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Full text of "Pliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books"



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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 






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PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



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CASE 






PLINY'S 
NATURAL HISTORY. 

IN 

THIRTY-SEVEN BOOKS. 

n ' 

A TRANSLATION 

ON THE BASIS OF THAT BY DR. PHILEMON HOLLAND, 
ED. 1601. 

WITH CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES. 

VOL. I. 




bp tf)e WUcnurtan Club. 



PRINTED FOE THE CLUB 

BY 

GEOKGE BAKCLAY, CASTLE STEEET, LEICESTER SQUARE. 



1847-48. 



184-1 
v.l-3 



PURSUANT to a Resolution to the following effect, passed at a meeting of 
the Committee held on Wednesday, 3rd February, 1847 : 

" The best thanks of the Club are hereby presented to 

JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S., the Superintending Editor of this 
Publication, and Translator of the Work. 

Also to the following Gentlemen, viz. : 

In the Department of Astronomy, 
SIR JOHN F. W. HERSCHEL, BART. F.R.S. 

In the Department of Classical Literature, 

Rev. GEORGE MUNI-ORD, M.A. 
W. G. V. BARNEWALL, Esq. M.A. 
Rev. T. FULCHER, B.A. 

In the Departments of Antiquities and Geography, 

JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S. 
C. J. B. ALDIS, Esq. M.D. 
OCTAVIUS A. FERRIS, Esq. 
CHARLES MOXON, Esq. 

For the Editorial Assistance rendered by them in the preparation of the 
accompanying Work." 



PREFACE, 



INCLUDING A 



MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR. 




fAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS, usually 
called the Elder, to distinguish him from 
his nephew of the same name, who was 
equally eminent in letters, but in a dif- 
ferent field, was born of an illustrious 
family of Verona, in the 23rd year of the Christian era. 
According to the custom of Roman youths, he 
served in the army, where he was honoured with the 
regards of Titus, son of Vespasian, and afterwards 
emperor, to whom he dedicated his great work on the 
" History of Nature." 

To one of his inclinations and tastes, the military 
career was probably little suited ; yet every Roman 
was called on to enter it, whatever department of the 
public service he might afterwards occupy. With the 
army in Germany he acquired distinction. On his 
return to Rome he was enrolled in the College of 
Augurs a post which favoured his philosophic in- 



VI PREFACE. 

quiries ; and he was subsequently appointed Procu- 
rator, or Vice-Governor, in Spain. 

It has been remarked, that none labour more 
strenuously in any favourite pursuit than those whose 
time appears absorbed in the necessary affairs of life ; 
none are so idle as those whose business is slight 
enough to afford leisure for every occupation. Of this 
truth history furnishes no example more striking than 
is visible in the varied pursuits, the diligence, and the 
research of Pliny ; while there can be no doubt also 
but that his public services acquired additional value 
from the wide range which his mind embraced, and 
the rich stores of knowledge which it was his habit to 
accumulate and arrange. 

Such was the spirituality of his nature, that bodily 
requirements much more bodily indulgences seemed 
extinct in him. His relaxation from official business 
was a change of labour. The greater portion of his 
nights was devoted to study ; his very meals were an 
abstraction ; for, lest he should forget the higher aim 
of existence, his amanuensis read to him in their pro- 
gress ; and, instead of walking, he drove in the cha- 
riot his secretary beside him to save time and 
escape distraction from his contemplations. So nume- 
rous and valued were his extracts, remarks, and an- 
notations, that Lartius Lutinius offered the philoso- 
pher a sum equivalent to more than three thousand 
pounds sterling for the possession of them ; but they 
were more nobly bequeathed to his beloved and distin- 
guished nephew. In the vast realms of Nature and 
Art no object was indifferent to him ; in the province 
of the Fine Arts, the accuracy of his judgment and 
the fidelity of his details seemed only to be outmea- 



PREFACE. Vll 

sured by the extent of his acquirement ; and as a his- 
tory, a critique, and a catalogue, nothing more pre- 
cious in letters than his 34th, 35th and 36th books, 
has escaped the ruin in which the fall of the Roman 
empire had nearly involved all of enlightenment that 
had grown up and flourished with it. To his huma- 
nity and scientific curiosity combined, he became one 
of the most memorable martyrs that stand on record. 
The events of the day that closed his mortal career, 
in the 79th year of the Christian era, are minutely and 
touchingly detailed to Tacitus the historian, in one of 
the most elegant of the epistles penned by a nephew 
who was the worthy inheritor of the wealth, the fame, 
and the virtues of his uncle. The body was found 
three days after its destruction by the eruptions of 
Vesuvius, and interred at Misenum, in face of the fleet 
which he had quitted for the prosecution of his phy- 
sical investigations. For the emulation of those who 
delight to 

" Look from nature up to nature's God," 

as the best eulogy that can be pronounced on Pliny 
himself, and, at the same time, as a sentiment evincing 
his nephew's exalted mind, the subjoined extract of 
the memorable letter cannot be too often and too long 
remembered : " Equidem beatos puto, quibus Deo- 
rum datum est, aut facere scribenda, aut scribere 
legenda ; beatissimos vero quibus utrumque." 

No impulse short of an intense love of nature 
could have actuated a man so deeply engaged in the 
high offices of the state to snatch at every fragment of 
his time as his nephew, in a letter to a friend, de- 
scribes him and appropriate it to forming a digest of 



Vlll PREFACE. 

the scattered rays of natural knowledge. The subject 
was scarcely popular with his countrymen ; and its 
materials were to he sifted from Greek writers of 
every school, with a toil and patience which few can 
duly estimate. The abstracts thus made filled one 
hundred and sixty closely written volumes, and though 
the sentiments, or, as we should now term them, the 
theories, of his authors were not a little discordant, he 
was well able to separate their matter from their 
opinions ; and, if sometimes found to have hastily 
adopted hypotheses for facts, it must be remembered 
that there existed then no standard for the test of 
fact that what he had abstracted had the sanction of 
venerable names and that the period of sound criticism 
comes in only when vast stores of facts and incidents 
have been collected ; and Pliny was then the most dili- 
gent accumulator for a riper age. To him belongs 
the glory of having harvested the materials for future 
science. Where attempts at explanation were made, 
occult causes, in the ignorance of experiment, were 
the only resource ; and even the great Galileo took 
refuge in " Nature's abhorrence of a vacuum," for the 
only solution he could give of an operation which now 
admits of such rational explanation. Even the errors 
of these authors are a portion of the " History of 
Nature," and Pliny's record of them becomes valuable, 
where otherwise his narrative tempts only to a smile. 

The light of modern science clears away the mist ; 
yet few, even of ourselves, are privileged, from our 
higher sphere of advancement, to look down con- 
temptuously on the erroneous conjectures or super- 
stitious feelings exemplified in this cyclopaedia of the 
Roman naturalist : for too many such failings are still 



PREFACE. IX 

visible amongst ourselves, and these from a wrong and 
sometimes cherished bias in us, which were only an 
inability to penetrate more deeply in themselves. 

To Pliny's especial honour be it mentioned (and 
instances of the merit will be frequently referred to in 
the notes), wherever a rational explanation of natural 
appearances can be given, he uniformly prefers it to 
the traditionary and the vulgar, however the latter may 
have been interwoven with the religion of the state, to 
which, on other occasions, he paid the homage which 
it required : a practice like this demanded no ordinary 
courage, when it might easily have provoked the 
charge of scepticism and profanity ; and his escape 
from this may not, perhaps, unreasonably be traced to 
the support he obtained for his remarks from Greek 
authors, to whom, in points of speculation, the Romans 
peculiarly deferred. 

By many it was feared, that if what the people 
were accustomed to worship as deities were shewn to 
their understandings as only natural influences, they 
might sink into atheism, and the little restraint winch 
this worship exercised over their morals have been en- 
tirely dissipated. The Rationalism of the philosophers 
thus appeared a formidable evil ; and the prevalence of 
the notion that certain remarkable natural causes pro- 
ductive of great good or great evil, according to our 
limited judgment, were deities themselves, is amply 
illustrated by the fact, that it was triumphantly asked 
of the first Christians to shew their God ; and much 
of the contempt, persecution, and reproach of atheism 
they incurred, may have had its origin in this seeming 
incapacity to conform to this demand. 

To modern eyes, Pliny's mode of conducting his 



X PREFACE. 

investigations has changed its aspect ; and his credu- 
lity is gravely urged against him as a crime which his 
exposure of much error and superstition is not thought 
sufficient to outweigh. Some of the matters which he 
announces, it is true, might well have shaken the 
strongest tendency to belief : and Herodotus, when re- 
porting similar occurrences which had been narrated 
to him, is known to have carefully separated between 
what was given on the authority of others, and on his 
own responsibility. On the other hand, it must be 
borne in mind, that a proneness to belief in the case of 
natural wonders was the feature -of the age ; and had 
these been omitted, the author would have incurred 
censure on this ground an accusation, the reverse, 
doubtless, of what is now advanced, but which would, 
nevertheless, have affected his character for fidelity. 

There is, moreover, reason to believe that he has 
softened down much of the wonderful which he ex- 
tracted from other authors, and the following coinci- 
dence may be regarded as giving confirmation to this 
estimate of Pliny's discretion. When Aulus Gellius 
landed at Brundusium, on his passage from Athens to 
Rome, he found on the book-stalls some bundles of 
Greek works, which he read with eager curiosity. But, 
with every disposition to credit the authorities, he calls 
some of the narratives of Aristeas, Isigonius, Ctesias, 
Onesicritus, Polystephanus, and Hegesias, unheard 
of and incredible. Accordingly, in making extracts 
from these volumes, which bore marks of having been 
much read, it would appear that he passed by those 
incidents which were most absurd, and selected such 
only as he deemed worthy of further inquiry. The 
selections thus made are found remarkably to corre- 



PREFACE. XI 

spond with those which Pliny has introduced in his 
own work. 

Narratives of similar stamp and character gained 
equal credit in Europe during the middle ages : the 
famous traveller, Maundeville, believed what he nar- 
rated, and found, as he expected, readers ready to be- 
lieve him ; and the more so, perhaps, for the marvels 
which the history of his tour contains. Indeed, in the 
infancy of observation, when the Causes of Natural 
Phenomena were little known, so much was seen as to 
render every thing probable, and so little understood, 
that any explanation was alike satisfactory. 

Rapid as is the foregoing sketch of the great natu- 
ralist's life and character, enough, it is hoped, has been 
glanced at to commend the revival of the volume be- 
fore us, and to secure for its author among ourselves a 
reverence as great as is the undying interest given by 
his name to the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, 
which perished with him. 

The following translation may be regarded as that 
of Dr. Philemon Holland, who flourished in the reign 
of Elizabeth, and is the only writer who has given a 
complete rendering of Pliny's works in English. Some 
liberties have been taken with the original translation. 
An attempt has been made to reduce its verbosity, and 
to approximate it more closely to the brevity and terse- 
ness of the Latin text ; while the Editor has been at 
the same time studious of not interfering unnecessarily 
with the simplicity of style by which writers of that day 
were distinguished. The notes are given by various 
members of the Club, to whom application has been 
severally made by the general Editor, according to 
the department in which each may be found most 



Xll 



PREFACE. 



competent. The contributions have received the 
approval of the Committee, and been specially ac- 
knowledged in each volume. 

The first and thirty-third books of Pliny were 
translated by Dr. Bostock in 1828, as specimens of 
a new version, which, but for his death, would in all 
probability have been completed. Of the notes ap- 
pended to these sample chapters, such use has been 
made as subserves the purposes of our republishing 
Pliny in English ; but, in the main, they are found to 
be more critical than explanatory. 



SSternerfan 





Bone Ticket of Admission to the Amphitheatre, found at Pompeii 



THE FIRST BOOK 



NATURAL HISTORY 



BY C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 



The Preface to Vespasian\ his [friend'] C. Plinius 
Secundus sendeth greeting. 

HESE Books, containing the 
History of Nature, which a 
few days since I brought to 
Light (a new work among 
the Romans, your Citizens), 
I purpose by this Epistle of 
mine to present and conse- 
crate unto you, most gentle 
Prince (for this Title 2 ac- 
cordeth fittest unto you, seeing that the Name of 
[Most mighty 3 ] sorteth well with the Age of your 
Father:) which haply might seem boldness and 
presumption in me, but that I know how at other 
Times you were wont to have some good Opinion of 
my light Matters*. Where, by the Way, you must 
give me Leave to soften a little the Verses which 

1 Titus. 8 Suavissimm. 3 Maxim-its. 

" Namque tu solebas, 
Mcas esse aliquid putare nugas" 




14 Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. [BooK 1. 

I borrow of my Tent-fellow, Catullus (to this Term of Camps 1 
you are no Stranger) : for he, as you know well, changing 
the former Syllables of his Verses 2 , one for another, made 
himself somewhat more harsh than he would seem to be 
unto the fine Ears of his familiar Friends, the Veranioli and 
Fabulli. And I would be thought by this my intrusive 
Writing to you, to satisfy one point, which, as you com- 
plained in your Answer of late to another bold Letter of 
mine, I had not performed, that is, that all the World might 
see (as it were upon Record) how the Empire is managed by 
you and your Father equally : and notwithstanding this 
Imperial Majesty whereunto you are called, yet is your 
Manner of conversing with your old Friends affable, and 
the same that always heretofore it had been. For although 
you have triumphed with him for your noble Victories, ful- 
filled the Office of Censor, and also six times that of Consul 3 , 
shared the Authority of Tribune, Patrons, and Protectors of 
the Commons of Rome, together with him : although, I say, 
you have otherwise shewed your noble Heart in honouring 
and gracing both the Court of the Emperor your Father, 
and also the whole State of the Knights and Gentlemen of 
Rome, whilst you were Captain of the Guard, and Grand 
Master of his House and royal Palace (in all which Places 
you demeaned yourself in respect to the Good of the Com- 
monwealth), yet to all your Friends, and especially to my- 
self, you have borne the same Countenance as in former 
Times, when we served under the same Colours, and lodged 
together in one Tent. In all the Greatness to which you are 
elevated, there is no other Change seen in your Person but 
this : That your Power is now commensurate with your Will, 
and you are able now to perform that Good which you have 
ever intended. 

1 Conterranewn. 

2 It seemeth that Pliny read thus in Catullus : 

" Tuputare namque, 
Nugus esse aliquid meas solebas" 
which, indeed, was but an hard composition and couching of the words. 

3 Sexies, or rather Septies; out of Suetonim. 



BOOK I.] Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian . 15 

And however this great Majesty resplendent in you on 
every Side, in regard of those high Dignities, may induce the 
World at large to reverence your Person, yet 1 for my part 
am aided only with the strength of Confidence to shew my 
Duty in a more familiar manner than others : and, therefore, 
this my Boldness you will impute unto your own Courtesy ; 
and if it be a Fault in me, you will seek your Pardon from 
yourself. I have laid Bashful ness aside, but to no Purpose. 
For although your Gentleness and Humanity induce me to 
draw near to your Presence, yet you appear in other re- 
spects in great Majesty : for the Sublimity of your Mind, 
your high Attainments, set me as far behind as if the Lictors 
marched before you. Was there ever any Man, whose 
Words passed from him more powerfully, and who more 
truly might be said to flash forth as Lightning the Force of 
Eloquence ? What Tribune was ever known more effectu- 
ally to move the People with agreeable Language ? How 
admirably you thundered out the Praise of the worthy Acts 
of your Father ! What a Testimony of Love to your Bro- 
ther! How skilful in Poetry! How ingeniously you find 
means to imitate your Brother 1 in this respect 2 ! But who is 
able boldly to give sufficient Estimate of these Gifts ? How 
may any One enter into the due Consideration of them with- 
out Fear of the exact Judgment of your Wit, especially being 
challenged therunto as you are ? For the case of such as 
publish a Work in general is unlike theirs who dedicate it 
by Name to yourself. For had I set forth this my Book 
without any personal Dedication, I might have said, Sir, 
why should a mighty Commander and General 3 busy him- 
self to read such Matters ? These Treatises were written for 
the lower Classes, for rude Husbandmen and Peasants of 
the Country, for the Mass of Artisans, and those who had 
Leisure for studying them. Why should you make yourself 

1 For Domitian Vespasian was reputed an excellent Poet. 

2 The sense of the passage, as seen by supplying the ellipsis of the 
original, is this : " With what testimony of love you set forth the praises 
of your brother to the full." Wern. Club. 

' A Iraperator. 



16 Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. [BooK L 

a Censor of this Work? When I first thought of this Enter- 
prise of mine, I never reckoned you in the Number of those 
Judges that should stoop to pass sentence upon these Writ- 
ings. It is a common case, and incident to Men of deep 
Learning, that their Judgment be rejected in this behalf. 
Even that illustrious Orator, M. Tullius, who for Wit and 
Learning had not his Fellow, useth the Benefit of this 
Liberty : and (whereat we may well marvel) maintaineth the 
Action by an Advocate, taking Example (for his Defence) 
from Lucilius : for in one Part of his Works thus he saith, 
/ wish not the learned Persius to read these Books of mine ; 
but I prefer Lcelius Decimus. Now if such a one as Lucilius, 
who was the first that durst control the Writings of others, 
had reason thus to say ; if Cicero borrowed the same Speech 
in his Treatise of the Republic 1 , how much greater Cause 
have I to decline the Censure of a competent Judge? But 
I am cut off from this refuge, in that I expressly make 
choice of you in this Dedication of my Work : for it is one 
Thing to have a Judge, either selected by Plurality of 
Voices, or cast upon a Man by drawing Lots ; arid another 
Thing to choose and nominate him from all others : and 
there is great Difference between that Provision which we 
make for a Guest solemnly bidden and invited, and the 
sudden Entertainment which is ready for a Stranger who 

1 This work of Cicero, entitled " De Republica," is more than once 
referred to by Pliny. The high standard of morals which it upheld 
caused it to be much respected by the most eminent Fathers of the Latin 
Church : insomuch that it is thought to have suggested to St. Augustine 
the idea of his celebrated work, " De Civitate Dei." During the. dark 
ages, however, the Treatise " De Republica " was so completely lost, that 
upon the revival of letters, not a single manuscript of it could be any 
where discovered. At length, about thirty years since, a large portion of 
it was found by Angelo Ma'i, then Librarian of the Vatican, in a parch- 
ment manuscript. The parchment had been washed, and again used for 
a manuscript ; but the original writing was so far from having been en- 
tirely effaced by the ablution, that the large Roman letters were soon 
rendered legible again by the aid of a peculiar process. The recovered 
portion of this valuable work, being about one-third of the entire Trea- 
tise, was printed in London in one volume, 8vo. 1823. Wern. Cluib. 



BOOK l.J Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. 17 

cometh to our House unlocked for. Cato, that professed 
Enemy of Ambition, who took as great Contentment in 
those Estates and Dignities which he refused as in them 
which he enjoyed, attained to such a good Name of upright- 
ness, that when in the hottest Contention about the Election 
of Magistrates, they that contested for these Offices put into 
his Hands their Money upon Trust, as an Assurance of their 
Integrity and Fidelity in this respect; they professed that they 
did it in Testimony of their Opinion of his Equity and Inno- 
cence : whereupon ensued that noble and memorable Exclam- 
ation of M. Cicero in these Words : " Oh ! happy M. Portius, 
whom no Man would ever venture to solicit to any thing 
contrary to right!" When L. Scipio, surnamed Asiaticus, 
appealed to the Tribunes, and besought their lawful Favour 
(among whom, C. Gracchus was one, a Man whom he took 
for his mortal Enemy), he exclaimed, "That his very Ene- 
mies, if they were his Judges, could not choose but give Sen- 
tence on his Side." Thus every Man maketh him the supreme 
Judge of his Cause, whom himself hath chosen : which Man- 
ner of Choice the Latins call an Appeal (Provocatio). As 
for yourself, who are set in the most eminent Place, and 
endued with the highest Eloquence and deepest Learning, it 
is no Wonder if those who do their Duty unto you approach 
with the utmost Respect and Reverence: in which regard, 
exceeding Care above all Things would be had, that what- 
soever is said or dedicated unto you, may become your Per- 
son, and be worthy your Acceptance. And yet the Gods 
reject not the humble Prayers of country Peasants, yea, and 
of many Nations, who offer nothing but Milk unto them : 
and such as have no Incense, find grace with the Oblation 
of a Cake made only of Meal and Salt ; and never was any 
Man blamed for his Devotion to the Gods, if he offered ac- 
cording to his best Ability. 

I may be more challenged for my inconsiderate Boldness, 
in that I would seem to present these Books unto you, com- 
piled of such slender Matter : for in them can be comprised 
no great Ability (which otherwise in me was ever meagre), 
neither admit they any Digressions, Orations, and Discourses, 



18 Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. [BooK I. 

nor wonderful Incidents and variable Issues ; nor any other 
Circumstances that may be agreeable to rehearse, or pleasant 
to hear. The Nature of all Things in this World, that is to 
say, Matters concerning our ordinary Life, are here deli- 
neated ; and that in barren Terms, without any Show of 
Phrases : and what I have noted concern the commonest 
Points thereof, so that I am to deliver the Matter either 
in rustic, or foreign, nay, even barbarous Language, such 
as may not well be uttered, but with Apology to the Reader. 
Moreover, the Way that I have pursued hath not been 
trodden before by other Writers ; being indeed so strange, 
that no one would willingly travel therein. No Latin Author 
among us hath hitherto ventured upon the same Argument, 
no Grecian whatsoever hath handled all : and that because 
most study rather to pursue Matters of Delight and Plea- 
sure. It may be confessed, that others have made profession 
of doing so, but they have done it with such Subtilty and 
Deepness, that their Efforts lie as if buried in Darkness. I, 
therefore, take upon me to gather a complete Body of Arts 
and Sciences (which the Greeks call lyptuxXcwra/ds/og), that are 
either altogether unknown or have been rendered doubtful 
through too great Refinement of Ingenuity ; other Matters 
are dealt with in such long Discourses, that they are ren- 
dered tedious to the Readers. It is a difficult Enterprise 
to make old Matters new, to give Authority and Credit to 
Novelties, to polish that which is obsolete, to set a Lustre 
upon that which is dim, to grace Things disdained, to 
procure Belief to Matters doubtful, and, in one Word, to 
reduce all to their own Nature. And to make the Attempt 
only, although it be not effected, is a fair and magnificent 
Enterprise. I am confidently of opinion, that the greatest 
Credit belongs to those learned Men who have forced their 
Way through all Difficulties, and have preferred the Profit 
of instructing to the Grace of pleasing, the Gratification of 
mere Desire of pleasing the present Age; and this I have 
aimed at, not in this Work only, but in other of rny Books. 
And I wonder at T. Livius, a very celebrated Writer, who, 
in a Preface to one of his Books of the Roman History, 



BOOK I.] Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. 19 

which he compiled from the Foundation of Rome, thus pro- 
tested : That he had gotten Glory enough by his former 
Writing, and might now be at ease, but that his Mind was 
so little able to abide Repose, that it could not subsist but in 
labour. But, surely, in finishing those Chronicles, he should 
have respected the Glory of a People of Conquerors, who 
had advanced the Honour of the Roman Name, rather than 
displayed his own Praise : his Merit had been the greater to 
have continued his History for Love of the Subject, rather 
than his private Pleasure; to have preferred the Gratification 
of Rome to his own mere Pleasure. As touching myself 
(forasmuch as Domitius Piso saith, " That Books ought to be 
Treasuries, and not bare Writings"), I will be bold to say, 
that in Thirty-six Books I have comprised 20,000 Things 
that are worthy of Consideration, and these I have collected 
out of about 2000 Volumes that I have diligently read (and 
of which there are few that Men otherwise learned have 
ventured to meddle with, for the deep Matter therein con- 
tained), and those written by one hundred several excellent 
Authors ; besides a Multitude of other Matters, which either 
were unknown to our former Writers, or Experience has lately 
ascertained. And yet we cannot doubt but there are many 
Things which we have overlooked : for we are Men, and 
employed in a Multiplicity of Affairs ; and we follow these 
Studies at vacant Times; that is to say, by Night Season 
only ; so that you may know, that to accomplish this we 
have neglected no Time which was due to your Service. 
The Days we assign to your Person ; we sleep only to satisfy 
Nature, contenting ourselves with this Reward, that whilst 
we study (as Varro saith) these Things, we gain so many 
Hours to our Life ; for surely we live then only when we 
are awake. Considering those Occasions and Hindrances, I 
had no Reason to promise much ; but as you have embol- 
dened me to dedicate my Books to you, yourself supply what- 
ever in me is wanting ; not that I place Dependency on the 
Worth of the Work ; so much as that by this Means it will 
be better esteemed, for many Things there be that appear 



20 Pliny s Epistle to 1\ Vespasian. [BooK I. 

the more precious only because they are consecrated in the 
sacred Temples. 

We, indeed, have written of you all your Father, your- 
self, and your Brother, in an adequate Volume, which we 
compiled touching the History of our Times, beginning at 
the Place where Aufidius Bassus ended. If you inquire of 
me, Where that History is ? I answer, That it is long since 
finished, and by this Time is justified and approved by your 
Deeds : otherwise I was determined to leave it unto my 
Heir, and I gave Order that it should be published only 
after my Death, to remove the Suspicion that it had been 
written to obtain some selfish End. And by so doing, I do 
both them a great Favour, who, perhaps, were inclined to 
publish the like Chronicle ; and Posterity, also, who, I well 
know, will compete with us as we have done with our Pre- 
decessors. A sufficient Argument of this my Mind you shall 
have by this, that in the Front of these Books now in Hand, 
I have set down the Names of those Writers whose Help I 
have used in the compiling of them : for I am of Opinion, 
that it is the Part of an honest Man, and one that has a 
Claim to any Modesty, to confess by whom he hath pro- 
fited ; and not as many of those Persons have done, whom I 
have alleged for my Authors. For, to tell you the Truth, in 
conferring them together about this Work of mine, I have 
met with some of our modern Writers, who, Word for Word, 
have copied out whole Books of old Authors, and never 
vouchsafed so much as the Naming of them ; but have taken 
their Labours to themselves. And this they have not done 
in the Spirit to imitate and match them, as Virgil did 
Homer: much less have they shewed the Simplicity and 
Openness of Cicero, who, in his Books on the Common- 
wealth, professeth himself to follow Plato; in his consola- 
tory Epistle written to his Daughter, he saith, " I follow 
Crantor" and Pancetius likewise, in his Treatise concerning 
Offices. Which Volumes of his (as you know well) deserve 
not only to be handled, but read daily, and committed en- 
tirely to Memory. It is the Part of a base and servile Mind 



BOOK I.] Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. 21 

to choose rather to be taken in a Theft, than to bring Home 
borrowed Goods, or to repay a due Debt ; especially when 
the Interest thereof hath gained a Man as much as the 
Principal. 

In the Titles and Inscriptions of Books, the Greeks have 
a happy Art. Thus one has been entitled Kj/ov, whereby 
they would give us to understand of a Honeycomb: others 1 
Kygag A^aXSs/ag, that is to say, the Horn of Plenty ; so that 
whosoever readeth these goodly Titles must hope for some 
great Matters ; and as the Proverb goes, look to drink there 
a Draught of Hen's Milk 2 . You shall have, moreover, their 
Books set out with these glorious Inscriptions ! The Muses, 
The Pandects 3 , Enchiridion 4 , As/^wv 5 , r/vax/<rr/oi/ 6 : so that one 
might even consent to forfeit a Recognisance or Obligation 
in a Court of Law, to turn over the Leaf. But let a Man 
enter into them, and behold, what a Nothing shall he find 
within ! As for our Countrymen, they are gross in Compa- 
rison of them in giving Titles to their Books : for they come 
with their Antiquities, Examples, and Arts ; and those also 
be such Authors as are of finest Invention amongst them. 
Valerius, who (as I take it) was named AntiaSj both for that 
he was a Citizen of Antium, and also because his Ancestors 
were so called, was the first that gave to a Book the Title of 
Lucubratio, or Night Study. Varro terms some of his Satires 
Sesculyxes and Flex'ibulce. Diodorus, among the Greeks, 
laid aside such empty Titles, and entitled his Book, JBiblio- 
theca, or, a Library. Apion 7 , the Grammarian, whom Tiberius 

1 To wit, Helius Melissus. 

3 " Lac gallinaceum summa felicitate olim usurpabatur." STBABO, lib. 
xiv. " Eos, qui Sami fcecunditatem laudabant, ei proverbium accommo- 
dasse tradit, quo aiunt <p'.gi*> ogvduv ><>.." DAUBCHAMPIUS. Wern. Club. 

" Proverbium de re singular! et admodum rara." Note in Valpy, p. 18. 
Wern. Club. 

3 Containing all things, as Tyro Tuttius did. 

4 A Manual to be carried always in Hand. 

5 Meadow. 6 A Table or Index. 

7 Apion, sometimes called Appion, was an Egyptian, but he had a 
great desire to be regarded as of Greek extraction. His works were 
numerous, and among them was one on all the wonders he had seen or 



22 Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. [BOOK I. 

CcBsar called the Cymbal of the World (whereas, indeed, he 
deserved to be rather named the Drum of public Fame), was 
so vainglorious, that he professed to confer Immortality on 
all those whom he mentioned in his Writings. I am not 
ashamed I have not devised a prettier Title for my Book ; 
yet because I would not be thought altogether to condemn 
the Greeks, I am willing to be regarded in this Behalf like 
those excellent Masters in Greece for Painting and Statuary, 
whom you shall find in these Reports of mine, to have enti- 
tled their rare and perfect Pieces of Work (which the more 
we look upon, the more we admire) with Half-Titles and im- 
perfect Inscriptions, in this Manner : Apelles worked at this 
Picture*: or,Polycletus undertook this Image: as if they were 
but begun and never finished, and laid out of their Hands : 
which was done (no doubt) to this End, that for all the 
Diversity of Men's Judgments scrutinising their Work, yet 
the Artificer thereby had Recourse to an Apology, as if he 
meant to have amended any Thing therein amiss, in Case he 
had not been prevented. These noble Workmen, therefore, 

heard of in Egypt. It seems to have been his practice to regard every 
thing in proportion to the wonders it would enable him to relate. He is 
the sole authority for some curious facts in Natural History ; which Pliny 
seems to have taken from him. Aulus Gellius admits that he was prone 
greatly to embellish the truth ; and Josephus has given evidence of his 
emptiness and scurrility, which he poured out abundantly against the 
Jews, to whom he bore a mortal antipathy. He had an opportunity of 
displaying this in an address before the Emperor Caligula, when he repre- 
sented their refusal to worship him as a god as a proof of their disaffec- 
tion to his person and government ; by which he excited the indignation 
of the emperor against the illustrious Philo and his companions. His 
notoriety for reviling and noisy opposition was such as to cause his name 
to be selected by a Christian writer of the third century, who assumed 
the name of Clement of Rome, as the fictitious opponent of St. Peter, in 
a disputation concerning the Christian religion : as mentioned by Eusebius 
and Lardner. His conceit appears from what Pliny says of him ; and 
it would have been to him the deepest mortification, could he have been 
told that he would only be known to posterity through the mention made 
of him by his opponents. He is sometimes called Plistonicus and Poly- 
histor. Wern. Club. 
1 Apelles faciebat. 



BOOK I.] Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. 23 

shewed great Modesty, that the Inscriptions on their Works 
were as if they had been their last Pieces, and their Perfec- 
tion was hindered by their Death : for there were not known 
( I believe ) above three which had their absolute Titles 
written upon them in this Form : Ille fecit, or, This Apelles 
finished : and those Pictures I will specify in the proper 
Place. By which it appeared evidently, that the said three 
Pictures were so fully finished, that the Workman was 
highly satisfied with their Perfection, and feared the Censure 
of no Man: no Marvel, then, if all three were so much 
admired throughout the World, and every Man desired to 
be Master of them. 

For myself, I confess that many more Things may be 
added, not to this Story alone, but to all the Books that I 
have published before : which I say, because I would antici- 
pate those Fault-finders and Scourgers 1 of Homer (for surely 
that is their very Name) ; because I hear say there be certain 
Stoic Philosophers, professed Logicians, and Epicureans also 
(for at the Hands of Critics I never looked for any other), 
who are in Labour to be delivered of somewhat against my 
Books which I have published on Grammar : and the Space 
of Ten Years has produced nothing but Abortion, when the 
Elephant is not so long in producing her young one. But 
this does not trouble me ; for I am not ignorant that a 
Woman wrote against Theophrastus*, though he was a Man 
of such Eloquence that from thence he obtained his divine 
Name, Theophrastus : from whence arose this Proverb, "Then 
go choose a Tree to hang thyself." 3 I cannot refrain, but I 

1 Homeromastiges. 

* Her name was Leontium, and she studied philosophy under Epi- 
curus, where she became more celebrated for her talents than her virtue. 
The elegancy of her style is praised by Cicero. Wern. Club. 

3 There is a passage in Plutarch's " Life of Antony," which shews how 
lamentably the antients were addicted to the crime of suicide, and at the 
same time illustrates this proverb. It is thus translated by Langhorne : 
" Once, in an assembly of the people, he (Timon of Athens) mounted the 
rostrum, and the novelty of the thing occasioned an universal silence and 
expectation : at length he said, ' People of Athens, there is a fig-tree in 
my yard, on which many worthy citizens have hanged themselves ; and 



24 Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian. [BoOK I. 

must set down the very Words of Cato the Censor, so perti- 
nent to this purpose ; whereby it may appear, that even 
Cato himself, who wrote of Military Discipline, who had 
been trained to War under Scipio Africanus, or rather, in- 
deed, under Hannibal; who, in the end, could not endure 
Africanus himself, but was able to control him in martial 
Affairs ; and who, besides having the Conduct, as Imperator, 
of the Roman Army, achieved the Superiority over his Ene- 
mies in the Field, and returned with Victory : this Cato 
could not avoid such Slanderers ; but knowing that there 
would be many of them ready to purchase to themselves 
some Reputation by reproving the Knowledge and Skill of 
others, brake out into a certain Speech against them : and 
what was it ? "I know well" (says he, in that Book) "that if 
these Writings be published to the World, many will step 
forth to cavil at them, and those soonest who are themselves 
void of all Praise. But I let their Words flow by." It was 
well said by Plancus, when being informed that Asinius 
Pollio was framing certain Orations against him, which 
should be published either by himself or his Children, after 
the Decease of Plancus, that they might not be answered by 
him ; he remarked : " That none but Bugbears 1 fight with 
the Dead :" with which Word he gave those Orations such a 
Rebuff, that (by the Judgment of the Learned) none were 



as I have determined to build on the spot, I thought it necessary to 
give this public notice, that such as choose to have recourse to this tree 
for the aforesaid purpose, may repair to it before it is cut down.'" 
Wem. Club. 

1 Bugbears. Larvae. It was supposed that the soul of man, when 
freed from the bonds of the body, and not obliged to perform its func- 
tions, became a kind of demon, and this was denominated generally 
Lemur. Of these Lemures, those who were kind to their families, and 
preserved them in peace, were called Lares familiar es, or domestic Lares; 
but those who, for punishment of their crimes committed during life, 
were condemned to continual wandering, without finding a place of rest, 
frightening good men and plaguing the wicked, were denominated Larvce. 
The sarcasm consisted in comparing Asinius Pollio to such a perturbed 
spirit. In the singular number, Larva signifies a mask, used to terrify 
children. Wern. Club. 



BOOK I.] Pliny s Epistle to T. Vespasian, 



25 



accounted more Impudent than they. Therefore, feeling 
myself secure against these Busy-bodies, (and verily Cato 
hath given such Fellows a proper Name when he called 
them Vitilitigatores, by a Term elegantly compounded of 
Vices and Quarrels: for to say a Truth, what do they else 
but pick Quarrels and make Brawls?) I will proceed in 
my intended Purpose. 

To conclude my Epistle : knowing that for the Good of 
the Commonwealth you ought to be spared in any private 
Business of your own, and especially in perusing these long 
Volumes of mine ; to prevent such a Trouble, therefore, I 
have adjoined to this Epistle, and prefixed before these 
Books, the Summary or Contents of every one : and care- 
fully have I endeavoured, that you should not need to read 
them throughout to ascertain their Contents ; whereby alt 
others also, after your Example, may ease themselves of the 
like Labour: and as any Man is desirous to know this or 
that, he may readily find in what Place to meet with the 
same. This Plan I learned of Valerius Sorranus, one of our 
own Latin Writers, who hath done the like before me in 
those Books which he entitled 




Brass coin of T. Vespasian, in the possession of Mr. Coticft. 



IN THE SECOND BOOK 



IS CONTAINED THE 



DISCOURSE OF THE WORLD, OF CELESTIAL IMPRESSIONS AND 

METEORS, AS ALSO OF THOSE THAT APPEAR IN THE 

AIR, AND UPON EARTH. 



CHAP. 

1 . Whether the World be limited ? 

and whether there be but one ? 

2. The Form of the World. 

3. The Motion of Heaven. 

4. Why the World is called Mun- 

dus? 

5. Of the Four Elements. 

6. Of the Seven Planets. 

7. Concerning God. 

8. The Nature of the fixed Stars 

and Planets : their Revolution. 

9. The Nature of the Moon. 

10. The Eclipse of Sun and Moon: 

also of the Night. 

11. The Magnitude of Stars. 

12. The divers Discoveries of Men 

and their Observations of the 
Celestial Bodies. 

13. Of Eclipses. 

14. The Motion of the Moon. 

15. General Rules concerning Pla- 

nets and Lights. 

16. The Reason why the same 

Planets seem higher or lower 
at sundry times. 

17. General Rules concerning the 

Planets. 

18. What is the Cause that Planets 

change their Colours ? 

19. The Course of the Sun: his Mo- 

tion : and whence proceedeth 
the Inequality of Days. 

20. Why Lightnings are assigned 

to Jupiter. 



CHAP. 

21. The Distances between the 

Planets. 

22. The Harmony of Stars. 

23. The Geometry of the World. 

24. Of Stars appearing suddenly. 

25. Of Comets and other prodi- 

gious Appearances in the 
Sky : their Nature, Situa- 
tion, and Kinds. 

26. The Opinion of Hipparchus of 

the Stars, Torches, Lamps, 
Pillars or Beams of Fire, 
burning Darts, Gapings of 
the Sky: with Instances. 

27. Strange Colours appearing in 

the Sky. 

28. Flames seen in the Sky. 

29. Circles or Garlands in the Sky. 

30. Of Celestial Circles and Gar- 

lands of short Duration. 

31. Of many Suns. 

32. Of many Moons. 

33. Of Nights as light as Day. 

34. Of Meteors resembling fiery 

Shields. 

35. A wonderful Appearance in 

the Sky. 

36. The extraordinary Shooting of 

Stars. 

37. Of the Stars named Castor and 

Pollux. 

38. Of the Air. 

39. Of certain set Times and Sea- 

sons. 



Contents of the Second Book. 



27 



CHAP. 

40. The Power of the Dog- Star. 

41. The Influences of Stars accord- 

ing to the Seasons and De- 
grees of the Signs. 

42. The Causes of Rain, Wind, and 

Clouds. 

43. Of Thunder and Lightning. 

44. Whereupon cometh the Re- 

doubling of the Voice, called 
Echo. 

45. Of Winds again. 

46. Considerations on the Nature 

of Winds. 

47. The Kinds of Winds. 

48. Of sudden Blasts. 

49. Other strange Kinds of Tem- 

pests. 

50. In what Regions there fall no 

Thunderbolts. 

5 1 . Divers Sorts of Lightnings, and 

wondrous Accidents by them 
occasioned. 

52. The Observations [of the Tus- 

cans in old Time] about 
Lightning. 

53. Of causing Lightning. 

54. General Rules concerning 

Lightning. 

55. What Things are not struck 

by Lightning. 

56. Of monstrous Showers of 

Milk, Blood, Flesh, Iron, 
Wool, Brick, and Tile. 

57. The rattling of Armour : and 

the Sound of Trumpets heard 
from the Sky. 

58. Of Stones falling from the 

Sky. 

59. Of the Rainbow. 

60. Of Hail, Snow, Frost, Mists, 

and Dew. 

61. Of Shapes represented in the 

Clouds. 

62. The particular Properties of 

the Sky in certain Places. 

63. The Nature of the Earth. 

64. The Figure of the Earth. 



CHAP. 

65. Of the Antipodes: and whe- 

ther there be such. Also, of 
the Roundness of the Water. 

66. How the Water resteth upon 

the Earth. 

67. Of Seas and Rivers of Naviga- 

tion. 

68. What Parts of the Earth be 

habitable. 

69. That the Earth is in the Midst 

of the World. 

70. Whence proceedeth the In- 

equality in the Rising of the 
Stars. Of the Eclipse : where 
it is, and why. 

71. The Reason of Daylight upon 

Earth. 

72. A Discourse thereof according 

to the Gnomon : also of the 
first Sun-dial. 

73. Where and when no Shadows 

are cast. 

74. Where the Shadows fall oppo- 

site twice in the Year. 

75. Where the Days are longest, 

and where shortest. 

76. Likewise of Dials. 

77. The divers Observations and 

Acceptations of the Day. 

78. Reasons of the Difference of 

Nations. 

79. Of the Earthquake. 

80. Of Openings in the Earth. 

81. Signs of an Earthquake. 

82. Helps against approaching 

Earthquakes. 

83. Strange Wonders seen only 

once in the Earth. 

84. Miraculous Accidents of Earth- 

quakes. 

85. In what Parts the Seas went back 

86. Islands appearing new out of 

the Sea. 

87. What Islands have thus shewed, 

and at what Times. 

88. Into what Lands the Seas have 

forcibly broken. 



28 



Contents of the Second Book. 



CHAP. 

89. What Islands have been joined 

to the Continent. 

90. What Lands Jmve become all 

Sea. 

91. Of Lands that have been swal- 

lowed up of themselves. 

92. What Cities have been over- 

flowed by the Sea. 

93. Wonderful Things of Lands. 

94. Of Lands that always suffer 

Earthquake. 

95. Of Islands that float continu- 

ally. 

96. In what Countries it never 

raineth : also, of Miracles, as 
well of the Earth as other 
Elements, accumulated to- 
gether. 

97. The Reason of the Sea- tides, 

as well ebbing as flowing, 
and where the Sea floweth 
extraordinarily. 



CHAP. 

98. Wonderful Things in the Sea. 

99. The Power of the Moon over 

Sea and Land. 

100. The Power of the Sun : and 

why the Sea is salt. 

101. Also of the Nature of the 

Moon. 

102. Where the Sea is deepest. 

103. Remarkable Observations of 

the Waters, of Fountains, 
and Rivers. 

104. Remarkable Things in Fire 

and Water jointly together : 
also of Maltha. 

105. Of Naphtha. 

106. Of Places that burn continu- 

ally. 

107. Wonders of Fire alone. 

108. The Dimension of the Earth, 

in length and breadth. 

109. The harmonical Circumfer- 

ence of the World. 



In Sum, there are in this Book, of Histories and Observations, Four 
Hundred and Eighteen in Number. 



LATIN AUTHORS ABSTRACTED IN THIS BOOK : 

M. Varro, Sulpitius Gallus, Tiberius Ccesar the Emperor, Q. Tubero, 
Tullius Tiro, L. Piso, T. Livius, Cornelius Nepos, Statins, Sebosus, Ccelius 
Antipater, Fabianus, Antias, Mutianus, Cecina (who wrote of the Tuscan 
Learning), Tarquitius, L. Aquila, and Sergius Paulus ! . 

FOREIGN AUTHORS : 

Plato, Hipparchus, Timceus, Sosigenes, Petosiris, Necepsus, Pythagoras, 
Posidonius, Anaximander, Epigenes, Gnomonicus, Euclides, Cceranus Philo- 
sophus, Eudoxus, Democritus,Crisodemus, Thrasyllus, Serapion, Diccearchus, 
Archimedes, Onesicritus, Eratosthenes, Pytheas, Herodotus, Aristoteles, 
Ctesias, Artemidorus Ephesius, Isidorus Characenus, Theopompus. 

1 Sergius Paulus. There can be no doubt that this writer on Natural 
Philosophy whose works are lost is the same person that is mentioned 
in the 13th Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles; and from the nature of 
his pursuits we are enabled to perceive the reason why, at one time, he 
was the patron of Elymas the Sorcerer. The greater portion of the Im- 
postors- of those days were accustomed to found their claims to regard on 
their acquaintance with some branches of Philosophy, in which Sergius 
Paulus was an inquiring student. We do not find the name of the Sorcerer 
among the numerous authors referred to by Pliny. Wern. Club. 



THE SECOND BOOK 



HISTORY OF NATURE 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 




CHAPTER I. 
Whether the World be finite, and but one. 

HE World 1 , and that which, by another Name. 
Men have thought Good to call Heaven 
(under the Compass of which all Things are 
covered), we ought to believe, in all Reason, to 
be a Divine Power, eternal, immense, without 
Beginning, and never to perish. What is beyond the Compass 

1 The Author manifests a philosophic, as well as pious spirit, in begin- 
ning his work with a reference to Divine power ; but in giving this idea 
of the nature of the world, and representing it as a separate and inde- 
pendent divinity, he adopts an ancient speculative opinion derived from the 
Oriental philosophy, in preference to the popular opinion of his country, 
which is selected by Ovid in his Introduction to the " Metamorphoses;" and 
which ascribed the creation of the world to an already existing or eternal 
God " whichever God he was :" though not to the highest in rank of the 
Heathen Mythology ; for the latter is represented as descended from pre- 
viously existing, or humanly deified, parents, and consequently was of a 
subsequent age. The knowledge of the Great Eternal having been left 



30 History of Nature. [ BOOK II. 

thereof, neither is it fit for Men to search, nor within Man's 
Understanding to conceive. Sacred it is, everlasting, infi- 
nite, all in all, or rather itself all and absolute : limited, yet 
seeming infinite : in all Motions, certain ; though in Appear- 
ance uncertain : comprehending in itself all both without 
and within : Nature's Work, and yet very Nature itself. It 
is Madness that some have thought in their Mind to mea- 
sure it ; yea, and durst in Writing set down the Dimensions 
thereof: that others again, by Occasion hereupon taken, 
or on this founded, have taught, That there are Worlds in- 
to slip from the minds of learned Heathens, through their speculations 
into occult causes, and the wrapping up of religion from the inquiries of 
the vulgar, as being too high for their comprehension, they were led to 
the conception of what, in fact, was no more than a mere abstraction, and 
destitute of all proper personality : a simple, unconscious fatality, with 
little volition : and, in truth, no better than a diffusive aether, or, as it 
would now be denominated, galvanic influence. The philosophy of 
Pythagoras was derived from the East; "But it was this," says Lord 
Bacon (" Natural History," 10th century), " which did first plant a mon- 
strous imagination, which afterwards was, by the school of Plato and 
others, watered and nourished. It was, that the world was one, entire, 
perfect, living creature ; insomuch as Apollonius of Tyana, a Pythagorean 
prophet, affirmed that the ebbing and flowing of the sea was the respira- 
tion of the world, drawing in water as breath, and putting it forth again. 
They went on, and inferred, that if the world were a living creature, it 
had a soul and spirit ; which also they held, calling it ' spiritus mundij the 
spirit or soul of the world. By which they did not intend God (for they 
did admit of a deity besides), but only the soul, or essential form, of the 
universe. This foundation being laid, they might build upon it what 
they would; for in a living creature, though never so great (as, for 
example, in a great whale), the sense and the effects of any one part of 
the body instantly make a transcursion throughout the whole body. So 
that by this they did insinuate, that no distance of place, nor want nor 
indisposition of matter, could hinder magical operations ; but that, for 
example, we mought here in Europe have sense and feeling of that which 
was done in China ; and likewise we mought work any effect without and 
against matter; and this not holden by the co-operation of angels or 
spirits, but only by the unity and harmony of nature." This was the 
occult cause, to which all the otherwise unaccountable operations of 
nature might easily be referred. We have a curious instance of such a 
method of explanation at the end of the ninety-third chapter of this book. 
Wern.Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 3 1 

numerable : as if we are to believe so many Natures as there 
are Heavens : or if all were reduced to one, yet there should 
be so many Suns and Moons, with the Rest also of those 
immeasurable and innumerable Stars in that one : as though 
in this plurality of Worlds we should not always meet with 
the same Question still at every Turn of our Thought, for 
Want of some End to rest upon : or, if this infiniteness could 
possibly be assigned to Nature, the Work-mistress of all ; 
the same might not be understood more easily in that one 
Heaven which we see ; so great a Work as it is. Now surely 
it is more than Madness to quit this, and to keep seeking 
without, as if all Things within were well and clearly known 
already : as if any Man could take the Measure of another 
Thing, who knoweth not his own : or the Mind of Man 
might see those Things which the World itself may not 
receive. 

CHAPTER II. 
Of the Figure of the World. 

THAT the Form of the World is round 1 , in the Figure of 
a perfect Globe, its Name in the first Place, and the Consent 
of all Men agreeing to call it in Latin Orbis (a Globe), as 
also many natural Reasons, evidently shew. For not only 
because such a Figure every Way falleth and bendeth upon 
itself, is able to uphold itself, includeth and containeth itself, 
having need of no joints for this purpose, as finding in any 
Part thereof no End or Beginning : or because this Form 
agreeth best to that Motion, whereby continually it must 
turn about (as hereafter will appear) : but also because the 
Eyesight doth approve the same ; because, look which Way 
soever you will, it appeareth convex, and even on all sides; 
a Thing not incident to any other Figure. 

1 That it was an oblate spheroid, flattened at the poles, was little 
likely to be known by observers, however acute, whose opinion of the 
uninhabitable nature of the frigid and torrid zones would lead them to 
limit their practical inquiries to the temperate. The good sense of Pliny 
induced him to prefer the opinion of the rotundity of the globe, to that of 
Epicurus, that it was an extended plane. Wern. Club. 



32 History oj Nature. [^ OOK ** 

CHAPTER III. 
The Motion of the World. 

THAT the World thus framed, in a continued Circuit, 
with unspeakable Swiftness turneth round in the Space of 
four-and-twenty Hours, the ordinary Rising and Setting of 
the Sun leaves no Room to doubt. Whether it being in 
Height exceedingly great, and therefore the Sound of so 
huge a Frame, whilst it is whirled about unceasingly, cannot 
be heard with our Ears, I cannot easily imagine : no more, 
by Hercules ! than 1 may vouch the Ringing of the Stars that 
are driven round therewith, and roll their own Spheres : or 
determine, that as the Heaven movetb, it represents a plea- 
sant and incredibly sweet Harmony : although to us within, 
by Day and Night, it seemeth to roll on in Silence. That 
there is imprinted on it the Figures of living Creatures, and 
of all Kinds of Things besides without Number, as also that 
the Body thereof is not all over smooth and slippery (as we 
see in Birds' Eggs), which excellent Authors have termed 
Tenerum, is shewn by Arguments ; for by the Fall of natural 
Seeds of all Things from thence, and those for the most Part 
mixed one with another, there are produced in the World, 
and in the Sea especially, an immense Number of monstrous 
Shapes. Besides this, our Sight testifieth the same ; for in 
one Place there appeareth the Resemblance of a Chariot, in 
another of a Bear, or a Bull, and of a Letter (A), and prin- 
cipally the middle Circle over our Head, where it is more 
white than the Rest. 

CHAPTER IV. 
Why the World is called Mundus. 

FOR my own Part, I arn ruled by the general Consent of 
all Nations. For, the World, which the Greeks, by the 
Name of Ornament, called Ko<r/y,o$, we, for the perfect Neat- 
ness and absolute Elegance thereof, have termed Mundus. 
And we have named the Sky Calum, because it is engraven, 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 33 

according as M. Varro interpreteth it. Arid the Order of 
Things therein contributes to this, and especially the defined 
Circle called Signifer, or the Zodiac, divided by the Forms 
of Twelve living Creatures, through which is the Sun's Track ; 
preserving the same Course for so many Ages. 

CHAPTER V. 
Of the four Elements l . 

I SEE no doubt regarding the Number of the Elements, 
that they are four. The highest, Fire : from whence are 
those bright Eyes of so many shining Stars. The next, 
Spirit, which the Greeks and our Countrymen by one Name 
called Air : this Element is vital, and it soon passeth through 
all, and is intrinsically mixed in the Whole : by the Power 
whereof, the Earth hangeth suspended in the midst, together 
with the fourth Element, of Water. Thus, by a mutual em- 
bracing of each other, divers Natures are linked together : 
and so the light Elements are restrained by the heavier, that 
they do not fly off: and, on the contrary, the massier are 
held up, that they fall not down, by means of the lighter, 
which seek to mount aloft. So, through an equal Endeavour 
to the Contrary, each of them holds its own, bound as it 
were by the restless Circuit of the World itself: which, run- 
ning evermore upon itself, the Earth falleth to be lowest, 
and in the Middle of the Whole : and the same hanging 
steadily by the Pole of the Universe, poiseth those Ele- 
ments by which it hangeth. Thus it alone resteth un- 
movable, whilst the whole Frame of the World turneth 

1 The idea here conveyed of the existence of four elements, which 
enclose each other, each heavier one in succession subsiding below the 
other, is more fully expressed by Ovid, in his account of the creation 
of the world at the beginning of the first book of his " Metamorphoses." 
The opinion was generally entertained, of these elements being the con- 
stituents of all things, until modern chemical analysis demonstrated that 
themselves are compounded of other and more simple elements. Yet 
the language of the ancient opinion has not altogether ceased from use, 
even at the present time. Wern. Club. 

C 



34 History of Nature. [BoOK II. 

about it : and as it is united by all, so all of them rest upon 
the same. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Of the seven Planets. 

BETWEEN the Earth and Sky, there hang in the Air above- 
named, seven Stars, divided one from another at distinct 
Distances ; and these, on account of their variable Motion, 
we call Wandering Planets ; whereas, indeed, none wander 
less than they. In the midst of them the Sun taketh his 
Course, as being the greatest and most powerful of all : the 
very Ruler, not of Times and Seasons only, and of the Earth, 
but also of the Stars and Sky itself. We ought to believe 
this Sun 1 to be the very Life and (to speak more plainly) the 
Soul of the whole World, and the principal Governance of 
Nature; and, considering his Operations, nothing less than a 
divine Power. He it is that giveth Light to all Things, and 
scatters their Darkness : he hideth the other Stars ; he or- 
dereth the Seasons in their alternative Course ; he tempereth 
the Year, which ariseth ever fresh again for the Good of the 
World. He disperseth the Sadness of the Sky, and cleareth 
the Cloudiness of the Mind of Man ; to other Stars, likewise, 
he lendeth his own Light. Most excellent and glorious he 
is, as seeing all, and hearing all ; as, I see, is the Opinion of 
Homer* (the Prince of Learning) regarding him alone. 

1 We find the ascription of Divinity to be the last resource in ex- 
plaining the operation of a hidden cause in nature. A false divinity was, 
therefore, the foundation of errors in philosophy ; and the latter again 
reacted on the former. Wern. Club. 

3 Pliny here refers to a passage in the eleventh hook of the " Odys- 
sey," where Ulysses descends into Hell, and meets with Tiresias, who, in 
recounting the future fortunes of the hero, says : " You shall find feeding 
the oxen and fat sheep of the sun, who sees and hears all things:" or, 
more diffusively, by Pope ; where 

u Graze numerous herds along the verdant shores ; 
Though hunger press, yet fly the dangerous prey ; 
The herds are sacred to the god of day, 
Who all surveys with his extensive eye, 
Above, below, on earth and in the sky." Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 35 

CHAPTER VII. 
Of God. 

I SUPPOSE, therefore, that to seek after any Shape of God 1 , 
and to assign a Form and Image to him, is a Proof of Man's 
Folly. For God, whosoever he be (if haply there be any other, 
but the World itself), and in what Part soever resident, all 
Sense He is, all Sight, all Hearing : He is the whole of the Life 
and of the Soul, all of Himself. And to believe that there be 
Gods innumerable, and those according to Men's Virtues and 
Vices, as Chastity, Concord, Understanding, Hope, Honour, 
Clemency, Faith ; or (as Democritus was of Opinion) that 
there are two Gods only, that is, Punishment and Benefit : 
these Conceits render Men's idle Negligence the greater. But 
frail and wearisome mortal Men, remembering their own 
Infirmity, have digested these Things apart, to the End that 
each one might from thence choose to worship that whereof 
he stood most in need. And hence it is, that in different 
Nations we find the Gods named diversely : and in the same 
Region there are innumerable Gods. The infernal Powers, 
likewise, and Diseases, yea, and many Plagues, have been 
ranged in Divisions, and reckoned for Gods ; which, with 

1 In this chapter the author openly asserts his disbelief of the truth of 
the established system of religion of his country ; and his manner of doing 
this sufficiently shews the confidence he felt, of finding sympathy in his 
scepticism among the learned and refined classes of society. This system 
was, indeed, singularly destitute of evidence ; and the reasons he gives 
for his disbelief shew it to have been as absurd to the eye of examination 
as it was unsupported by argument. That the chief deities of the Hea- 
then were no more than deceased men who had benefited the world in 
their lives, or at least acquired human respect, is asserted by many other 
ancient authors ; but it is to be regretted that the author should so far 
join in the error as from it to find occasion for thereby mixing up with 
it the flattery of a court. The treatise of Cicero, " On the Nature of the 
Gods," and the remarks of Pliny, are proofs that the ancient Heathens 
were not slow to discern the errors of the popular system of religion, 
though they were incapable of discovering or appreciating the true. 
Wern. Club. 



36 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

trembling Fear, we have desired to pacify. This Superstition 
hath caused a Fane to be dedicated to Fever, in the Palatine 
Mount, by Order of the State ; and likewise an Altar to 
Orbona, near the Temple of the Lares: besides another 
erected to Bad Fortune on the Esquiline. By this it may be 
conceived that there are a greater Number of Gods in Hea- 
ven than of Men upon Earth, since every one makes as many 
Gods as he pleases, fitting himself with Junoes and Genii for 
his Patrons. There are certain Nations that account Beasts, 
and even some filthy Things, for Gods ; yea, and many other 
Matters more shameful to be spoken : swearing by stinking 
Meats, by Garlic, and such-like. But, surely, to believe 
that Gods have contracted Marriage, and that in so long a 
Time no Children should be born to them : also that some 
are aged, and ever grey-headed : others, again, young and 
always Children : that they be black of Complexion, winged, 
lame, hatched of Eggs, living and dying on each alternate 
Day ; are mere childish Fooleries. But it exceedeth all Im- 
pudency to imagine Adulteries among them : and presently, 
also, scolding, and Malice ; and more than that, how there 
be Gods that are Patrons of Theft and Wickedness. He is 
a God to a Man that helpeth Him : and this is the true Way 
to everlasting Glory. In this Way went the Romans in old 
Time : and in this Track, at this Day, goeth, with heavenly 
Pace, Vespasian Augustus, with his Children ; the most 
mighty Ruler of the whole World : relieving the afflicted 
State of the Empire. And this is the most ancient Manner 
of Requital to such Benefactors, that they should be enrolled 
with the Gods. And hereof came the Names as well of all 
other Gods, as of the Stars (which I have mentioned before), 
in Recognisance of Men's good Deserts. As for Jupiter and 
Mercury, and others ranged among the Gods, who doubteth 
that they were called otherwise among themselves ? and who 
confesseth not how these be celestial Denominations, to ex- 
press and interpret their Nature ? 

To suppose that the sovereign Power, whatsoever it is, 
should exercise Care over Mankind, is ridiculous. For can 
we choose but believe that the Godhead must be polluted 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 37 

with so base and manifold a Ministry ? And hardly can it 
be judged, whether it be better for Mankind to believe that 
the Gods have Regard of us, or that they have none ; con- 
sidering that some Men have no Respect and Reverence for 
the Gods, and others so much that their Superstition is a 
Shame to them. These are devoted to them by foreign Cere- 
monies .- they wear their Gods upon their Fingers in Rings, 
yea, they worship Monsters : they forbid some Meats ; and 
yet they devise others. They impose upon them hard 
Charges, riot suffering them to rest and sleep in quiet. They 
choose neither Marriages, nor Children, nor any one Thing 
else, but by the Allowance of sacred Rites. Others are so 
godless, that in the very Capitol they use Deceit, and for- 
swear themselves even by the Thunder of Jupiter. And as 
some speed well with their Irreligion, so others suffer from 
their own holy Ceremonies. 

Between these Opinions, Men have found out a Medium 
of Divine Power, to the End that there should be a still more 
uncertain Conjecture regarding God. For throughout the 
whole World, in every Place, at all Times, and in all Men's 
Mouths, Fortune alone is called upon : she only is named ; 
she alone is blamed and accused. None but she is thought 
upon ; she only is praised, she only is rebuked ; yea, and 
worshipped with railing : and even when she is taken to be 
mutable : and of the most sort supposed also to be blind : 
roving, inconstant, uncertain, variable, and favouring the 
Unworthy : whatever is spent and lost, whatever is gotten : A 
and in all Men's Accounts she makes up the Book. Even 
the very Chance of Lots is taken for a God, by which God 
himself is shewn to be uncertain. 

There is another Sort that reject Fortune, but attribute 
Events to their Stars, and the ascendant of their Nativity : 
affirming that the same shall ever happen which once hath 
been decreed by God : so that he for ever after may remain 
at Rest. And this Opinion now takes deep Root, insomuch 
as both the learned and the ignorant Multitude agree to it. 

1 " Won and gotten," to balance " spent and lost." 



38 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

From hence proceed the Admonitions of Lightnings, the 
Foreknowledge by Oracles, the Predictions of Aruspices, 
yea, and other contemptible Things, as Auguries of Sneezing, 
and stumbling with the Foot. Divus Augustus Ccesar hath 
recorded that his left-foot Shoe was untowardly put on be- 
fore the right, on that very Day when he had like to have 
suffered in a Mutiny among his Soldiers. 

Thus all these Things entangle silly Mortals, so that this 
only point remaineth certain that Nothing is certain : nei- 
ther is there any Thing more wretched and proud than 
Man. For all living Creatures beside take Care only for 
their Food : wherein Nature's Goodness of itself is sufficient : 
which one Point is to be preferred before all good Things 
whatsoever, inasmuch as they never think of Glory, Riches, 
Ambition, nor, beyond all the rest, of Death. However, the 
Belief that in these Matters the Gods have care of Men's 
Estate, is profitable to the Course of Life : as also that the 
Punishment of Malefactors will come, though late (whilst 
God is busily occupied in so huge a Frame of the World), 
but that it never misseth in the End : and that Man was not 
made so near in Degree unto God, for this, that he should 
be almost as base as the brute Beasts. Moreover, the chief 
Comfort that Man hath, for his Imperfections in Nature, is 
this, that even God himself cannot do all Things. For nei- 
ther is He able to work his own Death, if even He desired it, 
as He hath given to Man as his best Gift when he is weary 
of the Miseries of his Life ; nor endow Mortals with ever- 
lasting Life ; nor recall the Dead to Life again ; nor bring to 
pass that one who lived did not live ; nor he that bore 
honourable Offices, has not borne them. Nay, He hath no 
Power over Things past, save only Oblivion : no more than 
He is able to effect (to come with Arguments to prove our 
Fellowship therein with God) that twice ten should not make 
twenty : and many similar Things. Whereby is evidently 
proved the Power of Nature, and how it is she only which we 
call God. I thought it not impertinent thus to digress to 
these Points, by Reason of ordinary Questions regarding the 
Essence of God. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 39 



CHAPTER VIII. 
Of the Nature of Planets, and their Circuit. 

LET us return now to the Rest of Nature's Works. The 
Stars, which we said were fixed in the World, are not (as the 
common Sort thinketh) assigned to every one of us ; namely, 
the bright for the rich ; the less for the poor : the dim for 
the weak and feeble : neither shine they out more or less, 
according to the Fortune of every one, nor arise they each 
one together with that Person unto whom they are appro- 
priated ; and die likewise with the same : nor yet as they set 
and fall, do they signify that any Body is dead. There is 
not so great a Society between Heaven and us, that, together 
with the Necessity of our Death, the Light of the Stars 
should fade. When they are thought to fall, they do but 
shoot from them a Quantity of Fire out of that Abundance 
of Nutriment which they have gotten by the Attraction of 
Moisture unto them : like as we also observe in lighted 
Lamps with the Liquor of Oil 1 . The celestial Bodies, which 
frame the World, and are compact together, have an im- 
mortal Nature : and their Power extendeth much to the 
Earth : which by their Operations, Light and Greatness, 
might be known, though they are so subtle ; as we shall in 
due Place make Demonstration. The Mariner likewise of the 
heavenly Circles shall be shewn more fitly in our "Geogra- 
phical Treatise of the Earth ;" forasmuch as the Consideration 
thereof appertaineth wholly thereunto : only we will not put 
off the Devisers of the Zodiac, wherein the Signs are placed. 

The Obliquity of this, Anaximander the Milesian is 
reported to have observed first, and thereby opened the Pas- 
sage to Astronomy, and the Knowledge of these Things : 
and this happened in the fifty-eighth Olympiad. Afterwards 
Cleostratus marked the Signs therein ; and those first of 
Aries and Sagittarius. As for the Sphere itself, Atlas devised 
it long before. For the present we will leave the Body of 

1 See note 2, p. 63. 



40 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

the starry Heaven, and treat of all the rest between it and 
the Earth. 

The Planet which they call Saturn* is the highest, and 
therefore seemeth to be least : also he performeth his Revo- 
lution in the greatest Circle of all : and it is certain, that in 
thirty Years' Space he retnrneth again to the Point of his 
first Place. Moreover, the Motion of all the Planets, and 
also of the Sun and Moon, go a contrary Course to that of 
the starry Heaven ; namely, to the left hand [i. e. eastward] ; 
whereas the said Sky itself always hasteneth to the right 
[i. e. westward]. And whereas in that continual turning 
with exceeding Celerity, those Planets be lifted up aloft, and 
hurried by it into the West, and there set : yet by a contrary 
Motion of their own, they pass every one through their 
several Ways eastward ; and this because that the Air, roll- 
ing ever one Way> and to the same Part, by the continual 
turning of the Heaven, should not grow stagnant whilst the 
Globe thereof resteth idle ; but should be minutely divided 
by the violent adverse Action of these Stars. The Planet 
Saturn is of a cold and frozen Nature, but the Circle 
of Jupiter is much lower than it, and therefore his Revo- 
lution is performed with a more speedy Motion, in twelve 
Years. The third, of Mars, which some call Hercules, is 
fiery and ardent, by Reason of the Sun's Vicinity, and run- 
neth his Race in about two Years. And it is by the exceed- 
ing Heat of Mars, and the Cold of Saturn, that Jupiter, who 
is placed betwixt, is well tempered of them both, and so be- 
cometh salutary. Next to them is the Course of the Sun, 
consisting of 360 Parts [or Degrees] : but that the Observa- 
tion of the Shadows which he casteth may return again to 
their former Marks, five Days be added to every Year, with 
the fourth Part of a Day over and above. Whereupon, in 
every fifth Year one odd Day is added to the Rest ; to the 
End that the Reckoning of the Seasons may agree with the 

1 The planets since discovered two of them, Herschel, or Uranus, 
and the new, and as yet unnamed, star, still more remote than it, and the 
others exceedingly small must have been beyond the reach of ancient 
observation, from ignorance of the telescope. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 41 

Course of the Sun. Beneath the Sun there is a large Star 
called Venus, which wandereth this Way and that, by turns ; 
and by her Names testifieth her Emulation of the Sun and 
Moon. For while she anticipateth the Morning, and riseth 
Orientally, she taketh the Name of Lucifer, as a second Sun 
hastening the Day. Contrariwise, when she shineth from 
the West, lengthening the Daylight, and supplying the Place 
of the Moon, she is named Vesper. This Nature of hers, 
Pythagoras of Samos first found out, about the 42nd 
Olympiad ; which was the 142nd Year after the Foundation 
of Rome. Now this Planet, in Greatness, exceedeth all the 
other Stars : and so shining also, that the Beams of this Star 
only cast Shadows upon the Earth. And hereupon cometh 
such great Diversity of the Names thereof; for some have 
called it Juno, others Isis, and others the Mother of the 
Gods. By the natural Efficacy of this Star all Things are 
generated on Earth. For whether she rise in the East or 
West, she sprinkleth all the Earth with prolific Dew, and 
not only filleth the same with Seed, but stirreth up to in- 
crease the Nature of all living Creatures. This Planet goeth 
through the Circle of the Zodiac in 348 Days, departing 
from the Sun never above 46 Degrees, as Timceus was of 
Opinion. Next unto it, but Nothing of that Bigness and 
Power, is the Star Mercury, of some called Apollo : carried 
along in an inferior Circle, after the like Manner, but in 
a swifter Course by nine Days ; shining sometimes before the 
Sun rising, at others after his setting, never farther distant 
from him than 23 Degrees, as both the same Timceus and 
Sosigenes teach. And therefore these two Planets have a 
peculiar Consideration from others, and not common with 
the rest above-named. For those are seen from the Sun 
a fourth, yea, and third Part of the Sky : oftentimes also in 
Opposition against the Sun. And all of them have other 
greater Circuits of full Revolution, which are to be spoken 
in of the Discourse of the great Year 1 . 

1 The enumeration of the planets here given is on the Ptolemaic sys- 
tem of astronomy, which supposes the earth to be fixed in the centre of 



42 .History of Nature. [BooK II. 

CHAPTER IX. 
Of the Moons Nature. 

BUT the Moon, being the last of all, most familiar with 
the Earth, and devised by Nature for the Remedy of Dark- 
ness, exceedeth the Admiration of all the rest. She with her 
changing in many Shapes, hath troubled much the Minds of 
Beholders, angry because that of this Star, the nearest of all, 
they should be the most ignorant; growing as it doth, or 
else wasting continually. One while she bended into Horns ; 
another while divided in the half, and again moulded into a 
rounded Figure : spotted sometime, arid soon after, on a 
sudden, exceeding bright : one while large and full, and sud- 
denly nothing to be seen. Sometime shining all Night long, 
and at others late ere she riseth ; she also helpeth the Sun's 
Light some Part of the Day; eclipsed, and yet visible in 
that Eclipse. The same at the Month's End lieth hidden, 
at which Time (it is supposed) she laboureth not. At one 
Time she is below, and presently aloft : and that not after 
one Manner, but one while reaching up to the highest Hea- 
ven, and another while close to the Mountains ; now mounted 
to the North, and again brought down to the South. Which 
several Motions in her, the first Man that observed was 
Endymion : and hence sprung the Report that he was ena- 
moured of the Moon. We are not thankful, as we ought to 
be, to those who by their Labour and Care have given us 
Light in this Light ; but we are delighted rather (such is the 
wicked Disposition of Man) to record in Chronicles, Blood- 
shed and Murders: that Men's mischievous Deeds should be 
known, while we are ignorant of the World itself. The 
Moon being next to the Centre, and therefore of least Com- 
pass, performeth the same Course in seven-and-twenty Days, 
and one-third Part of a Day : which Saturn, the highest 
Planet, runneth (as we said before) in thirty Years. After 

their orbits ; and which, in ancient times, was commonly received without 
dispute. Wern. Club. 



BOOK 1 1 .] History of Nature. 43 

this, remaining in conjunction with the Sun two Days, forth 
she goeth, and by the thirtieth Day, at the most, returneth 
to the same Point again : the Mistress, if I may so say, and 
the Teacher of all Things that may be known in the Sky. 
By her means are we taught that the Year ought to be 
divided into twelve Months : forasmuch as the Moon over- 
taketh the Sun so many Times before he returneth to the 
Point where he began his Course. Likewise that she loseth 
her Light (as the Rest of the Planets) by the Brightness of 
the Sun when she approacheth near. For she shineth by bor- 
rowing of him her Light, much like to that which we see in 
the Reflexion of the Sunbeams from the Water. And here- 
upon it is that she, by her more mild and imperfect Power 
dissolveth, and also increaseth, so much Moisture ; x which 
the Sunbeams may consume. Hence it cometh also, that 
her Light is not equal in Sight, because it is only when she 
is opposite to the Sun that she appeareth full : but in all 
other days she sheweth no more to the Earth than she con- 
ceiveth from the Sun. In Time of Conjunction, she is not 
seen at all : for that whilst she is turned away, all the 
Draught of Light she casteth back again from whence she 
received it. That these Stars are fed with earthly Moisture, 
is evident by the Moon ; which, so long as she appeareth by 
the Half, never sheweth any Spots, because as yet she hath 
not her full Power of Light sufficient to draw Humour 
unto her. For these Spots be nothing else but the Dregs 
of the Earth, caught up with other Moisture among the 
Vapours. 2 

1 Lucretius supposes that all animals, and all the stars, are fed by 
exhalations from earth and air. Lucian also expresses the same idea. And 
as Pliny was of an adverse sect to the Epicureans, and consequently did 
not derive it from them, we may suppose the opinion to have been gene- 
rally received. See the beginning of chapter Ixviii. Wern. Club. 

2 The reader will, of course, accept of these remarks and explanations, 
as well of the moon as of the other planets, as descriptive of the condition 
of the astronomical philosophy of the day ; which it is, at least, amusing 
to compare with the results of modern observation. Wern. Club. 



44 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

CHAPTER X. 
Of Eclipses of the Sun and Moon : and of the Night 1 . 

THE Eclipse of the Moon and Sun is a Thing throughout 
the universal Contemplation of Nature most marvellous, and 
resembling a Prodigy, and shews the Magnitude and Shadow 
of these two Planets. For it is evident that the Sun is hidden 
by the Intervention of the Moon ; and the Moon again by 
the Opposition of the Earth : as also that the one doth equal 
the other, in that the Moon, by her Interposition, bereaveth 

1 The opinions of the ancients on the subject of Eclipses were two- 
fold: that of the vulgar was built on the supposition that certain sorce- 
rers, working by magic art, were able to draw this planet from her orbit, 
even to the earth, to accomplish their nefarious purposes in inflicting 
injury on particular persons or on communities. They were supposed to 
have a further object in view, by compelling her to deposit on some 
appropriate herbs a foam that was useful in magic arts : as we learn from 
Apuleius and Lucan. Horace represents his witch Canidia as thus en- 
gaged, in his 5th and 17th Epodes. Under these circumstances the moon 
was supposed to labour in agony ; and the method taken to relieve her 
throes, and prevent her total extinction, was by making such a clamour 
that the verse or influence might not ascend to her sphere ; and by not 
hearing, her dread might be relieved. Livy speaks of this clamour as an 
ordinary occurrence (lib. xxvi.) ; but it does not seem to have been an 
official proceeding. Another opinion was founded on the doctrines of 
Divinity, and therefore formed a portion of the religion of the state : the 
phenomena being regularly observed, reported, and registered by consti- 
tuted officers. According to this idea, every unusual appearance in the 
sky was a portent of some coming event usually of an awful nature 
and which it became the priesthood to avert, by those processions, sacri- 
fices, and supplications, that were appointed in the sacred books, as appro- 
priate to each appearance. It was no small effort of courage, as well as 
skill, in the philosophers whose names are given by Pliny, to venture to 
inquire into the nature and causes of phenomena which must have 
appeared inscrutable to one portion of the public, and too sacred to be 
meddled with to the other. The operation of both opinions appears in 
the narrative that Plutarch gives of the proceedings of Paulus Emilius, 
preparatory to the battle with the Macedonians, where, while the aid of 
the philosopher, Sulpitius Gallus, was used to remove their fears, his 
own office of augur was not neglected to work on their superstitious 
confidence. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 45 

the Earth of the Sun's Rays, and the Earth again doth the 
like by the Moon. Neither is the Night any Thing else but 
the Shade of the Earth. The Figure of this Shadow resem- 
bleth a Pyramid pointed forward, or a Top turned upside 
down : namely, when it falleth upon it with its sharp End, 
and goeth not beyond the Heights of the Moon ; for no other 
Star is in that Manner darkened : and such a Figure as this 
always endeth in a Point. And that Shadows grow to No- 
thing in a great Distance, appeareth by the exceeding high 
Flight of some Birds. So the Confines of these Shadows is 
the utmost Bound of the Air, and the Beginning of Mther. 
Above the Moon all is pure and lightsome continually. And 
we in the Night see the Stars as other Lights from out of 
Darkness. For these Causes also the Moon is eclipsed only 
in the Night. But the Reason why the Sun and Moon are 
not both in the Eclipse at set Times and Monthly, is the 
Obliquity of the Zodiac, and the wandering Turnings of the 
Moon (as hath been said): and because these Planets do not 
always in their Motion meet just in the Points of the ecliptic 
Line, that is, in the Head or Tail of the Dragon. 

CHAPTER XI. 
Of the Magnitude of Stars. 

IT is this Reason that lifteth up Men's Minds into Hea- 
ven : and as if they looked down from thence, discovereth 
unto them the Magnitude of the three greatest Parts of 
Nature. For the Sun's Light could not wholly be taken 
away from the Earth, by the Moon coming between, if the 
Earth were bigger than the Moon. But the Immensity of 
the Sun is more certainly known, both by the Shadow of the 
Earth and the Body of the Moon : so that it is needless to 
inquire into the Magnitude thereof, either by the Proof of 
Eyesight, or by Conjecture of the Mind. How immea- 
surable it is, appeareth by this, that Trees which are planted 
in Limits from East to West, cast Shadows equal in Propor- 
tion ; although they are many Miles asunder in Length : as 
if the Sun were in the Midst of them all. This appeareth 



46 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

also at the Time of the Equinox in all Regions of the same 
Meridian, when the Sun shineth directly over Men's Heads, 
and causeth no Shadow. In like Manner, the Shadows of 
them that dwell northerly under the solstitial Circle, fall all 
at Noontide, northward, but at Sunrising, westward ; which 
could not be possible unless the Sun were far greater 
than the Earth. Moreover, when he riseth, he surpasseth 
in breadth the Mountain Ida, encompassing the same at 
large both on the right Hand and the left, which only is 
from being so far distant. The Eclipse of the Moon sheweth 
also the Magnitude of the Sun, by an infallible Demon- 
stration ; as his own Eclipse declareth the Littleness of the 
Earth. For as there are of Shadows three Forms, and it is 
evident, that if the dark material Body which casteth a Sha- 
dow be equal in Bigness to the Light, then the Shadow is 
fashioned like a Pillar, and hath no Point at the End : if it 
be greater, it yieldeth a Shadow like a Top standing upon 
the Point, so as the lower Part thereof is narrowest, and 
then the Shadow likewise is of infinite length : but if the 
Body be less than the Light, then is represented a pyramidal 
Figure, falling out sharp-pointed in the Top ; which Manner 
of Shadow appeareth in the Moon's Eclipse : it is, without 
doubt, therefore, that the Sun is much larger than the 
Earth, as the same is seen by the silent Proofs of Nature 
itself. For why, in dividing the Times of the Year, departeth 
the Sun from us in the Winter? even because by means 
of the Night's length he may refresh the Earth, which 
otherwise he would have burnt up : for, notwithstanding 
this, he burneth it in some measure, from his excessive 
Greatness. 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Inventions of Men in the Observation of the Heavens. 

THE first Roman that published the true Reason of both 
Eclipses was Sulpitius Gallus, who afterwards was Consul 
with M. Marcellus: but at that Time being a Tribune, the 
Day preceding that on which King Perseus was vanquished 
by Paulus, he was brought by the General into open Audi- 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 47 

ence before the whole Army, to foretel the Eclipse which 
was about to happen : whereby he delivered the Army from 
Anxiety; and presently after he compiled a Book of the 
same. But among the Greeks, Thales Milesius 1 was the first 
that investigated it ; who, in the fourth Year of the 48th 
Olympiad did foreshew the Sun's Eclipse that happened in 
the Reign of Halyattes, and in the 170th Year after the 
Foundation of the City of Rome. After them, Hipparchus 
compiled his " Ephemerides," containing the Course and 
Aspects of both these Planets, for six hundred Years en- 
suing : comprehending also the Months according to the 
Reckonings of sundry Nations, the Days, the Hours, the 
Situation of Places, the Aspects, and Latitudes of divers 
Towns and Countries ; as the World will bear him witness : 
and that no less assuredly, than if he had been privy to 
Nature's Counsels. Great Persons and excellent these 
were, doubtless, who, above the Reach of the Capacity of 
mortal Men, found out the Reason of the Course of such 
mighty Stars and divine Powers : and whereas the Mind of 
Men was before at a Loss, fearing in these Eclipses of the 
Stars some great Violence, or the Death of the Planets, they 
secured them in that behalf : in which dreadful Fear stood 
Stesickorus and Pindarus the Poets (notwithstanding their 
lofty Style), and particularly at the Eclipse of the Sun, as 
will appear by their Poems. As for the Moon, Mortals 
imagine that at that Time by Charms she is enchanted, and 
therefore help her by dissonant ringing of Basins. In this 
Terror, Nicias, the General of the Athenians (as a Man igno- 
rant of the Cause), feared to set sail with his Fleet out of 



1 The minuteness of observation displayed by these illustrious philo- 
sophers, from whom Pliny has borrowed his materials, appears to imply 
the existence of instruments of no small accuracy, though we have no 
account of their possessing such. Of the telescope, we have evidence that 
they were ignorant. 

As the account given by Pliny of ancient astronomy will be read 
chiefly for its curiosity, we have no need to do more than refer to 
modern treatises on the subject for correction of what is mistaken. 
Wem. Club. 



48 History of Nature. [Boo* II. 

the Harbour, and thus greatly distressed the State of his 
Country. Be ye prosperous, then, for your excellency, 
O noble Interpreters of the Heavens ! capable of Nature's 
Works, and the Devisers of that Reason whereby ye have 
subdued both Gods and Men. For who is he that, seeing 
these Things, and the ordinary Labours (since that this Term 
is now taken up) of the Stars, would not bear with his own 
Infirmity, and excuse this Necessity of being born to die ? 
Now, for this present, I will briefly and summarily touch 
those principal Points which are acknowledged concerning 
the said Eclipses, having lightly rendered a Reason thereof in 
the proper Places : for neither doth such proving and argu- 
ing of these Matters belong properly to our purposed Work ; 
neither is it less Wonder to be able to yield the Reasons and 
Causes of all Things than to be constant in some. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Of Eclipses. 

IT is certain, that all Eclipses in 222 Months have their 
Revolutions, and return to their former Points : as also that 
the Sun's Eclipse never happeneth but either in the last of 
the old, or first of the new, Moon ; which they call the Con- 
junction : and that the Moon is never eclipsed but in the 
full, and always somewhat anticipateth the former Eclipse. 
Moreover, that every Year both Planets are eclipsed at cer- 
tain Days and Hours under the Earth. Neither be these 
Eclipses seen in all Places when they are above the Earth, 
by Reason sometimes of cloudy Weather, but more often, for 
that the Globe of the Earth hindereth the Sight of the Con- 
vexity of the Heaven. Within these two hundred Years it 
was found out by the Sagacity of Hipparchus, that the Moon 
sometime was eclipsed twice in five Months' Space, and the 
Sun likewise in seven. Also that the Sun and Moon twice 
in thirty Days were darkened above the Earth : though this 
was not seen equally in all Quarters, but by Men in divers 
Places : and that which is most surprising in this Wonder, 
is, that when it is agreed that the Moon's Light is dimmed 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 49 

by the Shadow of the Earth, at one Time this Eclipse hap- 
peneth in the West, and at another in the East : as also, by 
what Reason it happeneth, that seeing after the Sun is up, 
that Shadow which hideth the Light of the Moon must 
needs be under the Earth : it fell out once, that the Moon 
was eclipsed in the West, and both Planets were seen at once 
above the Ground. For that in twelve Days both these 
Lights were missing, and neither Sun nor Moon were seen : it 
happened in our Time, when both the Vespasians (Emperors) 
were Consuls, the Father the third Time, and the Son the 
second. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Of the Moons Motion. 

IT is clear that the Moon, always in her increasing, hath 
her Horns turned from the Sun toward the East : but in her 
decrease, contrariwise westward ; and also that she shineth 
(the first Day of her Appearance) three quarters and the 
twenty-fourth Part of one Hour, and so riseth in Proportion 
the second Day forward unto the full : likewise decreasing in 
the same Manner to the Change. She is also always hidden 
in the Change within fourteen Degrees of the Sun. By 
which Argument we collect, that the Magnitude of the other 
Planets is greater than that of the Moon, because they ap- 
pear when they be but seven Degrees off. But the Cause 
why they shew less, is their Altitude : like the fixed Stars, 
which by Reason of the Sun's Brightness are not seen in 
the Daytime : whereas, indeed, they shine as well by Day as 
Night: and that is manifestly proved by Eclipses of the Sun, 
and by exceeding deep Pits 1 , for so they are to be seen by 
Daylight. 

1 In the absence or imperfection of optical instruments, this expedient 
was necessarily resorted to, for the purpose here stated ; but the improve- 
ment of the telescope has superseded this contrivance. There was for- 
merly, at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, a well of this kind, a 
hundred feet in depth, with a winding staircase of stone leading to the 
bottom ; it is now arched over. Wern. Club. 

D 



50 History of Nature. [Boox II. 



CHAPTER XV. 

General Rules concerning the Motions and Lights of other 

Planets. 

THOSE three Planets which we say are above the Sun, 
are hidden when they go their Course with him. They rise 
in the Morning, and never depart farther than eleven De- 
grees. Afterwards meeting with his Rays, they are covered : 
and in their triple Aspect retrograde, they make their Morn- 
ing Stations 120 Degrees off, which are called the first : and 
by and by, in a contrary Aspect, 180 Degrees off, they rise 
in the Evening, and appear as Evening Stars. In like Sort 
approaching from another Side within 120 Degrees, they 
make their evening Station, which also they call the second, 
until he overtake them within twelve Degrees ; and so hide 
them : and these are called the Evening Settings. The 
Planet Mars, as he is nearer to the Sun, feeleth the Sun- 
beams by a quadrant Aspect, from ninety Degrees : where- 
upon that Motion took the Name called the first and second 
Nonagenary, from both Risings. The same Planet keepeth 
this stationary Residence six Months in the Signs : whereas 
otherwise, of his own Nature, he would do it but two Months. 
But the other Planets in both Stations continue not four 
Months each. The other two inferior Planets are hidden 
after the same Manner in the evening Conjunction : and 
leaving the Sun in as many Degrees, they make their morn- 
ing Rising : and from the farthest Bounds of their Distance, 
they follow after the Sun : and after they have once over- 
taken him, they set again in the Morning, and so outgo 
him. And by and by keeping the same Distance, in the 
Evening they rise again unto the same Limits which we 
named before, from whence they return to the Sun, and by 
the evening Setting they be hidden. The Star Venus like- 
wise maketh two Stations, according to the two Manners of 
her Appearance, Morning and Evening, when she is in far- 
thest Bounds of her Distance. But Mercury keepeth his 
Stations so small awhile, that they cannot be observed. This 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 5 1 

is the Order, as well of the Appearances of the Planets as of 
their Occultations and their mere Motion, enfolded within 
many strange Wonders. For they change their Magnitudes 
and Colours, and sometimes they approach to the North, 
sometimes they go back toward the South, and, all on a sud- 
den, they appear one while nearer to the Earth, and another 
while to the Heaven : wherein, if we shall deliver many 
Points otherwise than former Writers, yet we confess, that 
for these Matters we are beholden unto them, who first made 
Demonstration of seeking out the Ways thereto : and there- 
fore let no Man despair of profiting and going forward in 
Knowledge from Age to Age. For, these strange Motions 
fall out upon many Causes. The first is by Reason of those 
Circles in the Stars, which the Greeks call Absides : for we 
are compelled to use the Greek Terms. Each one of the 
Planets hath a particular Circle by itself, and these different 
from those of the starry Heaven : because the Earth from 
those two Points which they call Poles, is the Centre of the 
Heaven, as also of the Zodiac, situated obliquely between 
them. All which Things are certainly known to be so be- 
yond Question by the Compass. And therefore from every 
Centre there arise their own Absides, and so they have 
diverse Circuits and different Motions, because of necessity 
the interior Absides must be shorter. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Why the same Planets seem sometimes higher, and sometimes 

lower. 

THE highest Absides, therefore, from the Centre of the 
Earth are of Saturn, in the Sign Scorpio : of Jupiter in 
Virgo : of Mars in Leo : of the Sun in Gemini : of Venus in 
Sagittarius: of Mercury in Capricorn: and in the Middle of 
the said Signs : and contrariwise the said Planets in the 
same Degrees of the opposite Signs are lowest and nearest 
to the Centre of the Earth. So it happeneth that they seem 
to move more slowly when they go their highest Circuit : not 
for that natural Motions do either hasten or slacken, which 



52 History of Nature. [Boon. ii. 

be certain and several to every one, but because the Lines 
which are drawn from the Top of the Absis must needs 
approach each other about the Centre, as the Spokes in 
Wheels : and the same Motion, by Reason of the Nearness 
of the Centre, seemeth in one Place greater, in another less. 
The other Cause of their Sublimities is, for that in other 
Signs they have the Absides elevated highest from the 
Centre of their own eccentric Circles. Thus Saturn is in the 
greatest Height in the 20th Degree of Libra, Jupiter in the 
15th of Cancer, Mars in the 28th of Capricorn, the Sun in 
the 29th of Aries, Venus in the 1 6th of Pisces, Mercury in 
the 15th of Virgo, and the Moon in the 4th of Taurus. The 
third Reason of their Altitude is not taken from their Circles, 
but understood by the Convexity of the Sky, for that these 
Planets seem to the Eye, as they rise and fall, to mount up 
or settle downward through the air. To this is united an- 
other Cause also, which is, the Zodiac Obliquity and Latitude 
of the Planets, in Regard of the Ecliptic : for through it the 
Stars which we called wandering do take their Course. 
Neither is there any Place inhabited upon Earth, but that 
which lieth under it. For all the Rest without the Poles are 
desert. Only the Planet Venus goeth beyond the Circle of 
the Zodiac, two Degrees : which is supposed to be the effi- 
cient Cause, that certain living Creatures are bred even in 
the desert Parts of the World. The Moon likewise rangeth 
throughout all the Breadth of it, but never goeth out of it. 
Next after these the Star Mercury hath the largest Scope 
in the Zodiac, but yet so, as of twelve Degrees (for that is the 
Breadth thereof) he wandereth but eight, and those not 
equally, but two in the midst, four above, and two beneath. 
Then the Sun in the midst, goeth always between the two 
Extremities of the Zodiac ; but in his declining Course he 
seemeth to wind unequally, after the Manner of Serpents. 
Mars leaveth the ecliptic Line four half Degrees, Jupiter 
two Degrees and a half, Saturn two, like as the Sun. Thus 
you see the Manner of the Latitudes, as they descend south- 
ward, or ascend northward. And upon this is the Reason 
grounded of the third Opinion of them, who imagine that 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 53 

the Planets do rise and mount from the Earth upward into 
Heaven. For very many have thought, although untruly, 
that they climb in this Manner. But to the End that they 
may be confuted, we must lay open an immense Subtlety, 
which containeth all those Causes and Reasons abovesaid. 
First, therefore, this is admitted, that these Stars in their 
Evening Setting are nearest to the Earth, both in Latitude 
and Altitude : and when they be farthest from the Earth, as 
well in Latitude as Elevation, they appear in the Morning 
before the Sun : as also that then they are Stationaries in the 
middle Points of the Latitudes, which they call Ecliptics. 
Likewise it is acknowledged, that so long as the Planets are 
near to the Earth, their Motion increaseth : and as they de- 
part on hi:h it decreaseth. And this Reason is confirmed 
principally by the Elevations of the Moon. And it is beyond 
a Doubt, that every Planet in its Morning Rising riseth 
every Day higher than the former. The superior three 
above the Sun diminish from their first Stations unto the 
second. Which being so, it will plainly appear, that every 
Planet rising before the Sun ascendeth to the Latitudes : so 
that from the Time they begin, their Motion increaseth by 
little and little more sparely. But in the first Stations, they 
are at the highest Altitude : for then first the Numbers begin 
to be withdrawn, and the Planets to go backward ; whereof 
a particular Reason may be given in this Manner : the 
Planets being smitten in that Part whereof we spoke, they 
are both restrained by the triangular Beams or trine Aspect 
of the Sun, to hold on a direct Course, and are raised up 
aloft by the fiery Power of the said Sun. This cannot im- 
mediately be understood by our Eyesight : and so they are 
supposed to stand, and hence the Name of Stations is de- 
rived. Then proceedeth forward the Violence of the Sun's 
Beams, and the Vapour thereof, by Repercussion, forceth 
them to go backward. And much more is this perceived 
in their Evening Rising, when the Sun is wholly against 
them, and they be driven to the very Top of their Absides, 
and so not seen at all, because they are at the highest, and 
are carried on by their least Motion, which is so much the 



54 History of Nature. [ BOOK II. 

less, when it happeneth in the highest Signs of their Absides. 
From the evening Rising the Latitude descendeth, for now the 
Motion less diminisheth, but yet increaseth not before the 
second Stations : because they are forced to descend by Rea- 
son of the Sunbeams coming from the other Side ; and the 
same Force beareth them downward to the Earth, which by 
the former triangular Aspect raised them aloft toward Hea- 
ven. Of so much Importance is it whether these Beams 
come from beneath or above. The same happeneth much 
more in the Evening Setting. This is an Explanation of 
the Motions of the superior Planets; but the Theory of the 
rest is more difficult, and hath by no Man before us been 
delivered. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

General Rules concerning the Planets. 

FIRST, therefore, let us set down the Cause why Venus 
never departeth from the Sun more than forty-six Degrees, 
and Mercury not above twenty-three : and why oftentimes 
they retire back unto the Sun within that Space. To be 
resolved in this Point, we must remark, that both of them 
have their Absides turned opposite to the rest, as being 
seated under the Sun : and so much of their Circles is under- 
neath, as the forenamed were above ; and therefore farther 
off they cannot be, because the Curvature of their Absides 
in that Place hath no greater Longitude. Therefore both 
Margins of their Absides, by a like Proportion, keep Mean, 
and their Course is limited : but the short Spaces of their 
Longitudes they compensate by the wandering of their Lati- 
tudes. But what is the Reason that they reach not always 
to forty-six Degrees, and to twenty-three? They do so truly: 
but here the Explanation fails. For it is apparent, that their 
Absides also move, because they never overpass the Sun. 
And therefore when their Margins from either Side are per- 
ceived to fall upon the very Point, then the Planets also are 
understood to reach unto their longest Distances : but when 
their Margins be short so many Degrees, the Stars them- 
selves are thought to return more speedily in their Retro- 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 55 

gradation than in their direct Course forward, though their 
utmost Extremity is ever the same. And from hence is the 
Reason understood of the contrary Motions of these two 
Planets. For the superior Planets move most swiftly in the 
Evening Setting, but these most slowly. They be highest 
above the Earth, when they move slowest ; and these, when 
they go swiftest : for as in the former the Nearness of the 
Centre hasteneth them, so, in these, the Extremity of the 
Circle : they, from their Morning Rising, begin to slacken 
their Celerity ; but these to increase it : they return back 
from their Morning Station to their Evening Mansion ; but 
Venus, contrariwise, is retrograde from the Evening Station 
to that of the Morning. But, she from the Morning Rising 
beginneth to climb the Latitude : but to follow the Altitude 
and the Sun from the Morning Station : as being most swift 
and at the highest in the Morning Setting. Moreover she 
beginneth to digress in Latitude, and to diminish her Motion, 
from the Morning Rising : but to be retrograde, and to digress 
in Altitude, from the Evening Station. Again, the Planet 
Mercury rising in the Morning, beginneth both Ways to 
climb, but to digress in Latitude from the Evening Rising : 
and when the Sun hath overtaken him within the Distance 
of fifteen Degrees, he standeth still for four Days almost 
immovable. Presently, he descendeth from his Altitude, 
and goeth back from the Evening Setting to that of the 
Morning. This Star only, and the Moon, descend in as 
many Days as they ascend. But Venus ascendeth up to her 
Station in fifteen Days and a little more. Again, Saturn and 
Jupiter are twice as long descending, and Mars four Times. 
So great Variety is in their Nature, but the Reason thereof is 
evident. For they which go against the Vapour of the Sun 
do also descend with Difficulty. Many Secrets more of 
Nature, and Laws whereunto she is obedient, might be shewn 
about these Things. As, for Example: the Planet Mars, 
whose Course, of all others, can be least observed, never 
maketh Station but in quadrate Aspect : and Jupiter, in 
triangular Aspect ; and very seldom separated from the Sun 
sixty Degrees, which Number maketh six angled Forms of 



56 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

the Heaven (that is, it is the sixth Part of the Heaven) : 
neither doth Jupiter shew his rising in any, save only two 
Signs, Cancer and Leo. The Planet Mercury seldom hath 
his Evening Rising in Pisces, but very often in Virgo ; and 
the Morning Rising in Libra. In like Manner, the Morning 
Rising is in Aquarius, but very seldom in Leo. Neither 
becometh he retrograde in Taurus and Gemini : and in 
Cancer, not under the twenty-fifth Degree. As for the 
Moon, she entereth not twice in Conjunction with the Sun 
in any other Sign but Gemini : and sometime hath no Con- 
junction at all, and that only in Sagittarius. As for the last 
and first of the Moon, to be seen in the same Day or Night, 
happeneth in no other Sign but in Aries, and few Men have 
had the Chance to see it. And hereupon came Linceus to be 
so famous for his Eyesight. Also, the Planets Saturn and 
Mars appear not in the Heaven at the most 170 Days: 
Jupiter 36, or at least ten Days wanting : Venus 69, or when 
least, 52 : Mercury 13, or at least, 17. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
What is the Cause that the Planets alter their Colours ? 

THE Reason of the Planet's Altitudes is it that tetnpereth 
their Colours, for they take the Likeness of the Air, into 
which they enter ; and the Circle of another Planet's Motion 
coloureth them as they approach either Way, ascending or 
descending. The colder setteth a pale Colour, the hotter a 
red, and the windy a fearful Hue. Only the Points and 
Conjunctions of iheAbsides, and the utmost Circumferences, 
shew a dark black. Each Planet hath a several Colour; 
Saturn is white, Jupiter clear and bright, Mars a fiery red, 
Venus glowing, when Lucifer; when Occidental, or Vesper, 
resplendent ; Mercury sparkling, the Moon pleasant, the 
Sun when he riseth, burning, afterwards radiating 1 . Upon 

1 Many of the colours here mentioned are only optical deceptions, but 
that of the planet Mars must proceed from something inherent in the 
planet itself, or the atmosphere by which it is surrounded ; for while 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 57 

these Causes the Sight is entangled, and discovereth those 
Stars also which are fixed in the Sky. For one while a 
Number of them appear about the Half-moon, when in a 
clear and calm Night she gently beautlfieth them ; and at 
another they are seen but here and there, insomuch that we 
may wonder how they are fled upon the full Moon, which 
hideth them ; or when the Beams either of the Sun or other 
abovesaid have dazzled our Sight. Yea, the Moon herself 
perceiveth the Sun's Beams, as they come upon her : for 
those Rays that come sidelong, according to the Convexity 
of the Sky, give but an obscure Light to the Moon, in Com- 
parison of them that fall directly with straight Angles. And, 
therefore, in the quadrangular Aspect of the Sun she ap- 
peareth divided in Half; in the triangular she is well near 
environed, but her Circle is half empty ; but in Opposition 
she appeareth full. And again, as she is in the Wane, she 
representeth the same Forms, decreasing by Quarters as she 
increased : with like Aspects as the other three Planets 
above the Sun. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

The Reason of the Suns Motion, and the Inequality of Days. 

THE Sun himself hath four Differences in his Course : 
twice in the Year, in Spring and Autumn, making the Night 
equal to the Day ; for then he falleth on the Centre of the 
Earth, in the eighth Degree of Aries and Libra. Twice 
likewise he exchangeth the Compass of his Race : to lengthen 
the Day from the Bruma, or Midwinter, in the eighth De- 
gree of Capricorn; and again to lengthen the Night from the 
summer Solstice, being in as many Degrees of Cancer. The 
Cause of unequal Days is the Obliquity of the Zodiac: when 
the one Half of the World is at all Times above and under 
the Earth. But (hose Signs which mount upright in their 

it reflects to us a red tinge, the light it obtains from the sun is the same 
with that which comes to us from the sun, and in which the prismatic 
rays produce a colourless mixture. Wern. Club. 



58 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

Rising, hold Light in a longer Tract, and make the Days 
longer: whereas they which arise obliquely pass away in 
shorter Time. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Why Lightnings are attributed to Jupiter. 

MOST Men are ignorant of that Secret which, by great 
Study of the Heavens, Men of deep Learning have found 
out : namely, that it is the Fires of the three uppermost 
Planets, which, falling to the Earth, carry the Name of 
Lightnings ; but those especially which are seated in the 
midst, because participating in the excessive Cold and Mois- 
ture from the upper Circle, and the immoderate Heat from 
the lower, by this Means he dischargeth the Superfluity : 
and hereupon it is commonly said, that Jupiter darteth 
Lightnings 1 . Therefore, as out of burning Wood a Coal of 
Fire flieth forth with a Crack, so from a Star is spit out this 
celestial Fire, carrying with it Presages of future Things : so 
that it sheweth Divine Operations, even in these Portions 
which are cast away as superfluous. And this most com- 
monly happeneth when the Air is troubled; either because 
the collected Moisture stirreth that Abundance to fall ; or 
because it is disquieted, as it were, with a Birth from a 
pregnant Star. 

1 Much of the religious system of the ancients was founded on the 
persuasion that every appearance of lightning and thunder, as well as 
other aerial phenomena, were direct manifestations of Divine interposition 
in the affairs of men ; and a college of officers (augurs) was appointed to 
observe, record, report, and explain such appearances, for the guidance of 
the state in its most important proceedings. From a slight expression of 
Pliny in the course of this chapter, it appears that he hesitated to deny 
this popular idea in a direct manner : in apprehension, perhaps, of laying 
himself open to the charge of infidelity. But by implication, he expresses 
his disbelief of what was so generally credited; for the ascribing to the 
natural effect of Jupiter as a planet, what was believed by the priests and 
the state to be a voluntary action of Jupiter, the supreme deity, can be 
regarded as little better than a subterfuge. For a natural explanation of 
thunder and lightning, such as it is, the reader is referred to chapter 
xliii. of this book ; and for other curious particulars, to the chapters l.-lv. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 59 

CHAPTER XXI. 
The Distances of the Planets. 

MANY have endeavoured to find out the Distance and 
Elevation of the Planets from the Earth, and have set down 
in Writing, that the Sun is distant from the Moon eighteen 
Degrees, as the Moon is also from the Earth. But Pytha- 
goras, a Man of much Sagacity, hath collected, that there 
are 126,000 Stadia 1 from the Earth to the Moon, and a 
double Distance from her to the Sun, and from thence to the 
twelve Signs three Times so much. Of which Opinion was 
also our countryman, Gallus Sulpitius. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Of the Music of the Planets. 

BUT Pythagoras at the same Time uses the Terms of 
Music, by calling the Space between the Earth and the 
Moon a Tone ; saying, that from her to Mercury is Half a 
Tone : and from him to Venus about the same Space. But 
from her to the Sun so much and a Half more : but from the 
Sun to Mars a Tone, that is to say, as much as from the 
Earth to the Moon. From him to Jupiter Haifa Tone: 
likewise from him to Saturn Half a Tone : and so from 
thence to the Zodiac so much and a Half more. Thus are 
composed seven Tunes, which Harmony they call Diapason; 
that is to say, the Universality of Consent. In this, Saturn 
rnoveth by the Doric Tune ; Mercury by Phthongus, Jupiter 
by the Phrygian, and the Rest likewise : a Subtlety more 
pleasant than needful 2 . 

1 The Stadium differed in different countries ; but the standard may 
be fixed at a furlong ; as may be seen in chapter xxiii. One hundred and 
twenty-five paces make a stadium. In the larger numbers, therefore, it 
has been sometimes judged best to translate the equivalent expressions 
into miles. Wern. Club. 

2 Ideas of the harmony of creation seem to have entered deeply into 
the opinions of Pythagoras, on the system of creation, and especially on 



60 



History of Nature. 



[BooK II. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
The Geometry of the World. 

A STADIUM maketh of our Paces 125, that is to say, 625 
Feet. Posidonius saith, that from the Earth it is no less than 
forty Stadia to that Height wherein thick Weather, Winds, 
and Clouds are formed. Above this, the Air is pure, clear, 
and light, without any troubled Darkness. But from the 
cloudy Region to the Moon is 2,000,000 Stadia : from thence 
to the Sun, 5000. By means of which Interval it cometh to 
pass, that so exceeding great as the Sun is, he burneth not 

the order and distances of the planets, the motions of which he appears to 
have compared to the graceful and measured dances of the ancients to 
the sound of the harp. But, as often happens, when philosophers confine 
their views of Nature to a single aspect, what has a shadow of truth in 
itself becomes, when thus interpreted, egregious trifling. The supposition 
enounced is, that not only are the motions performed according to musical 
time, but the intervals between the chords (of each planet's path) are 
properly measured by their relative tones. The following diagram, taken 
from the notes to Dalechamp's edition of Pliny, will more clearly repre- 
sent the ideas of this eminent Greek philosopher : 



12THESPH, 




TERRA THE EARTH 



The tone or unit of Pythagoras is taken for 125,000 stadia, or 15,625 
miles. Wern. Club. 



BOOK If.] History of Nature. 61 

the Earth. Many there be, however, who have taught that 
the Clouds are elevated to the Height of 900 Stadia. These 
Points are undiscovered, and beyond Man's Reach ; but they 
may now be delivered to others, as they have been taught : 
in which, notwithstanding, one infallible Reason of a geome- 
trical Collection cannot be rejected, if a man would search 
deep into these Matters. Neither need a Man to seek an 
exact Measure hereof (for to desire that is a foolish Idleness), 
but only to make an Estimate of Probability. For, whereas 
it is clear by the Course of the Sun, that the Circle through 
which he passeth containeth three hundred, threescore, and 
almost six Degrees ; and it is a Rule that the Diameter 
formeth a third Part of the Circumference, and little less 
than a seventh Part of a third : it is plain, that deducting 
one Half thereof (because the Earth, situated in the Centre, 
cometh between), about the sixth Part of this great Circuit 
which he maketh about the Earth (so far as our Mind doth 
comprehend), is the very Height from the Earth up to the 
Sun, but the twelfth Part to the Moon, because she runneth 
so much a shorter Circuit than the Sun ; whereby it ap- 
peareth, that she is in the Midst between the Earth and the 
Sun. It is a Wonder to see how far the Presumption of the 
Heart of Man will proceed when instigated by some little 
Success, as in the abovenamed Matter. The Reason whereof 
ministereth plenteous Occasion of Impudency, for they who 
dared to give a Guess at the Space between the Sun and the 
Earth are so bold as to do the like from thence to Heaven. 
For, presuming that the Sun is in the Midst, they have at 
their Fingers' Ends the very Measure of the whole World. 
For how many seven Parts the Diameter hath, so many 
twenty-two Parts hath the whole Circle : as if they had got- 
ten the certain Measure of the Heaven by the Plumb-line. 
The Egyptians, according to the Reckoning which Petosiris 
and Necepsos have invented, do collect, that every Degree in 
the Circle of the Moon, which is the least (as hath been said) 
of all other, containeth thirty-three Stadia, and somewhat 
more; in Saturn^ the greatest of all, double as much ; and in 
the Sun, which we said was the midst, the Half of both Mea- 



62 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

sures. And this Computation hath very great Importance, 
for he that will reckon the Distances between the Circle of 
Saturn and the Zodiac, by this Calculation shall multiply an 
infinite Number of Stadia. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Of Sadden Stars. 

THERE remain yet a few Points concerning the World : 
for in the very Heaven there be Stars that suddenly appear, 
whereof there are many Kinds 1 . 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Of Comets and Celestial Prodigies , their Nature, Situation, 
and Kinds. 

THESE Stars which the Greeks call Cometas, our Romans 
term Crinitas (hairy) : dreadful, with bloody Hair, and 
shagged like the Bush of Hair upon the Top of the Head. The 
same Greeks call those Stars Pogonias*, which from the lower 
Part have a Mane hanging down like a long Beard. Those 

1 This important fact in astronomy, that stars have suddenly appeared, 
remained for a time visible in a fixed position, and then have either be- 
come of less apparent brightness or disappeared altogether, is established 
by the observations of modern as well as ancient astronomers ; and to 
ascertain beyond doubt whether such a phenomenon might be repeated, 
was the first motive for which a map of the heavens and a catalogue of 
the known stars were constructed. Hipparchus (chap, xxvi.) is the first 
that is known to have observed this phenomenon ; a detection of the 
occurrence is no slight proof of the minuteness of inquiry of the ancient 
astronomers. But it is to be remarked, that Pliny classes meteors and 
shooting stars, not only with comets, but also among the more permanent 
or fixed stars. Wern. Club. 

2 The various names and comparisons here applied to what, for the 
most part, are mere meteoric appearances have probably a reference to 
the classification by which the augurs divided them, for the purposes of 
divination ; for certainly a strong imagination is required to discern any 
likeness between these aerial appearances and those material objects from 
which they derive their names. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 63 

named Acontice, shake like a Spear, signifying great Swift- 
ness. This was it whereof Tiberius Ccesar, the Emperor, 
wrote an excellent Poem in his fifth Consulship ; the last 
that ever was seen to this Day. The same, if they be shorter 
and sharp-pointed at the Top, are called Xiphias, which are 
the palest of all, and glittering like a Sword, but without any 
Rays: which another Kind of them, named .Disceus (resem- 
bling a Disc or Quoit, whereof it beareth the Name, but in 
Colour like to Amber), putteth forth here and there out of 
its Margin. Pitheus is in the Form of Tuns environed in 
the Cavity of a smoky Light. Ceratias resembleth a Horn : 
and such an one appeared when Greece fought the Battle of 
Salamis. Lampadias is like to burning Torches : and Hip- 
peus to Horses' Manes, very swift in Motion, and revolving 
in a Globe. There is also a white Comet with silver Hair, 
so bright and shining that it can hardly be looked at ; and 
in Man's Shape it sheweth the very Image of a God. More- 
over, there be blazing Stars that become all shaggy, com- 
passed round with a hairy Fringe like a Mane. One of these, 
appearing in the Form a Mane, changed into that of a Spear, 
in the hundred and eighth Olympiad, and the three hundred 
and ninety-eighth Year from the Foundation of Rome. It 
hath been observed, that the shortest Time of their Appear- 
ance is seven Days, and the longest eighty Days. Some of 
them move like the Planets ; others are immovably fixed. 
Almost all are seen under the very North Star ; some in no 
certain Part thereof, but especially in that white which hath 
taken the Name of the Milky 1 Way. Aristotle saith 2 , that 

1 Galaxy. 

3 The author is here referring to those appearances which are now 
denominated shooting stars ; and which, in ancient times, were believed 
to be the very things the modern name denotes. St. John refers, figura- 
tively, to this idea (Book of Revelation, vi. 13): " And the stars of 
heaven fell unto the earth." Modern opinion has varied greatly with 
regard to the nature and cause of these appearances ; and the diversity of 
explanation is a proof how little satisfactory any of them is judged to be. 
There have been times, chiefly in the autumn, and at long intervals, when 
these meteors have been particularly abundant, and it appears that 
Aristotle refers to such a luminous shower ; the rarity of which may be 



64 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

many are seen together; a Thing that no Man but he hath 
known, so far as I can learn. They signify boisterous Winds, 
and very hot Weather. They are seen also in Winter, and 
about the South Pole : but in that Place without any Beams. 
A terrible one likewise was seen by the People in Ethiopia 
and Egypt, which the King who reigned in that Age, named 
Typhon. It resembled Fire, and was twisted like a Wreath, 
hideous to the Sight ; and not to be counted a Star, but truly 
a Ball of Fire. Sometimes the Planets and other Stars are 
spread over with Hairs ; but a Comet J is never seen in the 
West Part of the Heaven. 

A fearful Star, for the most Part, this Comet is, and not 
easily expiated 2 : as it appeared by the late civil Troubles 
when Octavius was Consul : as also a second Time by the 
War of Pompey and Ccesar. And in our Days about the 
Time that Claudius Ccesar was poisoned, and left the Empire 
to Domitius Nero ; in the Time of whose Reign there was 
another almost continually seen, and always terrible. It is 
thought to be material for Presage, to observe into what 
Quarters it shooteth, or what Star's Power and Influence it 
receiveth : also what Similitudes it resernbleth, and in what 
Parts it first shineth out. For if it be like unto Flutes 
( Tibice}, it portendeth somewhat to Musicians : if it appear 
in the obscene Organs of the Signs, it threatens filthy Per- 



concluded from Pliny's incredulity. Modern theory would refer this 
abundance of shooting stars to a very limited period of the month of No- 
vember ; but on the only occasion in which the Editor was an observer of 
a very remarkable quantity, the observation was made on the second or 
third day of October ; when, in a ride of more than two hours, the sky 
was never free from them ; although no more than three were visible at 
any one time. Wern. Club. 

1 Dalechamp remarks, that in this observation Pliny has mistaken 
the meaning of Aristotle, whom he is copying. The latter says, that a 
comet disappears, or is dissipated, before it sinks so low as the horizon. 
Wern. Club. 

2 This expiation was the business of the priests ; and in the affair of a 
comet could only be judged to have taken effect when the awful manifest- 
ation had disappeared: and consequently not until after a considerable 
period. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 65 

sons. It regards Men of Talents and Learning, if it put forth 
a triangular or four-square Figure, with even Angles, to any 
Situations of the fixed Stars. It sprinkleth Poison, if seen in 
the Head of the Dragon, either North or South. 

In one only Place of the whole World, namely, in a 
Temple at Rome, a Comet is worshipped : even that which 
by Divus Augustus Ccesar himself was judged fortunate to 
him: who, when it began to appear, acted in Person as 
Overseer in those Games which he made to Venus Genetrix, 
not long after the Death of his father, Ccesar, in the College 
by him erected. For, that Joy of his he testified in these 
Words : In those very Days of my Games, there was seen a 
Comet for seven Days together, in that Region of the Sky 
which is under the North Star. It arose about the eleventh 
Hour of the Day, bright and clear, and evidently seen in all 
Lands. By that Star it was signified (as the common Sort 
believed) that the Soul of (Julius) Csesar was received among 
the Divine powers of the immortal Gods. In which regard, 
that Mark of a Star was set on the Head of the Statue of 
Julius Caesar, which soon after we dedicated in the Forum. 
These Words he published abroad : but in a more inward 
Joy to himself, he interpreted that this Comet 1 was made for 

1 It is a strong proof of the popular bias at that time, as well as of the 
political tact of Augustus, that he was so far able to dissipate the appre- 
hensions usually entertained on the appearance of a comet, as to convert 
the phenomenon into a prognostic of especial good to his government ; 
and to associate with it, what he wished them to believe of the Divine 
adoption of his deceased uncle, the Dictator. The latter had, indeed, al- 
ready given him some examples of the art of overruling a portent, when 
its understood meaning did not correspond with his wishes ; and Suetonius 
observes, that no ominous presage could ever deter or divert him from 
the prosecution of his designs. That this celestial phenomenon, which 
appeared about an hour before sunset, and was seen for seven successive 
days, excited much attention, appears from Ovid (" Metamorphoses," 
b. xv.), who speaks of it as if he wished to avoid the dreaded name of 
Comet, a word which, in the original, Pliny also does not use : 
" Dumque tulit, lumen capere, atque ignescere sensit, 
Emisitque sinu. Luna volat altius ilia, 
Flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 
Stella micat." 



66 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

him, and that himself was born in it. And if we may con- 
fess a Truth, a happy Presage that was to the whole World. 
Some there he who believe that these Stars be perpetual, and 
go their Course round ; but are not seen, unless they be left 

" (She) bore it upwards to its native skies : 
Glowing with newborn fire she saw it rise : 
Forth springing from her bosom, up it flew, 
And kindling as it soar'd, a (sparkling star it) grew ; 
Above the lunar sphere it took its flight, 
And shot behind it a long trail of light." 

But the particular object of Augustus seems to have been to connect this 
appearance of a star with his family in their claim of Divine honour, as 
being directly descended from the goddess Venus, whose particular ensign 
this was. Dalechamp mentions a Roman coin, bearing on the obverse 
the head and inscription of the deified Caesar, and, on the reverse, a temple 
of Venus, with a star, and a statue of Caesar in the augural dress, and an 




(From a Coin in the British Museum.) 

altar for offerings and vows, with the inscription, " Divo Julio." It was 
because of this alleged consanguinity to the goddess, that at his funeral 
the Repository was made in the form of the temple of this divinity. The 
origin of this story of the star of Venus may be traced to a Phoenician or 
Trojan source ; for we find, in the Fragments of Sanchoniatho, the fol- 
lowing account : " But travelling about the world, she found a star fall- 
ing from the sky ; which she, taking up, consecrated in the Holy Island 
Tyre. And the Phoenicians say, that Astarte is she who is amongst the 
Greeks called Aphrodite:' (Bishop Cumberland's Trans, p. 36.) This 
Tyrian or Trojan deity was the Marine Venus, and is to be distinguished 
from Venus Urania, the heavenly, the greatest ; who, according to Cicero, 
(N. D. iii. 23.) and other authority, was the Syrian Astarte, and the 
Ashteroth of sacred Scripture ; whose ensigns were : on her head, the 
horns of a bull ; about her, thunderbolts ; and round her, many stars. 
Lucian, describing her statue, which he had seen, says : " She had a splen- 
did stone on her head, which was called xvxb, which in the night gave 
much light to the temple, but shone weakly in the day-time, and looked 
like fire. Nor were these, the Roman deities Venus and Juno, the only 
powers that were designated by a star. The prophet Amos (chap. v. 26) 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 67 

by the Sun. Others, again, are of opinion, that they are pro- 
duced casually by some Humour and the Power of Fire, and 
thereby do consume away. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Opinion of Hipparchus concerning the Stars. Also, 
historical Examples of Torches, Lamps, Beams, Fiery 
Darts, Opening of the Firmament. 

HIPPARCHUS, the aforesaid Philosopher (a man never 
sufficiently praised, as being he that more than any other 
proved the Affinity of Stars with Men ; affirming also, that 
our Souls were Parcel of Heaven), discovered and observed 
a new Star produced in his Time, and by the Motion thereof 
on the Day it first shone, he was led into a doubt, whether it 
happened not very often that new Stars should arise ? and 
whether those Stars also moved not, which we imagine to be 
fixed ? The same Man went so far, that he attempted (a 
Thing even hard for God to perform) to deliver unto Pos- 
terity the exact Number of the Stars. He brought the said 
Stars within the Compass of Rule, by devising certain In- 
struments to take their several Places, and set out their 
Magnitudes : that thereby it might be easily discerned, not 
only whether the old died, and new were born, but also 
whether they moved, and which Way they took their Course? 
likewise, whether they increased or decreased? Thus he left 
the Inheritance of the Sky unto all Men, if any one haply 
could be found able to enter upon it as lawful Heir. 

There be also certain flaming Torches shining out in the 
Sky, though they are never seen but when they fall. Such 
an one was that which, at the Time that Germanicus Ccesar 
exhibited a Show of Gladiators, passed at Noontide in the 

refers to a male deity, that, so early as the days of Moses, was worshipped 
in a portable shrine by the people of Israel, and by them probably derived 
from Egypt. A star thus became associated with the idea of Divine 
benignity ; and how widely so, appears from the history of the Magi, 
who came from the East to Jerusalem, to seek out the Desire of all Nations, 
in pursuance of a prophecy that must have been of the highest antiquity. 
Wern. Club. 



68 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

Sight of all the People. And there are two Sorts of them. 
One is Lampades, which they call plain Torches ; and the 
other, Bolides, or Lances, such as the Mutinians saw in their 
Calamity. They differ, in that those Lamps or Torches form 
long Trains, of which the forepart only is on Fire. But 
Bolis burneth all over, and draweth a longer Tail. There 
shine out, after the same Manner, certain Beams, which 
the Greeks call Docus ; which appeared when the Lacede- 
monians, being vanquished in a Sea-fight, lost the Dominion 
of Greece. The Firmament also is seen to open ; and this they 
name Chasma. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Of the strange Colours of the Shy. 

THERE appeareth in the Sky also a Resemblance of 
Blood 1 , and (than which Nothing is more dreadful to 
Mortals) a burning, falling from Heaven to Earth : as it 
happened in the third Year of the hundred and seventh 
Olympiad, when King Philip terrified all Greece. And 
these Things I suppose to come at certain Times by Course 
of Nature, like other Things; and not, as the most Part 

1 Showers of blood have been recorded in chronicles of various ages ; 
and in those turbulent times it was never difficult to find some public 
evil which such unwonted phenomena might be supposed to have fore- 
told. By modern inquiry these appearances have been ascribed to the 
excrements of a mighty swarm of butterflies to the extraordinary abun- 
dance of an animalcula, called Oscellatoria Vubesuns and to the red 
vegetable Protococcus Nivalis, swept up by winds from the snow, on which 
it naturally grows. None of these explanations, however, appear to an- 
swer so completely to Pliny's account, as the following; to which the 
Editor was once a witness. On the 15th of February, 1837, when the 
weather had long been damp, misty, and rather windy the direction of 
the wind being South of West at a quarter of an hour after five in the 
evening, there came in a mist, of a bright red colour ; which attracted 
attention, through a window, by the glare of light it diffused. On pro- 
ceeding to examine it in the open air, it was observed to have become of 
a pink colour ; and presently passing into violet, it settled into a grey ; in 
which tint it remained until the evening hid it from view. No refraction 
of sunbeams can be allowed to account for this appearance ; for the sun 
had long before been hidden by intervening hills from the valley in 
which this beautiful coloured mist appeared. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 69 

think, of sundry Causes, which the Wit of ingenious Men is 
able to devise. They have, indeed, been Forerunners of ex- 
ceeding great Miseries ; but I suppose those Calamities to 
have happened, not because these Appearances were seen, but 
these were procreated to foretell the Accidents that ensued 
afterward. Now, it is because they fall out so seldom, that 
the Reason of them is hidden, as is the Case with the 
Rising of Planets abovesaid, the Eclipses, and many other 
Things. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Of the Flame of Heaven. 

LIKEWISE there are seen Stars with the Sun 1 all Day long : 
yea, and very often about the Compass of the Sun, other 
Flames, like unto Garlands of Ears of Corn : also, Circles of 
various Colours, such as those were when Augustus C&sar, 
in the Prime of his Youth, entered the City of Rome after 
the Decease of his Father, to take upon him his great 
Name. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Of Celestial Crowns. 2 

ALSO the same Garlands appear about the Moon, and 
the brighter Stars which are fixed in the Firmament. Round 

1 The only star seen near the sun at mid-day is the planet Venus : 
" No stars beside their radiance can display 
In Phoebus' presence, the dread lord of day ; 
E'en Cynthia's self, the regent of the night, 
Is quite obscur'd by his emergent light ; 
But Venus only, as if more divine, 
With Phoebus dares in partnership to shine." 

Wern. Club. 

