Skip to main content

Full text of "The Plough, the loom, and the anvil"

See other formats

v\a.^t,v Sf-Ucc^^fe^^i 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



Printer and Stercotyper, 
No3. 16 & 18 Jacob Street, N. Y. 



From Jtme, 1857, to December, 185"", inclusive. 

Agriculture, Ethics in 208. 

Neglect of 20. 

Our 195. 
Agricultural Improvement, 26. 

Press, Spirit of the 280. 
American Inventions, Recent, (see Pa 

American Guano, 147. 

" Patents, (see Patents.) 

Application of Yard Manure, 12. 
Birds, Utility of, <fec., 87, 146. 
Bones as a Manure, 279. 
Book Notices, 62, 128, 186, 252, 317,376. 


Horticultural, 30, 94, 159, 219, 286, 348, 

Horn Ail— Hollow Horn, 339. 

How to Increase Manure, 277. 

How to Raise Potatoes, 15. 

I'll give so much, and take so much, 534. 

Improvement of Land by Drainage, 266. 

Items and Comments, 345. 

Indian Corn, 275. 

Interrogatories, 340. 

In Heafth Prepare for Sickness, in Sum- 
mer prepare for Winter, 80. 

Journal of a Tennessee Farmer, Extracts 
from the 142. 

Butter,Rules to be observed in Making 333 

Camel Experiment, The 93 

Cheese, Good 283. 

Chinese Sugar Cane, 344. 

Children's Page, 60, 127, 185, 250, 315, 374. 

Corn Fields, 284. 

Corn, Indian 275. 

" Privy Manure for 276. 
" Saving Seed 20, 150. 
Cotton Crop, The 157. 
Correspondence, Editorial 91. 

Ci'anberry, as an Ornamental Plant, The 

Danvers Town Farm, (Essex, Mass.) 86. 
Did you ever, 77. 
Discouraging to Sugar Eaters, 6. 
Division of Labor, 259. 
Domestic, 66, 124, 182, 246, 313, 374. 
Drainage, Improvement of Land by 266. 
Drouth, Protection against 69. 
Editorial Correspondence, 91. 
Ethics in Agriculture, 208. 
Extracts from the Journal of a Tenn 

Farmer, 142. 
Family Circle, The 49, 117, 241, 305, 369. 
Farm Life,. 152. 
Fattening properties of Peas and Beans, 

Fertilizers, Home 9. 
Foreign Inventions, Recent 44, 97, 171, 

237, 301. 
Good Cheese, 283. 
Gopher vs. Rat, 343. 
Green Fodder, 5. 

" Manuring, 86. 
Guano, 9, 69. 
Hard Times, 260. 
Health of Animals, 18 
Hints for the Season, (Sept.) 129, (Dec.) 
■"' Hints to Farmers, 344. 
-1 History of Fine Wool Sheep, 277 
.^Home Fertilizers, 9. 

Land, Increased Fertility of 337. 

Lime, 43 

Loss of Hogs by Disease, 29. 

Manure, Application of Barn-yard 12. 

Bones as a 279. [323.1 

Fermented and non-fermented 
How to increase 277. 
Water, 274. 
Manures and their General Application, 

Many Things in Little Space, 21, 139. 
Massachusetts State Exhibition, 341. 
Menhaden Oil, 213. 
Middle Men, 263. 

Mouldly Peas, Beans, or Grain, 276. 
Mowers, 84. 

Mules at the St. Louis Fair, 273. 
Neglect of Agriculture, 20. 
Notes by the Way, 153. 
Oil, Menhaden 213. 

Old Pastures, How shall we Redeem 144. 
Onions, 88. 
Osage Orange, 134. 
Our Agriculture, 195. 
Our Past and Our Future, 1. 
Pastures, How Shall We Redeem 

Patents, Recent American 33, 97, 

225, 289. 
Patents, Recent Foreign 44, 97, 

Patents, List of New American 39, 103, 

167, 233, 297. 
Peas and Beans, Fattening Properties of 

Peruvian Guano, 69. 
Plants, Speculation on the Origin of 204, 
Plough, The Steam 279. 
Potatoes, 344. 

" How to Raise 16. 
" Something about 197. 
Prevention better than Cure, 18. 
Privy Manure for Corn, 276. 
Rearing and Feeding Swine, 79 






Kural Economy of England, Scotland and 

Ireland, 65. 
Ruta Bagas, 28. 
Sav-ing Seed Corn 20, 150. 
Scientific, 49, 117 175, 241, 305. 
Season, Crops, Harvests, <fcc., 157. 
Seed Wheat, 137. 

" Corn, 331. 
Sheep, History of Fine Wooled 277. 
Smut on the Union, 17. 

" " Wheat, 141. 
Something about Potatoes, 197. 
Soot, 326. 

Sorglium, The 329. 

Speculations on the Origin of Plants, 204. 
Spirit of the Agricultural Press, 280. 

Steam Plough, 279. 

Sugar Mill for the People, 274. 

Swamp Muck, 132. 

Swine, Rearing and Feeding 79. 

Trial of Reapers and Mowers, 113. 

Trifle, A 212. 

Under-draining, 85. 

Utility of Birds, 87. 

Western Emigration, 201, 336. 

What a Woman thinks about Farming and 

Farmers, 136. 
Wheat, Smut in 141. 
Worn out pastures too rough to be 

ploughed, 4. 
Yard Manure, Application of 12. 


Vol. X. 

JULY, 1857. 

No. 1. 

Our Past and our Future. 

OuK last number closed the ninth volume of this Journal. With 
this number commences the tenth volume. At this point it is natu- 
ral to take a look at the past, and to lay our plans for the future. 

The Plough^ the Loom^ mid the A^ivil, which we choose hereafter 
to designate by the shorter and to us pleasanter term of Farmers'* 
Magazine^ was commenced ten years ago, with less hope of pecuniary 
gain on the part of its then editor, as every one will believe who 
knew that gentleman, than with an earnest desire to make it an effi- 
cient aid to the industrial interests of our country, including the 
North and the South, the East and West. 

But we say no more of the past. This is not an hour of parting. 
We confidently expect that our old subscribers will go along with us. 
We lay no claim to universal acquirements ; but we do claim to know 
something about agriculture. We have learned it m the field ; we 
have studied it in the closet ; we have no fancy views which arise 
from the closet alone ; our sympathies are with the farmer in the field ; 
we know what his labors are ; in some cases we can tell him how he 
can lighten them, in others, make them more productive ; our zeal in 
the cause is deep and earnest ; for, in our inmost soul, we believe that 
nothing, save the direct influences of Christian prmciple, tends so 
much as enlightened agriculture to work out the great problem of 
human advancement. 

Agriculture^ the heaven-appointed calling for two thirds of the 
human race — agriculture^ not in antagonism with commerce and 
manufactures, but in kindly companionship with them, for without 
them it would droop — agriculture^ pursued labor-savingly, so as not 

VOL. X. 1 

Our Past and our Future. 

to stint the soul by too hard working of the body — agriculture^ prac- 
ticed on sound principles, in joint partnership of the body, the mind 
and the heart, the great improver of every human fticulty, is destined 
to elevate the race — to bring man into a better relationship with his 
fellow-man, and nearer to his God. If, at the close of life, Ave can 
feel that we have done a little even, to advance a scientific, rntlonal, 
elevated agriculture, we shall feel that we have not lived in vain. 

With regard to the future it is not necessary to say much. The 
farmers of this country would not be taken by loud promises. We 
know them too well to suppose that they would ; and besides, we 
would not so take them if we could. We regard our new vocation as 
too important to admit for a moment the idea of trifling with them. 
We believe they will try us. We have indications of this from all 
quarters. If we do well, they will find it out, whether we make 
promises or not. If we do ill, they will, as they have a perfect right, 
cut our acquaintance, and seek their agricultural instruction other- 
where. To give us a candid hearing is all v/e can ask. We are willing 
to be judged by our works. We will only say here that our desire 
is to carry out the original design of this work ; to make it, as far as 
in us lies, a sound, reliable adviser m all matters pertaining to the 
farm, the garden, the orchard, and rural economy generally, adajitcd 
to the peculiarities of our country, as regards its soils, climate, and 
social institutions. 

Our columns, to a limited extent, will be open for the discussion of 
disputed points. Mainly they will be a medium for the communica- 
tion of established truths. We invite contributions from literary 
and scientific men, from any who feel an interest in the progress of 
agriculture, especially from farmers, who, better than any others, can 
give us facts, and from ladies, on those departments of domestic econ- 
omy in which they are supposed to excel, reserving to ourselves, of 
course, the right of selection. AU we shall claim on the score of 
morality, will be, to admit nothing which could, by any possibility, 
be interpreted as immoral. With politics and sectarianism our jour- 
nal will have nothing to do. We shall strive to make it an unexcep- 
tional visitor to families of all religious and of all political creeds, 
practically useful^ as a journal of agriculture and kindred arts. 

It is our design to associate as extensively ns circumstances permit, 
with those among whom we wish our journal to circulate. We think 
we laiow the farmers of this country. We wish to know them better. 
By understanding our field well, we think we can be the more useful. 
T)n a former occasion we intimated, and we here repeat, a willingness 
tO lecture on agriculture, to attend farmers' gatherings, and to vi^it 
farms, with a view to witness improvements, and to advise with farm- 
ers, if desired, concerning the best and cheapest modes of improve- 

Our Past and our Future. 

ment in any particular case. Two motives induce us to say tins ; one 
that we wish, as just stated, to be bettor acquainted with the fanners 
and farming of this country ; the other, that from having studied the 
subject of farm improvements a good deal, we beheve that we could 
suo-o-est modes of improvements, which, iji some cases, would save 
much expense, and in others prevent disappointment and loss. 

