr. L. H. Mettler, Munich, Doctors Mag., April, 1901, p. 
139 and Pathology of neurasthenia. Chic. Med. Recorder, April, 
1901, p. 316. 

Dr. H. P. Newman, Tracheloplasty, Jour. A. M. A., April, 
20, 1901, p. 1088 and gynecological and obstetrical significance of 
girlhood. Chic. Med. Recorder, May, 1901, p. 458. 

Dr. A. J. Ochsner, Appendicitis and its treatment, Med. 
Standard, May, 1901, p. 237. 

Dr. W, E. Quine, The Doctor's Wife, Doctor's Mag., April 
1901, p. 133. 

We extend our thanks to Dr. D. N. Eisendrath for his gift of 
40 books during this last month, and to Dr. A. McDermid for his 
gift of 34 books; lists of each will be found below. 

DR. EISENDRATH'S GIFT. 

Ashton, W. E. Essentials of obstetrics, 1888. 
Brunton, T. L. Pharmacology, therapeutics, and materia 
medica., 1888. 



70 2he Plexus. 

Connorton's Med. Directory, 1897. 

Druitt, R. Surgeon's Vade-mecum, 1887. 

Foster, M. Physiology, ed. 3, 1885. 

Fraenkel, C. Bacteriology, ed. 3, 1895. 

Hamilton, D. J. Pathology, 1889. 

Herschell, G. Indigestion, ed. 3, 1895. 

Jacobson, W. H. A. Operations of surgery, 1889, 

Jaksch, R, von. Clinical diagnosis, 1890. 

Keyes, E. L. Surgical diseases of the genito-urinary organs, 
1890. 

Limbeck, R. R. on. Klinischen pathologie des blutes, 1892. 

Lusk, W. T. Science and art of midwifery, 1886. 

Morris, H. Essentials of materia medica, therapeutics and 
prescription writing, 1889. 

Nancrede, C. B. Essentials of anatomy, ed. 2, 18*^9. 

Obersteiner, H. Auat. of the central nervous organs, 1890. 

Robertson, J. M. Physiological physics, 1884. 

Robinson, P. B. Intestinal surgery, 1891. 

Schenk, S. L. Grundriss der bacteriologie, 1893. 

Schimmelbusch, C. Aseptischen wundbehandlung, 1892. 

Schroeder, C. Lehrbnch der geburtshulfe, ed. 31, 1891. 

Sedgwick, W. T. and Wilson, E. B. Genoral biology, 1896. 

Semple, C. E. A. Essentials of legal medicine, toxicology 
and hygiene, 1890. 

Senn, N. Intestinal surgery, 1889. 

Senn, N. Principles of surgery, ed. 2, 1896. 

Sihler, C. Hydriatic treatment of typhoid fever, 1891. 

Smith, J. G. Abdominal surgery, 1892. 

Strumpell, A. Text-book of medicine, 1889. 

Tillmanns, H. Allgemeinen chirurgie, ed. 3, 1806. 

Treves, F. Operative sargery, 1892, 2v. 

Tyson, J. Practical examination of urine, ed. 5, 1886. 

Vierordt, O. Medical diagnosis, 1891. 

Weichselbaum, A. Pathologischen histologie, 1892. 

Wiethe, T. Wiener receipt— taschenbuch, ed, 9, 1893. 

Wood, H. C. Therapeutics, materia medica and toxicology 
ed. 6, 1886. 

Yearbook of treatment, 1892, 1895. 

Ziegler, E. Allgemeinen pathologischen anatomie, 1887. 

Ziegler, E Speciellen pathologischen anatomie. 



Notes. 71 

DR. MCDERMID'S GIFT. 

Barwell, R. Diseases of the joints, 1881, 

Bristowe, J. S. and others. , Diseases of the intestines and 
peritoneum, 1879. 

Buck, A. H. Ear diseases, 1880. 

Charcot, J. M. Diseases of old age, 1881. 

Clarke, W. P. Practice of surgery, 1879. 

Coulson, W. J. Diseases of the bladder, 1881. 

Dickinson, W. H. Albuminuria, ed. 2, 1887. 

Prerichs, P. T. Diseases of the liver, 3vol., 1879. 

Hilton, J. Rest and pain, 1879. 

Guttman, P. Physical diagnosis, 1880. 

Johnson, L. Medical formulary, 1881. 

Keyes, E. L. Venereal diseases, 1880. 

Lyman, H. M. Artificial anaesthesia and anaesthetics, 1881.- 

Mackenzie, M. Diseases of the pharynx, larynx and trachea, 
1880. 

Munde, P. P. Minor surgical gynecology, 1880. 

Nojes, H. D. Diseases of the eye, 1881. 

Pavy, P. W. Pood and dietetics, ed. 2., 1881. 

Phillips, C. D. P. Materia medica and therapeutics 1879 

Piffard, H. G. Materia medica and therapeutics of the 
skin, 1881. 

Poulet, A. Poreign bodies in surgery, 2 vol., 1880. 

Putzel, L. Punctional nervous diseases, 1880. 

Rosenthal, M. Diseases of the nervous system, 

Routh, C. J. P. Infant feeding, ed. 3, 1879. 

Savage, H. Pemale pelvic organs, ed. 3, 1880. 

Tait, L. Diseases of women, ed. 2, 1879. 

Tilt, E. J. Uterine therapeutics, ed. 4, 1881. 

Trousseau, A. and Pidoux, H. Therapeutics, 3 vol., 1880. 

Wilson, J. C. Continued fevers, 1881. 

OTHER GIFTS. 

Am. Laryngological Ass. Annual report, 1900. 
Ass. of Am. Med. Colleges; report 1900. 

Connell, P. G. Intestinal suture, all knots inside, 18 p., 1901 . 
Hersey, G. D. Medical library as a factor in medical pro- 
gress, 11 p. 1901, 

Luria, A. New device of a medical surgical bedstead, 24 p. 
Mass. Gen. Hospital. Annual report, vol. 87, 1900. 



72 The Plexus. 

N. Y. Hospital. Annual report, vol. 21, 1900. 
■ R.I. Health, B'd of. Annual report, vol. 21, 1898. 
R. I. Med. Soc. Transactions, vol. 6, pt. 2. 
Lusk, W. T. Science and art of midwifery, 1893. Dr. F. E. 
Wynekoop, donor. 



WEDDING BELLS. 

No doubt the lady member of our faculty had her informa- 
tion from authentic source when she announced to Dr. Quine that 
fifty per cent of the lady members of class of '01 were soon to be 
married "for humanity's sake" as already three of them have 
been married, 

POLSON-MERRITT. 

Miss Nina D. Poison of class '01 was married on May 22, to 
Charles H. Merritt, M. D., and are at home at 5429 Washington 
Ave., Hyde Park, Chicago. 

Misses Willing and Yelton both of class '01 were recently 
married, the former at Kansas City on June 20, and the latter n 
Chicago on June 3rd, but we have not the names of their "better 
halves.'" 

HUMISTON-WHEELER. 

Dr. Charles E. Humiston of the class of '96, was married to 
Miss Myrtle Wheeler of Lincoln, Neb., on Tuesday, June 18th. 
The doctor will be at home on Wednesdays in September at 107 
Howard Ave., Chicago. 

FREEMAN- YOUNG. 

Miss Nacoochee A. Freeman and Mr. C. C. Young, both mem- 
bers of the present senior class, were married at Topeka, Kansas, 
on Sunday, June 9th, after which they came to Chicago and 
are now doing work in the summer term. The Plexus extends 
congratulations and wishes them much happiness. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

Dr. C. N. Ballard is now doing office work on third floor of 
Reliance building, 100 State street, Chicago. 

. Dr. J. G. Massie, a student at P. and S. during the year of 
'96-97 is now practicing at Belleville, 111. 

Dr. C. N. Ballard has professor.ship of Clinical Gynecolog}^ 
at the Harvey night school. 

NOTES OF THE FIRE. 

Dr. Eckley soon found it impossible to save anything from 
his dejoartment and set about assisting others in their trouble. 

Dr. William Quine was early at the scene of destruction, so 
also was Dr. D. A. K. Steele and Dr. F. B. Earle, our new secre- 
tary of the college. 

John Lock, who has charge of Dr. Eckley's laboratories was 
putting down the windows when the building was struck and he 
was knocked down and bruised although not severely injured. 

George, it is said was not so excited but that he could take 
care of his mail, even in the thickest of the fray; but it is said ne 
was a little excited at the beginning as he neglected to put on 
his entire dress until he had the building well lighted. 

P. D. Whyte, curator, his wife and family, who were living 
in the basement were early out, but their household goods were 
damaged somewhat by water. The joke of the fire was that one 
of the Chicago papers spoke of Mr. Whyte, the curator and his 
wife, as very old and ill people who were carried out of the 
building by one of the heroic young men of the school. 

P. G. Kitterman lost the most of his library by the fire, 
having been using it in Dr. Eckley's department. 

Carpenter Evans lost all of his tools. 

The specimens that were recently collected for the National 
Association meeting held at St. Paul, Minn., were all destroyed. 
These represented a great deal of work on the part of both 
teacher and pupil. 

A number of the professors, students and others directly 
connected with the college were greatly surprised upon coming 



74 The Plexus. 



to the college on Wednesday morning to find thingsas they were^ 
but not as they were the night before. 



An Additjon to our Next Materia Medica Earnestly 
Recommended. — For many years I have prescribed Sanmetto 
extensively, and I should assassinate Truth were I to assert that, 
in a single instance, the results were otherwise than wholly sat- 
isfactory. There is not a form of genito-urinary inflammation 
wherein I have not u^ed it. I can sincerely and earnestly recom- 
mend its addition to our next Materia Medica. 

A. Mazetta Rowe, M. D. 

Glasgow, Ky. 



Sanmatta in Uterine Congestion. — Dr. Al. J. Halsey, of 
Fowler, Ind., writing, says: •'! have found Sanmetto perfectly 
satisfactory and I take pleasure in recommending it in cases of 
uterine congestion, having tried it and proved its efficacy in such 
a case. I have placed it in the foremost of my list of favorite 
remedies for congestion of any mucous membrane in the body." 




Adelbert H. Peck, M. D., D. D. S., 

Dean, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

VOL. VII. JULY 20th, 190L NO. 3 



THE DOCTOR'S WIFE.* 
By Wm. E. Quine, M. D. 

Dean and Professor of Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine, College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical Department of the University of Illinois,. 
Chicago. 

^'■Well may your hearts believe the trutJi //e//.'"— Taylor. 

Mr. Toastmaster: The unmarried gentlemen of this com- 
pany who know all about woman's nature — in their minds — and 
also have some acquaintance with my domestic relations, doubt- 
less imagine it is easy for me to speak on the Doctor's Wife, be- 
cause they know, or think they know, I have one. 

For a few joyous months I, too, injagined I had one; but 
I've been suspicious for many a somber year since that she 
had me. 

It is a trite maxim, the realization of which has humbled 
many a proud spirited man, that "Husband and wife are of one 
mind — and that belongs to the wife." 

I have had so many impressive lessons on this point that I 
am not in the least inclined to argue it now. 

He is a fatuous man, who, at my age, does not know when 
the facts are against him. He must be of the class, I imagine, 
that has to be killed to be convinced; and I am not that kind of 
man. A rolling-pin in repose, but within reach, convinces me. 

Indeed, I am ready now to endorse the diagnosis of the old 



*A Trebute to Wifehood: Being an after-dinner speach originally delivered be- 
fore a general audience at the annual banquet of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
April. 1899. and su':)3 ?quently repeated on another occasion. 



76 The Plexus. 

sea captain, a man of varied experiences and assorted sorrows, 
who, when expatiating, upon the "strong p'ints" of his fourth 
wife, boldly declared that "When a woman is right, sir, she is 
the rightest ship that floats;"' and it must be remembered, Mr. 
Toastmaster, that if doubt should ever arise, in the presence of 
my wife, concerning the correctness of that proposition, I am 
not to be coanected with it in any way. I have already as much 
of the "White man's burden"' as I'm able to carry. 

How to speak of the Doctor's Wife in her presence, and in 
yours, is one of the most difficult problems I have ever under- 
taken to solve. 

On the one hand, it would be dreadfully embarrassing to get 
up before you all and tell a lot of complimentary lies about her — 
not because I object to telling a few lies on proper occasions, as 
when she and I are alone — but because it is humiliating to tell 
them before company and to have the company know they are 
told on compulsion. 

On the other hand, if I do not decorate her with some fic- 
tional ornaments on such an occasion as this, and do present her 
as she really is, "i? pluribus natur alibus,'' as Mrs. Malaprop 
might say — well, a fellow has to go home, some time! 

The easiest way out of the dilemma I can think of, is to paint 
a composite f)icture embodying characteristics of a number of 
doctors" wives I have known, and put that before you as the sub- 
ject of a dream. This plan has the charm of simplicity and 
the great merit of irresponsibility; for it enables me to say 
exactly what I think without referring to, and mucii less with- 
out fastening attention upon any particular individual. 

As soon as the Doctor"s Wife had made a preliminary inves- 
tigation of her new sun-oundings, and had ascertained which of 
her wedding presents were solid silver and which were merely 
plated, and had taken stock of her neighbors through a slit in 
the window .shade, and had read all the Doctor's old letters she 
could find — the Doctor having left a few well selected letters 
where they would be found — she addressed herself to the study 
of her bargain counter prize, the Doctor himself; and she did 
this as composedly, ])atiently, systematically and conscientiously 
as the student of chemistry undertakes to analyze a complex 
mixture and prove the identity of each of its ingredients. 

It didn't take her lonor to discover that the Doctor was a 



2 lie Doctors Wife. 77 

fraud, and immensely beneath her preconceptions. His airy 
show of consequence had a very Unsubstantial foundation in fact; 
for he was distressingly poor. 

She didn't mind that, however, for she knew it was common 
in this country for men to rise from poverty and obscurity to 
wealth and renown; and, really, she was secretly glad of the op- 
portunity to show her own metal. But she was shocked to learn 
that her husband was not the most important personage in the 
community; that he did not outrank all his competitors in popu- 
lar esteem, and that he was not the court of final appeal which 
settled obscure scientific problems for his .professional brethren. 
He was merely "The New Doctor;" that was all. 

He got an impecunious patient, now and then, who owed 
every other physician in the county; and, occasionally, a patient 
of better circumstance who had baffled tne skill of all; but the 
well-to-do and curable sick forgot that he was there. 

You see the Doctor's Wife had gotten her opinion of the 
Doctor from the Doctor himself; and she did not know that the 
opinions of a young doctor concerning himself have to be dis- 
counted fifty per cent, to begin with, and that the rest has to be 
taken in small doses and with much caution; while his opinions 
of his competitors are still more grotesquely unreliable but in 
the opposite direction. 

Though sick at heart with disappointment and chagrin, she 
instantly resolved that the world should know nothing about it. 
"He is my husband," she said, "and my way through life is clear. 
I've married him to be one with him, to share his name, his 
home and his future.'" 

She pitied rather than blamed him, for he seemed sincere 
and earnest, and certainly was not actively bad. She pitied his 
feeble struggles with poverty, his bemeaning privations and her 
own, his nothingness in the community, his absurd show of self- 
confidence, and the hopeless barreness of his prospects. Never- 
theless, on one occasion, when she found herself ruefully contem- 
plating these things, she straightway blamed herself for discov- 
ering them; and the next instant, in a blaze of self-condemnation 
scornfully inquired, "Who am I that I should hold myself above 
my husbandV Am 1 so much better than he"? Maybe he is dis- 
appointed, tool Ohl Ohl I wonder! No, he hasn't shown iti 



78 ^/'c Phxus. 

He seems happy. He is happy. Dear old fellow— his devotion, 
puts me to shame!'' 

As time wore on and furnished opportunity for larger exper- 
ience and maturer judgment, and she saw that the Doctor was 
gaining a little in popular confidence and favor, and was work- 
ino- to merit success with a savageness of determination that 
scarce brooked interruption or rest; and that he seldom failed to 
sustain himself strongly when the opportunity was fair; she be- 
o-an to suspect that she had been mistaken all along and that the 
future was not so dreary as it seemed. 

And later still, when he had won some ease of circumstance 
and a strong footing in the respect of his professional brethren 
and other neighbors; and she remembered that he had never 
complained and had never shown the white feather, even in the 
darkest days, and had never had wants of his own till hers had 
been supplied, she was ready to prostrate herself at his feet in 
penance for the unjustness of her earlier thoughts. 

He was different from what she had supposed. The self-suf- 
ficient suitor for her hand was one: her husband, who had sensed 
the responsibilities that faced and bore upon him, was another 
man. As the difference took form and grew upon her mind she 
saw its meaning, and she gloried in it and magnified it far be- 
yond its merit. "He is my husband,'* she whispered; but as she 
said it now her soul's calm light shone in her eyes. 

In the early years of struggle and self-denial she was studi- 
ously and ingeniously economical; and yet, withal, so productive 
of the pretty nothings that adorned the little home as to be a 
source of pleasure and of pride to her wondering husband. But, 
with the instinct of feminine genius, she had always, so far as 
possible, compelled considerations of economy to stop short of 
impairing her personal attractiveness. Poverty did not lessen 
herpiide of person or of bearing. But, notwithstanding this 
appearance of self-indulgence, try as her husband would to keep 
his personal expenses below his wife's, he was invariably con- 
founded by the discovery that her seeming prodigality had cost 
but little more than the exercise of her nimble mind and fingers. 

The question of money never jarred a moment of their lives. 
There w^as partnership between them from the first — he the pre- 
sident and, jointly, both were treasurer, of the firm. She knew 
his every plan and helped to make and foster it. She was free 



The Doctors Wife. 79 

to draw upon the treasury without consulting him — but seldom 
did; and never, for herself. She never had a want beyond his 
means, nor made one known at a inconvenient time. He never 
had a plan include neglect of her, for she came first in every 
plan. His wish for her was never smaller than his purse; and 
her only trouble was to keep the wish within the realm of 
reason. 

At no time had she been able to convince herself that it was 
compatible with her own dignity, or with the respect she had for 
her husband, to try to create opinion in his favor. And well she 
knew that he had standards of his own concerning such matters; 
and she loved and honored them. He felt himself a man. But, 
when he had fairly earned good opinion, it was sure to be 
strengthened and confirmed, without a word being said, the in- 
stant it was touched by the influence of the personality of the 
Doctor's Wife, i 

She was superior to him — but felt inferior; and a wife in that 
condition of mind is at the summit of her power. Then she can 
infuse some of her own dignity of aim into the life of her hus- 
band and inspire and guide him, and do it so unconsciously and 
unobtrusively as to forget her agency in the contemplation of its 
results. 

It is easy for a woman in love to make a nobleman out of 
common clay; and the Doctor's Wife accomplished the feat with- 
out an effort. Love beguiled her into exaggerated appreciation, 
and this was helpful to her husband. For, when she held him 
before himself as a man among a thousand, she gave him a 
strength and steadiness of purpose and of effort which enabled 
him to bring forth the best and most abundant fruit he possibly 
could bear. And if, then, she set him before the world with un- 
due show of consequence, it was because her love magnified his 
virtues and cancealed his faults. He was her husband. 

She was to him a bewildering mystery — a kaleidoscope of 
ever-changing surprises and delights. He was to her an open 
book. She read him at a glance and often answered his thoughts 
before he had spoken them. But, notwithstanding her great 
acumen, she had much difficulty in comprehending the Doctor's 
jokes — doubtless on account of their pathologic quality. She 
was quick to learn, however, that when a wife fails to show ap- 
preciation of her husband's jokes the husband is liable to become 



so The Plexus. 

dreadfull}' solemn and grumpy. And so she applied herself to 
the study of the awful problem with fortitude and patience, and, 
with such effect, that in six or seven years she got to be able to 
perceive when a joke was intended. And then! Whenever she 
had a fair opportunity to watch her husband's face and varying 
intonations, she would break into laughter and applause with 
ecstatic spontaneity and enthusiasm and at exactly the proper 
time and place — but without ever seeing the point or caring a 
straw about it I 

She noted with interest and with pride the Doctor's progress 
and growth in power, and she clearly saw that she must be up 
and doing if she would keep abreast of him. No, indeed! She 
would not be outrun in the graces of education and culture, but 
she would lead and beckon him on. She would achieve a work 
and a position in the world, in harmony with his, but distinctively 
her own, and womanly. 

Her unassuming refinement and pride of character; her swift 
and unerring judgment; her courteous reserve, yet friendliness 
of bearing; never failed to command the instant respect of man 
or woman. Everybody was her friend, though few were admit- 
ted to her confidence; and those of her sex who were unable to 
go through life without "adventures" were never included in 
the list. 

She knew well the effectiveness of silence when silence 
meant reproof; and she knew just as well when silence meant 
dishonor. 

She had tested the courage of unyielding hope and the 
power of unconquerable faith as an antidote for disappointment 
and trial. 

She had sensed the wisdom of a few words fitly spoken; and 
her life shone with the light and glory of perennial sunniness of 
heart. 

Though earnestly and eagerly devout, she was a stranger to 
intolerance and bigotry, and she sought for Divinity in sunshine 
rather than in gloom. The vocabulary of can't she had no pa- 
tience with and never tried to learn. 

If she had troubles, they were her own and not for her 
nearest friends to know; but her efforts were unwearying to 
lighten others' woe. 

She had no time for idle gossip and no countenance for un- 



Ihe Doctors Wi/^. 81 

friendly criticism. Charity stood guard upon her lips and Dis- 
cretion governed the movements of her tongue — or kept it still. 

She would help the smallest and the meanest of God's crea- 
tures, but she would injure none. It made her happy to give 
others joy. but she never found pleasure in another's pain. 

Though cheery and cordial ever, and ready for laughter or 
for song, she had serious visions often, and looked out upon man- 
kind with thoughtful eyes. She saw more trouble and sorrow 
than other women, and was more gentle and tender. She knew 
the world better than others — ^the ups and downs of human 
strength and human weakness, and was more charitable and in- 
dulgent in spirit. She grieved over the sin that was clone, and 
rebuked it; and then held out her hand to the sinner. She saw 
the temptation that was resisted, and, in the privacy of her 
heart, wept and laughed in ecstacy of joy. To her own sex was 
she true; and, whether she found it in poverty or in shame, she 
stood by it with unflinching courage. She was a woman's wo- 
man; and women knew and loved her. 

Her husband's confidences with his people she never sought 
to share; and if, perchance, a stray one came to her, 'twere safer 
in her bosom than in his own. 

The alertness and constancy of her loyalty to him; her readi- 
ness to explain shortcomings* without discredit to him; the 
promptness and fierceness of her defense of him; the joy she 
had in sacrificing self and in serving him; — the Doctor caught a 
glimpse of it now^ and then and, swallowing the lump in his 
throat, struck out with lusty sinews to merit all; but, though he 
toiled and strained aud worshipped on, he felt deep in his heart 
that were he then the best of men he could not merit that. 

His shrine was Home; his creed, the Golden Rule. His 
guide was Conscience; and his soul was free from fear. His 
wife, his Queen, and heaven, without her, could not be. 

And many and many a time, when breasting the pitiless storms 
of winter and chilled to the marrow, was he w^armed into comfort 
by the picture in his mind of the little winsome, witching crea- 
ture at home who sometimes called him "Papa" — and, some- 
times, — ''Jim." She of tireless volubility and eager friendliness 
for all the world; of floweret face, and glinting golden hair, and 
eyes and smile so like her mother's! And many a time did the 
old horse slacken its pace to a walk as the Doctor listened and 



82 \ The Plexus. 

listened to the crooning of a lullaby that was soft and low as the 
cooing of the doves upon the hills of Judasa. And then, in the 
stillness of the night and the solitude of the storm, he prayed — 
but not for himself. No, not for himself. 

And so they lived, through weal and woe, as years crept 
slowly on. And by the arduous process of many an hour of 
wearying toil, and many an effort, and an occasional triumph; 
and by virtue of being ever more and more careful of what he 
said and did, the Doctor came to be regarded as a worthy mem- 
ber of his profession and an honor to the community whose con- 
fidence was reposed in him. 

But with all his dignity of conscious strength and with all 
his pride of honorable endeavor and honorable achievement, he 
felt himself a mei'e sattelite, revolving around and ever drawing 
nearer and nearer the central figure of his home, his dearest, 
most trusty, most indulgent friend — his wife. 

And those who saw them smiled — and then they watched and 
wondered. And the aging couple "climbed the mountain to- 
gether," bearing their burdens seriously, but cheerfully — each 
helping the other over hard places and each ministering to the 
other's bruises and chatting and chumming as they went, just as 
they had been doing for forty years. And when they reached 
the top, they turned and gazed with searching eyes upon the 
scene of activity and turmoil from which they had emerged. 
There they saw misery and joy, exultation and dispair; defeat 
and triumph; oppressor and oppressed; captor and captive; vic- 
tor and victim; and, sickened by the sight, they turned again, 
without regret or sigh, and hoped for more beyond. 

As they began their course adown the further side, they 
were astounded when they saw the shortness and directness of the 
path to the bottom of the mountain. And there, stretched out 
before them, was a valley and a river; but they feared no evil. 
And they continued on their way with spirit undisturbed, com- 
menting as they went upon the increasing profuseness of the 
falling leaves and upon the quiet lights and gently stealing 
shadows of declining day. And now they stopped, just as they 
had done a hundred times before, to resc, and to review the his- 
tory of their life together. And they talked about their intro- 
duction and courtship; their marriage; the birth and death of 
heir children: their hardest trials and their dearest triumphs: 



The Doctors Wife. 83 

"the friends of their youth and of their later years; ending, as 
they always did, with the prattling of sweet nonsense that was 
worth more to them than all the riches of the world. 

At the close of the conversation, which contained an espe 
cial wealth of reminiscence, the Doctor's Wife said, in serious 
tones, "Darling, we have lived together man and wife for well- 
nigh fifty years With the memories of the past all fresh in 
mind and the vistas of the future all plain before, tell me the 
dearest wish of your heart — the uppermost desire of your soul." 

Then the Doctor, turned, with short and faltering step, like 
an old man: and, gazing into the face of the Doctor's Wife wist- 
fully, and never so tenderly, said: 

" 'To smile, whene'er thy smiles I see; 
To sigh, when thou art sighing; 
To live, while life is left to thee; 
And die, when thou art dying.'" 
* * * * * 

Even as he spoke, the eyes of the Doctor's Wife wandered, 
and rested upon the valley and the river, and then looked away, 
away off beyond. And her lids drooped; and her lashes glistened 
with tears; and her lips moved, silently, as if she were commun- 
ing With God. But when her husband had finished she turned 
blithely to lead the conversation into more cheerful cnannels — 
just as though she had had no vision. But the Doctor who h ad 
seen it all, gently restrained her, and said: "You must tell me 
the prayer of your heart. Mamma." 

And then her head fell, and she answered, at first musingly 
and brokenly, and then more strongly, "Dear — old — -Jim! Sturdy 
and true — every — minute of his life — and to the very end. 
Darling— I hope — ^I mean — I — husband — 

Husband, I pray, all heaven's array 
May fail our love to sever; 
And ties that hold us one today. 
May hold us one forever. 

The ties of love which God above 
Has sanctified and strengthened, 
Have held us fast as years have passed 
And span of life has lengthened. 



8-4 The Ptexus. 

Oh, vasiy these ties, above the skies, 
With Jesus" love all blended, 
Bind you and me and babies three, 

Through time that's never ended.'' 

****** 

I saw her face as she said it, and noted the expression of her 
eyes as they looked into his. And as she spoke, I prayed — that, 
when — T — come — to — the — last — extremity — of— liffe, the eyes — 
of a Doctor's Wife — may look into mine — like that. 



? , .<,5es»- 




,«?«« 




William Lincoln Ballengek, M. D. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF SUPPURATIVE 

OTITIS MEDIA. 
By William Lincoln Ballenger, M. D., Chicago. 

OBSCURE notions AS TO SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA. 

For reasons patent to anyone who will study the curricula, 
and more especially the actual teaching of otology in most medi- 
cal colleges, obscure ideas are prevalent among physicians as to 
the nature and pathologic significance of supperative otitis media. 
The author has for years been impressed by the almost total 
ignorance among physicians coming under his instruction in post- 
graduate teaching on this important subject. In seeking for an 
explanation of this state of affairs his conclusion is, that otology 
is not commonly well taught in many of our medical colleges. It 
is not uncommon to find otology combined with the chair of 
ophthalmology. It is sometimes, and with much more reason, 
combined with the chair of Rhinology and laryngology. Whe'n 
combined with ophthalmology it is usually a side show and is 
passed over with less than a half dozen lectures. When com- 
bined with rhinology and laryngology it is also often slighted, 
either for the want of time to cover the ground or because the 
lecturer has but little interest in the subject, and naturally 
devotes most of his time to rhinology and laryngology, in which 
he is more interested. 

AnjT^way, the result is seen in the comparative ignorance as 
to otology among the great mass of practitioners of medicine. 
The author therefore begs to briefly consider a few facts which 
may throw some light on the hazy notions prevalent regarding 
one of the most important of the diseases of the ear, namely, 
chronic suppuration of the middle ear and the mastoid spaces. 

a. Obscure notions as to the treatment. — We well remember our 
own limited ideas as to treatment when the first case of otorrhoea 
presented himself. There was an ill- defined recollection that 
boric acid should be used. We know now that boric acid may or 
may not be indicated. At the International Congress of Otolo- 
gists, held in London in 1899, the writer heard one of America's 
best known ophthalmologists and otologists make the amazing 
statement in open discussion that he still relied upon boric acid. 

Another notion regarding treatment is that the syringe is a 



88 'ihe Plexus. 

desirable method of prosecuting the treatment. It may or may 
not be a proper mode of treatment. This will depend upon 
the activit}" or virulency of the suppuration, and upon the 
way in which it is used. Unless the proper use of the syringe 
and water or other solution is thoroughly and intelligently com- 
prehended it is a very bad method of treatment. With the pres- 
ent state of knowledge among graduates of medicine, the writer 
does not hesitate to condemn it, as it usually renders the condi- 
tion of the patient worse than before Its use. 

b. Obscure notions as to the anatomy of the middle ear and mas- 
toid spaces.- — The best way to familiarize oneself with the anatom- 
ical arrangement of tne spaces is to take sections of the temporal 
bone and examine them repeatedly from all points of view. In 
this way one may get a mental picture of the parts so that he can 
readily recall it to mind when needed in clinical work. We have 
elsewhere in this paper prepared a drawing (Fig. 1) which, while 
it is diagramatic, presents the essential relationship of the parts. 

c. Obscure notions as to cei tain pity siolog ic functions oj the mech- 
anism of the middle ear. — There is a prevailing notion that the 
drumhead and ossicles are essential to hearing. This is not 
true, for we have seen many cases in which both the drumhead, 
malleus and incus were gone in which the patient had very good 
hearing indeed. It was not of normal acuteness, to be sure, but 
was quite good enough for conversation in quiet tones. When 
the ossicles are bound together, or to the walls of the middle ear 
by adhesive bands (as often occurs in dry middle ear catarrh and 
chronic sujDpurative inflammation) hearing is very much impaired. 
Theoretically, if the malleus and incus were removed, hearing 
should be markedly improved. Clinical experience has taught us 
that hearing is usually much improved by their removal in sup- 
purative processes with adhesive bands, but that there is usually 
little or no improvement by such a procedure in dry catarrh with 
adhesions. The cause of the failure to improve hearing is usually 
due to ankolosis of the foot plate of the stapes in the oval window 
of the habyrinth. The stapes may also be bound down by adhe- 
sive bands, thus having its mobility interferred with. If, how- 
ever, the drumhead and malleus and incus are gone, while the 
stapes is intact and freely movable in the oval window, hearing 
is often but slightly impaired, at least not to the extent commonly^ 
thought. 



Treatment of Otitis Media. 89 

d. Obseure notions as to tJie jMtJioligic signijicance of chronic 
supperative otitis media. — It is no uncommon saying among prac- 
titioners of medicine that it is useless to treat chronic otorrhoea 
as it will "wear itself out" in time if left alone. It is also a 
source of great comfort to such practitioners to observe that "the 
discharge is not so profuse as it used to be." They flatter them- 
selves and their patients that the disease is "wearing itself out." 
This, too, is a belief which facts will not support. Chronic sup- 
puration of the middle ear is a disease which manifests itself 
intermittantly. The discharge is profuse, becomes gradually less 
and finally is not noticed by ths patient. It is then they flatter 
themselves that they are cured. After weeks or months the 
otorrhoea reappears and subsides as before. This process may 
be continued indefinately, or until an acute mastoiditis, sinus 
thrombosis, meniugitis or intra-cranial abscess develops and 
arouses the patient and physician to renewed activity. Even 
then the relationship between the chronic ear disease and the 
sequellae is not often recognized. 

The I rue pathologic significance of chfonic otorrhoea is em- 
braced in the following statement, namely: When suppuration 
has continued for a period of two or more years there is a ten- 
dency or liability for tiie vessels of the mucosa lining the middle 
ear and accessory mastoid spaces to become thrombosed. Some 
of these vessels also supply the periosteum and penetrate the 
bone beneath. The blood supply being cut off by the thrombi 
necrosis of the mucosa periosteum and bone results. The thrombi 
may be infected and detached particles carried through the cir- 
culation to the meningess, brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, liver 
and other parts of the body, thus extending the infection, caus- 
ing meningitis, brain abscess, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and dis- 
eases of the kidneys, liver and spleen. It is well known that all 
pathogenic bacteria which float in the air gain entrance into the 
ear through a perforated drumhead, and may therefore not only 
infect the ear, but through the thrombi may be carried to other 
parts of the body. The bone necrosis may continue for months 
or years without excitfng particular comment, but as McEwen 
has so well expressed it, the patient is going about with a load of 
dynamite in his head, which may explode at any moment. One 
of the commonest causes of meningitis, exclusive of the epidemic 
and tubercular types, is chronic suppuration of the middle ear_ 



90 The Plexus. 

Primary acute suppuration excites more apprehension in the 
patient and physician than does the chronic form. In truth there 
is little danger in the primary acute form, as the mucous mem- 
brane, periosteum and bone are intact. An acute inflammation 
supervening upon a chronic form is, indeed, dangerous, as it 
usually signifies the presence of necrosis, granulations and re- 
tained pus. 

Having thus briefly called attention to some of the fancies 
and facts relating to otorrhoea we will turn our attention to the 
main thought of the paper. 

PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT. 

The treatment of suppurative processes of the middle ear and 
mastoid spaces should be based upon three principles, namely: 
(a) the establishment and maintenance of free drainage of the 
pus and secretions; (b) the removal of all morbid material, 
whether it be pus, debre or sequestra of bone; (c) the maintenance 
of asepsis of the parts. 

The success of the treatment will be proportionate to the 
accomplishment of the foregoing conditions. Free drainage, 
without the removal of the morbid material will not be entirely 
successful, as the morbid material remains to perpetuate the pro- 
cess. In brief all three conditions must be met. Iq certain 
cases this may be done by very simple measures, while in others 
it will be necessary to resort to more heroic measures. 

In order to more clearly present this phase of the subject we 
will subdivide chronic suppurative inflammations of the middle 
ear and mastoid spaces into the following groups: 

a. Suppurative inflammation limited to the middle ear pro- 
per, i. e., to that portion of the middle ear below the heads of the 
malleus and incus. In other words to the portion of the cavity 
covered by the membrana tensa. 

b. Suppurative inflammation involving the middle ear and 
attic. 

c. Supperative inflammation involving the middle ear, attic 
and mastoid antrum. 

d. Suppurative inflammation involving the middle ear, attic, 
antrum and mastoid cells. 

a. Suppuration limited to tlie middle ear xyroper. — Here the treat- 
ment may be successfully accomplished by simple local treatment 
through the external meatus (Fig. 1). Free drainage may be 



Treatment of Otitis Media. 



91 



established through the perforated drumhead by means of a 
gauze wick inserted into the perforation and packed in the meatus. 
The morbid material may consist of pus and bacteria and is 
readily carried oif with the drainage. The ear being thus drained 
and freed from morbid material is maintained in a state of asep- 
sis, and having thus met the three principles of treatment, pro- 
ceeds toward a rapid and successful issue. 

b. Suppuration involving the midgle ear and attic. — In these 
cases the treatment is not so easily accomplished. The estab- 
lishment of. free drainage is not so easy, nor is the removal of the 
morbid material. Tt follows, then, that assepsis san not be so 
well brought about. By referring to Fig. 1, it is seen that the 





Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the 
middle ear antrum and mastoid 
cells. 



Fig. 2. The Drumhead, malleus 
and incus removed to facilitate free 
drainage of the attic and antrum. 



heads of the malleus and incus, together with the ligaments and 
fibrous bands which suspend them, form the floor of the attic or 
roof of the middle ear proper. While ii^, is true that when the 
attic is involved there is a usually a perforation through the 
membrana flacida (upper flacid portion of the drumhead), it is 
usually small and does not permit of free drainage. Necrosis of 
the head of the incus or even the malleus is often present in 
these cases as the blood supply is very meager (especially to the 
incus), and liable in the course of the inflammatory process to be 
materially lessened or shut off entirely, thereby leading to necro- 
sis of the part named. It is apparent, therefore, that the removal 
of the morbid material cannot under such circumstances be 
accomplished by means of local treatments or the use of gauze 
packing. It is true that sometimes a regenerative process may 



92 The Fhxus. 

be stimulated by the injection of 5 to 10 gr. solutions of nitrate of 
silver into the attic, and the necrotic process thereby checked 
and health to the parts re-established. It is often well to make 
attempts in this line of treatment before resorting to more heroic 
measures. It is our custom +o do this in nearly all cases, and the 
results are often very gratifying indeed. In others, however, 
simple local treatment is not successful. We then sometimes 
advise the removal (Fig. 2) of the malleus or incus or both, in 
order to establish free drainage, to remove the morbid material 
and make it possible to maintain asepsis of the parts. With the 
jemoval of the two ossicles, the drumhead is also almost entirely 
taken away so that it is possible to insert gauze into ,the middle 
ear, or even into the attic by means of a small curved probe. In 
this way the middle ear and attic are converted into one open 
cavity, and all three principles of treatment are made compara- 
tively easy of accomplishment. In some cases, however, there 
is necrosis of the roof of the attic or other wall of the attic and 
middle ear, which may interfere, with the success of this mode of 
treatment. With a curved probe the necrotic areas may some- 
times be located, and by the use of curved curetts the areas 
scraped. 

This is not always possible or feasable as there is dan- 
ger of penetrating to the cranial cavity, or wounding the facial 
nerve. Then, too, it is not always possible to remove all the 
necrossed bone in this way. In such cases it is advisable to do a 
radial mastoid operation as shown in Fig. 3. 

c. Suppuration Involving the Middle Ear, Attic aud Antrum. — 
Here we have the mastoid antrum affected in addition to the mid- 
dle ear and attic. The attic and antrum communicate through a 
narrow channel called the ad addihis. The narrowness of the ad 
additiis materially interfers with the free drainage of the antrum 
as well as with the discharge of the morbid material. Hence 
treatment through the external auditory meatus is usually inade- 
quate. In a certain number of cases, however, the removal of 
the malleus and incus (fig. 2) with the drumhead affords ample 
drainage and enables the principles of treatment to be carried 
out. 

It should be remarked that it is hardly possible for the an- 
trum to be involved without them astoid cells also being affected. 
As the mastoid cells rarely develope before puberty we find this 



Treatvient of Otitis Media. 93 

class of cases in children under 14 years old. Occasionally adults 
do not have the cells developed to any extent. 

If it is found that drainage, asepsis and the removal of the 
morbid material cannot be accomplished either by simple local 
treatment or the removal of the ossicles and drumhead it may be 
necessary to advise a mastoid operation;preferably what is called 
the radical operation, (fig. 3) namely opening into the mastoid 
antrum back of the auricle and then removing the bony wall be- 
tween the antrum and the middle ear. The antrum attic and 
middle ear are thus converted into one large freely communicat- 
ing cavity. In this way the entire diseased surface is exposed 
to inspection so that all morbid material may be removed, drain- 
age established through the meatus and through the post auricu- 

Fio. 3. Drumhead, Malleus and Incus 
removed, the mastoid antrum and cells con- 
verted into one large cavitj^ freely communi- 
cating with the middle ear. The bony wall 
between the meatus and antrum has been 
removed to permit thorough inspection of the 
middle ear through the mastoid wound. This 
operation is known as the Radical Mastoid 
Operation. The mastoid cells, antrum and 
middle ear are converted into one large cav- 
ity, all morbid material removed, free drain- 
age established, and asepsis of the parts 
made possible. 

lar opening. This operation is illustrated in Fig. 3, except that 
the mastoid cells are therein represented as ablated. 

d. Suppuration Involving the Middle Ea?\ Attic, Antrum 
and Mastoid Cells. — Here we have much the same conditions to 
be met that we had in the preceeding subdivision, except that 
the involvement is deeper, including the mastoid cells. This 
renders the accomplishment of all three principles of treatment 
more difficult. Simj)le treatment of this class of cases is rarely 
successful. It becomes necessary to resort to the radical mastoid 
operation in many cases if we would eradicate the disease. Un- 
der the paragraph on the pathology and its significance we have 
already pointed out the danger attending these cases and need 
dwell no further upon that phase of the subject in order to justify 
the recommendation of the mastoid operation. In Fig. 3 we have 
illustrated diagramatically the end accomplished by this opera- 




94 The Plexus. 

tion, namely, the middle ear, attic, antrum and mastoid cells are 
converted into one freely communicating cavity, so that the three 
principles of treatment may be successfully carried out. In thi& 
operation it should be remembered that the ossicles and drum- 
head if not removed at a previous operation should be taken out 
after the wall separating the attic and mastoid antrum has been 
chiseled away. 

It must not be inferred that this or any other method of 
treatment is recommended by the author as always being suc- 
cessful. There are many circumstances whieh modify the re- 
sults, but their discussion is outside the limits of this paper. We 
intend to present only the principles of treatment and not the 
details of the technique. 

100 state St. 



THE DEFORMITIES OF INFANTILE PARALYSIS. 

A clinical Lecture at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago. 

By John Lincoln Porter, M. D., 

Professor in Orthopedic Surgery. 

These two little ones that I have to show you this morning 
are of interest as illustrating the deformities resulting from in- 
fantile paralysis. We are especially fortunate in having them 
here together as they show two different degrees of paralysis 
with consequent differences in the resulting condition. They are 
nearly of the same age age, the little girl being ten years old, 
and the boy nine. We will lift them onto the table so that you 
can see better the condition I want to call your attention to. 
They are not in any way related, as you can probably tell by the 
way they eye each other, and these are not cases illustrating any 
family or hereditary type of paralysis. Before I say anything 
about the history in these cases I will ask Mrs. Carpenter, who 
sent the little boy here, to tell us what she knows about the case. 
(Mrs. Carpenter): I know very little about him. I have no- 
ticed him on the street near where I live and asked his mother to 
let me bring him over here to see what can be done for him. It 
seems that he was all right up to four years of age when he went 
to bed one night apparently well and woke up in the morning 
crying with pain and anable to get up. He was quite sick for 
some time, unable to move at all. but gradually got better and 
when he got entirely well it left him like this. (Dr. Porter). Do 
you know what time of the year that was? (Mrs. Carpenter): 
Yes, in October. (Dr. Porter): Has he grown any worse lately? 
(Mrs. Carpenter): I don't know. (The patient): No I have 
been just like this ever since I was sick. (Dr. Porter): That 
givesifyou almost a typical history and I can tell you as to the 
other case that it is much the same except that the disease oc- 
curred when she was only two years old. You see both these 
cases occurred under five years of age. It is essentially a dis- 
ease of childhood. I don't know the statistics in the matter but 
I think there are more cases occur at the ages of four and five 
years than all other years together. Although just now we are 
more concerned with the deformities resulting from the disease 
han with the acute disease itself, I will refer briefly to the path- 



56 The Plexus. 

ology and symptomatology of these cases, for in making differ- 
ential diagnoses it is necessary to remember them. The usual 
history in such a case is something like this: A child under 
eight years of age in in ordinary good health is suddenly taken 
ill with marked fever, more or less prostration, sometimes vom- 
iting, complains of pain in the trunk and extremities and is un- 
able to move. Frequently this occurs during the night or is no- 
ticed in the morning and by far the larger percentage of cases 
occur during hot weather. The attack resembles that of an 
acute infectious fever and in tiie early stage the loss of motor 
power is attributed to the general prostration, especially if the 
patient is an infant. These symptoms last usually from two to 
ten days, the child gradually gets better, the fever subsides, and 
as convalescence is established it is noticed that motion gradu" 
ally returns, first to the upper extremities and later to the lower, 
but always there is some paralysis of some muscles that remains. 
Now this paralysis varies very much in extent and location in 
different cases and this brings us to the pathology of the disease. 
The lesion in these cases is an acute inflammation of the anterior 
divisions of the spinal cord, as the neurolgic name, poliomyelitis 
anterior, indicates. As a result of this acute inflammation some 
of the large ganglionic cells of the anterior horns of gray matter 
are destroyed, probably by a process of coagulation necrosis, 
and the motor nerves leading out from these cells lose their 
function and the muscles which they supply become paralyzed. 
Some of the motor cells which are affected by the inflammation 
recover, which accounts for the fact that the paralysis at first is 
always greater than that resulting after recovery, but in those 
cells that are completely destroyed regeneration does not occur 
and the motor fibres leading from them always remain useless 
which allows us to make a very definite prognosis that those 
muscles or fibres of muscles that remain paralyzed three months 
after the attack will always be paralyzed. Prof. Wing of this 
city has recently brought out, in a monograph on the subject, 
the fact that the inflammation affects more severely the anterior 
columns and more frequently the lumbar segment of the cord be- 
cause the greatest affluent branch of the anterior spinal artery is 
here; it supplies blood to the anterior horn of gray matter only, 
and the greatest number of ganglion cells is in the lumbar seg- 
ment. Whatever the etiogical factors may be that determine 



Deformities of Infantile Paralysis. 97 

the localization of the inflammation we do know that it occurs 
most frequently in the lumbar segment of the cord because the 
resulting paralysis is generally' limited to the lower extremities, 
and in a great majority of cases some or all of the anterior tibial 
group of muscles are involved. Sometimes the paralysis is very 
extensive, involving all the anterior muscles of the thigh as well 
as of the leg and occasionally both legs are involved. I have 
within the past year seen two rare types of paralysis in this dis- 
ease, involving only the deltoid muscle. Associated with this 
paralysis is a marked atrophy of the muscles of the limb. This 
is a true atrophy of the muscles involved and not a diminution in 
size of the limb from disuse, as is sometimes thought. It is 
very well shown in both these cases, the difference between the 
normal leg and the paralyzed one is probably very evident from 
where you sit. In these cases the atrophy is more marked in the 
leg than in the thigh, as the paralysis is confined almost entirely 
to the leg, but we shall probably find a slight difference in the 
thighs also. 

By measurement I find there is a difference of one and one- 
half inches in circumference of ths calves, and one -half inch dif- 
ference in the thighs of the boy. We shall probably find nearly 
the same difference in the other case and I will not stop to meas- 
ure the limbs now. 

Perhaps you can see a slight difference in the color of the 
•legs in these cases. It is more marked in the little girl. It is 
due to the deficient circulation, which is another result of the 
impaired innervation in these paralyzed limbs. The affected 
limb has a purplish appearance as compared with the normal 
pinkish fiesh color of the other — just as our hands look blue or 
purple when they are cold. And if you should take hold of these 
extremities you should notice that the weak one feels decidedly 
colder than the other. That is a complaint that the parents often 
make, that the affected leg is always cold. Now the deformities 
that result from these paralyses are due to two factors: the loss 
of power in the paralyzed muscles, and contraction of the oppos- 
ing muscles. I can demonstrate that in the case of the little girl 
here. You see she is unable to flex the toes, or the foot on the 
ankle, and the foot hangs down and the toes drag in walking — 
what is called a "toe drop." If we hold the leg and try to forc- 
ibly flex the foot we find, as you see, that the foot cannot be 



98 



The Plexus. 



brought up to a right angle by all the force I can apply with my 
hands. In the case of the little boy it is not so marked. The 
foot can easily be brought up but not as far as the normahone 
can. You notice another curious thing in the case of the boy.- 




FiG. 1. Showing- atrophy of the leg, complete loss of dorsal 
flexion and beginning talipes-equinus due to contractures. 

While he was unable to flex any of the other toes he can flex the 
big toe. Why is that? Because, you remember, the big toe is 
dorso flexed by the extensor proprius pollicis muscle, and it has 
escaped, while all the rest of the toes are supplied by the exten- 



Deformities of Infantile Paralysis. 



99 




Fig. 2. Showing atrophy of the leg, partial dorso- 
ftexion and contraction possible in the extensor prop- 
rius pollicis muscle. 



100 The Plexus. 

sor communis digitorum which is paralyzed. To come back to 
our inability to flex the foot. The reason why the deformity is 
so hard to overcome is because the opposing muscles of the calf 
of the leg have undergone tonic contraction and shortening, hav- 
ing no opposition in the anterior muscles, and we have here 
what is known as contractures, which are always a strong factor 
in the causation of deformities following paralysis. Now what 
shall we do in the way of treatment for these cases? Let me say 
that sometimes a great deal can be done to improve the useful- 
ness of the affected limb and ivhat we shall do depends upon the 
condition of each individual case, and each case requires careful 
study to determine just what muscles have been paralyzed and 
how much power there is in those that have escaped. We find 
in the case of the boy here that he not only has the use of the 
extensor poUicis muscle but evidently some fibres of the anterior 
tibial or peroneal muscles are still intact, for he can by strong 
effort feebly dor.so-flex the foot a trifle and it requires but little 
force to flex it very well by hand, although the paralysis has 
lasted longer in his case than in the little girl's. In such cases 
the indications are to educate and develop what power we have 
left to the utmost and at the same time overcome what oppoFing 
contraction there is by mechanical means. We will send the lad 
to the neurolgic department for more careful examination by 
means of electrical reactions to determine just what muscles have 
some power left. Then we will instruct the mother how to exer- 
cise and massage those muscles so as to develop them to their 
utmost usefulness, and possibly electrical treatment two or three 
times a week can be had at the clinic and that will help in the 
stimulation. As an aid to the muscles in overcoming contrac- 
tion, we will have made for the foot a modified form of club-foot 
brace, with a plate to fit the plantar surface of the foot and a stem 
going up the outside of the leg and fastened at the garter line by 
a strap. This stem is joined to a flange on the foot plate by a 
stop joint thus (illustrating) which you see will allow of the foot 
being dorso-flexed to any degree, but it cannot be extended be- 
yond a right angle. In many cases it is necessary to do a teno- 
tomy of the Achilles tendon to overcome the contracture before 
applying the brace, but here the tendon is not tense and the foot 
can be brought up so well that we will not do that. This brace 
will be worn inside a large shoe. It will prevent the dragging 



Deformities of Infantile Paralysis. 101 

of the toes and enable him to set his foot down flat, and, with the 
measures advised to strengthen the anterior tibial muscles will, 
I believe, in a few months result in a decided improvement. If 
it does not, we will do a transplantation operation, attaching the 
tendon of the extensor proprius pollicis to the tendon of the an- 
terior tibial or extensor communis muscles which are paralyzed, 
and educate it to take their place. But in the other case, the 
little girl, we shall have to do more than that. Although she 
has had treatment and worn braces for a long time before coming 
to us, they have been insufficient. Often the parents are care- 
less about keeping the braces fitted tightly or they get broken 
and the patient is not taken to the aurgeon regularly for inspec- 
tion beca,use they do not realize the necessity of the constant 
vigilance. 

We will at some future clinic anaesthetize the child, sever the 
Achilles tendon and flex the foot to a right angle or more, and if 
necessary cut the tense, contracted fascia on the plantar surface 
and perhaps the tendon of the tibialis posticus muscle, so as to 
overcome the tendency to varus. 

Then we will put the foot up in plaster of Paris for two 
weeks until the wounds have healed, and renew the plaster dres- 
sing at intervals of two weeks for a month or two longer, or un- 
til the child can set the foot flat down upon the floor and step 
upon it without pain. After that we shall fit a brace similar to 
the one I have described for the boy and begin the same meas- 
ures for stimulating the activity of the well muscles to their ut- 
most usefulness. If a good position can be maintained until the 
little one is grown up and realizes the necessity of constant effort 
to keep the foot from dropping and getting out of sbaj)e again, 
that very effort will probably be sufficient to accomplish the de- 
sired result and allow her to walk very well without any mech- 
anical support. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIALLORGANiOF 

THE COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D.. D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY, M. D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D., 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., THOMAS FAITH, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D. 

Associate Editors. L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Class Editors: 

F H. HORNIBROOK, 02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03 

M R. MARTIN, '04. 



Faculty Department, DR. W. A. PUSEY. Clinical Laboratory Dept., DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " R. C. CUPLER '01 Library Department. GRACE W. BRYANT. 

Publisher, H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, 813 W. Harrison St. 

Entered at Cliicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 



Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed "hai the subscription is to be 
continued and "the Journal sent accordingly. 

□ Contributionsof matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers willnot hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS. unless sufficient stamps are forwarded 

It is with pleasure that we present in this issue of the 
Plexus the half-tone likeness of our most honorable Dean, Dr. 
William E. Quine and also are able to print "The Doctor's Wife," 
an after dinner speech which has been much sought for by the 
medical profession and the student body of the P. & S. College. 
Rarely does a single speech receive the praise and very credit- 
able mention that "The Doctor's Wife" has received, and it has 
given its most worthy author a high position as an after-dinner 
speaker. 

William Lincoln Ballenger, M. D., Assistant Prof. Otology, 



Editorial. 103 

Rhinology and Laryngology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
'Chicago, has one of the leading articles in this number of the 
Plexus. There is also a review of the text book on diseases of 
the Ej^e, Ear, Nose and Throat (Ballenger and Wippern) which 
appeared from the press of Lea Bros. & Co., last October. The 
subject of this sketch graduated from Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College in 1886, after which he practiced general medicine and 
surgery in Richmond, Indiana. In 1893 he removed to Chicago 
since which time he has limited his practice to the diseases of 
the Ear, Nose and Throat. In 1895 he was elected to the posi- 
tion of instructor in Laryngology and Rhinology in the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1897 he was promoted to lec- 
turer to fill the vacancy made by the resignation of Dr. Bennett. 
In 1900 the Spring course was abolished and the all-year plan 
adopted, and the position of lecturer was abolished. Dr. Bal- 
lenger was then elected to the position he now holds, namely, 
Assistant Prof, of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Prof. 
M. R. Brown being head of the department. 

At present he is giving the entire course in his department, 
holding two dispensary clinics a week and one clinic in the lower 
amphitheater Defore the juniors, beside the didactic lectures. 

Beside the position Dr. Ballenger holds in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons he has held that of lecturer in the Chi- 
cago Policlinic and Professor in the Chicago Eye, Ear, Nose and 
Throat College. He has given up all other positions in order to 
give all his time and teaching faculties to the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons. He was also chief assistant ear surgeon at 
the Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary a few years ago. 

The portrait which we publish is made from a hasty sketch 
by Mr. Able, an artist friend of the doctor, and while it is not a 
perfect likeness is nevertheless a clever character sketch and 
more interesting than a half tone from a photograph. 

Dr. Ballenger is a member of the International Congress of 
■Otologists which met in London in 1899, and which will meet in 
Bordeaux, France, in 1902. Dr. Ballenger will read a paper be- 
fore its members at this meeting, on the Diagnostic Value of the 
Functional Tests of the Ear. 

The doctor is also a member and secretary of the Western 
■Ophthalmologic and Oto-Laryngologic Association, and a Fellow 
of the American Otological and Laryngological Society, as well 
as numerous local special and general medical societies. 



•Alurppi Deparbmepb, 



'84. R. M. Curtiss has moved to Marengo, 111., from 95 
Evanston Ave., Chicago. 

'94. E. A. Plank, of Union, Mich., was a recent visitor at 
his Alma Mater. 

'94. T. L. Round, Tampico, III., was here recently viewing 
the ruins of A. A. & C. A. 

'95. A. F. Lemke has returned from his Southern trip and 
reports a very pleasant time. He is located in the Reliance 
Building, Chicago. 

'95. J. P. Riggs has moved from Roseville, 111., to Toluca, 
111. 

'96. Cleaves M, Pennett, of Mattoon, 111., spent a few days 
in Chicago recently. 

"97. W. S. Royce has moved to 1194 N. California Avenue, 
Chicago, from 240 Honore Street. 

'98. C. D. Stone has moved to 2220 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

'98. W. T. Dowdall is now located at 57 East Washington 
street, Chicago. 

"99. J. E. Metcalf has completed his interneship at West 
Side Hospital. Chicago, and has located at Pennimore, Wis. 

"99. R. J. Goggins was married at Appleton. Wis., in April. 
He is practicing at Ocontee Falls, Wis. The Plexus extends 
congratulations. 

'00. F. C. Knauf, of New Holstein, Wis., was a recent visi- 
tor at the Plexus office. He is enjoying a very nice practice 
and says that the Plexus is a very welcome visitor. 

'00. G. H. Moldenhaur, 418 W. Chicago avenue, city, reports 
a very lucrative practice. G. H. was married on April 24th to 
Miss Alma Gauschow, Chicago. They took in the Pan Ameri- 
can Exposition on their wedding trip. Dr. Moldenhaur has been 
very successful in surgical work since graduation. 

'00. O. B. Dunham, cor. 63rd St. and Stewart Ave., Chicago. 

'00. A. H. Geiger has completed his interneship at the Ger- 
man Hospital, and is now located at 101 Clybourn Ave.. Chicago. 

'01. W. G. McPherson is located at Bement, 111. 

01. J. J. McGuinn is now serving as interne in Cook County 

I 



Alumm. 105 

Hospital. We have four '01 seniors in Cook County Hospital 
now, Morton, Stober, McGuinn and Sears. Ringo enters upon 
his work in December. He is now located at South Bend, Neb.~ 

'01. Eric Soegaard has accepted an interneship in Womans' 
Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. 

'01. H. S. Leonard is now located at 1205 East 19th street, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

'01. Mrs. B. L. Willing Braley, Kansas City, Mo. 

'01. D. Apfelbaum, 589 N. Hoyne avenue, Chicago. 

'01. J. A. Van Horn was married on July 2nd to Miss L, 
Huntoon, of Detroit, Mich. They took in the Pan-American Ex- 
position and the eastern sights on their wedding trip. He will 
locate at Pueblo, Colo., instead of taking up his work as army 
surgeon. 

'01. C. C. Johnson has accepted an interneship in the Silver 
•Cross Hospital, at Joliet, 111. 

'01. A. J. Lennon was a recent visitor at the Plexus. He 
is now serving as interne in the St. Joseph's Hospital, Joliet, 111. 

'01. Carl W. Lockhart resigned his interneship at Chicago 
Hospital and is now practicing at Mellen, Wis. He has a drug 
store there, too. 

'01. A. R. Denny is Dr. W. L. Ballinger's assistant in the 
•college clinic and in his private practice in the office. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 
Grace W. Bryant, Librarian. 
The recent fire has made it impossible to have the Library 
•open to readers until the insurance shall be adjusted. Between 
three and four thousand dollars worth of books and plates were 
damaged by water. Fortunately nearly all these can be replaced 
•or restored. Aside from the temporary inconvenience and addi- 
tional work, we can but congratulate ourselves on our good for- 
itune in escaping so well. 

The following articles by members of the faculty have been 
^noted in the journals: Dr. R. H. Babcock, -'Limitation of Drug 
Therapy." (Pres. address delivered at the Eighteenth annual 
meeting of the American Climatological Association, at Niagara 
Falls, May 30, 1901.) Neio York Medical Journal, July 6, 1801, p. 6. 
Dr.. Bayard Holmes: "Case of Antrum Infection and Sigmoid 



106 The Plexus. 

Sinus Thrombos is Without Present Middle Ear Disease. Ameri 
can Mrdicine, June 1, 1901, p. 385. 

Dr. G. F. Lydston: "Should the Physician Write?" Doctors' 
Magazine, May, 1901, p. 184; and "Unusual Symptoms in Appen- 
dicitis," Medical Brief, July, 1901, p. 1043. 

Dr. H. P. Newman: "Section on Obstetrics and Diseases of 
Women." (Chairman's address delivered at the Fifty-second an- 
nual meeting A. M. A. at St. Paul, June 4-7, 1901), Journal A.M. A. ^ 
June 22, 1901, p. 1747. 

GIFTS. 

Bos worth, F. H.— Diseases of the Throat and Nose, 3881. 
Drs. M. R. and J. M. Brown, donors. 

Coakley, C. G.— Nose and Throat, 1899. Drs. M. R. and J. M. 
Brown, donors. 

Illinois State Health Board. — Sanitary Investigations of tha 
Illinois River and its Tributaries, 1900. Drs. M. R. and J. M. 
Brown, donors. 

Lakeside Hospital (Cleveland). — Thirty-fourth Annual Re- 
port for 1900. Hospital, donor. 

Merck & Co.— Annual Report for 1900. Merck & Co., donor. 

New Jersey State Board of Health.— Twenty-fourth Report, 
1900. 

Harvard University Medical School. — Announcement for 
1901-02. 

Fischkin, E. A.— Eczema and Its Treatment, 12 p. An erup- 
tion resembling pemphigus vegetans in an infant, 3 p. Dr. E. A. 
Fischkin, donor. 

Ninety-five journals and fifty pamphlets. Drs. M. R. and J. 
M. Brown, donors. 

The thanks of the Quine Library are due to Wm. Wood & Co., 
of New York City, and Lea Bros., a company of Philadelphia, for 
furnishing books at a very nominal price, and to P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co., of Philadelphia, for donating books to replace the 
desk copies of their publications which were watersoaked in our 
recent fire. 

We also desire to express our appreciation of the kind efforts 
of E. H. Colegrove, agent for Medical and Dental books, Chicago, . 
in securing these concessions for us. 



SENIOR NOTES. 

Prof. Bayard Holmes is giving us a very thorough course on 
diseases of the gall bladder and is bringing about an acquaintance 
with current medical literature by assigning subjects to different 
members of the class which require the reading of a few hundred 
reported cases. A good idea too. 

When President McDowell made the request on class day 
that the 1901 picture be put in the new building, did he know 
what was coming? 

Smith (the orator) came to the college a few days ago and 
seeing sixty on the senior roll said he guessed he would wait till 
October and avoid the crowd. 

To those of '02 who went home for vacation we will answer 
"Yes, it is pretty hot here, but we don't feel it any worse than 
you do at home plowing corn, stacking straw, and mowing away 
the hay in the barn." 

The '"Profs" will have to get through guessing soon or Inks 
and Wachowski will not know that their names have been called 
this term; but when it comes to calling upon Young's elongated 
friend they very wisely run through his list of names till they 
reach the one most easily pronounced and then triumphantly call 
it out. 

Who would have thought that after being able to pass him- 
self off as a young man during the first three years of his college 
course, Curator Why te would be given away in his senior year by 
some reporter who happened to know him "way back in the thir- 
ties." You might as well throw away your wig and h^r dye,, 
Whyte, and own up. 

It was with feelings of sadness that we arose the morning of 
the 26th ult. to look upon the fire-scarred walls of the college 
that has been the scene of so many happy recollections; and 
while we have long harbored secret desires to get into our new 
home, yet we regretted exceedingly the circumstances that madt 
the change necessary. We have had a few inconveniences to put 
up with, but none have complained as the frequent change of 
classrooms has given us so much exercise that we have felt justi- 
fied in giving up our morning walks. The Professors have kept 



108 The Plexus. 

up with the changes remarkably well, hence we have had excel- 
lent instruction, and that's all we ask for. 

Supt. Browne would have saved money, words and an enor- 
mous strain upon his temper by borrowing a "Don't ask for 
credit" sign and hanging it up in his oftice after adding an "s" to 
the last word. Too late now, but it might be useful next October. 

After appearing before us and telling us all to be good boys 
and girls Prof. Ferguson, smilingly announced that he expected 
to spend the summer in the land of his ancestors, presumably 
Germany or some country near by. We hope and believe that he 
will have a very enjoyable vacation. Dr. Connell will take his 
place. 

We have several who believe that they would make good 
chairman of committees in Prof. Wells' clinic, yet are too modest 
to suggest their own names. 

Pi'of. O'Byrne often has a skeptical smile on his face as he 
looks around the room during roll call; but he is only endeavor- 
ing to associate the new names and faces. 

When first ushered into the new building the old familiar 
school seats aroused memories which were too much for the grav- 
ity of even the serious. The old familiar "Good morning, 
teacher,'' "Please may 1 pass the water," etc., were brought into 
use and the bent pin made to serve its traditional purpose, until 
quieted by Dr. Barrett's remark that we behaved more like post 
graduates than seniors. 



THE FIRE. 

In order to let our readers know the condition of affairs after 
the fire we have placed in this issue a group picture of those 
parte of the building which were damaged , the most. In the 
upper left hand corner, the alumni will recognize the much loved 
clinical amphitheater, where much blood has been shed, not only 
by the surgeon's knife, but from the brow of many a senior while 




trying to ride a broncho Through his final exams, just below it 
the much hated dissecting room, where -all operations were 
bloodless, aye, heartless, too often; in the up[)er right hand 
corner the much honored institution — north east corner view — 
with P. Gad Kitterman and Mis- Jones so enraptured in each 
other's conversation that they were not aware of having their 



110 . The Plexus. 

picture taken, and below the much reviled A, A. the "D. J's" 
headquarters together with Dr. Eckley's department. It is need- 
less to say that it was this part of the building that suffered the 
most as it can be clearly seen by the two right hand pictures. 

The damage was greater than it was at first thought to be. 
There were two large rains shortly after the fire that thoroughly 
drenched the building as the entire roof was off. 

Little has been done to the building as yet as the insurance 
has not as yet been adjusted; however, the building will be 
thoroughly remodeled and in order by October first, when the 
Dental Department of the U. of I. will open its fall term's work. 

The college work has gone on as before the fire — the labora- 
tory work being delayed the longest. The greater part of it is 
being done in the new building, while the clinical work is done 
in the West Side and Cook County Hospital clinic amphitheaters. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

Miss Grace Bryant, our very accommodating librarian is tak- 
ing her well earned vacation now. During her absence the 
library will be open only a few hours each day: 
Monday— 11 to 12; 12:30 to 3:50 
Tuesday— 11 to 12; 12:30 to 3:50 
Wednesday— 9 to 10; 12:30 to 2:50 
Thursday— 9 to 10; 12:30 to 2:50 
Friday— 10 to 12; 12:30 to 3:50 

Saturday— 10 to 12. 

One of the students gave the following prescription recently 
in the class in therapeutics: 

^ Hydrar. Chlor. Cowos 15 

SodtiChlor 15 

Aqua q. s 15. 

Sig. — Inject syringe full deep into buttock and jerk out sud- 
denly every other day. 

Our efficient superintendent, W, H. Browne, leaves in a few 
days for a much earned three week's vacation. He goes to Penn- 
sylvania. 

Picture of the fire like those which appear on another page 
of this issue may be had at the Plexus office for 40 cents apiece, 
the four for $1.25. These are large well mounted pictures and 
will make good souvenirs. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

BaLLINGER & WlPPERN ON THE EyE, EaK, NoSE AND ThROAT. 

A Pocket Text-Book of Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and 
Throat, for Students and Practitioners. By Wit.liam L. 
Ballinger, M. D., Assistant Professor of Otology, Rhino- 
log-y and Laryngology in the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, Chicago, etc., and A. G. Wippern, M. D., Professor 
of Ophthalmology and Otology in the Chicago Eye, Ear, 
Nose and Throat College. In one handsome 12mo. volume 
of 525 pages, with 150 engravings and 6 full-page colored 
plates. Cloth, ^2.. 00, net; flexible red leather, -"^2.50, net. 
Lea Brothers & Co., Publishers, Philadelphia and New York. 

In this book nearly all of the affections of the Eye, Ear, Nose 
and Throat are more or less briefly described, the more common 
ones being treated with a fulness commensurate with their im- 
portance. 

The section on the Diseases of the Eye is intended for both 
medical student and the general practitioner; the nomenclature 
and classification having been made as simple as possible. 

In the section on the Ear the physiologic tests of liearinO are 
given considerable prominence as these are of great value in the 
diagnosis of the lesions of the middle ear and labyrinth, 

Siqypurative diseases of the middle ear and mastoid are fully 
described, with especial reference to the pathology of chronic 
suppuration, caries and necrosis. 

The mastoid operation is fully dealt with, each step being 
given in the order usually employed by the author. 

As to the Nose: The physiology and physics of obstructed 
nasal respiratioji as an etiological factor in many nasal and naso- 
pharyngeal diseases is fully described. 

The rationale of the symptoms of sinusitis of the accessory 
nasal sinuses as dependent on their peculiar topical anatomy and 
relation to the turbinate bodies is explained. 

In the section on the throat, under postnasal adenoids there is 
an explanation of the symptoms, which has not appeared before 
and which show the originality of the author. 

The etiologic interrelationship of chronic inflammation of the 
nose, nasopharynx, and larynx is strongly advocated. 

The book has been well received and will continue to be well 
received by the medical student and general practitioner as it is 



112 The Phxus 

a publication that should be in every students" and practitioners' 
library. It is a very good book as a ready reference upon these 
subjects. 

Principles of Surgery. By N. Senn, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., 
Professor of Surgery in Rush Medical College in Affiliation 
with the University of Chicago; Professorial Lecturer on 
Military Surgery in the University of Chicago; Attending 
Surgeon to the Presbyterian Hospital; Surgeon in- Chief to 
St. Joseph's Hospital; Surgeon General of Illinois; Late 
Lieutenant-Colonel of United States Volunteers and Chief of 
the Operating staff with the Army in the field during the 
Spanish-American War. Third Edition. Thoroughly Re- 
vised with 1^30 Wood-engravings, Half-tones, and Colored 
Illustrations. Royal Octavo. Pages, xiv — 700. Extra 
Cloth, S4. 50, Net; Sheep or Half-russia, ^.'i.aO, Net. Deliv- 
ered. Philadelphia: P. A. Davis Company, Publishers, 
1914-16 Cherry Street. 

The author in this third edition has thoroughly revised his 
"Principles of Surgery," has rdded a number of new illustra- 
tions many of which are original, also two new chapters, one 
"Degeneration," the other "Blastomycetic Dermatitis," which 
should be included in each "up-to-date" text book on "Principles 
of Surgery." 

The "Principles of Surgery" is a book for the medical stu- 
dent as well as the practitioner, serving the purpose of a sys- 
tematic treatise on the causation, pathology, diagnosis, progno- 
sis and treatment of the injuries and affections which the sur- 
geon is most frequently called upon to treat and because of the 
great experience of the author as a surgeon, is a book of great 
value and should be in the library of every medical student and 
practitioner. The book teems with the original ileas of the 
author. 

The subject of tumors has not received as thorough a treat- 
ment as the author should like to have given it, but this subject 
is to receive special attention by Dr. Senn in the near future by 
a special work on "The Pathology and Surgical Treatment of 
Tumors." 





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COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY, 
Dental Department of University of Illinois. Chicago 




Adelbert Henry Peck, M, D., D. D. S., 

Dean of College of DentUtry, 
Dental Department of University of Illinois. Chicag-o. 




Daviu Mahlon Cattell, D. D. S. 



DENTAL DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OP ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

OFFICERS OF FACULTY. 

Andrew Sloan Draper, LL. D., President. 

Oscar A. King, M. D., Chairman Committee of Organization. 

Adelbert Henry Peclv, M. D., D. D. S., Dean. 

Bernard John Cigrand, M. S., D. D. S., Secretary. 

Daniel Atkinson King Steele, M. D. — Actuary. 

FACULTY. 

Adelbert Henry Peck, M. D., D. D. S., Prof essor Materia Med- 
ica, Special Pathology and Therapeutics, Stewart Building. 

David Mablon Cattell, D. D. S., Professor Operative Dentistry 
and Operative Technics, Reliance Building. 

Bernard John Cigrand, M. S., D. D. S., Professor of Prosthe- 
tic Dentistry, Technics and History, corner North Avenue and 
Robey Street. 

George Washington Cook, D. D. S., Professor of Bacteriology 
and General Pathology, Forty-seventh and Kenwood Avenue. 

Daniel Atkinson King Steele, M. D., Professor of Oral Surg- 
ery, Columbus Memorial Building. 

James Nelson McDowell, D. D. S., Professor of Orthodontia, 
Reliance Building. 

William Thomas Eckley, M, D., Professor of Anatomy, 979 
Jackson Boulevard. 

Jacob F. Burkholder, M. D., Professor Physiology, Reliance 

Building. 

Fred. Carl Zapffe, M. D., Professor of Dental Histology, 925 

Warren avenue. 

John Alfonzo Wesner, Ph. C, M. D., Professor of Chemistry, 
Columbus Memoiial Building. 

Seth Eugene Meek, M. S., Ph. D., Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy, 695 Fifty- seventh street. 

Oscar A. King, M. D., Professor of Neurology, 70 State street. 

ElmerDDeWitt Brothers, B. S., LL. B., Professor of Dental 
Jurisprudence, New York Life BuildiQg. 

Joseph Mclntyre Patton, M. D., Professor General Anesthe- 
sia and Physical Diagnosis, 237 South Hoyne avenue. 



124 TIu Plexus. 

George Walter Dittmar, D. D. S., Associate Professor of 
Operative Technics and Superintendent] of Infirmary, 813 West 
Harrison street. 

Charles Orville Bechtol, M. D., Adjunct Professor of Chem- 
istry, Dunning, 111, 

CHIEF DEMONSTRATORS. 

G. Walter Dittmar, D, D. S., Department of Operative Den- 
tistry. 

Charles Erwin Jones, D. D. S., Department of Prosthetic 
Dentistry . 

Charles Nye Thompson, D. D. S., Department Cof Porcelain. 

Ralph Waldo Parker, D. D. S., Department of Oral Surgery. 

Corinne Buford Eckley, Department of Anatomy. 

DEMONSTRATORS. 

Clayton McCauley, D. D. S., Operative Department. 
Fred William Parker, D. D. S., Porcelain Department. 
Bert Horace Kershaw, D. D. S., Microscopic Department. 

ANATOMY. 

Louis J. Pritzker, M. D., Winifred Conley, D. D. S., William 
Henry Walsh, D. D. S., P. Gad Kitterman, Louise Martin, M. D., 
Nancy Lee Martin, Erich Benno Ruthenberg,'M.'_D., U. G. Win- 
dell, M. D. 

QUIZ MASTERS. 

Clayton McCauley, D. D. S., Operative Department. 
Charles Erwin Jones, D. D. S., Prosthetic Department. 
Ralph Waldo Parker, D. D. S., Special Pathology. 
Fred William Parker, D. D. S., Materia Medica. 
Corinne Buford Eckley, Anatomy. 

CLINICAL ASSISTANTS. 

William Fuller, M. D., Oral Surgery. 

Lloyd Steele Lourie, D. D. S., Orthodontia and Oral Surgery .^ 

Robert Patterson Donaldson, Superintendent, 813 West Har- 
rison street. 




B. J. CiGRAND, B. S., M. S., D. D. S. 




George W. Cook, D. D. S. 



ADELBERT HENRY PECK, M. D., D. D. S. 

The Dean of the Dental Department of the University of 
Illinois, Adelbert Henry Peck, M. D., D. D. S., was born April 
17, 1862, at Hammond, Wis. His early life was spent on a farm 
and his early education was obtained at the village school. In 
order that he might prepare himself for a useful career tie at- 
tended the State Normal School at River Falls, Wis., and at the 
age of seventeen taught his first school. He continued teaching 
for several years, during the winters, and working on the farm 
during the summers. In the years 1884 and 1885 he held the 
position of priacipal of the graded school of his home town, and 
was actively interested in all educational matters, and was presi- 
dent of the County Teachers' Association. In the fall of 1886 he 
he entered the Chicago College of Dental Surgery, from which 
he graduated in the spring of 1888, delivering the valedictory 
address for his class. The following year he was awarded by his 
Alma Mater the position of Adjunct Professor of Operative Dent- 
istry and Demonstrator of Clinical Operative Dentistry In the 
spring of 1891 he graduated from Rush Medical College. In 
1894 Dr. A. W. Harlan resigned the chair of Dental Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics in the Chicago College of Dental Sur- 
gery and Dr. Peck succeeded him, which position he held for 
two years, when he resigned to take a similar chair in the North- 
western University Dental School, from which position he has 
but recently resigned. 

Dr. Peck is a member of the Chicago Dental Society. He 
was its secretary for four years and its president one year. He 
is also a member of the Odontographic Society of Chicago and 
the Chicago Academy of Medicine, Northern Illinois Dental So- 
ciety, Illinois State Dental Society, of which he is now the sec- 
retary and has been for five years. Also a member of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association and the National Dental Association, of 
which society he is its recording secretary for two years past; 
honorary member of Wisconsin State Dental Society and South- 
western Michigan Dental Society. Professor Peck has been a 
frequent contributor to the literature of the dental profession, 
almost entirely through the various dental societies of which he 
is a member. One of the most interesting of his writings was 
entitled "The Essential Oils and Other Agents, Their Antiseptic 



130 'ihe Plexus. 

Values; Also Their Irritating and Non-irritating Properties," 
which was read before the Illinois State Dental Society in 1898 
and afterward by special request before the American Medical 
Association and the Northern Iowa Dental Society. 



DAVID MAHLON CATTELL, D. D. S. 

David Mahlon Cattell, D. D. S., was born in Ohio, June 26, 
1852, Losing his parents at an early age, his youth was spent 
"With relatives from whom he received an excellent training and 
moral discipline always found among the Quakers. His educa- 
tion prior to professional studies was acquired almost wholly at 
Quaker schools and colleges. His occupation aside from school 
work was that of farming, his people belonging to the better 
class of farmers found in central and eastern Ohio. In May of 
the Centennial year he began the study of dentistry under the 
guidance of Dr. H. H. Harrison, of Cadiz, Ohio, graduating at 
the University of Michigan, receiving the degree of Doctor of 
Dental Surgery in the year 1879. 

He began the practice of dentistry May 1, 1879, in Chicago. 
For five years he was associated with Dr. J. N. Crouse as assist. 
ant in his office practice. 

In the fall of 1888 the doctor was called to take charge of 
Operative Technics, a department in the curriculum of dental 
school work just instituted under the advice of Prof. G. V. Black, 
who was at that time connected with the Chicago College of 
Dental Surgery. He remained with this school till the reorgan- 
ization of the Northwestern University Dental School in 1891, in 
which school be accepted the chair of Operative Technics, re- 
maining several years. At the organization of the Illinois School 
of Dentistry in 1898. he was called to the chairs of Operative 
Dentistry and Technics. He was also made director of the 
Operative Clinic, which positions he now occupies. 

Dr. Cattell became a member of the Chicago Dental Society 
soon after beginning practice in 1879. Was secretary of said 
society in 1881-'82 and president in 1892-'93. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Odontographic Society of Chicago, The Illinois State 
Dental Society, The National Dental Association, The Post 
Graduate Dental Association of the United States, The Dental 
Protective Association of the United States of America, and 




G. Walter Dittmar. D. D. S. 





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Charles Erwin Jones. D. D. S. 



David MaMon Cattell. D. D. S. 135 

honorary member of the Minnesota and Wisconsin State Socie- 
ties and the Southwestern Dental Association of Michigan. 

The doctor was a member of the World's Columbian Dental 
Congress, before which he read a paper on the "History, Devel- 
opment and Prospects of the Department of Operative Technics 
in Dental Schools.'' In the discussion of this paper it was pro- 
posed to orgagize a society of teachers interested in the work, 
resulting in the organization of the National School of Dental 
Technics, of which he was twice elected president. Owing to 
the development and growth of the society widening its field of 
usefulness, it became known as the Institute of Dental Pedagog- 
ics. At the present time he is chairman of its executive board. 



B, J. CIGRAND B. S., M. S., D. D. S. 
Dr. B. J. Cigrand, born Oct. 1st, 1866, at Fredonia, Wis., re- 
ceived his early education from tho public school, and after 
graduating from the higli school of that place, he spent some 
time in the State Survey, atiendiug to the compass most of the 
time. He graduated from the Northern Indiana Normal School 
as "Teacher'" in '85, and as "Bachelor of Sciences" in '8(3; taught 
the public school of his native town. Received the degree of 
Master of Science in 1891, from N. I. N. S. Graduated from the 
Lake Forest University in '88, conferred upon him the degree of 
D. D. S. (valedictorian of the class); graduated from the 
Chicago School of Sciences in '91; graduated from the Haskell 
School of Prosthetics in "92; took a non-resident course in Indus- 
trial, Educational and Political Economy at the Chicago Univer- 
sity in "92 and '93- He was elected to the chair of professor of 
Prosthetic Dentistry in the American College of Dental Surgery 
in '93, and an additional professorship in Metallurgy in "9^ ; 
elected president of the American College of Dental Surgery in 
'93, elected to the chair of Dental Prosthesis in the Northwestern 
University in "96. Married in "89 to Miss Allie N. Crispe. They 
have four children. He is the author of "Compendium of Den- 
tistry"" and "History of Dentistry"' (both books being employed 
as text-books in the dental colleges), "The Story of the great 
Seal of the United States,'' in two volumes containing 700 origi- 
nal engravings. Is a member of the Greek Letter Society of the 
Northwestern University; member of the Illinois State Dental 
Society; the Chicago Dental Society; the Odontographic Society; 



136 The Plexus. 

Hayden Dental Society: the Columbian Dental Club, and kindred' 
dental associations- He is an honorary member of the South- 
west Michigan Dental Society, and also the Alumni Society of 
the Northwestern University. Formerly editor of the Dental 
World, The American Standard Magazine, and is at present the 
associate editor of the Dental Digest. Has, contributed "paid" 
articles to many American periodicals and to Chicago dailies;, 
is ex-president of the Alumni Association of the Northern 
Indiana Normal School. In 1899 he accepted the chair of 
Dental Prosthesis and History in the Illinois School of Dentis- 
try. In 1900 he was a delegate to the International Dental Con- 
gress at Paris, and his wife accompanied him on a visit through 
seven countries. 



GEORGE W. COOK, D. D. S. 

Dr. George W. Cook was born in Kentucky of southern' 
parents in 1866. The war having destroyed every prospect of 
living in the south, at the age of two years,his family moved into- 
Southern Illinois, locating in Harrisburg, Saline county. Soon 
after this the father died, leaving the mother with three chil- 
dren. A year or two later she died, leaving the children unpro- 
vided for. At eight George lived in the families of farmers. 
At eleven he went to live with Dr. Hastings near Carbondale, 111. 
Here he attended school, doing all kinds of work. The doctor 
had a very large surgical practice in the country. The boy was 
soon taught to administer ether and chloroform for surgical 
operations, in the meantime studying anatomy and physiology, 
and his daily duty soon became that of dressing wounds, ex- 
tracting teeth, etc.. and at the age of fifteen he held a small lamp 
for the doctor to do a hysterotomy in a small farm house (both 
mother and child lived). At sixteen he obtained a position in 
the Southern Illinois Hospital for the Insane, where Dr. Horace 
Wardner was superintendent. Dr. W. W. Hester, first assistant, 
and Dr. L. E . Stocking, second assistant. From these gentle- 
men he received valuable training in anatomy and physiology. 
Having a great capacity for hard work he had become a pro 
ficient druggist, at the same time attending almost all the post 
mortems in the institution. At about this time cocaine was 
brought out as an anaesthetic, and, under the assistance of Dr.. 



George W. Cook, D. D. S. 137 

Stocking, he made a long series of experiments with this drug 
as a local agent for the relief of pain. 

Having already desired to study dentistry he came to Chi- 
cago. His brother, John C. Cook, a physician, advised a broad 
education. He attended one years's lectures at the Northwest- 
ern Dental College, taking only the medical course. He went 
from there to the University of Iowa. Graduating from there in 
1890 he returned to Chicago, spending most of that year and part 
of the next in L. P. Haskell's Post Graduate School of Mechan- 
ical Dentistry. After completing his work there, opened an 
office on the South Side in Chicago. After the close of the Co- 
lumbian Exposition he again took up the study of bacteriology 
and pathology under Dr. Stanley P. Black, who at that time was 
pathologist at Mercy Hospital, spending five half days a \veek 
for about two years. His , brother returned from Europe where he 
had been studying the same subject, and together they fitted up 
a private laboratory where considerable work was done of a 
practical nature. In '95 and '96 he attended Dr. Fenger's sur- 
gical clinic, and at the dispensary made a study of infection 
through decayed teeth, demonstrating that tubercular infection 
will take place through open pulp canals. At that time he was 
also under the instruction of Professor Klebs, of Kiebs-Loeffler 
bacillus fame. He has had the benefit of clinical instruction in 
surgery under Drs. Andrews, Penger, Morgan, Schroeder and a 
number of other well known surgeons of Chicago. He was pro- 
fessor of oral surgery at the Northwestern College of Dental 
Surgery. He is a member of the National Dental Association, 
the Illinois Dental Society, the Chicago Dental Society, the 
Odontographic Society of Chicago; is an honorary member of 
Southwestern Dental Association of Michigan, was a member of 
the World's Columbian Dental Congress in 1893, was elected 
president of Chicago Dental Society in 1900, and was a delegate 
to the International Dental College in Paris last August, and 
while abroad visited numerous hospitals and bacteriological 
laboratories. 

Dr. Cook has written many papers of interest to the science 
of dentistry, among which are "Tubercular Infection of Lym- 
phatic Glands," "Pathology of Pulp Gangrene," "Effects of 
Heat on Dentine " "Antiseptics and Disinfectants," "Bacterio- 
logical Study of Pyorrhea Alveolaris,"' "Actinomycosis." "A 



138 The Plexus. 

Study of the Systemic Action of Mercury in Amalgam Fillings." 
For the past three years Dr. Cook has been professor oE pa- 
thology and bacteriology in the Illinois School of Dentistry. 



GEORGE WALTER DITTMAR, D, D. S. 
George Walter Dittmar, Superintendent of the Infirmary and 
Associate Professor of Operative technics in the College of Den- 
tistry of University of Illinois, was born on a farm in Derinda, 
Jo Daviess County, Illinois. He obtained his early education at 
a little country school house which, after the age of ten he at- 
tended but a few months each winter. At nineteen, on account 
of poor health, he went to southern California, a year later to 
San Francisco, and then to Philomath, Oregon, where he took a 
course in preparatory work, in the Philomath college. He then 
turned his attention to teaching school. In 1893 he returned to 
his native county, and resumed his vocation until fall "95, when 
be entered the Northw^estern University Dental School. In the 
spring of "98 he graduated with honors, beginning the practice of 
his profession at Apple River, Illinois. Through the influence of 
some of his professors, in particular Dr. D. M. Cattell, the Illi- 
nois School of Dentistry induced him to take the position of Su- 
perintendent of the Infirmary, and Instructor of Operative tech- 
nics, promoting him a year later to the position he now occupies. 
Dr. Dittmar is an active member in the Chicago Odontographic 
and the Illinois State Dental Society. In the spring of 1900 the 
Chicago Dental Society elected him a delegate to the National 
Association of Dental Faculties at Old Point Comfort, Va., and 
to the International Dental Congress at Paris. He traveled 
throughout France, Belgium, Germany, Holland and England 
enjoying to his full capacity the interesting benefits of a trip 
abroad. He was also delegated to represent his college at the 
Institute of Dental Pedagogics, which convened at Nashville, 
Tenn. in December, 1900. 



CHARLES ERWIN JONES, D. D. S. 
Charles Erwin Jones, demonstrator in chief in clinical pros- 
thetic dentistry in the College of Dentistry, University of Illi- 
nois, was born at Chenoa, 111., December 14, 1876, graduated from 
the common and high school of his native town, then entered 



Charles Erwin Jones, D. D. S. 139 

college, taking both a commercial and scientific course. In 1897 
he matriculated in Northwestern University Dental School, 
graduating from the Illinois School of Dentistry in 1900. Dr. 
Jones in his junior year won the scholarship for highest average 
in all departments. He was president in his class besides win- 
ning the gold medal for greatest proficiency in operative dent- 
istry in the senior class. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL'ORGANjOF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. ^ 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 
H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Cliief. 
Supt. W. H. BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY, M. D., D. N. EISBNDRATH, M. D., 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., W. H. BEBARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M D. 

Associate Editors. L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 



Class Editors: 

F H. HORNIBROOK, 02, R. L. ELDREDGE, 03 

M R. MARTIN, '04. 



Faculty Departtnent, DR. W. A. PLSEY Clinical Laboratory Dept.. DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " R. C. CUPLER '01 Library Department. GRACE W. BRYANT. 

Publisher, ------ H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, 813 W. Harrison St. 

Entered at Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the Journaldiscontinued at tlie expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed t,hai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers willnot hold 
themselves responsible for tlie safe return of MSS. unless sufficient stamps are forwarded 

OUR NEW HOMH. 

The readers of the Plexus have no doubt examined its 
pages carefully for the recent issues to note the changes that- 
have been taking place in the College of Physicians & Surgeons, 
but during the last few weeks there have been some very impor- 
tant changes taking place in the new abode of our most worthy 
college. It is now located in its new quarters and changes are 
rapidly being made in the now very elegant and commodious 
building which will place the College of Physicians & Surgeons 
in the finest quarters of any medical college west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains if not in the United States. The building now 



Editorial. 141 

used by the college is the largest single building devoted entirely 
to the study of medicine in the United States, if not of the 
world, and its equipment is to be second to none. The state of 
Illinois and the Alumni and friends of the P. & S. College can 
well be proud of it and its new home and equipment. 

As to the building itself the first floor will contain the offices 
of the dean actuary, secretary, superintendent, clerk, post office, 
PLiExus office, anatomical museum, bacteriological and histolog- 
ical laboratories; the second floor will contain library, reading- 
room, amphitheater, seating 280, pathological and phyisological 
laboratories;on the third floor will be found chemical laboratories, 
clinical laboratory, room for clinical diagnosis work, amphi- 
theater, seating 280, and several recitation-roooms; on the fourth 
floor will be the finest clinical amphitheater in the United States. 
It will be modern in every detail, will be well equipped, and will 
seat from 360 to 400 persons. 

In the basement will be found the entire dispensary, drug- 
room, bicycle-room, smoking-room, toilet rooms and supply- 
rooms. 

On the four floors there are ten or twelve rooms that can be 
used for recitation-room. 

The college is to have its own electric plant, which will fur- 
nish its light and power for elevators, as an elevetor is to be 
placed in the old building as well as the new, to be used for pa- 
tients going to clinical amphitheater and dental infirmary. 

With us housed in our new home the College of Physicians 
& Surgeons will grow more rapidly than it has in the past, 
although it has doubled its attendance during the past three 
years and it will rank second to none in the United States. 



OUR OLD HGIVIE. 

The building formerly used by the College of Physicians & 
Surgeons is being thoroughly renovated and will make the finest 
dental college building in the west. The building will be thor- 
oughly lighted by electricity, and the former Plexus office has 
entirely disappeared to make room for a passenger elevator for 
the infirmary patients. The infirmary is to located on the top 
floor and will take up two-thirds of the space. The laboratories 
of the dental department will be fouud on the first, second and 



142 The Plfxus. 

third floors. The entire work in dissection of the medical and 
dental departments of the University of Illinois will be done in 
commodious rooms on fourth and fifth floor, extending from Har- 
rison street to alley-way. There will be an amphitheater on the 
second floor seating 250 students, and one on the third floor seat- 
ing over 300 students. 

The present prospects are very flattering for a large attend- 
ance in both the medical and dental departments, and no doubt 
from 1,200 to 1,500 students will be enrolled in these departments 
during the school year of 1901, 

Former graduates will surely feel ''lost" when they visit 
their Alma Mater now as they will not only find new faces among 
the student body, but they will also find new faces among the 
members of the faculties and entirely new conditions surround- 
ing everything connected with the old institution. 



ALUMNI DEPARTMENT, 

'94- A. E. Lauson, 848 Marshall St., Milwaukee, Wis, 

"94, I. C. Auker, of Indiana and 51st St., Chicago, soon 
takes a trip through the west with view of location, 

'95. C, H, Wilder, of DeKalb, 111., is now at Springfield, 111., 
with the Third Regiment. 

'96. C. A. Yates of Merrill, Wis., was a recent visitor in the 
city. 

'96. T. J. O'Malley was recently married at Joliet, 111. 

"99. J. H. Dugan, of Oglesby, 111., was a recent visitor in 
the city. 

'99, The following was clipped from the Morrisonville 
Times of Morrisonville, 111. : Dr. M. A. Reasoner has received 
county warrants to the amount of $550 for his attendance on 
small pox patients here this spring. He attended in all sixteen 
patients. His prompt efforts and energy anent the cases doubt- 
less prevented an epidemic. 

'01. F. L. Wallace was married to Miss Sara F. Stevenson, 
of Downer's Grove, 111., on June 25th, He is now located at 
Shelby, Mich. 

'01. J. C. Sommers was a recent visitor at the Plexus 
oflice. He is located at 14 E. Mifflin St., Madison, Wis. 

'01. C. I. Oliver was married do Miss Myrtle Goddard on 
.June 26th and is now located at Graceville, Minn. 



Alumni. 143 

'01, W. B. Martin recently returned from a trip along the 
western coast and will return at the beginning of next year to 
locate in the state of Washington. 

'01. Geo. Lorch is located at Bangor, Mich. 
. '01. W. C. Hess is now practicing at Bayard, la. 

'01. Eugelbrecht Nelson has a nice practice at 153 92nd St., 
Chicago. 

'01. C. O. Wiltfong is enjoying a lucrative practice at Ches- 
terton, Ind. He operated on a case of appendicitis at West Side 
Hospital recently and was successful. 

'01. P. A. Tracey has located at Lewistown, Mont. 

'01. R. H. Shaw was a receni visitor at his Alma Mater. 
He is located at Annawan, 111. 

'01. H. H. Sherwood, New Windsor, 111. 

'01. L. H. Meadows, National Jewish Hospital, Denver, 
Colo. 

'01. W. F. Robertson, Rolla, N. Dak. 

'01. C. E. Wright, Dixon, 111. 

'01. B. Von Wectelstaedt and P. S. Howe are located at 
Deadwood, S. Dak. 

'01. J. M. Palmer, Grays Lake, 111. 

'01. Prank Petry of Akron, Ind., was in Chicago August 
20. He is very pleasantly located and is doing nicely. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

The quiz class will begin its work on September 1st and any 
desiring information concerning it should address Dr. Adolph 
Gehrmann, 103 State St., Chicago. 

Dr. Joseph W. Patton is spending his vacation at St. Mary's, 
Pa. 

The Chicago Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat College has a num- 
ber of free beds in its hospital for the use of the profession but 
the practitioner should inform them a few days in advance when 
wanting them. 

Supt. Wm. H. Browne recently returned from his eastern 
trip, to the ill-fated Johnstown, Pa., and report.^ a very pleasant 
time. 

A. E. Baer's wife visited him a few days last week. 



144 The Plexus. 

C. C. Slemmons made a flying business trip home last week- 
Loupee is sick, threatened with typhoid. 

Dawes, a freshman, who is in the County Hospital with 
typhoid fever is slowly improving. 

Huff. — "Well, doctor, I think that is just as I explained it.'^ 
Dr. Jarvis.^ — "Teeth extracted free without pain." 

FOOT BALL. 

The prospects for a good team to represent P. & S. are grow- 
ing brighter as the opening of the season approaches. Several 
new men of university experience have already entered and 
others are expected to report by October 1st. 

The first game will be played at Minneapolis Oct. 5tb with 
the University of Minnesota. This promises to be the hardest' 
game of the year for P. & S. Other games scheduled are: 
North Western Chicago Dental College, University of Notre 
Dame. Efforts are being made to bring a university team to 
Chicago. This will be an innovation as heretofore P. & S. has 
been obliged to play all of their games away from home. A com- 
plete schedule will be published in the next issue of the Plexus. 



Sanmetto in Urethral Stricture. — Dr. Jos. Swindell, of 
West Burlington, Iowa, writing, says: "I have been using San- 
metto for several years. I find nothing that suits me as well in 
genito-urinary diseases, I am using it right along in conjunction 
with treatment of urethral stricture. It soothes, checks and pre- 
vents vsmarting and inflammation that is so common after passage 
of bougie. Its ease of administration and formula should recom- 
mend it to the profession." 




WILLIAM K. QUINE M. D. 

JJean and Professor of Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine, 

('ollejie of Physicians iV' Surj^-eons. ('hi(»a^o. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 



VOL. VII. SEPTEMBER 20th, 190L NO. 4 

WM. E. QUINH, M. D. 

Dr. W. E. Quine was born in the vilbi«i'e of K. K. St. Ann, in 
the Isle of Man, Feb. 9, 1847. The youno* Manxman, bade adieu 
to his native home at the age of six years and accompanied his 
parents to Chicago, with whose growth, development and pros- 
perity he has been an integral part. 

He obtained his early education in the public schools of Chi- 
cago, completing his literary course iti the West Side High 
School, which he enterei in his thirteenth year. He was a 
class-mate of Luther Laflin Mills. After leaving school he en- 
tered the drug store of Dr. Jones at the corner of Eighteenth 
and State streets, where he familiarized liimself with the details 
of pharmacy and acquired a knowledge of materia medica and 
therapeutics, which in a few years later- so attracted the atten- 
tion of the faculty of the Chicago M' eicril College, that he was 
elected professor in that department un hs graduation from the 
Chicago Medical College, in the clas^ oi 1869. He assumed his 
professional duties in the fall of 1870, mi •! was one of the most 
popular teachers in the college until l'^-', when he resigned to 
accept the chair of Principles of Praciie« of Medicine and Clin- 
ical Medicine in the College of Physici;n s and Surgeons, which 
chair he still occupies. 

Prof. Quine's prominence and po])iil;' i ity as a medical teacher 
is due to his great natural gift as an oniUir, his careful .system- 
atic presentation of a subjec*", the rare : acuity he possesses of 
emphasizing the points of a lecture, so t,liat they are never for- 



146 ■ The Plexus. , 

gotten, and also in a marked degree, no matter what his subject 
is, of impressing his audience that it is tlie most important med- 
ical topic in the whole curriculum, and that their success depends 
upon a thorough knowledge of it, hence he carries his students 
with him most enthusiastically. 

In 1891, Dr. Quine was elected Dean of the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons which office he fetill very creditably fills. 
Immediately after his graduation, he w^as appointed interne in 
the Cook County Hospital where he remained for one and one- 
half years, gaining such recognition for the quality of his work 
that at the expiration of his term, the Medical Board of the hos 
pital appointed him a member of the statT as attending Gynecol- 
ogist and Obstetrician, which position he retained for about ten 
years. During this service he was elected president of the 
Medical Board. 

Dr. Quine has always taken active part in medical societies 
and is a member of the American Medical Association, Illinois 
State Medical Society, Chicago Pathological and Chicago Medico- 
Legal Societies, etc. He has been a frequent contributor to 
medical journals. His most appreciated works are a series of lec- 
tures on "Homeopathy"' which attained great popularity and his 
after-dinner speech, "The Doctor's Wife." Both of these con- 
tributions have been very generally read by the profession and 
have received much merited, praise. 

Dr. Quine was married to Miss Lettie Mason, of Normal, 111., 
in 187G, a lady of great culture and refinement, well known for 
her zeal as a medical missionary to China, who has contributed 
in no small way to her husband's success. 

Dr. Quine founded the library of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, which bears his name and has donated veryf reely of 
books and money to it until it is the best medical library in the 
west. Within the past year he has given $25,000 to be used for 
the library. He also took a very prominent part in the affiliation 
of the College with the University of Illinois which has been a 
very important incident in the life of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons. 




JOSEPH M. PATTON, M. D. 

\ssociate Professor of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 

Medical Deparlment of University of Illinois. Chicago, Professor 

of Medicine. Chicago Policlinie. 



THE HYPOSYSTOLIC PERIOD OF CHRONIC ENDO- 
CARDITIS. 
By Joseph M. Patton, M. D. 

Associate Professor of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical 

Department of University of Illinois, Chicago, Professor of 

Medicine, Chicago Policlinic. 