3 None of the appearances in this and the following chapters, to the 
37th, can be regarded as unusual ; and the explanation of them is to be 
found in the fact, of the refraction of the light by peculiar conditions of 
the air. Records of those things would scarcely have been found in the 
books of the augurs, if some political object had not been mixed with the 
report of the occurrences. It is well known that during the Republican 
days of Rome, the reckoning of dates by the years of the consuls was 
the common order of chronology. The consulship of L. Opimius and 
Q. Fabius Maximus was in the 630th year of Rome, and 123 years before 



70 History of Nature. [Boox II. 

about the Sun there was seen an Arch, when Lu. Opimius 
and Q. Fabius were Consuls ; and a Circle, when L. Porcius 
and M. Acilius were Consuls. 

CHAPTER XXX. 
Of Sudden Circles. 

THERE appeared a Circle of red Colour, when L. Julius 
and P. Rutilius were Consuls. Moreover, there are strange 
Eclipses of the Sun, continuing longer than ordinary ; which 
happened when Ccesar the Dictator was slain. In the Wars 
of Antony also, the Sun continued almost a whole Year, with 
a pale and wan Colour. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
Many Suns. 

AGAIN, many Suns are seen at once, neither above nor 
beneath the Body of the true Sun, but obliquely: never near, 
nor directly against, the Earth ; neither in the Night, but when 
the Sun either riseth or setteth. Once they are reported to 
have been seen at Noon-day in the Bosphorus, and they con- 
tinued from Morning to the Evening. Three Suns together 
our Ancestors have often beheld ; as, for instance, when 
Sp. Posthumius with Q. Mutius, Q. Martins with M. Porcius, 
M. Antonius with P. Dolabella, and Mar. Lepidus with 
L. Plancus, were Consuls. And our Age hath seen the like in 
the Time of Divus Cl. Ccesar s Sovereignty and joint-Consul- 
ship, with Cornelius Orfitus, his Colleague. More than three 
we never to this Day find to have been seen together. 

the Christian era. That the former of these consuls was capable of any 
violence or fraud, to secure political preponderance, appears from his his- 
tory in connexion with the Gracchi. He was openly accused of forging 
portents ; and when one of his lictors had knocked down Tiberius Grac- 
chus, whose person as tribune was sacred, in the riots that followed he 
offered a reward, of its weight in gold, for the head of his opponent. The 
bribe was successful : the head was found to weigh 171bs. 8oz. ; and to 
shew his pious gratitude for the result, as well, perhaps, as to divert 
public attention, he built a temple to Concord. Wern. Club. 



BOOK I L] History of Nature. 7 1 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
Many Moons. 

THREE Moons also appeared at once, when Cn. Domitius 
and C. Fannius were Consuls ; and these most Men call 
Night Suns. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Daylight in the Night. 

OUT of the Firmament by Night, there was seen a Light 1 , 
when C. Coelius and Cn. Papyrius were Consuls ; and often- 
times besides, so as the Night seemed as light as the Day. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
Burning Shields. 

A BURNING Shield ran sparkling from the West to the 
East, at the Sun's Setting, when L. Valerius and C. Marius 
were Consuls. 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

A strange Sight in the Shy. 

BY Report there was once seen, and never but once, 
when Cn. Octavius and C. Scribonius were Consuls, a Spark 
to fall from a Star : and as it approached the Earth it waxed 
greater, and after it came to the Bigness of the Moon, it 
shone out and gave Light, as in a cloudy Day : then, being 
retired again into the Sky, it became a burning Lamp 
(Lampas). This, Licinius Syllanus, the Pro-consul, saw, 
together with his Attendants. 

1 This remarkable phenomenon is rarely noticed in modern times, and 
is in itself rare ; but one or two instances have been related by living 
witnesses. On one occasion, in a very dark night, two or three indivi- 
duals, scarcely able to grope their way, were surprised at finding them- 
selves able to see every object as clearly as in a moderate daylight. They 
were so much astonished and alarmed at the sudden brightness, that, 
being engaged in an exploit, in which they had no desire of recognition, 
they were glad to hurry off with hasty expedition. Wern. Club. 



72 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
The extraordinary Shooting of Stars in the Sky. 

STARS are also seen to shoot hither and thither, but 
never to any purpose : for, from the same Quarter where 
they appear, there rise terrible Winds, and after them Tem- 
pests both by Sea and Land. 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 
Of the Stars called Castor and Pollux 1 . 

I HAVE seen myself, in the Camp, from the Sentinels in 
the Night-watch, the Resemblance of Lightning to fix on the 
Spears set before the Rampart. They settle also upon the 
Yards, and other Parts of the Ship, at Sea : making a Kind 
of vocal Sound, and shifting their Places as Birds do which 
fly from Bough to Bough. They are dangerous when they 
come singly, for they sink those Ships on which they alight ; 

1 Luminous meteors are mostly seen at night ; since daylight is too 
powerful to allow them to be seen. They have not been studied as the 
subject deserves ; and hence the futility of the explanations generally 
given to their causes. There is little doubt, that they differ greatly in 
nature. Some are undoubtedly electric; as may be judged from their 
sudden explosion, sometimes with signs of great violence. The appear- 
ances termed Castor and Pollux, and among modern sailors Corbisant, or 
Corpo Santo, is exceedingly rare on land, and in the British seas ; but 
common in warmer latitudes than Britain. Light of, perhaps, the same 
nature, is sometimes seen on the ears of animals, as the horse, when tra- 
velling in stormy weather. Pliny speaks of being himself an eye-witness 
to the settling of meteors on the military spears ; and there is a record of 
a similar appearance in the sixth volume (p. 38) of Hearne's edition of 
Leland's Itinerary: "In the yere of our Lord 1098, Corborant, admiral 
to the Soudan of Perce, was faught with at Antioche, and discumfited by 
the Christianes. The night cumming on yn the chace of this bataile, and 
waxing dark, the Christianes beying 4 miles from Antioche, God willing 
the saufte of the Christianes, shewid a white starre or molette of fy ve 
pointes on the Christen host, which to every manne's sighte did lighte and 
arrest upon the standard of Alboy the 3rd, there shining excessively." 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 73 

or they set them on Fire if they fall upon the Bottom of the 
Keel. But if the Pair appear, they are salutary, and foretel 
a prosperous Voyage ; for by their coming, it is supposed that 
the dreadful and threatening Meteor called Helena, is driven 
away. And therefore it is, that Men assign this mighty 
Power to Castor and Pollux, and invocate them as Gods at 
Sea. Men's Heads, also, in the Evening are seen to shine 
round about ; which presageth some great Matter. Of all 
these Things there is no certain Reason to be given ; but they 
are hidden in the Majesty of Nature. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
Of the Air. 

HITHERTO we have treated of the World itself, and the 
Stars. It remaineth now to speak of other memorable 
Things observed in the Sky. For even that Part also have 
our Forefathers called Cesium, or the Sky, which otherwise 
they name the Air : even all that Portion which seeming 
like a void and empty Place, yieldeth this vital Spirit 
whereby all Things do live. This Region is seated beneath 
the Moon, and far under that Planet (as I observe it is, in 
Manner, by all Men agreed upon). And mingling together 
an infinite Portion of the superior celestial Nature of Air, 
with very much of earthly Vapours, it doth participate con- 
fusedly of both. From hence proceed Clouds, Thunders, 
and those terrible Lightnings. From hence come Hail, 
Frosts, Rain, Storms, and Whirlwinds : from hence arise 
most of the Calamities of mortal Men, and the continual 
War that Nature maketh with herself. For these gross 
Exhalations, as they mount upward to the Heaven, are 
beaten back by the Violence of the Stars : and the same 
again draw up to them those Matters, which of their own 
Accord ascend not. For thus we see, that Showers of Rain 
fall, Mists arise, Rivers are dried up, Hail-storms came down 
amain, the Sunbeams scorch the ground, and drive it every 
where to the midst : but the same again unbroken, and not 
loosing their Force, rebound and take up with them whatso- 



74 History of Nature. [BoOK II. 

ever they are able. Vapours fall from aloft, and return again 
on high: forcible Winds come empty, but return with a 
Booty. So many living Creatures draw their Breath from 
above : but the same laboureth contrariwise, and the Earth 
infuseth into the Air a Spirit as if it were empty. Thus, while 
Nature goeth to and fro, as forced by some Engine, by the 
Swiftness of the Heaven the Fire of Discord is kindled. 
Neither can she stand to the Fight, but being continually 
carried away she is rolled about, and as she spreadeth about 
the Earth, with an immeasurable Globe of the Heaven, so 
ever and anon through the Clouds she frameth another Sky. 
And this is that Region where the Winds reign. And there- 
fore their Kingdom principally is there where they execute 
their Forces. For Thunderbolts and Lightnings most Men 
attribute to their Violence. Nay, and so it is supposed that 
sometimes it raineth Stones, which may be taken up first by 
the Wind ; and many similar Appearances. Wherefore many 
Matters besides are to be treated of together. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 
Of Ordinary Sedsons. 

IT is manifest that of Seasons, as also of other Things, 
some Causes be certain ; others, casual ; or, such as yet the 
Reason thereof is unknown. For who doubteth that Sum- 
mers and Winters, and those alternative Seasons which we 
observe by yearly Course, are occasioned by the Motion of 
the Planets? As, therefore, the Sun's Nature is understood 
by tempering and ordering the Year, so the rest of the Stars 
have every one their peculiar Power, and the same effectual 
to perform their own Nature. Some are fruitful to bring 
forth Moisture, that is turned into liquid Rain : others to 
yield an Humour either congealed into Frosts, or gathered 
and thickened into Snow, or else frozen into Hail : some 
afford Winds ; others Warmth : some hot and scorching 
Vapours ; some, Dews ; and others, Cold. Neither ought 
these Stars to be esteemed no more than they shew in Sight, 
seeing that none of them is less than the Moon ; as may 



BOOK 1 1 .] History of Nature. 75 

appear by the Reason of their exceeding Height. All of 
them, then, every one in its own Motion, exercise their 
several Natures : which appeareth manifestly by Saturn 
especially, who setteth open the Gates for Rain and Showers 
to pass. And not only the seven Wandering Stars possess 
this Power, but many of them also that are fixed in the Fir- 
mament ; so often as they be either driven by the Approach 
of those Planets, or provoked by the Casting and Influence 
of their Beams : like as we find it happeneth in the seven 
Stars called Suculce, which the Grecians, of Rain, name 
Hyades (because they ever bring foul Weather). Howbeit 
some of their own Nature, and at certain set Times, do cause 
Rain ; as the Rising of the Kids. The Star Arcturus very 
rarely appeareth without some tempestuous Hail 1 . 

CHAPTER XL. 
The Power of the Dog- Star. 

WHO knoweth not, that when the Dog-Star ariseth, the 
Heat of the Sun is fiery and burning? the effects of which 
Star are felt exceeding much upon the Earth. The Seas at 
his Rising do rage, the Wines in Cellars are troubled, stand- 
ing Waters are moved. A wild Beast there is in Egypt, 
called Orix~, which the Egyptians say, doth stand full against 

1 It is scarcely necessary to warn the modern reader, that throughout 
these observations on the weather, an influence is ascribed to the rising of 
certain stars, from no better cause than the coincidence of the occurrences. 
Wern. Club. 

2 Pliny mentions this animal in book x. c. 73 ; and again in book xi. 
c. 46 ; but modern naturalists have failed to identify it with any creature 
known at the present time. Indeed, there is reason to believe that more 
than one creature has been thus designated by the ancients ; for it has 
been described as having only one horn; which would make it either 
a species of rhinoceros, or the animal resembling a stag or horse, so often 
spoken of under the name of Unicorn. It has also been compared to an 
ox ; and four horns have been ascribed to it. But, more precisely, it is said 
to be white, with horns and a beard ; which renders it probable that it 
was of the goat kind. As the religion of the ancient Heathens was merely 
ceremonial, the imputing to the creature, in the practice of sneezing, an 
act of adoration to Anubis, or the Dog- Star, one of the chief deities of the 



76 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

the Dog-Star when it riseth, looking wistly upon it, and tes- 
tifieth by sneezing, a Kind of Worship. As for Dogs, no 
Man doubteth but all the Time of the canicular Days they 
are most ready to run mad. 

CHAPTER XLI. 

That the Stars have their several Influences in sundry Parts 
of the Signs, and at divers Times. 

MOREOVER 1 , the Parts of certain Signs have their peculiar 
Force, as appeareth in the autumnal Equinox, and in Mid- 
Winter ; at which Time we perceive that the Sun maketh 
Tempests. And this is proved, not only by Rains and Storms, 

Egyptians, will appear less absurd than at the first mention would 
appear. For a similar reason Pliny ascribes religion to elephants, and 
even poultry. 

In his 28th book, the Author (ch. 2) has some observations on the 
superstition of the Romans, relative to the act of sneezing ; and it is 
not a little remarkable, that a similar practice, of imprecating a bless- 
ing in such case, is not even now uncommon among ourselves. Wern. 
Club. 

1 In this chapter there is a confusion of cause and effect that is diffi- 
cult to unravel ; and which can only be accounted for by involving what 
are undoubtedly natural influences in modern times easily explained 
with occult causes, the bounds of which the ancients were not able to 
define. The influence of the sun's heat on currents of air, constituting 
winds and tempests, and even its simple action on the texture of a 
membrane, are thus confounded with the powers which the Signs of 
the Zodiac were supposed to exert on the functions of the organs or re- 
gions of the human body. According to this philosopy, each of the 
twelve signs exerted a peculiar influence on a distinct portion ; beginning 
with the head, which was governed by Aries; and proceeding downward 
by regular spaces, each opposite sign in the Annual Circle became the 
monarch of its season, until the Twins, opposite to Aries, displayed their 
power over the feet. To the reproach of modern science, these imaginary 
influences, which derived their origin in popular opinion, from a supposed 
sympathetic connexion of the spirit pervading these signs a portion of 
the great soul of the world (Note to ch. 1), and therefore a portion of 
a very ancient idolatry maintains its place in the popular almanacs, 
published under the superintendence of a public company especially 
instituted for the promotion of an improved literature. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 77 

but by many Experiments in Men's Bodies, and Accidents to 
Plants in the Country. For some Men are struck by the 
Planet, and blasted : others are troubled at certain Times in 
their Bowels, Sinews, Head, and Mind. The Olive Tree, the 
White Poplar, and Willows, turn their Leaves about at 
Midsummer, at the Solstice. And contrariwise, in Mid- 
winter, the Herb Pennyroyal flowereth fresh, even as it 
hangs dry within the House. At which Time all Parch- 
ments are so stretched with the Wind that they burst. A 
Man might marvel hereat who marketh not by daily Expe- 
rience, that one Herb called Heliotropium 1 , looketh toward 
the Sun, ever as he goeth, turning with him at all hours, 
notwithstanding he be shadowed under a Cloud. It is cer- 
tain also, that the Bodies of Oysters, Mussels, Cockles, and 
all Shell-fishes, grow and waste by the Power of the Moon ; 
and some have found out by diligent Search, that the Fibres 
in the Livers of Rats and Mice answer in Number to the 
Days of the Moon's Age : also that the very little Creature, 
the Emmet, feeleth the Power of this Planet, and always in 
the Change of the Moon ceaseth from Work. It is the more 
Shame to Man to be ignorant, especially seeing that he must 
confess, that some labouring Beasts have certain Diseases in 
their Eyes, which with the Moon do grow and decay. How- 
beit the excessive Greatness of the Heaven and exceeding 
Height thereof, divided as it is into seventy-two Signs, make 
for him, and serve for his Excuse. These Signs are the 
Resemblances of Things, or living Creatures, into which the 
skilful Astronomers have digested -the Firmament. For Ex- 
ample, in the Tail of Taurus there be seven, which they 
have named Veryilice*; in the Forehead other seven called 
SuculcB : and Bootes who followeth after the great Bear 
(Septentriones). 

1 This plant is again referred to (b. xxii. c. 21) as a good country- 
man's weather-glass. It is a question whether it belong to the genus 
Heliotropium of Linnaeus, or be not rather the Caltha PalustriSj or Marsh 
Mary gold. Wern. Club. 

3 Better known by the name of Pleiades. Wern. Club. 



78 History of Nature. [BooK It. 

CHAPTER XLIL 
The Causes of Rain, Showers, Winds, and Clouds. 

I CANNOT deny, but without these Causes there arise 
Rains and Winds : for it is certain there is exhaled from the 
Earth a Mist, sometimes moist, at other Times smoky, by 
Reason of hot Vapours. Also, that Clouds are produced by 
Vapours which are gone up on high, or else of the Air 
gathered into a watery Liquor : that they be thick, and of a 
bodily Consistence, we collect by no doubtful Argument, 
considering that they overshadow the Sun, which otherwise 
may be seen through Water; as they know well that dive to 
any good Depth, 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
Of Thunder and Lightning. 1 

I WOULD not deny, therefore, that the fiery Impressions 
from Stars above, may fall upon these Clouds, such as we 
oftentimes see to shoot in clear and fair Weather : by the 
forcible Stroke whereof, good Reason it is. that the Air 
should be mightily shaken, seeing that Darts when they are 
discharged, make a Noise as they fly. But when they en- 
counter a Cloud, there ariseth a Vapour with a dissonant 
Sound (as when a red-hot Iron maketh an Hissing when 
thrust into Water), and Smoke rolls up in Waves. Hence 
Storms are bred. And if this Flatus, or Vapour, do struggle 
within the Cloud, Thunder is given out ; if it break through 
still burning, then flieth out the Thunderbolt : if it be a 

1 An attempt to explain the cause of thunder and lightning could 
scarcely be otherwise than futile, in the entire absence of a knowledge of 
the existence of such a matter as electricity. But any attempt at a natural 
explanation was an effort of courage, and far in advance of the popular 
opinion. On this account the Author is entitled to pardon, when, at the 
conclusion of the chapter he finds himself disposed to make some conces- 
sion, in admitting it to be possible, that some of these phenomena were 
premonitory, and direct from the gods. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 79 

longer Time in struggling, then Lightning-flashes are seen. 
With these the Cloud is cloven ; with the other, burst in 
sunder. The Thunders are the Blows given by the Fires 
beating hard upon the Clouds : and therefore presently the 
fiery Rifts of those Clouds do flash and shine. It is possible, 
also, that the Wind, elevated from the Earth, being repelled, 
and kept down by the Stars, and so restrained within a 
Cloud, may thunder, while Nature choketh the rumbling 
Sound all the while it striveth ; but sendeth forth a Crash 
when it breaketh out, as we see in a Bladder puffed up with 
Wind. Likewise it may be, that the same Wind or Spirit is 
set on Fire by Attrition, as it violently passeth headlong 
down. It may also be stricken by the Conflict of the Clouds, 
as if two Stones hit one against another ; and so the Flashes 
sparkle forth. But all these are Accidents. And from hence 
come those insignificant and vain Lightnings, which have no 
natural Cause. With these are Mountains and Seas smitten : 
and of this Kind be all other Explosions that do no Hurt to 
living Creatures. Those that come from above, and of fixed 
Causes, yea, and from their proper Stars, foretel future 
Events. In like Manner, it may be that the Winds, or rather 
Blasts, proceed from a dry Exhalation of the Earth, void of 
all Moisture : neither will I deny that they arise from Waters 
breathing out an Air, which neither can thicken into a Mist, 
nor gather into Clouds : also they may be driven by the 
Impulsion of the Sun, because the Wind is conceived to be 
Nothing else but the flowing of the Air, and that by many 
means. For some we see to rise out of Rivers, Snows, and 
Seas, even when they be still and calm : as also others out of 
the Earth, which Winds they name Altani. And those verily 
when they come back again from the Sea, are called Tropcei: 
if they go onward, Apogcei. 

CHAPTER XLIV. 
What is the Reason of the Resounding of the Echo. 

BUT the Windings of Hills, and their close Turnings, 
their many Tops, their Ridges also bending like an Elbow, 



80 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

and arched, as it were, into Shoulders, together with the 
Hollows of Vallies, do cut unequally the Air that reboundeth 
from them : which is the Cause of reciprocal Voices called 
Echoes, answering one another in many Places. 

CHAPTER XLV. 
Of Winds again. 

THERE are, again, certain Caves 1 which breed Winds with- 
out end : such as that one which is in the Edge of Dalmatia, 
gaping with a wide Mouth, and leading to a deep Cavern : 
into which, if there be cast any Matter of light Weight, be 
the Day never so calm, there ariseth presently a Tempest like 
a Whirlwind. The Place's Name is Senta. Moreover, in 
the Province Cyrenaica there is reported to be a Rock con- 
secrated to the South-wind, which without Profanation may 
not be touched with Man's Hand ; but if it be, presently the 
South-wind doth arise and cast up Heaps of Sand. Also in 
many Houses there be hollow Places devised by Man's Hand 
for the Receipt of Wind ; which being enclosed with Shade, 
gather their Blasts. Whereby we may see how all Winds 
have a Cause. But great Difference there is between such 
Blasts and Winds. As for these, they be settled, and conti- 
nually blowing ; which, not some particular Places, but 
whole Lands do feel ; which are not light Gales nor stormy 
Puffs of the Sea, named Aurce and Procellce, but properly 

1 That there is an intimate connexion between the interior of the 
earth and the atmosphere, operating in the production or direction of the 
nature or force of winds, is exceedingly probable ; although the particular 
instances here given are either imaginary, or strangely misinterpreted. 
A simple change in the pressure of the atmosphere a meteorological 
phenomenon of which the ancients were ignorant, from not being aware 
that air possessed positive weight will account for many of these sudden 
gusts from caverns ; and for those hollow murmurs that have been popu- 
larly remarked in hilly countries, before the approach of a storm ; and 
the utility of these outbursts will appear when we remember, that with- 
out them, poisonous exhalations, as marsh miasmata, and carbonic acid 
gas, would be suffered to accumulate, to the destruction of a neighbour- 
hood. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 81 

called Winds, by the masculine Name Venti : which, whether 
they arise by the continual Motion of the Heaven, and the 
contrary Course of the Planets ; or whether this Wind be 
that Spirit of Nature that engendereth all Things, wandering 
to and fro, as it were, in some Womb ; or rather the Air, 
beaten and driven by the unlike Influences of the Planets, 
and the Multiplicity of their Beams : or whether all Winds 
come from their own nearer Stars ; or rather fall from them 
that be fixed in the Firmament : plain it is, that they 
are guided by an ordinary Law of Nature, not altogether 
unknown, although it be not yet thoroughly known. 

CHAPTER XLVI. 
The Natures and Observations of the Winds. 

MORE than twenty of the old Greek Writers have re- 
corded their Observations of the Winds. I marvel so much 
the more, that the World being so at Discord, and divided 
into Kingdoms, that is to say, dismembered ; so many Men 
have employed their Care to seek after these Things, so diffi- 
cult to be found out ; and the more especially in Time of 
Wars, and amid those Places where was no safe Abode ; and 
especially when Pirates, those common Enemies to Mankind, 
held well near all Passages of Communication : I marvel, 
also, that at this Day each Man in his own Tract of Country 
obtaineth more Knowledge of some Things by their Com- 
mentaries, who never set Foot there, than he doth by the 
Skill and Information of home-born Inhabitants ; whereas 
now in Time of such blessed and joyous Peace, and under a 
Prince who taketh such Delight in the Progress of the State 
and of all good Arts, no new Thing is learned by farther 
Inquisition ; nay, nor so much as the Inventions of old Wri- 
ters are thoroughly understood. And verily it cannot be 
said, that greater Rewards were in those Days given, consi- 
dering that the Bounty of Fortune was dispersed : and in 
truth, most of these learned Men sought out these Secrets 
for no other Regard than to do good to Posterity. But 
now Men's Customs are waxed old and decay : and notwith- 

F 



82 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

standing that the Fruit of Learning be as great as ever it 
was, yet Men are become idle in this behalf. The Seas are 
open to all, an infinite Multitude of Sailors have discovered 
all Coasts whatsoever ; they sail through and arrive fami- 
liarly at every Shore ; but all is for Gain, nothing for the 
Sake of Knowledge. Their Minds altogether blinded, and 
bent upon nothing but Covetousness, never consider that the 
same might with more Safety be performed by Science. And 
therefore, seeing there be so many thousand Sailors that 
hazard themselves on the Seas, I will treat of the Winds more 
curiously than, perhaps, would otherwise be necessary to the 
present Work. 

CHAPTER XLVII. 
Many Sorts of Winds. 

THE Ancients observed four Winds 1 only, according 
to so many Quarters of the World (and therefore Homer 
nameth no more) : a feeble Reason this, as soon after it was 
judged. The Age ensuing added eight more, and they were 
on the other Side in their Conceit, too subtle and concise. 
The modern Sailors have found a Mean between both : and 
they put unto that short Number of the first, four Winds 
and no more ; which they took out of the latter. Therefore 
every Quarter of the Heaven hath two Winds to itself. 
From the equinoctial Sun-rising bloweth the East Wind, Sub- 
solanus: from the Rising thereof in Midwinter the South-east, 
Vulturnus. The former of these two the Greeks call Apeliotes, 
and the latter Eurus. From the Midday riseth the South 
Wind : and from the Sun-setting in Midwinter the South-west, 
Africus. They also name these two, Notus and Libs. From 
the equinoctial going down of the Sun, the West Wind, 

1 The impression of this precise number of winds appears to have been 
popular ; and is referred to in the Book of Revelation by St. John, vii. 1 : 
" I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the 
four winds of the earth." Pliny evidently supposes that the winds were 
not simply determined according to the quarter from which they blew, 
but by separate and inherent qualities of heat, moisture, violence, health, 
or sickness. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 83 

JFavonius, cometh : but from that in Summer, the North- 
west, Corns: and by the Greeks they are termed Zephyrus 
and Argestes. From the North bloweth the North Wind, Sep- 
tentrio: between which and the Sunrising in Summer is the 
North-east Wind, Aquilo, named Aparctias and Boreas by the 
Greeks. A greater Reckoning than this for Number is 
brought in by some, who have thrust in four more between : 
namely, Thracias between the North and the Summer Setting 
of the Sun ; in like Manner Ccecias, in the midst between the 
North-east, Aquilo, and that of the Sunrising in the equi- 
noctial, Sub-solanus. Also, after the Sunrising in Summer, 
Phceniceas in the midst, between the South-east and the South. 
Last of all, between the South and the South-west, Lybo- 
notus, just in the midst, compounded of them both, namely, 
between the Meridian and the Sun-setting in Winter. But 
here they did not end. For others have set one more, called 
Mese, between the North-east Wind Boreas and Ccecias: also 
JSuronotuSj between the South and South-west Winds. Besides 
all these, there be some Winds peculiar to every Nation, 
and which pass not beyond one certain Region : as, namely, 
Scyros among the Athenians, declining a little from Argestes; 
a Wind unknown to other Parts of Greece. In some other 
Place it is more aloft, and the same then is called Olympias 
(as coming from the Mountain Olympus). But the usual 
Manner of Speech understandeth by all these Names Ar- 
gestes only. Some call Ccecias by the Name of Hellespontias, 
and give the same Winds in sundry Places divers Names. 
In the Province, likewise, of Narbonne, the most notorious 
Wind is Circius, and for violence inferior to none, driving 
directly before it, very often, the Current at Ostia into the 
Ligurian Sea. The same Wind is not only unknown in all 
other Parts of the Heaven, but reacheth not so much as to 
Vienna, a City in the same Province. As great and bois- 
terous a Wind as this is otherwise, yet it meets with a Re- 
straint before it come thither, and is kept within narrow 
Bounds by the Opposition of a small Hill. Fabianus also 
avoucheth, that the South Winds enter not so far as into 
Egypt. Whereby the Law of Nature sheweth itself plainly, 
that even Winds have their Times and Limits appointed. 



84 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

To proceed, then, the Spring openeth the Sea for Sailors: 
in the Beginning whereof, the West Winds mitigate the Win- 
ter Weather at the Time when the Sun is in the 25th Degree 
of Aquarius, and that is the sixth Day before the Ides of 
February. And this Order holdeth for the most Part with 
all other Winds, which I will set down one after another : so 
that in every Leap Year we anticipate and reckon one Day 
sooner, and then again keep the same Rule throughout all 
the four Years following. Some call Favonius (which begin- 
neth to blow about the seventh Day before the Calends of 
March) by the Name of Chelidonius, upon the Sight of the 
first Swallows 1 : but many name it Orinthias, coming the 
seventy-first Day after the shortest Day in Winter ; by occa- 
sion of the coming of Birds : which Wind bloweth for nine 
Days. Opposite to Favonius is the Wind which we called 
Sub-solanus. Unto this Wind is attributed the Rising of the 
Vergilice, or Seven Stars, in as many Degrees of Taurus, six 
Days before the Ides of May ; which Time is a southerly 
Constitution : and to this Wind the North is contrary. 
Moreover, in the hottest Season of the Summer the Dog-star 
ariseth, when the Sun entereth into the first Degree of Leo, 
which commonly is the fifteenth Day before the Calends of 
August. Before the Rising of this Star for eight Days' 
Space, or thereabout, the North-east Winds blow ; which the 
Greeks call Prodromi, or Forerunners. And two Days after 
it is risen, the same Winds hold still more stiffly for the 
Space of forty Days, which they name Etesia. The Sun's 

1 Ovid (" Fasti ") says, on the day which is equivalent to about the 
25th of February: 

" Fallimur ? an veris praenuntia venit hirundo ? 
Et metuit, nequa versa recurrat hyems ? " 

" Am I deceived ? is that the swallow's wing ? 
That flits along, the herald of the spring. 
Fearful of cold, she still seeks shelter here ; 
And dreads that winter may reclaim the year." 

In Sardinia it is noted on the last day of the same month, in the " Calendar 
of the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Brussels." But these are 
early appearances ; and in general this bird arrives in Italy in the first 
ten days of March. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 85 

Vapour, redoubled by the Hotness of that Star, is thought to 
be assuaged by them : and no Winds keep their set Times 
better than they. Next after them come the South Winds 
again, which are usually up, until the Star Arcturus riseth, 
and that is eleven Days before the autumnal Equinox. With 
it entereth Corns, and thus Corns beginneth the Autumn ; 
and to this Vulturnus is contrary. After that Equinox about 
four-and-forty Days, the Vergilice go down and begin Win- 
ter, which Season usually falleth upon the third Day before 
the Ides of November. This is the Winter North-east Wind, 
which is far unlike to that in Summer, opposite and contrary 
to Africus. Seven Days before the Midwinter Day, and as 
much after, the Sea is allayed and calm for the Sitting and 
Hatching of the Birds Halciones 1 , from which these Days 
took the Name Alcionis: the Time behind belongs to Winter. 
And yet these boisterous Seasons, full of Tempests, shut not 
up the Sea : for Pirates at first forced Men, with Peril of 
Death, to run headlong upon their Death, and to hazard 
themselves in Winter Seas ; and now Covetousness compels 
them to do the like. 

The coldest Winds of all other are those which, we said, 
blow from the North, and together with them their Neigh- 
bour, Corns. These Winds allay all others, and drive away 
Clouds. Moist Winds are Africus, and especially the South 
Wind of Italy, called Auster. Men report also, that Ccecias 
in Pontus gathereth to itself Clouds. Corns and Vulturnus 
are dry, but only when they cease. The North-east and the 
North produce Snow. The North Wind also bringeth Hail, 
as doth Corns. The South Wind is exceeding hot. Vulturnus 
and Favonius be warm. They also be drier than the East : 

1 Ovid relates the fable of the origin of the Halcyon, or Alcyon, 
" Metamorphoses," book xi. fable 10; and Pliny describes the bird in his 
book x. c. 32. 2Elian also speaks of it, book i. c. 36 ; and he describes the 
wonders of the nest, b. ix. c. 17, in a manner which the ancients gene- 
rally appear to have regarded as substantially true; but it is scarcely 
necessary to remark, that modern observation has not corroborated this 
belief in any particular. In book xxxii. c. 8, Pliny speaks of a medicine 
which was supposed to be prepared from the nest of the Alcyon, or King- 
fisher. Wern. Club. 



86 History of Nature. [BOOK II. 

and generally all Winds from the North and West are drier 
than from the South and East. Of all Winds the Northern 
is most healthful : the Southern Wind is noisome, and the 
rather when it is dry ; haply, because that when it is moist 
it is the colder. During the Time that it bloweth, living- 
Creatures are thought to be less hungry. The Etesice give 
over ordinarily in the Night, and arise at the third hour of 
the Day. In Spain and Asia they blow from the East : but 
in Pontus, from the North : in other Quarters, from the 
South. They blow also after the Midwinter, when they be 
called OrinthicB ; but those are more mild, and continue 
fewer Days. Two there be that change their Nature with 
their Place : the South Wind in Africa bringeth fair Weather, 
and the North Wind there is cloudy. All Winds keep their 
Course in Order for the more Part, or else when one ceaseth 
the contrary beginneth. When some are laid and the next 
to them arise, they go about from the left Hand to the right, 
according to the Sun. Of their Manner and Order monthly, 
the fourth Day after the Change of the Moon doth most 
commonly determine. The same Winds will serve to sail 
contrary Ways, by means of setting out the Sails : so as many 
Times in the Night, Ships in sailing run one against another. 
The South Wind raiseth greater Billows than the North : for 
that the South Wind ariseth below, from the Bottom of the 
Sea ; the other descends from on high. And, therefore, after 
Southern Winds, Earthquakes are most hurtful. The South 
Wind in the Night Time is more boisterous, the Northern 
Wind in the Day. The Winds blowing from the East con- 
tinue longer than those from the West. The Northern Winds 
give over commonly with an odd Number : which Observa- 
tion serveth to good use in many other Parts of natural 
Things, and therefore the male Winds are judged by the odd 
Number. The Sun both raiseth and also allayeth the Winds. 
At rising and setting he causeth them to blow : at Noontide 
he represseth them in Summer. And therefore at Mid-day 
or Midnight commonly the Winds are allayed ; for both Cold 
and Heat, if they be immoderate, do consume them. Also, 
Rain doth lay the Winds : and most commonly from thence 
they are looked for to blow, where Clouds break and lay 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 87 

open the Sky. And Eudoxus is of opinion (if we list to ob- 
serve the least Revolutions) that after the End of every 
fourth Year, not only all Winds, but, for the most Part, other 
Tempests and Constitutions of the Weather, return again to 
the same Course as before. And always the Lustrum 1 or Com- 
putation of the five Years, beginneth at the Leap Year, when 
the Dog-star doth arise. And thus much concerning general 
Winds. 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 

Of Sudden Blasts. 

Now will we speak of sudden Blasts : which being raised 
(as hath been said before) by Exhalations of the Earth, and 
cast down again, in the meanwhile appear of many Fashions, 
enclosed within a thin Course of Clouds. For such as be wan- 
dering and rushing in Manner of Land-floods (as some Men 
were of opinion, as we have shewed), bring forth Thunder 
and Lightning. But if they come with a greater Force and 
Violence, and cleave a dry Cloud asunder, they breed a 
Storm, which of the Greeks is called Ecnephias: but if the 
Breach be not great, so that the Wind be constrained to re- 
volve in his Descent without Fire, that is to say, Lightning, 
it makes a Whirlwind called Typhon, that is to say, the 
vibrated Ecnephias. This snatches with it a Piece broken 
out of a congealed cold Cloud, turning and rolling it round, 
and with that Weight inaketh its own Fall more heavy, and 
changeth from Place to Place with a vehement Whirling. 
It is the greatest Danger that Sailors have, breaking not 
only their Yards, but also wrecking the very Ships to twisted 
Fragments : and yet a small Matter is the Remedy for it, 
namely, the casting of Vinegar out against it as it cometh ; 
which is of very cold Nature. The same Storm beating upon 
a Thing is itself smitten back again with Violence, and 
snatcheth up whatever it meeteth in the Way aloft into the 
Sky, carrying it back, and swallowing it up on high. But if 
it break out from a greater Hole of the said Cloud, by it so 

1 This space of time came round at the beginning of every fifth year ; 
at which period, originally, the census was taken, and the taxes fixed 
until the recurrence of the same period. Wern. Club. 



88 History of Nature. [BOOK II. 

borne down, and yet not altogether so broad, as the above- 
named Storm Procella doth, nor without a Crack, they call 
this boisterous Wind Turbo, which overthroweth all that is near 
it. The same, if it be more hot and catching Fire as it rageth, 
is named Prester; burning and laying along whatsoever it 
encountereth. 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Other prodigious Kinds of Tempests. 

No Typhon cometh from the North, nor any Ecnephias 
with Snow, or while Snow lieth on the Ground. If this tem- 
pestuous Wind when it broke the Cloud, burned fiercely, 
having Fire of its own before, and catched it not afterward, 
it is true Lightning; and diifereth from Prester only as Flame 
from a Coal of Fire. Again, Prester spreadeth widely with a 
Flash ; the other gathereth into a Globe with Violence. Vor- 
tex differeth from Turben in flying back : and as much as a 
Crash from a Crack. The Storm Procella differs from them 
both in Breadth, and rather scattereth than breaketh the 
Cloud. There riseth also a dark Mist, resembling a mon- 
strous Beast ; and this is ever a terrible Cloud to Sailors. 
Another, likewise, is called a Pillar 1 , when the Humour is so 
thick and congealed that it standeth compact of itself. Of 
the same Sort also is that Cloud which draweth Water to it, 
as it were, into a long Pipe. 

CHAPTER L. 
In what Lands Lightnings fall not. 

IK Winter and Summer seldom are there any Lightnings, 
because of contrary Causes : for in Winter the Air is con- 
densed, and thickened with a deeper Course of Clouds : and all 
the Exhalations from the Earth being chilled and frozen hard, 
extinguish what fiery Vapour soever otherwise they receive : 
which is the Reason that Scythia, and other frozen Countries 

1 The Author clearly means what, in modern times, is denominated a 
Water-spout : a phenomenon not uncommon in the Mediterranean Sea, 
and in other warm climates ; but exceedingly rare, if at all occurring, in 
northern regions. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 89 

thereabout, are free from Lightnings. And Egypt 1 , likewise, 
from a contrary Cause, is exempt from Lightnings, the Rea- 
son being its excessive Heat : for the hot and dry Exhalations 
of the Earth gather into very slender, thin, and weak Clouds. 
But in the Spring and Autumn, Lightnings are more rife ; 
because in both those Seasons the Causes as well of Summer 
as Winter are corrupt. And this is the Reason that Light- 
nings are common in Italy ; for the Air being more mov- 
able, by Reason of a milder Winter and a cloudy Summer, is 
always of the Temperature of Spring or Autumn. In those 
Parts, also, of Italy, which lie off from the North, and in- 
cline to Warmth (as, namely, in the Tract about Rome and 
Campania), there is Lightning in Winter and Summer alike, 
which happeneth in no other Part thereof. 

CHAPTER LI. 
Sundry Sorts of Lightnings, and Wonders thereof. 

VERY many Kinds of Lightning are set down by Authors. 
Those that come dry burn not, but only disperse. They that 
come moist do not burn, but blast and embrown. A third 
Kind there is, which they call Bright and Clear; and that is 
of a wonderful Nature, whereby Tuns are drawn dry, and 
their Sides, Hoops, and Heads never touched, nor any other 
Token thereof is left behind. Gold, Copper, and Silver 2 are 

1 The circumstance that Egypt is naturally exempt from lightning, 
must have greatly heightened the terrors of the Seventh Plague with 
which God visited this land in the days of the Exodus. But though 
very rare, thunder and lightning are not unknown in Egypt, at least 
in modern times. Thevenot mentions a man who was killed by light- 
ning at Cairo, when he was there ; but such a circumstance had never 
been known before. Rain, and even hail, have also been seen; but 
all these phenomena are less severe than in other countries. Wern. 
Club. 

2 The facts here mentioned must have appeared as unaccountable as 
stupendous, before the modern discoveries of Franklin and others, relative 
to the attractions of the electric fluid : the existence of which, as an agent 
of Nature, was not dreamt of in the philosophy of Pliny and the ancient 
observers. Wern. Club. 



90 History of Nature. [BoOK II. 

melted in the Bags, and the Bags themselves unscorcbed ; 
and not even the Wax of the Seal defaced. Martia, a noble 
Lady of Rome, being great with Child, was struck with 
Lightning : the Child she went with was killed within her, 
and she survived without any Harm. Among the Catiline 
Prodigies it is found upon Record, that M. Herennius (a 
Counsellor of the incorporate Town Pompeianum) was in a 
fair and clear Day smitten with Lightning. 

CHAPTER LII. 
Of Observations touching Lightning. 

IT is held in the Writings of the ancient Tuscans 1 , that 
there be nine Gods that send forth Lightnings, and those 
of eleven Sorts : for Jupiter (say they) casteth three at once. 
The Romans have observed two of them, and no more; attri- 
buting those in the Day-time to Jupiter, and those of the 
Night to Summanus or Pluto. And these verily be more 
rare, for the Cause before-named ; namely, the Coldness 
of the Air above. In Etruria, they suppose that some 
Lightnings break out of the Earth, which they call Infera, 
or Infernal ; and such be made in Midwinter. And these 
they take to be earthly, and of all most mischievous and exe- 
crable : neither be those general and universal Lightnings, 
nor proceeding from the Stars, but from a very near and 
more troubled Cause. And this is an evident Argument 
for Distinction, that all such as fall from the upper Sky strike 
obliquely : but those which they call earthly, smite straight. 
But the Reason why these are thought to issue from the 
Earth is, because they fall from out of a Matter nearer to 
the Earth ; forasmuch as they leave no Marks of a Stroke 

1 This people was famed for the study of prognostications from natural 
appearances : an art they had probably derived from Egypt or Assyria, 
and which the neighbouring nations learned from them. It consisted in 
minutely observing every unusual occurrence, and in deducing thence, 
according to rules known only to the proper authorities, the will of the 
gods, or the indications of a fixed necessity. This science is farther spoken 
of in the seventh book. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 91 

behind: which are occasioned by Force not from beneath, 
but coming full against. Such as have searched more closely 
into these Matters are of opinion that these Lightnings 
come from the Planet Saturn, as the burning Lightning from 
Mars; and with such Lightning was Volsinii (a very wealthy 
City of the Tuscans), entirely burnt to Ashes. The Tuscans 
call those Lightnings familiar which presage the Fortune 
of some Race, and are significant during their whole Life ; 
and such are they that come first to any Man, after he is 
newly entered into his own Family. However, their Judg- 
ment is, that these private Lightnings do not portend for 
above ten Years : unless they happen either upon the Day of 
first Marriage, or on a Birth-day. Public Lightnings be not 
of Force above thirty Years, except they chance at the very 
Time that Towns or Colonies be erected and planted. 

CHAPTER LIII. 
Of calling out Lightnings. 

IT appeareth upon Record in Chronicles, that by certain 
Sacrifices and Prayers 1 , Lightnings may be either compelled 

1 There are many proofs of imposture in these ancient ceremonies ; but 
when modern science is able to produce some of the effects ascribed to 
these Etrurian priests, it seems just to conclude that they may have pos- 
sessed the secret of a method of drawing the electric fluid from the sky. 
The danger attending a failure in the requisite proceedings, as in the case 
of Tullius Hostilius, would necessarily confine the practice to an instructed 
few ; whose credit for sanctity would, therefore, be highly exalted. Ovid, 
in his third book of the " Fasti," obscurely intimates the acquaintance of 
Numa with such arts : 

" Jupiter hue veniet, valida perductus ab arte . . . 

.... quid agant, quae carmina dicant, 
Quoque trahant superis sedibus arte Jovem." 

" To thee, by powerful art compelled, 
Shall Jupiter approach . . . 

.... And then they tell 

What deeds, what powerful charms, the Man must use, 
To draw the God compell'd from seats above." 

The secret consisted in Numa's being a scholar of Pythagoras, and studying 
" Quae sit rerum Natura." 

Wern. Club. 



92 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

or obtained by Entreaty. There is an ancient Report in 
Etruria, that such a Lightning was procured by Entreaty, 
when there entered into the City Volsinii (after all the Terri- 
tory about it was destroyed) a Monster, which they named 
Volta. Also, that another was called forth by P or senna, 
their King. Moreover, L. Piso (a Writer of good Credit) 
reporteth in his first Book of Annals, that Numa before him 
performed the same Act many a Time : and when Tullius 
Hostilius would have imitated him (for that he observed not 
all the Ceremonies accordingly), he was himself struck with 
Lightning. And for this Purpose, we have sacred Groves, 
Altars, and Sacrifices. And among the Jupiters surnamed 
Statores, Tonantes, and Peretrii, we have heard that one 
also was called Elicius. Men's Opinions are various con- 
cerning this Point, and every Man according to his own 
Liking. To believe that Nature may be compelled, is a very 
audacious Opinion : but it is as senseless on the other Side 
to make her Benefits of no effect ; considering that in the 
Interpretation of Lightning, Science hath thus far proceeded 
as to foretell when they will come at a prescribed Day : and 
whether they will frustrate the Dangers pronounced, or 
rather open other Destinies, which lie hidden in innumerable 
public and private Experiments of both Kinds. And there- 
fore (since it hath so pleased Nature) let some of these Things 
be certain, others doubtful : some proved, and others con- 
demned. As for us, we will not omit the Rest which in 
these Matters are worth Remembrance. 

CHAPTER LIV. 
General Rules of Lightning. 

THAT the Lightning is seen before the Thunderclap is 
heard, although they come indeed jointly together, is cer- 
tain. And no Wonder, for Light is more rapid than Sound. 
And yet Nature doth so modulate, that the Stroke and 
Sound shall accord together. But when there is a Noise 1 , 

1 Ovid refers to this also, as the popular opinion. But silent lightning 
in a clear sky was judged to be unaccountable, except as coming from the 
gods. Hence Horace, though disposed to the doctrines of Epicurus, found 



BOOK 1 1 .] History of Nature. 93 

it is a Sign of the Lightning proceeding of some natural 
Cause, and not sent by some God : and yet a Breath cometh 
before the Thunderbolt : and hereupon it is, that every Thing 
is shaken and blasted before it is smitten : neither is any 
Man struck, who either saw the Lightning before, or heard 
the Thunderclap. Those Lightnings that are on the left 
Hand are supposed to be prosperous, for that the East is the 
left Side of the World : but the Coming thereof is not so 
much regarded as the Return : whether it be that the Fire 
leap back after the Stroke given ; or whether after the Deed 
done and Fire spent, the Spirit abovesaid retire back again. 
In that respect the Tuscans have divided the Heaven into 
sixteen Parts. The first is from the North to the Sun's 
Rising in the Equinoctial Line : the second, to the Meridian 
Line, or the South : the third, to the Sun-setting in the 
Equinoctial : and the fourth taketh up all the Rest from the 
said West to the North Star. These Quarters again they 
have parted each into four Regions : of which eight from the 
Sun-rising they called the Left ; and as many again from 
the contrary Part, the Right. Those Lightnings are most 
dreadful which from the Sun-setting reach into the North : 
and therefore it is of much importance from whence Light- 
nings come, and whither they go : the best Thing observed 
in them, is when they return into the easterly Parts. And, 
therefore, when they come from that principal Part of the 
Sky, and return again into the same, it portends the highest 
Good : and such was the Sign given (by report) to Sylla 
the Dictator. In all other Parts of the World, they be less 
fortunate or dreadful. They believe that there be Light- 
nings, which to utter abroad is held unlawful ; as also is to 
give Ear unto them, unless they be declared either to Parents 
or to a Friend. How great is the Folly of this Observation 
was found at Rome upon the blasting of Juno's Temple by 
Scaurus, the Consul, who soon after was President of the 
Senate. It lightneth without Thunder, more in the Night 

his confidence staggered by this phenomenon ; and Suetonius informs us, 
that it was viewed by Titus as a portent of evil to himself, just before his 
death; and his spirits became proportionally depressed. Wern. Club. 



94 History of Nature. [BoOK II. 

than by Day. Of all Creatures, Man only it doth not always 
kill ; the Rest it despatcheth instantly. This Honour we see 
Nature hath given to him ; whereas many great Beasts sur- 
pass him in Strength. All other Creatures smitten with 
Lightning fall down upon the contrary Side ; Man only (un- 
less he turn upon the Parts stricken) dieth not. Those that 
are smitten from above upon the Head, sink down directly. 
He that is struck watching, is found dead with his Eyes close 
shut: but whoever is smitten sleeping, is found with his Eyes 
open. A Man thus coming by his Death, may not by Law 
be burned : Religion hath taught that he ought to be buried 
in the Earth. No living Creature is set on Fire by Light- 
ning, unless it is breathless first. The Wounds of them 
that be smitten with Lightning are colder than all the Body 
besides. 

CHAPTER LV. 

What Things are not Smitten with Lightning. 

OF all those Things which grow out of the Earth, Light- 
ning blasteth not the Bay-tree ; nor doth it enter at any Time 
above five Feet deep into the Ground : and, therefore, Men 
fearful of Lightning, suppose the deeper Caves to be the 
most safe : or else Booths made of Skins of Beasts, which 
they call Sea-Calves 1 ; for of all Creatures in the Sea, this 
alone is not subject to the Stroke of Lightning : like as of 
all Birds, the Eagle (which for this Cause is feigned to be 
the Armour-bearer of Jupiter, for this Kind of Weapon). In 
Italy, between Tarracina arid the Temple of Feronia, they 
gave over in Time of War to build Towers ; for not one of 
them escaped being overthrown with Lightning. 

1 Seals (Phocae) are the creatures here intended ; and, probably, not 
any particular species. Suetonius informs us, that Augustus Caesar, who 
was greatly afraid of thunder, was accustomed to carry the skin of a seal 
along with him, wherever he went. Tiberius always wore a crown of 
bay-leaves on his head, with the same object. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 95 



CHAPTER LVI. 

Of strange and prodigious Rain 1 , of Milk, Blood, Flesh, 
Iron, Wool, Tiles, and Bricks. 

BESIDES these Things in this lower Region under Hea- 
ven, we find recorded on Monuments that it rained Milk 
and Blood when M. Acilius and C. Porcius were Consuls. 
And many Times beside it rained Flesh ; as, namely, whilst 
L. Volumnius and Serv. Sulpitius were Consuls : and what 
of it the Fowls of the Air carried not away, never putrified. 
In like Manner, it rained Iron in Lucania, the Year before 
that in which M. Crassus was slain by the Parthians; and 

1 A coloured mist has been mentioned, in a note to chap, xxvii. Ruysch 
mentions a flight of butterflies in 1543, which sprinkled the herbage, roofs 
of houses, and human clothing, with drops of their dung, like blood. A 
similar circumstance in England, recorded by Pennius, was supposed 
to have presaged the plague. There are sufficient modern proofs that 
living fishes, frogs, and other creatures or materials, have fallen in 
showers : in the former instance, remote from the sea or any great river. 
These things can only be explained by supposing them to have been first 
taken up by some whirlwind, or sudden gust ; and it is not unlikely that 
the ashes of a volcano were the materials of some of these showers. Ovid, 
by poetic license, accumulates all the bad omens on record or in tradition, 
hi the alarming prognostications of the death of Julius Caesar (" Meta- 
morphoses," b. xv.) ; and it may be a principal reason why Pliny specifies 
the times of these occurrences, to shew that Ovid's narrative is only a 
poetic fiction. 

The following translation of a paragraph in the " Museum Wormi- 
anum" (p. 17, De Terris Miracvlusis), is a specimen of the manner in 
which such extraordinary events were regarded, even at a very modern 
date : " In the year 1619, when the preposterous fashion of neck-bands, 
kerchiefs, and other female ornaments of linen, dyed of cerulean blue, in- 
vaded Denmark, and in spite of the remonstrances of the ministers of 
God obstinately persisted, by adding pride to luxury, Almighty God, 
that he might by all means declare how abhorrent this sin was to him, 
and recall mortals to repentance by a miracle, in many places of Scania 
rained down abundantly a kind of earth of a blue colour, very similar 
to a sort sold by the dealers in spices. A small quantity of this was 
given to me at the time by my good friend, Dr. Fincking, professor 
of medicine at Copenhagen, &c." It probably proceeded from Hecla. 
Wern. Club. 



96 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

together with him all the Lucani his Soldiers, of whom there 
were many in his Army. That which came down in this 
Rain resembled in some sort Sponges : and the Aruspices 
gave Warning to take Heed of Wounds from above. But in 
the Year that L. Paulus and C. Marcellus were Consuls, it 
rained Wool about the Castle Carissa, near to which, a Year 
after, T. Annius Milo was slain. At the Time that the same 
Mito pleaded his own Cause at the Bar, there fell a Rain of 
Tiles and Bricks, as is related in the Records of that Year. 

CHAPTER LVII. 

Of the Rustling of Armour, and the Sound of Trumpets heard 
from Heaven. 

IN the Time of the Cimbrian Wars, we have been told 
that Armour was heard to rustle, and the Trumpet to sound, 
out of Heaven. And this happened very often, both before 
and after those Wars. But in the third Consulship of 
Marius, the Amerines and Tudertes saw Men in Arms in the 
Sky 1 , rushing one against another, from the East and West ; 
and those of the West were discomfited. That the very 
Firmament itself should be on Fire is no Wonder, for often 
it hath been seen when Clouds have caught any great deal 
of Fire. 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

Of Stones falling from the Sky*. 

THE Greeks greatly celebrate Anaxagoras Clazomenius, 
who, by the Learning that he had in Astronomy, foretold in 

1 This was probably the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights; a 
phenomenon rarely seen so far to the South. It is, perhaps, the same 
that is referred to by Josephus, in his narrative of the terrors sent by 
God before the fatal siege of Jerusalem. The account of what was seen 
in the county of Cumberland, immediately preceding the invasion of 
England by the Pretender, will shew how nearly aerial appearances may 
approach to realities. Wern. Club. 

2 For a long time the fall from the sky, of what are denominated 
Meteorolites, was deemed too preposterous to be believed ; but since the 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 97 

the second Year of the Seventy-eighth Olympiad, what Time 
a Stone would fall from the Sun : and the same happened 
accordingly, in the Daytime, in a Part of Thracia, near the 
River .ZEgos ; which Stone is shewed at this Day as big as a 
Wain-load, carrying a burnt Colour : at which Time a Comet 
also burned by Night. Which if any Man believe that it 
was fore-signified, he must needs also confess, that this fore- 
telling by Anaxagoras was more miraculous than the Thing 
itself: and that it destroyed the Knowledge of Nature's 
Works, and confounds all Things, if we should believe that 
either the Sun were a Stone, or that ever any Stone were in 
it. But, that Stones fall often, no Man will make any doubt- 
In the public Place of Exercise in Abydos, there is one at 
this Day upon the same Cause preserved, and held in great 
Reverence : it is but of small size, yet it is reported to be the 
same that Anaxagoras foretold to be about to fall in the 
midst of the Earth. There is one revered also at Cassandria, 
which was called Potidsea, a Colony from thence deducted. 
I myself have seen another in the Territory of the Vocantians, 
which was brought thither but a little before. 

CHAPTER LIX. 
Of the Rainbow. 

THOSE which we call Rainbows, are seen often without any 
Wonder, or betokening Portent : for they foretel not so much 

facts are no longer doubted, the instances recorded by Pliny become 
valuable evidences of their antiquity. A still more ancient instance is 
found in the Book of Joshua, x. 11, where, in the conquest of Canaan, 
the Lord threw down great stones from heaven on the enemy, and dis- 
comfited them. The miraculous nature of this last transaction does not 
remove it from the class of natural occurrences ; for Nature itself is only 
an instrument in the hands of its Creator. With regard to the prognos- 
tication of Anaxagoras, it can only be taken to signify the high reputation 
of this philosopber ; which led the public to believe that they could not 
attribute too much to his insight into the occurrences of Nature. There 
is reason to suppose that some of the images which were said to have fallen 
down from Jupiter (Acts of the Apostles, xix. 35) were derived from tbis 
source. Wern. Club. 



98 History of Nature. [BooK 1 1 . 

as rainy or fair Days, in a Manner that we can trust them. 
But it is manifest that the Sunbeams striking upon an hollow 
Cloud, when their Edge is repelled, are beaten back against 
the Sun : and thus ariseth a Variety of Colours by the Mix- 
ture of Clouds, Air, and fiery Light. Certainly, they never 
are known but opposite to the Sun ; nor at any Time other- 
wise than in Form of a Semicircle ; nor yet in the Night 
Season, although Aristotle saith 1 there was a Rainbow seen 
by Night : however he confesseth, that it could not possibly 
be but at the full of the Moon. They happen for the most 
Part in Winter, chiefly from the Autumnal Equinox, as the 
Days decrease. But as Days grow longer after the Spring 
Equinox, they be not seen, no more than about the Summer 
Solstice, when the Days are longest. But in Bruma, that is 
to say, when they be shortest, they appear often. The same 
appear aloft when the Sun is low ; and below, when he is 
aloft. Also, they be of narrower Compass when the Sun 
either riseth or setteth, but their Body spreadeth broad : and 
at Noon they are narrower, but wider in Circumference. In 
Summer they be not seen about Noon, but after the Autumnal 
Equinox at all hours ; and never more than two at once. 
The Rest of the same Nature, I see few Men do make any 
doubt of. 

CHAPTER LX. 
Of Hail , Snow, Frost, Mist, and Dew. 

HAIL is formed of Rain, congealed into Ice : and Snow 
of the same Humour grown together, but not so hard. Frost 
is made of Dew frozen. In Winter Snows fall, and not Hail. 
It haileth oftener in the Daytime than in the Night ; yet Hail 
sooner melteth by far than Snow. Mists be not seen either 
in Summer, or in very cold Weather. Dews shew not either 
in Frost or in hot Seasons, neither when there is Wind ; but 

1 A rainbow by night is so far from being rare, that it is only 
the difference of climate that will explain why Aristotle and Pliny 
speak so doubtfully about it. It is usually void of colour. Wern. 
Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 99 

only after a calm and clear Night. Frosts dry up moisture ; 
for when the Ice is thawed the like Proportion of Water is 
not found. 

CHAPTER LXI. 

Of the Shapes of Clouds. 

A VARIETY of Colours and Shapes are seen in Clouds, 
according as the Fire intermingled therein is either more or 
less. 

CHAPTER LXII. 
Of the Properties of Weather in various Places. 

MOREOVER there are many Properties of the Weather 
peculiar to certain Places. The Nights in Africa be dewy in 
Winter; in Italy, about Locri and the Lake Velinus, there is 
not a Day but a Rainbow is seen. At Rhodes and Syracuse, 
the Air is never so cloudy, but one Hour or other the Sun 
shineth out. But such Things as these shall be related more 
fitly in due Place. Thus much of the Air. 

CHAPTER LXIII. 
Of the Nature of the Earth. 

THE Earth followeth next : unto which alone of all Parts 
of the World, for her especial Benefits, we have given the 
reverend Name of Mother 1 . For like as the Heaven is the 

1 The earth was so commonly termed Mother by Greek and Roman 
writers, in prose and verse, that it is unnecessary to refer to particular in- 
stances. And it is not to be regarded as merely a poetic metaphor or 
idle declamation, for it was their belief that the earliest origin of mankind 
was from the ground, by an inherent property ; as explained by Lucre- 
tius in his Second Book on the " Nature of Things : " so that each primi- 
tive nation arose from its own soil. And even the renewal of the earth 
with inhabitants after the flood, from the stones cast by Deucalion and 
Pyrrha, was not popularly regarded as a fable ; although it is probable 
that a mystical meaning was also supposed to be couched in the narrative. 
But by Pliny this idea of maternity was extended more widely through 
his adoption of the Pythagorean notion of the earth's being a living 



100 History of Nature. [BooK 11. 

(Mother) of God, even so is she of Men. She it is that 
taketh us when we are coming into the World, nourisheth us 
when we are new born : and once being come abroad, ever 
sustaiueth us: and at the last, when we are rejected of all 
the World besides, she embraceth us : then most of all, like 
a kind Mother, she covereth us all over in her Bosom : by 
no Merit more sacred than by it, wherewith she maketh us 
sacred ! ; even bearing our Tombs and Titles, continuing our 
Name, and extending our Memory against the Shortness of 
our Age: whose last Power we, in our Anger, wish to be 
heavy unto our Enemy 2 , and yet she is heavy to none; as if 
we were ignorant that she alone is never angry with any 
Man. Waters ascend into Clouds; they harden into Hail, 
swell into Waves, and hasten headlong into Torrents. The 
Air is thickened into Clouds, and rageth with Storms. But 
She is bountiful, mild, and indulgent ; ready at all Times to 
attend, as a Handmaid, upon the Good of Mortals. See 
what she breeds being forced ! nay, what she yieldeth of her 
own accord ! what odoriferous Smells, and pleasant Tastes ! 
what Juices, what soft Things, what Colours ! how faithfully 
doth she repay, with Usury, that which was credited out unto 
her ! Finally, what Things doth she nourish for our sake ! 
for hurtful Creatures, when the vital Breath was to blame in 
giving them Life, she could not refuse to receive, after they 

being; and as such, feeling and producing, by a kind of intelligence, 
all the effects of pleasure or pain that can be ascribed to a sensitive being. 
Wern. Club. 

1 To few things were the ancients more sensitive than to the honour 
or unhappiness of interment after death. In various parts of the sacred 
Scriptures the exposure of the inanimate body is threatened as a dreadful 
calamity ; as in the instance of Goliath to David (1 Sam. xvii. 44) ; and 
its infliction was felt to be a reproach, by both Israelites and Philistines, 
in the case of Saul (1 Sam. xxxi. 12, 13). The instance of Elpenor, in the 
eleventh book of the " Odyssey," and of Antigone, in the celebrated 
Greek play of " Sophocles," are proofs how strongly the same feeling 
existed in Greece. An ancient law of the Romans said : " Where the 
body is interred, let the spot be sacred." Wern. Club. 

a " Sit tibi terra levis" was the earnestly expressed wish of the Romans 
over the ashes of their friends ; and that it might lie heavy on their foes, 
was an equally grave denunciation. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 101 

were sown in her ; and being once bred, to sustain them. 
That they proved venomous the Fault was to be laid upon 
the Parents that engendered them, and not to her. For she 
entertaineth no more a Serpent l after it hath stung a Man : 
nay, she requireth punishment for them that are slow and 
negligent of themselves to seek it. She bringeth forth mecli- 
cinable Herbs, and evermore produces Something good for 
Man. Moreover, it may be believed, that in compassion to 
us, she appointed Poisons 2 , that when we were weary of Life, 
cursed Famine (most adverse of all others to the Merits of 
the Earth) should not consume us with pining Consump- 
tion ; that lofty Precipices should not dash our Bodies to 
pieces ; nor the preposterous Punishment by the Halter dis- 
tort our Necks, and stop that Breath which we seek to be rid 
of: last of all, that we might not seek our Death in the Sea, 
and so be Food for Fishes ; nor yet the Edge of the Sword 
mangle our Body, and so inflict extreme Pain. It is, there- 
fore, in Compassion to us that she hath brought forth that 
by which, in one gentle and easy Draught, we might die 
without any Hurt of our Body, and without diminishing one 
Drop of our Blood : without grievous Pain, and like them 
that be athirst: that being in this Manner dead, neither 
Fowl of the Air, nor wild Beast, prey upon our Bodies, but 

1 We have not met with any thing to support this strange opinion of 
Pliny, unless the following from Sir T. Browne's " Vulgar Errors " may 
be thought to do so : " Some veins of the earth, and also whole regions, 
not only destroy the life of venomous creatures, but also prevent their 
productions." Wern. Club. 

2 It was among the most awful of the customs of the Heathen, that 
suicide was resorted to by even the most excellent men, on very slight 
occasions. Not only are there instances where diseases of no great 
severity were regarded as authorising this last resource, but on the least 
disappointment or failure of success in a public undertaking it was consi- 
dered as a point of honour, and an instance of commendable courage ; of 
which the case of the illustrious stoic Brutus, at Philippi, is an eminent 
instance. Pliny seems not to have imagined that no substance in nature 
is really a poison, and that the plants and minerals so denominated are 
only injurious when wrongly or too powerfully administered ; their more 
concentrated strength, when properly used, only rendering them the 
better instruments of good. Wern. Club. 



102 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

that he should be reserved for the Earth, who perished by 
himself and for himself: and, to confess the Truth, the Earth 
had bred the Remedy of all Miseries, however we have 
made it a Poison to our Life. For in the same Manner we 
also employ Iron, which we cannot possibly be without. And 
yet we should not do justly to complain, if she had brought 
it forth to do hurt. Surely to this only Part of Nature we 
are unthankful, as though she served not Man's Turn for all 
Dainties ; not for Reproach to be misused. She is thrown 
into the Sea, or to let in Arms of the Sea, eaten away with 
Water. With Iron Tools, with Wood, Fire, Stone, Burthens 
of Corn, she is tormented every Hour : and all this much 
more for our Pleasures than to serve us with Food and 
Necessaries. And yet these Misusages which she abideth 
above, and in her outward Skin, may seem in some Sort 
tolerable. But we pierce into her very Bowels in search of 
Veins of Gold and Silver, Copper and Lead. And to seek 
out Gems and some little Stones, we sink Pits deep in the 
Ground. Thus we pluck the very Bowels from her to wear 
on our Finger one Gem to fulfil our Pleasure, How many 
Hands are worn with digging, that one Joint of our Finger 
may shine ! Surely, if there were any infernal Spirits be- 
neath, ere this Time these Mines (to feed Covetousness and 
Luxury) would have brought them above Ground. Do we 
wonder, then, if she hath brought forth some Things hurt- 
ful ? But savage Beasts (I think) preserve her ; they keep 
sacrilegious Hands from doing her Injury. Dig we not 
amongst Dragons and Serpents ? and, together with Veins of 
Gold, handle we not the Roots of poisonous Herbs ? Never- 
theless, this Goddess we find the more appeased for all this 
Misusage, because the End of all this Wealth tendeth to 
Wickedness, to Murders, and Wars, and her whom we 
drench with our Blood, we cover also with unburied Bones. 
Which, nevertheless, as if she did reproach us for this Fury, 
she herself covereth in the End, and hideth even the Wick- 
edness of Mortals. Among other Imputations of an un- 
thankful Mind, I may allege this also, that we be ignorant 
of her Nature. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 103 

CHAPTER LXIV. 
Of the Form of the Earth. 

THE first Thing that offereth itself to be considered, is 
her Figure, in which by a general Consent we all agree. 
For surely we utter nothing more commonly than the round 
Ball 1 of the Earth ; and confess that it is a Globe enclosed 
within two Poles. But yet the Form is not that of a perfect 
Globe, considering so great Height of Mountains, and such 
Extent of Plains; nevertheless, if the Compass thereof might 
be taken by Lines, the End of those Lines would meet just 
in Circuit, and prove the Figure to be an accurate Circle. 
And this the very Consideration of natural Reason doth 
convince, although there were not those Causes which we 
alleged about the Heaven. For in it the hollow Convexity 
declineth upon itself, and on every Side resteth upon the 
Centre thereof, which is that of the Earth. But this being 
solid and compact, ariseth as if it swelled, and is stretched 
without. The Heaven inclineth toward the Centre, but the 
Earth goeth from the Centre ; whilst the World, with con- 
tinual Volubility and turning about it, driveth the huge 
Globe thereof into the Form of a round Ball. 

1 The Egyptian Cosmogony, as delivered by Diodorus Siculus, de- 
scribes the earth as "rolled within itself, and turned continually;" although 
a subsequent idea was founded on its being merely an extended surface, 
where the earth was inclosed within a field of waters, which was again 
encompassed with darkness and impenetrable mist. But after what 
Pliny has said in this, and the immediately following chapters, on the 
form of the earth, and the proofs he has given of its being a globe, it 
seems surprising that a contrary opinion should have prevailed, even to 
comparatively modern times; and especially among men accustomed to 
regard every thing delivered by the ancients as unquestionably true. This 
perversity can only be accounted for by having made a religious dogma 
of the contrary idea, on the authority of some ill-understood passages of 
Scripture. Wern. Club. 



104 History of Nature. [BooK II. 



CHAPTER LXV. 

Of the Antipodes, whether there be any such. Also of the 
Roundness of Water. 

THERE is here great Debate between learned Men ; and 
contrariwise of the ignorant Multitude : for they hold, that 
Men are overspread on all Parts upon the Earth, and stand 
one against another, Foot to Foot : also that the Summit of 
the Heaven is alike unto all : and in what Part soever Men 
be, they still tread after the same Manner in the midst. But 
the common Sort ask, How, then, it happeneth, that they 
who are opposite against us, do not fall into Heaven ? as if 
there were not a Reason also ready, That the Antipodes 
again should wonder why we also fell not off? Now there is 
Reason that cometh between, carrying a Probability with it, 
even to the untaught Multitude, that in a Globe of the Earth, 
with many Ascents, as if its Figure resembled a Nut of the 
Pine Tree; yet, nevertheless, it may be well inhabited in 
every Place. But what Good doth all this, when another 
great Wonder ariseth ? namely, that itself hangeth, and 
falleth not with us: as if the Power of that Spirit 1 especially 
enclosed in the World were doubted: or that any Thing 
could fall when Nature is repugnant thereto, and affordeth 
no Place whither to fall : for as there is no Seat of Fire, but 
in Fire ; of Water, but in Water ; of Air and Spirit, but in 
Air ; even so there is no Room for Earth but in Earth, see- 
ing all the Elements besides are ready to repel it from them. 
Nevertheless, it is wonderful still how it should become a 
Globe, considering so great Flatness of Plains and Seas. Of 
which Opinion, Dicearchus (a Man of the first Rank in 
Learning,) is a Favourer ; who, to satisfy the curious Inquiry 
of Kings, had a Commission to take the Measure of Moun- 
tains : of which he said that Pelion, the highest, was a Mile- 
and-a-half high by the Plumb-line; and collected thereby, 

1 What we now know to arise from the power of gravity, Pliny as- 
cribes to the Anima Mundi, or vivifying effect of the soul of the world ; 
with him, an answer to all difficulties. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 1 05 

that its Proportion was Nothing in Comparison of the uni- 
versal Rotundity of the Whole. But to me this was an 
uncertain Guess of his, since I am not ignorant that certain 
Tops of the Alps, for a long Tract, arise not under fifty Miles 
in Height. 

But this is it that the common People resist the most, if 
they should be forced to believe that the Form of Water also 
gathereth itself round at the Top. And yet there is Nothing 
in the Nature of Things more evident to the Sight ; for the 
Drops every where, not only as they hang, appear like little 
round Balls ; but also if they light upon Dust, or rest upon 
the Down of Leaves, we see them keep a perfect Roundness. 
Also in Cups that are filled brimful, the middle Part in the 
Top swelleth most. Which Things, considering the Thinness 
of the Fluid, and its Softness settling upon itself, are sooner 
found out by Reason than the Eye. And this is more won- 
derful, that when Cups are filled to the full, if a very little 
more Liquor be added, the overplus will run over all about : 
but it falleth out the contrary, if you put in any solid 
Weights, even if it were to the Weight of Twenty Denarii. 
The Reason is, that Things received within, lift up the Li- 
quor aloft to the Top, but poured upon the Tumour that 
beareth aloft above the Edges, it must needs glide off. The 
same is the Reason why the Land cannot be seen by them 
that stand on the Deck of a Ship, but very plainly at the 
same time from the Top of the Masts. Also as a Ship goeth 
off from the Land, if any Thing that shineth be fastened on 
the Top of the Mast, it seemeth to go down into the Sea by 
little and little, until at last it is hidden entirely. Last of 
all, the very Ocean, which we confess to be the utmost Bound 
environing the whole Globe : by what other Figure could it 
hold together, since there is no Bank beyond it to keep it 
in? And this also cometh to be a Wonder how it happeneth, 
although the Sea grow to be round, that the utmost Edge 
thereof falleth not down ? Against which, if that the Seas 
were plain, and of the Form they seem to be, the Greek 
Philosophers, to their own great Joy and Glory, prove by 
geometrical Demonstration, that it cannot possibly be that 
the Water should fall. For seeing that Waters run naturally 



106 History of Nature. [BOOK II. 

from above to the lower Parts, and that all Men confess that 
this is their Nature, and no Man doubteth that the Water of 
the Sea hath always come on any Shore so far as the Sloping 
would have suffered : doubtless it appeareth, that the lower 
a Thing is, the nearer it is to the Centre ; and that all the 
Lines which from thence are sent out to the next Waters, are 
shorter than those which from the first Waters reach to the 
utmost Extremity of the Sea. Hereupon the whole Water, 
from every Part thereof, bendeth to the Centre, and there- 
fore falleth not away, because it inclineth naturally to the 
inner Parts. And this we must believe, that Nature, the 
Work-mistress, framed it so : to the End that the Earth, 
which being dry could not by itself, without some Moisture, 
keep any Consistence ; and the Fluid, likewise, which could 
not abide, unless the Earth upheld it, might mutually em- 
brace one another ; the one opening all the Creeks, and the 
other running wholly into the other, by the Means of secret 
Veins within, without, and above, like Bands to clasp it ; 
yea, and so break out at the Tops of the Hills : whither 
being partly carried by a Spirit, and partly expressed by the 
Weight of the Earth, it mounteth, as it were, in Pipes : and 
so far is it from Danger of falling away, that it leapeth up 
to the highest and loftiest Things. By which Reason it is 
evident, why the Seas do not increase, although so many 
Rivers daily run into them. 

CHAPTER LXVI. 
How the Water is united to the Earth. 

THE Earth, therefore, in its whole Globe, is in the midst 
thereof hemmed in with the Sea, that flows round about it. 
And this needeth not to be sought out by Argument, for it is 
known already by Experience. 

CHAPTER LXVII. 
Navigation upon the Sea and great Rivers. 

FROM Gades and the Pillars of Hercules, the whole of the 
West Sea is at this Day sailed over in the whole Compass of 



BOOK 1 1 .] History of Nature. 107 

Spain and France. But the North Ocean was for the most 
Part discovered, under the Conduct of Divus Augustus 
Casar 1 , who, with a Fleet, compassed Germany, and as far 
as to the Cape of the Cimbrians : and from thence having 
viewed the vast Sea, or taken Knowledge thereof by Report, 
he passed to the Scythian Climate and those cold Coasts 
abounding with too much Moisture. For which Cause tKere 
is no likelihood, that in those Parts the Seas are at an End, 
where the Power of Moisture predominates. And near it, 
from the East, out of the Indian Sea, that whole Part under 
the same Clime which bendeth toward the Caspian Sea, was 
sailed throughout by the Macedonian Armies, when Seleucus 
and Antiochus reigned, who commanded that Seleucida 
and Antiochida should bear their Names. About the Caspian 
Sea, also, many Coasts of the Ocean have been discovered ; 
and by Piecemeal, rather than all at once, the North of one 
Side or other hath been sailed or rowed over. But to put 
all out of Conjecture, there is a great Argument collected by 
the Palus Maeotis, whether it be a Gulf of that Ocean (as 
many have believed) or an overflowing of the same, divided 
from it by a narrow Piece of the Continent. In another Side 
of Gades, from the same, West, a great Part of the South 
Gulf, round about Mauritania, is at this Day sailed. And, 
indeed, the greater Part of it, as well as of the East, also the 
Victories of Alexander the Great encompassed on every Side, 
as far as to the Arabian Gulf. Wherein, when Cams Ccesar 
the son of Augustus warred in those Parts, the Marks are 
reported to have been seen remaining from the Spaniards' 
Shipwreck. Hanno, likewise, in the Time that the Power of 
Carthage flourished, sailed round from Gades to the utmost 
Bounds of Arabia 2 , and set down that Voyage in Writing : 

1 This can only refer to an expedition, mentioned by Suetonius in his 
life of the Emperor Claudius, of Drusus, the son of Livia ; who, while 
commanding in the Rhetian and German wars, was the first of the Romans 
that navigated the Northern Ocean. Wem. Club. 

2 The only fragment of the geographical knowledge of the Cartha- 
ginians that has come down to our times is the " Periplus" of Hanno. It 
is printed in Hudson's " Geographic Veteris Scriptores Graeciae," 4 vols. 



108 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

like as also Himilco, at the same Time, was sent out to dis- 
cover the remote Coasts of Europe. Moreover, Cornelius 
Nepos writeth, that in his Time a certain Eudoxus 1 , when he 
fled from King Lathyrus, departed out of the Arabian Gulf, 

8vo. Leipsic ; and has been investigated by three competent geographers. 
First, by Bougainville, who conceives Hanno to have reached the Gulf of 
Benin ; next, by Major Rennell, who carries his course only to a little 
beyond Sierra Leone ; and lastly, by M. Gosselin, who insists upon termi- 
nating it about the river Nun. According to these authorities, Pliny has 
greatly extended the voyage of Hanno, when he says he reached the utmost 
bounds of Arabia. Herodotus does not seem to have been informed of this 
voyage of Hanno, he merely says (" Melpomene," xliii.) : " The Cartha- 
ginians affirm, that they ascertained that Libya is surrounded by the sea." 
Wern. Club. 

1 Strabo has thrown some discredit on the voyage of Eudoxus to make 
the circuit of Africa : but he does not seem to adduce any argument strong 
enough to controvert the general belief of antiquity, that repeated at- 
tempts were made by Eudoxus to explore the unknown coasts of the 
African continent. He was a native of Cyzicus, and employed first by 
Ptolemy Euergetes, and afterwards at his own instigation, in several 
maritime expeditions. A digest of the narratives of Strabo respecting 
these voyages of Eudoxus, may be seen in Murray's " Encyclopedia of 
Geography," p. 14. 

That the circumnavigation of Africa was really accomplished, even 
prior to the time of Herodotus, we learn from " Melpomene," xlii. " For 
Libya is clearly surrounded by the sea, except so much of it as borders on 
Asia ; this, Neco, king of the Egyptians, was the first we know of to 
demonstrate. That prince, having ceased his excavations for the canal 
leading out of the Nile into the Arabian Gulf, despatched certain natives 
of Phoenicia on shipboard, with orders to sail back through the Pillars 
of Hercules, even into the North Sea, and so make good their return into 
Egypt. The Phosnicians of consequence having departed out of the Ery- 
threan Sea, proceeded on their voyage in the Southern Sea : when it was 
autumn, they would push ashore, and sowing the land, whatever might 
be the part of Libya they had reached, await the harvest time : having 
reaped their corn, they used to continue their voyage : thus, after the 
lapse of two years, having in the third doubled the Pillars of Hercules, 
they came back into Egypt ; and stated what is not credible to me, but 
may be so, perhaps, to some, that in their circumnavigation of Libya they 
had the sun on the right. Thus was Libya first known to be surrounded 
by the sea." LAURENT'S Herodotus. 

" Herodotus," says Murray, " seems inclined to credit this information, 
unless on the ground of one general statement, -<- that they had the sun 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 109 

and held on his Course as far as Gades. And Ccelius Antipater, 
long before him, reporteth, that he saw the Man who had 
sailed from Spain to Ethiopia, in pursuit of Merchandise. 
The same Nepos maketh Report concerning the compassing 
about of the North, that unto Qu. Metellus Celer (Colleague 
to-C. Afranius in the Consulship, but at that Time Proconsul 
in Gaul) certain Indians were given by a King of the Sue- 
vians 1 , who, as they sailed out of India, for Traffic, as Mer- 

on the right ; which being the very thing that should have happened, 
and disbelieved only through his ignorance, strongly fortifies our inclina- 
tion to credit the story." Wern. Club. 

1 At an early period the Phoenicians, and probably the Greeks, did 
not scruple to entrap, and sell for slaves, strangers and others who had 
never kindled their resentment. In the fourteenth book of the " Odys- 
sey," Ulysses represents himself as having narrowly escaped a snare of this 
kind; and as the whole narrative is an artful fiction, intended to have 
the appearance of truth to an Ithacan peasant, the practice of kidnapping 
slaves could not then have appeared incredible to any inhabitant of that 
island : 

" A false Phoenician, of insidious mind, 
Versed in vile arts, and foe to humankind, 
With semblance fair invites me to his home ; 
I seized the proffer (ever fond to roam) : 
Domestic in his faithless roof I stay'd, 
Till the swift sun his annual circle made. 
To Libya then he meditates the way ; 
With guileful art a stranger to betray, 
And sell to bondage in a foreign land : 
Much doubting, yet compell'd, I quit the strand. 
* * * * * 

* * but Jove's intent 

Was yet to save the oppress'd and innocent." POPE. 

Tacitus ("Agricola," cap. xxviii.) mentions an instance of shipwrecked 
persons having been treated as pirates, and sold into slavery. He is speak- 
ing of a cohort of the Usipians serving in Britain, who, having left the 
island in three light galleys, became the sport of winds and waves. In 
this distress they sailed round the extremity of the island, and, through 
want of skill in navigation, were wrecked on the Continent, where they 
were treated as pirates, first by the Suevians, and afterwards by the Fri- 
sians. Being sold to slavery, and in the way of commerce turned over to 
different masters, some of them reached the Roman settlements on the 
banks of the Rhine, and there grew famous for their sufferings, and the 



110 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

chants, were driven by tempestuous Weather, and cast upon 
Germany. Thus the Seas flowing on every Side about this 
divided Globe, bereave us of a Part of the World : so that 
neither from thence hither, nor from hence thither, is there 
a Passage. The Contemplation of this, serving to discover 
the Vanity of Men, seenieth to require that I should submit 
to the Eye, how great this is, whatever it be ; and wherein 
there is nothing sufficient to satisfy the Appetite of every 
Man. 

CHAPTER LXVIII. 

What Portion of the Earth is habitable. 

Now, in the first Place, it seems to be computed as if the 
Earth were the just Half of the Globe, and that no Portion 
of it were cut off by the Ocean: which notwithstanding, 
clasping round about all the midst thereof, yielding forth 
and receiving again all other Waters, and what Exhalations 
go out into Clouds, and feeding the very Stars, so many as 
they be, and of such great magnitude ; what a mighty Space 
will it be thought to take up, and how little can there be left 
for men to inhabit ! Surely the possession of so vast a Mass 
must be excessive and infinite. Add to this, that of that 
which is left, the Heaven hath taken away the greater Part. 
For whereas there be of the Heaven five Parts, which they 

bold singularity of their voyage. See the " Agricola " of Tacitus, cap. 
xxviii., translated by Murphy. 

It would even appear that such distressed strangers were deemed a 
proper sacrifice to the gods : Herodotus reports it as a tradition (book ii.) 
that when Hercules, in his journeyings, arrived in Egypt, the Egyptians 
crowned him with a garland, and designed to sacrifice him to Jupiter, if 
he had not delivered himself by his great strength. The objection of the 
historian to this story, on the ground of the unbloody sacrifices of the 
Egyptians, is sufficiently answered by the fact that they were in the habit 
of sacrificing red-haired men to their evil deity. Again, in his fourth book, 
he says, that the Taurians, a people of Scythia, were accustomed to sacrifice 
to a virgin all strangers that suffered shipwreck on their coast, and all 
Grecian sailors they were able to seize. The people of Israel, on the con- 
trary, were commanded by their law kindly to welcome strangers; for 
they themselves had been strangers in a foreign land. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 1 1 1 

call Zones 1 : all that lieth under the two utmost, on both 
Sides about the Poles, namely, the one which is called Sep- 
tentrio, or the North, and the other over against it, named 
the South, is overcharged with extreme Cold and perpetual 
Frost. In both Zones it is always dim, and because the 
Aspect of the milder Planets is diverted from thence, the 
Light that is, sheweth but little, and appeareth white with the 
Frost only. But the Middle of the Earth, in which the Sun 
keepeth his Course, scorched and burnt with Flames, is pre- 
sently parched with its hot Gleams 2 . Those two only on 
either Side, between this burnt Zone and the two frozen, are 
Temperate : and even those have not a Passage one to the 

1 The poetical account of Ovid, in his " Metamorphoses," expresses 
the belief of the ancients in this division. Wern, Club. 

2 Whatever acquaintance with the remote regions of the earth the 
Phoenicians and Carthaginians might have acquired, was concealed from 
the rest of mankind with mercantile jealousy ; and every thing relative 
to the course of their navigation was not only a mystery of trade, but a 
secret of state. Hence the ignorance of geography manifested by Pliny 
and other writers, long after these celebrated voyagers had effected the 
circumnavigation of Africa. Polybius, whose history was written about 
150 years B. c., and who was particularly distinguished by his attention 
to geographical researches, affirms that it was not known, in his time, 
whether Africa was a continued continent stretching to the south, or 
whether it was encompassed by the sea. Strabo mentions, indeed, the 
voyage of Eudoxus, but treats it as a fabulous tale : and Ptolemy, the 
most inquisitive and learned of all the ancient geographers, was equally 
unacquainted with any parts of Africa situated a few degrees beyond the 
Equinoctial Line ; for he supposes that this great continent was not 
surrounded by the sea, but that it stretched, without interruption, to- 
wards the South Pole ; and he so far mistakes its true figure, that he 
describes it as becoming broader and broader as it advances towards the 
South. 

The notion of the ancients concerning such an excessive degree of heat 
in the Torrid Zone as rendered it uninhabitable, and their persisting in 
this error long after they began to have some commercial intercourse with 
several parts of India lying within the Tropics, is very extraordinary. 
Pliny, in this chapter, falls in with both these errors : and Cicero (" Som- 
nium Scipionis") holds the same opinion, and other authorities might be 
adduced. See the Notes to Robertson's " History of America," where he 
attempts to account for the apparent inconsistency of the ancients with 
respect to their theory and experience. Wern. Club. 



1 12 History of Nature. [BooK II . 

other, by .Reason of the burning Heat of the Planet. Thus 
the Heaven hath taken from the Earth three Parts : and 
what the Ocean hath plucked from it besides, is uncertain. 
And even that one Portion remaining unto us, I know not 
whether it be not even in greater Danger. For the same 
Ocean entering (as we will shew) into many Creeks, keepeth 
a Roaring against the other Seas within the Earth, and 
so near cometh unto them, that the Arabian Gulf is not from 
the Egyptian Sea above 115 Miles: the Caspian likewise 
from the Pontic no more than 375. And the same floweth 
between, and entereth into so many Arms, as thereby it 
divideth Africa, Europe, and Asia asunder. What a Quan- 
tity of the Land it taketh up may be reckoned at this Day 
by the Measure of so many Rivers and Marshes. Add 
thereto the Lakes and Pools : and take also from the Earth 
the high Mountains, bearing their Heads aloft into the Sky, 
so as hardly the Eye can reach their Heights; with the 
Woods and steep Descents of the Valleys, the Wildernesses, 
and Wilds left desert for a thousand Causes. These, so many 
Pieces of the Earth, or rather as most have written, this little 
Point of the World (for surely the Earth is nothing else in 
Comparison of the whole) is the only Matter and Seat of our 
Glory : here we seek for Honours, here we exercise our 
Dominion : here we covet Wealth : here all Mankind is set 
upon Turbulence : here we raise Wars even between Citizens 
of the same Country : and with mutual Murders we make 
more Room in the Earth^ And to let pass the public Fury 
of Nations abroad, this is it wherein we drive out our Neigh- 
bours on our Borders, and by Stealth dig Turf from our 
Neighbour's Soil to put it unto our own : and when a Man 
hath extended his Lands, and gotten Countries to himself far 
and near, what a goodly deal of the Earth doth he enjoy ! 
but if he extends his Bounds to the full of his Covetous- 
ness, what Portion thereof shall he hold when at last he is 
dead? 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 113 



CHAPTER LXIX. 
That the Earth is in the midst of the World. 

THAT the Earth is in the midst of the whole World, 
appeareth by undoubted Reasons : but most evidently by the 
equal Hours of the Equinox. For, unless it were in the 
midst, the Instruments called Dioptrce have proved that 
Nights and Days could not be found equal : and those In- 
struments, above all other, confirm the same : seeing that in 
the Equinox, by the same Line, both Rising and Setting of 
the Sun are seen ; but the Summer Sun rising, and the Win- 
ter setting, by their own several Lines. Which could by no 
means happen if the Earth resteth not in the Centre. 



CHAPTER LXX. 

Of the Unequal Rising of the Stars: of the Eclipse, both 
where and how it cometh. 

THERE are three Circles closed within the Zones afore- 
named, which distinguish the Inequalities of the Days : 
which are, the (Summer) Solstitial Tropic, from the highest 
Part of the Zodiac, in regard of us, toward the North Clime ; 
and against it, another called the Winter Tropic, toward the 
Southern Pole : and in like Manner the Equinoctial, which 
goeth in the midst of the Zodiac Circle. The Cause of the 
rest, which we wonder at, is in the Figure of the Earth itself, 
which, together with the Water, is, by the same Arguments, 
known to be like a Globe : for so, doubtless, it cometh to 
pass, that with us the Stars about the North Pole never set ; 
and those contrariwise of the South, never rise. And again, 
those which are here be not seen of them, by Reason that the 
Globe of the Earth swelleth up in the midst between. Again, 
Trogloditine, and Egypt bordering upon it, never see the 
North Pole Stars : neither hath Italy a Sight of Canopus, or 
that which they name Berenice's Hair. Likewise another, 
which, under the Empire of Augustus, men surnamed Ccesaris 

H 



1 14 History of Nature. [BooK 1 1 . 

Thronon*: which yet are remarkable Stars. And so evidently 
bendeth the Convexity of the Earth, that Canopus at Alex- 
andria seemeth to the Beholders elevated above the Earth 
almost one-fourth Part of a Sign ; but at Rhodes, the same 
appeareth almost to touch the very Horizon, and in Pontus, 
where the Elevation of the North Pole is highest, it is not 
seen at all : yea, and this same Pole at Rhodes is hidden, 
but more in Alexandria. In Arabia it is all hid at the first 
Watch of the Night in November ; but at the second, it is 
visible. In Meroe, at Midsummer, in the Evening, it ap- 
peareth for a while ; but some few Days before the Rising 
of Arcturus it is seen with the very Dawning of the Day. 
Sailors, by their Voyages, come to the Knowledge of these 
Stars most of any other, by Reason that some Seas are oppo- 
site unto some Stars ; but others lie flat and incline forward 
to others : so that also those Pole Stars appear suddenly, as 
rising out of the Sea, which lay hidden before under the 
winding Compass of a Ball. For the Heaven (Mundus) 
riseth not aloft in this higher Pole, as some Men have said ; 
for if so, these Stars should be seen in every Place : but those 
that to the nearest Observers are supposed to be higher, the 
same seem to them afar off to be immersed in the Sea. And 
as this North Pole seemeth to be aloft to those that are 
situated directly under it, so to them that be removed so far 
as the other Devexity or Fall of the Earth, those abovesaid 
Stars rise up aloft there, while these decline downward which 
here were mounted on high. Which Thing could not possibly 
fall out but in the Figure of a Ball. And hence it is, that 
the Inhabitants of the East perceive not the Eclipses of the 
Sun and Moon in the Evening, no more than those that 
dwell West in the Morning : but those that be at Noon in the 
South they often see. At the Time that Alexander the Great 
obtained his famous Victory at Arbela, it is said that the 
Moon was eclipsed at the second Hour of the Night : but this 
Eclipse was at the Time of her Rising in Sicily. The Eclipse 

1 Ccesaris Thronon: a new name affixed to an old constellation by 
some flattering Greek ; but of which no further clue remains. The name 
is not found in any other writer. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 115 

of the Sun which happened before the Kalends of May, when 
Vipsanus and Fonteius were Consuls (and that was not many 
Years past) was seen in Campania between the seventh and 
eighth Hours of the Day : but Corbulo (a Commander then 
in Armenia) made Report, that it was seen there between the 
tenth and eleventh Hours of the same Day : which was be- 
cause the Compass of the Globe discovereth and hideth some 
Things to some, and other to others. But if the Earth were 
level, all Things should appear at once to all Men ; for neither 
would one Night be longer than another, nor would the Day of 
twelve Hours appear equal to any but to those that are seated 
in the midst of the Earth, which now in all Parts agree toge- 
ther alike. 

CHAPTER LXXI. 

What is the Reason of the Daylight upon the Earth? 

AND hence it is, that it is neither Night nor Day at one 
Time in all Parts of the World ; because the Opposition of 
the Globe bringeth Night, and the Circuit thereof the Day. 
This is known by many Experiments 1 . In Africa and Spain 
there were raised by Annibal, high Watch-towers : and in 
Asia, for the Fear of Pirates, the like Help of Beacons was 
erected. Wherein it was observed oftentimes, that the Fires 
giving Warning before (which were set on Fire at the sixth 
Hour of the Day), were descried by them that were farthest 
off in Asia, at the third Hour of the Night. Philonides, the 
Courier of the same Alexander, despatched in nine Hours of 
the Day 1200 Stadia, as far as from Sicyone to Elis : and 
from thence again (although he went down Hill all the Way) 
he returned oftentimes, but not before the third Hour of the 
Night. The Cause was, because he had the Sun with him in 
his Setting out ; and in his Return to Sicyon he went against 
it, and ere he came home, left it in the West behind. Which 
is the Reason also, that they who by Daylight sail Westward 
in the shortest Day of the Year, pass along more Way than 
those who sail all the Night long at the same Time, because 
the others accompany the Sun. 

1 These effects of longitude are either greatly exaggerated or untrue. 
- Wem. Club. 



116 History of Nature. [BoOK II. 

CHAPTER LXXII. 

The Gnomonic Art of the same Matter : and also of the first 

Dial 

ALSO the Instruments serving for the Hours will not 
serve for all Places : but in every 300 Stadia, or 500 at the 
farthest, the Shadows that the Sun casteth are changed ; and 
therefore the Shadow of the Style in the Dial, which they 
call the Gnomon, in Egypt, at Noon, in the equinoctial Day, 
is little more in length than half the Gnomon. But in the 
city of Rome the Shadow wanteth the ninth Part of the 
Gnomon. In the Town of Ancona it is longer by a thirty- 
fifth Part. But in that Part of Italy which is called Venice, 
at the same Time and Hour the Shadow and the Gnomon 
are of one Length. 

CHAPTER LXXIII. 
Where and when there be no Shadows. 

IN like Manner they say, that in the Town of Syene 
(which is above Alexandria fifty Stadia), at Noon, in the 
midst of Summer, there is no Shadow : and that for Experi- 
ment thereof, a Well that was sunk in the Ground was lighted 
to the Bottom ; whereby it appeareth that the Sun at that 
Time is directly over that Place. Which also at the same 
Time happeneth in India, above the River Hypasis, as Onesi- 
critus hath written. And it is known that in Berenice, a 
City of the Trogloditse, and from thence 4820 Stadia in the 
same Country, at the Town of Ptolemais (which was built at 
first on the Border of the Red Sea, for the Pleasure of hunt- 
ing Elephants), the same is to be seen forty-five Days before 
the Summer Solstice, and as long after : so that for the 
Space of ninety Days all Shadows are cast toward the South. 
Again, in the Island of Meroe, which is the capital Place of 
the Ethiopian Nation, and is inhabited 5000 Stadia from 
Syene, upon the River Nile, twice in the Year the Shadows 
disappear ; which is, when the Sun is in the eighteenth De- 
grees of Taurus , and in the fourteenth of Leo. In the Coun- 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 1 1 7 

try of the Oretes, in India, there is a Mountain named Maleus, 
near which the Shadows in Summer are cast into the South, 
and in Winter to the North. There, for fifteen Nights only, 
the Constellation Septentrio is to be seen. In the same 
India, at Patales (a famous Port), the Sun riseth on the 
right Hand, and Shadows fall to the South. While Alex- 
ander was there, Onesicritus, an Officer of his, wrote that it 
was observed there, that the North Star was seen the first 
Part only of the Night : also that in such Places of India where 
there were no Shadows, the North Star did not appear : and 
that those Quarters were called Ascia* 9 where they kept no 
Reckoning of Hours. 

CHAPTER LXXIV. 

Where Twice in the Year the Shadows fall in contrary 
Directions. 

BUT throughout all Trogloditice, -Eratosthenes hath writ- 
ten, that the Shadows twice a- Year, for forty-five Days, fall 
in contrary Directions. 

CHAPTER LXXV. 
Where the Day is longest, and where shortest. 

IT cometh thus to pass, that by the variable Increment of 
the Daylight, the longest Day in Meroe doth comprehend 
twelve equinoctial Hours, and eight Parts of one Hour: but 
in Alexandria, fourteen Hours ; in Italy, fifteen ; in Britain, 
seventeen, where, in Summer, the Nights being light, by 
infallible Experience shew that which Reason forceth to be- 
lieve : namely, that at Midsummer, as the Sun approacheth 
near to the Pole of the World, the Places of the Earth lying 
underneath, have Day continually for six Months: and con- 
trariwise, Night, when the Sun is remote as far as Bruma. 
And this, Pythias of Massiles hath written of Thule 2 , an 
Island distant Northward from Britain six Days' sailing ; and 

1 That is, without shadow. 

2 This is judged to be Iceland. The geography of Britain will be 
found in the fourth book. Wern. Club. 



118 History of Nature. [BoOK II. 

some affirm the same of Mona, which is an Island distant 
from Camalodunum, a Town of Britain, about two hundred 
Miles. 

CHAPTER LXXVI. 

Of the Horologium, or Dial. 

THIS Understanding of Shadows, and what is named 
Gnonomice, Anaximenes the Milesian, the Disciple of Anaxi- 
mander above-named, discovered : and he was the first also 
that shewed in Lacedsemon the Horologe (or Dial 1 ) which 
they call Sciotericon. 

CHAPTER LXXVII. 
How the Days are observed. 

THE very Day itself Men have, after divers Manners, 
observed. The Babylonians count for Day all the Time be- 
tween two Sun-risings ; the Athenians between the Set- 
tings ; The Umbrians from Noon to Noon : but all the 
common Sort from Daylight until it be dark : the Roman 
Priests, and those that have defined a Civil Day, and likewise 
the Egyptians and Hipparchus, from Midnight to Midnight 2 . 
That the Spaces between Lights are greater or less betwixt 
Sunrisings, near the Solstices, than the Equinoctials ap- 
peareth by this : that the Position of the Zodiac, about the 
Middle Parts thereof, is more oblique ; but toward the Sol- 
stice more direct. 

CHAPTER LXXVIII. 
The Reason of the Difference of Nations. 

HEREUNTO we must annex such Things as are linked to 
celestial Causes. For it is beyond doubt that the Ethiopians, 

1 The Greeks were accustomed to regard as discoverers those who first 
made any thing known to their nation. But the dial was in use at the 
palace of Ahaz at Jesusalem, nearly 150 years before the time that Pliny 
mentions. Wern. Club. 

2 The Jews began their day from the first appearance of stars in the 
evening ; believing this to mark the period when creation began to be set 
in order, and time to be measured. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 1 19 

by Reason of the Sun's Vicinity, are scorched with the Heat 
thereof, like to them that be burnt, having their Beards and 
Hair curled. Also, that in the opposite Climate of the 
World to it, in the frozen Regions, the People have white 
Skins, Hair growing long, and straight, and yellow; but they 
be fierce by Reason of the rigorous Cold : howbeit, the one, 
as well as the other, in this Change, are dull : and the very 
Legs argue the Temperature. For in the Ethiopians the 
Juice is drawn upward again by the Nature of Heat : but 
among the northern Nations the same is driven to the infe- 
rior Parts, because Moisture is apt to fall downward. Here 
are bred hurtful wild Beasts : but there are found Crea- 
tures of a Variety of Shapes ; and especially Fowls and Birds 
of many Forms : they are tall of Stature, as well in one Part 
as the other : in the hot Regions, by occasion of the natural 
Tendency of Fire ; in the other, through the Nourishment by 
Moisture. But in the Midst of the Earth there is an whole- 
some Mixture from both Sides ; the whole Tract is fruitful 
for all Things, and the Habit of Men's Bodies of a balanced 
Constitution. In the Colour, also, there existeth a great 
Temperature. The Manners of the People are gentle, their 
Senses clear, their Capacity fertile and capable of all Things 
within the Compass of Nature. They also bear sovereign 
Rule, and sway Empires, which those uttermost Nations 
never had : yet true it is, that even they who are out 
of the Temperate Zones may not consent to be subject nor 
accommodate themselves unto these : for such is their 
savage Nature that it urgeth them to living solitary by 
themselves. 

CHAPTER LXXIX. 

Of Earthquakes*. 

THE Babylonians were of Opinion, that Earthquakes and 
Chasms, and all other Occurrences of this Nature, are occa- 

1 The definition of an earthquake is, the transit of a wave of elastic 
compression in any direction, from vertically upwards, to horizontally in 
any azimuth, through the surface and crust of the earth, from any centre 
of impulse (whether producing flexure or fracture), or from more than 



120 History of Nature. [BOOK IF. 

sioned by the Influence of the Planets : bat of those three 
only to which they attribute Lightnings. And it is effected 
by the Means of their keeping their Course with the Sun, or 
meeting with him : and especially when this Concurrence is 
about the Quadratures of the Heaven. And if it be true, as 
it is reported, of Anaximander, the Milesian Natural Philo- 
sopher, his Foreknowledge of Things was excellent and wor- 
thy of Immortality : for they say he forewarned the Lacede- 
monians to look well to their City and Dwelling-houses, for 
that an Earthquake approached ; which fell out accord- 
ingly : when not only their whole City was shaken, but also 
a great Part of the Mountain Taygetus, which projected like 

one ; and which may be attended with tidal and sound waves, dependent 
upon the former, and upon circumstances of position as to sea and land. 
MALLET : Transactions of Royal Irish Academy, vol. xix. 

The causes, and many of the attending phenomena, are as much a 
matter of conjecture now as when Pliny wrote ; but he does not even 
deem worthy of notice the popular supposition, that the giants who had 
rebelled against the gods were buried beneath these mountains, where 
by their struggles they gave occasion to those commotions : nor that the 
shop of Vulcan was beneath Etna, of which the crater was the chimney. 
It is more remarkable that he makes no reference to the idea of Pytha- 
goras (Ovid's " Metamorphoses," b. xv.), that the phenomena of volcanic 
eruption was a vital action of the earth, regarded as an animal ; for that 
the earth was such we find Pliny expressing a decided opinion. But the 
concluding explanation of the poet, however, was that which best suited 
his inquiries. 

Ceremonies concerning Earthquakes. Whilst it was a maxim of the 
state religion, that earthquakes were caused by the displeasure of some 
divinity, it was still necessary that each occurrence of such phenomenon 
should be fully announced by the proper officers, before the religious 
observances appropriate to the case could be required ; and thus was se- 
cured a guard against such alarms as might agitate the public mind, if 
any neglect might seem to arise. The ceremonies were by public an- 
nouncement ; and they were so imperative upon all, that any one engaging 
in ordinary work at the time of these feriae would be judged to have 
violated them. The salutation to the divine power that may have caused 
the shock was, " Si Deo, si Dea," &c., to obviate the danger of an error 
regarding which god, or which sex of these deities, had caused the calamity. 
And this was of importance, because if a wrong name were called, so far 
from being pacified, the real author might become still more offended. 
From Aulus Gellius. Wern. Club. 



BOOK If.] History of Nature. 121 

the Poop of a Ship, being broken from the Rest, came down, 
and with the Fall covered over the other Ruins. There is re- 
ported another Conjecture byPherecydes, who was the Teacher 
of Pythagoras; and the same was likewise of divine character; 
for, by drawing Water out of a Well he both foresaw and 
foretold an Earthquake there. Which, if they be true, how 
far off, I pray you, may such Men seem to be from God, even 
while they live upon Earth ? But I leave these Things free 
for every Man to weigh according to his Judgment : and for 
my own Part, I suppose that, without Doubt, the Winds are 
the proper Cause. For the Earth never quakes but when 
the Sea is still, and the Weather so calm that Birds, in their 
flying, cannot hover in the Air; because all the Spirit which 
should bear them up, is withdrawn : nor yet at any Time, but 
after the Winds are laid ; namely, when the Blast is hidden 
within the Veins and Caves of the Earth. Neither is this 
Shaking in the Earth any other Thing than is Thunder in the 
Cloud : nor the Chasm thereof aught else, but, like the Cleft 
out of which the Lightning breaketh, when the Spirit enclosed 
within struggleth and stirreth to go forth at Liberty. 

CHAPTER LXXX. 
Of Chasms of the Earth. 

VARIOUSLY, therefore, the Earth is shaken, and thereupon 
ensue wonderful Effects. In one Place the Walls of Cities 
are laid prostrate : in another they are swallowed up in a deep 
Chasm : here are cast up mighty Heaps of Earth ; there are 
poured out Rivers of Water; sometimes Fire doth burst forth, 
and hot Springs : and again the Course of Rivers is turned 
away backward. There goeth before and cometh with it a 
terrible Noise : one while a Rumbling more like the lowing 
of Beasts : and then again it resembleth a Man's Voice, or 
the clattering and rustling of Armour and Weapons; accord- 
ing to the Quality of the Matter that receiveth the Noise, or 
the Fashion either of the hollow Caverns within, or the 
Cranny by which it passeth ; whilst in a narrow Way it 
soundeth with a more slender Tone : and the same keepeth 
an hoarse Din in winding Caves ; rebounding again in hard 



122 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

Passages ; roaring in moist Places ; waving and floating in 
standing Waters ; boiling against solid Things. And there- 
fore, oftentimes a Noise is heard without an Earthquake : 
and never doth it shake after exactly the same Manner, but 
trembleth and vibrateth. The gaping Chink sometimes re- 
maineth wide open, and sheweth what it hath swallowed up ; 
and at other Times it closeth up the Mouth, and hideth all : 
and the Earth is brought together so again that there remain 
no Marks to be seen : notwithstanding many a Time it hath 
devoured Cities, and drawn into it a whole Tract of Country. 
Maritime Regions, most of all, feel Earthquakes : neither 
are the hilly Countries without this Calamity. I myself 
have known by examination, that the Alps and Apennines 
have oftentimes trembled. In the Autumn and Spring there 
happen more Earthquakes than at other Times, the same as 
Lightnings. And, therefore, Gallia and Egypt least of all be 
shaken : for in Egypt the continual Summer 1 , and in Gallia 
the Winter, is against it. Also, Earthquakes are more rife 
by Night than by Day. But the greatest Shocks are in the 
Morning and Evening. Toward Daylight there be many : 
and if by Day, it is usually about Noon. They are also 
when the Sun and Moon are eclipsed, because then Tempests 
are laid to Rest: but especially, when after much Rain there 
followeth a great Heat; or after Heat, much Rain. 

CHAPTER LXXXI. 
Signs of Approaching Earthquakes. 

SAILORS also perceive it by an undoubting Conjecture, 
when the Waves swell suddenly without any Gale of Wind, 
or when they feel a Shock. And then do the Things quake 

1 It has been contended that the internal actions of the earth, causing 
or affected by volcanic motion, are intimately connected with changes in 
the atmosphere and the variety of the seasons ; giving rise also to epidemic 
diseases, both in man and animals, and even in vegetables : and on the 
other hand, that the actions of the earth, in earthquakes and volcanoes, 
are connected with what we now denominate the electric state of the 
atmosphere. Several coincidences of this kind have been remarked; 
and in either case they are applicable to Egypt above other countries. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 123 

which are within the Ships, just as those in Houses, and with 
their rustling give Warning beforehand. Birds, likewise, 
sit not quietly without Fear. In the Sky, also, there is a 
Sign, for there goeth before, either in Daytime, or soon after 
the Sun is gone down in Serenity, a thin Streak or Line of a 
Cloud stretched out in great Length. Moreover, the Water 
in Wells 1 is more troubled than ordinary, and not without 
an offensive Smell. 

CHAPTER LXXXII. 
Helps against approaching Earthquakes. 

BUT there is a Remedy for the same, such as Caverns in 
many Places do yield : for they discharge the Wind that was 
conceived there before : a Thing observed in certain Towns, 
which because they stand hollow, and have many Sinks dug 
to convey away their Filth, are less shaken. And in the 
same Towns, those Parts which be pendant are the safer : as 
is well seen in Naples, in Italy, where that Quarter thereof 
which is solid is subject to such Casualties. And in Houses 
the Arches are most safe, and the Angles of Walls, and 
those Posts which, in shaking, will jog to and fro every Way. 
Walls made of Brick or Earth take less Harm when they be 
shaken in an Earthquake. And a great Difference there is 
in the Manner of Earthquakes ; for the Motion is after many 
Sorts. The safest is, when Houses as they rock keep a trem- 
bling and warbling Noise : also when the Earth seemeth to 
swell up in rising : and again to settle down with an alterna- 
tive Motion. It is harmless, also, when Houses run on End 
together by a contrary Stroke, and jut one against another: 
for the one Motion doth withstand the other. The bending 
downward in Manner of waving, and a rolling like to surging 
Billows, is that which is so dangerous ; or when the whole 

1 A consideration of the fact here expressed might have mitigated the 
wonder felt by Pliny at the prognostication of approaching earthquakes, 
referred to in chapter Ixxix. Their prescience only proved a close ob- 
servance of Nature by these illustrious inquirers, and how far they were 
in advance of the philosophy of the day. Wern. Club. 



124 History of Nature. [ BOOK II. 

Motion forceth itself to one Side. These Tremblings of the 
Earth give over when the Wind is vented out : but if they 
continue, then they cease not for forty Days : yea, and many 
Times it is longer, so that some of them have lasted for the 
Space of a Year or two. 

CHAPTER LXXXIII. 
Portentous Earthquakes, seen only once. 

THERE happened once (which I found in the Books of 
Tuscan Science) within the Territory of Modena (whilst 
L. Martins and Sex. Julius were Consuls) a mighty Portent 
of the Earth : for two Mountains rushed together, and with 
the utmost Clamour assaulted one another, and then retired 
again. It fell out in the Daytime : and between them there 
issued flaming Fire and Smoke, mounting up into the Sky : 
while a great Number of Roman Knights, a Multitude of 
Servants, and Passers-by, stood and beheld it from the Mml- 
lian Way. With this Conflict all the Villages upon them 
were dashed in Pieces ; and very much Cattle that was 
within died therewith. And this happened the Year before 
the social War ; which I doubt whether it were not more 
pernicious to the Land of Italy than the Civil Wars. That was 
no less wonderful a Prodigy, which was known also in our 
Age, in the last Year of Nero the Emperor (as we have shewn 
in his Acts), when Meadows and Olive-rows (notwithstanding 
the great public Road lay between) passed across into one 
another's Place, in the Marrucine Territory, within the Lands 
of Vectius Marcellus, a Roman Knight, Procurator under 
Nero in his Affairs. 

CHAPTER LXXXIV. 
Wonders of Earthquakes. 

THERE happen together with Earthquakes, Inundations 
of the Sea ; which is infused into the Earth with the same 
Wind, or else received into the hollow Receptacle as it set- 
tleth down. The greatest Earthquake within the Remem- 
brance of Man, was that which happened during the Reign 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 125 

of Tiberius Ccesar, when twelve Cities of Asia were over- 
turned in one Night. But Earthquakes were most frequent 
in the Punic War, when within one Year there were an- 
nounced at Rome seven-and-fifty l . In which Year, indeed, 
when the Carthaginians and Romans fought a Battle at the 
Lake Thrasymenus, none of either army perceived the Oc- 
currence of a great Earthquake. Neither is this a simple 
evil Thing, nor doth the Danger consist only in the Earth- 
quake itself, but that which it portendeth is as bad or worse. 
Never did the City of Rome experience an Earthquake, but 
it proved a Warning of some unhappy Event to follow. 

CHAPTER LXXXV. 
In what Places the Seas have gone back. 

THE same Cause is to be rendered of some new Piece of 
Ground, when the before-named Wind within the Earth, 
able to inflate and raise the Ground, was still not of Power 
sufficient to break forth and escape. For there groweth firm 
Land not only by that which Rivers bring in (as the Islands 
Echinades, which were raised up by the River Achelous ; 
and also by the Nile the greater Part of Egypt, into which, 
if we believe Homer, from the Island Pharus there was a 
Course by Sea of a Day and Night's Sailing), but also by the 
retiring of the Sea; as the same Poet hath written of the 
Circeice. The like is said to have happened both in the 
Haven of Ambracia, for the Space of ten thousand Paces ; 
and also in that of the Athenians for five thousand Paces, 
near Piraeeum : also at Ephesus, where formerly the Sea 
flowed near to the Temple of .Diana. Indeed, if we believe 
Herodotus, it was all a Sea from above Memphis to the 
Ethiopian Mountains : and likewise from the Plains of Arabia. 
It was Sea also about Ilium, and all Teuthrania ; and where 
the River Meander now runneth by Meadows 2 . 

1 Announced by the augurs, and therefore a strong proof of the agita- 
tion of the public mind. Wern Club. 

2 The records of all nations afford proof of similar facts, which are 
still more extensively shewn by the discoveries of modern geology. It 



126 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

CHAPTER LXXXVI. 
The Reason of Islands rising out of the Sea. 

THERE be Lands also that are produced after another 
Manner, and emerge on a sudden in some Sea : as if Nature 
struck a Balance with herself, by giving again in one Place 
that which her gaping Gulfs had swallowed up in another. 

CHAPTER LXXXVII. 
What Islands have sprung up, and at what Times 1 . 

THOSE Islands, long since famous, Delos and Rhodes, 
are recorded to have risen out of the Sea : and afterwards, 
others that were less, namely, Anaphe, beyond Melos ; Nea, 
between Lemnus and Hellespont ; Alon, between Lebedus 
and Teos ; and Thera, and Therasia, among the Cyclades ; 
which latter shewed in the fourth Year of the 135th Olym- 
piad. Moreover, among the same Islands, 130 Years after, 
Hiera, which is the same as Automate. And two Stadii from 
it, after 110 Years, Thia, in our own Time, upon the eighth 
Day before the Ides of July, when M. Junius Syllanus and 
L. Balbus were Consuls. 

CHAPTER LXXXVIII. 
What Lands the Seas have broken in between. 

IN our own Presence, and near to Italy, between the 
JEtolian Islands ; and also near to Crete, there was one that 
shewed itself with hot Fountains out of the Sea, for 1500 

was a part of the teaching of Pythagoras, as we learn from Ovid (book 
xv.) ; and by him it seems to have been made a portion of his doctrine of 
the metempsychosis. Wern. Club. 

1 What are denominated eruptions of elevation have occurred in 
various ages, and in almost every quarter of the world. The latest, and, 
perhaps the most precise, account, of such an elevation of an island from 
the bottom of the sea, is that of Graham's Island, in 1831, in the Medi- 
terranean Sea, between Partellaria and Sciacca ; of which many parti- 
culars are given in several publications of that date : and popularly in 
London's "Magazine of Natural History," vol. iv. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 127 

Paces: and another in the third Year of the 143rd Olympiad, 
within the Tuscan Gulf, which latter burned with a violent 
Wind. It is recorded, also, that when a great Multitude of 
Fishes floated about it, those Persons died presently that 
fed thereof. So they report, that in the Campain Gulf the 
Pithecusae Islands appeared. And soon after, the Mountain 
Epopos in them (at which Time there suddenly shone out a 
flaming Fire from it) was laid level with the plain Country. 
Within the same, also, there was a Town swallowed up by 
the deep Sea ; and in another Earthquake there appeared a 
standing Pool : but in another, by the Fall of some Moun- 
tains, there grew the Island Prochyta: for after this Manner, 
also, Nature hath formed Islands. Thus, she disjoined Sicily 
from Italy, Cyprus from Syria, Euboea from Bceotia, Ata- 
lante and Macris from Euboea, Besbycus from Bithynia, 
Leucostia from the Promontory of the Syrenes 1 . 

CHAPTER LXXXIX. 
What Islands became joined to the Main. 

AGAIN, she hath taken Islands from the Sea, and joined 
them to the Main Land ; as, for Instance, Antissa to Lesbos, 
Zephyria to Halicarnassus, Aethusa to Myndus, Dromiscos 
and Pern to Miletus, and Narthecusa to the Promontory 
Parthenius. Hybanda, once an Island of Ionia, is now dis- 
tant from the Sea 200 Stadia. As for Syria, Ephesus hath it 
now in the midland Parts far from the Sea. So Magnesia, 
neighbour to it, hath Derasitas and Sophonia. Epidaurus 
and Oricum have ceased to be Islands. 

CHAPTER XC. 
What Lands have been turned wholly into Sea. 

NATURE hath altogether taken away some Lands ; the 
chief of which was where now is the Atlantic Sea, but which 

1 To this may be added, Britain from France. But, in truth, to dis- 
ruptions of this kind we owe, for the most part, the present distribution of 
the geography of the world. Wern. Club. 



128 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

was formerly a Continent for a mighty Space of Ground ; if 
we may credit Plato. And soon after, in our Mediter- 
ranean Sea, all men may see at this Day how much hath 
been immersed ; as, Acarnania by the inward Gulf of Am- 
bracia ; Achaia within that of Corinth ; Europe and Asia 
within Propontis and Pontus. And besides, the Sea hath 
broken through Leucas, Antirrhium, Hellespont, and the 
two Bosphori. 

CHAPTER XCI. 
What Lands have swallowed up themselves. 

AND now to pass over Arms of the Sea and Lakes, the 
Earth hath devoured and buried herself: as, for Example, 
that very high Mountain, Cybotus, with the Town Curites ; 
Sipylus in Magnesia : and in the same Place before that, the 
most noble City called Tantalus : the Territories of Galanis 
and Gamale in Phcenice, together with the Cities themselves. 
Phogium, also, a very high Hill in Ethiopia, as if the very 
Shores were not to be trusted, but they also must work 
mischief. 

CHAPTER XCII. 
What Cities have been swallowed up by the Sea. 

THE Sea of Pontus hath overwhelmed Pyrrha and Antyssa, 
about Maeotis ; and Elice, and Bura in the Gulf of Corinth : 
whereof the Marks are to be seen in the deep Water. Out 
of the Island Cea more than 30,000 Paces of Ground were 
lost suddenly, with very many Men. In Sicily, also, the Sea 
came in and took away half the City Thindaris, and all 
between Italy and Sicily. The like it did in Bosotia and 
Eleusina. 

CHAPTER XCIII. 
Of the Wonders of the Land. 

LET us speak no more of Earthquakes, and any Thing 
else of that Kind ; for we will rather speak of the Wonders 



BOOK II.] History / Nature. 129 

of the Earth than of the mischievous Freaks of Nature. And 
surely the History of celestial Things was not more hard to 
be related : the Wealth is such of Metals, in such Variety, so 
rich, so fruitful, rising still one under another, for so many 
Ages ; notwithstanding that daily there is so much consumed 
throughout the World, with Fires, Ruins, Shipwrecks, Wars, 
and fraudulent Practices : yea, and so much spent in luxury 
by so many Men living ! yet how many Sorts of Gems there 
be still so painted ! In precious Stones, what Variety of 
Colours! 'and how bespotted ! And among them, the Bril- 
liancy of some one excluding all else but Light! The Virtue 
of medicinable Fountains : the continual Burning for so 
many Ages of Fire issuing forth in so many Places : the 
deadly Exhalations in some Places, either emitted from Pits 
when they were sunk, or else from the very Position of the 
Ground ; present Death in one Place to the Birds only (as at 
Soracte, in a Quarter near the City) ; in others, to all other 
living Creatures, save only Man : yea, and sometime to Men 
also, as in the Territories of Sinuessa and Puteoli. Which 
damp Holes 1 , breathing out a deadly Air, some call Charonece 
Scrobes, or Charon's Ditches. Likewise in the Hirpines' 
Land, that of Amsanctus, a Cave near the Temple of Me- 
phitesy into which as many as enter die presently. After the 
like Manner, at Hierapolis in Asia there is another such, 
fatal to all except the Priest of the great Mother. In other 
Places there be also Caves possessing a prophetical Power : 
by the Exhalation of which Men are intoxicated, and so 

1 The nature of the air now denominated carbonic acid gas, which, 
when attempted to be inhaled, is destructive to animal life, was unknown, 
except in these effects, to the ancients. It is to this that the well-known 
Grotto del' Cane in Italy, as well as sometimes deep, moist, and stagnant 
pits among ourselves, owe their fatal qualities. The inhalations at Delphi 
were probably artificial ; and those who visited the prophetic cave of 
Trophonius were observed to be ever afterward affected with constitu- 
tional gloom ; which, however, might be the effect of the drugs that were 
given them to drink, under the name of the "Waters of the Mnemosme." 
In chap. ciii. a reference is made to a natural spring producing similar 
effects. Wern. Club. 



1 30 History of Nature. [BoOK 1 1 , 

foretell Things to come ; as at Delphi, that most renowned 
Oracle. In which Things, what other Reason can any mortal 
Man assign, than the divine Power of Nature diffused through 
all, which breaketh forth at Times in sundry Sorts? 

CHAPTER XCIV. 
Of Lands always trembling. 

SOME Parts of the Earth there be that tremble under 
Men's Feet as they go ; as in the Territory of the Gabians, 
not far from Rome, where there be almost 200 Jugera of 
Ground, which tremble as Horsemen ride over them : and 
the same in the Territory of Reate. 

CHAPTER XCV. 
Of Islands ever floating. 

SOME Islands are always floating 1 ; as in the Country 
about Caecubum, Reate above-named, Mutina, and Statonia. 
Also in the Lake Vadimonis, and near the Waters Cutyliae, 
there is a dark Grove, which is never seen in one Place for 
a Day and Night together. Moreover, in Lydia, the Isles 
Calaminae are not only driven to and fro by Winds, but also 
many be thrust about with long Poles, which Way a Man 
will : a Thing that saved many a Man's Life in the War 
against Mithridates. There are other little ones also in the 
River Nymphaeus, called Saltuares (or Dancers), because in 
any Concert of Musicians, they are moved at the Stroke of 
the Feet, as keeping their Time. In the great Lake of 
Italy, called Tarquiniensis, two Islands carry about with 
them Groves : one while appearing triangular, another while 
round, when they close one to the other by the Drift of 
Winds, but never four-square. 

It is believed there is something similar in the north of England. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. \ 3 1 



CHAPTER XCVI. 

In what Lands it never raineth. Also, Wonders of the Earth, 
and other Elements heaped together. 

PAPHOS hath in it a famous Temple of Venus: upon a 
certain Floor and Altar whereof it never raineth 1 . Likewise 
in Nea, a Town of Troas, it never rains about the Image of 
Minerva. In the same, also, the Beasts killed for Sacrifice, 
if they be left there, never putrify. Near to Harpasa, a 
Town in Asia, there stands a craggy and awful Rock, movable 
with one Finger, but if you thrust it with your whole Body, 
it will stiffly resist 2 . In the Peninsula of the Tauri and City 
Parasinum, there is a kind of Earth that healeth all Wounds, 
But about Assos, in Troas, there grows a Stone by which all 
Bodies are consumed, and thereupon it is termed Sarco- 
phagus. There be two Mountains near the River Indus : the 
Nature of the one is to hold fast all Manner of Iron, and of 
the other, to reject it : and r therefore, if the Sole of a Man's 
Shoes be clouted with Nails, in the one of them a Man can- 
not pluck away his Foot, and in the other he cannot take 
any footing. It is noted, that in Locri and Crotone the Pes- 
tilence was never known, nor any Danger by Earthquake. 
And in Lycia, after an Earthquake, it is fair Weather for 
forty Days. In the Territory of Arda, if Corn be sowed, it 
never groweth. At the Altars Murtiae in the Veientian 
Country, and in Tusculanum, and the Wood Cyminia, there 
be certain Places, wherein whatever is pitched into the 
Ground can never be plucked up again. In the Crustumin 
Country all the Hay there growing is hurtful in the same 
Place : but if removed, it is good and wholesome. 