We mean that the articles for the American Farmers^ Magazine 
shall be short, plain, easily read and comprehended. We therefore 
request all, who will be correspondents for it, to give us somethmg 
short and to the point. If the editor should fall into the practice of 
writino- long, prosy articles, it would only make the matter worse if 
others^hould do the same. The time for retailing the long-wmded 
opinions of anybody and everybody who chooses to shed mk and 
darkness over the subjects of agriculture, is gone by. What the 
cause of ao-riculture now wants is ficts, known and proved, simply 
and truthfully stated, with no more of the attendant circumstances 
than are necessary to a correct understanding of the mam pomt. 

It will be impossible for us to see many of our subscribers person- 
ally At the price we have fixed, the sending of agents is out of the 
question. We therefore close this sort of prospectus, if any choose 
so to call it, by repeating our most earnest request, that our old sub- 
■ Bcribers will aU renew their subscriptions within the present month ; 
and may we not ask, which we would not do but from a consciousness 
of the goodness of our cause, that each of the old subscribers will 
get at least one new subscriber, or a club at the reduced price, thereby 
making up a sum, to be forwarded to the pubhshers. Should we have 
but our present number, we will spare no efi"ort to make the Farmers' 
Magazine satisftictory to those who take it. But let each subscriber 
remember that it will cost him no more to be one of a large number 
to pay us well, than to be one of a small number to half pay us.^ 

When in Europe, a few years ago, we observed that agricultu- 
ral laborers there, who were but half paid, did not, and w^e suppose 
could not, work as well as here, where they are well paid. It is so 
everywhere, and in all departments of labor. We will work hard 
whether or no; it is our nature ; if possible, we will make our journal, 
all its patrons can wish ; but, like all the rest of the world, we can 
work better and more cheerfully if we see a prospect of behig rea. 
sonably compensated, by a large number of subscribers. We would 
scorn to be compensated by exacting a large price of few subscribers ; 
and hence it is that we have reduced our original terms thirty-three 
per cent to single subscribers, and still more m favor of clubs, giving 
us, as we deem it, a pecuHarly strong claim on our friends, and allow- 
ing us to importune them a little more urgently than would accord 
with nice rules of propriety, under other circumstances.— Ei>. 

Worn-out Pastures. 

Worn-out Pastures too Rough to be Ploughed. 

Would Planter Pay f Would Superphosphate f Would Ashes ? 

In reply to the question from a correspondent, " Would plaster 
pay ?" we have no hesitation in saying, Yes. If applied at the rate 
of one hundred pounds annually to the acre, it would more than 
pay — would give a handsome profit — on most of our old pastures. 
On other lands it would pi'oduce hut little effect. Must the owners 
of the land therefore apply it wholly at random ? Not at all. It is 
the easiest tlimg in the world to decide whether a particular pasture 
would be benefitted by plaster. Try it. Scatter a few handfuls here 
and there. If the spots where it falls become green, and clover suc- 
ceeds to wire grass, then plaster may be applied without fear of loss. 
It is true that j^laster is not sufficient of itself, as a manure. It con- 
tains but two out of ten or twelve of the ingredients necessary to 
crops. It would therefore be folly to hope that the continued appli- 
cation of plaster Avithout other manures would be attended by good 
results. But it should be remembered also, that the cattle are con- 
stantly supplymg other manures. Most of what they take from the 
soil they return to it. SujDplying plaster therefore to pastures at the 
rate of one hundred pounds yearly, is only sui^plying it in a reasona- 
ble proportion with other fertilizers, a very difierent process from 
what it would be, if one should attempt to remove crops from plough 
lands, by the mere application of plaster. 

With regard to the question, by our correspondent, whether super- 
phosphate of lime would pay, we can not tell. We hardly know 
what superphosphate of lime is. We very much suspect that it is 
anything, and nearly everything. One thing is certam — ground bones 
are an excellent manure for old pastures. The result of their applica- 
tion is, abundant feed, sweet feed, healthy animals, inclined to grow, 
to lay on fat, or to give milk, as the case may be. But whether the 
superphosphates of commerce will pay, is more than we know. We 
wish that farmers would try it. Let them try it in such quantities as 
they can afibrd to lose, if the result should be unfavorable. A single 
cwt. spread upon a half acre, would test its value for that soil, nearly 
as well as a tun spread over ten acres, and yet the loss in the former 
case, provided no good results followed, would hurt no one. 

We would say the same with regard to ashes ; as our correspondent 
put that question also ; let them be tried. Some, to our certain 
knowledge, have tried them on old pastures, and found them to an- 
swer well. This however does not prove that they would pay in all 
cases. We are of opinion that they would. Nevertheless they might 

Green Fodder. 

fail on some pastures, while they would do well on others ; and we 
think therefore that each farmer should experiment for himself — settle 
the point with regard to his own land. — Ed. 

Green Fodder. 

The late Col. Pickering, in an address before the Essex County 
Agricultural Society, once said : 

Every farmer knows how eagerly cattle devour the entire plant of 
the Indian corn in its green state ; and land in good condition will 
produce heavy crops of it. Some years ago, just when the ears were 
in the milk, I cut close to the ground the plants growing on a meas- 
ured space, equal as I judged, to the average product of the Avhole 
piece ; and found that, at the same rate, an acre would yield twelve 
tons of green fodder ; probably a richer and more nourishing food 
than any other known to the husbandman. And this quantity was 
the growth of less than four months. 

It has appeared to me that the sort called sweet corn yields stocks 
of richer juice than the common yellow corn. It is also more disposed 
to multiply suckers — an additional recommendation to it when planted 
to be cut in a green state for horses and cattle, and especially for 
milch cows ; and the time of planting may be so regulated as to fur- 
nish supplies of food just when the pastures usually fail. I am in- 
clined to doubt whether any other green food will aiford butter of 
equal quality. 

Col. Pickering was wont to speak modestly^ when others regarded 
him as good authority. Many things which appeared to him, years 
ago, as important agricultural truths, have since been proved to be 
such, and among others this of planting corn for green fodder. In 
connection with Col. Pickering's remarks, that the time of planting 
may be so regulated as to furnish supplies of food just when the pas- 
tures usually fail, we would inquire, inasmuch as corn stalks and 
leaves, well cured, are an excellent winter food for cattle, whether 
the time of planting could not be regulated with some reference to 
prospective wants of the succeeding winter. We believe that the 
farmer should have the general plan of the summer's campaign made 
out beforehand, should study in the winter, lay his plans for the sea- 
son, and then carry them out in the summer. We suppose, however, 
there are exceptions to be made. The clover on a particular field 
may have failed ; or it may have become apparent, in time for sowing 
corn, that the hay crop is going to be short. The farmer, therefore, 
will find it convenient with regard to certain fields, not to have his 
mind unalterably made up till as late as the end of June. To what 
extent corn fodder is destined to take the place of hay we are not 
certain. That it affords an excellent fall feed for dairy purposes there 
can be no doubt ; and it is nearly ascertained that it may, on some 

Discouraging to Sugar Eaters. 

farms at least, be profitably grown for winter fodder. Much must of 
course depend on the character of the farm ; and something we sup- 
pose may dejjend upon the season ; we can see no reason, why, in case 
of the prospect being dark at the end of June for fall and winter 
food, the farmer who has land fit for the purpose, should not thrust 
in a few acres for corn- fodder, when otherwise he would not, to be fed 
out green in early autumn or to be cured for winter, as the case may 
seem to require. The merchant turns. quickly in an emergency. To 
a limited extent, very limited we confess, and yet not so limited as to 
be unimportant, the farmer, for aught we can see, may do the same. 
We advise farmers to look at this matter. — Ed. 

Discouraging to Sugar Eaters. 

" In case the intelligence of short crops in the sugar producing 
islands and the combinations of the speculators in all parts of the 
world is not sufficiently disheartening, we have the additional item 
that the French Credit Mohilier is about to purchase all the best sugar 
estates in the Island of Cuba. If such is the case — which, however, 
we believe to bo a ' dodge' on the part of the sugar speculators — we 
may as well bid farewell to all hope of ever having any lower prices 
for the article. There is only one way in which we can hope to bring 
sugar down within sight of former prices, and that is by using less of 
it. Let us all study to economize in the article. We use altogether 
too much sweetening. We must swallow our pills without a sugar 
coating, make less cake, follow the example of the Chinese and drink 
our tea without it, give our children less poisonous candy, wait till 
our strawberries get perfectly ripe and let the sun do all the sweeten- 
ing, dispense with preserves, in short reduce our sugar bill and at 
the same time shorten the doctor's prescriptions and subtract from 
the amount of his yearly charge. We are undoubtedly the greatest 
sugar consumers in the world, and many of cur diseases may be attri- 
buted to the too free use of sweet food. A moderate reformation in 
this respect will result in a financial benefit if no other." 

We did not write the foregoing, and do not know who did, but we 
approve it, and are the veritable perpetrator of the following. 

We do not believe that the French Credit Mohilier is going seri- 
ously to eff'ect the price of sugar for any long time. It is too wicked, 
too rotten, and too near its end to permit such a fear, unless the French 
People are more servile than we believe they are. 

Whether the Sorghum Sacharatum, the seed of which Mr. Browne 
of the Patent-office has so meritoriously disseminated for trial, or the 
Imphee Africana, brought to the country by Mr. Wray, will enable 


Discouraging to Sugar Eatzrs. 

the peojsle of these United States to grow and manufacture there own 
sugar, or how extensively in latitude either of these will prove appli- 
cable for sacharine uses, we do not consider yet fully settled. Our 
hope is strong, but we think no certainty can be reached till next fall, 
and perhaps not as soon. 