The hyposystolic period of* all chronic cardiopathies is in a 
measure synonymous with the period of muscular failure incident 
to the history of the particular lesions to which the title of this 
article would limit us. There is yet sufficient individuality in the 
{Etiology and clinical history of dynamical inability on the part of 
the heart muscle as resulting from chronic endocarditis to war- 
rant its consideration apart from that resulting from the various 
degenerations of the heart muscle which are of less frequent 
occurrence and which clinically are more obscure. 

The great frequency of endocarditis as compared with other 
cardiac diseases renders it of ever present interest to every practi- 
tioner of medicine. While the difficulties which beset the man- 
agement of the period of the disease under consideration consti- 
tute it a condition of which familiarity can never engender 
disregard. 

When we consider the insidious manner in which, in many 
instances, the advent of muscular failure is brought about in 
chronic endocarditis, and that w^hen this condition causes symp- 
toms of which the patient is aware an almost, if not quite, irre- 
parable damage to the heart muscle may have taken place, the 
importance of early recognition of the approach of muscular ina- 
bility is readily appreciated. Who can tell how many years 
might be added to the life of these patients by an early recogni- 
tion of the imminence of muscular failure, and a forceful presen- 
tation of its dangers, before cough, dyspnoea, and passive con- 
gestions compel them to acknowledge their limitations'? The 
difficulty, if not impossibility, in most instances, of convincing 
the individual patient of his limitatinns is admitted, but does not 
modify the force of the argument in the least. 

The earliest general indications of approaching failure of the 
heart muscle is loss of the muscular element of the first sound, 



148 The Phxus. 

which becomes shorter and soft, relative intensification of the 
second sound all over the praecordial area and especially toward 
the apex of the heart, a want of correspondence betw^een the 
apparent force of the heart's action and the actual force of the 
radial pulse, irregularity of the heart action under moderate ner- 
vous stimulation, and diminution in the intensity of a murmur, or 
its disappearance altogether. Intensification of the second pul- 
monic sound with or without a tendency to reduplication of the 
same, occupies, in aortic endocarditis, a chronological position 
between the above symptoms and the later ones of dyspnoea, 
cough, oedema, etc. In mitral lesions the second pulmonic sound 
is always intensified to some extent, but its exaggeration carries 
the same relative indications. 

Without taking up space with a consideration of the general 
conditions governing the prognostics of chronic endocarditis let 
us consider some of the mechanical conditions incident to chronic 
endocardial disease and which precede the hyposystolic state. 
We recall that the effect of an aortic stenosis is to cause hyper- 
trophy of the left ventricle. It is true that this enlargement of 
■ the ventricle is accompanied by some dilatation, so that the term 
eccentric hypertrophy is abstractly true, but unless the stenosis 
be very marked we may, for clinical purposes, disregard this 
feature, and look upon the condition as one of simple hypertro- 
phy as long as compensation is perfect. The length of time 
which this condition will last depends on the degree of stenosis, 
the absence of further attacks of endocarditis, and on the condi- 
tions of life of the subject. I have known of its lasting for thirty 
years. During this period there will be no evidence of inability 
of the heart muscle. With the advent of failure of the muscle 
resulting either from overstrain, recurrent endocarditis or from 
degeneration due to faulty nutrition, dilatation of the venticler 
gradually develops until it becomes the dominant feature of the 
physical state of the left ventricle, the mitral ring stretches, rel- 
ative mitral regurgitation develops, the second pulmonic sound 
becomes accentuated, the right ventricle becomes overtaxed and 
the subject shows evidences of cardiac failure — has reached the 
hyposystolic period. 

In aortic regurgitation the first effect on the left ventricle is 
dilatation resulting from the overfilling of its cavit}' during dias- 
tole by the regurgitated blood, and from the greater effort re- 



Hyiyosystolic Feriod of Chronic Endocarditis. 149 

quired to get rid of this blood. In compensation for this we have 
hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. Yoa will readily see that 
while the length of time which compensation will last in aortic 
regurgitation depends mainly on the extent of the leak, yet if 
the latter be at all considerable the condition of compensation is 
never stationary. The leak being always present, the ventricle 
is constantly overfilled and the dilatation is progressive. It is 
necessarily only a question of time, the length of which depends 
on the amount of the leakage, until the dilatation exceeds the 
hypertrophy, and thus the stretching of the mitral ring with its 
consequent relative regurgitation is brought about much earlier 
than in aortic stenosis. These facts explain the great enlarge- 
ment in cases of aortic regurgitation — the cor bovlnum of the older 
writers. Extensive hypertrophic dilatation of the heart in these 
cases is s© common a feature that it is one of their diagnostic 
signs. When we see the apex beat in the sixth or seventh inter- 
space and an inch or inch and a half outside of the mammillary 
line we conclude at once that we have a case of aortic disease, and 
if the patient is fairly comfortably it is most likely aortic regur- 
gitation, because in aortic stenosis great displacement is only 
arrived at when dilatation exceeds the hypertrophy, which is 
later in the history of the case. 

We find in the books many statements and tables of statistics 
on the length of time which compensation will last in various 
valvular lesions. That these statements have no abstract value 
needs no argument. They contain no more reasoning than the 
statement that one patient with pneumonia died on the sixth day 
and another on the eighth day. Every case is a law unto itself, 
as much so in regard to prognosis as in relation to therapeutics. 

In mitral regurgitation the effects on the left auricle are not 
as a rule important. The back pressure affects the right ventri- 
cle and its hypertrophy may compensate for indefinite periods of 
time. The old view that over-distention of the left auricle re- 
sulted in stretching of the left ventricle from overfilling during 
diastate eventuating in more or less hypertrophy of the latter, is 
now modified by the view that whatever changes may occur in 
the left ventricle in mitral disease are probably due to concurrent 
myocardial changes of rheumatic origin. 

In mitral stenosis the overfilling of the left auricle results 
in more or less dilatation with a slight degree of^ hypertrophy. 



150 The Plexus. 

Compensation occurs in the same manner as in mitral regurgita- 
tion — through hypertrophy of the right ventricle whose walls 
vadby become as thick as those of the normal left ventricle. The 
left ventricle is usually not enlarged, and may even be smaller 
than normal from its diminished intraventricular pressure. In 
mitral lesions when the right ventricle weakens and begins to 
dilate, back pressure through the tricuspid opening gives rise to 
symptoms indicating failure of the heart muscle. 

Before such symptoms of tricuspid incompetence as jugular 
pulsation, oedema, congestion of the liver, etc., can be deter- 
mined, however, we usually have indications of the approach of 
such a condition, such as the cough in mitral regurgitation, or 
some bloody expectoration, though the latter must be distin- 
guished from the haemoptysis of the earlier stages of mitral re- 
gurgitation; slight dyspnoea, irregular heart's action and pain 
about the heart may also indicate beginning dilatation. Pain 
about the prascordium on slight exertion is indicative of high in- 
traventricular pressure and may disappear as dilatation comes 
on and relieves the pressure. Thus we often find that pain dis- 
appears in aortic regurgitation when relative mitral regurgita- 
tion sets in. 

Of the signs of the hyposystolic period of cardiopathies it is 
not necessary for me to speak. They are all perfectly familiar. 
With the idea that this abstract grouping of some of the condi- 
tions leading up to the hyposystolic period of chronic endocar- 
ditis will recall more clearly the therapeutic indications govern- 
ing its management let us briefly consider the treatment of this 
stage of the disease. 

1 do not mean to intimate thai previous to some degree of 
failure of the heart muscle ihere is no indication for treatment. 
Undoubtedly much can be done, previous to this period, through 
proper diet, hygiene, exercise, and general regulation of the 
mode of life to postpone the development of inability of the 
heart muscle, but the occurrence of the latter condition is the 
prime indication for active therapeutical measures. A patient is 
not treated because he has a heart murmur indicative of chronic 
endocarditis, but because of the physical changes in the heart 
consecutive to a lesion of which the murmur may be a sign he 
has developed dynamical inabiliry of the heart muscle — the ac- 
tion of the heart as a pump falling short of the demands upon it. 



Hyposifstolic Period of Chronic Endocarditis. 151 

The great majority of the cases of endocarditis do not come 
under the notice of the physician, at least for advice, until they 
have already entered upon the hyposystolic state. The prac- 
tical management of this period is therefore of the greatest^ 
interest. The drug treatment of cardiopathies is prac- 
tically limited to this period. There are certain measures which 
while applying to to that period of diseases of the heart which 
antedates dynamical failure are also more or less directly of 
interest in this connection. 

Regulation of the diet is essential. The observations of 
Adler and Stearns show that the stomach of cardiopathic patients 
is not materially different from the normal stomach. Einhorn 
concludes that the acidity of the gastric juice is not diminished 
in cardiac disease, and that gastric symptoms are due to conges- 
tion of the mucosa. Cardiac patients should be definitely in- 
structed as to their diet. They should eat regualarly. There 
should not be less than five or more than six hours between 
meals. If marked heart failure is present and nourishment is 
important, food may be given in concentrated form every three 
hours. Such foods as somatose, beef peptonoids, peptonized 
milk, malted milk,«or milkine are most useful. The amount of 
fluid taken with the meals should not exceed eight ounces. Min- 
eral water, plain water, or seltzer and milk may be taken between 
meals. Balfour says ihat sipping hot water between meals is a 
stimulant more valuable than alcohol. The observations of 
Striclder and Priedrich show that cold water diminishes the pulse 
rate and raises the blood pressure; that very cold water some- 
times diminishes the blood pressure; luke warm water usually 
lowers the blood pressure; and that warm water quickens the 
pulse rate and raises the blood pressure. As a rule alcoholic 
drinks should not be allowed to cardiopathic patients. An occa- 
sional glass of dry wine like Rhine wine, moselle, or claret may, 
however, be of benefit at meal time. Tea and coffee should be 
used sparingly as they are apt to cause irregularity of the heart's 
action as was pointed out long ago by Stokes. Tobacco should 
be altogether interdicted. It increases the pulse rate as shown 
by Bernard, and while I bslieve that the paruicious effect of 
tobacco on the heart is largely due to its effect on the stoaaach, 
and have never been able to satisfy myself of the correctness of 
the views of Praentzel, Dec^aisne et al in relatiou to the specific 



152 The Plexus. 

effect of tobacco on the heart, nevertheless, I am free to admit 
the necessity of interdicting its use. 

The character of the food should be adapted to individual 
necessities and peculiarities and be such as to be easily and com- 
pletely digested. In general the carbohydrates — fats, sugars, 
and starches, should be eliminated from the diet as far as is con- 
sistent with the maintainance of a nutritious diet. In cases of 
pronounced failure of the heart muscle the diet should be re- 
stricted to milk, buttermilk, milk and seltzer, or some concen- 
trated beef food. If there be renal incompetence with auto-toxic 
disturbances, then milk is especially valuable. Milk is a valu- 
able diuretic because of the lactose it contains. In dropsical 
cases a dry diet is recommended to favor elimination of fluid. In 
my experience the effect of an absolutely dry diet does not bal- 
ance the difficulty of maintaining it. 

The intestinal digestion should be regulated, if defective, by 
the use of pancreatin or like preparations. Intestinal antiseptics 
may be employed with great advantage when arrhythmia results 
from intestinal disturbances. Benzosol, thymol, and charcoal are 
useful in this connection. 

Many of the disagreeable symptoms in these cases arise from 
visceral congestions which may be remedied by attention to the 
gastric and hepatic functions. Mercury is a valuable aid in this 
connection. It is wonderful what a relief is obtained at times by 
the use of a little blue mass. Murry says that blue pill is ex- 
tremely valuable in some cases of heart disease, and relates an 
instance of a man with chronic heart disease who took 20,000 
grains of blue pill in ten years with great benefit. A favorite 
combination of mine is one of from 3-5 grains of blue mass with 
i of a grain of extract npx vomica, and i grain each of euonynim 
and irisin. Calomel, red iodide, and corrosive sublimate are all 
very useful in the management of chronic cardiopathies. 

One of the most important measures in the management of 
the hyposystolic period when dilatation is the dominant feature 
is rest. Rest is practically as important here as it is in acute 
cardiac dilatation wht-re permanent increase in the peripheral 
resistance is not present. For, in these cases, there is relatively 
the same disproportion between the pumping force of the heart 
and the resistance to be overcome. Rest, by limiting the work 
to be done by the heart, increases its functional ability until the 



Hyposy.s folic Period of Chronic Endocarditis. • 153 

latter can be rendered efficient through, other means. In the 
severest cases absolute rest in bed is indicated, and exercise 
should be given by massage. Rest should be enforced until the 
patient can get up and move about without unduly exciting the 
heart's action. 

Along with rest we may use what is now recognized as a very 
valuable method of treatment, namely, exercise of the muscles 
after the method whose efficiency has been so clearly demon- 
strated at Maiiheim, Germany. These exercises, as you are 
aware, consist of passive and resistance movements. Passive 
movements may be used with the marked cases of dilatation 
which are not suited to resistance movements. Exercise pro- 
motes the flow of blood through the muscles from the arterioles 
into the veins. There is, during exercise, a primary and tempo 
rary rise in blood pressure, followed by a fall in pressure which is 
of greater or less duration. Ludwig's experiments on the capac- 
ity of the peripheral circulation furnishes good reason for the ef- 
ficiency of mechanical 'therapeutics. Marked conditions of arterial 
selerosis, and advanced nephritis constitute contraindications to 
the use of mechanical treatment. This method of treatment 
requires intelligent individualization. It has great possibilities 
for harm as well as for good. Any of you who have given resis- 
tance exercise will appreciate how little resistance it requires, in 
some instances, to produce dyspnoea. 

We may grade our exercises into three classes: 

1. Passive Exercises. — These exercises were originated by 
Ling. They consist of movements given by the operator, with 
entire passivity on the part of the patient. They dtaare aped to 
the marked cases of dilatation which will not bear resistance 
movements. They consist of rolling and kneading of the foot, 
kneading of the calf and thigh, flexion of the knees, rotation of 
the hips, massage of the abdomen, movements of the hands and 
arms, arm movements to expand the thorax, manipulation of the 
spine, percussion of the prsecordial area and intercostal spaces of 
the left side. 

2. Movements ivith limited resistance after the Schott method, a, 
modiflcation of the Swedish system. — They consist of a series of nine- 
teen movements; flexions, extensions, adductions, and abduc- 
tions of the forearm, leg, thigh and trunk. Each motion being 



154 The Plexus. 

made against slight resistance on the part of the operator, each 
individual movement being succeeded by a short rest. This sys- 
tem is adapted to cases which are not limited to the first grade, 
but which may or may not stand the baths to which I will refer 
directly. 

3. The climbing method of Oertel. — This method is restricted 
in its application to .cases which Have never reached or have 
improved beyond the necessities which indicate the first two 
methods. Great care is required in giving resistance movements. 
They should be stopped on the appearance of dyspncBa as shown 
by inspiratory dilation of the alas nasi, palpitation, or irregular 
pulse. A slower pulse, lessening of the area of cardiac dullness, 
easier respiration, constitutes the good effects. 

Medicated baths may be used in all cases not limited to the 
first grade of exercise. They may be given at home or in a hos- 
pital. The carbonated baths are more efficient than the plain 
baths. The baths should be given during the morning and on an 
empty stomach. A forty gallon bath should be used, the patient's 
whole body being immersed. The patient should make no un- 
necessary exertion. Light friction of the body is used while in 
the bath. The bath should last from eight to ten minutes. 
Irregularity of the pulse, dyspnoea, cyanosis, or apncea indicates 
removal from the bath at once. After removal the patient 
should be well rubbed down, placed in bed and kept absolutely 
quiet for an hour. At first, especially in advanced cases, the 
plain, medicated baths may be used. It consists of 4-5 lbs. of 
sodium chloride and 6-8 oz. of calcium chloride. The carbonated 
baths vary in strength from one containing 6 lbs. of sodium 
chloride, 10 oz. calcium chloride, 6 oz. sodium bicarbonate, and 
8 oz. of a 25% solution of hydrochloric acid; to one containing 11 
lbs. of sodium chloride, 12 ozs. calcium chloride, 1 lb. sodium 
bicarbonate, and 2 lbs. of a 25% solution of hydrochloric acid. 
In carbonating the bath the bottle containing the acid may be 
inverted below the surface of the water, the stopper removed and 
the liquid diffused through the bath, or a cylinder of compressed 
gas may be used if convenient. 

Unquestionably the baths and mechanical therapeutics give 
good results in properly selected cases. They require experi- 
ence and gooi judgement in order that they may not do harm. 



Hyposi/stollc Period of Chronic Endocarditis. 155 

Before considering the medicinal treatment of the hyposys- 
tolic period, I wish to direct your attention to the importance of 
correctly estimating the pumping force of the heart as related to 
the peripheral resistance. We often find a heart which is, appar- ~ 
ently," beating with considerable force, and still the peripheral 
circulation is deficient, its tension being high. This often ac- 
counts for the failure of cardiac stimulants to act. I have seen a 
considerable dropsy disappear, dyspnoea relieved, and a laboring 
heart quieted by simply increasing the size of the peripheral 
channels by giving five drops of tincture of opium every four to 
six hours. In this connection let me allude to the necessity of 
the simultaneous administration of vaso-dilators with cardiac 
stimulants, particularly with digitalis, in all cases of vascular 
selerosis, and in all patients above middle life. 

A solution of digitalin 1-20,000 will contract the vessels of a 
frog's web so that a staining solution will not pass through them. 
The best dilators are opium, nitrate of sodium, and nitroglycer- 
ine. Opium is preferable because it is the safest, easiest to ad- 
minister, and its effects last longest. From 2 to 5 drops of the 
tincture is sufficient. Chemically pure nitrate of sodium is a val- 
uable vasodilator, but the dose is difficult to adjust. From 1 to 5 
grains may be given thrice daily. Nitroglycerine is a powerful 
dilator, but evanescent in its effects. Its dose is from 1-200 to 
1-100 of a grain. 

The medicinal treatment of the hyposystolic period of chronic 
endocarditis consists in the employment of those medicaments 
which have the power of increasing the dynamical power of the 
heart muscle. The chief of these remedies is digitalis. It is not 
necessary at this time to enter into a consideration of the nature 
of its action. The one cardinal indication for its employment is 
dynamical inability of the heart muscle irrespective of the 
mechanical nature of the primary lesion. It was formerly taught, 
and to some extent is yet, that in certain lesions, such as aortic 
regurgitation, digitalis should not be administered. These objec 
tions are theoretical rather than practical, and clinical experi- 
ence has demonstrated their fallacy. It is true that, generally 
speaking, the results obtained from digitalis in aortic regurgita- 
tion are less stable than in other lesions, but this is due to the 
progressive nature of the disease and to the unfavorable mechan- 
ical conditions which characterize this lesion. Relatively speak- 



156 The Plexus. 

ing the results are as good as in other lesions, but in order to 
obtain them we must give comparatively larger doses, at least 
one-half more. As far as the cumulative effects of digitalis is 
concerned I am somewhat skeptical and think they are the result 
of its administration in improperly selected cases. I frequently 
give digitalis for long periods and have never had trouble from 
such a source. Unquestionably it is better to interrupt its ad- 
ministration every three or four weeks for short periods, though 
I have not much faith in its continued effect for any length of 
time after the cessation of its administration. There is no rou- 
tine dose. Every case is a law unto itself and has its own require- 
ments. The drug is what we may call a symptom remedy — given 
to produce certain effects. 

The most reliable preparation of digitalis is a fresh infusion 
made from the English leaves, Allen's preferred. The English 
leaf is a cultivated leaf comparatively free from stalks and stems 
which according to Broeker contains only 20 per cent, as much 
digitalin as the leaf. Digi toxin, the most toxic principle of digi- 
talis is insoluble in water and is therefore absent from the infu- 
sion. The latter is consequently the safest preparation of 
digitalis to use in a case where the application of the drug is 
questionable. A good infusion can be made from Sharp & 
Dohme's pressed leaves. The tincture and the fluid extract of 
digitalis probably contain all of the alkaloids of the drug in 
varying proportions. The tincture is the best for general use. 
The great fault is the unreliability of many tinctures. Secure a 
good tincture from assayed drugs and you may count on its 
effects. One of the best tinctures on the market is Squibb's. 
The powdered leaf is probably the best of the solid preparations 
of digitalis. Its maximum dose is 5 grains; toxic dose 10 grains. 
The most reliable of the alkaloids is digitalin. The best prepar- 
ation, in my experience, is Merck's German pure digitalin. The 
dose is from one-tenth to one- quarter of a grain thrice daily. This 
may seem a large dose, but the dose given in the books is much 
too small, Digitalin is particularly adapted to the treatment of 
cardiopathies in elderly people. It may be given in capsules 
along with enough powdered opium (i of a grain) to reduce the 
peripheral resistance in the circulation. 

Strophanthus is another valuable heart stimulant. Reliable 
effects can be obtained from P. D. & Co.'s tincture in doses of 



Hyj)osystolic Period of Chronic Endocarditis. 157 

from eight to twelve drops three times daily. It acts best when 
given in laurel-cherry water. Strophanthus is particularly val- 
uable in the minor degrees of ataxia exhibited by irritable, ner- 
vous people, especially in connection with mitral stenosis. The 
distressing palpitation, pain and dyspnoea so often associated 
with mitral stenosis usually yields readily to strophanthus In 
the more severe conditions of dynamical failure of the heart 
muscle strophanthus is not equal to digitalis. It has little or no 
tonic action on the heart muscle as its action is not maintained 
after the cessation of the drug. Strophanthus sometimes causes 
gastric disturbance and diarrhoea. If so, it should be stopped. 
Strophanthin fairly represents the action of the tincture, but is 
not as reliable. The dose is from 1-200 to 1-60 of a grain. The 
diuretic action of strophanthus is questionable, at least it is un- 
reliable. 

Caffein is an efficient cardiac stimulant and diuretic in car- 
diopathies associated with vascular diseases or with nephiitis, or 
both. In asystolism which is purely the sequence of a valvu- 
litis, caffein is not usually effective as a stimulant, though it may 
be as a diuretic. In too large doses it causes dizziness, faintness 
and irregular pulse. It should be given after the following for- 
mula: Caffein (alkaloid), 5ii to oiii; sodium benzoate, 5ii to oiii; 
distilled water q. s. ad giii. The dose is a teaspoonful three or 
four times a day. 

Strychnia, next to digitalis, is the most useful of cardiac 
stimulants. It is a valuable adjuvant of digitalis, and is pre- 
eminently the stimulant for the right ventricle in all stages of 
cardiopathies. Hypodermically, it is useful in emergencies. In 
chronic cases it may be given for long periods in doses of from 
1-30 to 1-25 of a grain with great benefit. 

Spartein is a useful stimulant in neurotic or functional ir- 
regularities. It may be used as a stimulant until we have time 
to get the effect of digitalis, as it acts rapidly. It is useful in the 
cardiac ataxia of opium or alcohol habitues. The dose of the 
sulphate of spartein is from ^ to 2 grains. It is readily soluble 
and may be used hypodermically if desired. 

Convallaria majalis is a fairly reliable stimulant, and is in- 
dicated in dropsical conditions and in the irregularities of the 
heart incident to the early stage of mitral disease. The dose of 



158 The Plexus. 

the fluid extract is from 16 to 30 minims. The dose of con valla- 
marin is from i to 1^ grains. 

Cactus grandiflora is useful in the arrhythmia, tachycardia, 
etc., of cardiac neuroses. It is sometimes useful in controlling 
the action of the heart in Grave's disease. The dose of the fluid 
extract is given as from 5 to 10 mihims, though I have given it 
in much larger doses. 

Adonis vernalis and its alkaloid adonidin is similar to cactus 
in its action. The dose of adonidin is from 1-20 to i of a grain. 

In regard to the symptomatic management of the hyposys- 
tolic period of chronic endocarditis we will, by the use of the 
remedies already mentioned, often obviate symptomatic medica- 
tion, though fully as often we are obliged to resort to other- 
means to temporarily control some more or less distressing 
symptoms. 

Palpitation may be very annoying. In association with val 
vular lesions it is generally met with in connection with aortic 
regurgitation and mitral stenosis. In the earlier stages it may 
be largely nervous and is controlled by rest, bromides, cold ap- 
plications, aconite, etc. In the palpitation of the asystolic per- 
iod of aortic regurgitation opium is the only satisfactory relief. 
Opium is, in a measure, a cardiac stimulant and its careful use 
in these cases is both proper and satisfactory. 

Pain is hardly an attribute of chronic endocarditis. How- 
ever, with increased intraventricular pressure there may be pain 
until dilatation allows of regurgitation through the mitral or 
tricuspid rings when the pain may be relieved. Pain may be 
associated with extensive dilatation of the left ventricle from 
aortic regurgitation, possibly from irritation of the basic plexus 
of cardiac nerves. With rapid, nervous heart action, bromides 
and cold apj)lications may be used, also opium if necessary. In 
atheromatous, aortic valvulitis in elderly people, some vasodilator 
is necessary, such as nitrite of amyl, nitro glycerine or opium. 

Aside from the dyspnoea of cardiac failure, which is amenable 
to measures already considered, we often have distressing attacks 
of dyspnoea which demand special attention. When spasmodic in 
character, and especially when roctui'nal in occurrence, the vaso- 
dilators are demanded. Nitro-glycerine, morphine, codeine, 
deodorized tincture of opium, or nitrate of sodium. 

Syncope and cyanosis are likely to occur in cases of aortic 



Hi/poei/stolie Period of Chroiii.c Endocarditis. 159 

Stenosis or of mitral stenosis. In syncope, place the patient in 
the recumbent position with the head low. Hypodermic injec- 
tions of camphorated oil may be given, or musk may be used, 
though forty or fifty minims of either hypodermically is better. 
If there is cyanosis, use also from 1-25 to 1-15 of a grain of strych. 
nia by hypodermic injection. With marked venous stasis it may 
be necessary to bleed. 

If gastric distress is troublesome restrict the diet and make 
use of such aids as sodium bromide, charcoal, glycozone, bismuth, 
thymol, etc. If watery diarrhoea is troublesome use five drops 
each of tincture of opium and camphor, with lU drops of dilute 
nitric acid, given in simple elixir after each stool. 

Insomnia is often a troublesome condition, especially in 
patients with aortic lesions. The mental peculiarities so marked 
in some cases of heart disease associated with nephritis are 
always more pronounced at night. It is sometimes difficult to 
decide when to use a hypnotic, as well as what to use. Usually, 
after trying some of the newer remedies whose hypnotic powers 
and safety are exploited with great assurance by their manufact- 
urers, I have been obliged to return to the old stand-by — opium. 
A quarter of a grain of morphia and fifteen grains of bromide of 
sodium is the most efficient hypnotic. Chloral and sulfonal are 
unsatisfactory in moderate doses, and unsafe in full doses. Trio- 
nal in from 5 to 10 grain doses, and tetronal in from 5 to 15 grain 
doses are safe, but are uncertain in conditions effecting the intra- 
cranial circulation. Chloralamid in from "10 to 40 grain doses is 
relatively safe and efficient. In large doses it disorganizes the 
red blood cells. Paraldehyde is a good hypnotic, but disagree- 
able- to take. The dose is from k to 1 dram. Jt does not depress 
the heart. It may be given with tragacanth, syrup of orange, and 
a few drops of spirit of chloroform. 

In conclusion let me refer to a symptom which causes more 
uneasiness in the mind of the patient, and more uncertainty as to 
the tenure of office of the attending physician than any other, 
namely, dropsy. If we relieve the dropsy the patient rests sat- 
isfied with our management of the other features of his case. 
Dropsy may be largely a matter of gravity and low blood pres 
sure, and is then relieved by digitalis. This is the ca.se in thos^ 
instances where there is a weak, irregular pulse and a soft, 
doughy, easily-pitting oedema. The use of active cathartics is 



160 The Plexus, 

helpful, such as teaspoonful doses of compound jalap powder. 
If the vascular tension is high, the use of vaso-dilators must not 
be neglected. The acetate or nitrate of potash may be added to 
the infusion of digitalis. The old time pill of digitalis, squills and 
calomel is useful. Squills, broom tops, juniper, bitartrate of 
potassium, etc., are useful with digitalis. The old "Imperial 
driuk'" — Potus Potassii Tart. Acidse — consisting of 60 grains of 
the acid tartrate of potash and a sufficient quantity of sugar and 
boiling water with the juice of two lemons, stirred until cold and 
then skimmed, is a pleasant diuretic drink. Again we may use a 
decoction of long use in London hospitals, consisting of tartrate 
of potash, gr. x x; spirit of juniper, m x x x; decoction of scopar- 
ius, §i. 

In cases associated with nephritis we may use caftein after 
the formula already given. Or we may use Trousseau's diuretic 
wine, a very useful preparation in these cases. Its formula is as 
follows: Digitalis leaves, 10 grams; squill root, 5 grams; juniper 
berries, 50 grams; white wine, 750 grams. Macerate for four 
days, add 15 grams of acetate of potash and filter. The dose is a 
lablespoonful three or four times a day. 

In many cases we need more active stimulation of the kid- 
neys, and then we should employ our most reliable remedies for 
this purpose. These remedies are calomel and diuretin. The 
latter is a sodio-salicylate of theobromine, containing, it is said, 
about CO per cent of theobromine. Either of these drugs is com- 
paratively certain in effect, providing Ihe kidney is at all compe- 
tent. Their failure is generally due to too low blood pressure, 
and they should not be given until ihe circulation has first been 
stimulated with dfgitalis. This may require two or three days. 
The failure to observe this rule is responsible for many failures. 
Diuretin probably acts entirely upon the kidney. It may be 
given in watery solution. The dose is from 90 to 120 grains in 
twenty-four hours. Small, continued doses are useless. The 
effect usually lasts for some days. Twenty grains may be given 
every 4 hours for six doses. The drug should then be stopped. 
The chief objection to its use is an occasional disturbance of the 
stomach. Merck's sodio-salicylate of theobromine is reliable, 
and is cheaper than diuretin. 

M\'' own preference is for calomel as a special diuretic in 
cardiac dropsy. It is cheap, easy to administer, and effective. 



Hyposystolic Period of Chronic Endocarditis. 161 

If the kidney is not too badly diseased, and the circulation be 
first properly stimulated then calomel will surely cause diuresis 
when properly administered. It should be given in 3 grain doses 
three times daily for two days; six doses, eighteen grains in all. 
It should then be stopped. Five drops of the tincture of opium 
should be given one-half hour after each dose of calomel in order 
to keep the bowels from moving, otherwise the diuretic effect of 
the calomel will not be marked. A saline may be given on the 
morning of the third day. The effect of the calomel may be de- 
layed for 12 hours after the last dose. I have never seen ptyal- 
ism except in two instances when extra doses were taken on the 
patients own responsibility. I have frequently seen extensive 
dropsies disappear in three or four days after this treatment, the 
urine increasing from 10 or 15 ounces to four or five quarts daily. 
In cases when the blood pressure is low the effect of these drugs 
may be hastened by bandaging the lower extremities. 

In intractable cases we may be obliged to resort to punctures 
or incisions of tne skin of the legs, under antiseptic precautions, 
or to the introduction of Southey's capillary tubes under the skin, 
but these measures I have never found necessary in cardiac 
dropsy when the above treatment was properly carried out. 



THE PLEXUS 

THE OFFI0IAL:ORGANjOF 

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 

Plexus CotntMittee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K, STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H. BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY, M. D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D., 

W. A. EVANS,. M. D., W. H. BEBARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D. 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, '02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03. 



Class Editors: 

F. H. HORNIROOK, 02, M R. MARTIN, '04. 



Faculty Department, DR. F. B. EARLE. Clinical Laboratory Dept., DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 



Advertising Solicitor, C WALLACE POORMAN, '03, 
Publisher, ------ H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C- 
WADDLE, 813 W. Harrison St. 

Entered at Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed ^hai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to tliat of publication. The publishers willnot hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS unless sufficient stamps are forwarded 



With this issue a great many of our subscription? become 
due, and it will save us a great deal of trouble if delinquents will 
send us amount due. 

We are sending out many sample copies of this issue to mem- 
bers of the alumni and should be pleased to enroll iheca. upon our 

supscription list. 

* * 
* 

Dr. Joseph M. Patton, the author of the leading article of 
this issue of the Plexus was born in Ralston, Pa., in 1860. He 



Editorial. '163 

completed his medical education in the University Medical Col- 
lege of New York City in 1882 and began the practice of medicine 
in Chicago the year following. He served as chief assistant to 
Medical Clinic, College of Physicians and Surgeons from 1884 to 
1890; Professor of Internal Medicine, Chicago Policlinic from 
1890 to present time; Professer of Physical Diagnosis P. & S. 
College, 1900 to 1901, and is at present associate professor of 
Medicine College of P. & S., and Professor of Internal Medicine, 
Chicago Policlinic; Professor Physical Diagnosis, and General 
Anaesthetics, Dental Department of University of Illinois, and 
Secretary of the Therapeutic Club. He is member of national 
and local medical societies and as frequent contributors to medi- 
cal journals. He is author of the book "Clinical Lectures on 
Heart, Lungs and Pleura." 

PHYSIOLOGY AND MATERIALISM. 

It is a curious fact that the much-dreaded materialism of 
science is gradually dissolving into a sort of pure spiritualism, a 
spiritualism much purer than that of the erstwhile orthodox folk 
who looked with fear and trembling upon the materialism seem- 
ingly fostered by the modern scientific explanations of the phe- 
nomena of nature. Modern science is proving even more for- 
cibly than revelation itself that only the spiritual is true and 
eternal. An axiom of evolution and physiology is that structure 
(material) always follows and is the result of function (spiritual). 
Hitherto we have calmly and rather childishly adopted the be- 
lief that there could be no function until after the appropriate 
organ had come into existence We have thought that only the 
existence of eyes warranted our talking about vision; that nutri- 
tion was impossible without a developed alimentary tract; that 
even thought itself had to have a brain as a sine qua non. In 
all this time latent function, potential energy, was hardly 
dreamed of and as a result we have been kept in a boiling pot of 
discussion between our scientific materialism and theological 
spiritualism. As our knowledge becomes broader and deeper, 
however, we are learning to make broader and deeper generali- 
zations. Evolution especially, which at one time was thought to 
be so antagonistic to revelation, is telling us in no uncertain 
language that latent function precedes structure, that an idea, 
consistent and persistent, underlies the development of material 



164 The Plexus. 

manifestations^and that a necessity is the cause of the changes 
and variations occurring among organic beings. Wings do not 
give rise toi the^notion of flying but the need of flying develops 
the wings. Muscles are not the cause of movements but the 
effort of primitive protoplasm to move differentiates it into mus- 
cles.£^ Eyes are evolved in response to a demand for vision. The 
brain is constructed out of primitive nerve elements through the 
necessity of. more^complex thinking. The organic world islike the 
waves of the ocean, ever changing in response to a latent neces- 
sity, which latent necessity operates, as Darwin and others have 
shown, through such combined agencies as heredity, environ- 
ment, natural, selection, sexual selection, etc. Necessity and all 
that it involves is the law by which the organic world is evolved 
and developed. There is no mere chance in the ultimate work- 
ing of the principle of evolution. If there were, brains, muscles, 
alimentary ^tracts, 'etc., would assume all sorts of bizarre and un- 
expected forms'and structures in individuals as well as in species. 
But on the contrary everything proceeds in an orderly, systema- 
tic, rational way; so much so that we can almost prophesy what 
form and structure an organ will assume if we can only know 
beforehand the necessity, the latent activity, which the organ 
when evolved will put into actuality. 

The animal world 'then, according to the new science, is the 
effect of a consistent, never-ceasing, never varying, powerful 
cause. Call it "energy,'" or "force," or "molecular motion," or 
"natural selection," or "survival of the fittest," or "adaptation 
to environment," or what you will, it all amounts to the same 
thing. In its last analysis, it is merely an idea, an intangible, 
consistent, ever-acting, latent something, a law, a principle, an 
abstract function in response to which and under the control of 
which all matter, both organic and inorganic, is evolved and 
molded and constructed. The existence of this consistent and 
persistent idea, this something very like an eternal, spiritual 
force which operates through and upon matter, is the greatest 
of the lessons of modern science. That ideal or latent function 
precedes and provokes structure is the crowning fact taught by 
physiology and modern biology. 

Whence cometh this latent function, this potentiality, this 
causal idea which subdues matter, and forces it to grow in harmo- 
ny with a plan and not according to a mere haphazard chance? 



Editorial. 165 

"Where and what is the origin of this principle or principles lying 
behind and beneath all the phenomena of evolution? Science it- 
self does not tell us; at least physical science does not. Philosophy 
theorizes about it and calls it the First Cause. Both science and 
philosophy are agreed, however, as to its existence and to the fact 
that it precedes and underlies all physical phenomena. The 
Bible declares that it originates in and is one with God; in fact, 
it is the Divine Idea; the Plan of the Creator; it is the Intang- 
ible, the Spiritual, one and eternal, operating upon matter which 
is many and changeable, in accordance with its own divine will. 
Evolution and physiology are proving the marvelous truth of 
the words of Paul when he said "the things which are seen are 
temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal." 

L. H. M. 



ALUMNI OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS— COLLEGE OF PHYSI- 
CIANS AND SURGEONS OF CHICAGO. 

Tt in the purpose of the Plexus to publish the addresses of the entire alumni 
in the Plexus in the next few issues and if there are any mistakes or if 
any of our readers know of the addresses not given, we should be pleased 
to have them notify us or Dr. W. H. Bernard, Alumni Sec'y, of such 
changes. 

CLASS OF 1883. 

Abbott, William B., M. D., Pinconning, Mich. 

Arnold. George W., M. D. 

Auld, James H., M. D., Lincoln, Neb. 

Brooks, James Miles, M. D., Newell, la. 

*Buchanan, R. W. 

Buchanan, Walter W., M. D., Detroit Mich. 

Burke, Thomas F., M. D. 

Caldwell, Francis C, M. D., 167 Dearborn Ave, Chicago. 

Carhart, John W., M. D., LaGrange, Tex. 

Coe, Charles M., M. D., 915 Walnut St., Kansas City, Mo. 

Darby, Henry Charles, M. D., Wilmot, Wis. 

DeWitt, Charles Herman, M. D., Glenwood, la. 

*Dyer, Ralph B. 

Edick, George H., M. D., 290 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Elliott, Elihu N., M. D., 1603 N. Clark St., Chicago. 

Ferro, Claude M., M. D., 404 Masonic Temple, Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
Gaflford, James A., M. D., Shawnee, Okla. 
*Harris, John B., M. D. 
*Harsh, I. M. 

Harvey, Z. T., M. D., Council Grove, Kas. 
Hoover, John C, M. D., Owensboro, Ky. 
Jay, Daniel D., M. D., Pulaski, la. 
Keith, Alva Nelson, M. D., Peoria, Dl, 
Kirkpatrick, Thomas, M. D., Garnett, Kan. 
Linabery, William L., M. D., Wyanet, 111. 
Lovejoy, Halsey E., M. D., Rippey, la. 
Lovejoy, Walter, M. D., Kemmerer, Wyo. 
*Dead. 



Alumm. 167 

McCullough, J. R., M. D., 69 State St., Chicago, or 75 Plum St,, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Mathieu, L., M. D., St. Anne, 111. 
Maxon, O. P., M. D., Waukegan, 111. 
Morton, R. J., M. D., Green, Kas. 
Riggs, J. S., M. D., Redlands, Cal. 

Robertson, W. M., M. D,, 602 McRree Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
Roehr, C. G,, 822 W. Division St., Chicago. 
Ross, I. N., M. D., Emporia, Kan. 
Roth well, J. T., M. D., Centralia, Mo. 
Roy, William C, M. D. 

Schuyley, W. C, M. D., Cocur d'Alene, Idaho. 
*Sherman, F. L. 

Skinner, H. S., M. D., Shawnee, Oklahoma. 
Soper, J. H., M. D., 247 Noe St., San Francisco, Cal. 
*Spencer, T. H. 
*Sweat, I. M. 

Tanquary, J. H., M. D., 4960 Easton Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
Thatcher, J. B., M. D. 

Thompson, C. M., M D., Elk Rapids, Mich. 
Van Patten, E. H., Dayton, Wash. 
VanTuyl, E. A., M. D. 

Walrath, H. S., M. D., 11 East 7th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
Weaver, Wm. H., M. D., 92 State St., Chicago. 
Weidner, M. R., M. D., Dolton, 111. 
Wood, C. B., M. D., Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. 
Wood, J. W. M. D., Long Beach, Cal. 

CLASS OF 1884. 

Anderson, H. B., M. D., Orfordville, Wis. 

Babcock, Elmer E., M. D., 3239 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Barber, Chauncey L., M. D., Lansing, Mich. 

Barkow, Gustav C. W., M. D. 

Bellamy, William Thomas, M. D., Pleasant View, 111. 

Bird, John Henry, M. D., 11 Congress St., Chicago. 

*Blakeslee, N. P. 

Brick, Samuel L., M. D,, Ogden, Utah. 

Brumback, Arthur H., M. D., 109 Loomis St., Chicago. 

Chittenden, R. H., M. D., Kansas City, Mo. 

Church, Archibald, M. D., 805 Pullman Bldg, Chicago, 

■Coomes, Asa, M. D. 



168 The Plexus. 

Curtis, Razel M., M. D., Marengo, 111, 

Doig, J. R., M. D., Russell, Kan. 

Edelin, Benedict H., M. D,, Gorin, Mo. 

Evans, Niels C, M. D., Mt. Horeb, Wis. 

Foster, Irving C, M. D., Albion, Mich. 

Fowler, W. E., M. D., Brookville, Kan. 

Goodman, Thomas B., M. D., Cobden, 111. 

Harkness, George S., M. D., Stockton, Cal. 

Harlan, Alison W,, M. D. 

Harrison, "W. K.. M. D., Masonic Temple, Chicago. 

Hatton, William D., M. D. 

Horrell, Charles B., M. D., Galesburg, 111. 

Horton, Jackson D., M. D., Nashua, la. 

*HougblaQd, A. C. 

Inks, John S., M. D., Nappanee, Ind. 

Jenckes, Herbert D., M. D., Pipestone, Minn. 

*Jones, R. W. 

Jordon, L. M., M. D., No. Manchester, Ind. 

Luckey, C. M., M. D., Baldwin, la. 

Lumbeck, Frank, M. D., Kingston, O. 

Mathers, W. R., M. D., Rock Hill, Cotton County, Texas, 

Mikkelson, M.. M. D., Wells, Fairbault County, Minn. 

Mitchell, T. B.. M. D., 348 S. Campbell Ave., Chicago. 

Morrison, D. M., M. D. . 

*Munzer, I. 

Printz, E. T., M. D., Moulton, la. 

Raimonde, L. S. J., M. D. 

*Romans, L. L. 

Sawyer, F. M., M. D,, South Bend, Ind. 

Schmitz, E. A., M. D., Wauwatoso, Wis. 

*Shearer, I. W. 

Stevenson, P. W., M. D., Gettysburg, Pa. 

Sweemer, W. M., M. D., 622 11th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Van Patten, L., M. D., Altavista, la. 

Wassail, J, W., M. D., 92 State St., Chicago. 

Whitnall, William R., M. D., Hastings, la. 

Wilson, William H., M. D., Table Rock, Neb. 

Winterbotham, William H., M. D., Salina, Kas. 

*Younger, W. I. 



Ahmint. 169' 

CLASS OF 1885. 

Allen, Albert F., M. D., Chicago, 2601 State St,, Chicago. 

Allen, William E., M. D., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

*Bahnsen, W. J. 

Brinkerhoff, Clarence E., M. D., 182 N. Halstead St., Chicago. 

Brinkerhoff, G. Erwin, M. D., 1003 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 

Bundy, William C, M. D., Aurelia, la. 

Caldwell, W. C, M. D., 172 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 

Cook, E. L.. M. D., Harlan, la. 

Crowley, D. D., M. D., Central BankBldg., Oakland, Cal. 

Cummings, Charles G., M. D., 301 Baltimore Blk., St. Paul, 

Minn. 
Davis, Thomas A., M. D., 979 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 
Drost, Casper M., M. D., l7l S. Jefferson St., Grand -'Rapids, 

Mich. 
Dunning, Arthur W., M. D., Arcade Building, St. Paul, [Minn. 
Eagleson, James B., M. D., Seattle, Wash. 
Earle, Francis B., M. D., 903 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 
Eddy, William J., M. D., Shelby ville, 111. 
Fallis, Charles W., M. D., Danville, 111. 
Fliesburg, Oscar A., M. D., 102 Washington Ave., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
Fordyce, Oscar, M. D., Guthrie Center, la. 
Gillette, Leslie B., M. D., Marion, Kas. 
Gfroerer, George S., M. D., 439 W. Taylor St., Chicago. 
Hall, Alonzo H., M. D., Niantic, 111. 
Harvey, W. Scott, M. D., Salina, Kas. 
Herb, Samuel M., M, D. 
Henry, James M., M. D., Sioux City, la. 
Hood, Calvin T., M. D., 992 W. Adams St., Chicago. 
Johnson, Hartland C, M. D., 176 Concord St., St. Paul, Minn. 
*Kiskadden, H. S. 

Kynett, William H., M. D., Battle Creek, Mich. 
Latta, Ulysses G., M. D. , 70 Madison St., Chicago. 
Luce, Joseph E., M. D., Chilton, Wis. 
Martin, J. A. J., Red Oak, la. 
Malone, Edward William, M. D., Waukesha, Wis. 
Miles, R. H., M. D., Lyndon, Kas. 
Moore, M. T., M. D., 92 Higgins Ave., Chicago. 
Murray, A. J., M. D., Frederickton Junction, New Brunswick.^ 



170 The Plexus. 

Paul, I. O., M. D,, Winnebago, 111. 

Pearce, W. W., M. D., Waukegan, 111, 

Phelps, G. M., M. D., Kankakee, 111. • 

Phillips, J. B. C, M. D. 

Pierce, N. H., M. D., 149 Lincoln Park Blvd., Chicago. 

Eaymer, H. S., M. D., Cedar Rapids, la. 

Robey, P.R., M. D., Houston, Tex. 

Rogers, B. W., M, D., 55 E. 33nd St., Chicago. 

Safley, L. E., M. D., Bozeman, Mont. 

Safley, W. M., M, D. 

Senn, F. C, M. D., Oshkosh, Wis. 

Shepherd, W. W., M. D., 108 Loomis St., Chicago. 

Sherwood, O. W., M. D., West Port, Cal. 

Stevens, J. S., M. D., Cedar Palls, la. 

Sutherland, D. E., M. D., Bay City, Mich. 

Tebbetts, P. M., M. D., 92 State St., Chicago. 

Tobias, G. J., M. D., 950 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 

*Thompson, J. R. 

Tollington, G., M. D., 410 Masonic Temple, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Trulson, T. A., M. D., Stanton, la. 

VanHook, W., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Wagner, A. L., M. D., Lapaz, Ind. 

*Waldron, J. M. 

Winstead, M. L., M. D., Wetaug, 111. 

CLASS OF 1886. 
Abaly, W. C, M. D., Madison, Wis. 
Anderson, Perry L., M. D. 
Beach, William M., M. D., Shelton, Wash. 
Bell, Allen, M, D. 

Bertrand, J. H., M. D., De Forest, Wis. 
Boice, George W., M. D.. 119 W. 29th St., Chicago. 
Brainard, Benjamin P., M.D., Martin City, Mo, 
Brendecke, A. C, M. D., 242 W. Randolph St., Chicago. 
Brigham, Bray ton A., M. D., 260 S. Oakley Blvd., Chicago. 
Brock, William B., M. D., Olin, la. 
*Brown, Robert A., M. D. 

Buttner, W., Adolph, M. D., 769 Lincoln Ave., Chicago. 
Case, Charles E., M. D., Tacoma, Wash. 
Chidester, Chancy W., M. D., Newark Valley, N. Y. 
Cook, Chas. H., M. D, 



Alumni. 171 

Crepin, Henry E., M. D., Tuscon, Ariz. 

*Densmore, D. T. 

Doyle, James F., M. D., Antigo, Wis. 

Duff, Vincent E., M. D., Lyndon, Kan. 

Ellis, Samuel A., M. D., Azusa, Cal. 

English, William T., M. D., 321 5th Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Follansbee, Willard S., M. D., Paoma, Colo. 

Fortner, Elbert C, M. D., 579 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

Gallison, Frank E., M, D., Coulterville, Cal. 

Gibson, James, M. D., Janesville, Wis. 

Goldstein, Louis, M. D., Beaumont, Tex. 

*Hall, D. W. 

Hass, Archibald, M. D., 52 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 

Henderson, N. H., M. D., 4147 Lake Ave., Chicago. 

Hileman, J. E., M. D. 

Holmboe, Antoin, M. D., 92 State St., Chicago. 

Johnston, Stuart William, M. D., Venetian Building, Chicago. 

Kane. William W., M. D., Pinckneyville, 111. 

Kaszer, Jacob, M. D., Plymouth, Ind. 

Knapp, William H., M. D. 

Laughlin, Willet H., M. D. 

Lee, Julius H., M. D., 116 N. Center Ave., Chicago. 

Loope, G. L., M. D., Bessemer, Mich. 

Lowe, F. O., M. D,, Kewanee, 111. 

McCallum, William, M. D., Gladstone, Mich. 

McClellan, J. J.. M. D., 63 S. High St., Columbus, Ohio. 

McCracken, T., M. D., Payallup, Wash. 

McGlasson, T.F., M. D., Lewiston, Mo. 

Malcolm, F. B., M. D., care Local Post, Kong Kow, China. 

Marnes, C. M., M. D., Rouse Point, N. Y. 

Martin, E. C, M. D. 

*Merrill, S. B. L., M. D. 

Miller, B., M. D. 

Miller, E., M. D., 11456 Indiana Ave., Kensington, 111. 

Miller, W. H., M. D., Hanford, Tulare County, Cal. 

Mitchell, L. J., M. D., 498 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

Parsons, G. F., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 

Peabody, H. A., M. D., Webster, S. D. 

Rittenhouse, W. F., M. D., 975 Warren Ave., Chicago. 

Roberts, William, M. D. 



172 The Plexus. 

Rogers, H. S., M. D., Red Oak, la. 

Ryan, C. O., M. D. 

Shallabarger, D. S., M. D. 

Shidler, A. L., M. D. 

Smith, G. E., M. D. 

Taggart, T. E., M. D., Bakersfield, Cal. 

Tillotson, H. T., M. D., 6301 Wentworth Ave., Chicago. 

*Turnock, E. 

Weir, William A., M. D., Edinburg, O. 

Wiggin, T. B., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 

*Wikkerink, G. 

Williams, J. R., M. D., White Pigeon. Mich. 

Wilson, A. R., M. D., 1058 Walnut Ave., Milwaukee Wis. 

Wintermute, C. E., M. D., Kilbourn, Wis. 

Wisse, I., M. D., 18 W. Bridge St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

CLASS OF 1887. 
*Bein, William. 
*Bradway, A. C. 

Bruner, J. M. O., M. D., Port Byron, 111. 
Casey, Samuel B., M. D., 534 Putnam Ave,, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Cone, C. Conrad, M. D., Oskaloosa, la. 
Cooney, Henry C, M. D. 
Earle, Clarence A., M. D., Des Plaines, 111. 
Eversol, Garibaldi, M. D., Chandlerville, 111. » 

Finley, E. L., M. D. 

Fisher, John, M. D., S68 LaSalle St., Chicago. 
Flint, Edward N., M. D., 1207 Guarantee Loan Bldg., Minneapo- 
lis, Minn. 
Flower, Ward Z., M. D., Gibbon, Minn. 
Eredigke, Charles C, M. D., 3414 State St., Chicago. 
Gile, Ulysses A., M. D. 

Goodsmith, Heber M., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 
Hanson, F. A., M. D. 

Harris, Philander H., M. D., 426 Milwaukee St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Hart, Albert B., M. D., Roberts, 111. 

Hektoen, Ludwig E., M. D., Rush Medical College, Chicago. 
*Heffelfinger, W. W. 
Holmes, Edgar R., M. D., Ayr, Neb. 

Hulen, Vard H., M. D., 406 Sutter St., San Francisco CaL 
Hund, J., M. D., Athens, Wis. 



Alumni. 173 

Johnston, A. Ralph, M. D., 4454 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. 

Jones, Richard H., M. D., Cullom, 111. 

Kaumheimer, G. J., M. D., 577 3rd St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kincheloe, M. B., M.D., Joplin, Mo. 

Klophel, C. G. B., M. D. 

*Koontz, S. E. 

Kordenat, C. F. W., Reedsburg, Wis. 

Lane, Myron E., M. D., 350 North Ave., Chicago. 

McNamara, J. M. , M. D., 5501 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 

McNulty, C, A., M. D., Basin, Mont. 

Miller, R. C, M. D., Shannon, 111. 

Miller, W. E., M. D., 1143 S. California Ave., Chicago. 

Moraux, J. D., M. D., Green Bay, Wis. 

Mulder, D., M. D., Sioux Center, la. 

Norderling, K. A., M. D., 1684 N. Clark St. 

O'Connell, Jefferson J., M. D. 

Oviatt, Charles W., M. D., Oshkosh, Wis. 

Remmen, N E., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Richmond, J., M. D., Loyal, Wis. 

Roberts, J. C, M. D., Second and Spencer Sts., Peoria, 111. 

Rogers, Fred C, 2036 Wells St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sargent, J. S., M. D. 

Schick, G., M. D., 1529 Wells St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Schneider, A., M. D.. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sweet, C. A., M. D., East Jordan, Mich. 

Voiding, N. M., M. D., Des Moines, la. 

*Ward, C. B. 

Way, J. P., M. D., 567 Western Ave., Chicago. 

Weil, C. A., M. D., 104 Belmont Ave., Chicago. 

Whiting, J. B., M. D., Janesville, Wis. 

Wirt, G. M., M. D. 

CLASS OF 1888. 
Anderson, William 0., M D., New Castle, Pa. 
Baily, F. M., M. D., Waynesburg, 0. 
Bradfield, J. A. L., M. D., La Crosse, Wis. 
Breiigle, Gr. C, Winchester, 111. 
Brown, T. W., M. D., New London, Wis. 
*Bulson, H. R., M. D. 

Burrell, H. L., M. D., 206 McCagne Bldg.. Omaha, Neb. 
Burrows. A, W.. M. D., Commercial Blk.. Salt Lake City. Utah. 
Burson, S. W., M. D., 67 N. Clark St., Chicago. 



174 The Plexus. 

Cameron. Neil. M. D., Burwell, Neb. 

Casey. Levi B., M. D., Marion. 111. 

*Coe. M. P. 

Coker, William W. . M. D. , 2802 Archer Ave. , Chicago. 

Cullen. Frank C, 561 W. 12th St., Chicago. 

*Davis. J. H. 

Duckworth, Frank E., M. D. 

Fall, Clifford, M. D., Beatrice, Neb. 

Feltenstein, David W., M. D., Voris, Mo. 

Fowler. William S., M. D.. Ventura, Cal. 

Glover, John F., M. D., Nordhoff, Cal. 

Haines, Thomas J., M. D,. Three Rivers, Mich. 

Harris, B. Y., M. D., Box 422 P]ureka. Cal. 

Holliday, Henry A., M. D. Amery, Wis. 

Hueston, David P., M. D., 24 Homer St., Chicago. 

Jones, David T., M. D., Wausau, Wis. 

Malone, W. F.. M. D.. 3(53 National Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mattisou, F. C. £. M. D., Pasadena, Cal. 

Michael, R. R., M. D. 

Miller, E. J., M. D., Sycamore, 111. 

Myers, F. L.. M. D., Sheldon, la. 

Nesbit, G. M., M. D., LaPorte City, la. 

Paterson, H. F. W.. M. D., Dundee, 111. 

Pile, 0. G., M. D., Memphis, Mo. 

Selbach. J. J. Eau Claire, Wis. 

Shallern, B. V.. M. D., Ripon, Wis. 

Shidler, S., M. D., Sheridan, Mo. 

Sinclair, J. D.. M. D. 

Staib, 0. W., M. D., Bartlett, 111. 

Stanton, J. T., M. D., 173 N. Halsted St., Chicago. 

Sterling, C, M. D. , Concordia, Kan. 

Stewart, W. B., M. D., Joliet, HI. 

Towle, W. B., M. D., 197 St. Urbain St., Montreal, Canada. 

White, H. E., M. D., Fairmount, 111. 

Williamson. L. R , M. D., cor. Clark and Bremen Sts., Milwaukee. Wis. 

*Wood, J. J. 

Wylie, D. B., M. D., Empire Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

CLASS OF 1889. 

Borland. S. F., M. D., Dillon, Colo. 

Burcky, William E., M. D., 6641 Halsted St., Chicago. 

*Cady, G. M. 

Cargill, Chauncey W., M. D., Mason City, 111. 

Cheney, Eranklin S., M. D., Kedzie and Fulton Sts., Chicago. 



Alumni. 175 

Cronk, Harvey R., M. D., 273 30th St., New York. 

Dempster, William H., M. D., Gumming, la. 

Dougherty, B. F., M. D., Chariton, la. 

Eames. H. F., Egg Harbor, Wis. 

Eddy, J. Henry M. D., 908 E. Eldorado St., Decatur. 

Ewing, Harry P., M. D.,6056 Monroe Ave., Chicago. 

Gillmore, C. Marsh, M. D. 

Gluck. Isidor, M. D., Profesa, Mex. 

•Godard, W. A. 

Grace, Thomas J., M. D., Clark's Mills, Pa. 

Gray, Albert S., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Hebert, 0., M. D., 1517 Green Bay Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Hibbs. F. B., M. D.. Mitchelville, la. 

Holbrook, F. D., M. D. 

Hornbogen, Alfred W., M. D., Marquette, Mich. 

Karreman, A. R., M. D., 534 W." 63rd St., Chicago. 

Kennicott, P. A., M. D., Glenview, 111. 

Leusman, Frederick, M. D., 270 E. Huron St., Chicago. 

Liddy, T. F., M. D., 629 31st St., Chicago. 

Linden, F. C, M. D., 1.398 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Loewy, Arthur, M. D.. Oak Park, 111. 

*Luce, J. 0. 

MacCornack, E. A , M. D., 2 Nabling Blk.. Elgin, HI. 

Martin, E., M. D., 3919 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Moras, E. R., M. D., 171 Blue Island Ave. 

Morton, A. J., M. D. 

Moyers, L. E., M. D., Fairdale, 111. 

Munford, J. R., M. D , 5011 Pennsylvania Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Mulder, Derk, Sioux Center, la. 

Onstott, E. E., M. D., Saltsburg, Pa. 

Owen, William R., M. D , Sublette, 111. 

Phar, W. I.,M. D. 

Porter, W. J., M. D.. Hedrick, la. 

Post, G. A., M. D., Lake Geneva. Wis. 

Powell, Preston, M. D., Adair, la. 

Radley, J. H., M. D.. 225 High St , Hartford, Conn. 

Rogers, F. W., M. D., Hartford, Wis. 

Stremmels, S. C, M. D. , Macomb, HI. 

Soule, C. E., M. D., Sheridan, 111. 

Terry, C. C, M. D.. So. Bend, Ind. 

Walford, E. S., M. D., Diamondale, Mich. 

Walsh, T. M., M. D., Joplin. Mo. 

Warren, H.S., M. D., 1360 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Watson, F. L., M. D.. Boda. la. 

Wermuth, W. C. M. D.. 277 Bissell St . Chicago. 

Weber, C. E. L , 43rd and Grand Blvd., Chicago. 



TO THE MEMORY OF THE ANATOMICAL AMPHI- 
THEATRE. 

(Affectionately known as "A. A.") 
Henry Herbert Slater, '02. 
Three brief years ago, when the summer's hot breath 

Was replaced by the cool autumn breezes, — 
A time in our lives that will ever gleam bright. 

When mem'ry reverts as it pleases — 
How radiant the dawn and how light were our hearts, 

As with wonderful anticipations; 
We left the old home with its quaint peaceful scenes 

And our numberless friends and relations. 

As onward we sped and new sights came in view. 

How fair was the world to our vision; 
The maple leaves bold with their first touch of gold 

Mocked the first autumn frosts in derision; 
The fast rip'ning corn we could now view witl^ scorn, 

And with pleasure and deep satisfaction. 
Reflect that the knell of the four o'clock bell 

Would call us no more into action. 

Through hurrying throngs we were crowded along 

Till the college erect stood before us, — 
The mystical theme of a fond youthful dream — 

And a feeling of rapture came o'er us. 
To thy dear haunts "A. A." we were soon shown the way, 

Cheered along by the guys of the guyer, 
Till we reached thee at last when six stairways were passed — 

The canines alone going higher. 

With wonderful thoughts are our fond fancies fraught, 

Woven in with our lessons of science; 
How we went through the air and the chairs climbed the stairs, 

Setting gravity's laws at defiance: 
Mingled oft with the howl of the poor canine's growl 

Rose aloft the wierd fries of the seniors; 
And how often we spied the door opened wide 

And "D. J.'" yelled in by the juniors. 



Poem. 177 

But learning to love thy proud station above 

With the joys that we now cannot measure, 
Thy long hallowed walls and thy oft perfumed halls 

We long shall continue to treasure. 
At last came the day when below we must stay, 

But with feelings both sad and regretful; 
How often we yearned in our hearts to return 

Though we sometimes appeared quite forgetful. 
In the short lapse of time we have managed to climb 

Still higher in medical pathways. 
But we ne'er can believe that we know quite so much 

As when we were nothing but D. J's. 

One morning we went up the long tiresome stairs 

And saw there a sad transformation, 
Thy chairs were replaced by some long ugly pews — 

A stiff Puritanic creation. 
Thy sad walls stood dumb, but to us seemed to speak 

And instead of a feeling of gladness. 
We never could visit those once cherished scenes 

Untinged with a feeling of sadness. 
But the saddest was yet, for one day 'twas announced 

That banished we were from thy portals, 
To take up our home in a building unloved ' 

Disregarding the feelings of mortals. 

In the dead of the night a fierce storm raged above 

And knowing thy future, what wonder. 
That with cry of despair thou thy head raised in air 

And drew down a bolt from the thunder. 
The building was saved, but thy wreck was complete. 

Thy black, crumbling walls but remaining; 
They may build thee again, but 'twill be thee no more — 

Thy mem'ry no longer profaning. 

As we pass on in life and our thoughts wander back 

To the haunts of our early successes. 
Thy walls as they were shall retain the first place 

In our cerebrum's treasured recesses. 
Oh better by far that thy ruin be wrought 

In a war with the storm's regimentals, 
Than have our hearts pained to behold thee profaned 

By becoming a classroom for dentals! 



LIBRARY NOTES. 
Metta M. Loomis, Librarian. 

The library was moved the third week in August and the 
valuable collections of books, periodicals and pamphlets which 
compose the Quine library are now in quarters that are much 
more suited to the accommodation of the books as well as the 
many patrons of the library. 

The rooms occupied by the library are on the second floor of 
the new building, and are five in numbea*. The two largest 
rooms are used as a reading and a stack room. There is also a 
private office for the librarian, a room for the shelving of dupli- 
cate periodicals and books, and a small work room. 

The reading room is in the southeast corner of the building. 
It is large and well lighted, furnishing an excellent place for 
study and reference work for the many students who daily make 
use of the library. In the west end of the room is a large wall 
case where are to be found the many valuable indices and refer- 
ence books which are owned by the library. The current peri- 
odicals are also kept in this room, also a book case containing 
the Quine library collection of old and rare books. 

West of the reading room and connected with it by double 
arch ways is the stack room, which not only accommodates the 
present collection of books, but also allows ample room for 
growth. This room has been furnished with new L. B. steel 
stacks which are superior to all other makes of library shelving. 
One of the chief advantages of the stack being that the shelves 
are easily adjusted to accommodate different sized books, and are 
readily raised or lowered when filled with books. The new stacks 
supply a long felt need, it having been almost impossible with 
the old primative form of book cases to care for and make acces- 
sable such a collection of books and pamphets as compose the 
Quine library. 

Study tables will be placed in the stack room for the accom- 
modation of students doing special reference work. The rooms 
are all well lighted and in every way adapted to the needs of a 
good working library. 

The following articles from members of the facult;f have 
been noted in the recent issues of medical journals: 



Lihrary Notes. 79 

Dr. A. J. Ochsner. Appendicitis and its Treatment. Med- 
ical Standard, September, pages 4H2-484. 

Dr. A. P, Heineck. Thoracentesis: Its Indications, Tech- 
nique and Accidents. Medical Standard, September, pages 
482-484. 

Dr. E. H. Lee. Fracture of the Humerus, Fracture of the 
Femer, Strangulated Inguinal Hernia, A Surgical Clinic. Clin- 
ical Review, September, pages 427-442. 

Dr. J. M. G. Carter. Diseases of the Stomach. Medical 
Fortnightly, Sept. 10, pages 600-604. To be continued. 

Dr. W. S. Christopher. The relation of unbalanced physical 
development to pubertal morbidity as shown by physical meas- 
urements. Journal of American Medical Association, September 
14, pages 691-700. 

The library has received the following gifts: 

Hirst's Obstetrics. Dr. F. B. Earle, donor. 

A copy of Gould's Dictionary of Medicine, Biology and Al- 
lied Science has been presented to the library by the publishers, 
P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

Several valuable reprints and pamphlets have also been pre- 
sented to the library. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

Your subscription is due. 

Supt. Browne was well pleased with the basket of choice 
peaches recently sent him by H. M. Voris, of Neoga, III., mem- 
ber of the class of "03. Yes, we considered them very fine 
peaches, too. 

Miss Elizabeth M. Healan, our congenial clerk, enjoyed her 
two weeks' vacation recently, 

Ira J. Sexton, '02, was married to Miss Nxidiene Willette, on 
Monday, Aug. 5th, at Chicago. Miss Willette is the grand- 
daughter of the late Thomas Metcalf, former governor of Ken- 
tucky. They spent their honeymoon in the Michigan pleasure 
resorts and are now at home at Plat H, 506 S. Oakly Boulevard, 
Chicago. 

The Quiz Class began work Sept. 1st. The following are 
members: Jas. G. Carr, J. H. Cleary, Jos. Dean, H. W. Howard, 
B. J. McConvill, J. M. Meyers, E. W. Poinier, R. O. Shelton, 
H. H. Slater, E. A. Streich, Jas. Tyvand and A. F. W. Werelius. 
A few more may enter as they may enter until Oct. 1st, 

BRYANT-HUTSON. 

Miss Grace Bryant, for three years librarian of Quine lib- 
rary, was married September 11 to Mr. W. H, Hutson, a success- 
ful attorney of this city. The wedding, which was one of the 
social events of the north side was held at the home of the 
bride's brother, Mr. Geo. Bryant, 2609 North Hermitage Ave. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hutson will live in the city and after Dec. 1 will be 
at home at 447 Winthrop Ave, 

During the three years which Miss Bryant was the efficient 
librarian of Quine library it has had a remarkable growth, not 
only in the number of additions of books, pamphlets and general 
medical literature, but also in the rank and standing of the lib- 
rary among the medical libraries of the city and country. A 
large proportion of the additions to the library have been period- 
icals, nearly all of the library's valuable collection of periodical 
literature having come through the personal efforts of the 
librarian. 

The students and friends of P. & S. will gratefully remember 
Miss Bryant's efforts in behalf of Quine library and will extend 
their best wishes for her future happiness. 




Sanger Brown, M. D., 

Professor of xMedicine, Collejie of Physicians and Surgeons, < hic-a-o. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

VOL. VII. OCTOBER 20th, 190L NO. 6 

^ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

What I have to say on this occasion is intended alone for 
those young people who have resolved to become practitioners 
of medicine, and v^ho are either just beginning their professional 
studies or have already covered more or less of the prescribed 
course. While I highly appreciate the honor of addressing an 
audieoce composed exclusively of individuals actuated b}' a noble 
ambition and endowed with all the enthusiasm, energy and vigor 
of youth, I am not unmindful of the responsibility I assume, for 
the same qualities that make you ready to applaud, also render 
you quick to criticise. 

Most of you have doubtless devoted may hours of your best 
thought in trying to decide upon your line of life work. The 
predominating considerations which have moved you have very 
likely been widely different in individual instances, depending 
upon tempermental characteristics, opportunities for observa- 
tion and what not. It may bring you some disappointment — it 
should not bring you discouragement, when you discover, as dis- 
cover you must, no matter how searchingly you may have scru- 
tinized the subject, that the thing itself is very different from the 
anticipations you had formed of it. But you may be comforted 
and consoled when you reflect that this would have been no less 
true had you chosen any other course whatsoever. I will even 
venture to say that there are those whose experience entitles 
them to a respectful hearing, who might tell you candidly, if 

•Given by Dr. Sanger Rrown, General Assembly Hall, College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, Tuesday evening, Oct. 1st. 



182 The Plexus. 

they would — but very, very confidentially, that the holy state of 
wedlock is not completely and altogether composed of those par- 
ticular strains of connubial melody to which the ardent wooer 
had fondly hoped to listen. This is a popular secret, and yet it 
does not abate the impetuosity of love or sensibly recruit the 
ranks of celibacy. 

In the pursuit of every laudible career to the earnest devotee 
new, beautiful and grand vistas open, demanding the delight- 
ful exercise of his best power. Before these the inevitable dis- 
appointments encountered at the outset seem trivial and are soon 
entirely forgotten. Perhaps you could not have chosen a calling 
affording a fairer field for the exercise of your talent than that 
presented by modern medicine. Its watchword is the relief and 
succor of suffering humanity, and science is its brightest weapon. 
In striving to accomplish their mission physicians have from the 
earliest times energetically and carefully investigated nearly 
everything that could be perceived by the senses or conceived of 
by the mind. No task has been too tremendous, no sacrifice too 
severe to suppress their noble efforts 

Above everything else the spirit of modern medicine seeks 
facts — demonstrable facts and truths. It aims to rise above 
creeds. It will not stifle investigation nor suppress its results in 
deference to error and i>rejudice, no matter how firmly estab- 
lished and sanctimonious these may be. Yet it is not offensively 
irreverant nor actively iconoclastic. It respects precedent but 
unlike the law it is not greatly hampered thereby. Though in 
the van of progress, it cannot forget its responsibility. It must 
be alert, critical, deliberate and conservative in the acceptance 
of new departures from established doctrine and practice. 
Change and reformation are by no means synonyms of progress 
and improvement, but I think it may be safely said that our pro- 
fession has suffered far more from a hasty and enthusiastic en- 
dorsement of new doctrines that afterward proved unsound, than 
from the too tardy recognition of merited achievement. In esti- 
mating the importance of original scientific investigation, a 
broad and tolerant view is necessary, for one sees an overwhelm- 
ing mass of years of painstaking work, the great majority of 
which appears utterly devoid of direct value in advancing the 
subject in behalf of which it was performed. Yet this illustrates 
Nature's plan of progress, for as from the countless seeds of the 



Annual Achhess. 1§3 

forest only a few take root, so here now and then a new" truth is 
discovered and a new step taken in advance. Hence we can 
hardly overestimate the importance of thorough, methodical and 
intelligent original research. 

The student who begins the study of medicine today has 
greatfer advantages than any who have preceded him, for the 
fund of scientific knowledge is steadily increasing and methods 
of investigation are being all the time perfected and extended. 
Here they are all at your disposal and you cannot bring too much 
talent, application and vigor to their intellectual acquisition. 
For, if you set to work ever so earnestly, you will find the time 
all too short. A thorough knowledge of method and technique 
is essential to progress after graduation. You must uiaster them 
here if ever, so that you may correctly examine whatever prob- 
lems may be presented to you and understand fully the published 
investigations of others. Thus you may enjoy the satisfaction of 
knowing that you can keep in touch with all substantial advance- 
ment in your profession. 

It is our purpose to select what we regard as the most essen- 
tial parts of special knowledge required by the physician in the 
investigation and treatment of disease and present them to the 
student in a manner best suited to his powers of assimilation 
within a prescribed time. We shall try to give you enough to 
enable you to make a fair start; but you should do all your work 
here in anticipation of being able to go alone. 

Quite aside from his scientific attainments, however, the 
physician's proper attitude as a social factor is worthy of serious 
consideration; much more extended consideration, indeed, than I 
can now give it. It has been charged in the indictment that the 
modern medical student is prone to become so engrossed in the 
revelations of science and so enamored of its pursuits that he 
loses sight of what at least the world at large regards as his 
proper mission, and that without really intending it, his 
interest is manifestly far more in the disease from which the pa- 
tient suffers than in the patient himself; that his sensibilities are 
dulled and his sentiments inert; that his faith in things human 
and divine has weakened and wasted; that when he starts in 
practice he is not mindful enough that perhaps the patient and 
his family are looking to him for succor and relief in their alfiic- 



184 The Plexus. 

tion; that they are watching his slightest movement and gesture 
for a ray of solace and comfort. 

Making due allowance for individual peculiarities, I am not 
prepared to say that there may not be some slight foundation for 
some of these charges. If there is, how does it come about? 
Science holds no controversy. Its province is simply the meth- 
odical investigation of phenomena and the furnishing of reliable 
facts. And these, if their value is properly understood, will not 
injure anything worthy of presentation. They can only purify 
sound sen in ent. 

It may be true that the sturly of medicine exposes rather 
more promptly and pointedly than any other pursuit current 
frauds and fallacies which however the thoughtful must, sooner 
or later, discover in any case. But this rarely detrimentally dis- 
.turbs a vigorous and well balanced mind. The necessary new 
adjustment are readily made and the character is rather strength- 
ened by the process than otherwise. If the charge is to hold in 
any degree, therefore, we shall have to look further for the 
cause, and this may appear when we consider the matter studied 
and the manner of studying it, or the matter taught and the man- 
ner of teaching it. Those of you who are just entering upon 
your course will, for the next four years, spend practically your 
whole working force in the acquisition of special knowledge, 
now, happily, mostly scientific, in the line of your professional 
work. In the class room and laboratory your instructors will 
make you acquainted with bare facts. They will teach you tech- 
nique and try to train your special senses. And this is substan- 
tially all they will do and probably all you will expect them to 
do. And so in all your work here you will detect any other odor 
sooner than the "odor of sanctity." Especially in the latter half 
of your course, you will have an opportunity of seeing the sick. 
It is not pretended that the main purpose of a clinical demonstra- 
tion is to benefit the patient, though incidentally, he gets the 
best possible service. The primary object is the demonstration, 
and this all parties to the procedure plainly understand. In 
short, the teacher is wholly absorbed in presenting his subject, 
and the student is no less intent in trying to comprehend it. And 
nojv, since medicine is extending further and further into the do- 
main of an exact science, since the course embraces so much of 
an absorbing interest; and since the time spent in preparation is 



Annual Address. 185 

SO long, it is not unreasonable to suppose that some minds might, 
inadvertantly become so habituated to scrutinizing the scientific 
aspects of disease as to appear to display a painful indifference 
to the sensibilities and sentiments of the patient and his friends. 
Indeed, I think nearly all of us might, from time to time, profit- 
ably indulge in some more or less careful introspection in this re- 
gard. It is so easy to glide unconsciously into a bad habit and 
so much easier to avoid its formation than to eradicate it when 
once established. 

The student may best guard against this habit by keeping in 
mind the proper relations of the physician to society; his obliga- 
tions, or what society may rightly demand of him, and his duty,. 
or how he should respond to these demands. And this he may 
do without in any way interfering with the successful pursuit of 
his scientific studies. 

His patient may, of course, justly demand a fair degree of 
.scientific proficiency, honesty, respectful attention to his interests- 
and inviolable secrecy as to his personal or family blemishes.. 
These are some of the most important and positive obligations, 
which the physician is, of course, always ready to meet. But 
society demands a great deal more than this. It has opinions, 
prejudices and sentiments of its own, and when sickness enters 
the family these often become relatively active and dominating. 
Shall the doctor oppose them, or retire in disgust v;hen they ar- 
ray themselves in flagrant contempt of his most trusted scien- 
tific demonstrations; or should he concede to them somewhat 
and cheerfully do what he can under the circumstances y To be 
sure there is always a point beyond which self-respect and dig- 
nity will not permit him to pass. But I believe the physician 
who has the clearest and most correct conception of his missioiL 
will experience a growth in charity and patience in this regard 
as the years pass. He will come to recognize more and more the 
force and tenacity of sentiment and how slowly it may be mould- 
ed in the masses by the exposition of scientific deductions, no^ 
matter how obvious these may be. 

Science at the bottom is not destructive to sentiment though 
superficially viewed, it may appear to be. And thus it often 
happens that people who are mainly actuated and controlled by 
sentiment and know practically nothing of science, display great 
bitterness when the discovery of some new fact' appears, to 



186 The Plexus. 

threaten'their peace of mind. This is only natural and should 
not irritate nor discourage the student of science. To say that 
sentiment has accomplished quite as much as, if not more than 
science in the development of our race, is in no way discreditable 
to the latter. Sentiment, like many other forces of nature, not 
infrequently become irresistable and sweeps everything before 
it. It is a supreme social power. It comprises mainly the in- 
tegrity and beauty of the home, the family and the nation. It is 
a holy thing. Let it be cherished. There are a thousand re- 
cesses in the human heart fragrant with emotions, pure, sweet 
and tender, whose sacred precincts the cold rod of science may 
never seek to scale. The tendency to turn to his fellow man for 
comfort and succor when overtaken by dire disease is, if not a 
primitive instinct, one of the earliest acquirements of civilized 
humanity. It is spontaneous, deep and universal. No amount 
of science nor sophistry can destroy it. The stricken physician 
listens as eagerly for the footsteps of his brother in attendance 
as his own were ever listened for. He forgets his pain and takes 
new courage and comfort from a well made visit. This and all 
kindred sentiments entertained by the patient and his family 
should be fairly estimated and respected; but they should not, of 
course, be cultivated so as to beget a condition of unwholesome 
dependence and weakened self-reliance. 

Skillful concession to and encouragement of these sentiments 
constitutes the whole stock in trade of the medical pretender, how- 
ever, and what with his polished and sympathetic manners and his 
elegant appointments, how often do we see him luxurating in the 
•emoluments of a lucrative practice and enjoying the confidence 
and adulation of a grateful clientele. This, certainly, is grossly 
reprehensible, but that a practice is liable to great abuse may be 
the strongest argument that could be advanced in support of its 
worthiness, and is so in this instance. Hence I repeat, the physi- 
<}ian should never fail to carefully consider the feelings of those 
who employ him. In short, the scientific value of his services 
should not be impaired by the ungracious manner of their be- 
•stowal. 

Finally, whatever eifect the study of medicine may have 
iipon the moral nature of the student, its practice is certainly 
conducive to the development of the nobler and gentler senti- 
ments. It is true that the physician has thrust before him more 



Annual Address. 187 

plainly than anyone else certain phases of insincerity, hypocricy 
and moral weakness, and his varied and peculiar perspective 
permits him to contemplate very vividly the ugly and seamy fea- 
tures of depravity and vice. But he is likewise allowed, above-^ 
all others, to see such grand attributes as love, friendship and 
unselfish devotion sweetly bloom above t*he withering breath of 
want, goverty and wretchedness. And if duly consecrated to his 
calling, the pure figures of Faith, Hope and Charity are sure to 
hover around his pathway and illumine and guide his footsteps. 

Perhaps it may be thought that these words had been more 
fitly spoken after you had finished your course of study and were 
about to embark in actual practice- I think, on the other hand, 
they may do much more good if clearly apprehended at the out- 
set, for not only are you forewarned from forming habits that 
might expose you to an imputation of insufficient respect for your 
patients, but by four years of cosmopolitan residence you will be 
afforded an exceptional opportunity of gaining an intimate ac- 
quaintanceship with the manner, customs g,nd controlling senti- 
ments of a wide variety of people . This opportunity, if properly 
utilized, may prove of great practical advantage to you, for, no 
matter what your scientific accomplishments, your success and 
satisfaction in practice will largely depend upon your being able 
to meet your patrons agreeably and on common ground. 

In conclusion I want to say that no part of my remarks have 
been prompted by the observation of disrespect on the part of 
students for patients in clinic or elsewhere. On the contrary, 
their^deportment has invariably been marked by the most com- 
mendable delicacy, and has always ciitilienged my warmest ad- 
miration, The dangers I have hinted at, I am glad to say, are 
neither dreadful, wide-spread, nor alarmingly imminent. But if 
what I have said shall have the effect of encouraging the student 
to maintain a proper equilibrium between the end he is striving 
for^and the means to the end, if I shall have helped him to pre- 
serve one pure and generous sentiment which otherwise might 
have perished, I shall be. well repaid. 



CLINICS FOR FRESHMEN. 

A Plea for the Natural Method in Medical Education. 
The function of a medical college is to aiake doctors — to pre- 
pare men for work in the prevention and cure of disease. In any 
rational medical pedagogy, therefore, the primary theme should 
he disease and i7} jury. The jMtient should first engage the stu- 
dent's attention. Then ideally, the study of anatomy, physiolo- 
gy, pathology, and medical chemistry should follow, for the elu- 
cidation of the primary subjects, rather than studied as inde- 
pendent sciences for themselves alone. The entire medical field 
should, at once, be uncovered, its boundaries located and an in- 
telligent exposition of the kinds and of the amount of work to be 
performed should be fully conveyed to the mind of the student, 
at the earliest possible moment. The subject should then, with 
order and system, be pursued as a whole. This we regard as 
most important, in order that knowledge gained in one branch 
may be co-ordinated with that gained in another, thus storing 
the memory with usable facts in practical form and systematic 
order, easy of recall when occasion demands. On the other 
hand, to begin on the edge of the field with a subject in which 
the interest of the student has not yet been awakened and the 
application of which, in the mind of the student, is remote and 
of the haziest kind, is but to burden the memory with a knowl- 
edge which is abstract, unusable and, therefore, quickly forgot- 
ten. If we can imagine reasonable retention in the memory of 
bare facts, acquired under such conditions, they will still require 
re study and re-combination with clinical facts yet to be gained, 
before they can be recalled in a form available for practical use. 
The student from the day of his matriculation, should be permit- 
ted never to be out of touch with the central idea involved in his 
future vocation. 

In the case of children and youths the susceptibility of their 
minds, their dependence upon others for direction and guidance, 
their blind curiosity, love of activity and absence of a fixed pur- 
pose, make possible a system of education for them which omits 
consideration, to a great extent, of any motion in the mind of the 
pupil of practical application of the knowledge being gained. 
Possibly, this system of education, even better than any other, 
may meet the needs of the younger students in colleges and uni- 



Clinics for Freshmen. 189 

versities who are pursuing a course of general culture. By the 
time, however, when men have attained the age of the average 
medical student and have elected a vocation, it no longer suffices. 
Henceforth, the methods of thought and manner of procedure of 
students who are to become successful workers, are those of the 
mature mind. Education, in the acquirement of vocation, is es- 
sentially of the quality and character of practical work. There- 
fore, the methods of professional schools should not differ essen- 
tially from the methods of the so-called manual training 
school. 

In the advance of medical education in the United States, 
during the last twenty years, all the great schools, up to a recent 
date, have pursued essentially the same methods. Of late, how- 
ever, a large number of schools have been invaded by university 
methods, and the places of teachers of the first two years have 
been taken by a corps of non -medical teachers, teachers with 
honorary medical degrees and non-practising graduates in medi- 
cine. "Pure science" is the cry. Each science is taught inde- 
pendently and for itself alone. The student, for the first two 
years, is not permitted to see the sick, nor is he intentionally 
brought into contact with anyone who does. He is separated 
from contact with disease almost as completely as are the stu- 
dents of theology and political economy. Professors, under 
these conditions, cannot long remain in touch with the science of 
medicine, while students are deprived of medical motive. Those 
who progress satisfactorily do it under other motives — the mo- 
tives of thp scientists by reason of enthusiasm awakened in in- 
dependent science found in the curriculum. Such take up the 
professor's problems and become assistants in the professor's re- 
search work, which for the present, lies outside the realm of 
usefulness in medicine. They become anatomists, physiologists, 
chemists or pathologists like their teachers — or nothing. At 
best they are lost to medicine. Others almost forget there may 
be a useful end to their studies and being of practical turn, find 
motive beyond the university campus, quit their classes and em- 
bark in business or embrace other vocations. They, also, are 
lost to medicine. It is not the fault of the system if some of the 
remaining majority are not without medical motive, but when 
found it is due to unusual inherent ability and great fixedness of 
purpose, in exceptional students. The practical net results are 



190 The Plexus. ^ 

best told in the confessions of Rush Medical College, one of the 
victims of this system: — 

"The fundamental principles of medicine, which are taught 
in the first two years, are in large part forgotten by students 
when they enter the upper classes, and in larger measure when 
they are preparing to be graduated. This renders the passing 
of examinations of the several State Boards a difficult undertak- 
ing, for in them a knowledge of the fundamental branches is 
required. * * * * , 

"The teachers of the upper classes find a lack of knowledge 
of the primary branches, especially when the preliminary course 
has been taken a year or more before. In surgery, for instance, 
the students may be relatively ignorant of anatomy, the basis of 
surgery." — Universitii {of Chicago) Record, July 26, 1901, pay/e 159. 

Here is a vaunted system of medical education, designed' 
especially for the instruction of students in the fundamental 
brandies during the first two years to the exclusion of every- 
thing else. -If now, as stated by the Record, students, at the end 
of the second year are relatively ignorant of the fundamental 
branches, under this system, has it not proved a failure? Could 
anything more conclusively demonstrate the faults of such a 
pedagogy? The saddest part of the story is the fact that the 
first two years having been largely wasted, only two years 
remain in which to acquire a working knowledge of med- 
icine and surgery, and this in "relative ignorance" of the 
fundamental branches; and that, notwithstanding the fact that a 
suitable study-motive has at last been supplied, there is now 
neither time nor opportunity to take up again the basic sciences;' 
As a consequence, practical medicine, as taught by the clinics, is 
not easily understood, and it is possible that some of the difficul-' 
ties experienced in passing the State Examining Boards may lie 
in this fact. 

It is an admitted fact that an American medical student 
learns as much in one year as is learned by a student in the con- 
tinental schools in two years. The reason, doubtless, is because 
the continental schools employ the system of pedagogy described 
above, and now being adopted and imitated by some of the fore- 
most American schools. The continental schools have endeav- 
ored to mend the deplorable defects of scholarship of the first 
years, by extending the course to five and six years. But the 
American schools, judged by standards of practical scholarship, 
are they not descending toward the level of the old time two- 



Clinics for Freshmen. 191 

year schools? Will they not soon have to add one or two years 
to the present long course, in order to make up for wasted time? 

The College of Medicine of the University of Illinois is for- 
tunate in the liberality of the Board of Trustees of the Univer- 
sity in having made the faculty of the College of Medicine a co- 
operative power in determining its educational policy. To this 
fact, more than to any other, is due its rapid advancement in 
standards of practical work, the spirit by which it has made its. 
great material progress in buildings and equipment, and the 
marvelous growth of its classes. The members of ics faculty 
have always been close to the members of its classes. There has 
been almost a fraternal relationship between them — a nearness 
of association seen in but few schools. Its government has never 
been beyond the reach of petition. These facts have not been 
without their influence in the development of its educational pol- 
icy, a policy not only of high standards, but economical, natural,; 
practical and sane. 

We have now come to a divergence of the ways. The Col- 
lege of Medicine of the University of Illinois will continue on in 
practical lines. With the opening of the new term, freshmen 
and sophomores will be admitted to clinics — each class to its own 
exclusive clinics, which will be of a character suitable to their 
understandings and designed as motives through which may be 
acquired a knowledge of the fundamental branches, thorough,, 
practical and remembered. 

These clinics will be given by the clinical professors of the- 
junior and senior years. They are designated as "elementary'" 
and the cases presented will be simple, though not necessarily 
or commonly trivial. There is no reason why serious cases 
should not be presented, provided only that they are simple and 
comprehensible. For example, there is no time more opportune 
for clinical presentation of fractures and dislocations than the 
time when students are engaged m the study of descriptive anat- 
omy, thus supplying a motive for accurate, thoughtful applica- 
tion and for practical dissections in the laboratory. The princi- 
ple is true, as it affects every fundamental branch. Would you 
fix' in the mind of the student, never to be forgotten, the locali- 
zation of function of the brain, then, while he is still engaged 
with anatomy and physiology, and has the time, opportunity and 
advantage of personal supervision therein, show him cases of 



192 Ihe Plexits. 

limited brain destruction with the results. Would you arouse 
the interest of a student of physiology in the subject of animal 
heat, to pursue it to a full understanding, show him first cases of 
lever. Would you make of him a pathologist, present to him 
first the grosser aspects of disease a^nd afterwards send him into 
the laboratory to pursue the subject. 

The College of Medicine does not seek to lower the standards 
of scholarship in the fundamental branches but to elevate them. 
The objects of these elementary clinics is not, in haste, to make 
doctors, but is primarily to make students. The purpose, as it 
affects the first two years, is to insure the making of better 
chemists, better anatomists, better physiologists and better pa- 
thologists — if it is not taxing the imagination too severely to 
contemplate the making of pathologists of any character under 
a system which concludes pathology before contemplating mala- 
dies. Could anything be worse than the present order? To be 
concrete, could anything be more absurd than the beginning of 
the study of pneumonia under the microscope — unless, indeed, it 
be the study and completion of general therapeutics before a 
single case of disease or injury has been seen by the student or 
a single symptom disclosed for his consideration. The natural 
order of beginning the study of any subject would be to contem- 
plate first that which nature has permitted us to see with the 
naked eye and later use the microscope to scrutinize that which 
lies beyond the limits of unaided vision. It is, also, in natural 
order to consider the nature of disease in advance of considera- 
tion of means for its cure. Even with elementary clinics, thera- 
peutics should be placed in the fourth year rather than in the 
second. To sum up the whole matter: Let us have order and 
natural sequence; let us have economy of time and let us supply 
the student with a motive which will give him independence of 
thought, virility and success. Oscar A. King, M. D. — Bulletin of 
the College of Medicine of the University of Illinois. 



THE SEMINAR METHOD IN MEDICAL TEACHING. 

The present is a time of great change in methods as well as 
in the principles of pedagogy in our medical schools. The ex- 
tent of medical science is so great that no individual can expect 
to be master of the whole field. The duration of the course pre- 
paratory to the practice of medicine is now long enough, and the 
preliminary education is now thorough enough to allow the best 
methods of study to be used. For a certain part of the medical 
curriculum there is no plan of teaching which promises so much 
as the seminar 

In previous publications* I have called attention to my own 
efforts in this direction. It is my purpose here to make another 
plea for the more general adoption of the seminar, in teaching 
almost any topic of interest to the student. 

In order that we may understand each other, let me say that 
the seminar is a method in which each member of the class does 
independent laboratory, clinical or library work on a subtopic 
of general interest to the class as a whole, this subtopic chosen 
by the student or assigned by the teacher. The seminar is a 
meeting of the students and the teacher to hear, question, criti- 
cise and discuss the work of individuals. When the seminar 
meets for the first time the teacher presents the general subject 
in the form of a lecture, in the course of which the whole topic 
is outlined and interesting questions are put forward. From 
these questions and the outline, and from a knowledge of the in- 
dividual members of the class, the assignments of subtopics are 
made. A student takes his assignment and studies up the ques- 
tion, and at the next or some subsequent meeting of the seminar, 
he presents to the class in such a manner as the case requires, 
the results of his study. This time it may be analysis and black- 
board talk, the next time a carefully-written abstract, then again 
a microscopic demonstration and written paper, or later and 
more complete than any of these, a finished thesis. During the 
presentation the student who has the floor is in the position of 
the teacher. The teacher for the moment becomes one of the 



*Holmes, Bayard: '"The Seminary Method in Teaching Surgery." THE 
Journal A. M. A., Aug. 8. 1896, et mj. 



194 Ihe Plexus. 

students. At any moment during the presentation questions 
may be asked or explanation required. At the end criticisms 
are to be expected. Such exercises, Wke laboratory investiga- 
tion, are time consuming. The student-should have not less than 
one-half his daily study time for a seminar of two hours a week. 
The seminar class should not exceed 20 students, selected by 
their interest in a topic or in the teacher. The management of 
larger classes is limited to unusual teachers and special topics 
and methods of procedure. In a very limited field I have used 
the seminar with a class of 150 students. 

The seminar presupposes an elective course. In no other 
way can the student have time for the exhaustive study of a lim- 
ited number of subjects. The student will, however be bound 
to learn in the course of this study, most of the general informa- 
tion which lectures and text-book study is intended to teach. 
The seminar requires an open library of current and standard 
medical literature and an ability on the part of the student to 
make economical use of it. The library must be open during all 
reasonable study hours, e. g.. from 8 a. m. to 10 p. m., and it' 
must be thoroughly catalogued even down to the monographs 
and important articles in the serials. It will often, in the course 
of a study, be necessary to get material from the Surgeon Gen- 
eral's Library and even to make purchases, and provision should 
be made for these contingencies so that there will be no paralyz- 
ing delay. The laboratories, museums, collections, clinics and 
other equipment of the college must be recidy and at the unob- 
structed, even helpful, disposal of the student. If the student 
has for his topic the appearance of fat necrosis in gallstone dis- 
ease, he may require not only the literature from the library, 
specimens from the museum and laboratory, but he may need to 
undertake considerable correspondence with pathologists and 
surgeons, and even wait for autopsies or operation specimens. 

The seminar is certainly a poor method at the beginning for 
the bottle-fed incompetents of our compulsory, graded medical 
course, but many of them even grow and thrive under the exer- 
cise and liberty of the seminar and in moments of forgetfulness 
manifest the ardor of enthusiasm. But there are always some 
in every class who bear with difficulty the straight jacket of a re- 
quired course and the lockstep of class instruction, and these 
erratic men are the delight of the seminar. They plunge with 



The Seminar Method. 195 

fervor into tbeir subject and devour the literature. They seek 
on the cadaver or at the operation table the positive anatomical 
knowledge which their topic requires. They leave no stone un- 
turned which promises the least elucidation of the subject, and 
they present the results of their study to the class in a convinc- 
ing argument and with a persuasive enthusiasm. 

There are, of course, certain conditions which the student 
must meet. He must have a motive for study based for the most 
part upon a considerable amount of bedside experience. Unless 
the student is actually in the position of the physician with the 
immediate obligation to cure the patient safely, quickly and 
pleasantly, he does not possess the strongest, truest and surest 
motive for study. When this motive is lacking it can often be 
supplied by giving the student the necessary patient, or by tak- 
ing such a topic as the student has already met in his practice. 
When all other means fail, the student's own ailments or defor-. 
mities may secure the necessary interest. 

The student must also have such a preliminary literary; 
training as will make his routine work perfect in form and avail- 
ability. It is necessary sometimes to secure at the beginning a 
chirography suitable to such accurate and manageable work as 
this form of study demands. Every page must be written as 
perfectly as if for the printer. The slipshod penmanship which 
the ordinary note-taking in our medical schools begets, entirely 
precludes the idea of good work. The student must, from the 
first, do all his work neatly, in an orderly manner and complete- 
ly, so that it may never require revision or correction. It is only 
by writing a library hand or something approaching it that good 
literary work of such a technical character as medicine requires 
can be satisfactorily done. 

The student must know how to use the library. Only a rare 
librarian can put students in the way of using the library inde- 
pendently. The shelves as well the catalogue should be acces- 
sible to stT:.dents. The stacks should be in alcoves, with tables 
and writing material handy so that the student, after his ability 
to find them and replace them has been established, can easily 
consult many books without troubling the librarian. The same 
may be said of the laboratory and museum. In order that the 
student may master his subject completely he must be able, if 
the subject requires it, to study the anatomy of the part con- 



196 The Plexus. 

cerned in a thoroughly equipped anatomic laboratory, in the 
pathologic laboratory and in the autopsy room. In fact the 
seminar method of study presupposes for its fullest utilization a 
complete co-ordination and co-operation of all the resources of 
the medical school. Through its best and freest use the student 
becomes an investigator of the topic in his hand, of the litera- 
ture of the various aspects of his subject, and incidentally of the 
history of medicine itself. The student is put or puts himself in 
the position which he will occupy after he leaves the school when 
he attempts to study any medical topic suggested by the require- 
ments of his practice. 

Last of all. through the seminar, the medical teacher may 
secure for the profession the careful literary and experimental 
study of a large and growing number of subjects which he can 
never have time to follow out by himself, and he may be instru- 
inental in bringing these subjects before the profession through 
his students" theses. A considerable number of the most valu- 
able contribution to medical literature comes to us now through 
the theses of applicants for the doctor's degree in foreign uni- 
versities. The American students are not less talented or dili- 
gent. Our teachers are not less devoted. The continuous 
course which many medical schools are adopting promises that 
the end of the course shall be punctuated by the discarded thesis. 
To make the thesis possible or valuable a considerable portion of 
the curriculum must be conducted on the seminar plan, whether 
it is called by that name or not. Bayard Holmes, M. D. — Bulletin 
of the College of Medicine of the University oj Illinois. 



SEVENTY-THIRD MEDICAL CONGRESS, HAMBURG 

SEPTEMBER 22-28, 1901. 

By George Dohrmann, M. D. 

Hamburg, who has not heard of the enterprising spirit of its 
merchants, and the hospitality of its citizens. Unlike most har- 
bor towns, it possesses many fine streets and squares, its beauty 
being also greatly enhanced by the Outer and Inner Alster, two 
lakes formed by the expansion of a tributary of the Elbe. These 
twin streets of water, joined by the handsome Lombard's Bridge, 
and animated by numerous boats and troops of elegant swans, 
present a strikingly beautiful aspect. It is consequently not sur- 
prising that around them have been built some of the handsomest 
villa-lined roads of Hamburg, such as "An der Alster," " Alster- 
damm'" and "Jungfernstieg,"' the last, widened by embankment, 
being one of the finest promenades in Europe. 

True to its old traditions, it has made elaborate preparations 
to welcome the disciples of ^Esculapius within its walls. The 
festivities began Sunday afternoon with a so called " Blumen- 
corso'' on the Alster, for which purpose the Uhlenhorst boat- 
house was reserved for the members and their ladies. From the 
picturesquely situated place a beautiful view could be had of the 
magnificently bedecked river, wiih flower decorated boats as 
they slowly passed by — one by one; some flying sails made en- 
tirely out of carnations and roses, others representing the Han- 
seatic arms and still others having assumed the form of floating 
castles. After sundown, thousands of sky rockets went up, 
illuminating the dark but tranquil horizon. 

The large "Concerthaus Ludwig,"' having a seating capacity 
of over 5,000, did not prove any too spacious for the guests it 
was to accommodate, for almost every seat was taken long ere 
lU o'clock Monday morning, when Burgomaster Dr. Hachmann, 
with a number of senators of the city of Hamburg, the presiding 
officers of the association, and many men bearing illustrious 
names in medical literature, such as Virchow, Bergmann,Koenig, 
Curschmann, Quinke, Schede, Mikulicz, Tuckerhandl and others 
too numerous to mention filed in and took seats upon the stage. 
Dr. Voller and Burgomaster Dr. Hachmann delivered welcome 



198 The Plexus. 

and Dr. Hertwig of Munich, the president of the association, the 
opening address. Prof. Lecher of Prague entered into the first 
dissertation, subject: " Ueber die Hertz'sche Entdeckung 
elektrischer Wellen und deren weitere Ausgestaltung.'' Of other 
noteworthy addresses I will only mention Boveri of Wuerzburg 
"Das Problem der Refruchtung;"\ Ehrlich of Frankfort, "Die 
Schutzstoffe des Blutes"; Curschmann Leipzig, "Medizin und 
Seeverkehr"': Nernst Gottingen, "Ueber die Bedentung 
elektrischer Methoden und Theorien fiir die Chemic,"' 

Through the kindness of Drs. Lenhartz and Ktimmell we had 
ooccasion to inspect the newly furnished Eppendorfer Kranken- 
haus, able to accommodate about 2,000 patients. This with all 
modern hygienic innovations equipped hospital is built upon the 
pavilliou system. Each of these pavillions, of which there are 
about sixty-five, is surrounded with trees and flowers, so that 
one is impressed with the idea of being in a large park rather 
than in a hospital. The operating rooms are in a building con- 
structed specially for that purpose, lying separate and apart 
from all others, to which patients are conveyed by means of cars. 
Of sx^ecial interest is the bath house, in which there are about 
sixteen water beds, a department for hot air and steam baths, 
and above all a large swimming basin, the contents of which is 
renewed every morning. It may be remarked here that the in- 
ternes are especially fond of taking a dive so as to work up a 
good appetite for breakfast. As in every well regulated hospital 
there is a chemical, pathological and bacteriological laboratory. 
Last, but not least, two X-ray laboratories, in charge of trained 
nurses. Space does not permit of entering upon any detailed de- 
scription of this so beautifully located, modern hospital, a lasting 
tribute to the Hamburg Senate, and Dr. Curschmann, the princi- 
pal originator of the pavillion system. 