1 Tacitus alludes to the same circumstance, b. xviii. Wern. Club. 

2 The Logan stone, near the Land's End, in Cornwall, is a well-known 
example of the same thing. The simple fact is, that a very large stone is 
poised very nearly on its centre of gravity, while the limit of oscillation is 
narrow. Wern. Club. 



1 32 History of Nature. [BooK 1 1 . 



CHAPTER XCVI1. 

What is the Reason of the Ebb and Flow of the Sea : and 
where it is that they keep no Order. 

OF the Nature of Waters much hath been said ; but that 
the Tide of the Sea should flow and ebb, is a very wonderful 
Thing indeed. The Manner thereof is various, but the Cause 
is in the Sun and Moon. Between two Risings of the Moon 
they flow twice and twice go back, and always in the Space 
of four-and- twenty Hours. And first as she riseth aloft 
together with the World, the Tides swell ; and presently 
again, as she goeth from the Height of the Meridian Line 
and inclineth Westward, they subside : again, as she moveth 
from the West, under our Horizon, and approacheth to the 
Point contrary to the Meridian, they flow, and then they are 
received back into the Sea until she rise again : and never 
keepeth the Tide the same Hour that it did the Day before : 
for it giveth Attendance upon the Planet, which greedily 
draweth with it the Seas, and evermore riseth to Day in some 
other Place than it did yesterday. Nevertheless, the Tides 
keep just the same Times between, and hold always six 
Hours a-piece : I mean not of every Day and Night or Place 
indifferently, but only the Equinoctial. For in regard of 
Hours, the Tides of the Sea are unequal : forasmuch as by 
Day and Night the Tides are more or less one Time than 
another : in the Equinoctial only they are equal in all Places. 
A powerful Argument this is, and full of Light, to convince 
the Dulness of those who are of opinion, that the Planets 
being under the Earth lose their Power : and that their 
Virtue beginneth when they are above only. For they shew 
their Effects as well under as above the Earth, as well as the 
Earth which worketh in all Parts. And plain it is, that the 
Moon performeth her Operations as well under the Earth as 
when we see her visibly above : neither is her Course any 
other beneath than above our Horizon. But yet the Altera- 
tion of the Moon is manifold, and first every seven Days: 
for while she is new, the Tides be but small, until the first 



BOOK 1 1 .] History of Nature. \ 33 

Quarter : and as she groweth bigger they flow more, so that 
at the full they swell most of all. From that Time they be- 
come more mild : and in the first Days of the decrease unto 
the seventh, the Tides are equal. Again, when she is divided 
on the other Side they are increased. And in the Conjunc- 
tion they are equal to the Tides of the full. And evidently 
it appeareth, that when she is Northerly and removed far- 
ther from the Earth, the Tides are more gentle than when 
she is gone Southerly : for then she worketh nearer Hand, 
and putteth forth her full Power. Every eight Years, also, 
and after the hundredth Revolution of the Moon, the Seas 
return to the Beginning of their Motions, and to the like 
Increase : by Reason that she augmenteth all Things by the 
yearly Course of the Sun : forasmuch as in the two Equi- 
noctials they always swell most, yet more in that of the 
Autumn than the Spring ; but nothing to speak of in Mid- 
winter, and less at Midsummer. And yet these Things fall 
not out in these very Instants of the Times which I have 
named, but some few Days after ; like as neither in the 
full nor in the change, but afterward : nor yet immediately 
as the Heaven either shevveth us the Moon in her rising, or 
hideth her from us at her setting, or as she declineth from us 
in the middle Climate, but later almost by two equinoctial 
Hours. Forasmuch as the Effect of all Influences in the 
Heaven reach not so soon unto the Earth, as the Eyesight 
pierceth up to the Heaven : as appeareth by Lightnings, 
Thunders, and Thunderbolts. Moreover, all Tides in the 
main Ocean overspread arid cover much more within the Land 
than in other Seas : either because in the whole it is more 
violent than in a Part : or for that the open Greatness thereof 
feeleth more effectually the Power of the Planet, working 
forcibly as it doth widely at Liberty, than when the same is 
restrained within those Straits. Which is the Cause that 
neither Lakes nor little Rivers ebb and flow in like Manner. 
Pythias of Massiles writeth, that above Britain the Tide 
floweth in Height eighty Cubits. But the more inward Seas 
are shut up within the Lands, as in a Harbour. Nevertheless, 
in some Places a more spacious Liberty there is that yieldeth 



134 History of Nature. [ BOOK II. 

to the Power [of the Moon] : for there are many Examples 
of those who, in a calm Sea, without Wind and Sail, by a 
strong Current only, have passed from Italy to Utica in three 
Days. But these Motions are found about the Shores more 
than in the deep Sea; just as in our Bodies the extreme 
Parts have a greater Feeling of the Beating of Arteries, or in 
other Words, the vital Spirits. Yet notwithstanding in many 
Estuaries of the Sea, because of the unequal Risings of the 
Planets in every Coast, the Tides are diverse, and disagreeing 
in Time ; but not in their Cause ; as particularly in the Syrtes. 
And yet some there be that have a peculiar Nature ; as the 
Firth Taurominitanum, which ebbeth and floweth oftener 
than twice: and that other in Eubcea, called likewise Eu- 
npus, which hath seven Tides forward and back in a Day 
arid Night. And the same Tide three Days in a Month 
standeth still, namely, in the seventh, eighth, and ninth Days 
of the Moon's Age. At Gades 1 , the Fountain near the Chapel 
of Hercules is enclosed about like a Well, which sometimes 
riseth and falleth with the Ocean ; and at other Times it 
doth both at contrary Seasons. In the same Place there is 

* Cadiz, on the Atlantic coast of Spain, was founded in a very remote 
age by the Phoenicians, under the conduct of one of their most illustrious 
chiefs, Melcartus ; whose name is significant of a royal race ; and who has 
been denominated the Tyrian Hercules, from a supposition that his 
labours were somewhat similar to those of the son of Alcmena. The city 
was at this time called Gadira, and in it was a temple devoted to this first 
of celebrated navigators, but retaining the marks of primitive purity of 
worship, in having no- image. (Silius Italicus, quoted in Cumberland's 
" Sanchoniatho.") The Phoenicians were accustomed to select for their 
colonies such islands as this Spanish peninsula then was, both for pru- 
dential and religious reasons ; and the city long continued the centre of 
trade to the British islands and northern regions ; while at the same time 
it was unknown to the rest of the world. There is even reason to believe, 
that during the Roman dominion of Europe an intercourse was main- 
tained between Cadiz and the independent Britons scarcely known to 
any beside the merchants engaged in it. From an expression of Pliny in 
chap, cviii. of this book, it would appear that there were at this place two 
pillars, properly termed the "Pillars of Hercules :" though the name has 
since been applied to the mountains at the entrance of the Mediterranean 
Sea. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 135 

another Spring that agrees with the Motions of the Ocean. 
On the Bank of Betis there is a Town, the Wells whereof, as 
the Tide floweth, ebb; and as it ebbeth, flow; but in the 
intermediate Times they do not move. Of the same Nature 
there is one Well in the Town Hispalis ; while the Rest be 
as others are. And the Sea Pontus evermore floweth out 
into Propontis, but the Sea never retireth back again within 
Pontus. 

CHAPTER XCVIII. 

Wonders of the Sea. 

ALL Seas are cleansed at the full Moon; and some besides 
at certain Times. About Messala and Nylse, there is thrown 
upon the Shore Dregs like Beasts' Dung ; from which arose 
the Fable, that the Sun's Oxen were there kept in Stall. 
Hereunto addeth Aristotle (that I may not omit any Thing 
that I know), that no living Creature dieth but in the Ebb of 
the Sea 1 . This is observed much in the Ocean of Gaul, but 
found only in Man by Experience. 

CHAPTER XCIX. 

What Power the Moon hath over Things on Earth 
and in the Sea. 

BY which it is truly guessed, that not in vain the Planet 
of the Moon is supposed to be a Spirit : for this is it that 
saturates the Earth in her approach, filling Bodies full; and 
in her retiring emptying them again 2 . And hereupon it is, 

1 " I was not so curious as to entitle the stars upon any concern of his 
death, yet could not but take notice that he died when the moon was in 
motion from the meridian ; at which time, an old Italian, long ago, would 
persuade me that the greatest part of mankind died : but herein I confess 
I could never satisfy my curiosity, although from the time of tides in places 
upon or near the sea there may be considerable deductions ; and Pliny hath 
an odd and remarkable passage concerning the death of men and animals 
upon the recess or ebb of the sea.* 1 Sir THOMAS BROWN'S Worhs, by 
WILKIN, vol. iv. p. 40. Wem. Club. 

a In this, to chap, ci., is an account of the effects which were supposed 
to be produced by the influence of the moon on natural bodies ; and that 



136 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

that with her growth all Shell-fish increase : and those Crea- 
tures which have no Blood, most of all do feel her Spirit. 
Also, the Blood in Men doth increase or diminish with her 
Light ; and the Leaves of Trees and the Fodder (as shall be 
said in a convenient Place) feel her Influence; which, ever- 
more the same, pierceth effectually into all Things. 

CHAPTER C. 
The Power of the Sun, and why the Sea is salt. 

THUS by the fervent Heat of the Sun all Moisture is dried 
up : for we have been taught that this Planet is masculine, 
burning and sucking up the Humidity of all Things. Thus 
the broad and spacious Sea hath the Taste of Salt sodden into 
it : or else it is because, when the sweet and thin Substance 
is drawn out of it, which the fiery Power of the Sun very 
easily draweth up, all the sharper and grosser Parts thereof 

which was believed to be the cause of the tides requires no further re- 
mark, than that the cause and effect are acknowledged, and that the mode 
of influence is the only subject of error. The moon's influence in causing 
shell-fish and vegetables to increase and decrease, was believed by Aris- 
totle, and maintained its place in the popular opinion until a late date. 
But in tropical countries it is regarded as beyond all doubt, that the 
bright shining of the moon has a deleterious effect on all bodies exposed 
to it ; and the fact is implicitly credited by many Europeans who have in- 
quired into it. Thus, slaughtered cattle so exposed, are believed to pass 
into speedy putrefaction ; its influence on eyes when asleep, causes blind- 
ness, and on the head a tendency to delirium or death. The antiquity 
and extent of these opinions appear from Psalm cxxi. ; where the writer 
expresses his trust, that " the sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the 
moon by night." But the influence is not always hurtful : at least on 
vegetation ; for, in the blessing of Moses at the time of his death, on the 
tribe of Joseph, he speaks of" the precious things put forth by the moon" 
(Deut. xxxiii. 14). Dr.Prichard ("Egyptian Mythology," p. 156) says: 
" The idea that the moon exerts an influence favourable to propagation, is 
so strange and absurd, that we are at a loss to imagine how it can have 
arisen ; and it is truly astonishing to find that similar fictions were ex- 
tended through a great part of the Pagan world. Young maids among 
the Greenlanders are afraid to stare long at the moon, imagining that they 
incur a danger of becoming pregnant." Sec chap. ci.~ Wern, Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 137 

remain behind : and hereupon it is, that the deep Water to- 
ward the Bottom is less salt than that at the Top. And 
this is a truer Reason of that unpleasant Taste it hath, than 
that the Sea should be a Sweat issuing out of the Earth con- 
tinually : or, because overmuch of the dry Element is min- 
gled in it without any Vapour : or else because the Nature 
of the Earth infecteth the Waters with some strong Medi- 
cine. We find among Examples that there happened a Pro- 
digy to Dionysius, Tyrant of Sicily, when he was expelled 
from his Power, which was : that the Sea-water, in one Day, 
in the Harbour became fresh. 

CHAPTER CI. 
Also, of the Moons Nature. 

ON the contrary, they say that the Moon is a Planet 
feminine, tender and nightly; that it dissolveth Humours, 
drawing the same, but carrying them not away. And this 
appeareth evidently because that the Carcasses of wild Beasts 
which are slain, she putrifieth by her Influence, if she shine 
upon them. When Men also are found asleep, the dull 
Numbness thereby gathered she draweth up into the Head : 
she thaweth Ice, and with a moistening Breath relaxeth all 
Things. Thus you see how Nature's turn is served, and is 
always sufficient ; while some Stars thicken the Elements, 
and others again resolve the same. But as the Sun is fed by 
the salt Seas, so the Moon is nourished by the fresh Waters. 

CHAPTER CII. 
Where the Sea is deepest. 

FABIANUS saith, that the Sea, where it is deepest, ex- 
ceedeth not fifteen Stadii. Others again report, that in Pon- 
tus the Sea is of an unmeasurable Depth over against the 
Nation of the Coraxians, at the Place they call Bathea Ponti, 
whereof the Bottom could never be sounded at the Distance 
of three hundred Stadii from the Continent. 



138 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

CHAPTER CIII. 
The Wonders of Waters^ Fountains, and Rivers. 

OF all Wonders this is among the greatest, that some 
fresh Waters close by the Sea spring forth as out of Pipes : 
for the Nature of the Waters also ceaseth not from mira- 
culous Properties. Fresh Waters are borne on the Sea, as 
being, no doubt, the lighter : and, therefore, the Sea-water 
(which naturally is heavier) beareth up whatsoever is brought 
into it. Also, among fresh Waters, some there be that float 
over others. As in the Lake Fucinus, the River that runneth 
into it ; in Larius, Addua ; in Verbanus, Ticinus ; in Benacus, 
Mincius; in Sevinus, Ollius ; in Lemanus, the River Rho- 
danus. As for this River beyond the Alps, and the former in 
Italy, for many a Mile as they pass they carry forth their own 
Waters from thence as Strangers, and none other ; and the 
same no larger than they brought in with them This is 
reported likewise of Orontes, a River in Syria, and of many 
others. Some Rivers again there be, which, upon an Hatred 
to the Sea, run under the Bottom thereof; as Arethusa, a 
Fountain in Syracuse : wherein this is observed, that what- 
soever is cast into it cometh up again at the River Alpheus, 
which, running through Olympia, falleth into the Sea-shore 
of Peloponnesus. There go under the Ground, and appear 
above the Ground again, Lycus in Asia, Erasinus in Argolica, 
Tigris in Mesopotamia. And at Athens, the Things that are 
immersed in the Fountain of ^Esculapius are cast up again 
in Phalericus. Also in the Atinate Plains, the River that 
becomes buried under the Earth 20,000 Paces off, appeareth 
again; as doth Tirnavus in the Territory of Aquileia. In 
Asphaltites (a Lake in Judea which produceth Bitumen) no- 
thing will sink ; nor will it in Arethusa, in the greater Ar- 
menia : and the same, though it be full of Nitre, produceth 
Fish. In the Salentines' Country near the Town Manduria 
there is a Lake full to the Bank, out of which, if there be 
laden as much Water as you will, it decreaseth not ; nor is it 
augmented, though any Quantity be poured in. In a River 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 139 

of the Cicones, and in the Lake Velinus in the Picene Terri- 
tory, if Wood be thrown in it becomes covered over with a 
stony Bark. Also in Surius, a River of Colchis, the like is 
to be seen : insomuch that the Bark which overgroweth it is 
as hard as a Stone. Likewise in the River Silarus beyond 
Surrentum, not Twigs only that are dipped therein, but 
Leaves also, grow to be Stones ; and yet the Water thereof 
otherwise is wholesome to be drunk. In the Outlet of the 
Reatin Marsh, a Rock groweth bigger; and in the Red Sea 
there be Olive-trees and other Shrubs, that grow up green. 
There be also very many Springs which have a wonderful 
Nature for their boiling Heat : and that also upon the very 
Mountains of the Alps ; and in the Sea between Italy and 
uEnaria : as in the Bay Baianus, and the River Liris, and 
many others. For in very many Places you may draw fresh 
Water out of the Sea ; as about the Islands ChelidonisB and 
Aradus : and in the Ocean about Gades. In the hot Waters 
of the Patovans there grow green Herbs : in those of the 
Pisanes there breed Frogs : and at Vetulonii in Etruria, not 
far from the Sea, Fishes also are bred. In the Territory 
Casinas there is a River called Scatebra, which is cold, and 
in Summer Time more abounding in Water than in Winter : 
in it, as also in Stymphalis of Arcadia, there are brought 
forth River Mussels. In Dodone, the Fountain of Jupiter 
being exceedingly chill, quencheth lighted Torches when 
dipped therein ; but if you hold the same near it when they 
nre extinguished, it setteth them on Fire again. The same 
Spring at Noontide evermore wanteth Water, for which 
Cause they call it Anapavomenos : by and by it beginneth to 
rise until it be Midnight, and then it hath great Abundance : 
and from that Time again it subsideth by little and little. In 
Illyricum there is a cold Spring, over which, if there be 
spread any Clothes, they catch Fire and burn. The Foun- 
tain of Jupiter Amman in the Daytime is cold, and all Night 
it is boiling hot. In the Troglodytes Country there is a 
Fountain of the Sun, called the Sweet Spring, which about 
Noon is exceeding cold ; but by and by and gradually it 



140 History of Nature. [Boox II. 

groweth warm, and at Midnight it is offensive for Heat and 
Bitterness. The Fountain of the Po, at Noon in Summer, 
intermitteth to boil, and is then ever dry. In the Island 
Tenedos there is a Spring, which, after the Summer Solstice, 
evermore from the third Hour of the Night to the sixth, 
doth overflow. And in the Island of Delos, the Fountain 
Inopus falleth and riseth after the same Sort as the Nile 
doth, and together with it. Over against the River Timavus 
there is a little Island in the Sea, having hot Springs, which 
ebb and flow in Time and Manner as the Tide of the Sea. 
In the Territory of the Pitinates, beyond the Apennines, the 
River Novanus, at every Midsummer Time, is in Flood ; but 
in Midwinter is dry. In the Faliscan Country the Water of 
the River Clitumnus maketh the Cattle white that drink of 
it. And in Boeotia, the River Melas maketh Sheep black : 
Cephyssus running out of the same Lake, causeth them to be 
white : and Penius, again, giveth them a black Colour : 
but Xanthus, near to Ilium, coloureth them reddish; and 
hereupon the River took that Name. In the Land of Pon- 
tus there is a River that watereth the Plains of Astace, upon 
which, those Mares that feed give black Milk for the Food 
of that Nation. In the Reatin Territory there is a Fountain 
called Neminia, which, according to its issuing forth out of 
this or that Place, signifieth the Change in the Price of Vic- 
tuals. In the Haven of Brundusium there is a Well that 
yieldeth to Sailors Water which will never corrupt. The 
Water of Lincestis, called Acidula (or Sour), maketh Men 
drunken no less than Wine. Also, in Paphlagonia, and in 
the Territory of Gales. Also in the Isle of Andros there is a 
Fountain in the Temple of Father Bacchus, which upon the 
Nones of January always runneth with Water that tasteth 
like Wine ; as Mulianus verily believeth ; who was a Man 
that had been thrice Consul : the Name of the Spring is 
Dios Tecnosia. Near Nonacris, in Arcadia, is the River 
Styx ; differing from the other Styx neither in Smell nor 
Colour : drink of it once, and it is present Death. Also, in 
Berosus (an Hill of the Tauri), there be three Fountains, the 



BOOK 1 1 .] History of Nature. \ 4 1 

Water whereof whosoever drinketh is sure to die of it, reme- 
diless, and yet without Pain. In a Country of Spain, called 
Carrinensis, two Springs run near together, the one rejecting 
and the other swallowing up all Things. In the same Coun- 
try there is another Water which sheweth all Fishes within 
it of a golden Colour; but if they be taken out of that Water, 
they be like other Fishes. In the Cannensian Territory, 
near the Lake Larius, there is a large Fountain, which every 
Hour continually swelleth and falleth down again. In the 
Island Sidonia, before Lesbos, there is a hot Fountain that 
runneth only in the Spring. The Lake Sinnaus, in Asia, is 
infected with the Wormwood growing about it. At Colo- 
phon, in the Cave of Apollo Clarius, there is a Channel with 
Water: they that drink of it foretell strange Things like 
Oracles ; but they live the shorter Time for it. Rivers run- 
ning backward even our Age hath seen in the latter Years of 
the Prince Nero, as we have related in the Acts of his Life. 
Now, that all Springs are colder in Summer than Winter, 
who knoweth not? as also these wondrous Works of Nature, 
that Brass and Lead in the Lump sink down in Fluid, but if 
they be spread out into thin Plates they float : and let the 
Weight be all one, yet some Things settle to the Bottom ; and 
others, again, are borne above : that heavy Burdens be re- 
moved with more Ease in Water. Likewise that the Stone 
Thyrreus, however large, doth swim when entire: but broken 
into Pieces, it sinketh. Bodies newly dead fall to the Bottom 
of the Water, but when swollen they rise again. Empty Ves- 
sels are not so easily drawn out of the Water as those that be 
full : Rain-water for Salt-pits is more profitable than any 
other : and Salt cannot be made unless fresh Water be min- 
gled : Sea-water is longer before it freezes, but it is sooner 
made hot. In Winter the Sea is hotter, and in Autumn 
salter. The whole Sea is made still with oil : and therefore 
the Divers under the Water scatter it with their Mouths, be- 
cause it allayeth the rough Nature thereof, and carrieth a 
Light with it. No Snows fall where the Sea is deep. And, 
whereas all Water runneth downward, yet Springs leap up; 
even at the very Foot of ^Etria, which burneth so far as that 



142 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

for fifty, and even an hundred, Miles, Balls of Fire cast out 
Sand and Ashes 1 . 

CHAPTER CIV. 

The Wonders of Fire and Water jointly together, and 
of Maltha. 

Now let us relate some Wonders of Fire also, which is 
the fourth Element of Nature. But first, out of Waters. In 
a City of Comagene, named Samosatis, there is a Pond 
yielding forth a burning, slimy Mud (called Maltha 2 ). When 
it meeteth with any Thing sqlid it sticketh to it ; and if it be 
touched it followeth them that flee from it. By this means 
the Townsmen defended their Walls when Lucullus assaulted 
it ; and his Soldiers were burned in their own Armour. It 
burns even in Water. Experience hath taught, that Earth 
only will quench it 

CHAPTER CV. 
Of Naphtha. 

OF the like Nature is Naphtha : for so is it called about 
Babylonia, and in the Austacenes' Country in Parthia ; and 
it runneth in the Manner of liquid Bitumen. There is great 
Affinity between Fire and it ; for Fire is ready to leap unto 
it immediately, if it be near it. Thus (they say) Medea 
burnt her Husband's Concubine, by Reason that her Crown 
anointed therewith was caught by the Fire after she had 
approached to the Altars with the Intention to sacrifice 3 . 

1 Many of the phenomena here related are merely exaggerations of 
the truth ; and many, however strange, are easily explained : as the inter- 
mitting springs, and those which kindle into fire : the latter owing this pro- 
perty either to the extrication of hydrogen gas or naphtha. Wcrn. Club. 

2 This is evidently a natural mineral pitch ; to which the artificial sub- 
stance bearing the same name, and described in b. xxxvi. c. 24, could only 
have been similar in its effects, especially of combustion. Wern. Club. 

3 There are many things in the history of Medea which shew her to 
have been a skilful chemist, and possessed of a high degree of knowledge 
of the science of the age in which she lived. Wern. Club. 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 143 

CHAPTER CVI. 
Of Places continually burning. 

BUT amongst the Wonders of Mountains, JStna burneth 
always in the Nights : and for so long Continuance of Time 
yieldeth sufficient Matter to maintain those Fires : in Winter 
it is full of Snow, and covereth the Ashes cast up with Frosts. 
Neither in it alone doth Nature rage, threatening the con- 
suming of the whole Earth by Fire. For in Phaselis the 
Mountain Chimaera likewise burneth, and that with a con- 
tinual Fire both Night and Day : Ctesias of Gnidos writeth, 
that the Fire thereof is inflamed with Water, but quenched 
with Earth. In the same Lycia the Mountains Hephaestii 
being touched with a flaming Torch, do so burn that the 
very Stones of the Rivers and the Sand in the Waters are 
set on Fire ; and the same Fire is maintained with Rain. 
They report that if a Man make a Furrow with a Staff that 
is set on Fire by them, there follow Gutters of Fire. In 
the Bactrians' Country, the Top of the Cophantus burneth 
by Night. Amongst the Medians, also, and the Caestian 
Nation, the same Mountain burneth : but principally in the 
Confines of Persis. At Susis, indeed, in a Place called the 
White Tower, the Fire proceeds out of fifteen Chimneys, and 
the greatest of them, even in the Daytime, carrieth Fire. 
There is a Plain about Babylonia 1 , in Manner of a Fish-pond, 
which, for the Quantity of an Acre, burneth likewise. Also, 
near the Mountain Hesperius in Ethiopia, the Fields in the 
Night-time shine like Stars. The like is to be seen in the 
Territory of the Megapolitans, although the Field there 
be pleasant within, and not burning the Boughs of the thick 
Grove above it. And near a warm Spring the hollow, 

1 These natural fires were objects of idolatrous veneration by the in- 
habitants of this country, from a very early period : and opinions of a 
similar nature have continued in the East to the present day. Zoroaster, 
if not the author, is believed to have been the great reformer of this doc- 
trine ; which by some is supposed to have had its origin in times before 
the Flood. Wern. Club. 



144 History of Nature. [BooK II. 

burning Cavity, called Crater Nymphsei, always portendeth 
some fearful Misfortunes to the Apolloniates, the Neigh- 
bours thereby, as Theopompus hath reported. It increaseth 
with Showers of Rain, and casteth out Bitumen, to be com- 
pared with that Fountain or Water of Styx that is not to be 
tasted ; otherwise weaker than all Bitumen besides. But 
who would wonder at these Things ? In the Midst of the 
Sea, Hiera, one of the ^Etolian Islands near to Italy, burned 
together with the Sea for certain Days together, during 
the Time of the social War, until a Legation of the Senate 
made Expiation. But that which burneth with the greatest 
Fire is a Hill of the Ethiopians called Theonochema ; 
which sendeth out the fiercest Flames in the hottest Sun- 
shine. In so many Places with so many Fires doth Nature 

burn the Earth. 

i 

CHAPTER CVII. 
Wonders of Fires by themselves. 

MOREOVER, since the Nature of this Element of Fire 
alone is to be so fruitful, that it produceth itself, and groweth 
from the least Sparks, what may be thought will be the 
End of so many funeral Fires of the Earth 1 ? What a Nature 
is that which feedeth the most greedy Voracity in the whole 
World without Loss of itself? Add thereto the infinite Num- 
ber of Stars, the immense Sun ; moreover, the Fires in Men's 
Bodies, and those that are inbred in Stones ; the Attrition, 
also, of certain Woods one against another ; yea, and those 
within Clouds, the Original of Lightnings. Surely it ex- 
ceedeth all Miracles that any one Day should pass in which 
all Things are not set on Fire, when the concave Mirrors 
also, set opposite to the Sunbeams, set Things a-burning 
sooner than any other Fire. What should I speak of innu- 

1 This natural, but awful, inquiry, is best answered in the words of the 
apostle Peter, 2nd Epist. iii. 7 : " But the heavens and the earth which 
are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the 
day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men." Wern. Club. 



BOOK IT.] History of Nature. \ 45 

merable small Matters, which naturally are poured out in 
Abundance ? In Nymphaeum there cometh a Flame out of 
a Rock, which is set a-burning with Rain. There is the 
like at the Waters called Scantiae. But this is but feeble 
when it passeth, neither endureth it long in any other Mat- 
ter. There is an Ash-tree covering this fiery Fountain, which, 
notwithstanding, is always green. In the Territory of Mu- 
tina, there riseth up Fire also, upon Days devoted to Vulcan. 
It is found written, that if a Coal of Fire fall upon the arable 
Fields under Aricia, the Soil presently is on Fire. In the 
Sabines Territory, as also in that of the Sidicines, Stones 
anointed will be set on Fire. In aTown of the Salentines, called 
Egnatia, if Wood be laid upon a certain hallowed Stone there, 
it will immediately flame out. Upon the Altar of Juno 
Lacinia, standing in the open Air, the Ashes lie immovable, 
blow what stormy Winds that will on every Side. Besides, 
there be Fires that suddenly arise, both in Waters and even 
about the Bodies of Men. Valerius Antias reporteth, that 
the Lake Thrasymenus once burned all over : also, that when 
Servius Tullius, in his childhood, lay asleep, a Flame shone 
out of his Head l : likewise, as L. Martins made an Oration 
to the Army after the two Scipios were slain in Spain, and 
exhorted his Soldiers to revenge their Death, his Head was, 
in like Manner, in a Flame. More of this, and more dis- 
tinctly, will we write by-and-by. For now we exhibit the 
Wonders of all Things intermingled together. But my Mind 
being passed beyond the Interpretation of Nature, hasteneth 
to lead, as it were, by the Hand, the Minds of the Readers 
throughout the whole World. 



1 There are instances in modern, as well as in ancient times, of such 
luminous appearances proceeding from the human body : most commonly 
when it is in a state of emaciation or chronic disease. Its cause is, the 
excretion of phosphoric vapour mixed with the perspiration. This lu- 
minous appearance has been largely interpreted by superstition. Wern. 
Club. 



1 46 History of Nature. [ BOOK 1 1 . 

CHAPTER CVIIl. 
The Measure of the whole Earth in Length and Breadth. 

THIS our Part of the Earth of which I speak, floating, as 
it were, within the Ocean (as hath been said), lieth out most 
in Length from East to West, that is, from India to the Pil- 
lars of Hercules, consecrated at Gades : and as my Author, 
Artemidorus, thinketh, it containeth 8578 Miles. But, ac- 
cording to Isidorus, 9818. Artemidorus addeth, more- 
over, from Gades within the Circuit of the sacred Promon- 
tory to the Cape Artabrum, where the Front of Spain beareth 
out furthest, in Length 891 Miles. This Measure runneth 
two Ways. From the River Ganges and the Mouth thereof, 
where it dischargeth itself into the East Ocean, through 
India and Parthyene to Myriandrum, a City of Syria, situ- 
ated upon the Gulf of Isa, 5215 Miles. From thence by the 
nearest Voyage, to the Island Cyprus, to Patara in Lycia, 
Rhodes, and Astypatsea (Islands lying in the Carpathian Sea), 
to Taenarus in Laconia, Lilybseum in Sicily, Calaris in Sar- 
dinia, 3450 Miles. Then to Gades 1450 Miles. Which 
Measures being put together, make, from the said Sea, 8578 
Miles. The other Way, which is more certain, lieth most 
open by Land, from Ganges to the River Euphrates, 5021 
Miles. From thence to Mazaca, in Cappadocia, 244 Miles ; 
and thence through Phrygia and Caria to Ephesus, 498 Miles. 
From Ephesus, through the ^Egean Sea, to Delos, 200 Miles. 
Then to Isthmus, 212 Miles. From thence by Land, arid by 
the Laconian Sea and the Gulf of Corinth, to PatraB in 
Peloponnesus, 202J Miles : to Leucas, 86J Miles, and as 
much to Corcyra. Then to Acroceraunia, 132 Miles : to 
Brundusium, 86 Miles : so to Rome, 360 Miles. Then to 
the Alps, as far as the Village of Cincomagus, 518 Miles. 
Through Gaul to the Pyrenean Mountains, unto Illiberis, 
556 Miles ; to the Ocean and Sea-coast of Spain, 332 Miles. 
Then the Passage over to Gades, 1\ Miles. Which Measure, 
by Artemidorus 9 Estimation, maketh in all 8685 Miles. Now 



BOOK II.] History of Nature. 147 

the Breadth of the Earth, from the Meridian Point to the 
North, is collected to be less almost by One-half; that is, 
5462 Miles. Whereby it appeareth plainly, how much of 
the one Side the Heat of Fire, and on the other Side frozen 
Water hath stolen away. For I am not of opinion that the 
Earth goeth no further than this ; for then it would not have 
the Form of a Globe ; but that the Places on either Side be 
uninhabitable, and therefore not discovered. This Measure 
runneth from the Shore of the Ethiopian Ocean, where now 
it is inhabited, to Meroe, 550 Miles. From thence to 
Alexandria, 1240 Miles; to Rhodes, 583 Miles; to Gnidus, 
84J Miles; to Cos, 25 Miles; to Samus, 100 Miles; to 
Chius, 84 Miles ; to Mitylen, 65 Miles ; to Tenedos, 28 
Miles ; to the Promontory Sigaeum, 12J Miles ; to the Mouth 
of Pontus, 312J Miles; to Carambis, the Promontory, 350 
Miles; to the Mouth of Maeotis, 312J Miles; to the Haven 
of Tanais, 265 Miles : which Voyage may be made shorter 
(with the Vantage of sailing directly) by 89 Miles. From 
the Haven of Tanais, the most diligent Authors have set 
down no Measure. Artemidorus was of opinion, that all be- 
yond was not discovered, allowing that about Tanais the 
Sarmatian Nations inhabit ; who lie to the North. Isidorus 
hath added hereto 1200 Miles, as far as to Thule : which is 
grounded upon bare Conjecture. I understand that the Bor- 
ders of the Sarmatians are known to have no less an Extent 
than this last-mentioned cometh to. And otherwise, how 
much must it be that would contain such innumerable Na- 
tions, shifting their Seats every now and then. Whereby I 
judge that the Over-measure of the Clime inhabitable is 
much greater. For I know certainly, that from Germany 
very great Islands have been discovered not long since. And 
thus much of the Length and Breadth of the Earth, which 
I thought worth the writing. Now the universal Circuit 
thereof, Eratosthenes, who was learned in all Kind of Lite- 
rature, and in this Knowledge better qualified than others ; 
and whom I see of all Men approved, hath set down to be 
252,000 Stadia. This Measure, by the Romans' reckoning, 
amounteth to 31,500 Miles. A wondrous bold Attempt ! but 



1 48 History of Nature. [ BOOK 1 1 . 

yet so exquisitely calculated, that it were a Shame not to be- 
lieve him. Hipparchus, a wonderful Man, both for con- 
vincing him, and for all his other Diligence, addeth more- 
over little less than 25,000 Stadia. 

CHAPTER CIX. 
The harmonica! Measure of the World. 

ANOTHER Kind of Faith may be given to Dionysodorus ; 
for I will not withhold a very great Example of Grecian 
Vanity. This Man was a Melian, famous for his Skill in 
Geometry : he died very aged in his own Country : his near 
Kinswomen, who were his Heirs, solemnised his Funerals. 
These Women, as they came some few Days after to perform 
the Obsequies thereto belonging, are said to have found in 
his Monument an Epistle of this Dionysodorus, written in his 
own Name, To them above ; to this Effect : that he had gone 
from his Sepulchre to the Bottom of the Earth, and that it 
was thither 42,000 Stadia. Neither wanted there Geome- 
tricians who made this Interpretation, that this Epistle was 
sent from the Centre of the Earth ; to which Place down- 
ward from the uppermost, the Way was longest; and the 
same was just half the Diameter of the Ball : whereupon 
followed this Computation, that they pronounced the Circuit 
to be 255,000 Stadia. The harmonical Proportion which 
forceth this Nature of Things to agree unto itself, addeth 
unto this Measure 7000 Stadia, and maketh the Earth to be 
the 96,000th Part of the whole World. 



IN THE THIRD BOOK 

ARE COMPREHENDED THE 

REGIONS, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, PORTS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, 

WITH THEIR MEASURES, AND PEOPLE, EITHER AT THIS 

DAY KNOWN, OR IN TIMES PAST ; 

AS FOLLOWETH : 



CHAP. 

1. Of Europe. 

2. The Length and Breadth of 

Boetica (a Part of Spain, con- 
taining Andalusia, and the 
Realm of Grenada). 

3. That nearer Part of Spain 

(called by the Romans Ilis- 
pania Citerior). 

4. The Province of Narbonensis 

(wherein is Dauphine, Lan- 
guedoc, and Provence). 

5. Italy, Tiberis, Rome, and Cam- 

pania. 

6. The Island Corsica. 

7. Sardinia. 

8. Sicily. 

9. Lipara. 

10. Of Locri, and the Frontiers of 
Italy. 

In this Book are described twenty-six Islands within the Adriatic and 
Ionian Seas : their principal Cities, Towns, and Nations. Also the chief 
and famous Rivers : the highest Hills : particular Islands : Towns and 
Countries that have perished. In Sum, here are comprised Histories and 
Observations to the Number of 326. 



CHAP. 

11. The second Gulf of Europe. 

12. The fourth Region of Italy. 

13. The fifth Region. 

14. The sixth Region. 

15. The eighth Region. 

16. Of the River Po. 

1 7. Of Italy beyond the Po, counted 

the eleventh Region. 

18. Venice, the tenth Region. 

19. Of Istria. 

20. Of the Alps, and Alpine Na- 

tions. 

21. Illyricum. 

22. Liburnia. 

23. Macedonia. 

24. Noricum. 

25. Pannonia and Dalmatia. 

26. Mcesia. 



LATIN WRITERS ABSTRACTED: 

Turannius Graccida, Cor. Nepos, T. Livius,Cato Censor ius, M. Agrippa, 
M. Varroj Divm Augustus the Emperor, Varro Attacinus, AnHas, Hyginus, 
L. Vetus, Mela Pomponius, Curio the Father, Coelius Aruntius, Sebosus, 
Lidnius Mutianus, Fabricius Thuscus, L. Atteius Capttd, Verrius Flaccus, 
L. Piso, C. JElianus, and Vuleriamis. 

FOREIGN AUTHORS: 

Artemidojiis, Alexander Polyhistor, Thitcydides, Theophrastiis, Isidorus, 
Theopompm, Metrodorus Scepsius, Callicratcs, Xenophon, Lampsaccuns, 
Diodorus SyracMsanus, Nymphodorus, CaUiphanes, and Tinwgenes. 



THE THIRD BOOK 



HISTORY OF NATURE 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 



THE PREFACE. 




we have written of the Position and 
Wonders of the Earth, Waters, and Stars : also 
of the Proportion and Measure of the whole 
World. Now we proceed to the Parts thereof; 
although this also be judged an infinite Piece 
of Work, and not lightly to be handled without 
some Reprehension : and yet in no kind of Enterprise is 
Pardon more due ; since it is little Wonder, if he who is born 
a Man knoweth not all Things belonging to Man. And 
therefore, I will not follow one Author particularly, but 
every one as I shall think him most true in each Part. Be- 
cause it hath been common, in a Manner, to them all, to de- 
scribe the Situations of those Places most exactly, from 
whence themselves proceeded : and, therefore, neither will I 
blame nor reprove any Man. The bare Names of Places 
shall be simply set down ; and that with as much Brevity as 
I can : the Excellency, as well as the Causes, being deferred 
to their several Treatises : for now the Question is touching 
the Earth in general. And, therefore, I would have Things 
to be taken as if the Names of Countries were put down void 
of Renown, and such only as they were in the Beginning, 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 151 

before any Acts were done ; and as if they had indeed an 
Enduement of Names, but respective only to the World and 
Nature of Things. 

The whole Globe of the Earth is divided into three Parts, 
Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Beginning we take from the 
West and the Straits of Gades, where the Atlantic Ocean 
breaking in, is spread into the inland Seas. Entering there, 
Africa is on the right Hand, Europe on the left, and Asia 
between them. The Bounds confining these are the Rivers 
Tanais and Nil us. The Mouth of the Ocean of which I spoke 
lyeth out in Length fifteen Miles, and in Breadth five, from 
a Village in Spain called Mellaria to the Promontory of 
Africa called the White, as Turannius Graccula, who was 
born there, writeth. T. Livius and Nepos Cornelius have 
reported, that the Breadth, where it is narrowest, is seven 
Miles, and ten Miles where it is broadest. From so small a 
Mouth spreadeth so vast an Expanse of Waters ; nor doth 
such exceeding Depth lessen the Wonder. In the very 
Mouth of it are many Shelves of white Sands, to the great 
Terror of Ships passing that Way. And therefore, many 
have called those Straits the Entry of the Mediterranean Sea. 
Near to the Sides of this Gullet, are set two Mountains, one 
on each Side, as Barriers to shut all in : which are, Abila for 
Africa, and Calpe for Europe, the Limits of the Labours of 
Hercules. For which Cause, the Inhabitants of those Parts 
call them the Pillars of that God ; and they believe, that 
by Ditches digged within the Continent, the Ocean, before 
excluded, was let in ; and so the Face of the Earth was 
changed. 



CHAPTER I. 

Of Europe 1 . 

AND first, of Europe, the Nurse of that People which is 
the Conqueror of all Nations ; and of all Lands by many 

1 This claim of superiority is advanced by the Roman, in the con- 
sciousness of his country's power and greatness; and although 1800 years 



1 52 History of Na ture. [BooKllI. 

Degrees the most beautiful : which many rightly have made 
not the third Portion of the Earth, hut the half, the whole 
Globe being divided into two Parts : from the River Tanais 
to the Straits of Gades. The Ocean, then, at this Space 
abovesaid entereth into the Atlantic Sea, and with a greedy 
Current drowneth those Lands which dread his coming ; 
but those Shores that resist, with its windings it eateth and 
hollo weth continually, excavating many Creeks in Europe, 
wherein four remarkable Gulfs are to be seen. 

Of these the first, from Calpe, the remotest Promontory 
(as is abovesaid) of Spain, is bent with an exceeding great 
Compass, to Locri ; and as far as the Promontory Brutium. 
Within it lieth Spain, the first of Lands ; that Part, I mean, 
which, in regard of Rome, is the further off, and is named 
also Boetica. And presently from the End of Virgitanus, 
the hither Part, otherwise called Tarraconensis, as far as the 
Pyrenean Mountains. That further Part is divided into two 
Provinces through the Length : for on the North Side of 
Boetica lieth Lusitania, divided from it by the River Ana. 

This River beginneth in the Territory Larninitanus of the 
nearer Spain, one while spreading out itself into Pools, then 
again gathering into narrow Brooks : or altogether hidden 
under Ground, and taking Pleasure to rise up oftentimes, 
falleth into the Atlantic Ocean. But the Part named Tarra- 
conensis, lying close to the Pyrenean Mountain and running 
along all the Side thereof, and, at the same Time, stretching 
out itself across from the Iberian Sea to the Gallic Ocean, 
is separated from Boetica and Lusitania by the Mountain 

have passed, and that greatness has departed like a dream, European 
superiority still exists. A prophecy from the remotest ages (Gen. ix. 27) 
delivered under circumstances in which its fulfilment was exceedingly 
unlikely has proclaimed, that the God whom Pliny did not know shall 
enlarge Japhet, the father of European nations ; that he shall dwell in 
the tents of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. And, accordingly, 
we see the inhabitants of Europe spreading out, and exerting a mastery, 
in the most distant climes ; in the strength of their superiority in the arts 
of life, in science, the freedom of their political institutions, and, above all, 
in religion. The superiority must continue so long as this foundation of 
it shall exist. Esto perpetua. Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 153 

Salarius and the Cliffs of the Oretanes, Carpetanes, and 
Asturians. 

Bcetica, so called from the River Bcetis, that cutteth it in 
the midst, excelleth all the other Provinces in Produce, arid 
a certain plentiful and peculiar Beauty. Therein are held 
four judicial Assemblies; the Gaditan, Cordubian, Astigitan, 
and Hispalensian. All the Towns in it are in (Oppida) Num- 
ber 175; whereof eight are Colonies; free Boroughs (Muni- 
cipia), eight ; Towns endued with the ancient Franchises of 
Latiuni, twenty-nine : with Freedom, six; Confederate, four; 
Tributary, 120. Of which those that be worth the naming, 
or are more current in the Latin Tongue, be these under- 
written : from the River Ana the Coast of the Ocean, the 
Town (Oppidum) Ossonoba, surnamed also Lusturia. Two 
Rivers, Luxia and Urium 1 , run between the Mountains Ariani : 
the River Bretis: the Shore Corense : with a winding Creek. 
Over against which lieth Gades, to be spoken of among the 
Islands. The Promontory of Juno : the Haven Besippo. 
The Towns Belon and Mellaria. The Straits out of the 
Atlantic Sea. Carteia, called Tertessos by the Greeks ; and 
the Mountain Calpe. Then, within the Shore, the Town 
Barbesula, with the River. Also, the Town Salbula ; Suel- 
Malacha, with the River of the Confederates. Next to these, 
Menoba, with a River: Sexi-firmum, surnamed Jiilium : 
Selaubina, Abdera, and Murgis, the Frontier of Boetica. All 
that Coast M. Agrippa thought to have had their Beginning 
from the Carthaginians (Poeni). From Ana there lieth 
against the Atlantic Ocean, the Region of the Bastuli and 
the Turduli. 

M. Varro saith, that there entered into all Parts of Spain, 
the Iberians, Persians, Phoenicians, Celts, and Carthaginians 
(Posni) : for Lusus, the Companion of Father Liber, or 
Lyssa, (which signifieth the frantic Fury of those that raged 
with him), gave the Name to Lusitania; and Pan was the 
Governor of it all. But those Things which are reported of 
Hercules and Perene, or of Saturn, I think to be fabulous 

1 These rivers are now called Oilier and Tin to. 



154 History of Nature. [Boox III. 

Tales in a high Degree. Boetls, in the Tarraconensian Pro- 
vince, rising, not as some have said, at the Town Mentesa, 
but in the Forest Tugrensis, which the River Tader watereth, 
as it doth the Carthaginian Country at Ilorcum 1 , shunneth 
the Funeral Pile of Scipio : and, turning into the West, 
maketh toward the Atlantic Ocean, adopting the Province, 
is at first small, but receiveth many other Rivers, from 
which it taketh away both their Fame and their Waters. 
And first being entered from Ossigitania into Boetica, running 
gently with a pleasant Channel, it hath many Towns, both 
on the left Hand and the right, seated upon it. The most 
famous between it and the Sea-coast, in the Mediterranean, 
are Segeda, surnamed Augurina : Julia, which is also called 
Fidentia : Virgao, otherwise Alba : Ebura, otherwise Cere- 
alis: Illiberi, which is also Liberini: Ilipua, named likewise 
Laus. Artigi, or Julienses : Vesci, the same as Faventia : 
Singilia, Hegua, Arialdunum, Agla the Less, Baebro, Castra 
Vinaria, Episibrium, Hipponova, Ilurco, Osca, Escua, Suc- 
cubo, Nuditanum, Tucci the Old, all which belong to Basti- 
tania, lying toward the Sea. But within the Jurisdiction of 
Corduba, about the very River standeth the Town Ossigi, 
which is surnamed Laconicum : llliturgi, called also Forum 
Julium: Ipasturgi, the same as Triumphal^ ; Sitia : and four- 
teen Miles within the Country, Obulco, which is named 
Pontificense\ And presently Ripepora. a Town of the Con- 
federates, Sacili, Martialum, Onoba. And on the right Hand 
Corduba, surnamed Colonia Patritia: and then beginneth 
Bcetis to be navigable. The Towns Carbulo, Decuma, the 

* The river makes a bend to avoid the funeral pile of Cneius Stipio, 
concerning the manner of whose death there is some difference of opinion. 
Apianus, in " Iberic," p. 263, says, that the victorious forces of Hasdrubal 
drove him, with a band of his followers, into a certain castle, where they 
were all destroyed by fire. Livy tells us (lib. xxv. 36), that " Cneius 
Scipio, according to some accounts, was killed on the hill, in the first as- 
sault : according to others, he fled into a castle standing near the camp : 
this was surrounded with fire, and the doors, which were too strong to be 
forced, being then burned, they were taken ; and all within, together with 
the general himself, were put to death." The modern name of Ilorcum 
is Lorquinum, in the province of Murcia. Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. \ 55 

River Singulis, falling into the same Side of Bcetis. The 
Towns of the Jurisdiction Hispalensis are these : Celtica Axa- 
tiara, Arruci, Menoba, Ilipa, surnamed Italica. And on the 
left Hand, Hispalis, a Colony, surnamed likewise Romulensis. 
Opposite to it, the Town Osset, which is also called Julia Con- 
stantia: Vergenturn, which also is JuliiGenitor; Hippo Caura- 
siarum, the River Menoba, which also entereth into Bcetis on 
the right Side. But within the Estuaries of the Boetis there 
is the Town Nebrissa, surnamed Veneria and Colobona : also 
Colonies, as Asta, which is called Regia. And in the midland 
Part Asido, which is also Caesariana. The River Singulis 
breaking into the Boatis in the order I have said, runneth 
by the Colony Astigitania, surnamed also Augusta Firma, and 
so forward it is navigable. The Rest of the Colonies belonging 
to this Jurisdiction are free : namely, Tucci, which is surnamed 
Augusta Gemella : Itucci, called also Virtus Julia: Attubi, 
called Claritas Julia : Urso, which is Genua Urbanorum : and 
among these was Munda, taken together with Pompeys Son. 
Free Towns, Astigi the Old, Ostippo. Stipendiary, Callet, 
Calucula, Castra Gemina, llipula the Less, Merucra, Sacrana, 
Obulcula, Oningis. Coming from the Coast, near the River 
Menoba, itself navigable, there dwell not far off the Alonti- 
gicili, and Alostigi. But this Region, which, without the 
forenamed, reacheth from the Boetis to the River Ana, is 
called Beturia : divided into two Parts, and as many Sorts of 
People : the Celtici, who border on Lusitania, and are within 
the Jurisdiction Hispalensis: and the Turduli, who inhabit 
close upon Lusitania and Tarraconensis : and they resort to 
Corduba. It is clear that the Celtici came from the Celtibe- 
rians, out of Lusitania, as appeareth by their Religion, 
Tongue, and Names of Towns, which in Bcetica are distin- 
guished by their Surnames ; as Seria, which is called Fama 
Julia: Ucultuniacum, which now is Curiga : Laconimurgi,. 
Constantia Julia ; Terresibus is now Fortunales ; and Callen- 
sibus, Emanici. Besides these, in Celtica Acinippo, Arunda, 
Arunci, Turobrica, Lastigi, Alpesa, Ssepona, Serippo. The 
other Beturia, which we said belonged to the Turduli and 
to the Jurisdiction of Corduba, hath Towns of no base Ac- 



156 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

count, Arsa, Mellaria, and Mirobrica: and the Regions Osrutigi 
and Sisapone. Within the Jurisdiction of Gades, there is a 
Town of Roman Citizens called Regina : of Latins, there are 
Laepia, Ulia, Carisa, surnamed Aurelia, Urgia, which is like- 
wise named Castrurn Julium : also, Csesaris Salutariensis. 
Stipendiaries there be, Besaro, Belippo, Berbesula, Lacippo, 
Besippo, Callet, Cappagum, Oleastro, Itucci, Brana, Lacibi, 
Saguntia, Andorisippo. The whole Length of it M . Agrippa 
hath set down 463 Miles, and the Breadth 257. But because 
the Bounds reached to Carthage, which Cause occasioneth 
oftentimes Errors in computing the Measure ; at one Place 
in the Limits of the Provinces, and in another the Paces in 
journeying being either more or less ; also, considering that 
the Seas in so long a Time have encroached here upon the 
Land, and the Banks again gotten there of the Sea ; or that 
the Rivers have either turned crooked or gone straight : be- 
sides, that some have begun to take their Measure from this 
Place, others from that, and gone divers Ways : it is by these 
Means come to pass, that no two agree together. 

CHAPTER II. 
The Length and Breadth of Bcetica. 

THE Length of Bcetica at this day, from the Bound of the 
Town Castulo to Gades, is 475 Miles : and from Murgi on 
the Sea-coast, more by twenty-two Miles. The Breadth 
from the Border of Carteia is 224 Miles. And who would 
believe that Agrippa (a Man so diligent, and in this Work 
principally so careful) did err, when he purposed to set out a 
View of the whole World for the City, and Divus Augustus 
with him ? For he finished the Portico begun according to 
the Designation and Memorials appointed by the Sister of 
M. Agrippa. 

CHAPTER III. 
The nearer Spain. 

THE old Form of the nearer Spain is somewhat changed, 
as also of many other Provinces, as Pompey the Great in the 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 157 

Trophies which he erected in Pyrenaeus, testifieth, that 
846 Towns between the Alps and the Borders of the further 
Spain, were by him brought to Obedience. Now the 
whole Province is divided into seven Jurisdictions : the Car- 
thaginian, the Tarraconensian, Caesar Augustanian, Cluni- 
ensian, Asturian, Lucensician, and of Bracarum. There are 
besides Islands, which we set aside without naming them, 
and excepting the Cities that are annexed to others, the 
Province itself containeth 294 Towns. In which Colonies 
there be twelve Towns, of Roman Citizens thirteen, of old 
Latins seventeen, of Allies one, stipendiary 136. The first 
in the Frontiers be the Bastulians : behind them, in such 
Order as shall be said, those receding Interiorly, the Men- 
tesani, Oretani, and the Carpetani, upon the River Tagus. 
Near to them, the Vaccaei, Vectones, Celtiberi, and Arrebaci. 
The Towns next to the Borders, Urci and Barea, assigned to 
Bcetica : the Country of Mauritania, then Deitania : after 
that, Contestania, and New Carthage, a Colony. From the 
Promontory of which, called Saturn s Cape, the Passage 
over the Sea to Caesaries, a City in Mauritania, is 187 Miles. 
In the residue of that Coast is the River Tader : the Free 
Colony Illici, of which the Bay took the name Illicitanus. 
To it are annexed the Icositani : soon after, Lucentum, a 
Town of the Latins. Dranium, a Stipendiary ; the River 
Sucro, and what was sometime the Frontier Town of Con- 
testania. The Region Edetania, which retireth to the Cel- 
tiberians, having a pleasant Pool bordering along the Front 
of it. Valentia, a Colony lying three Miles from the Sea. 
The River Turium ; and just as far from the Sea, Saguntum, 
a Town of Roman Citizens renowned for their Fidelity. 
The River Idubeda, and the Region of the Ilergaoni. The 
River Iberus, rich by Commerce and Navigation, which 
beginneth in the Cantabrian's Country, not far from the 
Town luliobrica, and holdeth on its course 430 Miles, and, 
for 260 of them, from the Town Varia, carrieth Vessels; in 
regard of which River, the Greeks named all Spain Iberia. 
The Region Cossetania, the River Subi, the Colony Tarraco, 
built by the Scipios, like as Carthage of the Poani. The 



1 58 History of Nature. [BooK 111. 

Country of the Illergetes, the Town Subur, the River Ru- 
bricatum ; from thence the Lacetani and Indigetes. After 
them in this order following : retiring within at the Foot of 
Pyrenaeus, the Ausetani, Itani, and Lacetani : and along 
Pyrenaeus, the Cerretani, and then the Vascones. But in 
the Borders, the Colony Barcino, surnamed Faventia : 
Towns of Roman Citizens, Baetulo, Illuro, the River Lar- 
num, Blandee : the River Alba, Emporiae: two there be of 
these, of the old Inhabitants, and of Greeks, who were 
descended from the Phocaeans. The River Tichis; from 
whence to Pyrenaea Venus on the other side of the Pro- 
montory, are forty Miles. Now, besides the forenamed, 
shall be related the principal places as they lie in every 
Jurisdiction. At Tarracon there plead in Court four and 
forty States. The most famous among them are, of Roman 
Citizens, the Dertusani and Bisgargitani : of Latins, the 
Ausetani and Cerretani, surnamed Juliani : they also who 
are named Augustani, the Sedetani, Gerundenses, Ges- 
sorienses, Teari, the same with Julienses. Of Stipendiarii, 
the Aquicaldenses, Onenses, and Baetulonenses. Caesar Au- 
gusta, a free Colony, upon which the River Iberus floweth, 
where the Town before was called Salduba : these are of 
the Region Sedetania, and receiveth 152 States, and among 
these, of Roman Citizens, the Bellitani and Celsenses ; and 
out of the Colony, the Calaguritani, surnamed also Nascici. 
The Ilerdenses of the Surdaon's Nation, near to whom 
runneth the River Sicoris : the Oscences, of the Region Ves- 
cetania, and the Turiasonenses. Of old Latins, the Cas- 
cantenses, Erganicenses, Gracchuritani, Leonicenses, Ossi- 
gerdenses : of Confederates, the Tarragenses. Stipendiarii, 
the Arcobricenses, Andologenses, Arocelitani, Bursaonenses, 
Calaguritani, surnamed Fibularenses, Complutenses, Ca- 
renses, Cincenses, Cortonenses, Dammanitani, Larrenses, 
Iturisenses, Tspalenses, Ilumberitani, Lacetani, Vibienses, 
Pompelonenses, and Segienses. There resort to Carthage 
for Law sixty-two several States, besides the Inhabitants of 
the Islands. Out of the Colony Accitana, the Gemellenses, 
also Libisosona, surnamed Foroaugustana, which two are 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 159 

endued with the Franchises of Italy : out of the Colony 
Salariensis, the Citizens of Old Latium, Castulonenses, whom 
Ccesar calleth Venales. The Setabitani, who are also Au- 
gustani, and the Valerrienses. But of the Stipendiarii, of 
greatest name be the Babanenses, the Bastiani, the Con- 
saburenses, Dianenses, Egelestani, Ilorcitani, Laminitani, 
Mentesani, the same as Oritani ; arid Mentesani, who other- 
wise are Bastuli ; Oretani, who also are called Germani ; 
the Chief of the Celtiberians, the Segobrigenses, and the 
Toletani of Carpetania, dwelling upon the River Tagus : 
next to them, the Viacienses and Virgilienses. To the Juris- 
diction of Cluniensis the Varduli bring fourteen Nations, of 
which it is necessary to name none but the Albanenses ; 
the Turmodigi four, among whom are the Segisamonenses, 
Sagisainejulienses. To the same Jurisdiction the Carietes 
and the Vennenses go out of five Cities, of which the Ve- 
lienses are. Thither repair the Pelendones, with four States 
of the Celtiberians, of whom the Numantini were famous ; 
as in the eighteen Cities of the Vaccsei. the Intercatienses, 
Pallantini, Lacobricenses, and Caucenses: for in the four 
States of the Cantabrici only Juliobrica is named. In the 
ten Cities of the Autrigoni, Tritium and Vironesca. To 
the Arevaci the River Areva gave name. Of them there be 
seven Towns : Saguntia and Uxama, which Names are often 
used in other Places ; besides Segovia and Nova Augusta, 
Termes, and Clunia itself, the very utmost bound of Cel- 
tiberia. All the rest lie toward the Ocean ; and of the 
above-named, the Verduli, together with the Cantabri. To 
these there are joined twelve Nations of the Astures, divided 
into the Augustanes and Transmontani, having a stately 
City, Asturica. Among these are Giguri, Pesici, Lancienses, 
and Zoclae. The number of the whole Multitude ariseth to 
240,000 Polls of free Men. The Jurisdiction Lucensis com- 
priseth sixteen Nations (besides the Celtici and Lebuni) of 
base Condition, and having barbarous Names ; but of Free- 
men, almost 166,000. In like manner, twenty-four Cities, 
having 275,000 Polls of Bracari; of whom, besides the 
Bracari themselves, the Vibali, Celerini, Galleeci, ^Equesilici, 



1 60 History of Nature. [ BOOK III. 

and Quinquerni, may be named without Disdain. The 
length of the hither Spain, from Pyrenaeus to the Bound of 
Castulo, is 607 Miles, and the Coast thereof somewhat more. 
The Breadth from Tarracon to the Shore of Alarson, 307 
Miles ; and from the Foot of Pyrenseus where, between two 
Seas, it is Pointed with the Straits, and so opening itself 
by little and little until it come to touch the farther Spain, 
it is as much, and addeth somewhat more to the Breadth. 
All Spain is full of Metal, as Lead, Iron, Copper, Silver, 
and Gold : the hither part thereof aboundeth with Specular 
Stone, 1 and Bostica, particularly, with Vermillion. There 
are also Quarries of Marble. Unto all Spain, Vespasianus 
Augustus, the Emperor, tossed with the Tempests of the 
Commonwealth, granted the Franchises of Latium. The 
Mountains Pyreuaei define the Boundaries of Spain and Gaul, 
their Promontories projecting into two opposite Seas. 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Province Narbonensis. 

THAT Part of Gallia which is washed by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea is called the Province Narbonensis, named for- 
merly Braccata ; divided from Italy by the River Varus and 
the Alps, most Friendly Mountains to the Roman Empire ; 
and from the other Parts of Gaul, on the North side, by the 
Mountains Gehenna and Jura. For Tillage of the Ground, 
for reputation of Men, regard of Manners, and for Wealth, 
worthy to be set behind no other Provinces whatever ; and, 
in one word, to be counted Italy more truly than a Pro- 
vince. In its Borders lyeth the Country of the Sardoni ; 
and within, the Region of the Consuarani. The Rivers be 
Tecurn and Vernodubrum ; the Towns, llliberis (a poor 
relic of a City that was once Great), and Ruscio, inhabited 
by the Latins. The River Atax, springing out of Pyrenaeus, 
runneth through the Lake Lubrensis: Narbo Martins, a 
Colony of the Tenth Legion, twelve Miles distant from the 

' i. e. Talc. See Lib. xxxvi. cap. 22. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 161 

Sea : Rivers Araris nnd Liria. Towns in the other Parts 
scattered here and there, by reason of Pools lying before 
them : Agatha, in Times past belonging to the Massilians, 
and the Region of Volscae Tectosages. Also, where Rhoda 
of the Rhodians was, whereof Rhodanus took its name, the 
most fruitful River of all Gallia, running swiftly out of the 
Alps through the Lake Lemanus, and carrying with it 
the slow Araris ; and Isara running as fast as itself, 
together with Druentia ; of which the two small Mouths are 
called Lybica; of which the one is Hispaniensum, the other 
Metapinum : there is a third, which is the most Wide 
and Large, named Massalioticum. Some write that the 
Town Heraclea likewise stood at the Mouth of Rhodanus. 
Beyond the Ditch, out of Rhodanus, which was the Work 
of C. Marius and beareth his Name, there was remarkable 
Pool ; moreover, the Town Astromela, and the maritime 
Tract of the Avsetici ; and above, the stony Plains, the Me- 
morial of the Battles of Hercules. The Region of the 
Anatilii, and within, of the Desuviates and Caviarae. Again, 
from the Sea, Tricorium ; and within, the Region of the 
Tricolli, Vocantii, Segovellauni, and presently of the Allo- 
broges ; but in the Borders, Massilia of Greek Phocaeans 
confederate : the Promontory Citharista, Zaopartus, and the 
Region of the Camatullici. After them the Suelteri ; and 
above them, Verucines; but in the Coast, Athenopolis of 
the Massilians ; Forum Julii, a Colony of the ninth Legion, 
which also is called Parensis and Classica : in it is the River 
Argenteus, the Region of the Oxubii and Ligaunii ; above 
whom are the Suetri, Quariates, and Adunicates : but in the 
Borders, a Latin Town, Antipolis. The Region of the 
Deciates, the River Varus gushing out of a Mountain of the 
Alps, called Acema : in the middle Part thereof, the Colonies 
Arelate of the sixth Legion, Bliterae of the seventh, and 
Arausia of those belonging to the second . In the Territory 
of the Caviarae, Valentia and Vienna, of the Allobroges. 
Latin Towns, Aquas Sextiae of the Saiyi, and Avenio of the 
Caviarae, Apta Julia of the Vulgienties, Alebecerriorum of 
the Apollinares, Alba of the Helvi, Augusta of the Tricos- 



162 History of Nature. [BOOK III. 

tines ; Anatilia, Aeria, Bormannico, Comacina, Cabellio, 
Carcasum of the Volscan Tectosages ; Cessero, Carpen- 
toracte of the Menines ; the Cenicenses, Cambolecti, who 
are named Atlantici, Forum Voconii, Glanum, Livii, Lu- 
tevani, who are the same as the Foro-neronienses : Ne- 
rnausum of the Arecomici, Piscense, Ruteni, Sanugenses, and 
Tolosani of the Tectosages. The Borderers upon Aquitane, 
Tasco-dumetari, Canonienses, Umbranici : two capital 
Towns of the confederate City of the Vocontians, Vasco and 
Lucus Augusti ; but Towns of no importance nineteen, as 
twenty-four annexed to the Nemausienses. To this Charter 
Galba the Emperor added of the Alpine Inhabitants, the 
Avantici and Eproduntii, whose Town is named Dima. 
Agrippa saith that the Length of the Province Narbonensis 
is 270 Miles, and the Breadth 248. 

CHAPTER V. 
Italy, Tiber, Rome, Campania. 

NEXT to them is Italy ; and the first of it the Ligurians : 
then Hetruria, Umbria, Latium, where are the Mouths of 
Tiberis and Rome, the Head of the whole Earth, sixteen 
Miles distant from the Sea. After it is the maritime Country 
of the Volscians, and Campania : then Picentium, Lu- 
canum, and Brutium, the furthest Point in the South, to 
which, from the moonshaped Mountains of the Alps, Italy 
shooteth out to the Seas. From it is the Sea-coast of 
Graecia, and soon after, the Salentini, Pediculi, Apuli, 
Peligni, Ferentani, Marrucini, Vestini, Sabini, Picentes, 
Galli, Urnbri, Tusci, Veneti, Carni, lapides, Istri, and 
Liburni. 

Neither am I ignorant that it might be thought justly a 
point of an unthankful and stupid Mind, if briefly in this 
sort, and cursorily, that Land should be spoken of which is 
the Nurse of all Lands. She also is the Mother, chosen by 
the Power of the Gods, to make even Heaven itself more 
Glorious ; to gather into One the scattered Empires, to 
soften the Fashions of other Countries ; and whereas the 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 163 

Languages of so many Nations were repugnant and savage, 
to draw them together by commerce of Speech, to a Con- 
ference ; to endue Man with Humanity; and briefly, that of 
all Nations in the World there should be one only Country. 
But so noble are all the Places that a Man shall come to, 
so excellent is every thing, and each State so famous, that I 
am at a loss what to say. The City of Rome, the only fair 
Face therein worthy to stand upon so stately a Neck, what 
Work would it ask to be described as it ought l ? The very 
Tract of Campania by itself, so pleasant and happy, how 
should it be described? So that it is evident in this one 
Place there is the Work of rejoicing Nature. Besides this, 
the whole Temperature of the Air is evermore so vital, the 
Fields so fertile, the Hills so open to the Sun, the Forests 
so harmless, the Groves so shady, the kinds of Wood so 
bounteous, the Mountains so breezy ; the Corn, the Vines, 
the Olives so fertile ; the Sheep so enriched with such noble 
Fleeces.; such Necks to the Oxen ; so many Lakes, such 
abundance of Rivers and Springs watering it throughout ; so 
many Seas and Havens, that it is the very Bosom lying open 
to receive the Commerce of all Lands ; and as of itself 
earnestly desiring to lie far into the Sea to help all Mankind. 
Neither do I speak now of the Natures and Manners of the 
Men ; nor of the Nations subdued by their Tongue and 
Hand. Even the Greeks (a Nation of all other most given 
to praise themselves) have given their judgment of her, in 
that they called a certain Part thereof Great Greece. But 
that which we did in the mention of the Heaven, namely, to 
touch some known Planets and a few Stars, the same must 



1 The Romans were proud of the glory of their city ; and believed it 
to be the only one worthy the regard of the gods : 

" Jupiter arce sua cum totum spectat in orbem, 

Nil nisi Romanum, quod tueatur, habet." OVID, Fasti, lib. i. 

From his high citadel when Jove surveyed 

The extended earth beneath his sovereign sway, 

Nought but the Roman widely spread he spied. 
Worthy t'engage his care. Wern. Club. 



164 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

we do in this Part : only I pray the Readers to remember 
that I hasten to rehearse every particular Thing through 
the whole Globe. 

Italy is fashioned like to an Oak leaf, being much larger 
in Length than in Breadth: to the left Side bending with 
the Top, and ending in the Figure of an Amazonian Shield : 
and where, from the middle Extension, it is called Cocin- 
thos, it putteth forth through two moonshaped Promontories 
two Horns : the one, Leucopetra, on the right Hand ; the other, 
Lacinium, on the left. In Length it reacheth from the Foot 
of the Alps to Prsetoria Augusta, through the City of Rome, 
and so to Capua, with a course leading to Rhegium, a Town 
situated upon the Shoulder thereof: from which beginneth 
the bending, as it were, of the Neck, and beareth 1020 
Miles. And this Measure would be much more if it went 
as far as Lacinium ; but such an Obliquity might seem to 
decline out too much to one Side. Its Breadth is various ; 
being 410 Miles between the two Seas, the Higher and 
the Lower, and the Rivers Varus and Arsia. The middle 
portions of this Breadth, which is much about the City of 
Rome, from the Mouth of the River Aternus running into 
the Adriatic Sea, unto the Mouths of Tiber, 136 Miles; and 
somewhat less from Novum Castrum by the Adriatic Sea, to 
Alsium, and so to the Tuscan Sea : and in no Place ex- 
ceedeth it in Breadth 300 Miles. But the full Compass of 
the whole, from Varus to Arsia, is 20,049 Miles. It is 
distant by Sea from the Lands round about, that is, from 
Istria and Liburnia, in some Places 100 Miles; from Epirus 
and Illyricuni, 50 Miles ; from Africa, less than 200, as Varro 
affirmeth ; from Sardinia, 120 Miles ; from Sicily, a Mile and 
a half ; from Corey ra, less than 70 ; from tssa, 50. It goeth 
along the Seas even to the Meridional Line of the Heaven ; 
but if a Man examine it very exactly, it lieth between the 
Sun-rising in Mid-winter, and the Point of the Meridian. 

Now we will describe the Circuit of this Country, and 
reckon the Cities : wherein it is necessary to be premised, 
that we shall follow our Author Divus Augustus, and the 
Description by him made of all Italy ; arranged into eleven 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 1 65 

Regions. The Maritime Towns I will set down in the order 
as they stand, according to their vicinity one to another. 
But as in so running a Speech, the rest cannot be so 
orderly described, therefore in the Inland part thereof I 
will follow him as he hath digested them in Letters, but 
mentioning the Colonies by Name which he hath delivered 
in that number. Neither is it easy to follow thoroughly 
their Positions and Origins, considering the Ingaun Li- 
gurians (to say nothing of all the rest) were endowed with 
Lands thirty times. To begin with the River Varus, there- 
fore, there is the Town Nicsea, built by the Massilians ; the 
River Po ; the Alps ; the People within the Alps, of many 
Names, but chiefly the Capillati : the Town Vediantiorum, 
the City Cemelion (or a Town belonging to the State of the 
Vedianti, called Cemelion) ; the Port of Hercules Monoscus ; 
the Ligustian Coast. Of the Liguri, the most renowned 
beyond the Alps are the Sally i, Deceates, and Oxubii : on 
this Side, the Veneni, and, descended from the Caturiges, 
the Vagienni, Statilli, Vibelli, Magelli, Euburiates, Cas- 
monates, Veliates, and those whose Towns we will declare 
in the next Coast. The River Rutuba, the Town Albium, 
Intemelium, the River Merula, the Town Albium Ingaunum, 
the Port Vadum Sabatium, the River Porcifera, the Town 
Genua, the River Feritor ; the Port Delphini, Tigulia : 
within, Segesta Tiguliorum : the River Macra, which limiteth 
Liguria. But on the back of all these Towns above-named 
is Apenninus, the highest Mountain of all Italy, reaching 
from the Alps, with a continual ridge of Hills, to the 
Straits of Sicily. From the other Side of this to Pad us, 
the richest River of Italy, all the Country shineth with noble 
Towns : Liberna, Dertona a Colony, Iria, Barderates, In- 
dustria, Pollentia, Cartea, which also is named Polentia; 
Foro Fulvii the same as Valentinum ; Augusta of the Va- 
gienni : Alba Pompeia, Asta, and Aquae Statiellorum. This 
is the ninth Region, according to the Arrangement of Au- 
gustus. The Coast of Liguria lieth between the Rivers Varus 
and Macra, 211 Miles. To it is adjoined the seventh, 



166 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

wherein is Hetruria, from the River Macra : and itself, 
with the Names often changed. In old Time the Pelasgi 
drove the Umbri from thence : and by them the Lydi did 
the like, of whose King they were named Tyrrheni: but 
soon after, of their Ceremonies in Sacrificing, in the Greek 
Language Thusci. The first Town of Hetruria is Luna, with 
a famous Harbour ; then the Colony Luca, lying from the 
Sea : and nearer to it is Pisae, between the River Auser 
and Arnus, which took the Beginning from Pelops and the 
Pisi, or Atintani, a Greek Nation. Vada Vollaterranea, the 
River Cecinna. Populonium of the Hetrusci, in Times past 
situate only upon this Coast. After these, the Rivers Prille, 
and, soon after, Umbro, navigable : so forward the Tract of 
Umbria, and the PortTelamon : Cossa Volscientium, planted 
by the People of Rome ; Graviscae, Castrum Novum, Pyrgi, 
the River Cseretanus, and Caere itself, standing four Miles 
within ; Agylla, named by the Pelasgians, who built it ; 
Alsium and Frugenae. The River Tiber, distant from 
Macra 284 Miles. Within are these Colonies : Falisca, 
descended from Argi (as Cato saith), and called Hetrus- 
corum : Lucus Feronise, Russellana, Senensis, and Sutriva. 
For the rest : Aretini the Old, Aretini Fidentes, Aretini 
Julienses, Amitinenses, Aquenses, surnamed Taurini : Blerani, 
Cortonenses, Capenates, Clusini the Old, Clusini the New, 
Fluentini, fast upon the River Arnus that runneth before 
them, Fesulse, Ferentinum, Fescennia, Hortanum, Herbanum, 
Nepet, Novempagi, Prefectura Claudia, Foro Clodii : Pis- 
torium, Perusia, Suanenses, Saturnini, who beforetime were 
called Aurinini, Sudertani, Statones, Tarquinienses, Tus- 
canienses, Vetulonienses, Veientani, Vesentini, Volaterrani, 
surnamed Hetrusci, and Volsinienses. In the same Part lie 
the Territories Crustuminus and Cseletranus, bearing the 
Names of the old Towns. Tiber, before named Tybris, 
and, before that, Albula, from almost the middle of the 
Length of the Apennine runneth along the Borders of the 
Aretini : small at the first, and not Navigable without being 
gathered together by Fishponds into an Head, and so let 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 167 

go : as Tinia and Glanis, which run into him ; and which 
require nine Days for the collection of Waters, and so are kept 
in for running if they have no Help from Rain. But Tiber, 
hy reason of the rough and rugged Channel, notwithstanding 
that Device, holdeth on no long Course together, but only 
for Troughs, more truly than Boats ; and thus it doth for 
150 Miles, to not far from Tifernum, Perusia, and Otriculum : 
dividing as it passeth Hetruria from the Umbri and Sa- 
bini : and presently, within thirteen Miles of the City 
(Rome), it parteth the Veientian country from the Crustu- 
mine: and soon after, the Fidenate and Latin Territories from 
the Labican. But, besides Tinia and Glanis, it is augmented 
with forty-two Rivers ; and especially with Nar and Anio : 
which River being also itself Navigable, encloseth Latium 
from behind, and that notwithstanding so many Waters 
and Fountains are brought thereby into the City ; whereby 
it is able to receive large Ships from the Italian Sea, being 
the kindest Merchant of Things growing in the whole World : 
it is the only River of all others to speak of, and more Vil- 
lages stand upon it and see it, than all other Rivers in any 
lands soever. No River hath less Liberty than it, as having 
the Sides thereof enclosed on both Hands ; and yet he doth 
not resist, although he hath many and sudden Swellings, 
and in no Place more than in the City itself do his Waters 
overflow : yet is he taken to be a Prophet rather, and a 
Counsellor, and in Swelling more truly Religious than Cruel. 
Old Latium, from Tiber to Circeios, was observed to be in 
Length fifty Miles; so slender were at first the Roots of 
this Empire. The Inhabitants thereof changed often, and 
held it, some one time, some another; that is, the Abo- 
rigines, Pelasgi, Arcades, Siculi, Aurunci, and Rutili. And 
beyond Circeios, the Volsci, Osci, Ausones, from whence the 
Name of Latium reached soon after, as far as to the River 
Liris. In the beginning of it standeth Ostia, a Colony, 
brought thither by a Roman King : the Town Laurentum, 
the Grove of Jupiter Indiges, the River Numicius, and Ardea, 
built by Dande, the Mother of Perseus. Then the Colony 
Antium, once Aphrodisium ; Astura, the River and the 



168 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

Island. The River NymphaBUS, Clostra Romana, Circeii 1 , 
in Times past an Island, environed with a mighty Sea (if we 
believe Homer\ but now with a Plain. A Wonder it is what 
we are able to deliver concerning this thing, to the know- 
ledge of Men. Theophrastus, who of Foreigners was the first 
that wrote any Thing diligently concerning the Romans (for 
Theopompus, before whom no Man made any mention, said 
only, That the City was taken by the Gauls : and Clitarchus 
next after him, spake of nothing but an Embassage sent 
to Alexander} ; this Theophraslus^ with more certainty than 
bare hearsay, hath set down the Measure of the Island 
Circeii to be eighty Stadia ; in that Book which he wrote to 
IVicodorus, the chief Magistrate of the Athenians, who lived 
in the 460th year after the Foundation of our City. What- 
ever Land, therefore, above ten Miles' compass, lieth near 
about it, hath been annexed to the Island. A year after 
that another wonderful Thing fell out in It<sly : for not far 
from Circeii there is a Pond called Pomptina, which Mu- 
tianusy a Man who had been thrice Consul, reporteth to have 
been a Place wherein stood twenty-three Cities. Then there 
is the River Ufens, upon which is the Town Terracina, 
called in the Volscian tongue Anxur, and where was the City 
Aioycle, destroyed by Serpents. After it is the Place of a 

1 Cerceia was a town of the Volsci, on whose ruins is now built the 
little village Santa Felicita. Homer (" Odyssey," K. 194) represents it 
as the abode of Circe, and says it was an island 

" An isle encircled with the boundless flood." 

But the country all around is now one vast plain, and constitutes the well- 
known Pontine Marshes, which being raised but little above the level of 
the sea, may not improbably have been once covered by its waves. " If 
the traveller can spare a day," says Eustace in his " Classical Tour," " he 
may hire a boat, and sail along the coast to the promontory of Circe, 
which forms so conspicuous a figure in his prospect, and appears from 
Terracina, as Homer and Virgil poetically describe it, a real island. As 
he ranges over its lofty cliffs, he will recollect the splendid fictions of the 
one and the harmonious lines of the other. He may traverse the un- 
frequented groves ; but instead of the palace of Circe he will discover the 
lonely village of Santa Felicita, a few solitary towers hanging over the 
sea, and perhaps some faint traces of the ancient Cerceia, covered with 
bushes and overgrown with shrubs." Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 169 

Cave, the Lake Fundanus, and the Port Cajeta. The Town 
Formiae, named also Hormiae, the ancient Seat (as Men 
thought) of the Laestrigones. Beyond it was the Town 
Pyrae, the Colony Minturnae, divided by the River Liris, 
called Clauius. The furthest Town in the adjoins of Latium 
is Sinuessa, which, as some have said, was commonly called 
Sinope. Thence cometh the pleasant Country Campania. 
From this Vale begin the Hills which are full of Vineyards, 
and famous for Drunkenness, proceeding of the Liquor so 
celebrated, commended in all Countries : and (as they were 
wont to say in old Time) there was the chief Strife between 
Father Liber and Ceres. From hence the Setine and Ce- 
cubine Countries spread forth : and to them join the Falern 
and Calene. Then arise the Mountains Massici, Gaurani, 
and Surrentim. There the Laborini Fields are spread about, 
and the good Wheat harvest to make Dainties at the table. 
The Sea-coasts here are watered with hot Fountains ; and 
beside. other Things through all the Sea, they are famous 
for the rich purple Shell-fish 1 and other excellent Fishes 2 . 
In no Place is there better Oil from the Olive ; and this 
contest of Human pleasure, the Osci, Grecians, Umbri, 
Tusci, and Campi, have held. In the Border of this is the 
River Savo ; Vulturnum, the Town, with the River; Li- 
ternum, and Cumo, inhabited by Chalcidians, Misenum, 
the Harbour Baiae, Baiili, the Lakes Lucrinus and Aver- 
nus, near which was once the Town Cimmerium. Then 
Puteoli, called also the Colony Dicaearchia : after that, the 
Plains Phlegraei, and the Marsh Acherusia, near to Cumes. 
And by the Shore Naples 3 , a City also of the Chalcidians; 

1 The famous Tyrian dye was procured from shell-fish, but the par- 
ticular species are not certainly known. Of the Purpura and Buccinum 
described by Pliny in his 9th book, the former is probably the Murex 
trunculus of Linnaeus, and the other the Purpura patula of Lamark. 
Wern. Club. 

2 The Scarus, described by Pliny, lib. ix. 29, is perhaps intended, but 
it is difficult to determine what the Scarus was. Baian and Lucrine oysters 
may also be referred to; these are described, lib. ix. 79. Wern. Club. 

3 Livy, lib. viii. 22, says, " Naples was inhabited by a people that 
came from Cumae, and the Cumans derive their origin from Chalcis, in 
Euboaa." Wern. Club. 



170 History of Nature. [BOOK III. 

as Parthenope, so called from the Tomb of a Siren : Her- 
culaneum, Pompeii : and, not far off, the Mountain 
Vesuvius overlooketh, and the River Sernus runneth by 
the Territory of Nuceria ; and within nine Miles of the Sea, 
Nuceria itself. Surrentum, with the Promontory of Mi- 
nerva, the Seat once of the Sirens. From Circeii the Navi- 
gation lieth open seventy-eight Miles. This is counted the 
first Region of Italy, from Tiber, according to the Descrip- 
tion of Augustus. Within it are these Colonies : Capua, so 
called of the Champaign Country ; Aquinum ; Suessa, Ve- 
nafrum, Sora, Teanum, named also Sidicinum ; and Nola : 
the Towns Abellinum, Aricia, Alba Longa, Acerrani, Allifani, 
Atinates, Aletrinates, Anagnini, Atellani, Asulani, Arpinates, 
Auximates, Avellani, Aifaterni ; and they who of the Latin, 
Hernic, and Labicane Territories, are surnamed accordingly : 
Bovillse, Calatiae, Casinum, Calenum, Capitulum, Cernetum> 
Cernetani, who are called also Mariani. Corani, descended 
from Dardanus the Trojan. Cubulterini, Castrimonienses, 
Cingulani. Fabienses, and in the Mount Albanus, Foro-popu- 
lienses. Out of the Falern Territory, Frusinates, Feren- 
tinates, Freginates, Fabraterni the Old, Fabraterni the New, 
Ficolenses, Fricolenses, Foro-Appi, Forentani, Gabini, In- 
terramnates, Succasani, called also Lirinates, Ilionenses, 
Lavinii, Norbani, Nementani Prenestini, whose City was in 
Times past named Stephanus, Privernates, Setini, Signini, 
Suessulani, Telini, Trebutini, surnamed Balinienses, Trebani, 
Tusculani, Verulani, Veliterni, Ulubrenses, Ulvernates, and 
above Rome herself: the other Name 1 whereof to utter is 

1 Valentia. 

In the second chapter of book xxviii., Pliny tells us, on the autho- 
rity of authors adduced by Verrius Flaccus, that the Romans, when about 
to commence the siege of any place, first called upon their priests to in- 
voke the deity under whose protection that place was, and promised him 
the same, or even a greater, degree of worship than he had previously 
received. And that the enemies of Rome might not have recourse to the 
same expedient, it was kept ; a strict secret under the protection of what 
particular deity their own city was placed. Valentia appears to have been 
the secret name, and it was never divulged till Valerius Soranus rashly 
uttered it, and, as we learn from Plutarch (in " Quaest. Rom." p. 278), 
uffered the punishment of his impiety. St. Paul found at Athens an 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 171 

counted in the Mysteries of the Ceremonies an impious and 
unlawful Thing : which, after it was abolished, for the faithful 
Safety thereof, Valerius Soranus pronounced, and soon after 
suffered the Penalty. I think it not amiss to insert in this 
Place an Example of the ancient Religion, instituted espe- 
cially for this Silence: for the Goddess Angerona, to whom 
is sacrificed on the twelfth Day before the Kalends of January, 
is represented by an Image having her Mouth bound and 
sealed up. The City had three Gates when Romulus left it ; 
or rather four (if we believe most Men that write thereof), 
its Walls, when the two Vespasians, Emperors and Censors, 
took the Measure, in the Year after the Foundation of it, 
828, were in circuit thirteen 1 Miles and almost a quarter. 
It containeth within it seven Mountains, and is divided into 
fourteen Regions and 265 cross Streets, called Compita 
Larium. The Measure of the same space of Ground, running 
from the Milliarium, erected at the Head of the Roman 
Forum, to every Gate, which are at this Day thirty-seven in 
number (so ye reckon once the twelve Gates always open, 
and overpass seven of the old, which no longer exist 2 ), maketh 
thirty Miles, three-quarters, and a little more, in a straight 
Line : but from the same Milliarium 3 , to the utmost ends of 
the Houses, with the Praetorian Camps, and the clumps 
(vicos) of all the Streets, it cometh to somewhat above 
seventy Miles : to which if a Man put the Height of the 
Houses, he may truly conceive by it a worthy Estimate of it, 
and confess that the Magnitude of no City in the World 

altar dedicated to the Unknown God; this had, probably, been erected 
with a reference to the custom above-mentioned, as there is no reason for 
supposing it confined to the Romans. Wern. Club. 

1 Some read, thirty. 

2 In ancient times the most frequented roads to the city of Rome had 
double gates. They who came into the city passed through the left-hand 
gates ; and they who went out took the right-hand gate. (Nardini, 
" Roma Antica," lib. x. cap. 9.) When Pliny, speaking of the gates of 
the city, says that twelve of the thirty-seven gates should only be num- 
bered once, he alludes to such of them as were double in this 

Note in the " Pursuits of Literature" Dia. 4th. Wern. Club. 

3 For figure of the Milliarium, see the end of this book. 



172 History of Nature. [BooK lit. 

could be compared to it. It is enclosed on the East Side 
with the Rampart of Tarquinius the Proud ; a very won- 
derful piece of Work : for he raised it as high as the Walls 
on that Side where the approach to it was most open. On 
the other Part it was fortified with exceedingly high Walls, 
or with steep Hills, except where there the Buildings lie out, 
and make many Cities. In that first Region there were 
besides, for Latium, these distinguished Towns : Satricum, 
Pometia, Scaptia, Pitulum, Politorium, Tellene, Tifata. 
Caemina, Ficana, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia, Cor- 
niculum, Saturnia, where now Rome standeth : Antipolis, 
which now is Janiculum, in a Part of Rome : Antemnse, 
Carnerium, Collatise : Amiternum, Norbe, Sulmo ; and with 
these, the Alban People, who were accustomed to receive 
Flesh in Mount Alban ; Albani, ^Esolani, Acienses, Aholani, 
Bubetani, Bolani, Casuetani, Coriolani, Fidenates, Foretii, 
Hortenses, Latinenses, Longulani, Manates, Macrales, Mu- 
tucumenses, Munienses, Numinienses, OHiculani, Octulani, 
Pedani, Pollustini, Querquetulani, Sicani, Sisolenses, Tole- 
rienses, Tutienses, Virnitellarii, Velienses, Venetulani, Vi- 
cellenses. Thus of the Old Latium there be fifty-three States 
perished, without any Remains left behind. Moreover, in 
the Campaign Country, the Town Stabiae continued to the 
Time that Cn. Pompeius and L. Carbo were Consuls, the 
last Day of April ; upon which Day L. Sylla, Legate in the 
Social War, destroyed it utterly : which now is turned into 
Farm-houses. There is decayed also there Taurania. There 
be also some little Relics left of the dying Casilinum. 
Moreover, Antias writeth, that Apiolae, a Town of the 
Latins, was taken by L. Tarquinius^ the King ; with the 
Pillage whereof he founded the Capitol. From Surrentum 
to the River Silarus was the Picentine Country, for the 
space of thirty Miles, renowned for the Tuscan's Temple 
built by Jason in honour of Juno Argiva. Within it stood 
the Towns Salernum and Picentia. At Silarus, the third 
Region beginneth, together with the Lucan and Brutian 
Countries : and there also the Inhabitants changed not a 
few times. For it was possessed by the Pelasgi, (Enotri, 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 173 

I tali, Morgetes, Siculi, People for the most part of Greece : 
and last of all by the Lucani, descended from the Samnites, 
under their Leader Lucius. In which standeth the Town 
Paestum, called by the Greeks Posidonia: the Bay Psestanus, 
the Town Helia, now Velia. The Promontory Palinurum, 
Creek receding, from which there is a Passage to the Column 
Rhegia, 100 Miles over. Next to this, the River Melphes : 
the Town Buxentum, in Greek Pyxus; the River Laiis ; 
and a Town there was likewise of the same Name. From 
thence the Sea-coast of Brutium, the Town Blanda, the 
River Batnm, the Haven Parthenius belonging to the 
Phocaeans : the Bay Vibonensis ; the Grove Clampetia, the 
Town Ternsa, called by the Greeks Temese : and Terina of 
the Crotonians, and the very large Bay Terinseus : the Town 
Consentia. Within, in a Peninsula, the River Acheron, 
from which the Townsmen are called Acherontini. Hippo, 
which now we call Vibovalentia ; the Port of Hercules, the 
River Metaurus, the Town Tauroentum, the Port of Orestes, 
and Medua : the Town Scylleum, the River Cratais, Mother 
(as they say) to Scylla. Then the Column Rhegia : the 
Sicilian Straits, and two Capes, one over against the other ; 
namely, Caenis from Italy, and Pelorum from Sicily, a Mile 
and half asunder : from whence to Rhegium is twelve Miles 
and a half: and so forward to a Wood in the Apennine 
called Sila ; and the Promontory called Leucopetra, twelve 
Miles. Beyond which, Locri (carrying the Name also of the 
Promontory Zephyrium) is from Silarus distant 303 Miles. 
Here is included the first Gulf of Europe, wherein are named 
these Seas : first, Atlanticum (from which the Ocean breaketh 
in), called of some Magnum : the Passage through which it 
entereth is by the Greeks called Porthmos; by us FretumGadi- 
tanum ; when it hath entered the Spanish Sea, so far it washeth 
the Coasts of Spain, Freturn Hispanum : of others, Ibericum, 
or Balearicum : and presently it taketh the Name of Gallicum, 
before the Province Narbonensis : and after that, Ligusticum : 
from whence, to the Island Sicily, it is called Tuscum ; which 
some of the Grecians term Notium, others Tyrrhenum, but 
most of our Countrymen Inferum. Beyond Sicily to the 



174 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

Salentini, Polybius calleth it Ausonium : but Eratosthenes 
naraeth all the Sea Sardonuin, that is, between the Mouth of 
the Ocean and Sardinia : and from thence to Sicily, Tyr- 
rhenum : and from it to Greta, Siculum : beyond which it is 
called Creticum. The Islands along these Seas are these : 
the first of all, those by the Greeks named Pityusae, of the 
Pine plant ; but now, Ebusus : they are both a City con- 
federate, and a narrow Arm of the Sea runneth between 
them : they are forty-two Miles apart. From Dianeum they 
are distant seventy Stadia : and so many are there between 
Dianeum and New Carthage, by the main Land : and as far 
from Pityusse into the main Ocean, lie the two Baleares ; 
and toward Sucro, Colubraria. These Baleares, in War, 
use much the Sling ; and the Greeks name them Gymnesiae. 
The greater of them is 100 Miles in Length, and in Circuit 
380. It hath Towns of Roman Citizens, Palma and Pol- 
lentia : of Latins, Cinium and Cunici : and Bochri was a 
Town confederate. From it the lesser is 30 Miles off, 
being in Length 60 Miles, and in Compass 150. Cities 
in it are Jamno, Sanisera, and Mago. From the greater, 
12 Miles in the Sea, lieth the Isle Capraria, dangerous for 
Shipwrecks : and opposite the City Palma, Menariae, and 
Tiquadra, and little Annibalis. The Soil of Ebusus chaseth 
Serpents away, but that of Colubraria breedeth them ; and 
therefore it is Dangerous for all that come into it, unless they 
bring with them some of the Ebusian earth. The Greeks 
call this Island, Ophiusa. Neither doth Ebusus produce 
any Rabbits ; which are so common in the Baleares, that 
they eat up the Corn. There be about twenty more little 
ones in the shallow Part of the Sea. But in the Coast of 
Gallia, in the Mouth of Rhodanus, there is Metina ; and 
soon after, that which is called Blascon ; and the. three 
Stoechades, called so by their Neighbours the Massilians, for 
their Order ; and they give each one a several Name, as 
Prote, Mes (which also is called Pornponiana), and the 
third, Hypea. After them, are Sturium, Phrenice, Phila, 
Lero, and Lerina, over against Antipolis; wherein is a 
Memorial of the Town Vergaonum. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 1 75 

CHAPTER VI. 

i 
Of Corsica. 

IN the Ligurian Sea is Corsica, which the Greeks called 
Cyrnos, but it is nearer to the Tuscan Sea, stretching out 
from the North into the South, and in Length is 150 Miles : 
in Breadth, for the more Part, 50: in Circuit, 322: it is 
distant from the Shallows of Volaterrae 62 Miles. It hath 
35 Cities : and the Colonies, Mariana, planted by C. Marius; 
Aleria, by the Dictator Sylla. On this Side of it is Oglasa ; 
but within 60 Miles of Corsica is Planaria ; so called of its 
Form, which is level with the Sea; and, therefore, deceiveth 
Ships. Bigger than it are Urgo and Capraria, which the 
Greeks called .ZEgilos. Also, ^Egilium and Danium, the 
same as Artemisia ; both lying over against the Coast of 
Cosanum. Other small ones, also, as Maenaria, Columbraria, 
Venaria, Ilua, with the Iron Mines, in Circuit 100 Miles, 
10 Miles from Populonia, called by the Greeks, .ZEthalia : 
from it is Planasia, 39 Miles off. After them, beyond the 
Mouths of Tiber in the Antian (Creek), is Astura; and close 
by Palmaria, Sinonia ; and just against, Formias, Pontiae. 
But in the Bay of Puteolanum, Pantadaria and Prochyta, so 
called, not of jEneass Nurse, but because of the gushing of 
the Sea from JEnaria. ^Enaria itself took its Name from the 
Station of the Ships of uEneas ; called by Homer Inarime, by 
the Greeks, Pithecusa; not for the Number of Apes there, as 
some have thought, but of the Work-houses of those that 
made earthen Vessels. Between Pausilipus and Naples, Me- 
garis ; and soon after, eight Miles from Surrentum, Capreae, 
renowned for the Castle of the Prince Tiberius ; in Circum- 
ference 400 Miles. Next, Leucothea; and out of Sight Jieth 
Sardinia, close upon the African Sea, but less than nine Miles 
from the Coast of Corsica : and still those Straits are made 
more narrow by reason of the small Islands named Cunicu- 
larise. Likewise Phintonis and Fossae, whereof the very 
Strait itself is named Taphros. 



1 76 History of Nature. [ BOOK III. 

CHAPTER VII. 
Of Sardinia. 

SARDINIA, on the East Side, is in Extent 188 Miles; on 
the West, 170 ; Southward, 74; and Northward, 122 : so that, 
in all, it taketh up the Compass of 560 Miles. It is from the 
Cape of Caralitanus to Africa 200 Miles : from Gades, 1400 
Miles. It hath two Islands on that Side where the Promon- 
tory Gorditanum standeth ; which be called Hercules' Is- 
lands : on the Side of Sulsensis, Enosis ; of Caralitanum, 
Ficaria. Some Place not far from it the Islands Belerides 
and Col 1 odes : and another which they call Heras Lutra, or 
Hieraca. The most celebrated People therein are the Ilienses, 
Balari, and Corsi : and of the fourteen Towns, the Sul- 
citana, Valentin), Neapolitan!, Bosenses, and Caralitani, who 
are Roman Citizens ; arid Norenses. There is one Colony 
which is called Ad Turrim Libysonis. This Island Sardinia 
Timceus called (from the Shape of a Shoe) Sandaliotis : but 
Myrsylus (from its Resemblance to a Footstep), Ichnusa. 
Over against the Bay Psestanum is Leucasia, so called from 
a Siren there buried. Opposite Vestia, lie Pontia and Issia ; 
both jointly called by one Name, (Enotides ; an Argument 
that Italy was possessed by the CEnotrians. And opposite 
Vibo other little ones, called Ithacesise, the Watch-places of 
Ulysses. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Of Sicily. 

BUT Sicily excelleth all other of these Islands. It is 
named by Thucydides, Sicania ; by many, Trinacria, or Tri- 
quetra, from its triangular Form. It is in Circuit (as Agrippa 
saith) 198 Miles. In Times past it was joined to the Bru- 
tians' Country ; but soon after, by the Rush of the Sea, it 
was torn from it, and a Strait was left of 12 Miles in 
Length, and one and a half in Breadth, near the Column 
Rhegium. Upon this Occasion of opening, the Greeks gave 
a Name to the Town Rhegiurn, situated on the Edge sf Italy. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 177 

In this Strait is the Rock called Scylla, and likewise another 
named Charybdis : the Sea is full of Whirlpools, and both 
those Rocks are notorious for their Rage. The utmost Cape 
of this Island Triquetra (as we have said) is called Pelorus, 
projecting against Scylla toward Italy. Pachynum lieth to- 
ward Graecia, and from it Peloponnesus is distant 144 Miles. 
Lilybaeum lieth toward Africa, and between it and the Cape 
of Mercury there are 180 Miles : and from the said Lilybaeum 
to the Cape of Caraleis in Sardinia, 120. Now these Pro- 
montories and Sides lie one from the other at this Distance : 
by Land, from Pelorus to Pachynum, 166 Miles : from thence 
to Lilybaeum, 200 Miles : so forward to Pelorus, 170. In it, 
of Colonies, Towns, and Cities, there are 72. Beyond 
Pelorus, which looketh toward the Ionian Sea, is the Town 
Messana, inhabited by Roman Citizens, which are called 
Mamertini. Also the Cape Drepanum ; the Colony Tau- 
rominium, formerly called Naxos; the River Asines; the 
Mountain ^Etna, wonderful for its Fires in the Night ; the 
Cavity (Crater) of it is in Compass two Miles and a half; 
the burning Ashes thereof fly as far as to Taurominium and 
Catana : but its crashing Noise may be heard as far as to 
Maron, and the Hills Gemellis. There are also, the three 
Rocks of the Cyclops ; the Port of Ulysses, the Colony 
Catana ; the Rivers Symethum and Terias : within the Isle 
the Fields Laestrigonii. The Towns Leontini and Megaris : 
the River Pantagies : the Colony Syracusae, with the Foun- 
tain Arethusa. Also, there are other Springs in the Territory 
of Syracusa that yield Water for drink, as Temenitis, Archi- 
demia, Magaea, Cyan, and Milichie. The Port Naus- 
tathmos, the River Elorum, the Promontory Pachynum : 
and on this Front of Sicily, the River Hirminium, the Town 
Camarina, the River Helas, and Town Acragas, which our 
Countrymen have named Agrigentum. The Colony Thermae : 
Rivers, Atys and Hypsa : the Town Selinus : and next to it 
the Promontory Lilybaeum, Drepana, the Mountain Eryx. 
The Towns Panhormum, Solus, Hymetta with the River, 
Cephaloedis, Aluntium, Agathirium, Tyndaris a Colony, the 

M 



178 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

Town Mylse ; and, whence we began, Pelorus. Within, of 
Latin condition, the Centuripines, Netini, and Segestini. 
Stipendiaries, Assarini, .ZEtnenses, Agyrini, Acestaei, and 
Acrenses : Bidini, Citarii, Caciritani, Drepanitani, Ergetini, 
Ecestienses, Erycini, Eutellini, Etini, Enguini, Gelani, Gala- 
tani, Halesini, Ennenses, Hyblenses, Herbitenses, Herbes- 
senses, Herbulenses, Halicyenses, Hadranitani, Iinacarenses, 
Ichanenses, Jetenses, Mutustratini, Magellini, Murgentini, 
Mutyenses, Menanini, Naxii, Nooeni, Pelini, Paropini, Phin- 
thienses, Semellitani, Scherrini, Selinuntii, Symaetii, Tala- 
renses, Tissinenses,Triocalini, Tiracienses, Zanchaei belonging 
to the Messenians in the Straits of Sicily. Islands bending 
to Africa : Gaulos, Melita, from Camerina, 84 Miles ; and 
from Lilybaeum, 113: Cosyra, Hieronesus, Caene, Galata, 
Lopadusa, ^Ethusa, which others have written ^Egusa ; Bu- 
cina, and 75 Miles from Solus, Osteodes : and opposite the 
Paropini, Ustica. But on this Side Sicily, opposite the 
River Metaurus, about 12 Miles from Italy, seven others 
called JEoliae. The same Islands belonged to the Liparaei, 
and by the Greeks were called Hephaestiades, and by our 
People, Vulcaniae ; ^oliae, also, because ^Eohts reigned there 
in the Time that Ilium flourished. 



CHAPTER IX. 
Of Lipara. 

LIPARA, with a Town of Roman Citizens, so called from 
King Liparus, who succeeded ^Eolus, but before that named 
Melogonis, or Meligunis, is twelve Miles from Italy ; and is 
itself somewhat less in Circuit. Between it and Sicily there 
is another, formerly named Therasia, now Hiera, because it 
is sacred to Vulcan, wherein there is a Hill that casteth up 
Flames in the Night. A third is named Strongyl, a Mile 
from Lipara, lying toward the Sun-rising, wherein JEolus 
reigned ; and it differeth from Lipara only in that it sendeth 
forth more lively Flames : by the Smoke thereof the People 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 179 

of that Country are said to tell, three Days before-hand 1 , 
what Winds will blow : from whence it is commonly thought, 
that the Winds were obedient to JEolus. A fourth is named 
Didym&, less than Lipara : and a fifth, Ericusa : a sixth, 
Phoenicusa, left to feed the Rest that are next to it : the last 
and least is Euonymus. And thus much concerning the first 
Gulf that divideth Europe. 

CHAPTER X. 
Of Locri, the Front of Italy. 

AT Locri beginneth the Front of Italy, called Magna 
Graecia, retiring itself into three Bays of the Ausonian Sea ; 
because the Ausones first occupied it. It extendeth eighty- 
two Miles, as Varro testifieth ; but the greater Number of 
Writers have made it but seventy-two. In that Coast are 
Rivers without Number; but the Things which are worth 
the writing of near Locri, are these : Sagra, and the Vestiges 
of the Town Caulon : Mystia, the Camp Consilinum, Cerin- 
thus, which some think to be the longest Promontory of 
Italy. Then the Bay of Scylaceum, which was called by the 
Athenians, when they built it, Scylletium. Which Place the 
Bay Terinaeus meeting with, maketh a Peninsula : in which 
there is a Port called Castra Annibilis : and in no Place is 
Italy narrower, being but twenty Miles broad. And, therefore, 
Dionysius the Elder wished to have there cut it off, and 
added it to Sicily. Rivers navigable there : Caecinos, Cro- 
talus, Semirus, Arocha, Targines. Within is the Town Pe- 
tilia, the Mountain Alibanus, and the Promontory Lacinium : 
before the Coast of which is an Island ten Miles from the 
Land, called Dioscoron ; and another Calypsus, which Homer 

1 Wheelwright, in his translation of Pindar, thinks the following lines 
from the seventh Nemean Ode refer to the circumstance mentioned by 
Pliny : 

" Three days ere yet the tempest rise, 
The skilful mariner descries," &c. 

Wern. Club. 



180 History of Nature. [BOOK III. 

is supposed to have called Ogygia ; and also Tyris, Eranusa, 
Meloessa. And this is seventy Miles from Caulon, as Agrippa 
hath recorded. 

CHAPTER XI. 

The second Bay of Europe. 

FROM the Promontory Lacinium beginneth the second 
Bay of Europe, bent with a great Winding ; and it endeth at 
Acrocerauriium, a Promontory of Epirus, from which it is 
seventy Miles distant. In it is the Town Croto, and the 
River Naeathus. The Town Thurium, between the two 
Rivers, Arathis and Sybaris ; where there was a Town of the 
same Name. Likewise, between Siris and Aciris there 
standeth Heraclea, once called Siris. Rivers, Acalandrum, 
Masuentum ; the Town Metapontum, in which the third 
Region of Italy endeth. The inland Inhabitants, the Aprus- 
tani only, are of the Brutians : but of the Lucani, Thoati- 
nates, Bantini, Eburini, Grumentini, Potentini, Sontini, 
Sirini, Tergilani, Ursentini, Volcentani, to whom the Nu- 
mestrani are joined. Besides these, Cato writeth, that Thebes 
of the Lucani hath perished. And Theopompus saith, that 
Pandosia was a City of the Lucani, wherein Alexander the 
Epirote was slain. Attached to it is the second Region, 
containing within it the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia, and the 
Salentini, within a Bay, in Compass 250 Miles ; which is 
called Tarentinus, from a Town of the Laconi, situated in 
the Recess : and to it was annexed the maritime Colony 
which was there : it is distant from the Promontory Laci- 
nium 136 Miles ; putting forth Calabria into a Peninsula 
against it. The Greeks called it Messapia, from the Name 
of a Leader, and before this, Peucetia, of Peucetius, the bro- 
ther of CEnotrus. In the Salentine Country, between the 
Promontories, there is the Distance of 100 Miles. The 
Breadth of this Peninsula, from Tarentum to Brundisium, by 
Land, is two-and-thirty Miles ; but far shorter from the Port 
Sasina. The Towns in the Continent from Tarentum, are 
Varia, surnamed Apula, Cessapia and Aletium. But in the 
Coast of the Senones, Gallipolis, now Auxa, sixty-two Miles 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 181 

from Tarentum. Two-and-thirty Miles off is the Promontory 
which they call Acra Japygia, from which Italy runneth 
furthest into the Sea. Beyond it is the Town of Basta, and 
Hydruntum, the Space of nineteen Miles, to make a Par- 
tition between the Ionian and the Adriatic Sea ; through 
which is the shortest Passage into Greece, over against the 
Town of Apollonia ; where the Strait running between is not 
above fifty Miles over. This Space between, Pyrrhus King 
of Epirus, intending to have a Passage over on Foot, first 
thought to make Bridges across : after him, M. Varro, at the 
Time when in the Pirates' War, he was Admiral of Pompeys 
Fleet. But both of them were stopped by other Cares. Next to 
Hydrus, is Soletum, a City not inhabited : then, Fratuertium : 
the Port Tarentinus, the Garrison Town Lupia, Balesium, 
Caelium, Brundusium, fifteen Miles from Hydrus, much re- 
nowned among the chief Towns of Italy for the Harbour, 
especially for the surer sailing, although it be the longer ; 
and the City of lllyricum Dyrrhagium is ready to receive the 
Ships : the Passage over is 220 Miles. Upon Brundusium 
bordereth the Territory of the Psediculi. Nine young Men 
there were of them, and as many Maids, descended from the 
Illyrians, who begat thirteen Nations. The Towns of the 
Psediculi are Rhudia, Egnatia, Barion, formerly Japyx, from 
the Son of Dedalus ; who also gave Name to Japygia. 
Rivers, Pactius and Aufidus, issuing out of the Hirpine 
Mountains, and running by Canusium. Then followeth 
Apulia of the Dauni, so named from their Leader, Father- 
in-law to Diomedes. In which is the Town Salapia, famous 
for the Love of an Harlot loved by Annibal: then, Sipontum 
and Uria : also the River Cerbalus, where the Dauni end : 
the Port Agasus, the Cape of the Mountain Garganus, from 
Salentinum or Japygium 234 Miles, fetching a Compass 
about Garganus : the Harbour Garnae, the Lake Pantanus. 
The River Frento, full of Harbours ; and Teanum of the 
Apuli. Also, Larinum, Aliternia, and the River Tifernus. 
Then the Region Frentana, So there be three Kinds of 
Nations : Teani, of their Leader, from the Greeks : the 
Lucani, subdued by Calchas ; which Places now the Atinates 



182 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

hold. Colonies of the Dauni besides the above-named, Lu- 
ceria and Venusia : Towns, Canusium ; Arpi, sometime Argos 
Hippium, built by Diomedes, but soon after called Argyrippa. 
There Diomedes destroyed the Nations of the Monadi and 
Dardi, with two Cities, which grew to a laughable Proverb; 
Apina and Trica. The rest be inward in the second Region : 
one Colony of the Hirpini, called Beneventum, more auspici- 
ously by a Change of Name ; whereas, in Times past, it was 
denominated Maleventum : the ^Eculani, Aquiloni, and 
Abellinates, surnamed Protropi : the Campsani, Caudini ; 
and Ligures, surnamed Corneliani : as also Bebiani, Vescel- 
lani, Deculani, and Aletrini : Abellinates, surnamed Marsi ; 
the Atrani, .ZEcani, Asellani, Attinates, and Arpani : the 
Borcani, the Collating Corinenses : and, famous for the 
overthrow of the Romans there, the Cannenses : the Dirini, 
the Forentani, the Genusini, Hardonienses and Hyrini : the 
Larinates, surnamed Frentani, Metinates, and out of Gar- 
ganus the Mateolani, the Neritini and Natini, the Robustini, 
the Sylvini and Strapellini, the Turmentini, Vibinates, Venu- 
sini and Ulurtini, the inland Inhabitants of the Calabri, the 
.ZEgirini, Apanestini and Argentini. The Butuntinenses and 
Brumbestini, the Deciani, the Norbanenses, the Palionenses, 
Sturnini, and Tutini. Also of Salentini, the Aletini, Baster- 
bini, Neretini, Valentini, and Veretini. 

CHAPTER XII. 
The fourth JReyion of Italy. 

Now followeth the fourth Region ; even of the most 
valiant Nations of Italy. In the Coast of the Frentani, next 
to Tifernus, is the River Trinium 1 , full of Harbours. 
The Towns Histonium, Buca, and Ortona ; with the River 
Aternus. Inland are the Anxani, surnamed Frentani: the 
Carentini, both higher and lower; the Lanuenses; of Maurici, 
the Teatini : of Peligni, the Corsinienses ; Super- .ZEquani and 
Sulmonenses : of Marsi, the Anxantini and Atinates, the 
Fucentes, Lucentes, and Maruvii : of Alpenses, Alba upon 

1 Now Trigno. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 183 

the Lake Fucinus : of Jjlquiculani, the Cliternini and Carseo- 
lani : of the Vestini, the Augulani; Pinnenses; Peltuinates, 
to whom are joined the Aufinates on this Side the Moun- 
tains : of Samnites, whom the Greeks called Sabelli and 
Saunitse ; the Colony Bovianum, the old ; and another, sur- 
named Undecimanorum : the Aufidenates, Esernirii, Fagi- 
sulani, Ficolenses, Sepinates, Treventinates : of Sabini, the 
Amiternini, Curenses, Forum Decii, Forum Novum, the 
Fidenates, Interamnates, Nursini, Nomentani, Reatini, Tre- 
bulani, who are surnamed Mutuscaei, and also Suflfonates ; 
the Tiburtes, and Tarinates. In this Quarter of the JSqui- 
culse, there have perished the Comini, Tadiates, Acedici, and 
Alfaterni. Gellianus writeth, that Archippe, a Town of the 
Mar si, built by Marsyas^ a Leader of the Lydi, was swallowed 
up by the Lake Fucinus. Also Valerianus reporteth, that a 
Town of the Vidicini in Picenum was utterly destroyed by 
the Romans. The Sabini, as some have thought, were, for 
their Religion and worship of the Gods, called Seveni : they 
dwell close by the Veline Lakes, upon the dewy Hills. The 
River Nar draineth them with its sulphury Waters. Which 
River running from these toward Tiberis, filleth it : and flow- 
ing from the Mountain Fiscelius, near to the Groves of 
Vacuna and Reate, it is hidden in the same. But from ano- 
ther Side, the River Anio, beginning in the Mountain of the 
Trebani, bringeth into Tiberis three Lakes of noble Beauty, 
which gave the Name to Sublaqueo 1 . In the Reatine Ter- 
ritory is the Lake Cutilise, wherein floateth an Island : and 
this Lake, M. Varro saith, is the very midst of Italy. Be- 
neath the Sabini lieth Latium ; on the Side, Picenum ; be- 
hind, Umbria; and the Crags of the Apennine on either 
Hand enclose, as with a Rampart, the Sabini. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The fifth Region of Italy. 

THE fifth Region is Picene, in Times past exceedingly 
populous; 360,000 of the Picentes came under the Protec- 

1 Now Subiaquo. 



184 History of Nature. [BOOK III. 

tion of the People of Rome. They are descended from the 
Sabini, upon a Vow truly sacred. They dwelt by the River 
Aternus, where now is the Territory Adrianus, and the Colony 
Adria, seven Miles from the Sea. There is the River Voma- 
num and the Preetutian and Palmensian Territories. Also, 
Castrum Novum, the River Batinum, Truentum with the 
River ; which is the only Remains of the Liburnians remain- 
ing in Italy. The Rivers Alpulates, Suinum, and Helvinum, 
at which the Praetutian Country endeth, and the Picentian 
beginneth. The Town Cupra, a Castle of the Firmans, and 
above it the Colony Ascuum, of all Picenum the most noble. 
Within standeth Novana. In the Borders are Cluana, Po- 
tentia, and Numana, built by the Siculi. Next to those is 
the Colony Ancona, with the Promontory Cumerum, lying 
close by it, in the very Elbow of the Border thereof as it 
bendeth; and it is from Garganus 183 Miles. Within are 
the Auximates, Beregrani, Cingulani, Cuprenses, surnamed 
the Mountaineers ; Falarienses, Pausulani, Pleninenses, 
Ricinenses, Septempedani, Tollentinates, Triacenses, the City 
Sal via, and the Tollentini. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The sixth Region of Italy. 

To these adjoineth the sixth Region, embracing Umbria 
and the Gallic Country about Ariminum. From Ancona 
begin the Gallic Borders, by the Name of Togata Gallia. The 
Siculi and Liburni possessed most Parts of that Tract, and 
principally the Territories Palmensis, Prsetutianus, and 
Adrianus. Them the Umbrii expelled : these Etruria, and 
these again the Galli. The People of Umbria are supposed, 
of all Italy, to be of greatest Antiquity ; as being they whom 
Men think to have been by the Greeks named Ombri, be- 
cause in the Deluge of the Country by Rain, they only re- 
mained alive. The Thusci are known to have subdued 300 
Towns of theirs. At this Day, in the Border, there are, 
the River .^Esus, and Senogallia : the River Metaurus, the 
Colony Fanurn Fortunse. Pisaurum, with the River. And 
within, Hispellum and Tuder. In the Rest, the Amerini, 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 185 

Attidiates, Asirinates, Arnates, and ^Esinates. Camertes, 
Casventillani, Carsulani, Delates surnamed Salentini, Ful- 
ginates, Foro - flaminienses, Foro-Julienses, named also 
Concubienses, Foro-bremitiani, Foro-Sempronienses, Iguini, 
Interamnates, surnamed Nartes, Mevanates, Mevanienses, 
and Matilicates, Narnienses, whose Town formerly was 
called Nequinum. Nucerini surnamed Favonienses, and 
Camelani. The Otriculani and Ostrani. The Pitulani, sur- 
named Pisuertes, and others surnamed Mergentini ; the 
Pelestini, Sentinates, Sarsinates, Spoletini, Suarrani, Sesti- 
nates, and Suillates, Sadinates, Trebiates, Tuficani, Tifer- 
nates, named also Tribertini ; also others named Metau- 
renses. The Vesionicates, Urbinates, as well they that be 
surnamed Metaurenses, as others Hortenses ; the Vettio- 
nenses, Vindenates and Viventani. In this Tract there are 
extinct the Feliginates, and they who possessed Clusiolum 
above Interamna : also the Sarranates, with the Towns 
Acerrae, called also Vafriae; and Turceolum, the same as 
Vetriolum. Also, the Solinates, Suriates, Fallienates, Apien- 
nates. There are gone, likewise, the Arienates, with Crino- 
volum, and the Usidicani and Plangenses, the Pisinates and 
Caelestini, As for Amera above written, Cato hath left in 
Record, that it was built 964 Years before the War against 
Perseus. 

CHAPTER XV. 

The eighth Region of Italy. 

THE eighth Region is bounded by Ariminum, Padus, and 
Apennine. In the Borders thereof is the River Crustumi- 
num, the Colony Ariminum, with the Rivers Ariminum and 
Aprusa. Then the River Rubico, once the utmost Limit of 
Italy. After it, Sapis, Vitis, and Anemo ; Ravenna, a Town of 
the Sabini, with the River Bedeses, 102 Miles from Ancona. 
And not far from the Sea of the Umbri, Butrium. Within 
are these Colonies ; Bononia, usually called Felsina, when it 
was the head City of Etruria ; Brixillum, Mutina, Parma, 
Placentia. Towns, Caesena, Claterna, Forum-Clodii, Livii 
and Popilii, pertaining to the Truentini: also, [Forum] 
Cornolii, Laccini r Faventini, Fidentini, Otesini, Padinates, 



186 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

Regienses a Lepido, Solonates : also the Forests Galliani, 
surnamed Aquinates ; Tanetani, Veliates, surnamed Vecteri, 
Regiates and Umbranates. In this Tract the Boii have 
perished; who had 112 Tribes, as Cato maketh Report. 
Likewise the Senones, who took Rome. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Of the River Padus. 

PADUS issuing out of the Bosom of the Mountain Vesulus, 
bearing up his Head into a very lofty Height, runneth from 
a Spring 1 worth the seeing, in the Borders of the Ligurian 
Vagienni ; and hiding itself within a narrow Passage under 
the Ground, and rising up again in the Territory of the Foro- 
vibians, is inferior to no other Rivers in Excellency. By the 
Greeks it was called Eridanus, and well known for the 
Punishment of Phaeton. It increaseth about the Rising of 
the Dog-star, by Reason of the melting Snow : more violent 
to the Fields thereby, than to the Vessels : nevertheless, 
nothing is stolen away to itself; but when it hath left the 
Fields, its Bounty is more abundant by their Fruitfulness : 
from its Head it holdeth on its Course 300 Miles, adding, for 
its meandering, 88 Miles. It receiveth not only the navi- 
gable Rivers of the Apennines and the Alps, but large Lakes 
also that discharge themselves into it : so that in all it car- 
rieth into the Adriatic Sea, 30 Rivers. The most celebrated 
of them are these, sent out of the Side of Apennine : Tanarus, 
Trebia, Placentinus, Tarus, Nicia, Gabellus, Scultenna, Rhe- 
nus. But running out of the Alps, Stura, Morgns, two 
Duriae, Sessites, Ticinus, Lambrus, Addua, Olius, and Min- 
cius. And there is no River that in so little Way groweth to 
a greater Stream ; because it is driven on with the Mass of 
Water, and stirred to the Bottom, heavy to the Earth, al- 
though it be drawn into Rivers and Trenches between Ra- 
venna and Ativum, for 120 Miles : yet because it casteth 
them out in great Abundance, it is said to make seven 

1 Pliny tells us (lib. ii. 106) that this wonderful spring ceased to flow 
at mid-day in the summer season. Under the modern name of Po, this 
river is not less celebrated than in ancient times. Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 187 

Seas. It is drawn to Ravenna by a narrow Channel, where 
it is called Padusa, and in Times past, Messanicus. The 
next Mouth that he maketh from thence, carrieth the Big- 
ness of a Harbour, which is named Vatreni : at which Clau- 
dius Ctesar, as he came triumphant from Britain, entered 
into Adria, with that Vessel, more like a huge House than a 
Ship. This Mouth of it was formerly called Eridanum : by 
others, Spineticum, from the neighbouring City Spinae, built 
by Diomedes (as some think), with the Treasures of Delphi. 
There the River Vatrenus, from out of the Territory of 
Forum Cornelii, increaseth Padus. The next Mouth is 
Caprasise, then Sagis, then Volane, which before was named 
Olane. All those Rivers and Trenches, the Thusci were the 
first to make out of Sagis, carrying the forcible Stream of the 
River across into the Atrian Ponds, which are called the seven 
Seas ; and they made the famous Harbour of Atria, a Town 
of the Thusci ; of which the Atriatic Sea took the Name 
aforetime ; which now is called Adriaticum. From thence 
are the full Mouths of Carbonaria, and the Fosses Phylis- 
tinse, which others call Tartarus ; but all spring out of the 
overflowing of the Foss Phylistina, with Athesis coming out of 
the Tridentine Alps, and Togisonus out of the Territory of the 
Patavini. Part of them made also the next Port Brundulum : 
like as the two Medoaci and the Foss Clodia, make Edron. 
With these Padus mingleth itself, and by these it runneth 
over ; and, as it is said by most Writers, like as in Egypt 
Nilus maketh that which they call Delta, so it shapeth a 
triangular Figure between the Alps and the Sea-coast, two 
Miles in Compass. It is a Shame to borrow from the Greeks 
the Explanation of Things in Italy : but Metrodorus Scepsius 
saith, that because about the Head of this River there grow 
many Pitch Trees, called in the Gallic Language, Pades, 
therefore it took the Name of Padus. Also, that in the 
Ligurian Language, the River itself is called Bodincus, 
which means bottomless. And to approve this Argument, 
there is a neighbouring Town called Industria, but by an old 
Name, Bodincomagum ; where beginneth its greatest Depth. 



188 History of Nature. [BOOK III. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Italy beyond Padus, the eleventh Region. 

NEXT to it is the Region called Transpadana, the eleventh 1 
in Number ; and all in the Midland Part ; into which the 
Seas bring all Things with fruitful Channel. The Towns 
therein be, Vibi-Forum, and Segusius. The Colonies from 
the Foot of the Alps, Augusta of the Taurini, an ancient 
Descent from the Liguri : from whence Padus is navigable. 
Then, Augusta Prsetoria, of the Salassi, near the two-fold 
Passages of the Alps, Graijae and Peninse : for it is recorded, 
that the Carthaginians (Pseni) came through the one, and 
Hercules in at the other, named Graijae. There standeth the 
Town, Eporedia, built by the People of Rome by direction 
of the Books of the Sibyls. The Gauls, in their Tongue, call 
good Horse-breakers Eporedicse. Also, Vercella of the 
Lybici, descended from the Sallii : Novaria, from the Verta- 
comacori ; which at this Day is a Village of the Vocontii, 
and not, as Cato thinketh, of the Liguri ; of whom the Levi 
and Marici built Ticinum, not far from the Padus : like as 
the Boii coming over the Alps, founded Laus Pompeia ; arid 
the Insubrias, Mediorlapum. That Comus and Bergomus, 
and Licini- Forum, with other People thereabout, were of the 
Orobian Race, Cato hath reported : but the Original of that 
Nation, he confesseth that he knoweth not. Which Corne- 
lius Alexander sheweth to have descended from the Greeks; 
and this by the Interpretation of their Name, which signi- 
fieth, Men living in Mountains. In this Tract, Barra, a 
Town of the Orobians, is perished ; from whence, Cato saith, 
the Bergomates took their Beginning ; discovering by their 
Name, that they were seated more highly than happily. 
There are perished also the Caturiges, banished Persons of 

1 Pliny says, the eleventh region; and he may be accurate according 
to his original authority: which was a survey ordered by Augustus 
Caesar, and in some measure equivalent to the English Domesday survey. 
This measure of the emperor may be, perhaps, the same that is referred 
to by St. Luke, ii. 1. But in Pliny's order of reckoning it is only the 
ninth region. Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 189 

the Insubri : likewise Spina, before-named. Also, Melpum, 
a Town remarkable for Wealth ; which, as Nepos Cornelius 
hath written, was by the tnsubres, Boii, and Senones, razed 
on that very Day on which Camillus took Veii. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Venetia, the tenth Region. 