Nor, should our hopes of these exotics be disappointed, do we know 
whether the best sugar making can be profitably introduced among us. 
We know that deep ploughing, rich manuring and clean cultivation, 
but not expensive — such as can be done with the horse-hoe mainly — 
will give immense quantities, ten, twelve or fifteen hundred bushels an 
acre, of the sugar beet, and that few crops are more certain, or attended 
with less exhaustion of soil relatively with the weight of matter re- 
moved. Can the refuse be made to pay for the crop, by a proper ad- 
mixture with other food for cattle ? And can the juice be manufac- 
tered into sugar, so as to pay for the labor and leave a margin for 
profit ? These are questions which we can not answer. We doubt 
whether they have yet been answered in our country, and yet the 
ought to be. American farmers are more wilHng to labor hardly, 
than to investigate patiently the great economies of their calling. 
But while so much is yet uncertain as regards the Sorghum, the Im- 
phee and the beet, one thing is settled ;— Maple sugar is, to say the 
least, as good as any other. We made and ate it freely when a boy, 
and hope to when an old man, if we live to that tune. Ten millions 
worth, we beUeve, has been made the past year ; and twice as much 
may be made in future years, if all the appliances are put into requi- 
sition ; and a fliir profit m the labor, on such prices as sugar has borne 
on the average for the last ten years, provided (this is an important 
proviso) that the owners of sugar trees will make their arrangements 
beforehand for domg the labor easily and evaporatmg the sap econo- 
mically. If everything is to be got ready on the spur of the occasion, 
and everything done by the hardest, and most uneconomically, the 
farmer's boys might about as well suck their fingers after the whiter 
school is over, and dream of sweetened ginger Avater without sugar 
m haying and harvest. But if those who have from ten to five hun- 
dred trees take our advice, they will lose nothing by it, even if the 
best Muscovados should be down to four cents a pound. 

Construct a little sugar house, by your chip-yard if your trees are 
not very remote, but among the trees, if they are. Seven by ten is a 
good size, if at your home, and a short distance from the woodhouse. 
If far ofi; it would require to be larger, in order to afford other ac- 
commodations than merely that of a shelter to the boiler. The boil- 
ing pan may be of American sheet iron, nine feet long, two and a 
half feet wide and one foot deep for a hundred trees, a little larger 

8 Discouraging to Sugar Eaters. 

tor more, and a little smaller for less, but not varying much from 
these dimensions. In setting it, the bottom should be not more than 
ten mches from the ground. The chimney at the further end, should 
be high enough to create but a moderate draft. Ten feet would be 
better than more. The sides of the sugar house should be made to 
oj^en about on a level with the toji of the pah, that a current of dry 
air may pass over the sap, to facilitate the evajDoration. One sap tub 
for each tree, and two for very large trees, should be provided. A 
sled so rigged that from one to six barrels may be fastened to it, so 
as not to be easily thrown oft' or dashed against each other, wiU be 
wanted. All these things should be provided in the fall or winter 
previous, when they can be prepared with the least sacrifice of valu- 
able time. Particular directions for the tapping of trees and making 
and refining the sugar will be more timely after next New Year's. 
We will only say now, that if the sugar house is in the chip-yard, and 
if the work is done in conjunction with that of preparing fuel for the 
season, the chips and refuse wood will sufiice for the boUing. Instead 
of consuming fuel, as in the old way of boiling in the lot between two 
large logs, neai'ly equal in value to the sugar, when made, the farmer 
will actually gain something by reducing his refuse wood to ashes for 
his land ; and if the whole be done with a decent economy of time 
and fuel, nothing will be lost, at four cents a pound for sugar, and 
ten cents a gallon for syrup, whereas these articles have been worth 
two or three times as much the past season. 

Why then should not preparation be made for drawing sap from 
nearly all, instead of less than half of the sugar maples ? The dam- 
age to the tree is very small. It is not worth taking into the account. 
And why should we not have more sugar maples ? There is no clean- 
er tree. Few are more beautiful. They bear transplanting well and 
grow quickly. The only objection we can think of, is, that they are 
of a cold nature, their roots running far, and exhausting the soil. But 
this is hardly an objection if they can be made to line the street, and 
not be too near the fields. The reward for transplanting them is 
not as speedy as that of planting Indian corn, to witness a golden 
return in three months, but where the soil favors their growth, as it 
does almost everywhere, the prospective return, twenty years hence, 
added to the beauty of the growing trees in the interval, afibrds a 
reasonable inducement for transplanting them next fall. There are 
2,500,000 farmers in this country. If 2,000,000 of them should set 
one hundred trees each, on an average, next fall and spring, it would 
make a long row in the aggregate. They would be of great value 
twenty years hence, if sugar should be as high as now ; and if better 
■^ays of sweetening our tea, cofiee, and cakes, and children's tongues 

Guano . 9 

should come about, nothing would be lost, for the alternate trees, 
which might then be cut out for fuel, leaving the others for shades, 
would be worth as much as the whole would have cost. If any pre- 
fer fruit trees for the way side, it should be remembered that these 
would thrive only in select places, whereas maples wiU endure any 
degree of cold exposure, and wiU thrive equally well in a cold or 
warm loam, even if more rock than soil. — ^Ed. 

Home Fertilizers. 

No topic, perhaps, tends more strongly to improvements in agri- 
culture, than the very homely one of " fertilizing materials enough on 
almost every farm to convert it into a garden." We intend, at no 
distant day, to write largely on this subject ; we have the vanity, if 
it be such, to believe that we can demonstrate the truth that most 
farms contain ample means of enriching themselves. — ^Ed. 


A VALUABLE Correspondent in our last, one from whom we would 
gladly hear often, says : " The main business of every farmer is to 
save manure ; (and there are fertilizing materials enough on almost 
every farm, to convert it into a garden ;) yet there are many cases, we 
doubt not, where an outlay for guano would be returned, principal 
and interest, the first season." 

His first statement is true beyond all question. To inaJce, to save, 
and judiciously to apply manure is the great problem of farming. 
His second statement, as cautiously qualified by the word almost, is 
equally true. Few indeed are the farmers, who have not the fertili- 
zing materials within their own limits, without money and price, ex- 
cept as comparatively smaU amounts are to be paid for the labor of 
collecting and composting them, to convert the farm mto a garden. 
We hope our correspondent, W. C. G., will enlarge on these thoughts 
hereafter. If he can make their truthfulness as clear to all our farmers 
as it is to us, he will do them more good than if he could rain guano 
upon them. Let him demonstrate this : " There are fertilizing mate- 
rials enough on almost every farm to convert it into a garden ;" let 
him show what they are, how they are to be saved, how to be used, 
and what will be the efiect ; let him prove^ for it can be done and he 
can do it, that while a just husbandry of the home fertilizers will ^7^^ 
crease the labor of the farm, it will diminish it — increase it relatively 
to the extent of land, but diminish it as relates to the amount of pro- 
duce ; — as thirty days' work on an acre, for sixty bushels of corn, is 
more work per acre but less per bushel, than twenty days' for thu'ty 
bushels of corn. — ^Ed. 

The Cranberry. 

The Cranberry as an Ornamental Plant. 

No plant of its size can equal the Cranberry in beauty. Its leaves 
of rich, dark green in summer, changed to a reddish brown in winter, 
remain on the plant through the year. The thread-like stalks stand 
erect and mat close like moss. They would form a border somewhat 
resembling a box, and would require only an occasional trimming oflf 
of the runners to keep them in form for years. From the last of June 
to the tenth of July they are in blossom, being thickly interspersed 
with the most beautiful transparent pale pink flowers. The flowers 
are succeeded, as if by magic, with the berries, at first green but soon 
changing to a bright crimson scarlet, covering the plant in a profusion 
unequaled by any other fruit having produced three bushels of ber- 
ries to the square rod. The berries will remain on the vines through 
the year. 

I may be enthusiastic, but have never seen any plant that would so 
soon attract attention as the cranberry plant. When in blossom, its 
bell-shaped floAvers, suspended by a hair-like stem, almost seem the 
work of some fairy, and then the berries, two, three, and on some va 
rieties five, attached by the same hair-like stem to the parent stock, 
itself only the fifth part of the size of a straw, excites one's sympathy 
lest the fruit break the parent stock, and we at once see the wisdom 
of their clustering so close together, thereby being enabled to bear 
the crimson load of berries. 

If the nature of the cranberry was fully understood, it would be 
found in every " Country Gentleman's" yard as well as in field culture. 
They draw their sustenance from water, a small quantity of which 
is absolutely necessary to sustain the plants in a bearing condition. 
The air always contains sufiicient moisture, and pure sand will attract 
and retain sufiicient moisture in the proper form for the cranberry 
plant in any location. 

We do not know who is the author of this. How could we ? It 
couics to us in a paper which is very much in the habit of using other 
writers' thoughts without giving credit for them — has filled long 
columns with our editorials without a single recognition of their 
source, and we suppose does the same with those of others. This is 
unjust. We protest against it. It is true that some of our editorials 
may be no great credit to us, but we sup]30se that those v/liich are 
worth copying are worth crediting to their author, or at least to the 
journal with which he may be connected. Everybody has heard how 
the lion's skin, once upon a time when the beasts talked and Esop re- 
corded their sayings, found its way to the back of the wrong beast, 
and how the wind blew it ofi'and showed just what the wearer of the 
borrowed robe was. Now there may be other winds ; and the man 
who dresses in robes stealthily borrowed, would certainly dislike to 
have the world see exactly what sort of an animal he is. Fair play is 
the safest. 

Originality in a journal is not necessarily an excellenc e, for art iele 

The Cranberry. 11 

may be original and yet worthless ; nor is the appearance of origin- 
ality, where the thing is wanting, honest ; for thought that is worth 
reading costs something, and although when once printed it becomes 
common property, yet no one has a right to put it on and wear it, 
as the king of brayers did the hide of the king of beasts, as his own. 
Commend us to the editor who writes well and selects wisely, and has 
the manliness to accredit thoughts, which he deems worth reprinting, 
to their originator. We know of no better reason for stealing a 
man's thoughts than for stealing his coat. Though in case of a stolen 
coat there might result a bad fit, yet there might be, and often is, 
a worse, in the case of stolen thoughts. 