The social side of the affair was by no means neglected. The 
Hamburg- American Line had invited about a thousand guests to 
partake of a superb supper, served on board of three of its great 
ocean grey hounds which happened to be in the harbor, Palatia, 
Prinzessin Victoria Louise, and Auguste Victoria. It must be 
said that they accomplished their task very creditably indeed. 
However, just before leaving, in spite of the fact that only a mild 
southwest wind was blowing, quite a numberihad become seasick 
as it would have to be termed under these circumstances. The 



Medical Congress. 199 

Germans ordinarily term this condition " Katzenjammer" The 
cause of this irresistable desire to feed the monsters of the deep, 
remains of course a mystery and subject to conjecture. The 
probability, however is this: The cook among other delicacies ~ 
had prepared fish, — fish want to swim and not being supplied 
with the necessary HoO, decided to leave their ungrateful host. 
Another party of guests was invited by Burgomaster Dr. 
Hachmann and Senators of the city of Hamburg to a reception 
in the " Ratha,us "' (town hall). This imposing Renaissance 
structure completed in 1895, has three facades of sandstone, and 
a tower in the middle, some 370 feet high, affording a superb 
view of the city and its environs. The exterior is sumptuously 
adorned, the facade being ornamented with statues of twenty 
emperors, while above the windows are numerous representa- 
tions of Hamburg characters, and a series of Hanseatic arms. In 
the interior there are some magnificent suites of rooms; the 
Ph5nix Saal in commemoration of the great tire of Hamburg 
contains a symbolic painting by Pitger, and an enormous picture 
of the Ralhaus Room of 1860. The Kaiser Saal possesses a 
beautiful vaulted ceiling in Renaissance style, and marble busts 
of the Emperor William I, Bismarck and mother. The Haupt 
Saal (main hall) forty-one metres in length and eighteen metres 
in breadth, has a massive oak ceiling, supported on columns of 
black marble — the walls being of yellow marble. The vaults be- 
neath the main building form, as is usual in Germany, the Rats- 
keller. At the evening of the reception, all of the streets in 
front of the Rathaus were barred to traffic by mounted police. 
At 7:30 the senators and first guests began to arrive and from 
this time on a wealth of beautiful horses and carriages drove up 
and its imposing occupants alighted at the main entrance. Army 
officers in dazzing uniforms, ladies in splendid cosHimes and men 
dressed in faultless elegance, after first being introduced to " Sr 
Magnificenz " Dr. Hachmann and the senators, stood chatting 
pleasantly together until the doors to the Haupt Saal were thrown 
open at 8:30 o'clock. A military band played the " Panf aren- 
marsch " as the thousand numbering multitude slowly passed in. 
Throughout the whole length of the hall there was a large table, 
behind which stood the " Rathausdiener "' in low shoes, white 
stockings, knee-breeches, red vests and silver-braided coats. 
These, according to custom handed each of the guests a glass of 



200 The Plexus. 

iced champagn. Senator Monkeberg addressed the members of 
the Association and their ladies in belialf of senate and citizens 
of Hamburg, while President Hertwig of Munich replied. Soon 
everybody was busy looking after the inner man in the beauti- 
fully decorated dining rooms. The tables were almost breaking 
down under the weight of the very best that the cellar and the lar- 
der contained, and the "Rathausdiener"never allowed us to see the 
bottom of our champagn glasses. The evening passed only too 
quickly for all of the participants, but will remain a lasting 
memory to all of the members of the 73rd Medical Congress, who 
were fortunate enough to secure invitations to this in every way 
splendid affair. Hamburg, true to its history, anew, established 
its old reputation of the hospitality of its citizens. 

The world famous Ohlsdorfer cemetery is in close proximity 
to the city. It is said to be not only the finest in Europe, but 
throughout the whole world, and is visited by thousands of tour- 
ists every year. Whoever had an opportunity availed himself of 
♦ seeing the magnificent monuments, tombs and vaults, many of 
which have cost nearly a million marks. 

In his closing address Prof. Hertwig mentioned that Karls- 
bad had been decided upon for next year. Many who could 
leave their practice only a few days, immediately departed for 
home, satisfied that they had spent a most pleasant time in the 
old Hansa town, socially as well as in the pursuance of knowl- 
edge, while a goodly number of their more fortunate brethren 
with their ladies, went on an extended excursion to the North 
Sea bathing resorts, accompanied by our besi wishes. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 
CHlCAGu. 

Plextts Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS. M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY, M- D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D., 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BE RARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, '02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03 

Class Editors: 

F H. HORNlROOK, 02, B. S. MALOY, 03 F. L WOOD, '04. 



Faculty Department, DR. F. B. EARLE. Clinical Laboratory Dept-, DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Edito*, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 

Advertising Solicitors, C WALLACE POORMAN, 03. H [H. FRUDENFELD. '02. 
Publisher, ... - - - H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies. 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, Cor. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Cliicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 



Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed t,hai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributionsof matter suitable for publicatin ni-'^ inviic'l. ai'l -.I'-i'd '^p sent iu i-t 
later than the 25th of the mfmth previous to thai, ni yao.ioa,l.j.L. lh^- j^,^...,a.-i-j. ivIUiidL iiu.U 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS unless suflScieut stamps are forwarded 

The college not only continues to improve as to buildings 
and equipment, but it has taken a very important advance in is- 
suing an official bulletin. This bulletin is to be issued quarterly 
and we, with pleasure, publish in this issue of the Plexus two 
articles which appeared in the September number. 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

The object in opening this department to the students is two 
fold. In the first place it offers to the student an opportunity to 



202 The Fh'xus. 

get sufficient exercise to maintain a healthy body, thereby coun- 
teracting the evil effects of prolonged sitting and the close seden- 
tary life necessary in a professional school. 

Secondly it offers an opportunity for the students to acquire 
a knowledge of the subject of physical training, gymnastics, etc., 
which will be of value to him in directing his patients along those 
lines. 

It is frequent that the physician of today is called upon to 
direct the hygienic and physical training of school children, and 
it will be greatly to his advantage to have a knowledge of the 
various drills and exercises which may be useful. 

The work for the fall term will consist of slight and heavy 
gymnastics. 

Under light gymnastics there will be given various calis- 
thenic drills. Methods of breathing, sometimes called pulmonary 
gymnastics. Exercises to develop the circulatory and respira- 
tory apparatus. Club swinging; dumb bell drills, etc. Exercises 
to correct physical deformities; in this work students will be 
given individual instruction. If material can be had, one hour a 
week will be devoted to clinical instruction in this line of work. 
To those who desire it a prescription of work will be given suit- 
able to their individual needs. 

Under heavy gymnastics instruction will be given on the 
various pieces of apparatus, such as horizontal bars, parallel 
bars, climbing apparatus,, vaulting horse, vaulting buck, ladders, 
etc. Wrestling and sparring. H. H. E. 

FOOT BALL. 

For several years past our college has boasted of one of the 
strong teams of the West, and the teams have always played a 
game equal to that of any of the western universities, and taking 
into consideration the disadvantages of training, coaching and 
facilities for practicing it is not too much to say that our teams 
have been the equal of any in the west — such has been our past 
history. The future of foot ball in P. & S. looks dark to say the 
least. The material from which to develop a strong team is im- 
proving each year, and it is safe to say that there is at least fifty 
men who have had good preliminary training — men who have 
the physique and are anxious to play. What then is the reason 
our team has failed to come up to the standard which has been 



Editorial. 2XI3' 

attained and which we should maintain or cease to play foot balL 

The explanation is easy— lack of time. The financial sup- 
port has been good, but there is simply not the time to devote to 
the development of a good team. The curriculum which is al- 
ways crowded in a professional school requires more time and 
study than ever before, and with advanced methods of teaching 
and increased clinical facilities the students can not and will not 
allow practice to interfere with school duties. It is a question 
as to whether the institution and students are more benefitted by 
these methods than those in vogue heretofore and must be set- 
tled by the faculty. In the universities throughout the country 
the question has been decided in favor of foot ball, and much 
time and money is spent under faculty direction in the maintain- 
ance of athletic sports. 

The faculty of the college of P. & S. has decided to abolish 
foot ball, and for the past two years it has been maintained by a 
few individuals who are usually termed cranks — or to be more 
explicit are known as "foot ball cranks, "" In justice to some 
members of the faculty it must be said that the parphernalia for 
this year's team was furnished by a faculty subscription. The 
team this year has had more points scored against it in one game 
than in all the previous years combined. Even the University of 
Illinois was able to roll up a score of 23 points — a defeat which 
every loyal P. & S. man is heartily ashamed of, and if we are to 
have in the future such teams it is far better to abide by the rul- 
ings of the faculty and drop foot ball. On the other hand — with 
the material from which to develop a team of which we might 
all be proud, nothing remains bnt to arrange the fall schedule so 
that on three days of the week two hours of the afternoon could 
be devoted to athletics. 

If we can have a good team well and good, if not let us give 
foot ball a decent burial and not struggle through a few years of 
rapid decline and then stop simply because we are too weak to- 
meet our rivals. 

Are we to join the class of "hasbeens"? H. H. E. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 
Metta M. .Loomis, Librarian. 

The following articles written by members of the faculty of 
P. (t S. have appeared during the past month: 

Dr. W. S. Christopher. The Aim of Medical Education and 
its Relation to Research Work by Medical Students. Journal of 
the American Medical Association, Sept. 21, pages 741-742. 

Dr. Bayard Holmes. The Seminar Method in Medical 
Teaching. Journal of the American Medical Association, Sept. 
21, pages 741-742. 

Dr. Geo. F. Suker. On ihe employment of agar-agar in the 
iormation of a stump after enucleation or evisceration. The 
Ophthalmic Record, September, pages 466-469. 

Dr. Wm. A. Pusej. Roentgen Rays in the Treatment of 
Diseases of the Skin. A Review of Recent Literature and a Per- 
sonal Experience. A paper read before the American Dermato- 
logical Association, May 31, 1900. Journal of American Medical 
Association, Sept. 28, pages 820-825. 

Dr. C. A. Wood in collaboration with Dr. T. A. Woodruff. 
The Common Diseases of the Eye; how to Detect and how to 
Treat them. Medical Standard, October, pages 531-539. 

Dr. L. H. Mettler. The Proper Method of Teaching the 
Anatomy of the Nervous System. Medical Record, October 5, 
pages 523-526. 

Dr. F. G. Connell. A Knot within the Lumen in Intestinal 
■Surgery with Report of 19 Cases. .Journal American Medical 
Association, Oct. 12, jjage 952. 

Dr. R. H. Babcock. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary 
Tuberculosis. Chicago Recorder, October, pages 245-51. 

Our honored Dean has again shown his interest in the stu- 
dents of P. & S. by presenting to each one a beautiful little 
booklet containing his famous speech 'The Doctor's Wife." The 
speech has been widely and favorably commented on and is con- 
sidered one of the finest and most beautiful tributes ever paid 
to woman. 

Quine Library has been the grateful recipient of the follow- 
ing gifts which have been presented during the past month: 



Library Notes. 205 

A donation of particular importance is that of five of the 
early volumos of the American Journal of Medical Sciences, sent 
by the New Jersey State Medical Society Library. The five 
volumes are very difficult to obtain and are especially appreci- 
ated as they complete the file of the journal. 

Dr. Pusey has given the library a second copy of Mracek, 
Diseases of the Skin. 

Dr. Evans sent the library a copy of the souvenir book of 
the testimonial banquet in honor of Professor Christian Fenger. 

Dr. W. Simon of Baltimore, a copy of the latest edition of 
Simon's Chemistry. 

The annual report and maps prepared by the New York: 
State Board of Health. 

Dr. Quine has given the library a number of reprints, and 
many of the editors of medical magazines have sent us numbers 
to complete the volumes which had a number or two lost in the 
fire. 

Mr. G. L. Miller, "02, presented the library with a copy of 
the 1902 Illio. 

Dr. P. Becker, professor of Materia Medica at the State Uni: 
versity of Iowa, has sent the library a complete set of the Iowa 
State Board of Health reports. 

The following description of the location and classification- 
of the books, journals, etc., to be found in the Quine library is 
written in hopes that it may be of benefit to the student who is 
not already familiar with the general arrangement of the library. 
The librarian is glad to assist the student in finding the material 
which he desires but when the library is used by hundreds of 
students it is impossible to attend to each one as soon as he en- 
ters the library. One loses much valuable time unless he under- 
stand the library sufficiently to find the material which he wishes. 

Every book and pamphlet is classified and arranged on the 
shelves in simple numerical order, and as each subject has a de- 
finite number, it follows that all books on any subject must standi 
together. The library is classified by the Dewey system which 
put medical books in the six hundreds, the general divisions be- 
ing 610 general works, cyclopaedias, etc.; 611 anatomy; 612 
physiology; 613 hygiene; 614 public health; 615 materia medica 
and therapeutics; 616 pathology and disease; 617 surgery; 618 
obstetrics; 619 veterinary surgery. Each of these heads is di- 



206 The Plexus. 

vided decimally into the minor heads, as 611-1 anatomy of circu- 
latory system; 611-2 anatomy of respitory system; 611 3 anatomy 
of digestive system; 611--4 anatomy of glandular and symphatic 
system, etc. The decimals being used indefinitely to designate 
any desired degree of minuteness. 

Each book and pamphlet is catalogued by author and by sub- 
ject, for example Gray's Anatomy may be found in the catalogue 
by looking for Gray or Anatomy, the cards in the catalogue be- 
ing arranged alphabetically like the words in a dictionary. When 
the student finds what he wishes in the catalogue he is referred 
to the location of the book on the shelves by the number in the 
upper left hand corner of the card. " The yellow cards are used 
for cataloguing important articles in the medical magazines. If 
the student finds nothing in the catalogue on the desired subject 
he should consult the indices for the periodical literature. The 
most important indices are the Index catalogue of the Surgeon- 
OeneraFs offices, the Index Medicus, and Medical Review of 
Reviews. 

The library of the late Dr, A. E. Hoadley, who for many 
years held the position of professor of Orthopaedic Surgery in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, has been presented to 
Quine library. The collection comprises about 350 books, all of 
them valuable works and in most excellent condition. Among 
the books are several complete sets of the standard reference 
works, the most extensive of which are complete sets of Wood's 
Medical Libray; Reference Hand-Book of Medical Sciences, 10 
vols.; International Encyclopasdia of Surgery, 7 vols.; Sajou's 
Annual, 35 vols. This generous donation of books will be a val- 
ued addition to the Quine Library, which is now in ample and 
commodious quarters where the books can be arranged in a way 
to make them of the greatest value and where they will be safe 
and well cared for. 



ALUMNI OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS— COLLEGE OF PHYSI- 
CIANS AND SURGEONS OF CHICAGO. 

It in the purpose of the Plexus to publish the addresses of the entire alumni 
in the Plexus in the next few issues and if there are any mistakes or if 
any of our readers know of the addresses not given, we should be pleased 
to have them notify us or Dr. H. W. Berard, Alumni Sec'y, of such 
changes. 

CLASS OF 1890. 

Abbey, C. D., M. D., 6913 Stewart Ave., Chicago. 
Bagnall, George D., M. D., Millbrook, Pa. 
Ballard, W. H., M. D., 4154^ S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Bellack, B. F., M. D., Columbus, Wis. 
Bennett, O. P., M. D., Mazon, 111. 
Bowen, Fred J., M. D., Mt Morris, N. Y. 
Brick, Paul L., M. D., Le Mars, la. 
Cole, T. E., M. D , 1082 W. 12th St., Chicago. 
Corbett, Mathew, M. D., Le Mars, la. 
Dahl, Svenning, M. D., 822 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 
Darling, U. Grant, M. D., 70 State St., Chicago. 
Dodd, Oscar, M. D., 103 State St., Chicago, 
Doepp, Edward A., M. D., Blue Island, 111. 
Einarson, Benedict, M. D., 640 W. 63rd St., Chicago. 
Ellis, James P., M. D., Augusta, 111. 
Gilbert, John D., M. D., Fond du Lac, Wis. 
Gillette, Geo. M., 4117 Wentworbh Ave., Chicago. 
Henkel. F. W. E., M. D. 244 Ashland Ave., Chicago. 
Heylman; Charles J., M. D., 289 Webster Ave., Chicago. 
Hipke, Gustav A., M. D. 
Hooper, William F., M. D,, Magazine, Ark. 
Hopkins, A. G., Muscatine, la. 
Houston, R. R. 

Howard, James J., M. D., Columbus, Wis. 

Huennekens, Joseph H., M. D. ; 409 Grove St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Jackson. V. R., M. D., 3017 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 
Jenny, F. L. B., 60 Bitter Sweet Place, Chicago. 
King, L. R., M. D., Junction City, Kan. 
Klemme, J. J., M. D , Strawn, 111. 



208 The Plexus. 

Karreman A. Rigenald, 534 W. 63 St., Chicago. 

Leiter, William S., M. D., Clay pool, Ind. 

Lentes, Nicholas E., M. D. 

Long, Charles W., M. D., 340 Clarkson St., Denver Colo. 

McFarlane, W. A., M. D., 962 W. Taylor St., Chicago. 

Mark, J. C, M. D., Clarion, la. 

McKlveen, H. B., M. D. 

McGuire, John, M. D., Kings Park, N. Y. 

McWilliams, C, M. D., Lowden, la. 

Mai, Herman, M, D., 2083 North Ave., Chicago. 

Manny, J. H., M. D. 

Meyerowitz, M., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Mills, E. M., M. D. 

Morse, A. J,, M. D., Dotyville, Wis. 

Muffat, M., M. D., Palatine, 111. 

Nieukirk, J. W.. M, D., Mountain Home, Idaho. 

Porter, M.C., M. D., Clay Center, Kan. 

Prohaska, O. P., M. D., 1199 Broadway, Cleveland, O. 

Purdy, A. H., M. D., 315 Grand Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Roach, T. E., M, D. 

Shellito, E., M. D., Marcellus, Mich. 

Sherr}^ H., M. D., Pasadena, Cal. 

Sterrett, R. M., M. D., La Salle, 111. 

Tictin, A. J., M. D., Maynard, Minn. 

Tallman, W. L., Saratoga Hotel, Chicago. 

Tower, F. J., M. D., 106 Mason St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Valby, J. P., M. D., Viborg, S. Dak. 

Wahl, E. W., M. D., Tampico, HI. 

White, A. G., M. D., 2211 Cedar St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Whitehead, R. M., M. D. 

Whitman, C. H., M. D., 43H S, Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

CLASS OF 1891. 

*Baer, J. F. 

Barber, Martin C, M. D., Shullsburg, Wis. 

Behrendt, A. J., M. D., 93 Fowler Ave., Chicago. 

Brengle, D. D,, Jr., M. D., Winchester, 111. 

Brown, Charles F., M. D., Harrison and Ogden Ave., Chicago, 

Brown, R. H., M. D.. 1217 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Bushby, Alonzo L., M. D., Primghar, la. 

Clausen, James J,, M. D., 501 Rialto Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 



Alumnt. 209 

Coonley, Dwight, 233 Cass St., Detroit, Mich. 

Colegrove, Andrew, M. D., Taylorville, 111. 

Craig, Silvius S., M. D., East Troy, Wis. 

Earle, Edward G., M. D., 91 Lincoln Ave., Chicago. 

Fowler, George W., M. D., Marengo, 111. 

Fraser, Jefferson E., M. D., Garner, la. 

Gafney, Thomas H., M. D., 447 S. State St., Chicago. 

Genung, Frank C, M. D., Wausa, Neb. 

Grimme, Ludwig A., M. D., 156 E. Belmont Ave., Chicago. 

Harris, J. L., M. D., Webster, S. Dak. 

Hessell, Adam A., M. D., Put in Bay, O. 

Hipke, William, M. D , Hustisford, Wis. 

Howell, James S., 17 Van Buren St., Chicago, 111. 

James, Robert L., M. D., Blue Island, 111. 

Remington, M. L., M. D., 262 N. Clark St., Chicago. 

King, George E., M. D., Mattawan, Mich. ' 

Lawther, F. H., M. D., 1.519 E, Grand Ave., Des Moines, la. 

Leedle, G. T., M. D., 126 35th St., Chicago. 

Maxey, E. E . M. D., Caldwell, Idaho. 

Medill, W. W., M. D., 809 Nineteenth St., Denver, Colo. 

0'Bri3n, William T., M. D., 722 E. 2nd St. Ashland, Wis. 

Phillips, F. A., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 

Poposky, Joseph, M. D., 325 W. Bridge St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Ricker, S. J., M. D., 127 La Salle St., Aurora, 111. 

von Schallern, Ottmar, M. D., Ripon, Wis. 

Schlawig, J. J., Jr., M. D., 5151 Fourth St., Sioux City, la. 

Sempill, R. A., M. D., 418 S. California Ave., Chicago. 

Sullivan, James, M. D., 1083 56th St., Chicago. 

*Tanquary, Walter M. 

Thorn, F. A., M. D., Benke Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Train, J. A., M. D., 683 Noble St., Chicago. 

Walker, G. B., M. D. 

Wallace, H. R., M. D., 163 48d St., Chicago. 

Warren, B. H., M. D. 

Willard, L. M., M. D., Wausau, Wis. 

CLASS OF 1892. 
Abeliovitz, J. Morris, M.D., 260 W. Taylor St., Chicago. 
Alcorn, David N., M, D., Stevens Point, Wis. 
Altenloh, Henry, M. D. 
Brianza, Arthur M., M. D,, 34 Washington St., Chicago. 



210 The FJexus. 

Brown, Robert W., M. D., Greenville, Pa. 

Burton, Robert H., M. D. 

*Chaffee, C. C. 

Chapman, Chauncy F., M. D., 833 Washington Blvd., Chicago. 

Cole, James H., M. D , Thurman, la. 

Gushing, Martin D., M. D,, Joliet, 111. 

Dean, Fred Mark, M. D., Jefferson, la. 

Doty, Arthur J., M. D., Coleman, S. Dak. 

Edmunds, Geroid O., M. D., Honor, Mich. 

Goss, Edwin L., M. D., Sheffield, la. 

Grubb, Albert G.. M. D., Mongo, Ind. 

Harris, William Elbert, M. D., Hazel Dell, 111. 

Hawley, Edgar Reed, M. D., 3747 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 

Hazen, S. F., M. D., Hartstown. Pa. 

Hilliker, J. B., M. D., 460 S. Division St., Grand Rapids, Uicla.. 

Holzman, J., M.D., 3910 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

Hopkins, C. N., M. D. 

Klimmek, Otto, M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 

Kroening, A. E., M. D., 557 Garfield Blvd., Chicago. 

Luce, F. A., M. D., Clyde, 111. 

Nordlund, J. E., M. D. 

Post, C. M., M. D., Alfred Center, N. Y. 

Provan, D. M., M. D., 709 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 

Richardson, W. B., M. D., Reliance Bldg., Chicago. 

Ritter, M. M., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 

*Roche, J. J. 

Seim, G. S., M. D., Blue Island, 111. 

Sladek, B., M. D., 1335 W. 22nd St., Chicago. 

Slamberg, N. A. L. K., M. D., Kimballton, la. 

Smythe, F. R., M. D., Bismarck, N. D. 

Stanger, G. H,, M. D., Boone, la. 

Stoddard, C H., M. D., 1201 Vliet St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Stol, S., M. D., 564 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 

Throckmoton, F. R., M. D., Derby, la. 

Unger, A. M., M. D., 277 W. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

Whitmer, L. W., M. D , 1508 Aldine Ave., Chicago. 

Wood, F. C, M. D., Hancock, Wis. 

Woodruff, H. W., M. D., 67 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Class of 1893. 
Abt, Joseph L., M. D., 733 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 



Alumni. 211 

Absher, Allen Albert, M. D., Sibley, 111. 

Adams, J. F., M. D,, 722 63rd St., Chicago. 

Alleu, Manning L., M. D., Tama, la. 

Archibald, Frank M., M. D., Atwater, Minn. 

Arnold, D. Elmer, M. D., Hecla, S. Dak. 

Beam, William O., M. D., Moline, 111. 

Boddiger, Charles Edwin, M. D., 2801 Archer Ave., Chicago. 

Boyd, S. J., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Bogle, H. H., M. D., Pittsburg, Kan. 

Brink, Chester A., M. D., Ord, Neb. 

*Brooks, Francis R., M. D. 

Chamberlain, George E., M. D., Waterville, Minn. 

Clark, Henry H., M. D., Watertown, S. Dak. 

Connell, Samuel W., M. D. 

Cook, R. H., M. D. 

Dustin, Herbert D. C, M. D , West Bend, Wis, 

Ehrman, Fred J. E,, M. D., Hoyne Ave. and 22d St., Chicago, 

Faith, Thomas, M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Fee, Willis, M. D., Meade, Kas. 

Fenstermacher, Charles C, M. D., Jones, Mich. 

Fetherston, Edward B., M. D., Bertau and Paulina Sts., Chicago. 

Fermstead, Olaf, M. D. 

Fulton, Arthur M., M. D., Chariton, la. 

Fyfe, Richard, M. D., 34 Washington St., Chicago. 

Galloway, David Henry, M. D., 206 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago. 

*Goldthorpe, Elmer E., M. D. 

Haiselden, H. J., M. D., 475 Belden Ave., Chicago. 

Hahn, Albert F., M. D., Eau Claire, Wis. 

Hardie, C. J., M. D., El Paso, Tex. 

Harvfy, A. M., M. D., 120 Ashland Bvd., Chicago. 

Hauenstein, G. W., M. D., Elkhart, Ind. 

Hegge, C. A., M. D., Austin, Minn, 

Hegge, O. H., M. D.. Austin, Mion. 

Henssler, O. W., M. D., 719 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 

Herrold, R. H., M. D., Peabody, Ind. 

Hibbert, G. A., M. D., 2858 Wallace St., Chicago. 

Holliday, E. R., M. D., Ellsworth, Wis. 

Jacobus, Leon A., M. D., Winfield, Kas. 

Kelley, William R., M, D. 

Kellogg, Charles Elmer, M. D., Northboro, la. 



-•12: 2'Jig Plexus. 

Kerr, I. J., M. D., W. Hough Ave., Cleveland, O. 

Kilbride, J. S., M. D., Sleepy Eye, Minn. 

*Latto, W. W., M. D. 

Livingston, W. R., M. D., May wood, 111. 

Lumley, W. A., M. D., Renville, Minn. 

McDonald, J. S., M. D. 

McNulty, J. F., M. D., Niobrara, Nab. 

Madison, P. C, M. D., 381 Oakley Bvd., Chicago. 

Manley, S. H., M. D. 

Mansifee, W. H., M. D., 9 S. 23rd St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Martin, J. H., M. D., Centerville, S. Dak. 

Miller, W. H. H., M. D., Chadwick, 111. 

Mills, F. W., M. D., Ottumwa, la. 

Monosmith, O. B., M. D., Lorain, Ohio. 

Moore, A. W., M. D., Bristol, 111. 

Newcomer, J. S., M. D.. 702 S. California Ave., Chicago. 

O'Malley, William H., M. D., Kinsman, 111. 

Osincup, F. A., M. D., Waverly, la. 

*Otto, Emil. M. D. 

Packard, C, D., M. D., Rhinelander, Wis. 

Patterson, J. W., M. D., Oconee, 111. 

Pierron, J. J,, M. D., 353 5th Ave. and Harrison St., Chicago. 

Post, C. C, M. D.. Barron, Wis. 

Prescott, H. V., M. D., Dallas City, 111. 

Renn, T. H., M. D., 650 W. 21st St., Chicago. 

Roff, O. W., M. D., Newton, Kas. 

Roos, David William, M. D., South Frankfort, Mien. 

Rowe, E. J., M. D., Milford, Neb. 

Salter, Allen, M. D., Lena, 111. 

Seufert, E. G., M. D., 829 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 

Smith, E. L , M. D., 457 E. 42nd St., Chicago. 

Spach, A. B., M. D., 6629 Harvard Ave., Chicago. 

Stevens, M. E., M. D., Texarkana. Ark. 

Stewart, J. L., M. D., Irene, S. Dak. 

Stewart, W, T., M. D., 978 Douglas Blvd., Chicago. 

Stixrud, T. M., M. D., North wood, la. 

Stoltz, C, M. D., South Bend, Ind. 

Taylor, O. G., M. D., Palestine, 111. 

Tucker, W. L., M. D., Hinsdale, Mass. 

Upton, F. F., M. D. 

Van Duyn, A. H., M. D., Netawaka, Kan. 

Warriner, W. W., M. D. 

Waxham, C, M. D., North Liberty, Ind. 

Williams, J. J., M. D. 

Williams, S. E,, M. D., New Bedford, 111. 



ALUMNI. 

'Ho. G. E. Brinkerhoff, of Oakland, Cal., was a recent visi- 
tor to his Alma Mater. The Dr. was the first matriculant at the 
P. & S. College. 

'87. M. Nelson Voldeng, of Des Moines, la., has been fav- 
ored recently by the appointment to the superintendency of the 
new state hospital for the insane, now being erected at Chero- 
kee, la. Excepting the asylum at Ogdensburg, N. Y., this insti- 
tution is to be the finest in the United States. The Plexus ex- 
tends heartiest congratulations to Dr. Voldeng and wishes him 
greatest success in his new field. 

'93, H. H. Clark has moved from White, S. Dak., to Water- 
town, of same state. 

'95. J. P. Riggs, Rossville, 111. 

'96. A. A. Starner, of Danville, Ohio, was a recent visitor at 
the college. He found things changed considerably since his 
graduation. 

'98. Leo Cahill, of Elizabethtown, N. Mex., has recently 
been married. The Plexus extends congratulations. 

'98. Dr. E. M. Byers, of Belvidere, 111., is one of the pro- 
moters of "The Belvidere Hospital." They expect to have an 
up- to date and well equipped hospital, also a training school for 
nurses in connection. 

'98. A. C. Kohler, Moline, 111., recently spent a few days in 
Chicago. 

'99. Theodore Tieken was married to Miss Bessie Chapman 
at Sigel, 111., Thursday, Sept. 18. They sailed for Germany on 
Sept. 21st, where the Dr. will continue his studies for a year, and 
upon his return he will accept a fellowship in medicine at Rush 
medical college and practice on the north side. 

'99. M. A. Reasoner, of Morrisonville, III.,* is taking post 
graduate work in the city. 

SENIOR NOTES. 

Gone is our junior year, with all its pleasures. Gone are our 
junior professors and learned instructors. Tears cannot bring 
them back. Therefore we weap. 

Bull Little, the great Iowa tackle of last year is with us. 



214 The Plexus. 

Mr. Little has a double qualification, being not only an excep- 
tional football player, but one of the best scholars in his class. 

Messrs. Everett Sabin, Kyes, Leavitt, R. E, Brown and 
H. O. Shafer have given anesthetics thus far. Their work has 
been very successful. 

Mr. Harroun is writing a book entitled "The Maternity 
House Scandal or A Night of Horrors." 

Mr. Arthur C Mclntyre and Miss Flora G. Snyder were 
united in marriage on July 9th at the Wellington Hotel, Chicago. 

Our class is increased by thirty students, and five women, 

Mr, Nichelson has been practicing medicine during the sum- 
mer at Terry, Montana, 

Mr. Young is practicing in Kansas and will return as soon 
as the work here will keep him busy. 

The great drawback to moving into the new building, is that 
you can't tell a D. J. from a dignified senior. It's hard on 
the senior, but must be nice for the D. J. 

Mr. William Yates, our emaciated classmate, was united in 
marriage last month to Miss Alice E. Garlock, of Allegan, Mich, 

Mr. McConvill of the quiz class is enjoying an extended visit 
from his father. 

Mr. Wiley has been practicing medicine at Armour, S. D,, 
during the summer. 

Our class is honored by its claim on Mr, P. G. Kitterman, 
who has been made professor of anatomy in the National Medi- 
cal College on the North Side. 

Mr. Grabou is serving an externship in the Samaritan Hos- 
pital. 

We have a personage in our class this year who has so in- 
spired those who have come in contact with him, as to be pro- 
claimed the Messiah. 

Mr. R Haynes has been taking treatment for the past two 
weeks in the hope of curing his very chronic ailment, and he 
states that a peculiar lluid that he is using is producing remark- 
able results. 

The class in surgery has been divided into four sections, Dr. 
Holmes taking up the neck, Dr. Davis the head, Dr, Hartng the 
thorax and Dr. Cornell the face. We anticipate a very good 
course. 

Mr. Inks has returned from his extended vacation. 



Notes. 215 

Seniors had a warm time in the clinical amphitheatre last 
week. Everyone took it upon himself to make the time pass as 
"rapidly" as possible. 

Extra mural clinics will be given to seniors this year in sev- 
eral of the large hospitals of the city. 

Juniors do not seem to know their place at the County Hos- 
pital. They should bear in mind the fact that they have another 
year. 

Mr. Jennings started out the season by saying that "one of 
the great dangers in labor was laceration of the peritonium.'' 

Mr. Inks states that "foetal heart sounds donate a female 
child." 



JUNIOR NOTES. 

Miss H. (with assurance): "No sir; I said that a thyrotomy 
was a growth in the neck." 

We decided that it was right and proper for all the class to 
know just why the deplorable change had been made, so \ve 
asked "Dad," and he told us confidentially that the class elec- 
tion had nothing to do with it, but that "the gosh darned stuff 
had been falling out lately and it was just a trifle too long for 
the base-line to get in well."" 

Dr. Porter (to Cohen in the pit.): "Did you palpate the en- 
tire spine, sir?" The silence of a cloister until Cohen steps 
lightly forward and deftly percusses the spinous processes with 
his knuckles. 

Breathes there the man with soul so dead. 

Who never to himself hath said — 

When asked in quizz, but nit could tell- 
In after days when sending statements to your tardy pa- 
tients, never lose sight of the fact that often and ever while you 
were at college listening to long and important lectures, a 
marked and painful s:asis existed in your gluteal regions. 

"Lest you forget, we say it yet, uneeda""^ — not a biscuit, but 
a gentle reminder of the startling manner in which our goal 
year, 1903, is drawing nigh. We are, as it were, away over at 
the back turn, just beyond the half-mile post, running the most 
important race of our lives. The bunch is well together now, 
and running along easily without touch of whip or spur, only 



216 The Plexus. 

waiting for the final and supreme effort whea they head into the 
stretch. True it is, some in the rear are seen to be riding hard, 
having been slow in breaking away, or, else they have been early 
caught in a "pocket" through misfortune or lack of judgment on 
their part. Soon, however, the test will come. Soon shall we 
see those who have striven for a place, leading the bunch and 
with spur bared and whip drawn, neither looking to the right 
nor to the left, heading down the long home stretch for the wire. 
What the final outcome will be, no one can definitely say. The 
last half mile of a race is always the best ridden, and many are 
the races lost and won in the last furlong. Let the watchword 
be from now on— ride! Ride as you never rode before, keeping 
in the straight course and allowing no one to pass you. True it 
is, all can not be winners. However, the steed with the best 
metal is not always first under the wire. Many that are fleeter 
of foot are at his weathers. Be with the foremost, if possible, 
and if not there, be well forward. Remember the eyes of the 
multitude are not always directed toward the winner alone- -they 
also see those who are striving earnestly for a place. Think of 
this and know that many are watching, who are always ready 
and waiting to appreciate and applaud earnest efforts, it matters 
not from whence they come. 

According to custom the annual election of class officers for 
the ensuing school year took place Tuesday, October 15, in the 
college building. The meeting, consisting of about 140 of the 
class members, was called to order in room 303 by our popular 
president, P. H. Holmes^ 

The election of class president was first in order, and the 
names of Geo. F". Blough and Benj. Thomas were first presented 
for consideration. On the first ballot Mr. Thomas led his oppo- 
nent, but the number of votes in his favor not being sufficient to 
elect, another vote was called for. The second ballot decided 
the majority in favor of Mr. Thomas, he receiving 71 votes while 
Mr. Blough received 65. Mr. Thomas was declared duly elected. 

Next came the balloting for vice-president. Several nomi- 
nations were made, viz: Messrs. D. C. Dodds, J. A. Johnson, G. 
F. Blough. G. H. Howard, J. W. Wilson and Miss Anna Hayes. 
The first ballot resulted in a vote of 46 for Dodds, 40 for Blough, 
Hayes 33, Howard 7, Wilson 5, and Johnson 3. At this juncture 
the class withdrew to the gymnasium, owing to the fact that the 



Note^. 217 

hilarity displayed was causing much discomfort to the class in 
progress immediately beneath us. Whether they were in fear of 
being buried beneath a shower of plaster or not, we are unable 
to say, nevertheless — we withdrew. Upon arriving at the "gym" 
the balloting was continued. The second ballot favored Mr. 
Dodds by a vote of 34, while Mr. Blough came next with 28 
votes. Mr. Dodds will therefore serve in the capacity of vice- 
president during the ensuing year. 

W. H. Moore's name was proposed for secretary. No other 
names were presented so Mr. Moore was given the oflice by ac- 
clamation, and, as the ayes rang forth the proof was self-evident 
of the high regard we all have for his abilities in such channels. 

For treasurer L. Sibley, Anna Hayes, M. F. Joyce, D. G. 
Tweed all, G. H. Howard and H. C. McCarthy were nominated. 
Much comment was elicited during the balloting, referable to 
the position as treasurer, in that it was a -most trustworthy and 
responsible oflice to fulfill, and also to the fact that the amount 
-of wealth usually confined in the treasury was of such vast pro 
portions, that the incumbent of that oflice must needs possess ex- 
ceedingly precautious busiiiess instincts, and should be of spot- 
less integrity, in order that full protection would be assured 
those members of the class who had interests in the treasury. 
Two ballots were necessary before Mr. Howard received the re- 
quired vote, his nearest opponent being Mr. Joyce. 

Following the election of treasurer came nominations for 
class editor. The names of Mr. Frechtling and Maloy were pre- 
sented. Frechtling having declined, Maloy was elected by accla- 
mation. 

Last, but by no means the least, came the nominations for 
the executive committee, consisting of Messrs. P. H. Holmes, E. 
B. Anderson, R. C. King, L. R. Wilson, W. P. Madden, D. G, 
Tweedall and W. E. Hart. It was agreed that the one receiving 
the greatest number of votes should be chairman of the commit- 
tee. Upon ballotting King received 19 votes. Holmes 14, Mad- 
den 13, Tweedall 13, Anderson 12, Wilson 12, and Hart 1. Wilson 
withdrew and the committee were instructed to decide who 
should be the fifth member. 

We shall refrain from commenting upon the new set of oflic- 
ers. Our earnest desire is, however, that the present incum- 
bents in oflice may, through their own efl'orts and by their lively 
interests shown toward the welfare of each and every individual 
member of the class of "03, bring credit upon themselves and 
gain the same hearty good will and friendship their predecessors 
Jiave gained during the j^ear now past. 



218 Thr Plexus. 

SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

The annual class election was held Friday, Oct. 11th, and 
although some had predicted '-blood and gore," it passed off 
quietly. We were glad to note the hearty good feeling that pre- 
vailed and hope that it may continue. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, S. B. Haessly; vice-president, C. W. Giesen; secre- 
tary, H. H. Hatter}^ treasurer, M. Raynor; class editor, P, L. 
Wood; surgeant-at-arms, R. E. Stephens; football manager, H. 
M. Sloan. 

The class is open to congratulations on the excellent list of 
professors we are to listen to this year. Everp member of the 
class seems to be delighted with every member of our faculty. 
We believe they are able to teach us their respective branches, 
and they have each expressed their anxiety to help us in every 
way possible. Last year some of us formed hasty opinions of in- 
capacity in some of our teachers, which subsequent thought and 
downright common sense could not justif3^ If we wish to get 
the good which we ought to get from our teachers we must cast 
aside petty grievances and try to appreciate their efforts in our 
behalf. 

We are more than delighted with our new quarters and might 
write volumes in their praise, but we will leave this to the more 
able wa'iters of the upper classes. We may say, however, that 
all opportunity for clashes with the D. J.'s and other more for- 
midable adversaries lias practically been doae away with. Those 
of us who have no money to "throw at the birds" will appreciate- 
this improvement over the old college building immensely, as it 
will in all probability lessen th'e amount of our breakage fees to 
a considerable extent. 

As nearly as we can ascertain at present writing our class- 
has acquired about thirty-five new members, while about ten of 
our old members have not yet returned. We miss "Purty" and 
"Minimee Digitee"" Jackson very much and hope they will yet 
make their appearance. 

Paul Windmueller and H. Elich have gone into the drug 
business in Chicako, but they have not forgotten the P. & S. and 
expect to be back again some time in the future. 

Geo. Moore is working in a hospital somewhere in Wiscon- 
sin. He expects to be back for the spring term. 



Notes. , - 219 

Mr, Coffin ".s tutoring a couple of handsome young ladies on 
the North Side and incidentally attending night school at Harvey. 

Mr. Curney is working in the city and attending night school 
at Harvey. 

Mr. Hagyard is quizzing a class in materia medica at Harvey 
and attending night school at that institution. 

We expect Messrs. Coffin, Curney and Hagyard back with 
us next year to take advantage of our unexcelled clinical ad- 
vantages. 

VVe are glad to note the return of Wm. Montgomery, alias 
Foetus, and that he has assumed the dignity of long trousers. We 
hope he will arrange to become a full fledged member of our class. 

Mr. Twohig has the sympathy of the entire class. While 
we are congratulating ourselves on being dignified sophomores, 
he must sit in sackcloth and ashes and mourn bc'cause he is still 
a D. J., and must always remain so unless Congress intervenes 
in his behalf. 



THE ANNUAL OPENING EXERCISES. 

The twenty-first annual opening exercises were held in the 
Assembly Hall of the new college building on the evening of 
October 1st, the program being as follows: 

Invocation 

Music Orchestra. 

Address Prof. Sanger Brown. 

Music Orchestra. 

Welcome by Dean Prof. W. E. Quine. 

Benediction 

An audience that filled the spacious hall to the doors greeted 
Prof. Sanger Brown when he arose to deliver the annual address 
to the students. A large gathering of the faculty, together with 
a goodly number of ladies, occupied the platform, and altogether 
the surroundings were conducive to the best efforts of the 
speaker. "The Relations of the Medical Practitioner to Society" 
were handled by Prof. Brown in a masterly way, and the subject 
presented in such a light as could be only of material benefit to 
each member of the student body. Prof. Brown, always popu- 
lar with his classes, received a warm welcome from the assem- 
bled students, and his remarks were warmly applauded. 

Prof. Quine followed in a brief characteristic speech, during 
which he took occasion to felicitate the D. J's. on their auspicious 
entry into the best equipped, and most modern medical institu- 
tion that he had ever seen, and gave them permission to pass 
each other up as high as they wished. 

After congratulating the members of the faculty, whose ef- 
forts had made possible the acquisition of such a magnificent 
structure, the dean announced that a clinic in the poetry of mo- 
tion, presided over by Prof. Earle, with the assistance of the 



220 The Hexus. 

orchestra, would be held in the hall at the close of the formal 
exercises, and that the students were expected to attend. 

Finally the audience was dismissed with an invitaiion to in- 
spect the new building, which had been thrown open for the oc- 
casion, from cellar to attic, and to partake of the refreshments — 
a prominent feature of this occasion for many years. 

After assuring themselves of the correctness of the dean's 
statement regarding the excellence of the building ard its equip- 
ment, the guests of the faculty and management repaired to the 
rooms of the Histological department, where a dainty lunch had 
been provided by Caterer French. Here the students and their 
friends renewed old acquaintanceships and spent an enjoyable 
hour discussing past experiences and contemplating the work of 
the coming year. 

Assembly Hall had, in the meantime, been cleared of seats, 
and when Lyons" orchestra struck up the notes of the opening 
waltz, it was found that a large portion of the students had 
brought their lady friends to attend the first clinic of the fall 
term of 1901. The number of cases to be disposed of was unus- 
ually large and it was well into the "wee sma' hours" before the 
end of the program had been reached, and those who had been 
able to longest withstand the anaesthetic effect of the occasion 
left the building. 

Y. M. C. A. NOTES. 

What is the use of a Young Men's Christian Association in a 
medical college? 

Does it till any recognized need in the lives of busy medical stu- 
dents? These questions are frequently and very properly asked. 
They are best answered by telling what the Association is doing. 

Ten days before the opening of college, a canvas of the stu- 
dent district, about 80 blocks, was made by representatives of the 
five Christian Associations in dental and medical colleges on the 
West Side. Printed blanks, giving particulars about 150 rooming 
and boarding places, were filled out and placed at the disposal of 
students, new and old. This convenience was particularly ap- 
preciated by incoming students unfamiliar with the city. Neat, 
leather-bound handbooks; giving information about the city and 
the college, with its athletics, Y. M. O. A. and other student en- 
terprises; were freely distributed. Maps of the city were given 
out. 

As far as possible a census of incoming men was taken show- 
ing church membership or preference. Of the total number 
taken, 51 per cent were church members, while 83 per cent either 
were church members or expressed church preference. 

Information and help were given by the corps of workers 
concerning conflicts in college schedule, and the many other 
problems confronting the new men. 



Notes. 2?1 

For the mutual convenience of students and visitors, a reg- 
ister of names and addresses was kept which was in constant use. 
The Association Employment Bureau, although a new depart- 
ment in P. & S., promises to be valuable. Up to the time of writ- 
ing, twenty- eight applications had been made for students help 
for various occupations, such as clerical work, waiting on table, 
general housework and caring for furnace. Most of these places 
were promptly filled. Twenty- four siudents have filed applica- 
tions for work. Experienced and competent men in shorthand, 
nursing and pharmacy were found, in addition to those willing to 
wait on table and to fill oiher such positions. Valuable help will 
be rendered to deserving, self supporting students, if members 
of the faculty and oihers will notifiy the manager of the Employ- 
ment Bureau of any work they may have for students. Notice 
sent to the college office, either by mail or telephone, will be 
promptly cared for. 

Encouraged by the success of last year, the P. & S. Associa- 
tion released the house at 596 West Adams street. Numerous 
improvements were made so that about twenty members are 
comfortably accomodated. A dining club is conducted near by, 
which has been thoroughly satisfactory and a great convenience. 
These two features of association activity have resulted in a 
social life and fraternity among the members, that would other- 
wise have been impossible. Ai the opening reception Oct. 12th, 
about 50 students were present. Music, games and refreshments 
served to fill up a very pleasant evening. During the course of 
the evening Dr. Mettler, on behalf of the Association Advisory 
Board, welcomed the new men. 

The first meeiing of the year was held in the lower amphi- 
theatre Sunday evening Oct. 13th. Dr. C. C. O'Byrne and Mr. L. 
Wilbur Messer, general secretary of the Board of Managers of 
Chlcao^o, addressed the meeting. 

Bible and mission study will be prosecuted along regu- 
lar college association lines with special adaption to the medical 
college field. 

Forty-six applications for membership have been received 
since October 1st. A determined effort will be made to raise the 
membership to one hundred by Jan. 1st. 

Aa invitation from the West Side Department to inspect 
their building, was accepted by about forty men. The new nat- 
atorium was thoroughly tested and the bowling alleys were kept 
busy all the aftefuoon. 

In these and other ways the as.sociation is endeavoring to 
discharge the responsibility placed upon it. Does not such an or- 
organization merit the co-operation and support of those, faculty 
and students alike, who care for the best interests of our college? 

Frederick Cuttle, 
Secretary P. & S. Dept. Y. M. C. A. of Chicago. 



ike^^^Jpl3tali^R!^^ 




OFFICERS.— C.S. NEISWAXGER, Pli. G., M. D.. Pres.: EMIL H. GKUBBE, M. D., Vice-Pres.; 
A. B. SLATER, Sec'y and Treasurer. 

FACULTY.— FRANKLIN H. MARTIN, M. 1)., Electricity in Gynecology; W. FRANKLIN COLE- 
MAN, M. D., M. R. C. S. (Eng.) Electricity in Diseases of the Eye; MAY CU.=!HMAN RICE, 
• M. D., Electrolysis; C. S. NB^ISWANGER, Pli. G., M. 1)., General Electro-Therapeutics; 
EMIL H. GRUBBE, M. ])., Electro-Physics, Radiography and X-Ray Diagnosis; ALBERT 
H. ANDREWS, M. D., Ear, Nose and Throat. 

Thi.s school is for physicians and is equipped with the most modern up-to-date 
apparatus. All the rudimentai'y physics will be profusely illustrated and made plain 
even to the uninitiated in electro therapy. No mail course will be given and.no 
degrees conferred, but a handsomely engraved certificate of attendance can be ob- 
tained if desired after the completion of a course. The courses will be of two weeks 
duration and consist of both clinical and didactic instructions. A two-weeks course 
will make you self-dependent. Write for further information, terms and jjrinted 
matter. 

ILLINOIS SCHOOL OF ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS, 
1302-3 Chaitiplain Building, Chicago, 111. 



. . .G 




ART GALLERIES... 



nBST-KNOWN 



G0II6Q6 and Fraterniiu GroiiDS a Swmu 

SPECIAL RATES TO STUDENTS. 



JPine Framin$i» 



Tel. Central GOO. 



195-197 Wabash Ave., - Cor, Adams St. 




Henry P. Newman, M. D., 

Professor of Gyn. cology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

■ 1 

VOL. VII. NOVEMBER 20th, 190L NO. 4 

IN REGARD TO ATHLETICS. 
By Henky p. Newman, A. M., M. D. 

Professsor of Gynecology and Clinical Gynecology, College of Physicians and 

Surgeons, Chicago, Medical Department of the University of Illinois, 

and Professor of Gynecology, Chicago Policlinic. 

Since in the judgment of the faculty it is not for the present 
interest of the medical department of the University of Illinois 
to participate in athletics as ordinarily understood in intercol- 
legiate circles, the position of chairman of the committee on ath- 
letics becomes almost a sinecure. But in the fear that we may 
lose sight of the wider significance of the subject, when denied 
as students the incentive of competitive sport, I would offer this 
iDrief consideration. 

There is a point of view which permits a broader outlook in 
dealing with the question of athletics, and will, I am confident 
allow &tudents and faculty to unite in enthusiasm to promote the 
cause. 

Among all the "isms," "pathies" and so-called "sciences" 
which have risen from time to time to do battle with rational sci- 
entific medicine there has never been so powerful an antagonist 
as the one now threatening, and that because he is armed with 
one of our best weapons. Quack nostrums and charlatan pre- 
tensions have never prevailed against the sincerity and truth of 
our professional conventions. So we have come to look upon all 
these contrary movements as irregular and destined to no more 
than an ephemeral success. The latest phase of this popular ef- 
fort to escape the doctor, to substitute something "just as good" 
is one which demands immediate consideration. 



224 The Plexus. 

Call it what you will, athletics, gymnastics, physical culture, 
massage, Swedish movement, mechano-therapeutics, it is all the 
same in effect, the theory that symmetrical development of the 
body is the best safe-guard against disease in general and the best 
cure for some diseases in particular. And the injustice of it is 
that so broad a truth, and one taught and preached by the med- 
ical profession for so many years as the basis of health, should 
be hailed now as a new discovery and the credit given to mer- 
cenary outsiders. Do not think that I am exaggerating the 
menace. Hundreds are now proclaiming these "new theories,'' 
creating an enthusiasm in the best lay circles and pocketing for- 
tunes, and all on the pretense that they have discovered some- 
thing that will do away with drugs and supersede the "anti- 
quated methods of the old schools." You cannot take up a 
literary magazine of large circulation today without meeting in 
the advertising pages these sweeping claims of muscular gentle- 
men, photograped in knotty nudity, to do the work of medical 
science for suffering humanity at a merely nominal fee. Here, 
are extracts from full page ads: "Lung and Muscle Culture, Air 
and Exercise. Nature's Remedy for ALL ILLS." "We can 
promise you a fine, strong, well-developed physique; a cleaj 
brain; a splendid circulation; sound easy-working lungs; good 
digestion; an active liver; sound, restful sleep; a cheerful dispo- 
sition, etc." 

Another -'guaratees'' if his instructions are followed "for a 
few weeks," "not only a magnificent muscular development and 
improved physique, but with it a condition of vigorous health 
scarcely dreamed of by hitherto weak or partially developed men 
or "v^omen. No drugs, no artificial stimulants, no pepsin or di- 
gestive bitters are needed. I give you an appetite always ready 
for meals, a digestive apparatus able and willing to assimilate 
your food and fill your veins with pure rich blood, a heart strong 
and vigorous, * * * nerves so keen and true that daily work 
is a pleasure and the capacity for physical and mental exertion 
proportionately increased. " Testimonials to the value of these 
systems usually refer feelingly to the fortunes wasted on physi- 
cians before commencing the new treatment. Now the fact is 
that these advertisers can to a considerable degree carry out 
their promises in suitable cases, and to this extent their work 
becomes a legitimate part of therapeutics, a branch of medicine.. 



In Regard to Afliletics. 225- 

Why then are we neglecting the use and application of so valu- 
able an adjunct to practice? It is true we have long prescribed 
in a general sort of way, exercise, massage, and even definite 
muscular training, but we have done it rather blindly and in all 
cases have been obliged to send our patients outside the profes- 
sion or abroad for this sort of thing. The advertised "new sys- 
tem" gets credit for the cure, and not rational medicine. Let 
me illustrate: A wealthy woman of our own city was suffering 
from general weakness and heart difficulty. As the story comes 
through lay channels the details are vague. She consulted one 
of our best heart specialists who treated her for a year with good 

effect and then said to her- "Now, Mrs. , you have reached 

a point where I can do nothing more for you, you must do the 
rest yourself. Fresh air and an intelligent system of exercise- 
are your present need. I do not know where to send you for 
this physical training but you can easily find someone to direct 
you." The patient found a woman engaged in the teaching of 
"deep breathing," "rythmical walking," etc., and finished the 
cure under her supervision. But here is where the harm lies: 
That cure which most emphatically belongs to the honest med- 
ical advisor is unthinkingly and enthusiastically attributed to the 
physical trainer. 

The doctor suffers frera a personal injustice, the science of 
medicine has received a blow in the estimation of an intelligent 
class of people, but worse than all, the patient and her little part 
of the general public are endangered by putting their trust in a 
method that is limited in its application and must fail to take the 
place of intelligent medical science in the hour of need. The 
patient cited has lately exhibited pronounced symptoms which 
may indicate uterine cancer in its incipiency, but not knowing 
their import and having been cured of "heart disease" by "deep 
breathing" has no idea of going to doctors. Why should medi- 
cal science have been obliged to send away such a patient to her 
detriment? If the special gymnastic exercises for physical de- 
velopment, which did her so much good, could have been taught 
her in the office of her physician she might still be within reach 
of his skill instead of a prey to the charlatanism and ignorance 
which thrive on our neglect. Should not these means so effect- 
ual in bringing back to the body lost vitality and tone be made 
a legitimate part of our armementarium and included in the cur- 



226 The Plexus. 

riculum of our colleges? 

I have at hand a circular from a prominent teacher of sing- 
ing well known in Chicago and of most estimable character. In 
good faith she is now bidding for patients, and she will get them 
and from the best class of people. Instead of "vocal culture" as 
formerly, she now teaches "physical culture" and 'ispecialy re- 
commends her method to those suffering from feeble lung 
power, weak heart or anemic and dropsical conditions." It is 
not mercenary to protest against this usurping of our preroga- 
tives; it is only following in the path we have always trod in in- 
troducing sanitary science, hygiene and dietetics, prophylaxis, 
first, last and all the time, reserving pills, potions and the knife 
for intelligent and serious employment in their province of 
necessity. Let us show ourselves foremost in this last move- 
ment as in all the others which make for health and physical 
perfection and take steps to establish such teaching facilities in 
this line that not a man shall be graduated from our medical col- 
leges who is ignorant of the therapeutic value of scientific phy- 
sical training or unfamiliar with its technique and intelligent ap- 
plication. To the medical student himself such a course is 
invaluable. With the increased hardship of our continuous 
courses of study today the physical support and stimulus of all 
legitimate athletic exercise is a great benefit, and the special 
work he should do in the branch of anthropometry and mechano- 
therapeutics while teaching him how to handle certain patients 
would be building up his own powers of resistance against the 
exactions of his chosen career, 

Not to go into the subject of sport in this connection, it must 
in justice be said that the present great demand for physical per- 
fection has been largely engendered and fostered by our inter- 
collegiate contests. 

The results of the temperate living and strict training, which 
so many college students willingly practice in the hope of fitting 
themselves for team work, are magnificently upparent in the 
great improvement in the physique of the modern university 
mau, and such striking effects cannot but influence the thinking 
public in favor of physical culture as brought about by athletic 
methods. One of our own faculty was telling me the other day 
what athletics has accomplished for his boy, who in early child- 
hood was a weakling, subject to much anxiety and medication 



In Regard to Athletics. 227 

with little benefit to his condition. At last his father prescribed 
athletics twice a week at a G-erman Turnverein. The boy has 
kept at it for seven years and now at fifteen is strong and sturdy, 
larger than either parent. 

It is high time we annexed such profitable methods, but I do 
not mean to put it as a business proposition. Our profession is 
neither a business nor a trade and it is not a pocket regret we 
feel in seeing the sentimeat of the better classes so ready to turn 
away from the "old school" to every new fad. We regret the 
allegiance they owe to the branch of science which has toiled 
ceaselessly to guard the health of the community, warning here, 
pointing out advantages there. No other class rejoices so much 
when disease is on the decrease and public health at its highest 
reach. Prom the "business" point of view the great brother- 
hood of united physicians is about as money-wise as would be a 
liquor-dealers' association for the promotion of total abstinence. 

Remember this, students so soon to begin your professional 
life, in whatever community you settle, teach your people that 
there is but one way for them to look at the science of medicine, 
as the promoter and restorer of health and the enemy of disease 
in every form. And go so well equipped that no unlicensed rival 
can come to supplant you in public esteem. Without much 
stretch of the imagination you can place yourself in the position 
of the young practitioner who settles in a small town and has for 
a patient the wife of the most prominent citizen. There is noth- 
ing particular the matter with her beyond the depressing ailments 
incident to lack of general tone, with digestive disturbances, etc,, 
so common to middle life and 'indolence. 

The medical adviser tries all the honest means at his com- 
mand while the patient moans on from one unsuccessful prescrip- 
tion to another. An osteopath comes along with his impudent 
theory of the relation of all diseases to the bones. On the pre- 
tense of treating the bones he gives the invalid a violent shaking 
up and some active exercise, cures her for the time being, fol- 
lows the rainbow of glory through that town and goes off with 
the pot of gold. The charlatan by the use of means which should 
•have been part of the armamentarium of the regular practitioner 
gains supporters for the absurd tenets of his so-called "school," 
-and brings odium upon scientific truth. 

Formerly it would have been out of the question to advocate 



228 The Plexus, 

that each physician should be able to direct and apply these 
methods, because the thought of physical training: was insepara- 
ble from that of complicated, bulky and expensive apparatus. 
Today the isolated development of muscles: rythmical physical 
exercises and the various classes of breathing work, may all be 
accomplished without any machinery, and the physician himself 
or his assistant can most appropriately instruct his patients, pre- 
scribing for each just such movements and exercises as the par- 
ticular condition calls for. Such cases as call for mechanical 
treatwent by means of apparatus cau be looked after in the an- 
thropometric departments of our medical colleges or in some cen- 
tral depot which should be established with the sanction and 
under the control of the profession. 
103 State Street. 



THE MAN ON THE LINE. 

Men cheer for the half-back who's made a long run, 

Or the full-back who's smashed through the line; 

They yell 'till they're hoarse when an end makes a dash 

Declaring it "simply fine." 

But they seem to forget 'mid their yells and huzzahs, 

Of the man who stands firm on the line; 

To open a hole for the end to go through, 

With an aptness we cannot define, 

And then when the "guards back" come crushing along, 

And he drops 'neath "the push" in the mud; 

The side lines don't yell at the play he has made, 

In nearly the way that they should. 

Though others forget him and thoughtless pass by, 

With f«rvor this wish shall be mine; 

May good luck attend him and prosper his plays, 

The man who plays ball on the line. — Ex. 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCULAR EXERCISE. 
By Geo. P. Dreyer, A. B., Ph. D. 

Professor of Physiology, Medical Department University of Illinois, Colleg-e 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago. 

The term "muscular exercise" would in common parlance 
probably include all voluntary movements resulting from the con- 
traction of the skeletal muscles whether they occur incidentally 
in the regular routine of every day life, or are deliberately re- 
sorted to for pleasure and hygienic purposes. Physiologically it 
might be used to include a great deal more. 

The muscles of respiration may be influenced to some extent 
by the will so as to change either the rate or the depth of the 
breathing movements; but ordinarily they discharge their regu- 
lar function without the help of a conscious thought, and during 
sleep certainly act entirely without our knowledge. Similarly 
the contractions of the heart, digestive tract and other viscera 
are beyond our volitional control, and all these involuntary ac- 
tions maybe grouped as "automatic." 

Then there are numerous reflex movements like the winking 
of the eyelids at the approach or contact of a foreign body with 
the eyeball or the instinctive withdrawal of the hand on touch- 
ing a heated object. These reflex movements may or may not be 
accompanied by conscious sensation, but are essentially involun- 
tary in origin, and at best only in part under the control of the 
will. Finally the so-called "passive movements"' must be added 
to complete the list, a class of movements to which the physician 
not infrequently has recourse in disease when active contractions 
are impossible or undesirable. In certain forms of paralysis, in 
locomotor ataxia, in certain diseases of the heart and blood ves- 
sels, in nervous exhaustion (neurasthenia), in these and sundry 
other conditions the intelligent exercise of the muscles by me- 
chanical means (massage) or by electrical stimulation may go far 
to replace the loss of normal function. In the present sketch it 
is proposed to take the term in its popular and narrower sense 
and to attempt a brief outline of the physiology of voluntary 
muscular movements alone. 

The voluntary or skeletal muscles consist essentially of 
highly differentiated histological elements, the striped muscle 
fibres, which have departed widely in structure from the condi- 



230 The Plexus. 

tion of embryonal cells to adapt them for their specific function. 
In physiology this is expressed by saying that the "specific 
energy'' of the skeletal muscles is "contractility;" its proper re- 
sponse to any stimulus capable of exciting it at all is always con- 
traction. In common with all living matter, it possesses irrita- 
bility and as a matter of fact it may be excited by any of the gen- 
eral stimuli whether chemical, thermal, mechanical or electrical. 
Their physiological stimulus however is the nerve impulse which 
arises in a motor nerve cell of the brain or spinal cord and which 
is transmitted to the muscle over its motor nerve fibre. The 
motor neurone and muscle fibre are so intimately associated func- 
tionally in all voluntary movements that the neuromuscular ap- 
paratus can hardly be considered other than a single physiologi- 
cal unit. In the development of the individual therefore, a close 
relationship is found to obtain between the growth and activity 
of the musculature of the body on the one hand, and the com- 
plexity and organization of the nervous system on the other. 
Another feature of exercise is presented by a study of the char- 
acteristic physical and chemical changes occurring within the 
muscles, as a result of which not only local effects are produced 
but remote influences on the circulatory, respiratory and other 
systems may be exerted. These considerations suggest a division 
of the subject which is natural and which for convenience of pre- 
sentation has been adoped. 

1. The influence of muscular exercise on the development of 
the central nervous system. 

Our knowledge of the growth and development of the ner- 
vous system has been greatly extended in recent years, not only 
by improvements of old and discovery of new histological meth- 
ods, but also by the application of the balances and of the meth- 
ods of micrometric measurement and enumeration. In order to 
appreciate the relation of muscular exercise to this process of 
growth, some of the general facts must be briefly recalled. 

According to the current neurone doctrine, nerve impulses 
traverse the mature nervous system mainly by passing from the 
axone of one unit to the dendrites of another, and conducting 
paths of various lengths are constructed of chains of contiguous 
elements. When first formed however, the component cells are 
immature in structure and completely separated from one another. 
They increase rapidly in number in the young embryo, but the 



Fhy%iology of Muscular Exercise. 231 

process of multiplication is soon arrested and new cells do not 
appear to arise after the third month of foetal life. The subse- 
quent enlargement must depend therefore on the growth and de- 
velopment of these immature cells into the various types of func- 
tional elements found later on, and that this kind of growth con- 
tinues after birth is apparent from the fact that the adult brain 
weighs three times as much as that of the new born child. 

A considerable part of the increase in weight is accounted 
for by the medullation of the fibres within the central nervous 
system. The white fibres in the adult constitute as much as 97 
per cent of the total weight of the brain and cord, and one half 
of this is furnished by the myelin sheath. There is however an 
increase of nerve substance proper, produced mainly by the out- 
.growth of cell processes. The afferent cells multiply their col- 
laterals, the efferent cells their dendrites, while the central cells 
contribute by growth in both directions. In man thisprocessof ma- 
turation by the formation of cell- processes after birth is chiefly an 
affair of the central cells. It may be well to note at this point a 
rather fundamental difference, so far as the net result to the or- 
ganism is concerned, between enlargement of the nervous system 
and that of other organs. When the latter increase in size by the 
growth and multiplication of the constituent tissue elements the 
result is a mere quantitative functional gain; not so with the 
nervous system. Hand in hand with growth goes progressive 
complexity of organization and qualitative functional change. 
The responses made by the nervous systems are excited by larger 
numbers of incoming impulses, the paths of conduction and 
radiation open to these impulses are multiplied, the number, 
complexity and refinement of the reactions increase, and new 
powers are acquired. The maturation of the central cells is par- 
ticularly potent in facilitating such internal organization on ac- 
count of their manifold possibilities of growth. 

Atrophy, degeneration, and decay, these are the natural con- 
sequences of disuse: this seems to be a universal law and holds 
good whether applied to moral qualities and intellectual faculties 
or to physical and biological properties. Use on the contrary 
preserves, strengthens and developes.' In physiology it has 
been abundantly shown that functional activity is a sine qua non 
to healthy metabolism, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that 
the heightened chemical activity which accompanies functional 



232 The Plexus. 

manifestations furnishes in the complex mixture of katabolic 
products the normal stimulus for nutrition and growth. The de- 
generation of paralized muscles is a familiar example of atrophy 
from disuse After a comparatively short period of peculiar 
variations in irritability as tested by electricity, the power to re- 
spond to all forms of stimuli lessens and by the end of the 
seventh or eighth month, excitability is wholly lost. 

The changes responsible for this loss of irritability lead to 
the destruction of the muscle probaplasm and that they are the 
result of disuse is indicated by the favorable influence of syste- 
matic passive exercise which may long delay the progress of the 
symptoms. Von Gudden's classical experiment demonstrated 
that nerve cells are also subject to this law. When an efferent 
nerve is broken away from its attachment to the central nervous 
system in animals just born or very young, the cell bodies and 
axones lying within may atrophy and disappear. Cases of am- 
putation of limbs in man also illustrate this ]3oint. When the 
limb is amputated close to the trunk, the patient young, and life 
preserved for a considerable period thereafter, the degenerative 
changes in the nervous system are well marked and include in 
extreme cases: 1. Atrophy of the motor nerve cells in the an- 
terior horn along with their efferent axones (anterior root fibres). 
2. More or less atrophy of the spinal ganglion cell bodies, the 
dorsal root fibres, and their continuation in the cord. These 
changes are extremely slow in their development, but unques- 
tionably are induced by the loss of the stream of nerve impulses 
which normally would have passed to or from the lost extremity. 
It appears therefore that the destruction of a group of fibres 
which forms the chief pathway for the impulses arriving at a 
collection of cells in the central nervous system leads to pro- 
gressive atrophy of those cells, and that the activity of each 
cell contributes to the strength of its own nutritive processes. 
• When a nerve cell is not kept active by impulses passing within 
it, it usually atrophies and may degenerate. 

In the light of such facts the importance of muscular exer- 
cise to the integrity and development of the nervous system 
must be immediately apparent. The musculature of the body is 
supplied not only with motor nerves but receives a rich sensory 
innervation as well. Estimates based on actual enumerations 
place the number of afferent fibres coming from muscles, ten- 



Fhykiology of Muscular Exercise. 233 

-dons and joints at something like two-fifths of all the posterior 
root fibres or about 200,000. It is the continuation of these 
nerves in the cord which form the long tracts of the dorsal white 
columns and the direct cerebellar tract. Voluntary exercise of 
the muscles thus involves the transmission of many nerve im- 
pulses both to and from the periphery and and along many inter- 
central paths and so provides the physiological stimulus on which 
motor, sensory, and central cells depend for their maintenance. 

Since our newer ideas of the structure of the nervous system 
indicate that education consists largely in the development of 
association fibres connecting the various motor and sensory 
areas of the cerebral cortex it is not improbable, in fact it is 
generally believed, that the effect of muscular training extends to 
those portions of the brain which are related to mental proces- 
ses. An eminent writer on mental diseases. Sir James Crichton- 
Browne, has gone so far as to suggest that "swaddling-bands so 
applied at birth as to restrain all muscular movements and kept 
•^on during infancy and childhood, would result in idiocy." Hav- 
ing emphasized the character of the relationship exising between 
muscular and nervous development, a word may be added in re- 
gard to the kind and amount of the exercise required for the best 
results. Since motor activity is obtained by an expenditure of 
nerve force, physical overwork readily leads to nervous and 
mental disturbances. Bodily fatigue is often in the first instance 
a case of fatigue of the nerve cells, and laboratory experiment 
shows that muscles which refuse to respond to volitional efforts 
after prolonged work may readily contract upon direct electrical 
stimulation. Distinct histological changes have also been recog- 
nized in nerve cells as the result of prolonged activity. Immod- 
erate exercise may therefore easily defeat the very ends for 
which it is intended, and excessive muscular developement 
secured and maintained at the sacrifice of other organs, is by no 
means a positive guarrantee of the best condition of general 
health nor a sure high road to Intellectual preeminence. The 
day laborer, commonly posessed of a fine musclature,is not equally 
gifted in the matter of his nervous system — For the best good of 
the mind and nervous system, muscular exercise should be mod- 
erate in amount and of such a character as to provoke pleasurable 
emotions. Expert opinions further agree in adapting the kind 
•of exercise to be employed to the several periods of growth 



234 The Plexus. 

childhood and youth. To about the eighth year, the natural 
playfulness of the child may be trusted to find appropriate games 
for the training of its muscles provided adequate space for a 
playground is within reach and the freest possible life out of 
doors is encouraged. If gymnastics are added, they should be 
simple and look rather to the developement of the fundamental 
movements employed in walking and running, in bending the 
body and in maintaining the erect posture. From that time on- 
ward to puberty, the power of co-ordinating movements advances 
rapidly and the form of exercise should be more varied, compli-^ 
cated and difficult. The relative emphasis placed on athletic 
sports and gymnastics is determined largely by national preju- 
dices and fads, the former having in their favor the healthier 
conditions for their pursuit and the greater amount of exhilera- 
tion and recreation, while the gymnasium affords an opportunity 
for more symmetrical developement and training. The true 
course would probably consist in combining both methods of 
physical culture. After the sixteenth year attention should be 
directed to the developement and perfection of skilled movements 
and to the education of the ncuro-muscular apparatus. Manual 
dexterity and cunning, requiring the delicate control of many 
co-operating muscles can be developed at this time and much 
that counts for training of muscles in this connection is in reality 
an education of the nervous system. 

2. LOCAL AND GENERAL EFFECTS OF MUSCULAR EXERCISE. 

A quick pulse, deep and rapid breathing, flushed skin and 
copious perspiration, these are some of the general effects of ex- 
ercise readily observed in common experience. The problem for 
physiological science is to explain these phenoma by bringing 
them into casual relation with the processes going on in the 
muscles themselves while at work. A complete mechanicaU 
i.e. physico-chemical explanation cannot always be given because 
of the manifoldness of the interactions of several causes acting 
at the same time; nevertheless a knowledge of the intramuscular 
changes affords the correct starting point from which to approach 
the problem. 

The response of muscle to any effective stimulus is of a four- 
fold nature presenting electrical, thermal, mechanical and chem- 
ical features. Of these the chemical changes are in reality the- 
primary and fundamental event, of which the electrical and ther- 



Physiology of Muscular Exercise. 235 

mal changes are inseparable and necessary accompaniments ac- 
cording to modern conceptions of physical chemistry; while the 
mechanical response is an indirect consequence, a mere incident, 
determined by the peculiar internal organization of the contrac- 
tile substance which makes it a machine for converting heat 
into mechanical work. 

The time required for the development of the electrical re- 
sponse after a single momentary stimulus can be accurately 
measured and is usually given as 0.001 second, and since the the- 
ory requires that the chemical decomposition and heat formation 
be synchronous events with the electrical disturbance, we may 
conclude that these three sets of changes are practically instan- 
taneous in their accomplishment. 

The change of form of the muscle, or the visible contraction, 
requires a relatively much longer time, say 0.05 to 0.1 second, in 
the case of a single twitch. A plausible hypothesis explains the 
contraction as a process of imbibition, certain denser doubly- 
refracting particles in muscle substance absorbing the more fluid 
material around them by virtue of temperature elevations in 
their immediate vicinity when the explosive chemical decompo- 
sition takes place. Each particle is supposed to be elongated in 
form and therefore will shorten and thicken when oy imbibition 
it is made to approach more nearly the shape of a sphere. The 
combined effect of such a change in the entire aggregate of par- 
ticles leads to the shortening and swelling of the muscle as a 
whole. 

We have no suggestion as to any possible value to the or- 
ganism of the feeble electrical currents produced in muscle; the 
energy they represent may be a pure loss. The mechanical 
energy is practically utilized in locomotion and useful work and 
therefore is of supreme importance from the standpoint of ani- 
mal mechanics and economics. It may be observed incidently 
that as a machine for doing work, the muscle is more economical 
than ordinary steam engines. In practice the thermo-dynamic 
efficiency of the latter reaches only 10 to 14 per cent, while a 
muscle under favorable circumstances may return 25 per cent, of 
the total energy liberated in the form of external useful work. 

The thermal and chemical changes in muscle deserve a little 
more consideration, as it is through them that the remote and 
indirect effects of exercise are induced. 



236 • llie Plexus. 

As regards heat production, direct measurement shows that 
75 per cent, or more of the total energy liberated in contracting 
muscle is converted to thermal energy. Even at rest the 
muscles are the chief source of bodily heat and contribute some- 
thing like two thirds of the 2,500,000 cal. dissipated in twenty- 
four hours by the human body. The increased production of 
heat during exercise tends of course to raise the bodj'^ tempera- 
ture and in violent athletic contests a rise of 1.5"C. to 2.5°C. has 
actually been recorded. Normally this effect is prevented by the 
intervention of compensatory heat regulating mechanisms. The 
cutaneous blood vessels dilate and sweat secretion increases so 
that heat-loss from the surface of the body both by radiation and 
evaporation is accelerated, while the augmentation of respira- 
tion aids heat dissipation from the lungs by the increase in the 
volume of air there warmed and saturated with moisture. The 
reciprocal interactions between the thermogenic and thermo- 
lytic mechanisms depend essentially upon certain cutaneous im- 
pulses (special nerves of temperature sense) and upon the tem- 
perature of the blood. Physical exercise certainly raises the 
temperature of the skin and perhaps also that of the blood so the 
influence on the heat regulating functions is easily understood. 

The chemical phenomena remain for brief consideration. 
Muscle cannot create energy; it can simply transform one kind 
of energy to another kind, The external work and the heat de- 
veloped by a muscle represents so much kinetic energy, which 
had to be stored in the muscle in the form of potential chemical 
energy before it could be liberated in the free state. The muscle 
stores energy in the form of complex organic compounds sup- 
plied by the blood and incorporated into the muscle substance by 
its proper constructive nutritive processes. These relatively 
unstable bodies are eventually oxidized and converted into more 
simple and more stable products and in doing so furnish as much 
heat weight for weight as if oxidized quickly by combustion in a 
furnace. There are three main groups of such compounds, the 
proteids or nitrogenous substances, like white of Qg,g, the fats, 
and the carbohydrates, i. e., starches and sugars. Fats and car- 
bohydrates are completely burned in the body to the condition of 
■carbon- dioxide and water; proteids are not, for their nitrogen 
leaves the body in the form of urea and related bodies, capable 
of further oxidation and therefore representing a certain residue 



Physiologg of Muscular Exercise. 337 

of potential energy, The heat values of the three principal 
classes of food stuffs are as follows: 

1 gram of proteid yields 4100 Cal. (corrected for urea.) 

1 " " fat " 9300 " 

1 " " starch " 4100 " 

Contracting muscles are able to utilize any of these sub- 
stances for their supply of energy. It has been definitely 
shown however that moderate exercise does not increase the ni- 
trogenous excreta and therefore the energy of the contracting 
muscle must be obtained mainly from its non-nitrogenous consti- 
tuents. Dextrose in the circulating blood and glycogen stored 
in the muscle itself represent available carbohydrates which are 
positively known to suffer ready oxidation during work; per- 
haps a small amount of fat, invariably present in muscle, is also 
drawn upon during contraction. Proteid metabolism in muscles 
seems to depend upon peculiar conditions and under ordinary 
circumstances does not contribute to the energy of contraction. 
There is a metabolism of rest as well as of 'activity for muscles, 
and a certain amount of nitrogenous food is required at all times 
to keep them from wasting away. Chemical activity in living 
matter is never at a stand still, and while life as a phenomenon 
endures its material substratum for ever changes. Muscle is often 
compared with the steam engine to illustrate the part taken by 
the nitrogenous and the non-nitrogenous constituents respec- 
tively; the former are more especially used in making good the 
wear and tear of the engine, while the latter correspond to the 
fuel which is used to drive it. Like most analogies this gives a 
very imperfect conception of the actual facts in the case and ex- 
presses only a partial truth. During immoderate, excessive, and 
prolonged exercise the nitrogenous constituents become involved 
to a greater degree and an increase of urea excretion is observed. 
This happens for example during forced marches of armies and 
in' long distance walking naatches and indicates not only exhaus- 
tion of the stock of preferred cTarbohydrates, compelling the 
muscle to resort to proteids for fuel, but probably signifies ab- 
normal wear and tear of the living framework of the muscle. 

A familiar and natural consequence of exercise is fatigue, a 
condition which may involve both the nerve cells of the brain 
and^cord, and the muscle. Muscles which have been worked un- 
tilthey no longer respond to a voluntary effort may still contract 



238 The Plexus. 

and do work on direct stimulation by electric currents. By- 
keeping up artificial stimulation, a time eventually comes, when 
fatigue of the muscle itself prevents further contraction. Two 
distinct factors are concerned in the causation of fatigue in so- 
far as this affects the muscle fibre. One is the more or less com- 
plete consumption of the energy yielding substances which can- 
not be replaced fast enough during exercise to keep up the stock. 
The use of food hastens recovery and the efficacy of the several 
food substances seems to be directly proportioned to ease and 
rapidity with which they are digested and absorbed; hence the 
almost magical effect sometimes obtained in fatigue by the eat- 
ing of a small quantity of sugar. The restorative action of stim- 
ulants like tea and coffee or alcohol is also interesting in this 
connection, but lack of space forbids the digression at this time. 
The other cause of fatigue is found in the accumulation of waste- 
products whose removal does not keep pace with their formation 
during activity. 

Nature provides a self-regulating mechanism to offset and 
neutralize both series of changes and the onset of fatigue may be- 
long delayed under favorable circumstances. Entrance upon 
functional activity is accompanied by increased vascularity and 
accelerated blood flow in mnscles as in other organs. The active- 
muscle thus receives a richer supply of nutriment while the ex- 
cess of waste materials is more effectually carried off. The alter- 
nate compression and relaxation of the veins and lymph vessels, 
owing to the arrangement of their valves, produce a sort of 
pumping action while the small arteries and capillaries are 
greatly dilated. An actual measurement made on the chewing 
muscles of the horse showed that the blood flow through them 
was three times greater while feeding than at rest. 

Passing now to the general effect of exercise, which are so- 
important from the hygienic standpoint, it may be said that in a 
general way their mode of production is not difficult to under- 
stand. Afferent impulses are' generated abundantly in contract- 
ing muscles, and entering the central nervous system, by reflex 
stimulation of various centres may set up correlated functional 
changes in any part of the body. The physical and chemical 
alterations in the blood returning from the muscles, such as its. 
higher temperature and osmotic tension, or its altered contents 
in oxygen, carbon dioxide and extractives, may also influenca 



Physiology of Muscular Exercise. 339 

•distant parts either directly or indirectly by a primary action on 
the nervous system. Without attempting the analysis in each 
particular case, the more important of these general effects will 
be briefly described. 

The heart responds promptly to exercise by a quickening of 
its beat, increasing its rate even as much as 50 per cent of the 
normal; in any given case the observed effect is determined by 
individual peculiarities and by the intensity and duration of the 
work done. The beat usually remains regular and full, so that 
the higher pulse rate raises general blood pressure and every 
part of the body participates in the benefits of an improved cir- 
culation. 

The respiratory movements are also quickened during exer- 
cise with the result that a larger volume of air is breathed per 
unit of time. A more thorough ventilation of the lungs thus goes 
hand in band with a more rapid blood stream and the greater 
necessity for oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide elimination is 
provided for. 

As a third general effect should be mentioned the marked 
•changes in the circulation and in the secretory activities of the 
skin already described in connection with the heat regulating 
mechanisms. 

General effects on digestion and nutrition are also secured by 
physical exercise. Increased activity and more rapid combus- 
tion in so many organs suggest tissue hunger as the possible ex- 
planation of the improvement in the appetite commonly ob- 
served; certainly more food is taken and better relished. The 
improved circulation and hightened tone of the alimentary tract 
favor the process of secretion, digestion and absorption, while 
the tissues generally are stimulated and raised up to a higher 
nutritive level. 

Through these general effects muscular exercise becomes an 
important factor in the preservation and promotion of general 
health; by its local effects upon the muscles, which are hardened 
and enlarged, and through them, upon the skeletal structures, it 
also secures symmetrical and harmonious development of the 
body; and finally, by its effects on the associated nervous mechan- 
isms, it developes and expands the mental powers and educates 
the muscles for the performance of those delicate co-ordinated 
movements required in the successful utilization of muscular 
force. 



RESPIRATORY GYMNASTICS. 
Edward H. Ochsner, B. S., M. D, 
It is now almost twelve years since I first became interested 
in this subject. At that time I was a student^at'.the].University 
of Wisconsin, and the institution was practically without a gym- 
nasium and consequently during: the winter months it was often 
very diflBcult to get sufficient and proper exercise. In order to 
overcome this difficulty my room mate and I improvised a system 
of indoor gymnastics compatible with the size of our room and 
in keeping with the exhausted conditon of our pocketbooks. 

Among many other things this system included respiratory 
gymnastics. Fortunately at the very outset we took accurate 
chest measurements, at the end of full inspiration and at the end 
of complete expiration. We made a record of these measure- 
ments and as the term progressed we measured again and were 
very greatly surprised at the increase of lung capacity. Ever 
since this time I have given the subject of breathing exercises 
some thought and attention. At first for my own use alone and 
later from the standpoint of the physician, and have found them 
most useful in both instances. 

Non use leads to atrophy. Atrophy is a predisposing factor 
in the production of disease. A reasonable amount of exercise 
occasionally pushed near the limit in degree and endurance is 
important in order to secure the normal development of an organ, 
to establish its physiological function, and to fortify it, as well 
as the body in general, against disease. These statements are so 
self evident and so generally accepted that arguments to sub- 
stantiate them seem superfluous. 

If now we find among our people a certain number whose 
lungs and respiratory muscles do not get sufficient or proper ex- 
ercise, it plainly becomes our duty to look into the matter and 
regulate it. Unfortunately in our large cities this class is in the 
majority. 

To begin with, how about our students (medical or other- 
wise), our lawyers, doctors, ministers, teachers, clerks, stenog- 
raphers, factory girls, and in fact all of our people who lead 
sedentery lives? What proportion of these regularly fill their 
lungs to their full capacity, even once or twice a day? I dare 



Respiratory Gymnastics. 241 

say a very small per cent. It might be said that these all need 
general bodily exercise and that if this were insisted upon the 
respiratory system would gets its proper amoilnt. This is true 
to a certain extent, but even then unlsss the exercise is reason- 
ably violent at least for a few minutes at a time, it is not certain 
that the lungs will be inflated to their full capacity. 

A person may go to bed weary from work every night for a 
month and during the whole time never have taken a full deep 
breath. Besides I have often found it possible to have a patient 
conscientiously follow a system of respiratory exercises for a 
long time, who would have found it impossible to get the proper 
amount of general exercise daily for even a much shorter period. 

Many patients of the above enumerated class, who are not 
suffering from any definite disease, but who are run down, who 
are below par, consult their family physician in the hope of be- 
ing toned up. 

These patients must be looked after immediately or they be- 
come easy prey to various affections, such as pneumonia, la 
grippe or, if exposed, to even a more serious one, namely 
phthisis. 

The highest function of the physician certainly is to prevent 
disease, and in order to do this in the greatest number of cases, 
it is necessary to be well equipped. He should be ready to use 
intelligently any and every aid which is feasible. He should 
above all things have at his command the simplest and most ef- 
fective. Respiratory gymnastics are certainly the simplest and 
most effective adjuncts to general tonic treatment. 

Besides the conditions above enumerated, I have found them 
most useful in cases suffering from glandular or bone tuberculo- 
sis, from anasmia or chlorosis, from malnutrition from whatever 
cause, but especially in cases where the malnutrition is due to 
some chronic infection as in gonorrheal or ordinary chronic 
rheumatism, or following septic infection. Above all have I 
found it useful after empyema operations. It is really remark- 
able how nearly perfect one may often find the lung expansion to 
be in one of these cases if the breathing exercises have been sys- 
tematically taken for six months. I usually start them on mild ex- 
ercises just as soon as they can be taken without causing pain, 
increasing in extent and continuing them for at least six months 
or until the expansion is as perfect on the operated as on the 
nonoperated side 



242 The Plexus. 

It is also remarkable how much it will sometimes do for a 
patient with pleurisy with effusion. The first patient in whom I 
observed really marked improvement under this treatment was 
one suffering from this affection. About six years ago a young 
man of thirty came under my care. His left pleural cavity was 
about as full of fluid as it could possibly be. When sitting erect 
flatness extended to the lower border of the third rib in nipple 
line, clear up into the axilla and to the same level posteriorly. 
Above this level there was dullness, resulting from the compress- 
ion of the lung. We aspirated the pleural cavity and withdrew 
a large amount of straw colored fluid. In spite of mild cathartics 
and diuretics it filled up in a few days and at the end of a week 
he was again aspirated. This again relieved him for a few days 
when the cavity filled to the former level and remained so for 
fully a month when I put him on systematic breathing exercises, 
continuing of course the mild laxatives and diuretics. The flat- 
ness began to recede appreciably within a week and at the end of 
two months there was not a trace of it left. Of course I am 
fully aware of the fact that often the pleuritic effusion will ab- 
sorb after even only a few ounces have been removed by aspira- 
tion, still it had had a month's time to absorb before I began the 
breathing exercises. 

I have had other cases where the fluid has been absorbed 
completely without aspiration, but I cite the above because it 
serves best to illustrate how rapidly so great an amount of pleu- 
ritic effusion can be made to absorb. 

The breathing exercises which I have used myself and which 
I have directed my patients to take are very simple and yet it is 
with them as with most other things in medicine, they must be 
executed correctly or they will do very little good. In other 
words there is a right and a wrong way in even so simple a pro- 
cedure as this. The same rule holds good here as with any other 
muscular movements taken for the purpose of getting exercise. 
They must be executed with a certain degree of "snap" and to 
the limit, in order that all of the muscles may be brought into 
play. One man may walk a mile and exercise relatively few 
muscles, another may walk the same distance and get a great 
deal of valuable exercise, calling into play a much greater num- 
ber of muscles. So with these exercises, one man may take 
twenty at a time, call into play only half the respiratory muscles 



Respiratory Gymnastics. 343 

and fill only nine-tenths of the alveoli with air, another may- 
take five and accomplish much better results. 

The exercises may be numbered one, two and three and are 
all taken in the erect position, the so-called position of attention. 
First exercise : The patient at attention with mouth closed 
is directed to inspire through his nose and to slowly filled his 
lungs to their utmost capacity by first depressing the diaphragm, 
thus completely filling the lower portion of his lungs, then ex- 
panding the upper portion of his chest, the shoulders being 
thrown back as the lungs become completely filled with air. 
Now after a momentary pause the air is slowly expelled through 
the mouth, holding it so that the air escapes against resistance. 
Second exerc.ise: Same as first except that the forearm is 
flexed on the arm and as the lungs are filled and emptied the 
shoulders are rotated from before backward. 

Third exercise: Same as first except that as the lungs are 
filled the extended arms are made to describe a circle with the 
shoulder as the center. They are rotated from before back- 
wards during the exercise. 

Numbers two and three differ only from number one in that 
they call into play the accessory muscles of respiration. 

I must again insist that they must be gone through with 
slowly and to the limit. At first it will be difficult for some pa- 
tients to inspire longer than ten seconds or to expire longer than 
three, but as they get better control of their muscles and as their 
lung capacity increases, it will be possible for them to inspire 
slowly and steadily from twenty-five to thirty seconds and to ex- 
pire from seven to ten seconds. Another thing that is very diffi- 
cult, especially for women, is to make themselves at all proficient 
in abdominal breathing. Some find great difficulty in learning it 
at all, and it sometimes becomes necessary to direct them to 
stand before a large mirror so that they can observe carefully 
and learn correctly the process of filling their lungs. 

Again it is sometimes difficult for patients to learn how to 
blow against resistance. These can either be given a small 
goose quill to blow through or they may be directed to blow 
against a lace curtain. At first some find it impossible to impart 
the slightest motion to a curtain at a distance of three feet, while 
as they become proficient it is quite easy to make an appreciable 
effect when ten feet away. 



244 The Plexus. 

There is one more thing against which it is necessary to 
caution: namely the taking of too many exercises at one time at 
the very beginning. Should this be advised the patient will 
either not take them correctly or they may cause syncope. The 
sudden unaccustomed enlargement of the chest cavity may cause 
sudden anocmia of the brain. 

I direct my patients to go through the exercises once morn- 
ing and evening for the first week, then to increase one a week 
until they have reached five and to continue with this number 
for months. I always have them take the exercises on arising 
and retiring, when free movement is uninterrupted by constrict- 
ing waist bands and heavy clothing. 

Every time such a patient comes to my office I have him 
show me what progress he has made in learning how to breatb 
correctly. I have used these exercises on hundreds of cases and 
I have always found them most valuable adjuncts to other tonic 
treatment. 

710 Sedg-wick Street. 



THE ANNUAL JUNIOR PROMENADE. 

The annual promenade, tendered by the juniors to the senior 
class, to be held Thursday, Dec. 5, promises to be one of the 
most brilliant social events of its kind ever held by students of 
this institution. Elaborate preparations are being made by the 
various committees, and it is inconceivable that their efforts can 
fail of success. 

An innovation has been inaugurated by which this year's 
party will be complimentary to the seniors not only in name but 
in fact. Heretofore it has been customary for the members of 
the senior class to share the expenses with the juniors, but this 
year the juniors unanimously decided to shoulder all the ex- 
penses themselves, and make the atfair all that the term "in 
honor of the senior class" implies. Tickets have, therefore been 
issued to all the members of the senior class who expressed a de- 
sire to attend, and it is useless to add that the entire class will be 
out in full force. 

Great enthusiasm in this affair has been manifested by the 
juniors, both individually and as a class, and it is felt that a rare 
good time is in store for those who elect to attend. The spacious 
Illinois Hall, at Madison street and Ogden avenue, has been se-. 



Annual Junior Promenad . 245 

lected as the place for holding- the promenade, and as the danc- 
ing capacity of the floor is two hundred couples, there will be no 
lack of room for the dreamy waltz or the stately quadrille. 
Tables will be provided for those who prefer the silent game of 
cards to the more active exercise on the waxen floor; while those 
who feelMisposed to try the rest cure will find ample facilities 
for its indulgence^ The hall will be handsomely decorated, the 
college colors of course predominating. 

The members of the faculty are showing pronounced interest 
in this affair of the students, as might be expected, and it is be- 
lieved a large representation of that body will be present, thus 
adding brilliancy and dignity to the gathering. Out of deference 
to their presence all "shop talk"' will be rigorously tabooed, and 
there is even talk of organizing all the demonstrators into a tem- 
porary police force to see that this regulation is enforced. 
Superintendent Browne will be there between classes, as per 
usual. 

While the party will be largely attended by both faculty and 
student body, and their friends, it is not the intention to mal^e it 
a formal, full dress afl'air. Therefore those members of the 
sophomore and freshman classes who forgot to bring their swal- 
low tailed coats and pumps need net hesitate to attend on that 
score. Invitations have been extended to all, and it is earnestly 
hoped these classes will send a goodly number to become better 
acquainted with their colleagues and tutors. 

The following committees have been appointed and it can 
safely be predicted they will leave nothing undone to add to the 
enjoyment of all their guests: 

Reception: The Faculty of the Junior Class. Miss J. Web- 
ster, chairman. Miss E. M. Heelan, C. W. Poorman, F. L. 
Gourley, M. W. Hall. 

Arrangements: L. D. Howe, chairman. T. B. Barnes, W. 
H. Moore. 

Floor: L. Sibley, chairman. D. L. Parker, L M. Power, 
J. C. Weld. 

Refreshments: Miss N. L. Martin, chairman. Miss M. B. 
Baird, Seth Wicks. 

Fitzgerald's orchestra will furnish the music and the re- 
freshments will be furnished by Johnson. Both of these names 
are too well known to call for further comment, and we bespeak 
for the entertainment only the greatest success. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ' 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 
CHICAGO. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H. BROWNE, W- T. ECKLEY, M. D., D. N. EISBNDRATH, M. D. 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BBRARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D, 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, '02, R. L. ELDREDGE. '03. 

Class Editors: 

F. H. HORNIROOK, 02, B. S. MALOY, '03 F. L WOOD, '04. 



'Faculty Department, DR. P. B. EARLE. Clinical Laboratory Dept.. DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E- DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 

Advertising Solicitors, R. E. BROWN, 'C2. H H. FRtDEKFELD. '02. 
Publisher, - - - - - - H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
^end all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, <^'or. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Cliicago Post OiBce as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at tlie expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 



Contributions of matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in nod 
Iter than the 25th of th( 
themselves responsible : 



•later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers willnot hQj 
)le for the safe return of MSS. unless sufficient stamps are forward ojd* 



We have devoted this issue of the Plexus to articles per- 
taining to systematic physical training and shall be pleased to 
publish other articles from time to time along the same line. 

The college has taken a good step when it has equipped a 
gymnasium and provide a competent instructor who has outlined 
a thorough course of work along this line. 

* 
Would it not be well for the Senior or Junior class, Y. M- 
C. A. or some other organization to take up the idea of a College 
Annual and get one out. 



Editorial. 247.' 

The Faculty, Alumni and Students of the college of Physician 
and Surgeons ought to support a college annual. Might it not 
be well to interest the other representatives of the University of 
Illinois in Chicago — The College of Dentistry and Pharmacy — 
in a proposition of this kind. Who will take it up"? What do 

you think of the proposition? 

*■ * 
* 

The young vvomen of the Y. W. C. A. are to be congratulated 
in their efforts to give the students of the Colleges of Physicians 
and Surgeons a College Calendar, one expressing the medical 
side of school life is planned. 

In order to arouse interest in the artistic efforts of our de- 
signers, they have offered a prize of twenty dollars to the student 
designing the best calendar and a number have entered the con- 
test and it promises to be a work of art. 

The Faculty, Alumni and Student body should encourage the 
efforts of the young ladies and patronize them well, as all these 
"side issues" serve to make the school life more pleasant and 
and tend to increase college spirit, which too often is below par 
in medical colleges where the enrollment is large. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 

Metta Loomis, Librarian. 

During the past month the following additions have been 
made to Quine Library. Forty-six volumes of the latest and 
most authoritative medical works have been purchased for the 
library. Sixty-seven volumes of periodicals have been bound 
and placed on the shelves, and the following gifts have been re- 
ceived: From Dr. H. A. Hare, of the University of Pennsylva- 
nia, a copy of his valuable work on the Pathology, Clinical Hist- 
ory and Diagnosis of Affections of the Mediastinum. Dr. Fantus 
presented the library with a copy of Tanner's Memoranda of 
Poisons. 

Mr. E. H. Colgrove kindly remembered the library with a 
gift of sixty volumes of medical journals, about half the number 
being foreign periodicals. Dr. L. H. Mettler sent the libraryjSOO 
valuable reprints and pamphlets, 

The manuscripts of the various speeches and toasts delivered 
at the banquet given in honor of Dr. Fenger have come into pos- 
session of the library through the kindness of Dr. Evans. 

For some time there has been a growing demand to have the 
library open evenings, and the faculty of P. & S., ever mindful 
of the best interests of the students, have made arrangements by 
which the library is to be opened three evenings during each 
week. The numbers of students who are availing themselves of 
the opportunity for night work is an evidence of the necessity 
which existed for increased facilities for library work. It is also 
an evidence of the rapidly increasing value of Qnine Library to 
the student who wishes to do research and reference work in any 
line of medical literature. 

Five new study tables have been placed in the library for 
the accommodation of the students who are doing thesis work. 

The following contributions to medical literature by mem- 
bers of the faculty of P. & S. have appeared in various medical 
journals during the past month: 

Dr. W. A, Evans: Report of Pour Cases of Fat Necrosis in 
Connection with Gallstones. Journal of American. Medical As- 
sociation, Nov. 2, page 1176-1180. 



Library Notes. 249 

Dr, Carl Beck. Fat Necrosis from a Surgical Standpoint. 
Journal American Medical Association, Nov. 2, p. 1180-1182. 

Dr. E. N. Eisendrath. The Surgery of Pulmonary Abscess, 
Gangrene and Bronchiectases, following pneumonia, Philadel- 
phia Medical Journal, Nov. 23, p. 919-928. 

Dr. A. J. Ochsner. Femoral Hernia. The Clinical Review. 
November, pages 83-94. 

Dr. J. M. Patton. The use of Oxygen Gas in Diseases of the 
Chest. The Clinical Review, November, pages 94-102. 

Dr. G. F. Lydston, A Probable Cause of Failure in Internal 
Urethrotomy. Journal of Cutaneous and Genito-Urinary Dis- 
eases. November, pages 527-528. 

Dr. A. J. Ochsner. Appendicitis and its Treatment. Medi- 
cal Standard. November, pages 592-593. 

Dr. Casey A. Wood, in collaboration with Dr. F. A Wood- 
ruff, The Common Diseases of the Eye. Medical Standard, 
November, pages 592-593. 

Dr. E. H. Lee. A Surgical Clinic. Medical Standard. No- 
vember, pages 594-598. 

Dr. Aime Paul Herrick. Treatment of Plural Fist la. Med- 
ical Standard. November, pages 597-600, 



ALUMNI DEPARTMENT. 

'83. C. M. Thompson, Elk Rapids, Mich., adds his name to 
our list of subscribers. The doctor is enjoying a lucrative prac- 
tice and is an enthusiastic alumnus of the college. 

'96. A. A. Starner has moved from Danville. Ohio to Gallon, 
Ohio. 

'96. Frank E. Culp, of Nome, Alaska, and H, A. Jegi, of 
Galesville, were recent visitors at the Plexus office. We are al- 
ways pleased to have the alumni call when in the city, 

'98. John S. Nagel, recently returned from Philippine Is- 
lands, where he has been serving as surgeon in the volunteer 
service. He is looking well, and enjoyed very much his year in 
the newly acquired territory. He is located on corner of Harri- 
son and Western Aee., Chicago. 

'98, A, C. Croftan is now in Pepper Laboratory, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

'98. Eugene D. Whitney died at his home, Painsville, Ohio, 



50 The Plexus. 

on Nov. 4, of typhoid fever, age 32. 

'99. J. C. Betz has located in Boscabel, Wis- 

'01. I. W. Shanks has removed from Grand Rapids, Mich.,, 
to Walkerville, Mich. 

'01. Report comes to us that C. W. Hubbard, of Cedar Rap- 
ids, Iowa, has recently been married. Congratulations ''Cupid." 