Now followeth the tenth Region of Italy, Venetia, lying 
upon the Adriatic Sea : the River whereof, Silis, cometh from 
the Mountains Taurisani : also the Town Altinum, the River 
Liquentia, issuing from the Mountains Opitergeni ; and a 
Harbour of the same Name; the Colony Concordia. Rivers 
and Havens : Romatinum, Tilaventum, the greater and the 
less : Anassum, by which Varranus runneth down : Alsa, 
Natiso, with Turrus, running by Aquileia, a Colony situated 
12 Miles from the Sea. This is the Region of the Carni, 
joining that of Japides : the River Timavus, and the Castle 
Pucinum, famous for good Wine. The Bay Tergestinus, the 
Colony Tergeste, 23 Miles from Aquileia : beyond which six 
Miles, is the River Formio, 189 Miles from Ravenna: the 
ancient Limit of Italy enlarged, but at this Day of Istria, 
which they report, was so named of the River Ister, flowing 
out of the River Danubius into Adria : and over against the 
same Ister, the Mouth of Padus : by the contrary rushing 
Streams of which two Rivers, the Sea between beginneth to 
be more mild ; as many Authors have reported, but untruly ; 
and Cornelius Nepos, also, although he dwelt just by Padus : 
for there is no River that runneth out of Danubius into the 
Adriatic Sea. They were deceived (1 suppose), because the 
Ship Argos 1 went down a River into the Adriatic Sea, not far 

1 The Argonauts embarked at Jolcos, in Thessaly, and steered first to 
Lemnos : from whence, after many adventures, they reached the Phasis, 
which flows through Colchis into the Black Sea. It would be no easy 
task to point out the course they took on their return. Pindar, in the 
Fourth Pythian Ode, makes them pass the Erythraean Sea 
" Then mingling in the ocean deep, 
The Erythraean Sea they sweep." 
By the Erythraean Sea the Indian Ocean is to be understood, through 



190 History of Nature. [BOOK III. 

from Tergeste; but what River it was, is unknown. The 
more diligent Enquirers say, that it was carried upon Men's 
Shoulders over the Alps : and that it was embarked into 
Ister, and so into Saus, and then Nauportus, which upon 
that occasion took his Name, which riseth between ^Emona 
and the Alps. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Istria. 

ISTRIA runneth out like a Peninsula. Some have deli- 
vered, that it is 40 Miles broad, and 122 Miles in Circuit. 
The like they say of Liburnia adjoining to it, and of the Bay 
Flanaticus. But others say, that the Circuit of Liburnia is 
180 Miles. Some have set out Japidia to the Bay Flanaticus, 
behind Istria, 130 Miles : and so have made Liburnia in Cir- 
cuit 150 Miles. TuditanuSj who subdued the Istri, upon his 
own Statue there set this Inscription : from Aquileia to 
the River Titius, are 200 Stadia. The Towns in Istria, of 
Roman Citizens, are ^Egida and Parentium. A Colony there 
is, Pola, now called Pietas Julia ; built in old Time by the 
Colchii. It is from Tergeste, 100 Miles. Soon after, the 
Town Nesactium, and the River Arsia, now the Bound of 
Italy. From Ancona to Pola, there is a Passage over the 
Sea of 120 Miles. In the Midland Part of this tenth Region 
are the Colonies, Cremona and Brixia, in the Country of 
the Cenomanni : but in the Country of the Veneti, Ateste. 
Also the Towns Acelum, Patavium, Opitergium, Belunum, 
Vicetia : Mantua of the Tusci, the only Place left beyond 
the Padus. That the Veneti were the Offspring of the Tro- 

which it seems they came into Africa, and when arrived on land, carrying 
the ship on their shoulders until they came to the Tritoniari Lake, they 
sailed into the Mediterranean, and touched at Thera; thence through 
the Ocean they came to the island of Lemnos. (See Wheelwright's 
" Pindar.") But a more probable course would be one approaching that 
given by Pliny in the text. The whole story of the Argonauts, how- 
ever, having, in the lapse of time, become a mere fable, it is not worth the 
attempt to illustrate it. Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 191 

jans Cato informs us, and also, that the Cenomanni, near to 
Massilia, dwell among the Volsci. Fertini, Tridentini, and 
Bernenses, are Towns of Rhetia. Verona is of the Rheti and 
Euganei; Julienses of the Garni. Then follow these, whom 
we need to use no Strictness in naming ; Alutruenses, Asse- 
riates, Flamonienses, Vannienses, and others surnamed 
Gulici : Foro Julienses, surnamed Transpadani : Foretani, 
Venidates, Querqueni, Taurisani, Togienses, Varvani. In 
this Tract there have perished in the Borders, Itamine, Pel- 
laon, Palsicium. Of the Veneti, Atina and Caelina : of the 
Garni, Segeste and Ocra : and of the Taurissi, Noreia. Also 
from Aquileia twelve Miles, there was a Town destroyed by 
M. Claudius Marcellus, in spite of the Senate, as L. Piso 
hath recorded. In this Region there are also ten remarkable 
Lakes and Rivers, either issuing forth of them as their Off- 
spring, or else maintained by them, if they send them out 
again, when they have received them : as Larius doth Addua, 
Verbanus Ticinus, Benacus Mincius, Sebinus Ossius, Eupi- 
lius Lamber, all seated in the Padus. The Alps reach in 
Length ten Miles from the upper Sea to the lower, as Ccdius 
saith : Timogenes, two-and-twenty : but Cornelius Nepos, in 
Breadth 100 Miles : T. Livius saith, 3000 Stadia. But both 
of them take Measure in different Places ; for sometimes they 
exceed 100 Miles, where they separate Germany from Italy : 
and in other Parts they are so narrow, that they make not 
full out three score and ten Miles ; as if by the Provi- 
dence of Nature. The Breadth of Italy, from Varus under 
the Foot of them through the Shallows of Sabatia, the Tau- 
rini, Comus, Brixia, Verona, Vicetia, Opitergium, Aquileia, 
Tergeste", Pola, and Aristia, maketh 702 Miles. 

CHAPTER XX. 
Of the Alps and Alpine Nations. 

MANY Nations inhabit the Alps, but those of special 
Name, from Pola to the Tract of Tergestis, are these : the 
Secusses, Subocrini, Catili, Menocaleni : and near to the 
Garni, those who in Times past were called Taurisci, but 



192 History of Nature. [Boox III. 

now Norici. To these are Neighbours the Rheti and Vin- 
delici, all divided into many Cities. The Rheti are judged 
to be descended from the Thusci, driven out by the Galli, 
with their Leader Rhcetus 1 . But turning our Breast to Italy, 
we meet with the Euganean Nations of the Alps, who en- 
joyed the Right of the Latins, and whose Towns Cato reck- 
oneth to the number of four and thirty. Of them, the 
Triumpilini, both People and Lands, were sold. After them 
the Camuni, and many such, were annexed to the next Muni- 
cipii. The Lepontii and the Salassi, Cato thinketh to be of 
the Tauric Nation. But almost all others suppose that the 
Lepontici were a Residue left behind of the Companions of 
Hercules , through the interpretation of the Greek Name, as 
having their Members burned with the Alpine snows as they 
passed through : that the Graii likewise were of the same 
Company, planted in the Passage, and inhabiting the Alps 
Graiae : also that the Euganei were noblest in Birth, from 
which they took their Name. The Head of them is Stonos. 
Of those Rhoeti the Vennonetes and Sarunetes inhabit the 
Heads of the River Rhenus : and of the Leponti, those who 
are called Viberi dwell by the Fountain of Rhodanus, in 
the same quarter of the Alps. There be also Inhabitants 
within the Alps endowed with the Liberty of Latium : as 
the Octodurenses, and their Borderers the Centrones, the 
Cottian Cities. The Caturiges, and the Vagienni, from 
them descended ; Ligures, and such as are called the Moun- 
taineers : and many kinds of the Capillati, on the Borders 
of the Ligusticus Sea. In seemeth not amiss in this Place 
to set down an Inscription out of a Trophy erected in 
the Alps, which runneth in this Form : To the Emperor 
Caesar, Son o/Divus Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Imperator 
fourteen Times, and invested with the Authority of the 
Tribune seventeen Times : the Senate and People of Rome : 
For that under his Conduct and Auspices, all the Alpine 

1 Justin, xx. 5, p. 181, says, " The Tusci, with their leader Koetus, 
having lost their ancient territorial possessions, took possession of the 
Alps, and laid the foundation of the nation of the Roeti, so called after the 
name of their leader." Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. J93 

Nations which reached from the Upper Sea to the Nether, 
were reduced under the Empire of the People of Rome. The 
Alpine Nations subdued: Triumpilini, Camuni, Vennonetes, 
Isarci, Breuni, Naunes, and Focunates. Of the Vindelici 
four Nations: the Consuanetes, Virucinates, Licates, and 
Catenates. The Abisontes, Rugusce, Suanetes, Calucones, 
Brixentes, Lepontii, Viberi, Nantuates, Seduni, Veragri, 
Salad, Acitavones, Medulli, Uceni, Caturiges, Brigiani, 
Sogiontiiy Ebroduntii, Nemaloni, Edenates, Esubiani, Veamini, 
Gallitce, Triulatti, Ectini, Vergunni, Eguituri, Nementuri, 
Oratelli, Nerusivelauni, Suetri. There were not reckoned 
among these the twelve Cottian Cities, which were not in 
any Hostility, nor yet those which were assigned to the 
Municipii by virtue of the Law Pouipeia. This is that 
Italy sacred to the Gods, these are her Nations, and these 
be the Towns of the People. And more than this, that 
Italy which, when L. JEnilius Paulus and Caius Attilius 
Regulus were Consuls, upon news of a Tumult of the Gauls, 
alone, without any Foreign aids, and without any Nations 
beyond the Padus, armed 80,000 Horsemen and 700,000 
Foot. In plenty of all Metals it giveth place to no Land 
whatsoever. But it is forbidden to dig any by an old Act 
of the Senate, commanding to spare Italy. 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Illyricum. 

THE Nation of the Liburni joineth to Arsia, as far as 
the River Titius. A Part of it were the Mentores, Hymani, 
Encheleae, Dudini, and those whom Callimachus nameth 
Pucetiae. Now, the whole in general is called by one Name, 
Illyricum. The Names of the Nations are few of them 
worthy or easy to be spoken. The lapides, and fourteen 
Cities of the Liburni, resort to the Convention at Scordona : 
of which it is not irksome to name the Laciniensi, Stulpini, 
Burnistee, and Albonenses. And in that Convention these 
Nations following have the Liberty of Italians : the Alutas 
and Flanates, of whom the Gulf is named: Lopsi, Varubarini, 



194 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

and the Assesiates that are exempt from Tribute: also of 
Islands, the Fulsinates and Curictae 1 . Moreover, along 
the maritime Coasts, beyond Nesactiuni, these Towns : Al- 
vona, Flavona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Ortopula, Vegium, 
Argyruntum, Corinium, the City ^Enona, the River Pausinus, 
and Tedanium, at which lapida endeth. The Islands lying 
in that Gulf, with the Towns, besides those above noted, 
Absirtium, Arba, Tragurium, Issa ; Pharos, beforetime 
Pares, Crexa, Gissa, Portunata. Again, within the Con- 
tinent, the Colony laderon, which is from Pola 160 Miles. 
From thence, 30 Miles off, the Island Colentum ; and 18 
to the Mouth of the River Titius. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Liburnia. 

THE End of Liburnia and Beginning of Dalmatia is 
Scordona, which is twelve Miles from the Sea, situate upon 
the said River (Titius). Then followeth the ancient Country 
of the Tariotae, and the Castle Tariota, the Promontory of 
Diomed, or, as some would have it, the Peninsula Hyllis ; 
in Circuit 100 Miles. Also Tragurium, inhabited by Roman 
Citizens, well known for its Marble : Sicum, into which 
Place Divus Claudius sent the old Soldiers : the Colony 
Salona, 222 Miles from ladera. There repair to it for Law 
those that are described into Decuries, 382 : of Dalmatise, 
22; Decuni,239; Ditiones,69; and Mezaei, 52; Sardiates. In 
this Tract are Burnum, Mandetrium, and Tribulium, Castles 
illustrious for the Battles of the Romans. There come also 
for Law, of the Islands the Isssei, Collentini, Separi, and 
Epetini. From these, certain Castles, Piguntise and Ra- 
taneum, and Narona, a Colony, pertaining to the third Con- 
vention, 72 Miles from Salona, lying close by a River of the 
same Name, and 20 Miles from the Sea. M. Varro writeth, 
that 89 Cities used to repair thither for Justice. Now, about 
these only are known, Cerauni in 33 Decuries ; Daorizi 
in 17; Destitiates in 103; Docleatse in 34 ; Deretini in 14; 

1 Now Vegia. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 195 

Deremistae in 30 ; Dindari in 33 ; Glinditiones in 44 ; Mel- 
comani in 24 ; Naresii in 102 ; Scirtari in 72 ; Siculotae 
in 24 ; and the Vardsei, who formerly wasted Italy, in not 
more than twenty Decuries. Besides these, there held this 
Tract, Oenei, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae, and Armistae. 
From the River Naron 100 Miles, is the Colony Epidaurum. 
Towns of Roman Citizens, Rhizinium, Ascrinium, Butua, 
Olchiniuin, which hefore was called Colchinium, built by 
the Colchi. The River Drilo, and the Town upon it, Scodra, 
inhabited by Roman Citizens, eighteen Miles from the Sea ; 
besides many other Towns of Greece, and strong Cities, out 
of all remembrance. For in that Tract were the Labeatae, 
Enderoduni 1 , Sassgei, Grabsei, and those who properly were 
called Illyrii, and Taulantii, and Pyrgei. The Promontory 
Nymphgeum, in the Coast, keepeth the name : also Lissum, 
a Town of Roman Citizens, 100 Miles from Epidaurum. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Macedonia. 

FROM Lissum is the Province of Macedonia : the Nations 
there are the Partheni, and on their Back, the Dassaretes. 
The Mountains of Candavia seventy-nine Miles from Dyr- 
rhachium. But in the Borders, Denda, a Town of Roman 
Citizens; also the Colony Epidamnum 2 , which, for that 
inauspicious Name, was by the Romans called Dyrrhachium. 
The River Aous, named of some ^Eas ; Apollonia, once a 
Colony of the Corinthians, seven Miles from the Sea ; 
in the Recesses of which is the famous Nymphaeum 3 . The 
Foreigners inhabiting about it are the Amantes and Bu- 
liones; but in the Borders, the Town Oricum, built by the 
Colchi. Then beginneth Epirus, the Mountains Acroce- 

1 Now Endero, in Albania. 

2 Mela, ii. 3. The Romans changed the name Epidamnum, because 
it seemed ominous to those ivho were going to their loss. It is now Durazzo. 
Wern. Club. 

8 The crater Nymphaei was a hot spring in the territory of Apollonia, 
and is described by Pliny, lib. ii. 110. Wern. Club. 



196 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

raunia, with which we have bounded this Bay of Europe. 
Oricum is from Salentinum (a Promontory of Italy) four 
score and five Miles. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Noricum. 

BEHIND the Garni and lapides, where the great River 
Ister runneth, the Norici are joined to the Rhaeti. Their 
Towns are Virunum, Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum, Viana, 
^Emona, Claudia, Flavium, Tolvense. Near the Norici are 
the Lake Peiso, the Deserts of the Boii. Nevertheless now, 
by the Colony of Divus Claudius, Salaria, and by the Town 
Scarabantia Julia, they are inhabited. 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Pannonia. 

THENCE beginneth Mast-bearing Pannonia: from which 
the Crags of the Alps, becoming more Smooth, turn through 
the midst of Illyricum from the North to the South, and 
settle lower by an easy Descent, both on the right Hand and 
the left. That Part which looks toward the Adriatic Sea is 
called Dalmatia, and Illyricum, above-named. Pannonia 
bendeth toward the North, and is bounded with the River 
Danubius. In it are these Colonies : ^Emonia, Siscia. And 
these remarkable and navigable Rivers run into Danubius : 
Draus, with more Violence, out of the Noric Alps ; and 
Saus out of the Carnic Alps more gently, 115 Miles between. 
Draus passeth through the Serretes, Serrapilli, Jasi, and 
Sandrozetes: Saus through the Colapiani and Breuci. And 
these be the chief of the People. Moreover, the Arivates, 
Azali, Amantes, Belgites, Catari, Corneates, Aravisci, Her- 
cuniates, Latovici, Oseriates, and Varciani. The Mountain 
Claudius, in the Front of which are the Scordisci, and upon 
the Back, the Taurisci. The Island in Saus, Metubarris, 
the biggest of all the River Islands. Besides, remarkable 
Rivers : Calapis, running into Saus, near Siscia ; where, 
with a double Channel, it maketh the Island called Segestica. 



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 197 

Another River, Bacuntius, running likewise into Saus at 
the Town Sirmium : where is the City of the Sirmians and 
Amantines. Forty-five Miles from thence, Taurunum, where 
Saus is intermingled with Danubius. Higher above there run 
into it Valdanus and Urpanus, which are no obscure Rivers. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
Mcesia. 

To Pannonia is joined the Province called Mcesia, which 
extendeth^'along Danubiusl unto Pontus. It beginneth 
from the confluent above named. In it are the Dardani, 
Celegeri, Triballi, Trimachi, Mcesi, Thraces, and the Scy- 
thae, bordering upon Pontus. Fair Rivers, out of the 
Dardanian Borders : Margis, Pingus, and Timachis. Out 
of Rhodop, Oessus : out of Haemus, Utus, Essamus, and 
Jeterus. Illyricum, where it is broadest, taketh up 325 
Miles : in Length from the River Arsia to the River Drinius, 
800 Miles. From Drinium to the Promontory Acroce- 
raunium, 182 Miles. M. Agrippa hath set down this whole 
Gulf, comprehending Italy and Illyricum, in the compass of 
1300 Miles. In it are two Seas, bounded as I have said: 
that is, the Lower, otherwise called the Ionian, in the first 
Part : the Inner, called Adriaticum, which also they name 
the Upper. In the Ausonian Sea there are no Islands worth 
the naming, but those above specified. In the Ionian Sea 
there are but few : upon the Calabrian Coast, before Brun- 
dusium, by the interposition of which the Harbour is made : 
and against the Apulian Coast, Diomedea, famous for the 
Tomb of Diomedes. Another of the same Name, called by 
some Teutria. The Coast of Illyricum is heaped with more 
than 1000 ; such is the nature of the Sea, full of Shallows, 
with narrow Channels running^ between. But before the 
Mouth of Timavus, there are Islands famous for hot Waters, 
which flow with the Sea. And near the Territory of the 
Istri, Cissa, Pullariaj, and those which the'Greeks name Ab- 
syrtides, from Absyrtis, Brother of Medea, there slain. Near 



198 History of Nature. [BooK III. 

them they called the Islands Electridse, wherein is produced 
Amber, which they call Electrum : a very certain Argument 
to prove the Vanity of the Greeks ; inasmuch as the matters 
they assigned to him were never known. Opposite lader is 
Lissa ; and certain others over against the Liburni, called 
Creteae : and as many of the Liburni, Celadusse. Opposite 
Surium is Brattia, commended for Oxen and Goats. Issa, 
inhabited by Roman Citizens, and Pharia with the Town. 
Next to these, Corcyra, surnamed Melsena ; with the Town 
of the Guidii, distant 22 Miles : between which and Illy- 
ricum is Melita ; from whence (as Callimachus) testifieth) 
the little Dogs Melitaei took their Name 1 ; and twelve Miles 
from thence, the three Elaphites. In the Ionian Sea, from 
Oricum 1000 Miles, is Sasonis, well known for the Station of 
Pirates. 

1 There were two islands called Melita : one of them between Sicily 
and Africa, famous for the shipwreck of St. Paul ; and from which, Strabo 
says, the Melitean or Maltese dogs took their name. The other Melita 
was on the coast of Illyria ; and from this, other authors besides Pliny 
suppose these favourite animals to have been derived. Wern. Club. 



Note. The reader will have observed in the preceding chapters a 
strange diversity of opinion in the mind of the author : for whilst he 
ascribes every ominous appearance to the deities presiding over the affairs 
of men, yet, in other passages, he expresses his doubts as to their ex- 
istence, or would limit to the earth itself the controlling power ; in other 
words, he believed the earth to be a deity. From these incongruities we 
can derive but one opinion, namely, that, heathen as he was, Pliny never- 
theless doubted the truth of that which his countrymen and other heathen 
nations believed, whilst he fell short of that true knowledge which, in 
and before his day, had been vouchsafed to many like himself, who from 
heathenism were converted to Christianity, either through the evidence 
of miracles, by which its truth was supported, or through the opening of 
the eyes of the understanding, by which means they acknowledged that 
which seemed a mystery before. Considering these chapters in this light, 
much interest is added to the style and spirit in which our author wrote. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK III.] 



History of Nature, 



199 




Roman Milliarium, from Montfattfon. See page 171. 



London : Printed by George Barclay, Castle Street, Leicester Square. 



PLINY'S 
NATURAL HISTORY. 



IN 



THIRTY-SEVEN BOOKS. 



A TRANSLATION 

ON THE BASIS OF THAT BY DR. PHILEMON HOLLAND, 
ED. 1601. 



WITH CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



VOL. II. 




bt> tijf Wtrnman Club. 



PRINTED FOR THE CLUB 

BY 

GEORGE BARCLAY, CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE. 
1848-49. 



PURSUANT to a Resolution to the following effect, passed at a meeting of 
the Committee held on Wednesday, the 15th March, 1848, 

" The best thanks of the Club are hereby presented to 

JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S., the Superintending Editor of this 
Publication, and Translator of the Work. 

Also to the following Gentlemen, viz. : 

In the Department of Classics, 

W. G. V. BARNEWALL, Esq. M.A. 
Rev. GEORGE MUNFORD. 

In the Department of Geography, 

W. H. F. PLATE, Esq. LL.D. 
GEORGE ALEXANDER, Esq. F.S.A. 
CHARLES MOXON, Esq. 

In the Department of Natural History and Physiology, 

C. J. B. ALDIS, Esq. M.D. 
C. R. HALL, Esq. M.D. 
JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S. 
JOHN CHIPPENDALE, Esq. F.R.C.S. 

For the Editorial Assistance rendered by them in the preparation of the 
accompanying Work." 



IN THE FOURTH BOOK 



ARE COMPRISED 



REGIONS, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, MOUNTAINS, PORTS, RIVERS, 

WITH THEIR DIMENSIONS, AND PEOPLE, EITHER NOW 

OR IN TIMES PAST KNOWN; VIZ. I 



CHAP. 

1. Epirus. 

2. ^Etolia. 

3. Locri. 

4. Peloponnesus. 

5. Achaia. 

6. Arcadia. 

7. Greece and Attica. 

8. Thessaly. 

9. Magnesia. 

10. Macedonia. 

11. Thracia. 

12. The Islands lying between 

those Countries : among 
which, Greta, Euboea, the 
Cyclades, Sporades : also, 



CHAP. 

the Isles within Hellespont, 
near the Sea of Pontus, 
within Moeotis, Dacia, Sar- 
matia, and Scythia. 

13. The Islands of Pontus. 

14. The Islands of Germany. 

15. Islands in the French Ocean. 

16. Britain and Ireland. 

17. Gaul. 

18. Gallia Lugdunensis. 

19. Aquitain. 

20. High Spain (named Citerior). 

21. Portugal. 

22. Islands in the Ocean. 

23. The Measure of all Europe. 



Herein are contained many principal Towns and Countries, famous 
Rivers and Mountains ; Islands, also, besides Cities or Nations that are 
perished : in sum, Histories and Observations. 



LATIN WRITERS ABSTRACTED : 

M. Varro, Cato Censorius, M. Agrippa, Divus Augustus, Varro Ata- 
, Cor. Nepos, Hyginus, L. Vetas, Pomponius Mela, Licinius Mutianus, 
Fabricius Thuscus, Atteius Capita, and Atteius Philologus. 

FOREIGN AUTHORS: 

Polybius, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Diccearchus, 
Timosthenes, Ephorus, Crater the Grammarian, Serapion of Antioch, Cal- 
limachus, Artemidorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Eumachus Siculus the 
Musician, Alexander Polyhistor, Thucydides, Dosiades, Anaximander, 
Philistides, Mallotes, Dionysius, Aristides, Callidemus, Mencechmus, j*Edas- 
thenes, Anticlides, Heraclides, Philemon, Menephon, Pythias, Isidorus, 
Philonides, Xenagoras, Astyonomus, Staphylus, Ariatocritus, Metrodorus, 
Cleobulus, and Posidonius. 

VOL. II. B 



THE FOURTH BOOK 



HISTORY OF NATURE. 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 




From whence first arose all the fabulous Lies, and the 
excellent Learning of the Greeks. 

HE third Bay of Europe beginneth at the 
Mountains of Acrocerannia, and endeth in 
the Hellespont. It containeth, besides 19 
smaller Bays, 25,000 Miles. Within it are 
Epirus, Acarnania, ^Etolia, Phocis, Locris, 
Achaia, Messania, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica, 
Bceotia. And again, from another Sea, the same Phocis 
and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Ma- 
cedonia, Thracia. All the fabulous Vein, as well as the 
illustrious learning of Greece, proceeded first out of this 
quarter; on which account we will therein stay somewhat 
the longer. The Country Epirus, generally so called, be- 
ginneth at the Mountains of Acroceraunia. In it are, first, 
the Chaones, of whom Chaonia taketh the Name : then the 
Thesproti, and Antigonenses : the Place Aornus, and Exha- 
lation so deadly to Birds. The Cestrini, and Perrhoabi, with 
their Mountain Pindus : the Cassiopsei, the Dryopes, Selli, 
Hellopes, and Molossi, among whom is the Temple of Jupiter 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 3 

Dodonceus, so famous for the Oracle : the Mountain To- 
marus, celebrated by Theopompus for the hundred Fountains 
about its foot. 



CHAPTER I. 
Ejjirus. 

EPIRUS itself reaching to Magnesia and Macedonia, hath 
behind it the Dassaretae above named, a free Nation; but 
presently the savage People of the Dardani. On the left 
side of the Dardani, the Treballi and Nations of Moesia lie 
ranged : from the Front are joined to them, the Medi 
and Denthelatse ; upon whom the Thraces border, who 
reach as far as to Pontus. Thus it is environed with 
Rhodope, and is fenced presently also with the Heights of 
Haetnus. In the Coast of Epirus, among the Acroceraunia, 
is the Castle Chimsera, under which is the Spring of the 
King's Water. The Towns are Maeandria and Cestria : the 
River of Thesprotia, Thyamis : the Colony Buthrotium : 
and the Gulf of Ambracia, above all others most famous, 
receiving at its Mouth the wide Sea, 39 Miles in Length 
and 15 in Breadth. Into it runneth the River Acheron, 
flowing out of Acherusia, a Lake of Thesprotia, 36 Miles 
from thence : and the Bridge over it, 1000 Feet long, ad- 
mirable to those that admire all Things of their own. In 
the Gulf is the Town Ambracia. The Rivers of the Molossi, 
Aphas and Arachtus. The City Anactoria, and the Lake 
Pandosia. The Towns of Acarnania, called formerly Curetus, 
are Heraclea and Echinus : and in the very entrance, Actium, 
a Colony of Augustus, with the noble Temple of Apollo, and 
the free City Nicopolis. When out of the Ambracian Gulf 
and in the Ionian Sea, we meet with the Leucadian Coast 
and the Promontory of Leucate. Then the Bay, and Leu- 
cadia itself, a Peninsula, once called Neritis, but by the 
Labour of the neighbouring Inhabitants cut off quite from 
the Continent, but joined to it again by means of the Winds 



4 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

blowing together heaps of Sand ; which Place is called 
Dioryctus, and is in Length half a mile. A Town in it is 
called Leucas, formerly Neritum. Then the Cities of the 
Acarnani, Halyzea, Stratos, Argos, surnamed Amphilo- 
chicum. The River Achelous running out of Pindus, and 
dividing Acarnania from ^tolia ; and by continual addition 
of Earth joining the Island Artemita to the main Land. 



CHAPTER II. 
JEtolia. 

THE ^Etolian People are the Athamanes, Tymphei, 
Ephiri, jEnienses, Perrhoebi, Dolopes, Maraces and Atraces, 
from whom the River Atrax falleth into the Ionian Sea. 
The Town Calydon in ^Etolia is seven Miles and a half from 
the Sea, near to the River Evenus. Then followeth Ma- 
cynia and Molychria ; behind which Chalcis standeth, and 
the Mountain Taphiassus. But in the Borders, the Pro- 
montory Antirrhium, where is the Mouth of the Corinthian 
Gulf, not a Mile broad where it runneth in and divideth 
the JEtoli from Peloponnesus. The Promontory that shooteth 
out against it is named Rhion : but in the Corinthian Gulf 
are the Towns of JEtolia, Naupactum, and Pylene : and in 
the Midland parts, Pleuron, Halysarna. The Mountains of 
name : in Dodone, Tomarus : in Ambracia, Grania : in 
Acarnania, Aracynthus : in ^Etolia, Acanthon, Panaetolium, 
and Macinium. 

CHAPTER III. 
Locri. 

NEXT to the ^Etoli are the Locri, surnamed Ozolae, free : 
the Town Oeanthe : the Port of Apollo Phastius : the Bay 
Crissaeus. Within, the Towns Argyna, Eupalia, Phsestum, 
and Calamissus. Beyond are Cirrhsei, the Plains of Phocis, 
the Town Cirrha, the Port Chalseon : from which, seven 
Miles within the Land, is the free City Delphi, under the 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 5 

Mountain Parnassus, the most illustrious Place upon Earth 
for the Oracle of Apollo. The Fountain Castalius, the River 
Cephissus, running before Delphos, which ariseth in a former 
City, Liloea. Moreover, the Town Crissa, and together with 
the Bulenses, Anticyra, Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphissa, a 
free State, Trichone, Tritea, Auibrysus, the Region Drymaea, 
named Daulis. Then, at the bottom of the Bay, the Angle 
of Bceotia is washed by the Sea, with the Towns Siphae and 
Thebae, which are surnamed Corsicae, near to Helicon. The 
third Town of Breotia from this Sea is Pagse, from whence 
projecteth the Neck of Peloponnesus. 

CHAPTER IV. 
Peloponnesus. 

PELOPONNESUS, called formerly Apia and Pelasgia, is a 
Peninsula, worthy to come behind no other Land for noble- 
ness ; lying between two Seas, ^Egeum and Ionium : like 
the Leaf of a Plane Tree 1 , in regard of the indented Creeks 
thereof: it beareth a circuit of 563 Miles, according to 
Isidorus. The same, if you comprise the Creeks, addeth 
almost as much more. The Straits whence it passeth is 
called Isthmos. In which Place the Seas above-named, 
bursting from various ways, from the North and the East, 
devour all the Breadth of it there : until, by the contrary 
running in of such Seas, the Sides on both hands being 
eaten away, and leaving a Space between, five Miles over, 
Hellas, with a narrow Neck, meeteth with Peloponnesus. 
The one Side thereof is called the Corinthian Gulf, the 
other, the Saronian. Lecheum on the one hand, and Cen- 
chreae on the other, are the Bounds of the Straits : where 
such Ships as for their bigness cannot be conveyed over upon 
Waggons, make a great compass about with some Danger. 
For which cause, Demetrius the King, Caesar the Dictator, 

1 Dionysius, the geographer, also compares the form of the Morea, or 
ancient Peloponnesus, to the leaf of a plane-tree, making the footstalk to 
be the isthmus by which it is joined to Greece. And in Martyn's " Virgil," 
a figure of this leaf is engraved to illustrate the subject. Wern. Club. 



6 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Prince Caius, and Domitius Nero, endeavoured to cut 
through the narrow portions, and make a navigable Channel : 
but the attempt was unhappy, as appeared by the issue of 
them all. In the midst of this narrow Strait which we 
have called Isthmos, the Colony Corinthus, formerly called 
Ephyra, situated on a little Hill, is inhabited, three score 
Stadia from each Shore : which from the top of its Citadel, 
which is named Acrocorinthus, wherein is the Fountain 
Pirene, hath a prospect into both those opposite Seas. 
Through the Corinthian Gulf is a Passage from Leucas to 
Patrae, of 87 Miles. Patrse, a Colony, built upon the Pro- 
montory of Peloponnesus that shooteth furthest into the 
Sea, over against ./Etolia and the River Evenus, of less dis- 
tance, as hath been said, than a Mile, in the very entrance, 
sendeth out the Corinthian Gulf 85 Miles in Length, even 
as far as Isthmos. 

CHAPTER V. 
Achaia. 

ACHAIA, the name of a Province, beginneth at the 
Isthmus : formerly it was called .ZEgialos, because of the 
Cities disposed in order upon the Strand. The first there is 
Lecheae above named, a Port of Lechese of the Corinthians. 
Next to it Oluros, a Castle of the Pellensei. The Towns, 
Helic, Bura, and (into which the Inhabitants retired when 
these before-named were swallowed up in the Sea) Sicyon, 
JSgira, -ZEgion, and Erineos. Within, Cleone and Hysiae. 
Also the Port Panhormus, and Rhium, described before : 
from which Promontory, five Miles off, standeth Patrse, 
above mentioned, and the Place called Pherae. Of nine 
Mountains in Achaia, Scioessa is most known ; also the 
Spring Cymothoe. Beyond Patrae is the Town Olenum, the 
Colony Dymae. Places called Buprasium and Hirmene : 
and the Promontory Araxum. The Bay of Cyllene, the 
Cape Chelonates : from whence to Cyllene is two Miles. 
The Castle Phlius. The Tract also by Homer named 
Arethyrea, and afterwards Asophis : then the Country of 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 7 

the Elii, who before were called Epei. Elis itself is in the 
Midland, 12 Miles from Pylos. Within is the Shrine of 
Jupiter Olympius, which, for the fame of the Games there, 
containeth the Calendars of the Greeks (fasti) : also, the 
former Town of the Pisaei, before which the River Alpheus 
runneth ; but in the Borders, the Promontory Icthys. The 
River Alpheus is navigated to the Towns Aulos and Leprion. 
The Promontory Platanestus. All these lie Westward. But 
towards the South, the Bay Cyparissius, the City Cyparissa, 
72 Miles in circuit. The Towns, Pylos, Methone, a Place 
called Helos : the Promontory Acritas : the Bay Asinaeus of 
the Town Asinum, and Coronseus of Corone : and these are 
bounded by the Promontory Jsenarus. There also is the 
Region Messenia with 22 Mountains : the River Paomisus. 
But within, Messene itself, Ithome, Occhalia, Arene, Pteleon, 
Thryon, Dorion, Zancluin, famous at various times. The 
Compass of this Bay is 80 Miles, the Passage over 30 Miles. 
Then from Taenarus, the Laconian Land pertaining to a free 
People, and a Bay there in circuit about 206 Miles, but 39 
Miles over. The Towns Taenarum, Amiclae, Pherae, Leuctra, 
and within, Sparta, Theranicum : and where stood Car- 
damyle, Pitan, and Anthan. The Place Thyrea, and 
Gerania : the Mountain Taygetus : the River Eurotas, the 
Bay ^Egylodes, and the Town Psammathus. The Bay 
Gytheates, of a Town thereby (Gythaeum), from whence to 
the Island Greta there is a very direct course. All these 
are enclosed within the Promontory Maleum. The Bay 
next following to Scyllaeus is called Argolicus, and is 50 Miles 
over, and 172 Miles round. The Towns upon it, Boaa, 
Epidaurus, Limera, named also Zarax : the Port Cyphanta. 
Rivers, Inachus, Erasinus : between which standeth Argos, 
surnamed Hippium, upon the Lake Lern, from the sea two 
Miles, and, nine Miles further, Mycenae. Also, where they 
say Tiryntha stood, and the Place Mantinea. Mountains, 
Artemius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus, and 11 others 
besides. Fountains, Niobe, Amymone, Psammoth. From 
Scyllseum to the Isthmus, 177 Miles. Towns, Herraione, 
Troezen, Coryphasium, and Argos. called of some Inachium, 



8 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

of others Dipsium. The Port Caenites, the Bay Saronicus, 
encircled in old Time with a Grove of Oaks, from whence it 
had the Name, for so old Greece called an Oak. Within it 
the Town Epidaurum, celebrated for the Shrine of JEscu- 
lapius; the Promontory Spirseum, the Harbours Anthedon 
and Bucephalus : and likewise Cenchreae, which we spoke of 
before, being the other limit of the Isthmus, with the Shrine 
of Neptune, famous for its Games every five Years. So 
many Bays cut up the Peloponnesian Coast : so many Seas 
roar against it. For on the North side the Ionian Sea 
breaketh in : on the West it is beaten upon by the Sicilian. 
From the South the Crethean Sea driveth against it : the 
^gean from the South-east, and Myrtoan on the North- 
east, which beginning at the Megarian Bay, washeth all 
Attica. 

CHAPTER VI. 
Of Arcadia. 

THE midland Parts of this, Arcadia most of all taketh 
up, being every way remote from the Sea : at the beginning 
it was named Drymodis, but soon after Pelasgis. The 
Towns in it are Psophis, Man tinea, Stymphalum, Tegea, 
Antigonea, Orchomenum, Pheneum, Palatium, from whence 
the Mount Palatium at Rome took the Name, Megalepolis, 
Catina, Bocalium, Carmon, Parrhasise, Thelphusa, Melansea, 
Hersea, Pil, Pellana, Agree, Epium, Cynsetha, Lepreon of 
Arcadia, Parthenium, Alea, Methydrium, Enespe, Macistum, 
Lamp, Clitorium, Cleone ; between which Towns is the 
Tract Nemea, usually called Berubinadia. Mountains in 
Arcadia, Pholoe, with the Town : also Cyllene, Lyceus, 
wherein the Shrine of Jupiter Lyceus, Msenalus, Artemisius, 
Parthenius, Lampeus, and Nonacris : and eight besides of 
base account. Rivers, Ladon, issuing out of the Fens of 
Pheneus, Erymanthus out of a Mountain of the same Name, 
running both down into Alpheus. The rest of the Cities to 
be named in Achaea, Aliphiraei, Albeatae, Pyrgerises, Pareatse, 
Paragenitiae, Tortuni, Typansei, Thryasii, Trittenses. All 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 9 

Achaea Domitius Nero endowed with Freedom. Pelo- 
ponnesus, from the Promontory of Malea to the Town 
Lechaeum upon the Corinthian Bay, lieth in Breadth 160 
Miles: but across, from Elis to Epidaurum, 125 Miles: 
from Olympia to Argos, through Arcadia, 63 Miles : from 
the same Place to Phlius is the said measure. And the 
whole, as if Nature weighed out a Recompense for the 
irruptions of the Seas, riseth up into three score and sixteen 
Mountains. 

CHAPTER VII. 
Greece and Attica. 

FROM the Straits of the Isthmus beginneth Hellas, by our 
Countrymen called Graecia. The first Tract thereof is Attica, 
in old Time named Acte. It reacheth the Isthmus on that 
Part of it which is called Megaris, from the Colony Megara, 
from the Region of the Pagae. These two Towns, as Pelo- 
ponnesus lieth out in Length, are seated on either Hand, as 
it were, upon the Shoulders of Hellas. The Pagaei, and 
more especially the ^Egosthenienses, lie annexed to the 
Magarensians. In the Coast is the Harbour Schoenus. 
Towns, Sidus, Cremyon, the Scironian Rocks for three Miles 
long, Geranea, Megara, and Elcusin. There were besides, 
CEnoa and Probalinthus, which now are 52 Miles from 
the Isthmus. Pyraeeus and Phalera, two Ports joined to 
Athens by a Wall, within the Land five Miles. This City 
is free, and needeth no more any Man's praise : so abund- 
antly noble it is. In Attica are these Fountains, Cephissia, 
Larine, Callirrhoe, and Enneacreunos. Mountains, Brilessus, 
Megialcus, Icarius, Hymettus, and Lyrabetus : the River 
Ilissos. From Pyraeeus 42 Miles is the Promontory 
Sunium ; likewise the Promontory Dpriscum. Also Po- 
tamos and Brauron, Towns in time past. The Village 
Rhamnus, the Place Marathon, the Plain Thriastius, the 
Town Melita and Oropus, in the Border of Boeotia. To 
which belong Anthedon, Onchestos, Thesprae, a free Town, 
Lebadea : and Thebes, surnamed Boeotia, not inferior in 



JO History of Nature. [BOOK IV. 

Fame to Athens, as being the native Country (as Men will 
have it) of two Gods, Liber and Hercules. Also, they attribute 
the Birth of the Muses to the Grove Helicon. To this Thebes 
is assigned the Forest Cithseron and the River Ismenus. 
Moreover, Fountains in Boeotia, GEdipodium. Psammate, 
Dirce, Epigranea, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, and 
Gargaphiae. Mountains, besides the forenamed, Mycalessus, 
Adylisus, Acontius. The rest of the Towns between Megara 
and Thebes, Eleutherse, Haliartus, Plateae, Pherae, Aspledon, 
Hyle, Thisbe, Erythrse, Glissas, and Copse. Near the River 
Cephissus, Lamia and Anichia : Medeon, Phligon, Grephis, 
Coronsea, Chseronia. But in the Borders, beneath Thebes, 
Ocal&, Elseon, Scolos, Scoanos, Peteon, Hyrie, Mycalessus, 
Hyreseon, Pteleon, Olyros, Tanagia, a free People ; and in 
the very Mouth of Euripus, which the Island Euboea maketh 
by its opposite Site, Aulis, renowned for its large Har- 
bour. The Boeotians in old Time were named Hyantes. 
The Locrians also are named Epicnemidii, in Times past 
Letegetes, through whom the River Cephissus runneth into 
the Sea. Towns, Opus (whereof cometh the Opuntinean 
Bay), and Cynus. Upon the Sea-coast of Phocis, one 
Daphnus. Within, among the Locrians, Elatea, and upon 
the Bank of Cephissus (as we have said) Lilaea : and toward 
Delphos, Cnemis and Hiarnpolis. Again, the Borders of 
the Locrii, wherein stand Larymna arid Thronium, near 
which the River Boagrius falleth into the Sea. Towns, 
Narycion, Alope, Scarphia. After this, the Vale, called 
by the People there dwelling, Maliacus Sinus, wherein are 
these Towns, Halcyone, Econia, and Phalara. Then Doris, 
wherein are Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, Pindus, Cytirium. 
On the Back of Doris is the Mountain (Eta. Then fol- 
loweth jEmonia that so often hath changed Name : for 
the same hath beea called Pelasgicum, Argos, and Hellas, 
Thessalia also, and Dryopis, and evermore it took the Name 
of the Kings. In it was born a King called Gracus, from 
whom Greece was named : there also was Hellen born, 
from whence came the Hellenes. These being but one 
People, Homer hath called by three Names: Myrmidons, 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 1 1 

Hellense, and Achaei. Of these, they are called Phthiotae 
who inhabit Doris. Their Towns are Echinus, in the entrance 
of the River Sperchius : and the Straits of Thermopylae, so 
named by reason of the Waters : and, four Miles from 
thence, Heraclea was called Trachin. There is the Mountain 
Callidromus : and the famous Towns, Hellas, Halos, Lamia, 
Phthia, and Arne. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Thessalia. 

MOREOVER, in Thessalia, Orchomenus, formerly called 
Minyeus ; and the Town Almon, by some Elmon ; Atrax, 
Pelinna, and the Fountain Hyperia. Towns, Pherse, behind 
which Pierius stretcheth forth to Macedonia: Larissa, Gomphi, 
Thebes of Thessalia, the Grove Pteleon, and the Bay Pa- 
gasicus. The Town Pagasa, the same named afterwards 
Demetrias ; Tricca, the Pharsalian Plains, with a free City : 
Cranon, and Iletia. Mountains of Phthiotis, Nymphaeus, 
beautiful for the natural Harbours and Garden-works there : 
Buzigaeus, Donacesa, Bermius, Daphista, Chimerion, Atha- 
mas, Stephane. In Thessalia there are 34, of which the 
most famous are Cerceti, Olympus, Pierus, Ossa : over 
against which is Pindus and Othrys, the Seat of the Lapithae ; 
and those lie toward the West : but Eastward, Pelios ; all of 
them bending in the manner of a Theatre : and before them, 
in form of a W T edge, 72 Cities. Rivers of Thessalia, 
Apidanus, Phoenix, Enipeus, Onochomus, Pamisus : the 
Fountain Messeis, the Lake Boebeis : and illustrious above 
all the rest, Peneus, which, rising near Gomphi, runneth 
for 500 Stadia in a woody Dale between Ossa and Olympus, 
and half that Way is navigable. In this Course are the 
Places called Temp, five Miles in Length, and almost an 
Acre and a half Broad, where on both Hands the Hills arise 
by a gentle Ascent above the reach of Man's Sight. Within, 
Peneus glideth by, in a fresh green Grove, clear as Crystal, 
over the gravelly Stones; pleasant for the Grass upon the 
Banks, and melodious with the Harmony of Birds. It 



12 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

taketh in the River Eurotas, but receiveth him not, but, as 
Homer expresseth it 1 , floweth over him like Oil: and within a 
very little while rejecteth the Burden, as refusing to mingle 
with his own silver Streams those penal and cursed Waters 
so direfully produced. 

CHAPTER IX. 
Magnesia. 

To Thessalia, Magnesia is annexed : the Fountain there 
is Libethra. The Towns, lolchos, Hirmenium, Pyrrha, 
Methone, Olizon. The Promontory Sepias. Towns, Cas- 
tana, Sphalatra, and the Promontory ^Enantium. Towns, 
Meliboea, Rhisus, Erymne. The Mouth of Peneus. Towns, 
Homolium, Orthe, Thespise, Phalanna, Thaumaciae, Gyrton, 
Cranon, Acarne, Dotion, Melitsea, Phylace, Potinae. The 
Length of Epirus, Achaia, Attica, and Thessalia, lying strait 
out, is by report 480 Miles, the Breadth 287. 

CHAPTER X. 
Macedonia. 

MACEDONIA, so called afterwards (formerly it was named 
Emathia) is a Kingdom, consisting of 150 several People, 
renowned for two Kings, and once ennobled for the Empire 
of the World. This Country passing behind Magnesia and 
Thessalia toward the Nations of Epirus Westward, is much 
troubled with the Dardani. The North Parts thereof are 
defended by Paeonia and Pelagonia, against the Triballi. 
The Towns are these, -^Ege, wherein it was the Custom to inter 

1 As Homer expresseth it. See " Iliad," b. 750 : 

" To these were join'd, who till the pleasant fields 
Where Titaresius winds : the gentle flood 
Pours into Peneus all his limpid stores, 
But with the silver-eddied Peneus flows 
Unmixt as oil ; for Stygian is his stream, 
And Styx is the inviolable oath. 

COWPER'S Homer. Wern. Club. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 13 

their Kings : Beroea, and jEginium, in that Quarter which, 
from the Wood, is called Pieria. In the Borders, Heraclea, 
and the River Apilas : Towns, Phina and Oloros : the River 
Haliacmon. Within are the Haloritae, the Vallei, Phylacei, 
Cyrrhestae, Tyrissaei : Pella, the Colony : the Town Stobi, of 
Roman Citizens. Presently, Antigonia, Europus, upon the 
River Axius, and another of the same Name, through which 
Rhaedias runneth : Heordeco, Scydra, Mieza, Gordinise. Soon 
after, in the Borders, Ichnae ; and the River Axius. To this 
Extremity the Dardani : Treres and Pieres border upon 
Macedonia. From this River are the Nations of Paeonia, 
Parorei, Heordenses, Almopii, Pelagones, and Mygdones. 
The Mountains Rhodope, Scopius, and Orbelus. Then the 
Lap of the Earth spreading along, Arethusii, Antiochienses, 
Idomenenses, Doberienses, Trienses, Allantenses, AndarU 
stenses, Moryllii, Garesci, Lyncestae, Othrionei, and the free 
States of the Amantini and Orestae. Colonies, Bulledensis 
and Diensis. Xilopolitae, Scotussaei, free ; Heraclea, Sintica, 
Tymphei, and Coronaei. In the Coast of the Macedonian 
Bay, the Town Calastra, and within, Phileros, and Let : 
and in the middle bending of the Coast, Thessalonica, of 
free condition. To it from Dyrrhachium, is 114 Miles; 
Thermae. In the Bay Thermaicus, are these Towns, Dicaea, 
Pydna, Derrha, Scione : the Promontory Canastraeum. 
Towns, Pallenei, Phlerga. In which Region these Moun- 
tains, Hypsizorus, Epitus, Alchion^, Leuomn. Towns, 
Nissos, Brygion, Eicon, Mendae, and in the Isthmus of Pal- 
lene, the Colony sometime called Potidaea, and now Cas- 
sandria ; Anthemus, the Bay Holophyxus, and Mecyberna ; 
Towns, Phiscella, Ampelos, Torone, and Singos : the Creek 
(where Xerxes, King of the Persians, cut the Mountain 
Athos from the Continent), in Length a Mile and a half. 
The Mountain itself shooteth out from the Plain into the 
Sea, 75 Miles. The Compass of the Foot thereof taketh 
150 Miles. A Town there was on the Summit, Acroton. 
Now there be Vranopolis, Palaeotrium, Thyssus, Cleon, 
Apollonia, the Inhabitants whereof are named Macrobii. The 
Town Cassera, and a second Gullet of the Isthmus, Acan- 



14 History of Nature. [BOOK IV. 

thus, Stagira, Sitone, Heraclea, and the Region lying under 
Mygdonia, wherein are, receding from the Sea, Apollonia 
and Arethusa. Again, in the Coast, Posidium, and a Bay, 
with the Town Cermorus : Amphipolis, a free State, and the 
Nation Bisaltse. Then, the River Strymon, which is the 
Bound of Macedonia, and which springeth in Haemus : of 
which this is worthy to be remembered, that it runneth into 
seven Lakes before it keepeth a direct Course. This is 
Macedonia, which once obtained the Dominion over all the 
Earth : this overran Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappa- 
docia, Syria, Egypt, Taurus, and Caucasus : this ruled over 
the Bactri, Medi, and Persi, and possessed all the East : 
this having the Conquest of India, wandered through the 
Tracts of Father Liber and Hercules. This is the very 
same Macedonia, of which in one Day Paulus jEmylius, 
our Imperator, sold 72 plundered Cities. So great a 
Difference of Fortune befel two Men. 

CHAPTER XI. 
Thracia. 

Now followeth Thracia, among the most valiant Nations of 
Europe, divided into 52 Regiments (strategias) of Soldiers. 
Of those People in it, whom it does not grieve me to name, 
the Denseletes and Medi inhabit near the River Strymon, on 
the right Side, as far as to the Bisaltse above-named : on the 
left, the Digeri, and many Names of the Bessi, to the River 
Nestus, which environeth the Bottom of the Mountain Pan- 
gseus, between the Eleti, Diobesi, and Carbilesi ; and so 
forward to the Brysae and Capaei. Odomanta, a Nation of 
the Odrysee, poureth out the River Hebrus to the Neighbour- 
borderers, the Carbiletes, Pyrogeri, Drugeri, Caenici, Hyp- 
salti, Beni, Corpilli, Botisei, and Edoni. In the same Tract 
are the Selletae, Priautae, Diloncae, Thyni, Celetse, the greater 
under Haemus, the less under Rhodopae : between whom 
runneth the River Hebrus. The Town situate beneath Rho- 
dop, before-time named Poneropolis ; soon after by the 
Founder, Philippopolis ; but now, from its Site, Trimontium. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 15 

The Elevation of Haemus taketh six Miles : the Back and 
declining thereof down to Ister, the Moesi, Getae, Aoti, 
Gaudae, and Clariae, and under them the Arraei, Sarmatae, 
whom they call Areatae, and Scythae : and about the Sea- 
coast of Pontus, the Moriseni and Sithonii, from whom the 
Poet Orpheus descended, do inhabit. Thus Ister boundeth 
it on the North : in the East, Pontus and Propontus : South- 
ward, the Sea Jgaeum, in the Coast of which, from Strymon, 
stand Apollonia, CEstima, Neapolis, and Polis. Within, the 
Colony of Philip; and 325 Miles from Dyrrhachium, Sco- 
tusa, Topiris, and the Mouth of the River Nestus. The 
Mountain Pangaeus, Heraclea, Olynthos Abdera, a free City; 
the Marsh and Nation of the Bistoni. There stood the Town 
Tinda, terrible for the Stables of the Horses of Diomedes. 
Now there are the Diceae, Ismaron, the Place Parthenion, 
Phalesina, Maronea, called Ortagurea before-time. The 
Mountain Serrium and Zonae : then, the Place Doriscus, 
able to receive 1 0,000 1 Men : for so there Xerxes numbered 
over his Army. The Mouth of Hebrus : the Port of Stentor: 
the free Town .ZEnea, with the Tomb of Polydorus ; the 
Region, sometime, of the Cicones. From Doriscus, the 
Coast bendeth to Macron -Tichos for 122 Miles. About 
which Place the River Melas, from which the Bay taketh its 
Name. Towns, Cypsella, Bisanthe, and that which is called 
Macron-Tichos, whence stretching forth the Walls from Pro- 
pontis to the Bay Melanes, between two Seas, it excludeth 
Cherronesus as it runneth out. For Thracia, on one Side, 
beginning at the Sea-coast of Pontus, where the River Ister 
is discharged, hath in that Quarter the very beautiful Cities, 
Istropolis of the Milesii, Tomi, and Calatis, which before 
was called Acernetis. It had Heraclea and Bizon, which 
was destroyed in a Chasm of the Earth ; now it hath Diony- 
sopolis, formerly called Crunos. The River Ziras runneth by 
it. All that Tract, the Scythians named Aroteres possessed. 
Their Towns, Aphrodisius, Libistos, Ziger, Borcob&, Eu- 
menia, Parthenopolis, Gerania, where it is reported were the 

1 Or 100,000. 



16 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Nation of the Pygmei 1 , whom the Barbarians call Catizi, and 
they believe that they were chased away by Cranes. In the 
Borders from Dionysopolis is Odessus of the Milesii; the River 
Pomiscus, the Town Tetranaulochos : the Mountain Haemus 
bending down with a huge Top into Pontus, had in the Sum- 
mit the Town Aristseum. Now in the Coast is Mesembria 
and Anchialum, where Messa was. The Region Astice. 
There was the Town Anthium, now there is Apollonia. The 
Rivers Panissa, Rira, Tearus, Orosines. Towns, Thynnias, 
Almedessos, Develton, with the Marsh which now is called 
Deultum, belonging to the Veterans. Phinopolis, near which 
is Bosphorus. From the Mouth of Ister to the Entrance of 
Pontus others have made 555 Miles. Agrippa hath added 
40 Miles more. From thence to the Wall above-named, 
150 : and from it to Cherronesus, 126. But from the Bos- 
phorus is the Bay Gasthenes. The Port Senum, and an- 
other which is called the Port Mulierum. The Promontory 
Chrysoceras, whereon standeth the Town Bizantium of free 
Condition, and formerly called Lygos. From Dyrrhachium 
it is 71 1 Miles. Thus much lieth out the Length between 
the Adriatic Sea and Propontis. Rivers, Bathynias, Pydaras, 
or Atyras. Towns, Selymbria, Perinthus, annexed to the 
Continent, 200 Paces broad. Within, Byzia, the Castle of 
the Thracian Kings, hated by Swallows 2 for the horrible 
Crime of Tereus. The Region Camica : the Colony Flavio- 
polus, where formerly the Town was called Zela. And 50 
Miles from Byria, the Colony Apros, which is from Philippi 
188 Miles. But in the Borders, the River Erginus, where 
was the Town Gonos. And there you leave Lysimachia, 

1 The Pygmies are frequently spoken of by ancient writers, and the 
existence of the diminutive race was never doubted. We defer the parti- 
cular consideration of the monstrous races of mankind to the 7th Book, 
c. 2, where they are all mentioned together ; but the Pygmies appear to 
have attracted more of the imagination of the poets than any of the 
others. The origin of their royal tyrant, the crane, is referred to by 
Ovid, "Metamorphoses," b. vi. Wern. Club. 

2 See the story of Tereus, Procne, and Philomela, in Ovid's " Metamor- 
phoses," lib. vi. Wern. Club. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 17 

now in Cherronesus. For there is another Isthmus of like 
Straigbtness, of the same Name, and of equal Breadth. 
On both Sides two Cities beautify the Shores, which they 
hold in a Manner not unlike : Pactiae from Propontis, and 
Cardia from the Bay Melane : this taketh its Name from the 
Appearance of the Place : and both, afterwards, were en- 
closed within Lysimaehia, three Miles from the long Walls 1 . 
Cherronesus from Propontis had Tiristasis and Crithotes, 
also Cissa, upon the River ^Egos : now it hath from the 
Colony Apros 32 Miles ; Resistos, over against the Colony 
Pariana. And Hellespontus, dividing Europe from Asia by 
seven Stadia (as we have said), hath four Cities, opposite one 
against another : in Europe, Calippolis and Sestos ; in Asia, 
Lampsacum and Abydos. Then, is the Promontory of Cher- 
ronesus, called Mastisia, opposite to Sigeum, in the crooked 
Front whereof is Cynossema : for so is Hecuba s Tomb 
named, the Station of the Achaei. The Tower and Shrine 
of Proiesilaus : and in the utmost Front of Cherronesus, 
which is called folium, the Town Elaeus. After it, as a 
Man goeth to the Bay Melan, the Port Cselos, Panhormus, 
and the above-named Cardia. The third Bay of Europe is in 
this Manner shut in. Mountains of Thracia above those 
before rehearsed, Edonus, Gigemorus, Meritus, and Melam- 
phyllon ; Rivers falling into Hebrus, Bargus, and Suemus. 
The Length of Macedonia, Thracia, and Hellespontus, is set 
down before. Some make it 720 Miles. The Breadth is 380 
Miles. The Sea ^Egeum took that Name from a Rock, be- 
tween Tenedos and Chios, more truly than from an Island 
named MX, resembling a Goat, and therefore so called of the 
Greeks ; which suddenly riseth out of the midst of the Sea. 
The People that sail from Achaia to Andros, discover it on 
the right Hand, dreadful and mischievous. Part of the 
-^Egean Sea is given to Myrtoum, and is so called from a 
little Island which sheweth itself to them that sail from 
Gerestus to Macedonia, not far from Charystos in Euboea. 
The Romans comprehend all these Seas in two Names : 

1 Macron-Tichos. 

VOL. II. C 



18 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Macedonicum, all that which toucheth Macedonia and 
Thracia : and Grseciensum, where it beateth upon Greece. 
For the Greeks divide the Ionian Sea, into Siculum and 
Creticum, from the Islands. Also, Icarius (they call that), 
between Samos and Mycionus. The other Names are given 
by Bays, of which we have spoken. And thus much, indeed, 
of the Seas and Nations contained in this Manner within the 
third Bay of Europe. 

CHAPTER XII. 

Islands between those Lands, among which, Creta, Eubcea, 
Cyclades, and Sporades: also, of Hellespont, Pontus, 
Mceotis, Dacia, Sarmatia, and Scythia. 

ISLANDS over against Thresprotia, Corey ra: 12 Miles from 
Buthrotus, and the same from Acroceraunia, 50 Miles, with 
a City of the same Name, Corcyra, of free Condition ; also, 
the Town Cassiope, and the Temple of Jupiter Cassiopceus : 
it lieth out in Length 97 Miles. Homer called it Scheria 
and Phseacia : Callimachus also, Drepane\ About it are 
some others : but verging toward Italy, Thoronos : and to- 
ward Leucadia, the two Paxae, five Miles divided from Cor- 
cyra. And not far from them before Corcyra, Ericusa, 
Marate, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachise, Pytionia, Ptychia, 
Tarachie. And beyond Pholachrum, a Promontory of Corcyra, 
the Rock into which it is feigned that the Ship of Ulysses was 
turned, on Account of its Resemblance. Before Leucadia, 
Sybota. But between Leucadia and Achaia there are very 
many: of which are Teleboides, the same as Taphise.: of the 
Inhabitants before Leucadia, they are called Taphias ; Oxiae 
and Prinoessa : and before jEtolia, the Echinades, JEgialia, 
Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis, 
Pinara, and Mystus. Before them in the deep Sea, Cepha- 
lenia and Zacynthus, both free States : Ithaca, Dulichium, 
Same, Crocylea, and Paxos. Cephalenia, formerly called 
Meloena is 11 Miles off, and 44 Miles in Circuit. Sam was 
destroyed by the Romans : nevertheless, it hath still three 
Towns : between it and Achaia is Zacynthus, with a Town, a 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 19 

stately Island, and remarkably fertile. In Times past it was 
called Hyrie, and is 22 Miles distant from the South-coast of 
Cephalenia. The famous Mountain of Elatus is there. The 
Island itself is in Circuit 25 Miles. Twelve Miles from it is 
Ithaca, wherein is the Mountain Neritus. And in the whole 
it taketh up the Compass of 25 Miles. From it 12 Miles off 
is Araxum, a Promontory of Peloponnesus. Before this, in 
the main Sea, Asteris and Prote. Before Zacynthus, 35 
Miles in the Wind Eusus, are the Strophades, called by 
others, Plotae : and before Cephalenia, Letoia. Before Pylos, 
three Sphagise ; and as many before Messene, called GEriussae. 
In the Bay Asinaeus, three Thyrides : in the Laconian Gulf, 
Teganusa, Cothon, Cythera, with the Town formerly named 
Porphyris. This lieth five Miles from the Promontory of 
Malea, doubtful for Ships to come about it, by Reason of the 
Straits there. In the Argolic Sea are Pityusa, Irine and 
Ephyre : and against the Territory Hermonium, Typarenus, 
Epiropia, Colonis, Aristera : over against Trcezenium Ca- 
lauria, half a Mile from Platese : also, Belbina, Lacia and 
Baucidias. Against Epidaurus, Cecryphalos, and Pytionesos, 
six Miles from the Continent. Next to it is .ZEgina, of free 
Condition, 17 Miles off, and the Navigation of it is 20 Miles 
about. The same is distant from Pyrseeum, the Port of the 
Athenians, 12 Miles, and in old Time it was usually called 
CEnone. Over against the Promontory Spiraeum, lie Eleusa, 
Dendros, two Craugise, two Caeciae, Selachusa, Cenchreis, and 
Aspis. Also, in the Megarian Bay, there are four Methu- 
rides. But ./Egilia is 15 Miles from Cythera; and the same 
is from Phalasarna, a Town in Greta, 25 Miles. And Creta 
itself, lying with one Side to the South, and the other to the 
North, stretcheth forth in Length East and West ; famous 
and noble for 100 Cities. Dosiades saith it took that Name 
from the Nymph Creta, Daughter of Hesperis : but according 
to Anaximander, from a King of the Curetes. Philistides, 
Mallotes, Crates, have thought it was called first ^Eria, and 
afterwards Curetis, and some have thought it was named 
Macaros, on Account of the excellent Temperature of the 
Air. In Breadth it exceedeth in no Place 50 Miles, and in 



20 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

the middle Part it is broadest : in Length it is full 270 
Miles : in Circuit, 589 Miles : and bending itself into the 
Cretic Sea, so called from it, where it stretcheth out furthest 
Eastward, it putteth forth the Promontory Sarnmonium, 
opposite Rhodos ; and Westward, Criu-Metopon, toward 
Cyrense. The principal Towns are Phalasarnae, Elaea, Cysa- 
mum, Pergamum, Cydon, Minoum, Apteron, Pantoma- 
trium, Amphimalla, Rhythymna, Panhormum, Cyteurn, 
Apollonia, Matium, Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, Hiera- 
pytna, Lebena, Hierapolis. And in the midland Parts, Cor- 
tyna, Phaestum. Gnossus, Potyrrhenium, Myrina, Lycastus, 
Rhamnus, Lyctus, Dium, Asum, Pyloros, Rhytion, Clatos, 
Pharae. Holopyxos, Lasos 1 , Eleuthernse, Therapne, Mara- 
thusa, Mytinos. And other Towns to about the Number of 
60 stand yet upon Record. The Mountains : Cadiscus, 
Idaeus, Dictaeus, and Morycus. The Isle itself, from the 
Promontory in it called Criu-Metopon, as Agrippa reporteth, 
is distant from Phycus, a Promontory of the Cyrense, 225 
Miles. Likewise to Capescum from Malea in Peloponnesus, 
it is 80 Miles. From the Island Carpathus, from the Pro- 
montory Sammonia, in the Favonian Wind, 60 Miles. This 
Island lieth between it and Rhodos. The Rest about it are 
these : before Peloponnesus two Coricae, and as many Mylae : 
and on the North Side, with Creta on the right Hand, there 
appeareth Leuce over against Cydonia, with the two Budorae; 
against Matium, Cia: against the Promontory Itanum Onisa 
and Leuce : against Hierapytna, Chrysa, and Caudos. In 
the same Tract are Ophiussa, Butoa, and Rhamnus : and 
doubling Criu-Metopon, the Isles called Musagores. Before 
the Promontory Sammonium, Phocse, Platiae, Sirnides, Nau- 
lochos, Armedon, and Zephyre. But in Hellas, yet still in 
.ZEgeum, Lichades, Scarphia, Maresa, Phocaria, and very 
many more over against Attica ; but without Towns, and 
therefore obscure : but against Eleusina, the noble Salamis, 

1 Dr. Bloomfield (" Recens. Synop." in loco} thinks this place was the 
Lasea of Acts xxvii. 8. Pliny makes it an inland town, but by inland 
towns he only means such as were not ports ; and that Lasea was not a 
port is clear, the Fair Havens being its port. Wern. Club. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 2J 

and before it Psytalia: and from Sunium, Helen, five Miles 
off: and Ceos, from thence as many ; which our Countrymen 
have named Caea ; but the Greeks Hydrussa : cut off from 
Euboea. In Times past it was 500 Stadia long : but soon 
after, almost four Parts, which verged towards Boaotia, were 
devoured by the same Sea : and now the Towns remaining 
are Julis and Cartheea. For Coressus and Peecessa are 
perished. From hence, as Varro saith, came the more deli- 
cate Dress that Women use. Euboea itself hath been torn 
from Boeotia, being divided with so little a Euripus, that a 
Bridge joineth the one to the other : it is well marked by 
Reason of two Promontories in the South Side, which are, 
Genestum, bending toward Attica ; and Caphareus to Helles- 
pontus : and upon the North Side, Ceeneus. In no Part doth 
it extend broader than 40 Miles ; and no where doth it con- 
tract beyond 20. But in Length from Attica, as far as Thes- 
salia, it lieth along Boeotia for 150 Miles; and contained! in 
Circuit 365. From Hellespont, on the Part of Caphareus, it 
is 225 Miles. In Times past it was illustrious for these 
Cities: Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos, Cerinthus, Oreum, Dium, 
^Edepsum, Ocha, CEchalia, now Calcis, over against which 
standeth Aulis on the Continent : but now noble for Geres- 
turn, Eretria, Carystus, Oritanum, Artemisium, the Fountain 
Arethusa, the River Lelantum, the hot Waters called Hel- 
lopige ; but yet more known for the Marble of Carystus. 
In former Time it was called commonly Chalcodontis or 
Macris, as Dionysius and Ephorus say ; but Macra, ac- 
cording to Aristides : and according to Callidemus, Chalcis, 
from the Brass there first found: and as Mencecmus saith, 
Abantias : and Asopis, as the Poets commonly name it. Be- 
yond, in the Myrtoom Sea, are many Isles, but those prin- 
cipally famous are Glauconnesus and jEgilia. And from the 
Promontory Gerestuui, about Delos, some lying in a Circle 
together, whence they took their Name Cyclades. The first 
of them, Andrus, with a Town, is from Gerestum, 10 Miles ; 
and from Ceum, 39. Myrsilius saith it was called Cauros, 
and afterwards Antandros. Callimachus nameth it Lasia, 
others Nonagria, Hydrussa, and Epagris. It lieth in Com- 
pass 93 Miles. A Mile from the same Andros, and 15 from 



22 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Delos, lieth Tenos, with a Town stretched out 15 Miles in 
Length : which, for the Plenty of Water, Aristotle saith, was 
called Hydrussa, but others name it Ophiussa. The Rest are 
these: Myconos, with the Mountain Dimastos, 15 Miles 
from Delos. Scyros Syphnus, formerly named Meropia and 
Acis, in Circuit 28 Miles : Seriphus, 12 Miles, Praepesinthus, 
Cythnus. And Delos itself, of all others the most illustrious, 
the midmost of the Cyclades, celebrated for the Temple of 
Apollo, and for Merchandise; which, having a long Time 
floated up and down (as it is reported), was the only Island 
that never felt an Earthquake 1 unto the Time of M. Varro. 
Mutianus hath recorded that it was twice shaken. Aristotle 
giveth a Reason of the Name in this Sort, because it was 
produced and discovered on a sudden. jEylosthenes termeth 
it Cynthia : others Ortygia, Asteria, Lagia, Chlamydia, 
Cynethus, and Pyrpile ; because in it Fire was first found 
out. It is but five Miles about, and riseth up by the Moun- 
tain Cinthus. Next to it is Rhene, which Anticlides calleth 
Celadussa, and Helladius, Artemite. Moreover, Syros, which 
ancient Writers have reported to be in Circuit 20 Miles, 
and Mutianus, 160. Oliatos, Paros, with a Town, 38 Miles 
from Delos, of great Name for white Marble, which at 
first they called Pactia, but afterwards Minois. From it 
seven and a half Miles is Naxus, 18 Miles from Delos; 
with a Town, which they called Strongyle, afterwards Dia, 
soon after Dionysius, from its Fertility of Vines ; and by 
others, Sicily the Less, and Callipolis. It reacheth in Cir- 
cuit 75 Miles, and is half as long again as Paros. And thus 
far, indeed, they note for the Cyclades: the Rest that follow, 
for the Sporades. And these are Helenum, Phocussa, Phae- 
casia, Schinussa, Phalegandros ; and 17 Miles from Naxos, 
Icaros : which gave Name to the Sea, lying out as far in 
Length ; with two Towns, for the third is lost : beforetime 
it was called Dolichum, Macris, and Ichtyoessa. It is situated 

1 Thucydides, book ii., says : " There was also a little before the time 
of the Peloponnesian war, an earthquake at Delos, which, in the memory 
of the Grecians, never shook before ; and was interpreted for, and seemed 
to be a sign of, what was to come afterwards to pass." HOBBES. Wern. 
Club. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 23 

North-east, from Delos 50 Miles : and from Samos it is 35 
Miles. Between Euboea and Andros there is a Strait 12 
Miles over. From it to Gerestum is 112^ Miles. And then 
no Order forward can be kept ; the Rest, therefore, shall be 
set down promiscuous!}'. los from Naxos is 24 Miles, vene- 
rable for the Sepulchre of Homer : it is in Length 25 Miles, 
and in former Time was called Phaenice. Odia, Letandros ; 
Gyaros, with a Town, in Circuit 12 Miles. It is distant from 
Aneros, 62 Miles. From thence to Syrnus, 80 Miles. Cyne- 
thussa ; Telos, famous for costly Ointment, and called by 
Callimachus, Agathussa. Donysa ; Pathmos, in Circuit 30 
Miles. Corasise, Lebinthus, Leros, Cynara, Sycinus, which 
beforetime was (Enoe ; Heratia, the same as Onus ; Casus, 
otherwise Astrabe; Cimolus, otherwise Echinussa ; Melos, 
with a Town, which Aristides nameth Byblis ; Aristotle, Ze- 
phyria ; Callimachus, Himallis ; Heraclides, Syphnus and 
Acytos. And this, of all the Islands, is the roundest. After it 
Machia; Hypere, sometime Patage, or after some Platage, 
now Amorgos ; Potyaegos, Phyle, Thera ; when it first 
appeared, called Calliste. From it afterwards was Therasia 
torn away : and between those two soon after arose Auto- 
mate, the same as Hiera : and Thia, which in our Days 
appeared new out of the Water near Hiera. los is from 
Thera, 25 Miles. Then follow Lea, Ascania, Anaphe, Hip- 
puris, Hippurissusa. Astipalsea of free Condition, in Com- 
pass 88 Miles : it is from Cadiscus, a Promontory of Creta, 
125 Miles. From it is Platea, distant 60 Miles. And from 
thence Camina, 38 Miles. Then Azibnitha, Lanise, Tragia, 
Pharmacusa, Techedia, Chalcia ; Calydna, in which are 
the Towns Coos and Olymna. From which to Carpathus, 
which gave the Name to the Carpathian Sea, is 25 Miles : 
and so to Rhodes with an African Wind. From Carpathus 
to Casos, seven Miles : from Casos to Samonium, a 
Promontory of Creta, 30 Miles. Moreover, in the Euboic 
Euripus, almost at the first Entrance, are the four Islands, 
Petalise ; and at the Outlet, Atalante, Cyclades, and Spo- 
rades : inclosed on the East with the Icarian Sea-coasts of 
Asia; on the West, with the Myrtoan Coasts of Attica; 



24 History of Nature. [Boox IV. 

Northward, with the ^Egean Sea ; and South, with the Cretic 
and Carphacian Seas : and they lie in Length 200 Miles. 
The Bay Pagasicus hath before it Eutychia, Cicynethus, and 
Scyrus abovesaid : but the Outermost of the Cyclades and 
Sporades, Gerontia, Scadira, Thermeusis, Irrhesia, Solinnia, 
Eudemia, Nea, which is sacred to Minerva. Athos before 
it hath four; Preparethus, with a Town, sometime called 
Euonos, nine Miles off: Scyathus, five Miles: and Imbrus, 
with a Town, 88 Miles off. The same is from Mastusia in 
Corinthos, 75 Miles. Itself is in Circuit 72 Miles. It is 
watered by the River Ilissus. From thence to Lemnos, 22 
Miles : and the latter from Athos, 87. In Compass it con- 
taineth 22J Miles. Towns it hath, Hepheestia and Myrina, 
into the Market-place of which the Mountain Athos casteth a 
Shadow at the Solstice. Thassos, a free State, is from it five 
Miles : in Times past, called JEria, or jEthria. From thence 
Abdera in the Continent is 20 Miles : Athos, 62 : the Isle 
Samothrace as much, which is free, and lieth before Hebrus : 
from Imbrus, 32 Miles: from Lemnus, 22 J Miles: from the 
Borders of Thracia, 28 Miles : in Circuit it is 32 Miles, and hath 
a Rising of the Hill Saoces for the Space of 10 Miles : and 
of all the Rest is fullest of Harbours. Callimachus calleth it 
by the old Name Dardania : between Cherronesus and 
Samothrace is Halomesus, about 15 Miles from either of 
them : beyond lieth Gethrone, Larnponia, Alopeconnesus 
not far from Coelos, a Port of Cherronesus : and some 
others of no importance. In this Bay are rehearsed also 
the deserted Islands, of which the Names only can be disco- 
vered : Desticos, Larnos, Cyssicos, Carbrusa, Celathusa, 
Scylla, Draconon, Arconesus, Diethusa, Scapos, Capheris, 
Mesat&, .ZEantion, Phaterunesos, Pateria, Calete, Neriphus, 
and Polendus. 

The fourth of those great Bays in Europe, beginning 
from Hellespont, endeth in the Mouth of Mceotis. But we 
are briefly to describe the Form of the whole Sea, that the 
Parts may be more easily known. The vast Ocean lying 
before Asia, and driven out from Europe in that long Coast 
of Cherronesus, breaketh into the Land with a narrow 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 25 

Passage of seven Stadia (as hath been said) dividing Europe 
from Asia. The first Straits they call Hellespontus. Over 
this, Xerxes, King of the Persians, made a Bridge upon 
Ships, and so led his Array across. From thence is extended 
a small Euripus for the space of 86 Miles, to Priapus, a 
City of Asia, where Alexander the Great passed over. From 
that Place the Sea groweth wide, and again gathereth into 
a Strait : the largeness is called Propontis ; the Straits, the 
Thracian Bosphorus, 500 Paces over : by which Darius, the 
Father of Xerxes, made a Bridge and transported his Forces. 
The whole Length from Hellespont is 239 Miles. From 
thence the vast Sea called Pontus Euxinus, and in Times 
past Axenus, taketh up the space between Lands far remote, 
and with a great winding of the Shores, bendeth backward 
into Horns, and lieth stretched out from them on both Sides, 
resembling evidently a Scythian Bow. In the midst of this 
bending, it joineth close to the Mouth of the Lake Mreotis. 
That Mouth is called Cimmerius Bosphorus, two Miles and 
a half Broad. But between the two Bosphori, Thracius and 
Cimmerius, there is a direct Course, as Polybius saith, of 
500 Miles. But the Circuit of all this Sea, as Varro and 
almost all the old Writers witness, is 2150 Miles. Nepos 
Cornelius addeth thereto 350 Miles. Artemidorus maketh 
it 2919 Miles: Agrippa, 2360 Miles: Mutianus, 2865 
Miles. In like sort, some have determined the Measure 
to the Side of Europe to be 4078J Miles: others, 11,072 
Miles. M. Varro taketh his Measure in this manner : from 
the Mouth of Pontus to Apollonia, 188J Miles: to Calatis, 
as much : to the Mouth of Ister, 125 : to Borysthenes, 250 : 
to Cherroriesus, a Town of the Heracleates, 375 Miles : to 
Panticapaeus, which some call Bosphorus, the utmost Coast 
of Europe, 222 1 Miles : the sum of which makes 1336J Miles. 
Agrippa measureth, from Bizantium to the River Ister, 560 
Miles : to Panticapseurn, 630 : from thence the very Lake 
Mceotis, receiving the River Tanais which runneth out of 
the Riphaean Mountains, is supposed to be in Compass 1306 
Miles ; being the furthest Bound between Europe and Asia. 
Others make 11,025 Miles. But it is evident, that from its 



26 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Mouth to the Mouth of Tanais, by a straight Course, it is 375 
Miles. The Inhabitants of that Bay have been named in 
the mention of Thracia, as far as to Istropolis. From thence 
the Mouths of Ister. This River riseth among the Hills of 
Abnoba, a Mountain of Germany, over against Rauricum, a 
Town in Gallia, and passing many Miles beyond the Alps, and 
through innumerable Nations, under the Name of Danubius, 
with a mighty increase of Waters, and whence he first be- 
ginneth to wash Illyricum taking the Name of Ister, after 
he hath received 60 Rivers, and almost the one-half of them 
navigable, rolleth into Pontus with six vast Streams. The 
first Mouth of it is Peuces : soon after, the Island Peuce 
itself, from which the next Channel took its name, and is 
swallowed up in a great Marsh of 19 Miles. Out of the 
same Channel, and above Astropolis, a Lake is produced of 
63 Miles' compass ; which they call Halmyris. The second 
Mouth is called Naracustoma : the third, Calostoma, near 
the Island Sarmatica : the fourth, Pseudostoma, and the 
Island Conopon Diabasis. After that, Boreostoma, and 
Spireostoma. Each of these is so great, that by Report 
the Sea, for 40 Miles' length, is overmatched with the 
same, and the fresh Water may so far be tasted. From it, 
into the inland Parts, the People are all Scythians : but 
various other Nations inhabit close on the Coasts : in some 
Places the Getae, called by the Romans Daci : in others the 
Sarmatse, by the Greeks Sauromatse ; and among them, the 
Hamaxobii or Aorsi. Elsewhere the degenerate Scythians, 
who are sprung from Servants, or the Troglodites : presently, 
the Alani and Rhoxalani. But the higher Parts between Da- 
nubius and the Forest Hercynius, as far as to the Panrionian 
wintering Places of Carnuntum, and the Confines there of 
the Germans, the Fields and Plains of Jazyge, the Sar- 
matians possess. But the Mountains and Forests, the Daci, 
who were expelled by them, inhabit, as far as to the River 
Parhyssus from Morus ; or this is Duria, dividing them 
from the Suevi and the Kingdom of Vanni. The Parts 
against these the Bastarnae hold ; and from thence other 
Germani. Agrippa hath set down that whole Tract, from 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 27 

the Ister to the Ocean, as amounting to 2000 Miles, and 
400 less in Breadth, from the Deserts of Sarmatia to the 
River Vistula : the Name of Scythae everywhere continually 
runneth into Sarmatae and Germani. Neither hath that old 
denomination remained in any others but those, who, as I 
have said, live the furthest off of these Nations, almost 
unknown to all other Men. But the Towns next to the 
Ister are Cremniscos and ^Epolium : the Mountains Ma- 
crocrennii : the noble River Tyra, giving Name to the Town, 
whereas before time it was called Ophiusa. Within the same 
is a spacious Island, inhabited by the Tyragetae. It is from 
Pseudostomum, a Mouth of the Ister, 130 Miles. Soon 
after are the Axiacae, named after the River : beyond whom 
are the Crobyzi : the River Rhode : the Bay Sagaricus, and 
the Port Ordesus. And, 120 Miles from Tyra, is the River 
Borysthenes, and a Lake and Nation of that Name : 
and a Town 15 Miles within from the Sea, called by the 
ancient Names Olbropolis and Miletopolis. Again, on the 
Shore, the Harbour of the Achaeans : the Island of Achilles, 
famous for the Tomb of that Man. And from it 135 Miles, 
is a Peninsula, lying out across in the Form of a Sword, 
and called Dromos Achilleos, upon occasion of his Exercise 
there : the Length of which Agrippa hath declared to be 80 
Miles. All that Tract, the Taurisci, Scythae, and Sarmatae 
inhabit. Then the woody Region gave the name to the Sea 
Hylaeum, by which it is encircled. The Inhabitants are called 
Enaecadloae. Beyond is the River Panticapes, which divideth 
the Nomades and Georgi : and soon after, Acesinus. Some 
say that Panticape, with Borysthenes, run together beneath 
Olbia ; but the more exact name Hypanis : so much they 
erred who have described it in a part of Asia. The Sea 
retires with a very great Ebb, until it is distant from Moeotis 
with an interval of five Miles, compassing a vast Space, and 
many Nations. There is a Bay called Corcinites, and a 
River Pacyris. Towns, Naubarum and Carcine. Behind 
is the Lake Buges, let out into the Sea by a foss. And 
(Buges) itself is disjoined from Coretus, a Bay of the Lake 
Moeotis, by a rocky Back. It receiveth the Rivers Buges, 



28 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Gerrhus, Hypanis, coming from different quarters : for 
Gerrhus parteth the Basilides and Nomades. Hypanis 
floweth through the Nomades and the Hyleans into Buges, 
by a Channel made by Man's Hand, but in his natural 
Channel into Coretus. The Region of Scythia is named 
Sendica. But in Carcinites, Taurica beginneth : which in 
Times past was environed with the Sea, where now there 
lie Fields : afterwards it mounteth up with very great Hills. 
Thirty People are in it : and of them 24 are within Land. 
Six Towns, Orgocyni, Caraseni, Assyrani, Tractari, Archi- 
lachitse, and Caliordi. The Crest of the Hill the Scytotauri 
hold. They are shut in Westward by Cherronesus ; East- 
ward by the Scythian Satarchi. In the Coast from Car- 
cinites are these Towns : Taphrae, in the very Straits of the 
Peninsula : then, Heraclea, Cherronesus, endowed with 
Liberty by the Romans. Formerly it was called Megarice, 
and is the most Elegant in all that Tract, as retaining the 
Manners of the Greeks ; and it is encompassed with a Wall 
of five Miles' extent. Then the Promontory Parthenium. 
A City of the Tauri, Placia. The Harbour Symbolon : the 
Promontory Criu-Metopon, over against Charambes, a Pro- 
montory of Asia, running through the middle of Euxinus 
for the space of 170 Miles : which is the cause especially 
that maketh the Form abovesaid of a Scythian Bow. Near 
to it are many Harbours and Lakes of the Tauri. The 
Town Theodosia, distant from Criu-Metopon 122 Miles, and 
from Cherronesus 165 Miles. Beyond, there have been 
the Towns Cyte, Zephyrium, Acre, Nymphseum, and Dia. 
And by far the strongest of them all remaineth still in the 
very entrance of Bosphorus, namely, Panticapaeum of the 
Milesians, from Theodosia 1035 Miles : but from Cim- 
merum, a Town situated beyond the Strait, a Mile and a half, 
as we have said. And this is all the Breadth there that 
divideth Asia from Europe : and even that is for the most 
part passable on Foot, when the Strait is frozen over. The 
Breadth of Bosphorus Cimmerius is 12 Miles. It hath the 
Towns Hermisium, Myrmecium ; and within it, the Island 
Alopece. But through Mceotis, from the furthest part of 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 29 

the Isthmus, which Place is called Tapbrse, to the Mouth of 
Bosphorus, it containeth 260 Miles. From Taphrae, the 
Continent within is inhabited by the Anchetae, among whom 
the Hypanis springeth : and Neuri, where Borysthenes hath 
his Head ; also, the Geloni, Thussagetae, Budmi, Basilidae, 
and the Agathyrsi, with blue Hair on their Heads. Above 
them, the Nomades ; and then the Anthropophagi. From 
Buges, above Moeotis, the Sauromates and Essedones dwell. 
But along the Borders, as far as Tanais, the Mceotae, from 
whom the Lake was so called ; and the last behind them, 
the Arimaspi. Within a little are the Riphaean Mountains, 
and a Country called Pterophoros, for the resemblance of 
Wings (Feathers 1 ) occasioned by the continual fall of 
Snow : a Part of the World condemned by the nature of 
Things, and immersed in thick Darkness, having no shelter- 
ing Places but the work of Cold, the produce of the freezing 
North Wind. Behind those Mountains, and beyond the 
North Pole, there is a happy Nation (if we may believe it) 
whom they call Hyperborei 2 , who live exceeding long, and 

1 " A race of men there are, as fame has told, 
Who shivering suffer Hyperborean cold, 
Till nine times bathing in Minerva's lake 
Soft feathers, to defend their naked sides, they take." 

DBTDEN'S Ovid. Metam. lib. xv. 

Herodotus, Melpo. 31, says: " In respect to the feathers wherewith 
the Scythians affirm the air to be filled, my opinion is this : above that 
country snow falls continually ; now any one that has seen snow falling 
thick, and close to himself, must understand what I say. The snow does, in 
fact, bear great resemblance to feathers. I think, therefore, that the 
Scythians and the surrounding nations compare the snow to feathers. 
LAURENT. Wern. Club. 

2 The ancients denominated those people and places Hyperborean 
which were to the northward of the Scythians. They had, indeed, but 
very little acquaintance with these regions ; and all they tell us of them 
is very precarious, while much of it is false. Herodotus, as well as Pliny, 
doubts whether or not there were any such nations ; while Strabo pro- 
fesses to believe that they really existed. See a very amusing account of 
these fabulous Hyperboreans in Herodotus, Melpo. 32-36. From whence 
much that Pliny says was borrowed. Wern. Club. 



30 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

are celebrated for fabulous Wonders. There are believed to 
be the Poles of the World, and the very Ends of the revo- 
lution of the Heavens, having for six Months together one 
entire Day ; and Night as long, when the Sun is turned from 
them : but their Day is not from the Spring Equinox (as 
the Ignorant say) to the Autumn : for once in the Year, at 
the Solstice, the Sun riseth with them : and once likewise 
it setteth in Mid-winter. The Region is open to the Sun, 
of a happy Temperature, void of all hurtful impulse of Air. 
The Woods are their Habitations, and the Groves where 
they worship the Gods Man by Man, and in Companies : 
Discord and all Disease are unknown ; and they never die, 
but when they are satiated with Life : when the aged Men, 
having feasted and anointed their bodies, leap from a certain 
Rock into the Sea. This kind of Sepulture is the most happy. 
Some Writers have placed them in the first Part of the Sea- 
coast in Asia, and not in Europe; because some are there re- 
sembling them in manners and situation, named Atocori ; 
others have set them in the midst, between both Suns ; that 
is, the Setting of it with the Antipodes, and the Rising of it 
with us : which cannot possibly be, so vast a Sea lying 
between. Those that have placed them nowhere but in the 
six Months' daylight, have written of them, that they sow in 
the Morning, reap at Noon, at Sunset gather the Fruits from 
the Trees, and by Night lie within Caves. Neither may we 
make doubt of that Nation, since so many Authors testify, 
that they were accustomed to send their first Fruits to 
Delos, to Apollo, whom they chiefly worship. They were 
Virgins that conveyed these Fruits ; who for certain Years 
were venerated and entertained by all Nations, until, upon 
breach of Faith, they appointed to bestow those sacred ob- 
lations in the next Borders of their Neighbours : and these 
again to convey them to those that bordered upon them, and 
so on as far as to Delos : and, soon after, this custom wore 
out. The Length of Sarmatia, Scythia, and Taurica, and of all 
that Tract from the River Borysthenes, is 980 Miles, the 
Breadth 717, as M. Agrippa hath delivered it. But I judge 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 31 

that the Measure of this Part of the Earth is uncertain. 
But after the appointed Order, the remainder of this Gulf 
may be spoken of; and we have already shewn the Seas of it. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Islands of Pontus. 

HELLESPONT hath no Islands to be spoken of in Europe. 
In Pontus are two, a Mile and a half from Europe, and 14 
Miles from the Mouth : Cyaneae, of others called Symple- 
gades : and by Report of Fables, they ran one into another : 
because they being severed by a small Space, to them that 
enter the Sea full upon them they seemed a Pair: but if 
the Eye be a little turned aside, they made a Show as if they 
met together. On this Side the Ister there is one, pertaining 
to the Apolloniates, 80 Miles from Bosphorus Thracius : out 
of which M. Lucullus brought Apollo Capitolinus 1 . What 
were within the Mouths of the Ister we have declared al- 
ready. Before Borysthenes is the above-named Achillea, and 
the same is called Leuce and Macaron. This the modern 
demonstration places 140 miles from Borysthenes : from 
Tyra, 120 : from the Island Pence, 50. It is in Compass 
about ten Miles. The rest are in the Bay Carcinites : Ce- 
phalonnesos, Rhosphodusa, and Macra. I cannot pass by 
the Opinion of many Writers, before we depart from Pontus, 
who have thought that all the inland Seas arise from that 
head, and not from the Straits of Gades ; and they lay for 
their argument, not without some probability, because out 
of Pontus the Tide always floweth, and never returneth. 

But now we are to depart thence, that other Parts of 

1 Apollonia was a colony of the Milesians in Thrace, the greatest 
part of whose chief town was situated in a small island in the Euxine, 
and contained a temple dedicated to Apollo. The colossal statue of the 
god which Lucullus is said to have removed from thence, and placed in 
the Capitol at Rome, is described by Pliny (lib. xxxiv. c. 7), as being 30 
cubits high, and costing 500 talents. After its removal, it acquired the 
name of Apollo Capitolinus. (Note. HOLLAND'S Translation says 150 
talents only.) Wem. Club. 



32 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Europe may be spoken of; and passing the Riphaean Moun- 
tains, we must proceed along the Shore of the Northern 
Ocean to the left, until we come to Gades. In which 
Tract there are reported to be very many Islands without 
Names, of which, by the Report of Tim&us, there is one be- 
fore Scythia called Bannomanna, distant from Scythia one 
Day's Sailing, into which, in the Time of Spring, Amber is 
cast up by the Waves. The other Coasts are of uncertain 
Report. The North Ocean from the River Paropamisus, 
where it washeth Scythia, Hecatceus nameth Amalchium, 
which Word, in the language of that Nation, signifieth 
Frozen. Philemon writeth, that the Cimbrians call it Mori- 
marusa, that is Mortuum Mare [the Dead Sea], even as far 
as to the Promontory Rubeae: then beyond, Cronium. 
Xenophon Lampsacenus saith, That in three Days' sailing 
from the Scythian Coast there is the Island Baltia, of ex- 
ceeding magnitude. The same doth Pythias name Basilia. 
There are reported the Isles Oonae, wherein the Inhabitants 
live on Birds' Eggs and Oats. Others also, wherein men 
are born with the Feet of Horses, and called Hippopodes. 
Others of the Panoti 1 , who, being otherwise naked, have 
immensely great Ears that cover their whole Bodies. Then 
begins a clearer Report to open from the Nation of the 
Ingevoni, the first of the Germans in those Parts. There is 
the exceeding great Mountain Sevo, not inferior to the high 
Crags of Riphaeus, which maketh a very large Gulf, as far 
as to the Cimbrians' Promontory, called Codanus, and it is 
full of Islands, of which the most celebrated is Scandinavia, 
the Magnitude whereof is not yet discovered. A Part 
only thereof, as much as is known, the Nation of Helle- 
viones inhabiteth, in 500 Villages: and they call it a second 
Worldj and as it is thought Enigia is not less. Some say, 
that these Parts, as far as to the River Vistula, are in- 
habited by the Sarmati, Veneti, Scyri, and Hirri : also that 

1 Some editions read Fanesii, but Panotii seems the more correct ; for 
as the Oonae were so called in consequence of their living on eggs, and the 
Hippopodes because they had horses' feet, so the Panoti derived their 
name from having immensely great ears that covered their whole bodies. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 33 

the Gulf of the Sea is called Clylipenus : and that in the 
Mouth of it is the Island Latris. Also that not far from it, 
there is another Bay bounding upon the Cirnbri. The Pro- 
montory of the Cimbriaris shooting far into the Seas; maketh 
a Peninsula, which is called Cartris. Thence three-and- 
twenty Islands are known by the Roman Armies. The 
noblest of them are Burchana, called by our countrymen 
Fabaria, from the Plenty of Vegetables growing there un- 
sown. Likewise Glessaria, so called by the Soldiers from 
Amber ; but by the Barbarians, Austrania ; and besides them 
Actania. Along this Sea, until you come to the River Scaldis, 
the German Nations inhabit : but the Measure of that Tract 
can scarcely be declared, such very great Discord there 
is among Writers. The Greeks and some of our own Writers 
have described the Coast of Germany to be 2500 Miles. 
Agrippa again, joining with it Rhaetia and Noricum, saith, 
that it is in Length 686 miles, and in Breadth 268. And 
of Rhaetia alone, the Breadth is almost greater, at least at 
the time that it was subdued, and the People departed out 
of Germany : for Germany was discovered many years after, 
and is not all, even now. But if it be permitted to guess, there 
will not be much wanting in the Coasts, from the opinion 
of the Greeks ; nor in the Length as set down by Agrippa. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
Germania. 

OF Germans, there are five Kinds ; the Vindili, a part of 
whom are the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini, and Gurtones. 
A second kind, the Ingaevones, part of whom are the Cimbri, 
Teutoni, and the Nations of the Cauchi. The Istaevones are 
the nearest to the Rhine (Rhenus), and part of them are the 
Cimbri. Then the Midland Hermiones, among whom are 
the Suevi, Hermunduri, Chatti, and Cherusci. The fifth 
part are the Peucini, and Basternae, bordering upon the 
abovenamed Dacae. Notable Rivers that run into the 
Ocean; Guttalus, Vistillus or Vistula, Albis, Visurgis, Ami- 
VOL. IT. D 



34 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

sius, Rhenus, Mosa. And within, the Hircynium Hill, 1 infe- 
rior to none in estimation, is stretched forward. 

CHAPTER XV. 
Islands in the Gallic Ocean. 

IN the Rhine itself, for almost an hundred Miles in 
Length, is the most noble Island of the Batavi, Cannenu- 
fates ; and others of the Frisii, Cauchi, Frisiaboni, Sturii, 
and Marsatii, which are spread between Helius and Flevus. 
For so are the Mouths called, into which Rhenus, as it gushes, 
scatters itself: from the North into Lakes; from the West 
into the River Mosa. But in the middle Mouth between 
these, he keepeth a small Channel, of his own name. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Britannia and Hybernia England and Ireland.* 

OVER against this Tract lieth the Island Britannia, be- 
tween the North and West ; renowned in Greek and Roman 

1 The Hercynian Hill (jugum) is elsewhere called the Hercynian 
Forest (saltus). 

Although Pliny had served with the army in Germany, and had 
written a history of the war in which he was engaged, yet he makes no 
mention, in this work, of any city or region of that country ; a proof 
that the celebrity of a place as estimated at Rome, was the measure of its 
importance with him. Wern. Club. 

a Different suggestions have been offered in explanation of the word 
" Britannia." By some it has been supposed to be derived from the British 
word " Brithy" painted ; from a practice by the inhabitants of staining 
their skin of a blue colour with woad, to render themselves formidable to 
their enemies. But a name thence derived would only be applied by 
strangers, who would not have selected a word foreign to their own lan- 
guage to express the custom. It is more likely, therefore, to have been 
derived from a foreign source ; and it is Bochart's opinion that it was 
first applied by the Phrenicians, in whose language the word " Baratanac" 
signifies the land of tin : the chief produce which tempted these adven- 
turous merchants to visit this country, and make settlements in its most 
western extremity, at a very remote period. The word became after- 
wards translated into the Greek name " Cassiterides," which was applied by 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 35 

Records. It is opposite to Germania, Gallia, and Hispania, 
the greatest Parts by far of Europe, and no small Sea lying be- 
tween. Albion was its Name, when all the Islands were called 
Britanniae, of which by and by we will speak. This (Island) 
is from Gessoriacum, a Coast of the Nation of the Morini, 
50 Miles by the nearest Passage. In Circuit, as M. Pytheas 
and Isidorus report, it containeth 3825 Miles. And now for 
about 30 Years the Roman Armies growing into further 
knowledge, yet have not penetrated beyond the neighbour- 

the latter people, more particularly to the Scilly Islands and the County 
of Cornwall. Albion was more properly the Roman name of the coun- 
try ; and was probably derived from its white appearance, as seen on their 
approach to it from Gaul. This latter name was retained in official docu- 
ments, even under the Saxon dominion, as appears from a charter of 
JEthelred in the 10th century; in which he terms himself " Ego JEthel- 
redus, totius Albionis, Dei gubernante moderamine, Basileus :" and end- 
ing, " Ego JEthelredus Rex Anglorum." HEARNE'S Leland, vol. ii. 

As natives of the British Islands, we cannot but regret that, while the 
Author has been so minute in the mention of places lying round the 
borders of the Mediterranean Sea, he has passed over with neglect the 
regions and towns of Britain and Ireland, as well as those of the north of 
Europe. Although his knowledge of these was probably limited, the 
omission can scarcely have proceeded from ignorance alone, for Suetonius 
informs us, that the Emperor Vespasian, who was the great patron of Pliny, 
had subdued twenty cities in Britain, together with the Isle of Wight ; and 
we cannot suppose that Pliny remained unacquainted with the names of 
any of them. In another place he names Camelodunum, which is be- 
lieved to be Doncaster, as a station sufficiently known, from which to 
measure the distance to the Island Mona, or Anglesea ; and the city of 
the Trinobantes had been previously mentioned by Julius Caesar. His 
distribution of the islands lying round Britain is contradictory as well 
as obscure ; but he appears to regard all that are situated west of the 
ordinary place of passage from the Continent into Britain, (Gessoriacum, 
which is probably Boulogne on the one side, and the British port of the 
Morini, whether Dover or Folkestone,) as being necessarily situated be- 
tween Britain and Ireland. Vectis is admitted to be the Isle of Wight ; 
but by some authors the same name is given to an island to which tin 
was carried from Cornwall in carts, and from which it was afterwards 
exported. From a comparison of ancient authors, Sir Christopher Haw- 
kins was persuaded that this could be no other that St. Michael's Mount, 
in Cornwall ; and the argument urged against this supposition, built on 
the tradition that it once stood within the land, and was surrounded by 



36 History of Nature. [BoOK IV. 

hood of the Caledonian Forest. Agrippa belie veth that it 
is in Length 800 miles, and in Breadth 300 ; and also that 
Ireland is as broad, but not so long by 200 Miles. This 
Island is seated above it, and but a very short Passage 
distant ; 30 Miles from the Nation of Silures. Of the 
other Islands there is none, by report, in Compass more than 
125 Miles. But there are the Orcades 40, divided from each 
other by small spaces : Acmodse 7, and 30 Hsebrides. Also 
between Britannia and Hibernia are Mona, Monapia, Ricnea, 

a wood, may be answered by believing that these facts refer to very different 
ages of the world. The Mictis of Pliny may be this Cornish island ; 
his error in the distance having arisen from confounding the place 
of export for tin with the islands producing it. To the latter, or Scilly 
Islands, it appears the Britons were accustomed to sail in their wicker boats 
covered with leather, or coracles ; a mode of navigation perhaps not less 
secure than the somewhat similar vessels at present in use among the 
Greenlanders. That they were capable of a considerable voyage appears 
from the fact, that they have been employed in crossing the channel 
from Armorica to Cornwall so late as about the 7th century. It must 
have been from misinformation that Pliny assigns the Cassiterides (Chap. 
XXII.) to Spain ; but even this great error may be excused, by recol- 
lecting that in a preceding age the merchants had succeeded in concealing 
the situation of this Cornish group from the inquiry of Julius Caesar, 
when he was tempted to invade the seat of pearls and tin; and that 
Cadiz was the Continental port, from which this profitable intercourse 
with Cornwall and Scilly had from the remotest ages been carried on. 
The Islands mentioned by Pliny may be judged the following : 

Orcades . . . Orkneys. 

AcmodcB . probably Zetland. 

Habredes, Hebrides . Western Islands. 

Mona . . . Anglesea. 

Monapia, Monaadia, and by others Menavia, Isle of Man. 

Ricnea, qu. Ricina f . Birdsey, between Wales and Ireland. 

Vectzs . . . Isle of Wight. 

Silumnus ... ? 

Andros ... ? 

Siambis ... ? 

Axantos ... ? 

Mictis . . .St. Michael's Mount. 

Glessaria ) Nordstant, in the German Sea. 

Electrides ) 

Wern. Club. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 37 

Vectis, Silimnus, and Andros : but beneath Siambis and 
Axantos: and on the contrary side, toward the German 
Sea, there lie scattered the Glessariae, which the later Greek 
Writers have named Electrides, because Amber was pro- 
duced there. The farthest of all, which are spoken of, is 
Thule ; in which there are no Nights, as we have declared, 
at the Solstice, when the Sun passeth through the Sign 
Cancer ; and on the other hand no Days in Midwinter ; and 
each of these Times they supposed to last Six Months. 
Timceus the Historiographer saith, That farther within, at 
Six Days' sailing from Britannia, is the Island Mictis, in 
which White Lead is produced, and that the Britanni sail 
thither in Wicker Vessels, sewed round with Leather. Some 
make mention of others, as Scandia, Durnna, and Bergos ; 
and the biggest of all, Nerigos; from which Men sail to 
Thule. Within one Day's Sail from Thule is the Frozen 
Sea, named by some Cronium. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Gallia. 

ALL Gallia, by one Name called Comata, is divided into 
three Kinds of People, and those for the most part divided 
one from the other by Rivers : Belgica, from Scaldis to 
Sequana : Celtica, from it to Garumna ; and this Part of 
Gallia is also named Lugdunensis. From thence to the lying 
out of the Mountain Pyrenseus, Aquitania, formerly called 
Aremorica. Agrippa hath made this Computation of all 
the Gallise lying between Rhenus, Pyrenaeus, the Ocean, 
and the Mountains Gehenna and Jura ; whereby he ex- 
cludeth Narbonensis Gallia; in Length 420 Miles, and in 
Breadth 313. Next to Scaldis, the Toxandri inhabit the 
utmost Borders, under many Names. Then the Menapii, 
Morini, and Oromansaci ; joining upon that District which is 
called Gessoriacus, the Brinanni, Ambiani, Bellonici, and 
Hassi. Within, the Castologi, Atrebates, and the free Nervii. 
TheVeromandui, Sueconi, and free Suessiones,free Ulbanectes, 
Tungri, Rinuci, Frisiabones, Betasi, free Leuci. TheTreviri, 



38 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

free formerly : the Lingeries Confederates : the Remi Confe- 
derate : the Mediomatrici, the Sequani, the Raurici, and Hel- 
vetii. Colonies, Equestris and Rauriaca. But, of German 
Nations in the same Province, that dwell near the Rhenus, 
the Nemetes, Tribochi, and Vangiones : then the Ubii, Co- 
Ionia Agrippensis, Gugerni, Batavi, and those whom we 
spake of in the Islands of the Rhenus. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Lugdunensis Gallia. 

LUGDUNENSIS GALLIA containeth the Lexovii, Velocasses, 
Galleti, Veneti, Abricatui, Osismii, and the noble River Li- 
geris : but a remarkable Peninsula running out into the 
Ocean from the Extremity of the Osismii, having in cir- 
cuit 625 Miles: with its Neck 125 Miles broad. Beyond 
it dwell the Nannetes : within, the Hcedui Confederates, 
the Carnuti Confederates, the Boii, Senones, Aulerici, 
surnamed Eburovices, and the Cenomannes, arid Meldi, 
free. Parrhisii, Trecasses, Andegavi, Viducasses, Vadicasses, 
Unelli, Cariosvelites, Diablindi, Rhedones, Turones, Itesui, 
and free Secusiani, in whose Country is the Colony Lug- 
dun urn. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Aquitania. 

To Aquitania belong the Ambilatri, Anagnutes, Pictones, 
the free Santones (Bituriges), named also Vibisci, Aquitani, 
from whom the Province is named, and the Sediboniates. 
Then such as were enrolled into a Town from various Parts : 
Begerri, Tarbeli, who came under 4 Ensigns; Cocossati, 
under 6 Ensigns ; Venami, Onobrisates, Belendi, and the 
Forest Pyrenseus. Beneath them, the Monesi ; Osquidates, 
Mountaineers ; Sibyllates, Camponi, Bercorates, Bipedimui, 
Sassumini, Vellates, Tornates, Consoranni, Ausci, Elusates, 
Sottiates, the Field Osquidates, Succasses, Latusates, Basa- 
bocates, Vassei, Sennates, Cambolectri, Agesinates joined to 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 39 

the Pictones. Then the free Bituriges, who are also called 
Cubi. Next to them, Lemovices, the free Arverni, and Ga- 
bales. Again, those that border upon the Province Narbo- 
nensis ; the Rutheni, Cadurci, Autobroges, and the Petro- 
gori divided from the Tolosani by the River Tarne. Seas 
about the Coast: upon the Rhenus the North Ocean : between 
the Rhenus and Sequana, the British Ocean : between it and 
Pyrenseus, the Gallic Ocean. Islands : many of the Veneti, 
which are called also Veneticse : and in the Gulf of Aquitaine, 
Uliarus. 

CHAPTER XX. 

The Hither Hispania. 

AT the Promontory of Pyrenseus beginneth Hispania 
(Spain) ; narrower not only than Gallia, but also than itself 
(as we may say), so vast a Quantity is wrought into it by 
the Ocean of the one Coast, and the Iberian Sea on the 
other. The Mountains of Pyrenseus, which from the 
East spread all the way to the Southwest, make Hispania 
shorter on the North Side than the South. The nearest 
Border of this hither Province is the same as the Tract 
of Tarracon, from Pyrenseus along the Ocean, to the 
Forest of the Vascones. In the Country of the Varduli : 
the Towns Olarso, Morosgi, Menosca, Vesperies, the Port 
Amanum, where now is Flaviobriga, a Colony of nine Cities. 
The Region of the Cantabri, the River Sada, the Port of 
Victoria, inhabited by the Juliobrigenses. From that Place 
the Fountains of Iberus, 40 Miles. The Port Biendium, the 
Origeni, intermingled with the Cantabri. Their Harbours, 
Vesei and Veca : the Country of the Astures, the Town 
Noega, in the Peninsula Pesicus. And then the Conventus 
Lucensis, from the River Navilubio, the Cibarci, Egovarri, 
surnamed Namarini, ladoni, Arrotrebse, the Promontory 
Celticum. Rivers, Florius and Nelo. Celtici, surnamed 
Neriae : and above the Tamirici, in whose Peninsula are 
three Altars called Sestianse, dedicated to Augustus ; Crepori, 
the Town Noela. The Celtici, surnamed Prsesamarci, Cileni. 
Of Islands worth the naming, Corticata and Aunios. From 



40 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

the Cileni, the Conventus of the Bracae, Heleni, Gravii, the 
Castle Tyde, all descended from the Greeks. The Islands 
Cicae, the distinguished Town Abobrica ; the River Minius 
with a broad Mouth, four Miles over; the Leuni, Seurbi, 
Augusta, a Town of the Bracse : and above them, Gallaecia; 
the River Limia. The River Durius, one of the greatest in 
Hispania, springing in the Pelendones' Country, and running 
by Numantia : and so on, through the Arevaci and Vaccsei, 
dividing the Vettones from Asturia, and the Gallseci from 
Lusitania : and there also it keepeth off the Turduli from the 
Bracari. All this Region abovesaid from Pyrenaeus is full 
of Mines, of Gold, Silver, Iron, Lead, both black and white 
(Tin). 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Lusitania. 

FROM the (River) Durius beginneth Lusitania, wherein 
are Turduli the old, Pesuri, the River Vacca. The Town 
Talabrica, the Town and River Minium. Towns, Conim- 
brica, Olisippo, Eburo, Britium. From whence runneth out 
into the Sea with a mighty Horn the Promontory, which 
some have called Artabrum ; others, the Great ; and many, 
Olissoponense, from the Town, making a Division of Land, 
Sea, and Sky. By it is the Side of Hispania determined, 
and from the Compass of it beginneth the Front. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Islands in the Ocean. 

ON the one hand, is the North and the Gallic Ocean : 
on the other, the West and the Atlantic Ocean. The 
shooting forth of the Promontory some have reported to 
be 60 Miles, others 90. From thence to Pyrenaeus not a 
few say it is 1250 Miles ; and that there is a Nation of the 
Atabri, which never was, with a manifest Error. For they 
have set the Arrotrebae, whom we have placed before the 
Celtic Promontory, in this place, by exchanging some Let- 
ters. They have erred also in certain famous Rivers. From 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 41 

Minius abovenamed (as Varro saith) ^minius is 200 Miles 
distant (which some take to be elsewhere, and call it Limaea), 
named by the ancients Oblivionis ; of which goeth many 
a Fable. From Durius to Tagus is 200 Miles, and Munda 
cometh between. Tagus is much renowned for Sand that 
yieldeth Gold : 160 Miles from it the Promontory Sacrum 
(Sacred) runneth out from about the middle Front of His- 
pania : and Varro saith it is 14 Miles from it to the midst of 
Pyrenaeus. But from Ana, by which we have separated 
Lusitania from Baetica, 226 Miles : adding thereto from 
Gades 102 Miles. Nations : Celtici, Varduli, and about the 
Tagus, the Vettones. From Ana to Sacrum, the Lusitani. 
Memorable Towns : from Tagus in the Coast Side, Olisippo, 
noble for the Mares that conceive there by the Favonius 
Wind. Salacia, denominated Urbs Imperatoria, and Mero- 
brica : the Promontory Sacrum, and another called Caeneus. 1 
Towns : Ossonoba, Balsa, and Myrtius. The whole Province 
is divided into three Conventions : Emeritensis, Pacensis, 
and Scalabitanus. Itcontaineth in all five-and-forty People: 
wherein are five Colonies, one Municipium of Roman Citi- 
zens ; three of Old Latium. Stipendiaries, six-and-thirty. 
Colonies, Augusta Emerita : and upon the River Ana, 
Metallinensis ; Pacensis, Norbensis, which is named also 
Caesariana. To it are laid Castra Julia and Castra Caecilia. 
The fifth is Scalabis, called Praesidium Julium. The Muni- 
cipium of Roman Citizens Olyssippo, named also Felicitas 
Julia. Towns of the Old Latium, Ebora, which likewise was 
called Liberalitas Julia : Myrtilis also, and Salatia, which we 
have spoken of. Of Stipendiaries, which I am not loth to 
name, beside the abovesaid, in the additions of Baetica, 
Augustobrigenses, Ammienses, Aranditarii, Axabricenses, 
Balsenses, Caesarobricenses, Caperenses, Caurenses, Colarni, 
Cibilitani, Concordienses, the same as Bonori ; Interau- 
senses, Lancienses, Mirobrigenses surnamed Celtici ; Medu- 
bricenses, the same as Plumbarii ; Ocelenses, who also are 
Lancienses; Turtuli, named Barduli, and Tapori. M.Agrippa 

1 Cceneus is read in some editions, and Cuneus in others. 



42 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

hath written, that Lusitania, with Asturia and Gallsecia, is in 
Length 540 Miles, and in Breadth 526. But all the His- 
panise (Spains), from the two Promontories of Pyrenaeus along 
the Seas, are supposed to take up in Circuit of the whole 
Coast 2900 Miles, and by others, 2700. Over against Celti- 
beria are very many Islands, called by the Greeks Cassiterides, 
from the plenty of Lead -, 1 and from the region of the Pro- 
montory of the Arrotrebae, six named Deorum (i. e. of the 
Gods) which some have called Fortunatae. But in the very 
Cape of Bsetica, from the Mouth of the Strait 75 Miles, 
lieth the Island Gades, 12 Miles long, as Polybim writeth, 
and 3 Miles broad. It is distant from the Continent, where 
it is nearest, less than 700 Paces, 2 in other Parts above 7 
Miles. Its space containeth 15 Miles. It hath a Town of 
Roman Citizens, which is named Augusta, Urbs Julia 
Gaditana. On that side that looks toward Spain, within 
about 100 Paces, is another Island, 3 Miles long, and a 
Mile broad, wherein formerly was the Town of Gades. The 
Name of this Island, according to Ephorus and Philistides, is 
Erythia : but according to Timceus and Silenus, Aphrodisias : 
by the Native Inhabitants, of Juno. The bigger, 'Timaus 
saith, was by them called Cotinusa ; our Countrymen name 
it Tartessos, the Pceni Gadir, 3 which in the Punic Lan- 
guage signifieth 4 the number of seven. 5 Erythia was 
called, because the Tyri were reported to have had their 
first beginning out of the (Red) Sea, Erythraeum. Some think 
that Geryon here dwelt, whose Herds Hercules took away. 
There are again some who think that it is another, over 

See p. 36, c. xvi. 

Less than three-quarters of a mile. 

Or Gadiz. 

Septem, or, as some read, Septum (i. e. a park or enclosure). 

From the Hebrew root signifying to make a fence, the Phoenicians 
called any enclosed space Gaddir, and particularly gave this name to their 
settlement on the south-western coast of Spain, which the Greeks from 
them called Gaderia, the Romans Gades, and we Cadiz. See Bochart, 
vol. i. 628-734. This name is very appropriately given to the island 
mentioned by Pliny ; but why it should be derived from a Punic word 
signifying seven is not so apparent. Wern. Club. 



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 43 

against Lusitania, and there sometime called by the same 
Name. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
The Measure of all Europe. 

HAVING finished the circuit of Europe, we must now 
yield the total Sum, that such as are desirous of Knowledge 
be not deficient in any thing. Artemidorus and Isldorus have 
set down the Length of it from Tanais to Gades 84,014 
Miles. Polybius hath put down the Breadth of Europe, from 
Italy to the Ocean 1150 Miles, for then the largeness of it 
was not known. But the Breadth of Italy itself (as we have 
shewn) is 1220 Miles to the Alps : from whence by Lug- 
dunum to the Port of the Morini in Britain, from which 
Polybius seemeth to take his Measure, is 1168 Miles. But 
the more certain Measure, and the longer, is directed from 
the said Alps to the extreme West and the Mouth of the 
Rhenus, through the Camps of the Legions of Germania, 
1243 Miles. Now will we proceed to describe Africa and 
Asia. 



IN THE FIFTH BOOK 



ARE CONTAINED 

REGIONS, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, PORTS, HILLS, RIVERS, WITH 

THEIR MEASURES, AND PEOPLE, EITHER AT THIS DAY 

EXISTING, OR IN TIMES PAST, VIZ.: 



CHAP. 

1. Mauritania. 

2. The Province Tingitana. 

3. Numidia. 

4. Africa. 

5. Gyrene. 

6. Lybia Maraeotis. 

7. Islands lying about Africa, and 

over against Africa. 

8. The Ethiopians. 

9. Asia. 

10. Alexandria. 

11. Arabia. 

12. Syria, Palsestina, Phoenice. 

13. Idumsea, Syria, Palaestina, Sa- 

maria. 

14. Judaea, Galilea. 

15. The River Jordan. 

16. The Lake Asphaltites. 

17. The Essenes (people). 

18. The Country Decapolis. 

19. Tyrus and Sidon. 

20. The Mount Libanus. 



CHAP. 

21. Syria Antiochena. 

22. The Mountain Casius. 

23. Coele- Syria. 

24. The River Euphrates. 

25. The Region Palmyra. 

26. Hierapolis (the Country). 

27. Cilicia and the Nations adjoin- 

ing : Pamphylia, Isauria, 
Homonades, Pisidia, Lyca- 
onia, the Mountain Taurus, 
and Lycia. 

28. The River Indus. 

29. Laodicea, Apamia, Ionia, and 

Ephesus. 

30. JEolis, Troas, Pergamus. 

31. Islands about Asia, the Pam- 

phylian Sea, Rhodes, Samus, 
and Chius. 

32. Hellespont, Mysia, Phrygia, 

Galatia, Nicea, Bithynia, 
Bosphorus. 



Herein you find Towns and Nations, principal Rivers, famous Moun- 
tains, Islands, 117. Towns also that are perished. Affairs, Histories and 
Observations. 



LATIN AUTHOKS ABSTRACTED: 

Agrippa, Suetonius Paulinus, Varro Atacinus, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, 
L. Vetus, Mela, Domitius Corlulo, Licinius Mutianus, Claudius Ccesar, 
Aruntius, Livius the Son, Sebosus, the Records of the Triumphs. 

FOREIGN WRITERS: 

King Juba, Hecatam, Hellanicus, Damastes, Diccearchus, Bion, Timo- 
sihenes, Philonides, Xenagoras, Asty nonius, Staphylus, Aristotle, Dionysius, 
Aristocritus, Ephorus, Eratosthenes, Hipparcnus, Pancetius, Serapion An- 
tiochenus, Callimachus, Agathocles, Polybius, Timaus the Mathematician, 
Herodotus, Myrsilus, Alexander Polyhistor, Metrodorus, Posidonius who 
wrote Periplus or Periegesis, Sotades, Periander, Aristarchus Sicyonius, 
Eudoxus, Antigenes, Callicrates, Xenophon Lampsacenus, Diodorus Syra- 
cusanus, Hanno, Himilco, Nymphodorus, Calliphon, Artemidorus, Mega- 
sthenes, Isidorus, Cleobulus, Aristocreon. 



THE FIFTH BOOK 



OF THE 



HISTORY OF NATURE 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 



The Description of Africa. 

FRICA the Greeks have called Lybia; from 
which the Lybian Sea before it beginneth, and 
endeth in the Egyptian. No part of the Earth 
receiveth fewer Gulfs in that long compass of 
oblique Coasts from the West. The Names 
of its People and Towns are exceedingly hard 

to be Pronounced, unless by their own Tongues : and again, 

they for the most part dwell in Castles. 




CHAPTER I. 
Mauritania. 