If the article to which we have appended these remarks was writ- 
ten by the editor of the paper containing it, why did he put on paper 
the very gross error, that " pure sand will attract and retain sufficient 
moisture in a proper form for the cranberry plant in any location ?" 
And if it was written by another, why did he not tell Ms readers, that 
while the article as a Avhole was worth considering, the last clause was 
a sad blunder, and so clear his own skirts of so palpable a falsehood. 

One word more ; — we can hardly take up a papei*, without finding 
an article, an item, or a mere snatch of thought, it may be of ours ; 
something which we valued and which it seems others value, or they 
would not copy, going the rounds, fatherless and without a name, so 
far as the paper shows. "Well we are not sorry for this. If they are 
adapted to do the least good, let them go and do it. But if the 
thought is worth going the rounds, it would be worth no less for car- 
rying with it the signature of the journal in which it originated. 

We are not faulting the corps editorial ; it is an honorable corj)S ; 
and we are proud to belong to it, and ambitious to help on its high mis- 
sion for the elevation of mankind. The fault lies with only here and 
there a brother of the craft, more a printer perhaps than a writer, who 
finds a good article, fancies a plume over his head if some dunce 
should think it his, and so strips it of its name and sends it out 
as a foundling, at least to all intelligent eyes. 

Other editors catch it going ; like it, want it ; will have it ; won't 
credit it where they know it did not originate ; and can't credit it 
where it did come from, because their imworthy brother of the next 
degree has not told them where he got it. 

It is our destiny to stop here. We will not write another ill-na- 
tured article ; and if that implies that this is one, we take it back. It 
is not. — ^Ed. 

12 Yard Manure. 

Application of Yard Manure. 

The statement of John Johnston, of Geneva, in a late number of 
the Country Gentleman^ is interesting, and it suggests some considera- 
tions in connection with known facts and experiments which are perhaps 
worthy of attention. It may be laid down as a universal rule, applica- 
ble everywhere, that stable manure, to be applied in the most efficient 
manner, should be perfectly intermixed with the soil, at precisely such 
a depth as the root of the plants go in search of nutriment. Perhaps 
the most perfect intermixture ynX\\ the soil, so far as it goes, is that 
effected by the application of liquid manure, which becomes very 
finely diffused through it. But as only a portion of the manure will 
dissolve m water, the next mode, nearly as perfect, and more general- 
ly applicable, is to pulverize the manure finely, either by harrowing, 
or by grinding it down, Avith a " drag-roller," both of which at the 
same time work it into the soil. Experiments have been made, which 
go to show that manure completely pulverised and very intimately in- 
termixed with the soil, will do more good than three or four times as 
much fresh manure left merely in lumps and plowed under without 
any further care. We see the reason why Johnston finds it best 
to leave his manure in heaps through the first summer. He harrows 
it into the wheat ground, which can be done much the best with rotted 
manure ; and if the quantity of straw he uses is quite large, as is the 
case with all good farmers, this amount of vegetable matter enables it 
to hold most of the escaping gases. The proper way would be to add 
some sods or loam to the heaps, and it would make admirable compost 
by autumn. Great advantage is always derived from spreading 
manure on the surface in autumn, to be ploughed under Ln sprmg. All 
the soluble portions are washed in liquid form into the soil, and are 
intimately diffused through it. This advantage is so great that some 
good farmers prefer this practice alone to any other, Turnmg in the 
remainder which lies on the surface during the spring, improves the 
texture of the soil, even If all the enriching parts have been washed 
out ; which, however, is not the case. Rules should be laid down by 
every farmer in the application of manure. 1. Manure should be re- 
duced to such a condition that it will easily break up fine, and mix 
into the soil easily. A summer fermentation, secured fi:om loss by in- 
termixed sods, ditch cleanings, or loam, is unquestionably the best. 
2. Manure should never be })lowed under, without first having been 
well and finely broken up, and worked into the soil by repeated har- 
rowings. Grinding down with a " drag roller," and harrowing often 
enough, will enable the farmer to mix fresh manure, as completely 
with the soil as rotted manure, only with more labor, yet with a 
smaller loss from evaporation. 

The above, which we cut from the Litchfield (Conn,) Enquirer, af- 
fords us an opportunity of correcting what we think a common error 
in the minds of people in this country with regard to liquid manuring. 
The writer speaks of manure being but partially soluble in water. 
This is true ; but it should be understood that the more water, the 
more of the manure will be dissolved; and if the proportion of water 

Yard Manure. 13 

be very large, the insoluble parts of the manure, by suitable agitation, 
become so diffused in the water, as to secure for themselves an equal 
distribution, whenever the liquid manure is applied. 

The thick, dark puddles in our yards, are no sample of liqiud ma- 
nure, in any proper sense of the term. They would kill almost any 
plant to which they should be plentifully appUed. But let one gallon 
of this be diluted with a hundred gallons of rain or brook water, or 
let one ton of barn manure be agitated in a hundred tons of water, and 
it becomes the very pabulum which plants feed upon. A considerable 
portion of it is dissolved, and the rest is so evenly diffused, that as fast 
as it becomes soluble, and is washed with rains, or rather diluted witli 
rain water, it is found about every root and rootlet, just the thing for 
plants and in just the place. 

A i^ound of gunpowder tea boiled in a gill of water ■« ould be nei- 
ther food nor drink for the human stomach, though an ounce boiled 
in a gallon of water might be refreshing after a hard day's work — ge- 
nial, pleasant, almost food and drink. Now plants do not require 
strong food. We may say, that they drmk, but do not eat. Their 
food must not only be in solution, but greatly diluted. Hence there 
is wanted about their roots soluble food, or rather we should say food 
actually dissolved, for present use, and food all the while becoming 
soluble, that is, food to be dissolved with every falling rain, for future 
use. This is the condition of a well pulverised and well manured 

If now the barn manure is thorouglily mixed and agitated with 
water, a himdrcd loads of the latter to one of the former; if the liquid 
is then forced through a strainer, to keep back the course parts till 
further decayed, and is thrown upon the growing crops like rain from 
the clouds, the wants of the i^lants are supphed for the present and for 
some time to come. There are the soluble parts, actually dissolved, 
and the insoluable to be dissolved as wanted, and these last are on or 
near the surface, accessible to sun and air, where they will be sure to 
decompose in good time. 

This is our idea of liquid manuring. That it is a wonderful means 
of mcreasing vegetable growth there can not be the least doubt. We 
have had opportunity of witnessing its results, on the farm of Mr, 
Mechi, the first, we believe, who ever practiced it in England, and on 
that of Mr. Littledale, who we think was the first to follow Mr. 
Mechi's example. In the former case, it was applied to a farm of 175 
acres; in the latter to about one-third of a farm of 470 acres ; and 
such was the effect, especially on the grasses, that we are half ready 
to believe the story, copied into our last, fishy as it seemed, of 100 
tons of rye grass, grown in one year on a single acre — weighed green 

14 Yard Manure. 

ot course, and perhaps with as much water as would adhere to it, for 
if one were to swallow the story, it might require some water to wash 
it down. 

Tliere is no other way in which manure can be applied with any- 
thing like equal effect. Our retired merchants, with money enough, 
would do well to lay down the pipes, and show us a sample of what 
can be done. If they make a few thousand dollars, or lose a few thou- 
sand, it will not hurt them ; and we should like to see on American 
soil a few trials of what can be done in the way of liquid manuring. 
We think we understand perfectly how the experiment should be 
made, as regards both economy and effectiveness, and should be ready 
at any time to communicate what we have been able to learn. But we 
see not how the matter can be of much immediate interest to the 
great body of fai-mers in this country ; though it can not be denied 
that our climate, subject as it is to drougths, is far more favorable to 
this mode of applying manure, than that of England. But the 
expense ! it is too great for ordinary farming. 

Liquid manure, in any proper sense of the term, is too heavy to be 
transported, even short distances, by team power. We once suggested 
the idea of applying ir, to certain lands favorably situated for the pur- 
pose, on the common principle, that " water runs down hill ;" and we 
are by no means sure that on fields at no great distance from the barn, 
but on a much lower level, it might not be so applied advantageously. 
Suppose for instance you have a ten acre lot within 30 or 40 rods 
of the barn, but on a level 60 feet lower than the bottom of the 
tank. A lead two inch pipe, connected with the tank, having the end 
in the tank much enlarged and shielded by a strainer, might be run, 
say from two to three feet under ground, to the center of the field. 
A hydrant, placed at this point would throw the liquid manure at 
least thirty feet into the air ; and the person, who should hold a gu- 
tapercha hose connected with it, could direct the stream upward or 
off at pleasure ; and if the hose were ninety feet long could easily 
reach every part of the field, and yet give it a sufficient elevation to 
break the stream and cause it to fall in drops like those of a shower. 
There certainly would be no insuperable obstacle in the way of all this. 
By continuing the pipe and placing additional hydrants, without extra 
liose, the application could be made to other fields on the same or :i 
lower level. 

The cost of the most approved fixtures for liquid manuring is esti- 
mated in England at something like a hundred dollars an acre, but 
varies with circumstances, being much less on a large than on a small 
farm, and will undoubtedly be greatly cheapened, if it becomes common. 
The cost of what we have suggested would be a mere trifle in com- 

Sbw to Raise Potatoes. 15 

parison. The question is, would it answer the purpose ? Could a 
cheap mode of liquid manuring be applied to side hill, or rolling- 
farms, by availing ourselves of the simple laws of gravitation and hy- 
drostatic pressure? Would it pay? We do not know; and of 
course we would not recommend a trial, without a careful mquiry into 
the expenses and the prospective advantages. But we wish that some 
of our farmers, whose land is situated favorably for the experiment, 
would think of it. — Ed. 

Hov/ to Raise Potatoes. 

Messes. Editors : — I have tried several experiments in raising po- 
tatoes, which I wish to communicate for the benefit of such as are in- 
quiring upon the subject. 