'01 W. D. McDowelLis now located at corner Ogden Ave. 
and Polk St., Chicago. 

'01. Mortime Frank is located in Reliance Bldg., Chicago. 
Dr. Frank is doing work on pye only. 

'01. R. O. Ringo has given up his work at South Bend, 
Neb. and enters the Cook County Hospital Dec. 1. He enjoyed a 
very nice practice while in South Bend. His place at South 
Bend has been taken by E. C. Ruge. 



AGNES TURNER. 

Dr. Agnes Turner, of the class of "01 died at South Bend, 
Ind., Nov. 18, of Bright's disease, following an attack of typhoid 
fever. She was sick nine weeks. Dr. Turner was born in Stur- 
ges, Mich., and for a number of years before entering her medi- 
cal course, was principal of the Lafayette school of South Bend. 

In her medical course Dr. Turner was among the leaders of 
hes class, being on the roll of honor at the close of her senior 
year, and her prospects for a useful career as a physician were 
very bright. She was a universal favorite among a wide circle 
of friends and acquaintances. 

Dr. F. M. Sawyer, '84, attended Dr. Turner, and Dr. Quine 
was called to South Bend in consultation. 



SENIOR NOTES. 
A class meeting was held in 406, Nov. 5, and after a very 
eloquent plea by the president, it was decided to dispense with 
the reading of the minutes of the last meeting. The only im- 
portant business to come before the class was the announcement 
by the president of the executive committee. The following 
were appointed: Messrs. Sabin, Lunn, Faith, Beam and Whyte. 
After the subsidence of the applause, Mr. Siegfriedt moved that 
the meeting be adjourned, and it was immediately carried. The 



JVofes. 251 

committee men selected are eminently qualified 'for the position 
and they have received the universal commendation of the class. 

Mz\ C. C. Young has been appointed official interpreter of 
the dead languages at the county hospital, Kis v^ork will be 
chiefly confined to the morgue. 

Miss Green's mother visited the class last week. 

THE DREAM OF R. HAYNES. 

A senior sat in his hard backed seat, 

Though soft and downey it did seem, 
And slept and dreamed of things so sweet, 

That of heaven itself he caught a gleam. 

There was Peter with his beard of white, 

There were the stairs of purest gold. 
There were the angels in a halo of light, 

And there was the register book of old. 

The student with a cry of delight. 

Rushed up to Peter and did implore 
Permission to enter and see the sight, 

But said Peter, "He who enters must tell more," 

"Where are you from?" quoth the old man, 

"I am late of Chicago, sir,'' he said. 
"And what was your business, when on land?" 

"I was studying medicine when not in bed." 

"Ah!" said Peter, "that is well, 

A medical man I am glad to get. 
But what is your name, I would have you tell. 

For every name in gold is set." 

"My name is Haynes," quoth the btudent bold. 

"Haynes!"' cried Peter, "no Haynes is dead." 
"But sir, my name is Haynes as I have told." 

"Your name, on the book, I have not read." 

"You are not dead," again quoth Pete, 

"But simply sleeping, that is all. 
Return, Mr. Haynes, to your earthly seat, 

And patiently wait until your call." 

Just then a crack on the student's head. 

And the sleeper awoke from his dream, and sighed. 

He found not heaven, but the surgical clinic instead. 
••Hit him again, he deserves it," Dr. Ferguson cried. 

Mr. O. E. Beebe has given evidence of his remarkable skill 
as a gynecologist. He is always doubly prepared to do this kind 
of work. 



252 The Plexus. 

The fact, that a pair called Adam and Eve are with us this 
year, does not at all shatter our firm belief in the Darwin theory. 
It even gives us more faith. 

Mr. Siegfriedt has returned from his extended trip to Mexico 
and other points. School began the following day. 

Mr. R. E. Brown gave an ansesthetic this month. 

Two weeks ago Mr. Kimball was called in consultation to see 
a case in Indiana. The patient was a lady, and is now reported 
better. 

Dr. K. demonstrated in one of his recent clinics the great 
variety of nerve lesions, when he considered it necessary to in- 
quire of a male patient as to the number of abortions he had had 

The last decade has shown some marvelous advances in sur- 
gery and medicine. Even within the last three months it has been 
demonstrated clinically that opium and other medicinal hypnot- 
ics are unnecessary, The same effect with far better after re- 
sults may be obtained by giving the patient a short talk upon 
the "peculiar conditions of the blood in different diseases." 
Every senior can vouch for the efficiency of this wonderful (?) 
remedy. 

Dr. King to patient: Do you see the gentleman to the right 
of Mr. Tolley? 

Ans. : No, I see something light. 
It was Weaver's head. 

As the time of his graduation approaches. Low gives up the 
idea of becoming a "quack" and keeps his hair cut. 

Dr. Earle to Podgur: How would you give a Sitz-bath? 
Podgur: Put the women in a small pan on the floor. 

Leavitt has been called home to see his father who is suffer- 
ing from a severe accident received in a runaway. 



JUNIOR NOTES. 

RONDELET. 

For he is it 
Since he cut short that head of hair. 

For he is it, 
And often — yea! — we've seen him hit 



Notes. 253 

With missies that are all but fit 
For one with pate so smooth and bare — 
For he is it. 

(Apologies to Wochos.) " 

Lo.rcl Chesterfield said, "Men are judged not by their inten- 
tions, but by their actions." How well this can be applied to 
J. C. Weld is indeed not difficult to grasp. One has but to note 
that gentleman's actions throughout a minor part of the day in 
order to fully understand what is meant. 

W. A. Shepherd remarked to several members of the class 
the other day that he' was feeling "decidedly punk and all run 
down from some cause or another.'' Now we think the diagnosis 
exceedingly easy when we take into consideration the distance 
from the west side over to Greenwood avenue and Sixty-fifth 
street. Especially is the condition aggravated when we con- 
sider that the distance is traversed not only on Sunday evening, 
but also at stated intervals throughout the week. Will not some 
whole-souled creature prescribe for our friend"? We are loath to 
see a good man down, but it is quite beyond us to aid him. 

An old adage says, "if you trim a baby's finger-nails to any 
great extent during infancy, that baby will be light-fingered in 
after years." We would suggest that the man (?) who filched 
our book a short time ago, endeavor to find out if such adage is 
true, by consulting his parents, provided he knows both of them. 

Many are the strange names we hear during roll call nowa- 
days, viz: Treadwell, Wormstone, Freshlung, Copen and Tom 
Hagen, and several names near the middle of the roll which we 
can not reproduce in type. 

When you know the "Prof." will call you. 

And your heart goes pitapat; 
While you shiver as with ague. 

Knowing naught just where you're at: 

Know you how the sense of pleasure 

Kests and soothes your quaking soul, 
When the "Prof.'" with seeming leisure — 
Stops, and jumps far down the roll. 
Among those who made the flying trip to the Buffalo exposi- 
tion on the 26th ult. were the following Juniors: C. E. McCar- 
ty, D. L. Parker, D. G. Tweedle, C. E. Saunders, L. B. Donkle, 



254: • The Plexus. 

W. D. Madden, P. Wicks, G. A. Bryan, L. H. Howe, V. C. Burns, 
C. E. Smith, T. A. Buchanan and E. J. Mitchell. Owing to the 
fact that the trip was made in exceedingly rapid time, the party 
were thus enabled to spend a much greater amount of the alloted 
time at the fair. Although tlie actual time spent at the exposi- 
tion was comparatively short (Saturday until Monday evening), 
yet they made use of every moment of the time, and not only 
were the principal seats of interest visited, but a visit of sev- 
eral hours" duration was made to thai great natural wonder — Ni- 
agara Falls. Space will not allow of an extended account of 
their journey, but it is fitting to state that they are all unani- 
mous in the assertion that it was one of the most pleasurable 
and instructive short trips they had ever made. 

The work that has been done lately in intestinal suturing in 
Dr. Sherwood's class has been of immense value to the different 
members who participated. Owing to the untiring efforts of his 
assistants, Messrs. Bryan and Haskel, the class was provided 
with a goodly supply of intestines which at first blush (and smell) 
were acceptable. The second day, however, was somewhat dif- 
ferent. Not only could we smell them from afar off, but some of 
the class with a very acute sense of hearing avowed that the 
movements of the intestines could be distinctly heard while they 
still remained in the bucket. That all of the above is absolutely 
true we are unable to say, however, we know from actual experi- 
ence that the odor which was cutting circles in the atmosphere 
in our immediate vicinity, during the ordeal,, would fall far short 
of the sweet odors engendered by Arabian perfumes. Instead, it 
brought back recollections of by-gone days, through which many 
of us so unwillingly passed not many moons ago. Now, we are 
fully convinced that intestinal suturing is an all-important part 
of surgery but we would suggest that in future the two assist- 
ants be more considerate in their choice of dogs and thereby 
evince a feeling of brotherly love and affection toward their fel- 
low-students. 

And now^ De Nevue informs the class that a wheal is a cir- 
cumcised area. 

Did all grasp McGann's meaning when he asked regarding 
the freight trains? 

At last accounts L. A. Klinefelter has almost recovered from 
the effects of the operation performed on him for appendicitis at 



Notes. 255 

the county hospital several days ago. Dr. Eisendrath was the 
attending physician and performed a most successful operation 
which is clearly shown by the patient's rapid recovery. The en- 
tire class join us in the hope of a speedy recovery for Mr. Kline- 
felter. 

"We are informed that the Junior Promenade has been given 
due notice on another page of this issue. Notwithstanding, we 
feel it our duty to at least mention the fact that in giving this 
social event in honor of the Seniors — the Junior class will far ex- 
cel any previous efforts ever made in this direction at the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons. 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

Prof. : "We are now coming to the most difficult part of the 
subject; will Mr. Shimmelfennig describe the descending cornu." 

No reply. 

"Will Mr. Spapiro proceed." 

How strange it is that we have been so blind to the personal 
attractions of one of our members. Had it not been for the ar- 
tistic eye of Dr. Evans, Mr. Cone had been "born to blush unseen 
and waste his sweetness on the desert air." 

Our course in Sophomore clinics is meeting with the unquali- 
fied approval of the entire class as shown by the large attend- 
ance and deep interest shown. Some very interesting cases have 
been brought before the class in the past few weeks. It is hoped 
that all may continue, by attendance and interest, to show their 
appreciation of the course, in order that those members of the 
faculty who oppose the idea may be the more quickly convinced 
of its value. 

Mr. Kruk has become very pious of late. Not long since, in 
the presence of the whole class, he was seen to kneel at the 
shrine of one of the fairest of our fair ones and say, "Grace." 
Those who were near say that he concluded with a prayer for 
forgiveness. 

The smiling faces and loud demonstrations of the members 
of the class upon the return of Prof Fantus after his recent ill- 
ness must have given him some idea of how glad we were to have 
him with us again. We considered ourselves very fortunate dur- 
ing his absence to have such an able man to fill his place, as Dr. 



256 The Plexus. 

Williamson, whose interesting and emphatic lectures were list- 
ened to with great pleasure and profit. 

J. R. Montgomeny has been under a spell for some time. 
Some day the good fairy who has him in hand will remove the 
spell and he will awake to exclaim with Bottom of Shakespearian 
fame: "I must to the barber, far methinks I'm wondrous hairy 
about the face!" We do not wish to infer that Jimmy's mustache 
makes him look like an ass, but it certainly does mar the beauty 
of his features remarkably. 

It is remarkable what a beneficial eifect our new environ- 
ments have had upon the department of the class. Even Wall 
is behaving himself very nicely so that one can hear a lecture 
quite well when he is only four seats away. Others have shown 
a similar improvement. Taking our class as a whole we never 
were guilty of "rough house"' except when forced to it by long 
periods of confinement in the old "A. A.," or by the inroads of 
the present Senior class. They thought they never were happy 
till they met us, but when the meeting came they pang the old 
song slightly revised: 

"We were happy till we met you, 
And the fault was all our own," etc. 

It is hoped that the young man who has been bringing a dog 
to lectures with him has been persuaded to leave it at home in 
future. We have known fellows to bring "ponies" to class with 
them, especially when a quizz or examination was expected, but 
a dog is an innovation. It would seem that any young man, who 
has no higher ambition than that of leading a yelping bull pup 
around by a string, had better give up studying medicine and 
apply for a position as keeper of the dog parlors, under the 
supervision of the department of physiology. 

We wish to urge every member to take a hand in the com- 
plete organization of the class. Mr. Haessly is putting forth his 
best efforts to get our class organization on a firm footing and it 
is hoped that all those who have an interest in their own welfare 
will assist by nttending meetings and giving suggestions. Let 
us build up an organization that will last throughout the re- 
mainder of our course. 



FRESHMAN NOTES. 

The Freshman class this year, we are told, consists of one' 
hundred and seven members, the majority of which is of the male 
persuasion. Only five members are ladies, a fact which some of 
the gentlemen, Peterson prominently included, have been heard 
to lament londly. 

The class is apparently recruited from many walks of life, 
and there is a great diversity of ages, sizes, colors, conditions, 
political and religious affiliations, etc. The euphonious appella- 
tion, "D. J.," has been liberally, indiscriminately and in some 
cases we fear offensively applied to some of our Esculapean em- 
bryos, but we are glad to say with no very serious results, as 
most of us are of a properly humble spirit. Jennings, indeed, 
from somewhere in the depths of his six-foot anatomy, has been 
heard to evolve a deep bass growl, which stripped of many lurid 
verbs and emphatic adjectives, was to the effect that the other 
fellow would develop an instant case of paralysis, if he, Jen- 
nings, were termed a "D. J." We would advise no violence^ 
gentlemen, for are not these medical Gamaliels our superiors and 
should we not with a properly contrite spirit be content to sit at 
their upper class feet? Provided always, of course, that said 
upper class feet have been regularly and with tolerable fre- 
quency washed, a proposition we regret to say we approach with, 
some timidity for fear of an incorrect conclusion. 

A few cases of virulent home sickness have been reported, 
but the delightful home flavor, if we may so term it, which hangs 
like a halo around the West Side restaurants, has had a vast in- 
fluence in warding off this distressing malady and also in dissi- 
pating what few cases may have developed. Stoneheart, how- 
ever, makes suspicious and very regular trips to Valparaiso. 

We have several times been complimented by various mem- 
bers of the faculty, particularly by Dr. Shaw, on our collective 
personal appearance and precision in recitation. We accept all 
such commendations gracefully, and without fear of contradic- 
tion venture the statement that the Freshman class of 1901 is 
the finest class matriculated by the P. & S. in this century. 

A class organization was effected early in the term. The 
officers chosen are as follows: 

H. P. Bagley, President. 

B. C. Grout, Vice President. 



258 The Plexus 

H. J. Jefferson, Treasurer. 

J. Payne Browne, Secretary and Class Editor. 

We respectfully suggest that Jefferson be put under bond. 
Through the zealous activity of the "Egans three" all the ladies 
were elected honorary vice presidents, a courteous recognition of 
which we heartily approve. They are the Misses Beardsley 
Slocum, Hattendorf, Johnson and Zatlin. In the absence of 
Bagley and Grout the soothing effect produced when Miss 
Beardsley proudly assumes the chair is very noticeable; even 
Pirosh behaves himeelf. 

In athletics we possess some stars of the first magnitude. 
Powell and Buchan have been on the college football team dur- 
ing the season and distinguished themselves on several occa- 
«ions. A Freshman team has been organized with line up as 
follows: C. Gray, R. G. ; Vankirk, L. G. ; Jennings, R. T. ; Kel- 
ley, L. T. ; Parvuhar, L. E. ; Buchan, R. E. ; Thomas and Morton, 
•Q. B. ; Captain Powell, L. H. B. ; Bowen, R, H. B. ; Grant and 
Rule, F. B., Mount. The class contributed liberally to deck 
these gentlemen with appropriate protective and running gear, 
and in their new togs they will undoubtedly present a formida 
ble appearance. The Sophomores were challenged and the game 
will be played Nov. 23. 

Passed up — -Wentz twice, Bagley and Jefferson. This cheer- 
ful and elevating pastime has practically fallen into "inocuous 
desuetude" and stands a good chance of being consigned to obliv- 
ion unless perchance "ye editor" is "hoist by his own petard" 
when the Plexus comes out. 

Bowen went to Madison on Saturday to view the Badger 
Gopher game, and returned much exhiliarated by the success of 
his Alma Mater. 

Dr. Shaw to D. J. — "Now will you tell me into what does 
the hiatus Falliopii open?" Astute D. J. — "Into the Fallopian 
.tubes, sir." 



RUSH WINS. 

The first defeat of P. & S. by her old rival, Rush. 

On Friday, the 15th of November, P.&S. first mot defeat, and 
lor the first time had her goal line crossed by her rival, Rush. 
This was the seventh annual contest between the great schools, 



Rush Wins. 259 

and for the first time the victory lay with the disciples of Ben- 
jamin Rush. 

The loyalty of the P. & S. students and faculty was never 
more apparent than at this game. Six hundred men, a score of 
the faculty, including Drs. Quine, Earle, Sherwood, Evans, Har- 
dy, Simon, Lee and Graves, five coaches, numerous private car- 
riages and smart traps was the representation of the medical 
school of the University of Illinois, and an unmistakable token 
of support to her sturdy representatives upon the gridiron. 

The score of 6-0 is the index of a stubborn fight, of teams 
evenly matched, of a struggle for every inch of ground lost or 
won, and a defeat in which disgrace has no part. The Rush team 
had the advantage of %veight, averaging ten pounds more than 
the men from P. & S. Hamill at right half-back, the former 
star half of the Chicago University team, gained most ground 
for Rush; McKirahan also played good ball. 

Monahan, Sawtelle, Bothne and Lockwood won signal honors 
-for P. & S. 

The line up of the two teams was as fallows: 

Rush. P. &. S. 

Schwendum, F. B. Little, F. B. 

McKirahan, Q. B. Powell, Q. B. 

Donaville, L. H. Monahan, L. H. 

Hamill, R. H. Donkle, R. H. 

Nickelson, C. Sessions' C. 

Toben, R. T. Bothne, L. H. 

Cady, L, T. Lockwood, L. T. 

Keller, R. G. Barabin, R. G. 

McClure, L. G. Lumi, L. G. 

Olsen, R. E. Sawtelle, R. E. 

Harris, R. E. Ingham, R. E. 

The game was called at 3:10 and the chief details were as 
'follows: 

P. & S. kicked off to Rush's ten yard line, Rush advanced 
ball to her 25 yard line by hard rallying. Rush then kicked to 
•centre of field. P. «fc S. returned the kick but was penalized on 
Sawtelle's tackle of Swendum who had signaled for a fair catch. 
Rush kicked again to P. & S.'s 20 yard line. P. & S. tried 
straight plays through the line with but small gains, the heavy 
iine of Rush holding well. Monahan skirted the end for 20 yards 



260 Ihe Plexus. 

making the longest run of the game. Bothne kicked after three 
downs to Rush's 20 j-ard line, Rush returning the ball five yards 
by a run. This ended the first half. The game had been played 
in Rush territory and P. & S. seemed to have the best of the ar- 
gument by a safe margin. 

Second half — Rush kicked to P &S.'s25yard line, Bothne 
returning the ball to the Rush 40 yard line, Hamill running back 
five yards before he was brought to earth. Here began the suc- 
cession of fierce pushes that won the game for Rush. Hamill 
was put through the line and around the end for gains or three 
and five yards at a time and the ball was upon the P. & S.'s five 
yard line. Here a stubborn fight was made but with no avail 
against the heavy line of Rush. The advance was steady and 
irresistable, and the ball was touched down behind the P. & S. 
goal line. A successful try for goal followed. Score 6-0. 
P. & S. now played with desperate energy, forcing the 
ball down into Rush territory, but only seven minutes of play 
remained, and time was called with the ball on the Rush 10 yard 
line and in her possession. 



Y. M. C. A. NOTES. 

Membership has been growing apace during November 
Sixty-eight new applications have increased the student roll to a 
total of 92. 

The P. & S. gymnasium class in the West Side Y. M. C. A. 
now has an enrollment of 20. The class meets four times per 
week. A P. & S. basket-ball team is being talked of to play 
Rush and Chicago Dental College. 

The regular meetings of the association have been very well 
attended, and the interest is excellent. Average attendance to 
date is 31. 

Mr. E. T. Colton, Travelling Intercollegiate Secretary for the 
West spoke at the meeting on Nov. 17th. Fifty-three students 
were present. The address was of a high order and thoroughly 
adapted to medical student life and thought. 

Several good situations have been secured by the association 
during the month for P. & S. men. A number of good men. 
however, are still in urgent need of employment. 

Definite assurance has been received from the metropolitan 
secretary that the Christmas conference for professional students 



Noles. 261 

will convene at Lake Forest during the week following Dec. 26. 
Good delegations are expected from all law, dental, medical and 
theological schools in Chicago and vicinity. In all probability, 
P. & S. will be prominently represented. 

The entertainment course given by the Central Department 
is well patronized by P. & S. members. A large number have 
attended each of the three entertainments given thus far. 

Bible study has begun with two classes in the first of the in- 
tercollegiate courses. Classes meet Sunday at 9:30 A. M. and 
Tuesday at 6:45 at the Association house, 596 West Adams St. 

The study of foreign medical work has attracted a good 
number to the class held Saturday evening under the able lead- 
ership of Mr. M. M. Null. 

At the meeting Sunday evening, Nov. 17, the following nom- 
inating committee was appointed by President Null: Chairman, 
P. W. Johnston, '02; C. C. Benedict, '02; S. M. Anderson, '03; 
Geo. Beveridge, '04; F. E. Shimer, '05. The committee was in- 
structed to present one nominee for each office at the regular 
meeting Dec. 1. Election occurs one week later. 

Frederick Cuttle, Department Secretary. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

Calendar. 

Calendar for 1902. 

Y. W. C. A. calendar for 1902. 

Have you ordered Y. W. C. A. calendar for 1902? 

Is your subscription to Plexus due? 

Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, dean of Medical Department of the 
University of Michigan was a recent visitor at the college. He 
addressed the sophomore class in pathology while here. 

Dr. F. Gregory Connell, former Professor of Surgery, has 
located at Leadville, Colo. The Plexus wishes him well in his 
new field. 

Dr. Adolph Gehrmann, professor of bacteriology, is enjoying 
his trip in Europe. He will be back in time for his work at the 
beginning of next term. 

C. Gunderson, a member of the sophomore class, fell from a 
tally-ho and had his foot crushed on the day of the P. & S. — 
Rush football game. He was taken to the West Side Hospital, 
where at present writing be is doing nicely. Although probably 



262 The Plexus. 

crippled, he will not lose his foot. 

Dr. Geo. P. Butler, professor of Materia Medica and Thera- 
peutics has been granted a year's leave of absence. Dr. Butler is 
a very busy man, being chairman of Board to revise Pharma- 
copoea, one of the contributors to the Year Book, at work on re- 
vision of his text book, editor of Doctor's Magazine, superintend- 
ent of Alma Sanitarium, to say nothing of his large regular 
practice. 

The women of the A. E. I. fraternity entertained the new 
women students and the women of the senior class on October 
30th at 2:29 Ashland Blvd. Halloween games were indulged in 
and fortunes told, after refreshments and the appearance of "the 
ghost" the guests departed. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

A Treatise on the Acute, Infectious Exanthemata. Including Variola, Ru 
beola, Scarlatina, Rubella, Varicella and Vaccinia, with especial reference 
to Diagnosis and Treatment. By William Thomas Corlett, M. D., L. R. 
C. P., London. Professor of Dermatology and Syphilology in Western 
Reserve University, Physician fur Diseases of the Skin to Lakeside Hos- 
pital. Consulting Dermatologist to Charity Hospital, St. Alexis Hospital 
and tj^e City Hospital, Cleveland; Member of the American Dermatologi- 
cal Association and the Dermatological Society of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Illustrated by 12 colored plates. 28 half-tones from life, and 2 en- 
gravings. Pages viii-392. Size, 6i by 9i inches. Sold only by subscrip- 
tion. Price, extra cloth, $i.00 net, delivered. Philadelphia. F. A. 
Davis Company, Publishers, 1914-16 Cherry Street. 

This book meets the need of not only the young but the old 
practitioner as well, and is a source of great help in differential 
diagnosis, which the author gives a special prominence. The book 
is practical, concise, complete and up to modern research, and 
much enhanced by life-like illustrations. 

A Text Book of Medicine for Students and Practitioners by Adolf Strumpell, 
M. D. Professor and Director of the Medical Cliuique at the University 
of Erlangen. Third American Edition translated from the thirteenth 
German edition by Herman F. Vickery, A. B., M. D. Instructor in 
Clinical Medicine, Harvard University and Philip Coombs Knapp, A. M., 
M. D., Ex-President of the American Neurological Association, with one 
hundred and eighty-five illustrations in the text, and one plate; pages iii 
to 1215. Price, Cloth $6.00, Leather $7.00. D. Appleton & Co., New 
York and Chicago. 
A thorough, complete, brought up to date book, one which 

will be well received by practitioners as it is thoroughly in line 

with the most recent medical investigations. 

The translators have added a chapter upon the place which 

adds value to the book, as well as various notes which make it of 

more value to the readers. We predict a hearty sale for this 

valuable translation. 



THE PLEXU 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

VOL. VIL DECEMBER 20th, 190L NO. 



malaria: its causation and prevention. 

By Edward P. Wells, M. D, 

Associate Professor of Medicioe and Clinical Medicine, College of Physicians 

and Surgeons, Chicago. 

One by one the great medical problem are being solved. 
Specific diseases, especially those of extrinsic origin, are being 
rigidly differentiated clinically, their respective essential causes 
isolated, their etiological factors and avenues of infection dis- 
covered, their prevention and cure by rational methods formu- 
lated. Thus are they taken from the theorist and empiricist and 
handed over to those whose duty it is to make intelligent prac- 
tical application of our stores of accumulated knowledge for the 
best interests of mankind. The malady which has most recently 
had its etiology and prophylaxis thoroughly illustrated by a 
short, sharp, and aggressive campaign of investigation is mala- 
ria, the subject of our discussion this evening; and if we pause 
to remember that in the greater portion of the most fertile parts 
of the world this disease is the greatest cause of invalidism and 
death and is the most momentous medico-economical question of 
the day, we must acknowledge that it challenges our earnest 
consideration. 

Malaria is a generic term applied to a group of closely re- 
lated diseases — the malarial fevers — each of which is clinically 
and pathologically distinct and is caused by a specific hemospor- 
idian parasite, which is introduced into man by the sting of in- 
fected mosquitoes. 



264 The Plexus. 

The history of malaria, from the most ancient times to the 
present, is singularly full and complete. That malarial fevers 
■were quotidian, tertian, and quartan in type, and were influenced 
by the seasons and proximity of marshes, was recognized by the 
primitive physicians. Later the relationship to those of remit- 
tent and pernicious fevers was recognized. The introduction 
into Europe. 1640, of cinchona bark as a specific remedy for in- 
termittent and remittent fevers — which marked an epoch in 
medicine — greatly stimulated the study of malaria, rendered its 
diagnosis much more satisfactory, and has saved the lives of mil- 
lions of its victims. 

Cleghorn, who studied malaria in the island of Minorca in 
1744 and subsequent years, called particular attention to double 
tertian fevers; to the protean forms assumed by the febrile par- 
oxysm; to the red color of the serum of the shed blood in some 
cases; to the splenic tumor which he found present in all of one 
hundred fatal cases submitted to autopsy. Bailly, in 1825, noted 
the dark color of the cerebral cortex in some fatal cases of per- 
nicious fever: Stewardson, in 1844, demonstrated hepaiic bronz- 
ing, and Clark, in 1855, showed that this was due to chromatic 
granules, which he regarded as being derived from the coloring 
matter of the red blood corpuscles. 

The parasitic origin of malaria has been suspected and advo- 
cated for a long time. Thus in 18B7 Motaxa wrote: -'There is 
no objection to the belief that the parasites of intermittent fever, 
the first generation of which is exhausted in the first periodic 
attack, may go on to a second generation in the same body. * * 
* The duration of the attack being equal to the life of the para- 
site." Later Rassori said: "For many years I have been of the 
opinion that intermittent fevers are produced by parasites which 
recreate an attack in the act of their reproduction, this occurring 
at more or less rapid intervals, according to their species." Mit- 
chell, in 1849, followed in the same line of argument. Meckel in 
1848, and Virchow in 1849, noted the presence of dark granules 
in the blood of j^atients who had died of intermittent and remit- 
tent fevers, and the relation of this pigment to malaria was soon 
established. The malarial parasites were first discovered by 
Laveran in 1880, and their varieties, developmental cycles, and 
relations to the different clinical forms of malarial fever were de- 
termined, chiefly by Italian investigators, during the following 



Malaria: Its Causation and Precenfioii. 265 

decade. King in 1881, Manson in 1894, and Ross in 1897, in 
showing the part played by certain species of mosquitoes as in- 
termediary hosts for the malarial parasite and as conveyers of 
these from one human being to another, and McCallum, in 1898, 
in provingithe2sexual capabilities of these organisms, have com- 
pleted the^circle of our knowledge of malaria. 

The parasitology of malaria is intensely interesting and ex- 
tremely important, but a fuller discussion of this I will leave to 
the distinguished^gentlemen who will follow me, contenting my- 
self by 'presenting only those facts which are necessary to pre- 
serve a continuity of thought and to serve as a basis for my ar- 
gument. 

For exampleij^The parasites of eslivo-autumnal fever, as 
filamentous sporozoites, are introduced into the blood current of 
man by anCinfected mosquito. Their presence in the venemo- 
salivary gland and duct of such mosquitoes may be readily demon- 
strated, but they have not as yet been observed in the liquor 
sanguinis of man, and the exact mode of their entrance into the 
chromocytes 'is unknown. However, after a few days the para- 
site is clearly in -evidence in the blood of the infected person. 

As seen within: the chromocyte, in fresh blood preparations, 
the young parasites are small, whitish, protoplasmic masses, 
possessing amebic. movements. When at rest they assume a len- 
ticular form, but from this they pass, by the shifting of their 
protoplasm, intoCthe most varied regular anil irregular shapes, 
one of which, the annular, is very characteristic of this particular 
malarial parasite. The organisms develop at the expense of 
their respective 'hosts, appropriating the substance of the cor 
puscles by absorption, accelerated by moving and changing pseu- 
dopodia.[^,They increase in size, a peculiar pigmentation takes 
place, the'^infected corpuscles seek the spleen, bone- marrow, and 
other deep- seated^ organs, and at the end of their vital cycle of 
about forty-eight[hours the interesting phenomena of segmenta- 
tion and. sporulation occur, with destruction of the affected chro- 
mocytes, and the. discharge into the blood current of the sporules, 
remnants of segmentation, debris of corpuscular destruction 
and 'Organic, toxins. These correspond in time to the initial and 
subsequent febrile paroxysms. In this form of malaria the par- 
asites do not, as a rule, all mature at the same time, and the 
fever is therefore of the remittent or sub- continuous type. 



266 The Plexus. 

The recently freed spores are small, round, homogeneous 
bodies, devoid of motility. Many of these quickly adhere to and 
penetrate within the red corpuscles and enter upon a new cycle. 
Those which fail to do so are removed from the blood plasma by 
phagocytosis or undergo solution. 

After several of these cycles have occurred, there begin to 
appear iu the blood those peculiar bodies known as crescents, of 
which the spindle shaped, ovoid, and round bodies appear to 
be modifications. These will be fully described by Dr. Preble, 
and it suffices for me to say that they are the sexually mature 
forms of the organism. They are sterile and innocuous in man, 
but under a different and special environment — that is, in the 
Anopheles — become sexually active and undergo a further de- 
velopment with reversion to their elementary form. Sexual ac- 
tivity, to a greater or less extent, may indeed be witnessed in the 
fresh blood preparation, after the expiration of twenty or thirty 
minutes, the male bodies becoming flagellated, some of the fla- 
gellse breaking away -and making attempts at entering the female 
bodies, success in which completes the sexual act, but this you 
can scarcely expect to witness. The impregnated female body 
changes its form, becomes elongated and beaked, and is endowed 
with great propelling and penetrating powers. 

Let us now hurriedly follow the malarial parasite through 
the mosquito. When the Anopheles has ingested crescent-laden 
blood from a malarial human being, there occur in the middle in- 
testine of the parasite's new host those phenomena of flagellation 
and insemination which have been described. The impregnated 
body penetrates into the intestinal wall, becomes greatly en- 
larged, and in about two weeks ruptures and sets free a very 
large number of filamentous sporozoites. These find their way 
into the circulation and accumulate in the tubules of the insect's 
venemo- salivary gland. When this has taken place the mosquito 
is capable of infecting, by its sting, a healthy human being with 
estivo-autumnal fever. 

In this connection a number of related facts deserve special 
consideration. The development of the malarial parasite in the 
mosquito must proceed along the lines described in order that the 
insect may convey the infection from one human being to another 
—that is the mosquito must ingest the sexually mature organ- 
isms, not the young forms, and must inject into its victim the 



Malaria: Its Causation and Prevention. 267 

fully developed sporozoites. So far as is now known, man and 
the female Anopheles are the only animals in which the malarial 
parasite will complete its vital cycles. All the sporozoites in an 
infected mosquito are not discharged at a single sting, and they 
may remain in the tubules of the venerao-salivary gland, in a 
potential state, for a long time, certainly through a hibernating 
period, and for these reasons such an insect may infect any num- 
ber of persons, and probably remain throughout its life an ele- 
ment of danger to the community. 

The study of the other malarial parasites is of equal interest 
and importance with that of the estivo-autumnal, but time will 
permit only the most cursory reference to those of tertian and 
quartan fevers. 

Compared with the estivo-autumnal parasite, that of tertian 
fever attains a larger size, with greater ameboid, psendopodal, 
and pigment granule activity. The infected chromocyte becomes 
very large and pale. The sexually mature organisms are round 
bodies, and flagellation is less frequently witnessed. The vital 
cycle of the parasite is forty-eight hours, and sporulation corres- 
ponds in time to the paroxysm of the resultant benign intermit, 
tent fever. 

The parasite of quartan fever, compared in like manner, has 
less motility, both of protoplasm and pigment. The pigment 
granules are larger and darker. In segmentation the organism 
presents a striking rosette form. The infected corpuscles are 
not enlarged. The sexually mature forms resemble those of 
tertian fever. The entire development of the parasite occurs in 
the general blood current, and every phase may be readily ob- 
served. The vital cycle is completed in seventy-two hours, and 
corresponds with the paroxysm of the resultant benign, but verj^" 
resisting, quartan intermittent fever. 

The malarial organisms of every variety vary in virulency 
within wide limits. In consequence the clinical pictures differ 
infinitely in detail. Relapses, due to incomplete destruction of 
the parasites in the blood, are frequent. 

Let us now consider, cursorily, the malarial mosquitoes. 
With our present knowledge it may be safely asserted that it is 
in the mosquito, of the genus Anopheles, that the malarial hemo- 
sporon undergoes its extra-human cycle of development, in which 
the organism reverts to its elementary form, and that the female 



268 The Plexus 

insects of this genus are the only disseminators of malarial dis- 
ease. 

The mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles may be shortly des- 
cribed as follows: The black palpi are about as long as the pro- 
boscis, being three and four jointed in the male and female 
respectively. The legs are long and end in hoofs or denated 
claws. There is a crown of scales upon the neck, and the abdo- 
men is hairy, not squamous. There are several varieties, of 
which the Anopheles quadrimaculatus, with four pigmented spots 
upon each wing, is in this country the most important, although 
two others have been found. These mosquitoes differ from those 
of the genus Culex, which are those ordinary encountered in the 
vicinity of Chicago, in being larger and darker, and, as is more 
important for ready recognition, by assuming a position with the 
right-line body at a greater or less but distinct angle with the 
surfaces upon which they repose; whereas the culicidas rest with 
their humped bodies parallel with the surfaces upon which they 
sit. Compared with the Culex, the Anopheles is a mezzo soprano 
or contralto, as its note is several tones lower. 

Only the fecundated females survive the winter, by hiber- 
nation, and in the early spring these lay their eggs, which are' 
quite distinctive, upon the surface of natural pools of stagnant 
water. These pass through their larval and pupal stages in 
from twenty-five to thirty days, and from three to five genera- 
tions appear during the summer. Only the female stings. 

These mosquitoes are essentially rurul. or at most suburban, 
and are found by accident only in towns and cities. They are 
naturally domiciled in damp woods, thickets, and bushes, the 
females leaving these only when in search of prey. They do not 
rise to any great height; do not migrate far; cannot withstand a 
strong breeze; and are most active in the shade and at night, 
especially at twilight. 

Malarial infection occurs in the natural manner, as has been 
stated, by the introduction of the parasitic sporozoite into the 
human blood-current by the sting of an infected Anopheles 
mosquito. Upon the truth or falsity of this statement rests the 
whole question of individual and communal prophylaxis. It can 
be affirmed in the most positive manner, however, that the as- 
sertion is trup, as has been abundantly proven by observation 
and direct experiment. Inasmuch as there must be,necessarilly, 



Malaria: Its Causation and Prevention. 269 

many gaps, doubts and apparent inconsistencies in ordinary 
observation, it will be best for our purpose to appeal at once to 
the unequivocal evidence of direct and guarded experiments. 

1. Sections of infected mosquitoes have been made, notably 
by Italian investigators, which show every phase of the develop- 
mental cycle of the malarial parasite, from the entrance of the 
impregnated body into the intestinal wall to the sporozoites 
crowding the tubules of the venemo- salivary gland and central 
duct. 

2. Mosquitoes from infected regions have been transported 
long distances to malaria-free localities and made to sting healthy 
persons who had not recently been in malarial regions, with the 
result that some of the persons stung have been given malaria. 

3. Mosquitoes have been propagated in laboratories, and 
-without previous opportunity have been made to suck blood from 
malarial patients with sexually mature parasites in the blood, 
and after allowing sufficient time for the completion of the Ano- 
pheles cycle of parasitic development, when such infected 
mosquitoes were caused to sting healthy persons, malarial fever,. 
of the same type and parasitic peculiarities as that affecting the 
original patients, was conveyed to the persons stung. 

Malarial fever, identical in clinical and parasitic types, may 
be and often have been, artifically conveyed from one person to 
another. 

The period of incubation of estivo-autumnal fever is, by 
direct transmission, from two to fifteen days; and by infection in 
the natural manner it is from seven to ten, possibly fourteen 
days. In tertian fever it is by direct transference, six to twenty- 
one days; by the mosquito fourteen to twenty one days. In 
quartan fever it is by the direct method ten to twenty -one days, 
in the natural manner the extreme limit may be much greater. 

Some persons are muoh more liable to be stung by mosquitoes 
and infected by malaria than are others. This applies particu- 
larly to comparatively recent arrivals in a malarial region. On 
the contrary, there are some racial and individual peculiarities 
which seems to afford a certain amount of protection against 
malarial. The so called tolerance which some people are said to 
attain to malaria is very often, in truth, a state of constant in- 
fection, and is in no sense an immunity. 

The cure of malaria, for the purpose of our argument, 



270 The Ptextos. 

extends beyond the present relief of symptoms. It must prevent 
the development in the blood of sexually mature parasites and 
must eradicate evtry form of the organism. Practically this 
may be accomplished by the intelligent and systematic employ- 
ment of quinine, as will be given in detail by Dr. Favill. The 
necessity and desirability of the prompt and complete cure of 
every case of malaria can scarcely be overestimated. To the 
individual it reduces his- suffering, his peril and his financial loss. 
To the community it means one less focus of infection, a lessened 
risk of a residence in the locality, and increased material pros- 
perity. 

With our present knowledge of the varieties of the malarial 
hemosporon, including their vital cycles and habits, together 
with like information concerning the Anopheles mosquitoes, and 
of the incidental etiological factors of malaria, we are prepared 
to intelligently consider the problems of individual and communal 
prophylaxis. The immense importance of this subject is self 
evident. 

The individual may protect himself from malaria with a large 
assurance of success by avoiding in every practicable manner the 
sting of malaria-bearing mosquitoes, by keeping out of their 
way, by preventing their access to his person, by driving them 
awa}- from him. He should, if possible, keep away from malarial 
regions, or should absent himself during the season of greatest 
malarial activity. If that is not practicable, he should choose 
his residence at as great a distance as possible from collections 
of stagnant water, woods, grooves, aud exuberant vegetation, on 
ground which is the highest and best drained that can be found. 
The doors and windows shou.d be effectually screened with wire 
netting, the screen doors provided with self closing springs, and 
ths window screens so arranged that they will follow the window 
up or down in such a way that the window cannot be opened 
without the screen automatically taking its place. There should 
be absolutely no unscreened openings. He should not venture 
out-of doors before sunrise or after sunset. He should use proper 
preventative clothing; the hands should be protected by gloves, 
and the neck and face by a veil netting. Quinine, in ten or fif- 
teen grain doses, should be taken regularly every fourth to sixth 
morning. There can be no doubt as to the efficacy of quinine, 
properly administered, as a prophylactic. As is well known 



Malaria: Its Causation and Prevention. 271 

several, at least six or eight, days elapse after the infective sting 
before the organisms become sufficiently numerous in the blood 
to produce a malarial paroxysm. Introducing a considerable 
quantity of the parasiticide into the circulation will destroy those 
which may be present; and if snch a large dose be given in the 
morning, the usual time of parasitic sporation will be accurately 
anticipated, and the young organisms are at once introduced into, 
to them, a lethal solution and are destroyed; hence the frequency, 
size, and time of administering the preventative dose. The 
measures which I have outlined are intended to be the most rigid 
which can be well adopted. 

Public prophylaxis in malaria is a complex question, which 
must be considered from various points of view. For example, 
there are large problems in agriculture and sanitary engineering; 
in social and political economy; in epidemiology and public med- 
icine, in the solution of which we, as physicians, will be required 
to aid the experts in those allied sciences. In the reclamation of 
malaria ridden lands efficient drainage is a sine qua non. Some 
of the lands may lie so low that restraining levees or dykes must 
be built, and the drainage water after being collected in basins, 
pumped out. In regions in which it will flourish, the eucalyptus 
serves a useful purpose in the upwardard drainage of the soil. 
Wherever practicable, intensive systems of cultivation should be 
encouraged. All these measures have for their object the de- 
struction of the breeding places for Anopheles; but more can be 
done to diminish these pests. If it can be done, all waters should 
be kept in motion; they should be stocked with fish, because 
these destroy the mosquito larva; in the vicinity of residences 
stagnant waters may be thinly covered with petroleum. 

The Anopheles itself may be driven away and destroyed. 
This mosquito will not be found within the range of the eucaly- 
ptus. In the evening these mosquitoes are attracted by a bright 
light, and if such, with a reflector turned away from the habita- 
tion; have beneath it a wide, shallow basin of petroleum, great 
numbers of the insects will fall into the oil and be destroyed. It 
has been asserted, and further observations may prove its cor- 
rectness, that these mosquitoes are attacked and destroyed by 
parasitic fungi, and the cultivation of such should be encouraged. 
Various substances are obnoxious to the mosquito, and these 
-should be used in the rooms and about houses for the purpose of 



272 ■ The Plexus. 

driving these insects away, or even killing them. Of these agents 
the most generally useful are the odor of camphor, the smoke of 
tobacco and of eucalyptus leaves, and the fumes of burning sul- 
phur. 

It is very important to destroy every mosquito possible in 
the autumn when these insects seek the shelter of houses, rooms, 
closets, stables, caves, hollows of trees, etc., and some of the 
insecticides mentioned should be employed. By killing the 
mosquito at this time the occupants of these places are not only 
spared the sting of a possibly infected insect, but the pregnant 
females are prevented from increasing the Anophelses popula- 
tion of the next season. 

All the measures advocated for individual prophylaxis are 
applicable, when suitably modified, to communal prevention. I 
am of the opinion that in malarial regions the local governments 
should furnish, gratis, quinine, with suitable directions, to every 
inhabitant for prophylactic and curative purposes. There can 
be no question as to the necessity of furnishing quinine, as above, 
to the poor, but, as stated, I believe it expedient to extend such 
provisions to all. This plan has been followed for several years 
in Java with the greatest success. 

Prom a public health standpoint it is of paramount impor- 
tance (1) that no case of malarial fever be allowed to develop; (2) 
that if malarial fever should develop, it should be promptly 
cured. It cannot be amiss to again state the facts, that the sex- 
ually adult malarial parasites only appear in the blood after sev- 
eral paroxysms have occurred, and that if these be prevented 
from forming by appropriate treatment, mosquitoes cannot ob- 
tain the only forms of these organisms which can have a life 
cycle in the Anopheles, rendering these insects dangerous to 
man. It follows, then, other things being equal, that in all ma- 
larial regions these specific fevers will prevail to a much less ex- 
tdnt in the one in which the rules above stated are more closely 
observed. In order that these measures may be intelligently car- 
ried out, there should be public physicians, clothed with police 
power to enforce reasonable rules, established by the local health 
boards. The application of the principle of bounties and fines 
might be found a very efficient administrative auxiliary. 

In conclusion; as a rule it is in malarial regions that the soil 
yields to human labor the most abundant returns and such re- 



Malaria: Its Causation and Prevention 2 

gions are capable, with the elimination of malaria, of supporting 
the densest populations. It is in such lands that, ibecause of the 
risks incident to malarial infection, enterprising^and aggressive 
capital produces the largest dividends. ThereJ^is, then, every 
commercial incentive for men to encounter and'subdue the para- 
sitic foe, and take safe possession of this empire, and I am opti- 
mistic enough to believe that, in time, this will be accomplished. 
In the desirability of bringing about this result public and pri- 
vate interests unite, and although you and Ij-will^not, there are 
probably some persons now living who may see the day when, in 
this country, malaria will be only a memory, and the Anopheles 
a tradition. 



THE THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF EXERCISE. 
Henry H. Everett. 

Formerly Professor of Physical Training University of Illinois — Instructor 
in Gymnastics University of Wisconsin, etc., etc. 

One of the most essential branches of medicine is therapeu- 
tics because it treats of the application of remedies and the cura- 
tive treatment of disease. In a great many conditions exercise 
is of greater therapeutic value than any of the drugs at our 
disposal. 

As compared to drugs exercise is a physiologic and natural 
means of overcoming the diatheses of the body, it is curative and 
prophylactic. Drugs are an unnatural force and are employed to 
change a pathologic condition to a physiologic or natural state. 

There is not a drug nor a combination of drugs which can 
produce the same conditions of the body as can exercise. 

The practice of exercises tends to alter the various tempera- 
ments and to reduce to the same type the most opposite consti- 
tutions. This is explained by the fact that exercise produces in 
the system two different effects; it increases the process of 
assimilation and consequently the body gains new tissues, it in- 
creases the process of dissimilation and there is a destruction and 
elimination of certain materials. By this process, of building up 
and tearing down the body is profoundly altered both microscopic- 
ally and macroscopically as well as chemically — ^the excretions are 
changed to a marked degree. The obese man is made thin and the 
thin man increases in weight and size. This increase is explained 
by Dujardin-Beaumetz as follows: "The activity of the cellular 
functions increases and becomes more regular, the intra cellular 
combustions become more active; the leucomaines, these toxic 
materials which the organic cell is constantly manufacturing are 
more actively eliminated, and the general effect is that the fats 
are burned up, the cellular functions regulated. There is estab- 
lished an equilibrium between the cells of the spinal cord and 
those of the brain, in a word, general nutrition becomes more 
active." 

Exercise to be used as a therapeutic agent must be pre- 
scribed intelligently and with as much caution as a written pre- 
scription for drugs. The physician must be familiar with the 



The Thei-apeutic Value of Exercise. 275 

needs of his patient and the pathological classification of exer- 
cises. A patient whose brain and nervous system are already 
overworked, must not be allowed to perform such exercises as 
demand close attention of the will; on the other hand the func- 
tions of the brain may be developed by prescribing exercises 
which demand the attention of the will and consequently certain 
centers of the brain will be developed. "Function makes struc- 
ture."' 

To intelligently prescribe exercise means to prescribe, also 
when necessary, drugs, proper food, pure air, sunlight, bathing, 
clothing, ventilation, etc.; in short it is ouly one of the many 
hygienic measures at our command; but unfortunately too often 
neglected; its place in medicine has not been sufficiently recog- 
nized. 

Other considerations to be taken into account are, heredity, 
age, sex, idiosyncrasies, previous diseases, injuries, present con- 
dition as to strength, habits, environment and temperament. 
The physician should know thoroughly the indications and contra 
indications for exercise; he should know and recognize the symp- 
toms of exercise, when it is doing good as well as the symptoms 
of overwork and exhaustion, otherwise disease is likely to follow 
from the lowered resistance of the patient. 

In exercise we have an agent that brings into play the organs 
of movement, the brain, spiual cord, nerves and muscles, through 
the influence of these the circulatory and respiratory systems are 
brought into more active use, and every part of the body is stim- 
ulated by having sent to it new blood and carrying away waste 
products, 

Let us analyze an hypothetical case to show the therapeutic 
value of exercise. 

A professional man has overtaxed his intellectual organs, his 
brain has been kept active, nervous changes are manifesting- 
themselves in the brain cells, waste products are being produced 
such as urates and uric acid, COo, etc. These waste products of 
combustion are poisoning the cells, elimination is below normal 
owing to the inactivity of the body. The cerebral temperature 
is increased, more blood is sent to the brain and the entire organ 
is congested, there is not the proper exchange of the waste pro- 
ducts for oxygen, and the patient becomes a nervous wreck or 
possibly, insanity is produced. 



276 The Plexus. 

The question now comes up what is the treatment for such a 
condition, what drugs shall we prescribe to bring about a normal 
condition, sedatives, tonics, or what? If there is any thing such 
a patient does not need it is drugs. 

Let us for a moment consider what the indications for treat- 
ment are. In the first place tne blood must be drawn from the 
brain to some other part of the body; relieving the congested ves- 
sels and thereby lower the temperature of the brain. Secondly, 
we must change the location of the exchange of waste products 
and prevent the brain from being exposed to the toxic products 
in the blood. This exchange is always greatest in a working 
part. 

With the above conditions fairly in mind what is more ra- 
tional than to prescribe an exercise which is involuntary and in 
which the brain takes no part, to prescribe a voluntary exercise 
would simply be adding fuel to the fire by demanding additional 
work of an already overworked organ. 

As the tired and exhausted brain and nervous system may be 
restored to normal by suitable exercises, so also can the unde- 
veloped brain be developed. After a limb has lost its function 
the corresponding trophic centers undergo atrophy, hence we 
may assume that the performance of function will increase the 
production and development of these cells in the gray matter. 
We also know that idiots have the convolutions of the brain 
poorly developed, and that the convolutions are well developed 
in people who use their brains, arms, legs and muscles to a 
greater extent. 

In infantile palsies if voluntary exercises are prescribed, 
good results usually fellow and the child can be taught to use the 
affected muscles to a considerable advantage. 

Life and health depend upon the performancs of function of 
the millions of cells of which our bodies are composed, and these 
again depend upon the performance of the normal functions of 
various organs. Exercise increases cell production, it breaks 
down and builds up millions of cells, but, in this process it re- 
places the weaker by stronger ones, and a better tissue and a 
better organ is the result, muscular, nervous," bony, or connec- 
tive tissue it matters not, all are subject to the same infalliable 
laws. 



llie Iherapeu^ic Value of Exercise. 277 

The machine thus produced is a better one and can only be 
obtained by this means. 

The fact that exercise develops both the number and size of 
the muscular tissues is well known by the teachers of gymnastics, 
school teachers and the laity. The physician should look beyond 
this superficial development. It is easily proven that all bodily 
movements are much more exercises of the central nervous sys- 
tem, of the brain and spinal cord. 

We readily comprehend that the use of a muscle causes it to 
grow larger, harder and stronger, while disuse causes atrophy; 
and we too often overlook the fact that the same is true of nerve 
cells and nerve fibres. The mistake is made in trying to split a 
human being into a mental part and a physical part and to teach 
and develop him as such. 

A mechanic who is accustomed to use one group of muscles 
to excess has his motor nerves more developed and the cells in 
his motor areas are more numerous and larger than those presid- 
ing over areas which are used less. These motor cells are more 
widely connected with other cells and the stimuli is transmitted 
more directly and with greater force to the appropriate muscles. 

The functional improvement of the nervous mechanism is 
the most important eifect of muscular exercise. 

The neglect to exercise any group of muscles during the 
growing period will lead to a dwarfing of that center. 

The main field of education is to develop the mind and ner- 
vous system. This can not be successfully accomplished unless 
recourse be had to exercise to develop the circulatory, respira- 
tory and nervous systems. All system of exercise which does 
not train the neuro- muscular machine is faulty, for reasons 
stated above. The results of unnatural teaching is seen in the 
many forms of nervous diseases which find expression in St. 
Vttus' dance, spasms, convulsions and disordered muscular ac- 
tion, headache, nervous exhaustion and mental derangement. 

It is not claimed that the desired results can be accomplished 
by any form of exercise or gymnastics, the work must be sys- 
tematically and scientifically applied. 

If the medical profession could only appreciate the thera- 
peutic value of exercise, the thousands of men and women who 
suffer from nervous diseases could often be relieved and their 
worn out bodies could be restored to normal. 



27S The Plexus. 

Among the long list of diseases which are greatly benefited 
by exercise and hygienic measures, may be mentioned gout, 
rheumatism, tuberculosis, nephritis, heart diseases, gastro intes- 
tinal disorders, scoliosis, lordosis, talipes calcaneus, talipes varus 
and many other forms of deformities, many nervous maladies, 
diseases of joints, feeble minded children. There are few condi- 
tions, indeed, where properly regulated exercise is not beneficial. 

In conclusion the words of Dr. S. Weir Mitchell expresses 
the situation fully. He says: "Above all, educational wants are 
limited in kind and degree, and the physical man, woman and 
child are what the state most needs.'' 



REMARKS ON THE STUDY OF LARYNGOLOGY AND 

RHINOLOGY. 

BY JAMES MOREAU BROWN, M. D., CHICAGO. 

In the study of laryngology and rhinology there are many 
points which are frequently overlooked, misunderstood and 
omitted from the text books on these subjects which would be 
useful to students and physicians. It is not proposed at this 
time to call attention to all these omissions, but to point out a 
few of the more common ones. 

The history should be taken in every case and particular 
attention given to the previous treatment as well as to the extent 
of the present condition and its influence on the neighboring 
parts. It is not always necessary to go so deeply into the history 
of the case as is done in those occurring in general medical or 
surgical work, particularly where an ocular examination can be 
made to determine the cause of the disorder. In the upper air 
passages there are numerous cases where the underlying cause is 
due to disorders in other parts of the body and judgement on the 
part of the laryngologist is required. The surroundings, foods, 
occupation and habits should be carefully investigated. A 
request is often made for an explanation of the condition found 
and this should always be given in the simplest manner so as to 
cause no alarm. 

Examination of the upper air passages is frequently difficult 
because of the nervousness often exhibited in the first consulta- 
tion — the inability of the patient to remain quiet, gagging, 
coughing and moving the head from one side to the other, all of 
which can be overcome by gentleness and diver-,ion of the mind. 



Study of Laryngology and Rhinology. 279 

The nasal speculum, preferably the solid bivalve blade, should 
be introduced so as to dilate the vestibule of the nose but slightly 
at first and in removing it care should be taken not to pull the 
hairs, which can easily be accomplished by keeping the blades of 
the speculum open a trifle or by using an instrument which does 
not completely close. 

When examining the larynx, pharynx and post-nasal space^ 
the introduction of the tongue depressor should be slow and 
gentle, it should not be placed beyond the anterior two-thirds of 
the tongue; first and most important, insisting that the patient 
breathe naturally with the mouth open. Inserting the tongue 
depressor quickly and roughly will often prevent the examina- 
tion. The mirror should be introduced gently and not allowed, 
at first, to come in contact with the parts. Anesthetizing the 
pharynx and larynx is very frequently practised but this is sel- 
dom necessary with a careful diagnostician. 

Treatment should be applied locally, as carefully as the ex- 
amination, and should be so directed as to cover all parts invol- 
ved. It is a frequent occurrence, both in the college and post- 
graduate clinics, to see patients, after treatment, suffering from a 
severe epistaxis and engorgement of the mucosa, In using the 
spray it should be directed to the turbinated bodies and not to 
the septum; the mucous membrane of the partition is very thin 
and easily bruised, while the turbinated bodies are soft, spongy^ 
and capable of absorbing the remedies easily. 

We frequently hear the term ''catarrh" referred to, especially 
in dispensary practice, and it is an easy way of explaining the 
ondition to the doctor. The literal meaning of the term is to 
"flow downward"' and when properly used in connection with a 
catarrhal inflammation, means a special condition in which 
secretion and elaboration of mucous are increased. The so called 
"inherited catarrh" is due to the inherited structure of the nasal 
bones which produce symptoms of disease and not to any inherit- 
ed condition. 

In answer to the prevalent question as to whether catarrh will 
cause consumption, it may be said that so long as there is a 
catarrhal condition present there is a fertile soil for the deposit of 
tubercle bacilli — just as a disordered condition in any other part 
of the body will predispose it to tuberculosis. Disease, like 
tissue, never changes type — it can only predispose. 



280 The Plexus. 

Incorrect breathing, both by habit and occupation, especially 
in children where the habit is so easily acquired, is a condition 
we must be on the alert to discover. The experiments of Kyle 
show a diminution in the normal blood counts ±rom 3,000,000 to 
1,500,000 and of haemaglobin a decrease from 50 to 60 per cent, 
and a return to the normal blood count after correct breathing 
has been established. 

These points are the ones which are daily before us as laryn- 
gologists and are so hard to impress upon the mind of the laity 
while they should, in most instances, be fully explained. 

"Burning tumors out" — meaning to cauterize an inferior 
turbinated body or the snaring of a polypus with a heated wire — 
is another example that is frequently misunderstood. People 
have many different ideas in regard to this treatment. An 
instance which illustrates the fear of the galvano cautery hap- 
> pened recently in private practice: A lady consulted a laryngol- 
ogist for nasal stenosis, headache, and all the symptoms of a 
hypertrophic rhinitis. Upon being informed that the cautery 
would produce beneficial results she was horrified and explained 
that she had consulted a physician who had "burnt " her nose by 
placing the end of a burned match into the nose after the flame 
had been burnt out. Could she be blamed for not wanting 
cauterization? 

Venetian Building. 



THE PLEXUS 

'COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 
CHICAGO. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Chief. 

«upt. W. H. BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY. M. D.. D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D. 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BERARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D, 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, 02, R. L. ELDREDGE. 03. 

Class Editors: 

F H. HORNiROOK, 02, B. S. MALOY, '03 F. L WOOD, 04. 



Faculty Department, DR. F. B. EARLB Clinical Laboratory Dept . DR W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 

Advertising Solicitors, R. E. BROWN, 02. H K. FRlDE^FELD. '02. 
Publisher, - - - - - - H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
"WADDLE, Oor. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and tlie Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publicaticn are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers will noth^id 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS. unless sufficient stamps are forward id d 

" What is the kernel of therapeutic truth in osteopathy? "' 
Simply that the more or less judicious movements of diseas- 
ed parts cure such parts. This fact is demonstrated by the 
position of the Ling system in Swedish medicine, by the cures 
wrought among us by the imported masseurs and their imitative 
rubbers, and by the great popularity of osteopathy among the 
laity. 

What is the harm of it? The harm of it is its indiscriminate 
application as a "cure-all" — a system of cure — by its enthusi- 
astic but poorly educated leaders. What is the profession doing 



282 The Plexus. 

to reclaim this lost territory to its ownV With us the little done^ 
is left to the untrained or the imported. Nothing is done to pop- 
ularize the method, and this remedy of undoubted therapeutic 
value is wholly neglected in our smaller communities. The time 
is ripe for a well officered and well equipped school of massage 
and physical culture.- -iV. W. Lancet. 

The above taken from the Journal of the American Medical 
Association is additional proof to Professor Newman's argument 
in the last issue of The Plexus for the teaching of physical train- 
ing in our medical colleges. 

The physician of the future will be expected by his patients. 
to bo familiar with this subject. The laity are being educated 
along these lines through the advertising columns of our maga 
zines and newspapers and the physician who is well informed 
upon- the subject will, no doubt, be a busier man than his neigh- 
bor, who is net. 

Dr. Hamilton D. Wey, of Elmira, says that " Physical train- 
ing and its collateral branches are entered upon for the follow- 
ing purposes: " 

1. Diversion; 2. Mere muscular increase; 3, Pecuniary 
gain; 4. Physical renovation and renewal; 6. Mental quick- 
ening and strengthening. 

The third object is foreign to the patient, the others are all 
useful; to the physician the entire list is of value. The progres- 
siveness of the college of Physicians and Surgeons is shown by 
the fact that the college is one of the first to recognize the value 
of physical training and is offering to the students an optional 
course on that subject. It is only a matter of a short time when, 
such work will be required of all medical students. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 
Metta Loomis, Librarian. 

The most important addition to the Quine Library made 
during the past month is a complete set of Guy's Hospital 
Reports. These valuable reports cover the years 1836 to 1897 
and contain a vast amount of medical literature which is made 
accesable and easy to consult by being thoroughly indexed. 
These reports will be of especial value to any one doing thesis 
work. Another valuable addition to the reference department 
of the Library is volume six of the second series of the Index 
Catalogue of the Surgeon Generals Library. The new volume 
indexes from G to Hern and includes 15,589 author-titles, 5,962 
subject-titles and 30,561 titles of articles in periodicals. 

Several valued additions have come to the Library as gifts. 

Baron Saneyoshi, Director General of the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Imperial Japanese Navy presented to the Library a 
copy of the Surgical and Medical History of the Naval War 
Between Japan and China during 1894 — 1895. 

Dr J. E. Newcomb of New York city kindly sent us a copy 
of the Transactions of the 23d Annual Meeting of the American 
Laryngological Association. 

From the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary we received the 
Annual report 

"We have noted the following contributions to medical 
jonrnals by physicians who are members of the faculty of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Dr. D. N. Eisendrath— The Surgeiy of Pulmonary Abcess, 
Gangrene and Bronchiectases Following Pneumonia. Chicago 
Medical Recorder, November, page 269 — 284; the same article 
also appeared in the Philadelphia Medical Journal, November 
6th and was concluded in the issue for November 23d. 

Dr. Eisendrath appends a valuable bibliography to his 
article. 

Dr. Wm. J. Butler; Congenital Heart Lesion. Chicago 
Medical Recorder, pages 327—329. 

Dr. D. N. Eisendrath; Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis 
as a Complication of Gall-stones. Journal of the American Med- 
ical Association Nov. 30, page 1453 — 1458. 



284 The Plexus. 

Dr. D. N. Eisendrath; Infection in a General Surgical Sense. 
American Medicine Nov. 16, page 771 — 773. 

Dr. A. J, Ochsner;. Features Determining Permanency of 
Cure in Radical Operations for Hernia. American Medicine, 
Nov. 30, page 853—854. 

Dr. C. A. Wood and Dr. Thos. A. Woodruff; The Common 
Diseases of the Eye; Medical Standard, Dec, page 647 — 854. 

Dr. A. P. Heineck; Gunshot Wounds of the Chest, Medical 
Standard, Dec. pages 663 — 670. 



ALUMNI DEPARTMENT. 

'84. P. W. Stevenson enjoys a lucrative practice at Gettys- 
burg, Pa. The Plexus is a welcomed visitor at the doctor's 
office. . ■ ' 

'85. H. S. Kiskadden reported dead in^Alumni list in Sep- 
tember issue of Plexus is a very lively corps and is enjoying a 
nice practice 271 Woodvirard Ave, Detroit, Mich. 

'87. vV. E. Miller, 1145 S. California Ave., v^as a recent 
caller at the Plexus office. We are always pleased to meet the 
Alumni. 

'93, J. S. Newcomer has moved to Geddes, S. Dakota. 

'94. Harry L. Stevens, Floris, la., recently visited Miss 
Helean, also called at the Plexus office while in the city. 

'97. T, B. Drew of Oswego, 111., was a recent visitor of his 
Alma Mater. 

'97. W. D. Kinney is connected with Colfax Springs Sani- 
tarium, Colfax, la. 

"98. W. Petersmeyer, Ash ton, 111., has added his name to 
our list of subscribers. 

'98. E. M. Byers of Belvidere, 111., has formed a patnership 
with Dr. Park of Cherry VaF.ey an adjoining town This union of 
forces will work a benefit to the doctor and will relieve him in 
his increasing practice. 

'00. G. A. Plippin has moved from Dermott, Ark. 

'00. G. G. Dowdall is doing nicely at Clinton, 111. 

'00. F. E. North, Taylorville, 111. 

'00. C. D. Wall, corner Taylor street and Blue Island Ave., 
Chicago. 



Alumni. 285 

'01. Geo. R. Diven is serving internship in Homestake Hos- 
pital at Lead, S. Dakota. 

"01. W. B. Martin has located at Freeport, 111. 



ALUMNI OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS— COLLEGE OF PHYSI- 
CIANS AND SURGEONS OF CHICAGO. 

It is the purpose of the Plexus to publish the addresses of the entire alumni 
in the Plexus in the next few issues and if there are any mistakes or if 
any of our readers know of the addresses not given, we should be pleased 
to have them notify us or Dr. H. W. Berard, Alumni Secretary of 
such changes. 

Class of 1894. 
Andrews, Benjamin F.. M. D., 227 LaSalle St., Chicago. 
Anker, I. Charles, M. D., Indiana and 51st Sts., Chicago. 
Atkins, Milton H., M. D. 

Berard, H. W., M. D., n07 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago. 
Bluhm, G. J., M. D., 352 W. 14th St., Chicago. 
Borst, Henry, M. D., Oelwein, ta. 
Bradley, Edgar J., M. D., Fenton, la. 
Brown, W. S., M. D., Elgin, 111. 
Buckley, Thomas J., M. D., Fayette, Wis. 
Burke, William P., M. D., 315 W. 6th St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Cole, John H., M. D., Sherman, Mich. 
*Crowley, Peter P., M. D. 

Cunningham, Milton V., M. D., Youngstown, O. 
Darcy, Frank D., M. D. 
Davidow, Aaron D., M. D., Troy, N. Y. 
Day, Edwin S., M. D., Earlham, la, 

DeKraker, James M., M. D., 61 W. Leonard, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Dilworth, William D., M. D., Huenene, Cal. 
Doederlein, Theodore J., M. D., 356 Webster Ave., Chicago. 
Doepp, Fred P., M. D., Homewood, 111. 
Donaldson, Oliver H., M. D., 1012 Garfield Blvd., Chicago. 
Evans, Daniel W., M. D., 120 N. Sumner, Scranton, Pa. 
Evenson, H. C, M. D., Newark, 111. 
*Foster, Albert A. , M. D. 
Gregory, Arthur T., M. D., Elroy, Wis. 
Hart, Thomas B. M. D., Raton, New Mexico. 
Hartung, Henry, M. D., 596 Sheffield Ave., Chicago. 



286 The Plexus. 

Herriges, Phillip, M. D., Kiel, Wis. 

Holmes, J. B., M. D., Macomb, 111. 

Hornbogen, Harry J., M. D., Marquette, Mich. 

Hemingway, C. E., M. D., 439 Oak Park Ave,, Chicago. 

Ide, Oscar M., M. D., Sabula, la. 

Isaacs, Lewis Joel, M. D., !^057 38th St., Chicago. 

Jamison, Homer, M. D., Milburn, 111. 

Josephson, Victor, M. D., 322 W. 12th St., Chicago 

Karnopp, Gottfried L., M. D., Mishicott, Wis. 

Kerr, Edgar D., M. D. 

Kerrigan, J. J., M. D., Michigan City, Ind. 

Kuflewski, J. J., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Lanstrum, O, M., M. D., Marysville, Mont. 

*Larson, H. 

LaSpada, Francisco, M. D., San Jose, Cal. 

Lauson, Albert E., M. D.. Brady and Marshall Sts., Milwaukee, 

Wis. 
Leeson, E., M. D.. Rose Lawn, Ind. 
Leviton, A. H,, M. D., 178 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 
Levy, J., Jr., M. D. 

Lorenz, M. E., M. D., 719 Allport St., Chicago. 
*Lowry, G. E., M. D. 

Lyon, Samuel B., M. D., 8 Mason St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Lyons, J. A., M. D., Bear Creek, Wis. 
Manning, G. N., M. D., Gorden Prairie, 111, 
Mannon, J. A., M. D., Sherrard, 111. 
Mesirow, E. B., M.D,, 1020 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 
Muller, M. C, M. D., 5900 Wentworth Ave., Chicago. 
Naughton, M. T., M. D , 838 Garfield Blvd., Chicago. 
Nelson, J. A., M. D., 376 E. Division St., Chicago. 
Oakshette, James C, M. D., Jackson, Mich. 
OBryne, C. C, M. D., 747 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 
Osmess, A. M., M. D., 48th and Jetferson Sts., Dayton, O. 
Payne, R, E., M. D., 135 Geary St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Pickel, E. B., M. D., Medford, Ore. 
Planck, E. A., M. D., Union, Mich. 
Pollack, H. L , M. D., 1429 Montana St., Chicago. 
Qninn, William A., M. D., 1330 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 
Reis, W. v., M. D., JonkOping, Sweden. 
Rhiel, A. C, M. D., Lowell, III. 



Alumni. 287, 

Rhode, Henry P., M. D., Forest Junction, Wis, 

Richmond, F. C, Arcadia, Wis. 

Richter, H. M., M. D., 6559 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. 

Roberts, W. P., M. D., Cleghorn, la. 

Round, T. L., M. D., Tampico, 111. 

Shebad, A. M., M. D., 214 Blue Island Ave., Chicago. 

Shields, A. W., M. D. 

Slater, P. A., M. D , Hindsboro, 111. 

Smith, H. W., M. D., Roodhouse, 111. 

Sornberger, S. J., M. D., Cortland, N. Y. 

Steffins, J. W., M. D,, Sheboygan, Wis. 

Stevens, H. L., M. D., Floris, la. 

Stevens, S.. M. D., Dowagiac, Mich. 

Stevens, W. D., M. D., Paw Paw, 111. 

Sutcliffe, H. W., M. D., The Rookery, Chicago. 

Townsend, J. W., M. D. 

Turner, F. A., M. D., Sandwich, 111. 

Thorkelsen, Thorneld, Peterson, Minn. 

Uckermann, A. W., M. D. 

Vaupell, W. R., M. D., 1560 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Watrous, H. L., M. D., Seneca, Wis. 

Webster, C. L., M. D., 411 E. Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Weisenberg, B., M. D., 806 Galena St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Wesener, J. A., M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Whiteside, C. E., M. D., Moline, 111. 

Windell. W. G., M. D., 309 Park Ave., Chicago. 

Wohlenberg, A. F., M. D., Stuart, Idaho. 

Woodard, W. P., M. D., Cherry Valley, 111. 

Woodcock, G. A., M. D., Armstrong, la. 



JUNIOR PROMENADE. 
Pleasant memories are a source of never ending joy to man 
as he is at present constituted. They serve to keep the past 
ever fresh in his mind and tend to keep him young in thought 
and to ease his cares and, even transient though they be, serve 
to make him forget his troubles and, for the moment, lay aside 
his cares. They recall the circumstances of their causation in 
detail and the possessor of such memories relives a whole day or 
evening in a few moments and is made happy by the recollec- 
tions of past pleasures and also is caused to fall into reflections 



288 The Plexus. 

and musings which lead him back to by-gone days, former 
associations and friends scattered and almost forgotten. 

To some, such memories are constantly recurring and 
numerous; toothers, they are few. And he who has none such 
memories is to be pitied. In certain walks of life they are less 
apt to be experienced than in others, and so when an event 
occurs in that condition of life where they are rare, the memory 
of that event stands out prominently in the memory of those 
whose good fortune it was to have been able to participate in the 
festivities and pleasures incident to the occasion. 

Never in the history of the class of 1902 of the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons was there a more pleasant event 
recorded in its annuals than that which occured on the 5th of 
December, 1901. On that date the complimentary ball given in 
honor of the class of 1902 by the class of 1903 occured. The 
Fates were kind and the omens propitious. The night was clear 
but cool. The hall, Illinois Hall, where the ball was given, was 
easily reached and most admirably adapted for this sort of enter- 
tainment. Everything had been well arranged and the program 
was carried out without any apparent difficulty, and the host 
should feel proud of his success and is to be most heartily con- 
gratulated. 

The party began to gather about 8:30 and most of the time 
until the grand march began was spent in a general good time, 
greeting old friends and meeting new ones, and being presented 
to the reception committee, which was constituted as follows: 
Dr. and Mrs. Sanger Brown, Dr. and Mrs. T. A. Davis, Dr. and 
Mrs. Charles Davison, Dr. Evans, Miss Elizabeth Heelan, Miss 
Webster, and Messrs. Gourley and Skid more. 

The grand march began about 10 o'clock and was led by Dr 
W- A. Evans and Mrs. Sanger Brown and Dr. Sanger Brown and 
Mrs. G. Prank Lydston, second couple. Other members of the 
faculty present were: Dr. F. B. Earle and wife, Dr. T. A. Davis 
and wife, Dr. Charles Davison and wife, Dr. John Weatherson 
and wife, Dr. G. Frank Lydston Dr. Rachelle S. Yarros, Dr. 
James W. Walker, Dr. Charles O. Bechtol, Supt. W. H. Browne 
and wife were present, also Dr. Browne's father. Dr Wynekoop 
and sister. 

Many friends outside the college were present. The junior 
class was there en masse and the majority of the senior class. 



Junior Promtnade. 289^^- 

Orpheus was most excellently represented in Fitzgerald's 
orchestra which discoursed most excellent music, agreeable both 
to foot and ear. Most of the parties were devotees of Terpsi- 
chore and spent the major part of the evening dancing. The 
dance program was well arranged and executed, every number 
being heartily enchored and the orchestra was most kind in its 
ability and willingness to respond. 

Those who did not care to dance had the choice of several 
methods of entertainment. They could sit and visit and watch 
the dancers, or could amuse themselves in the card room. They 
could satisfy tne inner man with the refreshments provided by 
the caterer, Johnson, who certainly deserves all the praise 
which has been so universal andunaminous. Those who enjoyed 
smoking were at home in the smoking room. 

Dancing continued until about 2 a. m. when the party broke 
up. The lateness of the hour was an offense to Morpheus, but 
from all account he did good work until late the next day. 

To those who were there, the evening will always be a pleas- 
ant memory and never forgotten. It will stand out on the bar- 
renness of medical college social life like an oasis in the desert. 
It served to bring the students and faculty together in a new role 
and brought both scholar arid teacher nearer together, also stu- 
dent and student. It is a means of promoting good fellowship 
and the opportunity of better acquaintance. Medical college life 
is all too barren of such opportunities. 

The senior class congratulates our host, the junior class, on 
the success of the entertainment and most sincerely thanks them 
for their courtesy. It is the earnest desire of every senior that 
the event may become annual and a time honored custom in the 
college. Words can not fully convey an absolute idea of the 
evening's entertainment to those who were not there but with the 
Queen of Sheba, it must be admitted that "half has not been 
told. A Senior. 



SENIOR NOTES. 

Mr. Keys is working very hard upon his valedictory oration. 
He has now three hundred pages completed and hopes to write 
at least two hundred more a month until graduation. 

The article is going to be short but very comprehensive. 
The first eight hundred pages will contain a brief sketch of the 



290 The Plexus. 

author's life. Following this will be a few short but very beau^ 
tiful paragraphs telling of the numerous charms of the various 
members of the faculty and lastly; a few pages will be devoted 
thanking the audience for their very kind attention or at least 
commending the janitor for keeping open the hall after the 
people had gone. 

We wish to retract a statement, made in our last issue, in 
regard to that sitz bath that was credited to Podgur. We find 
that it was not he at all and furthermore, after inquire, we are 
unable to learn of any bath that he has given. 

A few loafers in the hall last week through some mistake, 
were taken for seniors and given a special quiz in medicine. We 
feel quite sure that they will not be so inquisitive next time. 

Many great men through their modesty are never known for 
their great deeds. But some of these people learn in time to 
expound their greatness, as is the case of one of our present 
seniors, who, according to his story was the first in this country 
to do a gastrectomy. He did not consider it of sufficient import- 
ance to report the case, and was therefore given no credit for 
this wonderful operation. 

Mrs. Burns brought her daughter and> Frankie Leavitt to 
school with her one day last week. 

This little contribution was . presented to me by one of our 
local poets. 

Say you " Plexus Man " of old 
Why so partial in your roast 
Why humiliate such precious few 
Why let others joke and boast. 

Every thing is fair in love 
'Tis said that love is blind 
Your love to edit as you note 
Causes love and war combined. 

Recall when last you printed morgue 

Implicating C. C. Young 

Causing such vociferation 

It cost him most the apex of a lung. 

There floats around our heads a mist 
Of mystic senior news and jokes 



Notes. 291 

Permit me, Mr. Plexus, 
To clear the haze that floats. 

Last month with school in session 
And Sessions yet in school 
To celebrate his wedding pyre 
Used good cigars for fuel. 

And Dumas — who did likewise 
Helped cupid tie the knot 
"Laryngeal " Strong at Xmas 
"Will join the happy flock. 

There's Leavitt with his whiskers 
Gazazas for side burns 
He always loves to sit beside 
His little one, Mrs. Burns. 

We have, oh, Mr. Plexus 
Pikers, yes, galore 
Who wait until the roll call 
Then slip out through the door. 

Ask Zohrlaut, Sawtelle, Graham and Nic, 
Who in the halls did loiter 
Why Dr. Wells did quiz that bunch, 
On exopthalmic goitre. 

And so on Mr. Plexus 
Many points are found 
You may call them feathers 
I'd simply call 'em down. 

J. S. Brown is lecturing on anatomy to the dental students 
this year. 

Mr. C. D. Strong will be married on the evening of December 
25th, to Miss Mary E. Glenn of 375 S. Central Park avenue. The 
ceremony will take place at the home of the bride's parents. 

Stillman preformed an operation upon a dog last week. He 
not only removed both ovaries but also the dog. 

The members of the executive committe are doing their best 
to find a suitable class motto, They would be pleased to receive 
suggestions from any of the members of the class. 

Dr. Ochsner to Nickelson : "Now, Mr. Nickelson after you 



292 The Plexus. 

have passed the catheter into the nose. How would you feed the 
child?" 

Nick.: "I would use a safety pin, doctor." 

Dr. King- to Helmley: "What variety of pneumonia is asso- 
ciated with this disease?" 

Helmley: "Aqua ammonia." 

Dr. Simons to Zilisch: "Give the courses of labor." 
Zilisch: "The collecting of carbolic acid in the tissues." 
Mr. McNeil in answer to the question of how to diagnose a 
breech from a face presentation, says that in the later, by vagi- 
nal examination he could feel the teeth of the baby. 

Dr. Lemke to Kurtz: "This man is completely paralyzed; 
what would be your treatment?" 

Kurtz: "Give him rest in bed." 



JUNIOR NOTES. 

We wish you all a merry Xmas and a happy New Year. May 
your holidays be filled with rest and pleasure. 

Dr. Sherwood (reading note from office): "Will you please 
hold the juniors until two minutes after four?" 

On the sick list this month: Mrs. Benj. Thomas, R. L/. 
Eldredge, J. B. Barcelli. 

After the promenade we have a nest Ggg in the treasury, that 
is of no mean proportions, either. 

Dr. Walker: "What can you say of the susceptibility of 
syphilis?" 

Sackett: "Well — everobody has it." 

Messrs. Panyo, P. R. Unnston, W. Wochos and L. B. Donkle 
are assisting the sophomores in their work in the laboratories of 
chemistry. 

A photograph of the class was taken in 406, December 6th, 
during the clinics of Dr. Porter. The picture does not do full 
justice to the class. 

Houda (at the close of the meeting): "Mr. President, I move 
that the class — I move that the class" — (aud then he stuck.) 

Klein felter is with us again, and we are right glad to know 
that he has almost regained his normal bodily healh which was 
.somewaat shattered by the operation he endured some time ago. 



Notea. 293 

With the exception of a slightly peaked expression one would 
scarcely be able to discern evidences of his previous illness. 

There has been considerable talk recently in regard to the 
adoption of a new class pin. Many are desirous of having an of- 
ficial pin adopted by the entire student body, which in our oj^in- 
ion would be a good move. 

One has remarked that E. J. Butterfield has developed a 
marked abnormality in the size and contour of his thorax lately, 
in that he presents a decidedly chesty appearance, all due to 
the fact that he is once more playing in the role of uncle-;and yet 
he tells us it is not his first "stunf at being uncle, either. 

H. C. McCarthy is a very busy man nowadays. Not only 
does he attend to his regular class duties — and well, too — but he 
is also acting in the capacity of assistant in the freshman and 
sophomore clinics, together with Dr. Porter's clinics in Orthoe- 
pedic surgery. Beside this he is now special agent for the ^we?'ii- 
can Medical Journal in the junior class. 

While at the junior dance, Lipman, deeming it prudent that 
he should show his lady as pleasant an evening as possible, 
purchased several sweet smelling roses for her special benefit. 
The sum paid for the roses was entirely within reason, but in 
some way Lipman became imbued with the idea that he had given 
just four times as much for them as he really had given. Much 
distress of mind and an almost irresistible desire "to go out back 
and kick himself from behind" was caused thereby, and was only 
appeased when upon returning home and counting his shekels he 
found that all his anxieties were unfounded. He had simply 
made a miscalculation in the amount he had taken with him. 

One more has tne class by a dexterous move, added another 
to the long list of scalps hanging at its belt. On December 9th 
we were informed by our scouts that trouble was brewing, in that 
a class rush on the part of the sophomores was to be expected. 
When the proper time came we met them, and pandemonium 
reigned supreme for several minutes while we carried on the 
work of disintegration. The result of the affair was that the 
sophomores were worsted and retired within their burrows as 
does the proverbial ground hog. In anticipation of the clash we 
made preparations to stand as a unit if possible, owing to the 
fact that only two-thirds of the class were present. All were 
anxious for the fray, especially R. House Porter, who acted very 



294 The Plexus 

like a well-fed two year- old colt does, when turned loose into the- 
back lot to 'iimber up." As usual he was in front, as indeed he 
is in many events other than class rushes. Happily the affair re- 
sulted in no broken bones, although a score or more of those who 
were in the midst of the conflict, were complaining of many and 
varied bruises However this all may be, we have once more 
demonstrated to a thoughtless and wayward class the necessity 
of proper decorum while breathing the same atmosphere with us. 
The Junior Promenade as anticipated was a grand success in 
every particular. In the language of the gentler sex — it vvas 
lovely. Never was there more elaborate entertainment given in 
honor of a class of medicine at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. Everything was arranged and arranged to a nicety, 
nothing being spared to make the affair one to be long remem- 
bered with feelings of mingled pride and pleasure by the fortu- 
nate participants. The music was inexpressibly melodious, 
speaking in sweet harmony those strains which affect the heart 
as did the airs of Timotheus of long ago. And the crowd of 
dancers — it was a charming crowd, teeming with mirth and 
gaiety, that waltzed and waltzed again, and whirled laughingly 
away on the light arm of pleasure to be taken up — gently, as it 
were — and enclosed once more within its own warm embrace. 
The dancers — all — reminded one of a beautiful work of art, a 
pretty picture in varied shades of colors, moving on and on, ever 
changing and forming new beauties before the enraptured eye of 
the onlooker. It was only the joyousness of youth again budding 
forth into life — the splendor veri, as Plato expresses it. 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

Young has a girl. He refuses to be interviewed. 

Archer assisted Dr. Sherwood in a clinic recently. 

O'Neil is developing great ability as a blackboard chemist. 

C. A. Ayers says that there's nothing like "coffee and cocoa'' 
for breakfast after a night out. 

Man in front, to Howe: "What's this water of crystallization 
anyway'/" 

Howe: "Ice, of course." 

Will somebody be kind enough to ask Boehmer to comb his 



Notes. 295 

hair. We don't like to be reminded of the ex president of the 
Philippines so often. 

Jerry Simpson had a free ride to the top of the Clinical Am- 
phitheater recently. 

Morris and Willmott have come to the conclusion that facial 
adornments are not fashionable. Cole, Archer, Beck, Borges, 
Kelly, Miller and Wm. Montgomery think they are going to be 
about next summer. 

Barabin tells Mr. Brown that the recent Junior rush out of 
305 was preconcocted. Don't frighten our superintendent that 
way, Mr. Barabin, for you know he has acute dilation of the 
heart and is apt to go up (?) almost any minute. 

The studious habits and ventriloquistic abilities of some 
of our members are proving to be a great blessing to those 
other students who occupy back seats at quizzes. If you don't 
believe it ask Spence and Rep. There are others too. 

The following members of the class have been appointed 
demonstrators in Freshmen dissection; Morris, Kruk, Harring- 
ton, Taylor, Jarvis, Haessly, P. L. Wood, Giesen, Winbigler, 
Haslit, Carmack and Miss Sherlock. Twohig, Rubel, Young, 
Gailey, Cavanaugh, Henning and Bahl are demonstrating to the 
Dental Freshmen. 

Mr. Gunderson's condition is improving right along and he 
is confident that he will be able to resume his studies at the 
beginning of next term. If it were not for the fact that nothing 
is too good for Gunderson, we might say, from personal observa- 
tions, that he is receiving almost too good care from his fair 
attendants at the hospital. 

Case has been quite ill for several days with pleurisy and 
bronchitis. He is not near the "dead line" however, as has been 
inferred and expects to be able to resume work in a few days. 

Words of fatherly advice and warning coming from a mem- 
ber of the Faculty seem to have little weight with the members 
of our class. They seem to think that the professor who urges 
us to greater efforts has an ax to grind and they close their ears 
to the words of wisdom and continue to walk the crooked but 
easy path. 

At the recent class meeting it developed that only about 
sixty of the members of our class were willing to be placed upon 



-296 The Plexus. 

their honor during' examinations. After having heard the elo. 
quent and earnest appeals of Dr. Evans and some of our members, 
including Barabin, Seymour, and Derdiger, the above figures 
certainly do not reflect great credit upon our class. 

Dishonesty during examinations have become popular, so 
popular that the man who refuses to help his neighbor when in 
need is considered as having none of the milk of human kindness 
in him, and the man who can pony without being detected is con- 
sidered a shrewd fellow. Charity is noble, but in seeking to help 
others let us make sure we are not doing them a injury. 

We are here not only to learn the principles of medicine but 
to acquire that confidence in our ability without which we cannot 
be successful practitioners. Helping others during examinations 
is teaching them dependence, and dependence is fatal, for the 
man who depends upon his neighbor finds it easier than studying 
and the result is a dwarfed intellect and a perverted moral nature. 
As regards "cribbing,'" or the use of the "pony," we cannot im- 
prove upon the thought implied in Barabin's words: "It may 
seem nice to "cribb"' here at college when nothing but your honor 
is at stake, but when you sit down at the bedside of a sick patient 
and life is at stake, you can't 'criW there.'' 

If we are going to consecrate these four of the best years of 
our lives to the study of medicine let us take away with us some- 
thing to show for it besides a stolen diploma. Let us not go out 
with a license to kill people but to cure them. Let us use our 
time that when we go out to face the world we can truthfully say, 
''I am what I pretend to be, I earned my degree meritoriously 
and can prove it before any just board of examiners.'" This is a 
possibility with every one of ns; the question is, shall we take 
advantage of our opportunities. 

Desire for popularity and fear of failure are the two great 
causes of dishonest grades. If those who desire popularity would 
seek it by other means than by helping others or by cribbing 
them.selves, and if those who are afrqiid of failure would employ 
their time in studying instead of in preparing "ponies,'" a happier 
condition of things would result. 

If we care not for our own welfare or honor and want to live 
on easy street by "cribbing," if we care not for the real welfare 
of our fellow students and therefore teach him dependence by 
aiding him over the rough places, have we not enough respect for 
the wishes of our esteemed Professor of Pathology to be honest 
during his examinations at least. 



FRESHMAN NOTES. 

Freshman notes during most of the month of December were 
at a decidedly lugubrious pitch. Instead of the blithe, jocund 
piping heard during the beginning of the collegiate year a decid- 
ed gloom seemed to pervade the class. It will be remembered 
that the laboratories were not ready for occupancy for some 
time after October 1st. This gave the members of the class the 
afternoon for preparation of the next day's work, and smooth 
sailing was the result. But, alas, when the laboratories started 
full blast and dissection was assigned six hours a week then the 
bewildered Freshman began to tear his hair and burn the mid- 
night oil in a frantic effort to do the work assigned and make 
creditable showing in quizzes and exam's. This grinding mental 
pace was faithfully kept up during the latter part of November 
and the early part of December. About this time mutterings, 
not loud but deep and reverberating, began to be heard. Stu- 
dents began to be disheartened, a few we fear to the verge of 
carelessness. 

As on some previous occasions, again some of us sought the 
feet of the "upper class Gamaliels" and humbly inquired "was 
this ever thus?" Did they have to work at such a heart-crack- 
ing pace when they were D. J.'s and what was the result? 

These superior people stroked their pretty chin beards and 
with hoarse laughter assured us we vrere getting things very 
light — that when they were Freshmen they had done infinitely 
more work and with brilliant success. 

Again we tore our hair and burned the midnight oil- It was 
no use — we couldn't get there and a class meeting was accord- 
ingly called to review the situation. At this meeting various 
kinds of oratory were indulged in, some lugubrious, some fiery, 
all eloquent. The consensus of opinion seemed to be that we 
couldn't connect satisfactorily with the schedule and that the 
matter should be presented at headquarters. A committee was 
accordingly appointed to wait upon the Dean and if audience 
■were granted the committee was instructed to explain the situa- 
tion carefully and the class could abide by the verdict whatever 
it might be. 

Dr. Quine was first communicated with in writing and im- 



298 The Plexus. 

mediately and most courteously invited the committee to meet 
him in his pritate office at 4:30 on Friday afternoon the 6th inst. 
Miss Johnson was chosen to present the case and promptly at 
the appointed time the members assembled in the reception room 
and were invited into the Dean's office. Besides the spokesman 
there were Messrs. Bowen, Eagan, Peisch, Bagley, Wentz and 
Browne. Rumor hath it that Bagley in his trepidation fell over 
a corner of the rug and that Peisch stuttered when he tried to 
ofEer an opinion. We can authoritively pronounce both state- 
ments to be malicious fabrications and aver that no indications 
of undue alarm were observable. 

At the invitation of the Dean, Miss Johnson presented the 
case, and we may be pardoned for observing that the renowned 
Portia could not have done it better. The Dean made many in- 
quiries and asked the members of the committee to speak freely 
concerning the entire matter. After a consultation lasting 
nearly two hours we were informed that the matter would be laid 
before the faculty at a faculty meeting called for the following 
Thursday evening. «. 

On Friday the verdict was announced— a reduction of ten 
hours a week in work and recitations. To say, that this concess- 
ion helps matters is to state the case very mildly. A complete 
change in feeling was almost immediately observable and the In- 
divid a al who was resigned to flunking began to be a rara avis. 

The cordial thanks of the class are due and most heartily ex- 
tended to Dr. Quine for his quick sympathy and ready apprecia- 
tion of Freshman trials, and for the very acceptaple change incur 
schedule. We sincerely hope and feel assured that the class, in- 
dividually and collectively, will manifest their appreciation by 
standard work in the future. Meanwhile Freshman notes have 
resumed their jocund pitch and Freshman spirits are again blithe. 



NEWS ITEMS. 



A. C. Steckle has returned from Reno, Nev., where he had 
charge of the football team of the University of Nevada during 
the past fall term, and was the means of leading the Nevada boys 
to success in many games. He returns in a few months to take 
charge of their track team and probably to locate there perma- 
nently. 



Noles. 299 

The Y. M. C. A. calendar has arrived. H. H. Hattery, '04, 
was the successful artist. The calendar sells for 35 cents. 

On Dec. 17th, Prof. H. V. Wurdemann of Milwaukee, Wis., 
gave a very interesting lecture before the senior class on "Injur- 
ies of the Eye." 

Dr. Adolph Gehrmann writes Miss Heelan from Berlin that 
he and Dr. H. E. Wagner, class of 1895 P. & S., are "still alive." 

The Illinois School of Electro-Therapeutic has strengthened 
its faculty by the addition of Dr. G. G. Burdick. He has the 
chair of Radio-Therapy and Photo-Chemistry. 



THE ANTIKAMNIA CHEMICAL COMPANY'S NEW LABORATORY. 

Frank A. Ruf, President and Treasurer of The Antikamnia 
Chemical Co. has just purchased a lot 80x100 feet on the northwest 
corner of 22d and Pine streets, St. Louis, Mo., for fi30,000 cash, on 
which his Company will begin the erection, early in the spring, 
of a new "Antikamnia Laboratory," five stories high, covering 
the entire lot. The improvements will cost about ^45,000 irre- 
spective of the laboratory apparatus and appliances which will 
be of the most approved pattern, from Darmstadt, Germany. 
The offices and various departments will be fitted with all modern 
conveniences, making the whole plant one of the most complete 
Specialty Laboratories in the United States. 

The Antikamnia Chemical Company is one of America's, if 
not of the world's best known Pharmaceutical concerns and 
justly so. Energy, enterprise and push, backed up by the judi- 
cious and liberal use of printers' ink, in keeping their line of 
preparations' in touch with the medical profession, from one end 
of the universe to the other, have made it so. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

SAUNDERS' MEDIACAL HAND- ATLASES, Atlas and Epitome of 
Bacteriology. A text-book of Special Bacteriologic Diagnosis. B}- Prof. 
Dr. K. B. Lehmann. Director of the Hygienic Institute in Wuzburg; and 
R. 0. Neumann. Dr. Phil, and Med., Assistant in the Hygenic Institute 
in Wurzburg. From the second Enlarged and Revised German Edition. 
Edited by George H. Weaver, M. D., Assistant Professor of Pathology, 
Rush Medical College, Chicago. In two volumes. Part I, consisting of 
511 paees of text, illustrated. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saun- 
ders & Co.. 1901. Cloth, $5.00 net. 

This work supplies a long-needed want in the field of bacter- 
iologic diagnosis, and proves a most valuable addition to Saun- 
ders" Series of hand Atlases. As in all the volumes of this com- 
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tions of the conditions as actually seen, and this well-selected 
collection, if anything, is more handsome and usefui than any of 
its predecessors. As an aid in original iavestigation the value of 
the work is inestimable. 

The text is divided into a general and a special part. The 
former furnishes a survey of the properties of bacteria, together ^ 
with the cause of disease, disposition, and immunity, reference 
being constantly made to an appendix of bacteriologic technic. 
The special part gives, so far as possible in a natural botanical 
arrangement, a complete description of the important varieties, 
the less important ones being mentioned when worthy of notice. 
The causes of diphtheria and tuberculosis, together with the re- 
lated varieties, have been given especial attention. 

Most praiseworthy is the reformative tendency in regard to 
the grouping of varieties of bacteria, the strict division of the 
system especially, the rational namiug of the bacteria, etc. The 
system of nomenclature is entirely original with the authors and 
is deserving of the greatest commendation, particularly that of 
the fission-fungi, which has been handled in a most masterly 
manner. 

As a text book of bacteriology and bacteriologic diagnosis it 
is all that could be desired, embracing as it does, in a compara- 
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less valuable ones, and discussing them in language concise and 
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The American Illustrated Medical Dictionary For Practitioners and Students. 
A complete Dictionary of the terms used in Medicine, Surgery, Dentistry, 
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Micrococci, Streptococci; Eponymic Tables, Diseases, Operations, Signs 



Bool- Reviews. 201 

and Symptoms, Stains, Tests, Method of Treatment, etc. By W. A. 
Newman Norland, A. M., M. D. , editor of the "'American Poclcet Medical 
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net. W B. Saunders & Co. Philadelphia and London. 190L 

Two edition within twelve months, speak very highly of the 
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The general arrangement of the words and their definitions, 
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Libertinism and Marriage. By Dr. Louis Jullien, Surgeon of Saint 
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This book deals with the social laws of gonorrhea. A de- 
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Practical Surgery: A Work for the Gi-eneral Practitioner, by Nicholas Senn, 
M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., Professor of Surgery, Rush Medical College, Chi- 
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scription Book. W. B. Saunders & Co. Philadelphia and London. 1901. 

The author in this, his most recent production, does not pre- 
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The chapters on intestinal surgery and intestinal obstruc- 
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The book closes with chapters on resection of joints and 
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A commendable point of the book is the giving of cases and 
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EMIL H. GRUBBE. M. ]).. Electro-Physics, Radiography and X-Ray Diagnosis; ALBERT 
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L. Harrison Mettler, A. M., M. D. 

Professor of Nervous and Mental DL-eases in Chicago Clinical School, 

and Professor of Physiology of the Nervous System in the School 

of Medicine of the Univer.-ity of Illinois. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICJANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

VOL. VII. JANUARY 20th, 1902. NO. 9 

CEREBRAL SYPHILIS. NEURASTHENIA. SEMINAL 

INCONTINENCE. INFANTILE PALSY. 

By L. Harr son Mettler, A. M., M. D. 

Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases in Chicago Clinical School, and Professor of 

Physiology of the Nervous System in the School of Medicine of the 

University of Illinois. 

Abstract of Clinic, Dec. 3, 1901, at the Chicag-o Clinical School. 
Gentlemen: The first patient I bring before you this morn- 
ing is C. L., 34 years of age, German by birth and unmarried, 
who presented himself Nov. 30 on account of an excruciating 
right -sided hemicrania which seemed to begin the day before 
and had steadily increased in severity. The hereditary and per- 
sonal history contains nothing of importance, except the con- 
traction of syphilis in 1897, which was allowed to go untreated 
until the secondaries, scars of which you can easily observe upon 
his arms and legs, had become well marked, and then was treated 
vigorously with mercury and iodides. About two years ago he 
had a similar attack of headache which, however, gradually died 
out, leaving him comparatively free up to the present. On Nov. 
80 I prescribed for him phenacetin,gr. v every half hour until re- 
lieved or until four doses were taken, and then gr. v every fourth 
hour, instructing him to come back for further examination. 
This preliminary treatment was adopted so as to win the confi- 
dence of the patient, a most important object in all of these 
cases, to relieve the intense headache so as to obtain a more ra- 
tional set of replies from him when the more complete examina- 
tion is made, and to carry out the true purpose of medicine 



304 The Hexus 

in first relieving the patient and then studying more in detail his 
particular trouble. 

Today he comes before us, free from pain, more cheerful in 
spirit, and with confidence so established as to allow us to com- 
plete the examination. The headache is almost entirely gone, 
but gentle percussion over the right side of the head elicits a 
sense of soreness without absolute pain. In connection with the 
location of this headache, note the condition of partial hemiple- 
gia in the left half of the body. This partial paralysis has sev- 
eral characteristics which I wish you would carefully take note 
of. It began not very long ago and appeared in a mild form, 
somewhat suddenly, but not as suddenly as the paralysis which 
accompanies an ordinary apoplexy. It has been getting steadily 
worse, with periods of slight remission, and is now quite pro- 
nounced. At first, the patient says, the weakness appeared only 
in the leg; lately the hand and arm have been getting weak. 
When he stands a short time observe how regularly and violent- 
ly his left leg trembles. The deep reflexes on the left side are 
all exaggerated. The gait Is characteristic of a hemiplegic and 
though there is no true incoordination, it is very difficult for the 
patient to walk a chalk line. He can carry a glass of water to 
his mouth, but his grasp is weaker on the left than on the right 
side. The right side in fact seems to be very little, if at all, af- 
fected. As yet there are no signs of involvement of any of the 
cranial nerves. The face and tongue move normally and there 
is no indication of disease of the third, fourth or sixth nerves. 
There is a slight paresis of the muscles of the left side of the 
face. He says his eyesight is not what it ought to be, but a 
rapid examination of the fundus by Dr. W. O. Nache does not 
show any sign as yet of optic neuritis or atrophy. All the other 
senses are apparently unaffected. There has never been any 
vertigo or vomiting though he says a thin watery discharge has 
sometimes come up from the stomach, which has made him al- 
most vomit and whicli he attributes to indigestion. His bowels 
are co.stive. He smokes freely but does not use liquor to excess. 
He has never had rheumatism. 