AT the beginning, the Lands of Mauritania, until the 
time of C. Ccesar (i. e. Caligula), son of Germanicus, were 
called Kingdoms : but by his Cruelty it was divided into two 
Provinces. The utmost Promontory of the Ocean is named 
by the Greeks Ampelusia. The Towns were Lissa and Cotes 



46 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Now there is Tingi, formerly 
built by Antceus ; and afterwards by Claudius Ccesar, when he 
made it a Colony, by whom it was called Traducta Julia. It 
is from Belone, a Town in Baetica, by the nearest Passage, 30 
Miles. Five-and-Twenty Miles from it, in the Coast of the 
Ocean, is a Colony of Augustus, now Julia Constantia, exempt 
from the Jurisdiction of the Kings of Zilis : and commanded 
to seek for Law to Baetica. And 32 Miles from it is Lixos, 
made a Colony by Claudius Caesar, of which in old Time there 
were related many Fabulous Tales. There stood the Royal 
Palace of Antceus ; there was the combat with Hercules ; there 
also were the Gardens of the Hesperides. Now there floweth 
into it out of the Sea a Creek by a winding Channel, in 
which Men now interpret that there were Dragons serving 
as Guards. It encloseth an Island within itself, which (not- 
withstanding the Tract near it is somewhat higher) is alone 
not overflowed by the Tides of the Sea. In it there standeth 
an Altar of Hercules ; and except wild Olives, nothing is to 
be seen of that Grove, reported to bear Golden Apples. 
And indeed less may they wonder at the enormous lies of 
Greece invented concerning these, and the River Lixus ; 
who will think how of late our Countrymen have delivered 
some Fables scarcely less monstrous, regarding the same 
things : as, that this is a very strong City, bigger than great 
Carthage : moreover, that it is situated over against it, and 
almost at an immense way from Tingi : and other such, 
which Cornelius Nepos hath been very eager to believe. 
From Lixus 40 Miles, in the Midland Parts, standeth Babba, 
another Colony of Augustus, called Julia Campestris : also 
a third 75 Miles off, called Banasa, but now Valentia. 
35 Miles from it is the Town Volubile, just in the midway 
between both Seas. But in the Coast, 50 Miles from Lixus, 
there runneth Subur, a copious and navigable River, near to 
the Colony Banasa. As many Miles from it is the Town 
Sala, standing upon a River of the same Name, near now to 
the Wilderness, much infested with Herds of Elephants, but 
much more with the Nation of the Autololes, through 
which lieth the Way to Atlas, the most fabulous Mountain of 



BooKV.] History of Nature. 47 

Africa. For Writers have given out that, rising out of the 
very midst of the Sands, it rnounteth to the Sky, rough and 
ill-favoured on that side which lieth toward the Shore of the 
Ocean, unto which it gave the Denomination : and the same 
is shadowy, full of Woods, and watered with Sources of 
spouting Springs, on the way which looketh to Africa, with 
Fruits of all sorts, springing of their own accord, one under 
another, in such a manner, that at no time is Fulness of Plea- 
sure wanting. Moreover, that none of the Inhabitants are 
seen by day : all is silent, like the Awe of Solitude : a secret 
Devotion creepeth into the Hearts of those who approach 
near to it; and besides this Awe they are lifted above the 
Clouds, even close to the Circle of the Moon : that the same 
(Mountain) shineth by Night with frequent Fires, and is 
filled with the Lasciviousness of jgi panes and Satyrs ; that it 
resoundeth with the Melody of Flutes and Pipes ; and 
ringeth with the Sound of Drums and Cymbals. These are 
the Reports of famous Writers, besides the Labours of 
Hercules and Perseus there. The Way unto it is exceedingly 
long, and not certainly known. There were also Com- 
mentaries of Hanno, the General of the Carthaginians, who 
in the time of the most flourishing state of Carthage had a 
charge to explore the Circuit of Africa. Him, most of the 
Greeks as well as our Countrymen following, among some 
other fabulous Stories, have written that he also built many 
Cities there : but neither any Memorial, nor Token of them 
remain. When Scipio jSZmylianus carried on War in Africa, 
Polybius, the Writer of the Annals, received from him a Fleet ; 
and having sailed about for the purpose of searching into that 
part of the World, he reported, That from the said Mountain 
West, toward the Forests full of Wild Beasts, which Africa 
breedeth, to the River Anatis, are 485 Miles ; and from 
thence to Lixus, 205. Agrippa saith, That Lixus is distant 
from the Straits of Gades 112 Miles. Then, that there is a 
Bay called Saguti; also a Town upon the Promontory, 
Mutelacha. Rivers, Subur and Sala. That the Port 
Rutubis is from Lixus 313 Miles. Then the Promontory 
of the Sun. The Port Risardir : the Gaetulians, Autololes, 



48 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

the River Cosenus, the Nation of the Scelatiti and Massati. 
The Rivers Masatal and Darat, wherein Crocodiles are pro- 
duced. Then a Bay of 516 Miles, enclosed within the Promon- 
tory of the Mountain Barce, running out into the West, which 
is called Surrentium . After it, the River Palsus, beyond which 
are the ^Ethiopian Perorsi, and at their back are the Pharusi. 
Upon whom join the inland People, the Geetuli Darae. But 
upon the Coast are the ^Ethiopian Daratitee ; the River 
Bambotus full of Crocodiles and Hippopotami. From which, 
he saith, there is a Continuation of Mountains as far as to 
that which we call Theon-Ochema (the Gods' Chariot). 
Then, in sailing nine Days and Nights to the Promontory 
Hesperium, he hath placed the Mountain Atlas in the mid- 
way ; which by all other Writers is set down to be in the 
utmost Borders of Mauritania. The Romans first warred in 
Mauritania, in the time of Claudius the Prince : when 
JEdcemon, the Freedman of King Ptolemceus, who was 
slain by C. Ccesar, endeavoured to avenge his Death. For 
as the Barbarians fled backward, the Romans came to the 
Mountain Atlas. And not only to such Generals as had 
been Consuls, and to such as were of the Senate, who at that 
time managed affairs, but to Knights also, who from that 
time had command there, was it a glory to have pene- 
trated to the Atlas. *Five Roman Colonies, as we have 
said, are in that Province, and by common fame it may seem 
to be accessible. But this is found for the most part by 
Experience very fallacious : because Persons of high Rank, 
when it is irksome to search out the Truth, find it not irk- 
some through the shame of Ignorance, to give out Untruths : 
and never are Men more credulous to be deceived than when 
some grave Author fathereth the lie. And indeed I less 
wonder, that things are not known, when they of the Eques- 
trian Order, and those now also of the Senatorial Rank, 
admire nothing but Luxury: which very powerful and pre- 
vailing Force is seen when Forests are searched for Ivory and 
Citron-trees : and all the Rocks in Getulia for Murices and 

* It seemeth that this clause is to be set in the beginning of the next 
chapter. 






BOOK V.] History of Nature. 49 

Purpurae. Nevertheless the natural Inhabitants report, That 
in the Sea-coast 150 Miles from Sala there is the River 
Asana, that receiveth Salt Water into it, but with a goodly 
Harbour : and not far from it a River, which they call Fut : 
from which to Dyris (for that is the Name in their Language 
of Atlas) are 200 Miles, with a River coming between, 
named Vior. And there, by report, are to be seen the cer- 
tain tokens of a Soil formerly inhabited ; the vestiges of 
Vineyards and Date-tree Groves. Suetonius Paulinus (a 
Consul in our time), who was the first Roman Leader that 
passed over Atlas for the space of some Miles, also hath re- 
ported regarding the height thereof: and moreover, that the 
foot of it toward the bottom is full of thick and tall Woods, 
with Trees of an unknown kind, but the height of them is 
delightful to see, smooth and beautiful, the branches like 
Cypress ; and, besides the strong smell, are covered over 
with a thin Down, of which (with some help of Art) fine 
Cloth may be made, such as the Silk-worm yieldeth : that 
the top of it is covered with deep Snow, even in Summer, 
and that he reached up to it on the tenth day, and beyond to 
the River called Niger, through solitudes of black Dust, 
with sometimes conspicuous ragged Rocks, appearing as if 
burnt : places by reason of the Heat not habitable, although 
tried in the Winter Season. Those who dwelt in the next 
Forests were pestered with Elephants, wild Beasts, and 
Serpents of all sorts ; and those People were called Canarii ; 
because they and Animals feed together, and part among 
them the Bowels of wild Beasts. For it is sufficiently 
known that a Nation of ^Ethiopians, whom they call Peroresi, 
joineth to them. Juba, the Father of Ptolemceus, who for- 
merly ruled over both Mauritania, a Man more memorable 
for his illustrious Studies than for his Kingdom, hath written 
the like concerning Atlas ; and (he saith) moreover, that 
there is an Herb growing there called Euphorbia, from his 
Physician's name that first found it: the Milky Juice of 
which he praiseth exceedingly much for clearing the Eyes 
and against Serpents and all Poisons, in a dedicated Book by 
itself. Thus much may suffice, if not too much, about Atlas. 

VOL. II. E 






50 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

y CHAPTER II. 

The Province Tingitania. 

THE Length of the Province Tingitania is 170 Miles. The 
Nations therein are these : The Mauri, which in times past 
was the principal, and of whom the Province took its Name : 
and those most Writers have called Marusii. Being by War 
weakened, they wasted to a few Families. Next to them 
were the Masssesuli, hut in like manner they were extin- 
guished. Now are the Nations inhabited by the Getulae, 
Bannurri, and the Autololes, the most powerful of all : a 
part of whom were once the Vesuni : but being divided from 
them, they became a Nation by themselves, and were turned 
to the ./Ethiopians. This Province being full of Mountains 
eastward, affordeth Elephants. In the Mountain Abila, 
also, and in those which for their equal height they call 
the Seven Brethren : these are joined to Abila, which looketh 
over the arm of the Sea. From these beginneth the Coast of 
the Inward Sea. The River Tamuda navigable, and for- 
merly a Town. The River Laud, which also is able to 
receive Vessels. The Town Rusardir, and the Harbour. 
The navigable River Malvana. The Town Siga, over 
against Malacha, situated in Hispania : the royal Seat of 
Syphax, and now the other Mauritania. For a long time they 
kept the names of the Kings, so that the furthest was called 
Bogadiana: and likewise Bocchi, which now is Caesariensis. 
Next to it is the Harbour for its space called Magnus, with a 
Town of Roman Citizens. The River Muluca, which is the 
limit of Bocchi and the Massaesuli. Quiza Xeriitana, a Town 
of Strangers : Arsennaria, a Town of Latins, 3 Miles from the 
Sea : Carcenna, a Colony of Augustus, the Second Legion : 
Likewise another Colony of his, planted with the Pretorian 
Cohort : Gunugi : and the Promontory of Apollo. And a 
most famous Town there, Caesarea, usually in old time called 
lol, the royal Seat of King Juba : endowed by Divus Clau- 
dius with the Right of a Colony, by whose Appointment the 
old Soldiers were there bestowed. A new Town, Tipasa, 






BOOK V.] History of Nature. 51 

with the Liberties of Latium. Likewise Icosium, endowed 
by Vespasian the Emperor with the same Gift. The Colony 
of Augustus, Rusconiae: and Ruscurum, by Claudius honoured 
as a City : Rusoezus, a Colony of Augustus. Salde, a Colony 
of the same. Igelgili also, and Turca, a Town seated upon 
the Sea and the River Ampsaga. Within Land, the Colony 
Augusta, the same as Succubar ; and likewise Tubrisuptus. 
Cities, Timici, Tigavse. Rivers, Sardabala and Nabar. The 
Nation, Macurebi : the River Usar and the Nation of the 
Nabades. The River Ampsaga is from Caesarea 233 
Miles. The Length of either Mauritania is 839 Miles, the 
Breadth, 467. 

CHAPTER III. 
Numidia. 

NEXT to Ampsaga is Numidia, renowned for the Name of 
Masanissa: called by the Greeks, the Land Metagonitis. 
The Numidian Nomades (so named from changing their Pas- 
ture), who carry their Huts, that is, their Houses, about with 
them upon Waggons. Their Towns are Cullu and Rusicade ; 
from which 48 Miles off, within the midland Parts is the 
Colony Cirta, surnamed of the Sittiani ; another also within 
Cicca, and a free Town named Bulla Regia. But in the Coast, 
Tacatua, Hippo Regius, and the River Armua. The Town 
Trabacha, of Roman Citizens : the River Tusca, which 
boundeth Numidia : and besides the Numidian Marble, and 
abundance of wild Beasts, nothing is there worth the 
noting. 

CHAPTER IV. 
Africa. 

FROM Tusca forward is the Region Zeugitana, and the 
Country properly called Africa. Three Promontories : the 
White ; then that of Apollo, over against Sardinia: that of Mer- 
cury opposite to Sicily ; which, running into the Sea, make 
two Bays : the one Hipponensis, next to the Town which 
they call Hipponis, named by the Greeks Diarrhyton, on 



52 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

account of Brooks of Water : upon this bordereth Theudalis, 
an exempt Town, but further from the Sea-side ; then the 
Promontory of Apollo. And in the other Bay, Utica, of 
Roman Citizens, ennobled by the death of Cato : the River 
Bagrada. A Place called Castra Cornelia : and the Colony 
Carthago, among the Relics of great Carthage: and the 
Colony Maxulla. Towns, Carpi, Misna, and the free Clupea, 
upon the Promontory of Mercury. Also, free Towns, Cu- 
rubis and Neapolis. Soon is another distinction of Africa 
itself. Libyphoenices are they called, who inhabit Byzacium ; 
for so is that Region named : containing in Circuit 250 Miles, 
exceedingly fertile, where the Ground sown yieldeth to the 
Husbandman an hundred-fold Increase. In it are free Towns, 
Leptis, Adrumetum, Ruspina, and Thapsus : then, Thense, 
Macomades, Tacape, Sabrata, reaching to the Lesser Syrtis : 
unto which, the Length of Numidia and Africa from Am- 
phaga is 580 Miles : the Breadth, of so much as is known, 
200. This Part, which we have called Africa, is divided into 
two Provinces, the old and the new ; separated by a Fosse 
brought as far as to Thense, within the African Gulf; which 
Town is 217 Miles from Carthage. The third Bay is sepa- 
rated into two ; horrible Places for the Shallows and ebbing 
and flowing of the Sea at the two Syrtes. From Carthage 
to the nearer of them, which is the lesser, is 300 Miles, by 
the Account of Polybius : who saith, also, that the said Pas- 
sage of Syrtis is 100 Miles forward and 300 in Circuit. By 
Land also, the Way to it is by observation of the Stars, and 
through the Desert over Sands and through Places full of 
Serpents ; you pass Forests filled with Numbers of wild 
Beasts : and within, Solitudes of Elephants : and soon after, 
vast Deserts, even beyond the Garamantes, who, from the 
Augilae, are distant twelve Days' Journey. Above them was 
the Nation of the Psylli : and above them the Lake of Lyco- 
medes environed with Deserts. The Augilee themselves are 
seated about the middle Way from Ethiopia ; which bendeth 
Westward, and from the Country lying between the two 
Syrtes, with an equal Distance on each Side : but the Shore 
between the two Syrtes is 250 Miles. There standeth the 






BOOK V.] History of Nature. 53 

City Oeensis, the River Cinyps, and the Country. Towns, 
Neapolis, Taphra, Abrotonum, the other Leptis, called also 
the Great. Then the Greater Syrtis, in Compass 625 Miles, 
and in direct Passage 313. Then inhabit the Nation of Cisi- 
pades. In the inmost Gulf was the Coast of the Lotophagi, 
whom some have called Alachroas, as far as to the Altars of 
the Philaeni, and they are formed of Sand. Next to them, not 
far from the Continent, the vast Marsh admitteth into it the 
River Triton, and taketh its Name from it : but CaUimachus 
calleth it Pallantias, and saith it is on this Side the lesser 
Syrtes ; but many place it between both Syrtes. The Pro- 
montory that encloseth the greater is named Borion. Beyond 
is the Province Cyrenaica. From the River Ampsaga to this 
Bound, Africa containeth 26 separate People, who are subject 
to the Roman Empire : among which are six Colonies, be- 
sides the above-named, Uthina and Tuburbis. Towns of 
Roman Citizens, 15 ; of which those in the midland Parts to 
be named are Azuritanum, Abutucense, Aboriense, Cano- 
picum, Chilmanense, Simittuense, Thunusidens, Tuburni- 
cense, Tynidrumense, Tribigense, two Ucitana, the greater 
and less; and Vagiense. One Latin Town, Usalitanum. 
One stipendiary Town near Castra Cornelia. Free Towns, 
30, of which are to be named, within, Acrolitanum, Achari- 
tanum, Avinense, Abziritanum, Canopitanum, Melzitanum, 
Madaurense, Salaphitanum, Tusdritanum, Tiricense, Tiphi- 
cense, Tunicense, Theudense, Tagestense (Tigense), Ulusi- 
britanum, another Vagense, Vigense, and Zamense. The 
rest it may be right to call not only Cities, but also for the 
most Part, Nations ; as the Natabudes, Capsitani, Misulani, 
Sabarbares, Massili, Misives, Vamacures, Ethini, Massini, 
Marchubii: and all Gsetulia to the River Nigris, which 
parteth Africa and Ethiopia. 

CHAPTER V. 
CyrenS. 

THE Region Cyrenaica, called also Pentapolitana, is 
illustrious for the Oracle of Hammon, which is from Cyrenae 



54 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

400 Miles, from the Fountain of the Sun ; and principally 
for five Cities, Berenice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and 
Gyrene itself. Berenice standeth upon the outermost Horn 
of Syrtis, called formerly the City of the above-named Hes- 
perides, according to the wandering Tales of Greece. And 
before the Town, not far off, is the River Lethon, the sacred 
Grove where the Gardens of the Hesperides are reported to 
be. From Leptis it is 385 Miles. From it is Arsinoe, usually 
named Teuchira, 43 Miles : and from thence 22 Miles, 
Ptolemais, called in old time Barce. And then 250 Miles 
off, the Promontory Phycus runneth out through the Cretic 
Sea, distant from Tsenarus, a Promontory of Laconia, 350 
Miles : but from Greta itself 125 Miles. And after it Gyrene, 
1 1 Miles from the Sea. From Phycus to Apollonia is 24 
Miles: to Cherrhonesus, 88: and so to Catabathnus, 216 
Miles. The Inhabitants there bordering are the Marmaridse, 
stretching out in Length almost from Parse to mum to the 
Greater Syrtis. After them the Ararauceles : and so in the 
very Coast of Syrtis, the Nesamones, whom formerly the 
Greeks called Mesammones, by reason of the Place, as 
seated in the midst between the Sands. The Cyrenaic 
Country, for the Space of 15 Miles from the Sea-shore, is 
fruitful for Trees : and for the same Compass within the 
Land, for Corn only: but then for 30 Miles in Breadth, and 
250 in Length, for Laser. 1 After the Nasamones live the 
Hasbitae and Masse. Beyond them the Hammanientes, 11 
Days' Journey from the Greater Syrtis to the West ; and even 
they also every Way are compassed about with Sands : but 

1 The plant that yielded the Cyrenaic juice called Laser, was the 
Silphion of the Greeks, and the Laserpitium of the Romans (Thapsia 
Silphion, Viviani), and agrees tolerably well with the rude figures struck 
on the Cyrenean coins. It would appear, however, that the Cyrenaic 
juice becoming scarce, the ancients employed some other substance of 
similar, though inferior properties, as a substitute, and to both of them 
they applied the term Laser. Pliny (lib. xix. c. 3) says, " For a long 
time past the only Laser brought to us is that which is produced abun- 
dantly in Persia, &c., but it is inferior to the Cyrenaic." Now it is not at 
all improbable that the Laser of Persia may have been our Asafcedita 
(Ferula Asafa>dita, LIN.) Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 55 

they find without much difficulty Wells almost in the Depth 
of two Cubits, where the Waters of Mauritania settle. They 
build themselves Houses of Salt, hewn out of their own 
Mountains in the manner of Stone. From these to the Tro- 
glodites, in the South-west Coast, the Country is four Days' 
Journey ; with whom is a Traffic only for a precious Stone, 
which we call a Carbuncle, brought out of Ethiopia. There 
cometh between, the Country Phazania toward the Solitudes 
of Africa, above the said Lesser Syrtis : where we subdued 
the Nation of the Phazanii, with the Cities Alele and Cillaba. 
Also Cydamum, over against the region of Sabrata. Next to 
these is a Mountain, reaching a great way from East to 
West, called by our People Ater, as if burnt by Nature, or 
scorched by the reflection of the Sun. Beyond that Moun- 
tain are the Deserts : also Matelgse, a Town of the Gara- 
mantes, and likewise Debris, which casteth forth a Fountain, 
the Waters boiling from Noon to Midnight, and for as many 
Hours to Mid-day reducing again : also the very illustrious 
Town Garama, the head of the Garamantes. All which 
Places the Roman Arms have conquered, and over them 
Cornelius Balbus triumphed ; the only Man of Foreigners 
that was honoured with the (Triumphant) Chariot, and en- 
dowed with the Freedom of Roman Citizens ; because being 
born at Gades, he and his Uncle, Balbus the Elder, were 
made free Denizens of Rome. And this wonder our Writers 
have recorded, that besides the Towns above named by him 
conquered, himself in his Triumph carried the Names and 
Images, not of Cydamus and Garama only, but also of all 
the other Nations and Cities ; which went in this Order. 
The Town Tabidium, the Nation Niteris ; the Town Neglige- 
mela, the Nation Bubeium ; the Town Vel, the Nation Enipi ; 
the Town Thuben, the Mountain named Niger; the Towns 
Nitibrum and Rapsa ; the Nation Discera, the Town Debris ; 
the River Nathabur, the Town Tapsagum, the Nation Nan- 
nagi, the Town Boin ; the Town Pege, the River Dasibari. 
Presently these Towns lying continuously, Baracum, Buluba, 
Alasi, Balsa, Galla, Maxala, and Zinnia. The Mountain 
Gyri, wherein Titus hath reported "that precious Stones 



56 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

were produced. 1 Hitherto the Way to the Garamantes was 
intricate, by reason of the Robbers of that Nation, who used 
to dig Pits in the Way (which to them that know the Places 
is no hard matter to do) and then cover them with Sand. 
But in the last War which the Romans maintained against the 
Oeenses, under the conduct of Vespasian the Emperor, there 
was found a short Way of four Days' Journey : and this Way 
is called Prceter caput Saxi [beside the Rock's Head]. The 
Frontier of Cyrenaica is called Catabathmos ; which is a Town 
and a Valley with a sudden Descent. To this Bound, from 
the Lesser Syrtis, Cyrenaica Africa lieth in Length 1060 
Miles, and in Breadth, for so much as is known, 800. 

CHAPTER VI. 
Libya Mareotis. 

THE Country following is named Mareotis Libya, bounded 
by Egypt; inhabited by the Marmaridse, Adyrmachidge, and 
then the Mareotse. The Measure from Catabathmos to Pa- 
retonium is 86 Miles. In that Tract there lieth in the way 
the Village Apis, a place noble for the Religion of Egypt. 
From it to Parsetonium, 12 Miles. From thence to Alexan- 
dria, 200 Miles : the Breadth is 169 Miles. Eratosthenes 
hath delivered, That from Cyrenae to Alexandria by Land the 
Journey is 525 Miles. Agrippa saith, that the Length of all 
Africa from the Atlantic Sea, with the inferior part of Egypt, 
containeth 3040 Miles. Polybius and Eratosthenes, reputed 
the most diligent, have set down from the Ocean to great 
Carthage 600 Miles : from thence to Canopicum, the nearest 
Mouth of Nilus, 1630 Miles. Isidorus reckoneth from Tingi 
to Canopus 3599 Miles ; and Artemidorus, 40 less than 
Isiodorus. 

1 Some editions read Titus prodidit, while others have titulus pracepit. 

In the triumph of Vespasian and Titus, so minutely described by 
Josephus (" Wars of the Jews," book vii. cap. 5) a title was affixed to 
the several images carried in procession, containing the names of the con- 
quered nations and towns, with mention of their chief productions. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 57 

CHAPTER VII. 
Islands about Africa, and over against Africa. 

THESE Seas do not contain very many Islands. The 
fairest is Meninx, 35 Miles long and 25 broad, called by 
Eratosthenes Lotophagitis. It hath two Towns, Meninx on 
the side of Africa, and Thoar on the other : itself is situated 
from the right-hand Promontory of the Lesser Syrtis 200 
Paces. 1 A hundred Miles from it against the left hand is 
Cercina, with a free Town of the same Name, in Length 25 
Miles, and half as much in Breadth where it is most : but 
toward the end not above five Miles. To it there lieth a 
little one toward Carthage called Cercinitis, and it joineth 
by a Bridge. From these, almost 50 Miles, lieth Lopadusa, 
six Miles long. Then, Gaulos and Galata, the Earth of which 
killeth the Scorpion, a dangerous Creature of Africa. They 
say also that they will die in Clupea, over against which 
lieth Cosyra, with a Town. But against the Bay of Car- 
thage are the two ^ginori, more truly Rocks than Islands, 
lying for the most part between Sicily and Sardinia. Some 
write that these were inhabited, but sunk down. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The JEthiopes. 

BUT within the inner Compass of Africa, toward the 
South, and above the Gsetuli, where the Deserts come be- 
tween, the first People that inhabit are the Libii jEgyptii, 
and then the Leucsethiopes. Above them are the Ethiopian 
Nations : the Nigritae, from whom the River was named : the 
Gyrnnetes, Pharusi, and those which now reach to the Ocean, 
whom we spake of in the border of Mauritania : the Perorsi. 
From all these are vast Solitudes eastward, to the Gara- 
mantes, Augylse, and Troglodites, according to the truest 
opinion of them who place two ^Ethiopias above the Deserts 
of Africa : and especially of Homer, who saith, that the 
Ethiopians are divided two ways, towards the East and 

1 Or 1500 paces, i. e. a mile and a half. 



58 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

West. The River Niger is of the same nature as Nilus ; 
producing the Reed and Papyrus, and the same living Crea- 
tures, and swelleth at the same Seasons. It springeth be- 
tween the Tareleia jEthiopiae, and the Oecalicae. The Town 
Mavin, belonging to this People, some have set upon the 
deserts : near them the Atlantae ; the jEgipanae, half beasts ; 
the Blemmyae, the Gamphasantae, Satyri, and Himantopodae. 
Those Atlantae, if we will believe it, degenerate from Human 
Manners : for neither call they one another by any Name : 
and they look upon the Sun, rising and setting, with dread- 
ful curses, as being pernicious to them and their Fields : 
neither Dream they in their Sleep, as other Men. The 
Troglodites dig Caverns, and these serve them for Houses : 
they feed upon the Flesh of Serpents ; they make a gnash- 
ing Noise, not a Voice, so little exchange have they of Speech. 
The Garamantes live out of Marriage, and converse with 
their Women in common. The Augylae only worship the 
Infernal Gods. The Gamphasantes are naked, and know no 
Wars, and associate with no Foreigner. The Blemmyae, by 
report, have no Heads, but their Mouth and Eyes fixed in 
their Breast. The Satyri, besides their Shape, have nothing 
of Human Manners. The jEgipauae are shaped as you see 
them commonly painted. The Himantopodae are some of 
them wry-legged, with which they naturally go creeping. 
The Pharusi, formerly Persae, are said to have been the 
Companions of Hercules, as he went to the Hesperides. 
More of Africa worth the noting does not occur. 1 

CHAPTER IX. 
Of Asia. 

UNTO it joineth Asia, which from the Mouth of Canopus 
unto the Mouth of Pontus, according to Timosthenes, is 2639 
Miles. But from the Coast of Pontus to that of Maeotis, 
Eratosthenes saith it is 1545 Miles. The whole, together with 
Egypt unto Tanais, according to Artemidorus and Isidorus, 
taketh 8800 Miles. Many Seas there are in it, taking their 

1 Notes on these alleged varieties of the human form will be found 
b. vii. c. 2 ; see also b. vi. c. 30. Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 59 

Names from the Borderers ; and therefore they shall he 
declared together. The next Country to Africa that is 
inhabited is Egypt, receding withinward to the South, so 
far as to the ^Ethiopians, who are stretched out on its Back. 
The Nilus is on the lower part, and is divided on the Right 
'and Left; by its encircling it.boundeth it with the Mouth 
of Canopus from Africa, and with the Pelusiac from Asia, 
with an interval of 170 Miles. For which cause, some have 
reckoned Egypt among the Islands, considering that Nilus 
doth so divide itself as to make a triangular figure of the 
Land. And so, many have called Egypt by the Name of the 
Greek letter Delta (A). The Measure of it from the Channel 
where it is single, from whence it first parteth into sides, to 
the Mouth of Canopus, is 146 Miles ; and to the Pelusiac 256. 
The upmost part bounding upon ^Ethiopia, is called Thebais. 
It is divided into Townships, with separate Jurisdictions, 
which they call Nomi : as Ombites, Phatunites, Apol- 
lopolites, Hermonthites, Thinites, Phanturites, Captites, 
Tentyrites, Diospalites, Antaeopolites, Aphroditopolites, and 
Lycopolites. The Country about Pelusium hath these Nomi : 
Pharboetites, Bubastites, Sethroites, and Tanites. But the 
remainder, the Arabic, the Hammoniac which extendeth to 
the Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, Oxyrinchites, Leontopolites, 
Atarrhabites, Cynopolites, Hermopolites, Xoites, Mendesius, 
Sebennites, Capastites, Latopolites, Heliopolites, Prosopites, 
Panopolites, [Thermopolites, Saithes?] Busirites, Onuphites, 
Sorites, Ptenethu, Pthernphu, Naucratites, Nitrites, Gynae- 
copolites, Menelaites, in the Country of Alexandria. In like 
manner of Libya Mareotis. ' Heracleopolites is in an Island of 
Nilus, 50 Miles long, wherein also is the place they call the 
Town of Hercules. There are two Arsinoetes; they and 
Memphites reach as far as to the Head of Delta. Upon it there 
border, out of Africa, the two Ouasitae. There are Writers 
that change some of these Names, and substitute other Nomi: 
as Heroopolites, and Crocodilopolites. Between Arsinoetes 
and Memphites there was a Lake 250 Miles in Circuit ; or, 
as Mutianus saith, 450, and 50 Paces deep (i. e. 150 Feet), 
made by Hand ; called the Lake Moeridis, from a King who 



60 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

made it : 72 Miles from thence is Memphis, the Castle in 
old time of the Egyptian Kings. From which to the 
Oracle of Hammon is 12 Days' Journey ; and to the Division 
of Nilus, which we have called Delta, 15 Miles. The Nilus, 
rising from unknown Springs, passeth through Deserts and 
burning Countries: and going a vast way in Length, is 
known by Fame only, without Arms, without Wars, which 
have discovered all other Lands. It hath its beginning, so 
far as King Juba was able to search, in a Mountain of the 
lower Mauritania, not far from the Ocean, near to a stag- 
nant Lake, which they call Nilides. In it are found the 
Fishes called Alabetae, 1 Coracini, Siluri, and also the Cro- 
codile. Upon this argument the Nilus is thought to spring 
from hence, for that it is seen dedicated by him at Csesarea, 
in Iseum, at this day. Moreover, it is observed, that as the 
Snow or Rain fills the Country in Mauritania, so the Nilus 
increases. When it is run out of this Lake, it scorneth 
to pass through the sandy and unclean Places, and hideth 
itself for some Days' Journey. By and by out of another 
greater Lake it breaketh forth in the Country of the Mas- 
ssesyli, of Mauritania Csesariensis ; and as if it looks about for 
the Company of Men, with the same arguments of living 
Creatures, again becomes received within the Sands, where 
it is hidden a second time for 20 Days' Journey in the 
Deserts, as far as to the next ^Ethiopse : and so soon as it 
hath again espied a Man, forth it leapeth (as it should seem) 
out of that Spring, which they called Nigris. And then 
dividing Africa from ^Ethiopia, being acquainted, if not pre- 
sently with people, yet with the frequent company of wild and 
savage Beasts, and creating the shade of Woods, it cutteth 

1 The first named, Alabes or Alabetse, is a species of Lota of Cuvier, 
or Burbot : though perhaps not the same with the fish of that name that 
inhabits the fresh waters of Europe. The name Coracinus has been 
applied to more than, one fish of a sooty colour : but the species referred 
to by Pliny is probably the Perca Nilotica of Linnaeus : the Lates Nilo- 
ticus of Cuvier. The Silurus of Pliny is perhaps a species of Cuvier's 
genus Schilbe, although true Siluri are found in the Nile. The Croco- 
dile will be more particularly referred to in another place. Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 61 

through the midst of the ^Ethiopians : there surnamed 
Astapus, which in the Language of those Nations signifieth 
a Water flowing out of Darkness. Thus dasheth it upon 
such an innumerable Multitude of Islands, and some of them 
so very great, that although it bear a swift Stream, yet is it 
not able to pass beyond them in less space than five Days. 
About the fairest of them, Meroe, the Channel going on the 
Left is called Astabores, which is, the Branch of a Water 
coming forth from Darkness : but that on. the Right is 
Astusapes, which adds the signification of Lying hid. And 
it never taketh the Name of Nilus, until its Waters meet 
again and accord together. And even so was it formerly 
named Siris for many Miles: and by Homer altogether 
jEgyptus : by others, Triton : here and there hitting upon 
Islands, and stirred with so many Provocations : and at the 
last enclosed within Mountains : and in no place is it more a 
Torrent, while the Water that it beareth hasteneth to a 
Place of the .ZEthiopii called Catadupi, where in the last 
Cataract among the opposing Rocks it is supposed not to 
run, but to rush down with a mighty Noise. But afterwards 
it becometh gentle, as the Stream is broken and the violence 
subdued and partly wearied with his long way : and so, 
though with many Mouths, it dischargeth itself into the 
Egyptian Sea. Nevertheless, on certain Days it swelleth 
to a great height : and when it hath travelled through all 
Egypt, it overfloweth the Land, to its great Fertility. Dif- 
ferent causes of this Increase have been given : but those 
which carry the most probability are either the rebounding 
of the Water driven back by the Etesian Winds, at that time 
blowing against it, and driving the Sea upon the Mouths of 
the River : or the Summer Rain in ^Ethiopia, by reason 
that the same Etesian Winds bring Clouds thither from 
other parts of the World. Timceus the Mathematician 
alleged an hidden reason for it, which is, that the Foun- 
tain of the Nilus is named Phiala, and the River itself is 
hidden within Trenches under the Ground, breathing forth 
in a Vapour out of reeking Rocks, where it lieth concealed. 
But so soon as the Sun during those Days cometh near, it is 



62 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

drawn up by the force of Heat, and while it hangeth aloft it 
overfloweth : and then, lest it should be devoured, it hideth 
again. And this happeneth from the rising of the Dog 
through the Sun's entrance into Leo, while the Star standeth 
perpendicularly over the Fountain : when in that Tract there 
are no Shadows to be seen. Many again were of a different 
Opinion : that a River floweth more abundantly when the 
Sun is departed toward the North Pole, which happeneth in 
Cancer and Leo, and therefore at that time it is not so easily 
dried : but when it is returned again toward Capricorn and 
the South Pole, it is drunk up, and therefore floweth more 
sparily. But if, according to Timceus, it would be thought 
possible that the Water should be drawn up, the want of 
Shadows during those Days, and in those Places, continueth 
still without end. For the River beginneth to increase at 
the New Moon, that is after the Solstice, by little and little 
gently, so long as the Sun passeth through Cancer, but most 
abundantly when he is in Leo. And when he is entered 
into Virgo it falleth in the same measure as it rose before. 
And it is altogether brought within its banks in Libra, as 
Herodotus thinketh, by the hundredth day. While it riseth 
it hath been thought unlawful for Kings or Governors to sail 
upon it. Its increasings are measured by Marks in certain 
Pits. The ordinary Height is sixteen Cubits. The Waters 
short of this do not overflow all ; when more than that they 
are a hinderance, by reason that they retire more slowly. By 
these the Seed Time is consumed, by the Earth being too 
Wet ; by the other there is none, because the Ground is 
Thirsty. The Province taketh reckoning of both. For 
in 12 Cubits it findeth Famine : at 13 it feeleth Hunger ; 14 
Cubits comfort their Hearts; 15 bring Safety; and 16 
Dainties. The greatest Increase that ever was known until 
these Days was 18 Cubits, in the time of Prince Claudius : 
and the least, in the Pharsalian War : as if the River by 
that Prodigy turned away with horror from the Slaughter of 
that great Man. 1 When the Waters have stood, they are 

1 Pompey the Great, slain by treachery in Egypt. Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 63 

admitted by opening the Flood-gates. And so soon as any 
part of the Land is freed from the Water it is sowed. This 
is the only River, of all others, that breatheth out no Air. 
The Dominion of Egypt beginneth at Syene,from the Frontier 
of Ethiopia, for that is the Name of a Peninsula a hundred 
Miles in Compass, wherein are the Cerastae upon the side of 
Arabia : and over against it the four Islands Philae, 600 
Miles from the Division of Nilus, where it began to be called 
Delta, as we have said. This space of Ground hath Arte- 
midorus published ; and that within it were 250 Towns. 
Juba setteth down 400 Miles. Aristocreon saith, That from 
Elephantis to the Sea is 750 Miles. The Island Elephantis 
is Inhabited beneath the lowest Cataract three Miles, and 
above Syene 16 : and is the utmost Point that the Egyp- 
tians sail unto. It is 586 Miles from Alexandria. So far 
the Authors above written have erred : there the .^Ethiopian 
Ships assemble ; for they are made to fold up together, and 
are carried upon Shoulders, so often as they come to those 
Cataracts. Egypt, above the other glory of Antiquity, 
pretends that in the Reign of King Amasis there were in- 
habited in it 20,000 Cities. And even at this Day it is full 
of them, though of base account. Nevertheless, that of 
Apollo is renowned ; and near to it that of Leucothea, and 
Diospolis 1 the Great, the same as Thebes, noble for the 
Fame of its Hundred Gates. Also, Captos, a great commer- 
cial Town very near to Nilus, frequented for Merchandise of 
India and Arabia. Near is the Town of Venus, and another 
of Jupiter ; and Tentyris, beneath which standeth Abydus, 
the royal Seat of Memnon ; and renowned for the Temple of 
Osiris, seven Miles and a half distant from the River, toward 
Lybia. Then Ptolemais, Panopolis, and another of Venus. 
Also in the Lybian Coast, Lycon, where Mountains bound 
Thebais. After these, the Towns of Mercury, Alabastron, 
Canum, and that of Hercules spoken of before. After these, 
Arsinoe, and the abovesaid Memphis, between which and 
the Nomos Arsinoetes, in the Lybian Coast, are the Towns 
called Pyramids ; the Labyrinth built up out of the Lake 

1 .The city of Jupiter. 



64 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Moeris without any Timber to it; and the Town Crialon. 
One besides, standing within and bounding upon Arabia, 
called the Town of the Sun : of great importance. 

CHAPTER X. 
Alexandria. 1 

BUT justly worthy of praise is Alexandria, standing upon 
the Coast of the Egyptian Sea, built by Alexander the Great 
on the Part of Africa, 12 Miles from the Mouth of Canopus, 
near to the Lake Mareotis : which Lake was formerly called 
Arapotes. 2 Dinochares, the Architect, renowned for his 
remarkable Ability in many ways, laid out the Plan with 
the great Extent of the Circuit of 15 Miles, according to the 
Shape of a Macedonian Cloak ; full of Plaits, with the Circuit 
waved on to the right Hand and on the left with an angular 
Extension; and yet, even then, he assigned one-fifth Part of 
this Space for the King's Palace, The Lake Mareotis 3 from 
the South Side of the City, meeteth with an Arm of the River 
Nilus, brought from out of the Mouth of the said River 
called Canopicus, for the more commodious Commerce out 
of the inland Continent. This Lake containeth within it 
sundry Islands, and, according to Claudius Ccesar, it is 30 

1 Alexandria is connected with much that is interesting in the estima- 
tion of the Christian and philosopher. It was built B.C. 331, and became 
the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies ; at a subsequent period, its 
library was the most renowned in the world ; its school rose into high 
repute during the second and third centuries ; it long continued a flou- 
rishing bishopric of the early Christian Church (having been planted by 
St. Mark), and was the scene of many Christian persecutions in common 
with the rest of the empire. Of the ancient city little remains, the only 
monuments of its extent and grandeur being, as Dr. Robinson relates, 
" a few cisterns still in use, the catacombs on the shore, the granite obelisk 
of Thothmes III., with its fallen brother, brought hither from Heliopolis, 
and usually called ' Cleopatra's Needle ; ' and the column of Dioclesian, 
commonly called 'Pompey's Pillar.'" Wern. Club. 

2 Or, Rachobes. 

3 ( Various reading.} " The Lake Mareotis, from the south part of 
the city, by an arm of the sea, is sent through the mouth of Canopus for 
inland traffic ; it also embraces many islands, and is 30 miles in breadth, 
and 150 in circuit, as Claudius Ccesar says." Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 65 

Miles over. Others say, that it lieth in Length 40 Schceni ; 
and as every Schoenus is 30 Stadia, it cometh to be 150 
Miles long, and as many broad. There are many Towns of 
importance standing upon the Course of the River Nilus, 
and those especially which have given Names to the Mouths, 
not to all those (for there are 11 of them, besides 4 more, 
which they themselves call false Mouths), but to the most 
celebrated 7 : as, to that of Canopus, next to Alexandria ; 
then Bolbitinum, Sebenniticum, Phatniticum, Mendesicum, 
Taniticum, and last, Pelusiacum ; besides, Euros, Pharboetos, 
Leontopolis, Athribis, the Town of Isis, Busiris, Cynopolis, 
Aphrodites, Sais, Naucratis, whence some name the Mouth 
Naucraticum, which others call Heracleoticum, preferring it 
before Canopicum, next to which it standeth. 

CHAPTER XL 
Arabia. 

BEYOND the Pelusiac Mouth is Arabia, bordering on the 
Red Sea : and that Arabia, so rich and odoriferous, and re- 
nowned with the Surname of Happy. This Desert Arabia is 
possessed by the Catabanes, Esbonitae, and Scenite Arabians : 
barren, except where it toucheth the Confines of Syria, and, 
setting aside the Mountain Casius, nothing memorable. This 
Region is joined to the Arabians, Canchlei on the East Side, 
and to the Cedrsei Southward ; and they both are joined 
afterwards with the Nabathsei. Moreover, two Bays there 
be, one Bay is called that of Heroopoliticus, and the other, 
Elaniticus : in the Red Sea, bordering on Egypt, 150 Miles 
distant, between two Towns, Elana and Gaza, which is in our 
[Mediterranean] Sea. Agrippa counteth from Pelusium to 
Arsinoe, a Town upon the Red Sea, through the Deserts, an 
hundred and five-and-twenty Miles. So small a Way lieth 
between things of such Difference in Nature. 

CHAPTER XII. 
Syria, Palcestina, Pkcenict. 

NEAR the Coast is Syria, a Region which in Times past 
was the chiefest of Lands, and distinguished by many Names. 

VOL. II, F 



66 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

For where it toucheth upon the Arabians, it was called Pales- 
tine., 1 Judaea, Coele (Syria) ; and afterward, Phoenice : and 
where it passes inward, Damascena. Still further south- 
wards, it is named Babylonia. And the same between the 
Rivers Euphrates and Tigris is called Mesopotamia, and 
when it passeth the Mountain Taurus, it is Sophene : but on 
this Side Comagene, and beyond Armenia, is Adiabene, 
formerly named Assyria ; and where it meets Cilicia, it is 
known by the Name of Antiochia. The whole Length of 
Syria between Cilicia and Arabia is 470 Miles : the Breadth 
from Seleucia Pieria to Zeugma, a Town seated upon the 
Euphrates, is 175 Miles. They that minutely divide it 
would have Phoenice to be environed with Syria ; and that 
it is the Sea-coast of Syria, a Part of which compriseth 
Idumaea and Judaea : then Phoenice, and then Syria. And 
that Sea which lieth along that Coast beareth the Name of 
the Phoenician Sea. This Nation of the Phoenicians hath 
had great Glory for the Invention of Letters, and for the Arts 
of the Stars, Navigation, and Skill in War. Beyond Pelu- 
sium is Chabriae Castra, the Mountain Casius, the Temple of 
Jupiter Casius, the Tomb of Pompeius Magnus; and Ostra- 
cine. From Pelusium to the Frontiers of Arabia are 65 
Miles. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Idum&af Syria, Palcestina, Samaria. 

SOON after beginneth Idumaea and Palestina, from the 
Rising up of the Lake Sirbon, which some have reported to 

1 The following division of Palestine under the Romans will throw 
light upon the comments which follow : 

Palestina Prima, Kingdom of Judah (Judaea) and Samaria. 
Palestina Secunda, Galilee and Trachonitis. 
Palestina Tertia, Peraea and Idumaea Proper. 

Wern. Club. 

2 Idumaea comprised the country in the southern extremity of Judaea, 
and embraced also a part of Arabia, which, from having been left nearly 
depopulated during the Babylonian captivity, was seized upon by the 
Idumseans, and continued to be called Idumaea in common with Iduma3a 



BOOK V,] History of Nature. 67 

possess a circuit of 150 Miles. Herodotus saith it lies close 
by the Mountain Casius ; but now it is a small Lake. The 
Towns are Rhinocolura ; and within the Land, Rapheea : also 
Gaza, and within, Anthedon, and the Mountain Angoris. 
Samaria, the Region through the Coast ; the free Town 
Ascalon, and Azotus : the two Jamnes, whereof one is within 
the Land ; and Joppe, in Phoanicia, which, by report, is 
more ancient than the Deluge over the Earth. 1 It is situated 
upon a Hill, with a Rock before it, in which they shew the 
Remains of the Chains of Andromeda. There the fabulous 
Derccto is worshipped. Then is Apollonia ; the Town of 
Strato, called also Caesarea, founded by Kmgfferod: itbeareth 
now the Name of Prima Flavia, a Colony derived from Ves- 
pasian the Emperor. The Bounds of Paleestina are 180 Miles 
from the Confines of Arabia : and there entereth Phoanice. 
But within-land are the Towns of Samaria, and Neapolis, 
which formerly was named Mainortha [or Maxbota]. Also 
Sebaste upon the Mountain, and Gamala, which yet standeth 
higher than it. 

Proper, to a later period than the date of our author. The bounds of 
Palestine, in the time of the Romans, embraced Judaea, Samaria, Galilee, 
and Trachonitis ; and Perasa and Idumsea. Wern. Club. 

1 Mandeville, who travelled through these countries about the year 
1323, and collected all the information that fell in his way, without discri- 
mination, says : " And whoso wil go longe tyme on the See, and come 
nerrer to Jerusalem, he schal go fro Cipre, be see, to the Port Jaff. For 
that is the nexte Havene to Jerusalem. For fro that Havene is not but 
o Day Journeye and an half to Jerusalem. And the Town is called Jaff : 
for on of the Sones of Noe, that highte Japhet, founded it ; and now it is 
clept Joppe. And zee schulle undrestonde, that it is on of the oldest 
Townes of the World : for it was founded before Noes Flode. And zitt 
there schewethe in the Roche ther, as the Irene cheynes were festned, 
that Andromade, a great Geaunt, was bounden with, and put in Presoun 
before Noes Flode : of the whiche Geaunt, is a rib of his Syde, that his 40 
Fote longe." In the Ethiopics of Heliodorus, book x., the Ethiopic kings 
are said to derive their pedigree from Perseus and Andromeda ; whose 
history is by Pliny treated as something more than a fable. But the 
mistake of Mandeville, in confounding Andromeda with the monster 
that was to have devoured her, is perfectly consistent with other errors 
in regard to the Scriptures and classical learning, which occur in his 
narrative. Wcrv. Club. 



68 History of Nature. [ BOOK V . 

CHAPTER XIV. 1 
Judaea and Galilcsa. 

ABOVE Idumaea and Samaria, Judaea spreadeth out far in 
Length and Breadth. That part of it which joineth to Syria, 
is called Galilaea : but that which is next to Syria and Egypt 
is named Peraea [/. e. beyond Jordan] : full of rough Moun- 
tains dispersed here and there : and separated from the other 
Parts of Judaea by the River Jordan. The rest of Judaea is 
divided into ten Toparchies, which we will speak of in order: 
of Hiericho, planted with Date-trees ; Emmaus, well watered 
with Fountains; Lydda, Joppica, Accrabatena, Gophnitica, 
Thamnitica, Betholen, Tephene, and Orine, wherein stood 
Hierosolyma, by far the most illustrious of the Cities of the 
East, and not of Judaea only. In it also is the Toparchy 
Herodium, with a famous Town of the same Name. 

CHAPTER XV. 
The River Jordan* 

THE River Jordanis springeth from the Fountain Pane- 
ades, which gave the Surname to Caesarea, whereof we will 

1 This chapter should properly have been embodied with the pre- 
ceding, which treats of Palestine, that name having been applied by the 
Greeks to the whole country on account of the number of the Philistines 
always within its bounds, both before and after the final conquest of that 
people by David and Solomon. " Judaea," in its real signification, implies 
the whole of the country inhabited by the Jews, in fact, the whole " Land 
of Promise," from Dan to Beersheba in length, and including the region 
allotted to the two tribes and a half on the other side Jordan ; the term 
was originally synonymous with " the land of Judah," but on the separa- 
tion of the ten tribes, the latter term was applied to the territories of 
Judah and Benjamin, then formed into a separate kingdom, and hence 
" Judaea " also came to be applied to that district in particular. Pliny is 
also in error in speaking of Judaea as " spreading out far in length above 
Idumaea and Samaria" inasmuch as Samaria occupies the central portion 
of Judaea itself, and there is, therefore, an evident contradiction in the 
description. Wern. Club. 

2 This river rises at Caesarea Philippi; its length is 100 miles or there- 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 69 

speak. It is a pleasant River, and so far as the Situation of 
the Country will permit, spacious, offering itself to the 
neighbouring Inhabitants ; and reluctantly, as it were, it 
passeth to the Lake Asphaltites, cursed by Nature : by which 
it is swallowed up ; it loseth its own esteemed Waters, by 
their becoming mixed with those of the Pestilential Lake. 
And therefore upon the first opportunity of any Valleys, it 
poureth itself into a Lake, which many call Genesara, which 
is 16 Miles Long and 6 Broad. This is environed with 
beautiful Towns : on the East side with Julias and Hippo ; 
on the South with Tarichea, by which Name the Lake is by 
some called ; and on the West with Tiberias, an healthful 
Place on account of the Hot Waters. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Asphaltites. 

ASPHALTITES 1 produceth nothing besides Bitumen ; from 
whence the name. No Body of any Creature doth it receive : 
Bulls and Camels float upon it. Arid hence ariseth the 

abouts, and its embouchure is into the Dead Sea ; its inner banks, to within 
a few miles of this place, are covered with willows, oleanders, reeds, &c. &c. 
whilst its periodical overflowings have formed a wider channel, denned by 
a second or outer bank on either side. Wem. Club. 

1 Asphaltites^ in other words the bituminous lake, from the abund- 
ance of asphalt (bitumen) which occurs in it. Dr. Shaw estimated its 
length at 72 English miles, and its Breadth 19 miles. Dr. Robinson, 
however, estimates its length at only 50, and its average breadth 10 or 12 
miles. The constituents of the water of the Dead Sea are as follows : 

Muriate of lime 3-920 grains. 

Muriate of magnesia 10-246 " 

Muriate of soda 19-360 " 

Sulphate of lime 0-054 " 

34-580 grains in each 100. 

Several analyses have been made by Marat, Gay-Lussac, Gmelin, &c., 
with nearly the same result. The origin of this lake accounts for the 
above facts, and the phenomena by which it is surrounded equally evi- 
dence its truth sterility in land, water, and air, are its saddening cha- 
racters. It is reputed to be very shallow, which seems to be a mistake. 
It also bore the name of the " Sea of the Plain." The history of this 
lake is best seen in the Bible. Wern. Club. 



70 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Report that nothing will sink in it. This Lake in Length 
exceedeth 100 Miles, in Breadth 25 Miles where broadest, 
and 6 where narrowest. On the East, Arabia of the 
Nomades confronteth it ; and on the South, Machserus, in 
Time past the second Fortress of Judaea, next to Hierosolyma. 
On the same side is a Fountain of Hot Waters, useful in 
Medicine, named Callirhoe ; a Name that expresseth the 
Glory of the Waters. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
The Race of the Esstni. 

ALONG the West Coast retire the Esseni i 1 a Nation living- 
alone, and beyond all others throughout the World wonder- 
ful: without any Women, casting off the whole of Venus : 
without Money : keeping company only with Date-trees. 
Yet the Country is ever well peopled, because daily numbers 
of Strangers resort thither from other Parts : and such as 
are weary of Life are by the Waves of Fortune driven thither 
to their manner of Living. Thus for thousands of Ages 
(beyond belief to say), the Race is eternal in which no one is 
Born : so prolific to them is the Repentance of Life of other 
Men. Beneath them stood the Town Engadda, for Fertility 
(of Soil) and Groves of Date-trees the next City to Hiero- 
solyma, now a Place for the Dead. Beyond it is Massada, 
a Castle upon a Rock, and not far from Asphaltites. And 
thus much concerning Judaea. 

1 The Essenes were a Jewish sect, divided into two classes. First, the 
practical, who lived in society, and applied themselves to husbandry and 
other harmless occupations ; and second, the contemplative, who were also 
called therapeutce, or physicians, from their application principally to the 
cure of the diseases of the soul ; these last devoted themselves wholly to 
meditation, and avoided living in great towns, as unfavourable to a con- 
templative life. Both classes were exceedingly abstemious, and highly 
exemplary in their moral deportment. Although our Saviour censured 
all the other sects of the Jews for their vices, yet He never spoke of the 
Essenes ; neither are they mentioned by name in any part of the New 
Testament. Pliny's object in the account he has thought fit to give of 
them appears to have been to say something that might excite wonder 
and ridicule. Wern. Club, 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 71 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Decapolis. 

THERE is joined to it on the side of Syria the Region 
Decapolis, 1 so called from the number of Towns ; in which 
all Men observe not the same. Nevertheless most Men 
speak of Damascus and Opotos, watered by the River Chry- 
sorrhoa, and also of the fruitful Philadelphia arid Raphana, 
all lying within Arabia. Moreover, of Scythopolis, so named 
from the Scythians there planted : and formerly Mysa, so 
named of Father Liber, because his Nurse was buried there. 
Gadara, with the River Hieromiax running before it, and 
the before-named Hippos Dios. Pella, enriched with 
Waters, Galaza and Canatha. The Tetrarchies lie between 
and about these Cities ; every one resembling a Region : and 
they are reduced into several Kingdoms : Trachonitis, Panias, 
wherein standeth Caesarea, with the Fountain abovesaid ; 
Abila, Area, Ampeloessa, and Gab&. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Tyrus* and Sidon. 

WE must return to the Sea-coast of Phcenic, where a 
River runneth called Crocodilon, on which stood a Town 
bearing the same Name. Also there are the Memorials of 
the Cities, Dorum, Sycaminon, the Promontory Carmelum ; 
and a Town on the Mountain so named, but in old Time 
called Ecbatana. Near this is Getta and Jebba : the River 
Pagida or Belus, mixing on its little Shore the Sands fertile 
in Glass. This River floweth out of the stagnant pond Ceu- 
devia, from the foot of Carmel. Near it is the City Ptole- 

1 Josephus mentions the following cities as contained within this 
region : Pella, Gerasa, Gadara, Hippos Dios, Damascus, Philadelphia, 
Otopos, Raphana, and Scythopolis. Wern. Club. 

2 There were two cities of this name ; one on the Syrian coast of the 
Continent (vide Bishop Newton), and the other on an adjacent island, 
which, in our author, are both spoken of together. Tyre has been called 
the daughter of Sidon, because " The merchants of Sidon replenished 
it." (Isaiah, xxiii. 2.) Wern. Club. 



72 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

mais, a Colony of Claudius Ccesar, formerly called Ace. 
The Town Ecdippa ; the Promontory Album ; Tyrus, in old 
Time an Island, lying almost three quarters of a Mile within 
the Deep Sea : but now, by the Besieging Works of Alexander, 
joined to the firm Land : renowned for having produced 
Cities of ancient Name, Leptis, Utica, and that Carthage, 
the Rival of the Empire of Rome for the Dominion of the 
whole World : yea and Gades, founded beyond the Bounds 
of the Earth. But now all the Glory thereof standeth upon 
the (Shell-fishes) Chylium and Purpura. 1 The Circumference 
of it is 19 Miles, comprised within Palaetyrus. The Town 
itself taketh up 22 Stadia. Near it are the Towns Lynhydra, 
Sarepta, and Ornithon : also Sidon, where Glass is made, 
and which is the Parent of Thebes in Boeotia. 

CHAPTER XX. 
The Mountain Libanus. 

BEHIND it beginneth Mount Libanus, 2 and for 1500 
Stadia it reacheth as far as to Smyrna, where it is named 
Coele-Syria. Another Mountain equal to it, and lying oppo- 
site to it, is called Antilibanus; with a Valley lying between, 
which in old Time was joined (to the other Libanus) by a 
Wall. Being past this, there is the Region Decapolis ; and 
the above-named Tetrarchies with it, and the whole expanse 
of Palestina. But in that Coast still along the Foot of 
Libanus, is the River Magoras, and the Colony Berytus, 
called also Foelix Julia. The Town Leontos ; the River 
Lycos ; Palsebyblos ; the River Adonis ; the Towns Byblos, 
Botrys, Gigarta, Trieris, Calamos ; and Tripolis, subject to 
the Tyrians, Sidonians, and Aradians. Orthosia and the 
River Eleutheros. The Towns Simyra, Marathos ; and over 
against Aradus, Antaradus, a Town of seven Stadia ; and an 

1 See b. ix. c. 36, &c. 

2 Libanus (Lebanon) is a chain of limestone mountains; the cedars 
for which they were formerly famed still grow there, though in reduced 
numbers, forming a small grove, in a small hollow at the foot of the highest 
peak. Anti- Libanus is the more lofty ridge of the two. Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 73 

Island less than a quarter of a Mile from the Continent. 
The Country where the said Mountains end, and in the Plains 
lying between, beginneth Mount Bargylis : and thence 
Phcenice endeth, and Syria beginneth again. The Towns 
Carne, Balanea, Paltos, Gabale, the Promontory wherein is 
the Free (City) Laodicea, with Diospolis, Heraclea, Cha- 
radrus, Posidium. 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Syria Antiochena. 

THENCEFORWARD is the Promontory of Syria Antiochena ; 
within is the Free City itself, Antiochena, surnamed Epi- 
daphne ; through the midst runneth the River Orontes. 
But in the Promontory is the Free (City) Seleucia, named 
also Pieria. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
The Mountain Casius. 

ABOVE (the City) Seleucia, there is another Mountain 
named Casius, as well as the other. This is of that Height, 
that if a Man be upon the Top of it in the Night, at the 
Fourth Watch, he may behold the Sun rising. So that 
with a little turning of his Body, he may at one Time see 
both Day and Night. The Passage round to the Top is 19 
Miles ; but directly up, it is only Four Miles. In the Bor- 
ders runneth the River Orontes, which riseth between Li- 
banus and Antilibanus, near to Heliopolis. Then, the Town 
Rhosos : and behind, the Passages between the Mountains 
Rhosii and Taurus, which are called Portse Syriae. In the 
Coast, the Town Myriandros, the Mountain Amanus, 
where is the Town Bomitae. This separateth Cilicia from 
the Syrians. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Cede- Syria. 1 

Now, to speak of the Midland parts. Ccel& hath Apa- 
mia, separated from the Nazerines' Tetrarchy by the River 

1 Calo- Syria (or Lower Syria) signifying "Syria in the Hollow." 
It may be considered, says Strabo, " either in a proper and restrained 



74 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Marsia: Bambyce, otherwise called Hierapolis; but of the 
Syrians, Magog. There is worshipped the monstrous Idol 
Atargatis, 1 called by the Greeks Derceto. Also Chalcis, 
surnamed Upon Belus : from which, the Region Chalcidene, 
the most fertile of all Syria, taketh its Name. Then the 
Region Cyrrhistica, Cirrhus, Gazatse, Gindareni, and Ga- 
beni. Two Tetrarchies, called Granucomatse. The Hemi- 
seni, Hylatse, the Nation of the Iturse, and those of them 

sense, as comprehending only the tract of land between Libanus and Anti- 
Libanus ; or in a larger signification, and then it will comprehend all the 
country in obedience to the king of Syria, from Seleucia or Arabia and 
Egypt- Wern. Club. 

1 The Syrian idol Atargatis is the same as the Astarte or Ashtaroth, 
so often mentioned in Holy Scripture ; it is also the Derceto of the 
Greeks, who represent her to be the daughter of Venus, or, as some say, 
Venus herself. The upper half of this monster had the form of a woman, 
while the lower was that of a fish. Atargatis is fabled to have thrown 
herself into a lake near Ascalon in Syria, through vexation at the loss of 
her chastity, after having given birth to a daughter named Semiramis. 
From this circumstance the Syrians abstained from eating the fish of that 
lake, deified Atargatis, and built a temple to her memory on the borders 
of the lake. Her daughter, Semiramis, was left exposed in a desert ; but 
her life was preserved by doves for one whole year, till a shepherd of 
N"inus found her and brought her up as his own child. She afterwards 
married Menones, the governor of Nineveh, and at length became the 
celebrated Queen of Assyria. After her death she was changed into a 
dove, and received immortal honours in Assyria. Ovid alludes to both 
mother and daughter in the commencement of his 4th Book of the 
Metamorphoses. 

" But she awhile profoundly seemed to muse, 

Perplex'd amid variety to choose ; 

And knew not whether she should first relate 

The poor Dercetis, and her wondrous fate ; 

(The Palestines believe it to a man, 

And shew the lake in which her scales began :) 

Or, if she rather should the daughter sing, 

Who in the hoary verge of life took wing, 

Who soar'd from earth, and dwelt in towers on high, 

And now a dove, she flits along the sky." 

EUSDEN'S Translation. 

It may be doubted whether she is not identical with Dagon, the first 
goddess of the Phrenicians. Wern. Club. 



HOOK V.] History of Nature. 75 

who are named Betarrani, and the Mariammitani. The 
Tetrarchy named Mammisea : Paradisus, Pagrse, Pinaritae, 
and two Seleucise, besides the abovenamed ; one called Upon 
Euphrates, and the other, Upon Belus : the Carditenses. 
The rest of Syria hath besides these which shall be spoken 
of with the Euphrates, the Arethusi, Berseenses, and Epi- 
phanenses. Eastward, the Laodiceni, which are entituled, 
Upon Libanus : the Leucadii, and Larisssei : besides 17 
Tetrarchies reduced into Kingdoms under Barbaric Names. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Euphrates. 1 

THIS is the fittest Place to speak of the Euphrates. Its 
Source, by the Report of them who have seen it most closely, 
is in Caranitis, a Province of Armenia the Greater. These 
are Domitius Corbulo, who says, that it riseth in the Moun- 
tain Aba; and Licinius Mutianus, who affirmeth, that it 
issueth from the Foot of the Mountain which they call 
Capotes, 12 Miles higher than Simyra : and that in the 
beginning it was called Pyxirates. It runneth first to Der- 
xene, and then to Ana also, shutting out the Regions of Ar- 
menia from Cappadocia. The Dastusae from Simyra is 75 
Miles. From thence it is navigable to Pastona, Fifty Miles : 
from it to Melitene in Cappadocia, 74 Miles. To Elegia in 
Armenia, Ten Miles: where it receiveth the Rivers, Lycus, 
Arsania, and Arsanus. Near Elegia it meeteth the Moun- 

1 Euphrates rises in Armenia, near Mount Aba, and after flowing by 
Syria, Mesopotamia, and the site of Babylon, empties itself into the Per- 
sian Gulf. It overflows its banks at certain seasons, and in consequence 
its banks are very fertile. 

The Euphrates is universally allowed to take its rise in Armenia 
Major ; but in what particular spot, or in what direction it afterwards 
shapes its course, is still a matter of the greatest disagreement. Pliny's 
account entirely differs from those of Strabo and Mela. The best com- 
pendium of the discoveries of modern geographers and travellers on 
this subject will be found in the Penny Cyclopaedia articles "Asia" and 
" Euphrates." See also Macdonnald Kinneir's large map. Wern. Glrtb. 



76 History of Nature. [BooR V. 

tain Taurus : yet stayeth it not, but prevaileth, although it 
be in Breadth Twelve Miles. Where it breaketh through 
they call it Omiras : and so soon as it hath cut through it is 
named Euphrates : full of Rocks and very violent. There 
it separateth Arabia on the Left Hand, called the Region of 
the Meri, by the Measure of Three Schcenae, and on the 
Right, Comagene. Nevertheless, even there where it con- 
quereth Taurus, it suffers a Bridge. At Claudiopolis in Cap- 
padocia, it taketh its Course westward. And here the 
Taurus, although resisted at first, hindereth him of his Course: 
and notwithstanding it was overcome and dismembered, it 
conquereth in another way, and drives it thus broken into 
the South. Thus Nature matcheth these Forces: The one 
proceeding whither it chooseth, and the other not suffering 
it to run which way it will. From the Cataracts it is Navi- 
gable, and Forty Miles from that place standeth Samosata, 
the Head of all Comagen. Arabia aforesaid hath the Towns 
Edessa, sometime called Antiochea ; Callirrhoe, taking its 
Name from the Fountain ; and Carrse, famous for the 
slaughter of Crassus. Here joineth the Prefecture of Meso- 
potamia, which taketh its beginning from the Assyrians, in 
which stand the Towns Anthemusa and Nicephorium. Pre- 
sently the Arabians, called Rhetavi, whose Capital is Sin- 
gara. But from Samosatae, on the side of Syria, the River 
Marsyas runneth into Euphrates. Gingla limiteth Coma- 
gene, and the City of the Meri beginneth it. The Towns 
Epiphania and Antiochia have the River running close to 
them, and they are called Euphrates. Zeugma likewise, 
72 Miles from Samosatse, is ennobled by the Passage over 
Euphrates : for it is joined to Apamia, over against it, by a 
Bridge, built by Seleucus the Founder of both. The People 
that join to Mesopotamia are called Rhoali. But the Towns 
of Syria are Europum ; Thapsacum, formerly, now Amphi- 
polis; Arabian Scsenitse. Thus it passeth as far as to the 
Place Ura, in which turning to the East, it leaveth the 
Deserts of Palmyra in Syria, which reach to the City Petra 
and the Country of Arabia called the Happy. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 77 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Palmyra. 1 

THE City Palmyra, noble for its situation, the Riches of 
its Soil, and its pleasant Streams, encloseth its Fields with a 
vast compass of Sand. Arid as if shut out by Nature from 
all other Lands, it is by a peculiar lot between two mighty 
Empires, the Romans and the Parthians ; wherein Dis- 
cord is ever the first object on both Sides. It is distant 
from Seleucia of the Parthians, which is called, on the 
Tigris, 537 Miles : and from the nearest Coast of Syria, 252 : 
and from Damascus, 27 nearer. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Hierapolis. 

BENEATH the Solitudes of Palmyra, lieth the Country 
Stelendena, 2 wherein are the Cities named at this Day 
Hierapolis, Beroea, and Chalcis. Beyond Palmyra also, 
Heinesa taketh up some part of those Deserts : and likewise 
Elutium, nearer to Petra by one-half than is Damascus. 
And next to Astura standeth Philiscum, a Town of the Par- 
thians, on Euphrates. From which by Water it is a Journey 

1 We are at a loss to account for the praise bestowed on the site of 
Palmyra, situated as it is on the borders of a vast wilderness ; it can only 
be from comparison with the surrounding sterility, and the supply of 
water obtained here, which is so rare a blessing in the sandy plains of the 
East. The country does not appear to have undergone any change from 
the period of the foundation of this ancient city, until now ; Tadmor (its 
original name) was built by king Solomon, probably for the purpose of 
cutting off all commerce between the Syrians and Mesopotamians, and it 
rose into note in consequence. In later times it was also much frequented 
by the caravans of Persia and the countries beyond. Wern. Club. 

2 Stelendena does not appear to be mentioned by any other writer than 
Pliny. Hierapolis has been just before spoken of under the name of 
Bambyce or Magog, as the Syrians call it. It is the Magog of Holy 
Scripture (Ezekiel, xxxviii.) concerning the situation of which great 
diversity of opinion has been entertained. Wern. Club. 



78 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

of Ten Days to Seleucia, and about as many to Babylon. 
Euphrates is divided Fourscore and Three Miles from Zeug- 
ma, about the Village Massice, and on the Left Side it 
passeth into Mesopotamia, through Seleucia, it being poured 
into the River Tigris as it runneth by : but on the right 
Channel it passeth toward Babylon, formerly the Chief City 
of Chaldsea ; and passing through the midst of it, as also of 
another which they call Otris, it is drawn off into Marshes. 
It riseth at certain Times after the manner of the Nilus, 
but with a little difference ; for it overfloweth Mesopotamia 
when the Sun is the 20th degree of Cancer, and beginneth 
again to diminish when the Sun is past Leo, and is entered 
into Virgo: so that in the 29th degree of Virgo, it is reduced 
again. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Cilicia, and the Nations adjoining, Isauricce, Homonades, 
Pisidia, , Lycaonia, Pamphylia : the Mountain Taurus, 
and Lycia. 

BUT we will return to the Coasts of Syria, to which 
Cilicia is the nearest. The River Diaphanes, the Mountain 
Crocodilus, Passages of the Mount Amanus : Rivers, Andri- 
con, Pinarus, and Lycus, the Gulf Issicus. The Town Issa, 
then the River Chlorns, the Free Town Mge, the River Pyra- 
mus, and the Passages of Cilicia. The Towns Mallos and 
Magarsos ; and within Tarsos, the Plains, Aleii ; the Towns, 
Cassipolis and Mopsum, which is free, and standeth upon the 
River Pyramus ; Thynos, Zephyrium, and Anchialae. The 
Rivers Saros and Sydnus, which runneth through Tarsus, a 
free City, far from the Sea : the Country Celenderitis, with 
the Town. The Place called Nyraphaeum, and Soloe Cilicii, 
now Pompeiopolis, Adana, Cibira, Pinara, Pedalie, Halix, 
Arsinoe, Tabse, and Doron : and near the Sea ye shall find a 
Town, an Harbour, and a Cave, all named Corycos. Soon 
after, the River Calycadnus. The Promontory Sarpedon, 
the Towns Olme and Mylse, the Promontory and Town of 
Venus, nearest to which is the Isle of Cyprus. But in the 
Mainland are the Towns Myanda, Ariemurium, Corace- 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 79 

slum : and the River Melas, the ancient Bound of Cilicia. 
Within are to be spoken of, the Anazarbeni, at this Day 
named Caesar- Augustani ; Castabla ; Epiphania, formerly 
Eniandos; Eleusa, and Iconium. Seleucia upon the River 
Calicadmus, surnamed also Trachiotis, removed backward 
from the Sea, where it was called Hormia. Furthermore, 
within the Country, the Rivers Liparis, Bombos, and Para- 
disus. The Mountain Jubarus. All Authors have joined 
Pamphylia to Cilicia, and never regarded the Nation Isau- 
rica. The Towns within it are, Isaura, Clibanus, Lalassis ; 
and it shooteth down to the Sea-side of the Country Anemu- 
rium abovesaid. In like sort, as many as have set forth 
Descriptions of these Matters, had no Knowledge of the 
neighbouring Nation, the Homonades, which have a Town 
within their Country called Homona. Other Fortresses, to 
the number of 44, lie hidden among the rugged Valleys. 
The Pisidae, formerly called Solymis, are placed on the top ; 
a Colony of which is Csesarea, the same as Antiochia. The 
Towns are Oroanda and Sagalessos. This Nation is enclosed 
within Lycaonia, lying within the Jurisdiction of Asia : with 
which are joined the Philomelienses, Tymbrians, Leucolithi, 
Pelteni, and Hyrienses. There is given a Tetrarchy out of 
Lycaonia, on that side that bordereth upon Galatia: to 
which belong 14 Cities, whereof the most celebrated is Ico- 
nium. In Lycaonia itself, those of celebrity are Tembasa 
upon Taurus, Sinda in the Confines of Galatia and Cappa- 
docia. But on the Side thereof above Pamphylia, the Myliae, 
descended in old Time from Thrace, whose Town is Aricanda. 
Pamphylia was in ancient Time called Mopsopia. The Pam- 
phylian Sea joineth to the Cilician. Its Towns are Sid, As- 
pendus on the Mountain, Platanistus, and Perga. Also the 
Promontory Leucolla, the Mountain Sardemisus, the River 
Eurymedon running near Aspendum. Cataractes, near which 
stand Lyrnessus and Olbia ; and the furthest of that Coast, 
Phaselis. Joined to it is the Lycian Sea, and the Nation of 
the Lycians, where is a great Gulf. The Mountain Taurus, 
coming from the Eastern Shores, fixeth the limit by the 
Promontory Chelidonium. This (Taurus) is a mighty Moun- 



80 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

tain, and is an overlooker to a very great Number of Nations. 
So soon as it is risen from the Indian Sea, it parteth : and the 
right Hand passeth Northward, the left Southward, bending 
toward the West : dividing Asia through the midst : and 
(but that it meeteth the Seas) ready to oppress the whole 
Earth. It retireth, therefore, toward the North, fetching a 
great Circuit, and so making way, as if the Industry of 
Nature continually opposed the Seas against it; on one side 
the Phoenician Sea, on another the Sea of Pontus ; here the 
Caspian and Hyrcanian Seas, and full against him the Lake 
Mceotis. And notwithstanding these Bars, within which it 
is pent and entwined, yet at last Conqueror ; it winds away 
and passeth on until it encounters its kindred Riphaean 
Mountains : and wherever it goeth, it is distinguished by a 
Number of new Names. For in the Beginning of its Course 
it is called Imaus : a little forward Emodus, Paropamisus, 
Circius, Camibades, Parphariades, Choatras, Oreges, Oro- 
andes, Niphates, Taurus ; and where it is predominant, Cau- 
casus ; where it stretcheth forth its Arms, as if now and then 
endeavouring toward the Seas, it taketh the Name Sarpedon, 
Coracesius, and Cragus ; and then again Taurus, even where 
it gapeth, and opening itself to the People. And yet it 
claimeth its Unity still, and (these Passages are called) by 
the Names of Gates ; as in one Place Armenise, in another 
Caspise, and again Cilicise. And besides being broken into 
Parcels, and escaped far from the Sea, it taketh here and 
there many Names of Nations ; as, on the right Hand Hyr- 
canus and Caspius ; on the left, Pariedrus, Moschicus, 
Amazonicus, Coraxicus, and Scythicus. And throughout all 
Greece, Ceraunius. 

To return to Lycia, beyond its Promontory, is the Town 
Simena, the Mountain Chimsera, emitting Flames by Night; 
the City Hephsestium, where the Hills likewise oftentimes 
are known to burn. Formerly the City Olympus stood there ; 
but now the Mountain Towns, Gage, Corydalla, and Rhodio- 
polis. Near the Sea, Lymira with a River, into which 
Arycandus runneth : also the Mountain Massy rites, the 
Cities Andriarca and Myra. These Towns, Apyre and Anti- 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 8 1 

phellos, which formerly was called Habessus, and in a cor- 
ner, Phellus. Then Pyrrha, and also Xanthus, J5 Miles 
from the Sea, and a River of the same Name. Soon after 
Patara, formerly named Sataros ; and Sydinia on a Hill ; 
the Promontory Ciagus. Beyond which is a Gulf equal to 
the former. There is Pinara ; and Telmessus, that boundeth 
Lycia. In ancient Time Lycia possessed threescore Towns, 
but now 36; of which the most celebrated, besides the above- 
named, are Canae, Candyba, where the Wood Oenium is 
praised ; Podalia, Choma upon the River Adesa, Cyane, 
Ascandalis, Amelas, Noscopium, Tlos, and Telanorus. It 
containeth in the midland Parts Chabalia, with three Towns 
thereto belonging : Oenonda, Balbura, and Bubon. 

Beyond Telmessus is the Asiatic Sea, otherwise called 
Carpathium, and the Country which is properly called Asia. 
Agrippa hath divided it into two Parts, of which the one by 
his Description boundeth Phrygia and Lycaonia, eastward : 
but on the West Side it is limited by the JEgean Sea. 
Southward it boundeth upon Egypt: and in the North upon 
Paphlagonia. The Length thereof by his Computation is 
470 Miles, the Breadth 300. The other he hath limited 
Eastward from Armenia the Less: Westward by Phrygia, 
Lycaonia, and Pamphylia; on the North by the Province of 
Pontus ; and on the South by the Pamphylian Sea : it con- 
taineth 575 Miles in Length, and 325 in Breadth. The next 
Coast bordering upon it is Caria : and near it, Ionia; 
beyond that, .ZEolis. For Caria encloseth Doris in the midst, 
environing it round on every Side to the Sea. In it is the 
Promontory Pedalium, and the River Glaucus, charged 
with (the River) Telmessus. The Towns, Daedala and Crya, 
peopled with Fugitives ; the River Axon, and the Town 
Calydua. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
The River Indus. 

THE River Indus, rising in the craggy Mountains of the 
Cybiratae, receiveth threescore regularly running Rivers, but 
of Torrents above an hundred. The Free Town Caunos, and 

VOL. II. G 



82 History of 'Nature. [BooK V. 

a little off, Pyrnos. The Port Cressa, from which the Island 
Rhodus is distant 20 Miles. The Place Loryma ; the Towns 
Tysanusa, Taridion, Larymna; the Bay Thymnias, and the 
Promontory Aphrodisias ; the Town Hyda, the Bay Schoenus. 
The Country Bubassus ; where stood the Town Acanthus, 
otherwise called Dulopolis. On the Promontory is the Free 
(Town) Gnidos, Triopia, then Pegusa, called likewise Stadia. 
Beyond which Doris beginneth. But first it is convenient to 
have pointed out the midland Jurisdictions and the Parts 
which lie behind : one is named Cibiratica. The Town itself 
is in Phrygia, and to it are joined 25 Cities. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
Laodicea, Apamia, Ionia, Ephesus. 

THE most celebrated City is Laodicea. 1 It is seated on 
the River Lycus, Asopus and Caper washing its Sides. This 
City was first called Diospolis, and afterwards Rhoas. The 
other Nations belonging to that Jurisdiction worth the Nam- 
ing are the Hydrelitae, Themisones, and Hierapolitse. Another 
Jurisdiction taketh its Name from Synnada : and to it repair 
the Licaones, Appiani, Eucarpeni, Dorylaei, Midsei, Julienses, 
and fifteen other ignoble People. A third (Jurisdiction) 
goeth to Apamia, which in old Time was called Celsense, and 
afterwards Ciboton. It is situated at the Foot of the Moun- 

1 Laodicea, so named in honour of Laodice, wife of Antiochus II., by 
whom the city was enlarged. From all accounts it appears to have been 
built on a volcanic hill, and boasted, in its prosperity, many public build- 
ings of note, of which the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre are 
still to be seen. 

Ephesus was the capital of Proconsular Asia, and was situated in Ionia 
(now Natolia), about five miles from the .ZEgean Sea, on the sides and 
at the foot of a range of mountains overlooking a fine plain watered and 
fertilised by the river Cayster. The city was celebrated for the Temple 
of Diana, a most magnificent edifice, erected at the common expense 
of the inhabitants of Asia Proper, and described by Pliny, b. xxxvi. c. 14, 
but of which the site is now unknown. Ephesus was finally overthrown 
in tbe fourteenth century, after continued struggles. There are numerous 
traces of its magnificence still extant, though the neighbouring country 
bears all the marks of desolation and decay. Wern. Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 83 

tain Signia, environed with the Rivers Marsyas, Obrima, 
and Orga, which fall into the Maeander. The River Marsyas, 
which a little from his Spring is hidden under Ground, 
where Marsyas contended with Apollo in playing on the 
flute, sheweth itself again in Aulocrense, for so is the Valley 
called, ten Miles from Apamia, as Men travel to Phrygia. 
Under this Jurisdiction we should do well to Name the 
Metropolitan Dionysopolitae, Euphorbeni, Acmoneses, Pel- 
teni, and Silbiani. There are besides 60 ignoble Towns. 
Within the Bay of Doris, Leucopolis, Amaxitos, Elaeus, and 
Euthene. Then Towns of Caria, Pitaium, Eutaniae, and 
Halicarnassus. To this (City) were annexed by Alexander 
the Great, six Towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmossa, Eura- 
nium, Pedasium, and Telmessum. It is inhabited be- 
tween the two Gulfs, Ceramicus and Jasius. From thence 
Myndus, and where formerly stood Palaemyndus, Neapolis, 
Nariandus, Carianda, the Free City Termera, Bergyla, and 
the Town Jasus, which gave Name to the Gulf Jasius. But 
Caria is most renowned for the Places of Name within it, 
for therein are these Cities : Mylasa Free, and Antiochia, 
where sometime were the Towns Seminethos and Cranaos : 
and it is now environed about with the Maeander and Mos- 
sinus. In the same Tract also stood Maeandropolis. There 
is Eumenia close by the River Cludrus ; the River Glaucus ; 
the Town Lysias and Orthasia. The Tract of Berecinthus, 
Nysa, Trallis, which also is named Euanthia, and Seleucia, 
and Antiochia. It is washed by the River Eudone, and 
Thebanis passeth through it. Some report that the Pigmaei 1 

1 The Pygmaei were a fabulous nation inhabiting Thrace and other 
regions, who brought forth young at five years of age, and were old at 
eight. Homer has celebrated their memorable defeats by cranes. Iliad, 
3d Book. 

" When inclement winters vex the plain 

With piercing frosts, or thick descending rain, 
To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly, 
With noise, and order, through the mid- way sky : 
To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, 
And all the war descends upon the wing." Pope. 

Pliny has described these tiny creatures in Lib. vi. c. 22 and 35, and 



84 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

formerly there dwelt. Besides, there are Thydonos, Pyrrha, 
Eurome, Heraclea, Amyzon, and the Free Alabanda, from 
which that Jurisdiction took its Name. The Free Stratonicea, 
Hynidos, Ceramus, Trcezene, and Phorontis. There are 
Nations farther remote that resort to that Court: the 
Othronienses, Halydienses or Hyppini, Xystiani, Hydis- 
senses, Apolloniates, Trapezopolitse, and the Free Aphro- 
disienses. Besides these, there are Cossinus and Harpasa, 
close by the River Harpasus, which also ran under Trallicon, 
when such a Town existed. Lydia is watered by the wind- 
ings of the River Mseander: and it reacheth above Ionia: 
being near upon Phrygia in the East, upon Mysia in the 
North, and in the South side enclosing Caria; and was for- 
merly named Mceonia. It is celebrated chiefly for Sardis, 
seated upon the side of the Mountain Trnolus, formerly 
called Timolus, planted with Vineyards ; and from it flows 
Pactolus, called likewise Chrysorrhoa : as also the Fountain 
Tames. This City was commonly by the Mceonise called 
Hyde, and was famous for the Lake of Gyges. That Juris- 
diction is at this Day called Sardiana. Thither resort besides 
the abovenamed, the Macedonian Caduenes, the Loreni, 

again in lib. vii. c. 2. See also Aristotle's Hist. Anim. lib. viii., and 
Mela, lib. iii. There can be no question but that the ancient fictions of 
pygmies, satyrs, cynocephali, cynoprosopi, &c., and other supposed tribes 
of human monsters, originated in vague accounts of different species of 
simiae, though the Bushmen of South Africa are supposed also to have 
been referred to as a nation of pigmies. The earliest unquestionable 
reference to any of the true apes is found in the Periplus of Hanno, circ. 
500 B.C. 

" For three days," says the Carthaginian admiral, " we passed along a 
burning coast, and at length reached a bay called the Southern Horn. 
In the bottom of this bay we found an island similar to that already men- 
tioned ; this island contained a lake, that in its turn contained another 
island, which was inhabited by wild men. The greater number of those 
we saw were females ; they were covered with hair, and our interpreters 
called them Gorilloi. We were unable to secure any of the men, as they 
fled to the mountains, and defended themselves with stones. As to the 
women, we caught three of them, but they so bit and scratched us that 
we found it impossible to bring them along; we therefore killed and 
flayed them, and carried their hides to Carthage." Wern, Club. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 85 

Philadelpheni, and those Moeonians inhabiting on the 
River Cogamus, at the Foot of Tmolus ; and the Tripoli- 
tani, who, together with the Antoniopolitae, are washed by 
the River Maeander ; also, the Apollonos-Hieritae, Myso- 
tmolites, and others of mean Reputation. 

Ionia beginneth at the Bay of Jasius, and all its Coast is 
full of Indentations. The first Bay in it is Basilicus ; the 
Promontory Posideum, and the Town called the Oracle of 
the Branchidae, but at this Day, of Apollo Didymaeus, 20 
Stadia from the Sea-side. And beyond this 180 Stadia, 
standeth Milletus, the Head (City) of Ionia, named in Time 
past Lelegeis ; Pitylisa, also named Anactoria. From which, 
as from a Mother, are descended more than eighty others, 
built along the Sea-coast. Neither is this City to be de- 
frauded of the Citizen Cadmus, who taught first to declaim 
in Prose. The River Maeander issueth out of a Lake in the 
Mountain Aulocrene ; and passing by many Towns, and 
filled with Abundance of Rivers, it fetcheth such windings 
to and fro, that oftentimes it is thought to run backward 
again. The first Country it passeth through is Apamia : and 
presently Eumenitica, and so through the Plains Bargyl- 
letici. Last of all, it cometh gently into Caria, and watering 
all that Land with a very fruitful Mud, about ten Stadia 
from Miletus it glideth into the Sea. Near (to that River) is 
the Mountain Latmus : the Town Heraclea, surnamed 
Caryca, from a Hill of that Name; also Myus, which, 
as the Report goeth, was first founded by the lones after 
their proceeding from Athens ; Naulochum, and Pyrene. 
Upon the Sea-coast the (Town) called Trogilia ; the River 
Gessus. This Region is sacred to all the lonians, and there- 
fore it is named Panionia. Near it was Phygela, built for 
Fugitives, as appeareth by the Name : and the Town Mara- 
thesium : and above it Magnesia, designated with the sur- 
name On-Mseander, sprung from the Thessalian Magnesia. 
From Ephesus it is distant 15 Miles ; and from Tralleis it is 
three Miles farther. Formerly it was called Thessaloce and 
Androlitia : and being situated upon the Shore, it took away 
with it from the Sea other Islands called Dera*ides. Within- 



86 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

land Thyatira (in old Time called Pelopia and Euhippa) is 
washed by the Lycus. But upon the Sea-coast is Manteium ; 
and Ephesus, a Work of the Amazons. But many Names 
it had gone through before ; for in the Time of the Trojan 
War it was called Alopes : soon after, Ortygia and Morges : 
and it took the Name of Smyrna, with addition of Trachsea 
(i. e. Rough), Samornium, and Ptelea. It is mounted on 
the Hill Pione, and is washed by the Caystrus, which spring- 
eth out of the Cilbian Hills, and bringeth down with it 
many other Rivers, and the Lake Pegaseum, which dis- 
chargeth itself by the River Phyrites. From these Rivers 
proceedeth a large quantity of Mud, which increaseth the 
Land : so that it hath thrown good way within the Land the 
Island Syrie. There is a Fountain within the City called 
Callipia : and two (Rivers) Selinuces, coming from different 
Countries, encircle the Temple of Diana. From Ephesus 
you come to another Manteium, inhabited by the Colo- 
phonii : and within, the Country Colophon itself, with the 
(River) Halesus flowing by it. Then the Sacred Place 
(Fane) of Apollo Clarius, and Lebedos. And there formerly 
was the Town Notium. The Promontory Coryceon : the 
Mountain Mimas, which reacheth out 250 Miles, and 
endeth at length in the Plains within the Continent. This 
is the place where Alexander the Great commanded the 
Plain to be cut through for seven Miles and a half in Length, 
to join the two Gulfs, and to bring Erythrae and Mimas 
together, to be environed around therewith. Near this Ery- 
thrae were the Towns, Pteleon, Helos, andiiDorion: now, 
there is the River Aleon, and Corineum : upon the Mount 
Mimas, Clazomene, Partheniae; and Hippi, called Chyto- 
phoria, when they were Islands : the same Alexander united 
them to the Continent for the Space of two Stadia. There 
have perished within, Daphnus, Hermesia, and Sipylum, 
called formerly Tantalis, the chief City of Moeonia, where 
now is the Lake Sale. And for that cause Archaeopolis 
succeeded to Sipylus, and after it Colpe, and to it Lebade. 
Returning thence twelve Miles off is Smyrna, on the Coast, 
built by an Amazon, but restored by Alexander the Great ; 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 87 

made pleasant by the River Meles, which hath its Source 
not far off. The most celebrated Mountains in Asia, for the 
most part, spread themselves at large in this Tract, as Mas- 
tusia, on the Back of Smyrna ; and Termetis that meeteth 
close to the Foot of Olympus. This (Olympus) endeth in 
Draco, and Draco in Tmolus ; Tmolus at Cadmus ; and Cad- 
mus in Taurus. Beyond Smyrna are Plains, formed by the 
River Hermus, and therefore adopting its Name. This 
(River) hath its Beginning near Doryleus, a City of Phrygia, 
and collecteth into it many Rivers ; among which is Phryg, 
which giveth Name to the whole Nation and divideth Phry- 
gia and Caria asunder. Moreover, Lyllus and Crios, which 
are well filled by the other Rivers of Phrygia, Mysia, and 
Lydia. In the Mouth of this River stood the Town Temnos : 
now in the further portion of the Gulf are the Rocks Myr- 
meces. Also the Town Leuce upon the Promontory, which 
was an Island : and Phocaea, which boundeth Ionia. A large 
part of ^Eolia, of which we will speak by and by, repaireth 
commonly to the Convention of Smyrna : and likewise the 
Macedonians, surnamed Hyrcani ; and the Magnetes from 
Sipylum. But to Ephesus, which is another Light of Asia, 
resort those that dwell farther off : the Caesarienses, Metro- 
politse, Cylbiani, the Myso-Macedones, as well the Higher 
as the Lower, the Mastaurenses, Brullitae, Hypprepeni, and 
Dios-Hieritae. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

JEolis, TroaSj and Pergamus. 

uEoms, in old Time called Mysia, 1 is nearest (to Ionia :) 
and so is Troas, which boundeth upon the Hellespontus. 

1 The people of Mysia, according to Cicero, " were despicable and base 
to a proverb." Their country was bounded on the west by Troas, in 
which region was situated the city of that name, of which numerous 
vestiges remain, attesting its former splendour. "Indeed," says Mr. 
Fellowes, who visited the spot in 1838, " for many miles round the soil is 
rendered useless for agriculture, by the multitude of broken marbles, 
stones, and arches, which lie under the surface in every direction." 

Pergamus was the ancient capital of Mysia, and, as its ruins also attest, 
was a magnificent city. Wern. Club. 



88 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Being past Phocaea, there is the Port Ascanius : and then 
the Place where Larissa stood : and now Cyme, and Myrina, 
which calleth itself Sebastopolis. Within the Land, ^Egae, 
Attalia, Posidea, Neon-tichos, and Temnos. Upon the Coast, 
the River Titanus, and a City taking its Name from it. There 
was also Grynia, now only a Port of the Ground ; the Island 
being taken into it. The Town Elsea, and the River Caicus 
corning out of Mysia. The Town Pytane, the River Canaius. 
There are perished, Cause, Lysimachia, Atarnea, Carenae, 
Cisthene, Cilia, Cocillum, Thebae, Astyre, Chrysa, Palce- 
stepsis, Gergithos, and Neandros. At this Day, there is the 
City Perperene, the Tract Heracleotes ; the Town Coryphas, 
the River Chryliosolius, the Country called Aphrodisias, 
which formerly was Politiceorgas, the Country Scepsis; 
the River Evenus, upon the Bank of which have perished 
Lyrmessos and Miletos. In this Tract is the Mountain Ida. 
And in the Sea-Coast Adramytteos, formerly called Pedasus, 
where the Bay and Convention are named Adramytteos. 
Rivers, Astron, Cormalos, Eryannos, Alabastros, and Hieros 
out of Ida. Within, Mount Gargara, and a Town of the 
same Name. And then again on the Sea-side, Antandros, 
formerly called Edonis : then, Cymeris, and Assos, which 
also is Apollonia. Also there was a Town called Palaine- 
dium. The Promontory Lecton, dividing .ZEolus and Troas. 
There also was the City Polymedia, and Cryssa, with another 
Larissa. The Temple Smintheum remaineth still. Within, 
the Town Colone is destroyed, and the Business removed 
to Adramytteum. The Apolloniatae, from the River Rhyn- 
dicus : the Eresii, Miletopolites, Poemaneni, Macedones, 
Aschilacae, Polychnaei, Pionitae, Cilices, and Mandagandeni. 
In Mysia, the Abrettini, and those called Hellespontii ; be- 
sides others of base account. The first place in Troas is 
Amaxitus : then, Cebrenia, and Troas itself, named Anti- 
gonia, now Alexandria, a Roman Colony. The Town Nee : 
the navigable River Scamander; and on the Promontory, 
formerly, the Town Sigaeum. Then the Port of the Greeks, 
(Portus Achaeorum,) into which Xanthus and Simoeis run 
together; as also Palae-Scamander, but first it maketh a 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 89 

Lake. The remainder celebrated by Homer as Rhaesus, 
Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius, have no Vestiges remain- 
ing. The Granicus floweth by a different Tract into the 
Propontis. Yet there is at this Day a little City called 
Scamandria ; and one Mile and a half from the Port, the 
Free City Ilium, from which proceedeth all that great Name, 
Outside of this Gulf lieth the Coast Rhoetea, inhabited with 
the Towns upon it, of Rhoateum, Dardanium, and Arisb. 
There was also Acheleum, a Town near the Tomb of Achilles, 
founded by the Mitylenei, and afterwards re-edified by the 
Athenians, on the Bay Sigseum, where his Fleet rode. There 
also was Acantium, built by the Rhodians, in another Horn, 
where Ajax was interred, thirty Stadia distant from Sigaeum, 
and the very Station of his Fleet. Above Molis and a part 
of Troas, within the Continent, is the (Town) called Teu- 
thrania, which the Mysi in old Time held. There springeth 
Caicus, the River abovesaid. A large Country this is of it- 
self, and especially when it was united to Mysia, and also so 
called : containing in it Pionise, Andera, Cale, Stabulum, 
Conisium, Tegium, Balcea, Tiare, Teuthrania, Sarnaca, Hali- 
serne, Lycide, Parthenium, Thymbre, Oxyopum, Lygda- 
num, Apollonia : and Pergamus, the most illustrious City of 
Asia by many Degrees ; through it passeth the River Selinus, 
and Csetius runneth by it, issuing out of the Mountain Pin- 
dasus. Not far from thence is Elea, which, as we have 
said, standeth on the Shore. The Jurisdiction of this Tract 
is named Pergamena. To it resort the Thyatyreni, Myg- 
dones, Mossini, Bregmenteni, Hieracomitae, Perpereni, 
Tyareni, Hierapolenses, Harniatapolitae, Attalenses, Pan- 
taenses, Apollonidenses, and other Cities of little Honour. 
Dardanium, a small Town, is threescore and ten Stadia dis- 
tant from Rhosteum. Eighteen Miles from thence is the 
Promontory Trapeza, where first the Hellespont rusheth 
along roughly. Eratosthenes saith, That the Nations of the 
Solymi,' Leleges, Bebrices, Colycantii, and Trepsedores, are 
utterly perished from Asia. Isidorus reporteth the same of 
the Arymei and Capretae, where Apamia was built by King 
Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia, Cataonia,and Armenia. 



90 History of Nature. [Boon V. 

And because he had vanquished most Fierce Nations, at the 
first he named it Damea. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

The Islands before Asia, the Pamphylian Sea ; Rhodus, 
Samus, and Chios. 

THE first of the Islands before Asia is in the Canopic 
Mouth of the Nilus, so called, as they say, from Canopus, 
the Pilot of King Menelaus. 1 The second is Pharus, which 
is joined to Alexandria by a Bridge. In old Time it was a 
Day's Sailing from Egypt : and now by Fires from a Watch- 
Tower, Sailors are directed in the Night. It is a Colony of 
Casar the Dictator. Alexandria is encompassed with de- 
ceitful Shallows, and there are but three Channels from the 
Sea; Tegamum, Posideurn, and Taurus. Next to that Isle, 
in the Phoenician Sea before Joppa, lieth Paria, an Island 
not larger than the Town, in which they report that Andro- 
meda was exposed to the Beast. 2 Also Arados beforenamed, 
between which and the Continent, as Mutianus says, there is 
a Fountain in the Sea, where it is fifty Cubits deep, out of 
which Fresh Water is drawn from the very Bottom of the 
Sea, through Pipes made of Leather. The Pamphylian Sea 
hath some Islands of little Importance. In the Cilician Sea 
is Cyprus, one of the Five greatest, and it lieth east and 
west, opposite Cilicia and Syria ; in Times past the Seat of 
Nine Kingdoms. Timosthenes saith, that it contained in 
Circuit four hundred and nineteen Miles and a half; 
but Isidorus is of opinion, that it is but three hundred 
and seventy-five Miles in Compass. Its Length between 
the two Promontories, Dinaretas and Acamas, which 
is westward, Artemidorus reporteth to be 160| Miles: and 

1 Jacob Bryant, in his "Analysis of Ancient Mythology," (vol. ii. p. 4,) 
says, " that the priests of Egypt laughed at this account of the pilot of 
Menelaus, as an idle story ; affirming that the place was much more an- 
cient than the people of Greece ; and the name not of Grecian original." 
Also Stephanus of Byzantium calls the pilot Pharos, and not Canopus. 
Wem. CM. 

3 Seep. 67 of this vol. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 91 

Timosthenes 200, who saith besides, that formerly it was 
called Acamantis : according to Philonides, Cerastis : after 
Xenagoras, Aspelia, Amathusia, and Macatia : Astynomus 
calleth it Cryptos and Colinia. Towns in it, 15 : Paphos, 
Palaepaphos, Curias, Citium, Corineum, Salamis, Amathus, 
Lapethos, Soloe, Tamaseus, Epidarurn, Chytri, Arsinoe, 
Carpasium, and Golgi. There were in it besides, Cinirya, 
Marium, and Idalium. And from Anemurium in Cilicia, is 
50 Miles. The Sea which is stretched between they call 
Aulon Cilicium. In this Tract is the Island Elaeusa: and 
four others before the Promontory named Glides, over-against 
Syria. Likewise one more, named Stiria, at the other Cape. 
Over-against Neampaphos, Hierocepia. Over-against Sala- 
mis, Salaminae. But in the Lycian Sea, Illyris, Telendos, 
Attelebussa, and three Cypriae, all barren : also Dionysia, 
formerly called Caretha. Then over-against the Promon- 
tory of Taurus, the Chelidonige, dangerous to Sailors : and 
as many more, together with the Town Leucola Pactiae, 
Lasia, Nymphais, Maoris, Megista, the City of which is 
gone. Then many of no Importance. But over-against Chi- 
mera, Dolichist, Chirogylium, Crambussa, Rhode", Enagora, 
eight Miles. Daedaleon, two: Cryeon, three: and Stron- 
gyle, over-against Sidynia of Antiochus : and toward the 
River Glaucus Lagusa, Macris, Didymge, Helbo, Scope", 
Aspis, and Telandria ; in which the Town is gone : and, near 
to Caunus, Rhodussa. But the fairest of all is the Free (Isle) 
Rhodos ; in Compass 130 Miles ; or if we rather give Credit 
to Isidorus, 103. Cities in it well peopled, Lindus, Camirus, 
and lalysus, now called Rhodus. By the Account oflsido?-us 9 
it is from Alexandria in Egypt, 578 Miles : but according to 
Eratosthenes, 569 : according to Mutianus, 50Q ; and from 
Cyprus, 416. In Times past it was called Ophyusa, Asteria, 
jEthraea, Trinacria, Corymbia, Posessa, Atabyria from the 
King(Atabyris) : and finally, Macaria, and Oloessa. Islands of 
the Rhodians, Carpathus, which gave name to the Sea (Car- 
pathium) ; Casos, formerly Achrn : and Nisyros, distant 
from Gnidos twelve Miles and a half; which heretofore had 
been called Porphyris. And in the same Range, Sym, 



92 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

between Rhodus and Gnidus ; it is in Circuit six-and-thirty 
Miles and a half. It is blessed with eight Harbours. Be- 
sides these, there lie about Rhodus, Cyclopis, Teganon, Cor- 
dylusa, four under the Name of Diabete : Hymos, Chalcis, 
with a Town : Seutlusa, Narthecusa, Dimastos, and Progne. 
Beyond Gnidos, Cicerussa, Therionarce, Calydne with three 
Towns, Notium, Nisyrus, Mendeterus : and in Arconesus, 
the Town Ceramus. Upon the Coast of Caria, the Islands, 
twenty in number, called Argiae : and Hyetussa, Lepsia, and 
Leros. But the most noble in that Bay is Cos, which is dis- 
tant from Halicarnassus 15 Miles ; and in Compass 100, as 
many judge; called Merope, as Staphylus saith : but accord- 
ing to Dionysius, Cos Meropis : and afterwards Nymphaea. 
There is the Mountain Prion : and as they think, Nysiris 
broken off; formerly named Porphyris. Beyond this, 
Carianda, with a Town : and not far from Halicarnassus, 
Pidosus. Moreover, in the Gulf Ceramicus, Priaponnesus, 
Hipponesus, Psyra, Mya, Lampsemandus, Passala, Crusa, 
Pyrrhe, Sepiussa, Melano ; and within a short Distance of 
the Continent, another called Cinedopolis, from the shameful 
Persons that King Alexander left there. The Coast of Ionia 
hath (the Islands) ./Egeae and Corsese, besides Icaros, spoken 
of before. Also Lade, formerly called Latse : and among 
some others of no worth, the two Camelides near to Miletus. 
Mycalenum, Trogylise, Trepsilion, Argennon, Sardalion : 
and the free Samos, which in Circuit is fourscore and seven 
Miles; or as Isidorus thinketh, 100. Aristotle writeth, 
that at first it was called Parrhania, afterwards Dryusa, and 
then Anthemusa. Aristocritus giveth it other Names, as 
Melamphyllus, and afterward Cyparissia : others term it 
Partheno-arusa, and Stephane. Rivers in it, Imbrasus, 
Chesius, arid Ibettes : Fountains, Gigarto and Leucothea : 
the Mountain Cercetius. There lie adjoining to it the 
Islands Rhypara, Nymphaea, arid Achillea. Fourscore and 
thirteen Miles from it, is Chios, free, with a Town ; which 
Island is as renowned as Samos. jEphorus by the ancient 
Name calleth it ^Ethalia : Metrodorus and Cleobulus, Chia, 
from the Nymph Chio. Others suppose it was so called 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 93 

from Chion, i.e. Snow : and some would have it to be Ma- 
cris and Pityusa. It has a Mountain called Pellenaeus, the 
Marble called Chium. Ancient Geographers have written, 
that it is 125 Miles in Circuit ; and Isidorus addeth nine 
more. It is situated between Samos and Lesbos, for the most 
part opposite to Erythrse. Near it lieth Thallusa, which some 
write Dapnusa, (Enussa, Elaphites, Euryanassa, Arginussa 
with a Town. Now all these are about Ephesus, as also 
those called of Pisistratus : and the Anthinae, Myonnesus, and 
Diareusa. In both these the Towns are lost. Poroselense 
with a Town, Cerciae, Halon, Commone, Illetia, Lepria, 
and Rhespheria, Procusae, Bolbulae, Phanae, Priapos, Syce, 
Melane, ^Enare, Sidusa, Pela, Drymusa, Anydros, Scopelos, 
Sycussa, Marathussa, Psile, Perirheusa, and many others of 
no Importance. But among the illustrious is Teos, in the 
deep Sea, with a Town : distant from Chios fourscore and 
one Miles, and as much from Erythrae. Near Smyrna are 
the Peristerides, Carteria, Alopece, Elseussa, Bachina, Pys- 
tira, Crommyonnesus, and Megale. Before Troas, the Asca- 
niae, and three Plateae. Then the Lainiae, and two Plitaniae ; 
Plate, Scopelos, Getone, Artheidon, Celae, Lagussae, and 
Didymae. But the most illustrious is Lesbos, which is from 
Chios threescore and five Miles. It was called Hemerte, and 
Lasia, Pelasgia, J^gira, Mihyope, and Macaria : famous for 
eight Towns ; of which Pyrrha is swallowed up by the Sea : 
and Arisb& is overthrown by an Earthquake. Methymna 
was peopled from Antissa, which was united to it, and in it 
were eight Cities, and it is about seven-and-thirty Miles from 
Asia. 1 Also Agamede and Hiera have perished. There 
remain Eresos, Pyrrha, and the free Mitylenae, which hath 
continued powerful for 500 Years. Isidorus saith, that this 
Island is in Circuit 173 Miles : but the old Geographers, 195. 
In it are these Mountains, Lepethymus, Ordymnus, Macistus, 
Creon, and Olympus. It is distant eight Miles and a half from 
the Continent, where it lieth nearest. Islands near it, Sauda- 
lion, and the five Leucae. Of these, Cydonea hath a Foun- 

1 Natolia. 



94 History of Nature. [Boon V. 

tain of hot Water. The Argenussae are distant from ./Egse 
four Miles. Then Phellusa and Pedua. Outside the Helles- 
pont, over-against the Sigean Coast, lieth the Isle Tenedus, 
called sometimes Leucophrys, Phoenice, and Lyrnessos. 
From Lesbos it is six-and-fifty Miles, and from Sigaeum 
twelve Miles and a half. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Hellespontus, Mysia, Phrygia, Galatia, Bithynia, 
Bosporus. 

THE Hellespont then assumeth its Violence and over- 
cometh the Sea, digging a Way with its Eddies, until it hath 
torn away Asia from Europe. That Promontory we have 
named Trapeza, ten Miles beyond which stancleth the Town 
Abydum, where the Straits are seven Stadia over. Be- 
yond it is the Town Percote, and Lampsacum, called for- 
merly Pityusa : the Colony Parium, which Homer called 
Adrastia. The Town Priapos, the River JEsepus, Zelia, 
Propontus ; as the Place is called where the Sea enlargeth 
itself. The River Granicum, the Harbour Artace, where 
once stood a Town. Beyond it is an Island, which Alexander 
joined to the Continent, in which standeth the Town Cyzi- 
cum, founded by the Milesians, called heretofore Arconne- 
sos; Dolionis, and Dindymis, near the Top of which is the 
Mountain Dindymus. Presently the Towns Placia, Aviacos, 
Scylac : and behind them, the Mountain Olympus, called 
Msesius. The City Olympena. The Rivers Horisius and 
Rhyndacus, formerly named Lycus. This River taketh its 
Beginning in the Lake Artynia, near to Miletopolis. It 
receiveth the Marestos and many others ; and separateth 
Asia from Bithynia. This Region was called Cronia : after- 
ward Thessalis, then Malianda and Strymonis. These (Na- 
tions) Homer named Halizones, because they are environed 
with the Sea. There was a very great City named Attusa. 
At this Day there are fifteen Cities, among which is Gordiu- 
come, now called Juliopolis ; and on the Coasts Dascylos. 
Then the River Gebes : and within-land, the Town Helgas, 



BooKV.] History of Nature. 95 

the same as Germanicopolis, known also Ity another Name 
Booscoete, as also Apamea, now called Myrtea of the Colo- 
phonians. The River Etheleum, the ancient limit of Troas, 
and where Mysia beginneth. Afterwards the Gulf into 
which runneth the River Ascanium, the Town Bryllion. 
The Rivers Hylas and Cios, with a Town of that Name : 
which was a Place of Trade, not far off from the Inhabitants 
of Phrygia, and built by the Milesians in a Place called As- 
cania of Phrygia. And therefore we cannot do better than 
here to speak of that Country. Phrygia spreadeth out above 
Troas and the Nations before named, from the Promontory 
Lectus unto the River Etheleus. It bordereth on the 
North upon part of Galatia, southward it boundeth on Ly- 
caonia, Pisidia, and Mygdonia ; and on the east it reacheth 
to Cappadocia. The most celebrated Towns besides those 
before spoken of, are Ancyra, Andria, Celsense, Colossae, Ca- 
rina, Cotiaion, Ceranse, Iconium, and Midaion. Certain 
Authors write, that out of Europe have passed over the 
Mysi, Bryges, and Thyni, from whom are named the Mysi, 
Phryges, and Bithyni. 

At the same time I think it good to write also of Galatia, 
which lying higher than Phrygia, possesseth a greater part of 
its plain Country, and the former Capital of it, called Gordium. 
They who inhabited that Quarter were sprung from the Gauls, 
and were called Tolistobogi, Voturi, and Ambitui : but they 
that occupied the Country of Mseonia and Paphlagonia were 
named Trocmi. Cappadocia is spread along from the North 
and East ; and the most plenteous Tract thereof the Tecto- 
sages and Teutobodiaci kept in their Possession. And thus 
much for these Nations. The People and Tetrarchies are in 
all a hundred and ninety and five. The Towns: of the 
Tectosages, Ancyra : of the Trocmi, Tavium : of the Tolisto- 
bogians, Pesinus. Besides these, there are celebrated the 
Attalenses, Arasenses, Cotnenses, Dios-Hieronitse, Lystreni, 
Neapolitani, Oeandenses, Seleucenses, Sebasteni, Timmonia- 
censes, and Tebaseni. Galatia extendeth to Gabalia and 
Milyae in Pamphylia; which are situated about Baris : also 
Cyllanticum and Oroandicum, a Tract of Pisidia : likewise 



96 History of Nature. [BoOK V. 

Obigene", a part of Lycaonia. Rivers there are in it, beside 
those beforenamed, Sangarium and Gall as, from which the 
Priests of the Mother of the Gods were named. Now to 
speak of what remains on the Sea-coast : inward from Cios 
is Prusa within Bithynia ; founded by Annibal beneath 
Olympus. From Prusa to Nicsea, five-and-twenty Miles ; 
the Lake Ascanius lying between. Then Nicsea, in the out- 
most part of the Gulf Ascanium, which before was called 
Olbia: also to another Prusa, undr the Mountain Hippius. 
There were Pythopolis, Parthenopolis, and Choryphanta. 
Now there are upon the Sea-side the Rivers, .ZEsius, Bryazon, 
Plataneus, Areus, Siros, Gendos, named also Chrysorrhoas. 
The Promontory on which stood the Town Megaricum. Then 
the Gulf which was called Craspedites ; because that Town 
stood as it were in a Fold of it, There was also the Town 
Astacum, from which the Bay took the Name of Astacenus. 
There was also the Town Libyssa, where now remaineth 
nothing but the Tomb of Annibal. In the inmost part of 
the Gulf is the very handsome Town of Bithynia, called 
Nicomedia. The Promontory Leucatas which encloseth the 
Bay of Astarenus, is from Nicomedia forty-two Miles and 
a half. Being past this Bay, the opposite Shores approach- 
ing together, the Straits reach as far as to the Thracian Bos- 
phorus. Upon these Straits standeth the Free (City) Chalce- 
don, seventy-two Miles and a half from Nicomedia. Formerly 
it was called Procerastis : then, Compusa : afterwards, the 
City of the Blind ; because they who founded it were so 
ignorant as not to give a preference to a Place seven Stadia 
from Byzantium, so much more favourable in every respect. 
But within-land, in Bithynia, is the Colony Apamena : also, 
the Agrippenses, Juliopolitae, and they of Bithynium. The 
Rivers, Syrium, Lapsias, Pharmicas, Alces, Crynis, Lylaeus, 
Scopius, Hieras, which parteth Bithynia from Galatia. Be- 
yond Chalcedon, stood Chrysopolis: then, Nicopolis, of 
which the Gulf still retaineth the Name : wherein is the 
Port of Amycus : the Promontory Naulochum : Estia, 
wherein is the Temple of Neptune; and the Bosphorus, 
half-a-mile over, which now again parteth Asia from Europe. 



BOOK V.] History of Nature. 97 

From Chalcedon, it is twelve Miles and a half. There begin 
thej narrow Straits, where it is eight Miles and a quarter 
over: where stood the Town Philopolis. All the Coasts 
are inhabited by the Thyni, but the Inland Parts by 
the Bithyni. This is the end of Asia, and of 282 Nations, 
which are reckoned from the Gulf of Lycia to this place. 
The Space of the Hellespont and Propontis to the Thracian 
Bosphorus containeth in Length 188 Miles, as we have 
before said. From Chalcedon to Sigeum, by the computa- 
tion of Isidorus, it is 372 Miles and a half. Islands lying in 
Propontis before Cyzicum are these; Elaphonnesus, from 
whence cometh the Cyzicen Marble ; and the same Isle was 
called Neuris, and Proconnesus. Then follow Ophiiisa, 
Acanthus, Phoebe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, and Halone, with 
a Town. Delphacia, Polydora : Artaceeon, with the Town. 
And over-against Nicomedia, is Demonnesos : likewise, be- 
yond Heraclea, over-against Bithynia, is Thynnias, which 
the Barbarians call Bithynia. There is also Antiochia : and 
opposite to the narrow Straits of llhyndacus, Besbicos, 
eighteen Miles in Circuit. Also there is Elsea, two Rho- 
dussae, Erebinthus, Magale, Chalcitis, and Pityodes, 



VOL. IT. 



IN THE SIXTH BOOK 



AEE CONTAINED 

REGIONS, NATIONS, SEAS, CITIES, PORTS, RIVERS, WITH THEIR 
DIMENSIONS; AND PEOPLE THAT ARE OR HAVE BEEN : 



CHAP. 

1. Pontus Euxinus, formerly Ax- 

enus. 

2. The Nations of the Paphla- 

gones and Cappadocians. 

3. Cappadocia. 

4. The Nations of the Country 

Themiscyra. 

5. The Region Colchica. The 

Achsei, and the rest in that 
Tract. 

6. Bosphorus Cimmerms, and 

Mo30tis. 

7. The People about Moeotis. 

8. The Armenise, both. 

9. Armenia the Greater. 

10. Albania, Iberia. 

1 1 . The Gates Caucasian 

12. Islands in Pontus. 

13. Nations about the Scythian 

Ocean. 

14. Media and the Straits Caspise. 

15. Nations about the Hircanian 

Sea. 

16. Also other Nations bordering 

upon that Country. 

17. People of Scythia. 

18. The River Ganges. 



CHAP. 

19. The Nations of India. 

20. The River Indus. 

21. The Arii, and the Nations bor- 

dering upon them. 

22. The Island Taprobane. 

23. Capissene, Carmania. 

24. The Persian and Arabian Gulfs. 

25. The Island Cassandrus, and the 

Kingdoms of the Parthians. 

26. Media, Mesopotamia, Babylon, 

Seleucia. 

27. The River Tigris. 

28. Arabia, Nomades, Nabathsei, 

Omani, Tylos, and Ogyris, 
two Islands. 

29. The Gulfs of the Red Sea, the 

Troglodite and Ethiopian 
Seas. 

30. Nations of strange and won- 

derful Shapes. 

31. Islands of the Ethiopian Sea. 

32. Of the Fortunate Islands. 

33. The Division of the Earth 

calculated by Measures. 

34. A Division of the Earth by 

Climates, Lines Parallel, 
and Equal Shadows. 



Towns of name, 195. Nations of account, 566. Famous Rivers, 180. 
Notable Mountains, 38. Principal Islands, 108. Cities and Nations 
perished, 195. In sum, there are rehearsed in this Book, of other Things, 
Histories and Observations, 2214. 



LATIN AUTHORS ABSTRACTED: 

M. Agrippa, Varro Atacinus, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, Lu. Vetus, Mela 
Pomponius, Domitius Corbulo, Licinius Mutianus, Claudius Coesar, Aruntius 
Sebosus, Fabridus Thuscus, T. Livius, Seneca, Nigidius. 

FOREIGN WRITERS : 

King Juba, Polybius, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Dicce- 
archus, Beto, Timosthenes, Pair odes, Demodamas, Clitarchus, Eratosthenes, 
Alexander the Great, Ephorus, Hipparchus, Pancetius, CattimacJius, Artemi- 
dorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Polybius, Eumachus Siculus, Alexander 
Polyhistor, Amometus, Metrodorus, Posidonius, Onesicritus, Nearchus, 
Megasthenes, Diognetus, Aristocreon, Bion, Dialdon, Simonides the Younger, 
Basiles, and Xenophon Lampsacenus. 



THE SIXTH BOOK 



HISTORY OF NATURE. 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 




CHAPTER I. 
Pontus Euxinus. 

HE Pontus Euxinus, named in old time Axenos, 
from its inhospitable wildness, is spread between 
Europe and Asia, by a special Envy of Nature, 
and an Eagerness to maintain the Sea in his 
greedy and endless Appetite. It was not enough 
for the Ocean to have environed the whole 
Earth, and to have taken away a great part of it, with 
exceeding Rage ; it sufficed not, to have broken through the 
shattered Mountains, and also having torn Calpe 1 from 
Africa, to have swallowed up a much larger space than it 
left behind : nor to have poured out Propontis through the 
Hellespont, 2 so again devouring the Land : from the Bos- 
phorus also it is spread abroad into a large Space without 

1 Mouth of Gibraltar. 

8 The ideas of the ancients appear to have been confounded in the wide 



100 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

being satisfied, until they are very wide, and the Lake 
Moeotis joiueth its ruin to them. And that this hath 
happened in spite of the Earth, appeareth by so many 
Straits and such narrow Passages of opposing nature, 
considering that at the Hellespont the Breadth is not 
above 875 Paces : and at the two Bosphori even Oxen easily 
pass over : and hereupon they both took their Name : and in 
this disunion appeareth an agreement of relationship. For 
Cocks may be heard to crow, and Dogs to bark from one 
Side to the other : and by the interchange of Human Speech 
Men out of these two Worlds may talk one to another in 
continued discourse, if the Winds do not carry away the 
Sound. 

Some have made the Measure of Pontus from the Bos- 
phorus to the Lake Moeotis to be 1438 Miles. But Erato- 
sthenes reckoneth it less by one hundred. Agrippa saith, 
that from Chalcedon to Phasis is a thousand Miles; and 
onward to Bosphorus Cimmerius, 360 Miles. We will set 
down in general the Distances of Places collected in our own 
Days, when our Armies have carried on W T ar even in the 
very Mouth of the Cimmerian Strait. 

Beyond the Straits of the Bosphorus is the River 
Rhebas, which some have called Rhcesus: and beyond it, 
Psillis : the Port of Calpas ; and Sangarius, one of the prin- 
cipal Rivers : it ariseth in Phrygia, receiveth large Rivers 
into it, and amongst the rest Tembrogius and Gallus. The 
same Sangarius is by many called Coralius ; from which 
begin the Gulfs Mariandirii and the Town Heraclea, situated 
upon the River Lycus. It is from the Mouth of Pontus 
200 Miles. There is the Port Acone, cursed with the 
poisonous Aconitum ; and the Cave Acherusia. The Rivers 
Pedopiles, Callichorum, and Sonantes. Towns, Tium, eight- 
and-thirty Miles from Heraclea : the River Bilis. 

expanse of the ocean: in consequence, probably, of the creeping manner 
of their navigation. Homer speaks of 

" All wide Hellespont's unmeasured main." Iliad, b. 24. 

Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 101 

CHAPTER II. 

The Nation of the Paphlagonians, and Cappadocians. 

BEYOND this River Bilis is the Nation of Paphlagonia, 
which some have named Pylsemenia, and it is enclosed with 
Galatia behind it. The Town Mastya of the Milesians : and 
next to it Cromna. In this quarter the Heneti inhabit, as 
Cornelius Nepos saith, from whom the Veneti in Italy, who 
bear their Name, are descended, as he would have us believe. 
The Town Sesamum, which is now called Amastris. The 
Mountain Cytorus, 64 Miles from Tium. The Towns 
Cimolus and Stephane ; the River Parthenius ; the Pro- 
montory Corambis, which reacheth a mighty way into 
the Sea; and it is from the Mouth of the Pontus 315 
Miles, or as others think, 350. It is also as far from the 
(Strait) Cimmerius, or as some would rather have it, 312 
Miles and a half. A Town there was also of that Name : 
and another beyond it called Arminum : but now there is the 
Colony Sinope, 164 Miles from Citorum. The River Vare- 
tum ; the People of the Cappadoces ; the Town Gaziura, 
and Gazelum ; the River Halys, which, issuing out of the 
foot of Taurus, passeth through Cataonia and Cappadocia. 
The Towns, Grangre, Carissa ; the Free City Amisum, distant 
from Sinope 130 Miles. A Gulf, bearing the Name of this 
Town, runneth so far within the Land that it seemeth to 
make Asia almost an Island : for from thence through th^e 
Continent to the Gulf Issicus in Cilicia, is not above 200 
Miles. In all which Tract there are no more than three 
Nations which justly may be called Greeks: which are the 
Dorians, lonians, and ^Eolians : for all the rest are Bar- 
barians. To Amisum there was joined the Town Eupa- 
toria, founded by Mithridates : and when he was vanquished, 
both together took the Name of Pompeiopolis. 1 

1 From Pompey the Great, who conquered him. Wern. Club. 



102 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

CHAPTER III. 
Cappadocia. 

IN the interior of Cappadocia is a Colony founded by 
Claudius Ccesar, called Archelais, situated upon the River 
Halys. The Town Comana, by which the (River) Sarus 
runneth: Neo-Csesarea, washed by the Lycus : and Amasia, 
on the River Iris, in the Country Gazacena. In Colopena, 
also, are Sebastia and Sebastopolis : little Towns, but equal 
with those abovesaid. In the other part (of Cappadocia) is 
the City Melita, built by Queen Semiramis, not far from the 
Euphrates : also, Dio-Csesarea, Tyana, Castabala, Magno- 
polis, Zela : and under the Mountain Argseus, Mazaca, which 
now is named Csesarea. That part of Cappadocia which lieth 
before Armenia the Greater, is called Meliten : that which 
bordereth upon Comagene, Cataonia : upon Phrygia, Gar- 
sauritis : upon Sargaurasana, Cammanen : and upon Ga- 
latia, Morimen. And there the River Cappadox separateth 
the one from the other. From this River the Cappadocians 
took their Name, having formerly been called Leucosyri. 
The River Lycus divideth the above-named new Armenia 
from Neo-Csesarea. Within the Country there runneth also 
the famous Ceraunus. But on the Coast beyond Amysum is 
the Town Lycastum, and the River Chadisia: and still fur- 
ther the Country Themiscyra. The River Iris, bringing 
down the Lycus. In the midland Parts the City Ziela, 
ennobled by the slaughter of Triarius,* and the Victory of 
C. CcBsar. In the Coast the River Thermodon, which 
issueth from before a Castle named Phanaroea, and passeth 

1 Triarius, a Roman general under Lucullus in the Mithridatic war, was 
defeated by the enemy, at the battle of Ziela, with the loss of 7000 of his 
men. And at the same place, some years afterwards, Julius Caesar gained 
an important victory over Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, deprived 
him of the kingdom of Pontus, and entirely ruined his army. It was on 
this occasion that Csesar, when describing the rapidity and despatch he 
had employed in the victory, made use of the well-known sentence, 
" Veni, vidi, vici," I came, I saw, I conquered. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 103 

by the foot of the Mountain Amazonius. There was a Town 
of the same Name, and five others, namely, Phamizonium, 
Themiscyra, Sotira, Amasia, Comana, now called Manteium. 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Nations of the Region Themlscyrene. 

THE Nations of the Genetae and Chalybes ; a Town of the 
Cotyi. Nations called Tibareni ; and Mossyni, who mark 
their Bodies with Figures. 1 The Nation of the Macrocephali, 
the Town Cerasus, the Port Cordulse. The Nations Bechires ; 
Buzeti ; the River Melas. The Nation Macrones, Sideni, 
and the River Syderium, upon which is situated the Town 
Polemonium, distant from Amisum 120 Miles: beyond this 
the Rivers Jasonius and Melanthius : also 80 Miles from 
Amisum, the Town Pharnacea: the Castle and River of 
Tripolis. Also, Philocalia, and Liviopolis without a River: 
also, the Free City Trapezus, environed with a high Moun- 
tain, 100 Miles from Pharnacea. Beyond Trapezus is the 
Nation of the Armenochalybes, and Armenia the Greater : 
which are 30 Miles asunder. On the Coast is the River 
Pyxites that runneth before Trapezus: and beyond it the 
Nation of the Sanni Heniochi. The River Absarus, with a 
Castle likewise so named in its Mouth ; from Trapezus is 
150 Miles. Behind the Mountains of that quarter is Iberia : 
but in the Coast of the same are the Heniochi, Ampreutae, 
and Lazi. The Rivers Campseonysis, Nogrus, Bathys. 
The Nations of the Colchians ; the Town Matium, the 
River Heracleum, and a Promontory of the same Name ; 
and the most renowned (River) of Pontus, called Phasis. 
This River riseth out of the Moschian Mountains, and for 
38 Miles and a half is Navigable for great Vessels. And 
then for a great way it carrieth smaller Vessels ; having 

1 The practice of tattooing is general through the islands of the 
Southern Ocean ; the inhabitants of which, however, were not known to 
Pliny. But it is also practised, even in our day, by the people of Burma, 
and perhaps in other nations of the East. The same practice is again 
referred to in b. vii. c. 11. Wern. Club. 



104 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

over it 120 Bridges. It had many Towns upon its Banks; 
the most celebrated being Tyritacen, Cygnus, and Phasis, 
situated at its very Mouth. But the most illustrious was 
ja, fifteen Miles from the Sea : where Hippos and Cyanos, 
two very great Rivers, coming from different Parts, flow into 
it. Now it possesseth Surium only, which taketh its Name 
from the River Surium, that runneth into it. And thus far 
we said that Phasis was capable of being navigated by great 
Ships. And it received) other Rivers, remarkable for size 
and number, among which is the River Glaucus. In the 
Mouth of this River (Phasis) there are Islands without a 
Name. It is distant from Bsarus 75 Miles. Being past 
Phasis, there is another River called Charien ; the Nation of 
the Salae, named in old Time Phthirophagi and Suani ; the 
River Cobus, which issueth out of Caucasus, and runneth 
through the Country of the Suani. Then Rhoas ; the region 
Ecrectic : the Rivers Sigania, Tersos, Atelpos, Chrysorrhoas, 
and the Nation Absilse: the Castle Sebastopolis, a hundred 
Miles from Phasis ; the Nation of the Sanigares, the Town 
Cygnus, the River and Town called Pityus. And last of all, 
the Nations of the Heniochae, which have many Names. 