1. The greatest yield I ever had, the potatoes were cultivated in 
the following manner : The land was ploughed and furrowed lor the 
same ; then straw was laid in the furrows instead of manure. The 
potatoes were cut and dropped about eight inches apart in the same 
upon the straw. The potatoes were then covered with a plough, 
about six inches deep. I have sometimes put the straw upon the po- 
tatoes ; I could see no diiference. 

2. The second experiment was to sprinkle a handful of coal dust 
into each hill, either before or after the potatoes were dropped. I 
have seen a great effect from the use of half a pint of coal dust in the 
hill. I have never used muck as substitute for coal dust in case the 
dust could not be had, but I have recommended the practice to larm- 
ers, who have used it, they say, successfully. A quart of muck should 
be used in the hill. 

3. My third experiment was to use a mixture of lime, plaster and 
ashes upon the hill, applied after the first hoeing. Or if applied twice, 
before and after the first hoeing. I have never applied this compost 
in the hill, but my neighbors have done it, and say they succeed bet- 
tor than to apply upon the hill. The compost might be applied to 
good advantage both ways. I have never known potatoes to rot 
where coal dust or straw was applied in the hill. The compost might 
also be used in case the coal or straw dust is used. 

One other thing and I have done. The potato itself exhausts the 
soil but very little, as its elements are deri-v ed mainly from the atmos- 
phere — but the potato top exhausts more than any other one vegeta- 
ble, as its elements are derived more from the soil. Potato tops, then, 
should all be carefully buried when and where they are dug. If this 
practice were universally followed, no crop would exhaust the soil 
less. Let the farmers try the experiment, and write the result for the 
benefit of others. J. L. Edgeeton, in Country Gentleman. 

The value of such statements as the above, from practical farmers, is 
great. We Vv ish our readers would send us such oftener than they do. 
But a question which here presents itself, is. How are farmers to make 
use of such statements from each other, to their mutual advantage ? 
Because Mr. E. grew potatoes profitably on straw in the furrow, cov- 

16 How to JRaise Potatoes. 

ered six inches deep, is it a matter of course that others will ? From 
the largeness of his crop, we may pretty safely infer, what he tells us 
nothing of, that his land was good and the season fiivorable. Now 
we have long advocated the avoidance of nitrogenous manures for 
this crop. We have supposed that carbonaceous manures are less 
likely to be followed with the rot. Straw is of that kind. So is the 
charcoal and muck recommended in the second experiment. A pound 
or two of dry straw, two or three pounds of charcoal dust, or four 
pounds of well-cured peat, may be regarded as equivalents for each 
other. The straw would contam more potash than the peat, and per- 
haps not quite as much as the charcoal. All may be regarded as car- 
bonaceous, and none as affording much of the active salts. If there- 
fore the soil were not pretty well supplied with these, especially 
with potash, which the potato requires largely, it could not be ex- 
pected to give a large crop without other fertilizers. If it were a 
very cold soil, either peaty or clayey, neither the straw, charcoal or 
peat would decay raj)idly enough to secure a good crop. 

We have been through this kind of reasoning to show how, in our 
opinion, farmers should use such facts as the above ; — they are not to 
say, Mr. E. got a great crop by the use of straw and by the use of 
charcoal, and his neighbors got good croj^s by the use of muck, and 
therefore we shall ; but they are to consider whether their land is of 
such a kind that, with this treatment, it would be likely to give a re- 
munerative crop. Our own inference would be, that if we had land 
that is neither very wet nor very dry, and that is in medium condi- 
tion, or from that to the highest, we should not have the least fear in 
imitating Mr. E.'s coui-se with the straw, or with the coal dust, or 
that of his neighbors with the muck. With the straw, we would 
cover full six inches deep, as he did ; with coal dust or the muck, not 
more than four or five ; and we should have great confidence that, 
with a tolerably good season, if the land were in medium condition, we 
should have at least a paying crop, and if highly rich, a large, one, and 
that the produce would be of fair quality. 

But we would greatly prefer the third experiment above stated, 
because we have had occasion to know its utility. Potatoes raised 
with that composition are worth fifteen to twenty per cent more than 
the general run of potatoes — are harder, heavier, contain less water 
and more salts, and especially of these very salts which render- them 
nourishing. If the composition be put into the hill, the seed should 
be covered rather deejily, as it is heating, and liable to prevent 
sprouting, if the spring be dry. — Ed. 

Smut upon the Onion. ^" 


Smut upon the Onion. 

Messes. Editors :— My attention has recently been called to a new 
manifestation of disease that threatens waste to the onion crop, so much 
reUed on by the cultivators of this vicinity. For the want of knowledge 
of \iQpro2)er name, (if the term ^ro/^er can be applied to anything so 
improper as is this affection of the plant,) in analogy to the disease at 
times apparent on Indian corn, I call it sm,ut or rust. It is noticeable 
on the little plant, where the leaf branches from the stem, as a Hack 
sediment, that can be rubbed off by the fingers. Wherever it appears 
it is death to the plant. On Saturday I saw half acres together, so 
badly affected, as to render it expedient to substitute some other crop 
upon the land. I learned that many of our cultivators had already 
sown carrots or planted corn on their onion fields, where the onion 
had failed to grow. This is not a new disease entirely, more or less 
of it having been apparent for the last half dozen years, but never so 
extensively as the present season. Whether this is to be attributed 
to the long-continued moist weather, with less heat than usual, I can 
not say ; but such is the fact, the cause I know not. I witnessed these 
appearances on the carefully-cultivated grounds of Messrs. D. & E. 
Buxton, who have heretofore done much to perfect the culture of the 
onion, and who understand its characteristics as well as any others. 
They do not presume to describe it scientifically, making no preten- 
sion to book knowledge, but they do know when their plants advance 
vigorously and bottom in right form. Guano has been the chief fer- 
tilizer applied to their grounds the present season. They were so 
well pleased mth its operation the last season, that an association was 
formed in the neighborhood, and twenty tons of best Peruvian guano 
obtained. They do not charge the disease to this fertilizer, for on 
some parts of the same field, all fertihzed ahke, the crop looks bright 
and vigorous — on others it has failed entirely. 

These modest cultivators would be greatly obliged to you learned 
professors for any light you can shed upon this subject, and especially 
for instruction how their fields can be relieved of this blight of their 
hopes. Truly yours, J. W. P. 

South Dakveks, June 8, 1857. 

We thank our friend and once co-laborer in the cause of agricul- 
ture, for mforming us of what befalls the fields in his neighborhood. 
When many others do the same we may become " learned" enough 
to return sage advice, for all learning is derived from a comparison of 
simple facts. At present we will barely express a suspicion, adverse 
it would seem to his opinion, that possibly guano may after all have 

18 Health of Animals 

something to do with the mischief. Will friend P. keep an eye out 
this summer, and carefully compare those fields that have been dressed 
for longer or shorter periods with Peruvian guano, with those dressed 
with |he old composts of sea weed, muck and barn manure. It may 
be that guano is safer for the wheat crop than for the onion. 
Wheat requires much soluble silica. One office of its ammonia is to 
dissolve the sand to supply siHca for the straw, chaff, and coating for 
the seed, which is little else than a small bundle of starch and Huten 
neatly packed for future use in a sort of sand paper. Does the onion 
require such a process ? We doubt it. There will be nothing like 
trying the effects of both kinds of manure side by side. The onion 
is an important crop in that region. Many a farmer there is living in 
a splendid house built on a foundation of onions; and if the air is re- 
dolent with the perfume of onions, it is at least as agreeable to our 
old-fashioned sense of smell as some perfumes that are purchased at 
high prices. — Ed. 

Health of Animals — Prevention better than Cure. 

Feed regularly, at stated times, never stuffing at one time and 
starving at another, and be particular not to overfeed. A fattening 
animal should have all he can eat and so digest as to have a good ap- 
petite the next time of feeding. If you can hit that point precisely, 
you will be a perfect feeder; but if you can not it wUl be safer to fall 
a fraction short than to go over. 

Pure water should always be within their reach, and so situated 
that they can approach it without fear or peril. They should always 
have salt ad libitum. A mixture of bone dust and ashes may be ad- 
vantageously placed in a separate trough. The instincts of the cattle 
will be a safe guide with regard to the quantity required, except in 
case of salt when they have been long deprived of it, in which case 
the re-supply should be gradual. 

Regularity of feeding, reasonable service, and kind care and pro- 
tection when withdrawn from the yoke or harness, is the rule for 
working animals. There may be times when over-work would be pro- 
fitable even at the risk of the animal's health, but with those who lay 
their plans wisely this will seldom happen ; and as a general rule a 
reasonable amount of labor, with good feed and proper care, is more 
profitable than excessive labor. 

Let all changes of food, as from hay to grass, or from dry fodder 
to roots, be gradual. It is easier to keep animals in a healthy condi- 
tion by a proper attention to food and cleanliness at all times, and by 
special care to avoid exposure after labor or when changing their food, 
than to restore them after becoming diseased. — Ed, 

Imp'oved* Breeds of Cattle. 


<r^ -v<- V-3-Vs 

Look at these, and think whether our suggestions in another place 
about getting into improved stock, either by importation or by breed- 
ing from the best of our own, are not worth attendmg to. We have 
seen cattle both at home, and abroad, equally as fine as these en- 
gravings, and their keeping costs no more, perhaps less, than that of 
the coarser races. 

20 Saving Seed Corn. 

Neglect of Agriculture. 

" The complaints of the present season are not caused so much by 
the deficiency of business as by the redundancy of traders, and the 
over supply of manufactured articles furnished by the improved ma- 
chinery winch has been brought into operation within a few years. 
These are altogether disproportionate to the agricultural products of 
the country. 