There are three important things to remember in regard to 
cerebral syphilis, which assist very materially in making the 
diagnosis. In the first place cerebral syphilis is vot, strictly sjjeak- 
ing, a disease of the brain, but of the blood vessels and related 



Cerebral Sypliilis. 30&- 

parts. It is pathologically a syphilitic arteritis and meningitis 
with infiltration. The brain is involved secondarily, either by 
pressure from the gummatous erudation or by malnutrition as 
a result of the embolic obstruction in the diseased arteriesf It 
is obvious therefore that the symptoms of cerebral syphilis usu- 
ally appear insidiously, do not exhibit such definite localization 
signs as other forms of focal '.esion, and are subject to great var- 
iability, extensiveness and unexpected alterations. The symp- 
toms of cerebral syphilis are, as a rule, more definite, so far as 
cerebral localization is concerned, than are the symptoms of 
the cerebral neuroses and less definite than are the symptoms of 
an abscess, tumor, etc. Though there are some localities within 
the encephalon which syphilis seems to have a preference for, 
yet tl\e disease process is liable to take place anywhere within 
the brain. Its destructive action is limited only by the distribu- 
tion of the cerebral blood vessels. It follows therefore that all 
kinds of symptoms and localizations, more or less indefinite, ap- 
pear as evidence of cerebral syphilis. Sometimes they indicate 
basal meningitis, sometimes cortical trouble; not infrequently 
the lesion will be in the internal capsule and sometimes only in 
one or more of the cranial nuclei. Furthermore, these symp- 
toms are far from being stationary. Partial paralysis, monople- 
gias and hemiplegias come and go as the bloodvessels here and 
there in the brain become obstructed and collateral circulation is 
established. 

In the second place it should be remembered that cerebral 
syphilis, somewhat like hysteria, is in its symptomatology the 
great mimic of all forms of organic cerebral disease. In the 
absence of a clear history, it may even be mistaken for hysteria, 
for it often exhibits the same variable, bizarre, irrelavent and ap- 
parently unaccountable symptomatology as the latter. This 
characteristic of cerebral syphilis, like that of multiple sclerosis, 
in thus resembling in some respects hysteria, should not be 
lost sight of, else the gravest mistakes in diagnosis will be made. 
The same irregular eye symptoms, the same strange alternation 
of motor and sensory phenomena and even the same psychic mani- 
festations occur in both diseases. The great variety and changes 
in the symptomatology of cerebral syphilis is almost patho- 
gnomonic. 

The third thing to keep well in mind in regard to syphilis of 



806 The Plexus. 

the nervous system is that it is in no sense a "system" disease as 
for instance locomotor ataxia is. The latter, though usually a 
sequel of syphilis is not a syphilitic disease; it is a mere degen- 
eration in a certain tract because the neurons of that tract are 
unable to resist the syphilitic storm which has passed. It is the 
wreckage after the storm. Cerebral and spinal syphilis on the 
other hand is a focal disease, a gummatous, exudative condition 
in the vasomotor apparatus, which condition injures secondarily 
the nervous tissues by pressure and malnutrition at the point 
where it is located. This fact has an immense bearing upon the 
treatment. Antisyphilitic medication is generally harmful in 
such a disease as locomotor ataxia whereas it is emphatically 
called for, vigorously and promptly, in cerebral or spinal syphilis. 

In regard to the treatment of nervous syphilis there is noth- 
ing to say further than to emphasize the importance of prompt 
and vigorous administration of mercury and the iodides. No 
matter how long previously the specific disease may have been 
contracted (usually it is from one to ten years prior to the onset 
of the nervous trouble), early and active use of antisyphilitic med- 
ication is imperatively called for. This patient is now taking 
ninety grains of iodide of potash a day and if in a week or ten 
da3^s he does not show any improvement whatever, the dose will 
be rapidly increased, even up to 300 and 500 grains a day. The 
delicate structures of the brain and cranial nerves must be saved 
and the only way to save them is to check, as quickly as possible, 
the syphilitic disease process now going on in the bloodvessels 
and related structures. Already the patient feels a little im- 
provement in the soreness of the headache and the weakness of 
the arm. His walk does not show any change. 

The second case I desire to call your attention to is this 
young girl, E. W., 19 years of age and of English parentage. 
The hereditary history presents nothing of importance, but as 
you observe she is pale and anaemic, which appearance she has 
had since her attack of scarlet fever last spring. She is an am- 
bitious girl and works in a grocery store, sometimes lifting bun- 
dles quite heavy for one of her age, sex and strength. Like 
most girls in the same condition she has been careless about her 
diet, living upon tea and food not the most nourishing. Her 
functions are all normal. Urinalysis shows nothing of special 
note except a high specific gravity, 1030. Menstruation began 



Nturasthema. 307 

at 12, is regular, painless but scanty. Two years ago she had a 
prolonged spell of unconsciousness. It lasted two hours, the 
mother says, and from her description it was not hysterical, epi- _^ 
leptic or apoplectic in character. For awhile she was free 
from these spells but lately, since her convalescence Jfrom scarlet 
fever, they have come back. She will feel a sort of slight chill 
pass over her body, a little vertigo, then heat in the head, and im- 
mediately there will be unconsciousness. In this relaxed un- 
conscious, cyanotic state she will remain quite awhile, fifteen 
or thirty minutes. She never knows when the spells are coming 
on and after they have passed off she feels perfectly well except 
for a slight lassitude. She is a victim of insomnia; has frequent 
attacks of indistinct, generalized cephalalgia; experiences a tired 
feeling in the back; and dreams sad and depressing dreams. She 
has no pulmonary, cardiac or alimentary trouble. She perspires 
easily and freely; has attacks of unusual irritability every few 
days; and sometimes feels as if she would like to fl.\'^ away. Ap- 
petite is good, 

I bring this case before you to illustrate a not uncommon 
symptom of acquired neurasthenia, namely, syncope. Here is a 
girl starting in life with a good heredity and general physique, 
but at the age when the menstruation is about establishing itself, 
is put to comparatively hard work, becomes careless of her nu- 
trition, grows anaemic and is made all the worse by a severe 
attack of scarlet fever. You see the girl, you have heard her 
history, and are asked to account in some way for these distress- 
ing spells. At once you are brought face to face with a diifer- 
ential diagnosis between hysteria, epilepsy, apoplexy, drug habit, 
uraemia, heart disease and anaemic syncope. Of these, all can be 
set aside except hysteria, epilepsy and syncope; for the age and 
mode of attack do not belong to apoplexy; there is no heart le- 
sion or signs of uraemic poisoning; and drug habit is honestly de- 
nied. It is not epileptoid, as none of the aurae, convulsive move- 
ments, after headaches and other signs of epilepsy, are referred 
to. Is it hysteria? I do not think so, because there are few, if 
any — in fact none — of the stigmata of that protean neurosis. 
Time will not allow me to detail more of the differential signs 
between hysteria and neurasthenia; moreover it would be unnec- 
essary for me to do so now as I have called your attention to 
them so frequently before. Recalling then the history of the 



308 The Plexus. 

case, the neurasthenic symptoms elicited and the presence of the- 
extreme anaemia, I think we may justly say that these "spells" 
are merely attacks of ancsmic syncope and that with proper 
treatment the outlook for a cure is promising. This is a case 
that is pre-eminently adapted to the application of the so-called 
"rest cure," first elaborated by Weir Mitchell. This will consist 
in a complete change of environment, almost absolute rest, regu- 
lated baths, massage, electricity and tonics. Food and medicines 
that will enrich the corpuscular elements of the blood will be re- 
commended and all measures adopted to tone up the general con- 
stitution. 

The third case which I bring before you. gentlemen, I wish 
you would observe carefully, though it belongs to a class of cases, 
so common that in private practice they are too often hastily 
diagnosed and too frequently improperly treated. This young 
German, 27 years of age, is a student in a preparatory school in 
a neighboring town. His hereditary and personal history is 
rather negative. He has never had any serious disease and has 
lived, until he began his student life, more or less of an outdoor 
life. Several years ago he masturbated quite freely, not remem- 
bering now exactly how he happened to begin the practice. 
Learning of the dangers of the practice he stopped it. He has 
not indulged in the habit for a year or two now. He comes to us 
on account of an unnatural degree of irritability, insomnia, bad 
dreams, flushing of the face, profuse sweating, frequent nagging 
headaches, lack of appetite, constipation, slight backache, He 
has no pains, no motor disturbances. The pupils react normally 
and the deep reflexes of the l<'g are diminished. He has seminal 
losses at night, not oftener than three or four times a month, 
usually associated with erotic dreams. The losses follow erec- 
tion, and though the penis is flaccid the mornings following the 
night when he has the seminal emissions, on every other morn- 
ing he finds the penis erect when he wakes up. In general phys- 
ique you observe he is apparently vigorous and well built. In 
treating this case, which by the way is the most common and the 
most amenable to treatment of all the cases of seminal inconti- 
nence, we will instruct him about the use of tobacco, alcohol,^ 
stimulants and diet. We will suggest that he cease all mental 
exertion one hour before going to bed and take a short walk in 
he open air, eat a light dry eoUation of toast or sponge cake^ 



Seminal Incontinence. 309' 

and retire in a well ventilated room and in a bed with rather light 
bedclothing on it. He will be told to cultivate the habit of sleep- 
ing upon his right side with the head to the north, to avoid 
drinking water during the night and to set his alarm clock to 
awaken him about 2 or 3 A. M. to em.pty his bladder. In some 
of these cases a bath before going to bed provokes too much ex- 
citement, hence 1 omit it; but a cool sponge bath in the morning 
is urged, the patient rubbing himself well down with salted tow- 
els. If these simple measures and others of like sort, do not im- 
prove the patient mentally and physically, I will order every 
night a tablet containing gV grain of atropia sulphate and re- 
commend him to come daily or at least two or three times a week 
to have the cold steel sound passed. If the patient is sincere in 
wanting to get well, usually these measures after tour or five 
weeks will produce good results. 

In regard to the diagnosis — the etiological diagnosis especi- 
ally — ^of seminal incontinence much might be said. There are so 
many factors playing a roll that each case must needs be studied 
carefully by itself. The sexual function is both a psychic and a 
local phenomenon. In the begin aing of mental diseases, mastur- 
bation is a not uncommon early symptom. On the other hand, 
local irritation of any sort, artificial or natural, may keep up an 
unnatural excitement of the parts and this reacting upon the 
mind of the patient will induce cerebral neurasthenia or even ex- 
treme melancholia. Quack literature makes a great ado about 
the disastrous effects of the loss of the semen. As a matter of 
fact, the mere loss of semen, apart from its ultimate production 
of sterility, is not such a terrible affair, but the knowledge of the 
shame connected with masturbation and the fear, which is not 
unwarranted by any means, of the loss of manhood produces such 
a depression of spirits that the brooding mind preys upon itself 
and even induces an extreme degree of nervous prostration and 
aberration. Masturbation and its consequences are therefore 
most baneful in their ultimate results but not in the way that the 
quack literature declares. The constant strain on the nervous 
system by the frequent repetition of so unnatural a vice of course 
produces a high degree of general debility and nervous irritabil- 
ity; when this state of the constitution is once established, the 
erections and emissions go on as a result of the lack of nervous 
tone and vigor, in spite of the most heroic though ill- 



'310 The Plexus. 

advised measures to check them. Therefore the character of the 
trouble, its severity, its connection with erection and psychic 
images, its dependence upon local or general conditions, its pre- 
sence in a patient of phlegmatic or neurotic temperament, in one 
■who is sincere or not in his desire to get well and who has suffi- 
cient power of volition, must all be taken into account in decid- 
ing the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of seminal incontin- 
ence. 

The fourth case, M. M., is this little girl, three years of age, 
whom I have shown to you before, with infantile palsy. Nearly 
two years ago she had an acute attack of anterior poliomyelitis 
and as a result her right leg below the knee as you see, is now 
atrophied, partially paralyzed, the paralysis being of the flaccid 
type, is cold and somewhat cyanotic and exhibits the electric 
phenomenon known as the reaction of degeneration. Observe 
her walk; how she drags the foot, resting it on its outer border 
and when moving it along the floor how inclined she is to stub 
the toes, as it were. These cases are always seen first by the 
general practitioner and as they usually appear within the first 
two or three years of life— at a time when the diet of the child is 
undergoing a change — they are diagnosed as some form of ali- 
mentary trouble, because of the high fever, vomiting, etc., that 
form the constitutional symptoms of the onset of the disease. 
As you all know, the lesion is an inflammation in the anterior 
horns of the cord, due probably to some form of toxaemia. In 
a few hours or days decided paralysis manifests itself and later 
on the atrophy follows. Curiously enough the tibial muscle is 
the one most frequently affected, giving you the talipes varus de- 
formity. Why the spinal center representing this muscle or 
group of muscles should be the one most frequently selected by 
so general a cause as toxsGmia is a question for physiology, em- 
bryology and evolution to decide. In the nervous system some 
tracts, either by reason of their development or particular func- 
tion, are very prone to yield to toxic blood states as for instance 
the degeneration of the sensory tracts in locomotor ataxia of 
syphilitic origin. 

Most of these cases of infantile palsy, unlike this one as yet, 
show various degrees of permanent contracture and hence call 
for subcutaneous tenotomy and a properly fitted brace. We will 
have a light, comfortable brace fitted to this little girl's leg soon. 



Injantile Palsy. 311 

merely as a preventive of such contractures. In the meantime 
we are giving her a course of general tonic treatment and insist- 
ing upon the regular use of massage, oil rubbings and electricity 
to the limb The mother says the limb has improved in appear- 
ance since she has been taking this treatment and the gait is a 
shade better. Oft times some of the related neurons in the cord 
escape the damage caused by the inflammation and the preserva- 
tion of the function of these neurons and their associated muscu- 
lar elements is the object sought after in the application of this 
local treatment with massage, electricity etc. 

100 State Street. 



A LETTER FROM AFRICA. 

Batanga, Kamekuns, West Africa, Oct. 5, 1901. 
My Dear Friend: 

I am falling in with the custom of the country grandly. 
These people never do today what they can put off till tomorrow 
and never do themselves what they can get some one else to do 
for them. We only have one chance a month to send mail off 
and just before it goes I have too many other things to do but as 
soon as it is gone "it will not go for a month again," so I rest 
easy. Life in Africa is not so hard to take. My new gun came 
last week, and I'm just as happy as when I got my first pair of 
pants. One gets very hungry for fresh meat out here and a gun 
helps out along that line. There is not much game just here but 
by going a day into the bush there is lots of it. I had my gun 
out yesterday and scared up something like a wild chicken. It 
flew swiftly and I shot through the leaves but "nit" bird. The 
people do lots of fishing. They have small canoes jast large 
enough for one man and they go far out to sea in them. I have 
tried to ride them but would rather risk my neck on a "bike." 
The women are the laboring class, but the men do fish. You 
would not catch them digging their own baits though. Their 
system of division of labor is seen in this, for when a man starts 
out in the morning he may have baits from six different women. 
When he returns he must divide his fish with the women in pro- 
portion to the number of baits furnished. They sometime get 
their affairs badly mixed up. The other day a man came to one 
of our missionaries with a palaver like this: He had given a 
-chicken to his neighbor to raise for him. After his chicken had 



312 The Plexus. 

laid a few eggs, she died. The eggs were set under another 
neighbor's hen. After they were grown the first man made claim 
for his share. Amglad I was not called on to decide it. They 
just live on such palavers and are continually coming to one to 
"cut" them for them. There area lot of school boys in this even- 
ing learning to sew and one has just consulted me as to whether 
be had a good job. I did not expect to teach sewing when I came 
here, but one cannot tell what he will be called upon to do. We 
keep the house open all the time and nearly every evening there 
are a lot of the people in doing something. Some study, others 
play games, sew or just sit and watch us work. They have seen 
so little that they learn considerable that way. Yesterday a 
man was at the hospital who wanted something for his skin. I 
inquired into his case and found, that because his sister had died, 
he had been sleeping on the ground and had not washed for two 
weeks. I gave him a piece of my mind along that line and told 
him to go home and wash, and if that did not help him to come 
back and I would give him some medicine. Not long ago a woman 
brought her child for medicine and the dirt was sticking on her 
in chunks. I found she had not washed for a month for the 
same reason. I sent her to the beach to wash while I gave the 
child the medicine. 

I try to get the people to pay something for their medicine 
but you know it is easier to give a tramp a piece of bread than t 
is to get him to do work to earn it. I take anything but an un- 
willingness to pay something. Today I received one mark (Ger- 
man), one chicken, one bunch plantain, two bunches of bananas 
and twenty mavanda (native bread). Yesterday two men brought 
me some sweet potatoes and five ears of corn. Often I get 
oranges, fish, crawfish, makabas, eggs, etc. Am making some 
headway at the language, although it seems to come like pulling 
teeth. (And by the way I get some of that to do.) Our teacher 
went home the other day, not that we knew it all, but he wanted 
to go and we did not think we were getting enough to pay to 
hold him. He was teaching the Benga which is "Classical. 
Just here the people have three dialects and he was not good on 
them. I frequently have as many as four dialects in the dispen- 
sary at one time. Each talks' his own language and is under 
stood by all but will reply in his own tongue. It is rather con- 
fusing for one who does not understand any fully. I manage to - 



A Letter from. Africa. 313 

get the drift of the conversation if they use the language I have 
studied most. 

This morning I took a bed down and found the borers had 
eaten all but the varnish on one side. I found they had done the 
same with the frame on two sides of a mirror. They never touch 
the varnish and you think it is all right till you take hold of it 
and you find j-ou have only varnish. 

I just dismissed a patient today who had malaria with hema- 
turia for a month. He was getting along nicely at first but took 
a relapse so I brought him to the house where I could be sure 
what was going on. Have had three cases of hematuria and 
have not succeeded in killing any of them. The first and last 
were traders. Am called frequently by the traders and almost 
invariably I have trouble getting them to sleep. The last man 
kept a large lamp burning all night in his room, I think because 
he was afraid. I think, if they had a little clearer conscience, 
they would have less trouble sleeping. 

Our wet season is on and it surely known how to rain. We 
have had two dry days together now and we hardly know what 
to make of it. We do not have such hot weather as at home if 
reports of last summer are true. Our temperature is about the 
same all the time. The mornings and evenings are cool and 
pleasant. We always sleep with one and sometimes two blank- 
ets. From ten o'clock till four the sun is very warm but we do 
not go out then, unless it is absolutely necessary. I wasjust out 
in the yard and settled a pallaver for the school boys, who were 
cutting grass. Some of them were entering into a friendly (?) 
dispute in which some lips were swollen and bleeding. I cut an 
orange limb and appealed to their feelings. There is nothing 
that appeals to these people much more forcibly than to get after 
their skins. We are in German territory and that is their way 
of ruling. I have trouble getting to do any surgery here on ac- 
count of their fear of the knife. I manage to get a whack at one 
occasionally though. 

I have a hospital of twenty beds for the natives and seldom 
have a death in the hospital unless it comes suddenly. They 
have a :;uperstition against letting any one die away from their 
town, so as soon as they give them up they begin to clamor to 
take them home. At first I wanted them to let them die in peace 
but now, when I give them up, I let them take them. I require 



314 The Plexus. 

the people to come from eight to twelve, but it is hard for them 
to see it that way. The other day a man came in the afternoon 
with his child. I asked him how long it had been sick and he 
said four days. His town was only a fifteen minute walk from 
the office. I asked him why he had not brought it in the morn- 
ing. He said his wife was in the garden working and he had to 
wait till she came home to "tote the baby." I preached him a 
little sermon on laziness and his duty to his wife that he did not 
think belonged to his neighbor, and told him to bring his kid 
back in the morning himself and I would give it some medicine. 
He came the next morning "toting it himself." Had 201 patients 
the first month, so am getting my share of practice. Part of the 
time there is an M. D. two hours north of me, one five days in- 
terior and one about a week south so that I do not feel that the 
profession is overcrowded here. 

Have only had a few light attacks of malaria and have not 
had the pleasure of a chill yet, as mine do not come that way. 
My wife took her malaria in a peculiar form. Withbut any other 
symptom she would have an excruciating pain in her stomach 
which would last three or four hours and go away as suddenly as 
it came, after which she would get up and eat a good meal. 
Neither morphine nor chloroform had any influence on the pain. 
Its daily return made me think it malaria and I tried quinine to 
which it yielded nicely. I have known quinine to cut short the 
pain so that she would go to sleep in ten minutes after taking it 
and rest easy the rest of the night. 

Was sorry to hear of the fire at P. & S. but glad that you 
were not greatly inconvenienced. It is pleasing to hear that 
one's Alma Mater is growing like a bad weed. Am told that I 
would scarcely recognize her as the same institution. 

The only request I would make for Africa is for more work- 
ers and especially medical men. There is plenty of room here 
for men of the right sort. 

Kindly remember me to my friends in P. & S. and I should 
be glad to hear from you if convenient. With best wishes to 
yourself and the rest of the faculty, and all others connected 
with the institution, I am. 

Sincerely yours, 

R. M. Johnston, M. D., Class of 1900. 

To Dr. W. A. Pusey, lO.'i State St., Chicago. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 
CHICAGO. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03. Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H. BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY. M. D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D. 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BERARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D^ 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, '02, R. L. ELDREDGE, 03. 

Class Editors: 

F H. HORNI BROOK, 02 B. S. MALOY, 03 F. L WOOD, 04. J. P. BROWN, 05. 



FacHlty Department, DR. F. B. EARLE Clinical Laboratory Dept , DR. W. E. COAXES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 

Advertising Solicitors, R. E. BROWN, '02. H H. FRIDE>FELD. '02. 
Publisher. ------ H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communication.s as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, f -or. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publicaticD are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers will not hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS unless svifflrient stamps are forwarded. 

L. Harrison Mettler, the author of the leading article in this 
issue of the Plexus, was born June 1. 1863, in New York City, 
and was educated in the Friend's Seminary, a private school in 
Stuyvesant Square, New York City; in the public schools of that 
city; was graduated B. A. from the college of the City of New 
York in 1883, and received the degree of M, A. therefrom in 1886. 
He began the study of medicine in 1883, attending one course of 
lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia 
College) in the City of New York, and two courses at the Jeffer- 
son Medical College, Philadelphia, receiving the degree of M. D. 



316 The Plexus. 

from the latter institution April 2, 1886. His preceptor was 
William H. Pancoast, A. M., M. D., Professor of Anatomy and 
Clinical Surgery in the Jefferson Medical College. 

Prom 1884-'86, Dr. Mettler was assistant prosector, receiving 
many commendations for his dissections, and special mention for 
his thesis on "The Biological Cell — An Argument." In 1889, he 
attended the clinics at the Hospital for the Paralyzed and Epi- 
leptic (Queen Square) London; and at the Hopital de la Salpe- 
triere, Paris, afterward visiting the universities and hospitals of 
Vienna, Berlin, Heidelberg and Edinburgh. 

Dr. Mettler began the practice of medicine in Philadelphia 
immediately after graduation. Prom 1886-'87, he was prosector 
and assistant to the chair of anatomy in the Medico- Chirurgical 
College of Philadelphia; chief of the medical clinics from 1887-'91, 
and lecturer and clinical instructor in mental and nervous dis- 
eases and electro-therapeutics from 1888-91. In 1891 he removed 
to Chicago and commenced practice there. He is medical exam- 
iner for the Nederland Life Insurance Company of Holland and 
America. 

Dr. Mettler is now Professor of Physiology of the Nervous 
System in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical De- 
partment of the University of Illinois, and Professor of Nervous 
and Mental Diseases in Chicago Clinical School. He not only is 
a very busy man in the field of Medicine and a frequent contrib- 
utor to medical literature but finds time to devote to music and 
literature, both of- which he is very fond. 

Up to the present writing some six to ten members of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons have been sick at the West 
Side Hospital or other hospitals in the city, and have lost much 
time, and been at great expense as the result. As to the time 
lost, we have nothing to say but as to the expense, we have. If 
we are correctly informed, it is the custom of our neighboring 
colleges to maintain in a hospital, a college ward, to which mem- 
bers of the college can go during sickness and stay without ex- 
pense. Would it not be fit and proper for the student body of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons to make a move toward 
this end. The Plexus stands ready to give assistance in any 
way desired to such a project and we should be pleased to place 
our name on list to secure a ward in the West Side Hospital for 
exclusive use of P. & S. students. 



CLINICAL NOTES ON VARIOUS PAINFUL 

AFFECTIONS. 

By W. H. Thayer, M. D. 

The publication of clinical studies of new preparations by 
those who have given them a careful and unbiased investigation 
seems to me in the light of a duty, for in no other way is it pos- 
sible to determine the mode of action of a drug, its therapeutic 
indications, and more important still, its contra-indicatdons. Of 
course, I am speaking now of drugs of non -secret composition, 
which are the outcome of legitimate chemical research and pre- 
sent sufficient advantages over the older remedies to entitle them 
to our consideration. It is for this reason that I have contrib- 
uted some of my experiences with heroin, or diacetyl morphine; 
the more so as my observations relate to the analgesic and anti- 
spasmodic properties of this drug, upon which comparatively 
little has been written when we consider the vast literature that 
has appeared on its cough-relieving qualities. 

While the action of heroin is fully illustrated in the histories 
of the cases described below, I would state here that when em- 
ployed judiciously it seems to be practically free from unpleasant 
after-effects. I have never noted any depressing action upon 
the heart, while it seemed to invigorate the respiration. Nausea 
was occasionally observed, but was always slight and generally 
attributable to the presence of gastric disturbances. Constipa- 
tion was never noticed. It generally required about twenty min- 
utes before the influence of the drug was manifested, and the ef- 
fect was then maintained for from three and one-half to six hours. 
The heroin was administered preferably in the powder form with 
sugar of milk. I have also tried it hypodermically, in which 
form it seemed to act most efficiently, but the majority of the pa- 
tients objected to taking it in this manner. It is interesting to 
note that while using it hypodermically on myself in a state of 
good health the only effect manifested was a desire to sleep, even 
after the administration of 112 grain every two hours for six 
consecutive hours. 

Case I. A. C, female, aged 23, complained of neuralgia, 
more especially of the facial nerve. She had periodical attacks 
lasting from three to four days. No direct cause could be found 



318 The riexus. 

upon examination. The patient had tried many remedies, and 
was at the time using trional, which afforded only partial relief. 
The pain increased greatly as night came on, and if she obtained 
three hours of broken sleep this was thought to be doing very 
well while the attack lasted. I first saw the patient during an 
attack at four a. m., and gave heroin 1 12 grain. She went to 
sleep in about twenty minutes, and slept until 8:80 a. m., when 
she awoke free from pain. I left two tablets to be given at 2 p. 
m. and 6 p. m., and on calling the next morning found that a 
very comfortable night had been passed. On the day preceding 
the next expected attack I ordered a tablet at 3 p. m. and one at 
6 p. m., which prevented its occurrence, and since then she has 
had no similar trouble. No idiosyncrasies were noted. 

Case 11. Male of 40, complained of severe pains in the back 
of the head at the base of the brain. He had been troubled with 
them for over a month, aad had been to two different physicians 
who tried various remedies with no good results. The patient 
was in the grocery business and worked hard, but not at his 
books. As so many medicines had been resorted to without suc- 
cess, I looked about for a new one, and my satisfactory experi- 
ence with heroin in the headaches of la grippe led me to give it 
a trial in 1-12 grain powders with sugar of milk, morning and 
night; also putting him on a tonic. In one week he returned 
much relieved. The same treatment was continued for ten days 
more; after which he returned to work apparently cured. He 
has had no trouble since, and is feeling better than he has for 
many months. 

Case III. Mrs. S. C. A., aged 42, to be operated upon for 
hemorrhoids. The patient, who was naturally of a nervous tem- 
perament, was worrying a great deal over the taking of ether, 
and sulfonal failed to relieve her. I gave her one -twelfth grain 
of heroin hypodermically the night before the operation, which 
took place at her home. She slept well that night, and during 
the operation her condition was good; the gastric disturbance 
was very slight upon coming out of the ether, a quantity of mu- 
cous being raised after which the stomach retaiued food. I have 
had no further chance to test heroin along this line as yet. 

Case IV. Mrs. A., aged 20, tall and slender and of nervous 
temperament; married; menstruation always regular up to a 
month ago. Shortly before the expected time for her monthly 



Clinical Notes. 319 

period she caught a slight cold and was attacked with severe 
rheumatic pains in the left arm. Her menses failed to appear, 
and the pains shifted to the lumbar and uterine regions. At th^ 
time of my first visit, about one week later, I found the patient 
suffering from intense neuralgic pains in the lumbar and ovarian 
region and severe neuralgic headache in the left temple. She 
was in intense agony and dilirious, had a high temperature, 
and had not slept for two nights. I gave a hypodermic of heroin, 
one-twelflh grain, and within an hour the pain .subsided slightly, 
but the patient continued restless. Three hours later I admin- 
istered another hypodermic, and in three-quarters of an hour the 
patient slept quietly and passed a tolerably comfortable night. 
In the morning the facial neuralgia had entirely disappeared and 
the ovarian pains were only slight. I gave one- twelfth grain 
tablet of heroin, and left another tablet to be given if the pain 
reappeared. When I called at night I found the pain had entirely 
ceased half an hour after taking the first tablet, and that the 
menses appeared at noon. Since that time, now several months, 
the patient has had little trouble from rheumatism or neuralgia, 
and the menses have been regular and quite painless. I noticed 
a slight dilation of the pupils of the eyes shortly after giving the 
drug the first time; the second administration had no effect on 
the eyes. There was quite a heavy perspiration during the first 
part of the sleep, but this grew less towards evening. 

Case V. Male, aged 29 years, had severe rheumatic attacks 
every four hours, lasting from one to three days, and rendering 
him incapable of even moving himself. The pain was worse in 
the small of the back and right hip, and would seize him while 
in bed; he would scream if I came near the bed, being so afraid 
of my touching him. Massage was employed and did him some 
little good after getting over his fright of being touched. I tried 
the uric acid solvent, hymosa, and various other remedies, and 
finally gave heroin. The pain was not much relieved, but the 
drug quieted him, and gave him his first sleep in three nights. I 
gave one- sixth grain hypodermically, and he was asleep in one- 
half an hour, and slept very quietly for nearly two hours. I have 
since used it twice in his case as a sleep-producer, and it has 
been successful both times, after sulfonal and trional had failed. 

Case VI. Male, aged 34; very irritable stomach, marked 
cough, tearing pain in the throat extending downward from the 



320 Tn<' Plexus. 

pharynx; pulse hard, ranging from 98 to 118. No sleep at 
nights, the oough awakening him as soon as he is asleep. Heroin 
was prescribed in one twelfth grain doses every two hours. The 
patient commenced taking this at about one o'clock p. m.; per- 
spired freely at four a.m., but slept better that night than before. 
The pain in the throat was less severe the next morning, and the 
feeling of extreme weariness of which he complained much de- 
creased. The patient had vomited some of the previous medicine, 
and did not retain the first dose of heroin, but when it was re- 
peated one hour later no gastric disturbance was noticed. No 
laxative was given with the heroin, but within eight hours a 
complete evacuation of the bowels was produced, since which 
time they have been regular. The cough was loosened, so that 
on the next day three tablets a day were given, and two days 
after the cough had entirely disappear'^-d. The temperature and 
pulse were normal on the second morning. No special by-eifects 
were noted for the drug. The action would indicate for the re- 
lief of pain, for sleep, and for the relief of hard pain with cough. 



ALUMM DEPARTMENT. 

'85. H. A. Peabody of Webster, S. Dak., was a recent vis- 
itor at his Alma Mater. The doctor found very few things as 
they were when he was a student here. 

'86. Louis J. Mitchell has moved from 498 W. Adams St. to 
449 Congress St,, Chicago. 

,93. J. S. Kilbride has moved from Sleepy Eye, Minn, to 
Canby, Minn. 

'00. Dr. B. Corbus of W. Virginia spent a few days in 

the city recently. 

'00. Dr. 01 in McCormack and Miss Mary H Beattie were 
married Tuesday evening Dec. 3rd at the residence of Dr. C. C. 
O'Byrne Chicago. At home after Jan. 1st 1902, Hersher III. 

'01. Dr. E. C. Ruge and Miss Elsie Creen were married at the 
home of the bride's parents Oshkosh, Wis., Nov. 14th 1901. At 
home after Dec. 15th, South Bend, Neb. 

'01. F. L. Wallace is now located at 484 44th Place, Chi- 
cago. 

"01. M. J. Siefert has moved from 803 N. Leavitt St, to 
171 Eugenie St., Chicago. 



Alumni. 3-il 

,01. L. H. Meadows has returned to Waverly, la., after 
serving interneship in Jewish Hospital, Denver, Colo. 

'01. Frank Pe try, Akron, Ind., was a recent caller at The 
Plexus office. Practising seems to agree with him as his adi- 
pose tissue has increased very materially. 

ALUMNI OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS— COLLEGE OF PHYSI- 
CIANS AND SURGEONS OF CHICAGO. 

It is the purpose of the Plexus to publish the addresses of the entire alumni 
in the Plexus in the next few issues and if there are any mistakes or if 
any of our readers know of the addresses not given, we should be pleased 
to have them notify us or Dr. H. W. Berard, Alumni Secretary of 
such changes. 

CLASS OF 1895. 
Ainsworth, H. H., M. D., 724 Flounioy St., Chicago. 
Beck, Joseph C, M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 
Belitz, Alfred, M. D., Waumandee, Wis. 
Bowell, B. C, M. D.. La Porte. Ind. 
Bradford, A. W., M. D., Sparland, 111. 
Champliii, S. H., M. D., 114 Oakley Ave., Chicago. 
Clark, S. B., M. D., Buffalo, N. Dakota. 
Coates, W. E., M. D., 2231 W. Congress St., Chicago. 
Cochrane, W. J., M. D., Lake City, Minn. 
Carey, D. J , M. D., 568 W. 21st. Chicago. 
Davis, G. W., M. D.-, Waterloo, Wis. 
Diller, Francis S., M. D., Roberts, Til. 
Dods, G. D. B., M. D., 1554 Jackeon Blvd. Chicago. 
Doty, Maurice F., M. D., New Era Building, Chicago. 
Dulin, C. W., M. D., 430 Rialto Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 
Dysart, Lnuis, M. D. 

Feltenstein, B., M. D., 1898 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 
Franken, John G., M. D., Chandlerville, 111. 
Gaebler, Arthur, M. D.,4802 Ashland Ave., Chicago. 
Gillespie, J. A., M. D., Coin, la. 
Grayston, F. W., M. D., Huntington, Ind. 

Green, Thomas S., M. D., 39th and Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. 
Hamilton, Charles, M. D,, Carlock, 111. 
Hamilton, Howard, M. D.. Bethany, 111. 
Heckmau, J. I., M. D, , Hinckley, 111. 

Hollebrandt, F. J., M. D., 1.372 Fon du lac Ave., Milwaukee, Wis.. 
Henderson, G. S., M. D., Holcomb, 111. 



322 Ihe Plexus. 

Higbee, F. 0., M. D.. Sharpsville. Ind. 

Hubbard. W. D., M. D., West Point, Miss. 

* Jones, William, 

Johnson, G. W., M. D., 733 Grace St., Chicago. 

Leach, W. D.. M. D., New Sharon, la. 

LeDuc. C. H., M. D., Breda, la. 

Lemke, A. F. , M. D.. Reliance Bldg., Chicago. 

Leonard, J. Henry, M. D., -167 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 

Lewis, J. v., M. D. 

Lowenthal, A. A.. M. D., 103 State St., Chicago. 

Lucas, G. U., M.D., Elgin, 111. 

Luria, A., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 

McClain, Jesse, M. D., Coshocton, 0. 

McShane. B., M. D., Hales Corners, Wis. 

Matthaei. E. A., 626 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago. 

May, L. F., M. D., 264 Clybourne Ave., Chicago. 

.Alayhew, J. M., M. D., Lincoln, Neb. 

Meltzer, V. L., 166 W. 126th St., New York City. 

Miller, A. E. , M. D. 

Mueller, F. L., M. D., Foster Ave. Chicago. 

Nagle, E. J., M. D., Dixon, 111. 

Nahin, H., M. D., 23 Irving Place, Chicago. 

Pease, A. S., M. D., Chicago Heights, 111. 

Peterson. 0. T., M. D. 

Phillips. D. C, M. D., 269 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 

Rice, Earl, M. D., Roland, la. 

Riggs, J. P., M. D., Piano, 111. 

Sachs, T. B., M. D„ 287 W. 12th St., Chicago. 

Scott, H. S., M. D., Atlas Blk., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Seville, F. F., M. D., 1573 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 

Shepstone, J. A., M. D., 4846 State St , Chicago. 

Siemonowicz, W. J., M. D. 

Slater, 0. M., M. D., Garrett, 111. 

Slocutnb. Jesse, M. D., Plainview, Minn. 

Smith, C. B., M. D.,Boody,Ill. 

Speice, W. K., M. D., 50 W. Madison, Chicago, HI. 

Staller, Max, M. D., 631 Catherine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Steele, R. E., M. D., Lehi City, Utah. 

Stockley. D. R., M. D., Evanston, 111. 

Swartz, Albert, M. D., 324 Blue Island Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Talbot, E. F., M. D., Flandreau, S. Dak. 

TilLsom, E. M., M. D. 

Tremblay, J. J., M. D., Moline, HI. 

\'aughan, George, M. D.. Hurley, S. Dak. 



Alumni. 328 



A'eit, J. L., M. D., Van Buren and Robey St., Chicago, 111. 

Wagner, H, E., M. D , 551 Armitage Ave., Chicago. 

Weatherford, Frank A., M. D., 1700 63d St., Chicago. 

Weber, Lee, M. D., Davenport, Iowa. 

♦Webster, W. L. 

Wilder, C. H., M. D., DeKalb, 111. 

Wilson, H. S., M. D., 88 W. North Ave., Chicago. 

Wynekoop, F. E., M. D., 1563 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 

CLASS OF 1896. 
Austin, K. 0., M. D., 148 Dearborn St,, Chicago. 
Beck, EmilG., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago. 
Bennett, Cleaves M., M. D. . Mattoon, 111. 
Berg, 0. H., M. D., 536 California Ave, Chicago. 
Bonner, A., M. D., 141 J 5th Ave., New York City. 
Briggs, A. E., M. D., Elk Grove, Cal. 
Burns, Frank W., M. D., Stevrartville, Minn. 
Cheever, William Rockwell, M. D., Kenosha, Wis. 
Culp, Frank J].,M. D., Nome, Alaska. 
DeFries, A., M- D., Lowden, la. 
Dobson, Samuel J., M. D. 

Doerr, August, M. D., 648 7th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Eaton, Roy R., M. D., Lowell, Mich. 
Eddy, George S., M. D., Anaheim, Cal. 
Edmonson, George, M. D., Clinton, 111. 
Gill, George, M. D , N. Ridgeville, 0. 
Glenn, Fred L., M. D., 79 N. 45th Ave., Chicago. 
Grace, Ralph S., M. D., 25 47th,, Chicago. 
Hammond, C. L., M. D., Eureka, Nevada, 
Hartigan, Timothy, M. D. 

Hoadrick. C. M., M. D., 308 N. Y. Life Bldg., Omaha, Neb. 
Hollister, T. C, M. D., Louisville, Neb. 
Hudson, J, R., M. D., U. S. Vol., Manila, P. L 
Humiston, C. E., M. D., 235 N. Park Ave., Austin, 111. 
Jegi, H. A., M. D., Galesville, Wis. 
Jenkins, Park B., M. D. 

Johnstone, N. A.. M. D., 801 Locust St., Kansas City, Mo. 
Laird, Wm. J., M. D., Nalima, Mich. 
Lawrence, G- H., M. D., Galesville, Wis. 
Leland, Muret N., Jr., M. D., Wells, Minn. 
Lid, Torsteni, M. D. , Marinette, Wis. 
Linaweaver, A. H., M. D., 237J S. Main, Findlay, 0. 
McGready, J. H.,M. D., Independence, la. 
McKenzie, W. W., M. D., 100 State, Chicago. 



324 The Plexus. 

Mason, J. Frank, M. D., Sharpsburg, 111. 

*Mitchell, Grant, M. D. 

Moses, J. M., M. D., 3823 Yincenr.es Ave., Chicago. 

Mount, H. A., M. D., Elm Grove, Wis. 

O'Malley, T. J., Venetian BIdg., Chicago. 

Pierce. Percival, M, D., Waukegan, 111. 

Schwab, L. W. , M. D. , 339 41 st St. , Chicago. 

Seagly, I. B., M. D., Thomasboro, 111. 

*Shinnick, J. H., M. D., 

Springer, J. C, M. D., 181 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

Starner, A. A., M. D., Gallon, 0. 

Straus, I. J,, M. 1)., 3640 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. 

SuTupman, H. A., M. D., Dyersville, la. 

Sweetman,R. II., M. D., Grand Rapids, Wis. 

Swink, W. T., M. D , Mendon, Tenn. 

Vosburg, W. E. H., M. D., Cooperstown, Wis. 

Waldron, J. II., M. D., 2170 W. 26th St., Chicago. 

Widmeyer, J. P., M. D , Holla, N. Dak. 

Wiltner, F. M., M. D , Lakewood. 111. 

Yates, Cliarles A., M. D., Bangor, Wis. 

Zapffe, Frederick Carolus, M. D., 925 Warren Ave., Chicago 

CLASS OF 1897. 
Aby, F. S., M. D., Two Rivers, Wis. 

Ade. Samuel G.. Ph. G., M. D., 612 W. Madison. Chicago. 
Ascher, John A., Cherry Creek, Nevada. 
Arnold, Harry L. , A. B., M. D., Girard, Kas. 
Auner. J. Frank, M. D., Osage, la. 
Banks, J. Harvey, M. D. Atlanta. 111. 
Barnett, Miles R., M. D., Oshkosh, Wis. 
Bassoe, Peter, B. S., M D., Mt. Pleasant, la. 
Bein, Alfred, M. D., 1227 Milwaukee Ave , Chicago. 
Beunet, Charles L., M. D., Tepezela, Mexico. (Aquas Calientes). 
Biegeleisen, Nathan, M. D., N. Y. City. 
Brinckerhoff, John J., Ph. B., M. D., Minooka, 111. 
Broderick, Frank W., M. D. 
Brown, Albert F. Pli. G., .Marquette, Mich. 
Brown, Henry D., ,M. D , Opera House, Denver, Colo. 
Brown, .Mont. M., A. B., M. D., I'epin. Wis. 
Burroughs. Arthur P., M. D., Galesburg, Mich. 
Calbreath. Creed C, M. D , Confidence, [a. 
Carter. Charles W., M. L., M. D., Aledo, III. 
Clancey, John A., M. D., 74 S. Fullerton, Chicajro. 
Cochran, Joseph S., Ph. G., M. D., 425 Clark St., Chicago. 



Alumni. 325 

Coiinell. J. F., M. D. 

Cook, J. F. D., M. D., Langford, S. Dak. 

Coplan, Lemuel S., M. D., Colchester, 111. 

Cullen, John, M. D., 171 Blue Island Ave., Chicago. 

Dickenson, Stanley B., M. D. , Watertown, S. Dak. 

Dillon, Richard H., A. B., M. D., 1087 Elm, Manchester, N. H. 

Drew, Thomas B., M. D., Oswego, 111. 

Duff, Guy C, IV1. D., U26 Roscoe St,, Chicago. 

Fanning, Frank D., M. D., Butler, Ind. 

Farquhar. Elwood M., M. D., Early, la. 

Finn, William H.. M. D., 2522 Wentworth, Chicago. 

Frederick, Rivers C. M. D., Point Coupee, La. 

Frick, Louis, M. D., Hilbert, Wis. 

Fridus, Samuel L., M. D., 4834 S. Ashland, Chicago. 

Gailey, Darwin S., M. D., Ashland, 111, 

Hall, Henry M., Jr., M. D., 466 Dearborn Ave., Chicago. 

Hamilton, E. Mandel, M. D., Cairo, W. Va. 

Hansel. Charles E., M. D. , Lakeville, Ind. 

Hobbs, Edward J., M. D., Richland, Mich. 

Jackson, Taylor R., A. B., M. D. Hocking, la. 

Jackson, Thomas J,, A. M., M. D. , 3901 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Johnson, N. LaDoit, M. D., 23 N. California Ave., Chicago. 

Kane, F. C. , M. D. , Logansport, Ind. 

Kinney, William D.,M. D., Colfax, la. 

Klepinger, John C, M. D., Union, Ohio. 

Lerche, Wiihelm, Ph. "G., M. D., Soldiers Grove, Wis. 

Lewis, Henry T., M. L. 

Lincoln, Walter S., A. B., M. D., Dodgeville, Wis. 

Loffer, Orla W., M. D., Maplewood, 0. 

Mapes, Reynold J., M. D. 

Mayhew, G. Earnest, A. B., M. D., Edgewood, Cal. 

Meek, Loring C, M. D. 

Mizell, Adolph G., A. B.,.M. D., Shelbyville, 111. 

Murphy, Charles C. M. C, 632 E. 3l8t. St., Chicago. 

Nellis, James G., M. D., Irvington, Cal. 

Novak, John D., M. D., 1060 S. Kedzie Ave., Chicago. 

Peacock, Norman F.. M. D., Darlington, Ind. 

Pence, Clyde D. , M, D., Venetian Bldng. , Chicago. 

Perisho, E. E., Ph.G., M. D., Ancona, 111. 

Peterson, William A. C, B. S., M. D., 434 SlstSt, Chicago. 

Prough, William C, M. D., Goodland, Ind. 

Rice, Daniel S., M. D. , Stevens Point, Wis. 

Rice, R. H., M. D. , Kewaunee, Wis. 

Royce, William S.. Ph. G., M. D., 1192 N. California Ave., Chicago. 



326 The Fhxus. 

Sayre. Charles E., M. D., D. V. S., 393 S. ■13rd St., Chicago. 

Schindler, F. S.. M. D., No. 262 S. Halsted St., Chicago. 

Sedlacek, Frederick A., M. D., Tyndall, S. Dak. 

Sizer. Edmund A., M. D., Thorp, Wash. 

Smith, Rodney D., A. B , M. D., Manila, P. I. 

Stewart. Harry J., M. D., D. V. S., 2118 W. Lake St., Chicago. 

Switzer, George 0., M. D., Pentwater, Mich. 

Taylor. Ralph C, Ph, G.. M. D., Lily Lake. 

Thordarson, Theodore, K. B., M. D., Minneota, Mian. 

Treadwell, Clarence L., M. D., Kilbourn City, Wis. 

*Virtue,C. W., A. B. M. D. 

Wahle, Henry, M. D., Marshfield, Wis. 

Walsh, Edmund A.' M. D., Springfield, 111. 

Wells, William H„ M. D. 

Wever, John S. , M. D., Leavenworth, Kan. 

Whiffin, Roscoe A., M. D., Biggsville, Wis. 

Williams, Walter, M. D. 

W'ray, William E., M, D. 

Yoist, Henry J., M. D. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 
Metta Loomis, Librarian. 

A valuable gift to the Quine Library has been received from 
the Library of the Medical Society of the County of Kings, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. It consists of about 120 volumes of medical 
journals, nearly all of them being bound and available for imme- 
diate use. There were also about 500 single numbers of medical 
journals all of them having been selected with a view to the needs 
of the Library, and they were a great help in completing the 
files of incompletes. 

A number of unbound medical journals were kindly sent 
to the Library from The Pi^exus office. 

The increase in the number of books in the Library and the 
large number who make use of the Library has made it necessary 
to adopt a checking system for the books used in the Library. 
The checking system was put in operation at the beginning of 
the year and so readily did the students accustom themselves to 
the change that the new regulations were enforced with very 
lictle friction. 

The following articles written by various members of the 
faculty of P. & S. have been noted in the medical journals. 



Notes. 327 

Dr. Carl Beck, A Case of Resection of Two- thirds of the 
Xiiver for Angiodenomawith Exhibition of Patient and Specimen. 
Chicago Medical Recorder, December, p. 383-86. 

Dr. R. H. Babcock, Adherent Pericardium. Journal Amer- 
ican Medical Association Dec. 14, p, 1578-80, The same article 
appeared also in The Medical News, Dec. 14, p. 923-25. 

Dr. J. L. Porter, Three points in the Treatment of Deformi- 
ties of Infantile Paralysis, Medical News, Dec. 21, p. 976-79. The 
paper was read by Dr. Porter before the last session of the Illi- 
nois State Medical Society. 

Dr. Geo. F. Butler. Personal Elements of Error in Thera- 
peutics. American Medicine, Jan. 4, p. 21-28. 

Dr. C. A. Wood. Exophthalmic Goitre, its Etiology, Symp- 
toms, and Treatment. Buffalo Medical Journal, Jan. 1902. 

Dr. C. A. Wood and Dr. T. A. Woodruff. Color-blindness, 
Test for. Monthly Cyclopoedia of Practical Medicine, Dec. 190J, 
p. 466-67. 

Dr. C. A. Wood and T. A. Woodruff, Commoner Diseases of 
the Eye. Medical Standard, Jan., p. 5-10. 



SENIOR NOTES. 

The marriage of Mr. David Charles Strong to Miss Mary 
Ellen Glenn was solemnized at the home of the bride's parents, 
375 South Central Park Avenue, Chicago, 111., on Wednesday 
afternoon, Dec. 25, 1901, at 5 o'clock. Rev. F. Dugan of the 
Seventh United Presbyterian Church officiating. 

The bride and groom entered the parlor to the strains of the 
wedding march. A very pretty and simple ceremony was con- 
cluded by the groom presenting the bride with a ring as a token, 
and the pastor pronouncing them "Man and wnfe." Following 
the prayer came hearty "congratulations" and "Best Wishes" 
from a large concourse of friends who had assembled to wit- 
ness the occasion. The wedding repast was then served, and 
quite early in the evening the young couple, accompanied by 
the groom's mother, who was present, left for the latter's home 
at Paxton, Illinois. 

The bride is a pleasing young woman, well and favorably 
known in the circle of the Seventh U. P. church, where she has 
•been one of the working members, and also to a larger acquaint- 



328 The Plexus. 

ance. The groom is a member of the Graduating Class of the P. 
& S., and known as a good scholar and faithful student. He 
also, is well known in the same church as the bride, having rec- 
ently served as President of their Young People's Christian Union. 
Mr. Strong expects to complete his college course by the last 
of this month, and they will remove at once to Wichita, Kansas, 
where he has the appointment of resident physician in the 
Wichita Hospital. Mr. and Mrs. Strong were the recipients of 
many useful and beautiful presents. To this estimable couple 
the Class of 1902 and numerous other friends including The 
Plexus, extend Best Wishes for a future as bright as it now 
bids fair to be. 

E. L. W. Brown has been making a name for himself in the 
practice of surgery during his vacation. 

A man called Phifer was introduced to the class by Dr. Fergu- 
son last week. It was a needy introduction as no one had ever 
heard of the individual before. 

Mr. G. Walvoord, who has been on the sick list is able to at- 
tend classes again. 

Mr. Harroun informs us, among other things, that he has 
performed as successful operation for the removal of fibroids of 
the uterus. 

Mr. L. J. Hammers has been taking care of Dr, Hientz prac- 
tice during vacation. 

Mrs. Robt. Burns was unable to attend dispensary clinic, 
last Friday, her husband represented the family. 

R. W. Miller has a new treatment for carbolic acid poisoning, 
which is ever ahead of Christian Science. 

Seven years of foot ball life failed to injure Dick Lockwood 
but his first day in the Chicago Hospital was celebrated by a fall 
down the elevator shaft — 12 stitches. 

Brother Hill, affectionately termed by his class mates. 
"Little Egypt," appeared in the pit with a misfit costume last 
week and provoked much merriment. 

Parke, Davis and company have issued invitations to the 
senior class, to attend a smoker, given at their Chicago Branch, 
44r-46 Franklin St., Saturday evening, Jan. 18. 



JUNIOR NOTES. 

C. E. Barnes spent the holidays in Iowa City, Iowa. He re- 
ports a very enjoyable time. 

We are informed that our class treasurer, Mr. Geo. Howard, 
has been detained at the bedside of his wife in New Orleans since 
the holidays. She is now convalescing from typhoid. 

B, M. Conley is now acting in the capacity of an attendant 
at the Detention Hospital, corner of Wood and Polk streets. He 
received the appointment through the civil service bureau dur- 
ing the holidays. 

A lady member of the class is credited with having written 
the best paper for the first examination given by Dr. Williamson. 
The same was true in the last examination given by Dr. Walker 
—a lady student having carried off the laurel. 

At a recent meeting of the class it was decided to elect a re- 
presentative who would attend to our corner in Ihe Illio, a publi- 
cation printed in book-form by the State University. W. H. 
Moore wes chosen as the class representative, and was elected 
by acclamation. As we understand, his duties will consist in fur- 
nishing material to the publication which shall refer directly to 
the class in general, and which may also include the Junior fac- 
ulty. 

During the holidays Fanyo proved to be more studious than 
many of us by performing an enterectomy, making use of the 
Connell suture in doing the same. The operation was performed 
upon a dog, and Mr. Fanyo informs us that after the stitching 
was completed he was highly pleased with the ready manner in 
which the intestine returned to its natural position. The patient 
was principally at fault, however, and bore out his dogship's dis- 
regard for surgical fame by "giving up the ghost." In fact he 
dropped out of the game early, having absorbed too much of the 
anaesthetic. This did not deter the surgeon from proceeding 
however, and after operation he performed a post-mortem, pre- 
sumably for the purpose of ascertaining why death came so un- 
timely. 

While the greater share of the class was at home during the 
holidays perhaps enjoying a much-needed rest, several members 
of the class remained behind, not for present enjoyment, but for 



330 The Plexus. 

enjoyment which, it is to be hoped, will follow later. We refer 
to members of the class who underwent surgical operations dur- 
ing that time and two of whom at this writing are convalescing 
in the West Side Hospital. D. C. Dodds was operated upon for 
congenital hernia; L. D. Howe for appendicitis; D. J. Scholton 
for otitis media; R. Von der Heydt for mastoiditis; J. H. Eddy 
for alveolar abscess; and O. Balenseifer has undergone three op- 
erations lately for periostitis involving bones of the foot. All of 
the gentlemen are now able to attend classes, with the exception 
of Messrs. Howe and Dodds. 

After Dr. Williamson had finished reading the names of the 
fortunate students who passed his last examination in medicine, 
it was amusing to notice the feelings of pleasure and displeasure 
depicted upon the various faces in the class. Many presented 
that "I-kind'a-thoughtI'd-pass" sort of air, while others were 
talking in disappointed tones, endeavoring the while to convince 
themselves that it was no fault of theirs in failing to pass. The 
hand-shaking between the happy lot was very like the greeting 
one receives after returning from abroad. Seriously, though, 
these examinations do not count for much in the opinion of many. 
Seldom are the results a criterion to judge of the worth of a fel- 
low as a student — perhaps your neighbor that passed did not be- 
come so muddled or had more self-confidence than you had when 
the test came; or, perhaps he is a post-graduate at "cribbing." 
However this may be, one. should not regard his failures too 
tragically, for they may be only mere comedies over which you 
are stewing and fretting. 

Many of the class were much perplexed in attempting to un- 
ravel the intricacies in Stage III of the operation for cleft palate.. 
The class oracle explains to us, however, that the operation is 
rather simple and not so hard to understand as has been sup- 
posed. The directions submitted do not differ in any great re- 
spect from those already given in the book and are as follows: 
"In looping the first loop through, one must ever keep in mind 
that the curve is of extreme importance, and that once beyond 
the curve you carefully withdraw the needle preparatory to 
alighting. The next step is to thread a loop within a loop 
twisted upon itself while in the erect posture, and while going 
down the incline don't fail to give the anaesthetist all that's com- 
ing to him. Draw the fourth loop upward, inward and back,. 



Notes. 331 

and lasso the uvula. This procedure serves to fix the first loop 
which at the start is pushed through aud which prevents the 
surgeon from slipping. Do not be alarmed if the patient turns 
black in the face. Now do the flop, dampen the dorsum of your 
left, and before inserting the silver wire turn completely around 
thrice while gazing vertically. Search for more loops and if you 
discover any. loop them in such a manner that one may see clear- 
ly that you have looped loops before. Some surgeons prefer 
tying the free ends to the teeth, while others contend that it is 
much more pleasant for one to go in the day time. 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

Since the holiday season has passed a feeling of sobriety 
seems to prevail with the entire class. The Glee Club has ceased 
to warble aad every one is on the alert and in seeming expectan- 
cy. The latter condition is probably due to the number of writ- 
ten quizzes we have had in the past few days and the number 
we expect to have in the near future. 

We are glad to be able to say that none of our boys have 
been so unwise as to become entangled in the matrimonial net 
during the holidays and as we do not notice any new diamonds 
glistening on the fingers of our fair co-eds we infer that they 
have made no new conquests. 

As usual nearly all went home to enjoy the holiday season, 
and as usual all report a pleasant time. Some went out in search 
of the mighty dollar and came back with pockets well lined with 
the filthy lucre. Those who remained in the city found the time 
drag heavily upon their hands and were well pleased when work 
was resumed. 

One of our boys was honored recently when the Y. W. C. A. 
selected the design offered by Mr. Hattery for a P. & S. 1902 
calender. The design is quite pretty and ingenious, and many 
showed their appreciation by purchasing one or more of the cal- 
endars to present to sweetheart and friends. 

We are much disturbed to know what has become of our 
Glee Club since the holidays. There is some excellent vocal 
talent in the class, including Replogel, Handsome Harry Sloan, 
O'Neil, Harrington, and others. We would suggest that these 



332 The Plexus. 

gentlemen, and others whose voices we have not recognized, or- 
ganize a regular class Glee Club. 

Gailey and Case are with us again after their recent illness, 
Gunderson's condition continues to improve and he has good 
reasons for believing that his leg, except for a little shortening, 
will be as useful as it was before the accident. 

It is with profound regret that we learn that some of our 
remarks in last issue were not well received by a few members 
of our class. As far as our own welfare is concerned we are not 
greatly disturbed because a few criticise what we have to say, 
and even throw a little mud at us. We are, however, sorry if we 
have hurt the feelings of anyone, but we do not understand how 
we could have done this without hurting all, for no personal re- 
marks were made in the article in question. 

We try to say the things that are of the greatest interest and 
benefit to the class as a whole and it is very discouraging to find 
that even five or six men express distinct dissatisfaction. In the 
midst of our discouragement however, we are encouraged, for 
our object was attained in that we have induced the thoughtless 
to think. We only hope that the result of their meditations will 
be to their advantage, and we only regret that in our zeal we 
have incurred their displeasure, for this has in part undone the 
good we hoped to do. 

Just previous to sending our notes to press we learn that 
Messrs. Spencer and Replogel have taken seriously to heart 
what we had to say in last issue about their studious habits and 
Yentriloquistic abilities. We took it for granted that everyone 
knew that in order to have a joke there must be a handle, and as 
these two gentlemen are large of heart and slow to anger their 
names were chosen. We must acknowledge that the wording of 
the item was somewhat illusive, but we hope that the foregoing 
words will remove all doubt as to our intentions. 



FRESHMAN NOTES. 

The Christmas holidays produced the usual exodus, but we 
were very glad to observe that the eletnent of promptness which 
so promptly characterizes our class was again to the front, and 
practically all members returned on time. Before separating we 
all sang with considerable fervor "When the roll is called up 
yonder I'll be there" — ^"up yonder" referring particularly to room 
305 and we venture the statement that all the Professors will 
testify to the rectitude of our motives and the fidelity with which 
they were carried out. We learned of no incident of particular 
note which occurred during the holidays with the exception of 
perhaps one, and this one is certainly of grave importance. We 
understand that one of our number has taken the momentous step 
which involves* halving our sorrows and doubling our joys and 
incidentally our expenses. We are willing to admit that the last 
point mentioned is a selfish ore, however, and should never re- 
ceive a moment's consideration when the proposition is ap- 
proached from an ethical standpoint. 

The gentleman who has taken the momentous step is very 
popular in the class, never was known to dodge a quiz or ride a 
pony, and is fast acquiring a dignified professional appearance. 
We suggest that an eminently proper proceeding would be to 
bring the lady in question to class, some bright morning, that 
congratulations may be fittingly bestowed. 

We have feared it was not generally known that a consider- 
erable amount of musical talent ia "sloshin' round promiscuous 
like" in the Freshman class but we are glad to note that a knowl- 
edge of this fact is leaking out and also that it is being appreci- 
ated. In the musical items in one of our prominent dailies we 
read of Messrs. Bowen and Greenwald appearing in the program 
at the installation cermonies of Lodge No. 461, A. F. and A. M. 
at the Masonic temple. Mr. Bowen sang "Happy Days Gone 
By,, with violin obligato by Mr. Greenwald. The latter played 
Mendelsohn's Spring Song and both solos were well received. 
Other evidences of musical abiliiy are not lacking. McCracken 
whistles with remarkable energy and fluency, Maher's shoes al- 
ways squeak melodiously when he comes in late, while the win- 
ter zephyrs produce ^olian harmonies as they circulate among 
Banker's beautifully trained amber colored whiskers. These 



334 The Fhxus. 

pleasing evidences of musical culture are highly gratifying and 
suggest large possibilities. 

No examination was held by Dr. Shaw in the anatomy class 
until the 17th inst, when a two hours written quiz was given cov- 
ering the entire osseous system. The examination was compre- 
hensive but we think the most chronic faultfinder could hardly 
claim it to be too difficult or too technical. The popular Doctor 
threw a gorgeous bouquet at us when, about fifteen minutes after 
the examination had begun, he announced, that a higher stand- 
ard of honesty prevailed in tnis Freshman class than in any 
Freshman class he had ever appeared before; that as yet he had 
detected no sign whatever of attempted crookedness. Thus vir- 
tue is her own reward. We repeated this remark of the Doctor's 
to one of the '"upper class Gamaliels" with considerable pride 
which we considered justifiable. Our statement was received 
with derisive jeers and we were informed that "Shaw said that 
every year" and that it was one of his "jollies." "Ever thus 
since childhood's hour," etc. 

At the close of the Fall term we drop Biology, the Biological 
laboratory and Embryology. The schedules for the winter term 
substitutes Physiology and Pharmacognosy. Dr.Wynekoop who 
has piloted us through the mazy ways which lead from the 
amoeba to the frog deserves and undoubtedly receives the grati- 
tude of the class for the careful way in which the subject was 
presented. His lectures always showed research, were compre- 
hensive and splendidly illustrated. The course in Embryology 
has been short but we judge all essential points have been thor- 
oughly' covered. The Winter terra promises to be as pleasant as 
it will be profitable. 



Y. M. C. A NOTES. 

The Employment Bureau has been kept busy during and since 
the holidays supplying students. Nineteen men have been ap- 
plied for since Dec. loth, thirteen have secured positions. 

The reorganization which took effect Jan. 1st constitutes our 
P. & S. Association a regular department of the Chicago Y. M. 
C. A. 

P. & S. was well represented at the conference of professional 
students held at the Central Y. M. C. A., Jan. 12. The program 
was an unusually strong one. The addresses as well as the con- 
ferences on particular branches of student Christian work were 
full of interest and suggestion. Thirteen institutions were rep- 
. resented with a total of 138 delegates. P. & S. sent 35 men as 
follows: 

P. W. Johnson, '02; Carrico, '02; Tyvand,'02; Haynes,'02; Null, 
'03; Eddy, "03; Wessels, '03; Coffin ex, "03; Haggard ex., '03; 
Thomas, '03; Blough, '03; Voris, '03; Wichman, '03; Anderson, 
'03; Raynor. '04; Cuttle, '04; Hoag, '04; Bean, "04; Ayres, "04; 
Beveridge, '04; Winbigler, '04; Wood, F, L., '04; Schallert, '04; 
David, "04; Seeker, '05; Peterson, "05; Parquhar, '05; Bybee, '05: 
Shimer, '05; Hay ton, 05; Edwards, 05; Davies, '05. 



ANTIKAMNIA HEROIN TABLETS IN PREVALENT GRIPPAL 
CONDITIONS. 

Thos. G. Rainey, M. D., L. R. C. P., Resident Physician, 
British Medical Institute, Atlanta, Ga , in a recent article states, 
that the comparatively new combination of drugs, antikamnia 
and heroin tablets, which has been so largely used for the control 
of cough, is also being successfully employed, to a large extent, 
in the treatment of nearly all affections of the respiratory tract, 
which are accompanied by dyspnoea and spasm, natnely: asthma, 
bronchitis, laryngitis, pneumonia, phthisis, whooping cough, 
hay fever, lagrippe, etc. In cases in which the patients were 
suffering from the severe attendant pain of these diseases, it was 
found that this combination acted most satisfactorily. Each 
tablet contains five grains of antikamnia and one- twelfth grain 
heroin hydrochloride. One tablet was followed by a rapid 
diminution of pain, and after the third tablet the pain entirely 
disappeared. In treating the affections enumerated above, the 
dose is one tablet every two, three or four hours according to 
indication. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

Is your subscription due? 

Dr. C. C. O'Byrne recently made a professional visit to St. 
Louis. 

Dr. Adolph Gehrmann has returned from his trip abroad and 
reports an enjoyable time. 

Dr. W. E. Quine delivered a lecture at the Northwestern 
Medical College on Jan. 17th, subject "The Teachings and Influ 
ences of Samuel Hanneman," The lecture was largely attended 
and well received. 

During the Christmas vacation 250 lockers were put in the 
college, also a system of Babcockiire extinguishers. The lock- 
ers are the finest ever put in by the college and are well appreci- 
ated by the student body. 

The May issue of the Plexus will be a Senior Souvenir num- 
ber and will also represent other interests of the college. We 
solicit your assistance, and if anyone has anything that would 
enhance the value of this issue, kindly hand to us or drop it in 
the office. Mr. Grabow has kindly consented to assist, and his 
experience in this line of work will be invaluable. 

THE SENIOR BALL. 

On February the seventh the Senior Class give their annual 
ball in honor of Dr. Quine, at Beek's Hall, 164 Warren Avenue, 
Elaborate preparations are being made, and a most enjoyable 
time is anticipated. Grand March at nine o'clock. Tickets may 
be obtained from the committee in charge: 

C. J. McGuire, Chairman. 

J. D. Garrett. 

M. L. Henderson. 

B. P. Weaver. 

G. A. Howard. 

The Beta Chapter of the Phi Rho Sigma Fraternity will 
give an "At Home"' at their fraternity house, 188 Warren Ave. 
on Tuesday, Jan. 28th. A pleasant time is anticipated. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

The Four Epochs op Women's Life. A study in Hygiene. By Anna 
M. Galbraith, M. D., Author of "Hygiene and Physical Culture for 
Women;" Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, etc. With an in- 
troductory Note by John H. Musser, M. D. , Professor of Clinical Medicine, 
University of Pennsylvania. 12mo volume of 200 pages. Philadelphia and 
London: W. B. Saunders & Company, 1901. Cloth, $1.25, net. 

Women have at last awakened to a sense of the penalties 
they have paid for their ignorance of those laws of nature which 
govern their physical being, and to feel keenly the necessity for 
instruction in the fundamental principles which underlie the 
epochs of their lives. 

This is pre-eminently the day of preventive medicine. The 
physician who can prevent the origin of disease is a greater 
benefactor than he who can lessen the mortality or suffering 
after the disease has occurred. Any contribution, therefore, to 
the physical, and hence the mental, perfection of women should 
be welcomed alike by her own sex, by the thoughtful citizen, by 
the political economist, and by the hygienist. 

In this instructive work are stated, in a modest, pleasing. 
and conclusive manner, those truths of which every woman 
should have a thoi'ough knowledge. Written as it is for the laity 
the subject is discussed in clear, comprehensible language, 
readily grasped even by those most unfamiliar with medical sub- 
jects. A valuable and commendable feature of this handy volume 
of instructive information is a comprehensive glossary of those 
medical terms necessary to a thorough understanding of the sub- 
ject under discussion. Without doubt, it is a book that should 
receive the thoughtful consideration of every woman. 



Saunders' Question Compends. Essentials of Physiology. Pre- 
pared especially for Students of Medicine; and arranged with questions follow- 
ing each chapter. By Sidney P. Budgett, M. D., Professor of Physiology, 
Medical Department of Washington University, St. Louis. 16mo volume of 
li33 pages, finely illustrated with many full-page half-tones. Philadelphia 
and London: W. B. Saunders & Company, 1901. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

This is an entirely new work and a worthy accession to Saun- 
ders' excellent series of Question- Compends. It aims to furnish 
material with which students may lay a broad foundation for 
later amplification, and to serve as an aid to an intelligent con- 



338 The Plexus. 

sultation o± the more elaborate text-book. The subject of Phy 
siology is covered completely, and, the author of the work being 
a teacher of wide experience, the salient points are particularly 
emphasized. An important feature is the series of well selected 
questions following each chapter, summarizing what has pre- 
viously been read, and at the same time serving to fix the essen- 
tial facts in the mind. Nearly all the illustrations are full- page, 
half-tones, and have been selected with especial thought of the 
student's needs. In every way the work is all that could be 
desired as a student's aid. 



GRIPPAL COUGH-LARYNGITIS-BRONCHITIS. 

In these affections, antikamnia is indicated for twp reasons: 
First, because of its absolute power over pain, at once removing 
this element of distress and placing the whole system in the best 
possible condition for a speedy recovery. And, second, because 
of its power to control inflammatory processes, lowering the 
fever by its peculiar action on the nervous system. Codeine is 
strongly indicated because of its power as a nervous quietant, 
often quickly and completely controlling the cough. In nervous 
coughs, irritation of the throat, laryngitis, bronchitis and phthi- 
sis, where the cough is altogether out of proportion to the 
amount of expectoration, Antikamnia-Codeine tablets will give 
prompt satisfaction. In fact, in cases of nervous coughs, irrita- 
ble throat, so commonly attendant upon influenza and la grippe, 
as well as in sub-acute laryngitis and slight bronchitis, this tablet 
alone will often so control the cough that the disease rapidly sub- 
sides. This is not strange when we remember that nothing could 
keep up this irritation more than constant coughing. In the 
more severe cases of bronchitis and in phthisis, the patient is not 
only made more comfortable, but the disease itself is brought 
more directly under control by checking the excessive ooughing 
relieving the pain and bringing the temperature down to the 
normal standard. 




D, Lee Shaw, M. D. 

Professor of Anatomy, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical 
Department of University of Illinois, Chicago. 



THE PLEXU 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 



VOL. VII. FEBRUARY 20th, 1902. NO. 10 

THE STUDY OF DESCRIPTIVE ANATOMY. 
By D. Lee Shaw, M. D. 

Professor Anatomy, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical Department 
of University of Illinois, Chicago. 

Id this so called "a^e of fads,*' it is not surprising that cer- 
tain novel features are introduced into the curriculums of our 
best medical colleges; similar in many respects to some of the 
recent innovations tried in the public school system. Among 
the more harmful of these would seem to be those which directly 
or indirectly complicate or relegate to the background the study 
of human anatomy, since this is certainly one of the fundamental 
branches upon which practically all medical information is de- 
pendent. 

As it is necessary for a child to become familiar with figures 
before he learns to multiply, subtract, and divide (a statement 
which may be disputed by some), so is it necessary for a medical 
student to familiarize himself with descriptive anatomy, the 
"figures" o^ medicine, before he can hope to decipher the per- 
plexing problems occurring in a medical or surgical practice. 
At least some knowledge of the human body is absolutely es- 
sential for him who actually practices medicine or any of its 
specialties; all will admit that it is just as important for the 
physician to be familiar with the position and the relations ol the 
viscera and the larger vessels and nerves, as it is for the surgeon 
to recognize the structures with which he comes in contact while 
performing an operation. 

In regard to the amount of anatomical knowledge absolutely 
necessary for the performance of surgical operations, it might 



340 The Plexus. 

be claimed that, with able assistance and all modern appliances 
at hand, any structure in the body might be exposed, or even 
incised, without actually jeopardizing the life of the patient; 
even those who minimize the importance of anatomy, however, 
would hardly submit to an operation for radical cure of hernia 
by one who acknowledged that he knew nothing concerning the 
formation of the sac or its contents. 

In these days of aseptic and antiseptic surgery one some- 
times hears the statement "it doesn't make any difference what 
you cut so long as you are clean;" usually the man making the 
statement is a first class anatomist, and is noted for the great 
care exercised in preparation for operations. Many times in an 
offhand manner a teacher makes a statement to which he attaches 
no importance, but which "sticks" in the minds of his hearers 
and is later brought forth as a plausible excuse for ignorance; 
the greater the repu^^^ation of the teacher, the greater is the harm 
done by those inadvertent remarks. 

In the last decade there has been a revolution in the methods 
of teaching anatomy, not only in regard to the subject matter 
presented, but also in the manner of presenting it. Judging 
from the great diversity of opinion among the teachers, as evi- 
denced by the varying methods in vogue in the different schools, 
it would seem that, possibly, a perfectly satisfactory scheme has 
not yet been developed. 

The subject matter presented under anatomy is made to in- 
clude all correlated studies, such as histology, embryology, and 
comparative anatomy, in the study of any one of which, all the 
time allotted to anatomy could be easily utilized. These are self- 
evident facts, that a student cannot know too much and that, 
other things being equal, the better his preliminary training the 
more rapid will be his advancement in the study of medcine. 
One other proposition, however, must constantly be borne in 
mind, namely, that the great majority of students intend to go- 
into general practice. 

At the present time when the medical course comprises only 
four or five years, great care must be exercised in arranging a 
schedule lest so much time be devoted to the interesting sub- 
division that an insufficient period is left for the study of the de- 
veloped human body; for instance, the study of the development 
of the body is much more fascinating, for both student and teach- 



The Study of Descriptiye Anatomy. 341 

er, than is the grind on the bones, muscles, vessels, etc., and all 
the time scheduled for anatomy could be profitably spent in a cnr- 
sorysurvey of this one subject. The great advantage arising from 
a comprehensive knowledge of all, or any, of these closely related 
subjects must not be ignored, but the time necessary for obtain- 
ing this complete information cannot well be found after entrance 
into a' medical college, except at the expense of other practical 
studies, hence usually, it is found expedient to expound cmlj the 
principles of these sciences. 

It has been said that, with the modern text books, their 
diagrams, illustrations, descriptions, etc., there is little or no 
necessity for the teacher of gross anatomy; contact, even for a 
short time, with students will dispel this illusion and demon- 
strate the falsity of the notion that because a man has a text 
book he must know its contents. Constant work in the disect- 
ing room in connection with strict attention to demonstrations, 
supplemented by the quiz, is the only method, old or new, by 
means of which a practical anatomical knowledge may be ob- 
tained. 

With the principles well "ground in" many studies maybe 
and are successfully continued after graduation, but on account 
of the difflculties necessarily attending the attempt to dissect in 
private, to say nothing regarding the scarcity of material, very 
little anatomical work is done by the average doctor after he 
leaves college. Even the surgeon, who is constantly operating, 
rarely has the opportunity of examining normal tissues, as he is 
usually engaged in correcting or modifying structures in abnor- 
mal conditions. That the study of descriptive anatomy is almost 
necessarily limited to undergraduate work, should be an argu- 
ment in favor of lengthening, rather than shortening, the period 
for its elucidation. 

For the benefit of the stvdents of medicine, who expect to 
practice, as well as for the well being of the people upon whom 
they must practice, the general training should be that which 
will, within the prescribed time, best fit them for real duty; if in 
addition to this the scientific spirit may be so instilled within 
them that their investigation will be continued indefinitely after 
graduation, well and good — and even better — but the first duty of 
a medical college is to educate doctors of medicine and not simply 
to prepare students for the study of medicine! 



342. The Plexus. 

The result of this pedao^ogic crusade will eventually be an 
improvement in the methods, but, as in practically all cases, the 
satisfactory scheme will not be found near either extreme. The 
pendulum must be kept swinging for the good of the work, but 
if it is not regulated and is allowed to swing too far, the inevit- 
able result will be damage to the "works." 

34 Washington St. 



GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE CHEST. 

a. Their Treatment, b. The Treatment of their Complications. 

By Aim^ Paul, Heineck, m. d. 

Adjunct Professor of Surgery, College of Physicians and Sui-geons. Medical 

Department of the University of Illinois. Attending Surgeon 

Cook County Hospital. 

Gunshot wounds of the chest are of frequent occurrence in 
private and in hospital practice. They may be due to accidental, 
homicidal or suicidal intent. These latter, owing to the greater 
accuracy of aim, owing to the nearness to the body of the 
weapon, owing to the fact that the weapon held by the right 
hand is directed towards the region of the heart, have the great- 
est mortali*/y. It must be borne in mind that a bullet may be re- 
flected by a rib and may pass from the front to the back part of 
the chest by making a burrow underneath the skin (a contour 
wound). The character of a gunshot wound of the chest (in 
this respect being similar to gunshot wounds of other regions) 
varies according to the nature of the projectile, the arm em- 
ployed, the velocity of the missile, the distance of the body at 
which the firearm was discharged, and the direction of the shot. 
Revolver and rifle wounds, being those most commonly met in 
civil practice, are the only ones that we shall consider in this 
article. 

The mortality of gunshot wounds of the chest is the mortali- 
ty of the associated injuries, is the mortality of their complica- 
tions And these are many. "'A gunshot wound of the chest 
gives possibility of as great surprise as any trauma to that por- 
tion of the body." — Fisher. The fatality of these wounds is in- 
increased or lessened by the presence or absence of sepsis, by 
the presence or absence of associated lesions of the thoracic vis- 
cera and of those tissues that enter into the formation of the 
thoracic walls. Wounds of both lungs, the shot having passed 



Gunshot Wounds of the Chest. 343 

from side to side or very obliquely, ant ero- posteriorly, are grave 
lesions. Their mortality can be lessened by prompt recognition 
and appropriate treatment of the complications and by close ob- 
servance of the teachings of aseptic surgery regarding the hand- 
ling and treatment of wounds. Spare no efforts to keep your 
wounds surgically clean. 

Gunshot wounds complicated by injuries of such a serious 
nature, viz., a perforating wound of the heart, etc., as to be im- 
mediately fatal we will not discuss. With our present knowledge 
surgery cannot successfully cope with these. Death from gun- 
shot wounds of the chest may be due to syncope, to asphyxia, to 
hemorrhage, to sepsis. I wish lo emphasize the fact that in the 
treatment of gunshot wounds of the chest, armed expectancy is 
the treatment of choice. In this, we notice that it differs from 
the treatment of gunshot wounds of the abdomen which most 
always demand active surgical intervention. 

For the convenience of discussion, gunshot wounds of the 
chest are divided into non-penetrating (that is not penetrating 
the chest cavity), penetrating and perforating. The two latter 
forms have a more serious prognosis than the first mentioned. 

The non penetrating are not of themselves of a serious na- 
ture. The bullet having been fired from a distance, has spent 
much of its force by the time it strikes the chest. The bullet is 
usually imbedded in the rib, which is fissured and often splint- 
ered. If infection can be prevented, and hemorrhage controlled, 
the recovery of the patient is uneventful. If infection takes 
place there develops a spreading inflammation of the cellular tis- 
sues (cellulitis). This inflammation is always due to the locali- 
zation and multiplication in the tissues of pathogenic germs. 
Owing to appropriate treatment, or owing to the mildness of the 
infection, the lymphatics may dispose of the poison, and the 
process then terminates in resolution. It may run on to suppu- 
ration or sloughing of the tissues; the inflammatory process ex- 
tending can by involving the auxiliary tissues give rise to an 
axillary cellulitis, ^can by extending inward give rise to a puru- 
lent inflammation of tho pleural membrane. In the female, 
mammary and submammary abscesses are possible complications. 

TREATMENT. 

1. Thorough sterilization of the surgeon's and assistants' 
hands before wound is examined. The surgeon must not con- 



344 The Plexus. 

vey infection to a wounded surface. Sterilization of the instru- 
ments. Tiie most important factor in the ultimate results is in- 
fection. 

2. Thorough sterilization and shaving of the area around 
the wound. Only warm solutions are to be used. Cold solutions 
chill the pa.iant. 

3. If the bullet is imbedded in a rib, or other bone of the 
thoracic cage, remove it. If the rib has been splintered remove 
the splinters. The same applies to the clavicle, to the sterum 
and to the scapula. If particles of clothing have been carried 
into the tissues by the bullet they must be removed. Their non- 
removal is attended by pus formation. 

4. Stop hemorrhage by compression, hot water, ligature. 
Pack the wound with wick of gauze lightly so as to act as a drain 
not as a tampon. Apply over the wound and over the surrounding 
parts a dressing of aseptic gauze. Encircle the chest with a firmly 
applied binder. The patient is kept in bed for three days. If 
at the end of three days the pulse respiration and temperature 
are normal, be can be allowed to sit up. The shock in these 
cases is mild. Unless an intercostal artery has been wounded 
the hemorrhage is slight. The dressing of the wound is to be 
continued, and performed with aseptic precautions until the 
wound is completely healed. 

At the Cook County Hospital uncomplicated gunshot wounds 
are disinfected and then occluded immediately with a sterile col- 
lodion dressing. 

In non-penetrating gunshot wounds it is advised by some 
authors to excise the track of the bullet by elliptical incisions in 
the surrounding tissues. The edges of the wound are than ap- 
proximated by silk worm gut sutures so as to get healing by first 
intention. 

The Cuban war experience of Prof. N. Senn in the treat- 
ment of gunshot wounds of the chest prompts him to make the 
following statement. "Sealing by aseptic and antiseptic dres- 
sings was apparently followed by the best results." 

Greenleaf reported twenty- four cases of gunshot wounds of 
the chest that occurred during the late Cuban war. Fifteen re- 
covered without complications; three developed hemothorax with 
no further complications; six developed hemothorax which event- 
ually became purulent and required operation. Immediate clos- 



Gunshot Wounds of the Chest. 345 

ure of the wound with antiseptic dressings was the treatment 
employed. 

The most common complications in non-penetrating gunshot 
wounds are: 

1 Cellulitis of the chest wall. 2. Suppuration or abscess 
formation. 3 Axillary cellulitis. 4. Incomplete or complete 
fractures of the ribs, sternum, clavicle or scapula. 

The treatment of cellulitis of the chest wall is that of cellu- 
litis of any superficial part of the body. It is local and general. 
It is medicinal and operative. As it is very desirable that the 
process should not extend either upward to the axilla or inward 
to the pleura, active treatment is to be early instituted. The me- 
dicinal and general treatment consist in aiding elimination through 
the bowels, skin and kidneys, by the use of cathartics (as salines), 
of diaphorectics (as pilocarpin and ipecacuanha) and of diuretics 
(as an abundance of fluids such as milk, water, potassium ace- 
tate, etc.) If the heart is weak, caffein citrate is a good 
stimulant diuretic. In addition to this, the patient is to be given 
easily digested nourishment. Quinine is also frequently given. 

The local treatment consists in the application to the seat of 
inflammation of hot antiseptic fomentations. Any unirritating 
antiseptic can be used. Boric acid is that most frequently used. 
These antiseptic fomentations, to exert a beneficient action, must 
be hot, must be moist. Their value lies in their heat and in their 
moisture. Hence they must be frequently renewed, that is every 
two or four hours. They are covered with paraffin paper (tissue 
paper dipped in melted paraffin) or with oiled silk. These (the 
oiled silk and paraifin paper) retard the loss of heat and the loss 
of moisture. They are kept in place by a bandage. These hot 
fomentations will frequently, in fact, will most always control 
the inflammatory process; will by the stimulant action of the heat 
on the absorbents, secure a resolution of the process. They 
markedly lessen the pain. If, despite these, the ihflammatory 
process continues and advances, incisions will have to be made. 
The incisions give exit to serous and irritating discharges. 
They must not extend to the plaura. They are to be kept open by 
aseptic gauze. The hot aseptic or antiseptic fomentations are to 
be applied to the incised and inflamed surface till thfe process 
comes to an end. 

If an abscess or a cellulitis developis in ■ the alxiHary- region, 



346 The Phxus. 

early incision is indicated. The process can by extension- 
through the capsule of the shoulder joint involve that joint and 
set up a suppurative arthritis with its sequeloe. Your incision 
must be made inthe medium line of the axilla from above 
downward, so as to avoid the three main sources of danger; the 
axillary vessels above, the long thoracic in front, and the sub- 
capsular vessels behind. 

An abscess developing in the chest wall must be evacuated. A 
drain is introduced, rubber tube or gauze, and reaccumulation of 
pus in the abscess cavity is to be prevented. Dress the abscess 
for the first few days while it is discharging actively with hotianti- 
septic fomentations applied in the same way as described above. 
Use sterilized absorbent gauze as the material for your fomenta- 
tions. It is comfortable to the patient and catches up the dis- 
charges well. When the discharge become scanty, use dry steril- 
ized gauze dressings. 

Penetrating gunshot wounds of the chest are injuries of a 
very serious nature. There is always some external hemorrhage. 
Frequently there is present a sucking and hissing sound pro- 
duced by the air entering the chest through the wound during 
respiration. The symptoms vary according to the internal struc- 
tures that are injured, according to the complications that are 
present. In a gunshot wound of the lower part of the chest, 
there may be a perforation of the diaphragm, and injuries to the 
abdominal viscera. 

These are the most frequent complications; 

1. Hemorrhage. 

a. Pulmonary. 

b. From an intercostal artery. 

b. From the subclavian artery. (Treat first by compression 

and then ligation.) 
d. From the internal mammary artery. 

2. Hemothorax, 

3. Surgical emphysems. 

4. Pneumo thorax. 

5. Empyema. 

6. Laceration of the lungs. 

7. Wounds of the pericardium and heart. 

In penetrating gunshot wounds of the lung, do not explore the- 
wound, unless it be necessary to extract the bullet, and do not 



Gnnshot Wou7ids of the Chest. 347 

extract the bullet unless it is just beneath the skin. These 
bullets usually become encysted and do no harm. Later, if it is 
easily accessible, or if it is causing dangerous complications, re- 
move it. "The point is not what to do, but what not to do," 
(Von Esmarch). 

Have the patient placed immediately in the recumbent post- 
ure. Absolute immobilization of the patient is to be enjoined. The 
wound should be promptly and aseptically closed. (Clothes 
must be cut off so that the patient will not be moved) The 
patient must not talk, must not swallow, must not move, All 
cardiac and pulmonary exertion must be lessened; thereby 
hemorrhage will be reduced to a minimum. The patient mus 
not assume the sitting posture, must not be subjected to a 
lengthy percusory and auscultatory examination. Explain to 
your patient the necessity of this quietude. Immobilization 
lessens hemoptysis, lessens hemorrhage into the pleural cavity. 
The patient is to have no callers. A nurse is to be in constant 
attendance. The patient will usually be in a state of great 
mental excitement, and will be suffering much pain. Calm the 
excitement, and attenuate the pain by hypodermic injections of 
morphine. 

Probing of a gunshot wound of the chest serves no useful pur- 
pose. The chances of finding the ball, except when it is super- 
ficially located, are not great. Greater are the possibilities of 
doing harm, of injuring vessels and nerves. If probe is used, it 
must have been previously sterilized by boiling. 

There will have been some hemorrhage and some shock will 
be present. If the shock beat all marked, combat it by the use of 
normal saline solution. The saline remedy will also counteract the 
effects of the hemorrhage. The hemostatic action of the normal 
saline solution is due to its exciting vaso-motor constriction of 
the ruptured arterioles; to the fact that it activates precipitation 
of the hematoblasts at the site of hemorrhage thus forming cen- 
ters of clot formation. It may be employed intravenously, 
subcutaneously or per rectum. Use it warm, at a temperature of 
110-115 degrees F. It is non-toxic. If after a few hours symp- 
toms of depression again supervene, you will again administer 
normal saline solution. When the condition of the patient is not 
critical, the rectal route is employed. "The therapeutic effect 
of the rectal injections of normal salt solution is precisely the 



348 The Plexus. 

same as that of the subcutaneous injections." — Lepine. In using 
normal salt solution in the treatment of penetrating gunshot 
wounds of the chest, the bleeding points owing to their inaccess- 
ibility not being secured, we must begin with small doses, say 
200 or 300 ccm. Later, larger doses can be employed. The ribs 
at the point of entrance may be denuded, contused, fissured or 
fractured. Shave and disinfect the area around the wound. 

ChecK external hemorrhage. Seal the wound with collodion 
and aseptic cotton or gauze. Apply some gauze over this and 
then strap the affected side of the patient's chest. Strapping 
the chest lessens the patient's pain and limits the activity of 
the chest wall. Strapping is done as follows: Take strips of 
adhesive plaster about two inches wide and long enough 
to extend from the spine to a little beyond the median line 
of the sternum. The first strap is heated over an alcohol 
or other lamp, so that it will adhere. One end is placed upon 
the spine over the lowermost portion of the chest, and the other 
extremity is made to adhere upon the skin of the sternum. The 
strip is applied to the chest after a full expiration preceded by a 
full inspiration. This better immobilizes that half of the chest. 
Successive strips are applied in the same manner (always after a 
full expiration and preceded by a full inspiration) from below up- 
wards, each one overlapping the upper third of the preceding 
one, until the axillary fold is reached. A piece of adhesive plas- 
ter is then made to cover the anterior ends of the strip. 

Other metheds for fixation of the chest walls are: Snug ban- 
daging of the chest with a roller bandage, or the application of a 
light plaster of Paris jacket over the entire chest. This last 
method is not suitable in the treatment of gunshot wounds of the 
chest. "If a joint be inflamed, we put a splint upon it to keep it 
at rest. Why not strap or bandage the chest in cases of pleu- 
risy (the author might well have added in injuries of the chest.) 
Surely it would have the tendency to the inflammatory condition 
by preventing friction between the two opposite pleural sur- 
faces." By strapping the chest, we endeavor to limit the act- 
ion of the respiratory muscles. Capacity of chest is diminished. 
In the penetrating gunshot wounds associated with much hem- 
orrhage, bowels for first two days are to be emptied be enemata. 
Patient is also to be fed per rectum for two days. |^v 

To secure better immobilization of the affected side after the- 
chest has been strapped, the arm can be bound to the side. ^ 



Gunshot Woimcls of fhe GJiest. 349 

Hemorrhage. 
The control of hemorrhage is important so as to prevent 
acute anemia, so as to prevent accumulation of the blood in the 
chest cavity and resulting asphyxia. If the blood escaping from 
the external wound be from the lung, it will usually be frothy, 
and will escape in greater quantity during expiration than during 
inspiration. For the pulmonary hemorrhage, as manifested by 
bloody expectorate, by hemoptysis, (the blood being bright red 
as it has had a chance to be well aerated,) unfortunately not 
much can be done. The best treatment consists in keeping the 
patient in a recumbent posture, absolutely quiet. If the bullet 
has caused much laceration of the lungs and involved some of 
the larger pulmonary larger trunks, a quantity of blood, leading 
to death from syncope, may be ejected from the mouth. Or the; 
hemorrhage, owing to the blood filling the larger bronchial tubes,, 
may cause death from asphyxia. When great restlessness and ir- 
ritability are present, give opium and morphin. Opium by lessen- 
ing cough, lessens hemoptysis. Cardiac stimulants are contra- 
indicated, they are liable to increase the hemorrhage. If the 
hemorrhage has ceased, the increased cardiac force following 
their use is liable to provoke its reoccurrence. Percussion should 
by no means be practiced as it might easily cause bleeding to re- 
cur (Cutler.) 

The patient must be reassured. He must be enjoined not to 
talk. All muscular movements must be avoided. For the pro- 
fuse pulmonary hemorrhage taking place into the plural cavity ,^ 
it has been proposed to mobilize a considerable portion of the 
chest wall so as to deal directly with the injured lung. Several 
cases in which this has been successfully done, have been record- 
ed. These heroic measures are, according to Delorme indicated 
when — 

1. The traumatism is immediately followed by the flooding 
of the pleural cavity as evidenced by dullness over entire side of 
chest and by the symptoms of acute anemia, pallor, great rest, 
lessness, rapidity and weakness of pulse. 

2. When there is a sudden and simultaneous aggravation of 
the functional symptoms and of the physical signs; an increasing 
hemothorax while the asphyxia becomes alarming and the pulse 
miserable. The operative methods employed are well described 



"350 2he Plexus. 

in Bryant's Operative Surgery Vol. II. Also in Lejars Chirurgie 
D'urgence. Rapidity of execution is required. 

The following method is quoted from De Costa's Modern 
Surgery. I have not had the opportunity to try it. "Bleeding 
from the lung can often be arrested by inserting the end of a drain- 
age tube into the pleural sac. In cases, where a drainage tube is 
inserted into the pleural cavity and free drainage established, 
the pleura is immediately filled with air, and the muscles of 
respiration are kept from acting on the lung. The lung con- 
tracts by its own elasticity as well as by the pressure exerted by 
the pneumo thorax, while at the same time the presence of air 
favors the clotting in the severed vessels." 

The intercostal arteries lie in grooves at the inner and lower 
margins of the ribs. Severe hemorrhage may take place from 
these arteries, Either of the following methods may" be em- 
ployed to stop it: Push in the wound by the aid of a probe the 
center of a square piece of antiseptic gauze and after distending 
it like a small bag within the chest, stuff the pouch so made with 
strips of antiseptic gauze. By seizing the projecting corners of 
the square gauze, and drawing the intra- thoracic mass against 
the internal surface of the ribs, hemorrhage from these vessels is 
usually controlled. In removing this compress, take out the 
strips of gauze, one after another, and then remove the large 
square piece. This is called Desault's doll, 

The bleeding vessels can be compressed against the rib by 
lion- jawed forceps. 

This method failing, the bullet wound is enlarged after having 
previously anesthetized the neighboring tissues by the infiltra- 
tion method of anesthesia, along and parallel to the lower border 
of the corresponding rib. The incision is carried to the peri- 
osteum of the rib. The upper margin of the wound is retracted 
upward. The artery runs in the groove along the lower 
border of the rib. It will be seen spurting. Catch it, and tie it 
with a catgut ligature. Should hemorrhage also come from the 
distal end of the vessel, ligate it also. It may be necessary to 
resect, sub-periosteally a portion of the upper or lower rib of the 
corresponding intercostal space. This takes but a few moments, 
gives a better view of the operative field, and very much facili- 
tates the ligaturing of these vessels. Bleeding from the internal 
mammary can and must be controlled. This artery runs parallel 



Gunshot Wounds of the Chest. 351 

to the outer border of the sternum from a quarter to a half an 
inch external to this margin. It lies between the pleural and the 
costal cartilages. The vessel is midway between the outer and in- 
ner borders of the costal cartilages. The bleeding point can be 
seized with hemostatic forceps, which are left in position for about 
twelve hours, antiseptic dressings being packed around them. 
However, it is usually necessary to excise a portion costal carti- 
lages in order to secure both ends — this being a most necessary 
process owing to the freedom of the collateral circulation (inter- 
costal and phrenic arteries) and the consequent liability to con- 
tinued hemorrhage. 

Enlarge your bullet wound along the upper border of th© 
costal cartilage. The integument, the facia and pectoralis major 
muscles are divided down to the intercostal muscles. Resect the 
costal cartilage. The artery is found beneath the intercostal 
muscles surrounded by connective tissues, accompanied by the 
venae comite«='. They can be included in the ligatures. All this can 
be done painlessly under infiltration anesthesia. The vessel is 
to be ligated above and below the wound. 

Hemothorax is the accumulation of blood in the pleural cav- 
ity. It is due either to pleural or pulmonary lesions, or to both. 
When due to rupture of the vessels of the thoracic wall, its 
progress is more readily controlled. When due to a wound of 
the vessels of the hilum, it is almost invariably fatal. (Nimier). 
This blood, if kept aseptic, will subsequently be absorbed. 
Should it become infected, an empyema results. Infection does 
not necessarily come from without. It may be conveyed to the 
blood mass by the blood or through the bronchials. The 
amount of blood poured into the pleural cavity may be so great 
as to cause the patients death from syncope. Hemorrhage into 
the pleural cavity is evidenced by a gradually increasing area of 
dullness, progressing from below upwards. The physical signs 
of pleural effusions are present. 

A left hemothorax when abundant can, by displacing the 
heart, cause a fatal syncope. Intervention may be necessary to 
relieve compression upon the heart and to allow it to return to 
its normal position. An hemothorax causes asphyxia, when the 
pleural effusion is so large that it displaces the mediastina, and 
compresses the sound lung. Hemothorax does not usually de- 
mand active treatment. After suturing, or plugging of the ex- 



352 The Plexus. 

ternal wound and the strapping of the chest, blood accumulating 
in the pleural cavity by the pressure it exerts on the lung usually 
stops the hemorrhage. This blood is usually absorbed. "The 
strong testimony to rapid and complete absorption of even large 
amounts of blood from the pleural surface without manifest local 
disturbances, favors the exercise of discreet waiting for the evi-' 
dence of degenerative changes before active steps are taken. 
(Bryant). 

The pleura is not only a secreting surface, it is also an ab- 
sorbing surface. Should the hemorrhage at the time of the 
accident be so abundant as to endanger life by the increasing 
loss of blood, or by compressing the lung and thereby interfering 
with respiration, if it be not due to a wounded intercostal or in- 
ternal mammary artery, it will be necessary as a life saving 
measure, to open up the chest cavity so as to be enabled to 
remove the blood under hot normal saline solution irrigations, to 
see the bleeding point in the lung, and to arrest the hemorrhage 
by packing gauze in the lung wound, or by the use of suture 
ligatures. If the bleeding vessels be of sufficient size that they 
can be seized, ligate them. Preparation in these cases of alarm- 
ing hemorrhage for the prompt and effective use of normal saline 
solution should always be complete, before the operation is be- 
gun. 

Blood in the pleural cavity, if present in such quantity as to 
cause great dyspnoea can be aspirated four or live days after the 
accident. Blood in the pleural cavity will not clot for many 
days. Aspiration must not be performed until sufficient time has 
elapsed to permit of firm thrombosis in the ruptured vessels. If 
done too early, it is liable to be followed by renewal of the hem- 
orrhage. Do not aspirate too rapidly; do not completely empty 
the pleural cavity. Timely aspiration hastens recovery and 
markedly diminishes the dyspenoea. See that your hands 
and the aspirating needle are sterile. Inhalations of oxygen gas 
may also be used for the dyspnea. 

Should a hemothorax become infected, it ceases to be a 
hemothorax and is an empyema. It must be treated accordingly. 
An immediate subperiosteal resection of a segment of a rib, fol- 
lowed by evacuation and drainage of the abscess cavity is indi- 
cated. 

Associated with the presence of blood in the pleural cavity, 



Gunshot Wounds of the Chest. 353 

there is usually present a small quantity of air, constituting th« 
condition known as hemopneumothorax. The quantity is vari- 
able, it is never extreme because as the pleural cavity becomes 
filled with air and blood the lung is collapsed and the pulmonary 
orifice from which the air has been escaping is thereby closed. 
This air most always comes from the air-vesicles and from the 
small bronchioles. If the air in the pleural cavity escapes into 
the subcutaneous cellular tissues we have produced the condition 
known as surgical emphysema. 

SURGICAL EMPHYSEMA. 

Surgical emphysema, the presence of air in the cellular tis- 
sues of the body, occurring after gun-shot wounds of the 
chest, almost always indicates a wound of both the vis- 
ceral and parietal layers of the pleura, which are slightly sepa- 
rated by a space containihg air, and some laceration of the lung. 
A slight laceration is sufficient to cause this symptom. It is not 
an uncommon complication of gunshot wounds of the chest. At 
each inspiration the air in the lung vesicles escapes into this 
space. Then, during expiration, it is pumped through the wound 
in costal pleura into the subcutaneous areolar tissues. The 
air can be forced to a considerable distance from the site of the 
costal pleura opening. The condition may be limited to the area 
around the external wound, may involve half the body, may in- 
volve the entire body. It can also be induced by air being sucked 
into the wound during inspiration and failing to escape during 
expiration, owing to the edges of the wound coming together. 
When due to the latter cause, it is never very marked. 

Surgical emphysema is recognized by the appearance of a 
puffy swelling, which crackles when pressed upon by the fingers. 
This swelling is free from any discoloration, such as occurs in 
cutaneous inflammations. It occurs during the first few hours 
after the injury, and usually gradually subsides without treat- 
ment. It disappears after the wound in the lung has commenced 
to heal. The healing of the lung wound occluding the opened 
pulmonary alveoli. 

Should the condition be so widespread as to need treatment 
make multiple punctures in the emphysematous area, and then 
apply firm pressure. Another method is to make deep incisions 
in the emphysematous area, and by judicious pressure of the fin- 



354 The Plexus. 

gers from the circumference of the area toward the incision-* 
press out the air contained in the tissues. 