CHAPTER V. 

The Region of Colchis, the Achai, and other Nations in 
that Tract. 

NEXT followeth the region of Colchis, which is likewise 
in Pontus : wherein the craggy Summits of the Caucasus 
wind and turn toward the Rhiphsean Mountains, as hath been 
hinted ; on the one side bending down toward the Euxinus 
and Moeotis ; and on the other inclining to the Caspian and 
Hircanian Seas. The remainder of the Coasts are occupied by 
savage Nations,as the Melanchlseni, the Choruxi; Dioscurias, 
a City of the Colchi, near the River Anthemus, now lying 
waste, although it was so renowned in Time past, that by the 
report of Timosthenes there were settled therein 300 Nations 
which used distinct Languages. And afterwards our Ro- 
mans were forced to provide 130 Interpreters for the Traffic 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 105 

with this People. Some think that it was first founded by 
Amphitus and Telchius, who had the charge of the Chariots 
of Castor and Pollux .- 1 for certain it is, that the fierce Nation 
of the Heniochi are from them descended. Being past 
Dioscurias, there is the Town Heraclium, which from Sebas- 
topolis is 80 Miles distant. The Achaei, Mardi, and Car- 
cetae : after them the Serri, and Cephalotomi. Far within 
that Tract stood the very wealthy Town Pitius, which by the 
Heniochians was plundered. On the back part thereof 
inhabit the Epageritse, a People of the Sarmatae, upon the 
tops of the Caucasus : after which the Sauromatae. Hither 
had fled King Mithridates in the time of Prince Claudius, 
and he made report that the Thali dwell thereby, and border 
Eastward upon the very opening of the Caspian Sea: which 
becometh Dry when the Sea ebbeth. But on the Coast 
near to the Cercetae is the River Icarusa, with a Town and 
River called Hierum, 136 Miles from Heracleum. Then 
come ye to the Promontory Cronea, in the steep Ridge 
of which the Toretae inhabit. The City Sindica, 67 Miles 
from Hierum : the River Sceaceriges. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Mceotis and the Bosphorus Cimmerius. 

- : 

FROM the above-said River to the Entrance of the Cim- 
merian Bosphorus is 88 Miles and a half. But the Length 
of the Peninsula itself, which stretcheth out between the 
Lakes Pontus and Moeotis is not above 87 Miles, and the 
Breadth in no place less than two Acres of Land. They call 
it Eione. The very Coasts of the Bosphorus, both of Asia 
and Europe, are curved towards the Moeolis. The Towns in 

1 There is frequently occasion to remark, that Pliny speaks of the 
deities of his country, as if it was an acknowledged fact that they were 
once living men. -ZEolus, Hercules, and even Jupiter, are so regarded ; 
and as he speaks of the impiety of this opinion, b. vii. c. 47, when applied 
to some particular cases, we are at liberty to believe that his regard for 
the established heathenism of his country was exceedingly slight. 
Wern. Club. 



106 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

the very first Passage of Bosphorus are Hermonassa and then 
Cepi, founded by the Milesians. Close by is Stratilia (or 
Stratoclea), Phanagoria, and Apaturos, which is almost un- 
peopled : and last of all, in the mouth, Cimmerius, formerly 
called Cerberian. 

CHAPTER VII. 
Nations about Mceotis. 

BEYOND Cimmerium is the Lake Moeotis, spoken of be- 
fore in Europe. Beyond Cimmerium inhabit the Mceotici, 
Vati, Serbi, Archi, Zingi, and Psesii. After this you come 
to the River Tanais, which runneth with two Mouths : and 
on the sides of it dwell the Sarmatae, descended, as they say, 
from the Medi : but themselves divided into many Races. 
And first the Sauromatae, surnamed Gynaecocratumeni, from 
whence the Amazons are provided with Husbands. Next to 
them are the Euazae, Cottae, Cicimeni, Messeniani, Costo- 
bocci, Choatrae, Zigae, Dandari, Thussageae, and Turcae, even 
as far as the Wilderness, rough with woody Valleys. Be- 
yond them are the Arimphaei, who live upon the Riphaaan 
Mountains. The Tanais itself the Scythians call Silys ; and 
Moeotis they name Temerinda, 1 that is to say, the Mother of 
the Sea. There stood also a Town at the mouth of Tanais. 
The Lares first inhabited the Borders : afterwards the Clazo- 
menii and Moeones: and in process of time the Panti- 
capenses. Some Authors write, that about Moeotis toward 
the higher Mountains Ceraunii, the following Nations inhabit 
on the Coast, the Napaeae : and above them the Essedones, 
joining on the Colchi, and the tops of the Mountains. After 
them the Carmacae, the Orani, Antacse, Mazacae, Ascantici, 
Acapeatae, Agagammatae, Phycari, Rhimosoli, and Asco- 

1 It is easy to discern that many of the names of nations mentioned 
by Pliny are not those which the people themselves would have recog- 
nised; but Greek descriptive designations. But the word " Temerinda" 
is believed to have been u Scythian," and to be rightly interpreted by the 
author. Daleschamp supposes the true expression to be " Themers-end," 
or, in modern terms, " Dess-maers-end." Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 107 

marci ; and on the Tops of Caucasus, the Icatalae, Imaduchi, 
Rani, Anclacae, Tydii, Charastasci, and Asuciandae. Along 
the River Lagoiis, issuing out of the Mountains Cathei, and 
into which Opharus runneth, are these Nations : the Cau- 
cadae and the Opharitae : the River Menotharus, and Imitues 
divided from the Mountains Cissii, which passeth among the 
Agedi, Carnapae, Gardei, Accisi, Gabri, and Gregari : and 
about the source of this River Imitues, the Imitui and Apar- 
theni. Others say that the Suitae, Auchetae, Satarnei, and 
Asampatse, overflowed this Part; the Tanaitae and Ne- 
pheonitae were slain by them to a Man. Some write, that 
the River Opharius runneth through the Canteci and the 
Sapaei: and that the River Tanais traversed through the 
Phatarei, Herticei, Spondolici, Synthietae, Amassi, Issi, 
Catazeti, Tagori, Catoni, Neripi, Agandei, Mandarei, Satur- 
chei, and Spalei. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Cappadocia. 

WE have gone through the Nations and Inhabitants of 
the Coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Now are we to speak 
of the People inhabiting the Inland Parts : wherein I shall 
advance many things different from the ancient Geographers : 
because I have made diligent Search into the state of those 
Regions, especially by enquiry of Domitius Corbulo, in regard 
of the things done by himself, and also of the Kings who 
came from thence as Petitioners, and of those King's Sons 
that were Hostages. And we will begin with the Nation of 
the Cappadocians. This is a Country that of all which bound 
upon Pontus, reacheth farthest within the Land : for on the 
left Hand it passeth by the Greater and Less Armenia, and 
Comagene : and on the right, all those Nations in Asia 
before-named : being overflowed with a Multitude of People : 
and with great Might climbing up Eastward to the Tops of 
Taurus, it passeth Lycaonia, Pisidia, and Cilicia : and with 
that quarter which is called Cataonia, it pierceth above the 
Tract of Antiochia, and reacheth as far as to its Region Cyr- 



108 History of Nature. [Boox VI. 

rhestica. And therefore the Length of Asia there may con- 
tain 1250 Miles, and the Breadth 640. 

CHAPTER IX. 
Armenia, the Greater and Less. 

THE Greater Armenia, beginning at the Mountains Pa- 
riedri, is divided from Cappadocia by the River Euphrates, as 
hath been said before : and where the River Euphrates 
turneth, from Mesopotamia by the River Tigris, scarcely less 
renowned than the other. It poureth forth both these Rivers, 
and constitutes the beginning of Mesopotamia, which is situ- 
ated between them both. The Land which lieth between is 
possessed by the Arabs Orei. In this manner it extendeth its 
Border to Adiabene. Beyond this, being hemmed in with 
Mountains that stand across it, it spreadeth its Breadth on 
the left Hand to the River Cyrus : and then across to the 
River Araxes : but it carrieth its Length to the Lesser Ar- 
menia, being separated from it by the River Absarus, which 
falleth into the Poritus : and by the Mountains Pariedri, from 
which the River Absarus issueth. The River Cyrus springeth 
in the Mountains Heniochii, which some have called Co- 
raxici. The Araxes issueth out of the same Mountain from 
whence Euphrates cometh, and there is not above the Space 
of six Miles between them. This River Araxes is augmented 
with the River Musis ; and then itself loseth its Name, and, as 
most have thought, is carried by the River Cyrus into the Cas- 
pian Sea. These Towns are famous in the Lesser (Armenia) ; 
Csesarea, Aza, and Nicopolis. In the Greater is Arsamote, 
near the River Euphrates ; and Carcathiocerta, upon the 
Tigris. In the higher Country is Tigranocerta, but in the 
Plain, near the Araxes, Artaxata. Aufidius saith, that both 
the Armenise contain in all 500 Miles. Claudius Ccesar 
reporteth, that in Length from Dascusa to the Confines of 
the Caspian Sea is 1300 Miles, and in Breadth half as much, 
from Tigranocerta to Iberia. This is well known, that it is 
divided into Prefectures, which they call Strategies ; and 
some of them in old time were as large as Kingdoms : the 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 109 

Number being 120, with barbarous Names. It is enclosed 
Eastward with Mountains, but neither the Ceraunii, nor the 
Region Adiabene, do immediately border on it. The Country 
of the Sopherii lieth between : next are the Mountains Ce- 
raunii ; and beyond them dwell the Adiabeni. But through 
the flat Valleys the next Neighbours to Armenia are the 
Menobardi and Moscheni. The River Tigris and steep 
Mountains encompass Adiabene. On the left Hand its 
Region is of the Medians, and the Prospect of the Caspian 
Sea. This is poured in from the Ocean (as we shall shew in 
its place), and is enclosed wholly within the Mountains of 
Caucasus. We will now speak of the Inhabitants of these, 
through the Confine of Armenia. 

CHAPTER X. 
Albania and Iberia. 

THE Nation of the Albani inhabit all the plain Country 
from the River Cyrus. Beyond it is the Region of the Iberes, 
who are separated from the Albani by the River Alazon, 
which runneth down from the Caucasian Mountains into the 
Cyrus. The strong Towns of Albania : Cabalaca ; of Iberia, 
Harmastis, near the River Neoris : the Region Thasie, and 
Triare, as far as to the Mountains Partedori. Beyond them 
are the Deserts of Colchis: and on the side of them which 
lieth toward the Ceraunii the Armenochalybes inhabit : and 
the Tract of the Moschi to the River Iberus, that floweth into 
the Cyrus. Beneath them, inhabit the Sacassani, and beyond 
them the Macrones, who reach to the River Absarus. Thus 
the Plain and the hanging of the Hills are inhabited. Again, 
from the Frontiers of Albania, in all the front of the Moun- 
tains are the savage Nations of the Sylvi ; and beneath them, 
of the Lubieni, and so forward the Diduri, and Sodii. 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Gates of the Caucasus. 

BEYOND the Sodii are the Gates of Caucasus, which many 
have very erroneously called Caspise Portae, or the Caspian 



110 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Gates : a mighty Piece of Nature's Work, by suddenly cleav- 
ing asunder those Mountains, where the Gates were barred 
up with iron Bars, whilst under the midst thereof, the River 
Dyriodorus runneth : and on this Side of it standeth a formi- 
dable Castle called Cumania, situated upon a Rock, able to 
arrest the Passage of a very numerous Army; so that in this 
Place, by means of these Gates, one Part of the World is 
excluded from the other : and chiefly over-against Harmastis, 
a Town of the Iberi. Beyond the Gates of Caucasus, through 
the Mountains Gordyei, the Valli and Suarrii, uncivilised 
Nations, are employed only in the Mines of Gold. Beyond 
them as far as to the Pontic Sea, are many Races of the 
Heniochi ; and soon after, of the Achaei. And thus much 
concerning this Tract of the Lands among the most re- 
nowned. Some have set down, that between Pontus and the 
Caspian Sea, it is not above 375 Miles. Cornelius Nepos 
saith it is but 150; into such Straits is Asia driven again. 
Claudius Ccesar hath reported, that from the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus to the Caspian Sea, is 150 Miles; and that Seleucus 
Nicator purposed to cut the Land through, at the Time 
when he was slain by Ptolomceus Ceraunus. It is almost 
certain, that from the Gates of Caucasus to Pontius is 
200 Miles. 

CHAPTER XII. 

Islands in the Pontus. 

IN Pontus lie the Islands Planctse, otherwise Cyaneae or 
Symplcgades. Then Apollonia, named also Thynnias, for 
Distinction sake from that other so named in Europe : it is 
from the Continent one Mile, and in Circuit three. And 
over-against Pharnacea is Chalceritis, which the Greeks 
called Aria, sacred to Mars ; wherein are Birds which fight 
with a Blow of their Wings against others that come 

thither. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Nations on the Scythian Ocean. 

HAVING thus discoursed of all the Countries in the inte- 
rior of Asia, let us now determine to pass over the Rhiphsean 



BOOK V I .] History of Nature. 1 ] 1 

Mountains, and discover the Coasts of the Ocean which lie 
on the right hand. Asia is washed by this Ocean on three 
Sides : on the North Side is the Scythian : on the East it is 
called Eous : and from the South they name it the Indian. 
And according to the various Gulfs, and the Inhabitants, it is 
divided into many Names. But a great part of Asia toward 
the North hath in it extensive Wildernesses, by reason of the 
violence of its frozen Star. From the extreme North to the 
North-east are the Scythians. Beyond whom, and the very 
point of the North Pole, some have placed the Hyperborei ; 
of whom we have spoken at large in the Treatise of Europe. 
The first Promontory that you meet with in the Country 
Celtica is named Lytarmis : and then the River Carambucis, 
where, by the forcible influence of the Stars, the Mountains 
Rhiphaei are deprived of their ragged Tops. And there we 
have heard that there are a People named Arimphaei: a 
Nation not much unlike the Hyperborei. They have their 
Habitations in Forests ; their Food is Berries ; both Women 
and Men count it a shame to have Hair ; mild in their man- 
ners; and therefore, by report, they are held to be sacred, 
and to be inviolable even by those wild People that dwell 
near them ; neither do they respect them only, but also those 
who fly to them. At some distance beyond them are the 
Scythians, 1 as well the Cimmerii, Cicianthi, and Georgi ; 
and the Nation of the Amazons. These reach to the Caspian 
and Hircanian Sea : for it breaketh forth from the Scythian 
Ocean, 2 toward the back parts of Asia, and is called many 
Names by the neighbouring Inhabitants, but especially by 
two of the most celebrated, the Caspian and Hircanian. 
Clitarchus is of opinion that this Sea is full as great as the 

1 At this day, the Moschovites, white and black Russians, Georgians, 
Amazonians, and the less Tartary. Wern. Club. 

a Strabo (lib. xi.) entertains the same erroneous opinions respecting 
the Caspian Sea. That both these intelligent writers, as well as other 
ancient geographers, should have been so mistaken is the more extraor- 
dinary, as Herodotus (lib. i. 203) had given a just description of it long 
before. " The Caspian Sea," he says, " is a sea of itself, which does not 
mingle with any other." Wern. Club. 



1.12 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Pontus Euxinus. And Eratosthenes setteth down the mea- 
sure of it as being from East to South, along the Coast of 
Cadusia and Albania, 5400 Stadia : from thence by the 
Aratiatici, Amarbi, and Hircanii, to the mouth of the River 
Zonus, 4800 Stadia : from it to the mouth of the Jaxartes, 
2400 Stadia: which being put together amount to 1575 
Miles. Artemidorus counteth less by 25 Miles. Agrippa, in 
limiting the Circuit of the Caspian Sea, and the Nations 
around it, and Armenia with them, from the East with the 
Ocean of the Seres, Westward with the Mountains of Cau- 
casus, on the South side with the Mountain Taurus, and on 
the North with the Scythian Ocean, hath written, That the 
whole, so far as is known, may contain in Length 590 Miles, 
and 290 in Breadth. There want not others who say, That 
the whole Circuit of that Sea, from the Strait is 2500 Miles. 
This throat is very narrow where it bursts forth, but exceed- 
ingly long : but where it beginneth to enlarge it fetcheth a 
Compass withlunated Horns, and after the manner of a Scy- 
thian Bow, as M. Varro saith, it windeth along from its 
Mouth toward the Lake Moeotis. The first Gulf is called 
Scythicus ; for the Scythians inhabit on both Sides, and by 
means of the narrow Straits between have business one with 
another : for on one side are the Nomades and Sauromatae, 
with many Names : and on the other, the Abzoae, who have 
no fewer denominations. At the entry of this Sea on the 
right hand, the Udini, a People of the Scythians, dwell 
upon the very point of these Straits : and then along the 
Coast, the Albani, descended (as they say) from Jason ; 
where the Sea that lieth before them is called Albanum. 
This Nation is spread also upon the Mountains of Caucasus 
to the River Cyrus, and descendeth, as hath been said, to the 
border of Armenia and Iberia. Above the Maritime Coasts 
of Albania and the Nation of the Udini, the Sarmatse, called 
Utidorsi, and Atoderes, are planted : and behind them the 
Sauromatides, Amazons, already pointed out. The Rivers of 
Albania, which fall into the Sea, are Cassios and Albanos : 
and then Carnbises, which hath its Head in the Caucasian 
Mountains : and soon after Cyrus, which ariseth out of the 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 113 

Mountains Corax, as is before said. Agrippa writeth that 
this whole Coast, from the lofty and inaccessible Mountains 
of Caucasus, containeth 425 Miles. Beyond the Cyrus, the 
Caspian Sea beginneth to take that Name ; and the Caspii 
dwell there. And here the error of many is to be corrected, 
even of those who were lately with Corbulo in Armenia with 
the Army : for they called those Gates of Caucasus, of which 
we spoke before, the Caspian Gates of Iberia : and the Maps 
and Descriptions which are painted and sent from thence, 
have that Name written on them. Likewise the threatening 
of Prince JVero, when he sought to gain those Gates, which 
through Iberia lead into Sarmatia, made mention of the 
Gates Caspise ; which had scarcely any Passage by reason 
of the Mountains so closely approaching each other. There 
are other Gates near the Caspian Sea, that join upon the 
Caspian Nations, which could not have been distinguished 
from the other but by the relation of those that accompanied 
Alexander the Great in his Expeditions. For the Kingdoms 
of the Persians, which at this day we take to be those of 
the Parthians, are elevated between the Persian and Hir- 
canian Seas upon the Mountains of Caucasus ; in the Descent 
of which on both sides bordering upon Armenia the Greater, 
and on that part of the front which vergeth to Comagene, it 
joineth (as we have said) with Sephenise : and upon it bor- 
dereth Adiabene, the beginning of the Assyrians : Arbelitis, 
which is nearest to Syria, is a part of this: where Alexander 
vanquished Darius. All this Tract the Macedonians surnamed 
Mygdonia, 1 from its resemblance. The Towns Alexandria ; 
and Antiochia, which they call Nisibis : from Artaxata it is 
750 Miles. There was also Ninus, 2 seated upon the Tigris, 
looking towards the West, and in Times past highly re- 
nowned. But on the other Side, where it lieth toward the 
Caspian Sea, the Region Atropatenc, separated by the River 
Araxes from Oterie in Armenia : its City, Gazse, is 450 Miles 

1 From its resemblance to a part of Greece of that name, with which 
they were well acquainted. Wern. Club. 
8 The ancient Nineveh. Wern. Club. 
VOL. II. I 



114 History of Nature . [BooK VI. 

from Artaxata : and as many from Ecbatana of the Medes, 
some part of which the Atropateni hold. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Media, and the Gates Caspice. 

ECBATANA, the head of Media, was founded by King 
Seleucus : and it is from Seleucia the Great 750 Miles : and 
from the Caspian Gates 20. The other Towns of the Medes 
are Phausia, Agamzua, and Apamia, named also Rhaphane. 
The Straits there, (called the Caspian Gates,) have the same 
reason for being so named as the other (by Caucasus) ; be- 
cause the Mountains are broken through with so narrow 
a Passage, that hardly a single line of Carts is able to pass 
it for the Length of Eight Miles : and all done by the hand 
of Man. The Cliffs that hang over on the right Side and on 
the left are as if they were scorched : through a silent Tract 
of 38 Miles ; for all the Moisture running together out of 
those Cliffs, and pouring through the Straits, obstructs the 
Passage. Besides, the Multitude of Serpents prevents Tra- 
velling except in Winter. 

CHAPTER XV. 
Nations about the Hircanian Sea. 

UNTO Adiabene are joined the Carduchi, so called in 
Times past, and now Cordueni ; along which the Tigris 
runneth ; and on them the Pratitse border, called also Pare- 
doni, who hold the Caspian Gates. On the other side of 
whom you meet with the Deserts of Parthia, and the Moun- 
tains of Cithenus : and beyond these is the most pleasant 
Tract of the same Parthia, called Choara. There stand two 
Cities of the Parthians, formerly opposed against the Me- 
dians : namely, Calliope ; and Issatis, situated in times past 
upon another Rock. The Capital of Parthia itself, lleca- 
tompylos, is from the (Caspian) Gates 133 Miles. Thus the 
Kingdoms of the Parthians are shut up by Doors. When 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 115 

passed out of these Gates, presently we enter on the Cas- 
pian Nation, which reacheth as far as the Sea-shore, and 
gave the Name to the Gates and the Sea. The left hand is 
full of Mountains : and from this Nation backward to the 
River Cyrus, is by report 220 Miles. From that River, if 
you would go higher up to the Gates, it is 700 Miles. And 
from this starting-place began Alexander to reckon his 
Journeys : making from those Gates to the Entrance of 
India, 15,680 Stadia : from thence to the Town of Bactra, 
which they call Zariaspa, 3700, and thence to the River 
Jaxartes five Miles. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Other Nations also. 

FROM the Caspian Country eastward, lieth the Region 
called Zapanortene, 1 and in it Daricum, a place celebrated 
for Fertility. Then come the Nations of the Tapyri, Anariaci, 
Stauri, and Hircani, at whose Coasts the same Sea beginneth 
to take the Name Hircanum, from the River Syderis. About 
it are the Rivers Mazeras and Stratos, all issuing out of 
Caucasus. Then follows the Region Margiana, famous for 
its warm Sunshine, and the only place in all that quarter 
which yieldeth Vines. It is environed with pleasant Moun- 
tains, for the compass of 1500 Stadia: difficult of approach 
by reason of the Sandy Deserts for the space of 120 Miles; 
and it is situated over against the Tract of Parthia, wherein 
Alexander had built Alexandria ; which being destroyed by 
the Barbarians, Antiochus the Son ofSeleucus rebuilt it in the 
same place, upon the River Margus, which runneth through 
it, together with another River Zotale, and it was called 
Syriana. 2 But he desired rather that it should be named 
Antiochia. This City containeth in Circuit 70 Stadia: 
and into it Orodes, after the Slaughter of Crassus and his 
Army, brought his Roman Prisoners. Being past the high 
Country (Margiana), you come to the Nation of the Mardi, 

1 Some copies read Zapauortene and Apauortene. Wern. Club. 

2 Or rather Seleucia. 



] 16 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

a Fierce People, subject to none; they inhabit the Rocky 
Summits of Caucasus, which reach as far as to the Bac- 
trians. Beyond that Tract are the Nations Ochani, Chomari, 
Berdrigei, Hermatotrophi, Bomarci, Commani, Marucsei, 
Mandrueni and latii. The Rivers Mandrus and Gridinus. 
Beyond, inhabit the Chorasmii, Gandari, Attasini, Paricani, 
Sarangae, Parrasini, Maratiani, Nasotiani, Aorsi, Gelse, whom 
the Greeks called Cadusii, and the Matiani. The Town 
Heraclea, built by Alexander, which afterwards was over- 
thrown : but when it was repaired again by Antiochus, he 
named it Achais. The Derbices, through the midst of whose 
Borders runneth the River Oxus, which hath its Beginning 
from the Lake Oxus : the Syrmatae, Oxii, Tagae, Heniochi, 
Bateni, Saraparse, and the Bactri, with their Town Zariaspe, 
called afterwards Bactrum, from the River (Bactra) ; this 
Nation inhabiteth the back parts of the Mountain Paropa- 
misus, over against the Source of the River Indus ; and it is 
inclosed by the River Ochus. Beyond are the Sogdiani; 
the Town Panda ; and in the utmost Borders of their Terri- 
tory is Alexandria, built by Alexander the Great. There are 
the Altars erected by Hercules and Liber Pater, also by 
Cyrus, Semiramis, and Alexander : the very end of all their 
Voyages in that part of the World being included within the 
River Jaxartes, which the Scythians call Silys: Alexander 
and his Soldiers thought it had been the Tanais. Demonax, 
a General of the Kings Seleucus and Antiochus, passed over 
that River, and set up Altars to Apollo Didymceus. And 
this Demonax for the most part we follow. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
The Scythian Nation. 

BEYOND (the Realm Sogdiana) inhabit the People of the 
Scythians. The Persians called them in general Sacas, from 
a People adjoining, and the Ancients Aramei. The Scythians 
for their part called the Persians, Chorsari : and the Moun- 
tain Caucasus, they called Graucasus, that is to say, White 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 117 

with Snow. 1 The People are exceedingly numerous : as 
much so as the Parthians. The principal People of Scythia 
are the Sacse, Massagetae, Dahse, Essedones, Ariacae, Rhym- 
nici, Pesici, Amordi, Histi, Edones, Camee, Camacse, Eu- 
chatse, Corieri, Antariani, Pialae, Arirnaspi, formerly called 
Cacidiri, Assei, and Oetei. The Napsei and Apellsei who 
dwelt there, are said to have perished. The noble Rivers of 
those People are Mandagrseus and Caspasius. And surely 
there is not a Region wherein Geographers vary as they do 
in this : and I believe this to proceed from the very great 
number of those Nations, and their wandering to and fro. 
Alexander the Great reporteth that the Water of the Scy- 
thian Sea is fresh and potable ; and M. Varro saith that 
Pompey had such Water brought to him when he carried on 
the War in that Neighbourhood against Mithridates: by 
reason, no doubt, of the great Rivers that fall into it, which 
overcome the Saltness of the Water. Varro saith also, that 
during this Expedition of Pompey to the Bactri it was known 
that it is but seven Days' Journey from India to the River 
Icarus, which runneth into the Oxus : and that the Mer- 
chandise of India, transported by the Caspian Sea, and so 
to the River Cyrus, may be brought in not more than five 
Days by Land as far as to Phasis in Pontus. Many Islands 
lie all over that Sea : but one above the rest is Tazata ; for 
thither all the Shipping from the Caspian Sea and the Scy- 
thian Ocean bend their Course, the Sea-coasts being all 
turned to the East. The first part of this is uninhabitable, 
from the Scythian Promontory, by reason of the Snow : and 
the next Regions to this are left uncultivated because of the 
Fierceness of those Nations that border upon it. The An- 
thropophagi are in Scythia, who live on Man's flesh. 2 This 
is the cause why there are nothing there but vast Deserts, 

1 The Emodus or Imaus of Pliny (a word which in the language of 
the inhabitants signifies snowy,) derived its origin immediately from the 
Ilimaleh of the Hindoos ; which really signifies in their language " snowy," 
or more strictly speaking, "the seat of snow." Quarterly Review^ vol. xxiv. 
p. 103. Wern. Club. 

2 We find a further account of this people, whom the ancients regarded 
with horror, in the 7th Book, c. 2. The nation referred to was probably 



History of Nature. [BoOK VI. 

with a multitude of Wild Beasts, lying in wait for Men as 
savage as themselves. Then again the Scythians ; and again 
a Wilderness full of Wild Beasts, as far as to the craggy 
Mountain overlooking the Sea, called Tabis. Almost one-half 
of the length of that Coast, which looketh toward the East, 
is uninhabited. The first of the People that are known are 
the Seres, 1 famous for the fine Silk that their Woods yield. 
They collect from the Leaves of the Trees their hoary Down, 
and when it is steeped in Water they card it; wherein our 
Women have a double Labour, both of undoing and again of 
weaving this kind of Thread : with so much Labour and so 
far away is it sought after, that our Matrons when they go 
abroad in the street may shine with Transparency. The 
Seres are a mild People, but they resemble Beasts, in that they 
fly the Company of other People 2 when they desire inter- 

the Samoieds, in the north of Russia : their name signifying people who 
eat each other ; but the word has long survived the practice it described. 
Ovid speaks of such a people seated near the place of his exile on the 
Euxine : 

" UK quos audis hominum gaudere cruore." 

TRIST. 1. 4., explained by AGELL. ix. 4. Wern. Club. 

1 There can be no question that the people here referred to are the 
Chinese, who are again mentioned in the 22d chapter. It was a pardon- 
able error to suppose that silk was the produce of a tree, instead of being 
the production of a creature which fed on it ; but it appears that the 
Romans were at great pains in disentangling the woven texture, that 
it might again be formed into garments which better suited their taste 
or habits. Martial speaks of this material under the name of Bombycina 
(Apophoreta, 24), and from his account it was of very fine texture, and 
probably expensive. When it was worn, the hair was bound up into a 
knot and fastened with a gold pin, in order that it might not soil so 
exquisite a dress. It permitted the beauty of form and colour to be seen 
through its substance. 

" Fo3mineum lucet sic per bombycina corpus :" 
So female beauty shines through woven silk. 

Epig. B. 8. 68. 

See book ii. c. xxii. where Pliny corrects the errors of this chapter. 
Wern. Club. 

2 Even at this day they set abroad their wares with the prices, upon 
the shore, and go their ways : then the foreign merchants come and lay 
down the money, and have away the merchandise ; and so depart with- 
out any communication at all. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 119 

course with them. The first River known among them is 
Psitaras : the next Carabi : the third Lanos : beyond which 
the Promontory, the Gulf Chryse, the River Cymaba, the 
Bay Attanos, and the Nation of the Attaci, a kind of People 
secluded from all noisome Wind by pleasant Hills, with the 
same Temperature that the Hyperboreans live in. Of this 
People, Amonetus hath specially written a Book ; as Hera- 
taus hath done of the Hyperboreans. Beyond the Attacores 
are the Thyri and Tochari, and then the Casiri, who now 
belong to the Indians. But they withinland, that lie toward 
the Scythians, feed on Man's Flesh. The Nomades of 
India likewise wander to and fro. Some write that they 
border upon the very Ciconians and Brysanians on the North 
Side. But there (as all agree) the Mountains Emodi arise, 
and the Nation of the Indians beginneth, lying not only by 
that Sea, but also on the Southern, which we have named 
the Indian Sea. And this part opposite the East, stretcheth 
straightforward to that place where it beginneth to bend 
toward the Indian Sea; and it containeth 1875 Miles. 
Then that Tract which is bent towards the South taketh 
2475 Miles (as Eratosthenes hath set down), even to the 
River Indus, which is the utmost limit of India Westward. 
But many others have set down the whole Length of India 
in this manner ; that it requireth 40 Days and Nights' Sail- 
ing ; and also, that from the North to the South is 2750 
Miles. Agrippa saith that it is 3003 Miles Long, and 
2003 Broad. Posidonius hath measured it from the North- 
east to the South-east ; and by this means fixeth it directly 
opposite to Gaul, which he likewise measured along the 
West Coast, from the North-west point where the Sun goeth 
down at Midsummer, to the South-west, where it setteth 
in the midst of Winter. He teacheth also, by very good 
Reasons, that this West Wind, which from opposite bloweth 
upon India, is very healthful for that Country. The Indians 
have a different Aspect of the Sky from us. Other Stars rise 
in their Hemisphere. They have two Summers in the Year ; 
two Harvests : and their Winter between hath the Etesian 
Winds blowing instead of the Northern Blasts with us. The 



120 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Winds are mild with them, the Sea navigable, the Nations 
and the Cities innumerable, if any one would take in Hand 
to reckon them all. For India hath been discovered, not 
only by the Arms of Alexander the Great, and of other 
Kings his Successors (for Seleucus and Antiochus, and their 
Admiral Patrocles, sailed about it, even to the Hircan and 
Caspian Seas) : but also other Greek Authors, who abode 
with the Kings of India (as Megasthenes, and Dionysius, who 
was sent thither for this purpose by Plriladelphus) have 
made relation of the Forces of those Nations. And further 
Diligence is to be employed, considering they wrote of 
Things so various and incredible. They who accompanied 
Alexander the Great in his Indian Voyage have written, 
that in that Quarter of India which he conquered, there 
were 5000 Towns, not one of them less than (the City) Cos : 
and -nine Nations. Also that India is a third Part of the 
whole Earth r 1 that the People in it were innumerable. And 
this they delivered with good Appearance of Reason : for the 
Indians were almost the only Men of all others that never 
went out of their own Country. They collect that from the 
Time of Father Liber to Alexander the Great, there reigned 
over them 154 Kings, for the Space of 5402 Years and three 
Months. The Rivers are of wonderful bigness. It is reported 
that Alexander sailed every Day at least 600 Stadia upon the 
River Indus, and yet it took him five Months and some few 
Days to reach the end of that River, although it is allowed to 
be less than the Ganges. Also, Seneca, one of ourselves, who 
laboured to write Commentaries on India, hath made Report 
of 60 Rivers therein, and of Nations, 118. It would be as 
great a Labour to reckon up the Mountains. Imaus, Emo- 
dus, Paropamisus, parts of Caucasus, join together ; from 
which the whole passes into a very extensive Plain, like to 
Egypt. But to shew the Continent, we will follow the Steps 
of Alexander the Great. Dwgnetus and J3eton, the Mea- 
surers of the Journeys of that Prince, have written, that from 

1 "India, a third part of the whole earth;" which is near the truth, 
although it contradicts what Pliny says in the 33d chapter of this Book. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 121 

the Caspian Ports to Hecatompylos of the Parthians, there 
are as many Miles as we have set down already. From 
thence to Alexandria Arion, which City the same King 
founded, 562 Miles: from whence to Prophthasia of the 
Drangse, 199 Miles : and so forward to the Town of the 
Arachosi, 515 Miles. From thence to Orthospanum, 250 
Miles : thence to the Town of Alexandria in Opianum, 50 
Miles. In some Copies these Numbers are found to differ : 
this City is situated at the very Foot of Caucasus. From 
which to the River Chepta, and Pencolaitis, a Town of the 
Indians, are 227 Miles. From thence to the River Indus 
and the Town Taxila, 60 Miles : to the noble River Hy- 
daspes, 120 Miles: to Hypasis, a River of no less account, 
4900, or 3900 j 1 which was the End of Alexanders Voyage : 
but he passed over the River, and on the opposite Bank he 
dedicated Altars. The Letters also of the King himself 
agree to this. The other Parts of the Country were sur- 
veyed by Seleucus Nicator: to Hesidrus, 168 Miles : to the 
River Joames as much ; and some Copies add five Miles 
more : from thence to the Ganges, 112 Miles : to Rhodapha, 
119; and some say, that between them it is .325 Miles. From 
it to the Town Calinipaxa 167 Miles and a half, others say 
265. Thence the Junction of the Rivers Jomanes and 
Ganges 625 Miles, and many put thereto 13 Miles more: 
from thence to the Town Palibotra 625 Miles. To the Mouth 
of the Ganges 638 Miles. The Nations which it is not irk- 
some to name, from the Mountains Emodi, of which the 
Promontory is called Imaus, which signifieth in the Lan- 
guage of the Inhabitants, Snowy : 2 there are the Isari, Cosyri, 
Izgi, and upon the very Mountains, the Ghisiotosagi : also 
the Brachmanse, 3 a Name common to many Nations, among 
whom are the Maccocalinga?. Rivers, Pumas and Cainas, 

1 " Ad Hypasin non ignobiliorcm xxix. mill, cccxc. Hoc est novem et 
viginti milliaria cum trecentis et xc. pass." Note in the Regent Edition. 
Wern. Club. 

2 Seep. 117. 

3 If these were a sect of the Gymnosophists, they are referred to by 
Plutarch in his life of Alexander ; but Pliny seems to be of opinion that 



122 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

the latter of which runneth into the Ganges, and both are 
navigable. The Nations called Calingse are close upon the 
Sea ; but the Mandei and Malli, among whom is the Moun- 
tain Mall us, are above them ; and then is the Ganges, the 
farthest Bound of all that Tract. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
The River Ganges. 

SOME have said that the Fountains of the Ganges are 
uncertain, like those of the Nilus ; and that it overfloweth the 
neighbouring Countries in the same manner. Others have 
said that it issueth out of the Mountains ofScythia. There 
run into it nineteen Rivers : of which, besides those before- 
named, there are navigable, Canucha, Varna, Erranoboa, 
Cosaogus, and Sonus. Some report that the Ganges pre- 
sently breaketh out to a great Magnitude from its own 
Sources with great Violence, falling down over steep and 
craggy Rocks : and when it is arrived in the flat arid even 
Country, that it taketh Shelter in a certain Lake ; and out of 
it carrieth a gentle Stream, 8 Miles broad where it is nar- 
rowest : and 100 Stadia over for the most part, but 160 
where it largest : but in no Place under 20 Paces deep. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

The Nations of India. 

THE first Nation is that of the Gandaridae; the Region of 
the Calingae is called Parthalis. The King hath in readiness 
for his Wars 80,000 foot, 1000 Horsemen, and 700 Ele- 
phants. The other Nations of the Indians are of different 
Conditions and milder Habits. Some apply themselves to 
Tillage : others are devoted to War : one Sort export their 

several separate people are so denominated. They are probably the same 
as those mentioned in the 19th chapter, as being always prepared for a 
yoluntary death. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 1 23 

own Commodities to other Countries, and bring foreign 
Merchandise into their own. Those that are the richest and 
most worthy manage the affairs of the State, distribute Jus- 
tice, or sit in Council with the Kings. A fifth Kind there is 
besides, in great repute, and given wholly to the Study of 
Wisdom and Religion ; and these make profession of being 
always ready for a voluntary Death : and they end their 
Days on a great funeral Fire, which they have prepared 
beforehand. Besides all these, one Thing there is amongst 
them half Savage, and full of exceeding Toil, and yet by 
which all the Estates abovesaid are maintained ; which is the 
practice of bunting and taming Elephants. It is with them 
they plough their Ground, upon them they ride : these are 
the best Cattle they know : with them they go to War, and 
contend in defence of their Frontiers. In the choice of them 
for War they consider their Strength, their Age, and Bigness 
of Body. There is an Island in the Ganges of great size, 
containing one Nation, named Modogalica. Beyond it are 
seated the Modubse, Molindse, where standeth the fruitful 
and stately City Molinda ; the Galmodroesi, Preti, Calissae, 
Sasuri, Fassalpe, Colubse, Orxula3, Abali, and Taluctse. The 
King of these Countries hath in Arms 50,000 Foot, 3000 
Horsemen, arid 400 Elephants. Then comes the stronger 
Nation of the Andarae, with many Villages, and with 30 
Towns, fortified with Walls and Towers. These maintain 
ready to serve the King 100,000 Foot, 2000 Horsemen, 
and 1000 Elephants. The Dardae are the richest in Gold; 
and the Setae, in Silver. But above all the Nations of India 
throughout, and not of this Tract only, the Prasii far exceed 
in Power and Reputation ; and the largest and richest City, 
Palibotra, from whence some have named this Nation, yea, 
and all the Country generally beyond Ganges, Palibotros. 
Their King keepeth continually in pay 600,000 Footmen, 
30,000 Horsemen, and 9000 Elephants, every Day. Whereby 
you may guess the mighty Wealth of this Prince. Beyond, 
more within, inhabit the Monedes and Suari, who possess 
the Mountain Maleus : in which, for six Months, the Sha- 
dows in Winter fall northward ; and in Summer, south- 



124 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

ward. 1 The Polar Stars in all that Tract are seen but once 
in the Year, and that only for 15 Days ; as Beton maketh 
report: but Megasthenes writeth, that this is usual in other 
Parts of India also. The South Pole is called by the Indians 
Dramasa. The River Jomanes runneth into the Ganges 
through Palibotros, between the Towns Methora and Cyriso- 
borca. Beyond the River Ganges, in that quarter which lieth 
southward, the People are coloured by the Sun : but though 
tinted, yet not so burnt as the Ethiopians. And the nearer they 
approach to the Indus, the deeper coloured they are with the 
Sun : for closely beyond the Nation of the Prasii is the In- 
dus : among whose Mountains the Pigmrei are reported to 
inhabit. Artemidorus writeth, that between these two Rivers 
there is a Distance of 21 Miles. 

CHAPTER XX. 
The River Indus. 

THE Indus, which the People of that Country call Sandus, 
issueth out of that top of the Mountain Caucasus, which is 
called Paropamisus : it taketh its Course against the Sun- 
rising, and receiveth 19 Rivers. Among these the principal 
are Hydaspes, which bringeth with it four more : and Can- 
tabra, conveying three. Moreover, of such as are of them- 
selves navigable, Acesines and Hypasis : and yet so modest 
is the Course of its Waters, that in no place is it either above 
50 Stadia over, or deeper than 15 Paces. 2 This River 
encloseth a very great Island named Prasiane, and another 
that is less, which they call Patale. They that have written 
it with the least, say that it is navigable for 1240 Miles ; 
and turning with the Course of the Sun, it keepeth him com- 
pany westward, until it is discharged into the Ocean. The 
Measure of the Coast to it I will set down generally as I find 
it written : although there is no Agreement among Writers 

1 The reader is referred to the concluding chapter of this Book for a 
more particular account of the climates and the direction of the shadows. 
Wern. Club. 

3 That is, seventy-five feet. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 125 

concerning it. From the Mouth of the Ganges to the Cape 
Calingon, and the Town Dandagula, are 725 Miles : from 
thence to Tropina, 1225 Miles. Then to the Promontory of 
Perimula, where is the chief Town of Merchandise in all 
India, 750 Miles: from which to the abovesaid Town Patale, 
within the Island, 620 Miles. The Mountain Nations be- 
tween it and Jomanes are the Cesi and the savage Catreboni : 
next to them the Megallae, whose King hath 500 Elephants ; 
and of Foot and Horsemen an uncertain number. The 
Chrysei, Parasangze, and Asangae, are full of Tigers: they 
arm 30,000 Foot, 800 Horsemen, and 300 Elephants. The 
Indus shuts them in, and they are enclosed with a crown of 
Mountains and Wildernesses for (525 Miles. Beneath these 
Deserts are the Dari and Surge ; and then again Deserts for 
188 Miles, compassed about for the most part with Banks of 
Sands, like Islands in the Sea. Under these Deserts are the 
Maltecorae, Singae, Marobae, Rarungee, Moruntes, Masuae, 
and Pagungae. Now for those who inhabit the Mountains, 
which in a continual range without interruption stand upon 
the Coasts of the Ocean, they are free and subject to no 
Kings, and many Cities they hold among these Mountains. 
Then come the Naraese, enclosed within the highest Mountain 
of all the Indian Hills, Capitalia. On the other side of this 
the Inhabitants dig extensively in Gold and Silver Mines. 
Then you enter upon Oratura, whose King hath indeed but 
10 Elephants, but a great abundance of Footmen; and the 
Varetatae, who under their King keep no Elephants, trusting 
to their Horsemen and Footmen. The Odomboerae and 
Salabastrae ; the beautiful City Horata, fortified with Fosses 
and Marshes : through which the Crocodiles, on account of 
their greedy Appetite for Men's Bodies, will suffer none to 
pass into the Town, but over the Bridge. Another Town 
there is among them, of great Name : Automela, standing 
on the Sea-side : a noble resort of Merchants, by reason of 
five great Rivers which meet all there in one confluence. 
Their King possesseth 1600 Elephants, 150,000 Footmen, 
and 5000 Horsemen. The King of the Charmse is poor ; he 
possesseth 60 Elephants, and his Power is otherwise small. 
Beyond them are the Pandse, the only Nation of the Indians 



126 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

which is governed by Women. One of this Sex, they say, 
was begotten by Hercules, in which regard she was the better 
accepted, and was appointed over the greatest Kingdom. 
Those who draw their Origin from her have Dominion 
over 300 Towns, and the Command of 150,000 Foot, and 
500 Elephants. Beyond this Realm are the Syrieni, con- 
taining 300 Cities ; the Derangae, Posingae, Buzse, Gogyarei, 
Umbrae, Nereae, Prancosi, Nobundae, Cocondae, Nesei, Peda- 
tritse, Solobriasae, and Olostrae, touching on the Island 1 
Patale : from the utmost Shore of which Island unto the 
Gates Caspiae, are reckoned 18,025 Miles. Again, on this 
side the River Indus, over against them, as appeareth by 
evident Demonstration, there dwell the Amatae, Bolingae, 
Gallitalutae, Dimuri, Megari, Ordabse, and Mesae. Beyond 
them, the Uri and Sileni ; and then Deserts for 250 Miles ; 
which being passed over, there are the Organages, the 
Abaortae, Sibarae, and the Suertae : and beyond these a Wil- 
derness as great as the former. Again, the Sarophages, 
Sorgae, Baraomatae, and the Gumbritae; of whom there are 
thirteen Nations, and each one hath two Cities. The Aseni 
inhabit three Cities : their capital City is Bucephala, built in 
the very Place where King Alexander s horse, called Buce- 
phalus, was buried. Above them are the Mountaineers 
below the Caucacus, named Soleadae and Sondrae : and hav- 
ing passed the Indus, going along its Banks are the Sama- 
rabriae, the Sambruceni, the Brisabritae, Osii, Antixeni, and 
Taxillae, with a famous City called Amandra : from which all 
that Tract now lying plain within the Country is named 
Amandra. Four Nations there are : the Peucolaitae, Arsa- 
galitae, Geretae, and Asoi : for many set not down the River 
Indus as the limit westward ; but add four Provinces 
(Satrapae): Gedrosi, Arachotae, Arii, and Paropamisadae. 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Tlit Arii and the Nations adjoining* 

OTHER Writers prefer the opinion, that the utmost limit 
is the River Cophetes, all which quarters are within the Ter- 

1 Babul. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 127 

ritory of the Arii : and most of them affirm that the City 
Nysa, as also the Mountain Merus consecrated to Father 
Liber, belong to India. This is that Mountain from which 
arose the Fable, that he sprung from the Seed of Jupiter. 
Likewise (they assign to India) the Country of the Aspagonse, 
so plentiful in Vines, Laurels, and Box, and generally all 
sorts of Fruits that grow in Greece. Many wonderful, and 
in a manner fabulous things, they report of the Fertility of 
that Land, of the sorts of Fruits, of Trees bearing Cotton, of 
Wild Beasts, of Birds, and other Creatures : which I will 
reserve for their proper places in another part of this Work. 
Those four Satrapies, which I mentioned before, I will speak 
of presently: for now I hasten to the Island Taprobane. 
But there are other Isles first, as Patalse, which we have 
noted to lie in the very Mouth of the River Indus, of a 
Triangular figure, 220 Miles in Breadth. Without the 
Mouth of the Indus, two other Islands, Chryse and Agyre, 
abounding, as I suppose, in Gold and Silver Mines ; for I 
cannot easily believe, that the Soil there is all Gold and 
Silver, as some have reported. Twenty Miles from them is 
Crocala: and twelve Miles further Bibaga, abundant in 
Oysters and other Shell-fishes. Then, nine Miles beyond 
it, Toralliba sheweth itself, and many other petty Islands. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
The Island Taprobant. 1 

IT hath been for a long time thought that Taprobane was 
another World under the appellation of the Antichthones. 
But from the time of Alexander the Great, and the inter- 
course in those parts, it was discovered to be an Island. 
Oneslcratusj the Admiral of his Fleet, hath written, that the 
Elephants bred in this Island are bigger and better fitted for 
War than those of India. Megasthenes saith, that there is 
a River which divideth it, arid that the Inhabitants are called 

1 This is now generally concluded to be the island of Ceylon, in the 
East Indies, now subject to British dominion. Wern. Club. 



128 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Palgeogoni: that it affordeth more Gold and bigger Pearls 
than the Indian. Eratosthenes also took the Measure 
of it, in length 7000 Stadia, and in breadth 5000 : that 
there are no Cities, but Villages to the number of 700. It 
beginneth at the Sea Eoos, from which it extendeth 
between the East and West of India : and in times 
past was believed to lie out into the Sea from the Prasian 
Nation twenty Days' Sailing. But afterwards, because the 
Vessels and Rigging used upon this Sea in the Passage 
thither were made of Paper Reeds, like those of the River 
Nile, the Voyage was estimated, by comparison with our 
Ships, at about seven Days. All the Sea tying between 
is full of Shallows, no more than five Fathoms Deep ; but in 
certain Channels it is so deep that no Anchors will reach the 
Bottom: and so narrow are these Channels, that a Ship 
cannot turn within them ; and therefore, to avoid the neces- 
sity of turning, the Ships have Prows at both ends. In 
Sailing, there is no Observation of the Stars. The North 
Pole is never seen : but they carry with them Birds, which 
they send off at intervals and follow their Course, as they 
fly to Land : neither used they go to Sea for more than 
three Months in the Year ; and for one hundred Days from 
the Solstice they take most heed ; for at that time it is Win- 
ter with them. And thus much we know by relation of 
ancient Writers. But we obtain better Intelligence, and 
more accurate Information, by Ambassadors who came out 
of that Island, in the reign of Claudius, which happened 
after this manner. A Freed-man of Annius Plocamus, who 
had Farmed from the Exchequer the Customs of the Red 
Sea, as he sailed about the Coasts of Arabia, was driven with 
the North Winds beyond the Realm of Carmania, and in the 
Space of 15 Days he reached an Harbour of that Country, 
called Hippuros. He found the King of that Country so 
courteous, as to afford him Entertainment for six Months. 
And as he used to discourse with him about the Romans and 
Caesar, he recounted to him at large of all things. But 
among many other Reports that he heard, he wondered most 
at their Justice, because their Denarii of the Money which 



BOOK V [ .] History of Nature. ] 29 

was taken were always of the same Weight, although the 
different Images shewed that they were made by different 
Persons. And hereupon especially was he moved to seek 
for the Friendship of Rome ; and so despatched four Ambas- 
sadors, of whom Rachias was the chief. From them it be- 
came known that there were five hundred Towns in it ; and 
that there was a Harbour facing the South, lying conve- 
niently near the Town Palesimundum, the principal City of 
all that Realm, and the King's Seat ; that there were 
200,000 common Citizens : that within this Island there was 
a Lake called Magisba, 270 Miles in Circuit, containing in 
it some Islands fruitful in nothing but Pasturage. Out of 
this Lake issued two Rivers ; the one, Palesimundas, pass- 
ing near to the City of the same Name, and running into the 
Harbour with three Streams ; of which the Narrowest was five 
Stadia Broad, and the largest fifteen ; the other Northward 
towards India, by Name Cydara : also that the next Cape of 
this Country to India is called Colaicum, from which to the 
nearest Port (of India) is counted four Days' Sailing : in the 
midst of which Passage, there lieth the Island of the Sun. 
They said, moreover, that the Water of this Sea was of a 
deep green Colour; and, what is still more extraordinary, 
full of Trees growing within it : 1 so that the Pilots with 
their Helms broke off the" Crests of those Trees. They won- 
dered to see the Stars about the North Pole (Septentriones) 
and Vergiliae, as if it had been a new Heaven. They confessed 
also they never saw, with them, the Moon above the Earth 
before it was eight Days old, 2 nor after the sixteenth Day. 
That the Canopus, a great and bright Star, used to shine all 
Night with them. But the thing that they were most sur- 
prised at was, that they observed the Shadow of their own 

1 Branched corals, beyond a doubt. Wern. Club. 

2 It is surprising to find an author so intelligent as Pliny relating 
such extraordinary circumstances as these ambassadors from Ceylon 
reported without any animadversion ; and particularly that he takes no 
notice of what they said concerning the appearance of the moon, as such 
a phenomenon could not take place in any region of the earth. Wern. 
Club. 

VOL. IT. K 



130 History of Nature. [Boox VI. 

Bodies to fall toward our Hemisphere, and not to theirs ; 
and that the Sun rose on their Left Hand and set on their 
Right, rather than contrary wise. Furthermore they related, 
that the Front of that Island which looked toward India 
contained 10,000 Stadia, and reached from the South-east 
beyond the Mountains Emodi. Also, that the Seres were 
within their Sight, with whom they had Acquaintance by 
Merchandise : and that the Father of Rachias used many 
times to travel thither: affirming, moreover, that if any 
Strangers came thither, they were assailed by Wild Beasts : 
and that the Inhabitants themselves exceeded the ordinary 
Stature of Men, having red Hair, blue Eyes, their Voice 
harsh, their Speech not fitted for any Commerce. In all 
things else their Practice is the same as that of our Mer- 
chants. On the farther side of the River, when Commodi- 
ties are laid down near the Things for Sale, if the Exchange 
please them they take them away, and leave the other Mer- 
chandise in lieu thereof: with a juster Hatred of Luxury 
than if the mind shall consider what and whence it is sought 
for, and to what end. But even this Island Taprobane, 
seeming, as it were, to be separated by Nature from all the 
World, is not without the Vices with which we are tainted. 
For Gold and Silver are even there also highly esteemed : 
and Marble, especially if it be fashioned like a Tortoise-shell. 
Gems and Pearls also, of the better sort, are in great honour : 
and the Abundance of our Luxury. These Ambassadors said 
that their Riches were greater, but that we had more use of 
them. They affirmed, that no Man with them had any 
Slaves ; neither slept they after Day-light, nor in the Day- 
time : that the Manner of Building their Houses is low, that 
the Price of Victuals did not fluctuate ; and there were no 
Courts, or going to Law. Hercules is worshipped. Their 
King is chosen by the People, if he is aged, merciful, and 
childless; but if he should have Children afterward, then he 
is deposed, in order that the Kingdom may not become here- 
ditary. He hath thirty Governors assigned to him by the 
People : and no Person can be condemned to Death unless 
by the Majority of them : and even then he may appeal to 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 131 

the People. Seventy Judges are deputed to sit upon his 
Cause; and if it happen that they acquit him, then the 
thirty who condemned him are ever displaced from their 
Dignity, with a very severe Rebuke. The King is adorned 
like Liber Pater : hut others in the habit of Arabians. If 
the King offend in any thing, Death is his Punishment : but 
no Man doeth Execution. All Men turn away from him, 
and deny him any Intercourse, of even a Word. They are 
destroyed during a solemn Hunting, which, it appears, is 
exceedingly agreeable to the Tigers and Elephants. They 
cultivate their Ground diligently. They do not use Vines ; 
but all sorts of Fruits they have in Abundance. They also 
take Pleasure in Fishing, and especially in taking Tortoises : 
and so great are they found there, that one of their Shells 
serves to cover a House. They count a hundred Years no 
long Life. Thus much we have learned concerning Tapro- 
bane. It remaineth now to say somewhat of those four 
Satrapies, which we put off to this Place. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Capissend, Carmania. 

BEYOND those Nations which border nearest on the River 
Indus, the Mountain Portions of Capisssene possess the City 
Capissa, which Cyrus destroyed. Arachosia, with a City, 
and a River also of that Name ; which City some have called 
Cophe, founded by Queen Semiramis. The River Her- 
mandus, which runneth by Abest, of the Arachosians. The 
next, which confront Arachosia southward, toward part of the 
Arachotae, are the Gedrosi ; and on the North side the Paro- 
pamisadae. The Town Cartana, named afterwards Tetra- 
gonis, is at the foot of Caucasus. This Region lieth over 
against the Bactriani : then its principal Town Alexandria, 
named from its Founder: Syndraci, Dangulae, Parapiani, 
Cantaces, and Maci. At the Hill Caucasus standeth the 
Town Cadrusi, built likewise by Alexander. Below all these 
Regions lieth the Coast of the Indus. The Region of the 
Arians, scorched with parching Heats, and environed with 



132 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Deserts : but many shadowy Places lie between. Cultivators 
are assembled especially about the two Rivers, Tonderos and 
Arosapes. The Town Artaccana. The River Arms, which 
runneth by Alexandria, built by Alexander. The Town con- 
taineth in Compass 30 Stadia. Artacabane, as much more 
ancient as it is more beautiful, which by Antiochus the King 
was walled the second time, and enlarged to 50 Stadia. 
The Nation of the Dorisci. The Rivers Pharnacotis and 
Ophradus. Prophtasia, a Town of the Zarasparae. The 
Drangse, Argetae, Zarangae, and Gedrusi. Towns Peucolais 
and Lymphorta ; the Desert of the Methoricori ; the River 
Manais ; the Nation of the Augutturi. The River Borru ; 
the People Urbi ; the Navigable River Ponamus, in the 
Borders of the Pandse. Also, the River Ceberon, in the 
Country of the Sorarse; with many Harbours in its Mouth. 
The Town of Condigramma ; the River Cophes ; into which 
run the Navigable Rivers, Sadarus, Parosphus, and Sodinus. 
Some will have the Country Daritus to be a part of Ariana, 
and they set down the Measure of them both to be in Length 
1950 Miles, and in Breadth less by half than India. Others 
have said that the Country of the Gedrusi and Scyri con- 
tairieth 183 Miles. Being past which, are the Ichthyophagi, 
surnamed Oritse, who speak not the proper Indian Tongue, 
for 200 Miles. And beyond it are situated the People of the 
Arbians, for 200 Miles. Those Ichthyophagi Alexander for- 
bade to feed on Fish. 1 Beyond them are the Deserts; and 
then comes Carmania, as well as Persis, and Arabia. But 
before we treat distinctly of these Countries, I think it meet 
to set down what Onesicritus (who having the conduct of the 

1 Fish was a favourite diet, among the people bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea \ and therefore- the objection of Alexander could not 
be to this, simply as an article of food. It may be supposed that various 
tribes living on the sea-coast were accustomed to feed on this diet alone, 
on the principle of caste or sect, thereby rendering themselves exclusive 
in their communications with others. To remove such barriers to civilis- 
ation may be supposed to have been the prevailing motive with Alex- 
ander in this edict ; which regulated rather than forbade the use of a 
wholesome article of food. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. T33 

Fleet of Alexander, sailed out, of India, about the Mediter- 
ranean parts of Persis) reporteth, according to the Informa- 
tion which came lately from Juba : in like manner this 
Navigation in these years ascertained, is even at this day pre- 
served. The Reports made by Onesicritus and Nearchus of 
their Navigation possess neither the Distance nor the Names 
of the several Resting-places. And to begin with Xylene- 
polis, built by Alexander, from which they entered first on 
their Voyage, it is not satisfactorily put down by them, either 
in what Place it is situated, or near what River. Yet these 
Particulars are by them reported worthy the Remembrance : 
as that in this Voyage Nearchus founded a Town : that 
the River Nabrus is able to bear great Vessels : overagainst 
which there is an Island, at the Distance of 70 Stadia : 
that Leonatus founded Alexandria in the Frontiers of 
that Nation, by Commandment of Alexander ; Argenus is a 
safe Harbour: that the River Tuberum is navigable, around 
which are the Paritse. After them the Ichthyophagi, who 
occupy so long a Tract, that they were 20 Days in Sailing 
along by their Coasts. The Island of the Sun, named also 
the Bed of the Nymphs, is red, and in which almost every 
Creature is consumed for no certain cause. The Origens : 
Hytanis, a River in Carmania, with many Harbours, and 
Plenty of Gold. And here first they observed that they had 
a sight of the North-pole Star (Septentriones). The Star 
Arcturus they saw not every Night, nor at any Time all 
Night long. Furthermore, the Archaemenides reached thus 
far : and they found Mines of Copper, Iron, Arsenic, and Ver- 
milion : then is the Cape of Carmania : from which to the 
Coast overagainst them of the Macae, a Nation of Arabia, is 
50 Miles. Three Islands, of which Organa only is inhabited, 
having Abundance of Fresh Water, and distant from the Con- 
tinent 25 Miles : four Islands in the very Gulf before Persia. 
About these Islands Sea Serpents, twenty Cubits long, as they 
came swimming toward them, put the Fleet in great Terror. 
The Island Acrotadus : likewise the Gauratse, wherein the 
Nation of the Chiani inhabit. In the middle of the Persian 
is the River Hiperis, able to bear Ships of Burden, The 



1 34 History of Nature. [ BOOK V I . 

River Sitiogagus, upon which a Man may pass in seven Days 
to the Pasargadee. A River that is Navigable called Phir- 
stimus, and an Island without a Name. The River Granius., 
which runneth through Susiane, carrieth hut small Vessels. 
Along the Right Bank of this River dwell the Deximontani, 
who prepare Bitumen. The River Oroatis, with a difficult 
Mouth, except to skilful Pilots: two little Islands. Past 
which, the Sea is very shallow, like a Marsh, but there are 
some Channels wherein they may sail. The Mouth of the 
Euphrates. The Lake which the Eulseus and Tigris make, 
near to Characis. Then on the Tigris, Susa. There they 
found Alexander keeping Feast-days of Festivity in the 
seventh Month after he had parted from them at Patalae, 
and the third Month of his Voyage. And thus much con- 
cerning the Voyage of Alexanders Fleet. Afterwards 
from Syagrus, a Promontory in Arabia, it was counted to 
Patale 1332 Miles, and that the West Wind, which the 
people of that Country call Hypalus, was thought most pro- 
per to sail with to the same Place. The Age ensuing dis- 
covered a shorter and safer Course ; namely, if from the said 
Promontory they set their Course directly to the River Zize- 
rus, an Harbour in India. And in truth this Passage was 
sailed for a long time, until at length a Merchant found out 
a more compendious Course, and India was brought near 
for Gain : for every Year they sailed thither, and because 
Pirates very much infest them, they embark in their Ships 
Companies of Archers. And because all these Seas are now- 
first certainly discovered, it is not amiss to shew the whole 
Course from Egypt. It is worthy to be observed, that there 
is not a Year but it costs our State to furnish into India, 
500,000 Sesterces, (fifty millions of Sesterces.) For which 
the Indians send back Merchandise, which at Rome is 
sold for a hundred times as much as it cost. From Alex- 
andria it is two Miles to Juliopolis : from whence on the 
Nilus they sail 303 Miles to Coptus, which may be done in 
twelve Days, with the Etesian Winds blowing. From Cop- 
tus they travel upon Camels ; and for the sake of Water 
there are Places appointed for Lodging. The first is called 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 135 

Hydreuma, 32 Miles. The second, one Day's Journey, in a 
Mountain. The third, at another Hydreuma, 95 Miles from 
Coptus. The fourth, again, in a Mountain. Again, at the 
Hydreuma of Apollo, from Coptus, 184 Miles. Again, in a 
Hill. And then to Hydreuma the New, from Coptus, 234 
Miles. 1 There is another called Hydreuma the Old, named 
also Troglodyticum, where, two Miles out of the direct way, is 
a Garrison, four Miles distant from New Hydreuma. From 
thence to the Town Berenice, where is an Harbour of the 
Red Sea, 258 Miles from Coptus. But as the Journey is for 
the most part performed by Night, because of the excessive 
Heat, and Travellers rest all the Day, twelve Days are set 
down for the whole Journey between Coptus and Berenices 
They begin to sail at Midsummer, before or close upon the 
rising of the Dog-star ; and in about 30 Days they arrive at 
Ocelis in Arabia, or else at Cana, within the Country of In- 
cense. A third Port there is besides, called Muza, to which 
there is no Resort of the Merchants of India : neither by any 
but Merchants that traffic in Incense and Spices of Arabia. 
The Indus hath Towns. 2 Its Region is called Saphar : and 
another called Sabe. But for them that would make a 
Journey to the Indians, the most commodious place from 
whence to set forward is Ocelis : for from thence, and with 
the West Wind called Hypalus, they have a passage of forty 
Days' Sailing to the first Town of Merchandise in India, 
called Muziris. However, this Port is not to be ventured 
in, because of the neighbouring Pirates, which keep ordi- 
narily about a place called Hydrae; and it is not richly 
stored with Merchandise. And moreover, the Station of the 
Ships is far from the Land, so that they must convey their 
Wares in little Boats which they use for the purpose. At 
the time when this Account was written, the King that 
reigned there was named Celebothras. There is another 
Harbour that is more commodious, belonging to the Nation 

1 So as it appeareth that every day's journey was about thirty-two 
miles. 

2 This is an unfinished sentence, perhaps from the author's not being 
able to obtain the names of these towns. Wern. Club. 



136 History of Nature. [ BOOK, VI. 

Necanidon, which they call Becare : the King's Name at 
present is Pandion ; far off is another Town of Merchandise 
within the Land, called Modusa. The Region from whence 
they transport Pepper in small Lighters made of one piece 
of Wood to Becare, is named Cotona : of all which Nations, 
Ports, and Towns, there is not a Name found in any of the 
former Writers. By which it appeareth, that there hath 
been great Change in these places. From India, our Mer- 
chants return in the Beginning of our Month December, 
which the Egyptians call Tybis : or at farthest before the 
Sixth Day of the ^Egyptian Month Machiris, which is before 
our Ides of January : and by this reckoning they may pass 
and return within the compass of One Year. When they 
sail from India they have the (North-East) Wind, Vulturnus, 
with them : and when they have entered into the Red Sea, 
the South or South-west. Now will we return to our pro- 
posed Discourse concerning Carmania : the Coast of which, 
after the reckoning of Nearchus, may take in Circuit 12,050 
Miles. From its Beginning to the River Sabis is 100 Miles; 
from whence as far as to the River Andanin, are Vineyards 
and Corn-fields, well cultivated. The Region is called Ar- 
muzia. The Towns of Carmania are Zetis and Alexandria. 
In this part the Sea breaketh into the Land in two Arms ; 
which our Countrymen call the Red Sea, 1 and the Greeks 
Erythrseum, from a King named Erythras: or (as some 
think) because the Sea, by reason of the Reflexion of the Sun, 
seemeth of a reddish colour. Others suppose that this Redness 
is occasioned of the Sand and Ground, which is Red: and others 
again, that the very Water is of its own nature so coloured. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
The Persian and Arabian Gulfs. 

THIS Red Sea is divided into Two Gulfs, That from the 
East is named the Persian Gulf, and is in Circuit 2500 Miles, 

1 Another reason for the name is to be found in Esau, the son of the 
patriarch Isaac, and whose dominion was on its borders. Bruce and others 
have advanced opinions with regard to the origin of the name of this cele- 
brated sea ; but its most ancient name may be rendered the Weedy Sea. 
- Wern. Club, 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 137 

by the computation of Eratosthenes. Overagainst this Gulf 
is Arabia, which is in Length 1200 Miles. On the other 
side there is another called the Arabian Gulf, which runneth 
into the Ocean, called Azanius. The Mouth of the Persian 
Gulf is Five Miles wide, though some have made it but 
Four. From this to its deepest recess, by a straight Course, 
is known to be 1125 Miles; and it is fashioned like a Man's 
Head. Onesicritus and Nearchus have written, that from 
the River Indus to the Persian Gulf, and from thence to 
Babylon by the Marshes of the Euphrates, is 2500 Miles. 
In an angle of Carmania the Chelonophagi inhabit, who feed 
on the Flesh of Tortoises, and cover their Cottages with their 
Shells. They inhabit from the River Arbis to the very Cape, 
they are Hairy over all their Body except their Heads, and 
wear no other Garment but Fish-skins. 

CHAPTER XXV. 
The Island Cascandrus : and the Kingdoms of the Parthians. 

BEYOND this Tract of the Chelonophagi, toward India, 
there lieth, Fifty Miles within the Sea, the Island Cascan- 
drus, by report all desert ; and near it, with an Ann of the 
Sea between, another Island called Stois ; having a lucrative 
Trade in Pearls. Beyond the Cape of Carmania, you enter 
upon the Armozei. Some say, that the Albii are between 
both ; and that their Coasts contain in the whole 402 Miles. 
There are the Port of the Macedonians, and the Altars of 
Alexander on the very Promontory itself. The Rivers Saga- 
nos, and then Daras, and Salsos : beyond which is the Cape 
Themistheas, and the Island Aphrodisias, which is inhabited. 
Then beginneth Persis, which extendeth to the River Oroatis, 
that divideth it from Elymais. Overagainst Persis, these 
Islands, Philos, Cassandra, and Aratia, with an exceeding 
high Mountain in it : and this Island is consecrated to Nep- 
tune. Persis itself, westward, hath the Coasts lying out in 
Length 450 Miles. The People are Rich, even to Luxury; 
and long since they are become subject to the Parthians, and 
have- lost their own Name. We will briefly now speak of 



1 38 History of Nature. [BooK VI . 

their Empire. The Parthians have in all Eighteen Realms 
under them : for so they divide the Provinces about the 
Two Seas, as we have said, the Red Sea lying southward, 
and the Hircan Sea, toward the north. Of these Eleven, 
which are called the Higher Provinces, take their beginning 
from the Border of Armenia, and the Coasts of the Caspian ; 
and they reach to the Scythians, with whom they have equal 
Intercourse on the other side. The other Seven are called 
the Lower Provinces. As for the Parthians, their Land 
always lay at the Foot of those Mountains of which we have 
so often spoken, which enclose all those Nations. It hath 
on the East the Arii, and southward Carmania and the 
Ariani ; on the west side the Pratitse and Medi ; and on 
the North the Hircani ; and is compassed about with Deserts. 
The farthest Nations of the Parthians are called Nomades : 
beyond the Deserts their Cities toward the West, are Issaris 
and Calliope, of which we have written before ; but toward 
the North-east, Europum ; and South-east, Mania. In the 
Midland the City Hecatompylos, and Arsacia. The noble 
Region of Nyssea in Parthyenes, where is Alexandropolis, 
(so called) from its Founder. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Media, Mesopotamia, Babylon, and Seleucia. 

IT is needful in this place to describe the Situation of the 
Medi, and to discover the Face of those Countries, as far as 
to the Persian Sea, in order that the Description of other 
Regions may be the better understood. For Media on the 
West runneth obliquely, confronteth the Parthise, and en- 
closeth both these Realms. Therefore on the East side it 
hath the Parthians and Caspians : on the South, Sittacene, 
Susiane, and Persis ; Westward, Adiabene ; and Northward, 
Armenia. The Persians always dwelt about the Red Sea, on 
which account it was called the Persian Gulf. The Mari- 
time Coast thereabout is called Cyropolis, and that part 
which bordereth upon the Medes Elymais. There is a Place 
called Megala, in the ascent of a steep Mountain, through a 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 139 

narrow Passage by Steps to Persepolis, the Head of the 
Kingdom, and destroyed by Alexander. Moreover, in the 
Frontiers standeth Laodicea, built by King Antiochus. 
From thence towards the East the Magi hold the Castle of 
Passagardae, wherein is the Tomb of Cyrus. Also the Town 
Ecbatana belonging to the Magi, which Darius the King 
caused to be translated to the Mountains. 1 Between the 
Parthians and the Ariani are extended the Paraeraceni. 
These Nations and the River Euphrates serve to limit the 
lower Realms. Now are we to discourse of the Parts 
remaining of Mesopotamia ; setting aside one point thereof, 
and the People of Arabia, whereof we spoke in the former 
Book. All Mesopotamia belonged to the Assyrians, dis- 
persed in Villages, except Babylon and Ninus. The Mace- 
donians collected it into Cities on account of the goodness of 
their Soil. Besides the above-named Towns, it hath Seleucia, 
Laodicea, and Artemita : likewise within the Nation of the 
Arabians named Aroei and Mardani, Antiochia : and that 
which, being founded by Nicanor, Governor of Mesopotamia, 
is called Arabis. Upon these join the Arabians, but within 
the Country are the Eldamarii. Above them is the Town 
Bura, situated upon the River Pelloconta ; beyond which are 
the Salmani and Masei, Arabians. Then there join to the 
Gordisei the Aloni, by whom the River Zerbis passeth, and so 
is discharged into the Tigris. The Azones and Silices, Moun- 
taineers, together with the Orentes ; on the side of whom the 
Town Gaugamela. Also Sue among the Rocks ; above are 
the Sylici and Classitae, through whom the Lycus runneth 
out of Armenia. Toward the South-east, Absittis, and the 
Town Azochis. Presently in the Plains the Towns Diospage, 
Polytelia, Stratonicea, and Anthemus. Nicephorion, as we 
have already said, is seated near the River Euphrates, where 
Alexander caused it to be founded, for the convenient Situ- 
ation of the Place. Of the City Apamia we have before 

1 Pliny's statement as to the building of the palace, and indeed the 
whole city of Shushan, by Darius Hystaspes, is contradicted by all Greek 
and Oriental writers, who represent the city as extremely ancient vide 
"Home." Wem. Club. 





140 History of Nature. [Boox VI. 

spoken in the Description of Zeugma : from which they that 
go eastward meet with a strong fortified Town, formerly 
in Compass 65 Stadia, and called the Royal Palace of their 
Satraps, to which they hrought Tributes ; but now it is 
formed into a Castle. But there continue still as they 
were, Hebata and Oruros, unto which, by the Conduct of 
Pompey the Great, the Bounds of the Roman Empire were 
extended ; and it is from Zeugma 250 Miles. Some Writers 
say that the Euphrates was divided by a Governor of Meso- 
potamia, and one Arm of it brought to Gobaris ; which was 
done lest the River should endanger the City of Babylon. 
They affirm, moreover, that the Assyrians generally called it 
Armalchar, 1 which signifieth a Royal River. On the Place 
where it is turned there stood Agrani, one of the greatest 
Towns of that Region, which the Persians utterly destroyed. 
Babylon, 2 the Capital of the Chaldean Nations, for a long- 
time possessed an illustrious Name through all the World : in 
regard of which the other Part of Mesopotamia and Assyria 
was named Babylonia : and embracing 60 Miles. The Walls 
were 200 Feet in Height, and 50 broad : reckoning to every 
Foot three Fingers' Breadth more than our ordinary Mea- 
sure. Through the midst passeth the River Euphrates : with 
a wonderful Work, on both Sides. To this Day the Temple 



1 Or rather, Nahal Nalca, L e. the King's River. 

2 Herodotus, in the first book of his history, describes this most 
splendid of cities ; the walls of which were classed among the wonders of 
the world. But contrary to the report by which Pliny professes to be 
guided, this ancient Greek author represents them to have been built in 
the form of a square ; and although the lapse of time may have caused a 
variety of changes to take place in other particulars regarding this city, 
we can scarcely suppose that these changes can have extended to the 
dimensions or situation of its stupendous walls ; by which alone its form 
would be influenced. It is surprising that among the authors which 
Pliny had consulted in drawing up his account of these regions, he makes 
no mention of this illustrious Greek writer, though he quotes him in 
other places. Philostratus, Solinus, Diodorus, Quintus Curtius, and 
more especially the Bible, may be consulted for a variety of curious par- 
ticulars regarding this eminent and powerful city, whose walls and 
splendour are now buried in a desert. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 141 

of Jupiter Belus continueth there entire. He was the first 
Discoverer of the Science of the Stars. Nevertheless it is 
reduced to a Desert, having been exhausted by Seleucia, 
which standeth near it : and which was for that very purpose 
built by Nicator within the Fortieth Stone, at the Place of 
meeting of the New Channel of Euphrates with the Tigris : 
nevertheless it is named Babylonia, a free State at this Day, 
of independent Jurisdiction; but they live after the Man- 
ners of the Macedonians. And by report there are 600,000 
common Citizens. The Position of the Walls, by report, is 
in the form of an Eagle spreading out her Wings : and the 
Soil is the most Fertile in all the East. The Parthians, 
again, to exhaust this City, built Ctesiphon within the Third 
Stone from it, in Chalonitis ; which now is the Head 
of the Kingdom. But when it advanced nothing, King 
Vologesus founded another Town near it, called Vologeso 
Certa. There are also in Mesopotamia the Cities Hyp- 
parenum, a City likewise of the Chaldaeans, and ennobled 
for Learning, and, as well as Babylon, situated near the 
River Narraga, which gave the Name to the City. The 
Persians destroyed the Walls of this Hypparenum. There are 
also in this Tract the Orcheni, toward the south ; and a Third 
Sect of the Chaldaeans. Beyond this Region are the Notitae, 
Orthophantae, and Graeciochantae. Nearchus and Onesi- 
critus report, That from the Persian Sea to Babylon, by the 
Voyage up the Euphrates, is 412 Miles. But later Writers 
count from Seleucia 490 Miles. Juba writeth, that from 
Babylon to Charax is 175 Miles. Some affirm that beyond 
Babylon the River Euphrates floweth in one Channel 87 
Miles, before it is divided to water the Country : its entire 
Course being 1200 Miles. This variety in Authors is the cause 
of the Uncertainty of the Measure, considering that even the 
very Persians agree not about the Dimensions of their 
Schceni and Parasangae, but have different Measures of them. 
Where the River Euphrates ceaseth to defend by its own 
Channel, at the portion approaching the Border of Charax, 
there is great danger of the Robbers called Attalae, a Nation 
of the Arabians. Beyond them are the Scenitae. The Arabian 



142 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Nomades occupy the circuit of the Euphrates, as far as to the 
Deserts of Syria : from which place we said that it turned 
into the South, abandoning the Deserts of Palmyra. 1 From 
the beginning of Mesopotamia to Seleucia, by sailing on the 
Euphrates, is 1125 Miles ; and from the Red Sea, if you go 
by the Tigris, 320 Miles ; from Zeugma 527 Miles ; and to 
Zeugma from Seleucia in Syria, upon the Coast of our Sea, 
is 175 Miles. This is the Breadth there of the Land between 
the two Seas. The Kingdoms of Parthia contain 944 Miles. 
Finally, there is a Town of Mesopotamia on the Bank of the 
Tigris, near where the Rivers meet, which they call Digba. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
The River Tigris. 

IT is also convenient to say somewhat of the River Tigris 
itself. It beginneth in the Region of Armenia the Greater, 
issuing out of a great Source in the Plain. The place beareth 
the Name of Elongosine. The River itself, so long as it run- 
neth slowly, is named Diglito ; but when it beginneth to be 
rapid, it is called Tigris, which in the Median language sig- 
nifieth a Dart. It runneth into the Lake Arethusa, which 
beareth up all that is cast into it; and the Vapours that arise 
out of it carry Clouds of Nitre. In this Lake there is but 
one kind of Fish, and that entereth not into the Channel of 
the Tigris as it passeth through ; as likewise the Fishes of 
the Tigris do not swim out into the Water of the Lake. In 
its Course and Colour it is unlike the other : and when it is 
past the Lake and meeteth the Mountain Taurus, it loseth 
itself in a Cave, and so runneth under, until on the other 



1 This is Tadmor in the wilderness, built by Solomon, king of Israel, 
and further illustrious from being the city where the critic Longinus was 
the prime minister of the Queen Zenobia. It is now truly in a wilder- 
ness, but is still celebrated for its remains of antiquity : chiefly of Greek 
construction. There are many streams coming down from the adjacent 
mountains, and there can be no doubt that if a settled tribe fixed 
themselves there, the tract would become as fine an oasis as erer. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI .] History of Nature. \ 43 

Side it breaketh forth again in a Place which is called Zoro- 
anda. That it is the same River is evident by this, that it 
carrieth through whatever was cast into it. After this second 
Spring, it runneth through another Lake, named Thospites, 
and again taketh its Way under the Earth through Gutters, 
and 25 Miles beyond it is returned about Nymphaeum. 
Claudius Caesar reporteth, that in the Country Arrhene, it 
runneth so near to the River Arsanias, that when they both 
swell they join, but without mingling their Water; for Arsa- 
nias, being the lighter, floateth over the other, for almost the 
Space of four Miles ; but soon after they part asunder, and it 
turneth its Course toward the River Euphrates, into which 
it entereth. But Tigris receiving the famous Rivers out of 
Armenia : Parthenis, Agnice, and Pharion, so dividing the 
Arabians, Aroeans, and the Adiabeni, and by this means 
making, as we have said, Mesopotamia to be an Island, after 
it hath passed by and viewed the Mountains of the Gordiaei, 
near Apamia, a Town of Mesene on this side Seleucia, sur- 
named Babylonia, 125 Miles. Dividing itself into two Chan- 
nels, with the one it runneth southward to Seleucia, watering 
the Country of Mesene ; and with the other it windeth to 
the north, on the back of the said Mesene, and cutteth 
through the Plains of the Cauchians. When these two 
Branches are united again, it is called Pasitigris. After this 
it receiveth out of Media the Coaspes ; and so passing be- 
tween Seleucia and Ctesiphon, as we have said, it poureth 
itself into the Lakes of Chaldsea, which it replenisheth with 
Water for the Compass of threescore and ten Miles : which 
done, it issueth forth, gushing out with a very great Stream, 
and on the right of the Town Charax is discharged into the 
Persian Sea, by a Mouth ten Miles over. Between the 
Mouths of these two Rivers were 25 Miles, or, as some say, 
seven : and both of them were navigable. But the Orcheni 
and other neighbouring Inhabitants long since turned the 
Course of Euphrates aside to water their Fields, insomuch 
that it is conveyed into the Sea, only through the Tigris. 
The next Country bordering upon the Tigris is called Para- 
potamia : in it is Mesene, of which we have spoken. Its 



144 History of Nature. [ BOOK VI. 

Town is Dibitach. Chalonitis is joined with Ctesiphon, noble 
not only with Date-trees, but also with Olive, Apple, and 
Pear-trees, and generally with all sorts of Fruit. Unto this 
Country extendeth the Mountain Zagrus, coming out of Ar- 
menia, between the Medes and Adiabeni, above Paraetacene 
and Persis. Chalonitis is distant from Persis 480 Miles. 
Some write, that by the nearest Way it is so much from the 
Caspian Sea to Assyria. Between these Nations and Mesene 
lieth Sittacene, the same that is called Arbelitis and Pales- 
tine. The Towns therein are Sittace of the Graecians, toward 
the east, and Sabata ; but on the West, Antiochia, between 
two Rivers, Tigris and Tornadotus. Also Apamia, which 
Antiochus so called after his Mother's Name. This City 
is environed with the River Tigris, and divided by the River 
Archous. Somewhat lower is Susiane, wherein (is) Susa, 
the ancient Region of the Persians, founded by Darius, the 
Son of Hystaspes ; and from Seleucia Babylonia, it is distant 
450 Miles ; and as much from Ecbatana of the Medes, 
through the Mountain Charbanus. Upon that Channel of 
the Tigris which taketh its Course northward, standeth the 
Town Babytace : and from Susa it is 135 Miles. The People 
of this Country are the only Men in the World that hate 
Gold : and they bury it, that it may serve for no use to any 
one. To the Susiani eastward are joined the Cossiaei Rob- 
bers, and forty Nations of the Mizsei, free and wild. Above 
these lie the Parthusi, Mardi, Saitae, and Hyi, who are 
spread abroad above Elemais, which joineth to the maritime 
Coasts of Persis, as is above said. Susa is from the Persian 
Sea 250 Miles. On that Side where the Fleet of Alexander 
came up the Pasitigris, there standeth a Village upon the 
Lake Chaldais, named Aphle : from which to Susa is 65| 
Miles by Water. The next that border upon the Susiani 
eastward are the Cossaei ; and above the Cossaei northward 
lieth Mesobatene, under the Mountain Cambiladus, which is 
a Branch of the Caucasus : and from thence is the most easy 
Passage to the Bactri. The River Eulaeus maketh a Parti- 
tion between Elimais and Susiane. This River riseth in the 
Country of the Medi, and in the midst of its Course loseth 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 145 

itself in the Ground ; but rising again, and running through 
Mesobatene, it passeth round the Castle of the Susi and the 
Temple of Diana, the most august Temple among those 
Nations : and the very River itself is ceremoniously re- 
garded : so that the Kings drink of no other, and therefore 
they carry it to a great distance. It receiveth the River 
Hedypnus, which corneth along by the Asylum of the Per- 
sians, and one from among the Susiani. A Town there is near 
it, called Magoa, 15 Miles from Charax. Some place this Town 
in the utmost Borders of Susiana, close to the Deserts. Be- 
neath Eulaeus lieth Elymais, joining to Persis on the Sea- 
coast ; it is 240 Miles from the River Oroates to Charax. The 
Towns in it are Seleucia and Sositare, situated upon the 
Mountain Casyrus. The Coast which lieth before it is, as 
we have said before, no less dangerous than the Lesser Syrtes, 
because of the Mud and Slime which the Rivers Brixia and 
Ortacea bring down; and Elimais itself is so moist that 
there is no Way to Persis but by taking a Circuit about 
it. It is also much infested with Serpents, which those 
Rivers bring down : but that part of it is the least passable 
which they call Characene, from the Town (Charax), which 
limiteth the Kingdoms of Arabia : of which we will speak 
by and by, after we have set down the Opinion ofM.Agrippa; 
for he hath written, that Media, Parthia, and Persis, are 
bounded on the East by the Indus ; on the West, by the 
Tigris ; on the North, by the Taurus and Caucasus ; and on 
the South, by the Red Sea : also, that they extend in Length 
1320 Miles, and in Breadth 840. Moreover, that Mesopo- 
tamia by itself is enclosed eastward by the Tigris, westward by 
the Euphrates ; on the North by the Taurus, and on the South 
by the Persian Sea; being in Length 800 Miles, and in 
Breadth 360. Charax is the inmost Town of the Persian 
Gulf, from which Arabia, called Eudaemon (happy) runneth 
forth in Length; it is situated upon a Mount artificially 
raised between the Confluence of Tigris on the right Hand, 
and Eulseus on the left : with an Expansion of three Miles. 
It was first founded by Alexander the Great ; who, having 
drawn Colonists out of the royal City Durine (which then 

VOL. II. L 



146 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

was ruined), and leaving there behind him those Soldiers 
which were not fit for service, ordained that this Town should 
be called Alexandria ; and the District about it, Pellseum, 
from his native Country : and he peopled it only with Mace- 
donians. This Town was destroyed by the Rivers. After- 
wards, Antiochus, the fifth of the Kings, rebuilt it, and 
named it from himself. But when it was injured again, 
Spasines, Son of Sogdonacus, King of the adjoining Arabians, 
and not (as Juba reporteth) a Lord (Satrap) under Antiochus, 
restored it by Moles opposite each other, and called it after 
his own Name. He thus fortified the Site of it three Miles in 
Length and little less in Breadth. At the beginning it stood 
upon the Sea-coast, being from the Water-side ten Stadia ; 
and even from thence it hath false Galleries : but by the 
Report of Juba, in his Time, 50 Miles. At this Day the 
Arabian Ambassadors, and also our Merchants that come from 
thence, affirm it is from the Sea-shore 125 Miles : so that it 
cannot be found in any Place that the Earth hath gained 
more, or in so short a Time by means of the Mud brought 
down by Rivers. And it is the more wonderful, that the 
Tide which riseth far beyond this Town doth not carry it 
away again. In this very Town I am not ignorant that 
Dionysius, the latest of our modern Geographers, was born : 
whom Divus Augustus sent before into the East to write a 
Description of whatever he found, for the Information of his 
elder Son, who was about to proceed into Armenia, in an 
Expedition against the Parthians and Arabians. It has not 
escaped me, nor is it forgotten, that in my first Entrance into 
this Work, I professed to follow those who had written of 
their own Countries, as being the most diligent in that be- 
half. Nevertheless, in this Place I choose rather to follow 
the Roman Officers that have warred there, and King Juba, 
in Books written to C. Ccesar (Caligula) concerning the 
aame Arabian Expedition. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 147 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Arabia, Nomades, Nalatcei, and Omani: the Islands Tylos 
and Ogyris. 

ARABIA cometh behind none of the Nations for its great 
Length and Extent ; for it beginneth at the Descent of the 
Mountain Amanus, overagainst Cilicia and Comagen, as we 
have before said ; where it is peopled with many Nations of 
them, brought by Tigranes the Great to inhabit that Quarter; 
and in old Time it descended naturally as far as to our Sea 
and the Egyptian Coast, as we have shewn : yea, and it 
extendeth into the midland Parts of Syria to the Mountain 
Libanus, where the Hills reach to the very Clouds : to 
which are joined the Ramasi ; then the Taranei, and after 
them the Patami. The Peninsula itself of Arabia runneth 
out between two Seas, the Red and the Persian, by a 
certain Workmanship of Nature, resembling Italy in Form 
and Magnitude, with its Sea-coasts also in the manner of 
Italy. It also regardeth the same Quarter of the Heaven 
without any Difference. This Tract, for the rich Seat it 
hath, is named Felix (happy). The Nations therein dwell- 
ing, from our Sea to the Deserts of Palmyra, we have treated 
of already, therefore we pass them by. The Nomades, and 
those Robbers that trouble the Chaldseans, the People 
called Scenitse, border on it as we have before said ; they also 
are Wanderers, but are so called from their Tabernacles, 
which they make of Hair-cloths, and they encamp under 
them as they please. Being past them you find the Nabatsei, 
who inhabit a Town named Petra, in the Valley, little less 
than two Miles large ; environed with very steep Mountains, 
and having a River running through the midst of it. It 
is distant from Gaza (a Town of our Coast) 600 Miles ; and 
from the Persian Gulf, 122. And here meet both the High- 
ways, that is, the one which Passengers travel to Palmyra in 
Syria, and the other wherein they come from Gaza. Beyond 
Petra the Omani inhabit as far as to Carax, in the celebrated 
Towns built by Semiramis, namely, Abesamis and Soractia. 
But now all is a Wilderness, Then come you to a Town 



148 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

named Forath, situated upon the Bank of the Pasitigris, and 
subject to the King of the Caraceni : to which they resort 
from Petra; and from thence to Charax they sail with a 
favourable Tide for the Space of twelve Miles. But they 
that come by Water out of the Parthian Kingdom, meet with 
a Village called Teredon, below the Place where Euphrates 
and Tigris meet. The Chaldaeans inhabit the left Bank of 
the River, and the Nomades called Scenitse, the right. Some 
affirm, that as you sail on the Tigris, you pass by two other 
Towns, distant from each other : the one called formerly 
Barbatia, and afterwards Thumata, which our Merchants 
report to be ten Days' Sail from Petra, and to be subject to 
the King of the Characeni : and the other named Apamia, 
situated in the Place where the Overflowing of Euphrates 
joineth with the Tigris ; and therefore they prevent the In- 
vasion of the Parthians, by breaking up the Banks and so 
procure an Inundation of the Waters. Now being past Cha- 
rax, we will discourse of the Coast first explored by Epi- 
phanes. The Place where the Mouth of the Euphrates was. 
A River of Salt Water ; the Promontory Chaldone, where the 
Sea is more like a Whirlpool than a Sea, for 50 Miles. The 
River Achana ; Deserts for 100 Miles, until you come to the 
Island Ichara : the Bay Capeus, which the Gaulopes and 
Chateni inhabit : the Bay Gerraicus, and the Town Gerra, 
five Miles in extent ; and fortified with Towers made of square 
Masses of Salt. Fifty Miles from the Sea-side is the Region 
Attene : and overagainst it the Island Tylos, as many Miles 
from the Shore, with a Town bearing the Name of the Island, 
much celebrated for Abundance of Pearls : and not far from 
it is another somewhat less, twelve Miles from the Cape of 
the aforesaid Tylos. Beyond these there are discovered by 
Report some great Islands ; but they have not been visited 
by our Merchants. This last Island is 112 Miles and a half 
in Circuit, and is far from Persis ; and Access to it is only 
by one narrow Channel. The Island Asgilia ; the Nations 
Nocheti, Zurachi, Borgodi, Catarsei, and Nomades : the 
River Cynos. Beyond that, Juba saith, there is no more 
Navigation discovered on that Side, by reason of the Rocks. 
He hath made no mention of the Town Batrasabe of the 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 1 49 

Omani, nor of Omana, which former Geographers have 
held to be a Harbour of great Importance in Carmania. 
Also, Omne and Athanae, which our Merchants report to be 
at this Day two very famous Towns, frequented from the 
Persian Gulf. Beyond the River Canis, as King Juba 
writeth, there is a Hill which seemeth all scorched. The 
Nations of the Epimaranitae : and soon after the Ichthyo- 
phagi : a desert Island ; the Nations Bathymi. The Moun- 
tains Eblitaei ; the Island Omcenus ; the Port Machorbae, the 
Islands Etaxalos, Onchobrice, the Nation Chadaei. Many 
Islands without a Name : but of Importance, Isura, Rhinnea ; 
and another very near, wherein are Pillars of Stone inscribed 
with unknown Characters. The Port of Goboea; and the 
desert Islands Bragae. The Nation of the Thaludsei : the 
Region Dabanegoris : the Mountain Orsa, with a Port : 
the Bay Duatus, and many Islands. The Mountain Tricory- 
phus : the Region Cardalena, the Islands Solanidae, Capina. 
Also the Islands of the Ichthyophagi : and after them the 
Glari. The Shore called Hamruaeum, where are Gold Mines. 
The Region Canauna. The Nations Apitami and Gasani. 
The Island Deuadae; the Fountain Goralus; theGarpheti; 
the Islands Aleu and Amnamethu. The Nation called 
Darrae, the Islands Chelonitis, and many of the Ichthyo- 
phagi. The Isle Eodanda, which is Desert, and Basage ; 
many others of the Sabaei. The Rivers Thamar and Amnon ; 
the Islands Dolicae ; the Fountains Daulotes and Dora ; the 
Islands, Pteros, Labanis, Coboris, Sambracate, with a Town 
so named on the Continent. On the South side are many 
Islands, but the greatest of them is Camari. The River 
Mysecros ; the Port Leupas, and the Sabaeans, called Sce- 
nitae. Many other Islands ; their Chief Town of Merchandise 
is Acila, where the Merchants embark for their Voyage to 
India. The Region Amithoscuta, and Damnia. The Mizi, 
the Greater and Less : the Drimati and Macae. The Promon- 
tory of these People is overagainst Carmania, and distant 
from it 50 Miles. A wonderful thing is reported there : that 
Numenius, Chief Commander under King Antiochus, over 
Mesena, conquered the Navy of the Persians in a Sea-fight, 



150 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

and on the same Day, with the return of the Tide, sub- 
dued their Horsemen : in memorial of which he erected in 
the same Place two Trophies, one in honour of Jupiter, 
and the other of Neptune. Far out at Sea there lieth an 
Island called Ogyris, distant from the Continent 125 Miles, 
and containing in Circuit 112; much renowned for the 
Sepulchre of King Erythra, who was buried there. Another 
there is no less famous, called Dioscoridu, in the Sea Aza- 
nium ; and it is from Syagrum, the extremest Cape, 280 
Miles. There remain yet not spoken of, the Autarides, 
toward the South, in the Mountains, which continue for 
seven Days' journey : the Nations Larendani, Catabani, and 
Gebanitse, who have many Towns, but the greatest are Nagia 
and Tarnna, with 65 Temples within it, which is a mark how 
great it is. A Promontory, from which to the Continent of 
the Trogloditse is 50 Miles. The Toani, Acchitee, Chatra- 
motitse, Tomabei, Antidalei, Lexianse, Agrei, Cerbani ; and 
Sabaei, of all the Arabians most famous for their Frankin- 
cense ; their Nations reaching from Sea to Sea. Their Towns 
on the Coast of the Red Sea are Marane, Marma, Corolla, 
and Sabatra ; within-land are the Towns Nascus, Cardava, 
Carnus, and Tomala, whence they convey their Commodities 
of Aromatics. One part of them are the Atramitse, whose 
Capital City, Sobotale, had within its Walls Sixty Temples. 
But the Royal City of the whole is Nariaba, situated on a 
Gulf that reacheth into the Land ninety-four Miles, full of 
Islands, having Odoriferous Trees. Upon the Atramitse, 
within the Mainland, are joined the Minaei : but the Ela- 
mitae inhabit the Sea (Coast), where standeth a City also called 
Elamitum. To them are joined the Cagulatae ; and their 
Town is Siby, which the Greeks name A pate. Then the 
Arsicodani, and Vadei, with a great Town : and the Barasei : 
Lichenia, and the Island Sygaros, which Dogs will not enter ; 
and if any be put there, they wander about the Shore until 
they die. A Deep Bay, in which are the Leanitae, who gave 
name to it. Their Royal City is Agra : but Leana, or, as 
others have it, ^lana, is in the Bay. And hence our 
Writers have called that Bay jElaniticum, which others 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 151 

have termed JSlenaticum ; Artemidorus, Aleniticum ; and 
Juba, Lseniticum. Arabia is reported to take in Circuit from 
Charax to Leana, 4870 Miles ; but Juba thinketh it some- 
what less than 4000. It is widest in the North Parts, be- 
tween the Towns Herons and Charace. Now it remaineth 
that we speak of other Parts within the Midland thereof. 
The Ancients joined the Nabataei to the Thimanei ; but at 
this Day there are the Tavern, Suelleni, and Sarraceni : the 
Town is Arra, wherein all Business is assembled. The He- 
rnuatse and Analitae ; the Towns Domada and Erag ; the 
Thamusians, with their Town Badanatha; the Carrei, and 
their Town Chariati ; the Achoali, and their Town Phoda. 
Furthermore, the Minaei, descended, as some think, from 
Minos, King of Crete ; whose Town Charmaei is 14 Miles (in 
Compass) ; Mariaba, Baramalacum, a Town not to be de- 
spised; likewise Carnon, and the Rhamei, who are thought 
to spring from Rhadamanthus, the Brother of Minos. The 
Homeritae, with the Town Massala ; the Hamirci, Gedra- 
nitae, Anaprae, Ilisanitae, Bochilitae, Sammei, and Amathei ; 
with the Towns, Nessa and Cennesseri. The Zamareni, with 
the Towns Saiace, Scantate, and Bacascani ; the Town Rhi- 
phearma, which in the Arabian Tongue signifieth Barley ; 
also the Autei, Raui, Gyrei, and Marhatsei ; the Helmodones, 
with the Town Ebode ; the Agacturi in the Mountains, hav- 
ing a Town 20 Miles in Circuit, wherein is a Fountain called 
Emischabales, which signifies the Camel's Town ; Ampelone, 
a Colony of the Milesii ; the Town Actrida ; the Calingii, 
whose Town is named Mariaba, which signifies Lords of all. 
Towns Pallon and Murannimal, near a River, by which they 
think that the Euphrates springeth forth. The Nations 
Agrei and Ammonii ; the Town Athenas ; the Caurarani, 
which signifieth very rich in Cattle. The Caranitae, Caesani, 
and Choani. There were also Towns in Arabia, held by 
Greeks, as Arethusa, Larissa, and Chalcis, which were 
destroyed in various Wars. The only Roman until this day 
that carried our Arms into those Parts was jElius Gallus, of 
the Knightly Order. For Gains Ccesar, the Son of Augustus, 
did but look only into Arabia ; but Gallus destroyed Towns, 
not named by Authors that wrote before : Egra, Annestum, 



152 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

Esca, Magusum, Tammacum, Labecia, and the above-named 
Marieba, in Circuit Six Miles : likewise Caripeta, the furthest 
that he went to. The other matters he made report of were, 
that the Nomades live on Milk and Wild Animals ; the rest 
express Wine, as the Indians do, out of Dates ; and Oil of 
Sesama. That the Homerites are the most Populous ; the 
Minasi have Fruitful Fields, full of Palm-trees and Vine- 
yards, but their Riches is in Cattle. The Cembani and 
Arii excel in Arras, but chiefly the Chatramotitse. The 
Carseans have the largest Territories and most Fertile 
Fields. The Sabsei are Richest in the Fertility of their 
Woods, that bring forth Aromatic Gums : also in Mines of 
Gold ; having Water to refresh their Lands, and plenty of 
Honey and Wax. Of the Spices that come from thence we 
will speak in a Book by itself. The Arabians wear Mitres, 1 
or go with their Hair long ; their Beards they shave, except 
on the upper Lip ; and yet some there are that suffer their 
Beards to grow long. But one thing is surprising, that out 
of such a very great number of People, the one-half live by 
Robbery, and the other by Merchandise. On the whole 
they are exceedingly rich ; for with them the Romans and 
Parthians leave very large Sums, for the Commodities out 
of their Woods and Seas which they sell them ; and them- 
selves buy nothing of them in return. Now will we speak of 
the other Coast opposite to Arabia. Timosthenes hath set 
down, that the whole Gulf was from one End to the other 
Four Days' Sailing : and from Side to Side, Two Days' ; the 
Breadth of the Straits being Seven Miles over. Eratosthenes 
saith, that taking the Measure at the very Mouth, it is every 
way 1300 Miles. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

The Gulf of the Red Sea : likewise of the Trogloditic and 
^Ethiopian Seas. 

ARTEMIDORUS saith, that the Red Sea toward the side of 
Arabia is 1450 Miles : but on the Coast of the Trogloditse 1 1 82, 

1 It is a question whether these are not rather turbans, as at present 
extensively worn through Asia. Wern, Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 153 

until you come to Ptolemais : but Agrippa 1322, without any 
distinction of the Sides. Most Geographers have set down 
the Breadth to be 462 Miles : and the Mouth of it against 
the Sun-rising in Winter, (i. e. South-west) some say, is 7 
Miles Broad ; and others 12. The Situation of it is this : 
Beyond the Bay called JElaniticus there is another Bay 
which the Arabians call jEant, on which standeth the Town 
Heroon. There was also Cambisu, between the Neli and 
Marchandae, into which the sick Soldiers were conveyed. 
The Nation of Tyra ; the Port Daneon, from which Sesostris, 
King of Egypt, was the first that imagined to conduct a 
Navigable Channel into the Nile, in that part where it 
runneth to the Place called Delta, for the Space of 62 
Miles ; which is between the River and the Red Sea. This 
Enterprise was followed by Darius, King of the Persians : 
and afterwards by Ptolomceus, who also made a Channel 
100 Feet in Breadth, and 30 Deep, for Thirty-Seven Miles 
and a Half in Length, even to the Bitter Fountains. But 
this Design went no farther, through fear of an Inundation : 
the Red Sea being found to lie Three Cubits above the Land 
of Egypt. Some allege that this was not the true cause, 
but that if the Sea were let into the Nile the Water thereof 
(of which only they drink) would be corrupted. Never- 
theless the Way is well frequented from the Egyptian Sea ; 
and there are Three ordinary Ways there : one from Pelu- 
sium over the Sands, where, unless Reeds be set up in the 
Ground for direction, no Path would be found, because the 
Wind bloweth the Sand over the Tracts of the Feet. A 
second beginneth Two Miles beyond the Mountain Casius, 
which after sixty Miles returneth into the Pelusiac Way. 
Here the Arabians called Autei inhabit. The Third begin- 
neth at Gereum, which they call Adipson, and passeth 
through these same Arabians, being Sixty Miles nearer, but 
full of craggy Hills, and altogether destitute of Water. All 
these Ways lead to Arsinoe, which was built upon the Gulf 
Charandra by Ptolemceus Philadelphus, and bearing his 
Sister's Name : and he was the first that searched narrowly 
into the Region Trogloditicum ; and the River that passeth 



154 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

by Arsinoe he called Ptolemseus. Within a little of this 
Place there is a small Town named Aennum, for which 
some write Philotera. Beyond them are the Azarei : wild 
Arabians from Marriages of the Trogloditee. The Islands 
Sapyren and Scytala : and within a little, Deserts, unto 
Myros-hormos, where is the Fountain called Tadnos ; the 
Mountain Eos ; the Island Larnbe, many Harbours ; and 
Berenice, a Town bearing the Name of the Mother of Phila- 
delphus ; to which there is a Way lying from Coptos, as we 
have said : the Arabians called Autei, and Gnebadei. Tro- 
gloditice, which the Ancients called Michoe, and others 
Midoe : the Mountain Pentedactylos. Certain Islands called 
Stenae-de'irse ; and others no fewer in number, named Halon- 
nesi : Cardamine, and Topazos, which gave the Name to the 
precious Stone. A Bay full of Islands, of which that which 
is called Mareu is well supplied with Water : another, called 
Eratonos, is altogether Dry. There were Governors there 
under the King. Within-land inhabit the Candei, whom 
they call Ophiophagi, because they are accustomed to feed 
on Serpents; and in truth there is no other Region that 
breeds them more than this. Juba, who seemeth to have 
very diligently searched into these things, hath omitted in 
this Tract (unless there be some fault in his Original), to 
speak of a second Berenice, which is denominated Pan- 
chrysos ; as also of a third called Epidires, renowned for its 
Situation ; for it stands upon a Neck of Land running a long 
way, where the Mouth of the Red Sea is not above Four 
Miles and a Half from Arabia. There is the Island Cytis, 
itself producing Topazes. Beyond this are Woods, where 
Ptolemceus, surnamed Philadelphia, built a City for Hunt- 
ing the Elephant, near the Lake Monoleus, and named it 
Epitheras. This is the Region mentioned by me in the 
Second Book; wherein for Forty-five Days before Mid- 
Summer, and as many after, at the Sixth Hour of the Day, 
no Shadows are to be seen : which being past, all the Day 
after they fall into the South ; and on other Days they fall 
to the North ; whereas, in Berenice, which we mentioned 
first, on the very Day of the Solstice, at the Sixth Hour, the 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 155 

Shadows are wholly lost; and otherwise there is nothing 
new to be observed for the space of 600 Miles about Ptole- 
mais : a thing worthy of observation, and a place of great 
Curiosity, that gave great Light to the World ; for Erato- 
sthenes, upon this undoubted argument of the Shadows, took 
in hand to deduce the Measure of the Earth. Beyond this 
is the Sea Azanium, and the Promontory which some have 
written by the name of Hispalus ; also the Lake Mandalum ; 
the Island Colocasitis, and in the deep Sea many, wherein 
are numerous Tortoises. The Town Suchse ; the Island 
Daphnis, and the Town Aduliton, built by Egyptian Slaves 
who escaped from their Masters. This is the greatest Town 
of Traffic of the Trogloditse, as well as of the Egyptians : and 
it is (from Ptolemais) Five Days' Sailing. Thither are brought 
very much Ivory and Horns of the Rhinoceros, Skins of the 
Hippopotamus, Tortoise Shells, Monkeys, and Slaves. Above 
are the Ethiopians, called Aroteres : also the Islands named 
Aliseu : and Islands named Bacchias, Antibacchias, and 
Strathonis; beyond them there is a Gulf in the Coast of 
Ethiopia, as yet not known, a thing to be wondered at, con- 
sidering that Merchants search into remoter Parts. Also a 
Promontory, wherein is a Fountain named Cucios, much 
desired by Sailors. Beyond it is the Port of Isis, distant 
from the Town of the Adulitse ten Days rowing with Oars : 
and thither is Myrrh collected by the Trogloditse. Before 
this Harbour are two Islands, named Pseudopylse ; and as 
many further within, called Pylse ; in one of them are some 
Pillars of Stone, engraved with unknown Characters. Be- 
yond this is the Bay Abalites : the Island Diodori, and others 
lying Desert. Also along the Continent there is much Wil- 
derness ; the Town Gaza ; the Promontory and Port Mossy- 
lites, unto which Cinnamon is brought. Thus far marched 
Sesostris with his Army. Some Writers place one Town of 
Ethiopia beyond this, on the Sea-side, called Baradaza. 
Juba would have the Atlantic Sea to begin at the Promon- 
tory Mossylites : on which Sea a Man may Sail with a north- 
west Wind, by the Coasts of his Kingdoms of Mauritania to 
Gades : and the whole of his Opinion cannot be contradicted 



156 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

on this point. From a Promontory of the Indians called 
Lepteacra, and by others Drepanum, to the Isle of Malchu, 
he layeth it down that by a straight Course it is 1500 
Miles, beside those Parts that are burnt up. From thence 
to a place called Sceneos is 225 Miles : and from it to the 
Island Sadanum, 150 Miles : and thus it is made to the open 
Sea 1885 Miles. But all other Writers have been of opinion 
that there could not be any Sailing on it, for the exceeding 
Heat of the Sun. Moreover, the Arabians named Ascitse do 
much harm from the Islands to the Trade : for these Ara- 
bians join Bottles made of Ox Leather, two and two toge- 
ther, as if they were a Bridge, and exercise Piracy by 
shooting their Poisoned Arrows. The same Juba writeth, 
that there are Nations of the Trogloditae, named Thero- 
thoes, from their huntings, of wonderful Swiftness : as 
the Ichthyophagi from Swimming, as if they were Water 
Creatures. He nameth also the Bargeni, Zagerae, Chalybse, 
Saxinse, Syrecae, Daremae, and Domazanes. Also he affirmeth, 
that the People inhabiting along the Sides of the Nile, from 
Syene to Meroe, are not ^Ethiopians, but Arabians, who for 
the sake of Fresh Water approached the Nile, and there 
dwelt : as also that the City of the Sun, 1 which we said be- 
fore in the Description of Egypt, standeth not far from Mem- 
phis, was founded by the Arabians. There are some also 
who assign the further side of the Nile to Africa and not to 
Ethiopia. But leaving every Man to his own Pleasure, we 
will set down the Towns on both sides in that order in which 
they are declared. And to begin with that side toward 
Arabia, after you are past Syene, is the Nation of the Cata- 
dupi ; and then the Syenitae. The Towns Tacompson, which 
some have called Thatice, Aranium, Sesanium, Sandura, 
Nasaudum, Anadoma, Cumara, Beda and Bochiana, Leuphi- 

1 " City of the Sun," or Heliopolis. This is the Egyptian city, of 
which the father of the patriarch Joseph's wife was priest. It may have 
proceeded from the Arabian descent of the people of this place, that the 
worship of the sun was more agreeable to the disposition of the minds of 
the inhabitants, than that of any of the animal deities, which obtained so 
much favour in other cities of Egypt. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 157 

thorga, Tantarene, Maechindira, Noa, Gophoa, Gystatae, Me- 
geda, Lea, Rhemnia, Nupsia, Direa, Pataga, Bagada, Du- 
mana, Rhadata, in which a Golden Cat is worshipped as a 
God. Boron in the Midland part, and Mallos, the next 
Town to Meroe. Thus hath Bion set them down. But 
King Juba hath arranged them otherwise. Megatichos, a 
Town on a Mountain between Egypt and Ethiopia, which 
the Arabians call Myrson ; next to it Tacompson, Aranium, 
Sesanium, Pide, Mamuda, and Corambis ; near it a Fountain 
of Bitumen : Hammodara, Prosda, Parenta, Mama, Thes- 
sara, Gallae, Zoton, Graucome, Emeum, Pidibotae, Hebdo- 
mecontacomertee, and the Nomades, who live in Tents. 
Cyste, Pemma, Gadagale, Palois, Primmis, Nupsis, Daselis, 
Pads, Gambrenes, Magases, Segasmala, Cranda, Denna, 
Cadeuma, Thena, Batha, Alana, Macum, Scammos, and 
Gora within a Island. Beyond these Abala, Androcalis, 
Seres, Mallos, and Agoce. On the Side of Africa they are 
reckoned in this way : another Tacompsos, with the same 
Name or perhaps a part of the former : then, Magora, Sea, 
Edosa, Pelenaria, Pyndis, Magusa, Bauma, Linitima, Spyn- 
tuma, Sydopta, Gensoa, Pindicitora, Eugoa, Orsima, Suasa, 
Mauma, Rhuma, Urbubuma, Mulona, which Town the 
Greeks call Hypaton ; Pagoargas, Zamnes ; and there begin 
the Elephants to come in ; Mamblia, Berresa, Cetuma. 
There was formerly a Town named Epis, overagainst Meroe, 
but destroyed before Bion wrote. These were recorded until 
you come to Meroe ; of which at this Day scarcely anything 
is to be found on either side. The remainder is a Wilder- 
ness, by report made to the Prince Nero by the Praetorian 
Soldiers sent thither from him under the Command of a 
Tribune, to make Discoveries : at the time when amongst 
his other Wars, he thought of an Expedition against the 
Ethiopians. But in the Days of Dwus Augustus, the Roman 
Arms penetrated thither under the conduct ofPublius Petro- 
nius, a Knight of Rome, and Prefect of Egypt. He con- 
quered all those Towns in Ethiopia, which he found in this 
order following; Pselcis, Primis, Aboccis, Phthuris, Can- 
busis, Attena, Stadissis, where the River Nile casteth itself 



158 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

down with such a Noise that the Inhabitants living close by 
lose their Hearing. He won also Napata. He marched 
forward a great way into the Country, even 870 Miles be- 
yond Syene ; but this Roman Army laid not all Waste in 
those parts. It was the Egyptian Wars that wasted Ethiopia ; 
sometimes by Ruling, and at others by Servitude ; it was Illus- 
trious and Powerful until the Reign of King Memnon, who 
ruled in the Time of the Trojan War, so that Syria was sub- 
ject to it; as also our own Coast in the Time of King Cepheus, 
as appeareth by the Fables of Andromeda. In the same 
manner they disagree about the Measure of Ethiopia. And 
first, Dalion passing far beyond Meroe ; after him, Arista- 
creon, Bion, and Basilis ; also Simonides (the Lesser) who 
dwelt in Meroe Five Years, when he wrote of Ethiopia. 
Timosthenes, the Admiral of the Fleet of Philadelphus, hath 
left in record, that from Syene to Meroe is Sixty Days' 
Journey, without particularizing the Measure. But Erato- 
sthenes precisely noteth, that it is 625 Miles : Artemidorus, 
600. Sebostus affirmeth, that from the Frontiers of Egypt it 
is 1675 Miles ; from whence the last rehearsed Writers count 
1270. But all this difference is lately determined by the 
Report of those Travellers whom Nero sent to Discover those 
Countries, who have related that it is 862 Miles from Syene 
in this manner : from Syene to Hiera-Sycaminon, Fifty-four 
Miles ; from thence to Tama, Seventy-five Miles ; from Tama 
to the Euonymites Country, the first of the Ethiopians, 120 ; 
toAcina, Fifty-four; to Pitara, Twenty-five; to Tergedum, 
106 Miles. That in the midst of this Tract lieth the Island 
Gagandus, where they first saw the Birds called Parrots; 
and beyond another Island called Attigula they saw Monkeys ; 
beyond Tergedum they met with the Creatures Cynocephali. 
From thence to Napata Eighty Miles, which is the only 
little Town among all the beforenamed ; from which to the 
Island Meroe is 360 Miles. They reported, moreover, that 
about Meroe, and not before, the Herbs appeared greener ; 
and the Woods shewed somewhat in comparison of all the 
way besides ; and they espied the Tracts of Elephants and 
Rhinoceroses. The Town itself of Meroe was from the 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 159 

Entry of the Island Seventy Miles, and just by, there was 
another Island called Tatu, which formed a Port for them 
that approached by the Channel on the Right. The Buildings 
within the Town were few ; the Isle was subject to a Queen 
named Candaocc* a name that for many years already hath 
passed in succession from one Queen to another. Within 
this Town is the Shrine of Hamrnon for Devotion ; and in all 
that Tract many Chapels. Finally, so long as the Ethiopians 
were powerful this Island was very famous. For by report, 
they were accustomed to furnish of Armed Men 250,000, and 
to maintain of Artisans 400,000. Also it is at this day reported 
that there have beon Forty-five Kings of the Ethiopians. 

CHAPTER XXX. 
The Manifold and Wonderful Forms of Men? 

BUT the Nation in general was in old time called 
jEtheria ; 3 afterwards Atlantia ; and finally from Vulcan s 
Son jfiEthiops, it took the name of Ethiopia. It is no won- 
der, that about the remote Borders of it there are produced 
both Men and Beasts of monstrous Shapes, considering the 
Agility of the Fiery Heat to frame Bodies and carve them 
into strange Shapes. It is reported by some, that far within 
the Country eastward there are Nations without Noses, but 
having their Visage all Plain and Flat: that others are 
without any Upper Lip, and some without Tongues ; also, 
there is a kind of them that have the Mouth grown to- 
gether, and are without Nostrils ; so that at the same Orifice 
only they take in Breath, receive Drink by drawing it in 
through an Oaten Straw, and Feed themselves with the 
Grains of Oats which grow of their own accord for their 
Food. Others there are, who instead of Speech make Signs 
by nodding their Heads, and moving their Limbs. There 
are also some that before the Time of Ptolemceus Lathyrus 

1 See Acts of Apostles, viii. 27. 
* See further, Book vii. c. 2. 

3 As all Pliny's authors were Greek or Roman, he was ignorant that 
a much more ancient name was Gush. Wern. Club. 



160 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

King of Egypt, knew no use of Fire. Some Writers have 
reported, that in the Country near the Marshes from whence 
the Nile hath its Source there inhabit a Nation of Pygmei. 
But where we left off there is a continual range of Moun- 
tains, all Red, as if they were Burning. Beyond Meroe 
there is a Country lying above the Trogloditue and the Red 
Sea ; where Three Days' Journey from Napata toward the 
Red Sea, in most places they save Rain Water for their ordi- 
nary Use ; all the Country between is very abundant in 
Gold. All beyond this Region is Inhabited by the Atabuli, 
a People of Ethiopia. The Megabari, whom some have 
named Adiabarae, lie overagainst Meroe, and have a Town 
bearing the Name of Apollo. Part of them are Nomades, 
who live on Elephant's Flesh. Just against them in a part 
of Africa are the Macrobii. Again, beyond the Megabari 
are the Memnones and Daveli ; and Twenty Days' Journey 
from them the Critensi. Beyond them are the Dochi and 
the Gymnites, who are always naked. Soon after you find the 
Anderae, Mathitae, Mesagebes, Hipporeae, of a Black Colour, 
but who paint their Bodies with a kind of Red Chalk called 
Rubrica. But upon a part of Africa are the Medimni ; be- 
yond then are Nomades, who feed on the Milk of Cynoce- 
phali : and the Olabi and Syrbotae, who are reported to be 
Eight Cubits high. Aristocreon saith, that on the side of 
Libya, Five Days' Journey from Meroe, there is a Town 
called Tole ; and Twelve Days' Journey from thence is Esar, 
a Town of the Egyptians, who fled from Psammeticus. It is 
reported, that they have lived in it for 300 Years ; another 
Town of theirs called Daronis, on the opposite side, on the 
Coast of Arabia. But that which Aristocreon nameth Esar, 
Bion calleth Sapa; and he saith, the very word signifieth 
Strangers come from other parts. Their Capital City is 
within the Island Sembobitis; and Sai in Arabia is the Third. 
Between the Mountains and the Nile are the Symbari and 
the Phalanges ; but upon the Mountains themselves live 
the Asachae, with many Nations ; and they are by report 
Seven Days' Journey from the Sea. They live by Hunting 
Elephants. The Island in the Nile, of the Semberritae, is 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 161 

subject to a Queen. Eight Days' Journey from thence lieth 
the Country of the Ethiopians, named Nubaei. Their Town 
Tenupsis is seated upon the Nile. The Sambri, where all 
the Four-footed Beasts, and even the very Elephants, are 
without Ears. Upon the Border of Africa inhabit the 
Ptceambati and Ptoemphanse, who have a Dog for their 
King, and they judge of his imperial Commands by his Motion. 
Their City is Auruspi, far distant from the Nile. Beyond 
them are the Achisarmi, Phaliges, Marigeri, and Casamarri. 
Bion says, that beyond Psembobitis, there are other Towns in 
the Islands toward Meroc, for Twenty Days' Journey. The 
Town of the next Island is Semberritarum, under a Queen ; 
another called Asar ; and there is a second Island having in 
it the Town Daron ; they call the third Medoe, wherein 
stand eth the Town Asel ; and a fourth named Garode, as 
the Town is also. Then along the Banks, the Towns, Navos, 
Modunda, Andatis, Setundum, Colligat, Secande, Navectabe, 
Cuini, Agrospi, ^gipa, Candrogari, Araba, and Summara. 
The Region above Sirbitum, where the Mountains end, is 
reported by some to have upon the Sea-coast Ethiopians 
called Nisicastes and Nisitae, which means Men with Three 
and Four Eyes ; not because they are so furnished, but be- 
cause they are excellent Archers. Bion affirmeth, moreover, 
that from that part of the Nile which stretcheth above the 
Greater Syrtes, toward the Southern Ocean, they are called 
Dalion, who use Rain-water only; and the Cisori and Lon- 
gopori. Beyond Oecalices for Five Days' Journey, the 
Usibalci, Isucles, Pharusi, Valii, and Cispii. The rest is 
desert. But then he telleth fabulous Tales : as that westward 
there are People called Nigro2, whose King hath but one 
Eye, and that in the midst of his Forehead : also, there are 
the Agriophagi, who live chiefly on the Flesh of Panthers 
and Lions; the Pornphagi, who Eat all things; the Anthro- 
pophagi, that Feed on Man's Flesh ; the Cynamolgi, who 
have Heads like Dogs; the Artabatitae, who wander about 
like Four-footed Savage Beasts. Beyond whom are the 
Hesperii and Peroesi, who, as we said before, are planted in 

VOL. II, M 



1C2 History vf Nature. [BOOK VI. 

the Confines of Mauritania. In certain parts of Ethiopia 
the People live on Locusts only, 1 which they preserve with 
Salt, and hang up in Smoke to harden, for their yearly Pro- 
vision ; and these live not above Forty Years at the most. 
Agrippa saith that all the Land of Ethiopia, with the Red 
Sea, containeth in Length 2170 Miles: and in Breadth, 
together with the higher Egypt, 1291. Some have taken 
the Breadth in this manner; from Meroe to Sirbitum, 
Twelve Days' Navigation ; from thence to the Davelli, Twelve ; 
and from them to the Ethiopian Ocean, a Journey of Six 
Days. But on the whole all Writers in a manner agree 
that between the Ocean and Meroe it is 725 Miles ; and 
from thence to Syene, as much as we have set down before. 
The Situation of Ethiopia lieth South-east and South-west. 
In the exact South, Woods of Ebony chiefly flourish ; toward 
the midst of this Region, there is a lofty Mountain looking 
over the Sea, that burneth continually, which the Greeks 
call Theon-ochema ; from which it is counted Four Days' Sail 
to the Promontory called Hesperion-Ceras, 2 on the border of 
Africa, near to the Hesperian Ethiopians. Some Writers 
hold, that this Tract is beautified with little Hills, pleasantly 
clad with shady Groves, wherein are the jEgipanes and 
Satyri. 

1 That locusts should form a portion of the food of the people who 
live where they abound, cannot be regarded as surprising. John 
the Baptist fed on them, Matt, iii, 4, and Mark, i. 6. They are still 
occasionally used for food in the East. When Khosru Purwis (Chosroes), 
the Sassanian king of Persia, was summoned by Mohammed to adopt his 
doctrine, he contemptuously dismissed the messengers of a chief of "naked 
locust-eaters." The Arabs eat the different species of the migratory 
locusts, and are very fond of them, especially of the red locust, which 
when fat is called Jerdd rnikken. They eat them either fried or broiled, 
or dried in an oven, or boiled with a sprinkle of salt ; the locusts taste 
like dried sprats. The female locust when fat and full of eggs, is a great 
dainty, and greatly esteemed by the male population on account of its 
aphrodisiac qualities. (Niebuhr, Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 170, &c.) 
~-Wern. Club. 