" We can not look for any substantial and permanent reaction, till 
larger amounts of capital and a much greater number of energetic 
young men are withdrawn! from other pursuits and concentrated upon 

"The general depression in commerce and mamiflxctures at the 
present time, and the active demand and high prices for almost all 
great agricultural staples, offers an excellent opportunity for the pro- 
fitable transfer of a large amount of capital and labor to the cultiva- 
tion of the soil." — Boston Traveller. 

Send our own manufactures to grass ; buy more goods from other 
nations ; turn all hands to the growing of agricultural produce ; and 
in less years than a farmer has fingers and thumbs on one hand, he 
may whistle for a buyer, and grow fat by the music — if he can. — ^Ed. 


Saving Seed Corn. 

In the sprmg of 1856, many of the farmers in this region, after hav- 
ing waited about the usual time for their corn to come up, found the 
seed defective, and were vmder the necessity of gomg through a sec- 
ond planting. The present cold, stormy and backward season, the 
same misfortune has occurred in a multiplied number of instances. 
This is certainly vexatious ; for besides the trouble and expense of 
procuring new seed, and planting, it becomes a risky business in our 
climate, where it is desirable to have corn growing as early as possi- 
ble, in order to ripen it before the early frosts of autumn, which some- 
times come too soon. 

The causes of failure have, to a great extent, we think, been attri- 
buted to the coldness of the earth, and the cold, humid, cloudy at- 
mosphere — a doctrine we can not readily adopt, for so fixr as our own 
experience goes, if good seed is used, though its growth may be de- 
layed by cold, it will not be effectually stopped. We would cite sev- 
eral instances of the earliest planting of the present year to sustain 
this view, in which the corn all, though with much delay, eventually 
came up well, and the blade presents a healthful appearance. 

Now, as nearly as we can come at facts, these failures of seed have 
been found in cases where it was taken from corn cut up and stacked 

Multum in Parvo. 21 

before it was fully matured. The cause probably was tbat it became 
heated to some extent in this premature and exposed method of ri- 
pening, and the vegetating power was destroyed, although the kernel 
was said to look well when planted. Too much care can not be used 
in selecting seed corn, not only to insure the success of the following 
crop, but with this care it may be improved in quality. The earlier it 
is gathered the better, after it reaches the proper state to germmate 
freely, or in other words the ears that ripen earliest should be saved 
for seed, and should be gathered and hung in a position where storms 
will never reach them, but where air will have a free circulation, until 
the cob becomes thoroughly seasoned. They may then be put m a 
barrel, but not in large bulks, for damp weather may yet cause a heat- 
ing which will destroy the germinating principle. In short, to save 
good seed com, select the earliest and best ears, trace them, and hang 
in a dry, cbol room, and if it does not grow when planted, there will 
be other causes than poor seed or unfavorable weather, such as faulty 
preparation or careless planting. Tours truly, 

Richmond, June 8, 1857. W. Bacon. 

Multum in Parvo. 

A " notion''^ of ours. — If we 'could manufacture a journal for farm- 
ers precisely to our liking, we would have all the short, pithy articles, 
containing as many thoughts as words in the May, June, July, and 
August numbers, reserving the long and more labored ones, till farm 
work should become less absorbing. "Without expecting however to 
reach our " beau ideal," we will attempt a few thoughts for the sea- 
son in so few words that the working farmer can catch them at an 
odd moment, and digest them as he goes afield. 

A duty of yours. — The first thing for every farmer is to improve 
himself, and to see that his children are growing up to adorn his own 
profession or any other they may choose to engage in. More than 
half the future Presidents, cabinet ofiicers, men in all responsible sta- 
tions, are to be grown on the farms of our country. Now, farmers 
and planters you must grow large crops ; it is a great loss to only half 
cultivate the land. You must grow fine cattle ; it would be a shame 
to perpetuate the scrubs. You must drive a horse to admire and not 
one to be ashamed of, since in the long run it will cost no more ; but 
above all things you must grow good boys and girls, for the country 
wants them, it must have them, and nobody in the world is so well 
situated for raising them just right^ healthy, vigorous, intelligent, in- 
corrupt, as the farmer. Let no day go by, not even in harvest, with- 
out getting a new idea, and see to it that your children are getting 

22 Multum in Parvo. 

new ideas and right ones. We want to say more, but you must 
think out the rest. 

The In-door Stock. — In order that the fanner may always be on the 
road to self-improvement, that his sons may assist in his labors, not 
only without injury to themselves but with positive benefit, and that 
lus laborers (for he ought to look to their good) may participate in 
the general welfare, the work should, as far as possible, be so laid out 
that every hand may do a reasonable day's work every day, and 
never more than a reasonable day's work m one day. This is very 
important. Where the farm work is skilfully bossed, to use an ex- 
pressive term, the fanner himself is more at ease, has more leisure 
moments, can get a little time to read, can think more clearly, is less 
confused in his ideas, and will possess a calmer and more reliable 
judgment. It is so with all who work under him. The more perfectly 
every one understands his duty, the more easily can he, and the 
more opportunity can he get for self-improvement. Lay out the plan 
of the farm operations considerately ; execute the plan kindly but 
firmly. Nothing, we know, is more difficult, yet few things are more 
important. The products of the farm will be greater ; the profits will 
be increased ; and what is infinitely more, every man and boy on the 
farm, and every member of the household will arise to a better con- 
dition in such a state of things. Our readers will forgive the homely 
designation at the opening of this paragraph, since we have just 
avowed our belief that out of such a stock will come the future Pres- 
idents and great men of the nation. 

Out-door Stock. — Of horses, cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, etc., we 
suppose our readers know more than we, and better iinderstand their 
interests. A word nevertheless for them to think of If you get in- 
to a better class of horses for the road, or of horses, mules and oxen 
for field labor, there will be extra expense in the outset, but ever after 
they will do you more work in proportion to their feed, and whenever 
you have one to disjoose of you will receive more. Is it not so ? and 
is not the profit of fine working animals greater in the end ? and is 
there not an innocent pleasure in seeing and using such animals ? and 
is there not in the constant use of such animals, grateful, capable of 
appreciating kind usage, noble spirited, a reaction favorable to the man 
himself? We hardly dare broach this last thought. It will to many 
of our readers look like a very whim. But look at it. All the world 
is a school to one who has his eyes open. We verily believe that more 
can be learned from a majestic thunderstorm than from a tempest in 
a tea-pot ; more from a noble, tall, wide-spread tree than from a shrub ; 
and why not more from the driving of high bred animals in one's life, 
than from being constantly with those of inferior grades ? The thing 

Mtiltum in Parvo. 23 

is not unreasonable. If we had boys growing up on a farm, we should 
rather they should drive the best animals than the poorest — should 
expect they would love them more and abuse them less, and make 
likelier men for it, other things being equal. But there are motives 
enough, aside from this, to encourage imj)rovemcnt in working ani- 

The great motive with the farmer, with regard to working and all 
other animals will be, that after having once made the change, there 
will be an increased profit. But how shall the imj)rovement be inau- 
gurated ? The generality of farmers can not well pay fabulous prices 
for stock to begin with. We think they should select the best of 
their own as breeders. More attention should be given to pairing 
them suitably. Select the best of each kind early ; rear them in a 
way to produce an early and high development, of whatever the ani- 
mal is capable of making. Good keeping, kind care, and suitable 
pairing will, in a great majority of cases, be followed with satisfoctory 
results. The farmer who will proceed in this way, instead of selling 
the best of his young stock to the butcher, will soon find improved 
races about him. A few years will witness decided changes for the 
better. If he would avoid loss of time let him procure blood stock 
from those Avho have imported and are propagating it, nor should he 
begrudge the payment of pretty high prices, as compared with the 
price of common stock, since the results will soon compensate him, 
and especially since those among us, who have imported and are 
breeding fine stock are doing a good thing for the country and at a 
very heavy outlay. 

The House^ Out-huildings^ Barn. — Don't talk about the house now, 
we seem to hear you say. Well, perhaps you have enough else to do. 
But a word about the barn, and we will let the rest go till you are 
more at leisure. Is it all in order ? If not, look about and see what 
can be done before the crops are gathered in. Do that now, and leave 
the rest for autumn, but do not forget to have all right from founda- 
tion to ridge-pole before another winter comes. Winter in no part 
of our country is much to be dreaded by the farmer, if he has a Avarm 
barn and warm sheds for his cattle. It is inhuman, or at least inhu- 
mane, not to have them, in by far the largest part of our territory, 
and it is unprofitable in all. 

Grass for Hay. — When shall it be cut ? We say, clover, when in 
full blossom ; herds-grass when out of blossom, but before the seed is 
fully ripe ; other grasses, a little before they begin to dry up and be- 
come woody. The sugar turns to wood, and becomes indigestible if 
grass stands too long. If cut much before or much after the periods 
indicated, it is less valuable. Nevertheless the difierence is not as 

24 Multum, in Parvo. 

great as is sometimes stated ; and we say again, as we have often said, 
that no farmer should do more than a fair day's work, in a day, nor 
require his hands to do much more, for the sake of cutting his grass 
at precisely the best time. It comes just when the hoe crops are to 
attended to, and on the very eves of the wheat, rye, barley, and oat 
harvest, and when the flax, if that is grown on the farm, and we think 
it ought to be more than it is, requires to be secured. All good fai-m- 
ers are exceedingly anxious to get in the hay at the right time ; and 
how to do it and not neglect other business, is a harder problem than 
that of the fox, the goose and the bushel of corn. Every farmer 
must solve it for himself. There is one a little worse than to mow too 
soon or too late, and that is to have hay caught in a shower when 
ready to go mto the barn. The damage to hay, of being wet after 
being thoroughly dried, is considerable, in addition to the labor of 
drying it over again. Yet it would not be wise to pitch a load of hay 
in less than half the usual time even when a shower is at hand. 
Health is worth too much to peril by an unreasonable violent exertion. 
Our idea is that more men are seriously injured on the farms of this 
country in July than all the rest of the year. The efi'ect follows in- 
sidiously and they are not aware what the cause was. Clover is better 
to lie a few hours in the swath, till the ground becomes heated, then 
to be turned over on the hot ground between the swaths, to be put 
in small tumbles towards night, these to be turned over the next 
morning at 10 or 11 o'clock, two to be put into one at middle after- 
noon, the same day, and then be let alone till pretty thoroughly dried, 
than to be treated, as it too often is, in a way to deprive it of nearly 
all its leaves, and to convert its stalk, by too much exposure to the 
sun, into a dry, woody and indigestible mass. As to the degree of 
dryness which should be aimed at, in curing clover and other grasses, 
much depends upon the quality of the moisture. If it is the natural 
juice of the grass, no harm accrues, even if it heats slightly in the 
mow ; but if it is rain water, the effect is worse. We have always 
observed that a water soaked load injures the whole mow. A too 
green load may produce a fermentation, which we should dislike, but 
is not as apt to produce smut and unpleasant odor. 