The following case of widespread surgical emphysema, and' 
the successful and novel method of treatment therein instituted, 
is reported by Bramann: A heavily laden truck had passed 
obliquely over the right side of a young man's chest. An hour 
after the accident the subcutaneous tissues of the neck, thorax, 
abdomen, legs and arms were emphysematous. The third and 
fourth ribs were fractured in the axillary line. At that level 
could be heard during inspiration a distinct hissing sound. Dur- 
ing the six hours that followed, the emphysema extended and in- 
volved the hands and feet, so that the entire surface of the 
patient's body was covered by a gaseous swelling. Pulse was 
barely perceptible. The face was cyanosed. An incision was 
made upon the fourth rib; five centimeters of it were resected. 
A trocar was plunged in the pleural cavity, from which there 
escaped a large quantity of air. A large, thick- walled, drainage 
tube was introduced in the pleural cavity, and the wound was 
closed around it, all the soft tissues being opposed to the tube. 

With the tube in place, the air that entered the pleural 
cavity during inspiration was being emptied during expiration 
externally by the drainage tube; laone of it entering into the 
subcutaneous tissues. To the outer end of the drainage tube 
was attached a soft collapsible rubber tube that allowed exit of 
air during expiration, but did not allow the entrance into it of 
air during inpiration. 

Perforating Wounds. From the presence of two wounds, 
perforation of the thoracic viscera cannot be predicated since 
the ball may have wound around the body, or the patient may 
have been struck by two shots. 

Whenever a wound of entrance and one of exit are present, 
the intrathoracic course of the bullet corresponds exactly to the 
chord of an arc formed by the surface curve uniting these two 
orifices. 

Perforating gunshot wounds of the chest are subject to the 
same oomplications as penetrating wounds. They are met by 
the same therapeutic measures. The oridces of entrance and of 
exit are disinfected and sealed. Absolute mental and physical 
quiet are enjoined. Codeine, in the presence of cough, is valu- 
able, as lessening the cough lessens hemoptysis. 
Chicago, 111. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 

CHICAGO. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, '03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Sttpt. W. H. BROWNE, W. T, ECKLEY, M. D., D. N. EIS8NDRATH, M. D. 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BBRARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D, 

Associate Editor, L. H4RRIS0N METTLER, M. D. 

' Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, '02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03. 

Class Editors: 

F. H. HORNIBROOK, 02 B. S. MALOY, '03 F. L WOOD, '04. J. P. BROWNE, '05. 



Faculty Departmeiit, DR. F. B. EARLE Clinical Laboratory Dept, DR. W. E. COATBS 
AlUMiai Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 

Advertising Solicitors, R. E. BROWN, '02. H H. FRUDENFELD. '02. 
Publisher, ------ H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, Cor. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Chiicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers will not hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS. unless sufficient stamps are forwarded. 

The danger of text-books. 
I think it was Dr. Samuel Johnson who deplored the intro- 
duction and manufacture of encyclopedias. He declared that 
they would be the cause of much mental indigestion for people 
would try to devour their contents and assimilate nothing. 
Such plethora would result in a great mass of half -knowledge 
and a mere smattering of information. The old lexicographer's 
fears have in part been realized, for nothing is more observable 
today than the general dissemination of loose inaccurate knowl- 
edge. Thoroughness and a complete mastery of one subject is 



356 The Plexus. 

quite a rarity. One has but to attend a formal conversatione or 
listen to the averag-e club essay to note how much glib talk can 
be made upon Milton, Beethoven or Darwin by those who have 
never scanned a page of Paradise Lost, the Pastoral Symphony 
or Origin of Species. Whole lectures on art are delivered by 
those who scarcely know the meaning and the term chia-oscuro. 
With the aid of the encyclopedia, they have filled themselves up 
with a little information as it needs but a modicum of conceit 
and readiness of speech to pass off this smattering for real learn- 
ing. As a result of all this there is much nonsense uttered as 
old, familiar facts, such as an encyclopedia is expected to con- 
tain, are repeated as new and interesting observations. Indivi- 
dual opinions are woefully wanting or else aie loudly vociferated 
in the hope that mere noise as vehemence will conceal the want 
of accurate knowledge. In these opinions, false comparisons 
and illogical deductions are made because of the inaccuracy of the 
premises. The half knowledge or conceit fostered by the glut- 
tonous study of encyclopedias and such short cuts to culture are 
undoubtedly responsible for the remarkable development of fads, 
religio-hysterical or telepathic nonsense at the present time. 

Text book knowledge is dangerously like the knowledge 
acquired from an encyclopedia; useful if properly used, worse 
than usless if merely memorized. Once upon a time I asked an 
advanced medical student to locate for me the lesion in a so-call- 
ed crossed paralysis. He gave me promptly a correct answer. 
I then requested him to explain to me how the paralysis came to 
be crossed with such a lesion. With equal promptness he replied 
that he could not do so but that he knew that he was right for he 
had just memorized the fact from the text book recommended to 
him. I asked him if he thought he knew what was the nature or 
cause of crossed paralysis. He said he thought he did, because 
he had studied hard his text book and he knew what the text 
book said about it. Poor fellow! he not only did not know what 
a crossed paralysis was but he seemed to have failed even to 
kaow the use of language. In this he was exactly like many 
others. When he said he knew all about crossed paralysis, what 
he really meant to say was that he remembered what the book 
knew or said about crossed paralysis. The two things are not 
the same by a long way. To know and to remember are the 
results of the operation of two separate faculties. Idiots and 



Editorial. 357 

automatons often have marvelous memories and yet know almost 
nothing. Blind Tom had the mimetic faculty marvelously devel- 
oped in regard to music but nobody of intelligence will admit 
that Blind Tom knew any thing about music in the sense, for 
instance, that Robert Schumann knew it. Many students study 
medicine as Blind Tom played his music. For a rational, think- 
ing being that is a waste of valuable time. It is a senseless im- 
position upon an already overburdened memory. And in the 
last degree it is about the most unpractical thing one can do in 
this age when the great cry is for practical knowledge. 

To memorize a text book as a preparation for the practice of 
medicine is about as laughable a thing to do as for a carpenter to 
attempt to build a cabinet after viewing the pictures of the nec- 
essary tools in an encyclopedia. 

As Sydenham said to a student who had come to him with 
letters commending him for his knowledge in anatomy, botany 
etc., "Sir, this is all very fine, on paper — very fine; but it won't 
do. Anatomy! botany! Nonsense. Why, sir, I know an old 
women in Covent Garden who better understands botany; and as 
for anatomy, no doubt my butcher can dissect a joint quite as 
well. No, no. young man; this is all stuff. You must go to the 
bedside; it is only there that you can learn disease." And the 
good old doctor might have added by way of parenthesis that at 
the bedside you have got to think and not memorize. 

By knowledge is meant only that which is known and that is 
known only which has become, as it were, a fact of one's self. 
Knowledge is like the food that has been digested and assimilat- 
ed; memory is like the drop of water on the duck's back, where 
it may or may not remain. Memory is the storehouse from 
which. the knowing faculty draws its supplie? for operating it; 
the relationship being much like that between the locomotive 
and its^coal tender. To go on filling the tender until it is over 
loaded and then expect the engine to move without doing any 
thing farther is not a whit more absurd than to go on cramming 
the memory with news facts and expect that to take the place of 
knowledge. The way many students memorize their text books 
it is no wonder that old Sydenham was moved to recommend Don 
Quixote to one of his students as about as good a preparation, in 
the way of- reading for a medical career as any book. 

There is something both humorous and pathetic in the way 



358 The Plexus. 

that students sometimes cram their memories with textbook lore 
in the hope that they are thereby acquiring knowledge. The 
humorous side of it appears in its foolishness and hollow results 
after so much frantic exertion. The sad side of it is, that the 
student^ is thus committing a crime in which he is himself, 
blindly of course, both the criminal and the victim. Dishonesty 
is justly considered a crime by all civilized people; but the worst 
of all forms of dishonesty is where one is dishonest with himself 
for it is then not only a crime but also a monumental piece of in- 
imitable folly. To delude oneself into the belief that practical 
knowledge is being acquired when as a matter of fact, only a few 
text book statements are being crowded into an over burdened 
memory is about as imbecile a thing to do as one can well imag- 
ine. The poor fellow who labors under that delusion is indeed a 
trickster who, sad to say, has in himself a fool that can easily be 
tricked. 

He is wasting, drearily wasting the most precious moments 
of the present and dangerously jeopardizing the success of the 
future. Too late, he will awake from his delusive dream and dis- 
cover, when his memory fails him as it surely will sooner or later 
how little he has acquired in the way of available knowledge 
after all his years of perverted study. Too late he will see that 
the trickster has done his part well but that the poor fool has 
been made to suffer sadly for his folly. 

L. H. M. 



ALUMNI DEPARTMENT. 

'85. R. H. Miles, of Lyndon, Kan., has added his name to 
the list of Plexus subscribers. He is still proud of his Alma 
Mater, 

'94. M. T. Naughton has now an office at 103 State St., Chi- 
cago. 

'94, A. E. Lauson, now Professor of Anatomy in P. & S. 
Med. College, Milwaukee, Wis., was renewing his acquaintances 
around college recently. 

'95. G. N. Lucas, of Elgin, 111., was a recent visitor at the 
Plexus office. The doctor is Asst. Supt. at the Northern Illi- 
nois Insane Asylum, is in the Annex and has 350 patients under 
his charge. 

'96. F. L. Glenn has moved from 2391 Indiana St, to 87 N. 
Forty- eighth Ave., Chicago. 

'97. F. W. Broderick, of Monterey, Mex., called upon us re- 
cently. 

'98. C. E. Husk is now located at Santa Barbara, Chih. 
Mex. 

'99. V. Pleth, 1556 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, who is Lec- 
turer of Anatomy at Northwestern University Medical College, 
was a recent visitor at the Plexus office. 

'99. L. H. Kelley has moved to Hammond, Ind., from Ches- 
terton, Ind. 

'00 P. S. Mitchell has moved from Hammond, 111., to lola, 
Kan. 

'00. W. N. Moffett has moved to Conrad, la., from Owasa^ 
Iowa. 

'00. Geo. A. Flippin, Pine Bluff, Ark. 

'00. C. A. Buswell has moved to Preeport, 111., from Elgin, 
111., where he was serving interneship in Insane Asylum. 

'01, C. O. Bechtol has accepted interneship at Alexian Bros. 
Hospital, Chicago. 

'01. Mrs. Bertha Willing Braley, of Kansas City, Mo., was 
a recent visitor at her Alma Mater and was well pleased with the 
changes which have taken place since her graduation. 

'01. C. C. Johnson was married to Miss Frances West on 
Thursday, Jan. 23. 



360 The Plexus. 

'01. Eric Soegaard is located at Quincy, Cal., with a mining 
corporation and is reported to be making |400 to $600 per month. 

'01. W. L. Cameron, of Lead, S Dak., is in the city. 

'01. Nina Poison Merrett, El Paso, Tex., is the mother of 
an 8-pound girl, 

"02. John J. Rooks was married to Miss Jenette F, Weland 
on Feb. 2nd, at the Douglas Park Christian Reformed Church, 
Chicago. At home March 1st, at 314 S. East St., Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 

'02. C. A. Inks, of Napponee, is to be married on the 26th 
inst. 

GRADUATES, FEBRUARY 1902. 

Arnold, B. J. 

Albright, J. L., Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

Brownstein, B., 2580 Blue Island Ave., Chicago. 

Breid, Jacob, 606 Fullerton Ave., Chicago. 

Breid, Mrs. J., 817 Congress St., Chicago. 

Bayer, W. H., Augustina Hospital, Chicago. 

Benedict, C. C, Silver Cross Hospital, Joliet, 111. 

Cain, C. L. 

Corcoran, E. A., 416 Warren Ave., Chicago. 

Dike, C. E., Lyon, Wis. 

Dorn, C. A. 

Everett, H. H., 507 Adams St., Chicago. 

Enos, M. M., 1387 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 

Fay, O. J., Des Moines, la. 

Fritch, G. A. 

Gallagher, R. V, 

Gulick, C. D. 

Hyde, D. L., 26 Aberdeen St., Chicago. 

Heller, W. H., E. Marcus, la. 

Haynes, B. H. 

Hinkley, H. G. 

Hammers, L. J. 

Harroun., W. A. 

Hill, Mrs. E. L., Oswego, Kan. 

Inks, C. A., Nappanee, Ind. 

Jamison, G. U. 

Kyes, S. H., Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 

Kimball, G. W., 883 Warren Ave., Chicago. 



Alumni. 361 

Kitterman, P. G. 

Lockwood, C. R,, Chicago Hospital, Chicago. 

Montgomery, J. E., Madison, Neb. 

Miller, R. W. 

McNeil, B. F. 

McCarthy, Mrs. K., Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 

Murphy, F. T. 

Podgur, H. P. 

Phifer, C. H., Lakeside Hospital, City. 

Parker, C. E. 

Plice, W. S. 

Rooks, J. J., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Steckel, A. C, Reno, Nevada. 

Sunde, P. H. 

Strong, D. C, Wichita, Kan., Interne Wichita Hospital. 

Sheller, W. C, Wabash Ave , Chicago. 

Sawtelle, T. F., U. S. Marine Hospital, Chicago. 

Slater, H. H. Decatur, 111. 

Stillman, W. S. 

Venard, T. S. , Ness City, Kan. 

Winters, W T., 456 S. Wood St. 

Wilson, J. H., Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

Young, C. C. 

Young, Mrs. C. C. 



ALUMNI OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS— COLLEGE OF PHYSI- 
CIANS AND SURGEONS OF CHICAGO. 

It is the purpose of the Plexus to publish the addresses of the entire alumni 
in the Plexus in the next few issues and if there are any mistakes or if 
any of our readers know of the addresses not given, we should be pleased 
to have them notify us or Dr. H. W. Berard, Alumni Secretary of 
such changes. 

CLASS OF 1898. 

Bacon, Victor B.. M. D., 752 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Baker, Henry L., 655 W. 12th St., Chicago. 

Bebb, Walter S., LaGrange, 111. 

Belitz, William, Cochran, Wis. 

Beveridge, Sames M., A. B., Buckingham, 111. 

Bjorkmano, David, A. B., 714 Main St,, Evanston. 

Bingley, M. Arista, 225 Chicago Ave., Chicago. 



362 The Plexus 

Blaoey, Fred H., A. B., 115 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

D. E. Brown, Elk. New Mexico. 

Brownell, Wm. Flocton, New London, Wis. 

Bursma, Jacob, A. B., Sand Lake, Mich. 

Butts, J. Baptist. 

Beyers, Emery M., Belvidere, 111. 

Cahill, Leo L., Elizabethtown, New Mexico. 
Carr, Bert Mather. 
Conrad,. A. F. 

Connor, F. H., B. S., Nevada, la. 

Coon, Geo. E. 

Corbin, John Francis, Galesburg, 111. 

Crofton, Alfred C, M. D., Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dillon, Ira Hugh, Auburn, Neb. 

Dolan, A. N. J., A. B., 905 Wilson Ave., Chicago. 

Dowdall, Wm. T., 57 Washington, Chicago. 

Emerson, Robert, Chihuahua, Mex. 

Feeney, Francis Sebastian, New Hampton, 111. 

Flannagan, Bartholomew F., Til W. 43rd St., Chicago. 

Flemming, Geoffrey J., 416 S. Waller St., Chicago. 

Fletcher, Marcus Samuel, B. S., Kidge Farm, 111. 

Ford, Ward Redfield. 6738 Honore St., Chicago. 

Fuson, Amandus W., Sutter and Market Sts., Stockton, Cal. 

Garber, S. C, Cambden, Ark. 

Graeser, Henry Bernard, Kensett, la. 

Hall, Hugh Martin, Millersburg, Ind. 

Hambley, Thomas J., Hurley, Wis. 

Hamill, Mrs. Eunice B., Guthrie, Okla. 

Hart, W. E., Chihuahua. Mex. 

Hill, Geo. B. McClelland. 

Homer, Herman Corwin. 

Hooper, Martin L. , M. D. , Boulder, Colo. 
Hovenden, Jolin Henry, Laurens, la. 
Hunt, Ernest A. B. S., Lamoille, la. 
Husk, C, E., Santa Barbara, Chih. 
Hutchinson, Charles S., M. S., Ames, la. 
Irwin, Wentworth Lee, Plymouth, 111. 
Johnson, vSimeon R. , B. S., Diveman, 111. 
Kalacinski, Felix, 618 Noble St., Chicago. 
Kemp, Oliver P., B. S., Greentown, Ind. 
King, Charles Bruce, 987 Jackson Ave., Chicago. 
Kirkland, Benjamin Franklin, Urbana, la. 
Kittredge, Charles Albert. 
Knight, Eugene C, 92 State St., Chicago. 



Alumni. 363; 

Kohler, Arvid C, Moline, 111. 

Lucas, Frank B., Elgin, 111. 

Lyon, Elijah A., M. D., 2242 Wabash Aue., Chicago. 

McClurg, Alberta, 6108 Greenwood Ave., Chicago. 

McManes, Metthew, Piqua, 0. 

McManus, Thomas, B. A., Waterloo, la. 

Miller, A. Baxter, 216 E. Ohio St., Chicago. 

Minahan, Patrick Robert, Casco, Wis- 

Moat, Thos., Gridley, 111. 

Mutchler, John A., B. S.. Swea City, la. 

Nagel, John S., Ph. Gr., Cor. Harrison St. and Western Ave,, Chicago. 

NeflF, Jas. M., 100 State St., Chicago. 

Newhall, George F, 233 Jansen Ave., Chicago. 

Overton. T. V., Baldwin, La. 

Page, Addison C. 

Pagelson, Otto H. 

Pennington, William Robert, M. D. , Broken Rod, Neb. 

Petersmeyer, William, Ph. G., Ashton, 111. 

Phillips, Mrs. Sennie Lind, 601 W. 60th St., Chicago. 

Pietrowicz, S. R., 829 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 

Pratz, Fred D., A. B., Moweaqua, 111. 

Proudfoot. Charles Pans. 

Purington, William Abraham. 

Rogers, Henry Cortland, Primighar. la. 

Raszell, R. A., 702 W. 12th St., Chicago. 

Rubin, George, 655 N, Francisco Ave., Chicago. 

Scheussler, Henry G,, Joliet, 111. 

Scholes, Paul, A. B., Canton, 111. 

Schuldt, Franz 

Sherin. Wesley Morley, 45 Stanley Terrace, Chicago . 

Simpson, Austin Ulysses, Neoga, 111, 

Simpson, Charles E. , Iowa Falls, la. 

Simpson, D, G., Warren, Ohio. 

Slater, S. H., Spanish Fork, Utah. 

Snydacker, Emanuel F., Venetian Bldg., Chicago. 

Sollenbarger, Geo Hartley, Bethlehem, la. 

Spickermao, H. R., Muncie, Ind. 

Stayner, W. H., 100 State St., Chicago. 

Steele, W. J.,B. S. 

Stevenson, Bayard Taylor, Henry, 111. 

Stone, Carl Downer, 2220 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

Stone, Wm. Truman, M. D., Park Rapids, Minn. 

Stotz, Ch»rles F.,1570 Milwaukee Ave. Chicago. 

Swink, Henry J., M. A., . 



364 Th6 Pleieus. 

Vary, William Harold, M. D., 32 Wells St.. Chicago. 

Wald, 0. E., Au^ustana, Hospital. Chicago. 

~Wegner, William Godfrejs South Bend, Ind. 

Wehle, Willibald John, Ph: E. M. D., West Bend. Wis. 

Wells, David Gillison, McHenry, 111. 

Whitmer, Charles Franklin. 

Whitmore, Frank B., M. D. ' 

*Whitney, Eugene D. 

Witherspoon, Louis G., B. S., 1000 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

Wolf, M. C. 

Wuerth, John Jacob. Ph. G., 148 E. 45th St. 

Wyland, George Van, 329 W. Erie St., Chicago. 

Wj-nekoop. Chas J., Br S., 1503 Addison Ave., Chicago. 

Weicherdds, E., 229 E. Division St., Chicago. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 

The Quine Library. 

One of the most important features of a well-equipped med 
ical college, and one of the rarest and most expensive, is a com- 
prehensive and up-to-date library, containing the standard med- 
ical publications of the world. The Quine Library was the first 
of its kind west of the Alleghany Mountains, and one of the first 
on the continent to be maintained for medical students and to be 
put unreservedly at their command, subject only to the adminis- 
tration of a trained librarian. Although not yet outgrown the 
age of infancy this collection of well-arranged books already 
numbers 5,259 bound volumes, not including duplicates, of which 
607 volumes have been added during the past six months. No 
account is taken, in this connection, of the steady influx of count 
less reprints and of all the important periodicals of this country 
and Europe which enable students to follow the evolution of anj' 
medical subject down to the very day of their graduation. Suc'_. 
a collection of books represents a greater outlay of moueythan 
would be required to duplicate the total scientific equipment of 
dozens of the smaller colleges such as those of our own city 
which, nevertheless, are in good "standing" with examining 
boards. 

The latest editions pf all important works are on the shelves, 
and students are not even required to look for them. On demand 
the desired books are instantly handed to them, and if a few 
absent minded ones fail to return the books the loss is promptly 



Notes. 365 

made good, and greater vigilance is thereafter exercised by the 
librarian, and more stringent administrative rules are instituted ^ 
by the committees of management. 

An indisputable adjunct to even the greatest collection of 
books is a trained librarian who knows how to classify and ar- 
range them, and can instruct novices how to utilize them with 
the greatest possible effect. 

The instruction which our advanced students are now re- 
ceiving in thesis or essay writing, and which demands of them 
an exhaustive and systematic presentation of the assigned 
subjects all ready for the printer's hands, and requires of them 
thorough familiarity with the resources of the college library, is 
one of the most important and practical of the achievements of 
individual teachers. These enterprising and devoted men are, 
all unconsciously, not only teaching students but are teaching 
some of their colleagues, including the writer, how to utilize a 
large collection of books with maximum ease and effect. There 
is no doubt that students may receive as much iuformation of a 
useful kind from the college librarian as they do receive from, 
some of their official teachers. The existence of a library fosters 
the literary spirit and the utilization of it insures a breadth and 
accuracy of scholarship which cannot be acquired away from 
centers of education. 

That students of the better class appreciate the opportunities 
thus offered to them is shown by the fact that the average daily 
attendance at the college library is 134. This means that in the 
eourse of the collegiate year of eight months the patronage of 
the library is equivalent to forty consultations for each and 
every matriculant of the college. 

The advantages of the library are so well known in the 
neighborhood that from the- beginning physicians and the 
students of sister colleges have so freely utilized them as to be 
daily, and thus familiar, gWQ^iii. — College Bulletin. 

The following articles by members of the faculty of the Col- 
lege of P. and S. have been noted in various medical journals: 
. Dr. G. F. Lydston. "Note on Gauging Vesical Capacity. "— 
Journal of American Medical A ssociaMoli. Feb. 8, pages 391-2. 

Dr. G, F. Lydston. "Involuntary Micturition in ChildTen.' 
^-Pediatrics. Jan. 15, pages 43-55. ■ ' 'r ^ ■ '; 



366 , The Plexus. 

Dr. B. F. Holmes. "How to Use a Medical Library. " — Cleve- 
land JoiLrnal of Medicine. Dec. 1901, pages 565-68. 

Dr. G. F. Butler. "Neglected but Valuable Therapeutic 
Measures." — Journal of American Medical Association. Jan. 18, 
pages 155-57. 

Dr. E. F. Wells. "Consideration on Some Important Sub- 
jects Connected with Pneumonia." — Journal of American Medical 
Association. Jan. 18, page 163. 

Dr. Wm. A. Pusey. "Cases of Sarcoma and of Hodgkin's 
Diseases." Treated by exposure to X Rays. 

Dr. G. F. Lydston. "General Medical Treatment of Syphi- 
lis." — Medical Neivs. Jan. 18, pages 101 to 103. 

Dr. J. M. Brown. "Rhinoscleroma."i/edzca? Brief. Feb- 
ruary, page 217. 

Dr, G. F. Suker. "A New Enucleation Forceps." — Oph- 
thalmic Record. Jan. 1902, pages 39 36. 

Dr. A. J. Ochsner. ' 'Ventral Hernia" Following Abdominal 
Surgery. — The Clinical Revieiu. February, pages 372-880. 

Dr. Wm. J. Butler. "Congenital Heart Lesion." — Pediatrics. 
Feb. 1, pages 99-105. 

Dr. Geo. F. Butler. "Auto-toxemia as a Factor in Neurosis. "^ 
— Journal of American Medical Association. Feb. 8, pages 363-66. 

The following gifts have been sent the Quine Library dur- 
ing the past month: 

Dr. Eckley kindly presented the library with a copy of his 
recently published and very valuable work on "Regional An- 
atomy." 

Dr. Duncan, of Toledo, Ohio, sent us eleven volumes^of the 
"Transactions of the Ohio State Medical Association." 

Dr. M. R. Brown and Dr. Sanger Brown have each sentth© 
library a collection of unbound journals and theses. 



SENIOR NOTES. 
An examination was given at the West Side Hospital, lon the 

7th of February, for interneship of that institution. Seven of 

the cream of our premature M. D's took the examination. S. M. 

Keys was awarded the position and has entered upon his duties. 
Joe Campbell made a flying trip to Kankakee last Sunday, i 
A trip to Europe is a grand thing. Heidleburg is the 

center of learning. Von Kittler is the cream of Heidel- 



Notes. 367 

burg. There, was a time that this learned gentleman was merely 
classed .with the""' average student. Now none doubt his super- 
human skill. With a simple touch, he can diagnose the most 
complex disease. Mr. Kittler demonstrated his wonderful pow- 
ers during his short, performance in the pit last week. 

Another gentleman, contemporary with the former, a Mr. 
Klinger by name, two years before familiarly known as "Hydro- 
cephalus," a pleasant liar, in the "grandiose" stage, has shown 
his right to rank with Mr. Kittler. 

It has been announced by the dean of the faculty that we 
will have our commencement exercises in the finest hall in the 
city, and that we will have more brass bands than any of the pre- 
ceeding classes. We understand that we have the junior class 
to thank for the promise of the brass bands. 

^"IHollis was at maternity last week. He went out bright and 
early one morning to attend his first case, but unfortunately lost 
his way and arrived at his destination just as the minister was 
baptizing the child. 

A sample of the commencement invitations has been shown 
to the class, they are considered to be the finest ever sent out 
from this institution. 

Of the great men who have been giving demonstrations in 
the pit this month, perhaps none have shown such marvelous 
ability as has Pat "the Irish Jew." 

One of the quiz masters in medicine has a new and unique 
definition for ambulatory typhoid. 

W. V. Johnson is laid up with a sprained ankle. 

It may not be complimentary to the forty premature M. D's 
who have just left us, to say that the class seems every bit as 
large now, as before they left us. It is a fact however. 

Miller and Heller are taking a "post-rubberneck" course of 
the "ambulatory" type in the different hospitals of the city. 

Phifer is wheeling patients and washing babies at the Lake 
Side hospital. 

Brownstein has a ten thousand dollar practice on the North 

side. "Nit." 

Kimball has charge of a Christian Science dispensary on 
the south side. He mixes all the drugs. * 



?68 The Plexus. 

Stillman is cleaning test tubes in the Columbus Laboratory. 

Venard is farming in Kansas. 

Benedict is rolling bandages, and drawing an ambulance for 
a manufacturing establishment at Joliet. 

Reuben Haynes is resting and sleeping in the city. 

The remainder of the "prematue graduates" are either sell- 
ing bananas or buying rags and iron. 



SENIOR RECEPTION AND BALL. 

The second annual senior reception and ball has come and 
gone, and with it many a glorious throng of happy dreams. 

LTpon the evening set apart for this event there sterns to be 
a special compound of the elements and no nights seem so frigid 
and unkind. 

The ability of the medical man to analyze such acom^DOund 
was apparent February 7th. For in spite of the inclemency of 
weather, this year, as last, Beek's cozy hall was made a scene of 
revelry by night, the throng of darce loons coming from far 
and near. 

The reception line was composed of the members of the 
senior faculty. Dean Quine, the honored guest, being among 
the number. 

A little tardiness was manifested in the starting of the grand 
march, and it was not until 9:35 that Dr. and Mrs. F. B. Earle 
led the opening number of the dance program. No more time 
was lost after this, and waltz and two-step vied with each other 
for supremacy until the morning was well established. 

There was not one sorrowful face in the gay and happy 
throng, but many a beaming countenance prominent last year 
was missing, and a thought in their behalf caused a little shiver 
to take hold of one who stopped for a moment to look for an old 
face. But an occasional one was found, and the hand clasp and 
exchange of "howdys" that followed would do your heart good. 
How strange the bond and how sweet, which unites fellows of a 
class, especially those of a medical school. Doubtless many a 
poor fellow stowed away in some remote corner of the earth, sat 
over a copy of practice, or surgery, and the memory of February 
7th, last year, caused the words to blur upon the page, and his 
researches for diagnosis and treatment transformed themselves 



Noles, 369 

into memories of a year ago. Of him who was not there the 
writer thought, and wished him equal, or even greater joy, 
wherever God had sent him. "Oh! memories that bless and 
bind" The management was able and satisfactory, and well it 
should be, for their predecessors set a pace difficult to follow. 
But the class of 1902, in making their party a success, welded a 
second substantial link in a long chain of senior receptions, a 
society eveni of the season not alone in the great medical school, 
but in the city of Chicago. 

Goldsmith and his corps of music makers reigned supreme 
in the balcony, and made it impossible for feet to resist the 
melodious rythm. Even the Dean was seen among the merry 
faces filling a program, and his enjoyment of the evening was 
great as others To use his own words: "My — my visiting list 
is full.-' 

French served, and everybody ate, drank, and laughed, as 
only dancers can. 

No dissenting voices were heard, and everyone had more 
than a glorious evening of pleasure and happiness. Long live 
the senior annual. Sever SON. 



JUNIOR NOTES. 

RETROSPECTION. 

Ofttimes at night when all the world sleeps on. 
Alone I sit, forlorn. That silvery light — 
The roving moon, in peai^ly skies, makes night 
Appear like day. Yet all God's things seem wan, 
And sad and desolate since she is gone. 
And as I gaze through white-capped clouds, my sight 
Becomes bedimmed with tears. I think how bright 
Her smile. 'Twas like the mellow glow of dawn. 
'Tis hard to banish dreams of loved ones lost 
For aye. What is't below gives peace and rest? 
The same she has that died in innocence? 
But peace ! In after time when I have crossed 
Through golden, jewelled realms — there with the blest 
Of God's fair saints, we'll meet, where joys commence. 

How do you like the change? 
Did they forget you Valentine Day? 

The leading question of the hour: "Have you been down in 
obstetrics yet?" 



370 The Plexus. 

Cartoonist Carey, of the Daily IS/eivs is not the only one that 
can claim a Brainy Bowers. 

Mrs. P. H. Holmes visited her husband at the college the 
14th inst., attending several lectures with him. 

There are many in the class who are now giving more time 
to the study of surgery than they did a short time ago. 

Miss Selma Seidel, together with her friend, Miss A. Buer- 
kin.Quincy, visited the former's brother, Mr. A. C. Seidel, at the 
college February 12th. 

He has left us. No more will he suffer tortures of the 
dammed while watching the clock demolish time. No more will 
he be rudely snatched from those delightful, dreamy reveries to 
be brought face to face with the quizz master. He has gone 
from us as has yesterday. He — Loveridge — has gone. 

Since the last grist one has hinted at using a splint for im- 
mobilizing the parts for fistula-in-ano; another says the umbili- 
cal cord is tied in two places to prevent the mother from bleed- 
ing to death; while another has stated that which can not be 
printed because of its extreme indelicacy. We shall only refer 
one to its author — Copenhaver. 

How often, O, how often, in the days that now are gone, 
were we told of the great importance of that bugbear, the minute 
neuron. How often, O, how often, we had wished that the hu- 
man brain and the cord were mythical structures that we heard 
of again and again. But at last we have run up against it, and 
we sigh for the time past and gone, that we fiddled away during 
lectures on the brain, spinal cord and neuron. 

Our old classmate, A. L. Fritz, who was with us during the 
first and part of the second year, has again left for England and 
the continent. It was impossible for him to arrange his classes 
satisfactorily here, so he decided that it was best for him to 
return to England and again engage in his previous occupation. 
We are confident that we voice the sentiments of the class in 
saying that we are sorry he has left us and that we trust his 
journey will be a pleasant one. He sailed on the Oceanic for 
Liverpool about the first of the month. 

A committee, representing the Junior class, met Dr. Sher- 
wood some time ago, for the purpose of presenting to him the 
thanks of the class for his earnest efforts in giving to us, what 



Notes. 371 

we considered, a thorough course in surgery. Dr. Sherwood re- 
plied in the form of a most excellent letter in which he thanked 
the class for the great mark of respect shown him, and of the 
pleasure it was to him to know that his efforts in teaching sur- 
gery to us had been well received and fully appreciated. 

W. T. Barnum took a splendid picture of the class in 406, 
February 8th. Some time ago, at a class meeting, the fact was 
mentioned, that, although we possessed within the class an ex- 
perienced photographer, still we were encouraging an outsider 
to come here and do that work. Not only was this true with 
regard to photography, but defects existed and still exist within 
the class in other lines. There are many in the class, who in 
order to advance themselves are perhaps obliged to carry on 
some side issue together with their study of medicine, depend- 
ing to a considerable extent upon the support of the class for the 
maintainance of the same. Right among us are men engaged in 
various occupations during their spare moments, such as dispos- 
ing of medical books, instruments and medical supplies of all 
kinds. Many wait on tables which should be patronized to a 
greater extent by P & S men. Some are clerks in nearby bus- 
iness houses, while others are representatives and assistants in 
various lines in and around the college. By cooperation it 
would be a comparatively easy matter for us to aid one another 
very materially. What you do to help your class-fellow, in a 
measure, you do to help yourself. 

At a recent meeting the class president appointed a com- 
mittee consisting of the various class officers, whose duty it was 
to meet the Dean of the college in order to remedy, if possible, 
several defects which seemed to exist within the class. Dr. 
Quine agreed with the committee that the greater number of the 
grievances presented were perfectly justifiable, and only dis- 
agreed with them in a few points. With regard to bed- side 
clinics at the County Hospital he explained to us what we now 
know to be a fact, that such is impossible while the present 
Warden holds the appointment. Within other institutions the 
Dean states positively that no bed-side clinics can, or do, exist 
where the patients pay for their care and treatment. In closing 
the seance Dr. Quine assured the committee that he would make 
a most thorough investigation, and if he found any of the various 
rumors true which were hovering around the halls of the P. and 



372 77<e Plexus, 

S. of late, referable to the greater (?) advantages which were 
being heralded by certain contemporary colleges, that we might 
rely upon it, we would always be given precisely the same op- 
portunities and advantages that were reported to be given else- 
where. 

It was rumored that Kleinefelter had changed his seat in the 
lecture room. Such report proved to be untiue, however, for he 
was not only there (curls and all), but he has been there every 
day since. Sometimes it is difficult to understand why so great an 
attraction exists on the lady side of the house between certain in- 
dividuals — isn't it? Yet, when one considers for a few mo- 
ments, perhaps his memory may carry him back through the 
mists of years to creatures possessed of a peculiar attractiveness 
— a something in their make-up which seemed at times almost 
irresistable to cope with. Not for a moment do we infer that it 
is Kleinefelter's curls referred to as the peculiar something while 
mentioning his name. Certain it is those well groomed and 
glossy curls, although now a trifle shorter than usual, bear a 
close relation to the nicely preened tail feathers of one of the 
most beautiful of the class aves — the lyre-bird. Still, we are 
not yet ready to say that this is the forte he relies upon while un- 
concernedly floating around in that section of the class referred 
to. Be this as it may, it is indeed strange why some men in- 
variably sloj) over the brim while in the company of the op- 
posite sex, or when women are indiscriminate enough to allow 
them to come within hailing distance. 

The "pup" wrote another of his brilliantly worded notes a 
few days ago, directed to one of our professors. Not long before 
this oifense, some one — presumably the pup — wrote a similar 
note to another of the Junior professors. The class took action 
at that time and sent a committee, instructing them to inform the 
person insulted that the class was not and never would be in 
sympathy with the author of such assinine attempts at cuteness- 
It is almost useless to notice these petty stabs in the dark, for 
the person guilty of such smallness of character has no more re- 
gard for the feelings of others than has the hardened criminal. 
We, together with the majority of the class, know well who tnis 
degenerate is. Personally we know of him and his ilk nothing 
good — (of which more anon). It is, of course, understood that 
many notes reaching the professor's desk are the epitome of wit 



Notes. m% 

and are well worth bringing to light. But when an upstart sends 
written instructions to his teacher, together with other gross in- 
sults, it is time to call a halt. Besides, one would rather receive- 
the full force of the lion's paw than to be touched by the hoof of 
an ass. 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

A new term's work is begun and we have a new and rather 
difficult schedule of work to perform. Notwithstanding this fact 
a large number of the boys are taking one or more junior studies. 
The Physical Diagnosis class, with the exception of two Juniors 
is made up entirely of Sophomores. Some of the boys including 
Landau. Simpson, Young, Twohig and Cavanaugh, feeling a 
deep interest in certain advanced work, are taking Genito Urinary 
and Venereal Diseases under Dr. Lydston. 

A few of our members dropped out at the end of last term, 
some to attend other colleges, some to take up hospital worj£ 
while others departed whence they came. J. H. O'Neil has reg- 
istered at the Northwestern, and Crouch has taken a position in 
a hospital. Two of our bright lights, C. A. Ayers and Mr. 
Horstman, have left us, though only temporarily. Mr. Ayers is 
working in a hospital, while Mr. Horstman has returned to his 
home at Barron, Wis. They will both be back to the P. & S. be- 
fore the year is out. 

Work in the dissecting room is in full sway, and as the mate- 
rial appears to be very good we all expect to do fine work. The 
cadaver on which Harrington is working is so nicely injected 
that he says he has been able to demonstrate the distal digital 
"arterial anastomoses" with great distinctness. 

Porges, Dickey and Barker, Dr. Dreyer's laboratory assist- 
ants, witnessed an operation, performed by the doctor a few days 
ago, to establish gastric fistula in a dog. The operation was en- 
tirely successful, the last bulletin being to the effect that his dog- 
ship was doing nicely but was a little down in the mouth because 
he had been denied all luxuries such as chicken bones and rabbit 
fur. 

Fred Cuttle has accepted a position as amanuensis to Dr. 
Holmes, but he will keep up his college work as usual, also his 
work as Y. M. C. A. secretary. 



374 The Plexus. 



Dr. Eckley has been confined to his home by sickness for 
several days, and during his absence we have had our old friend 
of our Freshman days. Dr. Shaw, to lecture to us in anatomy. 
We all think Dr. Shaw is all right, and he will always find ,the 
latch string hanging out, and the bottle of hot stuff setting on the 
mantle when he comes to the '04 cabin. 



FRESHMAN NOTES. 

The Freshman class has lost a few members, but on the 
whole has increased, a number of new students entering for the 
winter term. The new material shows up very well, and is 
somewhat active in pre-empting seats, but we notice that if the 
old members are on time they secure their accustomed places. 
Among the old men who left at the end of last term are Bawdon 
and Renaud. The former has gone home, while Renaud, who is 
a Ph, G., has a position as drug clerk at 5500 Wentworth Ave. 

A few cases of sickness have been reported, none serious, 
however, with the exception of Rowbottom, who was obliged to 
submit to a surgical operation, and is still in the hospital. Mr. 
Rowbottom was an earnest conscientious student and had made 
an enviable record up to the time of his sickness. He has the 
sympathy of the entire class and we hope to hear of his early 
and complete recovery. 

The grip claimed the usual number of victims, including, we 
grieve to say, the class reporter. Undoubtedly it would be 
wearisome to detail, or even mention the large and vigorous 
pains which found convenient lodgment throughout our diminu- 
tive anatomy during the progress of the above mentioned mal- 
ady. But asking pardon for a personal allusion, we aver it is 
with considerable pleasure we can announce in a loud voice, 
"Richard's himself again." 

The making of the new class rolls for the winter term revealed 
the fact that our class claims some distinguished names. Among 
others handed in are those of Sir Walter Scott and John Alex- 
ander Dowie. While we welcome with pleasure the namesake of 
the distinguished Scotchman to our ranks, we fear we must 
draw the line at the pugnacious Zion leader. The attitude which 
the aforesaid real estate promoter assumes toward our revered 
and chosen profession, is discouraging, to say the least, and 
should his doctrines prevail, instead of healing the masses for a 



Notes. 375 

proper consideration, we may have to saw wood for a living. 
This, we submit, is not calculated to inspire us with much love~ 
for the aforesaid jadowie. Therefore, if any member of the 
class is really afflicted with such a cognomen, we advise an ap- 
plication of the proper authorities for a change. 

Among the papers in the January Bulletin the first on "Ele- 
mentary Clinics," by Dr. Quine, we think should be read by all 
the members of our class. The writer shows clearly the stand 
taken by the faculty at first on this experiment, and then leaves 
no donbt that, in the mind of the writer, at least, elementary 
clinics in the College of Physicians and Surgeons have passed 
their experimental stage. While we have no authority to speak 
for the class as a whole, we are sure we voice the sentiments of 
the great majority when we say that our clinics are much en- 
joyed and highly appreciated. As a proof of the interest shown 
it may be mentioned that although it is understood the roll is 
never called, absences are rare. 

Another paper in the same Bulletin, we think, is properly 
the course of considerable class pride. We refer to "Co-Education 
in Medicine, Prom the Woman's Standpoint," by Carolyn Frances 
Beardsley. The writer is enthusiastic on the mutual advantages 
to be derived from co-education, and presents a very strong case. 
After having finished reading the article Bybee is reported to 
have stated earnestly and publicly in his attractive falsetto, 
that he wished he "either was a co-ed or had one," But this 
"may not be true." 

We understand Miss Beardsley's paper was selected as best 
from a number prepared on the same subject. Throughout the 
article, we of the male persuasion are nicely treated — here slyly 
flattered, there elegantly walloped. We are sincerely glad, how- 
ever, that the writer testifies "to the unqualified advantages of 
co-education." It is apparent to any one that lady students in a 
medical school can be placed in many very feeling positions, 
which the gentlemen can largely aggravate or ameliorate. We 
are glad to note that the attitude assumed by the gentlemen of 
our class at least, has practically eliminated any such objection, 
and further believe that if the gentlemen will keep abreast of 
the mental pace set by the ladies of '05 there will be no trouble 
about the coveted sheepskin when the proper time arrives. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

Dr. W. E. Hosman, of Akron, Ind., is doing post graduate 
work at the P. and S. this term. 

Dr. W. E. Quine has consented to deliver his lecture on 
"The Teachings and Influences of Samuel Hanneman," at a near 
date in the Clinical Amphitheater of the college, and we shall 
be pleased to publish his lecture in het Plexus. 

Supt. Browne has been absent about a week on account of 
an attack of the ''Grip." 

Dr. D. A. K. Steele has left for an extended trip in the 
countries across the sea. He will travel through Egypt, Pales- 
tine, Italy, etc. 

The members of the Beta Chapter of the Phi Rho Signia 
fraternity gave a very pleasant "at home" at their commodious 
"frat" house at 18s Warren avenue on Tuesday, Jan. 28. Quite a 
large crowd was in attendance, and the members of the Phi 
Rho Sig's are to be congratulated upon the success of their re- 
ception. It is the social "side issues" of college life that are the 
"bright spots" in future reflections. 




Wm. E. Quine, M. D., 

Dean and Professor of Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine, College of 

Physicians and Surgeons. Medical Department University 

of Illinois, Chicago. 



THE PLEXU 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

VOL. VIL MARCH 20th, 1902. NO. 11 

THE TEACHINGS AND INFLUENCE OF SAMUEL 

HAHNEMANN. 

By William E. Quine. 

A lecture delivered to the students of the College March 22, 1902. 

"Oh, wad some power the giftie gie us 

To see oursels as ithers see us; ' 

It wad frae mony a fancy free us 

And foolish notion."' 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — 

In response to your request I am now before you to expound 
the teachings and influence of Samuel Hahnemann. I have come 
not to attack homeopathy, but to explain it; and I have no temp- 
tation whatever to embitter or mislead your minds by rancorous 
example or by untruthful words. I shall leave you, when I am 
through, to decide for yourselves whether I have presented the 
subject in fairness and kindliness of spirit. 

The first of the doctrines of Hahnemann, both in the order of 
announcement and in importaDce, is the so called "Law of Cure" 
set forth in the words, 

SiMILIA SiMILIBUS CURANTUR. 

This "law" is expounded by its alleged discoverer as follows: 
"Diseases exhibiting certain symptoms are to be cured only and 
are cured invariably by medicines which produce similar symp- 
toms in a healthy person." 

Such medicines are termed the "similima" of the disease. 

"It is not possible, " he says, "to perform a cure but by the 



378 Ihc Phxus. 

aid of a remedy which produces symptoms similar to the disease 
itself." 

"It is an infallible, an unerring law." 

"The great sole therapeutic law." 

"A mode of cure founded on an eternal, infallible law of 
nature." 

In view of the fact that I have already dealt with this phase 
of the subject in a lecture delivered a few years ago before the 
faculty and students of the Dunham Medical College (Homeo- 
pathic), entitled "Why I am not a Homeopath."; and that copies 
of the lecture are already in your hands, I shall limit myself on 
the present occasion to the exposition of proofs that the "Law" 
is neither of universal applicability nor infallible in its opera- 
tions. 

1. It prohibits us from dealing with causes and requires us 
to limit our efforts to the effacement of effects or symptoms. 

Hahnemann is explicit on this point. "The ensemble of 
symptoms," he says, "is the sole object a physician ought to 
have in view in every case of disease; for the power of his art is 
to be directed against that alone in order to cure it and transform 
it into health. Only that which is necessary for a physician ta 
know of disease and what is fully sufficient for the purpose of 
cure is rendered evident to his senses. It is an indubitable truth 
that the sum of all the symptoms in each individual case of dis- 
ease is the sole guide to direct us in the choice of a curative- 
remedy." 

Hence you need'nt bother about etiology, pathology and diag- 
nosis, and it isn't necessary to know any thing about anatomy^ 
physiology, chemistry or bacteriology to be a good Hahneman- 
nian. 

If a patient have convulsions it is of no consequence to know 
whether they are due to the invasion of scarlet fever, or to ure- 
mia, or to intestinal worms, or to epilepsy, or to a poisonous 
quantity of strychnine or hydrocyanic acid. Just give the pa- 
tient a siniilimum and you'll hit it every time. 

Or, if he have chills, fevers and sweats don't make yourself 
ridiculous by trying to ascertain whether they are due to malar- 
ial infection, pyemia, or a gall stone in the common duct, but 
give the man a homeopathic dose at once and put an end to thfr 
business. 



Teacliings and Influence of Hahnemann. 379 

Or, if he be vomiting, cold and pulseless, don't worry about 
thoughts of hemorrhage, strangulated hernia or appendicitis, but 
give him the dead shot remedy; and while you wait a few min- 
utes to witness the "infallible cure," occupy the time pleasantly 
by singing "He's a jolly good fellow." 

In short, in every case of disease leave causes alone; for "it 
is an indubitable truth that the sum of all the symptoms is the 
sole guide to direct us in the choice of a curative remedy." 

Now that is mere nonsense. Everyone knows that the first 
thing to be done in disease is to remove the cause, if possible; 
but Hahnemann asks us to believe that if we efface the effects 
the cause will cease to act. The fallacy of this assumption is a 
fact of familiar knowledge. 

2. The "Law'" excludes the use of antitoxins and other an- 
tidotes and of physiologic restoratives. 

No one claims that diphtheria antitoxin given to a healthy 
person produces symptoms like those of diphtheria. No one 
claims that a good variety and quantity of fresh vegetables eaten 
by a healthy person cause symptoms like those of scurvy. No 
one claims that thyroidein is the "similimum" of cretinism or 
myxedema. And yet everyone knows the proper remedy to em- 
ploy when he is confronted by the diseases mentioned, — the 
"Law" to the contrary, notwithstanding. 

3. The "Law" makes no provision for complications. If a 
patient have acute nephritis and the usual liability to uremia and 
to acute dilatation of the heart; or if he have Addison's disease 
and usual liability to syncope; or if he have typhoid fever and 
the usual liability to hemorrhage and perforation; or if he have 
retention of urine and the usual liability to rupture of the blad- 
der; it is not proper to guard against such evils. The scientific 
and infallible method is to wait till they confront you and then 
combat them by the administration of similars. 

4. The "Law" prohibits dealing with pathologic products. 
If a patient have empyema, or abscess of the liver, leave the pus 
alone and give him the proper thing for chills, fevers and sweats; 
or if he have renal colic, under no circumstances disturb the cal- 
culus but give the similimum instanter and then comfort him 
with the scriptural assurance that "Joy cometh in the morning." 

Now every homeopath in the world knows that the "Law of 
Similars" is not what Hahnemann claimed. There is not a home- 



380 The Plexus. 

opathic teacher in existence who would now dare to say to a class 
of students, "Only that which is necessary for a physician to 
know of disease and what is fully sufficient for the purpose of 
cure is rendered evident to his senses.'" 

Undoubtedly many homeopaths still believe that there is an 
important element of truth in the proposition that "Like Cures 
Like;" but there isn't one in the world who doesn't repudiate and 
disown its claim to universality and infallibility, every day of his 
life by employing measures and methods of treatment which are 
in conflict with it. This process of individual repudiation has 
been going on for many years, and less than two years ago it 
culminated in concerted action. At the annual meeting of the 
"American Institute of Homeopathy," the largest body of homeo- 
paths in the w^orld, in Atlantic City, in the summer of 1899, it 
was formally decided by vote, to change the battle cry of the al- 
leged followers of Hahnemann in consonance with their convic- 
tions as to the facts of science. This change was made by art- 
fully substituting the letter e for the letter a in the second sylla- 
ble of the word "curantur," so as to make the expression read 
"Similia Similibus Curentur." Hahnemann thundered forth 
"like cures like:"" but his pretended followers of to-day lisp bash- 
fully, "Like ma?/ cure like." Nobody can object to that proposi- 
tion. I accept it cordially. But — poor old Hahnemann! King 
Theory is dead and Reason reigns again. Long live the king! 

The next feature of the Hahnemannic creed to be considered 
is known as 

THE ATTENUATION AND POTENTIZATION OF DRUGS. 

Hahnemann discovered that when medicines are administered 
to the sick according to the law of similars, they aggravate the 
sickness, — the more so the larger the dose and the closer the 
homeopathicity to the disease. This fact compelled him to ad- 
minister his ".similima" in very small doses and, as experience 
grew, the doses got to be smaller and smaller and, finally, in- 
conceivably minute or "infinitesimal." 

To avoid obvious absurdity he promulgated the wonderful 
idea as a "great discovery" that medicines became "dynamized," 
"spiritualized,"' or "potentized'" by the process of trituration ©r 
shaking employed in their dilution; and that the "spirit power'' 
or "potency" is increased as the amount of medicinal matter re- 
quired for its production is diminished. 



Teachings ami Infltimo: of llaltuemann. 381 

When such preparations are given to the sick it is not the 
medicinal matter in them that cures but the "spirit power"' or 
"potency." 

As a guard against error in the exposition of this astonish 
ing dogma I shall quote from page 231 of the Organon: "The 
suitableness of a medicine does not depend upon its accurate ho- 
meopathic selection alone but likewise on the proper smallness 
of the dose. For if we give too strong a dose it must, notwith- 
standing its inherently beneficial nature, prove injurious by its 
mere magnitude and by the excessive impression it makes. A 
medicine even though it be homeopathically suited to the case of 
disease does harm in every dose that is too large, the more harm 
the larger the dose; and by the magnitude of the dose it does 
more harm the greater its homeopathicity. " 

That is to say: It is not medicinal matter that acts but the 
"spirit power'" which has been imparted to it. The strength of 
the preparation resides in its "potency, " "dynamis, " or "spirit 
power." And yet if you get into the preparation much medicine 
and correspondingly little "potency" the dose becomes "too 
strong." One cannot help smiling at the obtrusiveness of the 
contradiction. 

But let us regain the thread of the Hahnemannic story: 

"If the medicine be accurately homeopathic to the disease,'' 
he says, "it is of fundamental importance to get the dose small 
enough; for if large doses effect a cure that is proof against the 
homeopathicity of the medicine." 

You see he here admits that non-homeopathic medicines may 
effect a cure, — a flat contradiction of his previous contention. 

But if the idea of "potency"' is well founded Hahnemann of 
course, is quite right in being extremely particular as to the size 
of the dose. 

"It must be the very smallest, " he says, "for it holds good 
and will continue to hold good as a homeopathic therapeutic max- 
im not to be refuted by any experience in the world that the best 
dose of the properly selected remedy is always the very smallest 
in one of the high dynamizations,— a truth that is the inestimable 
property of homeopathy, and which, as long as allopathy con- 
tinues to gnaw like a cancer at the life of sick human beings and 
to ruin them by large and ever larger doses of medicine, will 



382 The Plexus. 

keep pure homeopathy separated from it as by an impassable 
gulf." 

Potency is liable to become excessive and dangerous unless 
due care be exercised to limit its production. This is made very 
clear on page 822 of the "Lesser Writings," in the following 
words: 

"This result (potentization) so incomprehensible to the man 
of figures, goes so far that we must set bounds to the succussion 
process, in order that the degree of attenuation be not overbal- 
anced by the increased potency of the medicines, and in that way 
the highest attenuations become too active. " Then the author 
explains that if a drop of the juice of the common Sundew be 
carried to the fifteenth attenuation, each attenuation being shak- 
en twenty or more times, one drop of the finished product will 
endanger the life of a child; but if each succeeding dilution be 
shaken only twice, the process can be safely carried to the thir- 
tieth, — "a single dose of which cures whooping-cough." 

Yet while Hahnemann warned against the excessive potenti- 
zation of the juice of the Sundew by too much shaking and atten- 
uation, Jenichens carried the juice to the five hundredth attenua- 
tion, shaking each attenuation six thousand times by machinery; 
and yet it did not go off or kill anybody but just kept on "curing" 
whooping-cough without turning a hair. 

Let me tell you again that the quality of "potency" or "dy 
namis" is not inherent in medicines. It is imparted to them— by 
trituration and dilution with sugar of milk, when they are solids, 
and by shaking and diluting with alcohol, when they are liquids. 
Alcohol and sugar of milk do not become "potentized." Why 
they do not is not known, but Hahnemann "learned from experi- 
ence" that they do not. Furthermore, substances which in the 
crude state are inert, like chalk, charcoal, and silex; and sub- 
stances which are constituents of our daily food, like salt and 
sulphur; may be just as successfully "potentized" as a dangerous 
alkaloid, and thereby be converted into terribly powerful medi- 
cines. Each substance evolves a particular kind of potency. 

The mode of procedure is as follows: One grain of a solid — 
say chalk — is trituated with ninety-nine grains of sugar of milk, 
and the mixture is labeled "1st attenuation." One grain of this 
is triturated with ninety-nine grains of sugar of milk to make the 
< '2nd attenuation." One grain of this is triturated with ninety- 



Teachings and Influence of Hahnemann. 383 

nine grains of sugar of milk to make the "3d attenuation'' or th 
first potency. Every 3d attenuation is a "potency." Potencies 
are indicated by Roman numerals with a dash over them — such 
as I, II, III, etc. Thus attenuation is carried on by successive 
steps till the thirtieth is reached, — marked "X", — the one that 
v^as generally preferred by Hahnemann. 

Liquids are attenuated and "potentized" by adding one drop 
to ninety-nine drops of alcohol and shaking the mixture. This 
constitutes the "1st attenuation." One drop of this is shaken 
with ninety-nine drops of alcohol to make the "second." And 
thus attenuation is carried by successive steps as far as it is con- 
sidered prudent to go. Originally Hahnemann used ten or more 
shakes for each attenuation, but his later studies induced him to 
lessen the number of shakes to two as a guard against the devel- 
opment of an excessive and dangerous amount of potency. You 
will note that the shakes of the manufacturer of the attenuation, 
only, are effective. A country doctor may jolt and rattle these 
attenuations in his saddle-bags or buggy for forty years and do 
no i harm. 

A little computation will show that one grain or drop of the 
first attenuation contains y^xr of a grain or drop of the medicine. 

Ouegrainof the second, contains to 009 o^ a grain of the medi- 
cine. 

One grain or drop of the third, contains ^ o^^uuo of a grain or 
drop of the medicine. 

One grain or drop of the thirtieth, contains one decillionth of 
a grain or drop of the medicine — that is, a quantity designated 
by a vulgar fraction whose numerator is 1 and whose denominat- 
or is the figure 1 followed by sixty ciphers. 

Make the fraction and see how it looks. To follow me satis- 
factorily you must scrutinize the figures closely and, at your 
leisure, do your own computing. 

Now suppose a whole grain of chalk be carried to the thirti- 
eth attenuation, how much sugar of milk will be required? 

"A decillion grains." 

How^ many grains in a pound? 

"7.000." 

How many grains in a car-load of 25 tons? 

"350,000,000." 

How many car-loads are represented in a decillion grains? 



3 84 The Plexus. 

"Twenty-five hundred million, million, million, million, mill- 
ion, million, million, million car-loads, of twenty five tons each."' 

Allowing two hundred cars to the mile, and the distance 
from the earth to the sun to be one hundred million miles, how 
long would the train be as compared with that distance? 

"Long enough to reach from the earth to the sun 150, 000,- 
000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 tim es. " 

And a grain of this mixture taken from any one of the cars, 
is the preferred homeopathic dose! 

Try the computation and see if I have made a mistake. 
Then recall the assertion of Hahnemann, that the more attenuat- 
ed a medicine is, and the smaller the quantity given to a patient, 
the greater the "potency" or curative force of the dose. 

Now, let us inquire into the modes of using these dangerous 
agents, — that is theirs. 

Administration: Ordinarily the method employed is to 
add a quantity of the indicated "potency'" to a glass of water 
and to give the patient a teaspoonful of the mixture at stated in- 
tervals. Hahnemaun introduced into use small sugar pellets, 
three hundred of which are required to imbibe one drop of alco- 
hol and one or more of these medicated pellets is given for a dose. 
Would you believe it of a sane man? A sugar pellet dipped in 
an ocean of alcohol millions of times larger than the planet on 
which we live, which ocean has been "medicated" by the addition- 
of one drop of a "mother tincture" to it, produces effects which 
last several weeks! 

A drop of "mother tincture" shaken, not too hard, with 
eleven quintillion hogsheads of alcohol of one hundred and forty 
gallons each, makes the thirtieth attenuation. If a gallon of this- 
preparation were given daily to each of the five hundred million 
people on the earth's surface, it would take them fifteen trillion, 
years to consume that one drop of "mother tincture." 

If you did not know that these statements are easily sus- 
ceptible of refutation, in case they are not true, and that my rep- 
utation as a teacher is back of the assurance that they are true, 
you could not believe that I am speaking in soberness and sin- 
cerity. But make the computations for yourselves; and while- 
you are planning to do so, allow me to go on and explain the ad- 
ministration of "medicines" by 

Olfaction. This plan is preferred for excessively impreS' 



Teachings and Influence of BaJinemann. 385 

sible patients. To quote the '-master's" words: "But if the pa- 
tient be sensitive and it is necessary to employ the smallest dose 
possible, and attain at the same time the most speedy result, it 
will be sufficient to let him smell once. All that homeopathy is 
capable of curing will be most certainly and safely cured by this 
mode of olfaction. Such a pellet may be applied to the nostrils 
of children during sleep with the certainty of producing an ef- 
fect. A single pellet will keep good at least twenty years, and 
may be smelled a thousand times during that period without 
suffering any diminution, if it be protected from heat and sun- 
light." 

Now, remember that the value of olfaction is not limited to 
volatile and odorous substances; it obtains equally well with at- 
tenuations of chalk or charcoa", and other things inherently in- 
ert and non- volatile. 

Then if you are quite sure that your mental equilibrium can 
withstand another shock, let your minds rest a moment on the 
subtleties of medicinal 

"Infection" or "Grafting." This is a "discovery" of 
Karsakoif, but is fully indorsed by Hahnemann in his "Lesser 
Writings." The central idea of the discovery is that a single 
medicated pellet, shaken in a bottle with pure sugar pellets, will 
"infect" them, or impart an equal degree of curative energy to 
them, without losing any itself. To use the language of the 
"master:" "One medicated pellet shaken for five minutes with 
13,500 non-medicated, imparts equal power to them, without 
losing any itself." 

I have found much difficulty in convincing people that such 
notions were ever entertained and taught by a rational man. 
Nothing less than the actual perusal of Hahnemann's books is 
likely to satisfy a fair-minded person that my quotations are act- 
ually true. 

The soundness of these doctrines can be estimated by study- 
ing them in conjunction with the accepted facts of modern sci- 
ence. Force is an attribute of matter, and cannot be developed 
without it. Its quantity depends on the quantity of matter 
brought into play in producing it. A ton of coal produces more 
heat than a pound; a thirty-cell electric battery gives a stronger 
current than one of three cells of the same size and kind; a 
pound of gun-powder will send a missile further than a grain; 



'6Se The Plexus. 

and yet Hahnemann asks us to] believe that he increases the 
amount of curative force, or "potency,"' by lessening the amount 
of medicinal matter required for its production! 

This astounding assertion presumably has some sort of back- 
ing. Let us see what it is. 

The proofs offered by Hahnemann and his disciples are of 
two kinds, — physiological and therapeutical 

The physiological proof is obtained by administering a dose 
of any "potentized'' remedy to a healthy person and noting the 
effects or symptoms produced by ir. 

The therapeutical proof is obtained by administering the 
"potencies" to the sick, in accordance with the "law of similars," 
and noting the result. 

The process of testing a medicine on a healthy person is 
known in homeopathic parlance as "proving;" and the symptoms 
caused by the medicine are termed 

"Provings." It is obvious that infallible accuracy of ob- 
servation in respect to these provings is an essential pre requi- 
site to infallibility in the administration of the "law of simi- 
lars ■■ That Hahnemann appreciated this fact is shown by his 
words: "On these provings depend the exactitude of the whole 
medical art and the weal of all future generations of mankind." 

At first he used ordinary doses, but latterly confined himself 
to the thirtieth attenuation. And he found that a single dose of 
such a preparation produced in some instances appalling effects 
which lasted several weeks. A few extracts from standard au- 
thorities will give you an idea of their reliability as investi- 
gators. 

From Hahnemann's "Materia Medica Pura" you will learn 
that five days after taking a sextillionth of a grain of chalk there 
occurs "sudden deafness after dinner; itching on the borders of 
the eyelids." Thirteen days after takin^f the dose the experi- 
menter is startled by the discovery that "in the evening, on go- 
ing out," he had an "unsteady gait." On the seventeenth day he 
had strong venereal desire during a walk before dinner." (Hully 
gee!) 

On the twenty-first day he noticed "Great heat at the ex- 
tremity of the big toe," and on the twenty-eighth day "Itching 
at the anterior part of the glans penis after urination." "Giddi- 
ness from scratching behind the ear." "Alternate buzzing, as of 



Teachings and Influence of Hahneviann. 387 

mosquitoes, or crackling or breaking of dry straw, in left ear.'* 
"Painful pimple on right nostril." 

In another case he noticed as an effect of a like dose "Hem- 
orrhage from the uterus of an old woman who had ceased men- 
struating for many years, in the last quarter of the moon.'" 

These quotations are made not for the purpose of exciting 
ridicule, but to give you a fair idea of the character and value of 
homeopathic provings. He would be a brave man who now dared 
to take a sextillionth of a grain of chalk. I wouldn't do it for a 
house and lot. This substance, properly potentized, according to 
the authorities, produces over a thousand symptoms of the gen- 
eral character of the foregoing; and it is instructive to discover 
that every prover proves a new series. By "Jahr's Manual," 
vol. 1, p. 108, et seq., we are informed of the following, among nu- 
merous others: "Strong desire to be magnetized." "Emaciation 
without failure of appetite." "Great ])lumpness and excessive 
obesity." 

Observe the contradiction. The same dose causes both ema- 
ciation and obesity. You will see such absurd contradictions in 
almost every proving that has appeared in print, and I am not 
sure that they are altogether artless. In this case, for example, 
the "proving" furnishes warrant for the administration of chalk 
in the treatment of both emaciation and obesity, so that if it act 
in either direction the "law of similars" will be exemplified. Such 
lack of consistency appears everywhere in homeopathic writings. 
You can find authority in somebody's "provings" for the admin- 
istration of any important medicine, in any potency and in any 
dose, in the treatment of any important disease. 

But to resume the quotation from "Jahr's Manual" relating 
to the effects of potentized chalk: 

"Swelling and distortion of the bones." "Snoring during 
sleep." "Disposition to weep, even about trifles." "Vexation 
and lamentation on account of old offences." (Thafs what's the 
matter with the junior class.) 

"Disgust and aversion to all labor whatever." (Merciful 
heavens! I must have swallowed a dose myself, some time!) 

"Immense size of the head." (That's what ails least year's 
graduate.) 

"Polypus in the ears." "Fetid odor before the nose as if 
from a dung hill, rotten eggs or gunpowder.'" (I know wha 



388 Ihe FlexHS. 

that was. That was a medical student in the next room smoking- 
a pipe.) 

"Inability to wear tight clothes around the hypochondria. "^ 
(That wasn't a woman.) 

"Incarceration of flatulency."' (Incarceration of flatulency? 
Incarceration of flatulency? Don't know what that means.) 

"Pressure of wind towards the inguinal rings, as if hernia 
were about to protrude." (Help! Help!) 
"Wetting the bed."" (Lord a massy!) 

"Cough excited by playing the piano.'" (Til bet that either 
the prover was an old codger who had passed "the change of 
life"" or that the girl wasn"t very good looking.) 

Those are sample ' 'provings"' of chalk.- Heaven preserve us! 
Now let us study salt a while. This, you know, is an indis- 
pensable constituent of our food. Yet, according to Jahr, a dose 
of the twentieth or thirtieth dilution causes over four hundred 
symptoms, among them the following: "Tendency to experience 
dislocation."" "Bad effects of disappointment." "Agitated 
sleep, full of vivid and lascivious dreams." (Whee! Bromide!) 
"Typhus fever, with debility." "Anguish, sometimes during 
a storm, but especially at night." "Excoriation of the buttocks^ 
especially when walking." "Corns on the feet, with shooting and 
boring pains."' 

Now, don't get things mixed. The excoriations relate to the 
buttocks and the corns to the feet, and not vice versa. Being med- 
ical students, you would naturally think that the corns ought to 
be on the buttocks. 

Nux vomica causes 1,209 symptoms; sepia, 1,242, and apis, 
1,350. 

"Allen's Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica" consists of 
ten volumes, of about seven hundred pages each, devoted to 
these important truths. 

In the late Professor E. M, Hale's "New Remedies" — and 
Prof, Hale was an eminent and successful therapist, — we find 
provings by the students of Hahnemann Medical College and, 
therefore, of especial accuracy and importance. The following 
were obtained with the thirtieth attenuation of hydrastis, "pre- 
pared Taefore the class:"' 

Mr. E. took a dose Nov. 7th, 1886, it being the "new moon.'' 
The next day, at 8:45 A. M., he "had a slight headache, first on 



Teachings and Infiuence. of Malinemann. 389 

the'right side, mainly in the temporal region, then passing to the 
left temporal region, leaving the left and returning to the right, 
and then leaving altogether."' Nov. 11th he observed that "sneez- 
ing in the sun'causes flickering in the eyes." Then he describes 
the symptoms of each day up to the twenty-ninth. What the 
medicine was doing when he was asleep does not appear; perhaps 
it was unlike the much advertised "Cascarets," and did not work 
during sleep. 

Another "prover" took a dose of the thirtieth, and records 
the starting fact that he "had a strong desire for eggs,"- -not a 
desire for strong eggs. 

Many other^provings are included in the record, among them 
those of three young ladies. 

Miss v., aged 20, took a drop of the thirtieth and "had a 
sharp pain in the right side, in the region of the liver;" "a feel- 
ing of sickness and languor which lasted a whole week, with de 
presised spirits and sad manner." 

Miss S., aged^SO, took a drop of the thirtieth at bedtime, 
"and soon after one o'clock the following morning her sleep was 
disturbed by irj-itation of the pudendum, compelling scratching, 
which relieved." A few days later she "had a dragging, bruised 
feeling in the ovarian region." During the proving her "affec- 
tions were active," and she was "more cheerful than usual." 

MissM., age not given— therefore, she was older than the 
other two — took a drop of the thirtieth and "had a pain, but was 
too sleepy to notice wh€re; she experienced exhilaration of spir- 
its and a feeling of lightness and happiness." 

From Hempel's Materia Medica I extract the following mem- 
oranda of provings with sulphur: A student tool< five drops of 
the tincture and noticed among other disturbances of function 
"Quivering and luminous appearances before the right eye; 
lightning flashes before the eyes at night; shooting pain through 
the pupils." (The pupils are holes. How paiu can shoot through 
a hole, and in which direction it shot and what it shot at, in this 
particular case, are not explained.) 

"Boring pains in the external meatus; inflamed spot on the 
nose; sensation as of smelling soap suds." 

But in view of the fact that sulphur is insoluble in alcohol, 
and that the provers merely proved their own ignorance, I have, 
perhaps, said enough. Professor Hem pel closes his lecture on 



390 The Plexus. 

sulphur as follows: "If you would conquer the great mind of 
the profession, then let me urge you to ever think of homeopathy 
with hearts full of reverence for the consistency and universality 
of her teachings, as a doctrine of life, a heavenly truth which 
will not fail, if properly understood, and universally applied, to 
link earth and heaven in one great cycle of sensual refinement, 
intellectual beauty and social and religious harmony." (Hoop la! 
Now I know what ''incarcerated flatulency" means!) 

All physicians admit that the testing of medicines on the 
well to obtain a guide to their administration to the sick is scien- 
tific in principle. But sensible physicians also know that the in- 
dications thus discovered may not determine the most important 
uses of the medicine. In disease an element may exist which is 
not present in health, — such as the germs of malaria in the blood, 
or worms in the intestines, — upon which the medicine is specially 
fitted to act. Quinine kills the germs and certain anthelmintics 
kill intestinal parasites without any reference to their effects on 
the human host of these intruders. 

But, aside from these considerations, can you imagine a per- 
son of good sense accepting such "provings" as I have quoted, — 
and practically all homeopathic provings are of that grade, ^ — as 
furnishing an infallible g:uide to the selection of medicines for 
the treatment of diseases exhibiting similar symptoms? 

The absence of uniformity as to the dose employed, — for 
many provers do not say whether their reports relate to 
the thirtieth potency or to a poisonous dose of a crude medicine, 
so that their provings represent all grades of potency j ambled 
together. — makes it plain that such provings can furnish no guide 
whatever to the selection of any particular degree of potency in a 
given case of disease. Then, again, when you see that two or 
more perse ns proving the same article are no more alike in their 
reports than if they had been proving different articles; and 
when you reflect upon the obvious absurdity of ascribing the 
sensations, incidents and fleeting thoughts of every- day life, 
such as a pimple on the nose, corns on the toes, a desire for 
eggs, and the perception of bad odors, — to 'say nothing of the 
occurrence of contagious diseases, like typhus fever, — to the in 
fluence of a decillionth of a grain of an ordinary article of food, 
such as common salt; and when the fact becomes so obtrusive as 
to compel recognition that a vast number of "provings" are 



Teachings and Influence of Hahnemann. 391 

wholly spurious, consisting of the fantastic imaginings of weak-, 
minded enthusiasts and the grotesque inventions of counterfeit 
investigators whose determination is fixed beforehand to make 
unique and startling contributions to '-science;" you cannot help 
regarding such provings as a fitting subject for merriment or 
contempt. Yet, "On these provings depend the exactitude of 
the whole medical art and the weal of all future generations of 
mankind." 

As to the primary question whether a grain or a drop, or a 
smell, of the thirtieth or of the tenth attenuation, of any sub- 
stance known to man, can produce any effect on a healthy person 
by which its presence in his body can be determined with even 
approximate certainty. — if there is one person on this planet 
who believes it with such sincerity as to be willing to submit to 
a public test in his own person, he has never declared himself. 
There is not one. That is enough to say about the provings of 
high potencies. They are factitious, every one. 

The Therapeutic Proofs of the value of "potencies" are 
extraordinarily numerous, — on paper — but even less reliable and 
more fantastic than the physiological provings just quoted. 

The vaunted "statistics" of homeopathy are based on the 
use of "high potencies." Holcombe, for example, a homeopathic 
statistics builder of only average merit, by the employment of 
high potencies, joyously held the mortality rate of Asiatic chol- 
era, in eleven hundred cases, to five per cent., — while the world 
at large was groaning in agony of spirit over the usual death 
rate of fifty per cent. 

And now, in the light of such ' 'provings"as I have given you- and 
they are thoroughly representative of homeopathic infallibility — 
contemplate the ease and grace with which the "new school" doc- 
tors merrily effect instantaneous cures. I quote from "The In- 
vestigator," a homeopathic periodical formerly edited by Prof. 
T. C. Duncan of this city, who is still engaged in medical teach- 
ing and practice here. 

On page 331, 1873, Prof. Duncan describes the instantaneous 
cure of disappointed love with "Tarantula;" and (1.5, page 24) 
another writer accomplishes the same feat with "chalk, thir- 
tieth." 

1,7, page 194. A writer cured epilepsy with one dose of 
•'sugar of milk, high." Hahnemann, you remember, "learned 



392 The Plexus 

from experience*' that sugar of milk and alcohol are not suscep- 
tible of potentization. 

1,7, page 445. A writer cured tubercular cavity in the right 
lung with "Belladonna, 200th." 

1,2, page 473. A writer cured cancer with one dose of 
"Bryony." 

2,1, page 458. A writer cured caries of the vertebrae with 
"Calcarea Carbonica."" 

2.1, p, 466. A writer invariably cures cancer with theridion 
spider). 

1873, p. 471. A writer cured a woman of ovarian tumor with 
sugar, 50th. 

1.2, p. -173. Dr. Miller recommends "Coral when a patient's 
head feels three times as large as natural; mephitis"- — the odori- 
ferous product of the skunk — "when it feels elongated; and nux 
when it feels as large as a church." 

The justifiable elation of the "new school"" doctors resulting 
from their triumphs over their decrepit and drivelling old school 
competitors, is delicately shown in the volume for 1875, p. 30, as 
follows: "An M. D., old school, passed through a siege of bili- 
ous fever; treated by brother allopath, secundum artem; suffered 
much; friends alarmed; seemingly recovered, but in a month was 
seized with intermittent fever; brother allopath called; no good; 
sent for me; sulphur, 200th; one dose cured." 

4. p. 397. Dr. Nottingham records the observation that 
"intermittent fever sorely puzzles the regulars, but I have not 
failed in a single case."" 

1,7, p. 471. But now Dr. Perkins rises to remark that "No 
more effects are to be gotten from homeopathic medicines in in- 
termittent fever than might be obtained from the 1-50,000 dilu- 
tion of the smell of Hahnemann's Ghost!" Pay your money and 
take your choice. 

To be a good homeopath, you observe, and capable of mak- 
ing good statistics, one needs to be a good diagnostician and par- 
ticularly acute in recognizing ovarian tumors, carious vertebrae, 
cancers, and tubercular cavities in the right lung. I could easily 
go on for weeks in this way, citing therapeutic proofs of the effi- 
cacy of potencies, but T have already said enough to give you a 
correct idea of their character. That my quotations are not lab- 
oriounly sought out samples of exceptional extravagance and 



Teashings and Influence of Hahnemann 393 

mendacity is proved by the fact that they are all taken from one ^ 
publication, whose editor is now a medical teacher in this city, 
and, I trust, a ''riend of mine. In some instances, the statistics 
builder appears to have a conscientious doubt, but he rarely, if 
ever, fails to give "potency" the benefit of the doubt. A case in 
point is cited on page 306 of Ludlam's work on "Diseases of 
Women," the reporter being Dr. W. H. Holcombe. The case was 
one of vomiting of pregnancy. A year previous the lady had 
"suffered horribly'' from similar disturbances, and was relieved 
only by the loss of the ovum. After a little preliminary skir- 
mishing with nux, thirtieth, and platina, thirtieth, the doctor got 
down to serious business, as follows: "I ordered lachesis, 
2,000th, every hour. When I went the next day I found my pa- 
tient in ecstasies."' " * * "What a brilliant laurel this would 
be for lachesis if lachesis alone had been used. But, alas! My 
spirit of empiricism had dictated an adjuvant in the shape of an 
injection at night of twenty grains of bromide of potassium, and 
I could not tell positively which effected the cure. Afraid to 
drop either, and consulting the good of my patient in preference 
to my own pure homeopathicity, I continued the prescription, 
lachesis, 2,000th, during the day, and a nightly injection of 
twenty grains of bromide of potassium. In a few days my pa- 
tient was up and at the table, enjoying the pleasures of life, to 
the astonishment of her friends and to the glory o homeopathy,'" 
(Let her go, Gallagher!) 

Herapel's Materia Medica, a standard authority, says of "la- 
chesis", — (snake poison, potentiz9d):--"The halo of glory that 
has surrounded this secretion proved upon closer examination to 
■emanate from the smoke of fancy and not from the light of truth.'" 

Pay your money and take your choice. 

{Continued.) 



PROGRESSIVE PERNICIOUS ANAEMIA. 

Report of aa Interesting Case Showing the Importance of Blood Examinations. 

By John Weatherson, C. E., M. D. 

Instructor in Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical 
Department of University of Illinois, Chicago. 

The patient, in company with her family physician, came 
from Iowa to consult Dr. Quine. The following history was ob- 
tained March 4, 1901 

Mrs. L. O., age 59, had been in poor health nearly 20 years. 
She dates her ill health from 1883, when she had "malarial fever" 
9 weeks. Was never sick before except when a child she had 
jaundice. In 1883 she also suffered from uterine hemorrhages, 
due to a polypus in the cervix, which was removed January, 1884. 
Had no uterine pain or hemorrhage after that. Menses stopped 
in her 54th year, that is in 1896, 

In 1884 she consulted a Dublin physician on account of dis- 
comfort and fullness in right hypochondriac region. His diagno- 
sis was "Inactive Liver." He sent her back lo Saratoga, N. Y., 
where she stayed two months and drank Congress water during 
that time. Patient says her "color was bad" but not jaundiced. 
In 1885 she went to Europe again. In 1886 went to California, 
where she had a right sided pneumonia for 11 weeks. She was 
very feeble 8 or 9 months after and has never been in full health 
since. Has had four more attacks of pneumonia. The last at- 
tack occurred in April, 1900, at Hot Springs. 

She had "gastric fever" in 1892 for five or six weeks; was- 
much debilitated. Left leg was greatly swollen (probably phle- 
bitis). Swelling lasted two years, when under massage treat- 
ment it disappeared. In 1897 and 1899 she was treated for en- 
largement of the liver. 

In October, 1899, she had ptomaine poisoning from eating 
putrid oysters. There was nausea, vomiting and delirium, but no 
eruption. The illness was followed by typhoid fever which last- 
ed 21 days. Was constipated throughout the attack and deliri- 
ous 4 or 5 days. Had a relapse of typhoid which lasted two 
weeks. When she recovered from the fever she had pains in the 
arms and legs, very severe at times, but had no paralysis. Says 
numbness struck her about the umbilicus in a line extending. 



Progressive Fernia'ous Anaemia. 39» 

down to the genitals, anus and lower limbs, worse in right limb. 
Numbness in fingers also. Has had sense of constriction and dis- 
comfort about waist line since 1883, but vomiting was rare. Nev- 
er severe pain at any time. Limbs not swollen after she had gas- 
tric fever in 1892, but both limbs were slightly swollen on getting 
up after relapse of typhoid in 1899, and have been more or less so 
ever since. Limbs have been much swollen in hast 6 or 7 
weeks. 

She has had general anasarca with scanty urine, but no albu- 
men or casts. Treatment improved her condition. Her color 
has always been bad since first mentioned. Her complexion is a 
yellowish white. Has now a sense of fullness in hepatic region. 
Since June, 1900, has had many spells of transitory fever, last- 
ing 2 to 10 days, with a temperature of 100° to 102», which was 
thought to be due to malaria. 

In August, 1900, her i)hysician noticed she had ataxia. Pa- 
tient has been short of breath 5 or 6 months past. This trouble 
has been especially marked during the last 2 months. Has no 
cough. Color very pale with tinge of yellow. Bowels sluggish 
for past 10 days. Has had uneasiness in stomach and occasional 
vomiting during the last 3 weeks. Throbbing in her head annoys 
her. 

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION. 

Patient too ill in bed to make satisfactory test, for ataxia 
Irregular areas of anaesthesia present however. Mitral regurgi- 
tation presest. Also aortic anaemic murmur; apex beat at at 6th 
rib, i inch to left of nipple line, due to dilation of left ventricle. 
Liver evenly enlarged; lower edge sharp and 2 inches below ribs. 
Never had marked pain in chest; only shortness of breath. Eye- 
sight much impaired of late. Eyes not examined by an oculist. 
Hearing normal. 

Up to the time of the blood examination, the diagnosis of the 
patient's present condition would be: Valvular diseases of the 
heart, with enlargement of the liver, due, supposedly, to passive 
congestion. The patient's color, of course, was characteristic 
dirty lemon yellow, but she claimed to have shown this color for 
many years. The examination of the blood showed most conclu- 
sively that the disease she suffered most from was pernicious an- 
aemia. As to the symptoms of locomotor ataxia her physician 
claimed he observed. Osier states that occasionally symptoms 



39 i 



The I'ltXHS. 



reseiiibling those of tabes appear in pernicious anaemia. The 
blood examination not only settled the diagnosis, but what was 
of more concern to the patient, it settled the prognosis. 

On March 5th, 1901, the day after the abov • history was 
written. I examined the patient's blood and reported as follows: 



^Mmds^., 



OFFICE 

or 

DOCTORS QUINE and WEATHERSON, 

BLOOD ANALYSIS. 
NAME OF PATIENT, 



TEL. CENTRAL 851. 



SOEClPiC OR 
COLOR 



RED CELLS 
HEMOGLOBIN PER CENT 
NjMBER PER C M M. 
PER CENT Of NORMAL 



COAGULAB'LITt ''^ ^KC-IA/~ I NORMOCrTES 

^__y /TVi-B^<'*A~ MICROCYTES. 



PLASMODIA MALAR 
OTHER PARASITES 
TYPHOID REACTIO> 
BLOOD PLAGUES -. 

MELANAEMIA 

LIPAEMIA 

REMARKS -.,..„ 






MACROOYTES 

POIKILOCYTES 

NORMOBLASTS 

MICROBLASTS 

MACR0BLA5TS 

POIKILOSLASTS 

I COLOR INDEX . 

I VOLUME INDEX . 



fjiur 

/JO 



WHITE CELLS 
N0RMAL--5.000 TO 10,000 PER C. M. M 

NUMBER PER C. M. M <77 iT'OP 

RATIO OF WHITES TO REDS / ' /^■pQ 

SMALL LYMPHOCYTES.. 

LARGE LYMPHOCYTES.. 

TRANSITIONAL FORMS... 

FOLYNUCLEAR CELLS 

EOSINOPHILES.. 

BASOPHILES 

MYELOCYTES -. 
REMARKS 



^^.e^xso/i-^,^ 



Examination of the urine showed the following: 



907 COLUMBUS MEMORIAL BLO'G. 



TEL. CENTRAL. 861 



DOCTORS QUINE and WEATHERSON 



CHICAGO, 



~ / /UJ..\.. NAME OF PATIENT y/T/i^^ ' /\_' (^ ' 



yo/L 



MUCIN 

ALBUMIN . 
PEPTONES 



QUANTITY IN 24 HOURS 
PHYSICAL CONDITION... 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 

TOTAL SOLIDS -^ 1 SUGAR 

REACTION -•T'lV^r^ j B'LIARY MATTER 

COLOR ^?<;^..'.. >-^2^>:^, ACETONE 



^^S'l. 



ODOR 

CHLORIDES 

SULPHATES 

PHOSPHATES 

UREA 

UftIC ACtD AND URATES 



OIACETIC ACID 

AROMATIC SULPHATES 
EHRLICH'S REACTION.../X. 

BLOOD 

MELANIN 



FAT 



MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION. 

sTs...;*'<(^../!^^^!<*-4k^ 

LINDRO.DS. .^. J.V^i^MW^ 

u^.jfihre^^^ 



BLOOD CELLS. 
PUS- 
SPERMATOZOA, 
CRYSTALS 
EPITHELIAL CE 
BACTERIA 



ff 






She was sent to the Chicago hospital and treatment begun 
Tinder the direction of Dr. Quine. On March 14th, 1901, a second 
blood examination showed the following.- 



Progressive Fernicious Anaemia. 



39T 



907 COLUMBUS MEMORIAL BLD'G. 



TEL. CENTRAL 861 



/7 DOCTORS QUINE and WEATHERSON, 

./.*r. ZZ.V:/.' NAME OF PATIENT, 



..IWif^Rd.. 



ALKALINITY- 
SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 
COLOR 

COAGULABILITY 
PLASMODIA MALARIAt 

OTHER PARASITES 

TYPHOID REACTION ... 
BLOOD PLAQUES 

MELANAEMIA 

LIPAEMIA 

REMARKS 



RED CELLS 
HEMOGLOBIN PER CENT 
NUMBER PER. C 
PER CENT. OF NORMA 

NORMOCYTES 

MICROCYTES 

MACROCYTES 

POIKILOCYTES .V. 

NORMOBLASTa. 
MICROBLASTS . 
MACROBLASTS . 
POIKILOBLASTS 
COLOR INDEX .. 



,.. ,/7 

M. ^.S9.6jJito. 



WHITE CELLS. 



/^ 



.ZflM^^.... 



/J/-0. 



NORMAL--5,000 TO 10,000 PER C. M M 
NUMBER PER C. M. M CP •—' P^ 



RATIO OF WHITES TO REDS 
SMALL LYMPHOCYTES. 
LARGE LYMPHOCYTES 
TRANSITIONAL FORMS 
FOLYNUCLEAR CELLS. 

EOSINOPHILES 

BASOPHILES 

MYELOCYTES 

REMARKS 



VOLUME INDEX. 



This examination showed the rapid destruction of red cor- 
puscles taking place in spite of every effort to prevent it. 

Many examinations of the urine were made but although hy- 
alene casts were always found in abundance, albumen was never 
present. 

Notwithstanding the use of evQvy available method of treat- 
ment the patient died in a short time. 

In view of the color the patient exhibited when she arrived 
in Chicago for consultation, it is remarkable that the trouble was 
not suspected and the blood examined long ago; and considering 
the number of eminent physicians she had consulted at home and 
abroad, it is surprising that no one examined ihe blood. 

The case is reported for the purpose of impressing upon the 
reader the importance of exhausting every known means of ex- 
amination before making a diagnosis and also to show that the 
mere finding of a heart lesion or some one pathological condition 
does not excuse the physician for omitting further investigation. 

103 State St. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 
CHICAGO. 

Plexus Cotntnittee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, M. D., D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNBLL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, 03, Editor-in-Chief. 

Supt. W. H BROWNE, W. T. E KLEY, M- D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D- 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BERARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M. D, 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, 02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03. 

Class Editors: 

F. H. HORNI BROOK, 02 B. S. MALOY, 03 F. L WOOD, 04. J. P. BROWNE, 05. 



Faculty Department, DR. F. B. BARLE. Clinical Laboratory Dept , DR. W. E. COAXES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 



Advertising Solicitors, R. E. BROWN, 02. H H. FRIDEKFELD. 'C2. 
Publisher. ------ H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 1.5 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, f'or. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Ciiicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 



Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the e.xpiration of his subscription 
should so notify tlie Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed t^liai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publication are invited, and should be sent in not 
later than the 25th of the month previous to that of publication. The publishers will not hold 
themselves responsiljle for the safe return of MSS unless sufficient stamps are forwarded. 

We desire to cori'ect a typographical error which occurred 
in the v^rite up of "The Annual Senior Ball," in the last issue of 
The Plexus. The last sentence of the third paragraph should 
have read: "the throng of dance lovers coming from far and 
near." We are sorry this typographical error was overlooked. 

-x- * 
* 

The time of Commencement is fast approaching and with it 
we associate many events, in some one of which all those inter- 
ested in the College of Physicians and Surgeons are interested. 
The members of the class of 1892 must remember that this is the 
year when they are to have their reunion at the College, as the 



Editorml ■ 399 

•decennial reunion has been in vogue for some years past. This 
one should be the best one held so far. All members of the Al- 
umni should be active members of the Alumni Association, and 
the only requirement is the payment of the annual dues of 25c. 
The Plexus and Alumni dues amount to ^1.25 a year and every 
alumnus should be an active alumnus and a subscriber to The 
Plexus. The only way either can be supported is by your as- 
sistance. If you have not done your duty do so at once by send- 
ing your remittance to Dr. H. W. Berard, 1107 Chicago avenue, 
Chicago, or to The Plexus. The Alumni Association should be 

a thriving one. What have you to say? 

* * 
* 
It is with pleasure that we present, in this issue of The 

Plexus, a part of Dr. Quine's lecture on "The Teachings of 

Hahnemann," and are sorry that space does not permit us to 

print the entire lecture in this issue, 

Dr. Quine's ideas concerning Homeopathy have been well 

understood by his associates since his delivery of his lecture on 

"Why I am not a Homeopath,"' some years ago. 

■35- »• 
•X- 

With this issue of The Plexus its scope is greatly broad- 
ened. . It will hereafter represent the interests of the Alumni 
and Student body of the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Depart- 
ments of the University of Illinois. In doing this the interest of 
the Medical Department will not be lessened but will increase the 
size of the Journal and also, we hope, greatly increase the circu- 
lation. 

* 
Mr, F. D. Rugg, who gives the lecture and demonstration 
upon liquid air on Saturday, March 29th, in the assembly hall of 
the college, is an alumnus of the University of Illinois. His lec- 
ture will no doubt be very instructive as well as entertaining and 
deserves good patronage by the student body. 



ALUMNI NOTES. 

'84. C. B. Horrell of Galesburg, 111-, was a recent visitor at 
his Alma Mater. 

'98. G. F. Newell is now located at 811 W. Irving Blvd., 

Chicago. 

"98. Chas. S. Hutchinson has moved to Des Moines, Iowa, 
from Ames, Iowa. He is connected with Stell College. 

'00. Chas. H. Newell died at Lynch. Neb., Feb. 20, of pneu- 
monia; age 26. 

'01. B. Von Wedelstaedt is now practicing at 5705 Kimbark 

Ave., Chicago. 

"01. E. F. Meyer has moved to 479 W. Division St., Chicago. 

'01. L. H. Meadow has located at Horton, Iowa. 

'01. The report concerning the arrival of a baby at the home 
of Nina Poison Merrett in the last issue of The Plexus was 

false. 

'01. Geo. H. Dohrmann has returned from Germany and re- 
ports a very profitable and enjoyable trip. 

"02. H. F. Sawtelle has received an interneship in the U. S. 
Marine Hospital, Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y. 

'97. Thomas J. Jackson, of 521 Thirty-ninth St., Chicago, 
was a recent visitor at the Plexus office. 

'01. Ivan A. Parry was one of the successful candidates be- 
fore the Washington State Board in a recent examination. 

'02. Jno. R. Montgomery was married to Miss Blanche 
Pearle Kenney, of Malvern, la., on Wednesday, March 19th. At 
home after May 1st, at Madison, Neb., where the doctor has lo- 
cated. The Plexus extends congratulations. 



SENIOR NOTES. 

Tolley and Weaver are taking their maternity work at De 

Lee's. 

One of the Goldblum brother.s missed a lecture one day last 

week. 

Belknap has been enjoying a short visit from his father. 

Mr. Bundy is making a specialty of children's diseases. He 
is feeling very proud of the fact that he was able to make the 
correct diagnosis of rickets in a starved, bow legged, hump- 



Notes. 401 

backed child with a rickety rosary on the chest as large as base- 
balls. He certainly deserves great credit. 

Dr. Lee, who has been holding Prof. Murphy's clinic at the 
county hospital, besides his own excellent clinic, is greatly ap- 
preciated by the seniors, who feel that they have received much 
valuable instruction from this master of surgery. 

The members of the quiz class have hibernated for a period 
of six weeks. It is the universal opinion of the differrnt quiz 
masters that we have the best hospital candidates ever represent- 
ing this institution. It is therefore certain that at least six of the 
county interns will come from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. 

Not long ago Mr. Emerson had a rather peculiar experience 
with some tablets of methyl blue, and was obliged to seek pro- 
fessional advice. 

Bath-house Brown, alias Mark Hanna, gave an anaesthetic 
this month. 

Mr. Hammers is convalescing from a hernia operation, per- 
formed by Prof. Ochsner at the Augustina hospital. 

In an interview with the different members of the class, we 
are surprised to learn that at least ninety-five per cent, intend to 
become surgeons. If these intentions are carried out, or rather 
attempted to be, we may expect to see the general mortality rate 
in surgical operations perceptibly rise. It woul 1 be somewhat 
more acceptable to the laity to have a few mc "e Quines and 
Ozlers. 

Mr. Grabow has performed an apparently successful McKin- 
ley operation, the patient being in good condition three weeks 
after the operation. 

Doc. McCarthy may be seen at the West Side hospital, where 
she is assisting Mr. Keys in his duties as interne. 

Sawtelle has gone to New York, where he has received an 
appointment in the U. S. Marine hospital. 

The story is told (as to its truth we cannot vouch) that the 
dean of the faculty, during his travels around the city one day, 
was riding in a Van Buren street car deeply absorbed in reflec- 
tion, from which he was aroused by the shock of a collision be- 
tween the car and an ice-wagon. It is said that the dean was in- 
stantly heard to proclaim: "What do those d d juniors want 

now?" 



402 The Plexus. 

C. A. Dorn is practicing "economy"' at Lesoues, Minn. 

Commencement day exercises will be held May 20th at the- 
Studebaker hall. All 1902 graduates are invited. 

A box party composed exclusiv^ely of seniors is being formed 
for next Saturday. Hand your name to Lane. 

Heliney thinks that the prognosis in 'erysipelas would be 
worse if the patient were shot through the heart. 

Lockwood visited the class last Friday. 

Parker, '02, is taking post graduate work. 

In a recent class meeting a vote of thanks was tendered to 
Prof. Quine for his generosity in regard to the hospital fee for 
the obstetrical patients shown at clinic. This fee Prof. Quine 
will pay out of his own pocket. 

There is much weeping and gnashing of teeth in the senior 
class. One of our most beloved members has left the city. Mr. 
A. Young has yielded to the persistent entreaties from the citi- 
zens of Kansas and gone to their relief. 

Mrs. Young has an internship in the Chicago Maternity hos- 
pital. 

A few seniors are taking advantage of the review course that 
is being given in the elementary branches of medicine. 

Miss Clara Ross of Cherokee, Iowa, was visiting Editor 
flornibrook the first of the month. Mr. Hornibrook inlormed a 
few of his friends that he will join the Benedicts shortly. Con- 
gratulation to him, and may success ever be his. — [Ed.] 



JUNIOR NOTES 

Labor pains occur a month apart, according to Doe. 
In paresis, Barnsback says we get an atrophy of the ven- 
tricles. 

Eldridge does not believe in waiting until May 1st. He moved 
last week. 

Now Barnum tells us to treat a corn by covering the same 
"with a felt plug with a ring in it." 

Heinen says: "Id occurs in anemik vomans off a tender 
frame und schlightly build, und den id takes sometimes a gud 
turn — sometimes a quick, bat turn."' 

E. B. Anderson and F. Panyo performed an entorectomy on 
a dog a short time ago. They used the Connell method of sutur- 



Notes. 403 

ing and, judging from the healthy condition in which the dog's 
entire alimentary tract is at present, the twogentJemen certainly 
performed- a successful operation. In a few days the dog will 
submit to his last operation, and at that time they will be able to 
tell us more about it. 

At a recent meeting of the Juniors a committee was ap- 
pointed to extend the sympathy and condolence of the entire 
class to one of our classmates — J. W. Wilson — whose painful duty 
it was recently to bury a much-beloved sister. Such misfortunes 
in life are sad and sympathy coming at such a time, especially 
from your fellow students, could never be more opportune. 
These kind remembrances bestowed upon one another while pass 
ing through the cares and trials in this vale of tears constitute a 
beautiful ptactice which is far reaching in its effects. It is a 
practice that should always be perpetuated. 

Arrangements are now in progress by w^hich it may soon be 
possible for the class to gain some very valuable and practical 
knowledge in obstetrics. A committee has been appointed by 
President Thomas to attend to the matter, but thus far nothing 
definite has been accomplished. 

There are about fifty members of the class who are endeav- 
oring to have matters so arranged that by taking the coming 
summer term they will thereby be enabled to finish their medical 
course next February. In pursuance of this a petition has re- 
cently been circulated containiug the signatures of those stu- 
dents interested. Briefly stated their main object is to finish 
their schooling as soon as possible — many having good, lucrative 
positions awaiting them when their studies will have been com- 
pleted, while others, perhaps, have an excellent community in 
view not as yet overrun with medical men, and which might 
prove to be an ideal location for the young practitioner. No 
Goubt many would be signally benefitted if the faculty should 
condescend to act favorably upon this signed petition. We trust 
that the effort on the part of those who desire to attain ihis end 
will not prove futile. 

There has been some talk lately relating to the ""organization 
of a base-ball team. It seems that the idea is to pick the team 
from the different classes and thereby have a representative col- 
lege team not confined to the members of one class alone. This, 



404 Ihe Plexus. 

in our opinion, would be the best plan to follow in that it would 
interest the entire student body, which certainly must be inter- 
ested in order that the team exist. Again, such a move would 
tend to show that the best possible players are being sought for, 
with partiality occupying a rear seat, and not have it appear that 
there is a bunching together of a certain few who have simply 
proven to be "good fellows"" to the main shaft of the team. And 
be it known that such partiality has been shown on previous oc- 
casions relating to athletics in the class with the inevitable result 
of a beautiful fiasco. If the class desires a base-ball team and 
agree to aid the same financially and otherwise, they prefer to 
have the various positions filled with those ball players who have 
distinguished themselves in that line. They do not want, and, we 
think, will not aid, any new venture headed by some narrow- 
minded individual who insists upon "railroading" his boon com- 
panions through to a position on the team even though such 
companions know less about base-ball than does a rabbit. Ath- 
letics should be encouraged whenever it is possible to do so, es- 
pecially so in a medical school where we are compelled to lead 
sedentary lives against our wishes. In fact we should strive co 
convince ourselves that the day is not well spent unless the one 
hour is spent in study and contemplation while the other is spent 
in labor and exercise. We hope that the devotees of the game 
will succeed in bringing together an excellent team consisting of 
players who merit the honor of a position, and we are confident 
that if all partiality be relegated to the woods that the class, as 
a whole, will take much more interest in the matter than they 
would do otherwise. 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

Prof.: "Is Mr. Hanan present?" 

Heinan: "Is dot my name?" 

For the latest approved method of making bread apply to 
Thomas and Thomas. 

Mr. Haslit has been absent for some time on account of the 
sickness and subsequent death of his mother. The class joins us 
in extending our sympathy to him in his hour of bereavement. 

Blumenthal assisted Dr. Eckley in a demonstration of the eye 
before the student nurses at the West Side hospital one evening 



Notes. 405 

this month. "Blum" is very popular with the ladies, and his 
work was highly appreciated by them. 

Who got Jackson's heart? Haessly, of course. Cavanaugh 
says it was meant for him, but he can't prove it. O. G. made a 
noble effort to obtain it but was foiled. 

Have you noticed that far-away look in the eyes of Dancing- 
Master Young and his followers every Thursday morning? 
When from all fear their hearts free. 
Who holdeth seats, from one till three, 
Way down in front where they can see? 
W., H., andB. 