8 Cap de Bonne Esperance. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 163 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
The Islands of the Ethiopian Sea. 

EPHORUS, Eudoxus, and Timosthenes agree, that there 
are very many Islands in all that Sea. Clitarchus wit- 
nesseth, that report was made to Alexander the King, of one 
which was so rich, that for Horses the Inhabitants would 
give Talents of Gold ; also of another, wherein was a sacred 
Mountain adorned with a shady Wood, where the Trees 
distilled Odours of wonderful Sweetness. Overagainst the 
Persian Gulf lieth the Island named Cerne, opposite to 
Ethiopia; but how large it is, or how far off from the Con- 
tinent, is not certainly known : but this is reported, that 
the Ethiopians only inhabit it. Euphorus writeth, that they 
who would Sail thither from the Red Sea, are not able, from 
the extreme Heat, to pass beyond certain Columns ; for so 
they call the little Islands there. But Polybms affirmeth, 
that this Island Cerne, where it lieth in the utmost Coast of 
Mauritania, overagainst the Mountain Atlas, is but Eight 
Stadia from the Land. On the other hand, Nepos Cornelius 
affirmeth, that it is not above a Mile from the Land, 
overagainst Carthage ; and that it is not above Two Miles 
in Circuit. There is mention made also of another Island 
before the Mountain Atlas, and which is named Atlantis. 
And Five Days' Sailing from it are the Deserts of the 
Ethiopian Hesperians, and a Promontory, which we have 
named Hesperion-Ceras ; where the Coasts of the Land begin 
first to turn about their front to the westward, and the 
Atlantic Sea. Overagainst this Promontory, as Xenophon 
Lampsacenus reporteth, lie the Islands called Gorgates, 
where formerly the Gorgani kept their Habitation, two 
Days' Sailing from the Continent. Hanno, Commander of 
the Carthaginians (Pceni), penetrated to them, and reported 
that the Women were all over their Bodies hairy ; and that 
the Men were so Swift of Foot that they escaped from him ; 
but he placed the Skins of two of these Gorgon Women in 
the Temple of Juno, for a Testimonial, and as a Wonder, and 



164 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

they were seen there until Carthage was taken. Beyond 
these Isles also there are said to be two Islands of Hesperides. 
But so uncertain are all things concerning these parts, that 
Statins Sebosus affirmeth, it is Forty Days' Sailing from the 
Islands of the Gorgones along the Coast of Atlas, to the 
Isles of the Hesperides ; and from thence to Hesperion- 
Ceras, one. As little certainty there is concerning the 
Islands of Mauritania. In this only they all agree, that Juba 
discovered some few of them over against the Autololes, in 
which he purposed to dye Gsetulian Purple. 1 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
Of the Fortunate Islands. 

SOME Authors think, that the Fortunate Islands, and 
some others besides them, are beyond the Autololes ; among 
whom the same Sebosus spoke of their Distances : and parti- 
cularly that the Island Junonia is from Gades 750 Miles ; 
and that from it westward the Isles Pluvialia and Capraria 
are as much : also that in the Island Pluvialia there is no 
Water but what they have by Showers. From them to the 
Fortunate Islands is 250 Miles ; they lie eight Miles from the 
Coast of Mauritania to the Left Hand, called the Coast of 
the Sun, in a Valley, because it is like a Valley or Hollow ; 
and it is also called Planaria, as resembling an even Plain. 
This Valley containeth in Circuit 300 Miles: wherein are 
Trees so luxuriant that they grow to the Height of 144 
Feet. Concerning the Islands named Fortunate, Juba 
learned by diligent inquiry, that they lie from the South 
near to the West 625 Miles from the Islands Purpurariee : 
so that to Sail thither a Man must pass 250 Miles above the 
West, and then for 75 Miles bend his course Eastward. He 
saith, moreover, that the first of these Islands is called Om- 
brion, wherein are no Tokens of Houses. Also that among 
the Mountains it hath a Marsh ; and Trees resembling the 
Plant Ferula, out of which they press W T ater : that which 

1 On which account in the next chapter these islands are called 
Purpurese, Wern, Club, 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 165 

issueth out of the Black Trees being bitter, and that from 
the Whiter sort sweet and potable. He saith that a second 
Island is named Junonia, in which there is one little House, 
or Chapel, made of Stone : beyond it, but near by there is a 
third of the same Name, but less in size : and then you come 
to one called Capraria, full of great Lizards. Within sight 
of these is the Island Nivaria, which took this Name from 
the Snow that lieth there continually ; it is also full of Mists. 
The next to it is Canaria, so called from the great number of 
very large Dogs, of which Juba brought away two : and in 
this Island there are some marks remaining of Buildings. 
And as all these Islands abound plentifully with fruitful 
Trees and Birds of all sorts, so this is replenished with 
Palm-trees that bear Abundance of Dates, and likewise with 
Trees that yield Pine Nuts. There is also great plenty of 
Honey : and the Rivers produce the Papyrus Reed, and are 
well stored with the Fish Silurus : and in conclusion he 
saith, that these Islands are much infested with great Ani- 
mals, that are very often cast out in a Putrid Condition. 
Thus having at large gone through the Description of the 
Globe of the Earth, as well without as within, it remaineth 
now to collect into a small space the measure of the Seas. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

A Summary of the Earth, digested according to its 
Dimensions. 

POLYBIUS layeth it down, that from the Straits of Gib- 
raltar by a straight Course to the Mouth of Moeotis is 3437J 
Miles. From the same starting-place by a right Course east- 
ward to Sicily, it is 1260J Miles ; to Crete, 375 Miles ; to 
Rhodes, 146 Miles ; to the Chelidonian Islands as much ; 
to Cyprus, 325 Miles ; from whence to Seleucia Pieria in 
Syria, 115 Miles. Which computation makes the sum of 
2340 Miles. Agrippa also counteth 3440 Miles for all this 
distance from the Straits of Gibraltar directly forward to the 
Gulf of Issa. In which reckoning I scarcely know whether 
there be an error in the number, because the same Writer 



166 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

hath set down the passage from the Sicilian Strait to Alex- 
andria at 1250 Miles. But the whole . Circuit through the 
above-said Gulfs, from the point where we began to the Lake 
Moeotis, summed together, is 15,600 Miles. Artemidorus 
added thereto 756 Miles. And the same Geographer 
writeth, that with Moeotis it cometh to 17,390 Miles. This 
is the measure of unarmed Men, and the peaceful boldness 
of such as have not feared to provoke Fortune. Now 
are we to compare the greatness of each part, in spite of 
the Difficulty produced by the Disagreement of Authors. 
But most easily will this appear if we join Longitude and 
Latitude together. According to this prescribed rule the 
Magnitude of Europe is 8148 Miles. Africa (taking the 
middle Computation between them all that have set it down) 
containeth in Length 3748 Miles. The Breadth of so much 
as is inhabited in no Place exceedeth 250 Miles. Agrippa 
would have it to contain 910 Miles in Breadth, beginning at 
the Bounds of Cyrene, and comprehending in this Measure 
the Deserts thereof as far as to the Garamantse, so far as 
they are known ; and then the whole Measure collected into 
one sum amounted to 4608 Miles. Asia 1 is allowed to be in 
Length 63,750 Miles ; and its Breadth is truly reckoned 
from the Ethiopian Sea to Alexandria, situated near the 
Nile, so that the Measurement runs through Meroe and 
Syrene, 1875 Miles; whereby it appeareth that Europe is 
little wanting of being half as large again as Asia : and the 
same Europe is twice as much again as all Africa, and a 
sixth part over. Reduce now all these sums together, and it 
will be found clear that Europe is a third part of the whole 
Earth, and something more than an eighth Portion over; 
Asia a fourth part, with a fourteenth; and Africa a fifth, 
with an over-plus of a sixtieth portion. To this Calculation 
we will add one sentence of Greek invention, which sheweth 

1 Pliny's ignorance of the extent of Africa is pardonable, for he knew 
no more of it than the small portion which had come under the Roman 
dominion ; but in his account of Asia he contradicts what he has already 
assigned to India, which is only a part of it, but which he truly repre- 
sented to be larger than Europe. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 167 

their exquisite subtilty, in order that we may otnit nothing 
in this view of the Situation of the Earth ; that when the 
Position of every Region is known, a Man may likewise come 
to the knowledge of what Society there is between one and 
the other, either of the agreement of the Length of Days and 
Nights, by the Shadows at Noonday, or by the equal Con- 
vexity of the World. To bring this about effectually, I must 
arrange the whole Earth into certain Portions of the Heaven ; 
for there are very many of those Divisions of the World which 
our Astronomers call Circles, and the Greeks, Parallels. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

The Arrangement of the Earth Into Parallels and equal 
Shadows. 

THE beginning is at that part of India which turns to the 
South. It extends as far as Arabia and the Inhabitants of 
the Red Sea. Under it are comprised the Gedrosi, Persae, 
Carmani, and Elimaei ; Parthyen&, Aria, Susiane, Mesopo- 
tamia, Seleucia, surnamed Babylonia ; Arabia, so far as 
Petrge, Coele-Syria, and Pelusium in Egypt; the Lower 
Coasts, which are called of Alexandria ; the Maritime Parts 
of Africa; all the Towns of Cyrenaica, Thapsus, Adrume- 
tum, Clupea, Carthago, Utica, both Hippoes, Numidia, both 
Realms of Mauritania, the Atlantic Sea, and Hercules' Pil- 
lars. In all the Circumference of this Heaven, at Noon-tide 
of an Equinoctial Day, the Umbilicus, which they call Gno- 
mon, seven Feet Long, castetli a Shadow not above the 
Length of four Feet. The Longest Night or Day is fourteen 
Hours; and the shortest, ten. The following Circle begin- 
neth from India, tending westward, and passeth through 
the midst of Parthia, Persepolis, the nearest parts of Persis, 
the nearer Arabia, Judaea, and the Borders of the Mountain 
Libanus. It embraceth Babylon, Idumsea, Samaria, Hieru- 
solyma, Ascalon, Joppe, Caesarea, Phoenice, Ptolemais, 
Sydon, Tyrus, Berytrus, Botrys, Tripolis, Byblus, Antiochia, 
Laodicea, Seleucia, the Sea-coasts of Cilicia, Cyprus, the 
South Part of Creta, Lilybeum in Sinalia, the North Parts 



1 68 History of Nature. [BooK VI . 

of Africa and Numidia. The Gnomon upon the Equi- 
noctial Day, thirty-five Feet in Length, maketh a Shadow 
twenty-four Feet Long. The Longest Day or Night is four- 
teen Hours Equinoctial, and the fifth part of an Hour. The 
third Circle beginneth at the Indians next to the Imaus, and 
goeth by the Caspian Gates very near to Media, Cataonia, 
Cappadocia, Taurus, Amanus, Issus, the Cilician Gates, 
Soli, Tarsus, Cyprus, Pisidia, Syde in Paiuphilia, Lycaonia, 
Patara in Lycia, Xanthus, Caunus, Rhodus, Coiis, Halicar- 
nassus, Gnidus, Doris, Chius, Delus, the Middle Cyclades, 
Gytthium, Malea, Argos, Laconia, Elis, Olympia, Messene, 
Peloponnesus, Syracusa, Catina, the Midst of Sicily, the 
South Part of Sardinia, Carteia, and Gades. The Gnomon 
of one hundred Inches yieldeth a Shadow of seventy-seven 
Inches. The Longest Day hath Equinoctial Hours fourteen 
and a half, with the thirtieth part of an Hour. Under the 
fourth Circle lie those who are on the other Side of Imaus, 
the South Parts of Cappadocia, Galatia, Mysia, Sardis, 
Smyrna, Sipylus, the Mountain Tmolus in Lydia, Caria, 
Ionia, Trallis, Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Samos, Chios, 
the Icarian Sea, the Northern Cyclades, Athens, Megara, 
Corinthus, Sicyon, Achsea, Patrse, Isthmos, Epirus, the 
North Parts of Sicily, Narbonensis Gallia toward the East, 1 
'the Maritime Parts of Spain beyond New Carthage, and so 
to the West. To a Gnomon of twenty-one feet the Shadows 
answer of seventeen Feet. The Longest Day is fourteen 
Equinoctial Hours, and two-third parts of an Hour. The 
fifth Division containeth from the Entrance of the Caspian 
Sea, Bactra, Iberia, Armenia, Mysia, Phrygia, Hellespontus, 
Troas, Tenedus, Abydus, Scepsis, Ilium, the Mountain Ida, 
Cyzicum, Lampsacum, Sinope, Amisum, Heraclea in Pontus, 
Paphlagonia, Lemnus, Imbrus, Thasus, Cassandria, Thes- 
salia, Macedonia, Larissa, Amphipolis, Thessalonice, Pella, 
Edessa, Bersea, Pharsalia, Carystum, Eubcea, Boaotia, 
Chaicis, Delphi, Acarnania, ^Etolia, Apollonia, Bnmdisium, 
Tarentum, Thurii, Locri, Rhegium, Lucani, Neapolis, Pu- 

1 Languedoc. 



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 169 

teoli, the Tuscan Sea, Corsica, the Baleares, the Middle of 
Spain. A Gnomon of seven Feet giveth six of Shadow. 
The Longest Day is fifteen Equinoctial Hours. The sixth 
Parallel compriseth the City of Rome, and containeth the 
Caspian Nations, Caucasus, the North Parts of Armenia, 
Apollonia upon Rhindacus, Nicomedia, Nicaea, Chalcedon, 
Byzantium, Lysimachia, Cherrhonesus, the Gulf Melane, 
Abdera, Samothracia, Maronea, .ZEnus, Bessica, the Mid- 
land Parts of Thracia, Poeonia, the Illyrii, Dyrrhachium, 
Canusium, the utmost Coasts of Apulia, Campania, Hetruria, 
Pisa, Luna, Luca, Genua, Liguria, Antipolis, Massilia, Nar- 
bon, Tarracon, the Middle of Spain called Tarraconensis, 
and thence through Lusitania. To a Gnomon of nine Feet 
the Shadow is eight Feet. The Longest Day hath fifteen 
Equinoctial Hours and the ninth part of an Hour, or the 
fifth, as Nigidius is of opinion. The seventh Division be- 
ginneth at the other Coast of the Caspian Sea, and falleth 
upon Callatis, Bosphorus, Borysthenes, Tomos, the Back 
Parts of Thracia, the Tribali, the rest of Illyricum, the 
Adriatic Sea, Aquileia, Altinum, Venetia, Vicetia, Patavium, 
Verona, Cremona, Ravenna, Ancona, Picenum, Marsi, 
Peligni, Sabini, Umbria, Ariminum, Bononia, Placentia, 
Mediolanum, and all beyond Apenninum : also over the 
Alps, Aquitaine in Gaul, Vienna, Pyrenaeum, and Celtiberia. 
The Gnomon of thirty-five Feet casteth a Shadow thirty-six 
Feet in Length ; yet so, that in some part of Venetia the 
Shadow is equal to the Gnomon. The Longest Day is fif- 
teen Equinoctial Hours, and three-fifth parts of an hour. 
Hitherto we have reported the exact Labours of the Ancients. 
But the most diligent Modern Writers have assigned the rest 
of the Earth not as yet specified, to three Sections. (The 
first) from Tanais through the Lake Moaotis and the Sar- 
matae, all the way to Borysthenes, and so by the Daci and a 
part of Germany, the Galliae, and the Coasts of the sur- 
rounding Ocean, where the Day is sixteen Hours long. A 
second, through the Hyperborei and Britannia, where the 
Day is seventeen Hours long. Last of all, is the Scythian 
Parallel, from the Rhiphean Hills unto Thule : in which (as 



170 History of Nature, [BooK VI. 

we have said) it is Day and Night continually by turns. 
The same Writers have set down two Circles, before those 
Points where the others began, and which we set down. 
The first through the Island Meroe, and Ptolemais upon the 
Red Sea, built for the Hunting of Elephants ; where the 
Longest Day is but twelve Hoars and an half: the second 
passing through Syene in Egypt, where the Day hath thir- 
teen Hours. And the same Authors have put to every 
one of the other Circles, even to the very last, half an Hour 
more. 

THUS MUCH OF THE EARTH. 



IN THE SEVENTH BOOK 

ABE CONTAINED 
THE WONDERFUL SHAPES OF MEN IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES, 



CHAP. 

1. Strange Forms of many Na- 

tions. 

2. Of the Scythians, and other 

People of different Coun- 
tries. 

3. Of Monstrosities. 

4. The Transmutation of the 

Sexes and of Twins. 

5. De Hominis Generando. 

6. De Conceptibus, et Signa 

Sexus in gravidis praeve- 
nientia Partum. 

7. De Conceptu Hominum et Ge- 

neratione. 

8. De Agrippis. 

9 . Monstruosi Partus excisi Utero. 

10. Qui sunt Vopisci. 

11. Exempla numerosa} Sobolis. 

12. Examples of those that were 

like one to another. 

13. Quse sit Generandi Ratio. 

14. De eodem multiplicius. 

15. De Menstruis Mulierum. 

16. Item de Katione Partuum. 

17. The Proportion of the Parts 

of Man's Body, and Things 
therein observed. 

18. Examples of extraordinary 

Shapes. 

19. Remarkable Natures of Men. 

20. Of bodily Strength and Swift- 

ness. 

21. Of excellent Sight. 

22. Who excelled in Hearing. 



CHAP. 

23. Examples of Patience. 

24. Examples of Memory. 

25. The Praise of C. Julius Casar. 

26. The Praise of Pompey the 

Great. 

27. The Praise of Cato the Elder. 

28. Of Valour and Fortitude. 

29. Of notable Abilities, or the 

Praises of some for their 
singular Talents. 

30. Of Plato, Ennius, Virgil, M. 

Varro, and M. Cicero. 

31. Of Majesty in Behaviour. 

32. Of Authority. 

33. Of certain Divine Persons. 

34. Of (Scipio) Nasica. 

35. Of Chastity. 

36. Of Piety (Natural Kind- 

ness). 

37. Of Excellency in many Sci- 

ences ; in Astrology, Gram- 
mar, Geometry, &c. 

38. Also, Rare Pieces of Work 

made by Artificers. 

39. Of Servants and Slaves. 

40. The Excellency of Nations. 

41. Of perfect Contentment. 

42. Examples of the Variety of 

Fortune. 

43. Of those that were twice out- 

lawed and banished : of L. 
Sylla and Q. Metellus. 

44. Of another Metellus. 

45. Of the Emperor Augustus. 



172 



Contents of the Seventh Booh. 



CHAP. 

46. Of Men deemed most happy 

by the Gods. 

47. Who was ordered to be wor- 

shipped as a God while he 
lived. 

48. Of those that lived longer 

than others. 

49. Of different Nativities of 

Men. 

50. Many Examples of strange 

Accidents in Sickness. 

51. Of the Signs of Death. 

52. Of those that revived when 



CHAP. 

they were carried forth (to 
be buried). 

53. Of sudden Death. 

54. Of Sepulchres and Burials. 

55. Of the Soul : or the Manes. 

56. The first Inventors of many 

Things. 

57. Wherein all Nations first 

agreed. 

58. Of ancient Letters. 

59. The Beginning of Barbers at 

Rome. 

60. When first Dials. 



In sum, there are in this Book, of Histories and Observations, 747. 



LATIN AUTHORS ABSTRACTED : 

Verrius Flaccus, Cn. Gellius, Licinius Mutianus, Mutius, Massurius, 
Agrippina wife of Claudim, M. Cicero, Asinius Pollio, Messala, Rufus, 
Cornelius Nepos, Virgil, Livy, Cordus, Melissus, Sebosus, Cornelius Celsus, 
MaximusValerius, Trogus, Nigidius Figulus, Pomponius Atticus, Pedianus 
Asconius, Salinus, Cato Censorius, Fabius Vestalis. 

FOREIGN WRITERS: 

Herodotus, Aristeas, Beto, Isigonus, Crates, Agatharddes, Callipnanes, 
Aristotle, Nymphodorus, Apollonides, Philarchus, Damon, Megasthenes, 
Ctesias, Tauron, Eudoxus, Onesicritus, Clitarchus, Duris, Artemidorus, 
Hippocrates the Physician, Asclepiander the Physician, Hesiodus, Anacreon, 
Theopompus, Hellanicus, Damasthes, Ephorus, Epigenes, Berosus, Pessiris, 
Necepsus, Alexander Polyhistor, Xenophon, Callimachus, Democritus, Duil- 
lius, Polyhistor the Historian, Strata who wrote against the Propositions and 
Theorems of Ephorus, Heraclides Ponticus, Asclepiades who wrote Trago- 
damena, Philostephanus, Hegesias, Archimachus, Thucydides, Mnesigiton, 
Xenagoras, Afetrodorus Scepsius, Anticlides, and Critodemus. 




THE SEVENTH BOOK 



OP THE 



HISTORY OF NATURE, 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 




THE PREFACE. 

BW-5SES8HUS we have in the former Books treated of 
the World, and of the Lands, Nations, Seas, 
Islands, and remarkable Cities therein con- 
tained. It remainetli now to discourse of the 
Nature of the Living Creatures comprised within 
the same : a point which would require as deep 
a Contemplation as any other Part whatsoever, if the Mind 
of Man were able to comprehend all the Things. By right 
the chief place is assigned to Man, for whose sake it appears 
that Nature produced all other Creatures ; though this great 
favour of hers is severe as set against all her other Gifts : so 
that it is hard to judge whether she is a kinder Parent to 
Man, or a cruel Step-mother. For, in preference to all other 
Living Creatures, the one she hath clothed with the Riches of 
others : to the rest she hath assigned a variety of Coverings : 
as Shells, Barks, Hard Hides, Spines, Shag, Bristles, Hair, 
Feathers, Quills, Scales, and Fleeces. The Trunks and 



174 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

Stems of Trees she hath defended with Bark, which is some- 
times double, against the injuries both of Heat and Cold ! 
Man alone she hath cast all Naked upon the bare Earth, 
even on' his Birth-day, immediately to cry and lament : so 
that among so many Living Creatures there is none subject 
to shed Tears and Weep like him from the very onset of his 
Existence. And verily, however forward and active we may 
be, to no one is it given to laugh before he is Forty Days old. 
From this glimmering of Light he is bound fast, and hath 
no Member at liberty ; a thing which is not practised upon 
the Young of any Wild Beast among us. The Child thus 
unhappily born, and who is to rule all other, lieth bound 1 
Hand and Foot, weeping and crying ; and .receiveth the 
auspices of Life with Punishments, to make satisfaction. for 
this only Fault, that he is born Alive. What madness in 
such as think this the proper Beginning of those who are 
born to be proud ! The first Hope of our Strength, the first 
gift that Time affordeth us, maketh us no better than four- 
footed Beasts. How long ere we can go alone ! How long- 
before we can speak, feed ourselves ! How long continueth 
the Crown of our Heads to palpitate, the mark of our ex- 
ceeding great weakness above all other Creatures ! Then 
the Sicknesses, and so many Medicines devised against these 
Maladies : besides the new Diseases that spring up to 
overcome us. Other Living Creatures understand their 
own Nature ; some assume the use of their swift Feet, 
others of their Wings ; some are Strong ; others able to 
Swim ; but Man knoweth nothing unless he be taught : 
not even to speak, or go, or eat : arid, in short, -he is 
naturally good at nothing but to weep. And hence some 
have insisted on it, that it is best for a man never to have 
been born, or else speedily to die. To one only, of living 

1 The artificial bandages inflicted on new-born children are the swad- 
dling-clothes referred to in St. Luke's Gospel, c. ii. v. 7 ; but they can 
scarcely be numbered among the necessary evils of humanity, for they 
have long since been abolished in England. In the seventh chapter of 
this Book the Author dwells again on the littleness and misery of the 
human race. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 175 

Creatures is it given to mourn, one only is guilty of excess, 
and that in a vast variety of ways, and through every Mem- 
ber that he has. Who but we are ambitious ? Who but 
we are avaricious ? None but we possess the extravagant 
desire of living, are superstitious, anxious for our burial, 
and what shall be our fate when we are gone. To none is 
Life more frail ; yet to no Creature is there a greater craving 
after every thing ; none suffereth under a more terrifying 
Fear ; and none more furious in his Rage. To conclude, other 
Animals live orderly according to their kind : we see them 
flock together, and stand against others of a contrary kind; 
the Lions, though savage, fight not one with another ; 
Serpents sting not Serpents : and even the very Beasts and 
Fishes of the Sea war not upon their own kind : but, by Her- 
cules ! the greatest part of the evils that happen to Men are 
from the hand of Man himself. 

CHAPTER I. 
The wonderful Forms of Nations. 

IN our reports of Nations we have spoken in general of 
the Human Race spread over the Face of the Earth. Neither 
is it our purpose at present to describe particularly all their 
numberless Customs and Manners of Life, which are as 
many as there are Assemblies of Men. However, I think it 
good not to omit all, but to make relation of some things 
concerning those People especially who live furthest from 
the Sea; among whom, I doubt not but I shall find such 
matter as to most Men will seem both prodigious and 
incredible. For whoever believed that there were Ethio- 
pians before he saw them? what is it that seemeth not a 
Wonder at the First Sight? how many things are judged 
impossible before they are done? arid the Power and Ma- 
jesty of Nature in every particular action seemeth incre- 
dible, if we consider the same severally, and do not em- 
brace the whole at once in the Mind. For, to say nothing 
of the Peacocks' Feathers, of the Spots of Tigers and Pan- 
thers, of the Colours that ornament so many Creatures 



176 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

besides : let us come to one only point, which to speak of 
seemeth small, but being deeply weighed, is a matter of 
exceeding great regard ; and that is, the Speech of so 
many Nations ; so many Tongues ; so much Variety of 
Utterance, that a Foreigner seems to be something different 
from a Man. Then to view the variety that appeareth in 
our Face and Countenance ; although there be not more 
than Ten Members or a few more, among so many thousand 
of these, not Two Persons are to be found who are not 
distinct in Likeness : a thing which no Art can perform, in 
a small number out of so many. And yet thus much must 
I advertise my Readers, that I will not pawn my credit 
for many things that I shall deliver; but I will rather 
direct them to the Authors, who will answer them in 
all doubtful points : only let them not think much to follow 
the Greeks, whose Diligence hath been greater, and their 
Attention of longer standing. 

CHAPTER II. 
Of the Scythians, and the Diversity of other Nations. 1 

THAT there are Scythians, and even many kinds of 
them, who feed ordinarily on Man's Flesh, we have shewn 

1 The belief of the ancients in the existence of many anomalous races 
of mankind, was a portion of the science of the age ; and not to have 
given it credit, and a place in his work, would have subjected the author 
to as much reproach for scepticism, as the notice he has taken of them 
has done for his alledged credulity. And so far as Greek authority ex- 
tended, the degree of credit which Pliny assigned to these strange races, 
appears to have heen well founded ; for except in one or two instances, 
the errors appear to have sprung from misinterpretation, rather than 
from a positive departure from truth. Aristotle is sufficient authority 
for the existence of a race of pigmies, who are also mentioned by Hero- 
dotus ; and in more modern times that excellent naturalist Belon is satis- 
fied concerning them. Nor can we, even now, refuse to admit the possi- 
bility of finding their representatives in the Bushmen still existing in 
Southern Africa. On the other hand, the existence of men of enormous 
stature, of which some stupendous instances are given by Pliny (b. vii. 
c. xvi.), is attested by profane as well as by sacred history. Thus Pau- 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 177 

already, (Book iv. 1 2 ; vi. 1 .) The thing itself would be thought 
incredible, if we did not consider that in the very Middle of 
the World, even in Sicily and Italy, there have been Nations of 
such Monsters, as the Cyclopae and Lystrigonae : and also very 

sanias (in his " Atticks," quoted by Bishop Cumberland in his translation 
of Sanchoniatho) says, that he saw in the Upper Lydia bones whose 
figure would satisfy any man that they were men's bones, but their big- 
ness was above the now known size of men. He also mentions the bones 
of Asterius, in the neighbouring country of the Milesians ; giving the 
dimensions of his body to be no less than ten cubits long, and that he 
was the son of Anax ; a name singularly corresponding with a race men- 
tioned by Moses, and the sight of whom terrified and humbled the Is- 
raelitish spies. It is not a little strange, as Bishop Cumberland remarks, 
quoting from Cicero " de Natura Deorum," that there is reason to believe, 
one of the very ancient and gigantic persons known under the name of 
Hercules had six fingers on each hand, as is also noticed of the last de- 
scendants of this mighty race, in the second book of Samuel, c. xxi. The 
tradition that such enormous people existed in the early ages of the 
world is often referred to by Homer, and other ancient writers, who 
drew from thence the erroneous conclusion, that the whole human race 
had, since their day, become gradually weaker and more diminutive ; 
whereas, in the only authentic history of these remote ages it is clearly 
intimated, that this vast stature was limited to particular families or 
nations, who even at that time were thought remarkable by all besides ; 
and who were finally exterminated by their neighbours, perhaps as the 
only resource against their violence. The Macrocephali, or long heads, 
(mentioned b. vi. c. 4) may be supposed to have owed their peculiarity to 
the habit of employing pressure to mould their heads in early infancy 
into the compressed and elevated form, as is now practised by some tribes 
on the continent of America ; and such as are mentioned with exceedingly 
short necks may, perhaps, have been marked only with a personal de- 
formity ; but the people with intensely black skin, to all of whom, how- 
ever otherwise different, the ancients seem to have assigned indiscrimi- 
nately the name of Ethiopians, are judged by Pliny to display a more 
remarkable phenomenon than all the strange forms he has occasion to 
notice ; as we also should probably do, if living instances had not ren- 
dered it common. We may include in another section those singular 
examples of the human race, which the author supposes to be comprised 
in nations, but which are more probably reported as of rare or casual 
occurrence, or perhaps nothing beyond an accidental monstrosity. Such 
we know to be the case with the Albinoes, with white hair and tender 
eyes ; and perhaps also the monoculous king, and the Arimaspians, who 
are mentioned also by Herodotus, together with the other Cyclopaean 
VOL. n. N 



178 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

lately, on the other side of the Alps, 1 there are those that 
kill Men for Sacrifice, after the manner of those (Scythian) 
people, which differs but little from eating their Flesh. 
Moreover, near to those Scythians that inhabit Northward, 
not far from the very rising of the North-east Wind, and 

people, whose singularities may have referred to some manner in the 
habitual use of the organ, rather than to an actual deformity. A third 
section of these supposed anomalous people may obviously be referred to 
the quadrumanous tribes : a class of creatures so nearly approaching to 
the external form of humanity, that we cannot feel surprised if ignorant 
travellers, who viewed only at a distance, and with minds prepared to 
welcome every wonder the oran outang and pongo were not able to 
discern a generic difference between them and the truly human race. 
Such were the hairy men and women mentioned in the 31st chapter of 
this book, the satyrs, Choromandse, and people with no noses, or having 
tails, a figure of the latter being found on an alraxis, or amulet, engraved 
by Montfau9on ; but through the whole of his narrative we observe that 
the author is careful to give his authorities, as being aware that what 
appeared so strange must be made to rest upon the credit of those who 
had originally reported it. Some of these instances, indeed, admit of no 
interpretation that we are able to afford them ; but in regard to one of 
the strangest of them, Purchas gives the authority of Fitch, an English- 
man : " I went from Bengala into the country of Couche, not far from 
Cauchin China. The people have ears which be marvellous great, of a 
span long, which they draw out in length by devices when they be 
young." In addition to the strange forms of men mentioned by Pliny, 
Diodorus Siculus mentions some in an island discovered by Jambulus, 
whose bones were as flexible as nerves (tendons) : the holes of their ears 
far wider than ours ; and with tongues deeply cloven, so that they imi- 
tate the song of birds, and can ordinarily speak to two men at once. 
Wern. Club. 

1 The people here referred to are the Gauls. Caesar (de Bell. Gall, 
lib. vi.) says, " The whole nation of the Gauls is much addicted to reli- 
gious observances, and on that account, those who are attacked by any of 
the more serious diseases, and those who are involved in the danger of 
warfare, either offer human sacrifices or make a vow that they will offer 
them, and they employ the Druids to officiate at their sacrifices ; for they 
consider that the favour of the immortal gods cannot be conciliated, 
unless the life of one man be offered up for that of another : they have also 
sacrifices of the same kind appointed on behalf of the state. Some have 
images of enormous size, the limbs of which they make of wicker-work, 
and fill with living men, and setting them on fire, the men are destroyed 
by the flames." Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 179 

about that Cave out of which that Wind is said to issue, 
which place they call Gesclithron, the Arimaspi are reported 
to dwell, who, as we have said, 1 are distinguished by having 
One Eye in the midst of their Forehead, and who are in 
constant War about the Mines with the Griffins, 2 a flying 
kind of Wild Beasts, which used to fetch Gold out of the 
Veins of those Mines ; which savage Beasts (as many Authors 
have recorded, and particularly Herodotus and Aristeas the 
Proconnesian, two Writers of greatest Name) strive as 
eagerly to keep the Gold as the Arimaspi to snatch it from 
them. Above those other Scythians called Anthropophagi, 
there is a Country named Abarimon, within a certain 
extensive Valley of the Mountain Imaus, in which are 
Wild Men, wandering about among brute Beasts, and 
having their Feet directed backward behind the Calves 
of their Legs, but able to run very swiftly. This kind 
of Men cannot live in any other Climate than their own, 
which is the reason that they cannot be conveyed to the 
Kings that border upon them ; nor could they be brought 
to Alexander the Great, as Beton hath reported, who was 
the Surveyor of the Journeys of that Prince. The former 
Anthropophagi whom we have placed in the North, Ten 
Days' Journey above the River Borysthenes, are accustomed 
to drink out of the Skulls of Men, and to wear the Skins 
with the Hair for Mantles before their Breasts, according 
to Isigonus the Nicean. The same Writer affirmeth, that 
in Albania there are produced certain Individuals who have 
the Sight of their Eyes of a bluish-grey Colour, who from 
their Childhood are grey-headed, and can see better by 
Night than by Day. He reporteth also that Ten Days' 
Journey above the Borysthenes, there are the Sauromatae, 
who never eat but once in Three Days. Crates of Per- 
gamus saith, that in Hellespont about Pariuni there was 
a kind of Men, whom he nameth Ophiogenes, who, if one 
were stung by a Serpent, with touching only will ease it; 
and if they lay their Hand upon the Wound, are able to 

1 Lib. iv. 12, and lib. vi. 17. 

2 The griffins are again mentioned, book x. chap. 49. Wern. Club. 



180 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

draw forth all the Poison from the Body. Varro also testi- 
n'eth, that even at this Day there are a few who cure the 
Stinging of Serpents with their Spittle. Agathar tides 
writeth, that in Africa the Psylli, 1 who are so called from 
king Psyllus, whose Sepulchre is in a part of the Greater 

1 The earliest existing reference that we have to the Psylli, or serpent- 
charmers, is found in the 58th Psalm, the 8th verse ; and the art is yet 
practised in the East. These men were, and still are, distinct tribes in 
their several countries, professing the power they claim to be an inherent 
and natural function. Lucan, in the 5th book of his "Pharsalia," gives a 
complete exposition of the ancient belief concerning the charming of ser- 
pents. He chiefly describes the measures which were taken to protect 
the Roman camp. When the encampment was marked out, the serpent- 
charmers marched around it chanting their charms, the mystic sounds of 
which chased the serpents far away. But not trusting entirely to this, 
fires of different kinds of wood were kept up beyond the furthest tents, 
the smell of which prevented the serpents from approaching. Thus the 
camp was protected during the night. But if any soldier when abroad in 
the day time happened to be bitten, the Psylli exerted their power to 
effect a cure. First they rubbed the wounded part around with saliva, 
to prevent, as they said, the poison from spreading while they assayed 
their arts to extract it : 

" Then sudden he begins the magic song, 

And rolls the numbers hasty o'er his tongue ; 

Swift he runs on, nor pauses once for breath, 

To stop the progress of approaching death ; 

He fears the cure might suffer by delay, 

And life be lost but for a moment's stay. 

Thus oft, though deep within the veins it lies, 

By magic numbers chased, the mischief flies : 

But if it hear too slow, if still it stay, 

And scorn the potent charmer to obey ; 

With forceful lips he fastens on the wound, 

Drains out and spits the venom to the ground." ROWE. 
Lane ("Modern Egyptian") gives a particular account of the different 
methods made use of by the Psylli of the present day when exhibiting 
their supposed powers. As to the pretensions of ancient as well as mo- 
dern serpent-charmers, of being in their own persons insensible to the 
poison of the reptiles, there is no satisfactory proof of it : indeed numerous 
instances to the contrary have occurred ; and where they escape unharmed, 
it is to be attributed to the poison fangs having been previously extracted, 
or to their fearless handling of the deadly creatures. See the note on 
Ps. Iviii. 5, in the "Pictorial Bible," by Dr. Kitto. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 181 

Syrtes, could do the like. These Men had naturally in 
their Bodies a Poison fatal to Serpents, so that by the 
Smell of it they were able to stupify them. And by 
this means they used to try the Chastity of their Wives. 
For as soon as their Children were born, they exposed 
them to the most furious Serpents ; for these would not fly 
from them if they were begotten in Adultery. This Nation, 
in general, hath been almost entirely extirpated by the 
Nasamones, who now inhabit those parts ; but a kind of 
these Men remaineth still, descended from those who fled, 
or else who were not present when the Battle was fought; but 
they exist in small Companies. In like manner, the Nation 
of the Marsi continue in Italy, who preserve the Reputa- 
tion of being descended from a Son of Circe, and therefore 
possess the same natural faculty. Yet so it is that all Men 
possess within them that which is Poison to Serpents: for 
it is reported they flee from Man's Spittle, as they do from 
the touch of Scalding Water; but if it penetrate into their 
Mouth, especially if it come from a Man that is fasting, it is 
present Death. Beyond the Nasamonse, and their Neigh- 
bours the Machlyae, there are Androgyni, of a double Nature, 
inter se vicibus coeuntes, as Calliphanes reporteth. Aristotle 
adds, that their Right Breast is like that of a Man, and the 
Left that of a Woman. In the same Africa Isigonus and Nym- 
phodorus avouch that there are certain Families of Charmers: 
who, if they praise, destroy the Sheep, cause .the Trees to 
wither, and Infants to pine away to death. Isigonus addeth 
further, that there are People of the same kind among the Tri- 
balli and Illyrii, who charrn with their Eyesight, and kill those 
whom they look upon for a long time, especially if their Eyes 
look angry : which Evil of theirs is more quickly felt by those 
who are above the age of Puberty. It is worthy of remark, 
that they have two Pupils in each Eye. Of this kind Apol- 
lonides saith, there are also Women in Scythia named Bithyae. 
Philarchus witnesseth, that in Pontus also the Race of 
the Thibii, and many others, have the same Quality : of 
whom he giveth these marks, that in one of their Eyes they 
have two Pupils, and in the other the Resemblance of a 



182 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

Horse. He reporteth also, that they cannot sink in the 
Water, not even if weighed down with Apparel. Damon 
reports that there is a sort of People not unlike these in 
Ethiopia, called Pharnaces, whose Sweat, if it chance to 
touch a Man's Body, presently causeth him to waste away. 
And Cicero, 1 a Writer of our own, testifieth, that all Women 
everywhere who have double Pupils in their Eyes inflict 
Injury with their Sight. In such manner Nature, having 
generated in Man this custom of Wild Beasts, to feed upon 
the Bowels of Men, hath taken Delight also to generate 
Poisons in their whole Body, and even in the very Eyes of 
some; that there should be no evil in the whole World, that 
might not be likewise found in Man. Not far from the City 
of Rome, within the Territory of the Falisci, there are a few 
Families called Hirpise, which at their Yearly Sacrifice cele- 
brated to Apollo upon the Mount Soracte, walk upon the 
pile of Wood as it is on Fire without being burnt. 2 On 
which account, by a perpetual Act of the Senate, they possess 
an Immunity from War and all other Public Services. 
Some men have certain Parts of their Bodies naturally 
working surprising Effects. As for example, King Pyrrhus, 3 
whose Great Toe of his Right Foot was a Remedy by its 

1 This must have been in some of the lost works of Cicero, as no 
such opinion is found in any of his extant writings. Wern. Club. 

2 The art of treading bare-foot on burning embers, red-hot iron, &c., 
which has its professors in the present day, is from this passage shewn to 
be of great antiquity ; Virgil also alludes to the same when he speaks of 
the annual festival of the Hirpi on Mount Soracte, in Etruria, where 
Chlorcus, the priest of Cybele, thus addresses Apollo (yEn. xi. 785) : 

" O patron of Soracte's high abodes ! 

Phoebus, the ruling power among the gods ! 

Whom first we serve : whole woods of unctuous pine 

Are fell'd for thee, and to thy glory shine ; 

By thee protected, with our naked soles, 

Through flames unsinged we march, and tread the kindled coals." 

DRYDEN. Wern. Club. 

3 According to Plutarch, in his life of Pyrrhus, the person of this king 
was very extraordinary : " Instead of teeth in his upper jaw, he had one 
continued bone, marked with small lines resembling the divisions of a row 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 183 

Touch for them that had Diseased Spleens. And they say, that 
when the rest of his Body was Burned that Great Toe could 
not be consumed : so that it was preserved in a little Case in 
the Temple. But principally India and the whole Tract of 
Ethiopia is full of these wonderful Things. The greatest Ani- 
mals are bred in India, as will appear by their Dogs, 1 which 
are much greater than those of other Parts. And there are 
Trees growing in that Country to such a Height, that a 
Man cannot shoot an Arrow over them. The reason of this 
is the Goodness of the Soil, the Temperature of the Air, and 
the Abundance of Water : which is the cause also that under 
a single Fig-tree, 2 if it can be believed, Squadrons of Horse- 
men may stand. There are Reeds also of such Length 3 that 
between every Joint they will yield sufficient to make Boats 
able to receive three Men. There are many Men there who 
are above five Cubits in Height : never do they Spit : they 
are not troubled with Pain in the Head, Toothache, or any 
Disease of the Eyes, and seldom of any other Parts of the 
Body; so hardy are they through the Moderate Heat of the 
Sun. There are certain Philosophers, whom they call Gym- 
nosophistae, 4 who from Sunrising to its setting persevere in 
standing and looking full against the Sun without once 

of teeth. It was believed that he cured the swelling of the spleen, by 
sacrificing a white cock, and with his right foot gently pressing the part 
affected, the patients lying on their backs for that purpose. There was 
no person, however poor or mean, to whom he refused this relief, if 
requested. He received no reward, except the cock for sacrifice ; and this 
present was very agreeable to him. It is also said that the great toe of 
that foot had a divine virtue in it ; for, after his death, when the rest of 
his body was consumed, that toe was found entire and untouched by the 
flames." LANGHORNE. The reader will here be reminded of the royal 
touch for the cure of scrofulous diseases once exercised by our own kings. 
Wern. Club. 

1 Pliny (lib. viii. 40) tells us of one of these Indian dogs that con- 
quered a lion. Wern. Club. 

2 The Ficus Religiosa, well known to modern travellers. Wern. Club. 

3 Lib. xvi. 36. 

4 It is remarkable to observe how exactly the austerities of these 
ancient gymnosophists are still practised by the Fakirs of India. Wern. 
Club. 



184 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

moving their Eyes : and from Morning to Night stand some- 
times on one Leg, and sometimes on the other, on the Burn- 
ing Sand. Meyasthenes writeth, that on a Mountain named 
Milo, there are Men whose Feet are turned backward, and 
on each Foot they have eight Toes. And in many other 
Mountains there is a kind of Men with Heads like Dog's, clad 

O ' 

all over with the Skins of Wild Beasts, and who instead of 
Speech used to Bark: they are armed with Nails, and they live 
on the Prey which they get by Hunting Beasts, and Fowling. 
Ctesias writeth that there were known of them above 
120,000 in number ; and that in a certain Country of 
India the Women bear but once in their Life, and their 
Infants presently become Grey. Likewise, that there is a 
kind of People named Monoscelli, which have but one Leg, 
but they are exceedingly Swift, and proceed by Hopping. 
These same Men are also called Sciopodse, because in the 
hottest Season they lie along on their Back on the Ground, 
and defend themselves with the Shadow of their Feet : and 
these People are not far from the Trogloditae. Again, be- 
yond these westward, some there are without a Neck, but 
carrying their Eyes in their Shoulders. Among the Western 
Mountains of India there are the Satyri (the Country where 
they are is called the Region of the Cartaduli), the swiftest 
of all Animals : which sometimes run on four Legs, at 
others on two Feet like Men : but so light-footed are they, 
that unless they are very Old or Sick they cannot be taken. 
Tauron writeth, that the Choromandee are a wild People, 
without any Voice, but uttering a horrible Noise : their 
Bodies Hairy, their Eyes bluish-grey, their Teeth like Dogs. 
Eudoxus saith, that in the South Parts of India the Men 
have Feet a Cubit long, but those of the Women 1 are 
so small that they are called Struthopodes. Megasthenes 
writeth, that among the Indian Nomadse there is a Nation 

1 This character is so applicable to Chinese women, that it seems to 
point out the great antiquity to which the strange custom of binding their 
feet can be traced. The name of Struthopodes, or ostrich -footed, can only 
have been applied to them by foreigners, but is not badly descriptive of 
the figure of this artificial deformity. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 185 

that instead of Noses have only two small Orifices, and after 
the manner of Snakes have wiry Legs, and are named 
Syrictae. In the utmost Borders of India, eastward, about 
the Source of the Ganges, there is a Nation called the 
Asthomes, having no Mouths : hairy over the whole Body, 
but clothed with the Down of the Branches of Trees : they 
live only by the Vapour and Smell which they draw in at 
their Nostrils : no Meat or Drink do they take, but only 
various pleasant Odours from Roots, Flowers, and Wild 
Fruits ; which they carry with them when they take a Long 
Journey, because they would not miss their Smelling; but if 
the Scent be a little too strong they are soon deprived of 
Life. Higher in the Country, in the Edge of the Mountains, 
the Pygmaei Spithamei are reported to be ; which are three 
Spans in Length, that is, not exceeding three times nine 
Inches. The Climate is healthy, and ever like the Spring, 
by reason that the Mountains are on the North side of them. 
And these People Homer 1 also hath reported to be much 
annoyed by Cranes. The report goeth, that in the Time of 
Spring they set out all in a great Troop, mounted upon the 
Backs of Rams and Goats, armed with Darts, to go down to 
the Sea-side, and devour the Eggs and Young of their 
Winged prey. For three Months this Expedition continueth, 
for otherwise they would not be able to withstand their future 
Flocks. Their Cottages are made of Clay, Feathers, and 
Egg-shells. Aristotle' 2 ' writeth, that the Pygmsei live in 
Caves. For all the other matters he reported the same as 
all the rest. Isigonus saith, that the kind of Indians named 
Cyrni live a hundred and forty Years. The like he thinketh 
of the Ethiopian Macrobii and the Serae, and those who 

1 Iliad, lib. iii. 6 : 

" So when inclement winters vex the plain 
With piercing frosts, or thick descending rain, 
To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly, 
With noise, and order, through the mid- way sky : 
To pygmy nations wounds and death they bring, 
And all the war descends upon the wing." POPE. 

5 Hist. Anim. lib. viii. 15. 



186 History of Na tyre. [BooK VIT. 

dwell upon Mount Athos : and of these last, because they 
Feed on Vipers' 1 Flesh, and therefore it is that no offensive 
Creatures are found on their Heads, nor on their Clothes. 
Onesicritus affirmeth, that in those Parts of India there are 
no Shadows, that the Men are five Cubits and two Palms in 
Stature, that they live one hundred and thirty Years : and 
never bear the Marks of Age, but die as if they were in the 
middle of their age. Crates of Pergamus nameth those 
Indians, who live above an hundred Years, Gymnetae : but 
not a few call them Macrobii. Ctesias saith there is a Race 
of Indians, named Pandore, inhabiting certain Valleys, who 
live two hundred Years : in their youthful Time their Hair is 
White, but as they grow old it becometh Black. On the 
other hand, there are some who are Neighbours to the 
Macrobii, who exceed not forty Years, and their Women 
bear but once in their Lifetime. And this also is avouched 
by Agatharcides, who addeth, that they feed on Locusts, and 
are swift of Foot. Clitarchus and Megasthenes name them 
Mandri, and number up three hundred Villages in their 
Country : also, that the Women bear Children when they 
are but seven Years old, and are aged at forty. Artemi- 
dorus affirmeth, that in the Island Taprobana the People 
live exceeding long without any Bodily Infirmity. Duris 
maketh report, that certain Indians have fellowship with 
Beasts, of which acquaintance are bred a mixed and half 
Savage Race ; that among the Calingi, a Nation of India, 
the Women conceive at five Years of Age, and live not above 
eight. In another Tract of that Country, there are Men with 
shaggy Tails and of great Swiftness : and some again that 
with their Ears cover their whole Body. The Orites are 
divided from the Indians by the River Arbis. They are 
acquainted with no other Food but Fish, which they split 
in Pieces with their Nails, and Roast against the Sun, 
and then make Bread of it, as Clitarchus makes Report. 
Crates of Pergamus saith, that the Trogloditse above Ethiopia 
are swifter than Horses, and that there are Ethiopians above 

1 Lib. xxix. 6. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 187 

eight Cubits High : that this Nation of Ethiopian Nomades 
is called Syrbotse, and dwelleth along the River Astapus, 
toward the North. The Nation called Menismini dwell 
Twenty Days' Journey from the Ocean, and live on the Milk 
of certain Animals which we call Cynocephali, 1 of which 
they keep Flocks of the Females, but they kill the Males, 
except only enough to preserve the Race. In the Deserts of 
Africa you will meet oftentimes with Appearances in the 
shape of Men, but they vanish in an instant. Ingenious 
Nature disposes this and such-like things, as a Pastime to 
her, but which are Miracles to us. And indeed, who is able 
to recount every one of her Sports, which she accomplishes 
daily and even hourly ? Let it suffice therefore, in order to 
declare her Power, that we have set down those prodigious 
Works of hers, as displayed in whole Nations. And now we 
proceed to a few Particulars that are well known in regard 
to Man. 

CHAPTER III. 

Of Prodigious Births* 

THAT Women may bring forth three at one Birth, ap- 
peareth evidently by the example of the Horatii and Curiatii. 
But to exceed that number is reputed to be among the Por- 
tents ; except in Egypt, where Women are more fruitful by 
drinking the Water of the Nile. Of late Years, about the 
latter end of the Reign of Divus Augustus, a Woman at Ostia 
named Fausta, of ordinary Rank, was delivered of two 
Boys and as many Girls ; but this was a Portent beyond 

1 The cynocephalus anubis of modern zoologists is without doubt here 
intended. Wern. Club. 

2 " Prodigious births :" that is, not simply out of the common course 
of nature, but such as were believed to be prophetic of some remarkable 
events, and so reported by augurs to the proper authorities. What, at the 
end of this chapter, Pliny reports that he had himself seen, is of no uncom- 
mon occurrence, and would be regarded among us as nothing beyond a 
monstrous birth, an irregular formation of nature ; but the incident he 
mentions last can only be regarded as a proof of the great agitation of the 
public mind, at a period when the danger was a sufficient motive to raise 
and propagate the strangest reports. Wern. Club. 



188 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

doubt of the Famine that ensued. In Peloponnesus also 
there is found a Woman, who brought forth at four Births 
twenty Children, and the greater Part of them lived. 
Trogus is the authority, that in Egypt a Woman hath borne 
seven at a Birth. It falleth out, moreover, that there come 
into the World Children of both Sexes in one, whom we call 
Hermaphrodites. In old Time they were known by the 
Name of Androgyni, and reputed for Prodigies ; but now 
Men take Pleasure in them. Pompey the Great, in the 
Theatre which he adorned with remarkable Ornaments, as 
well for the subject as the most exquisite Hand of the great 
Artists, among other Images represented Eutichtt, a Woman 
of Tralles, who after she had borne thirty Births, was carried 
by twenty of her Children to the Funeral Fire for to be 
burnt. AlcippZ was delivered of an Elephant, and that 
certainly was a monstrous Token. Also in the beginning of 
the Marsian War a Bondwoman brought forth a Serpent. 1 

1 We know how prone vulgar ignorance or superstition is to compare 
an ordinary monstrous birth to some fancied animal. Such is within the 
knowledge of living observers. But what shall we say to the following ? 
" Lemnius tells us of a monster, that a certain woman was delivered of, 
and to whom he himself was physician and present at the sight, which at 
the appearing of the day filled all the chamber with roaring and crying, 
running all about to find some hole to creep into-; but the women at the 
length stifled and smothered it with pillows." Wanleys Wonders of the 
Little World. And from the same authority : " Johannes Naborowsky, 
a noble Polonian, and my great friend, (says Bartholini, "Hist. Anat.") 
told me at Basil, that he had seen in his country two little fishes without 
scales, which were brought forth by a woman, and as soon as they came 
out of her womb did swim in the water as other fish." The story given 
by Wormius, concerning the birth of an egg from a woman (and of which 
he gives a figure in his " Museum Wormianum,") is illustrated, and per- 
haps explained, as may all the others on the same principle, by another 
given in Wanley's book, of a woman " of good quality, who had made 
great preparations for her lying-in, but in the last month her distension 
subsided, and it is confessed that she plumped herself up with a stuffing of 
garments. However, the time must come at last, and she was delivered 
of a creature, very like unto a dormouse of the greater size, which to the 
amazement of the women who were present, with marvellous celerity 
sought out and found a hole in the chamber, into which it crept and was 
never seen after." Instances somewhat similar have occurred in very 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 189 

Many misshapen Creatures of various kinds are produced as 
Monsters in the World. Claudius Ccesar writeth, that in Thes- 
saly an Hippocentaur was born, and that it died on the very 
same Day. And when he was Sovereign we ourselves saw the 
like sent to him out of Egypt, preserved in Honey. Among 
the Instances there is one of a Child in Saguntum, in the Year 
in which that Town was destroyed by Annibal, which, as soon 
as it was born, presently returned again into the Womb. 

CHAPTER IV. 
Of the Change of the Sex ; l and of Double Births. 

IT is no fable, that Females may be turned to Males ; 
for we have found it recorded in the Annals, that in the Year 
when Pub. Licinius Crassus and C. Cassius Longinus were 
Consuls, there was at Cassinum a Maid who, under her 
Parents, became a Boy : and by the order of the Aruspices 
he was conveyed to a Desert Island. Lucinius Mutianus re- 
porteth, that himself saw at Argos a Person named Arescon, 
who had borne the Name of Arescusa, and even had been 
Married : but afterwards came to have a Beard, and the 
general Properties of a Man, and thereupon married a Wife. 
After the same sort he saw at Smyrna a Boy changed. I 
myself was an Eye-witness, that in Africa L. Cossicius, a 

recent times, to the great disappointment of expecting friends : and the 
laugh could only have been rendered the louder if, instead of a simple dis- 
appointment, an egg or dormouse, an elephant or serpent had been the 
result. By law, " Ut monstrosos partus necare parentibus liceret," that 
" it should be lawful to parents to put to death children that were born 
monstrous;" but Dionysius Halicarnasseus adds, that it was necessary 
they should call witnesses to prove that they were monstrous : although 
the latter stipulation can scarcely be reconciled with another law, which 
gave to parents the right of life and death over their children. Accord- 
ing to the law of Tullus Hostilius, third king of Rome, when three chil- 
dren were born at one birth, they were to be brought up to the age of 
maturity at the public charge. Wern. Club. 

1 Instances similar to these are scarcely uncommon, and the causes 
are well known to anatomists. The remarks concerning the fate of twins 
are so contrary to experience, that Pliny's error can scarcely be accounted 
for. Wern. Club. 



190 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Citizen of Tisdrita, was turned from a Woman to a Man 
upon the very Marriage-day. If a Woman bring Twins, it 
is rare for them all to live, but either the Mother dieth, or 
one of the Babes, if not both. But if the Twins be of both 
Sexes, it is rare for both of them to escape. Women grow 
old sooner than Men ; and they grow to their Maturity more 
speedily than Men. It is certain that a Male Child stirreth 
oftener in the Womb, and lieth commonly more to the right 
Side ; whereas Females incline to the left. 1 

CAP. V. 

De Hominis Generando, et Pariendi Tempore per illustria 
Exempla a Mensibus septem ad undecim. 2 

C^TERIS animantibus statum, et pariendi, et partus 
gerendi tempus est ; homo toto anno, et incerto gignitur 
spatio. Alius septimo mense, alius octavo, et usque ad initia 
decimi undecimique. Ante septimum mensem baud unquam 
vitalis est. Septimo non nisi pridie posterove plenilunii die, 
aut interlunio concept! nascuntur. Translatitium in ^Sgypto 
est et octavo gigni. Jam quidem et in Italia tales partus 
esse vitales, contra priscorum opiniones. Variant hsec plu- 
ribus modis. Vestilia C. Herditii ac postea Pomponii atque 
Orfiti, clarissimorum civium, conjunx, ex his quatuor partus 
enixa, Sempronium septimo mensi genuit, Suilliuni Rufum 
undecimo, Corbulonem septimo, utrunque Consulem : postea 
Caesoniam Caii 3 principis conjugem, octavo. In quo men- 
sium numero genitis, intra quadragesimum diem maximus 

1 No signs are known by which the sex of the child before birth is in 
the least indicated. Wern Club. 

2 The term of pregnancy natural to the human female is 280 days ; 
by the Prussian laws, 300 days ; by the French, 301 days are considered 
to mark the extreme limit. From physiological reasons it is extremely 
improbable if the usual term of nine calendar, or ten lunar months, is 
ever exceeded by more than one lunar month. Wern. Club. 

3 The emperor so named is better known by the name of Caligula, 
which was imposed upon him on account of the military shoe which, 
when a child, he wore in the camp. The wife's father here spoken of 
was the Emperor Augustus. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 191 

labor. Gravidis autetn quarto et octavo mense, letalesque in 
iis abortus. Massurius auctor est, L. Papyrium Prsetorem, 
secundo hserede lege agente, bonorum possessionem contra 
eum dedisse, cum mater partum se 13 mensibus diceret 
tulisse, quoniara nullum certum tempus pariendi statutum 
videretur. 1 

CAP. VI. 

De Conceptibus, et Signa Sexus in gravidis prcevenientia 
Partum. 

A CONCEPTU decimo die, doloris capitis, oculorum verti- 
ginis tenebrseque, fastidium in cibis, redundatio stomachi, 
indices sunt horninis inchoati. Melior color marem ferenti, 
et facilior partus : motus in utero quadragesimo die. Con- 
traria omnia in altero sexu : ingestabile onus, crurum et 
inguinum levis tumor. Primus autem nonagesimo die 
motus. Sed plurimum languoris in utroque sexu, capil- 
lum germinante partu, et in plenilunio ; quod tempus editos 
quoque infantes prsecipue infestat. Adeoque incessus, atque 
omne, quicquid dici potest, in gravida refert : ut salsioribus 
cibis usae, carentem unguiculis partum edant, et, si respi- 
ravere, difficilius enitantur. Oscitatio quidem in enixu letalis 
est: sicut sternuisse a coi'tu abortivum. 

CAP. VII. 
De Conceptu Hominum et Generatione. 

MISERET atque etiam pudet aestimantem quam sit frivola 
animalium superbissimi origo, cum plerunque abortus causa 
fiat odor a lucernarum extinctu. His principiis nascuntur 
tyranni, his carnifex animus. Tu qui corporis viribus fidis, 

1 According to the Roman law : " Sei qua molier post virei mortem 
in decem proximeis mensebos pariat, quei, quave ex ea nascatur, sonus, 
suave, in verei familia heres estod :" "If a woman is delivered of a 
child ten months after the death of her husband, let the child born, either 
boy or girl, be heir to his father." Ulpian's opinion is, that a child born 
eleven months after the death of his father is not able to inherit. The 
Emperor Adrian allowed a legitimate birth in the eleventh month ; but 
this is explained by saying, that the eleventh month may be begun, but 
not ended. Wem. Club. 



192 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

tu qui fortunes munera amplexaris, et te ne alumnum qui- 
dem ejus existimas, sed partum : tu cujus semper in victoria 
est mens, tu qui te Deum credis, aliquo successu turaens, 
tanti perire potuisti : atque etiam hodie minoris potes, quan- 
tulo serpentis ictus dente : aut etiam, ut Anacreon Poeta, 
acino uvae passse : ut Fabius Senator Praetor, in lactis haustu 
uno pilo strangulatus. Is demum profecto vitam aequa lance 
pensitabat, qui semper fragilitatis human memor fuerit. 

CAP. VIII. 
De Agrippis. 

IN pedes procedere nascentem contra naturam est; quo 
argumento eos appellavere agrippas, ut segre partos : qua- 
liter M. Agrippam ferunt genitum unico prope felicitatis 
exemplo in omnibus ad hunc modum genitis. Quanquam is 
quoque adversa pedum valetudine, misera juventa, exercito 
aevo inter arma mortesque, ad noxia successu, infelici terris 
stirpi omni, sed per utrasque Agrippinas maxirne, quae Caium 
et Domitium Neronem Principes genuere, totidem faces 
generis humani : praeterea brevitate aevi quinquagesimo uno 
raptus anno, in tormentis adulteriorum conjugis, socerique 
praegravi servitio, luisse augurium praeposteri natalis existi- 
matur. Neronem, quoque paulo ante Principem, et toto Prin- 
cipatu suo hostem generis humani, pedibus genitum parens 
ejus scribit Agrippina. Ritu naturae capite hominem gigni 
mos est, pedibus efferri. 

CAP. IX. 

Monstruosi Partus excisi Utero. 

AUSPICATIUS enecta parente gignuntur, sicut Scipio Afri- 
canus prior natus, primusque Csesarum a caeso matris utero 
dictus : qua de causa et Caesones appellati. 1 Siinili modo 
natus et Manlius, qui Carthaginem cum exercitu intravit. 

1 The Caesarian operation, as it is now called, has been an unsuccessful 
one in modern times ; but this arises from the fact that it is now performed 
on the living mother to preserve her life, perhaps at the risk of that of 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 193 

CAP. X. 

Qui sint Vopisci. 

VOPISCOS appellabant e geminis, qui retenti utero nasce- 
rentur, altero interempto abortu. Namque maxima et rara 
circa hoc miracula existunt. 

CAP. XI. 
Exempla Numerosa Sobolis. 

PRJETER mulierem pauca animalia coitura novere gra- 
vida. Unum quidem omnino, aut alterum, superfoetat. 1 
Extat in monumentis etiam medicorum, et quibus talia con- 
sectari curse fuit, uno abortu duodecim puerperia egesta. 
Sed ubi paululum teraporis inter duos conceptus intercessit, 
uterque perfertur : ut in Hercule et Iphiclo fratre ejus apparuit, 
et in ea quae gemino partu, altero marito similem, alterum 
adultero genuit ; Item in Proconnesia ancilla, quae ejusdem 
diei coitu, alterum domino similem, alterum procurator! 
ejus; et in alia, qua? unum justo partu quinque mensium 
alterum edidit. Rursus in alia, quae septein mensium edito 
puerperio, insecutis mensibus geminos enixa est. Jam ilia 
vulgata, varie ex integris truncos gigni, ex truncis integros, 
eademque parte truncos: signa quaedam, naevosque et cica- 
trices etiam regenerari. Quarto partus Dacorum originis Nota 
in brachio redditur. 

CHAPTER XII. 
Examples of those who have closely resembled one another." 

IN the Race of the Lepidi it is said there were three, not 
successively one after another, who had when they were 

the child ; whereas it appears that anciently it was had recourse to only 
after the mother had expired, to save the child which still gave signs of 
life. Cornelius Gamma says, that he performed it six times on as many 
women, and that the children were preserved ; but he says nothing of the 
fate of the mothers. Wern. Club. 

1 Superfcetation is an exceedingly rare occurrence in women; but some 
modern instances place the certainty of this fact on certain grounds. 
Wern. Club. 

2 This chapter is borrowed from Aristotle's " History of Animals," 
b. xvii. c. 6. Wern. Club. 

VOL. IT. O 



194 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Born, a Membrane growing over the Eye. Some have 
resembled their Grandfathers : and of Twins, one hath been 
like the Father, the other the Mother : but he that was 
Born a year after hath been so like his elder Brother as if he 
had been one of the Twins. Some Women bring all their 
Children like themselves ; others again resembling their 
Husbands, and some like neither the one nor the other. 
Some Women bring all their Daughters like their Fathers, 
and their Sons like the Mothers. The Example is undoubted, 
of NiccBus^ a famous Painter of Byzantium, who having to 
his Mother a Woman begotten in Adultery by an Ethiopian, 
and nothing different in Colour from other Women, was 
himself begotten an Ethiopian. Indeed, the Consideration 
of the Likenesses is in the Mind ; in which likewise many 
other Accidents are thought to be very strong, whether they 
come by Sight, Hearing, and Memory, or Imaginations 
drunk in in the very instant of Conception. 1 The thought of 
either Father or Mother flying to and fro transporting the 
Soul in a moment, is supposed to stamp this Likeness, or to 
mix it. On this account it is that Men are more unlike one 
another than other Creatures: for the Quickness of the 
Thoughts, the Agility of the Mind, the very great variety 
of our Dispositions, imprint the great Multiplicity of Marks ; 
whereas the Minds of other Creatures is immovable, being 
alike in all, and in every one according to its own Kind. 
Artenon, a Man of the common Rank, was so like in all 
points to Antiochus King of Syria, that Laodicl the Queen, 
after Antiochus was killed, effected the Succession of the 
Kingdom through his acting the part of Recommendation. 
Vibius, a certain Commoner of Rome, and Publicius, one 
from a Bondslave made a Freeman, were both of them so 
like Pompey the Great, that the one could scarcely be 
discerned from the other : so closely did they represent that 
open Countenance, and the singular Majesty which appeared 
in his Forehead. The like cause it was that gave his Father 
also the Surname of Menogenes, from his Cook ; although he 

1 The reader will scarcely fail to remember Jacob's singular stratagem 
with Laban's flock Genesis, xxx. and xxxi. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 195 

was already surnamed Strabo, because of his Squint Eyes : 
imitating a defect that existed in his Servant. So was one 
of the Scipios surnamed Serapio upon such an occasion, 
after the name of one Serapio, who was a base Slave of his, 
and the dealer in buying and selling his Swine. Another 
Scipio after him, of the same House, was surnamed Salutio, 
because of a certain Jester of that Name. After the same 
manner one Spinter, a Player of the second Place, 1 arid 
Pamphilus, a Player of the third Part, resembled Lentulus 
and Metellus, who were Consuls together. And this fell 
out very untowardly, that such resemblances of the two 
Consuls should be seen together on the Stage. On the other 
hand, Rubrius the Player was surnamed Plancus, because 
he was so like Plancus the Orator. Again, Burbuleius and 
Menogenes, both Players, gave name, the one to Curio the 
Father, as did the other to Messala Censorius. There 
was in Sicily a Fisherman who resembled Sura the Pro- 
consul, not in general likeness only, but also in the grin 
when he spoke, in drawing his Tongue short, and in his 
thick Speech. Cassius Severus, the famous Orator, was 
reproached for being like Mirmillo, a Keeper of Cattle. 
Toranius sold to Marcus Antonius, at that time Triumvir, 
two very beautiful Boys as Twins, so like they were one to 
the other : although one was born in Asia, and the other 
beyond the Alps. But when Antony afterwards came to 
the knowledge of the fraud, which was detected by the Lan- 
guage of the Boys, he threatened him in great Anger : 
Among other things complaining of the high Price that he 
had made him pay, for they cost him two hundred Sesterces. 
But the cunning Merchant answered, That this was the very 
cause why he bad sold them at so great a rate : for it would 
not have been so wonderful if two Brothers of the same 
Mother had resembled one another ; but that there should 
be any found, who were born in different Countries, so like 
in all respects, was above every thing deserving of a high 
Price. This answer of his produced a well-timed admiration, 

1 That is, he who supported the second or the third rate of characters 
on the ancient stage. Wern. Club. 



196 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

so that the Proscriptor, whose mind was enraged and uttered 
reproaches, was not only appeased, hut also induced to be 
well pleased with his good Fortune. 

CAP. XIII. 
Qucs sit Generandi Ratio. 

EST quaedam privatim dissociatio corporum ; et inter se 
steriles, uhi cum aliis junxere, gignunt : sicut Augustus et 
Livia. Item alii aliaeque fbeminas tantum generant, aut 
mares ; plerunque et alternant : sicut Gracchorum mater duo- 
decies, et Agrippina Germanici novies. Aliis sterilis est 
juventa, aliis semel in vita datur gignere. Quaedam non 
perferunt partus : quales, si quando medicina et cura vicere, 
fceminam fere gignunt. Divus Augustus in reliqua exemplo- 
rum raritate, neptis suae nepotem vidit genitum quo excessit 
anno, M. Syllanum ; qui cum Asiam obtineret post Consu- 
latum, Neronis Principis successione, veneno ejus interemptus 
est. Q. Metellus Macedonicus, cum sex liberos relinqueret, 
undecim nepotes reliquit, nurus vero generosque et omnes 
qui se patris appellatione salutarent, viginti septem. In Actis 
temporum Divi Augusti invenitur, XII. Consulatu ejus L. 
qusB Sylla Collega, ad III. Id us Aprilis, C. Crispinum Hila- 
rum ex ingenua plebe Fesulana, cum liberis novem (in quo 
numero filiae duae fuerunt) nepotibus XXVII., pronepotibus 
XXIX., neptibus IX., praelata pompa, cum omnibus in 
Capitolio immolasse. 1 

1 These instances are more than equalled by some which are men- 
tioned in the preface to " Hearne's Edition of Leland," vol. vi. p. 4. 
Mary, wife of Richard Honiwood, of Charinge, in Kent, died at the age 
of ninety-eight, in the year 1620, leaving by one husband sixteen children, 
114 grand-children, 228 great-grand-children, and nine in the fourth de- 
gree : in all 367 persons. Thomas Urqhart, laird and sheriff of Cromarty, 
had by one wife twenty-five sons and eleven daughters : all of whom he 
lived to see of considerable eminence in the world. "In Dunstable 
church," says Hakewell (Apol.) " is an epitaph on a woman, testifying 
that she bore three children at a birth three several times, and five at a 
birth two other times." In the year 1553 the wife of John Gissger, an 
Italian, had twins, and before the year was out she produced five children, 
three sons and two daughters. Thomas Fazel writes that " Jane Pancica, 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 197 

CAP. XIV. 
De eodem multiplicius. 

MULIER post quinquagesimum annum non gignit, major- 
que pars quadragesimo profluvium genitale sistit. Nam in 
viris Massinissam Regem, post LXXXVI. annum generasse 
filium, quern Methymnatum appellaverit, clarum est: Cato- 
nem Censorium octogesimo exacto, a filia Salonii clientis sui. 
Qua de causa, aliorum ejus liberorum propago, Liciniani 
snnt cognominati, hi Saloniani, ex quibus Uticensis fuit. 
Nuper etiam L. Volusio Saturnine in urbis praefectura ex- 
tincto, notum est Cornelias Scipionum gentis Volusium Sa- 
turninum, qui fuit Consul, genitum post LXII. annum. 
Et usque ad LXXXV. apud ignobiles vulgaris reperitur 
generatio. 

CAP. XV. 
.De Menstruis Mulierum. 

SOLUM autem animal menstruale mulier est : inde unius 
utero, quas appellarunt molas. Ea est caro informis, 
inanima, ferri ictum et aciein respuens. Movetur, sistitque 
menses; ut et partus, alias lethalis, alias una senescens, 
aliquando alvo citatiore excidens. Simile quiddam et viris 
in ventre gignitur, quod vocant scirron : sic ut Oppio Capi- 
toni praetorio viro. Sed nihil facile reperiatur mulierum 
profluvio magis monstrificum. Acescunt superventu inusta, 
sterilescunt tactae frtiges, moriuntur insita, exuruntur horto- 
rum germina, et fructus arborum, quibus insidere, decidunt ; 
speculorum fulgor aspectu ipso hebetatur, acies ferri prae- 
stringitur, eborisque nitor ; alvei apum emoriuntur ; aes 
etiam ac ferrum rubigo protinus corripit, odorque dirus 
aera ; et in rabiem aguntur gustato eo canes, atque insanabili 
veneno morsus inficitur. Quin et bituminum sequax alio- 

wife of Bernard, a Sicilian, in thirty births produced seventy-three 
children." The latter instances are from Wanley's " Wonders of the 
Little World," where his authorities are given. Wern. Club. 



198 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

quin ac lenta Natura, in Lacu Judaese (qui vocatur Asphal- 
tites), certo tempore anni supernatans, nequit sibi avelli, ad 
omnein contactum adhserens, praeterquam filo quod tale 
virus infecerit. Etiam formicis animali minimo, inesse sen- 
sum ejus ferunt; abjicique gustatas fruges, nee postea repeti. 
Et hoc tale tantumque omnibus tricenis diebus malum in 
muliere exsistit, et trimestri spatio largius. Quibusdam vero 
saepius mense; sicut aliquibus nunquam ; sed tales non gig- 
nunt, quando hsec est generando homini rnateria semine e 
maribus coaguli modo hoc in sese glomerante, quod deinde 
tempore ipso animatur, corporaturque. Ergo cum gravidis 
fluxit, invalidi aut non vitales partus eduntur, aut saniosi, ut 
autor est Negidius. 1 

CAP. XVI. 
Item de Ratione Partuum. 

IDEM, lac fbeminae non corrumpi alenti partum si ex 
eodem viro rursus conceperit, arbitratur. Incipiente autem 
hoc statu, aut desinente, conceptus facillimi traduntur. 
Faecunditatis in fceminis praerogativam accepimus, inunctis 
medicamine oculis, salivam infici. Caeterum editis primores 
septimo mense gigni dentes priusque in supera fere parte,haud 
dubium est. Septimo eosdem decidere anno, aliosque suffici. 
Quosdam et cum dentibus nasci, 2 sicut M. Curium, quod ob 
id Dentatus cognominatus est, et Cn. Papyrium Carbonem, 
praeclaros viros. In Women the same thing was counted 
inauspicious in the times of the Kings, for when Valeria 
was born toothed in this manner, the Augurs (Aruspices) 
being consulted about it, answered by way of Prophecy, 
that she would be the ruin of that City to which she might 
be conveyed ; whereupon she was conveyed to Suessa Pometia, 

1 Much that is here stated is erroneous, and mere fable ; the recondite 
subject of generation abounding in the marvellous. Wern. Club. 

2 However this might have been regarded in ancient times, on a super- 
stitious account, it is not an uncommon circumstance. The editor is 
acquainted with the fact, that in an instance of three children being born 
at one birth, all of them were furnished with teeth.- Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 199 

which at that time was very flourishing: and the ruin of the 
place certainly followed. Cornelia, the Mother of the Grac- 
chi, is sufficient proof that it is an adverse omen, when 
Women are born with the Genital Parts grown together. 
Some Children are born with a continued edge of Bone 
instead of a row of distinct Teeth j 1 as a Son of Prusius King 
of the Bythinians, who had such a Bone in his Upper Jaw. 
But Teeth are the only parts that are not subdued by the 
Fires ; so that they are not consumed with the rest of the 
Body; but the same parts that are not conquered by the 
Flames are hollowed out and wasted by a Waterish Rheum. 
They may be made White by some Medicines. They are 
worn away by use ; and sometimes they fall first out of the 
Head ; they serve not only to grind our Meat for our Nourish- 
ment, but they are necessary for the framing of our Speech. 
The Fore-teeth hold the Government over our Voice and 
Words by a peculiar accord, answering to the Stroke of the 
Tongue, and the series of their Formation, with their Size, 
catting up, softening, or restraining the Words ; but when 
they are fallen out all explanation of Words is lost. 
Moreover, it may be believed, that some Augury can be 
gathered from the Teeth. Men are in possession of two-and- 
thirty in all, except the Nation of the Turduli ; and those 
who have above this Number suppose that they may calcu- 
late on longer Life. Women have not so many : they that 
have on the right Side in the upper Jaw two Eye-teeth, 
named Canine, may promise themselves the Favours of For- 
tune ; as was the case in Agrippina, the Mother of Domitius 
Nero : but it is the contrary in the Left Side. It is not the Cus- 
tom in any Country to burn in a Funeral Fire the dead Body 
of an Infant before the Teeth are come up : but of this we will 
write more, when our History will take in the individual 
Members. Zoroastres was the only Man we have heard of, 
who laughed the same day he was born : his Brain did so 
evidently pulsate, that it would lift up the Hand that was 
laid on it: a Presage of his future Learning. It is certain 

1 This was also the case with King Pyrrhus. See note, lib. vii. 2. 
Wem. Club. 



200 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

that a Man at three years of Age is come to one-half of the 
Measure of his Height. This also is observed for a Truth, that 
generally all Men fall short of the full Stature in Times past ; 
and seldom are they taller than their Fathers : the Exube- 
rance of the Seeds being consumed by the burning, in the 
Changes of which the World now vergeth toward the latter 
End. In Crete, a Mountain being cloven asunder by an 
Earthquake, a Body was found standing, forty-six Cubits 
high ; which some judged to be the Body of Orion, and 
others, of Otus. It is believed from Records that the Body 
of Orestes, when taken up by direction of the Oracle, was 
seven Cubits long. 1 And that great Poet, Homer, who lived 
almost a thousand Years ago, did not cease to complain that 
Men's Bodies were less of Stature even then, than in old 
Time. The Annals do not deliver down the Bulk of Navius 
Pollio; but that he was of great size appeareth by this, that 
it was taken for a Wonder, that in a great Crowd of People 
running together he was almost killed. The tallest Man 
that hath been seen in our Age was one named Gabbara, 
who in the Days of Prince Claudius was brought out of 
Arabia; he was nine Feet high, and as many Inches. There 
were in the Time of Divus Augustus two others, named 
Pusio and Secundilla, higher than Gabbara by half a Foot, 
whose Bodies were preserved for a Wonder in a Vault in the 
Gardens of the Salustiani. While the same (Augustus) was 
President, his Niece Julia had a very little Man, two Feet 
and a Hand- breadth high, called Canopas, whom she made 
much of; and also a Woman named Andromeda,* the Freed 
Woman of Julia Augusta. M. Varro reporteth that Manius 
Maximus, and M. Tullius, Roman Knights, were but two 
Cubits hio;h : and we ourselves have seen their Bodies em- 

\j 

balmed in Presses. It is well known that there are some 

1 Ten feet and an half. 

2 The instance of the American who exhibited himself through Eu- 
rope is of recent occurrence. John Duck, an Englishman, was carried 
about for a show in 1610, being two feet and a half high at forty-five years 
of age. Cardan says he saw a man in Italy, of full age, not above a cubit 
high. He was carried about in a parrot- cage. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII .] History of Nature. 201 

born a Foot and a half high ; others again somewhat longer : 
filling up the Course of their Life in three Years. We find 
in the Chronicles, that in Salamis the Son of Euthimenes 1 in 
three Years grew to he three Cubits high ; but he was in 
his Pace slow and in his Understanding dull ; but having 
attained the State of Puberty, and his Voice having become 
strong, at Three Years' end he died suddenly of a Contraction 
of all the Parts of his Body. Some while since I saw myself 
the like in almost all respects, except the Puberty, in a Son 
of Cornelius Tacitus, a Roman Knight, and a Procurator for 
the State in Belgic Gaul. Such the Greeks call Ectrapelos ; 
in Latin they have no Name. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Observations of Bodies. 

WE see that the Length of a Man from the Sole of the 
Foot to the Crown of the Head is equal to the Extent of his 
longest Fingers when his Arms and Hands are stretched out. 
As also, that most People are stronger on the right Side ; 
others are as strong on one Side as on the other : and there are 
some that are altogether Left-handed; but that is never seen 
in Women. Men weigh heavier than Women : and in every 
kind of Creature, the bodies, when dead, are more heavy than 
when alive ; and the same Parties sleeping weigh more than 
when awake. The dead Bodies of Men float with the Face 

1 In the year 1747, Mr. Dawkes, a surgeon at St. Ives, near Hun- 
tingdon, published a small tract called " Prodigium Willinghamense," or 
an account of a surprising boy, who was buried at Willingham, near 
Cambridge, upon whom he wrote the following epitaph : " Stop, tra- 
veller, and wondering know, here buried lie the remains of Thomas, son 
of Thomas and Margaret Hall, who, not one year old, had the signs of 
manhood ; not three, was almost four feet high ; endued with uncommon 
strength, a just proportion of parts, and a stupendous voice; before six he 
died, as it were, of advanced age. He was born at this village, October 31, 
1741, and the same departed this life, September 3, 1747." (See also 
"Philosophical Transactions," 1744-45.) As Dr. Elliotson has observed 
(Blumenbach's " Physiology "), this perfectly authentic case removes all 
doubts respecting the boy at Salamis mentioned by Pliny. Wern. Club. 



202 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

upward, and Women with the Face downward, as if Nature 
had provided to save their Modesty even when dead. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Examples of a Variety of Forms. 

WE have heard that some Men's Bones are solid, and so 
live without any Marrow. They are known by the Signs, that 
they never feel Thirst, nor put forth any Sweat : and yet we 
know that a Man may conquer his Thirst by his Will ; and 
Julius Viator, a Roman Knight, descended from the Race of 
the Confederate Voconti, in his younger Years being ill with 
an Effusion of Water beneath the Skin, and forbidden by 
the Physicians to use Fluids in any way, obtained a Nature 
by Custom, so that in his old Age he forbore to drink. 
Others also have been able to command their Nature in 
many Cases. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Examples of Diversity of Habits. 

IT is said, that Crassus, Grandfather to that Crassus who 
was slain in Parthia, never laughed, and on that account 
was called Agelastus: and also that many have been found 
to have never wept. Socrates, who was illustrious for his 
Wisdom, was seen always to carry the same Countenance, 
never being more cheerful nor more disturbed at one Time 
than another. But this tendency of the Mind turneth now 
and then in the End into a certain Rigour and Sternness 
of Nature, so hard and inflexible that it cannot be ruled ; 
and so despoileth Men of the humane Affections; and such 
are called by the Greeks Apathes. who had the Experience 
of many such : and, what is surprising, some of them were 
very eminent for Wisdom, as Diogenes the Cynic, Pyrrho, 
Heraclitus, and Timo ; the latter being carried away so far 
as to hate the whole Human Race. But these were Ex- 
amples of depraved Nature. Various remarkable Things are 
known ; as in Antonia, the Wife of Drusus, who was never 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 203 

seen to spit ; and Pomponius the Poet, a Consular Man, who 
never belched. Such as naturally have their Bones solid, 
who are seldom met with, are called Cornel (hard as Horn). 

CHAPTER XX. 
Of Strength and Swiftness. 1 

VARRO, in his Treatise of prodigious Strength, maketh 
Report of Tritanus, who was little in Person, but of incom- 
parable Strength, much renowned in the Gladiatorial Play, 
with the Armature of the Samnites. He maketh mention 
also of a Son of his, a Soldier under Pompey the Great ; and 
that he had all over his Body, as well as through his Arms 
and Hands, Sinews running straight and across like Net- 
work : and when an Enemy challenged him to a Combat, 
he overcame him with his right Hand unarmed, and in the 
End caught hold of him, and brought him into the Camp 
with one Finger. Junius Valens, a Centurion in the Praeto- 
rium of Divus Augustus, was accustomed to bear up Waggons 
laden with Sacks, until they were discharged : with one Hand 
he would hold back a Chariot, standing firm against all the 
Force of the Horses. He did also other wonderful Things, 
which are to be seen engraved on his Tomb : and therefore 
Varro saith that being called Hercules Rusticellus, he took 
up his Mule and carried him away. Fusius Salvius carried 
up over the Stairs two hundred Pounds' weight on his Feet, 
as many in his Hands, and twice as much upon his Shoul- 
ders. Myself have seen a Man named Athanatus, with a 
great deal of Ostentation walk upon the Stage clothed in a 

1 It is observable that in this, and chap, xxiii., Pliny's instances apply 
only to animal endurance. Martial took a more correct view of the mental 
property, when he said : 

" Rebus in angustis facile est contemnere vitam : 
Fortiter ille facit, qui miser esse potest." B. xi. Ep. 35. 

When Fortune frowns, 'tis easy life to hate ; 
But real courage is not crush'd by fate. 

Wem. Club. 



204 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Cuirass of Lead weighing five hundred Pounds, and wearing 
high Shoes of the same Weight. When Milo, the great 
Wrestler of Croton, stood firm upon his Feet, no Man was 
able to make him stir in the least Degree : if he held an 
Apple, no Man was able to stretch out his Finger. 1 It was a 
great matter, that Philippides ran 1140 Stadia, from Athens 
to Lacedsemon, in two Days ; until Anistis, a Runner of 
Lacedsemon, and Philonides, belonging to Alexander the 
Great, ran from Sicyone to Elis in one Day, 1200 Stadia. 
But now, indeed, we know some in the Circus able to endure 
the running of 160 Miles. And lately when Fonteius and 
Vipsanus were Consuls, a young Boy, only nine Years old, 
between Noon and Evening ran 75 Miles. And a Man may 
wonder the more at this Matter, if he consider, that it was 
counted an exceeding great Journey that Tiberius Nero made 
in three Chariots in a Day and a Night, when he hasted to 
his Brother Drusus, then lying sick in Germany, which was 
but 200 Miles. 2 

1 Two persons, successively porters to Kings James I. and Charles, 
his son, were of great size and strength. The first, particularly, was able 
to take two of the tallest yeomen of the guard, one under each arm, and 
he ordered them as he pleased. The Emperor Maximinus, who was eight 
feet and a half in height, was of enormous strength, even in proportion to 
his magnitude. Wern. Club, 

2 We have less examples of swiftness of foot, since more rapid convey- 
ance is common. Pliny's instances are the more surprising, as they imply 
continuance ; but the English King Henry V. was so swift of foot, that 
with two of his lords, without any weapons, he would catch a wild buck 
in a large park. In Baker's " Chronicle " we are informed, that John 
Lepton, of Kepwick, in the county of York, one of the grooms of the 
Privy Chamber to James I., for a wager rode for six days successively 
between York and London : which is 150 miles. He accomplished the 
work of each day, beginning May 20, 1606, before it was dark ; and hav- 
ing finished his wager at York on Saturday, on the following Monday he 
rode back to London, and on Tuesday to the court at Greenwich : being 
as fresh and well as when he began. In the year 1619, July 17, Bernard 
Calvert rode from St. George's church, in Southwark, to Dover : thence 
by barge to Calais, and from thence back to St. George's church, on the 
same day; beginning at three o'clock in the morning, and ending at eight 
in the evening, fresh and lusty, although roads were then less perfect 
than now. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 205 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Examples of good Eyesight. 

WE find in Histories almost incredible Examples of 
Sharpness of the Eyes. Cicero hath recorded, that the Poem 
of Homer called the Iliad, written on Parchment, was en- 
closed within a Nutshell. The same Writer maketh mention 
of one who could see to the Distance of 135 Miles. And 
M.Varro nameth the Man, saying that he was called Strabo; 
and that during the Carthaginian War he was accustomed to 
stand upon Lilybseum, a Promontory of Sicily, and discover 
the Fleet coming out of the Harbour of Carthage ; he was 
also able to tell even the Number of the Ships. Collier ates 
made Emmets, and other equally small Creatures, out of 
Ivory, so that other Men could not discern the Parts of their 
Bodies. A certain Myrmecides was excellent in that kind of 
Workmanship ; who of the same Material carved a Chariot 
with four Wheels, which a Fly might cover with her Wings. 
Also he made a Ship that a little Bee might hide with her 
Wings. 1 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Of Hearing. 

OF Hearing there is one Example which is wonderful : 
that the Battle in which Sybaris was destroyed was heard at 
Olympia on the very same Day it was fought. For the Cim- 

1 Peculiarities of eyesight are also recorded in ancient authors. The 
Emperor Tiberius was able to see better than other men by night ; and 
contrary to the usual habit, best when he first opened his eyes from sleep. 
Such was also the case with the philosopher Cardan. Fabricius ab Aqua- 
pendente knew a man who could see well by night, but not by day ; and 
the Editor was acquainted with two brothers, whose vision was of this 
kind ; and it may be accounted for by the fact, that they were destitute of 
eyebrows, and had very little eyelashes. Wern. Club. 



206 History of Nature. [BoOK VII. 

brian Victories and the Report of the Victory over the Per- 
sians made at Rome by the Castors, on the same Day that it 
was achieved, were Visions and the Presages of Divine 
Powers. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Examples of Patience. 

MANY are the Calamities incident to Mankind, which 
have afforded innumerable Trials of Patience, in suffering 
Pains of the Body. The most illustrious among Women is 
the Example of Leana the Courtesan, who, when she was 
tortured, did not betray Harmodius and Aristogiton, who 
slew the Tyrant. Among Men is the Example of Anaxar- 
chus, who, being tortured for a like Cause, bit off his Tongue 
with his Teeth, and spat his only Hope of Discovery into the 
Face of the Tyrant. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Examples of Memory. 1 

MEMORY is the greatest Gift of Nature, and most neces- 
sary of all others for Life ; it is hard to say who deserved the 

1 The orator Hortensius was famous for an extensive and accurate 
memory ; which Cicero speaks of with admiration. It is said of him, 
that once sitting at a place where things were exposed to public sale for a 
whole day, he recited in order all the things that had been sold, their 
price, and the names of the buyers ; and it was afterwards found that he 
was minutely correct. Cicero, comparing him with Lucullus, says, that 
Hortensius's memory was greater for words, and that of Lucullus for 
things, an important distinction, for it is commonly found that those who 
best remember the one, are deficient in the other. Seneca had a remark- 
able memory for words ; so that he was able to repeat two thousand names 
in the order they were pronounced. The art of memory, to which some 
moderns have made great pretensions, is very ancient ; and it was much 
in use in the middle ages. But it applies to words rather than things ; 
and it requires to be studied as an individual object, and not as means to 
an end. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 207 

chief honour therein, considering how many have excelled 
in its Glory. King Cyrus called every Soldier in his Army 
by his own Name. L. Scipio could do the like by all the 
Citizens of Rome. Cineas, Ambassador of King Pyrrhus, 
the next Day after he came to Rome, saluted by Name the 
Senate and Equestrian Order. Mithridates, the King of two- 
and-twenty Nations of different Languages, ministered Justice 
to them in that Number of Tongues : and when he made a 
Speech in the public Assembly respectively to every Nation, he 
performed it without an Interpreter. A certain Charmidas^ 
a Grecian, rehearsed as if he was reading whatever any Man 
would call for out of any of the Volumes in the Libraries. 
At length the Practice of this was reduced into an Art of 
Memory, which was invented by Simonides Melicus, and 
afterwards brought to Perfection by Metrodorus Scepsius; by 
which a Man might learn to rehearse the same Words of any 
Discourse after once hearing. And yet there is nothing in 
Man so frail ; for it is injured by Diseases, Accidents, and by 
Fear, sometimes in part, and at other Times entirely. One 
who was struck with a Stone forgot his Letters only. Ano- 
ther, by a Fall from the Roof of a very high House, lost 
the Remembrance of his own Mother, his near Relations, 
and Neighbours. Another when sick forgot his own Ser- 
vants ; and Messala Corvinus, the Orator, forgot even his 
own Name. 2 So also it often endeavoureth to lose itself, even 
while the Body is otherwise quiet and in Health. But let 
Sleep creep upon us, and it reckoneth, as an empty Mind 
inquireth, what place it is in. 

1 Carneades, according to Cicero and Quintilian. 

2 A sudden loss of memory on a particular subject is common, though 
unaccountable. We are told that Curio, the orator, was much given to 
this ; so that, offering to divide a subject into three heads, he would forget 
one of them, or perhaps make four. He was to plead on behalf of Sextus 
Naevius, opposed to Cicero, who was on the side of Titania Corta ; when 
he suddenly forgot the whole cause, and ascribed the fact to the witchcraft 
of Titania. Wern. Club. 



208 



History of Nature. 



[BOOK VII. 




Julius Ccesar and Augustus. 

CHAPTER XXV. 
The Praise of C. Julius Ccesar. 

FOR Vigour of Spirit I judge that C. Ccesar, the Dictator, 
was the most excellent. I speak not now of his Courage 
and Constancy, nor of his lofty Understanding of all Things 
under the Expanse of Heaven ; but of that proper Strength 
and Quickness of his, as active as the very Fire. We have 
heard it reported of him, that he was accustomed to write 
and read at one Time, to dictate and hear. He would dic- 
tate Letters of the utmost Importance to four Secretaries at 
once : and when he was free from other Business, he would 
dictate seven Letters at one Time. The same Man fought 
fifty Battles with Banners displayed : in which Point he 
alone exceeded M. Marcellus, who fought thirty-nine Battles. 
For, besides his Victories in the Civil Wars, he slew in Battle 
1,192,000 of his Enemies ; but this, for my own Part, I hold 
no special Glory of his, considering the great Injury so in- 
flicted on Mankind : and this, indeed, he hath himself con- 
fessed, by avoiding to set down the Slaughter that occurred 
during the Civil Wars. Pompey the Great deserveth honour 
more justly for taking from the Pirates 846 Sail of Ships. 
But what is proper and peculiar to Ccesar, besides what is 
said above, was his remarkable Clemency, in which he so far 
surpassed all others, that he himself regretted it. The Example 
of his Magnanimity was such, that nothing besides can be com- 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 209 

pared to it. For to reckon up the Spectacles exhibited, with 
the lavish Expense, with the Magnificence in this Portion of 
his Works, is to lend a countenance to Luxury. But herein 
appeared the true and incomparable Loftiness of his un- 
conquered Mind, that when at the Battle of Pharsalia, the 
Writing-case containing the Letters of Pompey was taken, 
as also those of Scipio at Thapsus, he burnt them all with 
the utmost Fidelity, without having read them. 




Pompey. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
The Praise of Pompey the Great. 

To relate all the Titles, Victories, and Triumphs of Pompey 
the Great, wherein he was equal in the splendour of his 
Exploits not only to Alexander the Great, 1 but even almost 
to Hercules and Liber Pater, would redound, not to the 
Honour only of that one Man, but also to the Grandeur of 
the Roman Empire. In the first place then, after he had 
recovered Sicily, from whence his first rising was as a follower 
of Sylla in the cause of the Republic, he appeared auspiciously 

1 It is clear from various ancient authorities, that it was the ambition 
of Pompey to imitate and be compared to Alexander; and it was with this 
view that the title of Great was highly acceptable to him. It was per- 
haps to humour this foible, and through it to secure him the more effec- 
tually to his party, that Sylla was accustomed to pay him extraordinary 
personal honours : returning his salutation of Imperator with the same 
title, rising from his seat to salute him when Pompey dismounted from 
his horse, and uncovering his head at the same time. Daleschampiiis. 
In honour of Pompey 's having restored the sovereignty of the sea, the 
reverse of a Roman denarius bears the figure of a Dolphin and Eagle, 
separated by a Sceptre, with the inscription, Magn. Procos. Wern. Club. 

VOL. II. P 



210 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

fortunate. Having also wholly subdued Africa, and brought 
it under obedience, he was brought back in a Triumphal 
Chariot, with the name of Great, by reason of the Pillage 
there captured, being then only a Roman Knight : a thing 
that was never seen before. Immediately passing into the 
West, and having brought under obedience 876 Towns, 
between the Alps and the borders of Spain, he erected 
Trophies on the Pyrenees, with the inscription of his Victory ; 
and with more nobleness of Mind, said nothing concerning 
Sertorius. And after the Civil War was put an end to 
(which drew after it all Foreign matters), this Roman Knight 
triumphed the second time : being so many times a General 
(Imperator), before he was a Soldier (Miles). Afterward 
he was sent out on an Expedition to all the Seas, and then 
into the East parts : From whence he returned with more 
Titles to his Country, after the manner of those who win 
Victories at the Sacred Games. 1 Neither, indeed, are those 
Crowned, but they Crown their Native Countries; and 
so Pompey gave as a Tribute to the City these honours 
which he dedicated to Minerva* out of (mojiubiis) his own 
share of the Spoils, with an inscription in this manner : 
CN. POMPEIUS the Great, Imperator, having finished the 
War of Thirty Years: having discomfited, put to flight, slain, 
received to submission, 2,183,000 Men : sunk or taken 846 
Ships : brought under his authority Towns and Castles to the 
number 0/1538 : subdued the Lands from the Lake Mceotis 
to the Red Sea, hath dedicated of right this Vow to MINERVA. 
This is the Summary of his Services in the East. But of the 
Triumph which he led on the Third Day before the Calends 
of October, when M. Messala and M. Piso were Consuls, 
the Title ran thus : When he had freed the Sea-coast from 
Pirates, had restored to the People of Rome the Sovereignty 
of the Sea, he hath triumphed for Asia ; Pontus, Armenia, 
Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, the Scythians, Jews, 
and the Albani ; the Island Iberia, Crete, the Bastarni ; 
and above these, over the Kings Mithridates and Tigranes. 
But the greatest Glory of all in him was this, (as himself 

1 Olympia, Nemsea, Pythia, Isthmia. 2 Or Victory. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 21 1 

said in an Assembly, when he discoursed of his own Ex- 
ploits) : that whereas Asia, when he received it, was the 
remotest Province of his Country, he left it in the centre. 
If a man would set Ccesar on the other side against him, 
and review his actions, who of the two seemed greater, 
he might indeed reckon up the whole World, which would 
amount to an infinite matter. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
The praise of the First Cato. 

MANY Men have differently excelled in various other 
kinds of virtues. But Cato, 1 the First of the Porcian House, 
was thought to have been the most excellent in three 
things which are in the highest degree commendable in 
Man. He was the best Orator; the best General ; and the 
best Senator. And yet, in my opinion, all these excellencies 
shone out more brightly, although he was not first, in Scipio 
JEmilianus : To say nothing besides of the absence of the 
Hatred of so many Men, which Cato laboured under. But 
if you seek for one especial thing in Cato, this is, that he 
was judicially called to his answer Forty-four times, and 
never was there a Man accused oftener than he ; yet he was 
always acquitted. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Of Valour. 
IT is a very extensive inquiry, to discover in whom the 

1 This Cato appears to have been more successful in obtaining the 
esteem than the love of the people ; and, indeed, from the evidence of his 
"Treatise on Agriculture," he appears to have been a niggardly and 
shrewd master, whom no one could defraud, and who was ready to 
secure every advantage in a bargain. He recommends, with the same 
indifference, the sale of an ox that was past labour, his rusty iron, and 
sickly or worn-out slave. 

Narratur et prisci Catonis, 

Saepe mero caluisse Virtus. Wern. Club. 



212 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

greatest degree of hardy Courage existed ; and more espe- 
cially if we admit the fabulous tales of Poets. Q. Ennius 
had in greatest admiration T. Ccecilius Teucer, and his 
brother; and in regard of those Two he added to the others 
the Sixth Book of his Annals. But L. Siccius Dentatus, a 
Tribune of the Commons, not long after the Banishment of 
the Kings, when Sp. Tarpeius and A. JEternius were Con- 
suls, by most Voices surpasseth in this kind, having Fought 
120 Battles; having been Conqueror in Eight Combats with 
a Challenge ; being marked with 45 Scars on the front 
of his Body, and none behind. Also he won the Spoils of 
33 Enemies; he had been presented with 18 Spears; 25 
trappings for Horses ; 83 Chains ; 160 Bracelets ; 26 
Crowns, of which 14 were Civic, eight of Gold : three 
Mural ; and one Obsidional ; together with a Pension from 
the Treasury ; and ten Captives with twenty Oxen ; and 
thus he followed nine Imperators, who chiefly by his means 
triumphed. Besides these things, he accused in open court 
before the body of the People, which I suppose was the 
worthiest act he ever did, T. Romulius, one of the lead- 
ing Generals (who had been a Consul) and convicted him for 
his ill management of his military command. Scarcely 
inferior to these were the exploits of Manlius Capitolinus, if 
he had not forfeited them again with such an end of his life. 1 
Before he was seventeen years of age, he had gained two 
spoils of his Enemies. He was the first Roman Knight that 
received a Mural Crown; with six Civic Crowns ; 37 Dona- 
tions; and he carried the Scars in the forepart of his Body 
of 33 Wounds. He rescued P. Servilius, Master of the 
Horse, and (in the rescue) was himself wounded in the Arm 

1 Marcus Manlius was the means of preserving the Capitol when it was 
nearly taken by the Gauls ; from which exploit he obtained the surname 
of Capitolinus. Becoming afterwards a warm supporter of the popular 
party against the patrician order, he was accused of aiming at the kingly 
power, and condemned to death. According to Livy (lib. vi.) "the 
tribunes cast him down from the Tarpeian rock ; thus the same spot, in 
the case of one man, became a monument of distinguished glory and of 
the cruellest punishment." Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 213 

and Thigh. Above all other actions, he alone saved the 
Capitol, and thereby the whole State, from the Gauls: if he 
had not saved it for his own Kingdom ! In these examples 
there is indeed much of courage, but yet Fortune hath had the 
greater share ; and in my judgment no one may justly prefer 
any Man before M. Sergius, although Catiline, his Nephew's 
Son, discredited his Name. In the second Year of his Service 
he lost his Right Hand ; and in two Services he was wounded 
three and twenty times : by which means he had little use 
of either his Hands or Feet. But although thus disabled 
as a Soldier, he went many a Time after to the Wars, 
attended only by one Slave. Twice he was taken Prisoner 
by Hannibal (for he did not serve against ordinary Enemies), 
and twice he escaped from his bonds, although for twenty 
Months he was every Day kept Bound with Chains or 
Shackles. Four times he fought with his Left Hand only, 
until two Horses were killed under him. He made himself 
a Right Hand of Iron, and he fought with it fastened to his 
Arm. He delivered Cremona from Siege, and saved Pla- 
centia. In Gallia, he took twelve Camps of the Enemies: 
All which Exploits appear from that Oration of his which he 
made in his Praetorship, when his Colleagues repelled him 
from the solemn Sacrifices because he was maimed. 1 What 
heaps of Crowns would he have built up if he had been 
matched with any other Enemy ! For it is very important, 
in our estimate of Courage, to consider in what Time the 
Persons lived. For what Civic Crowns yielded either Trebia 
and Ticinus, or Thrasymenus? what Crown could have been 
gained at Cannae, where the best service of Courage was to 
have made an escape ? Others, truly, have vanquished Men ; 
but Sergius conquered Fortune herself. 

1 The ancients were cautious not to admit a mutilated person to the 
celebration of sacred rites, observing that such a defect was to be regarded 
as a thing of ill-omen ; and that, if the victim must be perfect, how much 
more does it become the priest to be so ! How careful the Jews were 
commanded to be in this respect, appears from the Law of Moses, 
Levit. xx. xxi. Wern. Club. 



214 History of Nature. [BooK VII, 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Of Ingenuities, or the Commendations of some Men for their 

Ingenuity. 

WHO is able to make a muster of them that have been 
excellent in Ingenuity through so many kinds of Sciences, 
and such a variety of Works and Things? Unless perhaps 
we agree that Homer, the Greek Prophet, excelled all others, 
considering either the subject matter or the happy fortune 
of his Work. And therefore Alexander the Great (for in so 
proud a decision I shall cite the Judgment of the highest, 
and of those that are beyond Envy), having found among 
the Spoils of Darius, king of the Persians, his Casket of 
sweet Ointments, which was richly embellished with Gold, 
Pearls, and precious Stones ; when his friends shewed him 
many uses to which the Cabinet might be put, considering 
that Alexander, as a Soldier engaged in War, and soiled with 
its service, was disgusted with those Unguents : By Hercules, 
he said, let it be devoted to the care of Homer's Books, that 
the most precious Work of the Human Mind should be pre- 
served in the richest of all Caskets. The same Prince, when 
he took Thebes, commanded that the Dwelling-house and 
Family of the Poet Pindar* should be spared. He refounded 
the native place (Patria) of Aristotle the Philosopher; and 
so mingled a kind Testimony for one who threw light on 
all things in the World. Apollo, at Delphi, revealed the 
murderers of Archilochus the Poet. When Sophocles, the 
Prince of the Tragic Buskin, was dead, and the Walls of 
the City were besieged by the Lacedaemonians, Liber Pater 
commanded that he should be buried ; and he admonished 
Lysander their King several times as he slept, to suffer his 
delight to be interred. The King made diligent inquiry who 

1 " The Macedonian conqueror bade spare 

The house of Pindarus, when temple and tower 
Went to the ground." MII/TON. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 215 

lately had died in Athens : and by relation of the Citizens 
soon found out who the god had signified ; and so gave them 
peace for the burial. 

CHAPTER XXX. 
Of Plato, Ennius, Virgil, M. Varro, and M. Cicero. 

DIONYSIUS the Tyrant, born otherwise to pride and 
cruelty, sent out to meet Plato, the Chief of the Wise 
Men, a Ship adorned with Ribbons; and himself went out 
in a Chariot with four white Horses, to receive him on the 
Shore. Isocrates sold one Oration for twenty talents of Gold. 
JEschines, the famous Orator of Athens, having at Rhodes 
rehearsed that accusation which he had made against 
Demosthenes, read also his adversary's defence, by occasion 
of which he had been driven into Banishment at Rhodes ; 
and when the Rhodians wondered at it he said, How much 
more would you have wondered, if you had heard him de- 
livering it himself! Yielding thus in his Calamity a noble 
Testimony to his Adversary. The Athenians exiled Thucy- 
dides their General : but after he had written his Chronicle 
they called him home again, wondering at the Eloquence of 
the Man whose Courage they had condemned. The Kings 
of Egypt and Macedonia gave a strong Testimony how much 
they honoured Mcenander the Comic Poet, in that they 
sent Ambassadors for him with a Fleet ; but he won himself 
greater fame by esteeming more his Studies, than the Favours 
of Princes. Also the Roman Nobles have afforded Testi- 
monies even to Foreigners. Hence Cn. Pompey, when he had 
ended the War against Mithridates, being about to enter the 
House of Posidonius, the celebrated Professor of Wisdom, 
forbad the Lictor to knock at the Door according to custom : 
and he to whom both the East and the West parts of the 
World had submitted, laid down the lictorial Fasces at the 
Gate. Cato, surnamed Censorius, when there came to Rome 
that noble embassage from Athens, consisting of three, the 
wisest Men among them, having heard Carneades speak, 



216 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

gave his opinion presently, that those Ambassadors were to 
be sent away with all speed, because, if that Man argued the 
case, it would be difficult to find out the Truth. 1 What a 
change is there now in Men's manners ! His decision was, 
that by any means all Greeks should be expelled from Italy ; 
but his nephew's Son, (Pronepos,) Cato of Utica, brought one 
of their Philosophers over with him from the Tribunes of the 
Soldiers, and another from the Cyprian Embassy. And it is 
worthy of notice to consider how the same Language was regard- 
ed by these two Catoes : for by the one it was rejected. But 
let us now discern the glory of our own Countrymen. Scipio 
Africanus the elder gave order that the Statue of Q. Ennius* 

1 The account of Gate's conduct with the Greek ambassadors, as 
given by Pliny, is very different from that by Plutarch, and, from 
Cato's acknowledged love of eloquence, we may judge more correct. It 
was not, therefore, the fear that eloquence would render the Romans 
effeminate ; but because the peculiar eloquence of these men, with per- 
haps the general tendency of Greek studies, was calculated to foster 
habits of sophistry, and so confound the distinction between truth and 
falsehood. Wern. Club. 

2 He was emphatically the poet of the republic, and must have been 
a man of sterling worth to have been so highly esteemed by the family 
of Scipio, and by the censor Cato. " It was well known from a passage 
in Cicero, and another in Livy, that the sepulchre of the Scipios stood 
beyond the Porta Capena of Rome ; and Livy describes it as being in his 
time surmounted by three statues : two of them of the Scipios, and the 
third, as was believed, of the poet Ennius. But it was not until the year 
A.D. 1780, that some labourers at work in a vineyard discovered a clue 
which led to further excavations; and thus the tombs, after having lain 
undisturbed for upwards of 2000 years, were most unexpectedly brought 
to light. The original inscriptions have been removed to the Vatican." 
The following is from " Roma Antica," but is also contained in Mont- 
faucon's "Antiquities," and it must belong to that Scipio who is spoken of 
by Pliny in the thirty-fourth chapter of this book, though our author 
has erred in the application : 

Hone . oino . ploirume . consentient . R . 

Duonoro . optumo . fuise . viro . 

Luciom . Scipione . filios . Barbati . 

Consol . Censor . Aidilis . Hie . fuit .A .... 

Hec . cepit . Corsica . Aleriaque . Urbe . 

Dedet . tempestatebus . aide . mereto . j 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 217 

the Poet should be set over his Tomb ; 1 to the end that this 
illustrious name, or indeed the spoil that he had carried 
away from a third part of the World, should be read over his 
last ashes, with the title of the Poet. Divus Augustus forbad 
that the Poems of Virgil should be burned, contrary to the 
truth of his will ; by which means there grew more credit to 
the Poet, than if himself had approved his own Verses. 
Asinius Pollio was the first that set up a public Library at 
Rome, raised from his portion of spoil ; and in it he placed 
the image of M. Varro, even while he lived : a thing of as 
great honour, in my opinion (considering that among the 
multitude of learned Men he only received this Crown from a 
Citizen and an excellent Orator), as that other Naval Crown 
gained him, which Pompey the Great bestowed upon him 

Thus interpreted : 

Hunc umirn plurimi consentiunt Romae, 

Bonorum optimum fuisse virum, 

Lucium Scipionem, films Barbati, 

Consol, Censor, .^Edilis, Hie fuit ; atque (or, apud vos, 

or ad eos). 

Hie cepit Corsicam, Aleriamque urbem 
Dedit Tempestatibus sedem merito. 

" The Roman people agree in thinking this man, Lucius Scipio, the 
best of all good citizens. He was the son of Barbatus, and consul, censor, 
and sedile among you. He took Corsica, and the city Aleria, and 
worthily dedicated a temple to the Seasons." 

This inscription was dug up in 1616, but was rejected as spurious until 
the others were discovered. Africanus, the greatest of the Scipios, was 
not buried in the paternal tomb, but on the shore at Liternum ; and the 
inscription on his tomb is supposed to have been, " Ingrata Patria, ne 
ossa quidem habes." The place is supposed to be marked by a modern 
tower, which from the inscription still retains the name of " Patria." 
Wem. Club. 

1 " Nor think the great from their high place descend, 
Who choose the Muses' favourite for a friend ; 
When mighty Scipio, Rome well pleas'd could see, 
With Ennius join'd, in kindest amity." 

JEPHSON'S Roman Portraits. 

" L'intime liaison de Scipion avec le poete Ennius, avec qui il voulut 
avoir un tombeau commun, fait juger qu'il ne manquoit pas de gout 
pour les belles lettres." Hist. Rom. par ROLLIN, vol. vii. 



218 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

in the Pirates' War. There are innumerable Roman exam- 
ples, if a Man would search them out : for this one Nation 
hath brought forth more excellent Men in every kind than 
all besides. But why should I be silent concerning the sacri- 
fice of M. Tullius? or how shall I best declare his high 
excellency? how better his praises than from the most 
ample testimony of the whole body of the People in general, 
and the acts only of this Consulship, chosen out of the 
whole course of thy life ? Thine Eloquence was the cause 
that the Tribes renounced the Agrarian Law : that is, their 
own Sustenance. Through thy Persuasion they pardoned 
Roscius, the Author of the Law of the Theatre; 1 they were 
content to be noted by the Difference of Seat. At thy 
Request the Children of the Proscribed felt ashamed to sue 
for honourable Dignities ; Catiline fled from thy Ability ; it 
was thou that proscribedst M. Antonius. Hail, thou who wast 
the first that wast saluted by the Name of Father of thy Coun- 
try! the first in the long Robe that deserved a Triumph, and 
the Laurel for thy Language ! the Father indeed of Elo- 
quence and of the Latin Learning : and (as the Dictator 
C&sar, who was at one Time thine Enemy, hath written of 
thee) hast obtained a Laurel above all other Triumphs, by how 
much more Praiseworthy it is to have enlarged the Bounds 
of Roman Learning than of Roman Dominion. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
Of Majesty in Manners. 

THOSE who, among other Gifts of the Mind, have sur- 
passed the rest of Mankind in Wisdom, were on that Account 
among the Romans surnamed Cati, and Corculi. Among the 
Greeks, Socrates was preferred to all beside by the Oracle of 
Apollo Pythius. 

1 The Roscian and Julian law, of which L. Roscius Otho, tribune of 
the people, was the author, which denned and regulated the order of 
sitting in the public theatre ; where, before this, the people mixed indis- 
criminately with the knights. The law seems to have been unpopular, 
and therefore to have required frequent renewal. Martial (b. v. ep. 8), 
has an amusing epigram on its enforcement by Domitian. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 219 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
Of Authority. 

AGAIN, Chilo the Lacedsemonian was of such great Reput- 
ation among Men, that his Sayings were held for Oracles ; 
and three Precepts of his were consecrated at Delphi, in 
these Words : That each one should know himself: Set thy 
Mind too much on Nothing: Debt and Law are always accom- 
panied with Misery. Moreover, when he died for Joy, on 
receiving Tidings that his Son was Conqueror at Olympia, 
all Greece solemnised his Funeral. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
Of a divine Spirit. 

AMONG Women, in the Sibyl 1 there was a divine Spirit, 
and a certain very noble Companionship with celestial 
Beings. Of Men, among the Greeks, Melampus; and among 
the Romans, Martins. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
Of Nasica. 

SCIPIO NASICA was judged once hy the sworn Senate to 
be the best Man from the Beginning of Time : but the same 
Man is remarked to have twice suffered a Repulse by the 
People in his white Robe. And to conclude, it was not per- 
mitted him to die in his own Country; no more, by Hercules, 
than it was that Socrates, pronounced the wisest Man by 
Apollo, should die out of Bonds. 

CHAPTER XXXV. 
Of Modesty* 

SULPITIA, Daughter of Paterculus and Wife to Fulvius 
Flaccus, by the Sentence in general of the Matrons was pro- 

1 The Sibyls will be referred to in the 34th book. Wern. Club. 
a It was an ancient law, " Ut Matronis de via decederetur, nihil obscceni 
presentibus iis vel diceretur vel fieret, neve quis nudum se ab iis conspici 



220 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

nounced the most modest ; and was elected out of a hundred 
principal Matrons to dedicate the Image of Venus, according 
to the Sybilline Books. Claudia, likewise was, by a religious 
Experiment (proved to be such), by bringing the Mother of 
the Gods to Rome. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
Of Piety. 1 

TRULY, in all Parts of the World, there have been found 
infinite Examples of Piety ; but one Example of this occurred 
at Rome, to which none beside can be compared. There 
was a young Woman of humble Condition among the com- 
mon People, and therefore of no account, who lately had been 
in Childbed, and whose Mother was shut up in Prison for 
some great Offence ; and when this Daughter obtained leave 
to have Access to her Mother, and constantly by the Jailer 
was narrowly searched, that she might not bring to her any 
Food, she was at last detected suckling her with the Milk 
of her Breasts. On account of this astonishing circum- 
stance the Life of the Mother was granted to the Piety of 
the Daughter, and both of them had continued Sustenance 
allowed them ; and the Place where this happened was con- 
secrated to this Deity (Piety} : so that when C. Quintius and 
M. Acilius were Consuls, the Temple of Piety was built, in 
the very Place where this Prison stood, and where now 
standeth the Theatre ofMarcellus. The Father of the Gracchi 

pateretur, alioquin criminis capitalis reus haberetur." That they should 
give way to matrons, that no obscenity should either be spoken or done in 
their presence ; and that no man should suffer himself to be within sight 
of them naked : if otherwise, he should be held guilty of a capital crime. 
Wern. Club. 

1 In the language of the ancients, piety is not to be understood as 
having a reference to God, but only as expressing the law of social kind- 
ness among the relations of blood or marriage. It proceeds only from 
revelation that the latter is made to be a duty flowing from the former ; 
and hence, while among Heathens the most vicious of mankind in his 
general character might also be among the most pious, among Christians 
no such anomalies can exist. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 221 

having taken two Serpents within his House, received an 
Answer (from the Soothsayers), that if he would himself live 
the female Snake must be killed. Truly then, said he, rather 
kill the male ; for Cornelia is young, and may have more 
Children. This was in order to spare his Wife's Life, in 
consideration of the Good she might do to the Common- 
wealth. And so it fell out soon after. M. Lepidas so en- 
tirely loved his wife Apuleia, that he died when she was 
divorced from him. P. Rutilius was laid by from some 
slight Illness, but hearing of his Brother's Repulse in his 
Request for the Consulship, died immediately. P. Catienus 
Philotimus so loved his Master (Patronus), that though he 
was made his Heir to all that he had, yet he cast himself into 
his funeral Fire. 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Of the Excellency of many Arts, as Astrology, Grammar, 
and Geometry. 

IN the Knowledge of various Arts a great Number of 
Men have excelled ; but we will only take the Flower of 
them, and touch them lightly. In Astrology, Berosus was 
eminent ; to whom the Athenians, for his divine Predictions, 
caused a Statue with a golden Tongue to be erected in the 
public Gymnasium. In Grammar, Apollodorus was distin- 
guished; and therefore he was highly honoured by the Am- 
phitryons of Greece. In Medicine, Hippocrates 1 excelled ; 
and having foretold a Pestilence that was approaching from 
Illyria, to cure it he sent his Disciples to the surrounding 
Cities. In Recompense of which good Desert, Greece de- 
creed for him the like Honours as to Hercules. For the same 
Science, King Ptolemy gave to Cleombrotus of Cea, at the 
sacred Megalensian Rites, a hundred Talents, especially for 
curing King Antiochus. Critobulus likewise acquired great 
Fame for drawing an Arrow out of King Philip's Eye, and 

1 The remarkable observation at the end of the 50th chapter, which 
appears to be confirmed by the course of the most formidable epidemics of 
modern times, will account for this skill in this most eminent physician 



222 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

so curing the Wound that the Sight remained, and only a 
Blemish of the Mouth remained. But Asclepiades the Pru- 
sian surpassed all others, having founded a new Sect ; he 
rejected the Ambassadors and large Promises offered by 
King Mithridates; discovered a Method to make Wine medi- 
cinable for the Sick ; and recovered a Man to his former 
state of Health, who was carried forth to be buried : and 
chiefly he attained to the greatest Name for the Engagement 
made against Fortune, that he would not be reputed a Phy- 
sician if he ever were known to be in any way diseased. And 
he was Conqueror ; for when he was very aged he fell down 
over the Stairs, and was killed. A high Testimony for Know- 
ledge in Geometry and the making of Engines was given by 
M. Marcellus to Archimedes, who in the storming of Syra- 
cuse gave express Command concerning him alone, that no 
Violence should be done to him ; but military Imprudence 
disappointed the Order. Ctesiphon of Gnosos is much praised 
for having wonderfully erected the Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus. Philon, likewise, was highly esteemed for making 
the Arsenal at Athens, which was able to receive a thousand 
Ships ; and Ctesibius for a Method of forming Wind Instru- 
ments, and the Discovery of Engines to draw Water : Dino- 

of antiquity, who had the benefit of access to the long series of records of 
the family of the Asclepiadae, and whose public spirit was equal to his 
abilities and opportunities. Wern. Club. 




Medal of Hippocrates, from an engraving in Dr. Mead's Harveyan Oration, 1723. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 223 

crates, also, for devising the Model of Alexandria in Egypt, 
when Alexander founded it. To conclude, this great Com- 
mander (Imperator) forbade, by Edict, that any Man should 
paint him but Apelles: that any one should carve his Statue 
besides Pyrgoteles : and that any one except Lysippus 
should cast his Image in Brass. In which Arts many have 
excelled. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Surprising Works of Artificers. 1 

KING Attains offered by Competition, for one Picture by 
Aristides the Theban Painter, a hundred Talents. Ccesar 
the Dictator bought for eight Talents two Pictures, the 
Medea and Ajax of Timomachus, which he meant to conse- 
crate in the Temple of Venus Genetrix. King Candaulas 
bought of Butarchus a Picture of the Destruction of the 
Magnetes, of no great Size, and weighed it in an equal Scale 
with Gold. King Demetrius, surnarned Expugnator, forbore 
to set Rhodes on Fire, because he would not burn a Picture by 
Protogenes t which was placed in that part of the Wall which 
he attacked. Praxiteles was ennobled on account of a marble 
Statue, the Gnidian Venus, remarkable particularly for the 
mad Love of a certain young Man ; which Statue was so 
esteemed by King Nicomedes, that he endeavoured to obtain 
it in full Payment of a large Debt they owed him. The 
Jupiter Olympius still aifordeth daily Testimony to Phydias. 
{Jupiter} Capitolinus, and Diana of Ephesus yield Testimony 
to Mentor : and the Instruments of this Art were consecrated 
by them in their Temples. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Of Bondsmen. 2 
I HAVE never obtained the Knowledge to this Day of a 

1 The subject of statues and paintings is more fully treated of in the 
34th and 35th books. Wern. Club. 

a The money which Marc Antony paid for a couple of boys is given 
in the 12th chapter of this book. Wern. Club. 



224 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Man born a Slave who was valued so high as Daphnis, the 
Grammarian, was : for Cn. Pisauretisis sold him for 300,700 
Sesterces to M. Scaurus, Prince of the City. In this our Age 
Stage-players have gone beyond this Price, and that not a 
little ; but they had bought their Freedom. And no Wonder, 
for it is reported that the Actor Roscius in former Time had 
yearly earned 500,000 Sesterces. Unless any one may desire 
in this Place to hear of the Treasurer of the Armenian War, 
a little while before carried on on account of Tyridates t and 
who was made free by Nero for 120,000 Sesterces. But, by 
Hercules, it was the War that cost so much, and not the Man. 
Like as Sutorius Priscus gave to Sejanus 3500 Sesterces for 
Pcezon, one of his Eunuchs : but this was more for Lust than 
for his Beauty. But he executed this infamous Bargain at a 
Time when the City was in Sorrow, and no Man had any 
Leisure to utter a Word in reproach. 

CHAPTER XL. 
The Excellency of Nations. 