Indian Corn. — When will it get its three dressings this year ? 
While we wi-ite (June 15) it is hardly out of the ground. Our opin- 
ion has always been in favor of giving this crop its three dressings in 
rapid succession so as to finish it before entering upon harvest, be- 
lieving that if the weeds are well fought in June and the beginning 
of July, they will not become very impudent after that, and that the 
stirring of the ground will not more than compensate for the injury 
to the roots, by late cultivation. But when that work will be done 

Multum in Parvo. 25 

this season, we suspect every man will have to ascertain for himself. 
We will only say that we do not believe that very late cultivation is 
good for this crop. 

Pastures. — Our observations incline us more and more to the belief 
that permanent pastures are the true policy. This of course will de- 
pend much on the nature and use of a farm. The grain farmer, whose 
land is all suitable for the cereals would hardly like the idea of setting 
apart large portions for permanent pasturage ; and the farmer on 
broken land can do no otherwise if he could. In a recent trip through 
the Eastern counties of this State we have been highly gratified with 
the almost universal thrift of the farmers, and have witnessed the 
most striking proofs of the benefit of plaster on old pastures. Thou- 
sands of the farmers in these high, mountam regions are usmg it, and 
the quantities of milk, butter and beef commg down the Harlem road, 
show with with what efiect ; while the style in which these farmers 
live shows that a good deal of money goes up the same route. It is 
said that plaster does not suit all land. We would not reccommend 
a large and indiscriminate outlay for plaster by those who have never 
tried nor seen it tried near them ; but we do say that the farmer who 
has extensive pasture lands, who goes on from year to year without 
informing hunself by actual trial, whether fifty cents' worth of plaster 
to the acre would double the feed, is not true to himself. Wood 
ashes at twenty-five cents a bushel, or anything less, are a good in- 
vestment for most pastures ; and we doubt whether there are many 
pastures on which it would not be good poUcy to put 100 pounds of 
plaster annually, at |10 the ton, though we believe that m many re- 
gions, it can be had for less than half that price. The good efl'ects 
do not always come out the first year. Those who make the experi- 
ment, should contmue it two or three years at least. We say to farm- 
ers, after observing the good effects of plaster on many farms for 
some twenty years, and after hearing from not a few farmers that plas- 
ter does them no good, believe nobody, take nobody's word, try for 
yourself, and see with your own eyes, whether or not plaster will 
double your feed. The question is worth setthng on your own autho- 

Salt for the Extirpation of Moss.—'' It is stated to have proved 
efficacious during several years' trial. The salt is sowed broadcast, 
and in a few weeks after its application the moss (and heath) begins 
to wither, and shortly is destroyed ; m its place sweet grasses and nu- 
tricious plants make their appearance, and the herbage on such spots is 
greatly rehshed by cattle. It is warned not to use too much salt, else 
the grass itself is mjured ; the proper quautity is (in Enghsh meas- 
ure) four bushels per acre." So says the Journal Ag. Soc. Hanover, 

26 Agricultural Impro'oement. 

translated by Professor J. W. Johnson. We know nothing about it. 
The trial would cost little, and should be made at once. The farther 
from the ocean the more likely it would be to succeed. 

Saltpetre a Cure for Garget. — J. Ellsworth, of Ann Arbor,. Mich., 
says of a cow ^\^th swolen udder, that " I then pronounced it garget, 
and gave her a teaspdonful of saltpetre at night in her mess, and ano- 
ther dose the next night, which has cured her, and she is gaining in 
her milk very fast." We have seen this recommended so often and 
from so high sources, that it would seem as if there must be truth in 
it. Were a case of the kind ours, we would try half a teaspoonful, 
morning and night, and continue it some days, and then if a cure 
were not effected, perhaps would increase the quantity. Potash, 
whether in the form of saltpetre or saleratus, if more congenial to the 
soil than to the animal stomach, and if taken into the latter at all, 
should be taken rather as a medicine than as a part of the habitual 
food, whether for man or beast. 

Short-Horns. — Mr. Thomas Willis, of Swate Ireland, obtained from 
a Short-horn cow : "In 1851, when 3 years old, from one week's 
cream, 18 lbs. butter, (16 oz. to the lb.) In 1855, when 7 years old, 
from one week's cream, 21 lbs. 4 oz. In 1857, when 9 years old, from 
one week's cream, 24 lbs. 8 oz. In the same year, the second week 
after calving, 24 lbs. 8 oz." In 1853 we conversed with a farmer in 
Berkshire (Eng.) who milked sixty Durham coavs, which he said would 
average 1400 lbs. of beef when fattened, that he found them the most 
profitable dairy cows, and that a brother of his, who had milked the 
same number of Herefords, was fast exchanging them for Durhams, 
convinced that the latter were the most profitable. These facts look 
very much as if the Durhams, or Short-horns may be better, as milk- 
ers, than we have been wont to believe. It should be remembered 
however, that the feed in all these cases was that of no ordinary pas- 
tures. — Ed. 

Agricultural Improvement. 

Ip there is an earthly object, which deserves to be compared with 
the higher object of cultivating the heart and amending the life in 
conformity with the divine requirements, it is that of improvement 
in agriculture. It is to point out the way, in which the tiller of the 
ground, by industry and reasonable labor, without excessive toil, may 
acquire a competency — enough for all the charities, the rational enjoy- 
ments, and the real utilities of life. But for the hope of contributing 
something towards a solution of the problem, how the farmer may be 
the most aimable, the most comfortable, and the most independent 
man in the Vi''orld, never subjected to oppressive labor, always bene- 

Patent Mowers. 27 

fitted by an employment favorable to thought and reflection, rising 
intellectually and morally with his heaven-appointed employment, as 
honorable as any other man living, we should not have assumed our 
present relation to this paper. For the solution of the foregoing 
problem we shall labor with a zeal worthy of a better cause, if there 
is a better, which, with the exception already indicated, we doubt ; 
for we believe that, next after teaching men, by a virtuous life and 
truthful doctrines, how they may enter into the kingdom of heaven, 
there is nothing more important to human welfxre, than well devised 
efforts to elevate the character and to enlarge the rewards of agri- 
culture. — Ed. 




We regard mowers as especially valuable for the reason that they 
ease the labor of the farm at a time when it becomes oppressive. 
Whose mower is the best, we know not, nor have we the first 
earthly motive to run up or to run down any one. The above cut re- 
presents Allen's patent mower and reaper. It appears like a good 
piece of workmanship, and we should think it might do its work well, 
but we have not seen it in operation. Mr. A.'s advertisement will be 
seen on another page. Among hundreds who have used and 
recommended it, we see the names of many with whom we have been 
long acquainted, and whom we have been wont to regard as men of 
sound judgment and candor, who would not purposely recommend 
an article above their real opinion of its value. 

Since writing the above we have visited the manufactory of A. B. 
Allen, in Brooklyn, where many of the implements sold by R. L. 
Allen, in New-York, are made. The main building is 100 feet by 
fifty, and five stories high. A secondary building is occupied, one 
hundred and thirty feet by forty. Blacksmith's shop, ninety feet by 
forty. Steam engine, fifty horse-power, capable of running up to 
seventy — runs from sixty to seventy much of the time. The ma- 
chinery seemed to be of a high order ; and such is the convenient 
arrangement of the buildings, and the system and perfect order appa- 
rently pervading the whole establishment, as would naturally inspire 
confidence in the character of the work to be turned out 

Much depends upon the materials. An instrument made of spalt 
or cross-grained wood, imperfect iron and half made steel, ought 

28 Muta Bagas. 

never to see a farm, but to perish with the maker, instead of breaking 
to pieces when the farmer is in the midst of his most important work. 
We looked especially at this point. The timber which we saw in 
process of being worked (the paint not yet on) was excellent, with 
scarcely an exception. Of this material we claim to be a judge. Of 
iron and steel we know less, but from the prices which Mr. A. assures 
us he pays, as compared with those for inferior articles in the market, 
we are led to believe that he appreciates the rights of the farmer and 
his own interest. We say his own interests, because we believe that 
the sending out of implements made of spalt wood and cheap metals 
would operate more to his disadvantage than even to that of the 

We will only add our advice to farmers to look well at the charac- 
ter of the material their implements are made of, and our belief that 
Mr. A.'s fixed purpose is to serve them well in this respect. May he 
get good bargains from the farmers, and they better from him. — Ed. 

Ruta Bagas. 

When in the pleasant and rich farming town of Amenia, Duchess 
Co., N. Y., a few days since, we heard of a farmer a mile or two out 
of the village who was famed for great crops of Ruta Bagas. On 
visiting his farm we found him a modest, unassuming man, but earn- 
est, and we think wise, in bringing up his farm to a much higher 
productiveness than it had been in before he had charge of it. There 
is nothing like turnips, he said, for increasing the manure heap ; and 
if fed to milch cows immediately after milking, he is confident that 
they do not in the least injure the flavor of the milk. We became 
satisfied that this gentleman knows very well how to grow crops of 
turnips, of eight, ten or twelve hundred bushels to the acre, with as 
great certainty as attends most crops, without exhorbitant expense 
for labor and fertilizers, and consistently with leaving the soil in good 
heart and the best tilth. We do not believe the turnip crop as impor- 
tant for American as for EngUsh farmers. This gentleman does, and 
he certainly has a right to his opinion, has earned it, and has a better 
right to it than we have to ours. But we agree with him that, 
whether this crop is as important to us as to English farmers or not, 
it is certainly of very considerable importance, and we earnestly re- 
quested a statement of his mode of culture, to which we have re- 
ceived the following short, but very valuable reply. — Ed. 