But when a quiz in sight they see, 
Who roosteth high like hens in tree? 
The very same — the only three — 
W., H., andB. 
The sneak-thief is abroad in the land. A short time ago 
Miss Moore lost her Pathology, but, as she is a very energetic 
and business- like little individual and began immediate proceed- 
ings to recover her property, the guilty party became frightened 
and turned the book in at the office. A short time afterward Miss 
Jackson suffered a similar loss while at work in the laboratory. 
This theft gave evidence of great dexterity on the part of the 
operator, for it is a well-known fact that Jarvis and Kingston, 
sitting on either hand, jealously guard the person and property 
of this young lady. Miss Sherlock is mourning the loss of a coat 
taken from the ladies' cloak-room, and several others have re- 
ported losses such as baskets of test tubes, etc. This condition 
of things is deplorable, inasmuch as the malefactor is not only 
dishonest but very ungallant as well, the sufferers in nearly every 
case being of the gentler sex. It is quite possible that there is 
more than one of these light fingered individuals in our midst, 
and it is respectfully suggested that each man appoint himself a 
committee of one to try and intercept them in their crooked 
career. 



NEWS ITEMS. 

The Chicago Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat College held its an- 
nual meeting recently. The reports of the officers were pre- 
sented, and showed the first year in the new building and hos- 
pital to have been a very prosperous one. The following were 
named as Board of Directors for the ensuing year : 

W. A. Fisher, M. D., President. 

A. G. Wippern, M. D., Vice President. 

J. R. Hoffman, M. D., Secretary. 

Thomas Faith, M. D. 

H. W. Woodruff. M. D. 

Miss Katherine Stanley has received an appointment of 
interneship in the Mary Thompson Hospital for Women and 
Children, Chicago 

The Nu Sigma Phi fraternity gave a "box party" at "The 
Grand*' on Saturday, March 22nd. 

F. M. Barker, a member of our Senior class, who is a grad- 
uate of the Hahnemann College, was persuaded by a friend on 
the day of the recent examination for interneship in Cook County 
Hospital to take the examination and was successful, having 
taken second place. This speaks very highly for F. M. as he 
had not "plugged" for the examination. 

Supt. W. H. Browne is again on the sick list, having been 
out of school a week or more. He is now threatened with ty- 
phoid fever. 

J. C. Hicks of the senior class has been instrumental in get- 
ting out a souvenir spoon of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons. It ia a very neat design, with the word "Illinois" on han- 
dle and the cut of the new building in the bowl. The spoon is 
sterling silver, with gold bowl, and sells for §1.75. The same 
can be obtained from Mr. Hicks or at the Plexus office. 

Word has been received from Dr. D. A. K. Steele, at Ma- 
deira, Algiera, Malta and Athens, and he is reporting a very 
pleasant journey. 



SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY 



DENTAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

D. M.CATTELL, D. D. S., G. W. COOK, D. D. S. B. J. CIORAND, D. D. S. 

Supt. R. P. DONALDSON. 



D. M CATTELL, Editor-in-Chief. C. E. JONES, Alumni Editor. 



CLASS EDITORS 
A. E. ALTHER, Oi F. M. STAHL, 03. J. C. GROUT, '04. 

Publislier. - K. C- WADDLE 

Subscription *1. 00 Per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued montbly. 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C 
WADDLE, Cor. Congress and Honore Sts., Chicago. 



To the Alumni and friends of our scliool we send greeting. 

Journalism is new work for all hands concerned, but we hope 
to make ourselves understood — v ithout offence. This School of 
Dentistry wishes ro know what other dental colleges are doing in 
their every day life, and hopes to keep its friends posted in all 
important doings going on among us. Just now, we are standing 
in a line inti-oducing ourselves and making our best bow. Please 
do not stare at us too keenly or we may become confused. 

D. M. C. 



THE ALUMNI. 

The dual pleasure of at last being able to address the mem 
bers of the Alumni through our representative organ, The 
Plexus, is two- fold for these essential reasons: It gives the 
President and Executive Committee the opportunity of keeping 
the members enlightened upon our progress and development; 
secondly, it acts as a stimulant upon the negligent members, and 
in continuation with the second condition it will serve to keep us 
all in closer touch with each other. Though many of us be re- 



408 The Plexus. 

motely situated, the many gatherings given under the auspices of 
the Alumni will afford each member the opportunity of once more 
greeting old class and schoolmates, some of whom have become 
competitors and contemporaries of note and ability. 

The object of establishing a journal is one we have thoroughly 
gone over with you at our meeting last fall (at the time of our or- 
ganization). But for the benefit of those who were unfortunate 
enough to be absent I will explain briefly. The journal will be 
the official organ of the Alumni. It will be devoted to the pro- 
fessional uplifting of its members, and for the mutual and social 
advancement of the profession. Several pages will be devoted to 
editorials upon leading dental questions. All in all, we want to 
make it a bright, up-to-date journal. 

We perhaps owe the members of the Alumni an apology for 
not consumating this undertaking at an earlier date. Although 
our desire and aim has been fully bent that way, we have not 
until recently been able to accomplish that end. 

Promises have been made you that I trust you will overlook. 
A too zealous mind bit off more than it could chew; that perhaps 
accounts for our stagnation. But now that our hopes have been 
partially realized I trust you will look at it in a brighter light and 
give each move your support. 

We are using more of a conservative strain now you will per- 
ceive. No promises I But mark. We feel confident in saying 
that the University will issue to active members of the Alumni a 
beautiful steel-engraved sheepskin, a partial fac simile of the di- 
ploma to be given each graduate of the dental department. This 
is most gratifying to those of us who have worked to secure a 
capable representative to present this essential matter before the 
University trustees. 

And last of all comes the crowning feature of our existence. 
The Faculty and Alumni clinic. The members of both bodies 
have and are striving to make this an affair of pleasure and profit 
for the Alumni and the profession at large. 

We have secured many such men as Jonathan Taft, M. D. 
D. D. S.,dean of the dental department University of Michigan, to 
present a paper and clinic on that date. I simply mention this ven- 
erable giant in our profession to depict or show you the character 
and worth of our undertaking, 

It is hoped that each member will be present, and those who 



Dental Department. , 409 

have been negligent about sending in their subscription will come 
to the front at once. Remember we need your aid and support. 

C. E.J. 



THE SENIOR CLASS. 

We are in the last months of college life and are too busy- 
plugging for required points and conning notes for final examina- 
tions to do other than say, "Greeting to everybody," and then 
turn our face and look pleasant toward the faculty, hoping there- 
by to temper its final judgment in our favor. So, to the Faculty 
of the Dental Department of the University of Illinois the mem- 
bers of the class of 1902, the first to graduate from this depart- 
ment, wish to express their most sincere gratitude for past cour- 
tesies shown them, and can find no better opportunity to express 
themselves than in this first issue of the college journal. We re- 
alize that to the faculty we owe everything, and we thank them 
most sincerely for their patience and untiring efforts. 

The Faculty may rest assured that after we have graduated 
the welfare of the school will ever be foremost in our thought?, 
and we shall endeavor as alumni to assist them in upholding the 
fine standard already established. We shall put forth our best 
efforts to uphold the dignity of the school, that it may ever be 
one of the few and never of the many. A. E . A. 



THE JUNIOR CLASS. 

To the readers of The Plexus greeting. The junior class 
of the School of Dentistry is glad to be represented in The 
Plexus. 

Just now we can see, dimly outlined on the wall, these words: 
"If you would edit a department in a college paper, practice on 
a wheelbarrow and keep pushing."' 

We will endeavor to make our columns reflect college and 
class life as it is — its work and merriments, its successes and its 
failures, its sunshine and its shadows. You will hear more from 
us next month; meanwhile we will practice on a wheelbarrow. 

F. M. S, 



THE FRESHMAN CLASS. 
We take this opportunity offered us for introducing ourselves 
to the Alumni of this and other dental colleges, under graduates of 



410 The Plexus. 

other colleges as well as to the dental profession at large. This 
being the first year for this department our class is not large, 
but with our new and finely-equipped building, and one of the best 
faculties of any college in the United States, the coming fresh- 
man classes are boud to increase in numbers in years to come. 
Our class feels a responsibility that freshman classes of older 
dental colleges do not have, and that is for the upbuilding and 
improvement of the school. This class is progressing finely in 
its studies and laboratory work, and is now far enough along to 
take a deep interest in dentistry. Every member is anxious to 
come in contact with the bright men of the profession, to become 
acquainted wnth and get such ideas as may help them in their 
work. This magazine is for that purpose, and may it be a success 
in all its undertakings. It is hoped that this may prove a step- 
ping-stone for the students to the profession and bring us into 
closer relation with the general practitioner, a relation which 
would be beneficial to both. 

Our class is not so buried in its work but that it has time to 
take a healthy and active interest in athletics. In the several 
* 'meets" our class has shown marked ability which, with a little 
further training, will be found hard to beat. Not only has the 
class athletic ability, but several of its members show considera- 
ble musical talent both vocally and instrumentally. 

Through the efforts of some of the musically inclined a col- 
lege band has been organized of about 20 pieces (the leader of 
which is a freshman) which adds materially to the social life of 
the college. 

We have four young ladies in our class who also help in the 
enjoyment of college life. The year is coming to a close, the 
time will soon pass. 

Next year we will be juniors (dignified) and our places taken 
by other freshmen. May it be a large one — but no better. Hur- 
rah for the freshmen of 1901-1902, and may we live long and 
prosper: J. C. G. 



COMING CLINIC ANNOUNCEMENT. 

In this the first issue of our c(»llege journal we publish the 
program of the first annual clinic of the School of Dentistry, 
University of Illinois. 

A careful perusal of the names of clinicians and the charac- 



Dental Department. 411 

ter of the clinics to be given goes without saying that it will be 
■one of the most interesting clinic days held in Chicago for several 
years. All the leading dental supply houses will have exhibits, 
and many new appliances have already been promised. It has 
been arranged to serve luncheon in the college building, and 
ample room will be provided for all. Appended herewith is the 
program : 

ANNUAL CLINIC OF THE SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AND ALUM- 
NI ASSOCIATION GIVEN AT THE COL- 
LEGE BUILDING, 813 WEST HARRI- 
SON ST., CHICAGO, WEDNES- 
DAY, MARCH 26, 1902. 

COMMITTEES: 
FACULTY: 

G. W. Cook, D. M. Cattell, G. W. Dittmar, B. J. Cigrand, J. 
N. McDowell, C. N. Thompson, A. H. Peck, ex-officio. 

alumni: 

C. E. Jones, W. R. McGarvey. C. H. Wambold, Clayton Mc- 
Cauly, Harry Snyder, S. S. Swihart, Karl Steelier. 

EXHIBIT: 

R. P. Donaldson, C. N. Thompson. 

CLINIC ANNOUNCER: 

G. Walter Dittmar. 

REPORTERS: 

Ralph W. Parker, Fred. W. Parker. 
RECEPTION: 

A. H. Peck. B. J. Cigrand, J. N. McDowell, R P. Donaldson, 
C. E. Jones, D. M. Cattell, G. W. Cook, G. W. Dittmar, C. N. 
Thompson, L. J. Lowrey. 

ALUMNI— OFFICERS : 

President, W. R. McGarvey; Vice Pres., S. S. Swihart; Sec- 
retary, C. E. Jones; Treasurer, Clayton McCauly. 

ANNOUNCEMENT: 

This program gives a complete scope of the clinic to be 
given on Wednesday, March 26th, 1902, at the School of Dentist- 
ry, University of Illinois, Harrison and Honore streets, Chicago. 

The clinics will begin at 9 o'clock Wednesday morning. 

At the entrance of the Infirmary you will tind a "Registra- 



il2 The Plexus 

tion Book," and all present are requested to register home ad- 
dress at the earliesc opportunity. 

The members of the faculty will not serve as clinicians, but 
will devote their entire time in the interests of the visiting prac- 
titioners. 

It is the purpose of the committee on exhibits to have a lib- 
eral display by the various dental depots and manufacturers of 
dental supplies, thus adding considerable to the interest and im- 
portance of the clinic. 

At 3:30 P. M. on the afternoon of the clinic all present are 
invited to listen to a paper entitled "The Power of Association," 
by Jonathan Taft, M. D., D. D. S., of Ann Arbor, Mich. 

CLINICS. 

1. Dr. C. R. Taylor, Streator, 111. Banding Logan crown. 

2. Dr. L. P. Haskell, Chicago. Some ideas on continuous 
gum cases. 

3. Dr. J. H. WooUey, Chicago. Non- cohesive gold in com- 
bination with cement, for temporary fillings. 

4. Dr. L. W. Nevius, Chicago. The administration of nit- 
rous oxide and extraction of teeth. 

5. Dr. F. M. Richardson, Chicago. Extraction of teeth. 

6. Dr. A. O. Hunt, Chicago. Griswold and Brewster meth- 
ods of crowning. 

7. Dr. L. O. Green, Chicago. Painless extraction, using 
"Acestoria" as local ana3sthetic (antiseptic). 

8. Dr. W. A. Stevens, Chicago. Removing teeth from vul- 
canite bases. 

9. Dr. R. N. Laurance, Lincoln, 111. Treatment of pyorrhea 
alveolaris. 

10. Dr. F. H. Skinner, Chicago. Gold filling. 

11. Dr. C. E. Bentley, Chicago. Porcelain inlay. 

12. Dr. W, O. Valletta, Goshen, Ind. Sterilization of instru- 
ments. 

13. Dr. G. V. I. Brown, Milwaukee, Wis. Surgical clinic. 

14. Dr. J. W. Erringer, Chicago. Gold filling. 

15. Dr. H. H. Schuhmann, Chicago. Porcelain inlay. 

16. Dr. H. E. McDonald, Chicago. Table clinic. 

17. Dr. T. Ewing Roach, Chicago. Porcelain crown without 
band, and using special soldering pliers. 



Dental Dejiartmeiit. 413 

18. Dr. W. H. Dwight, LeMars, Iowa. The Dwight detacTi- 
able facing. 

19. Dr. C. H. Wambold, Chicago. Dies and counter-dies; 
Hawes' moulding flask. 

20. Dr. C. F. Bryant, Chicago. Partial lower continuous 
gum, using Hammond's furnace. 

21. Dr, H. B. Tileston, Louisville, Ky. Gold inlay, using 
copper amalgam in model. 

22. Dr. Geo. A. McMillen, Alton, 111. The use of non-co- 
hesive gold in setting Logan crowns. 

23. Dr. C. P. Pruyn, Chicago. Oral surgery. 

24. Dr, G. A. Miller, Chicago. Simple and accurate method 
of making carved cusps for band crowns. 

25. Dr. Geo. T. Carpenter, Chicago. Oral surgery. 

26. Dr. Lester Bryant, Chicago. Forming and carving por- 
celain . 

27. Dr. S. M. White, Benton Harbor, Mich. A method of 
preparing and filling diseased roots. 

28. Dr. Edmund Noyes, Chicago. Gold filling, superior in- 
cisor. 

29. Dr. W. C. Golbeck, Chicago. Constructing gold crowns 
on plaster models. 

30. Dr. A. G. Johnson, Chicago. Preparing root for banded 
crown. 

31. Dr. C. N. Reese, Chicago. Short methods in bridge 
dentures. 

32. Dr. G. B. Stone, Chicago. New process of forming and 
baking porcelain crowns, using Turner gasolene furnace. 

33. Dr. L. Phillips, Englewood, 111. A method of making 
Richmond crown. 

34. Dr. Jno. C. Kinney, Chicago, Combination filling, using 
Dr. Hewitt's sterion white alloy and gold. 

35. Dr. H. O. Browning, Englewood, 111. Procedures in fill- 
ing teeth with amalgam. 

36. Dr. E. H. Allen, Freeport, 111. Moss fibre gold and tin 
filling. 

37. Dr. S. F. Duncan, Joliet, 111. Removing pulp by pres- 
sure anaesthesia. 

38. Dr. H. J. Goslee, Chicago. Construction and mounting 
of porcelain bicuspid crown. 



4U The Plexus 

39. Dr. C. N. Trompen, Roselancl, 111. Gold fillings, using 
cohesive gold by hand pressure, 

40. Dr. R. C. Brophy, Chicago. Banded porcelain crown,, 
using clinician's furnace. 

41. Dr. E. X. Jones, Chicago. A method of attaching 
bridges. 

42. Dr. C. W. Miller, Toledo, Iowa. Methods and appli- 
ances for contouring metal crowns. 

43. Dr. A. S. Condit. Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Method of making 
removable bridge dentures. 

44. Dr. Thomas E. Weeks, Minneapolis, Minn. Table clinic. 

45. Dr. C. R. ]3aker, Davenport, Iowa. Seamless gold crown. 

46. Dr. H. C. Waack, Chicago. Filling deciduous teeth with- 
out dam, using Fellowship cement. 

47. Dr. F. H. B. McDowell, Racine, Wis. Care and method 
of using hypodermic needles 

48. Dr. I. E. Hinkins, Chicago. Tha fixation of loose teeth, 
using Kawaiski's cement. 

49. Dr. Don M. Gallie, Chicago. Gold filling (complex 
cavity). 

50. Dr. A. E. Morey. Chicago. Bleaching by Pyrozone 
method. 

51. Dr. Jonathan Taft, Ann Arbor, Mich. Operative clinic. 

52. Dr. G. V. Black, Chicago. The first part of the finish- 
ing of proximate gokl fillings. G. W. Cook, 

Chairman Program Com. 



BAND CONCERT. 

The College Band wishes to announce that, before this num- 
ber of The Plexus leaves the publishers, it will have given its 
first concert, the entertainment to be given in the new amphithe- 
ater of the college building. Tickets are selling well, and the 
prospect is for a large turnout. We are doing our best, and hope 
to give visitors to the coming college clinic a specimen of our 
talent. 

The program for the evening of the 14th of March is as fol- 
lows : 

PROGRAM — H P. M. : 

I. March New Colonial HalL 

Band. 



Dental Department. ■ 415 

II. ' 'Her Letter" Moreulogue. 

Miss Olive Cattell. 

III. Trombone Solo Polka Brilliant Steinhauser. 

Mr. Holton. 

IV. Polka Dear Violet Andauer. 

Band. 
i (a) She wandered down the 

V. Soprano Solo. ... ■< mountainside Clay. 

( (t>) At Parting Rogers. 

Miss Peabody. 

VI. March Kokomo Parrar. 

Band. 

VII. Duet for Soprano and Trombone Selected. 

Mr. and Mrs. Holton. 

VIII. "Oh, No!" Reading. 

Miss Olive Cattell. 

IX. Soprano Solo Spring Has Come White. 

Miss Peabody. 

X. Overture Fair Maid of Perth WiddeL 

Band. 
10 P. M. — Dance till midnight. G. J. Shand, 

Band Leader. 



SCHOOL OF PHARMACY. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

Morpheus, the god of sleep, numbers some of the seniors 
among his devotees, as witness the lectures occasionally. There 
will be an aioakening April 14th, loth and 16th, boys. 

A syndicate is being formed among the class for the manu- 
facture of Swanson's mustard plaster. 

The Seniors held a meeting on the evening of the 6th and 
listened to the oratorical efforts of the candidates for class speak- 
ers. F. H. Heidbreder was elected valedictorian, and F. E. Pierce 
salutatorian. 

Many of our classmates are now "full-registered" pharma- 
cists, having passed the State Board of Pharmacy examination. 
At the February meeting the following seniors passed: H. R. 
DeLand, .T. T. Fawcett, P. J. Forbrich, W. B. Freeman, W. V. 
Keller, T. J. Knaak, G. A. McCormick, H. T. Moyer, F. E. 
Pierce, A. T. Schleder; C. M. Snow, J. B Tiseornia, H. D. Val- 
bracht and W. E. Wendt. If any of the boys failed, we have yet 
to hear from them. G. W. Houseman, 

Class Reporter. 

\ JUNIOR CLASS. 

The class election for the second half-year resulted as fol- 
lows: President, S. W. Taliaferro of Roseville, 111.; Vice-presi- 
dent, O. A. Fritz of Chicago; Secretary, C. H. Schafer of Mari- 
etta, Ohio; Treasurer, W. R. Montgomery of Waterloo, Wis. ; 
Sergeant-at-arms, C. S. Marshall of Watonga, Oklahoma. 

Under the auspices of the Alumni Association there was 
given at he college recently several lectures upon business topics 
embraci g: "The Selection, Handling and Sale of Sponges" by 
M. L. Landeker, supplemented by "A Talk on the Life History 
of the Sponge" by Prof. W. R. Mitchell, of Hyde Park High 
School; "Cigars as a Side Line for Druggists," by W. G. Baxter. 
The lectures were interesting, and afforded information of a kind 
that is not easily accessible. The large attendance was evidence 
of the students' appreciation. 

At the recent examination by the State Board of Pharmacy 
the juniors were very successful. S. W. Taliaferro and O. A. 
Fritz were registered in full, and the assistant's certificate was 



Pharmacy Department. 4JY 

granted to A. H. Bauer, A. M. Corbus, R. R Gharet, O. Hironi- 
mus, E. J. Karlovsky, V. E. Lawrence, W. H. Schroeder, H. E. 
Walter and C. J. Weimer. 

Mr. E. R. Dolson, one of the most popular members of the 
class, died March 3rd after a short illness. Mr. Dolson had been 
taken with appendicitis the evening of the 28th; an operation was 
performed, but failed of its purpose. The young man had been 
employed by J. W. Kask, pharmacist at 5727 Wentworth avenue 
for the past four years. The class attended the funeral and pre- 
sented a handsome floral piece. The following students acted as 
pall bearers: S. A. Denis, Frank Wochas, E. C. Rabe, W. K. 
Ansorge, A. E. Hahn and H. T. Hatton. 

At the final term examination of the course in botany the 
assistant, in looking for "ponies,'" unearthed the following effu- 
sion, in the handwriting of a well-known junior: 

A VERSE ON BOTANT. 
A cry of joy went up to "Day," 
"We are through this book of Gray!" 
Some have finished, more were finished 
By this same old book of Gray. 

Some look sad and likewise blue. 
For they could not see it through; 
Neither could they see through it — 
But, A. Gray, forgive, "forgit. " 

It was the good fortune of the juniors to have been present 
at a very interesting lecture on "Materia Medica." The lecturer 
was absent. 

It has been reserved for the Professor of Pharmacy to prove 
that the caustic alkalies are not only slippery to the touch but 
elusive to the memory as well. It was due to this latter property 
that so many blanks occurred in the answers to th^ last examina- 
tion in pharmacy. David Zamentowsky, 

School of Pharmacy, '03. 



OFFICERS.— O. S. NEISW ANGER, Ph. G., M. D.. Pres.; EMIL IT. GRUBBE, M. D., Vice-Pres. 
A. B SLATER, Sec'y and Treasurer. 

FACULTY.— FRANKLIN H. MARTIN, M D., Electricity in Gynecology; W. FRANKLIN COLE 
MAN, .M. D., M. R. 0. S. (Ens.) Electricity in Diseases of the Eye; MA/ C USE MAN RICE 
M. D., Electiolysis; C. S. Nr.ISWANGER, Pti. G., M. D., General Electro-Therapeutics; 
EM r*L H. GRUBBE, M. IX, hlectro-Physics, Radiography and X-Ray Diagnosis; ALBEivT 
H. ANDREWS, M. D., Ear Nose and Throat. GORDOM G. BURDICK, M. D., Radio-lhera- 
py and Photo Cliemistry. 

This school is for physi'jians and is eqaipoed with the most modern up-t<o date 
apparatus. All the rudimentary physics wil be profus 'ly illustrated and made plain 
even to the uninitiated in elecf.ro thei-apy. No mail course will be g-ivi-n and no 
d'^g'rees conferred, bat a handsonely engraved certificate of attendance can be ob- 
tained if desired after the comoletion of a coarse. The courses will be of three weeks 
duration and consist of both clinical and didactic instructions. A 3-week's course 
will make you self depeadent. Write fi>r further information, terms and printed 
matter. Phoae Randolph 144. 

ILLINOIS SCHOOL OF ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS, 
1302-3 Chattiplain Building, Chicago, 111. 



rHE MARION-SIMS HOSPITAL. 

438 LaSalle Avenue, CMICAGO. 

LONJ DI TANCE TELE'^'HONE, 737 NORTH. 

A high-class private Hospital for the recep- 
,jr ^ tion of Gynecological cases and for abdominal 

Surgery. 

Centrally located in one of the best residence 
districts of the city, this institution otters 
accom nidations which are superior in every 
respect and combine the comforts and luxuries 
of the home with the strict appointmeuts of 
modern sanitary science. 

Tlie apartmenis are light and well ventilated, 
heated by an improved liot water system. Hard- 
wood floors throughout; furnisein^s elegant 
and appropriate. Trained nurses of superior 
skill are in charge of the patients and the die 1 is 
the l)est. 

'11 le operating rooms are specially fitted with 
all modern appliances for aseptic surgery. 

A . ompetent physician is in atteimance at 
all liours 
Channing W. Babrett, M. D., House Physician 

F. GKE(iORY roNNELL, M. D., House Physician 
an Pathologist. 

For further inforniation address 

HENRY P. NEWHAN. A. M , M. D, 

Physician St Surgeon i« Charge, 




103 STATE STREET, CHICAtiO. 



OR 



n. C. STEW vRT, Superinteiidt*tit, 



(At Hospital) 438 LaSalle Avenue. 




Chakles Davison, M. D. 

Adjunct Professor Clinical Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
Medical Department University of Illinois, Chicago. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

VOL. VIL APRIL 20th, 1902. NO. 12 

SUTURE OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL.^ 

Read before the Mississippi Valley Medical Association, September 13, 1901. 

By Charles Davison, M. D. 
Chicago. 

Professor of Surgery, Chicago Clinical School; Adjunct Professor of Clinical 

Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical College of the 

University of Illinois: Attending Surgeon to Cook County 

Hospital and the West Side Hospital. 

In suture of the abdominal wall after laparotomy, the ideal 
method of approximation is that of layer to layer apposition, 
Uniting peritoneum to peritoneum, fascia to fascia, and skin to 
skin by independent planes of suture. 

The ideal suture material is one that can be rendered sterile 
by boiling in water that will remain sterile while in the tissues, 
and that will cease to exist in the tissues when healing is com- 
plete and its function has been accomplished. 

These indications are not fulfilled by absorbable sutures, of 
which catgut is the type, for the reason that this material is of 
animal origin, already infected with germs, the sterilization of 
which is difficult and uncertain, and cannot be accomplished by 
prolonged boiling in water without disintegration of the suture. 

Absorbable sutures eventually break down and pulpify, lib- 
erating any imprisoned germs and making a line of culture 
material, a nidus for pyrogenic germs, either local in the catgut 
or brought to it by the blood current. Many times late infection 
of a wound after primary union has occurred is due to this action 
of catgut. 

Permanent buried suiures, the type of which is the twisted 
silver wire, are not the ideal sutures. 

After healing has occurred and their function has ceased, 
they become foreign bodies, and either are encysted in the tissues 



418 Ihe Plexus. 

or are surrounded by granulation tissue, and are gradually ex- 
truded from the tissues months or years after the operation. 

I wish to present the method of closure of abdominal sections 
that I am using in routine work. 

The wounds are closed by suturing each layer with a con- 
tinuous silkworm gut suture, the ends of which are left out at the 
angles of the wound to be removed by traction when healing is 
complete. 

The suture in the strongest layer is tied in position at each 
end in the layer with knots that can be unlocked by traction en 
the exposed ends when the stitch is to be removed. 

The closure of the peritoneun in a median laparotomy is 
illustrated by Fig 1. The edges of the peritoneum are caught 
with forceps and held up away from the intestines by an assist- 
ant, and the peritoneum is closed by a continuous herring-bone 
suture of silkworm gut. 

When the opening in the peritoneum is closed, the suture is 
shirred to take up all of the slack and to lessen the length of the 
wound, and the ends are left hanging out of the angles of the 
wound. 

The silkworm gut is kinked in such a manner that it binds 
itself in the peritoneum and does not slip or pull apart; but by 
the end of a week, when the suture is removed, the elasticity of 
the silkworm gut has made the suture perfectly straight, and 
has brought the perforations in the peritoneum into a straight 
line, making a track around the stitch by pressure necrosis, so 
that it is very easy to remove by traction. 

In removing this suture, the patient relaxes the abdominal 
wall by elevation of the thighs and shoulders; one end of the 
siitch is cut short, the other end is grasped in an artery -forceps 
protected by a bit of gauze and wound up close to the skin, and 
traction is made on the forceps like the handle to a corkscrew. 

For identification at removal, this suture may be colored 
black with silver nitrate, blue with an alcoholic solution of 
meythlene blue, or the ends knotted to correspond. 

The closure of the linea alba in a median laparotomy is illus- 
trated by Fig. 2. This is the strong layer of the abdominal wall, 
and if the tissues are fastened securely there can be no spreading 
of the wound. For this suture coarse selected Spanish silkworm 
gut thirteen inches long without flaw or defect is used. 

A small reverse bow-knot (a diagram of which tied and loose 
is shown in Fig. 3) is tied four or five inches from the end of the 
strand. The edges of the fascia are caught with forceps and held 
up by an assistant. The suture is introduced in a firm place in 




Fig. 1.— Suture of peritoneum. 




Fig. 2— Suture of linea alba, tied in position 




Fig. 3— Diagi-ain of knot. 



T 




EiG. 4 — Suture of the superficial layer, 




Fig. 5. — Suture of the sac. 



Suture of the Abdominal }\aU. 41^ 

the fascia back from the edge of^wound and drawn tightly up to 
the knot, and the wound is closed by the continuous herring-bone 
suture. At the last stitch the suture is shirred up tightly, 
grasped by a smooth pointed dissecting forceps at its exit from 
the fascia, and another reverse bow-knot tied below the point of 
the forceps. With practice this can be done without a particle 
of slack being left in the suture. It can be tied in this manner as 
closely as in the ordinary method of tying a continuous suture. 
This layer being securely fastened takes all of the tention from 
the other layers. The ends are allowed to hang out at the angles 
of the w^ound. This suture is removed in two or more w^eeks. 
Simultaneous traction on the free ends unties the knots, when the 
suture is removed in the same manner as the peiitoneal suture. 

The skin is closed by the Halstead subcuticular stitch (Fig. 
4) of silkworm gut colored red for identification by alcoholic solu- 
tion of carbol-fuchsin. 

These sutures act as capilary drains from each layer. If 
there are bleeding points which pressure or torsion do not con- 
trol, they may be constricted by loops of the nearest suture with- 
out making a knot. 

This method of suture can be used in appendectomy or any 
laparotomy in which there is no provision for drainage and in 
which the incision is in a straight line. 

The same method of suture can be applied to any of the 
standard operations for the radical cure of inguinal hernia. 

The sac is closed by a continuous mattress suture (Fig. o) of 
silkworm gut, the ends shirred up, making a sort of double purse- 
string suture. The lower end is marked by a knot for identitica- 
tion, and the ends are tied together and brought out of the upper 
angle of the wound. This suture is removed at the end of a 
week by pulling up the lower strand and cutting it short and then 
drawing out the upper fragment, 

In the operation for hernia in which Poupart's ligament is 
imbricated over the conjoined tendon behind the cord, which I 
usually do, a simple continuous basting stitch (Fig. 6) tied at 
either end is used. The suture with the knot tied at one end is 
passed through Poupart's ligament about one centimetre from its 
free edge, close to the cord, penetrating the ligament from the 
outside and emerging from its internal surface. 

The suture is next carried across the wound behind, the cord 



420 The Plexus 

and penetrates the conjoined tendon at the same level and dis- 
tance from its edge, emerging on the peritoneal side of the con- 
joined tendon. The suture is then returned through the same 
tissues in the opposite direction, one centimetre below the first 
perforation, completing one unit of the continuous basting or 
sailor-stitch, which, when completed, is tied in position with the 
knot shown in detail in Fig. 3, and the free ends are allowed to 
extend out at the angles of the wound. (Fig. 7.) This is the 
strong layer, and when sutured firmly takes the tension from th© 
other layers. 

The fascia of the external oblique muscle is sutured to the 
shelving edge of Pouparfs ligament over the cord with a con- 
tinuous herring-bone stitch (Pig. 8) of blael: or blue silkworm gut, 
the endg projecting from the angles of the wound without being 
tied. 

The skin layer is closed by the subcuticular suture of red 
silkworm gut already described. (Fig 4.) 

The suturing of Pou part's ligament to the conjoined tendon, 
by edge to edge apposition, as ia the typical Bassini operation, 
can be accomplished by a continuous herring bone suture (Fig. 9) 
of silkworm gut tied at each end in the ligament with the reverse 
bow-knot. 

The suturing of Pouparfs ligam^-nt io the conjoined tendon 
by a continuous mattress suture (Fig. 10) of silkworm gut tied at 
either end in the ligament, produces the same apposition of tis 
sues as in the Halstead operation with the buried interrupted 
mattress suture of silver wire. 

In general, the advantages of this method of suture are: 

(1) Certainty that all suture or ligature material placed in 
the wound has been made sterile by boiling in water. 

(2) Accurate layer approximation of tissue. 

(3) Removal of the buried sutures when healing is complete. 

(4) Capillary drainage from each layer. 

(5) Safety of intestines from injury during the application of 
the sutures. 

((■)) Rapidity of application. 

(7) Minimum line of irritation on the peritoneal surface and 
consequent adhesions to the viscera. 

(8) Slight scar in the skin, there being no perforation of the 
skin by sutures. 





f 



Fig. 6. — Basting- suture uniting Poupai^t's ligament to conjoined tendon in 
the imbricating operation for hernia. 




Fig. 7. — Basting suture uniting Poupart's ligament to conjoined tendon 

tied in position. 





Fig. 8. — Suture of fascia of external oblique muscle to Poupart's ligament 
over the cord by continuous herring-bone suture. 




Fig. 9.^Suture of Poupart's ligament to conjoined tendon by continuoui- 

herring-bone suture, producing edge to edge apposition 

as in Bassini's operation. 





•J 



Fig. 10.— Suture of Poupart's ligament to conjoined tendon by continuous 

mattress suture, producing- the same apposition of tissue 

as in Halstead's operation. 



Suture of the Abdominal Widl. 421 

(9) All of the advantages of a permanent buried suture with 
out the danger of future irritation and extrusion of the knot. 

(10) The advantages of an absorbable suture without the 
danger of sepsis from the suture, and without producing a nidus 
for septic germs from the blood current during absorption. 

In the seven months following January 3, 1901, the date of 
the initial use of the knot, I have used this method in eleven 
median laparotomies, in eight appendectomies, in four ventral 
herniotomies, and in seventeen inguinal herniotomies, all of my 
abdominal operations that were closed without drainage, and ob- 
tained sterile primary union in every case. The most recent of 
t'lese cases being now six weeks from operation and safe from 
suppuration. 

The claim for originality which is maintained is not in the 
use of a longitudinal suture, but in the tightly and securely tying 
of a buried longitudinal suture which can be easily, removed 
when healing is complete. 



THE TEACHINGS AND INFLUENCE OF SAMUEL 
HAHNEMANN. 
By William E. Quine. 

{Co7\tinued.) 

Let us now switch off a few minutes to take a look at what 
Hempel appropriately terms 

"THE AUGEAN STABLE OF HOMEOPATHY." 

We can do this without much effort by turning over the pages 
of the book known by the euphonius, alliterative and high sound- 
ing title, "The Pharmacopoeia Homeopathica Polyglottica." 

I like to say that name. It makes me feel so— so "eddycated."^ 
It tickles me for the moment by giving me a delightful suspicion 
that I am a classical cuss myself. "The Pharm-a-copoe-ia Hom- 
e-o path i-ca Poly glot-tic a." Isn't it bewildering^ 

This entertaining book was published in 1873. It was writ- 
ten by Dr. William Schwalbe of Leipsic and rendered into Eug- 
lish by Dr. Suss Hahnemann, and into French by Dr. Alphoase 
Noack. ("After you, my dear Alphonse.") 

It differs in some important respects from the teachings of 
Hahnemann. Its dilutions are made on the decimal scale instead 
of on the centesimal. Tinctures, mostly ten per cent, prepara- 
tions, are described as the "first potency;'" but "potency" is de- 
fined as progressive dilution and weakening of medicines. There 
is no hint anywhere that "a spirit like power" is developed in 
them. Some of them are well known to you, but there are a few 
that are unique and the exclusive property of homeopathy. Let 
me mention them: 

Apis (living bees, crushed). Apium Virus (sting and jioison 
bag of the bee). Bufo (the poison of the dorsal glands of the 
toad). Gadus Lota (the backbone of the codfish). Spiggurus 
(the bristles from the abdomen of a hare). Bombyx (the dust 
from the eggs of silkworms). Cancer (the crab, pounded living). 
Hippomanes (slime adhering to the allantois of the mare in the 
last months of gestation). Guano (the excrement of bii'ds). Cas- 
tor equi. (the warts on horses' legs). 

The following names refer to the poison of various species- 
of snake: Crotalns, Naja Tripudians, Trigonoce]^halus, Liiche- 



Teachings and Influence of Hahnemann. -t-3 

sis, Viper, Elaps Corallinus, Amphisbaena and Bothrops Lanceo- 
latus. 

Several kinds of spider are included in the collection — the 
living animals crushed: Aranea Avicularis, A. Diadema, Taran- 
tula, Thrombidium and Thiridion. 

There are also tv^o varieties of snail— the living animal 
crushed: Helix Pomata and Limax Ater. 

Lizards, scorpions, wasps, plant lice, wood lice, head lice, 
beetles and bed bugs — the living animals crushed — contribute to 
the display a pleasing variety, especially with the assistance of 
Mephitis, the malodorous secretion of the skunk from the gland 
under the root of the animal's tail — the blamedest place to look 
for medicine I ever heard of I 

Mephitis! I wo^ider how they collect that stuff, anyway. Do 
they send an innocent D. J. after it, or does the old man go him- 
self? Picture him sallying forth with an umbrella in one hand 
and a homeopathic vial in the other, while the jDroprietor of the 
drug store watches his approach from the roof of the hen-coop 
with twinkling eyes and expanding smile that say as plainly as 
words can speak, "Ah, there?" But we must draw the curtain. 
A proper regard for the sacredness of human life will not allow 
me to take you further. Permit me to explain: 
Some years ago, on going home 

Prom a homeopathic talk, 
I saw a student writhing 

In convulsions on the walk. 
His comrades then upbore him 

And took him to his cot; 
There, listening to his demoniac shrieks. 

They sot, and sot, and sot. 
"Five days and nights they watched beside 
That very wretched man; 
So now, you see, I dare not be 
As funny as I can.'" 
I do not know how extensively homeopaths use these things. 
But I do know that homeopathic literature is full of eulogistic 
references to them and that among the contributors of such tes- 
timonials are several homeopathic professors of this city. In- 
deed, "The American HomeoiDathic Pharmacopoeia" of Boericke 
and Tafel, which is the most authoritative publication of the kind 



424 The Plexus. 

uo\7 iu force, treats many of them as remedies of standard value. 
What is more. Dr. Samuel Swan, a New York dealer in homeop- 
athic delicacies, is advertising this very day, among his choicest 
specialties, "Pus from caries of the os calcis; Pas from rectal 
abscesses; Vomito, or blood vomited by yellow fever patients; 
Luna, or moonlight; Helios, or sunlight; Pediculus capitis, and 
Pediculus corporis, from Boston."' 

I do not mention these things for the purpose of provoking 
either laughter or disgust. I merely include them in the view I 
have to offer of modern homeopathy and I do it to show you the 
length to which weak-minded enthusiasts will go when dominated 
by unreasoning belief in mystical theories. 

Having investigated the "Augean Stable," let us take a bath 
and change our clothes and then resume the consideration of the 
doctrinal foundations of the "new school." 

Hahnemann's idea of potency is now almost universally re- 
pudiated by his professed followers. The fact that the decimal 
scale of attenuation is rapidly displacing the centesimal is proof 
of this. The most authoritative homeopathic writers of the day 
specifically deny that any "new power" is imparted to medicines 
by attenuation and trituration, or by attenuation and shaking. 
Hempel is one of them. He says: "The preparation of our 
attenuations has been considerably modified. Instead of taking 
one grain or drop of medicine to ninety-nine grains of sugar of 
milk, or ninety-nine drops of alcohol, ten grains or drops are 
taken to ninety of the vehicle." 

That is to say: Potency and not medicine does the curing. 
The more potency and the less medicine the better. And yet our 
author lessens the potency and increases the medicine ten fold in 
the first attenuation, a hundred in the second, a thousand in the 
thi)-d, and so on in regular progression! I leave you to reason 
out for yourselves the significance of this pharmaceutic soramer- 
sault; and while you are doing it allow me to continue the quo- 
tation: "If attenuations are used first without previous satura- 
tion of the organism by the concentrated tincture of the drug, 
perceptible symptoms are scarcely ever obtained beyond the 
third attenuation." 

Exac'ly. But what about the millions of alleged "provings" 
■with the tkirtieth attenuation? Our author characterizes them 
as "The tens of thousands of puerile and utterly useless triviali- 
ties that have excited the derision of both friend and foe. Our 



Teachings and Influence of Halinemnnn. , \2^ 

materia medica is flooded with a deluge of trifling, unmeaning, and 
unreliable symptoms. Such men as Hering, Boeninghauseu and 
Gros fanned the incipient aberration into a perfect fury of symp- 
toms hunting. Not one of Bering's provings will stand the test 
of critical analysis." 

In volume I., page 59 of the same work the authoi*. in dis- 
cussing Hahnemann's "provings,"" says: "It seems incredible 
that such a mass of vague, childish, ill-defined symptoms as are 
recorded in the four volumes on 'Chronic Diseases' should have 
been accepted by sober-minded men as the effects of dru^-s."' 

On page 119 of the same volume the author remarks: "We 
infer no new powers are developed by the homeopathic method 
of preparing drugs except such as arise from mere division of 
their particles; and that all ideas respecting spiritualization, 
dynamization and magnetism in the preparation of medicines are 
erroneous and untenable."" 

Of course. That's what I say. But what of your millions 
of "cares"" wrought by those dynamizations? "Inventions, ev- 
eryone,"" 

Observe the quibblingof the author on page 789: "Potency," 
he says, "has not reference to quantity but to curative adapta- 
tion of drugs to diseases; and Lobethal and Gros insist on the 
privilege of giving any dose they please, from the actual dose of 
the old school to the highest dilution of which any medicine is 
capable.'" 

That is the policy of up-to-date homeopaths generally. They 
vociferously claim and freely exercise the right to give any dose 
they please and they hold themselves sufficiently loyal to the 
teachings of Hahnemann w^hen they go through the motions of 
prescribing according to the "law of similars.'" 

That I am not overstating the extent of the repudiation of 
the Hahnemannic tenets by his professed disciples will be seen 
from a few other quotations from standard homeopathic litera- 
ture. 

Rau says, on page 158 of his "Organon:"" "We attenuate 
medicines to diminish their excessive action." 

That statement is doubtless true. But Hahnemann attenu- 
ated medicines to develop "potency'" in them — "a hitherto un- 
known, undreamtof change." Was he mistaken? If so, what is 
to be said of the millions of "cures" wrought by him and his 
early disciples by the tenth potency or thirtieth attenuation? 



426 The Phj'us. 

Bakody, of BudaPesth, says: "The dilution of a medicine 
should not be carried to a point beyond scientific recognition.'" 

That means, if it means anything, that you cannot expect 
any effect from a dilution unless it contains an appreciable quan- 
tity of medicine, and the statement is, by implication, unequivo- 
cal repudiation of the idea of potency. 

Dr. Charles Neidhard, in an essay on the "Universality of 
the Homeopathic Law of Cure," states that "For some peculiar 
diseases the homeopathic law requires us to give large doses." 

Indeed? But what about the declaration of Hahnemann that 
"It holds good and will continue to hold good as a homeopathic 
therapeutic maxim, not to be refuted by any experience in the 
world, that the best dose of the properly selected medicine is 
always the very smallest in one of the high dynamizations?" 
And what about his declaration that "When large doses eifect a 
cure that is proof against the homeopathicity of the medicine?" 

The late Professor R. Ludlam, President of the Hahnemann 
Medical College and beloved and honored by all who knew him, 
in the course of a doctorate address, delivered more than twenty- 
five years ago, and published in the "Investigator"" soon aftei% 
said: "When you are fairly launched on the sea of experience, 
the false lights that are set up in our literature will often deceive 
and disappoint you. You will be very slow to believe that the 
provings and reported cures are composed of one part fact and 
twenty parts fiction. This species of experience is full of the 
self saturation of the quack; it toys with our confidence and tri- 
fles with human life: it makes a permanent record of credulity 
and ignorance, and will testify against us in the years that are to 
come."" (Condensed.) 

What an exposition of homeopathy is this! Between Pro- 
fessor Ludlam and me there is not the slightest difference con- 
cerning the points alluded to. What did he say about the re- 
ported cures? "Ninety-five per cent, fiction!"' And yet Pro- 
fessor Reuben Ludlam was the most eminent homeopath in the 
world in his day! 

In his admirable book on "Diseases of Women"" he reveals 
very dubious loyalty to the law of similars and supreme indiffer- 
ence to the idea of potency. On page 804 he recommends, in the 
treatment of hysteria, — camphor, ammonia, musk, chloroform, 
ether, alcohol, sinapisms, warm baths, vigorous rubbings, dash- 
ing of cold water on the head or spine, electricity, and rectal in- 



leachlngs and Influence of Hahnemann. 527 

jections of valerian, without saying a word about "potency," 
"similars,"' or dose. On page 814 he recommends, in the treat- 
ment of hysterical paralysis, — friction, electricity, animal mag- 
netism, the movement cure, the health lift, bathing, exercise, 
travel, the careful use of stimulants, ignatia, gelsemium, bella- 
donna, ergot and phosphorus, without any reference to dose or 
potency. On page 827 he suggests, as the proper treatment of 
spinal irritation, belladonna, atropine, aconite, veratrum album, 
gelsemium, nux vomica, and colchicum; camphorated oil as a lin- 
iment, and arnica and hamamelis as lotions; porous plasters; dry 
cupping and Faradization; and all this without a word about sim- 
ilia, single medicines, potencies, infinitesimal doses, or anything 
else homeopathic. The work, as a whole, is splendid and worthy 
of a place in any library; but the author leaves an uncomforta- 
ble impression on the mind that he was a terribly promiscuous 
and vigorous old school doctor. 

Professor Wesselhoeft, of Boston, — the home of the pedicu- 
lus corporis, — said in a lecture before the Boylston Medical Soci- 
ety of Harvard University, in 18H5: "The dose does not deter- 
mine the "pathy, ■' and one may be a homeopathist who uses com- 
paratively large doses, while another may be an allopathist, or 
regular physician, if you please, although he uses comparatively 
minute doses. Provided the remedy be selected homeopathic - 
ally, who cares whether one drop or twenty of a tincture or a 
grain of the twentieth attenuation be used?'" 

With all possible respect I should say that an honest and 
consistent disciple of Hahnemann would care a great deal; for 
Hahnemann declares that "it holds good and will continue to 
hold good as a homeopathic therapeutic maxim, not to be refuted 
by any experience in the world, that the best dose of the prop- 
erly selected remedy is always the very smallest in one of the 
high dynamizations." And he also says that when large doses of 
a medicine effect a cure of disease, that is jjviina facie evidence 
against the homeopathicity of the medicine. Wesselhoeft's spe- 
cious argument deceives nobody. He is not a disciple of Hahne- 
mann at all and his utterances show only too plainly the quib- 
blings of insincerity. 

With the proofs before you of the repudiation of the doc- 
trines of Hahnemann by his professed followers you are prepared 
to contemplate some of their characteristic practices. 

In the Investigator, 1, 7, p. 368,, a writer describes how he 



42S The Plexus. 

administered five drops of Norwood's tincture of veratrum viride 
every fifteen minutes, followed by fifteen grains of quinine, in 
the treatment of malarial fever. And he then declares ecstatic- 
ally: '-I was never so delighted with the action of medicines in 
my life."' 

Idem, 4, 9, p. 397, Dr. Morse, of Memphis, also gives warm 
testimony in favor of the administration of the same medicines 
in exactly the same way and dosage. 

Idem, 1, 9, p. 421, Dr. Black describes the cure of puerperal 
fever with ten grains doses of hyposulphite of sodium, repeated 
every two hours. 

Idem, 4, 12, p. 548, Professor E. M. Hale accomplishes the 
same feat with three-grain doses of salicylic acid, given every 
four hours; and he also recommends (1, 7, p. 486) three drops of 
Norwood's Tincture "frequently repeated" in sthenic excitement 
of the circulation. 

Idem, 4, 12, p. 550, Dr. Navarro, after denouncing the mur- 
derous doses of quinine employed by allopaths, blushingly ad- 
mits that he has given as much as two scruples for a dose him- 
self. 

Idem, 1. 7, p. 35, Dr. Bird — and he was a bird— relates how 
he got the better of a tape-worm with a quarter of a pound of 
pumpkin seeds. 

If you see anything of "similia'" or of "potency" in these il- 
lustrations please tell me where it is. In the price list of Boer- 
icke and Tafel, the most extensive manufacturers and venders of 
homeopathic supplies in the world, issued in September, 1895. I 
find mentioned, among numerous other products of like kind, the 
following list of hypodermic tablets: 

Nitrate of aconitia, gr. 1-50; muriate of apomorphine, gr. 
1-10; arsenite of potassium, gr. 1-20; sulphate of atropine, gr. 
1-50; sulphate of codeine, gr. i; corrosive sublimate, gr. 1-20; 
sulphate of hyoscymia, gr. 1-25; sulphate of morphine, gr, ^; 
sulphate of strychnine, gr. 1-25; then a compound tablet con- 
taining sulphate of morphine, gr. ^, and sulphate of atropine, gr. 
1-120. These things, and scores of others like them, are pre- 
pared for homeopaths. The smallest doses mentioned in the list 
are found in tablets, each of which represents one drop of a con- 
centrated mother tincture of approximately the strength of our 
fluid extracts. 

It is plain that the homeopaths of to day pay no more atten- 



Teachings and Influence of HaJinemann. 429 

tention to "potency" and "similia" in actual practice than! do. 
The facts furnished by themselves convict them of duplicity and 
fraud in that they keep homeopathy alive by giving it credit for 
the successes wrought by non-homeopathic remedies. 

There are two minor parts of the Hahnemannic creed that 
deserve passing attention. One of them limits the privilege of 
the physician to the administration of but one medicine at a time. 
It is known in homeopathic parlance as 

"THE SINGLE SIMPLE MEDICINE." 

"In no case," says the "master," "is it requisite to adminis- 
ter more than one single medicine at one time. The true physi" 
bian never thinks of giving more than one article at a time." 

Notwithstanding this dictum, it is doubtful whether its au- 
thor ever administered a single simple medicine in his life — using 
the word "medicine"" as he used it. The sugar of milk employed 
by him as a diluent contained from 1.3 per cent, to 4.5 per cent, 
of the phosphate, carbonate and sulphate of calcium, and these 
ingredients were potentized at the same time as the medicine 
which had been added to the sugar of milk. Moreover, the pes- 
tle and mortar used in making the attenuations had particles of 
their substance, — consisting chiefly of silex, — worn off and in- 
corporated into the saccharine mixture and duly potentized every 
time they were ground together. We have already learned what 
a terrible thing potentized carbonate of calcium or chalk is; and 
yet it was contained in every triturate that Hahnemann adminis- 
tered. Silex, too, when potentized, is not to be trifled with, for, 
according to Jahr, it causes three hundred and seventy two 
symptoms, among them the following: "Melancholy and dispo- 
sition to weep; anxiety and agitation; taciturnity; scruples of 
conscience and repugnance to labor." And yet every triturate of 
Hahnemann's contained attenuations of silex I 

Furthermore, the water used by homeopaths as the vehicle 
of administration is not a simple substance. Every natural 
whaler — even rain water — contains chalk and other impurities; and 
these impurities have been in process of potentization for count- 
less ages by the ceaseless movement of the water containing 
them. 

But perhaps it is unnecessary to discuss the qusstion seri- 
ovsly for, no matter what importance Hahnemann attached to it, 
it long ago ceased to be regarded by his avowed disciples as a 



430 The Plexus. 

vital part of the homeopathic philosophy. I do not make this 
statement without authority. 

For example, Rau says, on page 176 of his Organon: "If 
different systems and organs be affected, the cure is promoted by 
giving two remedies, one of which corresponds to one, and the 
other to the other affection, in alternation. There are compounds 
which have become standard remedies in our pharmacopoeia, and 
which we have a right, to retain because we are fully acquainted 
with their therapeutic use."' 

Hempel remarks, on page 87 of volume I: "We hear of phy- 
sicians using four and even six medicines, not only in the same 
case, but at the same time, alternating them in regular order; 
and Lux, in a late publication, has proposed to mix the remedies 
instead of alternating them." 

That the proposition of Lux has been received kindly by his 
confreres is clearly demonstrated by theiprice lists of Boericke 
and Tafel, already referred to, in which^I now find "compound 
tablets" advertised as follows: 

1. Phosphide of zinc, gr. j'^.; extract of nux vomica, gr, i; 
Arsenious acid, gr. 4^. 

2. Corrosive sublimate, gr. -g'jj; sulphate of strychnine, gr. 
^u; Iron powder, gr. 1. 

3. Pulverized opium, gr. i:: Tartar emetic, gr. Jg; Calomel, 
gr. i- 

4. Tincture of digitalis, m. 8; Tincture of strophanthus, m. 
2; in the form of tablets. 

5. Santonin, gr. \\ Calomel, gr. \. 

6. Corrosive sublimate, gr. ^\\ Extract of belladonna, gr. 
yV; Muriate of strychnine, gr. -^\. 

7. Podophyllum, gr. |; Leptandrin, gr. i. 

8. Sulphate of morphine, gr. i; Sulphate of atropine, 

Of r* . 1 _ 

& ' • 1 5 U • 

9. Red iodide of mercury, gr. j^^; Pulverized ipecac, gr. tV. 

10. Sulphate of quinine, gr. 4-; Sulphate of morphine, gr. 
gV, : Sulphate of strychnine, gr. ^\j; Arsenious acid, gr. s\,5 Ex- 
tract of aconite, gr. !. 

This list of compound tablets includes about two liundred 
combinations prepared exclusively for the "disciples" of Hahne- 
mann; hence, it cannot be maintained that the differences be- 
tween these "disciples" and plain doctors in respect to the num- 



Teachings and Influence of Hahnemann. 431 

ber of medicines which they use at one time are any greater than " 
those existing between individual homeopaths, or individual 
"regulars."' All intelligent physicians avoid complexity in pre- 
scriptions as far as possible, but they do not subordinate efticacy 
to simplicity when prescribing for the sick. 

The last part of the homeopathic "platform" to be consid- 
ered is 

THE PATHOL3GY OF HAHNEMANN. 

I shall say but little about this because there is not now a 
person in the world who accepts it. I must, however, refer to it 
in order to give completeness to my exposition of the entire 
"system." 

Hahnemann's pathology was, apparently, deliberately manu- 
factured to fit his therapeutics. It has not, as a basis, one min- 
ute of actual investigation. It consists of a curious mixture of 
spiritualism and materialism. He ridicules allopaths for trying 
to discover the causes and the nature of diseases by looking in- 
side the body; for the causes are immaterial or spirit-like, and 
hence beyond human ken, and the diseases are mere spirit-like 
aberrations of the vital force. Hence causes and effects being 
spirit-like, it is not only useless but foolish to spend valuable 
time trying to find them. 

"Diseases," he says, "are produced only by the morbidly 
disturbed vital force; hence they are nonentities." 

They do not consist of the effects of invading micro-organ- 
isms, nor of a toxemia of any kind; they do not have distinctive 
individuality; they do not have, each for itself, any specific na" 
ture, nor any particular life history; they are nonentities. 

Hahnemann rebukes the "old school doctors" for studying 
normal anatomy, physiology and pathological anatomy, and for 
presuming to attempt to apply conclusions deduced from such 
study to the management of diseases. These cannot be treated 
in their entirety for they have none. Diagnosis is, therefore, a 
delusion and the microscope is the toy of fools. Physiological 
chemistry has no connection with the profession of the doctor. 
He is to treat symptoms as they arise. That is all. 

The "master's" conception of pathology is expressed in the 
following words: "By placing into one class all protracted dis- 
eases arising from the unwholesome habits of living, together 
with the countless drug diseases produced by . the persistent and 
debilitating treatment often employed by old school doctors in 



432 The Plexus 

trifling disorders, we shall find that all other chronic diseases 
without exception are derived from the development of three 
chronic miasms, internal syphilis, internal sycosis, but chiefly, 
and in far greater proportion, internal psora. Each of these 
must have pervaded the entire organism and penetrated all its 
parts before the representative local symptoms peculiar to each 
miasm makes its appearance. In by far the majority of cases, 
psora [i. e. itch) is the sole and fundamental cause of chronic dis- 
eases, whatever their names may be, and those are often dis- 
torted and aggravated by allopathic treatment. They figure as 
13eculiar and definite diseases in books on pathology under the 
names of nervous debility, hysteria, hypochondriasis, mania, 
melancholy, idiocy, madness, epilepsy and convulsions of all 
kinds, softening of bones, caries of bones, cancer, gout, varices, 
hemorrhoids, icterus, cyanosis, dropsy, amennorrhea, hemorr- 
hage from the stomach, nose, bladder, lungs or uterus; asthma 
and suppuration of the lungs, impotence and sterility; sick head- 
ache, deafness, cataract and glaucoma; renal calculus; paralysis, 
deficiency of special senses and pains of every kind." 

There is no such thing as a strictly local disease. Condi- 
tions so designated are out croppings of a general internal or 
constitutional morbid state — the miasm emanating from internal 
syphilis, sycosis or psora. 

Such out-croppings, whether they appear in the eye, nose, 
or elsewhere, are never to be treated by local applications. To 
quote Hahnemann's w^ords: 

"When an old school physician acting under the impression 
that he is curing the whole disease destroys the local symptoms 
by external remedies, nature will offset it by awakening and ex- 
tending the internal disease, and all the dormant symptoms 
which had previously co-existed with the local affection. Local 
methods of treatment hitherto so common are pernicious in their 
results. ■■ 

The grotesqueness of these vagaries is mitigated by the fact 
that in Hahnemann's time it was not known that psora or itch 
was caused by a parasite burrowing in the skin, — and hence is 
purely local — , and that sycosis, also, is of a purely local and 
parasitic nature; and as tne ignorance of that time is no part of 
modern homeopathy, and as Hahnemann's pathology has even 
ceased to be laughed at by the sensible people of the world, I 
shall quietly pass it by, 



Teachings and Influence, of Hahnemann. 433 

That is al] I have to say on Hahnemann's teachings. The 
whole system of homeopathy was his creation. It was complete 
and perfect in every part when it left his brain. No one has ad- 
ded a single precept to it since his time and no one has authority 
to take a jDrecept away. 

But we are told that "Homeopathy is advancing." 

Yea, verily, it is advancing — away from Hahnemann. 

Every step in advancement has been an act of repudiation of 
some of his teachings. 

1. The psoric-spiritualistic pathology is out of sight. 

2. "Potency'" is repudiated and alkaloids have taken its 
place in the medicine-cases of the faithful. 

3. The "provings" with potencies are now rib-ticKling com- 
icalities and the statistics of homeopathy are a it)aring farce. 

4. "The single, simple medicine"' idea is an outcast child. 

5. Local treatment for local ailments is now conscientiously 
expounded and exemplified by homeopathic teachers and is un- 
hesitatingly used by all homeopathic practitioners. 

G. "Grafting" is never mentioned now except in the ward 
of Hinky Dink and Bat'-House John. 

7. The Augean stable is less obtrusive than it was. 

8. Like may cure like, — but it does not have to. 

What is left of the Hahnemannic system is "advanced hom- 
eopathy." 

Hahnemann was not a discoverer; he was a theorist. Al- 
though he has not added a single fact of importance to man's 
store-house of knowledge and although every one of his precepts 
has been trampled upon and disowned by his professed followers, 
excepting the few who are unable to keep up with the "advanc- 
ing" procession, — he has nevertheless achieved a noble work. 

He found in vogue a therapeutic system, rock-rooted to the 
authorities of antiquity and prohibitive of further investigation. 
He broke the shackles of slavery to tradition and tnose of his 
brethren whom he did not himself enslave were left without a 
''master," and free to think for themselves. 

He banished the lancet and other therapeutic weapons of 
destruction. 

By withholding medicines and using potencies he not only 
promoted the study of the natural history of diseases but proved 
that many of them end in recovery without the aid of any medi- 
cines. 



434 The Plexus 

Although the provings of himself and his disciples are noyr 
scoffed at by the whole scientific world, it must be admitted that 
they represent a!] genuine effort to elucidate the physiological 
action of medicines, — a field of investigaiion now recognized as 
profoundly important. 

He gave ajpowerful blow to the polypharmacy of his time 
and demonstrated the prudence of small doses and the wisdom of 
simplicity in combinations. 

He gave^a stirringTimpetus to pharmacy, — for his sugar pel- 
lets were so easily swallowed and smelled that his competitors 
for popular favor were compelled to discard their nauseous de..- 
coctions and boluses and electuaries and devise more eligible 
preparations for administration to the sick. 

Now^ who will deny that the medical profession of the world 
owes a debt of gratitude to Samuel Hahnemann? 

Would that his influence had been limited to the develop- 
ment of the healing art! But, alas! The rose-bush has its 
thorns and Hahnemann had a rancorous personality which ex- 
uded hate and strife from every pore. He had a sharp eye for 
the weaknesses of his predecessors, but he was blind, — blind 
with a bigotry and egotism that would not see, — to their claims 
upon his respect and gratitude. He was incapable of nobility of 
bearing but capable of descending to the level of the curb- stone 
mountebank. 

The acrimony of his denunciation and the virulency of his 
defamation of those who were unable to agree with him resulted, 
as it would do today, in a war of extermination. I say "Similia." 
You say "Contraria.'' Therefore let us snarl and squabble and 
hate, and thus do honor to a "liberal" profession. 

Independent and courageous himself, Hahnemann, like our 
own Dowie, was insanely intolerant of independence in others. 
To his early disciples he was "The Sage," — "The Master." 
Nothing less than unconditional surrender and servitude would 
satisfy him and nothing less than insulting epithets had he for 
those who refused to bend the knee. 

He was a man of prodigious industry and force but lacking 
in mental and moral solidity. A visionaire, a rattle-brained the- 
orist. — an irresponsible inventor of fantastic dogmas. His gen- 
uine disciples have always been of like mental cast and they are 
so today. Dreamers of dreams, — ecstatic mystics, like Christian 
Scientists, who are charmed with the incom-prehensible subtle- 



leacJiings and Influence of Hahnemann. 435 

"ties of their own imaginings and prone to paroxysms of vocal 
convulsions. They are would be philosophers, — prolifio of as- 
sertion but barren as to proofs. 

They have held the stage a hundred years and strutted and 
vaunted as the ineffable exemplars of the "new school;'' but in 
all that time have not contributed one fact of consequence — of 
such consequence as to be recognized by the whole world of 
science, — to any department of human knowledge. 

But things have changed. The tottering form of Hahne- 
mannism is being pressed aside by its sturdy young cousin. 
Christian Science. The hollowness and sham of modern homeo- 
pathy is getting to be painful to its exponents, — and to some of 
them, unendurable. These want to cut loose from sectarian ties 
and join the ranks of the general profession. This they find 
hard to do. They began in good faith. Some of them were 
born homeopaths just as some of us were born protestants or 
catholics. There are no Hahnemannic homeopaths now, if we 
except a few antique remnants of a former age who are so blind 
and deaf they cannot learn. [ do not believe there are a dozen 
consistent Hahnemannians in Chicago today. I have been told 
within a week by an esteemed friend who is a prominent member 
of the homeopathic staff of the Cook County Hospital and a 
broad-minded non- sectarian practitioner, that in the past year of 
his service he has not known a homeopathic interne to give one 
dose of a homeopathic remedy. Such men are "regular,"' — but I 
-despise that word, — in everything but name. Many of them 
especially the older ones, feel compelled to go through life as 
they began — and I can not blame them. 

What have they to gain by publicly renouncing homeopathy 
and allying themselves with non-sectarian medicine? 

"The approval of conscience, the luxury of isolation and the 
privilege of beginning life anew."' 

What have they to lose? 

"Friendships, college positions, hospital positions, property 
interests, the consultation patronage of their homeopathic breth- 
ren, and, perhaps, some of their lay clientele." 

Before them is a frowning army of "regulars," from whom 
they would get but precious little cheer, to say nothing about a 
generous recognition of the heroism of their sacrifice. 

Behind them is a smaller army of scowling, quondam 
friends, indignant and resentful of their treason. 



436 Ihe Plexus. 

Cat bono? Would you have the courage to take the step? 

And yet some homeopaths of standing have done it and some 
are doing it now. If these want my help they will get the best 
I have to give. I make .obeisance to them, — for I could do no 
better and possibly would not do as well. 

For the younger exponents of homeopathy it would not be 
so hard. They have little or nothing of material value to lose 
and there is much tor them to gain. Many of these graduate 
every year from the regular colleges of this city and at once 
enter the general profession. I know of several sons and more 
distant relatives of homeopathic ex-professors, including the 
the sons of Carroll Dunham, a man of great and deserved emin- 
ence in his day, in whose honor the Dunham Medical College of 
this city is named, who, from the first day of their career as stu- 
dents have identified themselves with the general profession. 

The barriers are falling. There is expectancy in the air. 
The attitude of the organized medical profession in relation to 
homeopathy is rapidly improving, and in our own State is now 
as courteous and gentle as could be desired. Any respectable 
"irregular" — no matter what sort of a diploma he holds,— who is 
licensed to practice in Illinois may join the State Society upon 
renouncing his sectarian name,- — and thereafter be as free as he 
is now, — to do reverence to "similia" or to "potency,' — or to 
the penetrating virtues of cimex lectularius, — the pensive bed bug 
of the West Side. ' 

God speed the movement! 

There is but little ground for discord between "regular" and 
homeopath now. True, considerations of personal interest may 
bind the latter to his sectarian connections, but Hahnemann does 
not bother him any more than he bothers me. The homeopaths 
I know, with, perhaps, two exceptions, pay but little more atten- 
tion to the "doctrine of similars" than I, and not any more atten 
tion than I to the Hahnemannic conception of potency. 

They are intelligent men, with the progressive spirit of the 
age and city in which they live, who will not be hampered by 
compulsion to follow any "master," but will use all the resources 
of the healing art, untrammeled by creed and with all the capa- 
city of their minds and hearts, to the glory of God arid the bene- 
fit of their fellowmen. 

Then let us pray 
That come it may 



Teachings and Influence of Halintmann. 4^7 

As come it will 
For a' that, 

When truth and worth 
O'er a" the earth 
Will bear the gree 
And a' that. 

And a' that, 
And a' that. 
It's comin' yet, 
For a' that; 
When man to man 
The warld o'er 
Will brithers be 
And a' that. 



THE NEW TERM SYSTEM. 

The policy now in force of dividing the year into three terms 
of equal length and importance, and of permitting students to 
matriculate at the beginning of any term and to finish the re- 
quirements for graduation at the end of any term, has re- 
sulted in so many complications and grievous misunderstandings, 
that the faculty has decided to return to the old policy of holding 
one required annual course of instruction beginning about Octo- 
ber 1st and running eight months; and an optional summer 
course in which scholarship credits but no time credits may be 
earned. 

The contemplated change will not effect the summer term of 
1902, which will be similar to the summer term of 1901. "Part A" 
of the curriculum will be offered to Freshmen and Sophomore 
students and "Part B"" to the Juniors and Seniors. 

The annual required course beginning about October 1st of 
this year will be divided into two equal parts. Finish courses 
will be given in "Part A"' in the first half, and in "PartB" in the 
second half. This arrangement is intended for the accomoda- 
tion of students already in the college and those who matriculate 
for the ensuing summer term who may have to attend a four 
months' session in order to complete a year's work. All other 
students who matriculate ia September will matriculate for the 
required annual course of instruction. 

The term system, as an educational scheme, has proven un- 
satisfactory. When students finish "Part A" of any branch, they 
dismiss that from their minds and forget much of it within the 
year. Seniors recognize this fact and even now are welcoming 
review quizzes on some of the parts given in the last fall term in 
order to be ready for examining boards when they graduate. If 
the whole field of "practice" or of any other branch were ex- 
tended over a single term of eight months, the teacher would 
then have an opportunity to maintain review quizzes through- 
out the entire course of instruction, and at the end of it students 
"would be as fresh in one part of the field as in any other. 

It is not so now. Wm. E. Quine. 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 
CHICAGO. 

Plexus Committee of Faculty. 

T. A. DAVIS, IM. D,. D. A. K. STEELE, M. D., F. GREGORY CONNELL, M. D. 

H. C. WADDLE, 03, Editor-ia-Chief. 

Supt. W H BROWNE, W. T. ECKLEY, M. D., D. N. EISENDRATH, M. D. 

W. A. EVANS, M. D., H. W. BERARD, M. D., A. GERHMANN, M D, 

Associate Editor, L. HARRISON METTLER, M. D. 

Local Editors, P. E. GRABOW, '02, R. L. ELDREDGE, '03. 

Class Editors: 

F. H. HORNI BROOK, 02 B. S. MALOY, 03 F. L WOOD, 04. J. P. BROWNE, 05. 



Faculty Department, DR. F. B. EARLE- Clinical Laboratory Dept-, DR. W. E. COATES 
Alumni Editor, DR. C. C. O'BYRNE, '94 Clinical Department, C. E. DIKE, '02 

Athletic " H. H. EVERETT, '02 Library Department. METTA M. LOOMIS. 

Advertising Solicitors, R. E. BROWN, '02. H. H. FRUDENFELD, '02, 
Publisher, ------ H. C. WADDLE. 

Subscription $1.00 per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued Monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C. 
WADDLE, f^or. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Entered at Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 



Any subscriber desiring the Journal discontinued at the expiration of his subscription 
should so notify the Publishers; otherwise it will be assumed thai the subscription is to be 
continued and the Journal sent accordingly. 

Contributions of matter suitable for publicaticn are invited, and should be sent in not 
a ter than the 25th of ihe month previous to that of publication. The publishers will not hold 
themselves responsible for the safe return of MSS unless sufficient stamps are forwarded. 

Dr. Charles Davison, the author of the leadhig article in this 
i.?sue of The Plexus, is a graduate of the Northwestern Medi- 
cal College of the class of 1883. After graduation he spent one 
year as interne in Cook County Hospital. 

Dr. Davison was one of the founders of the West Side Hos- 
pital, where he is now attending surgeon, and of the Chicago 
Clinical school, where he is now Professor of Surgery, He is on 
the Cook County staff and surgeon to Cook County Hospital. 

He was formerly Professor of Surgical Anatomy in the Col 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, and now has the position of 
Adjunct Professor of Clinical Surgery in the P. and S. College. 



4*0 The Plexus. 

Dr. Davison is not only a very successful and well known 
surgeon, but possesses the very happy faculty of imparting his 
knowledge in a very clear, definite and concise manner in his 
clinics and in his classes, thus making'his work very satisfactory 
from the student standpoint. 

During the past month we have sent out statements to those 
indebted to us, but up to date have not heard from more than 25 
per cent, of them. If you have received one and have not as 
yet attended to it, you will conferi quite a favor upon us by doing 
so at once. 

The following is the sentiment of an alumnus and it should 
be the sentiment of every alumnus. We have received similar 
expression from a number of our subscribers: 

"The Plexus is a welcome visitor at my desk, and it is grat- 
ifying to note through its columns the continued advanced posi- 
tion our Alma Mater is taking in her equipment for modern 
teaching of scientific medicine on a rational. basis. The advances 
being made give evidence of being the result, not of one man's 
energies, but of the best effort of many men who are each well 
trained to fill their several respective capacities. Long live the 
college of P. and S., and may the quality of its work continue to 
grow better and more practically scientific, and then the quantity 
will be self- regulating. 

"Undoubtedly The Plexus has a part in the work, which 
cannot be lightl}^ passed by, and it appears to be rising to the 
occasion. ■' 



ALUMNI NOTES. 

'88. W. F. Malone, 333 Greenbush St., Milwaukee, has yet 
great interest in The Plexus as his sentiments are: "The 
Plexus should be supported by every Alumnus of the P. and S." 

"89. B. W. Rogers is now located at 539 Van Buren St., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

'91. E. E. Maxey has moved to Boise, Idaho, from Caldwell, 
Idaho, having formed a partnership with Dr. L. P. McCalla. 

'93. Dr. H. H. Clark is enjoying his practice at Watertown, 
S. Dak. 

'93. D. E. Arnold of Hecla, S. Dak., says: "The Plexus 
is the first journal read when it reaches me." 

'93. Hegge, Austin, Minn., was a recent visitor at his 

Alma Mater. 

'94. L. J. Isaacs is located at 24 Adelaide St., West Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada, and is connected with Canadian Ophthalmic 
College. 

'94. D. W, Evans is located at 217 N. Main Ave., Scranton, 
Pa. 

'97. S. B. Dickenson is enjoying a nice practice at Water- 
town, S. Dak. The doctor is a very loyal Alumnus and has a 
"Hurrah! for the P. & S." 

'97. H. M. Hall, Millersburg, Ind., is a most loyal support 
of his Ahr^a Mater and The Plexus. The Plexus is a very 
welcomed visitor with him. 

"98. O. E. Wald, who took second honors in his class, after 
having taken a post graduate course in Johns Hopkins, is now 
serving as interne in Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

"98. L. L. Cahill is located at Elizabethtown, N. M. He runs 
a drug store, is postmaster of the town, and is the only physician 
in his part of the county. 

"99. E. R. Whitmore has been transferred from Port Sheri- 
dan, 111., to the Department of the Philippines, and is now on his 
way there. 

'99. G. F, Sheib is located at Fond du Lac, Wis. 

'99. Lora L. Beedy, 808 Pratt Ave., Chicago. 

"99. S. A. Yingst Howell— 805 Steinway Hall, Chicago. 

'99. W. E. Long is located at Rockford, la. 



442 . The Plexus. 

'00. James J. Phalen passed through the city on the way to 
the Philippines recently. He is in the U. S, army medical serv- 
ice. He won the Von Hoff medal at the U. S. army medical 
school, being the only western man in his class. ' 

'01. F, R. Loope of Ironwood, Mich., finds The Plexus a 
most welcome visitor. He says he could not do without it. 

'01. E. J. Brewer, Shabbona, 111., finds The Plexus an en- 
joyable monthly visitor. 

'02. M. Podgur is located at 63 E. 101st.- St., New York City. 

'94. T. B. Hart, Raton, N. M., has recently been appointed 
a member of State Board of Health. 

'83. M. Robert Weidner, Dolton, 111., was re elected Presi- 
dent of the village on Tuesday, April 15th, for the eighth time, 
by a vote of 2^ to 1. 

'94. P. Herriges has moved from Keil, Wis., to Cleveland, 
Wis. 

'95. O. T. Peterson, formerly of Northwood, N. Dak., was 
a recent visitor at The Plexus office. The doctor spent three 
years in Europe since graduation, chiefly at Berlin and Stock- 
holm. He will be at Gibbon, Minn., for a short time. 

"96. J. J. Straus, 3640 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, was a 
recent visitor at The Plexus office. He finds things changed 
very materially since he graduated. 

'97. R. A. Whiffen, Anzerais Bldg., San Jose, Cal. 

'97. C. D. Pence is now located at 859 Turner Ave., Chi 
cago. 

'98. C. B. King's only daughter, 10| months old, died Sat- 
urday, April 19th. The Plexus extends sympathy. 

'00. Harry Purcell was recently elected health officer of 
Madison, Wis. There is a good salary attached to the position. 

'01. D. C. Orcutt has received an appointment as interne in 
Royal Opthalmic and King's Cross Hospitals, London, and leaves ~ 
on May 3 to take up his work. 

'01. I. A. Parry is now located at Seattle, Wash. The 
Plexus is a welcomed visitor to him. 



LIBRARY NOTES. 

Metta M. Loomis Librarian. 

Several changes recently made in the Quine library is an 
Indication of the continuous growth and expansion of this im- 
portant department of the college. 

The constant increase of books and periodicals has made it 
necessary to secure additional shelf-room, which has been done 
by fitting up the library work room as a stack room for the in- 
completes, which consist of several thousand partial volumes of 
domestic and foreign medical journals. 

A new single drawer catalogue case has been placed in the 
reference room and is a much needed addition to the library, as 
the cards had become so crowded in the old case as to be a seri- 
ous inconvenience in consulting the catalogue. 

During the past few months the Quine Library has done a 
large amount of exchanging with medical libraries in various 
parts of the United States and Canada, thus completing and 
adding to many sets of medical periodicals, transactions and re 
ports of various medical societies. Gifts of old medical journals 
both volumes and single numbers are always acceptable. They 
are carefully assorted and disposed of in one of three ways: 
complete volumes, not already in the library, are bound, classi- 
fied and catalogued. Single numbers of volumes, not in the 
library, are labeled and placed with the incompletes, there to 
await other donations to complete the volume. Journals which 
are already in the library are labeled and placed with the dupli- 
cate collection, and as opportunity offers they are exchanged 
with other medical libraries. 

The following gifts to the Quine Library are gratefully 
acknowledged: 

Dr. Eisendrath — Four volumes of Progressive Medicine. 

Dr. Santee — A complete set of Paediatrics. 

Mr. Tomlinson— Tlie 1901-1902 edition of Who's Who in 
A^merica. 

The following contributions to medical literature have re- 
cently been made by various members of the faculty of the Col- 
lege of P. & S. : 

Dr. W. A. Pusey — Report of cases treated with Roentgen 
Rays; Journal of American Association, April 12, pages 911-919. 



444 The Plexus. 

The same article is also in Chicago Medical Recorder, April 15, 
pages 266^304. 

Dr. J. Walker — Further report of a previously recorded case 
of blastomycosis; death, autopsy; Journal of American Medical 
Association, April 5, pages 867-871. 

Dr. D. N. Eisendrath — Accidents of Anaesthesia; Chicago 
Medical Recorder, April 5, pages 318-329. 

Dr. W. L. Ballenger— Radical Mastoid Operation for Chronic 
Suppurative Otitis Media; Chicago Medical Recorder, April 5, 
pages 318-329. 

LEFT OVER FROM LAST MONTH. 

The following articles have been contributed to various med- 
ical journals by members of the faculty of the College of Physi- 
cians and surgeons: 

Dr. E. F. Wells, Exophthalmic Goitre. Chicago Medical 
Recorder, Feb., pages 129-141. 

Dr. J. M. Brown. The Diagnosis of Adenoids. Medical 
Standard. March, pages 124-129. 

Dr. A. P. Heineck. Fracture of Sternum, Scapula and 
Clavical. Medical Standard, March, pages 123-129. 

Dr. Chas. Davison. Suture of the Abdominal Wall. Anuals 
o! Surgery, March, pages 297-303. 

Dr. W. L. Ballenger. Some Defects of Speech of Peripheral 
Origin. Chicago Medical Record, March, 1902. 

Dr. G. F. Butler. King Richard III in How to Live, March, 
pages 181-185. Paper read before Woman's Club, Alma, Mich. 

Dr. C. A, Wood. Herman Von Helmholtz, the Inventor of 
the Ophthalmascope. Journal of American Medical Association, 
March, pages 552-558. 

Dr. G. F. Lydston. Dr. Winfield Ayres" Experience with 
Mercurol in the Treatment of Syphilis. Texas Medical Journal, 
Feb., pages 284-288. 

Dr. G. F. Lydston. True Function. 

The Quine Library has been the recipient of a gift from Dr. 
Allen Salter, of Lena, 111., of twenty-one volumes, about half of 
which are medical Journals. 

The following members of the faculty have kindly remem- 
bered the library with valuable donations of medical journals 
and reprints: Dr. H. P. Newman, Dr. E. F. Wells, Dr. Santee, 
Dr. G. F. Suker, Dr. W. L. Ballenger. 



SENIOR NOTES. 

Seniors are trying very hard to answer correctly two very 
important questions, namely, "Where are you going to locate? 
and what particular branch of the science are you intending to 
take up?" Seeking advice upon these questions from the differ- 
ent professors and other medical friends, we get a variety of 
opinions. Some say locate in the city; others tell us that the 
country is the only place. 

The old practitioners tell us that there are now too many men 
in the "doctor's trade," and that starvation stares us in the face 
the moment we attempt to rely upon it for support. 

After very mature deliberation on this point we have decided 
to advise the "02 graduates to pick out some "other" good trade, 
say carpenter work, coal shoveling or, preferably, well-digging. 
This would insure a livelihood. This advice should not, of course, 
be taken by all. Mr, Kincaid, a half-breed Junior of night-school 
fame, who has wild and fanciful pipe dreams, tells us of the great 
sums he will make immediately on his professional entrance be- 
fore the American people. He is going to make at least twenty 
thousand the first year, with a certain yearly increase of a few 
thousand. Surgery will be his specialty. We strongly advise 
one Kincaid to stop smoking. 

"Bob" Morris received first place in the competitive examin- 
ation given for the selection of interns at St. Luke's hospital. 
Mr. Morris goes on duty the first of June. 

A number of students took the internship examination for a 
place in the Alma Sanitarium. As yet no announcement has 
been made as to the successful aspirant. 

Mr. Helmey, in one of his brilliant recitations, informed the 
professor that "exostosis" was the best operation for tubercular 
knee-joint disease. 

Mr. Mclntire uses the spectroscope for examining the interi- 
or of the bladder. 

Mr. Zohrlaut recently gave a lecture on hump-backed mos- 
quitoes. 

William Yates has gone into the telephone business. 

Dr. Kimball is located at Stewart, 111. 



446 The Plexus. 

J. S. Brown is giving a review course in anatomy to Seniors. 
Those who are taking advantage of these demonstrations com- 
pliment Mr. Brown very highly upon his superb course of in- 
struction. 

Miss Standley has taken the state board examination at St. 
Louis. 

A class meeting was recently held in 406 to discuss the prop- 
osition of paying alumni dues before our grand entrance into 
that association. The majority seemed favorably impressed with 
the idea. 

The Senior class has invited Prof. Allen, of homeopathic 
fame, to discuss the virtues of his trade in the college assembly 
hall. The time of the demonstration is not yet announced. 

Mr. Harroun is located in Denver, Col. We learn that the 
gentleman still possesses an enormous practice. 

Paterson is making a collection of placentaes. He now has 
several put away in alcohol, and is looking for more. Any per- 
son having any will be given a good price for the same on deliv- 
ery at the gentleman's residence. 

The benefit dance, given under the auspices of the Freshman 
class, was well attended by Seniors, who report a very enjoyable 
time. How would it be to have a benefit dance for the alumni? 
They surely need the money. 

Only three weeks more, and the faculty will have concluded 
one of the greatest "labor cases'" ever on record in this institu- 
tion. Of course we must expect a few "still borrs."' There will, 
however, be no "premature births," they having been already 
delivered. On the whole, they will be the most active bunch of 
infants that ever asked for birth certificates. We fear that some 
will be so patriotic, from birth, that they will insist upon imme- 
diately contributing to the internal revenue. 

Some members of the class, wishing to be remembered by 
the good deeds left after them, have been discussing the advisa- 
bility of leaving in the school building some memento that will 
always be looked upon as a gift from the class of 1902. Those 
we have interviewed upon the matter seem to favor the presen 
tation of a clock for the library. This would certainly be a very 
useful gift. As yet the class has taken no action upon the 
matter. 



JUNIOR NOTES. 

How many have commenced to pack? 
"Is that your natural voice, Mr. Fisher?'' 
Greaves says the best treatment for quinzy would be to "cut 
'em."' 

Von der Heydt (in med. jur.): "Why, the requirements of 
marriage are that man and wife must be up to the standard." 

Miss Kavaljian (answering question): "Ita tit iz a ita ze ita 
itta-tit-ta-ta ze dena izda tit-ta tit ita tit sssstit uppz tit iz ita za 
ta-ita-tu-ta-tit ittit-izz." 

Prof, (slowly): "Y-e-s." 

It is now thought that about fifty Juniors will take advantage 
of the coming summer term of school. 

W. E. Scarborough was somewh'Bt alarmed lately on account 
of what he thought would eventually result in an infected hand. 
Such was not the case, however, the trouble being only of short 
duration. 

Too late to note in last month's Plexus was the death in the 
West Side Hospital of Mrs. J. W. Barnes, mother of C. E. Barnes 
of the Junior class. Her death was the result of cerebral hem- 
orrhage. Mr. Barnes has our most profound sympathy. 

And now the question arises — "What are you going to do 
this summer?" Indeed, it is a most perplexing question for us to 
answer, and it is troubling some not a little. Various plans are 
being made, and if they do not miscarry the greater number of 
the class will be so situated that they will be able to gain much 
valuable information during the summer pertaining to their cho- 
sen profession. 

President Benj. Thomas received word a short time ago that 
his mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas of Cornwall, England, had 
died very suddenly at that place on the 15th of last month. Mrs. 
Thomas was a very elderly lady, being almost eighty years old. 
Mr. Thomas has the sympathy of the entire class in this his late 
bereavement. 

Considering the amount of practice the base- ball team has 
had this spring, the showing they have made against other teams 
is worthy of considerable praise. On March 30th they played 



44S The FUxus. 

the "Illinois Dents'" on the Rockwell street grounds, winning 
with a score of 8 — 7 in favor of the P. & S. The next game was 
played on Marshall Field against the U. of C. team, with a score 
of 1- — 3 in favor of the opposing team. In this game Hewins is 
said to have made two of the longest hits ever made on those 
grounds. The third game was played with Northwestern on 
Shepherd Field. Misfortune early overtook our team in this 
game, allowing Northwestern to pile up a final score of 18 — 5 
against us. However, taking the team as a unit, it has played 
good ball against the teams it has opposed thus far, and, consid- 
ering the fact that the coaching it has received this spring has 
practically amounted to nil, the men making up the nine are 
worthy of much praise. 



SOPHOMORE NOTES. 

Derdiger, after a careful study of the Archiv fur Anatomie 
und Pathologie, makes the announcement that in case of hemor- 
rhage from the radical artery, involving a loss of one-fifth of the 
blood, the blood pressure is equalized by air rushing in to take 
the place of the blood. He neglects to state the temperature of 
the atmosphere which accomplishes this wonderful result, but we 
take it for granted thas it is all hot air. 

Some startling finds have been made in the personal urine 
analyses made by members of the class. Landau found an enor- 
mous quantity of phosphates, and could not account for it until 
he was told that this was a normal finding after having taken 
large quantities of chalk. Ho-ag got the Diazo reaction, but has 
not since shown any further signs of typhoid or other fibrile con- 
ditions. One of our co-eds found sugar in large quantities and, 
being greatly disturbed in her peace of mind, sought out a de- 
monstrator to disprove her findings. She was naturally greatly 
relieved when it was shown that the sugar was of the cane varie- 
ty and had been dropped into the flask by some mischief-maker 
when she was not looking. 

The recent action of the freshman class for the establish- 
ment of a bed in the West Side Hospital for the care of sick stu- 
dents is very praiseworthy and should have the support of every 
student of the college. This matter was agitated early in the 
year by our executive committee, and a special committee was 



Notes. 449 

appointed to confer with the management of the hospital. The 
committee, of which Mr. Jarvis was chairman, did their work 
well, but the results obtained were very unsatisfactory, inasmuch 
as the hospital people would make no concessions whatever in 
our behalf. Under these circumstances the amount of money re- 
quired was beyond our means, as an individual class, so the mat- 
ter was temporarily dropped. 

On April 1st there was more excitement on the third floor 
than has occurred since the day in February when our genia^ 
superintendent, with blood in his eye and his heart in his mouth, 
was compelled to take his life in his hands and descend to mother 
earth by means of the fire escape. This time, however, the class 
got fooled instead of the superintendent. 

As it was All Fools' Day, Rep. and Borges, who were de- 
monstrating in the Freshman chemical laboratory, thought it 
would be a fitting occasion to fool the class, so Borges, like the 
crafty Arnold of old, sent Rep into the anatomy class, about fif- 
teen minutes before the close of the hour, with the report that 
the D. J."s were waiting for us out in the hall "as numerous as 
the leaves on the trees." The word was quickly passed over the 
room, and in less than two minutes every one was on the qui 
vive. Giesen was noticed to tuck his books and hat into his 
desk and button up his coat; Gotthelf placed his ledger inside 
his coat as a chest protector, and others made similar prepara- 
tions. Dr. Eckley, seeing that no one was listening to the lec- 
ture, wisely closed his remarks at once, and immediately every 
man was in position. The doors were quickly thrown open and 
the whole class precipitated into the hall, only to find not a D. J. 
in sight. 

But the joker had reckoned without his host, for the class 
had had a dance and someone must pay the fiddler. The errant 
Rep was called for but he had disappeared, so a detachment was 
sent out to search for him. After a few minutes they returned 
bearing their victim by his several appendages, a brief debate 
was held, and it was decided that hanging was too good for him. 
It being well known that the victim had a great loathing for 
water, and in view of the fact that a Brand bath could not be ad- 
ministered on account of lack of appliances, a shower bath was 
given as the most scientific aud most awful punishment that 
■could be inflicted. 



FRESHMAN NOTES. 

The Freshman class is again rapidly coming to the front in 
athletics. A paper has been passed and liberal contributions are 
pledged to purchase base-ball paraphernalia. The material in 
the class is abundant and of the best. We confidently expect 
that a formidable oombination will soon be organized and numer- 
ous challenges will be issued. The Freshman class is represented 
on the regular P. and S. team, and the results would justify a 
much larger representation. Of the three games played so far, 
two were defeats and one was a victory. One Freshman, Pow- 
ell, played on the team on the occasions of the two defeats, and 
two, Powell and Jennings, when the other fellows were walloped. 
These facts must inevitably lead all fair-minded people to see 
that the more Freshmen on the team the better the score, and, to 
earry the reasoning farther and to a most modest conclusion, it 
is plain that, were the team all Freshmen, there would be noth- 
ing but victories. We hope that the charming simplicity and 
conciseness of this reasoning will impress itself on the proper 
authorities, and that they "will take due notice and govern them- 
selves accordingly." 

Do we, as a class, believe in hazing? Certainly not. Certain 
events which took place a few weeks ago might lead misguided 
individuals to think that we do, but an unprejudiced view of facts 
instantly relieves us of the imputation. The term "hazing"' sug- 
gests undignified proceedings calculated to arouse hilarity on one 
side and animosity on the other. Justifiable disciplining, we con- 
tend, is not only proper but ethically necessary. Accordingly 
when, some time since, some most improper "knocking" came to 
light, an adjustment was a necessity. The matter was considered 
prayerfully, and then action was taken. While we concede that 
balsam in the hair or iodine on the countenance is not calculated 
to increase the beauty of a pronounced brunette, yet the mental 
effects were no doubt decidedly beneficial. This, of course, was 
the result desired, and while the methods used were perhaps a 
trifle "strenuous," we must remember these are strenuous times 
and that "the end justifies the means." It will no doubt be a very 
long time before any more such "knocking" occurs in the class 
of "05. 



JVote.s. 451 

And what did you think of the Freshman ball on the evening 
af April the 12th? Perhaps we should not call this a Freshman 
ball, but as the idea originated with Freshman, was pushed by 
Freshmen, was managed by Freshman, and that practically the 
entire responsibility was on the Freshmen, we feel justified in 
modestly assuming that the Freshmen were somewhat in it. The 
generous support from the other classes and the faculty was 
highly appreciated and contributed largely to the success of the 
venture. The object was to start a fund which, in time, is to be 
expended for the relief of P. and S. students who are taken sick 
and obliged to enter the hospital. A substantial sum was cleared 
and will be placed in the hands of a committee composed of mem- 
bers of the faculty and student body. The party itself was most 
enjoyable. Frappe in copious quantities was served, the ladies 
as usual looked charming, the music was exhilirating and the 
Grand March imposing. "Home, Sweet Home," floated out from 
the orchestra at 11:45 so that, in all probability, the Sabbath was 
not fractured. 

Have we been rushed? Personally we are in a state of be- 
wildered uncertainty and will take anyone's word for it. Our 
recollections are that, while inoffensively engaged in conversa- 
tion with a dissembling Sophomore who was standing in the main 
hall on the third floor at 2:05 P. M. on a certain day in this year 
of Our Lord 1902, we were suddenly struck in the small of the 
baclv by a large firm object which, at the time, we thought was a 
two story brick building. The exact record of what followed 
must remain unwritten history. We recall, in a hazy way, that 
a number. of very large students seemed to evince a desire to 
crack our ribs. Wilhyte's classical countenance, very much tied 
up, was thrust violently into ours; Skahill gave us a fiendish grin 
and pushed hard against our sternum; we were hustled, and rat- 
tled, and jolted, and rasped, and scraped, and bumped and, final- 
ly, one individual more rude than the others, inserted his fingers 
fiimly into our back hair and wagged our bewildered think tank 
until we wondered vaguely if the oscillations would ever cease. 
Finally we landed hard against the east end of the hallway and 
heard what seemed to be a triumphant shouting. Observing 
standing near us a pale young gentleman who seemed, like our- 
self, to be very much out of breath, we inquired if earthquakes 
were a common thing in Chicago and if he supposed this one had 



452 The Plexus. 

done much damage. Eyeing us with contempt the young man 
replied: "You darn fool, the Sophs, rushed us.'" We have sinca 
learned that, in all probability, this was the case. 

Some of the recent balmy days indicative of spring turned 
back the dial of our thoughts to the time when we were a beauti- 
ful freckled-faced cherub with a tow-colored sausage carefully 
arranged on the north side of our cranium. The country village 
and its environments came prominently to memory and, yielding 
to a gush of sentimental feeling, we hied our way to a sequestered 
nook and dashed off the following charming epic on "Spring:" 

Oh, the Spring it is a comin' 

Can't you feel it in the air? 
And the bees will soon be hummin" 

All among the blossoms rare; 
Soon the rootlet of the piglet 
And the rustlet of the twiglet 
And the murmlet of the brooklet 

Will drive Old Winter from his lair. 

Now the boys are playin' marbles 

In the street or on the sward, 
And the robin — how he warbles 

From the tree- top in the yard; 
And the south wind is a blowin". 
And the roosters are a crowin". 
And the grass it is a growin' 

In the sod no longer hard. 

Early flowers are a peepin' 

From the beds till now so cold, 
And the worms begin their creephi" 

Thro' the grass and in the mold; 
And we hear the banjos thrummin,' 
And the bicycles are hummin,' 
Scorchers yell, "Look outT We're comin",'' 

Got to dodge "em, young or old. 

Now the girls they go paradin' 

In the streets most all the day. 
And the milliners are tradin' 

For spring hats and bonnets gay; 



Notes. . 453: 

And the loafers get to jokin', 
On the drygoods boxes smokin', 
And the frogs they are a croakin' 

Out their harsh nocturnal lay. 
Now you get that "tired feelin' 

And you hate to stand up long — 
You can feel your senses reelin' 

If you go it very strong; 
And it's hot if you're a bakin', 
You're so cross the kids are quakin', 
And the baby gets a shakin" — 

You think he needs it — right or wrong. 
Feeling quite proud of this charming composition, we re- 
solved to submit it for criticism to the Fadladeen of our class. 
Although there are a number in the class exhibiting a poetical 
tendency, the Byronic neck and Emersonian proboscis of Slo — m 
instantly decided that he was the man to whose judgment we 
should bow. Accordingly we confided in him and asked for his 
unbiased opinion. The production was carefully perused and then 
we were informed that, in his opinion, it was "pretty poor;" that 
"spring never came that way in his country;" that, like the hash 
in the West Side restaurants, it was a "mixed np affair;"' that the 
last stanza particularly was a poetical outrage — and, lastly, he 
didn't "see what in thunder it had to do with a medical school, 
anyway.'" This was discouraging, but perceiving the merited 
application of the last criticism we resolved to conclude the effort 
with a few lines which, perhaps, might be ' applied local.y.'^ 
Accordingly we again burst into song: 

Yes, the beauteous Spring is coming. 

You can see it everywhere; 
But especially you note it 

When the barber cuts your hair; 
For although the sun shines brightly 
Chilly breezes come up nightly. 
And a cold sore most unsightly 

May demand your utmost care. 
Now you hate to get up early 

And you"re apt to miss your train, 
And if you run to catch it 
You'll puff and have a pain. 



45i 



Ihe Plexus. 

If you take the elevated 
You perhaps may be belated 
And then you'll be berated 
When the roll is called again. 

Now thick underclothes feel sticky 
And you long to make a change, 

But you know thafs pretty risky 
For the temperature may range; 

And you're moist with perspiration 

And you yield to irritation 

At the slightest intimation 

Of a lack of preparation 

For a perfect recitation 

When with modest hesitation 

You indulge in calculation 

How to make an amputation 

Or determine the relations 

In the wrist articulations 

And hilarious cachinations 

Gives you cardiac palpitations 

And you're scattered thoughts derange. 

Now you have to watch each dollar 
For your cash is running low, 

One whole week requires one collar — 
There's a paucity of "dough." 

For the year is nearly over — 

(This thought makes you somewhat sober) 

For when comes the next October 
Yau must hoe the same old row. 




This College Souvenir Spoon will be mailed to any address upon the receipt 
of price, SI. 75. Address The Plexus. 



SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY 



DENTAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

D .M. CATTELL. D. D. g., O. W. COOK, D. D. S. B. J. CIGRAND, D. D. S. 

Supt. R. P. DONALDSON. 



D. M CATTELL, Editor-in-Chief. C. E. JONES, Aluraai Editor. 



CLASS EDITORS. 
A. E ALTHER. 02. F M STAHL, 03. J. C. GROUT, '04. 

Publisher. - H. C- WADDLE. 

Subscription ^1. 00 Per Atiuum in advance. -Single copies, 15 cents. Issued monilily. 
!«end all remittances and communications as to subscriptions and advertising to H. C- 
WADDLE, Cor. Congress and Honore Sts., Chicago. 



In our first issue, a month ago, our readers were told of a 
School Clinic our department proposed giving. The thing has 
been accomplished and is now behind us. There was some feel- 
ing of uncertainty as to the outcome of the undertaking, it being 
our first effort in that line. But the result was more than we 
had dared to hope for. In preparing a luncheon for our guests 
we thought 500 plates were more than enough to go round. By- 
actual count there were a little over 600 hungry people refreshed 
iu our improvised dining hall on the first floor, between the 
hours of 12 and 2 p. m. A number came in only for the morn- 
ing, leaving before lunch. Many others came in after lunch. 
Our registration book shows nearly 700 names. It is regretted 
that the book was closed at the noon recess, hence the after- 
noon comers had not the opportunity to leave their autograph. 

Before another issue reaches yoa, final exams will have been 
given. It is noticed that undergraduates seems less nervous 
than tho.se posing for commencement honors. The Senior Class 
numbers 41. The question is, who will drop out in the final 
spurt. Commencement exercises will be given in Steinway Hall, 
E. Van Buren St., Saturday, May 3, at 2 p. m. Please come 
everybody and make the graduates feel happy — not forgetting 
how you felt a very few years ago when your turn w^as on. 

You may not all have special friends in the class of 1902 to 
remember you with a special invitation, but you are wanted 



456 The Plexus. 

there just the same The class invitations have not been deliv- 
ered yet, so they cannot be described. But it is understood that 
ihey are up-to-date in every particular. We are sorry all cannot 
have one to keep and file away. D. M. C. 

* 

In the last issue of the Plexus the program of the first an- 
nual clinic of the School of Dentistry of the university of Illinois 
was published. On the 26th day of March that program was ful- 
filled and today stands on the pages of history of the institution 
as one of the great events, and had the committee to do the 
work over again there is but few places whereby they might 
change it for the better. 

In the fulfillment of such program it is always to be expected 
that someone will fail to fulfill their promise as a clinician, but 
in this instance we were very fortunate in having but few absent 
on that occasion. The operations given were of unusual high 
character, there were a number that we might mention as being 
especially fine in feature of operation and dexterity for a clinic, 
as it is always understood that one can never do as well in giv- 
ing a clinic as they would in their own office, and as it was re- 
marked by one gentleman from Iowa, "there were three clinics 
that would pay him for his time and expense to the city." There 
were many complimentary remarks on the operation of Dr. C. E. 
Bently's porcelain inlay, and Dr. Don M. Gallis' gold filling, and 
Dr. Edmund Noyes' gold filling. There were a great number of 
other clinics that would be considered of a very high order. 