IT will be scarcely questioned, that of all Nations in the 
World, the Romans 1 are the most excellent for every Virtue ; 
but to determine who was the happiest Man is above the 
reach of human Understanding, considering that some fix 

1 The Komans were a haughty people; and they had much to be 
proud of: for we have no records of a nation that ever understood the 
arts of government or war better than they. But of what is properly 
denominated science they knew little ; and the Chevalier Bunsen re- 
marks, that they did not reverence or recognise human rights in any 
nation beside their own. The love of knowledge and truth for their own 
sakes was altogether unknown among them, and they never conferred 
benefit except for their own advantage. Their calculating self-love made 
them, essentially, beneficial rulers ; but they manifested no esteem for their 
subjects ; and we may add, that the most probable motive which actuated 
Plutarch in writing his " Lives," and especially for arranging them in 
parallels, was to shew covertly that men, as great in all respects as any 
Romans, had lived in Greece. Germanicus is judged to have been an 
exception to this Roman constitution of mind ; and probably there were 
others of lower rank ; but they are to be regarded as simply the exceptions 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 225 

their highest Advantage in one Thing, others in another; 1 
and every one rneasureth it according to his several Dispo- 
sition : but if we wish to form a correct Judgment, throwing 
aside all the Ambition of Fortune, it may be concluded, that 
there is not a Man in the World to be accounted happy. Arid, 
therefore, Fortune dealeth liberally and indulgently with any 
one, if he may justly be called not unhappy ; because if there 
be no other Things, yet surely a Man may be ever in Fear 
lest Fortune should grow tired of him : but let him admit 
this Fear, and there can be no solid Happiness. What 
should I say, moreover, to this ? that no Man is at all Times 
wise? I wish that this were false, and not, in the Judgment 
of most Men, a Poet's Word only. But such is the Folly of 
mortal Men, that they are very ingenious in deceiving them- 
selves : so that they reckon after the Custom of the Thra- 
cians, who, by Stones marked with different Colours, which 
they cast into an Urn, institute the Trial of every Day ; and 
at their last Day they separate these Stones one from an- 
other and count them : and thus give Judgment concerning 

to the general rule. It is in the spirit of Pliny's remark that Martial 
begins his Epigram to Trajan, lib. xii. ep. 8 : 

" Terrarum Dea, gentiumque Roma, 
Cui par est nihil, et nihil secundum." 

Goddess of lands and nations, Rome, 

Nothing to which can equal come, 

And nothing second. Wern. Club. 

1 The reader is referred to the fourth epistle of Pope's " Essay on 
Man," for a more extended and poetical developement of this sentiment. 

The sentiments in the latter part of this chapter are re-echoed in the 
Book of Ecclesiastes by Solomon ; where he employs the advantages 
arising from his high situation and consummate wisdom in seeking to 
discover whether, on merely human principles, there was any such thing 
as human happiness in the world. The result was the same as is expressed 
by Pliny, but with the advantage on the side of the Hebrew sage, that 
he was able to find in his more elevated principles a security of which 
Pliny was altogether ignorant. The value of the Life and Immortality 
which have been brought to light by the Gospel, can best be estimated 
when we see the gloom which occupied the mind of even such a man as 
Pliny without it. The highest happiness detailed in the next chapter 
(xli.) is much below the aspiration of every Christian. Wern. Club. 
VOL. II. Q 



226 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

each one. But what if the Day, flattered with a white Stone, 
have in it the Beginning of some Misfortune ? How many a 
Man hath entered upon Empires, which have turned to their 
Affliction ? How many have lost their Goods, and at last 
have been brought to utter Ruin ? Certainly these are good 
Things if a Man could enjoy them fully for one Hour. But 
thus stands the Case, that one Day is the Judge of another, 
and the last Day judgeth all ; and therefore there is no 
trust to be placed in them. To say nothing of this : that our 
good Fortunes are not equal to our bad even in Number ; 
nor is any one Joy to be weighed against the least of our 
Sorrows. Alas for our empty and imprudent Diligence ! 
We reckon our Days by Number, whereas we should esti- 
mate them by Weight. 

CHAPTER XLT. 
Of the highest Happiness. 

LAMPIDO, a Lacedaemonian Lady, is the only Woman that 
ever was known to have been the Daughter of a King, a 
King's Wife, and the Mother of a King. Also, Pherenice 
alone was the Daughter, Sister, and Mother of them that won 
the Victory at the Olympian Games. In one Family of the 
Curiones there were three Orators, one after another, by 
descent from Father to Son. The Family of the Fabii alone 
afforded three Presidents of the Senate in succession, who 
were M. Fabius Ambustus, Fabius Rullianus the Son, and 
Q. Fabius Gurges the Nephew. 

CHAPTER XLII. 
Examples of Change of Fortune. 

WE have innumerable other examples of the variety of 
Fortune : for what great Joys did she ever give, but such as 
sprung from some Evil ? Or what great Calamities that 
have not followed upon the highest Joys? 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 227 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
Of one twice Proscribed: of Q. Metellus, and L. Sylla. 

M. FIDUSTIUS, a Senator, having been Proscribed by 
Sylla, was preserved for six-and-thirty Years; but he was 
afterwards Proscribed the second time : for he outlived Sylla 
and continued to the time of Antony ; and it so happened 
that by him he was Proscribed again, for no other reason 
but because he had been so before. Fortune was pleased 
that P. Ventidius alone should triumph over the Parthians : 
but she had led him, while a Boy, in the Asculan triumph of 
Cn. Pompeius Strabo ; although Massurius testifieth, that he 
was so led in triumph twice. Cicero saith, 1 that he was at 
first but a Muleteer to serve the Camp with Meal. Many 
others affirm that in his Youth he was a poor Soldier, and 
served as a Footman in his Caliga (or Military Foot Clothing). 
Balbus Cornelius was also the Senior Consul : but he had 
been judicially accused, delivered over to the Counsel of the 
Judges, so that the right of the Rods 2 was on him. But this 
Man was the first Roman Consul of Foreigners, arid even of 
those born within the Ocean ; having attained to that Dig- 
nity, which our Forefathers denied to Latium. Among the dis- 
tinguished is L. Fulvius, who was Consul of the rebellious Tus- 
culans ; but when he had passed over to the Romans, he was 
presently by the whole People advanced to the same Honour 
among them : and he was the only Man who triumphed at 

1 Epist. x. 18. 

2 This "right" was according to a law whose origin is disputed; but 
it seems to have been ancient. According to Dalechampius' note on the 
passage, no Roman citizen could be sentenced by the magistrate to the 
rods, or be put to death, for any other crime than murder; and of 
the latter it was necessary that he should be regularly convicted. But it 
would appear that he might be condemned to exile with little ceremony. 
Before the passing of this law, a Roman citizen, as well as a foreigner, if 
sentenced to death, was scourged as a matter of course previous to the 
execution of the higher sentence. The tendency of this law to confer 
protection is seen in the instance of St. Paul, Acts of the Apostles, xvi. 37, 
and xxii. 25. Wern, Club. 



228 History of Nature. [Boox VII. 

Rome over them whose Consul he bad been, even in the 
same Year in which he was himself an Enemy in the Field. 
L. Sylla was the only Man, until our time, that challenged 
to himself the surname of Felix? or the Fortunate ; but the 
Title was adopted from shedding the Blood of Citizens, and 
by waging War against his Country. And by what argu- 
ments was grounded this good Fortune of his ? That he was 
able to Proscribe, and put to Death, so many thousands of 
the Citizens \ O mistaken interpretation, and unhappy even 
to future time ! For were not they more blessed, who then 
lost their Lives, whose Death at this day we pity, than SyUa, 
whom no Man living at this day doth not abhor ? More- 
over, was not his end more cruel than the misery of all those 
who were Proscribed by him ? for his own wretched Body 
consumed itself, 2 and bred its own torment. And although 
we may believe that he dissembled all this by his last Dream, 3 
wherein he lay as if he were dead, upon which he gave out 
this Speech, that himself alone had overcome Envy by Glory ; 
yet in this one thing he confessed, that his Felicity was 
defective, inasmuch as he had not Consecrated the Capitol. 
Q. MetelluSy in that Funeral Oration which he made in 
commendation of L. Metellns, his Father, left it written of 

1 There was scarcely a title more coveted by the Romans than this of 
Fortunate, for they took it to be a decisive evidence of the ability which 
had led to success. Appian says that there existed in front of the Rostra 
in Rome, a golden equestrian figure of Sylla, with the inscription, 
" Syllse Imperat. fortunate." But from Pliny we learn that his cruelty 
had caused his memory to be held in little estimation by posterity. 
Wern. Club. 

3 The cause of the death of Sylla is not quite certain. Appian (De 
Bell. Civ. i. 105) says he died of an attack of fever ; while others inform 
us that the loathsome disease called phthiriasis was the cause of his death. 
Of this latter opinion were Plutarch, Pliny, and Pausanias. Went. Club. 

3 Plutarch says, " Sylla tells us," in his Commentaries, " that the 
Chaldaeans had predicted, that after a life of glory he would depart in the 
height of his prosperity." He further acquaints us, that his son, who 
died a little before Metella, appeared to him in a dream, dressed in a 
mean garment, and desired him to bid adieu to his cares, and go along 
with him to his mother Metella, with whom he should live at ease, and 
enjoy the charms of tranquillity. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 229 

him, that he had been Pontifex, twice Consul, Dictator, 
Master of the Horse, one of the Quindecimvirs deputed for 
Division of Lands, and that in the first Punic War he led 
many Elephants in triumph : moreover, that he had accom- 
plished ten of the greatest and best Things; in seeking which 
the Wise spend their whole time: for his desire was to be 
among the foremost of Warriors, an excellent Orator, a very 
powerful Commander (Imperator); to have the conduct of 
the most important Affairs, to be in the highest place of 
Honour, to be eminent for Wisdom, to he accounted a prin- 
cipal Senator, to attain to great Wealth by good Means, to 
leave many Children behind him, and to be the noblest per- 
sonage in the City. That these perfections fell to him, and 
to none but him since the Foundation of Rome, it were long 
and useless now to confute : but it is abundantly answered 
by one instance ; for this same Metellus became Blind in his 
old Age ; having lost his Eyes in a Fire, when he would have 
saved the Palladium 1 out of the Temple of Vesta: an act 
worthy of being remembered ; but the event was unhappy. 
In regard of which it is not proper to term him Unfortunate 
(Infelix); and yet he cannot be called Fortunate (Felix). 
The People of Rome granted to him a Privilege, which no 
Man before him in the World was known to have: that he 
should be conveyed in a Chariot to the Senate-house as often 
as he went to sit at the Council: a great and elevated Pre- 
rogative, but it was allowed him as a Compensation for his 
Eyes. 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

Of anothtr Metellus. 

A SON likewise of this Q. Metellus, who <*ave out those 
Commendations concerning his Father, is reckoned among 

1 It was one of the figments of Roman divinity, that this image of the 
tutelary Pallas had existed in ancient Troy; from whence, with 2Eneas, 
it had transferred the empire to the imperial city of Rome. A similar 
image existed at Ephesus (Acts of the Apostles, xxix. 35), and it has 
heen supposed that the fall from the sky, of at least the materials of the 
image, may not have been imaginary. The descent of an aerolite was, 
probably, as common in ancient times as in modern.-^ Wern. Club. 



230 History of Nature. [BooK VII 

the most rare examples of human Felicity ; for besides the 
most honourable Dignities, and the Surname of Macedonians, 
he was borne to the Funeral Pile by four Sons ; one being 
the Prsetor, and the other three having been Consuls : of 
which two had triumphed, and one had been Censor : which 
remarkable things had happened to few. And yet in the 
very flower of these Honours, as he was returning from the 
Field, about Noon-day, he was seized by Catinius Labeo, 
surnamed Macerio, a Tribune of the Commons, whom he by 
virtue of his Censorship had expelled out of the Senate ; and 
the Forum of the Capitol being empty, he took him away by 
force to the Tarpeian Rock, with an intention to cast him 
down headlong. A number came running about him of that 
company which called him Father; but, as was unavoidable 
in so sudden a case, slowly, and as if attending a Funeral ; 
with the absence also of a right to make Resistance, and 
repel the inviolable Authority : so that he was likely to have 
Perished even for his Virtue and faithful Execution of his 
Censorship, if there had not been one Tribune found, with 
much difficulty, to step between and oppose himself; by 
which means he was rescued, even from the utmost point of 
Death. He lived afterwards by the liberality of other 
Men : for all his Goods from that day forward were devoted, 
from his Condemnation : as if he had not suffered Punish- 
ment enough to have his Neck so writhed, as that the Blood 
was squeezed out at his Ears. And truly I would reckon it 
among his Calamities, that he was an Enemy to the later 
Africanus, even by the Testimony of Macedonians himself. 
These were his words to his Children : Go, my Sons, and 
do honour to his Obsequies ; for the Funeral of a greater 
Citizen ye will never see. And this he said to them, when 
they had conquered Crete and the Balearic Islands, and had 
worn the Diadem in triumph : being himself already entitled 
Macedonians. But if we consider that only injury offered to 
him, who can justly deem him happy, being exposed to the 
pleasure of his Enemy, far inferior to Africanus, and so to 
come to confusion ? What were all his Victories to this one 
Disgrace? What Honours and Chariots did riot Fortune 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 231 

cast down by her violence, when a Censor was dragged 
through the middle of the City (the only way indeed to bring 
him to his Death) ; dragged to the Capitol itself, to which 
he had ascended triumphant : but he never so dragged along 
those Captives, for whose Spoils he triumphed. And this 
Outrage was the greater in regard of the Felicity which 
ensued ; considering that this Macedonians was in danger to 
have lost so great an Honour as this solemn and stately 
Sepulture, in which he was carried forth to his Funeral Fire 
by his triumphant Children, as if he had triumphed again at 
his very burial. Truly that can be no sound Felicity, which 
is interrupted by any Indignity of Life, much less by so great 
a one as this. To conclude, know not whether there be 
more cause to glory for the modest carriage of Men, or to 
grieve at the Indignity, that among so many Metelli so auda- 
cious a Villany as this of Catinius was never revenged. 

CHAPTER XLV. 

Of Divus Augustus. 1 

ALSO, in Divus Augustus, whom all the World declare th 
to be in this rank of fortunate Men, if we diligently consider 
all things, we perceive great Changes of the Human lot 
Driven by his Uncle from the Generalship of the Horse, 
and, notwithstanding his Petition, seeing Lepidus preferred 
to that place, he laboured under the reproach of the Pro- 
scription ; and for being one of the Triumvirate, united with 
the most wicked Citizens ; and this with a less than equal 
share (of the Roman Empire), for Antony obtained the 
greatest Portion. He was Sick at the Battle of Philippi ; 
his flight; and while still Sick, for three Days his lying 
hidden in a Marsh ; so that (as Agrippa and Meccenas con- 
fess), he grew into a kind of Dropsy, and his Sides were 
distended with Water under the Skin ; his Shipwreck in 

1 It is a proof of the imperfect manner in which history has been gene- 
rally treated, that Suetonius has written the life of Augustus Caesar 
without the mention of a great part of these particulars, and of none of 
them in the point of view here given. Wern. Club. 



232 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

Sicily, and there likewise he was glad to remain concealed in 
a Cave : then he was put to flight at Sea, and when the whole 
power of his Enemies was hard on him, he hesought Pro- 
culeius to put him to Death ; how he was perplexed by the 
Contentions at Perusium ; the anxiety he was in at the 
Battle of Actium, and for the issue of the Pannonian War ; 
for the fall of a Bridge ; so many Mutinies among his Sol- 
diers ; so many dangerous Diseases of his Body ; the sus- 
pected Allegiance of Marcellus ; the shame of Banishing 
Agrippa ; his Life so many times attempted by secret Plots ; 
the suspected Deaths of his Children ; the sad Afflictions 
thereby ; and not altogether for his Childless condition : the 
Adultery of his Daughter, and her Contrivances for taking 
his Life away made known to the World ; the reproachful 
Retreat of Nero, his Wife's Son ; another Adultery com- 
mitted by one of his Nieces : above all this, so many united 
Evils, as the want of Pay for his Soldiers ; the Rebellion of 
lllyricum ; the Mustering of Slaves; the Scarcity of Young 
Men ; a Pestilence in the City ; Famine and Drought through 
Italy ; a deliberate Resolution of Dying, having to that end 
Fasted four Days and Nights, and in that time received into 
his Body the greater part of his own Death. Besides these 
things, the Slaughter of Variuss Forces, and the foul stain 
of his Honour; the putting away of Posthumus Agrippa 
after his Adoption, and the desire that he had for him after 
his Banishment; then the Suspicion that he conceived of 
Fabius, and the disclosing of his Secrets ; and again his 
Opinions concerning his Wife and Tiberius, which surpassed 
all his other Cares. To conclude, that God, of whom I do 
not know whether he rather obtained Heaven than deserved 
it, left behind him for his Heir the Son of his Enemy. 

CHAPTER XLVI. 
Whom the Gods Judge the most Happy. 

I CANNOT pass over in this Discourse the Oracles of Del- 
phos, delivered from the God to chastise the Folly of Men. 
Two of them are these : That Phedius, who but a while 



Boo K V 1 1 .] History of Nature. 233 

before Died for his Country, was the most Happy. Again, 
being consulted by Gyges, the most sumptuous King in all 
the Earth, the answer was, that Aylaus Psophidius was the 
more Happy. This Aglaus was a Man somewhat advanced 
in Years, dwelling in a very narrow corner of Arcadia, 
where he had a little Estate, which himself cultivated ; and 
it was sufficient with its yearly Produce to Support him 
plentifully ; out of it he never went : so that (as appeared by 
his course of Life,) as he coveted very little, so he expe- 
rienced as little Trouble while he Lived. 



CHAPTER XLV1I. 

Whom, while Living, they ordered to be Worshipped 
as a God. 1 

BY the appointment of the same Oracle, arid by the 
approbation of Jupiter , the Sovereign of the Gods, Euthymus 
the Wrestler, who always was Conqueror at Olympia, except 
once, was Consecrated a God while he lived, and knew of it ; 
he was born at Locri, in Italy, where one Statue of his, as 
also another at Olympia, were both on one Day struck with 
Lightning : which I see CaUimachus wondered at, as if 
nothing else were worthy of Admiration ; and gave order 
that he should be Sacrificed to, as to a God : which was per- 
formed accordingly, both while he Lived and after he was 
Dead. A thing that I wonder at more than at any thing 
else : that the Gods should have been pleased with such 
a thing. 

1 It was scarcely more reasonable to worship a man after he was dead 
than during his life ; and yet Pliny must have joined in the worship of 
Augustus and Julius Caesar, and have been conscious, as appears from 
several places of his writings, that the greatest gods of his country had 
formerly been living men. The egregious vanity of desiring to be sup- 
posed a god was felt by Alexander the Great, to whose application for 
recognition in this character the Lacedaemonians replied by an edict, that 
" If Alexander wished to be a god, he might be a god." Pliny lived to 
see the brother of his patron Titus, Domitian, exemplify the absurdity of 
which he complains ; for it appears that the latter emperor was more than 
ordinarily fond of this assumption of divinity. Wem. Club. 



234 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 
Of the longest Extent of Life. 

THE extent and duration of Man's Life are rendered 
uncertain, not only by the Situation of Places, but also from 
Examples, and the peculiar lot of his Nativity. Hesiod, 
the first Writer who has treated on this Subject, in his Fabu- 
lous Discourse (as I regard it), embracing many things about 
the Age of Man, saith that a Crow lives nine times as long 
as we ; the Stags four times as long as the Crow ; and the 
Ravens thrice as long as they. And his other remarks about 
the Nymphs and the Phoenix are still more Fabulous. Ana- 
creon the Poet, assigneth to Arganthonius, King of the 
Tartessi, 150 Years : and to Cyniras, King of the Cypri, ten 
Years longer : to JEgimius, 200. Theopompus affirmeth, that 
Epimenides, the Gnossian, died when he was 157 Years old. 
Hellanicus hath Written, that among the Epii, in ^Etolia, 
there are some who continue full 200 Years : and with him 
agreeth Damastes ; adding also, that there was one Pic- 
tor eus among them, a Man of exceeding Stature, and very 
Strong, who lived even to 300 Years. Ephorus saith, that 
the Kings of Arcadia usually lived to 300 Years. Alexander 
Cornelius writeth of one Dando in Illyrica, who lived 500 
Years. Xenophon in his " Periplus," maketh mention of a 
King of a People upon the Sea-coasts, who lived 600 Years : 
and as if he had not lied enough already, he saith, that his 
Son came to 800. All these strange reports proceed from 
ignorance of the times past, for some reckoned the Summer 
for one Year, and the Winter for another. Others reckoned 
every Quarter for a Year, as the Arcadians, whose Year was 
but three Months. Some, as the Egyptians, count every 
change of the Moon for a Year ; and therefore some of them 
are reported to have lived 1000 Years. But to pass to 
things acknowledged as true, it is almost certain, that Argan- 
thonius, King of Calais, reigned 80 Years ; and it is supposed 
that he was 40 Years old when he began to Reign. It is 
undoubted, that Masanissa reigned 60 Years ; and also that 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 235 

Gorgias the Sicilian lived 108 Years. Q. Fabius Maximus 
continued Augur for 63 Years. M. Perpenna, and of late, 
L. Volusius Saturninus, out-lived all those Senators who 
had sat in Council with them when they were Consuls. 
Perpenna left but seven of those Senators alive whom he 
had chosen in his Censorship ; and he lived himself 98 
Years. Where, by the way, one thing cometh to my Mind 
worth the noting : that there was one Space of five Years, 
and never but one, in which not one Senator died ; and that 
was from the time that Flaccus and Albinus the Censors 
finished their Lustrum, to the comma: in of the next Censors ; 
which was from the Year after the Foundation of the City, 
579. M. Valerius Cor vinus \ived 100 Years complete; and 
between his first Consulate and his sixth, were 46 Years. 
He took his Seat on the Curule Chair 21 Times ; and no 
Man ever besides him so often. Metellus the Pontifex lived 
full as long as he. 

To come now to Women : Lima the Wife of Rutilius 
lived more than 97 Years. Statilia, a noble Lady, in the 
Time of Claudius the Prince, was 99 Years of Age : Cicero's 
Wife, Terentia, was 103 Years old : Clodia, Wife to Osilius, 
saw 115 Years ; and she had 15 Children. Luceia, a Comic 
Actress, appeared on the Stage for 100 Years. Galeria 
Copiola, a Mimic Actress, was brought again upon the 
Stage when C?i. Pompeius and Q. Sulpitius were Consuls, at 
the solemn Plays vowed for the Health of Divus Augustus, 
when she was in the J04th Year of her Age : the first Time 
that she entered on the Stage was 91 Years before, when 
she was brought thither by M. Pompotiius, ^Edile of the 
Commons, in the Year that C. Marius and Cn. Carbo were 
Consuls ; and once again Pornpey the Great, at the dedica- 
tion of his great Theatre, returned the old Woman to the 
Stage for the wonder of the thing. Also Asconius Pcedi- 
anus writeth, that Samula lived 110 Years; and therefore I 
wonder the less that Stephanio (who was the first of the 
Long Robe who appointed Dancing) danced in both the 
Secular Games, as well those that were set out by Divus 
Augustus, as those which Claudius Ccesar exhibited in his 



236 History of Nature. [Boon VII. 

fourth Consulship ; considering that between the one and 
the other there were but 63 Years ; and yet Stephanio lived 
for a considerable Time after. Mutianus witnesseth, that in 
Tempsis, which is the Crest of the Mountain Tmolus, People 
lived 150 Years. At that Age, T. Fullonius, of Bononia, 
entered his Name in the Census at the Time that Claudius 
Ccesar held the Registry ; and that he was so old indeed, 
appeared by comparing together several Registries that he 
had before made, as also by circumstances that had occurred 
in his Lifetime ; for the Emperor took care in that way to 
find out the Truth. 1 

CHAPTER XLIX. 
Of Differences in, the Nativities. 

THIS Point would require the Advice of the Science of 
the Stars ; for Epigenes saith, that it is not possible for a 
Man to live a hundred and twenty-two Years ; and Berosus 
is of opinion, that one cannot pass an hundred and seven- 
teen. That Calculation holdeth good which Petosiris and 
Necepsos have delivered, and which they call Tetartemorion, 
from a portion of three Signs ; according to which account it 

1 The length of life detailed in the Mosaic records was unknown to 
the Greeks, who had only retained an obscure traditionary remembrance 
of it, and of the great stature and strength with which it was supposed to 
be accompanied. But that Pliny's mode of interpreting it, by a peculiar 
method of explaining the length of the year, will not apply to the narra- 
tive in the Book of Genesis, appears from the fact that the same history 
records the reduction of the length of human life, by sudden transitions, 
to at last threescore and ten years, which we are compelled to measure 
by the same scale as the former. 

As a general summary of the duration of life in historical times, the 
" History of Life and Death," by Lord Bacon, may be consulted. Fuller 
mentions James Sands, of Horborne in Staffordshire, who lived 140 
years, and his wife 120. The Countess of Desmond, known to Sir W 
Rawleigh, lived to about 140 years, and had new teeth three several 
times. Thomas Parr was born in 1483 ; married at the age of eighty, 
and in the space of thirty-two years had only two children. At the age 
of 120 he had another child, and died aged 150 years. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI!.] History of Nature. 237 

i8 evident, that in the Tract of Italy, Men may reach to a 
hundred and twenty-six Years. They denied that a Man 
could possibly pass the ascendant Space of 90 Degrees 
(which they call Anaphoras) ; and that even these are cut 
short, either by the encounter of malevolent Planets, or by 
the radiations of them or the Sun. Again, the Sect of Ascle- 
piades 1 affirm, that the appointed Length of Life proceedeth 
from the Stars ; but concerning the utmost term, it is uncer- 
tain. But they say, that the longer Ages are Rare, because 
the greatest Number by far have their Nativity at the 
marked Moments of the Hours of the Moon, or of Days 
according to the Number of Seven or Nine (which are 
Daily and Nightly observed) : by the gradual declining Law 
of the Years, called Climacteric, 2 and such as are so Born 
scarcely exceed the fifty-fourth Year. But here, first, the 
Uncertainty of the Art itself declaret.li how doubtful this 
matter is. To this are added the Observations and Instances 
of the very recent Census, which within the Space of four 
Years, the Imperators, Caesars, Vespasian?, Father and 
Son, Censors, have accomplished. And here we need not 
search every Cupboard, we will only set down the examples 
of the middle part, between the Apennine and the Po. At 
Parma, three Men were found of the Age of a hundred and 

1 In book xxvi. c. 3, Pliny gives a more precise, and not very com- 
plimentary, account of this physician. Wern. Club. 

2 A large portion of the physiological learning of ancient physicians 
consisted in the arithmetical calculation of types and periods of vital and 
diseased actipns ; in connexion with which they also arranged the motions 
of the celestial bodies and their influences. It thus became necessary, 
that he who was a physician in the modern meaning of the word should 
also be able to interpret the stars, and to apply mathematical reasoning 
to the laws of health and disease. The calculation of climacterical 
years, and the ultimate duration of human life, were thus decided by a 
combination of intricate mathematical probabilities. These climacteric 
years were formed on the multiplication of the number seven by the 
unit numbers, and at them the most important of the periodic changes 
of the body were accomplished. The highest number thus multiplied 
formed the grand climacteric, after which the changes produced a retro- 
gression towards feebleness and decay ; the danger of which was ever 
greatest at the climacterics. See bookii. c. 52. Wcrn. Club. 



238 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

twenty Years: at Brixelus, one that was a hundred and 
twenty-five Years; at Parma, two of a hundred and thirty 
Years ; at Placentia, one of a hundred and thirty-one ; at 
Faventia, there was one Woman a hundred and thirty-two 
Years old ; at Bonona, L. Terentius, the Son of Marcus, and 
at Ariminum M. Aponius, were a hundred and fifty. 
Tertulla was a hundred and thirty-seven. About Placentia 
there is a Town on the Hills, named Velleiacium, in which 
six Men brought a Certificate that they had lived a hundred 
and ten Years ; four likewise brought one of about a hundred 
Years ; one of a hundred and forty, 1 namely M. Mutius, 
son of Marcus surnamed Galerius Felix. But because we 
will not dwell long in a matter so commonly allowed, in the 
eighth Region of Italy there were found in the Roll fifty- 
four Persons of one hundred Years of Age ; fifty-seven of a 
hundred and ten ; two, of a hundred and twenty-five ; four, 
of a hundred and thirty ; as many that were a hundred and 
thirty-five, or a hundred and thirty-seven Years ; and three 
Men of a hundred and forty. Another inconstant variety in 
mortal Men : Homer reporteth, that Hector and Polydamas 
were born in one Night, though Men of such a different 
Fortune. While C. Marius was Consul, and Crt. Carbo with 
him, who had been twice before Consul, the fifth Day before 
the Calends of June, M. C&cilius Ruffus and C. Licinius 
Calvus were born on the same Day ; and both of them 
indeed were Orators : but their fate was very different. 
And this is seen daily to happen throughout the World, that 
among those born in one Hour some are Kings, and others 
Beggars, some Lords and others Slaves. 

CHAPTER L. 
Various Examples of Diseases. 

PUB. CORNELIUS RUFUS, who was Consul with M. 
Curius, dreamed that he had Lost his Sight ; and so it proved 
when he awoke. On the other Hand, Phalereus being given 

1 Dr. Holland seems to have read " one hundred and fourteen." 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 239 

over by the Physicians for the Disease of Vomica, being 
stabbed in his Breast, found a Remedy in his Enemy. Q. 
Fabius Maximus, Consul, engaging in a Battle with the Nations 
of the Allobroges and Averni, near the River Isara, on the 
sixth Day before the Ides of August ; in which double 
action he Slew of his Enemies 13,000; he was in the Contest 
delivered from his Fever. This gift of Nature, truly, what- 
ever is bestowed on us, is frail and uncertain : and in those 
in whom it exists in the largest Measure, it is but short and 
evil if we consider the whole Course of it from Beginning to 
End. Because if we count our repose by Night, a Man 
may be truly said to live but one half of his Life ; for that 
Half of it which is spent in Sleep may be compared to Death ; 
and if he cannot Sleep, it is a Punishment. Nor are the 
Years of our Infancy to be reckoned, for this Age is void of 
Sense; nor those of old Age, which is the punishment of a 
disposition to live. What shall I speak of so many kinds of 
Dangers, so many Diseases, so many Fears, so many Cares, 
so many Prayers for Death, that we Pray for nothing more 
frequently ? and therefore Nature knoweth not what better 
thing to give a Man, than short Life. The Senses 1 become 
dull, the Members grow benumbed, the Eye-sight decayeth 
betimes, the Hearing followeth, then the Supporters, the 
Teeth also, and the very Instruments that serve for our 
Food ; and yet all this Time is counted a Part of our Life. 
And therefore it is taken for a wonderful example, and that 
to which we cannot find a fellow, that Xenophilus the Musi- 
cian lived 105 Years, without any inconveniency in all his 
Body. But all other Men, by Hercules! are vexed at certain 
Hours, as no other Creatures are besides, with pestiferous 
Heat and Cold in every part of their Members ; which go 

1 How remarkably does this enumeration of the signs and evils of 
age correspond with the more poetical representation of the same condi- 
tion by Solomon, in the last chapter of the Book of Ecclesiastes ! 
Cicero, in his " Cato," laments the ills of age as more weighty than .ZEtna ; 
and others of the wisest heathens join in the lamentation ; which ceases 
to surprise us when we reflect that they were destitute of a hope in the 
future. Wern. Club. 



240 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

and come, not for certain Hours only, but by Day and by 
Night : one while every Third, and at others every Fourth 
Day and Nis;ht, even through the whole Year. And it is 
some sort of Disease to die through wisdom, for Nature 
hath set down certain Laws, even to Diseases ; as that the 
circle of a Quartan Fever never beginneth in the shortest 
Days of the Year, neither in the Months of Winter ; that 
some Diseases are not incident to those that are above Sixty 
Years of Age ; that others again pass away when young 
People come to the Age of Puberty ; and especially this is 
observed in young Women. Old People are the least liable 
to take the Plague. Also there are Sicknesses that follow 
particular Regions, affecting the Inhabitants generally 
therein. There are some again that take hold of Servants 
only ; others touch the highest Persons alone : and so from 
degree to degree. But in this Place it is to be observed, that 
a Pestilence beginneth in the South parts, and always goeth 
toward the West; and it scarcely ever doeth otherwise, 
except in Winter, and then it doth not exceed three 
Months. 1 

CHAPTEU LI. 

Of the Signs of Death. 12 

Now let us take a View of the fatal Signs in Sickness. 
In the Disease of Fury (Madness), to Laugh is such a Sign : 
In the Sickness of Wisdom (Frenzy), to have a care of 
the Fringes of their Garments and Bedclothes, to smoothe 
them down ; the neglect of such things as would prevent 
their Sleep; the apologising letting go of their Water. It 

1 This remark has been already referred to c. 37, p. 221 ; and it is the 
more worthy of notice, since there is reason to believe that all the epidemics 
which have traversed Europe since the time when Pliny wrote have 
conformed to the same rule. Wern. Club. 

2 Celsus considers this subject, book ii. c. 6, and the medical nature 
and treatment of insanity, book iii. c. 18. Eyfuroris morbus (madness 
or mania), and sapientice cegritudine (frenzy), he seems to mean, the 
former, insanity of the passions ; and the latter, insanity of the under- 
standing. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI I .] History of Nature. 24 1 

may also be certainly seen in the aspect of the Eyes and 
Nose, as also in the manner of lying always upon the Back 
supine : also by the unequal stroke of the Veins, as if an 
Ant crept under it, with other Signs which Hippocrates, the 
prince of Medicine, hath observed. And whilst there are 
innumerable Signs that presage Death, there is not one that 
can assure a Man certainly of Life and Health. For Cato 1 
the Censor, writing to his Son concerning robust Health, 
hath delivered from some Oracle, that Youth resembling 
Age is a Sign of untimely Death. Diseases are so innu- 
merable, that Pherecydes, of the Island of Syros, died of a 
great quantity of Creepers 2 bursting out of his Body. Some 
are never free of a Fever, as C. Meccenas. The same Man, 
for three whole Years before he died, never was asleep for 
a single Minute. Antipater Sidonius the Poet, once a year 
during his Life was seized with an Ague-fit upon his Birth- 
day only, and at last he died in such a Fit in a good 
old Age. 

CHAPTER LII. 

Of such as were carried forth to their Funeral and revived 

again. 

A. VIOLA, who had been Consul, came to himself when 
he was on the Funeral Pile ; but because the Flame was so 
Strong that he could not be got away, he was burnt alive. 

1 Cato's knowledge of medical subjects may be judged of from the 
specimens of miserable quackery contained in his " Treatise on Agricul- 
ture." Much of it consisted of charms, in unintelligible jargon. 
Wern. Club. 

2 Pliny sometimes employs unusual words to express plain and com- 
mon things; or he may have adopted the term to avoid what among 
polite people would have excited loathing. For the same reason another 
author speaks of the same creatures under the name of animalia tetra, or 
foul creatures. It was the disease which afflicted Herod, Acts of the 
Apostles, xii. 23 ; and in modern times Dr. Heberden records a case, 
" Commentaries," c. Ixxi : but it is not certain that they are of the same 
species as that which commonly attacks the human body. The fate of 
Sylla, from the same cause, is referred to in the 4Md chapter of this Book. 
- Wern. Clnl*. 

VOL. II. R 



242 History of Nature [BooK VII. 

The like accident is reported to have befallen Lu. Lamia, 
of Praetorian rank. That C. ^Elius Tubero, who had been 
Praetor, was brought Alive again from the Funeral Fire, 
Messala Rufus and many others assert. Such is the condi- 
tion of Mortal Men ; and to this kind of Fortune, and such 
as this, are we born : so that in the case of Man there is 
no assurance, no, not even in his Death. We read in 
Chronicles, that the Soul of Hermotimus Clazomenius was 
accustomed to leave his Body, and wandering to a great 
distance, brought him backs News of such things as could 
not possibly have been known unless it had been present 
there ; and all the while his Body lay half Dead. This 
manner he continued, until the Cantharidae, who were his 
Enemies, took his Body and burnt it to Ashes ; and by that 
means disappointed his Soul when it came back again to 
its Sheath. Also it is said, that the Spirit of Aristceas in 
Proconnesus was seen to fly out of his Mouth in the form 
of a Raven ; and many an empty Tale folio we th thereon : 
for surely I take it to be no better than a Fable, which is in 
like manner reported of Epimenides the Gnossian, that when 
he was a Boy, and wearied with Heat and Travel, he laid 
himself down in a Cave, and there slept for 57 Years. 1 At 
length he awoke, as if on the very next Morning, and won- 
dered at the changed face of every thing he saw. Hence in an 
equal number of Days after, he grew Old, that at last he lived 
to the Age of 175 Years. Women, by reason of their Sex, are 
most subject to this danger, 2 by the turning of the Womb ; 
which, if it be corrected, they soon recover. To this belongs 
that noble Volume among the Greeks written by Heraclides, 
where he writeth of a Woman that for seven Days lay as 
Dead, but who in the end was restored to Life. Also Varro 
reporteth, that when the twenty Men were dividing Lands 

1 Gibbon refers to a similar story, which was widely believed, in the 
fifth century of Christianity (" Decline and Fall," c. xxxiii.) ; but he seems 
not to have been aware of this more ancient, and perhaps original, narra- 
tive of a similar event. Wern. Club. 

2 That is, of the suspension of animation, one of the symptoms of 
Hysteria. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 243 

at Capua, there was one carried forth on his Bier who came 
home again upon his Feet. Also, that the like happened at 
Aquinum. Likewise, that in Rome one Corfidius, who had 
married his own Aunt by the Mother's side, after his 
Funeral had been set in order, revived again ; and the 
Orderer of his Funeral was by him carried out to the 
same. Varro also addeth some surprising things, which 
are worth the rehearsal at large. There were two Brethren 
of the Equestrian order, of whom the elder, named Corfidius, 
happened in all appearance to die; and when his last Will 
was opened, the younger Brother, who was appointed his 
Heir, gave orders for his Funeral. In the meanwhile the 
Man that seemed Dead, by clapping one Hand against the 
other, 1 raised the Servants in the House ; and he recounted 
to them that he was come from his younger Brother, who 
had recommended his Daughter to him ; and, moreover, that 
he had shewed to him in what place he had buried his 
Gold, without the knowledge of any Man : requesting him 
also to employ that Provision which he had prepared for 
him about his own Funeral. As he was relating this matter, 
his Brother's domestic Servants came in great haste to the 
House, and brought word that their Master was dead ; and 
the Gold was found in the place he had pointed out. And 
truly life is full of these Divinations ; but they are not to be 
compared with these, as for the most part they are mere 
lies, as we will prove by one notable example : in the 
Sicilian War, Gabienus, one of the bravest Officers of 
CcBsars Fleet, was taken prisoner by Sex. Pompey, and by 
commandment from him his Head was almost stricken off, 
so that it scarcely hung to the Neck by the Skin, and in this 
condition he lay all day on the Shore. When it grew 
toward the Evening, and a Company were flocked about 
him, with a groan and prayers he requested that Pompey 
would come to him, or at least send some one of those who 



1 Clapping the hands together appears to have been an ordinary 
method of summoning the attendants before bells came into use for that 
purpose. Wern. Club. 



244 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

were dear to him, because he was sent back from the Lower 
Regions, and had a Message to deliver to him. Then Pompey 
sent several of his friends, to whom Gabienus related that 
the Infernal Gods were well pleased with the Cause and 
pious Dispositions of Pompey^ and therefore he should have 
as good an issue of it as he could wish. Thus much, he said, 
he was commanded to deliver ; and as a proof of the truth, 
so soon as he had done his errand he would immediately 
expire : and so it came to pass. Histories also make men- 
tion of them who have appeared after they were committed 
to Earth. But our purpose is to write of Nature's works, 
arid not to prosecute such Prodigious Matters. 

CHAPTER LIII. 
Of Sudden Deaths. 

BUT among the principal things is sudden Death, which 
is the greatest Felicity of Life ; many examples of which we 
have, that always seem strange, although they are common, 
and as we shall shew, natural. Verrius hath set forth many, 
but we will make choice among them all. Besides C/iilon, 
of whom we have spoken before, there died suddenly for Joy 
Sophocles the Poet, and Dionysius the Tyrant of Sicily : 
both of them, on Tidings brought to them that they had won 
the best Prize among the Tragic Poets. Presently after the 
famous battle of Cannae, a Mother died immediately on the 
sight of her Son unhurt, whom by a false Message she had 
heard to have been Slain. Diodorus, a Professor of Dialectic 
Learning, for shame that he could not readily resolve a fri- 
volous Question at the demand of Stilbo, sunk away without 
recovery. Without any apparent cause some have died, 
particularly two of the Ccesars ; the one a Praetor : the other 
who had borne that Dignity, the Father of Ccesar the Dic- 
tator : both of them in the Morning when they were putting 
on their Shoes, the one at Pisa, the former at Rome. 
Q. Fabius Maximus in his verv Consulship, upon the last 
Day of December; in whose place Eebilus made suit to be 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 245 

Consul for a very few Hours. 1 Also, C. Vulcatius Guryes, a 
Senator : all of them in such sound and perfect Health, that 
they expected to live Long. Q. JEmilius Lepidus, even as he 
was going out of his Bed-chamber, hit his great Toe against 
the Door-post and died from it. C. Aufidius was going 
out of his House, on his way to the Senate, and stumbled 
with his Foot in the Comitium. The Ambassador of the 
Rhodians also, who had to the great admiration of all that 
were present pleaded their cause before the Senate, in the 
very entry of the Counsel-house, as he was going out, fell 
down Dead. Cn. Bcebius Pamphilus, who had been Praetor, 
died suddenly as he was asking a Boy what it was o'clock. 
A. Pompeius, so soon as he had worshipped the Gods in the 
Capitol ; M. Juventius Talva, the Consul, as he was sacri- 
ficing ; Cams Servilius Pansa, as he stood at a Shop in the 
Forum, at the second Hour of the Day, leaning on his 
Brother, P. Pansa ; Bcebius, the Judge, as he was adjourning 
an Appearance in the Court ; M. Terentius Corax, while he 
was writing Letters in the Foruin ; no longer since than last 
Year a Knight of Rome, as he was talking in the Ear of one 
who had been Consul, before the Ivory Statue of Apollo, 
which is in the Forum of Augustus : but above all others, 
C. Julius, a Physician, as he was dressing an Eye with 
Ointment, and drawing the Surgical Instrument along the 
Eye ; also L. Manlius Torquatus, a Consular Man, when at 
Supper he reached for a Cake ; L. Durius Valla, a Phy- 
sician, while he was drinking a Draught of honeyed Drink ; 
Appius Savfoius, being come out of the Bath, as he was 
drinking honeyed Drink, and supping an Egg ; P. Quin- 
tius Scapula, as he was at Supper with Aquiilius Gallus ; 
Decimus Saufeim, a Scribe, as he sat at Dinner in his own 
House ; Cornelius Gallus, who had been Praetor, and T. 
JEtherius a Roman Knight, died in the very act of Venus. 
The like befell in our Days to two of the Equestrian order, 
with the same pantomimic Jester Mithycus, who was in 
those days of surpassing Beauty. But M. OJilius Hilarus, 

1 Until the year was accomplished : an honour which otherwise he 
was not likely ever to attain. Wern. Club. 



246 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

an Actor in Comedies, as is reported by ancient Writers, 
died with the most laboured security of Death : for after he 
had afforded much Pleasure to the People on his Birth-day 
he held a Feast ; and when the Supper was set forth, he 
called for some hot Drink in a Basin : and casting his Eye 
on the Mask that he had worn that day, he took off the 
Chaplet from his Head, and set it on it ; in this habit he 
became cold before any Man perceived it, until he that 
reclined next to him put him in mind that his Drink was 
growing cold. These are examples of happy Deaths. But, 
on the other hand, there is a very great number of those that 
are miserable. L. Domitius, descended from a noble Family, 
being vanquished by Ccesar near Massilia, and taken pri- 
soner at Corsinium by the same Ccesar, for very irksomeness 
of Life poisoned himself; but after he had drunk the 
Poison he did all he could to save his life. We find in the 
Public Acts, that when Felix, one of the Red-coloured 
Chariot- drivers, was carried out to be burnt, one of those 
who favoured him threw himself into his Funeral Fire. A 
frivolous matter it is to speak of; but they of the other side, 
that this act should not be ascribed to the honour of the 
Artist abovenamed, gave it out, that this Friend of his did it 
only because his Head was intoxicated with the strong smell 
of the Odours. Not long before this M. Lepidus, 1 descended 
from a most noble Family, who (as is above said) died 
through Grief, was by the violence of the Flame cast off from 
the Funeral Pile ; and as, because of the extreme Heat, no 
one could come near to lay him again on the place, he was 
burnt naked on a pile of dry Vine Cuttings, near the former. 

CHAPTER LIV. t .,_ 
Of Burial. 

To burn the Bodies 2 of the Dead was not an ancient 
Custom among the Romans ; but they Buried them in the 

1 The cause of his death is mentioned in the 36th chapter of this 
book. Wern. Club. 

3 The practice of burning the dead is of high antiquity, and as such is 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 247 

Earth. But after they understood that the Bodies of the 
Men slain in the distant Wars were taken up out of the Earth 
again, it was appointed to Burn them. And yet many Fami- 
lies kept still to the old Customs: as in the House of the 
Cornelii no one is reported to have been burnt before L. 
Sylla, the Dictator. And he willed it through dread that he 
should be so served as he had done by C. Marius, whose 
Corpse he had caused to be digged up. (In Latin) he is said 
to be Sepultus, who is bestowed in any way ; but Humatus 
sigriifieth that he is covered with the Earth. 

CHAPTER LV. 
Of the Soul, or the Manes. 1 

AFTER Sepulture there is very great Obscurity regarding 
the Manes ; but this is generally held, that in whatever Con- 
familiarly spoken of by Homer. That it was more ancient among the 
Romans than is represented by Pliny appears from Ovid ; who (" Fasti," 
c. 4) speaks of its having been practised on the body of Remus, the bro- 
ther of Romulus. The same is also negatively proved by Numa, who 
ordered that his body should not be burned ; and by the laws of the 
Twelve Tables, regulations were instituted concerning it : chiefly to pre- 
vent extravagant expense in the ceremony. The general fashion of 
burning, in preference to interment, succeeded to the example set by 
Sylla ; after whose day it was practised even by people of inferior orders : 
but neither burning nor burial were allowed by law within the bounds 
of the city. An ordinance of Numa forbade that a woman who died in 
childbirth should be buried, until the child was taken from her ; and the 
usual ceremonies were to be omitted when the person had been killed by 
lightning. Wern. Club. 

1 " Manes " was a general term expressive of the souls of men after 
they were separated from the body. They were supposed to be arranged 
in classes, according to their moral condition : for which see a note, 
vol. i. p. 24. But however situated, a kind of deityship was supposed to 
attach itself to them : and hence they were addressed as Dii Manes. 
Such was the popular opinion, as referred to by Virgil, Ovid, and other 
writers who reflected the public mind ; but it was scarcely an article of 
faith among philosophers and the higher classes, whose opinions fluctuated 
according to circumstances. As a motive to moral obligation and respon- 
sibility it was exceedingly feeble. 

Pliny's observation, " that in whatever condition they were before 



248 History of Nature. [ BOOK VI I . 

dition they were before they were born, in the same they 
remain when they are dead. For neither Body nor Soul 
hath any more Sense after Death than they had before the 
Day of Birth. But the Vanity of Men extendeth itself even 
into the future, and in the very Time of Death fiattereth 
itself with a Life after this. For some attribute Immortality 
to the Soul ; others devise a Transfiguration ; some again 

they were born, in the same they remain after they are dead," may be 
understood as referring to the Pythagorean doctrine of Transmigration ; 
which was the most plausible account .of the disposition of the intelligent 
principle that the Heathens could reach to, before Light and Immor- 
tality were revealed in the Gospel; but by the almost contemptuous 
silence with which he passes it over in his argument, it appears that he 
did not feel disposed to credit it. With regard to the station of the 
manes, Plato supposes that impure spirits wander about among sepulchres 
and monuments. Homer represents Elpenor as prevented from rest 
until the funeral rites were paid ; and a commonly received doctrine was, 
that there were days sacred to Dis and Proserpine, on which the whole of 
the secret and deep places of the world were thrown open, and the disem- 
bodied spirits were permitted to revisit the light. Varro supposes that 
this occurs three times in the year : on the feast of Vulcanalia, tenth of 
the Calends of September, or 23d of August ; on the 3d of the Nones of 
October, the Fontinalia, October 13 ; and the 6th of the Ides of November, 
or 8th of that month. 

According to the doctrine of the Jewish Rabbis, derived, no doubt, 
from ancient Oriental sources, " during the first twelve months after 
death the souls of righteous men descend and ascend again " (Talmud, tr. 
Sabbath) : which Rabbi Joseph Albo, in the " Book of Principles," c. xxxi., 
explains by saying, that the soul does not directly and at once become 
divested of those corporeal attachments to which it is accustomed, but 
lingers about them until by habit it becomes weaned from them, and 
assimilated to the new condition on which it has entered. 

The gloomy views which even the more virtuous of the ancient Hea- 
thens took of an invisible world is shewn by Homer's representations in 
the " Odyssey," b. xi. ; and by so much of Etrurian learning as, from 
their paintings and other representations, have descended to us. With so 
much distaste of a wearisome life on the one hand (in which even Homer 
joins, b. xvii.), and on the other the dim prospect of the dreary regions 
below, we can scarcely wonder if even the virtuous Pliny should choose 
rather to lie down in ashes without the prospect of living again. The 
greater portion of his argument, however, is founded on his ignorance : 
his questions, then so doubtful, are such as now even a child may answer. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 249 

bestow Sense on those who are in the Lower Regions ; and 
they do Honour to the Manes, making a God of him who 
hath ceased to be a Man : as if the Manner of Man's Breath- 
ing differed from that of other living Creatures ; or as if 
there were not to be found many other Things in the World, 
that live much longer than Men, and yet no Man foretells 
the like Immortality to them. But what is the Body that 
followeth the Material of the Soul ? where lieth her 
Thought? how is her Seeing, how is her Hearing per- 
formed ? what toucheth she ? nay, what doth she at all ? 
How is she employed ? or what Good can there be without 
these ? I would know where she hath her abiding Place ? 
and what Multitudes of Souls, like Shadows, would there be 
in so many Ages ? Surely these are but fantastical and 
childish Toys, devised by Men that would fain live always. 
The like Foolery there is in preserving the Bodies of Men. 
And the Vanity of Democritus is no less, who promised a 
Restoration to Life, and yet himself hath not come to Life 
again. And what an Instance of Madness to think (an Evil 
in itself) that Death should be the Way to a life ! What 
Repose should ever Men have that are born, if the Sense of 
their Souls should remain on high, while their Shadows are 
among those below ? Certainly, this sweet Inducement, 
and Credulity, destroyeth the Benefit of the best Gift of 
Nature, which is Death ; and it doubleth the Pain of a Man 
who is to die, if he happen to consider what shall befall him 
in the Time to come. For if it be sweet to live, what Plea- 
sure can one have, that hath already lived ? But how much 
more easy and certain is it for each Man to trust to himself, 
and to gather Reasons from the Experience that he had 
before he was born? 

CHAPTER LVI. 
The first Inventors of Things in Life. 

BEFORE we depart from this Discourse of Men's Nature, 
it seemeth convenient to point out their Inventions, and 
what each Man hath discovered. In the first Place, Liber 



250 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

Pater appointed buying and selling ; he also devised the 
Diadem, the Ornament of Kings, and the Triumph. Ceres 
shewed the use of Corn, whereas before Men lived on Mast. 
She taught also how to grind Corn, to knead Dough, and 
make Bread of it, in Attica, Italy, and Sicily ; for which she 
was reputed a Goddess. She it was that began to make 
Laws ; but others have thought that Rhadamanthns was the 
first Lawgiver. I am of opinion, that Letters ever were in 
Assyria ; but some think, as particularly Gellius, that they 
were invented by Mercury in Egypt, and others will have it 
that they came first from Syria. True it is, that Cadmus 
brought into Greece from Phcenice to the Number of sixteen; 
to which Palamedes, in the Time of the Trojan War, added 
four, in these characters, 0, 3, <, X. And after him Simon- 
ides Melicus 1 produced the same Numbers, z, H, T, a : the 
Force of all which Letters we acknowledge among ourselves. 
Aristotle is rather of opinion, that there were eighteen an- 
cient Letters : A, B, r, A, E, z, i, K, A, M, N, o, n, p, 2, T, r, $, 
and that the other two, and X, were added by Epicharmus, 
and not by Palamedes. Anticlides writeth, that one in Egypt 
named Menon was the Inventor of Letters, fifteen Years be- 
fore the Time of Phoroneus, the most ancient King of Greece : 
and he endeavoureth to prove the same by Monuments. On 
the other Hand, Epigenes, an Author as renowned as any, 
sheweth, that among the Babylonians there were found 
Observations of the Stars for 7*20 Years, written on Bricks ; 
and they who speak of the least, as Berosus and Critodemus, 
report the like for 480 Years. Whereby it appeareth that 
the use of Letters was eternal. The Pelasgi brought their 
use into Latium. Euryalus and Hyperbius, two Brothers at 
Athens, invented the first Manufacture of Bricks and the 
Formation of Houses ; for before their Time Caves were used 
for Houses. Gellius is of opinion that Doxius, the Son of 
Ccelus, devised the first Houses that were made of Clay ; 
taking his Pattern from the Nests of Swallows. Cecrops 
called a Town after his own Name, Cecropia ; which at this 

1 Some copies read Medicus, " a physician." Wern. Club. 



BOOK VI L] History of Nature. 251 

Day is the Castle in Athens. Some will have it that Argos 
was built before it by King Phoroneus; and others again, 
that Sycione was before them. The Egyptians affirm, that 
long before that, their City Diospolis was founded. Cinyra, 
the Son of Agriopa, invented the Slating of Houses, and 
Mines of Brass : both within the Isle of Cyprus. He also 
invented Pincers, the little Hammer, the Lever, and the 
Anvil. Danaus, who was brought from Egypt to Greece, 
which was then called Argos Dipsion, first sunk Wells. 
Cadmus at Thebes, or, as Theophrastus saith, in Phoenice, 
found out Stone Quarries. Thrason was the first Builder 
of Walls : of Towers, the Cyclops, as Aristotle thinketh ; 
but the Tyrinthii, according to Theophrastus. Weaving 
was the Invention of the Egyptians ; and Dyeing Wool, 
of the Lydians in Sardis. Closter, the Son of Arachne, 
taught the first making of the Spindle for Woollen Yarn : 
and Arachnb herself, the Flax and Nets. Nicias the Megaren- 
sian invented the Fuller's Art : Boethius, the Art of Sewing. 
The Egyptians will have Medicine to have been discovered 
among them ; but others, that Arabus, the Son of Babylo 
and Apollo, was its Author. The first Herbarist and Apothe- 
cary was Chiron, Son of Saturn and Phyllira. Aristotle 
thinketh that Lydus the Scythian displayed the melting and 
tempering of Brass ; Theophrastus, that it was Delas the 
Phrygian. Some think the Chalybse devised the working 
into Vessels of Brass, arid others attribute it to the Cyclopae. 
The Discovery of Iron was the Invention of those in 
Crete, who were called Dactyli Idaei, according to Hesiod. 
Erichthonius the Athenian discovered Silver, or, as others 
say, JEacus. The Gold Mines, together with the melting of 
the Metal, Cadmus the Phrenician first found out at the 
Mountain Pangaeus ; but others say, Thoas and Eaclis in 
Panchaia ; or else Sol the Son of Oceanus, to whom Gellius 
attributeth the Discovery of Medicine, and of Honey. 
Midacritus was the first that brought Lead out of the Island 
Cassiteris. 1 And the Cyclops invented the working Iron to 

1 The Islands of Scilly. Wern. Club. 



252 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

use; Corcebus the Athenian, the Potter's Art; and therein 
Anacharsis the Scythian, or according to some, Hyperbios 
the Corinthian, invented the forming into a Globe. The 
Carpenter's Art was the Invention of Dcedalus, as well as 
the Tools : the Saw, the Hatchet, the Perpendicular, the 
Auger, Glue, Fish-glue. The Square, the Level, the Lathe, 
and the Key, were invented by Theodorus Samius. Phidon 
the Argive, or Palamedes, as Gellius rather thinketh, found 
out Measures and Weights. Pyrodes, the Son of Cilix, first 
obtained Fire from the Flint; and Prometheus, the Means to 
preserve it in Ferula (or Fennel). The Phrygians invented 
the Waggon with four Wheels : the Poeni (Carthaginians), 
Merchandise: Eumolpus the Athenian discovered the culti- 
vation of Vines arid Trees. Staphylus, the Son of Silenus, 
taught how to mix Wine with Water. Aristceus the Athenian 
invented the making of Oil, and also the Press belonging to 
it. The same Man taught to draw Honey from the Combs. 
Buzyges the Athenian, or as others have it, Triptolemus, 
employed Oxen for the Plough. The Egyptians were the 
first that had a royal City, and the Athenians a popular 
City. After Theseus, the first Tyrant was Phalaris of Agri- 
gentum. The Lacedaemonians first invented the Condition 
of Slavery. The first Judgment for Death WHS in the Court 
of Areopagus. The first Battle was fought between the Afri- 
cans and Egyptians ; and the same was done with Clubs, 
which they call Phalangae. Shields were contrived by 
Prcetus and Acrisius, when they warred against each other ; 
or by Calchus, the Son of Athamas. Midias of Messene in- 
vented the Cuirass, and the Lacedaemonians the Helmet, 
Sword, and Spear. The Carians contrived Greaves, and 
Crests (upon Helmets): Scythes, the Son of Jupiter, the Bow 
and Arrows; although some say that Perses, the Son of 
Perseus, invented Arrows. The ^Etolians invented the 
Lance ; the Dart with a Loop was by JEtolus, the Son of 
Mars : the light Javelins and the Pilum by Tyrrhenus ; and 
Penthesilea the Amazon, the Battle-axe. Piseus found out 
the Boar-spear and Chasing-staff. Among Engines to throw 
with, the Cretes invented the Scorpion: the Syrians, the 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 253 

Catapult : the Phoenicians, the Balista and the Sling. Piseus 
the Tyrrhenian first used the hrazen Trumpet; and Arthemon 
the Clazomenian, Tortoises. The Engine to batter Walls 
(called sometimes the Horse, and now the Ram) was the 
Device of Epeus at Troy. Bellerophon shewed first how to 
ride on Horseback : Pelethronius invented the Saddle and 
Bridle for the Horse. The Thessalians, called Centaurs, 
inhabiting near the Mountain Pelius, were the first that 
fought on Horseback. The Nation of the Phrygians first 
joined two Horses to a Chariot ; and Erichthonius four. 
Palamedes, during the Trojan War, invented the manner 
of setting an Army in array: also the giving of a Signal, 
the Watch-word, and the Outposts (VigiliaB). In the same 
War, Sinon devised Watch-towers. Lycanor was the first 
Maker of a Truce : Theseus, of Alliances : Car, from whom 
Caria took its Name, observed first the Flight of Birds 
(Augury) ; to which Orpheus added the Signs from other 
Animals. Delphus invented Divination from the Entrails 
(Aruspices) : Amphiaraus, that of the Inspection of Fire 
(Ignispex) : Tyresias, the Theban, that of the Auspices of 
Birds. Amphictyon gave the Interpretation of portentous 
Sights, and of Dreams. Atlas, the Son of Libya (or, 
as some say, the Egyptians, and as others the Assyrians), 
invented Astrology ; and in that Science, Anaximander the 
Milesian devised the Sphere. The Explanation of the 
Winds was given by JEolus, the Son of Helen. Amphion 
invented Music. The Flute and the single Pipe 1 were 
the Invention of Pan, the Son of Mercury. The oblique 
Cornet was by Midas in Phrygia ; and in the same Country 
Marsyas invented the Double Flute ; Amphion taught the 
Lydian Measures; Thamyras the Thracian, the Dorian; and 
Marsyas of Phrygia, the Phrygian. Amphion, likewise (or, 
as some say, Orpheus, and according to others, Linus}, played 
first on the Lute. 2 Ter pander added seven Strings to it; 
Simonides added the eighth ; and Timotheus the ninth. Tha- 
myras was the first that played on the Lute without Song, 

1 Fistula and Monaiilus. Wern. Club. a Cithara. Wern. Club. 



254 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

and Amphion sung with it, or, according to some, Linus. 
Terpander adapted Songs to the Lute. Dardanus, the Tro3- 
zenian, began first vocal Music to the Flute. 1 The Curetes 
taught to dance in Armour ; and Pyrrhus the Pyrrhic Dance ; 
and both these were first practised in Crete. The Heroic 
Verse we owe to the Oracle of Pythius (Apollo}. About the 
Original of Poems there is a great Question. They are 
proved to have existed before the Trojan War. Pherecydes 
of Syros, in the Days of King Cyrus, invented the Writing 
in Prose. Cadmus the Milesian founded History. Lycaon 
appointed the first public Games of Strength in Arcadia ; 
Acastus in lolcum, the first solemn Games at Funerals ; and 
after him Theseus, in the Isthmus. Hercules instituted the 
Athletic Exercises at Olympia : and Pythus those of Play at 
Ball. Gyges the Lydian first practised Painting in Egypt; 
but in Greece, Euchir, a Relative of Dcedalus, as Aristotle 
supposeth ; and according to Theophrastus, it was Polygnotus 
the Athenian. Danaus was the first that sailed with a Ship, 
and so he passed the Sea from Egypt to Greece ; for before 
that time they used Rafts, which were invented by King 
Erythra, to cross from one Island to another in the Red Sea. 
But we meet with some Writers who suppose that the Tro- 
jans and Mysians were the first that devised Navigation be- 
fore them in the Hellespont, when they passed over-against 
the Thracians. And even at this Day in the British Ocean, 
there are made W T icker Boats covered with Leather, and 
stitched round about ; in the Nile, of Papyrus, Cane-reed, 
and Rushes. Philostephanus witnesseth, that Jason first used 
in Navigation the long Ship ; but Egesias saith, that it was 
Paralus. Ctesias attributeth it to Samyras ; Saphanus, to 
Semiramis ; and Archimackus, to JEgeon. Damastes testi- 
fieth, that the Erythraeans first made the Bireme (or Galley 
with two Ranks of Oars) : Thucydides, that Aminocles the 
Corinthian built the first Trireme (with three Rows of Oars) : 
Aristotle saith, that the Carthaginians were the first that set 
to Sea the Quadrireme (with four Ranks of Oars): and 

1 Tibia. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 255 

Nesichthon the Salaminian, set afloat the first Quinquireme 
(with five Ranks of Oars). Zenagoras of Syracusa brought 
up those of six Rows ; and from it to those of ten, Mnesigeton 
was the Inventor. It is said that Alexander the Great built 
Galleys with twelve Banks ; and Philostephanus reporteth, 
that Ptolemy Soter rose to fifteen : Demetrius, the Son of 
Antiaonus, to thirty : Ptolemy Philadelphus, to forty ; and 
Ptolemy Philopater, surnamed Tryphon, to fifty. Hippus 
the Tyrian invented Ships of Burden. 1 The Cyrenians first 
built the Pinnace ; the Phoenicians, the Ferry-boat ; the 
Rhodians, the Wherry ; and last, the Cyprians, the Hulk. 
The Phoenicians were the first that in sailing observed the 
Course of the Stars. The Copeans devised the Oar, and the 
Plateans its broad End : Icarus, the Sails : Dcedalus, the 
Mast and the Yard. Vessels for transporting Horses were 
the Invention of the Samians, or else of Pericles the Athe- 
nian. The Thasii formed the long-covered Ships : for before 
their Time they fought only from the Stern and the Bow. 
Piseus added the Rostra ; the Tyrrhenians, the Anchor ; to 
which Eupalamus added the two Claws, and Anac/tarsis the 
Grappling-hooks. The Stock was by Pericles the Athenian ; 
and finally, the Steering-tackle by Typhis. The Chief that 
first fought in a Fleet was Minos. The first that killed a 
Beast was HyperHus, the Son of Mars; and Prometheus first 
killed an Ox. 2 

1 The names of these ships in the original are, Oneraria, Cymba, 
Celox, Cercuros. Wern. Club. 

8 It has been already remarked, that the Greeks regarded as the 
inventor of any art him who had communicated it to them ; and Pliny 
seeks no further than to their writings for authority in these particulars, 
In the Book of Genesis (chap. iv. &c.) we have more authentic particulars 
of the invention of musical instruments, of tents to dwell in, and of 
working in metal : the latter by one whose name seems to have been the 
origin of that of Vulcan ; and the following catalogue of discoveries in 
the most ancient times is derived from Sanchoniatho, the Phoenician : 

"From Genus, the son of Protogonus and (Eon, other mortal issue 
were begotten, whose names were Light, Fire, and Flame. These found 
out the way of generating fire by the rubbing of pieces of wood against 
each other, and taught men the use thereof. These begat sons of vast 
bulk and height, whose names were given to mountains on which they 



256 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

CHAPTER LVII. 
Wherein first appeared the general Agreement of Nations. 

THE first silent Consent of all Countries hath agreed in 
this, That they should use the Ionian Letters. 

first seized : so from them were named Mounts Cassius and Libanus, 
Antilibanus and Brathys. Perhaps it is to these that allusion is made, 
Genesis, vi. 4. The Protogonus and (Eon here spoken of, being the 
first generation of mortals, were the discoverers of the way of taking 
food from trees; and their children, Genus and Genea, in a time of 
scarcity in Phanicia, first worshipped the sun, as Beelsamin, or only 
Lord of Heaven. 

" Hypsuranius, a Tyrian, first made huts of reeds and rushes, and the 
paper-reeds. His brother Usoiis first invented covering for his body, out 
of the skins of wild beasts which he could catch ; which may be reconciled 
with the narrative in Genesis, iii. 21. He consecrated two rude stone 
pillars to the fire and wind, and worshipped them with the sprinkling of 
the blood of wild beasts taken in hunting. He first ventured on the sea 
in a kind of raft ; and on his death were first instituted anniversary feasts. 
Many years after him, Agreus and Halieus were the inventors of the arts, 
and it would appear, the fathers of tribes who pursued hunting and fish- 
ing. The two brothers who invented the working of iron were their 
sons. One of these, named Chrysor, the same as Vulcan, employed 
charms and divinations ; he invented the hook, bait, and fishing-line, and 
boats slightly made : perhaps those covered with leather, mentioned by 
Pliny as used in his day in Britain, and originally derived from this 
Eastern source. This Coracle, employed so late as the fourth or fifth cen- 
tury of Christianity in crossing the British Channel, is still used in Welsh 
rivers, and is figured, in its modern structure, by Mr. Yarrell (" History 
of British Fishes," vol. ii. p. 62, 2d edit.) : a copy from an ancient relievo 
in Montfaucon is at the end of this volume. It was a subsequent race, 
the Cabiri, that formed the first complete ship. From the last generation, 
or Chrysor and his brother, sprang two brothers : one called Technites, or 
the artist, and the other, Ge'inus Autochthon, the home-born man of the 
earth. These first mingled stubble with the brick earth, and dried the 
tiling in the sun. This accommodation was further improved by the for- 
mation of courts, fences, and cellars about houses. They were husband- 
men, and worshipped a statue carried about in a movable temple, drawn 
by oxen. This practice is alluded to by the prophet Amos, v. 26, and 
perhaps 2 Samuel, vi. 3 and 7. These were the first that employed dogs 
in the hunting of wild animals. Amynus and Magus, their sons, first 



BOOK VII .]. History of Nature. 257 

CHAPTER LVIII. 
Of the ancient Letters. 1 

THAT the old Greek Letters were almost the same as the 
present Latin appeareth by an antique Table of Brass, which 
came from the Temple at Delphos, and which at this Day is 
in the Library of the Palatium, dedicated to Minerva by the 
Emperors, with an Inscription like this on it: Nau<r/x.arj 
T/tfa/xit/ou ' Adqvatbg, xooa xa/ ' AQqva aveQqxsv : i.e. Nausicrates (the 

Son) of Tisamenus an Athenian, caused this Table to be made 
and set up to Minerva. 

formed villages and flocks ; and their sons, Misor and Sydyc (Wellfreed 
and Just), discovered the use of salt. 

" Cronus first made a scimitar and spear : Dagon invented the use of 
bread and the plough. Inachus, whom Archbishop Usher makes contem- 
porary with the Scriptural Nahor, was the inventor of honorary gold and 
silver chains. The purple dye from shell-fish was discovered by the Phre- 
nician Hercules, the great navigator Melcartus, who first passed through 
the Straits of Gibraltar, and visited Cornwall. It is true, there seems some 
doubt whether there be not two individuals referred to under this name, 
one of whom lived in the days of Canaan ; but if so, at least they were 
natives of the same country, and were both honoured by their country- 
men as inventors of the arts by which the nation acquired riches and 
eminency. Cronus first taught the use of the bow as a weapon; which 
took place in Crete, an island afterwards famous for this kind of skill. 
4 Eupolemus says of Enoch, that he was the true Atlas, the inventor of 
astronomy.' Finally, the infamy of having first practised persecution for 
religion is ascribed to Cronus, who is supposed to be Ham, the son of 
Noah, with the concurrence of the Egyptian Thoth ; but the Jews are 
inclined to derive its origin from the city of Ur, in Chaldaea, where Terah 
was put to death in the fire (Ur) : but in either case the act was devised 
in support of false religion, or idolatry." Wern. Club. 

1 In the beginning of the 56th chapter, Pliny has expressed his belief 
that the Assyrian letters are the most ancient in the world : but whether 
these were the same as in recent times have been discovered among the 
antique monuments of Nineveh and Babylon ; the Chaldsean characters 
afterwards introduced among the Jews by Ezra ; or the ancient Pho2ni- 
cian, now termed the Samaritan; in either case it is only by passing 
through great mutations that they can be traced to the Greek and Latin 
forms of the days of Pliny. Sanchoniatho says that Taautus, called by 

VOL. II. S 



258 History of Nature. [BoOK VII. 

CHAPTER LIX. 
When Barbers were first at Rome. 

THE next Consent of all People was to entertain Bar- 
bers; but they were later among the Romans. The first that 
entered Italy came from Sicily, in the 454th Year after the 
Foundation of Rome. They were brought in by P. Ticinius 
Mena, as Varro reporteth: for before this they were un- 
shorn. The first that took up the practice to Shave every 
day was Scipio Africanus : and after him cometh Divus 
Augustus, who always used the Rasor. 1 

CHAPTER LX. 
When was the fast Dial. 2 

THE third Consent of all Nations was in the observation of 
the Hours ; and this was grounded upon Reason : but at 
what Time, and by whom this was Invented in Greece, we 
have declared in the Second Book ; and it was late before 
this came up at Rome. In the Twelve Tables the East and 
West alone are mentioned ; after some Years the Noon was 
added, and the Consul's Officer proclaimed Noon when, 
standing at the Hall of the Council, he beheld the Sun in 

the Greeks Hermes, found out the first letters ; but these appear, from 
his subsequent remarks, to have been what we now term hieroglyphics. 
It may be the phonetic characters, of which Pliny ascribes the invention 
to Meno the Egyptian ; but it is probable that they are all much more 
ancient. Wern. Club. 

1 Slaves and servants were not permitted to be shaved. The Egyp- 
tians were the only people who universally used the rasor. Wern. Club. 

2 Lumisden has some observations on the Roman method of measur- 
ing time. " I do not conceive," he says, " how a sun-dial or any other 
instrument could point out the various hours, as time was computed by 
the ancient Romans. The time the earth takes to revolve once round its 
axis, or the space between the rising of the sun till its next rising, which 
makes a day and a night, divided into twenty-four equal parts, we call 
hours. Now, the Romans divided the day and the night into twenty-four 
hours. Twelve of these, from the rising of the sun to its setting, con- 



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 259 

that Quarter between the Rostra and the Grecostasis. But 
when the Sun inclined downward from the Column named 
Moenia, to the Prison, he proclaimed the last Quarter (of the 
Day). But this observation would serve only on clear Days ; 
and yet it was so until the first Punic War. Fabius Vestalis 
writeth, that L. Papyrius Cursor, the Prince, twelve Years 
before the War with Pyrrhus, to do the Romans a pleasure 
set up a Sun-dial on the Temple of Quirinus, when it was 
dedicated, his Father having vowed it before him. But 
this Author sheweth not either the method of that Dial, or 
the Workman ; nor yet from whence it was brought, nor in 
what Writer he found it so written. M. Varro reporteth, 
that the first Dial was set up in the common Market-place, 
upon a Column near the Rostra, in the first Punic War, by 
M. Valerius Messala, the Consul, presently after the taking 
of Catana, in Sicily ; from whence it was brought, thirty 
Years after the report of the aforesaid Dial of Papyrius, in 
the Year of the City 477. And although the Lines of this 
Dial did not agree with the Hours, yet were the People 
governed by it for an hundred Years save one, until 
Q. Martius Philippus, who was Censor, with L. Paulus, 
set another by it, made more carefully. And this gift, 
among other things done by the Censor, was highly 
acceptable to the People. But notwithstanding this, if it 
were a cloudy Day the Hours were uncertain ; and thus it 

stituted their day ; and the other twelve, from the setting of the sun to 
its rising, constituted their night. Thus, as the seasons changed, the 
length of their hours must have varied. In winter the twelve hours of 
the day were short, and those of the night long : in summer they were 
the reverse. How then could these hours, of an unequal length, and 
which daily varied, be measured by an instrument ? I have not been 
able to discover any method by which this could be done. However, 
they had two fixed points, namely, mid-day and midnight, which they 
called the sixth hour. So that a meridian line would always point out 
the sixth hour, or mid- day." 

That the dial was a very ancient instrument for measuring time 
appears from the 2d Book of Kings, xx. 11, and Isaiah, xxxviii. 8, 
where is the first mention of it on record. It probably was invented in 
Babylonia. Wern. Club. 



260 



History of Nature. 



[BOOK VII 



continued five Years more. Then Scipio Nasica, the Col- 
league of L&nas, first divided the Hours, both of Day and 
Night equally, by Water. And this Horologe he dedicated 
under a Roof, in the Year of the City 595 from the Build- 
ing of Rome. So long it was, that the People of Rome did 
not measure out the Light. 

Now let us return to the other Living Creatures : and 
first, of Animals of the Land. 




Coracle referred to in note at p. 256. Montfaucon, torn. iv. pi. 49. 



END OF VOL. II. 



London : George Barclay, Castle Street, Leicester Square. 



IN THE EIGHTH BOOK 



IS CONTAINED THE 
NATURE OF LAND ANIMALS THAT GO ON FOOT. 



CHAP. 

1. Of Land Creatures: the Com- 
mendation of Elephants : their 
Understanding. 

/ 2. When Elephants were first 
yoked. 

3. The Docility of Elephants. 

4. The Clemency of Elephants: 
that they know their own 
Dangers ; also of the Ferocity 
of the Tiger. 

5. The Understanding and Me- 
mory of Elephants. 

6. When Elephants were first 
seen in Italy. 

7. Comhats by Elephants. 

8. The Manner of taking Ele- 
phants. 

9. The Manner how Elephants 

are tamed. 

10. How long an Elephant goeth 
with Young, and of their 
Nature. 

1 1. The Countries where Elephants 
breed : the discord between 
Elephants and Dragons. 

12. The Industry and Wit of Dra- 
gons and Elephants. 

13. Of Dragons. 

14. Serpents of prodigious Magni- 
tude : of Serpents named Boae. 

15. Of the Animals of Scythia, and 
of the North Countries. 

16. Of Lions. 

17. Of Panthers. 
VOL. in. 



CHAP. 

18. The Nature of the Tiger : of 
Camels, and the Camelopard : 
when it was first seen at Rome. 

19. Of the Stag- wolf named Chaus: 
and the Cephus. 

20. Of the Rhinoceros. 

21. Of Lynxes, Sphinges, Crocutes, 
Marmosets, of Indian Oxen, 
of Leucrocutes, of Eale, of the 
^Ethiopian Bulls, of the Man- 
tichora, the Unicorn, of the 
Catoblepa, and the Basilisk. 

22. Of Wolves. 
3. Of Serpents. 

24. Of the Ichneumon. 

25. Of the Crocodile and the Hip- 
popotamus. 

26. Who shewed first at Rome the 

Hippopotamus and Crocodiles. 
Medicines discovered by Ani- 
mals. 

27. Of Animals which have shewn 
certain Herbs ; the Red Deer, 
Lizards, Swallows, Tortoises, 
the Weasel, the Stork, the 
Boar, the Snake, Panther, 
Elephant, Bears, Stock-Doves, 
House - Doves, Cranes, and 
Ravens. 

28. Prognostications taken from 
Animals. 

What Cities and Nations have 
been destroyed by small Crea- 
tures. 



Contents of the Eighth Booh. 



CHAP 

30. Of the Hy?ena, the Crocuta, 

and Mantichora : of Beavers 
and Otters. 

31. Of Frogs, Seals, and Stellions. 

32. Of Deer, both Eed and Fal- 
low. 

33 . Of the Tragelaphis : of the Cha- 
meleon, and other Creatures 
that change Colour. 

34. Of the Tarand, the Lycaon, 
and the Wolf called Thoes. 
Of the Porcupine. 

36. Of Bears and their Cubs. 

37. The Rats of Pontus and the 

Alps : of Hedgehogs. 

38. Of the Leontophones, the Lynx, 
Badger, and Squirrels. 

39. Of Vipers, Snails, and Lizards. 

40. Of Dogs. 

Against the Bite of a mad Dog. 
42. The Nature of Horses. 



CHAP. 

43. Of Asses. -/ 

44. Of Mules. ,/ 

45. Of Kine, Bulls, and Oxen. ^ 

46. Of the Bull named Apis. 

47. The Nature of Flocks and their 
Breeding. / 

48. Different kinds of Wool and 

Cloths. 

49. Of Musmons. 

50. Of Goats and their Generation. 

51. Of Swine and their Nature. J 

52. Of Parks and Warrens for 
Beasts. 

53. Of Beasts half Tame. J 

54. Of Apes and Monkeys. - 

55. Of Hares and Rabbits. - 

56. Of Beasts half Savage. S 

57. Of Rats and Mice : of Dormice. 

58. Of Animals that Live not in 
some places. 

59. Of Animals hurtful to Strangers. 



In sum there are in this Book, Histories and Observations 788. 



LATIN AUTHORS ABSTRACTED : 

Mutianus, Procilius, Verrius Flaccus, L. Piso, Cornelius Valerianus, 
Cato the Censor, Fenestella, Trogus, Actius, Columella, Virgil, Varro, 
Lu. Metellus Scipio, Cornelius Celsus, Nigidius, Trebius Niger, Pomponius 
Mela, Manlius Sura. 

FOREIGN WRITERS: 

King Juba, Polybius, Onesicritus, Isidoruv, Antipater, Aristotle, Deme- 
trius the Natural Philosopher, Democritus, Theophrastus, Euanthes, Agrippa 
who wrote of the Olympionicce, Hiero, King Attalus, King Philometer, Cte- 
sias, Duris, Philistus, Architas, Philarchus, Amphilochus the Athenian, 
Anaxipolis the Thasian, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes the Milesian, 
Antigonus the Cymcean, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonicus of Pergamus, 
Aristander of Athens, Bacchus the Milesian, JBion of Soli, Chcereas the 
Athenian, Diodorus ofPryenceum, Dio the Colophonian, Epigenes of Rhodes, 
Evagon of Thassus, Euphranius the Athenian, Hegesias of Maronea, Men- 
ander of Pryenceum, Menander also of Heraclea, Menecrates the Poet, An- 
drocion who wrote of Agriculture, JEschrion who likewise wrote of that 
argument, Dionysius ivho translated Mago, Diophanes who collected an Epi- 
tome of Dionysius, King Archelaus, and Nicander. 



THE EIGHTH BOOK 



HISTORY OF NATURE 



WRITTEN BY 



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Of Animals of the Land ; the Praise of Elephants, 1 and their 
Understanding. 

0.x....:> ..:x:..x"# will now pass on to treat of other living 
Creatures, and first of Animals of the Land, 
amon which the Elephant is the greatest, 
an( ^ cometh nearest in Capacity to Men; 
l f r tne y understand the Language of the 
Country, they do whatever they are commanded, re- 
member what Duties they are taught, and take a Pleasure 
in Love and Glory ; nay, more than this, they possess 
Probity, Prudence, and Equity, (rare Qualities even in 
Men,) and they have also in religious Reverence the Stars, 
and Veneration for the Sun and Moon. Writers report 
that when the new Moon beginneth to appear bright > 
Herds of them come down to a certain River named 
Ainilus, in the Thickets of Mauritania, and there they 
solemnly Purify themselves by dashing themselves all over 

1 Elephas Indicus.Cuv. The Indian Elephant. 
Elephas Africanus.Cvv. The African Elephant. Wcrn. 




4 History of Nature. [BOOK VIIL 

with the Water; and so having saluted the Planet, they 
return again to the Woods, carrying before them their 
Young Ones that are fatigued. They are thought also to 
have an Understanding of Religion 1 in others ; for when they 
are to pass the Seas they will not enter the Ships before they 
are induced to it by an Oath of their Governors that they 
shall return again; and they have been seen enfeebled by 
Sickness (for as Large as they are they are subject to Sick- 
ness), to lie upon their Backs, throwing up Herbs toward 
Heaven, as if they had procured the Earth to pray for them. 
Now for their Docility : they adore the King, they kneel and 
offer Chaplets of Flowers. The lesser sort, which they call 
Bastards, serve the Indians to Plough their Ground. 

CHAPTER II. 

When Elephants were first put to Draw. 

THE first time they were known to Draw at Rome was in 
the Chariot of Pompey the Great, in the African Triumph. 

1 The author in several places speaks of religion in animals : as of 
monkeys, b. viii. c. 54, and of barn-door poultry, b. x. c. 41. The oryx 
was judged to be impious, because it had been seen to display signs of dis- 
regard or contempt to the moon. To understand the ground of this 
opinion, it is necessary to bear in mind that the religion of the heathens 
did not include or demand a spiritual attachment, or mental conformity, 
to the character or commands of the object worshipped, but was merely 
ritual : the latreia being an official service which was employed to allay 
the anger of some divinity, which had been raised by some cause equally 
remote from any feeling of a moral nature with that instituted to obviate 
it. The real cultus was comprised in this ceremony, and religion was the 
binding of this cultus, or worship, on those who were subject to it as 
superstition included the employment of a greater amount of ceremony 
than the latreia demanded ; and as this was judged to proceed from a 
greater degree of fear than the cause required, it was always considered 
as degrading him that manifested it. As the proper idea of religion was 
supposed to be the binding of the cultus on those only who were the sub- 
jects of it, it was no great extension of the same principle to suppose that 
animals might be subject to the same laws as men in these respects, and 
that they might have recourse to means of a similar kind to obviate 
similar offences. That the elephant practised religious rites was not the 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 5 

But long before this it is said that Father Liber did the 
same in his Triumph for having Conquered India. Prod- 
lius denieth that, coupled as they were, two in one Yoke, 
they could possibly have entered in at the Gates of Rome in 
Pompey's Triumph. In the Show of Gladiators, which Ger- 
manicus Ccssar exhibited, the Elephants were seen to show 
some disorderly Motions, after a manner of Dancing. It was 
a common thing to fling Weapons through the Air, so that 
the Winds had no power against them ; to flourish and meet 
together in Fight like Gladiators, and to make Sport in a 
Pyrrhic Dance ; and afterwards to go on Ropes ; to carry 
(four together 1 ) one of them laid at ease in a Litter, re- 
sembling the manner of Women newly brought to Bed ; and 
some of them would enter a Dining-place where the Tables 
were full of Guests, and pass among them with their foot- 
opinion of Pliny only, but appears to have been common in ancient times. 
^Elian, whose " History of the Peculiar Nature of Animals " is chiefly 
valuable for containing everything on the subject that floated on the sur- 
face of popular observation, says, " At the first appearance of the new 
moon I have heard that elephants leave the woods under the influence of 
a certain natural and inexpressible intelligence, bearing with them 
branches which they have plucked from the trees, which they bear 
aloft and wave to and fro as they cast their looks upward, as if offering 
some divine intercession to the goddess to be propitious and gracious to 
them." B. iv. c. x. " They also worship the rising sun by lifting up their 
trunks, like hands, to meet his rays, and on this account they are dear to 
the god ; and of this fact Ptolemy Philopator is an excellent and un- 
doubted witness." B. vii. c. 14. The reference of the author to this sove- 
reign is built on a remarkable dream which he had on the occasion of 
having offered the unusual sacrifice of four elephants on occasion of a 
victory. The solemn ceremonies of the elephant on occasion of the death 
of those of their own kind are referred to in the same work, b. v. c. 49. 
Their adoration of the king was the result of discipline, b. xiii. c. 22 ; and 
they also formed his night-watch, when perhaps he had learned to dis- 
trust the fidelity of his guards. Wern. Club. 

1 If the elephants walked two and two, as they probably did when 
thus carrying their companion, there must have been two ropes placed 
in parallel lines. JElian, " De Animalibus," gives a most amusing account 
of the performances of the elephants of Germanicus in the theatre ; but I 
do not remember that he mentions this feat. A like exploit is, however, 
mentioned by Seneca, Suetonius, and others. Wern. Club. 



6 . History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

steps so equally ordered that they would not touch any of 
the Company as they were Drinking. 

CHAPTER III. 
The Docility of Elephants. 

IT is certain that there was one Elephant who was of a 
slower Capacity than the others, so that he was often 
beaten with Stripes because he did not Learn that which was 
Taught him ; and he was found Studying those Lessons by 
Night, which he had not succeeded in Learning by Day. 1 
But one of the greatest Wonders was, that they could mount 
up against a Rope; and, more wonderful, that they should 
slide down again with their Faces downward. Mutianus, 
who had been thrice Consul, reporteth that one of them had 
Learned to make the Greek Letters, and was accustomed to 
Write in that Language thus: This have I myself written, 
and have dedicated the Celtic spoils. Also himself saw at 
Puteoli, when some Elephants that had been brought 
thither were forced to go forth out of the Vessel in which 
they had come, but being affrighted at the extent of the way 
from the Ship to the Land, to deceive themselves so that 
the way might not seem too long, they went backward with 
their Tails to the Land. They know that the Riches for 
which Men lie in wait for them consisteth only in their 
Arms, which Juba calleth their Horns ; but which Herodotus, 
who wrote long before him, and custom, hath better termed 
Teeth. And therefore when they are fallen off, either from 
Age, or by some Accident, the Elephants themselves hide 
them in the Ground. And this is the only Ivory ; for all the 
rest, and the Teeth themselves so far as they are covered 
within the Flesh, is no better than common Bone. And yet 
of late for scarcity Men have taken up to cut the Bones into 
Plates. For it is rare to procure Teeth of any bigness except 
from India ; since all the rest in our part of the World hath 

1 Plutarch, " De Solert. Anim." tells us of an elephant who practised 
bis parts by moonlight of his own accord. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 7 

been employed in Luxuries. You may know young Ele- 
phants by the Whiteness of their Teeth, and these Beasts 
have a special care over them. They spare the Point of one 
of them, lest it should be blunt when they come to Fight ; 
and the other they use ordinarily, either to dig up Roots or 
to throw down Banks. When they are compassed round 
with Hunters, they set in the foremost rank those which 
have the least Teeth, that their price may not be thought 
worth the hazard of Battle. But afterwards, when they are 
weary, they break them by driving them into the Trees, and 
so ransom themselves by the prey. 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Clemency of Elephants ; their Knowledge of their own 
Dangers ; also the Fierceness of the Tiyer. 

IT is a wonder in most Animals that they know why they 
are Hunted ; and through the whole they understand what 
to guard against. If an Elephant chance to meet a Man 
wandering simply out of his way in the Wilderness, it is said 
that he will mildly and peaceably set him in the right way 
again. But if he perceive a Man's footstep before he dis- 
covers the Man, he will tremble for fear of being entrapped ; 
he will stay from the Scent, look about him every way, and 
puff for very anger. Neither will he tread upon the Track, but 
dig it out and give it to the next (Elephant), and he again to 
him that followeth, in the way of a Message, to the furthest 
rank behind. Then the whole Herd wheels round and re- 
turns backward, putting themselves in Battle Array : so long 
continueth that strong Smell of Men's Feet through them 
all, notwithstanding for the most part they have not naked 
Feet, So the Tigress also, though fierce to other wild 
Beasts, and disregarding the footsteps of the Elephant 
itself, if she happen to catch sight of a Man is said im- 
mediately to convey away her Whelps. How cometh 
she to this knowledge of a Man ? Where did she ever see 
him before whom she thus feareth ? For surely such Forests 



8 History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

are very little frequented by Men. They may indeed well 
wonder at the novelty of their Tracks, bat how know they 
that they are to be feared ? Nay, what should be the reason 
that they dread even to see a Man, being so much superior 
in Strength, Size, and Swiftness ? Certainly herein is the 
wonderful work of Nature, and her mighty Power ; that the 
greatest and fiercest of wild Beasts, which have never seen 
that which they ought to fear, yet immediately understand 
why the same is to be dreaded. 

CHAPTER V. 
The Understanding and Memory of Elephants. 

ELEPHANTS march always in Troops. The oldest of them 
leadeth the Company, and the next to him in age cometh 
behind with the conduct of the Rear. When they are to pass 
over a River, they put the Smallest foremost, lest if the 
Larger should enter first they would dig up the Channel, and 
so make the Torrent to become deeper. Anti.pat.er writeth, 
that King Antiochus had two Elephants which he used in 
his Wars, and were famous for their Surnames, which they 
knew well. And truly Cato, when he named in his Annals 
the Commanders (Imperators), hath recorded that the (Ele- 
phant) which fought most bravely in the Punic Contest was 
named Surus, and that one of his Teeth was lost. When 
Antiochus would have sounded the passage of a River (by 
putting the Elephants before), Ajax refused, although at all 
times he was the leader of the Troop. On this it was pro- 
nounced that the Elephant which would pass should be the 
Chief; and Patroclus having ventured, as a reward there 
was presented to him a rich set of Silver Trappings (a thing 
in which they take very great Delight) ; and besides this, 
he was made the Sovereign of the others. But the other, 
which was distinguished (by his Abstaining from Food) pre- 
ferred Death to the Shame : for they are wonderfully 
Bashful, so that if one of them be overcome he will fly from 
the voice of the Conqueror, and put forward Earth arid Ver- 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 9 

vain. 1 Through Modesty they never associate in Love except 
in secret : the Male at five Years of Age, and the Female at 
ten Years old. And this they do every third Year, 2 and they 
continue therein five Days in the Year (as they say) and not 
more, for upon the sixth Day they Wash themselves over in 
the River ; and before this they do not return to the Herd. 
They know no adulterous change ; neither are there any 
Battles among them about their Females, as among other 
Animals to their great injury. And this is not for want of 
strong Affection ; for it is reported of an Elephant that he 
was enamoured of a certain Woman in Egypt who sold Gar- 
lands of Flowers. And lest any one should think that she 
was an ordinary maiden that was beloved, she was greatly 
admired by Aristophanes, the excellent Grammarian. There 
was another so full of Love to a Youth in the Army of Ptolo- 
mceus, that if he did not see him every Day he would abstain 
from his Meat. Juba likewise reporteth of an Elephant that 
loved a Woman who sold Perfumes. All these shewed their 
Love by the tokens of Joy at the sight of the object of their 
regard, by their rude Blandishments, and by preserving the 
Gifts which the People gave them, and laying them in their 
Bosoms. Nor is Love so much to be wondered at where the 
Memory is so good. For the same Juba saith, that an Ele- 
phant acknowledged a Man in his old Age, and after many 
Years, who in his youth had been his Governor. He 
affirmeth also that they have a certain Divine Instinct of 
Justice : for when King Bacchus had appointed to be re- 
venged on thirty Elephants, which he had caused to be 
bound to Stakes, and had set the same number to run upon 
them, appointing also Men to urge them to rush forward ; 
yet they were riot able to cause them to become the Ministers 
of another's Cruelty. 

1 The greatest sign of victory in old time was for the vanquished to 
offer a plant to the conqueror, which signified that he surrendered all the 
interests he had in earth, and even the rite of burial. See Lib. viii. c. 5. 
-Wern. Club. 

3 Some copies read two years. Wern. Club. 



10 History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

CHAPTER VI. 

When Elephants were first seen in Italy. 

THE first Time that Elephants were seen in Italy was 
during the War of King Pyrrhus ; and they were called by 
the Name of Lucce Boves, or Lucan Oxen, because they were 
seen in the Lucan Country ; in the four hundred and seventy- 
second Year of the City. But in Rome it was seven Years 
after this before they were seen, and then in a Triumph. But 
in the Year 502, a Number of them were seen, being taken 
from the Carthaginians in the Victory of L. Metellus Pontifex 
in Sicily. 142 were conveyed over on Rafts, which were laid 
upon Rows of great Tuns placed close one by another. Ver- 
rius saith that they fought in the Circus, and were killed with 
Darts, for want of better Counsel ; for they were neither 
willing to feed them, 1 nor to bestow them upon Kings. L. Piso 
saith they were only brought out into the Circus ; and to 
make them contemptible, they were driven round it by cer- 
tain hired Fellows, having for that purpose Spears simply 
headed with Iron. But what became of them afterward, 
those Authors make no mention ; but they are of opinion, 
that they were not killed. 

CHAPTER VII. 
Their Combats. 

MUCH renowned is the Contest of one Roman with an 
Elephant, when Annibal forced our Captives to skirmish one 
against another. For the only Roman that remained, he 
matched with an Elephant, having covenanted with him, 

1 The Romans might well shrink from the expense of supporting 142 
elephants, when, as we are informed, the quantity of food required for the 
daily consumption of a full-grown elephant is not less than 200 pounds of 
aliment of all sorts. The elephant of Louis XIV. had daily 80 pounds 
of bread, 12 pints of wine, and a large quantity of vegetable soup, with 
bread and rice ; this was exclusive of grass, and what he got from visi- 
tors. Wcrn. Club. 



BOOK VIIL] History of Nature. 1 1 

that if he could kill the Beast, he should be dismissed. So 
this Prisoner entered into single Fight with the Elephant, 
and to the great Grief of the Carthaginians, slew him. An- 
nibal, considering that the Report of this Combat would 
cause these Beasts to be little regarded, sent after him some 
Light Horsemen to kill him upon the Way. Their Trunk 
(Proboscis) may be easily cut off; as appeared by Experience 
in the Battles of Pyrrhus. Fenestella writeth, that the first 
Fight of them in Rome was in the Circus, when Claudius 
Pulcker was Curule jEdile, and M. Antonius and A. Post- 
humius were Consuls, in the six hundred and fiftieth Year 
of the City. Also 20 Years after, when the Luculli were 
Curule .ZEdiles, they fought against Bulls. Also in the 
second Consulship of Cn. Pompeius, at the Dedication of the 
Temple to Venus Victoress, 20 of them, or as some write, 17, 
fought in the Circus. The Gaetulians threw Darts against 
them. But one Elephant did Wonders : for when his Feet 
were pierced through with Darts, he crept upon his Knees 
among the Companies, where he caught from them their 
Shields, and flung them aloft, which, as they fell, turned 
round as if by Art, and not as if thrown with Violence by 
the Beasts in their Anger, to the great Pleasure of the Be- 
holders. And as strange a Thing was seen in another of 
them, who was killed with one Stroke ; for the Dart was 
driven under the Eye, and pierced to the vital Parts of the 
Head. Whereupon all the rest endeavoured to burst away, 
not without a great disturbance among the People, although 
fenced round with Iron Bars. And for this Cause, Ccesar 
the Dictator, when afterwards he was about to exhibit the 
like Show, cast a Ditch round about the Arena ; which Prince 
Nero removed to make room for the Knights. But those 
Elephants of Pompey being past all Hope of escaping, in a 
Manner that cannot be expressed seemed to supplicate the 
Multitude, craving their Mercy, with grievous Lamentations 
bewailing their Condition ; so that the People's Hearts 
melted, and with Tears in their Eyes, they rose up all at 
once, without Regard to the Imperator, or Respect to his 
magnificent Display, and imprecated on Pompey these severe 



12 History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

Misfortunes which soon after ensued accordingly. Again, 
Ccesar the Dictator, in his third Consulship, exhibited ano- 
ther Fight of them ; 20 against 500 Footmen ; and a second 
Time 20 more, having Turrets with 60 Defendants to the 
same ; and he opposed against them the same Number as 
the former of Footmen, and as many Horse. After this, 
Claudius and JVero, the Princes, brought them forth one by 
one, by way of finishing the Show of Gladiators. This 
Animal is reported to be so gentle to all that are not so 
strong as himself, that if he meet a Flock of Cattle, he will 
with the Hand remove any that cometh in his Way, for Fear 
he should crush them without being aware of it. And they 
never do any Hurt unless provoked. They always walk in 
Troops, and are less disposed to wandering alone than any 
other Animals. If they are environed with Horsemen, they 
take into the midst of the Troop the feeble, weary, or wounded ; 
and as if they were under the Direction of a General, or with 
the Guidance of Reason, they succeed one another in their 
Course. When taken, they are soonest brought to be tame 
with the Juice of Barley. 1 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Manner of taking Elephants. 

THE Indians take Elephants in this manner : the Go- 
vernor employeth one of them that are tame, and when he 
meeteth with a wild one alone, or can single him from the 
Herd, he beateth him until he hath made him weary, and 
then he mounteth on him and ruleth him as well as the former. 
In Africa they catch them in Pit-falls; into which, if one of 
them wander, all the rest immediately heap together Boughs 
of Trees, they roll down Heaps, they raise Banks, and with 
all they can do, labour to draw him out. Formerly when 
they meant to make them tractable, by the Help of Horse- 
men they drove the Flocks along into a Valley made by 
Man's Hand, and calculated to deceive them for a consider- 

1 That is, gruel, or tissane, as we may suppose. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 13 

able Extent ; arid when they were enclosed within the Ditches 
and Banks, they subdued them by Hunger; and they knew 
they were tame enough if they would quietly take a Branch 
from the Man that offered it to them. But now, since they 
seek after them for the sake of their Teeth, they throw Darts 
at their Legs, which are the softest Part of their Body. The 
Trogloditee, 1 a People bordering on Ethiopia, who live only 
by hunting Elephants, climb the Trees that are near their 
Walk, and from thence watching all the Herd as they pass, 
they leap down upon the Buttocks of the hindmost; then he, 
with his left Hand, layeth hold of the Tail, and setteth his 
Feet fast in the Flank of the left Side ; and so hanging, with 
his right Hand he cutteth the Hamstrings of one of his Legs 
with a very sharp double-edged Knife ; which done, the 
Elephant slackening his Pace, the Man then maketh escape, 
and divideth the Sinews likewise of the other Ham ; and all 
this Execution he doth with wonderful Agility. Others have 
a safer Way than this, but it is more deceitful : they fix in 
the Ground a great Way off, very great Bows ready bent; 
to hold these fast they choose young Men remarkable for 
their Strength, and others united together draw with all 
Might these Bows against the first, and so they pierce the 
Elephants as they pass with Javelins, and then follow them 
by their Blood. Of these Creatures, the Females are much 
more fearful than the Males. 

1 These people are often mentioned by Pliny, and are particularly 
described by Heliodorus (2Ethiopics, b. viii.) : " They are a people of 
Ethiopia, and live by grazing. These people are extremely swift of foot, 
as well by nature as by continued exercise from their childhood : of little 
use in close fight, but very serviceable with their slings, which they gall 
their enemy with at a distance ; and if they find themselves overpowered, 
they fly, secured by their swiftness, and by running into holes and caverns 
among the rocks, where no enemy ever found it worth their while to follow 
them." The Agagees, as mentioned by Mr. Bruce, in his " Travels into 
Abyssinia," appear to be a similar race of men ; although the object of 
pursuit is a different animal. Wern. Club. 



] 4 History of Nature. [ BOOK VIII. 

CHAPTER IX. 
The Manner of Taming Elephants. 

As furious as they may be, they are tamed with Hunger 
and Stripes, and by the Help of other Elephants that are 
brought to them, to restrain the unruly Beast with Chains ; 
and at other Times, when they go to rut, they are most out 
of Order ; so that they demolish the Stables with their Teeth : 
and therefore they restrain them from their Heat, and sepa- 
rate the Inclosures of the Females apart from those of the 
Males, which Enclosures they have much in the Mariner of 
other Beasts. When tamed, they serve in War, and carry 
little Castles with armed Soldiers among the Enemies j 1 and 
for the most Part they decide the Wars of the East. They 
bear down the Body of the Army, and stamp them (the 
armed Men) under Foot. But these same are affrighted 
with the Grunting of Swine ; and if wounded or put into 
a Fright, they always go backward, with scarcely less Mis- 
chief to their own Side. The African Elephants are afraid 
of the Indian, and dare not look upon them ; for the Indian 
Elephants are much bigger. 2 

CHAPTER X. 

How they Bring forth their Young; and of other Parts of 
their Nature. 

IT is the common Opinion that they go with Young ten 
Years ; but Aristotle saith, that they go but two Years, and 

1 Or on their backs (a various reading), Wern. Club. 

2 Philostratus and Polybius confirm this statement of Pliny, that the 
Indian elephant is larger than that of Africa ; and ^Elian says, that it 
attains the height of nine cubits. But modern authors generally consider 
the African species the larger, at least larger than the common elephant 
of Hindostan. Mr. Corse, formerly superintendent of the East India 
Company's elephants at Tiperah, a province of Bengal, never heard of 
but one Indian elephant whose height reached ten feet six inches. The 
elephants of Hindostan are, however, the smallest of the Asiatic species. 
Those of Pegu and Ava are much larger ; and the skeleton of the elephant 
at the Museum of Petersburgh, which was sent to the Czar Peter by the 
King of Persia, measures sixteen feet and a half in height. Wern. Club. 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 15 

that they breed but once in their Life, and produce not above 
one at a Time : also that they live 200 Years, and some of 
them 300. Their Condition of Youth beginneth when they 
are threescore Years old : they greatly delight in Rivers, and 
they wander about Waters ; when otherwise, by reason of the 
Magnitude of their Bodies, they cannot swim. 1 They are 
impatient of Cold. The greatest Evil which befals them is, 
Distension and Purging of the Bowels ; nor do they suffer 
from any other kinds of Sickness. I find that if they drink Oil, 
the Darts which stick in their Bodies will fall off, but if they 
sweat the more easily will they hold fast. The eating of 
Earth causes wasting in them, unless they chew well and 
often : they devour Stones also. The Trunks of Trees is the 
best Meat they have. They will overturn the higher Palm- 
trees with their Forehead, and eat the Dates as they lie 
along. They chew their Meat with their Mouth : but they 
breathe, drink, and smell with what is not improperly called 
their Hand. Of all living Creatures they most detest a 
Mouse; 2 and if they perceive that their Provender lying in 
the Manger hath been touched by it, they will not touch it. 
They are mightily tormented with Pain, if in their drinking 
they swallow down a Leech ; which Creature, I observe, they 
begin now commonly to call a Bloodsucker, (Sanyuisuga) : 
for when the Leech hath fixed itself in the Windpipe, it put- 
teth him to intolerable Pain. The Hide of their Back is 
most hard; 3 but in the Belly it is soft; their Skin has no 
covering of Hair ; and even in their Tail there is no Defence 
which might serve to drive away the Annoyance of Flies (for 
as huge a Beast as he is, he feeleth it) ; but their Skin is full 

1 It scarcely needs be observed that the elephant swims as well as 
any other quadruped. In this act he will frequently immerse his whole 
body, so that the tip of his trunk only is above water, to the no slight 
inconvenience of those who chance to be riding on his back. Wern. 
Club. 

3 JElian says (B. i. c. 38), that it dreads the grunting of a hog, and a 
horned ram ; and it was by employing these that the Romans put to flight 
the elephants of King Pyrrhus, by which they obtained a decisive victory. 
Wern. Club. 

3 (Various reading.) Anirnce canali, or amne canali. Wern. Club. 



] 6 History of Nature. [ BOOK VIII. 

of cross Wrinkles, and its Smell attracts this kind of Crea- 
tures. And therefore when they are stretched along, and 
perceive the Swarms settled on their Skin, suddenly they 
draw those Crevices close together, and crush them to death. 
This serves them instead of Tail, Mane, and long Hair. 
Their Teeth bear a very high Price, and their Substance is 
of greatest request for the Images of the Gods : but Luxury 
hath devised another Thing in them to commend ; for they 
find a particular Taste (vim) in the hard Substance of (that 
which they call) their Hand : for no other reason (I believe) 
but because they have a Conceit that they eat the Ivory 
itself. In Temples are to be seen Teeth of the greatest Size ; 
but in the remote Parts of Africa where it bordereth on 
Ethiopia, they stand in the Place of Corner-posts of their 
Houses ; and with the Elephants' Teeth they make Hedges 
and Pales, as well to enclose their Grounds, as also to keep 
their Cattle within Stalls, as PolyHus reporteth, from the 
Testimony of the petty King Gulussa. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Where Elephants are bred ; and of the Disagreement between 
them and the Dragons. 1 

ELEPHANTS are bred in that Part of Africa which lieth 
beyond the Deserts of the Syrtes, and also in Mauritania : 
they are found also among the Ethiopians and Troglodites, 
as hath been said : 2 but India produceth the biggest : as also 
the Dragons, which are continually at variance and fighting 
with them ; and those of such Greatness, that they can easily 
clasp round the Elephants, 3 and tie them fast with a Knot. 

1 For the Dragons, see 1 3th chap. Wern. Club. 

3 Lib. viii. c. 8. Wem. Club. 

3 .ZElian (B. vi. c. 21) says, that these dragons conceal themselves 
among the branches of trees, from which they hang dependent, watching 
for their prey. When the elephants approach to feed on the branches, 
the enemy seizes them about the eyes, twines itself about the neck, and 
lashes them with its tail, in which manner they fall down strangled. 
Wern. Club. 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 17 

In this Conflict they die together ; that which is overcome 
falling down, and with his Weight crushing the one that is 
twined about him. 

CHAPTER XII. 
The Subtilty of Animals.* 

WONDERFUL is the Subtilty of Animals, each one ac- 
cording to its own Kind ; and they have only this one Diff- 
culty, that they must climb to so great an Height. The 
Dragon, therefore, espying the Elephant going to its Food, 
throweth itself on it from a high Tree ; this Creature, 
knowing its Inability by struggling to withstand the other's 
Windings about it, seeketh to crush its Enemy against the 
Trees or Rocks. The Dragons guard against this by en- 
tangling its Progress first with their Tail; the Elephants 
undo those Knots with their Hand : but the Dragons put 
their Heads into their Snout, and so shut out their Breath, 
and tear the tenderest Parts. When these two chance to 
encounter each other on the Way, the Dragons raise them- 
selves against their Enemies, and aim chiefly at the Eyes, 
whereby it happeneth that many Times they (the Ele- 
phants) are found blind, and worn away with Hunger 
and Grief. What other Reason should a Man allege of so 
great a Variance between them, if it be not a Sport of Nature, 
in matching these two, so equal in every respect ? But some 
report this Contest in another Manner ; and that the Occa- 
sion of it ariseth from the Elephant's Blood being exceed- 
ingly Cold, on which Account chiefly the Dragons search it 
out during the parching Season of the Year. And to the 
same Purpose they lie under the Water in Rivers, watching 
for the Elephants when they are drinking; when they catch 
fast hold of their Hand (Trunk), and having clasped it, they 

1 This chapter offers a poor developement of a universal principle in 
nature, by which the character of every animal is displayed in its re- 
sources of pursuit and defence. For its exemplification in the habits of 
British animals, the reader is referred to a work entitled " Illustrations 
of Instinct, derived from the Habits of British Animals," by Jonathan 
Couch, F.L.S. Wern. Club. 

VOL. III. C 



]8 History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

fix their Bite in the Elephant's Ear, because that is the only 
Part which they cannot defend with their Hand. These 
Dragons are so large, that they are able to receive all the 
Elephant's Blood. Thus are they sucked dry by them until 
they fall down dead ; and the Dragons thus drunken, are 
crushed under them, and both die together. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Of Dragons.* 

IN Ethiopia there are produced as great Dragons as in 
India, being twenty Cubits long. But I chiefly wonder at 
this one Thing: why Juba should think they were Crested. 
They are produced most in a Country of Ethiopia, where the 
People called Asachsei inhabit. It is reported, that upon 
their Coasts they enwrap themselves four or five together, 
in the manner of a Bundle of Rods, and thus pass the Seas, 
to find better Pasturage in Arabia, bearing up their Heads 
aloft as they cross the Waves. 

1 Dragons are often mentioned by ancient authors, but without any 
marks by which we can distinguish them from other kinds of serpents. 
Their bulk did not constitute the distinction, for the bose mentioned in 
the following chapter are, at least, equally large. The idea of ferocity 
seems more directly to mix itself with this class of reptiles ; and accord- 
ingly in the Septuagint version of the Scriptures this is the impression 
usually implied in the term. In the 29th chapter of the prophecy of 
Ezekiel the crocodile is signified by that name, as it is also by Marco 
Polo in his travels ; but in Revel, c. xx. as in the more ancient books of 
Scripture, a large serpent is distinctly characterised. Among the remark- 
able things at Rome in the days when the strangest things were sought 
out to gratify extravagant curiosity, Suetonius says that Tiberius pos- 
sessed a tame dragon ; and Martial (Ep. b. vii. c. 70) makes it the play- 
thing of a lady : " Si gelidum collo nectit Glacilla Draconem." The 
dragon, as a winged serpent, was in the middle ages often represented by 
the skin of a skate, distorted and cut into form, by which the opinion of 
?uch a monstrous shape was spread among the public. Wern. Club. 



BooKVIU.] History of Nature. 19 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Of very great Serpents, and those called Bo<z. L 

MEGASTHENES writeth that there are Serpents in India 
which grow to such a Size that they are able to swallow 
Stags or Bulls whole. Metrodorus saith that about the River 
Rhyndacus, in Pontus, there are Serpents which catch and 
devour the Fowls of the Air as they fly over them, however 
high or rapid their Flight may be. It is well known that 
Regulus, Imperator during the Wars against the Cartha- 
ginians, near the River Bograda assailed a Serpent with his 
Military Engines, the Balistae and Tormentum, as he would 
have done to a Town ; and when Subdued, the Length of the 
Serpent was found to be 120 Feet. The Skin and Jaws of 
this Serpent were preserved in a Temple at Rome until the 
War of Numantia. And this is rendered the more credible 
from the Serpents that we see in Italy that are called Boae, 
which increase to such Size, that in the Days of the Prince 
Dlvus Claudius there was one of them killed in the 
Vatican, within the Belly of which there was found an In- 
fant Child. They are nourished at the first by the Milk of 
the Cow, from whence they take their Name. As for other 
Animals, which of late are often brought from all Parts into 
Italy, it is needless for me to describe their Forms par- 
ticularly. 

1 The monstrous serpents recorded by ancient authors, as Aristotle, 
Virgil, Livy, Pliny, and others, were probably of the family of bose. 
Pliny gives here the derivation of the name " boa," and Johnson, " Dei- 
parse de Urseolo," and others observe that the name is derived not so 
much from the power the animals have of swallowing oxen, as from a 
strong opinion in old times of their following the herds, and sucking their 
udders. Cuvier says the boae are among the largest of serpents. Some 
of the species attain to thirty or forty feet in length, and become capable 
of swallowing dogs, deer, and even oxen, after having crushed them in 
their folds, and lubricated them with their saliva. The class of bose, as 
anciently understood, has been divided by Cuvier into two, boa and 
python : to which latter this author supposes that serpent to have belonged 
which offered so formidable a resistance to the army of Regulus. Such 
enormous serpents have long since ceased to exist in Italy. Wern. Club. 



9Q History of Nature. [ BOOK VIII. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Of Scythian Animals, and those that are produced in the 
North Parts. 

VERY few Animals are produced in Scythia, through the 
Scarcity of Vegetation. Few likewise are in Germany, bor- 
dering on it; but that Country possesseth some remark- 
able kinds of Wild Cattle, as the Maned Bisons, 1 and the 
Urus, of very great Strength and Swiftness, which ignorant 

1 Urus Bonasus. Much doubt has existed with regard to the 
distinction between these three supposed species of oxen, which Cuvier 
resolves into two, the Bos Bonasus of Linneus; Zubr, or European 
Bison; and the Urus, mentioned in ancient times by Caesar. The 
former animal once roamed over the woodland districts of Central 
Europe, and in England was contemporary with the extinct races 
of elephant and rhinoceros ; but it is now confined to the forest of 
Bialowicza, in the government of Grodno, where it is carefully pro- 
tected by the imperial government, whose strict enactments alone have 
saved it from extirpation. In Owen's " History of British Fossil Mam- 
malia," p. 491, &c. the remains of animals of this species are described 
as those of the Bison Priscus; and they are found in " various newer ter- 
tiary fresh -water deposits, especially in Kent and Essex, and along the 
valley of the Thames." A young male and female were presented to the 
Zoological Society of London, by the Emperor of Russia, in the year 
1847. Aristotle calls it Bonasos, or Monassos, and describes it as living 
in Pa3onia, the modern Bulgaria; but the distance to which, in terror, it 
voids its excrements, is more moderately represented by him as four 
fathoms ; which Pliny extends to no less than " tria jugera," or a space of 
700 feet. The Urus, also a large species of wild ox, ranged the forests of 
Germany and Belgium till a late period of the Roman empire, but is now 
extinct. Its fossil remains, under the name of Bos Primigemus, are found 
by Professor Owen in the same deposits and localities as those of the 
Aurochs, or Bison. The Urus was almost equal in size to the Aurochs, 
but differed from it precisely, as the Roman poets and historians have 
indicated, by the greater length of its horns, and by the absence of a 
copious mane. It appears to have had a nearer affinity to the domestic 
ox, resembling it probably in the close nature of its hairy covering. 
Cuvier, Professor Bell, and other naturalists, are disposed to believe that 
our domestic cattle are the degenerate descendants of the Urus, but with 
this opinion Professor Owen does not concur ; and they are more probably 
to be referred to the wild cattle still preserved in the park at Shering- 
ham. Wern. Club, 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 2 1 

People call Bubalus : whereas the Bubalus 1 is bred in Africa, 
and beareth some Resemblance to a Calf, or rather to a Stag. 
The Northern Regions also bring forth Troops of Wild 
Horses ; 2 as in Asia and Africa there are of Wild Asses. 3 
Besides these there is the Alee, 4 very like a Beast of Burden, 
but that the Height of its Ears and Neck distinguishes it. 
Also, in the Island Scandinavia, but nowhere else in the 
World, though spoken of by many, there is a Beast called 
Machlis, not much unlike the Alee abovenamed, but without 
any Bending of the Pastern, and therefore he never lieth 
down, but Sleepeth leaning against a Tree; and when that is 
cut down, they are taken in the Snare, for otherwise they 
are too swift to be caught. Their upper Lip is exceeding 
Great, and therefore as they Feed they go backward ; for if 
they passed forward, it would be folded double. There is 
(they say) a Wild Beast in Paeonia, which is called Bonasus, 
with a Mane like an Horse, but otherwise resembling a 
Bull ; arid his Horns bend so inwardly, with their Tips 
toward the Head, that they are of no Service for Fight, and 
therefore he hath recourse to Flight for Safety ; and in it 
throwing out his Dung at intervals to the Distance of three 
Acres, the Contact of which burneth them that follow, like so 
much Fire. It is a strange thing that Leopards, Panthers, 
Lions and such Animals, as they go, draw the Points of their 

1 Antelope bubalus. PALLAS. The Harte-beest. Wern. Club. 

3 A race of wild horses was common to the northern and other regions 
of the earth in Pliny's time, but they appear to have been derived from a 
domesticated stock. Like that of most other animals, and even plants, 
that have yielded to the sway of man, the original country of the horse 
cannot be traced with a certainty ; but as the sacred writings inform us that 
the Egyptians were the first to train him for the use of man, it is pro- 
bably to the northern parts of Africa that we are to look for its native 
locality. Wern. Club. 

3 The ass still exists in a state of nature in Persia, India, and in some 
parts of Africa ; it is larger, stronger, and more beautiful than the same 
animal in a domestic state. Wern. Club. 

4 Alee, the Elk, Cervus Alee, of Linnaeus. What is to be understood 
by the Machlis appears to be doubtful. The description applies only to 
the Elk ; but part of it is clearly an error. Wern. Club. 



22 History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

Claws within a Sheath, that they may not be Broken, or 
rendered Blunt; and that when they run the Hooks are 
turned back, and are never stretched forth but when they 
seize an Object. 1 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Of Lions . 2 

THE Lions are then in their high Perfection vhen the 
Hair of their Mane covereth the Neck and Shoulders. And 
this cometh at a certain Age to them that are the Progeny 
of Lions indeed ; for such as have Panthers to their Sires 
never have this Ornament ; 3 as also has not the Lioness. 
Lionesses are very lecherous, which is the cause that there 
is so much Anger in the Lions. This Africa seeth most, 

1 Sir Charles Bell, " Bridgewater Treatise," p. 102, says, " The last 
bone, which supports the claw, is placed laterally to the next to the last, 
and is so articulated with it that an elastic ligament draws it back and 
raises the sharp extremity of the claw upwards. In the ordinary running 
of the animal the nearer extremity of the furthest bone presses the 
ground, this and the furthest extremity of the second bone, which is also 
bent down, being received on a pad, which acts as a cushion, and also adds 
to the elasticity. In this condition the claw itself is received into a sheath 
above ; but when the creature strikes an object, the claws are brought for- 
ward, and bent under by the action of the flexor tendons acting on the 
last bone, assisted by the extensors, which cause to start upward the end 
of the second bone as by a spring. It is only the excitement of seizing an 
object that can produce this action ; and when this does not exist, the 
bones and claw fall into their ordinary almost dislocated condition." 
Wern. Club. 

2 Felis Leo. LINN. Wern. Club. 

3 Aristotle also speaks of a maneless lion, " Hist. Anim." ii. 31 ; and 
modern science has confirmed the assertion of these ancient naturalists, but 
of course without accrediting its monstrous birth. Olivier, " Voyage dans 
1'Kmpire Othomau, 1'Egypt, et la Perse," tom.iv. says that the lion which 
inhabits the part of Arabia and Persia near the river of the Arabs, from 
ilie Persian Gulf to the environs of Helle and of Bagdad, is probably the 
species of lion of which Aristotle and Pliny have spoken, and which they 
regarded as a different species from that which is spread over the interior 
of Africa. This lion much resembles the African species, excepting that 
it is smaller and has no mane. la 1833 Captain Since exhibited to a 
meeting of the Zoological Society of London the skins of a lion and lioness 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 23 

where for want of Water the Wild Beasts meet in Troops 
about the few Rivers that are found. And hence it is that 
so many strangely shaped Beasts are there produced, for the 
Males, either by Force or through Wantonness, mix with 
the Females of various Kinds. From hence also proceeds 
the common Greek Proverb, That Africa is continually 
bringing forth something new. 1 The Lion knoweth by Scent 
of the Panther when the Lioness hath suffered his Embrace ; 
and with all his might he punisheth her Adultery. And 
therefore she either washeth away the Crime in a River, 
or else folio weth the Lion at a great Distance. I see it is a 
commonly received Opinion that the Lioness bringeth forth 
Young but once, because the Whelps in her Parturition 

killed by him in Guzerat. He stated that this variety was distinguished 
from those previously known by the absence of a mane (that is, it is 
maneless compared with other lions), from the sides of the neck and 
shoulders, the middle line of the back of the neck being alone furnished 
with long hairs, which are erect, like those of the same situation in the 
Cheetah (Felis jubatd). The under surface of the neck has long loose 
silky hairs, and there is a tuft at the angle of the anterior legs. Besides 1 
the absence of the extensive mane, the tail is shorter than that of ordinary 
lions, and is furnished at its tip with a much larger brush or tuft. Capt. 
Smee thus characterises his maneless lion : " Felis Leo. LINN. var. Gooj- 
ratensis. Mane of the male short, erect ; tuft at the apex of the tail very 
large, black." See " Zool. Proc." 1833 ; also " Zool. Trans." vol. i. where 
an excellent figure is given ; and " Penny Cyclopaedia," art. Lion. Wern. 
Club. 

1 Many animals possess a figure so closely resembling more than one 
of another kind or family, that we cannot wonder if the ancients, with 
their slender knowledge of nature, thought they really were a mixed breed, 
and that newly-created species were continually springing up. Thus, 
according to Pliny's theory, the Camelopardalis, or Giraffe was the off- 
spring of the Camel and Panther ; the Leopard, of the latter animal and 
the Lion ; and the Harte-beest (Antelope bubalus) of the Antelope and 
Buffalo. But modern experience has shewn the fallacy of this opinion ; 
and we now know that if a hybrid be sometimes produced, there the 
power of propagation ceases. There is no proof or probability that any 
permanent race has risen into existence since first individual creation pro- 
ceeded from the hand of its Maker ; and in a wild condition it is ques- 
tionable whether even a mongrel individual has been ever produced, 
although this has sometimes happened in captivity. Wern. Club. 



24 History of Nature. [BooK VIII. 

tear her Belly with their Claws for their exit. Aristotle 
writeth otherwise: a Man whom I cannot name but with 
great Honour, and whom in these matters I mean for the 
most part to follow. King Alexander the Great, having an 
ardent desire to know the Nature of all living Creatures, 
assigned this Charge to Aristotle, a Man accomplished in all 
kind of Science and Learning, and to this effect commanded 
some Thousands of Men through all the Extent of Asia and 
Greece to give their Attendance, including all Hunters, 
Fowlers, and Fishers, that lived by those Professions. Also 
all Foresters, Park-keepers, and Warreners ; all such as 
had the keeping of Herds and Flocks ; of Bee- hives, Fish- 
ponds, and Fowls, so that he should not be ignorant of any- 
thing in any Nation. 1 By his Conference with them he com- 
piled almost fifty excellent Books, " De Animalibus," (of 
Living Creatures). Which being collected by me in a nar- 
row Room, with the addition of some Things which he never 
knew, I beseech the Readers to take in good part ; and for 
the Knowledge of all Nature's Works, which that most noble 
of all Kings desired so earnestly, to make a short Excursion 
under my care. That Philosopher reporteth that the Lioness 
at her first Litter bringeth forth five Whelps, and every Year 
after fewer by one ; and when she bringeth but one she be- 
cometh Barren. Her Whelps at the first are without Shape 
and very Small, like Lumps of Flesh, no bigger than Weasels. 
When they are six Months old they can hardly go, and for 
the two first they cannot move. There are also Lions in 
Europe, 2 but only between the Rivers Achelous and Nestus, 

1 Aristotle is by far the most illustrious naturalist of antiquity, and 
he will not suffer by comparison with the moderns. His great work, 
written under such favourable circumstances, continues to this day, and 
is remarkable for that in which other ancient writers are exceedingly 
deficient, a philosophical digest of his subject. Wern. Club. 

5 Lions are at present confined to Asia and Africa, but that they were 
once found in Europe there can be no doubt. Thus it is recorded by 
Herodotus ("Polym." vii. 124) that the baggage camels of the army of 
Xerxes were attacked by lions in the territory of Paeonia and Crestonia, 
in Thracia. The same authority, as well as that of Aristotle (" Hist. 



BOOK VIII.] History of Nature. 25 

and these are much Stronger than those of Africa or Syria.