Over forty clinics were given and there was something to be 
learned from each one. Luncheon was served at 12 o'clock to 
about six hundred visitors, this was a feature that attracted a 
number of complimentary remarks. While the luncheon was be- 
ing served the college band furnished music. Mr. Benson, the 
caterer, is especially to be complimented on the efficient way in 
which he served the crowd. There were between seven and eight 
hundred visitors in attendance and all were extremely compli- 
mentary about the kind way in which they were treated. The 
clinical operations were practically over by 3:30 in the afternoon, 
and the audience adjourned to the large lecture hall to listen to 
a paper by Jonathan Taft, Dean of the Dental Department, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, subject "Power of Association." This paper 
and the discussion will become a classic piece of literature, as 
he subject was so thoroughly condensed and yet covered all the 



Dental Department. 457 

points necessary in a paper of that nature. This paper of Dr. 
Taffs will be published soon in the Dental Digest. 

Dr. Dittmar deserves great credit for the proficient way in 
which he looked after the wants of the clinicians. On a whole, 
everything went as well as could be hoped under the circum- 
stances. A number of the Alumni members were there — all ex- 
pressed great satisfaction at the first Alumni Clinic. 

It had been arranged to take all of the clinicians to the Opera 
in the evening. There were a few, however, who could not go, 
but between forty and fifty attended in a body. Everyone seem- 
ed to enjoy himself immensely, and Dr. McDowell is certainly to 
be congratulated, as Choirman of the Special Entertainment 
Committee. One member of the party remarked, "It was like 
the setting of the sun on a beautiful day."' There were a great 
number of dental supply houses represented by an exiiibit and all 
expressed great satisfaction at what they accomplished. Those 
who did not exhibit will be scrambling to get into the band 
wagon next year. 

Taking all things into consideration we really have nothing 
to regret, for the visitors, from both in and out of town, were 
highly pleased with their visit to the School. G. W. C. 



OUR CLINIC. 

The first annual clinic of the School of Dentistry — Univer- 
sity of Illinois and Alumni Association, a notice of which ap- 
peared in last month's Plexus, was held in the Dental schoo 
building Wednesday, March 26. 

The weather was favorable, the program full of promise of 
something worth seeing, and these facts, together with the op- 
portunity offered to see our new surroundings, resulted in a rec- 
ord-breaking attendance. Nearly seven hundred registered 
their names, visitors from all parts of the country. 

The clinicians came from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, 
Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Iowa, a host from Chicago and Illinois. 
The various operations performed and devices shown were full 
of interest and value to the practitioner. 

All but twenty- five of the chairs were removed from the op- 
eratory. These were reserved for the clinicians, while tables 
were provided for those who gave table clinics. On the second 
floor were the exhibits of the various dental and medical supply 



-ioS The Plexus. 

houses. To the clinicians and visiting friends lunch was served 
on the first floor during- which music was furnished by the school 
band. 

The Alumni association held a meeting, and late in the aft- 
ernoon, after the clinics were over, all assembled in the amphi- 
theatre and listened to a paper, "The Power of Association," by 
Jonathan Taft, M. D., D. D. S., of Ann Arbor, and a discussion 
which followed. Those taking part in the discussion were Drs. 
G. V. Black, T. W. Broph^^ H. B. Tylston, E. D. Swain and C. 
C. Chittenden. In the evening the clinicians were entertained by 
the "Sultan of Sulu" at Studebaker's, the guests of the faculty. 

The various committees performed their duties well, clini- 
cians were well cared for, the clinical material was ample, and 
certainly the management and those in charge are to be congrat- 
ulated, for verily there has never been another like it. The day 
was a profitable one, ^ F. W. P. 



ANAIOMICAL EXHIBIT. 

One of the practical features of the dental clinic was an ex- 
hibit by the anatomical department, so arranged as to have a 
direct scientific bearing on anatomical study. The exhibit took 
the form of beautiful dissections of man and some of the lower 
animals. Our attention was especially attracted to the Kaiser - 
line preparations, in which the minutest details of tissue color is 
preserved. The pathological specimens, while presenting vol- 
umes for reflection and study (but far too extensive for the lim- 
ited time allotted to their study), still have their legitimate field 
of usefulness on such occasions. 

Beyond doubt, the leading feature of the anatomical exhibit 
—at least so pronounced by many of the practitioners in attend- 
ance — was in dissections of the upper jaw, showing every possi- 
ble view of the Antrum of Highmore. The head sections, show- 
ing brain, nose and accessory sinuses, drew crowds of admirers 
the entire day. The eye dissections were fine illustrations of the 
high art possible to attain in dissecting. Not only the human 
body, in every region, but deer, bear, turtle, frog and the domes- 
tic animals contributed to the success of the exhibit. 

The promoters of the Dental department spare neither time 
nor money to make anatomy a substantial feature of the school, 
and we bespeak for the institution a bright anatomical future if 
the dental museum is pushed along the lines already planned. 

An Interested Spectator. 



Dental Department. 459 

THE ALUMNI. 

In our last issue we discussed our plans forgiving our annual 
clinic, all of which materialized far beyond our expectation. 

Things began rolling about 9 A. M., when some venerable 
clinician began expounding his cherished ideas and methods. 
Then many followed in his wake until fifty-two of our most able 
men had utilized eight hours of that memorial day and depicted 
beyond a doubt that the science of dentistry was a cycle of whirl- 
ing splendor. A bountiful lunch was served at noon of which the 
clinicians, our friends and guests, participated in most heartily. 

At 3:30 P. M. the Alumni was called to order by Dr. W. R. 
McGarvey, President of the association. A report was given upon 
the progress made toward securing our Alumni certificates. For 
the benefit of those not} present I will avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity to explain just how far we have succeeded. We have been 
promised the certificates, and they will be of sterling worth in 
construction, and be specific enough for any one to recognize that 
our school is now a department of the University of Illinois. 
Furthermore I cannot, at this writing, give anythi g of a defi- 
nite character. 

The executive committee met and decided to hold our next 
annual meeting on May 2nd, 1902, one day before the graduation 
of this year's class. It is hoped all will try to be present. 

General comment among those present at the clinic (both 
the Alumni and practitioners) was that our clinic and school have 
both almost surpassed the ideal, and we feel that you will be 
amply repaid by treating yourselves to a visit to your Alma 
Mater and view the strides made by it. It is a tribute you owe 
her and yourselves. 

The following is a list of those present at the meeting: 

F. C. Roe, Albert Hague, W. D. Murto, A. Rodosy, S. S. 
Swihart, Charles Payden, A. Grossman, 'O. C. Smedberg, Wm. B. 
Spaft'ord, Fred. Bissett, Sig. Wollenberger, E. W. Dodez, J. A. 
Brown, H. C. Snyder. J. B. Zielinski. O. P. Morse. Helen Imbritt 
W. R. McGarvey, H. N. Lancaster, H. Frankel, Roy Donaldson,' 
H. W. Watkins, H. Brophy, W. F. JMisher, Chas. Wombold. 

The meeting in May is for the election of officers for the en- 
suing year. Those who are still in arrears with their dues are 
expected to pay up by that date, May 2nd., '02. The meeting will 
be held at the college building at 8 P. M. sharp. C. E. J. 



THE SENIOR CLASS. 

"Daily we sinners toil and climb and know it not."' How 
well does this quotation from Longfellow fit the Senior class. 
Daily have we climbed and knew it not, but now that the time 
for graduation is but three weeks hence we are beginning to re- 
alize that our efforts have at last brought us to the much sought 
for goal. We are at last beginning to appreciate the untiring 



460 Tin; Plexus. ' 

efforts of our instructors who have worked hard and zealously to 
make us what we are, so that w^e may be a credit to our Alma 
Marer. They have done everything in their power to make us 
feel that the Dental profession is a profession of vast possibili- 
ties, and the dentist, to be successful, mus keep in touch with the 
outside world so as not to retrograde, and they have set us a good 
example of how to receive our after education by giving for our 
benefit the largest and most successful clinic ever held in Chi- 
cago by any one school of Dentistry. We, the members of the 
Senior class, wish to extend our most sincere thanks and appre- 
ciation for their kindness and foresight in giving to us that clinic. 
The class, as a body, have the interests of the school at heart, 
and we should like to see a well established Dental Library — 
something we have lacked this year. A library is essential, and 
the class is contemplating to leave a few volumes to act as a nu- 
cleus, which w^e hope will grow into a large and well-equipped 
library. Another thing that the class would like to see continued 
is the Dental Society. Too much interest cannot be taken by the 
in-coming Senior class in this society; it is necessary to a well- 
conducted school, and we sincerely hope the society will continue 
to thrive. A. E. A. 



THE JUNIOR CLASS. 

The Juniors are too busy getting ready to slide into the 
places soon to be vacated by the present Senior body. They wish 
to appear well and are coaching themselves in the mannerisms of 
the great I Am — Lord Senior — hoping their newness in the role 
will not be noticed. 



THE FRESHMAN CLASS. 

Spring has arrived at last and with it brings the end of our 
college year, which to us has been a busy, as well as a most en- 
joyable, one. 

One of the most important events, perhaps, was the clinic, 
from which we derived our share of the benefit. It gave us a 
broader view of the profession, and showed us that, if a dentist 
is what he should be, dentistry is not such a snap as it is often 
thought to be. 

Our band concert and dance given after the last issue went to 
press, is also worthy of mention. Every one reported a good 
time. It is hoped that these concerts may be made an annual so- 
cial event. If they are all as successful as the last they surely 
will be. The time is short, and every one is preparing for the 
grand Jinrfle. The rumors afloat would lead to the conclusion that 
everyone will be plucked, but they are rumors only. After that 
a five months' rest which all will enjoy, and during which we 
will be preparing for the next year's work. J. D. G.,' '04. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, VOL. VH. 

pa(;e. 
The Timely Diagnosis of Surgical Tuberculosis, Daniel M. 

Eisendrath, M. D 1 

Injuries of the Eye, Oscar Dodd, M. D 13 

Editorial 22, 65, 102, 140, 162, 201, 216, 2sl, 315, 358, 398, 439 

Alumni Department 

23, 67, 104, 142, 166, 180, 207, 249, 284, 320, 359, 400, 441 

Class Roll 24 

Hospital Appointments 28 

Class Day Program 29 

Commencement Week 30 

Senior Notes 30, 107, 213, 250, 289, 327, 366, 400, 445 

Junior Notes 36, 215, 252, 292, 329. 369, 402, 447 

Sophomore Notes 43, 218, 255, 294, 331, 373, 404, 448 

Freshman Notes 45, 257, 297, 333, 374, 450 

News Items 46, 73, 110, 143, 181, 261, 298, 337, 406 

Max Muller (1823-1900) 47 

A Case of Sub- Glottic Stenosis. James Moreau Brown, M.D. 53 

Treatment of Chronic Ulcers. C. J. Drueck, M. D 56 

Medico-Fraternal Relations. Jossph M. Patton, M. D 61 

Library Notes 69, 105, 178, 204, 248, 283, 326, 36J, 443 

Wedding Bells 72 

The Doctor's Wife. Wm. E. Quine, M. D 75 

The Principles of Treatment of Suppurative Otitis Media. 

Wm. L. Ballenger, M. D 87 

The Deformities of Infantile Paralysis. John Lincoln Por 

ter, M. D 95 

The Fire 109 

Dental Department of University of Illinois 123 

Biography of Dr. Adelbert H. Peck 130 

" Dr. D. M. Cattell 131 

" Dr. B. J. Cigrand. 135 

" Dr. G. W, Cook .. 136 

" Dr. G. W. Dittmar 138 

" Dr. C. E. Jones 138 

" Wm. E. Quine. M. D 145 



462 The Hex us. 

The Hyposystolic Period of Chronic Endocarditis. Joseph 

M. Patton, M. D . . 147 

To tlie Memory of the Anatomical Amphitheater 176 

Annual Address. Sanger Brown, M. D X^l 

Clinics for Freshmen. Oscar King, M. D 188 

The Seminar Method in Medical Teaching. Bayard Holmes, 

M. D 193 

Seventy-third Medical Congress, Hamburg; September 1^2-28, 

1901 197 

The Annual Opening Exercises 219 

Y. M. C. A. Notes 220, 260, 335 

In Regard to Athletics. Henry P. Newman, M. D 223 

The Physiology of Muscular Exercise. Geo. P. Dreyer, A. 

B, Ph. D 229 

Respiratory Gymnastics. Edward H. Ochsner, M. D 240 

The Annual Junior Promenade . . •. 244 

Book Reviews 262, 300, 337 

Malaria: Its Causation and Prevention. Edward F. Wells, 

M. D 263 

The Therapeutic Value of Exercise. Henry H. Everett. . . . 274 
Remarks on the Study of Laryngology and Rhinology. 

James M . Brown, xM. D 278 

Cerebral Syphilis, Neurasthenia, Seminal Incontinence, In- 
fantile Palsy. L, Harrison Mettler, A. M., M. D 303 

A Letter From Africa 311 

Clinical Notes on Various Painful Atfections 317 

The Study of Descriptive Anatomy. D. Lee Shaw, M. D... 339 

Gun Shot Wounds of the Chest. Aime Paul Herrick, M. D.. 342 
The Teachings and Influence of Samuel Hahnemann. Wm. 

E. Quine, M. D 377, 422 

Progressive Pernicious Anaemia. John Weatherson, M. D.. 394 

School of Dentistry 407, 455 

School cf Pharmacy 416 

Suture of the Abdominal Wall. Chas. Davison. M. D 410 



THE PLEXUS 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

CHICAGO. 

VOL. VIII. MAY 20th, 1902. NO. 1 

VALEDICTORY ADDRESS— EPOCHS IN MORAL 
GROWTH. 

By S. M. Kyes. 

Man is disposed to measure progress by material standards. 
"We point with pride to the achievements of our age. The steam- 
ships plowing the ocean, the railroads spanning the continents, 
the telegraph and telephone obliterating distance are all objects 
of admiration, all emblems of advancement. Our commercial 
and industrial systems, delicate in their mechanism, impressive 
by their magnitude, are marks of triumph and valuable indices 
of progress. But would we know the actual plane upon which 
man stands we must look beyond these outward signs. We must 
penetrate the veil that hides the moral man. Carthage with her 
wealth and her commerce, Greece with her art and philosophy, 
Rome with her laws and her conquests, — all lie in ruins. All fell 
because their inner life was not complete; all fell because their 
material and their intellectual advancement outran their moral; 
all fell because their citizens and their statesmen, their teachers 
and their philosophers, failed in their estimate of progress. 

Every true advance in civilization is but the triumph of some 
moral principle, the overthrow of some selfish interest. It is 
fitting, then, that we shouH discuss moral life. It is proper that 
we should select and emphasize some of the elements which make 
it up. 

Students of man have ever detected a dualism in his nature 
Plato saw within the human soul two forces, the one striving 
heavenward, the other tending earthward. St. Paul found in 



2 Ihe Plexus. 

human nature the carnal opposed to the spiritual. Later theol- 
ogy saw the old Adam struggling with the new life. All these 
dualisms modern social thinkers unite in the antithesis of ego- 
ism and altruism, selfness and otherness. 

The struggle of the race from the savage to the citizen has 
been but emancipation from the iaiperial sway of self. In ac- 
tions dedicated solely to one's self is seen the brutal side of man. 
Here as in the lower animals individualism reigns supreme. Here 
the individual pursues his path alone, In his own senses and 
their correlated feelings lie the motives for all his activities. 
The rights of another are not known to him. Another's woes, 
another's joys, find in his heart no place. Contrast with this the 
life of the highest human type. Here conduct moves beyond the 
borders of self. No deed is done without reference to another's 
feelings. The life of the individual is passed in public. He be- 
comes the good Samaritan, carrying succour to victims of fam- 
ine, binding the wounds of soldiers on fields of battle, heralding 
in heathen lands the story of salvation. Here man's soul is as a 
focus where meet and blend the faint shades of a thousand ex- 
periences other than his own. Such is the great contrast dis- 
closed in moral life. The one is egoism, the other altruism. The 
one unbridled individualism, the other the triumph over self. 

Slowly through the centuries has humanity crept along the 
difficult path toward higher life. Behind it lie the quick- sands 
of animal appetites and passions; before it the heights of altru- 
ism, of self-denial, of social harmony, of love for God. 

Our present station on this journey has been reached by a 
process of evolution. The individual, by action among his fel- 
lows, gradually rises. He forms society, society moulds him. Each 
experience records in unfading letters its results upon the inner 
man. One of the great epochs in this moral evolution is marked 
by justice. This sentiment found man in a selfish state. It found 
him the slave of passion. Of justice selfishness is fundamental. 
Justice is the product of man's selfishness and his gregarious 
nature. From these two elements it has been evolved. It is 
part egoism, part altruism. Its egoistic side is seen in many 
stages of development. First personal, and then political bond- 
age it opposes. The savage sees oppression only in chains and 
fetters; the citizen views it from afar in acts of legislation. The 
savage jeers at his liberated companion because he has no mas- 



Valedictory Address. 3 

ter; the citizen opposes with vehemence all acts of parliaments, 
congresses and assemblies which tend to oppress him, and ac- 
knowledges no man his master. Each manifests in unlike degree 
the egoistic side of justice. Its altruistic element is the child of 
fear. Fear of retaliation for his selfish acts, fear of the adverse 
opinion of his fellows, fear of punishment from his chief, fear of 
divine vengeance,— all united to check man in his mad career of 
egoism ; all united to overcome his selfish nature and make asso- 
ciation possible; all united to develop that feeling for another 
which forms an element of justice. 

Thus are seen the two components of justice— egoism and 
altruism. The one is positive, the other negative. The one de- 
clares man's right to act and to enjoy the results of those activi- 
ties; the other limits his sphere of conduct and reminds him of 
the presence of his brother. Justice involves at once two ideas 
—one of inequality, the other of equality. The idea of equality 
it manifests when it limits alike to all the realms of selfishness. 
The idea of inequality it implies when it leaves the individual 
free to enjoy the results of his labors within that limited do- 
main. 

Here justice does not interfere with products, does not 
attempt to change conditions. Here disease may blast the body 
or health may rear it in strength and beauty. Here ignorance 
may hold the intellect in chains or knowledge may set the pris- 
oner free. Here weakness may grovel in the depths of poverty 
and shame or strength may soar to the heights of fortune and of 
fame. Each sows its own seed. Each reaps its own harvest. 
But beyond the borders of this realm justice knows no inequality. 
The individual whom weakness or strength, ignorance or wis- 
dom, hatred or love leads to cross those hard fast lines must pay 
the penalty. Here justice is "no respector of persons." Blind 
to the gold of the millionaire, blind to the wisdom of the philos- 
opher, blind to the tears of a loving mother, stern justice 
"shakes from her golden scales the dust of prejudice and caste" 
and quietly weighs man's acts. 

Made amid the clash and clamor of a selfish heart, cruel and 
relentless in its rulings, unmindful of all man's finer feelings, 
this compromise between the highest and the lowest in his nat- 
ure marks an epoch in moral growth. It marks the first partial 
triumph of altruism. It marks the first defeat of selfishness. It 



4 The. Plexus. 

marks the overthrow of fear and the dawn of a confidence in 
others which ends only in abiding faith in God. 

Xo force can stay the progress of this moral principle. Its 
approaches are unseen but its consequences deeply felt. It en- 
ters palaces most strongly guarded and undermines the thrones 
of kings and emperors. It has surrounded man with laws and 
institutions which make his body sacred and his life secure. It 
has given to him his home, that resort of joy, of love and peace. 
It has quenched forever those martyr fires whose devastations 
mar history's pages. It has shaken from man's limbs the chains 
of slavery and enabled him to breathe the air of freedom. It is 
still urging him onward toward higher life, still extending that 
foundation from which a grander superstructure can be reared. 

That fine balance of egoism and altruism which confines sel- 
fishness to a limited field and holds the individual within its 
sphere is far from the limits of moral growth. Man must be- 
come more than a body moving according to fixed laws; he must 
become more than a being who thinks before he has reached a 
high place in moral life. He must be a being who recognizes the 
wishes and feelings, as well as the rights, of his fellows. That 
saciet}' made possible and maintained by justice demands for its 
perfection more than a moral element which gives to the individ- 
ual his rights. It demands more than an altruism which ignores 
human weakness. That moral element generosity meets these 
demands. Generosity, as an epoch in moral growth, marks the 
overthrow of the selfishness of justice and the triumph of its 
altruistic side. 

Generosity is the altruism of justice removed from its equal- 
ity to egoism, refined by this removal, and borne to limitless 
fields by both these changes. Here the compromise of justice is 
at an end. The carnal has become the slave to the spiritual. 
Man's higher nature has triumphed, his lower is overthrown. 
Here altruism, from being rigid and impenetrable, becomes a web 
most delicate in texture, sensitive to the slightest wish, the finest 
feelings, of another. 

Generosity leads man to fields of action which justice only 
bounds. Where justice leaves the stricken body to suffer and to 
die, generosity raises the drooping head and moistens the parched 
lips. When justice liberates the body and leaves the intellect in 
chains, generosity lights up the dark dungeon and sets the pris- 



Valedictory Address. 5- 

oner free. When justice leaves the soul in superstition and idol- 
atry, generosity forsakes friends, home and kindred to announce 
the story of a New Birth. 

This moral element is at the center of the truest civilization 
of to-day. Slowly, but with authority, the historian proclaims 
its triumph. Sweetly the poet chants its praise in every clime. 
Ever and anon society attests its worth. Art, science, literature 
— all bear testimony of its workings in the inner man. All serve 
as mediums of its expression, all tend to raise humanity to its 
ideal. This sentiment, exemplified by the lowly Nazarene, ac- 
cepted by philosopher and sung by poet, will penetrate society 
through and through with filaments of sympathy, of kindness, 
and brotherly affection. It will make society an organism vital 
and sensitive in every part. When its triumph is complete life 
incorruptible will rush from a thousand springs, and the days 
come filled with the exhaustless treasures of a higher existence. 

Classmates, as we leave to-day our Alma Mater, let us re- 
member that the present age presents problems which justice 
cannot solve. With poverty and wealth, ignorance and intellect, 
weakness and strength arrayed against each other, justice must 
step down and out. Let us not be moved by justice stern which 
narrows our own lives and smothers the best there is in others, 
but let that generosity which reveals new truths, implants new 
virtues, inspires new hopes in others and gives to our own lives 
their broadest spheres on earth be ever our guiding star. Should 
we meet twentieth century demands, our hearts must be filled 
with sympathy and love. 

Members of the faculty, for your unselfish and untiring ef- 
forts in our behalf we extend our heartfelt thanks. Your en 
couragement has been lo us of greatest worth. Your examples 
of ability, of industry and of manhood will remain before us as 
ideals — ideals which distance cannot darken, ideals which time 
cannot destroy. Now, members of the faculty, in behalf of the 
class of 1902 I bid you a kind farewell. 



To dispense with accuracy, one must have facilities. 

Nothing facilitates dispensing as much as the use ^of 
S. &D.'s Dispensary Tablets. Prom them one can quickly and 
economically make solutions of such drugs as strychnine, mor- 
phine, atropine, arsenic and others (the list is very comprehen- 
sive). 

They save time, loss, and money. 



CLASS OFFICERS. 

Class motto: "Ubi dolor vocaf— "Where suffering- calls 
President— R. W. Morris. 
Vice President— L. B. Coates, Jr. 
Secretary— J. H. Cleary. 
Treasurer -J. L. Albright. 
Class Poet— H. H. Slater. 
Class Historian— Jos. Dean, Jr. 
Class Editor— F. H. Hornibrook. 
Valedictorian — S. M. Kyes. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

A. C. Sabine, Chairman. 
J. A. Beam, Secretary. 
V. P. Faeth. 
M. J, Lunn. 
P. D. Whyte. 



SENIOR CLASS ROLL. 

Aaron, W. H., Mendon, 111. 

Albright, J. L., Interne Lake Side Hospital, Chicago 

Aldrich, F. H., Morton, Minn, 

Arnold, B. J., Jefferson, Tex. 

Asbury, J. T., Bowen, 111. 

Baker, W. E. 

Barron, A. E., 365 S. Center Ave., Chicago. 

Bartholomew, P. H., Fairfax, S. Dax. 

Bashshur, B. L, 715 W. Congress St., Chicago. 

Bayer, W. H., externe Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

Beam, J. A., 19.3 Wood St., Chicago. 

r^eebe. L. W., leri S. Oak Park Ave., Chicago. 

Belknap, W. H. 

Ijt^nnett, L. J. 

Bice, C. W., Perry, la. 

Bon i no, J.G., V,H\ Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

liorden, F. K. 

liothne, E. A., Lake Park, Minn. 

Brawley, F. E., 823 Madison St , Chicago. 

Hroid, M., GOO FuUerton Ave., Chicago. 



Senior Class Roll. 

Breid, J., Interne Morris Porter Hospital, Chicago. 

Benedict, C. C, Silver Cross, Hospital, Joliet, 111 

Brown, E. L. W., Creston, la. 

Brown, R. E., Washington Court House, Ohio. 

Brownstein, B. 

Brown, J. S., 32 S. Hoyne Ave., Chicago. 

Bundy, C. D., Iriquois, 111. 

Burnham, C. M., Watseka, 111. 

Burns, E. B., IJSO Ewing St., Chicago. 

Burns, F. W., 735 Laurel Ave., St. Paul, Minn 

Cain, C. L. 

Campbell, P. A. 

Campbell, J. H., Danville, 111., route 4. 

Carrico, J. H., Oregon City, Oregon. 

Cleary, J. H., Interne Cook County Hospital, Chicago 

Clemens, E. J., Aberdeen, S. Dak, 

Coates, L. B., 1441 Aldine Ave., Chicago. 

Cobb, C. H. A., Arthur, la. 

Conant, P. B,, Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago 

Cornell, .1. P., Galveston, Ind. 

Corcoran, E. A., Interne St. Mary's Hospital, Chica-o 

Curtis, L. P., Mt. Pulaski, 111. 

Dalager, N. O., Austin, Minn. 

Davis, E. G. 

Davis, C. J., Ogden Ave. and Millard St., Chicago 

Day, H. M., 193 Oak wood Blvd., Chicago. 

Dean, J., Interne Cook County Hospital, Chicago 

Deetken, H. C, 540 Washington Ave., Council Bluffs la 

Dike, C. E., Lyon, Wis. 

Dittman, G, C, 1631 Belmont Ave., Chicago. 

Dorn, C. A., Lazourre, Minn. 

Dumas, D. P., cor. Irving and Mt. Curve Ave., N. Minneap 

olis, Minn. 
Dvorsky, B , 584 Center Ave., Chicago. 
Emerson, A. V., Bochester, Minn. 
Enos, M. M., 1387 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 
Everett, H. H., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 
Paeth, V. P., 507 Adams St., Chicago. 
Parnham, A. J., Traer, la. 
Pay, O. J., Des Moines, la. 



The Plexus. 

Fisher, E. B., Monroe, la. 

French, W. M., 273 Ashland Blvd., Chicago. 

Fritch, G. A., 408 2nd Ave., Chicago. 

Frudenfeld, H. H., Madison, S. Dak. 

Fukala, C. V., 103 loth Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Fuller, F. E., Adrian, Mich. 

Gallagher, R. V., Portland, Mich. 

Garrett, E. A., 114 S. Bourland St., Peoria, 111. 

Garrett, J. D., Hillsboro, Ohio. 

Gibbs, J. A., 25 Lexington St., Chicago. 

Glynn, C. E., Gambril, la. 

Grabow, P. E., Interne Samaritan Hospital, Chicago. 

Graham, A. J., Interne Englewood Union Hospital, 'Chicago, 

Grant, M. S. 

Green, R. R., Inesta, N. Mex. 

Green, M. E., Charlotte, Mich. 

Groos, J. O., Rscanaba, Mich. 

Gunning, J. M., Reardan, Wash. 

Gulick, C. D., Wauwatosa, Wis. 

Hahn, L. A. • 

Hammers, L. J., Dolton, 111. 

Haworm, W.. A., Denver, Colo. 

Hathaway, R. E. 

Haynes, B. H., 596 W, Adams St., Chicago. 

Heller W. H., Marcus, la. 

Helmy, C. T.. Canton, S. Dak. 

Henderson, M. L., Interne Milwaukee County Hospital 

Wauwatosa, Wis. 
Harrington, C. W., Madison, Wis. 
Hicks, J. C, 75 DeKalb St., Chicago. 
Hill, W. C, Murphysboro, 111. 
Hill, Mrs. E. L., Oswego, Kan. 
Hinckley, H. G. 

Hollis, W. A., Hartford City, In:L 
Holmes, J. M., Monticello, III. 
Hoopes, P. C, Pickrell, Neb. 
Hornibrook, F. H., Cherokee, la. 
Howard, G. A., Columbus, Wis. 
Howard, J. F. 
Howard, H. W. 



iSenior Class Roll. 11 

Hyde, D. L., Spring City, Utah. 

Inks, C. A., Napponee, Ind. 

Jamison, G. N., Clarksville, Tex. 

Johnson, P. W., Externe Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

Johnson, W. B., E. 33rd St., Des Moines, la. 

Johnson, W. V. 

Jordan, A. B., 796 Polk St., Chicago. 

Kaa, N, A., Ashkum, 111. 

Kaemmerling, G. P., 2314 Cherry St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kimball, G. W., Steward, 111. 

King, P. A., Beaton Harbor, Mich. 

Kirsch, J. P., Madison, Wis. 

Kittler, W. E., Externe Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

Kitterman, F. R., Tiskilwa, 111. 

Kitterman, P. G., 104 E. 40th St., Chicago. 

Klehm, A. L., Jefferson and 12th Sts., Chicago. 

Klingler, E. G., Manhattan, 111. 

Knox, T. B., Quincy, 111. 

Kurtz, F. B., Princeton, Ind. 

Kyes, S. M., Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 

Lahodney, C. J., Pullman, 111. 

Lane, C. S., South Lyon, Mich. 

Larson, C. L., Interne Marray Freund Hospital, Butte, Mont. 

Leavitt, F. J., Langford, S. Dak. 

Leahey, F. P., Fairbank, la. 

Little, E. H., Minburn, la. 

Lockwood, C. K., Interne Chicago Hospital, Chicago. 

Lofgren, C. A., Externe Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 

Lowe, L. M , Floris, la. 

Lowry, N. J., Cresco, la. 

Lunn, M. J., 1381 N, Clark St., Chicago. 

Lyon, G. E., Toledo, 111. 

Magnus, M. E., 681 Hayes St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Manning, T. F., 320 N. Montgomery St., Watertown, Wis. 

Maris, E. R., Duluth, Minn. 

Martinson, M. M., Algona, la. 

Martinson, S. C, Algona, la. 

Merki, E. J., 140^ Rokeby St., Chicago. 

Merryman, G. H., Hillsboro, Oregon. 

Meyers, J. M., Interne Cook County Hospital, Chicago. 



12 The Plexus. 

Miller, G. L., Champaign, 111. 

Miller. C. A., Carbondale, 111. 

Miller, R. W. 

Mitchell, W. F., Interne Samaritan Hospital, Chicago. 

Montgomery, J. R. , Madison, Neb. 

Morrill, H. J., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Morris, R. W., Interne St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago. 

Murphy, F. T., Asst. Physician Milwaukee County Hospital, 

Wauwatosa, Wis. 
McCarty, W. T., Campbellsport, Wis. 
McCarthy, K. W., Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 
McConvill, B. J., 119 Honore St., Chicago. 
McGrath, B. R., Savanna, 111. 

McGuire, C. J., 3351 Parkhill Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mclntire, A. C, Mendota, 111. 
McKinney, I. N. C, Comargo, 111. 
McNeil, B. F., Knierim, la. 
Nadig, A. T., Stockton, 111. 

Nickelsen, G. A., Interne German Hospital, Chicago. 
Overmass, S. E., Illinois Steel Co. Hospital, S. Chicago. 
Overton, O. P., Brownsville, Oregon. 
Ottersbach, C. 
Parker, C. E., Sterling, 111. 
Patterson, W. M., Colo, la. 
Perry, J. M., Princeton, Mo. 

Phifer, C. H., Interne Lake Side Hospital, Chicago. 
Philips, F. C, Tuscola, 111. 
Plice, W. A., 408 S. California Ave., Chicago. 
Podgur, M. P., 204 W. 12th St., Chicago. 
Ponnier, E. W., 2345 N. 44th Ave., Chicago. 
Potter, C. A, 

Powers, H. W., Interne St. Elizabeth Hospital, Chicago. 
Rodefeld, H. H. C, Quincy, 111. 
Rooks, J. J., 314 S. East St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Root, R. R., Tempe, Ariz. 
Rosenthal, G. E., Quincy, 111. 
Rydin, C. G. S., 1775 N. Clark St., Chicago. 
Ruge, A. C, South Bend, Neb. 
Sawtelle, H. F., Interne U. S. Marine Hospital, Stapleton, 

Staten Island, N. Y. 




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Schaefer, P. H., Burlington, la. 

Shafer, H. O., Interne West Side Hospital, Chicago. 

Sessions, J. C, 2518 3rd Ave., So. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Sheller, W. O., Interne Samaritan Hospital, Chicago. 

Shelton, R. O., Interne Alexian Bros. Hospital, Chicago. 

Seigiriedt, J. C. F., 702 Pine St., Davenport. la. 

Sabin, A. C, Beetrice, Neb. 

Slater, H. H. 

Steysler, L. R., 661 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Smiley, R. B., Waupaca, Wis. 

Smith, G. W., 125 Loomis St., Chicago. 

Smith, C. L., Shelby ville, 111. 

Souder, U. G., Hurley, Wis. 

Standly, K. V., La Clede, Mo. 

Steckel, A.C., Reno, Nev. 

Stettaner, J. L. 

Stevens, S. L., 113 E. Moulton St., Bloomington, 111. 

Stillman, W. L., Webster City, la. 

Stoops, R. E., Edgerton, Ohio. 

Strong, C. D., Interne Wichita Hospital, Wichita, Kan. 

Sunde, P. H., Interne Norwegian Deaconesses' Hospital, Chi- 
cago. 

Taylor, C. I., Indianola, la. 

Thomas, W. H., Traer, la. 

Tolley, E. W., 5832 WashingtoQ Ave., Chicago. 

Trail, C. J., Independence, la. 

Tyvand, J. C, Mt. Horeb, Wis. 

Venn, W. T., Aurora, 111. 

Venard, T. S., Ness City, Kan. 

Wachowski, J. G., 688 18th St., Chicago. 

Walliker, W. M., Clinton, la. 

Walvoord, G. W., Cedar Grove, Wis. 

Waskow, O. G., 567 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago. 

Weaver, B. P., Interne Wabash R. R. Hospital, Springfield, 

111. 
Welch, J. C, 579 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

Werelius, A. F. W., 5800 Union Ave., Chicago. 

Wiley, J. B., Buck Falls, la. 

Whyte, P. D., 1070 W. Harrison St., Chicago. 

Wilson, J. M., Externe Augustana Hospital, Chicago. 



16 The Plexus. 

Winters, W. T., 456 S. Wood St., Chicago. 
Yantis, D. E., Yantisville, 111. 
Yeates, Wm., Bonfield, 111. 
Young, C. C, 203 S. Wood St., Chicago. 
Young, N. F., 203 S. Wood St., Chicago. 
Zilisch, W. E., Hustisford, Wis. 

Zoehrlaut, G. G., Interne Milwaukee County Hospital, Wau- 
^Yatosa, Wis. 



ROLL OF HONOR. 
Jacob Breid. J. A. Beam. 

Mrs. Jacob Breid. Geo. E. Rosenthal. 

Robert W. Morris. Emilie R. Maris. 

Paul H. Scbaefer. J. S. Brown. 

S. M. Kyes. Robt. V. Gallagher. 



CLASS DAY PROGRAM. 
College, May 19, 1902, 2:30 P. M. 

Piano Solo — Selection from Ploradora Mr. George Taylor 

Invocation Rev . John Henry Hopkins 

Vocal Solo — "Nightingale" — DeKoven Miss Stella Mclntire 

Address— "Student, Scientist, Man"..L. Harrison Mettler, M. D 

Presentation of Class Picture and Tablet R. W. Morris 

Response by the Acting Dean D. A. K. Steele, M. D. 

Presentation of Davison Medal to S. M. Kyes 

D. A. K. Steele, M. D. 

Violin Solo— "9th Concerto"— DeBeriot H. Van Hasselt 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT, STUDE- 
BAKER HALL, MAY 20, 1902. 

PROGRAM. 

1. Music 

2. Invocation Rev. William A. Burch 

3. Music 

4. Doctorate Address Prof. Walter Shield Christopher 

5. Music 

6. Conferring of Degrees and Announcing of Honors 

Prof. Thomas Jonathan Burrill, Ph. D., LL. D. 

7. Music 

8. Response of the Class and Valedictory S. M. Kyes 

9. Music \ 

10. Benediction Rev. William A. Burch 




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ANNUAL BANQUET, TUESDAY EVENING, MAY 20, 
1902, AT AUDITORIUM HOTEL 

MENU. 

Little Neck Clams. Consomme Marquise Relishes 

Paupiettes Whitefish, Venitienne 

Parisienne Potatoes 

Tenderloin of Beef, Fresh Mushrooms 

Haricots a TAnglaise Asparagus Hollandaise 

Pineapple Sherbet 

Roast California Squab on Toast 

Lettuce Salade Ice Cream in Forms 

Cakes Jheese Coffee 

PROGRAM. 

Dr. Casey A. Wood presiding. 
The University of Illinois, Hon. Thos. J. Smith, 

Chairman of the Board of Trustees. 
The Relation of Dr. J. C. Fred. Siegfriedt. 
The College of Literature and Arts, 

Prof. David Kinley, Ph. D., Dean 
The Relation of Dr. J. S. Brown. 
The College of Engineering, 

Prof. N. Clifford Ricker, D. Arch., Dean. 
The Relation of Dr. G. E. Rosenthal. 

The College of Science, Prof. Stephen A. Forbes, Ph. D., Dean. 
The College of Agriculture, 

Prof. Eugene Davenport, M. Agr., Dean. 
The Relation of Miss Elizabeth M. Heelan. 

The Woman's Department, Prof. Violet D. Jayne, A, M,, Dean. 
The Relation of Dr. F. H. Hornibrook. 
The College of Law, 

Prof. James Brown Scott, A. M., J. U. D., Dean. 
The Relation of Dr. W. M. French. 

The College of Dentistry, Prof. A. H. Peck, M. D. , D. D. S. , Dean. 
The Relation of Dr. P. Gad Kittermann. 

The College of Pharmacy, Prof. C. S. N. Hallberg, Ph. G. 

Religio Medici, Rev. Wm. A. Burch 

The College of Medicine, Prof. Bayard Holmes, A. B., M. D. 

The Class of 1902, Dr. C. J. McGuire 

The above addresses will be published in full in next issue. 



WEDDING BELLS. 

Dr. C. O. Bechtol, Adjunct Professor of Chemistry, College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, and Miss Nancy Lee Martin, mem- 
ber of the Junior class, were married at Louisville, Kentucky, on 
Tuesday, January 14. At home Thursday's after 1st of June at 
"The Plaza," Cor. N. Clark St. and North Ave., Chicago. Both, 
Dr. and Mrs. Bechtol are very popular in the college and the 
Plexus wishes them well. 

Ora M. Rhodes, class of "01, was married to Miss Myrtle 
Downs of Ellwood, Ind., on May 8th. They will make their 
home at Bloomington, 111., where the doctor is enjoying a nice 
practice. 

On March 19th at Malvern, la., John Montgomery, of '02 
class, was married to Miss Blanche Kerney. Some of his class- 
mates remembered him with telegrams galore, white slippers 
sent unwrapped through the mail and by express, etc., etc., etc. 
They are "at home" at Madison, Neb., where the doctor enjoys 
a nice practice. The Plexus wishes them nothing but the best. 



THE QUINE LIBRARY. 

Metta M. Loomis, Librarian. 

That the library is a necessary adjunct of the literary col- 
lege has long been an established fact, but the importance of the 
medical library as an essential part of the equipment of the col- 
lege of medicine is recognized only by the best class of medical 
colleges. The College of Medicine of the University of Illinois 
has been fortunate in having among the members of its faculty 
men who early realized the importance of a medical library and 
who also recognized the fact that a mass of books does not con- 
stitute a library, that without a systematic classification medical 
literature is practically valueless, a sort of literary labarynth in 
which one is hopelessly lost. 

The foundations of the Quine Library were laid by the first 
president. Dr. A. Reeves Jackson, who, at his death left his pri- 
vate library to the college. To this nucleus additions were fre- 
quently made until 1895 when the library was organized, classi- 
fied and catalogued, since which time a trained librarian has 




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The Quine Library. 2^ 

been employed, who not only looks after the disposition of all 
material that comes into the library, but assists the student in 
making the best use of this material. 

Under the fostering care of many kind friends the library 
has had a steady growth, not only in the acquisition of books, 
but in the number of its patrons, in its usefulness to the medical 
student and in its general influence as a center of medical litera- 
ture. In 1899 the faculty of the college conferred the name of 
our honored Dean upon the library, in recognition of his deep 
interest which has been repeatedly manifested by generous dona- 
tion and principally by a liberal endowment for the purchase 
of books. 

The Quine Library suffered but slight loss from the fire 
which occurred last July. Rebinding was necessary in some 
cases and a number of books were water stained. In the old 
building the library was confined to one room, but when it was 
moved to the new building last August, more comodious quarters 
were provided, and new L. B. steel stacks were purchased for 
shelving the books. 

Early in the history of the library a system of exchange 
with other medical libraries was instituted, by which the library 
has acquired hundreds of volumes of medical journals, transac- 
tions of medical societies, reports of hospitals, boards of 
health, etc., etc. 

The library has been the recipient of many valuable gifts, 
among the most important of which we may mention the library 
of the late Dr. C. A. Logan, consisting of 490 volumes, donated 
by Mrs. C. A. Logan; the library of Dr. W. A. Hoadley, late 
professor; over 200 volumes from the Surgeon General's office, 
donated at the solicitation of Dr. Bayard Holmes; Medical Soci- 
ety of the Couuty of Kings, New York, 150 volumes, and a large 
number of journals and reprints. A complete list of donors 
would include the name of nearly every physician connected 
with the college, as well as a large number of the alumni, the 
authors of many valuable text-books and the publishers of 
medical books. 

The following statistics have been compiled from the library 
records and may be interesting in showing the growth and pre- 
sent standing of the library. 



24 Ihe Plexus. 

In 1899 the library received the following gifts: 600 books 
1,000 pamphlets and 500 journals. 

In 1900: 1,186 volumes, 9,877 journals and 951 pamphlets. 

In 1901: 1,350 volumes. 

The following are the annual additions to the library exclu- 
sive of all duplicates, reprints and pamphlets: 

1896 400 volumes. 1899 525 volumes. 

1887 275 volumes. 1900 1000 volumes. 

1898 900 volumes. 1901 1250 volumes. 

In the annual report of the librarian for 1899 the average 
attendance was given as 90. 

Since the beginning of the present college year the average 
attendance has been 134. 

Books added to the library during the present college year, 
877, which is an average of over 100 a month. Total number of 
books in library exclusive of duplicates, unbound journals, re- 
prints and pamphlets, 5,603. 



ALUMNI NOTES. 

'87. Nelson Voldeng has moved from Des Moines, la., to 
Cherokee, la., where he is head physician and surgeon of the 
new insane asylum which was recently completed there. 

'90. F. J, Tower has been compelled to leave Milwaukee, 
Wis., and go to Pasadena, Cal.. on account of his health. The 
Pl,exus wishes him a speedy recovery. 

'94. W. D. Dilworth is now located at Oxnard, Cal. 

'95. B. O. Bo well, formerly at Rollins Prairie, Ind., is now 
located at La Porte, Ind. 

'95. O. T. Peterson was visiting his Alma Mater recently. 
He will be at Gibbon, Minn., for a short time. 

'97. G. E. May hew, Edgewood, Cal., has returned to Chi- 
cago on account of the serious illness of his wife. 

'98. E. M. Byers, formerly of Belvidere, 111., is now located 
at Lake Geneva, Wis. The doctor is connected with the Lake 
Geneva Sanitarium at that place. 

'98. C. D. Stone has his office at 1912 Archer Ave., Chicago. 

'99. W. H. Lerche has moved from 3910 Calumet Ave. to 119 
E. Madison St., Chicago. 



Alunvii. 25 

99. B. Fantus is now located at 443 S. Marshfield Ave., 
"Chicago. 

'99. E. A. Cloupeck has moved from Manitowoc; Wis., to 56 
Humboldt Blvd., Chicago. 

'00. J. R. Birkelund, Tokio, Japan, returned recently for a 
short stay, coming back on account of his wife's illness. He ex- 
pects to return later. He is at present at 1428 N. Spalding Ave,, 
•Chicago. 

'00. P. S. Mitchell of lola, Kan., has just recovered from 
an attack of smallpox. He says it afforded him a fine opportu- 
nity to study the disease, as there were 15 cases in the hospital 
during his confinement. 

'00. R. G. Gale of Diller, Neb., is in the city doing post 
graduate work. 

'00. S. S. Norseman of Madison, Wis., has moved to 725 
120th St., Chicago. 

'01. Wm. Major has moved from Villaldamme, Mexico, to 
Aguascalientes, Mexico. 

'01. G. P. Kerrigan has moved from 229 Walnut St. to 610 
Lawndale Ave. 

'01. W. L. Cameron is located at 123 S. St. Louis, Ave., 
Chicago. 



JUNIOR NOTES 

The class that is to be graduated May 19 at the Studebaker 
has extended an invitation to the newly-elected senior officers to 
be in attendance at the exercises at the above named place, and 
to attend the banquet which will be held the same evening at the 
Auditorium. 

We have been informed that J. H. Rolfe, formerly a member 
of this class during its Freshman year, has recently died of tu- 
berculosus. Mr. Rolfe was well known to all of the older class- 
men as a bright, energetic student, and his death will no doubt 
bring a touch of sadness to the hearts of all who knew him. 

Dr. McDermid was presented with a beautiful gold headed 
cane by the class at his last hour, as a token of remembrance 
and as a grateful acknowledgement of the services he tendered 
the class at the confinement case in 406, May 5. Mr. Milton Hall 



26 Ihc FJexus. 

represented the class, and very ably told of the great respect and 
esteem we have for Dr. McDermid. The doctor thanked the- 
class with a few well-chosen words, and assured them that his 
relations with the different members had always been most cor- 
dial, and that the recollection of the class of '03 would ever re- 
main fresh in his memory. 

A very pleasant social function was the gathering- together 
of the section in laryngology under Dr. R. H. Brown, at the home 
of the latter on Jackson boulevard, on the evening of May 14. 
Some of the recently-elected*senior officers were also in attend- 
ance, having been invited to participate out of a desire to return 
the compliment they had extended to the doctor a few evenings 
previously at the theatre party. All enjoyed a splendid time 
and are zealous in praising Dr. Brown's congenial manner and 
hospitality. 

We give verbatim a letter received from Miss Grace George, 
leading actress in "Under Southern Skies,"" which the junior fac- 
ulty and class attended in a body on the night of May 5th. To 
say that Miss George captivated the entire class is but putting it 
lightly. She proved to be a most charming actress, and the easy 
and natural manner with which she gave expression to her lines, 
brought forth frequent and prolonged applause. At the termi- 
nation of the third act a beautiful bouquet of flowers, with the 
college colors attached, was presented to her by the class. Pol- 
lowing is her letter: 

"To Gentlemen of Juuioe, Class: 

"Thank you very much for the beautiful I'oses you sent me- 
last evening. Your kindness \vas a gracious welcome to a 
'stranger in a strange land.' Very gratefully, 

May 6, 1902. Grace George." 

The theatre party given by the newly-elected Senior officers 
to the Junior faculty and members of the class on the evening of 
May 5, at the Grand Opera House, was a marked success in every 
particular. The affair was the outcome of a plan meant to pro- 
mote good fellowship and class spirit, and that such results will 
be attained we have no doubt. Such a happy gathering together 
as we witnessed on the evening of May 5th cannot prove to do 
other than bring the entire class into even closer relationship 
than has been their lot heretofore. Only too soon shall we be 
taking our final leave of one another; some of us going, perhaps,. 



Notes. 27 

to tight against the inevitable, and during those times of sorrovv 
in after days there will be no greater source of pleasure to us 
than the thoughts of our college days and the recollection of 
dear old college friends and friendships. We end our college 
days forever when we shall have left the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons and enter the long, irksome paths of our profes- 
sion. And what are college days? College days are merely col- 
lege days, as happiness is happiness. No better explanation can 
be given — one must live through them in order to understand 
with what extreme sadness we bid them adieu. In just a little 
space of time our struggle forward begins in earnest. Prom that 
time our paths will be marked by many obstacles and pitfalls, 
some of which we may be able to override, while others will claim 
us for their own. Be this as it may there is always a haven of 
rest — a something upon which we can rely and that will never 
fail to dispel our gloom and lift the veil of despondency when we 
are crestfallen. We refer to the recollection of college life and 
college friendships. Were you ever iu a strange land away from 
those you know, where everything, the living and inanimate, was 
strange to you? Did you note with what pleasure you espied 
some object or caught the air of some melody which, like a flash 
of light, brought to mind the recollection of some moment of 
pleasure or happiness long since forgotten? Such are the results 
obtained by efforts during college life to bring all together into 
closer relationship. Such is the result of college friendships — 
not only linking us together in perfect unison while here, but 
strengthening the invisible ties which bind us together forever 
after. 

Pollowing is a list of the officers in the order elected who 
were chosen to conduct the affairs of the class during the coming 
Senior year: P. H. Holmes, Pres. ; M. E. McGann, VicePres. ; 
W. H. Moore, Secy.; F. C. Fisher, Treas.; R. L. Eldridge, Class 
Editor; Geo. F. Blough, D. G. Tweedle, E. B. Anderson, R. C. 
King and W. H. Porter, Executive Com. ; J, Sherril, Valedicto- 
rian; L. H. Frechtling, Class Historian; B. S. Maloy, Class Poet; 
W. P. Wessels, Class Prophet. 

Mr. Holmes had no opponent for the presidency but was 
chosen by acclamation. His popularity, scholarship and sterling 
qualities need no comment, but are attested by the fact that he 
has held offices during every year since the class was organized. 



28 The Plexus. 

During his Freshman year he was elected vice president; during 
his Sophomore year he was our president, and last year he was a 
member of the executive committee. 

Next in order came the election of vice president and Mr. M. 
. E. McGann was elected by acclamation. The class recognized in 
Mr. McGann the attributes of a scholar of unusual ability and it 
hap adhered to its previous sound judgment by placing him in the 
position of vice president. In our humble opinion he can be 
aptly classed with the very best students our college affords. 

Mr. W. H. Moore was also elected by acclamation, this being 
his second term as class secretary. Mr. Moore has shown by his 
past work that he is a close student and well worthy of honors 
bestowed upon him by his fellow classmates. 

For treasurer the names of Messrs. F. C. Fisher, G. H. How- 
ard, G. F. Blough and H. Fanyo were presented. Mr, Fisher 
received a majority on the first ballot and was declared elected. 
There is co question but Mr. Fisher will fill the office of treasu- 
rer in a most satisfactory manner. 

R. L. Eldridge was elected to the office of class editor by 
acclamation. This, however, will not be a new venture for Mr. 
Eldridge, he having filled the same position during the Sopho- 
more year. 

The executive committee consists of the following members: 
G. F, Blough, R. C. King, E. B. Anderson, D. Tweedal and W. 
H. Porter, Mr. Porter received the highest count and he will 
officiate in the capacity of chairman during the Senior year. As 
much depends upon our executive committee we feel safe in say- 
ing that no fears need be felt during the coining year but that all 
matters coming under their jurisdiction will be handled with dis 
cretion and sound judgment in every particular. In our opinion 
the different members constituting the committee are well worthy 
of the honor and respect of all their acquaintances, to say ncth- 
ing of their excellent work as students. 

Messrs. F. Fanyo and J. Sherril were nominated for valedic- 
torian, the latter gentleman receiving the highest number of 
votes cast. Mr. Sherril has not been with the class during the 
entire three years now past, but notwithstanding the fact he has 
made a great many friends during that time who have endeav- 
ored by their last action to demonstrate that they consider him 
worthy of their highest respect and esteem. 



Notes. . 29 

L. H. Frechtling, D. Tweedle and. B. S. Maloy were nomi- 
nated for class historian. Maloy declined and, owing co the fact 
that Frechtling was at that time a member of the executive com- 
mittee he withdrew from that position, thus leaving a vacancy in 
the committee which was filled by Tweedle, who received the 
next highest vote. We do not hesitate in saying that Mr. 
Frechtling was well chosen, and that he will do full credit to the 
honor bestowed upon him. 

For class poet B. S. Maloy, the present class editor, was 
chosen by acclamation. 

Mr. W. F. Wessels was elected to the office of class prophet 
at a special meeting of the class. He is one of our best students 
and it is a pleasure to associate his name \vith that of class 
prophet — a position which we think should not only be filled by 
one who is together juet and conservative in every particular, 
but by one who is also a close student of the varied shades of 
human nature. 



GASTRALGIA— ITS TREATMENT. 

Gastralgia, is, for therapeutical purposes, divided into two 
groups by Professor Saundby (N. Y. Medical Journal). The 
first group comprises those cases in which pain occurs indepen- 
dently of eating, aod the second group, those cases in which the 
pain occurs after food is taken. The treatment of the first class 
consists of change of scene, a sea voyage or mountain air and 
abundant food at regular intervals. The palliative treatment of 
iron, quinine, arsenic, nux vomica and the mineral acids. 

For the second class, the treatment is, rest in bed, milk and 
lime water in sufficient quantities- say an ounce every hour. A 
nutrient enema of one &gg, beaten up in four ounces of milk, to 
be given every four hours. The amount of milk should be in- 
creased with improvement, and if milk fails, from two to four 
ounces of lightly cooked minced meat may be substituted. 

For the relief of the pain in both cases, Saundby gives mor- 
phia or heroin, but in a recent clinical report Professor Boone, 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, St. Louis, states that he 
finds one Antikamnia and Heroin Tablet (5 grains Antikamnia; 
l-12th gr. Heroin Hydrochloride) given as required, not only re- 
lieves the pain, but prevents its recurrence, much more satisfac- 
torily than either heroin or morphine alone. In other respects 
he concurs with Professor Saundby in his method of treatment. 



SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY 



DENTAL DEPARTMENT 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

D M. CATTELL, D. D. 5., G. W. COOK. D. D. S. B. J. CIGRAND, D. D. S. 

Supt. R. P. DONALDSON. 

D. M. CATTELL, Editor-in-Chief. C. E. JONES, Alumni Editor. 



CLASS EDITORS. 
A. E. ALTHER, '02. F. M STAHL, 03. J. C. GROUT, 04. 



Publisher. - H. C. WADDLE. 



Subscription $1.00 Per Annum in advance. Single copies, 15 cents. Issued monthly 
Send all remittances and communications as lo subscriptions and advertising to H. C 
WADDLE, Cor. Congress and Honore Sts., Chicago. 



Since our last issue the commencement exercises of the ses- 
sion of 1901-02 have taken place. Dr. Draper, the President of 
the University, not being able to be with us, was represented by- 
Thomas Jonathan Burrell, A. M., Ph. D., LL. D., Vice President, 
who conferred the degrees. 

The doctorate address was given by Rev. L. A. Crandall, 
D. D. 

The exercises were held in Steinway Hall, May 3rd, 1902, at 
2 P. M. 

The banquet in honor of the graduating class was given at 
the Victoria Hotel in the evening at 8 o'clock. 

The graduating exercises were attended by many friends of 
the fledglings; indeed, the hall was well filled. Flowers were in 
profusion. The only lady of the class was showered with beau- 
tiful bouquets and floral designs, some 27 different pieces in all. 
The little lady and her flowers filled a carriage that was placed 
at her disposal for carrying the tokens of love and respect to her 
home. Many of the young men were evidently favorites in their 
respective social circles as evidenced by the many bouquets al- 
loted them. The exercises were interspersed with music by an 
orchestra of some 20 pieces. It is feared the hall will not hold 
the crowds attending another year. This is the fourth time such 
exercises have been held in this hall. Earlier in the career of 



Dental Department. 31 

the school the place was more than large enough to accommodate 
those attending. The popularity of the school seems to call more 
and more of its friends each succeeding year to its public func- 
tions. 

Many members of the Alumni were present, both at the com- 
mencement exercises and the banquet in the evening. 

In this issue will be found the salutatory, valedictory, his ■ 
tory and class prophet. I speak for them a careful reading. 
Also the annual report of the school by its secretary. 

Appended is the schedule of class officers and committees 
and class roll: 

CLASS OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES: 

President — Rollo G. Chamberlin, 

Vice President— Charles W. Hillier. • 

Secretary — Robert J. McGinnis. 

Treasurer— Marion F. Carl. 

Executive Committee— Marion F. Carl, Alvin S. Wasser, 
Devillo Eddie Taft. 

Program Committee — John Maxwell Murphy, Louis E. Bake, 
John R. Murphy. 

Salutatorian — William W. Homan. 

Prophet— Claud D. Owens. 

Historian— William J. Walk. 

Valedictorian — Carrol Breed Abbott. 

CLASS ROLL: 

Abbott, Carroll Breed . Hillier, Charles W. 

Adams. Harry Walter Homan, William W. 

Alther, Arthur E. Kelly, Ernest Byron 

Atwood, Arthur L. Lichtenberg, Howard F. 

Bake, Louis E. Merz, Frank Raymond 

Bawden, Arthur C. Means, Jay L. 

Benson, Henry William Murphy, John Maxwell 

Black, J. Clarence Murphy. John R. 

Carl, Marion F. McGinnis, Robert J. 

Cameron, Walter P. Owens, Claud D. 

Chamberlin, Rollo G. Pipkin, W. L. 

Cummings, E. G. Rork, Ray N. 

Daniels, Charles Lyle Rice, Charles Vernon 
Donaldson, Robert Patterson Ratcliff, Frederick H. 

Dubm, Aaron J. Ruzicka, Martin J. 



.32 The Plexus 

Fales, Arthur H. Tigner, Charles H. 

Flachtemeier, Arthur F, Taft, Devillo Eddie 

Gi-anger, John Clair Urbanek, Marie R. 

Grubb, Harry W. Wasser, Alvin b. 

Hawes, David R. ' Walk, William J. 



ANNUAL REPORT AND MANDAMUS. 

By B, J. CiGRAND, M. S., D. D. S., Secretary. 

In conformity with a well-established custom among all de- 
gi'eeconferring institutions, an annual report is rendered to 
those who are attending its departments, and to those interested 
in the progress of liberal education a mandamus is submitted in- 
dicating what has been accomplished and what is mapped out 
for the future. 

in the summer of 1901 the University of Illinois sent out a 
statement signed jointly by Dr. Andrew S. Draper, president of 
the University, and Dr. A. H. Peck, dean of the Dental Depart 
ment, which reads as follows: 

"The University of Illinois takes great pleasure in announc- 
ing to the dental profession, the Alumni, under-graduates and 
other friends of the University that it has organized a College 
of Dentistry, and in pursuance thereof has acquired all the 
rights, privileges and equijoments of the Illinois School of Dentis- 
try, which has been merged in this department. The trustees in 
adding this department to the University, do so in the confident 
expectation that it will reflect credit upon the State of Illinois 
and the profession of dentistry. 

"The University has secured for the faculty men of reputa- 
tion and standing who are known honorably throughout the 
country in connection with their chosen specialties. 

"The College of Dentistry will occupy its own building, situ- 
ated on the corner of Harrison and Honore streets, Chicago,. 
This building, formerly occupied by the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons (the medical department of the University) and re- 
cently partially destroyed by fire, is now being rebuilt, and will 
be completed and equipped, ready for occupancy, by the begin- 
ning of the school term, October Srd, 1901. The building, whsn 
completed, will be a five-story stone structure, furnishad 
throaghoiit with new ani molera eq^uipuja, ani will b) on- 
moiious anl complete in every respect."' 



Dental Department. 33 

The Sunday Inter-Ocean of May 4t.h says of the transfer: 

•'The Illinois School of Dentistry has within the past few 
years made the most phenomenal record known to the annals of 
dental colleges and her career attracted the attention of the 
trustees of the University of Illinois. The University has long 
felt the need of this professional department, and, after months 
of careful consideration, has established it. 

'•The University called to her aid the wisdom and judgment 
of its medical department, the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, and after pains-taking investigation covering months of 
time, the medical councillor reported that the State University 
should create a College of Dentistry and purchase the stock, 
charter and good will of the Illinois School of Dentistry and 
around this nucleus build a great dental institution. 

"The report was accepted, acted upon, and on Lincoln's 
Birthday, February 121h, 1901, the Illinois School of Dentistry 
became the Dental Department of the great University of 
Illi-nois.'' 

This day marks the first scholastic anniversary of the dental 
department and the past year has accomplished much which 
deserves recitation in this annual report, 

The fire which was first thought so calamitous really proved 
to be a blessing, as it provided an opportunity of thoroughly re- 
arranging the entire floors, laboratories, halls, amphitheatres and 
infirmary and admitted of constructing a college building which, 
in every particular, is founded on strictest observation of sani- 
tary principles and has all the modern improvements as to heat- 
ing, lighting and elevator service. The college contains three 
well-lighted and well-ventilated amphitheatres, the smallest of 
which has a seating capacity of two hundred. 

The laboratories are among the largest and most complete 
possessed by any college. The clinical operating room, lecture 
halls, chemical and histological laboratories and dissecting rooms 
are complete, and all appliances necessary are provided. 

The Infirmary occupies the entire top floor of the building. 
Advantage is taken of large skylights, as well as north, east, 
south and west side lights. The structure, standing as it does 
with no immediate adjoining buildings, the light is unobstructed 
on all sides. The height is such that the observer has a bird's- 
eye view of the city in all directions. The Infirmary is divided 



31 The Ple^s. 

into the Operative, Prosthetic and Orthodontia sections and is 
equipped with 100 new chairs of the latest improved pattern, 
with fountain cuspidors attached, double-decked stands for ac- 
commodating students" operating cases and sanitary washbowls 
with hot and cold water, formaldehyde instrument sterilizers and 
all approved appliances that will in any way assist in making the 
room what the term modern improvement \m'p\\QS. 

The total enrollment during the present session was 134 stu- 
dents. These matriculants came from various states in the 
union and a few from Canada, England, Germany and other for- 
eign parts. The strictest possible censorship was regarded rela- 
tive to the new matriculants' educational qualifications. The 
rules of the National Association of Dental Faculties, which 
have been rigidly observed in this institution, demand that no 
student shall be received into the college unless the candidate 
presents a diploma, teacher's certificate or credential equivalent 
to entrance to the second year high school. This ruling of the 
National Association has somewhat reduced the number of new 
applicants, but we are glad to announce that it has assisted in 
raising the general standing of the student body, and in a marked 
degree given promise of more stable and satisfactory progress, 
since the fundamental knowledge of the student was well 
founded. The sincerity of this statement was tested at the be- 
ginning o£ the term when the State Board of Dental Examiners 
asked our dean if they might investigate the credentials of the 
matriculants; the request was immediately granted, with the re- 
sult that the inquisitorial board cheerfully recommended all as 
eligible to pursue a course in dentistry. This is the first instance 
in Illinois where a College of Dentistry submitted to the judg- 
ment of the state authorities the privilege of passing upon the 
eligibility of its applicants for matriculation, and it is a course 
which this school of dentistry hopes to pursue in the future. 

The course of instruction has been exacting, and little could 
be added to further dental thought. The time of the several 
classes was fully absorbed in either the didactic, experimental or 
practical department of the college. During the course there 
were 542 general lectures and 27 special lectures. A large num- 
ber of these extra lectures were of such a character as attracted 
members of the profession to heartnem. Our course of instruc- 
tion, though mapped out by the National Association of Dental 



Dental Department. 35 

Faculties, has in addition much special work, and the course in 
reality is in advance of the national requirements. Most of this 
special work is in the form of practical dental technique. The 
school has emphasized the necessity of having the students pur- 
sue a graded curriculum, harmonizing and combining the theo- 
retical with the practical. With this in view, the junior students 
at this school were afforded the opportunity of doing clinical op. 
erative and prosthetic work, and the excellent results which must 
follow such a course are evident to persons who are in touch with 
the student world. This special feature of the school, in connec- 
tion with its supplemental work, led many students of other in- 
stitutions to enter our college, and we cheerfully call attention to 
the fact that many of our junior and senior students come from 
the dental departments of large universities. 

The amount of practical work required from our senior stu- 
dent this session is fully 25 per cent, more than in the previous 
terms, and the fact that all these students performed the requi- 
site number of dental operations bespeaks for the splendid clin- 
ical advantages of the school. The clinic at the school has been 
all that could be desired. It might be interesting to detail to you 
the number and variety of operations and substitutions, but suf- 
fice it to say that every department which pertains to the study 
and practice of the profession has received careful consideration 
in both theory and practice. 

It would be a grievous oversight not to call attention to the 
cheer contributed to the curriculum by the various student or- 
ganizations, and especial consideration in this particular is due 
to the athletic teams, the foot ball, base ball, road races and 
bowling club, but more particularly the college band, whose con- 
cert in March we will long remember. The faculty and students 
have certainly enjoyed a most happy companionship during the 
past course. The kindest possible fellowship has existed between 
the student and the teacher, since the professors have diligently 
sought to be advisory and helpful rather than dictatorial or ar- 
rogant, hence a most respectful regard cgaracterizes the entire 
school. 

In conclusion, we must incorporate in this annual brief some 
consideration of the recent dental gathering. On March 26th 
the dental department gave a "Professional Clinic," and the fifty 
<;linicians represented, recognized operators of the Mississippi 



3t) J'he Plexus. 

Valle3^ upwards of 800 dentists attending the clinic, and the 
character of the meeting, botn from a professional and social 
standpoint, was a great success. The paper read by Dr. Johna- 
t.han Taft, of Ann Arbor, on this occasion will be a part of the 
classic literature of our calling, and the Faculty of the School of 
Dentistry take this occasion to publicly thank those who in any 
manner assisted in stamping this a gala day in the record of the 
school. 

Chicago today is the medical and dental mecca of the world, 
and the clinical advantages of this cosmopolitan city are not sur- 
passed by any other municipality on earth. Students are avail- 
ing themselves of the opportunity of living and studying in a 
center where every possible facility in their chosen field of work 
can be afforded them, and this tendency of students to come to 
Chicago for their professional training, adds new elements of 
strength to the generous prophecy that the name Illinois,— b>1- 
ready made famous by Logan, Grant and Lincoln, shall have a 
new laurel in the glories that come from possessing the greatest 
university of America. 



SALUTATORY. 
By William H, Homan. 

In this day and age it is the custom, on occasions like this, 
to choose and commission some one to stand up before the audi- 
ence and, in formal phrase and set speech, bid them welcome. 

I like the old plan best, the plan in vogue when men and 
women were more primitive than they now are,^ — a plan which 
relied less upon words and more upon acts to indicate the wel- 
coming spirit; when even the winds felt free to catch hold of the 
latch string hanging from the door and give it a gentle pull; 
when the good dame indicated the pleasure she felt at the arri- 
val of company by the anxiety with which she watched the hoe 
cake and stirred and turned the boiling kettle. 

A welcome made manifest by the good man as he tipped a 
wink at the new arrival and drew forth the old brown jug, filled 
with the goodly proportion of sparkling dew from the sweet lips 
of the fabled maid of the mountain mist, tinted with the richness 
of the color of her rosy cheeks, followed by the gurgle of the 
golden liquor as it poured down the thirsty throat, — or by the 



Dental Department. '"^7 

alacrity with which he shouldered his rifle and tramped forth in 
search of turkey, deer or bear, that the family larder might be 
enriched. 

I am not so pessimistic as to say or believe that the spirit 
which dictated these actions has departed forever from us. The 
test now of the sincerity or insincerity of a welcome is the will- 
ingness to make sacrifices to please, to overcome the inertia of 
selfishness by the exercise of the qualittes of good-fellowship. 

As an indication of the sincerity of our welcome I mean to 
take you by the hand, as it were, and give you a grasp that will 
prove that the heart has moved upon the muscles; I mean to 
smile into your faces with such a sunshiney smile that all reserve, 
all diffidence will be dissipated as the fogs of the morn are dissi- 
pated by the brightness and warmth of the sun; I mean to look 
you so squarely in the eye that your souls, peeping into mine, 
shall see there no hidden or reserved regret; I mean to call upon 
those who will follow me upon this program to do their utmost 
to make the occasion so joyous, so entertaining and so profitable 
that it will not readily fade from the memory, but remain a green 
and invigorating spot to which we may go, in after years, for re- 
freshment. 

I thank you. 



VALEDICTORY. 

By Carrol Breed Abbott. 

Mr. President, Mr. Dean, Gentlemen of the Faculty, Fellow 

Students, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Year by year the friends of almost every school and college, 
professional and mechanical alike, gather to witness the confer- 
ring of degrees and diplomas upon those who have completed the 
course of instruction and to encourage them by their words and 
presence. And so to-day, on this auspicious occasion, we are 
gathered to witness and to take part in the granting of the de- 
gree of Doctor of Dental Surgery upon this, the first class to 
graduate from the dental departmeut of the University of Illinois, 
What is a degree? What does it mean to you and my fellow 
-classmates? Does it mean simply that we have spent a required 
amount of time in college, or that we have acquired a specific 
amount of knowledge and therefore are qualified to practice our 
profession? Is it a meaningless title, or is it a certificate of ac 



38 The Plexus. 

complishment? A degree is a title conferred by a college and 
signifies that, by honorable endeavor, a man or woman has won 
the right to be called doctor or master, and that he is capable of 
pursuing his course in the world on his own responsibility. There 
are innumerable men in all walks of life who have entered their 
respective callings unprepared by a college education, and while 
many of them have gained marked success, the vast majority do 
not rise to the possibilities that their trained minds would have 
been capable of attaining. A degree inspires one to live up to 
and to strive for the highest that can be attained. In times of 
temptation it reminds a man of his position and his duty. It 
makes him demand more of himself and to live a higher, abroad 
er. a nobler life. 

And so to-day, with the presentation of these diplomas and 
the conferring of the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery upon 
us, let us stop for a moment and consider what it means to us and 
to society. In these days of mad rush for wealth and fame we 
forget that, although these are not to be despised, there are some 
things more worthy of our ambition. Is it not well for every 
young person, in whatever walk of life, as he starts on his career 
to ask himself, "Ought fame and riches to be my only aimV" 
Isn't there something higher and nobler to strive for? Shall I 
not strive to leave my profession something of value when I am 
through? Homer, Socrates, Plato, Luther, Washington, Lincoln 
and McKinley answered these questions and left to posterity ex- 
amples of right living and unselfishness, and thus gained whacis 
more than ritches— honor. So there are needed in the frofession 
of dental surgery men who will give their lives and thoughts for 
its advancement. 

Dentistry, as a profession, had its beginning at the time 
when Louis XIV". made a division in the ranks of the then so- 
called dentists, putting those of a mere mechanical turn of mind 
in the one class and those capable of performing operations upon 
the teeth and soft tissues of the mouth into another. Previous 
to this time jewelers, barbers and blacksmiths had been practicing 
regardless of ability. About 1785 England made the same dis- 
tinction and from then until the present time the moral tone of 
the profession has steadily advanced, and to-day we have these 
two great divisions, designated as operative and prosthetic dentis 
try. Yet the division, as respects the ability of men in either of 



Dental Department. 39 

these classes, has ceased to be of hnportance, for there are men 
known as mechanical dentists who are as truly doctors as those 
who simply operate. The two branches have been drawn closely 
together and are taught in conjunction, one being as important 
as the other in our college courses. 

The dental profession has made vast strides in the last cen- 
tury, both in a material and moral way. In no trade or profes- 
sion are there instruments more delicate or suitable to perform 
the necessary work or operations, and the appliances now in use 
to prevent pain are a criterion of the great advancement of this 
healing art. There has been a tendency among medical men and 
the laity at large to belittle this profession, but it has come to be 
a known fact that a graduate from a reputable dental college is 
better qualified to pj'actice his profession than are those from any 
other professional school. He is trained in mind and in the use 
of his hands while they, in a majority of cases; are limited to a 
theoretical knowledge. To be a dentist to-day, in the highest 
sense of the word and as the profession at large regards him, a 
man must be a gentleman, honest, moral and upright. Unless he 
lives the ethics as taught by the profession he falls far short of 
being a successful dentist,. 

Ethics is the art of right living. Professional ethics consid- 
ers the character and conduct of professional people with re- 
spect to their moral qualities as exhibited in the practice of their 
profession. It is unreasonable to expect that professional con- 
duct will be good if the character of a dentist or physician is 
bad in other respects. History recalls many instances of whole 
nations degenerating and becoming extinct simply for refusing to 
uphold and encourage a standard for right living and morality 
for their people. And if history does repeat itself, then that in- 
dividual or profession that refuses to have a high ideal of both 
morality and workmanship must fail. 

The dental profession has obtained through its code of ethics 
a spirit of brotherhood, and now fraternities bind its members in 
fraternal union. Societies endeavoring to instill the idea that 
our profession is more than a trade are educating the members 
and laity to a higher appreciation of its wonderful possibilities 
and blessings, The people are beginning to want men to serve 
them who are guided by these motives, and our colleges are 
teaching their matriculates that it is better to lose temporarily 



40 Thi Plexus. 

for the sake of principle than to depart from what is ethical. 
Dentistry and medicine were never more closely allied than at the 
present time, for again and again in recent years has the dentist 
been called to consult with the family physician and his opinion 
has been respected. It is now a well-recognized fact that dentis- 
try is a very important branch of medicine, and that whenever 
disease is caused by unsound teeth or pathological conditions of 
the mouth the family dentist should be consulted with the family 
physician, as the oculist would be in complications of the eye or 
the aurist in complications of the ear. 

So in view of the responsibility that he may be called upon 
to bear it becomes the duty of everyone who takes the name of . 
this profession upon himself to strive to maintain its high and 
honorable position. And in order to do this he must ever be 
ready to respond to the wants of his patients in an honorable 
and faithful manner. He ought ever to keep his body and mind 
in such a condition that his best faculties can be exerted in be- 
half of his patients. He will ever show utmost respect for his 
brethren in a like cause. It is the duty of every dentist to ad- 
vise his patients in the manner he would be advised. He should 
ever strive to perform every operation a trifle better than the 
preu'.ous one, for only in this way can proficiency in his work be 
attained. 

It is considered unprofessional to resort to means disparag- 
ing of others — calling attention to one's work in the public press 
and offering lower prices than the surrounding dentists, also 
claiming superiority over other practitioners. Every dentist 
ought to have the advancement of his profession so at heart that 
he will try to assist his brethren instead of keeping all his knowl- 
edge to himself. In union there is strength, and by combining 
knowledge the profession will grow strong. No man has a cor- 
ner on knowledge, and he that would learn must impart his own 
knowledge also. 

The esthectic in dentistry depends to a marked extent upon 
the degree of ethics as practiced by the profession. If a man 
will invariably lower his professional standing and thereby re- 
flect discredit upon his profession, it is reasonable to expect that 
he will do those things for his patients that are not for their best 
comfort and appearance. The appearance of gold crowns and of 
many large gold fillings in the anterior part of the mouth is not 



Dental Department . 41 

in good taste, but, if an operator simjjly cares for fees and not 
for the esthetic in his work, he will not take the pains to advise 
other means of restoring nature in a more natural and pleasing 
manner. And so we can safely say that the men who try to up- 
build and make noble the profession are those who will advise 
the people for their own good even if they lose in a Jinanclal tvay. 
Thus the temptations that come to a dentist are many, and are 
not the least of his difficulties. But if he will ever put his ideal 
before him as a man belonging to a great and growing fraternity 
he will be enabled to overeome them, and be a factor for good in 
his chosen profession. 

Gentlemen of the Faculty: It is my pleasant duty to ex- 
press to you, in behalf of the class of 1902, our sincere apprecia- 
tion for the faithful example which you have so constantly set 
befoi'e us during the past three years of pleasant association and 
study. We realize the great responsibility of the teacher's ex- 
ample, and although we have sometimes seemed inattentive and 
remiss to your counsels and instructions, yet we trust we are bet- 
ter men and have a higher conception of the dignity of the great 
profession upon which we are just entering. We desire to reflect 
in our daily professional life the example which you have shown 
to us that we may in turn be of some service in keeping the good 
name of our profession at the standard you and our brothers 
have attained for it. We are proud to be the ffrst class to grad- 
uate from the dental department of the University of Illinois, 
and to whatever degree of success we attain we shall ever look 
back with gratitude to you as our inspirations andfaithsul advis- 
ors. Gentlemen, you will ever be held in grateful remembrance 
by the class of 1902. 

I bid you farewell. 

And now, fellow classmates, I congratulate you upon the ad- 
vent of this hour; a day looked forward to and anticipated 
.through three years of pleasant study, intermingled with days of 
discouragement and doubtful forebodings. And now as we have 
gained this milestone in the journey of life, let us stop for a mo- 
ment and, with a glance into the past, select the incidents and 
lessons learned through failures that will aid us in developing our 
lives for the future. Also, with a forward look, again raise our 
ideal and place it in the loftiest realms of our chosen profession. 
Let us forget the days of discouragement, ever keeping in mind 



42 Ihe Plexus. 

that this life is one continual school, and he that would succeed 
must necessarily have his failures, but that every failure has an 
opportunity and these must be grasped. Let us then be watch, 
ful of our opportunities, ' for Dame Fortune visits every man 
once. May we not enter upon our life work with a firm resolve 
to be honest, upright and moral? With a steadfast purpose to 
enoble and keep pure the profession of our calling. Then we 
will cast nothing but credit upon ourselves, and in so doing w^e 
honor our Alma Mater and use the counsel of our honored fac- 
ulty wisely. Let us part as a class with kindest wishes for all 
and with malice toward none, and take with us for our comfort 
and inspiration the words of Longfellow: 

"Lives of great men all remind us 

We can make our lives sublime, 
And departing leave behind us 

Foot- prints on the sands of time. 

"Foot-prints that perhaps another 
Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and ship- wrecked brother 
Seeing, may take heart again. 

"Let us then be up and doing 
With a heart for any fate. 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 
Learn to labor and to wait.'" 
Now I bid you a fond farewell. 



NOTICE OF CHANGE IN ADDRESS., 

The Grand Rapids X-Ray Manufacturing Co., a firm w^hich 
has recently made the pleasant acquaintance of many of our 
readers, has for three years had its main factory in Ravenna, 
Ohio, and very little has been done in Grand Rapids, Mich., out- 
side of the office work. Last year an addition was built to the 
Ravenna factory to make space, not only for the manufacture of 
more of their static X-Ray aj^paratus now so well known as "The 
Sorensen," but also to make room for offices. 

Before the building was completed the demand for their dif- 
ferent X-Ray apparatus was so great, however, that they had to 
use every foot of space for manufacturing purposes, and it was 
not until another addition was built this spring, and space rented 
in other buildings besides, that they had got room enough to 
move everything to Ravenna; but even with the additional space 



roem. 43 

the demand for their goods has so increased that they must build 
again this summer. 

The constant demand for "The Sorensen" shows' how much 
this machine is used by the medical profession. 

The X-Ray Mfg. Co. in Ravenna, Ohio, is the only factory 
making static machines all from the crude material into a com- 
plete finished machine. The lumber is bought in the woods and 
dried and prepared in the factory, and the same way with all the 
other material. 

Our readers who have formerly had dealings with them, as 
well as new customers will, after this, address all communica- 
tions to Grand Rapids X-Ray Mfg. Co., Ravenna, Ohio. 



DR. GOODCHEER'S REMEDY. 

Peel all out of kilter, do you? 

Nothing goes to suit you, quite? 
Skies seem sort of dark and clouded. 

Though the day is fair and bright? 
Eyes affected — fail to notice 

Beauty spread on every hand? 
Hearing so impaired you're missing 

Songs of promise, sweet and grand? 
No. your case is not uncommon — • 

'Tis a popular distress; , 
Though 'tis not at all contagious. 

Thousands have it, more or less; 
But it yields to- simple treatment. 

And is easy, quite, to cure; 
If you follow my directions 

Convalescence, quick, is sure. 
Take a bit of cheerful thinking. 

Add a portion of content, 
And, with both, let glad endeavor, 

Mixed with earnestness, be blent; 
These with care and skill compounded 

Will produce a magic oil 
That is bound to cure, if taken 

With a lot of honest toil. 
If your heart is dull and heavy, 

If your hope is pale with doubt, 
Try this wondrous Oil of Promise, 

For 'twill drive the evil out. 
Who will mix it? Not the druggist 

From the bottles on his shelf. 
The ingredients required 

You must find within yourself. 
-Nixon Waterman in Success. 



OFFICERS.— C.S.NEISWANfJER, I'll. G., M. D., Pres.; EMIL H. GRUBBE, M. D., Vice- Pre s^ 

A. B. SLATER, Sec'y and Treasurer. 
FACULTY.— FRANKLIN H. MARTIN, M. D., Electricity ia Gynecology; W. FRANKLIN " COLE 
MAN, M. D., M. R. C. S. (Eng.) Electricity in Diseases of the Eye; MA/ CUSHMAN RICE 
M. D., Electrolysis; C. S.' NETSWANGER, Ph. G., M. D., General Electro-Therapeutics; 
EM ^L H. GRUBBE, M. 1)., Electro-Physics, Radiography and X-Ray Diagnosis; ALBERT 
H. ANDREWS, M. D., Ear, Nose and Throat. GORDON G. BURDICK, M. D., Radio-Thera- 
py and Photo-Chemistry. 
This school is for physicians and is equipped with the most modern up-to-date 
apparatus. All the rudimentary physics will be profusely illustrated and made plain 
even to the uninitiated in electrotherapy. No mail course will be given and no 
degrees conferred, but a handsomely engraved certificate of attendance can be ob- 
tained if desired after the completion of a course. The courses will be of three weeks 
duration and consist of both clinical and didactic instructions. A 3-week's course 
will make you self-dependent. Write for further information, terms and printed 
matter. Phone Randolph 144. 

ILLINOIS SCHOOL OF ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS, 
1302-3 Chaitiplain Building, Chicago, 111. 



THE MARION-SIMS HOSPITAL. 

438 LaSalle Avenue, CHICAGO. 

LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE, 737 NORTH. 

A high-class private Hospital for the recep- 

,;i:: ' '^^i.^ - '^ion of Gynecological cases and for abdominal 

^**Rii, Surg:ery. 

jste Centrally located in one of the best residence 

■^^ districts of the city, this institution offers 

'f^: A accommdations which are superior in every 

T ':, ):.':■ x< /! - *J respect and combine the comforts and luxuries 

^ ." ' ''j '■'■■' '^■■':<'-:-i';'W- ■ '.ife^'^s of the home with the strict appointments of 

"' '~ ', '.,.;".-■.:■ 's'' •/ .'i'-w^ modern sanitary science. 

, ^1 The apartments are light and well ventilated, 

y. W heated by an improved hot water system. Hard- 

wood floors throughout; furniseings elegant 
and appropriate. Trained nurses of superior 
skill are in charge of the patients and the diet is 
the best. 

The operating rooms are specially fitted with 
all modern appliances for aseptic surgery. 

A competent physician is in attendance at 
all hours. 
Channing W. Barrett, M. D., House Physician 

F. Gregory Connell, M. D., House Physician 
an Pathologist. 

For further information address 

HENRY P. NEWriAN, A. M , M. D, 

Physiciati & Surgreoti in Charge, 

103 STATE STREET, CHICAGO. 




OR 



n. C. STEWART, Superintendent, 



(At Hospital) 438 LaSalle Avenue. 




W. S. Christopher, M. D. 

Professor of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical 
Department, University of Illinois, Chicago. 



THE PLEXU 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

• CHICAGO. 

VOL. VIIL JUNE 20th, 1902. NO. 2 

^EVOLUTION OF THE DOCTOR. 

W. S. Christopher, M. D. 

Professor of Pediatrics College of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago. 

Mr. President, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen — 

We are gathered today to express to this graduating class 
our good wishes. We wish them success and they hope for suc- 
cess in the life they are about to enter. But do we know clearly 
what we wish them? Do they see clearly what they should aim 
to attain? Success, like everything else, is purely relative. And 
a career in one line of human endeavor which may be most com- 
mendly successful, may and usually does lack the elements of 
success of another career, and measured from such a standpoint 
may be an utter failure. Great wealth can not be gained in the 
practice of medicine, even less can it be gained in a purely scholas 
iiic career. Pasteur conferred material benefits uj)on France, 
probably great enough to counter balance the material damage 
done by Napoleon. Yet no riches ever became his. Was he 
therefore deprived of something which should by right have been 
his? Certainly not. All the wealth that he could use was put 
at his disposal, and the great institute which bears his name, 
and will for many years bear the momentum of his genius, was 
quite sufficient for the complete production of all that Pasteur 
could do for the world. The magnificent wealth of Morgan, so 
extremely useful to the world while under the control of that 
eminent financial genius, would have been but the buried talent 

♦Doctorate address delivered at the commeacement exercises of the Medical Depart- 
,meat University of Illinois, May 20, 190:2. 



46 The Plexus. 

in the hands of Pasteur, who could not have used it and been- 
true to himself, and who therefore would not have used it. 

Every man can be successful. What is this success that 
every man can reach? Before formulating an answer, a short 
digression is necessary. The recent disaster at Martinique has 
filled us with pity for the sufferings of those who escaped, and 
some feeling more or less acute for those who perished, but the 
great truth which is brought home to us all, is the infinite petti- 
ness of man in the presence of the great forces of nature. We 
are compelled to see the littleness of our boasted greatness when 
brought into such rude contrast with cosmic forces. Each one of 
us must some day face the infinite. If the opportunity be given 
at the supreme moment, as it is toniany to review one's past life, 
what part of it think you will be most satisfactory then? No 
maiter what his conception of the future may be, no matter what 
religious views he may hold, no matter if he have none, it is in- 
conceivable that he can have any satisfaction in anything except 
in what he has done for his fellow men. At such a time truth 
alone prevails. Why not recognize that truth earlier? Then we 
can measure our success by that which we do for each other — 
for success is usefulness. 

When Andrew Carnegie reviews his life which will please 
him the more — the great fortune which he amassed or the use 
which he is now making of it? He unquestionably recognizes 
the truth I am trying to put before you. Be recognizes the trus- 
teeship underlying his legal title. He is doing well with his 
wealth. A greater mind could do better. The community is a 
greater mind. 

I have chosen for my subject today the Evolution of the Doc- 
tor, and have already given what I conceive to be the best result 
of that evolution. Perhaps we can trace some of the steps of the 
process. You have finished a course of four years devoted to the 
study of your profession. In my student days two years' college 
work of only five months each was all that was demanded of the 
student before he went out to practice his profession. You have 
actually spent more than three times the amount of time in the 
medical school than was required twenty years ago, but I can 
assure you that you can not possibly feel any better fitted for 
your work than did the medical graduate of that day. Neverthe- 
less you are better fitted, not only because of the greater mass of 



Evolution of the Doctor. -IT 

information which has become yours, but also because, owing to 
the great scientific advances of the interval, you start with a 
truer conception of pathology and a wider armamentarium for 
treatment, in short, with a deeper, truer, more useful, medical 
philosophy than was then possible to the greatest of the profes- 
sion. We have a right therefore to expect greater and better 
things at your hands. Will these expectations be met? From 
some yes, from others no, for after all the men are the same, 
gifted and handicapped as men centuries ago have been, by the 
capacities and limitation put upon them by nature. You have 
passed examinations more or less rigid, and more or less tinc- 
tured with mercy, and you may think that you are through with 
this great bore and trial. Of this idea I would disabuse you, for 
all the rest of your life will be one great aod constant examina- 
tion. You will be judged by your fellows and judged without 
mercy. Every act will be taken into account, and furnish its 
share of the total estimate. Many of the individual judgments 
will be wrong, possibly most of them will be. You will be con- 
demned for errors you have not committed, but you will also be 
credited with acts that you have not done, and in the long run, 
and not so very long at that, you will be judged with an accur- 
acy that is astounding. This examination will not be confined 
to your professional knowledge and judgment, but will reach to 
your innermost soul and lay bare your character to the world. 
Truth is mighty and will prevail. 

The firgt great struggle of the young doctor is the struggle 
for bread and butter, and it is no mean struggle. The difficulty 
must be surmounted or no success of any kind can be reached, 
for before anyone can be useful he must be self-supporting. It 
is not beneath any man's dignity to accept honest employment of 
any kind to keep the wolf from the door. The community does 
not expect any young doctor to make enough from his earlier 
practice to support himself, but it must and does despise him if 
he consents to be in part a pauper. No man is a whole man, no 
matter what his age or his position, until he becomes self-sup- 
porting. Fortunately most of us have something to which we 
can turn in this time of trouble: For my own part I can say that 
during my first five years in the practice of medicine, the larger 
part of my income came from a patent attorney whom I assisted 
in his professional work, and I look back upon that service as. 



48 The Plexus 

one of the best parts of my education. It is at this period in the 
doctor's career that certain temptations assert themselres. It is 
then that he is approached to do certain things of a criminal 
nature which only those of his profession can do. His material 
needs are appealed to with money, his emotions are touched with 
pitiful appeals to save some one's honor. If he falls the fact in- 
invarialjly becomes known, not always unfortunately through evi- 
dence which can be used in a criminal court, but by evidence 
which blackens his character, and he cannot possibly live long 
enough to eradicate the blot. He is tempted to attract business 
by false statements of success, let us not call it boasting, for it 
always has in it the element of lying. He is tempted to actually 
enter the field of the quack, and if he does, his lying becomes 
systematic and monumental, for that is what constitutes the 
quack, whether he be within or without the professional fold. 
But these are not all of his troubles. He finds patients who can- 
not pay their bills, and he also finds not a few who will not pay 
their bills, and seek to justify themselves by attempts at tearing 
down his reputation. Above all things let him beware of the 
patient who comes to him with a story of the incompetence, care- 
lessness, or neglect of a brother practitioner, who has been dis- 
charged from a case, and in whose place he is sought to be put. 
It;will be but a short time before he is in turn supplanted without 
compensation for his services, and with a story of his incompe- 
tence before the community. As a rule I have found that a pa- 
tient who berates a doctor has an unpaid account on the doctor's 
books. He must also meet the jealousies and faint praise of the 
lesser among his colleagues. 

It is very strange, too, how the first cases that come to the 
young doctor are so entirely difi'erent from anything he has ever 
heard of or seen while at the medical college. If he were at 
once plumped into a case of pneumonia or scarlet fever, he would 
see his way very clearly. If he had to make at once a capital 
surgical operation he would not feel entirely at sea. But people 
have a way of taking such cases to older men, and bringing to 
the young man what they consider trifling ailments, which often 
because of their very indefiniteness would puzzle the most experi- 
enced man. He finds it very difficult to adjust the lore he has 
acquired with the conditions he meets, and no matter how much 
clinical training he has had[|in^ school, -he still finds it necessary 



Evolution of the Doctor. 49' 

to gradually discover what the things he has learned about 
actually mean. It takes time to make one's knowledge auto- 
matic. These trials, however, are really of very great service, 
if the individual has the nerve to stand them right and profit by 
them. The man of caliber and true material is improved and 
tempered by them. He is taught to know people, to adjust his 
tactics to their peculiarities, to acquire generalship and assume 
leadership. He is taught by them to see things as they are, 
rather than as they ought to be, and his grit is developed. 

Coincidently with this stage of his development, if he be 
fully alive to his opportunity, he is not only recognizing his 
shortcomings, but is filling up the gaps in his training, and is 
doing it with stronger motives and more immediate objectives 
than he has'ever before had. The rawness of the recruit wears 
off rapidly or slowly, according as the recruit himself recognizes 
the necessity of the discipline, and takes advantage of it. Famil- 
iarity with the duties, responsibilities, and what may be termed 
the routine of the profession is thus finally acquired. This is 
probably the most important point in the development of the doc- 
tor. It is important because it is the stopping point of many. 
We must confess that many never get beyond the point of slav- 
ishly following and applying that which has been taught to tinem 
at college and to which some little of the same kind is added. 
Such condition permits of a limited success, a limited usefulness. 
Stopping at this point must not be entirely charged up to the 
doctor. Like all others he is subject to the law of supply and 
demand, and in some communities it is not only useless, but it 
may even be fatal to him to progress farther. In the profes 
sional demand of the last decade or so for better training of 
medical students, I have constantly held that no community is 
entitled to better professional service than it can appreciate, and 
th^t there is a certain element of injustice to men in training 
them highly and then sending them out to practice in communi- 
ties where they must go backward and see their earliest ambi- 
tions blighted. 

The stage of development now reachsd leads to the stage of 
investigation of original research which should continue through 
out the life of the individual. The time for research comes 
when from one's own positive knowledge he is in position to 
question accepted views or to see the actual blanks in profes^ 



■50 The Plexus. 

sional knowledge. When one finds the need of some definite 
piece of information, and knows also that no one else can supply 
it to him, that he cannot get it by mere absorption, as all primary- 
information is obtained, then, and not until then is he in position 
to formulate a problem ■ for investigation, or in other words to 
enter upon research. The working by"a student of a problem 
formulated by someione else, generally his teacher, and usually 
solved by observations along lines suggested by the one who has 
formulated the problem is veritable research work by that 
teacher, but nothing more than clerical work by the student. It 
is not until he in turn has reached a similar stage of fulness of 
his subject that he can undertake investigation. But from this 
time on the opportunity of the doctor to become a real contrib- 
utor to his science and his art is ever present, and it is one of his 
possibilities which he should most sedulously cultivate. 

Research more than anything else develops the individuality 
of the man from a scientific standpoint. That which one works 
out for himself he knows more thoroughly than anyone else can 
possibly know it, knows it far more thoroughly than he can pos- 
sibly impart it to anyone else. All men do not, indeed, cannot 
work along the same lines, and in this way differentiation between 
men increases as time goes on, and gives an actual value to in- 
terchange of views. 

But the doctor is also developing on his social side. He 
should never consider himself a mere medicine machine, a relic 
of the times when the practice of medicine was largely in the 
hands of slaves, but remember that he is also a citizen, and as 
such as much interested in the good government of his commun- 
ity as anyone else. He should at all times take a lively interest 
in politics, keeping well informed on the political movements of 
the day. He should not shirk the duties of his citizenship, and 
while it is generally unwise for him to hold office, if it should 
come his way, he ought not to avoid his public duty in the mat- 
ter. It must not be forgotten that the doctor comes in intimate 
contact with certain phases of life which generally are hidden 
from other citizens, his view point is largely different from that 
of men engaged in commercial life, but it is nevertheless an in- 
tegral part of that complex thing the community, and his coun- 
sel has its value, especially when he assumes co-ordinate respon 
sibility with other members of a governing body 



Evolution of the Doctor. . 51 

In its best forms the evolution of the doctor develops him 
into a well rounded man, and useful member of his community. 
If he learns the weaknesses of men he also learns their strengthj 
and should develop a generous conservatism in his judgment of 
his fellows, which can only come witn ripe experience. 

I sincerely hope for each of you, members of the graduating 
class, the highest development and success of which he is 
capable. 

Be brave, but not rash. Have courage, but do not confound 
it with brutality; be frank, but not tactless; be tactful, but not 
shifty, and no trimmer; be firm, but do not confound firmness 
with stubbornness; be open to conviction, but not vacillating. 
Try to see things as they are rather than as they ought to be, 
but do not become pessimistic. Be resourc«ful but never untrue 
or dishonorable. You are entering a profession which has al- 
waj s held its honor high. As evidence of the ancientness of its 
honor we have the grand oath of Hippocrates, administered to 
the medical noviate of his day and he was contemporary with 
Pericles, Socrates, Plato and Herodotus. This magnitfcent heri- 
tage of the past I quote you in closing. 

THE OATH. 

"I swear by Apollo the physician, and ^sculapius, and 
Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that, ac- 
cording to my ability and judgment, I will keep this oath and 
this stipulation— to reckon him who taught me this art equally 
dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and 
relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring in 
the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this 
art if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and 
that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I 
will impart a knowledge of the art to my own sons and those of 
my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath ac- 
cording to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow 
that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judg 
ment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from 
whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly 
medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; 
and in like manner I will not give to a woman 
a pessary to produce abortion. With purity and with 
holiness I will pass my life and practice my art, 



52 * 21ie PJexus. 

I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave 
this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into 
whatever houses I enter I will go inio them for the benefit of the 
sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and 
corruption: and, further, from the seduction of females or males, 
of freemen and slaves. Whatever in connection with my profes- 
sional practice, or not in connection with it I see or hear in the 
life of men which ought not to be spoken abroad, I will not di- 
vulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While 
I continue to keep this oath unviolated, may it be granted to me 
to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men 
in all times! But should I trespass and violate this oath, may 
the reverse be my lot!" 



THE PROFESSION OF DENTISTRY. 
By Prof. B. J. Cigrand, M. S., D. D. S.* 

Secretary of School of Dentistry, University of Illinois. 
Mr. TOASTMASTER, LaDIES AND GENTI.EMEN:— 

It is both a privilege and pleasure to be present on so great 
an occasion as this. Not in my life do I recall having attended 
a professional banquet which presents so beautiful a sight; and 
to be among those who are to address you is certainly an honor. 
I regret exceedingly that the gentleman who was to respond to 
this toast cannot be here, for I am conscious of the fact that 
Dr. A. H. Peck, dean of the School of Dentistry, would have 
added strength and dignity to the noble purpose of our vocation. 
He has paid me the high compliment of delegating me to speak 
in behalf of the dean of the dental department, while he in labor 
and duty journies to the city of Lincoln, where he is to read a 
paper before the Nebraska State Dental Society, the engage- 
ment being prior to this and of such a character as admitted of 
no change or postponement. I bring from him his sincere re- 
grets and heartiest congratulations. 

There are times in every man's life when the thought occurs 
that he wished he were in some one's else place. The first 
half of this banquet I shared in this idea and was satisfied that I 
had stolen into an enjoyable task, but now in the second half I 



*Toast delivered at an nu;il baruiuet Kiveu Vjy the faculty of Ihe College of Physicians 
and Surj:eous, May 20, liiOi. 



Ihe Profession of Dentistry. 53 

realize the unpleasantness, and wished Dr. Peck would return 
and relieve me of this suffering. 

The good old Mark Twain gives us somewhat of a guide to 
speaking. He says: "A fifteen-minute speech is a good one; a 
seven-minute speech is still better; a three-minute talk is excel- 
lent, and not to speak at all is often best." Though I feel like 
taking his last statement as correct, I am impelled to carry out 
my promise and represent in a smcdl measure our own Dr. Peck, 

The dean in his absence might very appropriately send a 
telegram, as did Mr. Whitcomb Riley, who was at one time to re- 
spond to the toast, "The Doctor in the Home" Unavoidable cir- 
cumstances necessitated his absence and he sent this message to 
the doctors: "I hope you will continue taking life as easily as 
usual." 

Much has been said this evening concerning the relations 
which exist between the several departments of this great uni- 
university, and I am delighted to say that the dental department 
in its truly American spirit recognizes the worth of the saying, 
that in "Union there is strength." We realize that we are a 
part of and immediate kinship to a great and noble profession, 
and we cheerfully trace our ancestry back to the dim ages when 
Alexandria flourished as the distinguished seat of learning; we 
look back to a time when her museum and library were the great- 
est the world ever knew, and at this same university of old the 
medical profession as well as dental profession flourished side by 
side, and vBtius, Hypatia and Herophilus taught our arts, crude 
as they were. We are gratified that we claim relationship to the 
famous physician, iEsculapius, who taught the necessity of keep- 
ing the oral cavity clean and hygienic. We are proud that Hip- 
pocrates, whom you call the "God of Medicine" we call the 
"Father of Dentistry," for he it was who first gave serious atten- 
tion to the importance of preserving every tooth, and in his 
voluminous writings he wrote much which pertains to the art of 
dentistry. We are pleased to mention the name of Galena, who 
was the first to advocate the use of gold as a dental filling mate- 
rial; we are delighted to put in our distinguished list of ances- 
tors. Pare, Hunter and Fox, and in the long catalogue of men 
who have rendered service to dentistry, we cannot omit Syden- 
ham, of England, who, more than any modern thinker, devoted 



^4 The Plexus. 

time to the study of the natural history of diseases, giving much 
i;hought to the causation or etiol