Amenia, June 11, 1857. 
Messrs. Editors: 

Dear Sius : — My mode of raising ruta bagas after a corn crop, is, 

Loss of Hogs by Disease. 29 

to plough at the same time as for oats, and harrow ; then plough 
eight inches, and harrow twice up to time of planting ; then trench 
thirty inches apart, and manure in the trench with twelve to twenty 
loads of well-rotted manure ; then turn the furrows back on the 
trench. That leaves it in ridges. Rake the ridges off lightly. Plant 
last week in June or first week in July. Plant with Allen's seed drill. 
Then leave them till the plants are good size. Plough in a clear, warm 
day, with a half mold board corn plough. Turn the furrow to the 
plants, and if they are thick no matter if you cover them half up. 
Leave them about three days, and thin to six or eight inches. Plough 
again if necessary, or cultivate. For raising ruta bagas on sod 
ground, I plough when I plough for corn, seven inches deep. Harrow 
the same as for corn, and cultivate two or three times up to the time 
of planting. Sow three hundred pounds of guano per acre, cultivate 
and harrow in three days before planting. Plant with seed drill thirty 
inches apart. When the plants are large enough, plough with corn 
plough. Turn the furrow to the plants, not breaking the sod ; thin as 
above, and cultivate again if necessary. 

Yours respectfully, Henry TV. Peters. 

P. S. — For the want of a double mold board plough, I have not 
pursued the best plan. I would mark with a marker that would make 
six marks, and make the first one straight, then let one tooth follow 
the mark already made. Then with the plough above-named, I would 
plough in the center of the mark- Then manure if you like in the 
trench. Then split the ridges with the plough. Have the rows long 
if possible. H. W. P. 

Will such of our readers as have long succeeded in the culture of 
any valuable crop give us their experience as briefly and so to the 
point as the above. If Mr. Peters will give us his experiments in 
under-draming for a future number, we are sure they will be read 
with interest and profit, and he shall have our thanks. Millions of 
acres, which now pay but a small per cent on their estimated value, 
would pay a large per cent on the estimated value plus the cost of 
underdraining, if they were underdrained at an expense of from 
fifteen to twenty dollars the acres. 

Loss of Hogs by Disease. 

A WRITER in a Cincinnati paper, giving an idea of the number of 
hogs that have died this season by cholera, states the losses at the fol- 
lowing places, thus: In Ingraham's distillery, from the 1st of August 
to the 24th of October, 1285. At the distillery in Pittsburg since the 
18th of October, 2566. Mr. Platte, of Rising Sun, lost 500; Mr. 
Slumner, of Covington, 500 ; Messrs. Gaff, of Aurora, 4546. At 
New-Richmond, since the disease made its appearance, 10,435 have 

30 Horticultural. 

died. Making an aggregate, as far as accounts have been received, of 
60,000 hogs, vahied at $300,000, and when fattened would have been 
worth $650,000, 


Black Wart in the Plum Tree. 

In Bloomfield, N. J., a charming place, richly deserving its name, 
whence we have just returned from a brief tour among the farmers, 
one of our old subscribers, David Oaks, Esq., suggested that of late 
the cherry trees are becoming afflicted with the same black wart as 
the plum, and that it is caused by an insect, and that sulphur in- 
serted in the body of the tree, while the sap is rising in the spring, is 
an effectual cure. That sulphur destroys a certain nameless animal- 
cule that sometimes finds its way into the human skin, has long been 
known to prudent housewives. That, if inserted in the body of a 
tree, it should diffuse itself in the form of hydro-sulphuric acid, and 
thus ooze from every pore, and destroy minute insects, would not 
seem unreasonable, 

Mr, Oaks relates that some twelve years ago he had four large 
plum trees, all alike afflicted with the black wart. To one of these 
he applied no remedy. It died in less than two years. Be bored 
into the other three, filled the holes with brimstone, plugged them 
tightly,' and cut off all the diseased limbs. The consequence was that 
new shoots sprung in the place of the old, and the trees became 
flourishing, and produced eight or nine good croj^s of plums. It has 
been tried by his friends, for a less time, but successfully. 

We should like to know whether others have experimented in a 
similar way, and with what success. — Ed. 

Setting out Cabbage Plants. 

Evert shower and rain during this month should be availed of to 
plant out cabbage plants of the various sorts that may be cultivated 
by you. In withdrawing the plants from the seed bed care should 
be observed, so as to avoid injuring the roots. A mixture should be 
prepared in a piggin, or other tight vessel, comprised of six parts fine 
mold, one part soot and one part flour of sulphur, reduced to the 
consistence of cream with water, and, as the plants are withdrawn 
from the seed bed, they should be placed up to the first series of 
leaves. By such care a two-fold object is gained. The mixture which 
adheres to the stems and roots of the plants serves as a preventive 
against the ravages of the cut-worm — that deadly enemy to newly 
set out plants, and acts as a fertUizer. 

Should drouth occur after the plants are set out, the bed must be 

Horticultural. 31 

watered every evening just before sundown, until rain occurs, as it is 
very important that the plants should not suiFer from the want of 
water at any period of their growth, and especially when newly set 
out. — Ex. 

The New-Enfjland Farmer prefers planting the seeds in hills, w here 
the cabbage is to grow. Whether this course is as favorable to the 
heading up process we do not know. — Ed. 

Culture of the Melon. 

There is no fruit that enters so largely mto the daily consumption 
of our people as the melon, and none that seems to be so little under- 
stood or appreciated in its culture. A fine flavored water or musk 
melon should not be planted within one hundred yards of any other 
melon, or any of the melon family. Gourds, squashes, or cucumbers 
should never be planted in the same garden or field Avith melons, for 
the volatile nature of the poUen of each will mix, making hybrids of 
the next generation, giving the melon a gourdy, squashy flavor, and 
softening the shell of the gourd. The melon delights in a sandy soil, 
and to have them ia their greatest perfection, the ground should be 
deeply spaded or sub-soil ploughed. The hills should be about ten 
feet apart. 

The water melon vine is very subject to injury from water ; heavy 
and continued rains give them the appearance of having been scalded, 
hence the necessity of planting on hills instead of on a level. Holes 
should be excavated and filled in Avith well rotted manure, with a 
inound over the manure at least twelve inches higher in the center 
than on the outside ; on the center of this mound, plant the seed, 
plant some six or eight, and when they have four leaves, thin out to 
three plants in a hill. As the vines begins to run, branch and bloom, 
pinch out the terminal bud, which will throw the whole vigor of the 
vine into the young fruit just set ; as the fruit increases in size, take 
off" all but one to a branch, and allow but one melon to ripen on one 
branch vine. 

An overloaded melon vine will produce but inferior fruit. The cul- 
tivator sliould bear in mind that roots of melons run just as fast and 
that the practice of laying back the vines over the hills, is very inju- 
rious to the crop. The melon ground can not be broken too deep be- 
fore the vines begin to run, but it is a positive injury to the vine for 
the plough to go three inches below the surface over which the vine 
has already run. Great care should be taken in handling the vines 
when Avorking among them with the hoe. For every tendril broken 
or bruised on the vine, the fruit is retarded in its maturity. Keep 
the ground clean around the vines, and as fast as the vine elongates 
a branch, peg it down, so that the winds may not blow them about 
and break them. If the striped bug is troublesome, mix one portion 
of guano to tAvo of gypsum, and dust over the vine Avhen the dcAV is 
on — the bugs will quickly depart. 

The first melons that set on the vine will mature in four weeks from 
the time of setting. The second settings in about three weeks. As the 


season advances, they will mature in less than three weeks. Fine 
crops of melons are made by using brush for the vines to run on, and 
cling to. The seed of the first melon that ripeiis should be saved for 
the next season's planting, if it grew where no other member of the 
melon family could impregnate it. — Cotton Planter and Soil. 


The plants being out of the house, there need be little said at this 
time. The required attention is in giving water according to their 
diflferent constitutions and habits. Where there is no rain or river 
water, it should stand at least one day in butts or cisterns, to take the 
chUly air from it, and become softened by the surrounding atmos- 
phere. This is more essential to the health of the plants than is 
generally supposed. The small plants in dry weather Avill require 
water evening and mornings. Give regular syringings as may be re- 
quired. There are frequently rains continuing for several days, Avhich 
will materially injure many plants if they are not turned on their 
sides, or defended by sash or shutters, until the rain is over, especially 
small plants. The syringings should never be done till after the 
watering at the roots, and they should never be more seldom than 
every alternate evening. Turn all the plants frequently, to prevent 
them from being drawn to one side by the sun or light. Carefully 
look over them at these turnings to detect any insects, and observe 
that the tuberous-rooted or deciduous geraniums are not getting too 
much water, they being now dormant, — Am. Farmer. 

The Siberian Crab. 

Every farmer should cultivate this beautiful fruit. A few scions 
inserted into the limbs of an old tree, or in small branches of young 
ones, will soon afford a liberal supply of fruit, which is an excellent 
article for preserves and tarts, and brings a high price in the market. 
The apples are but very little superior in size to the ordinary red 
cherry ; the tree which is remarkably hardy, resembles the common 
apple tree, and is propagatd in much the same way. 

As an instance of the extreme hardiness of the crab, it is asserted 
in one of the agricultural papers of Massachusetts, that some limbs 
were detatched from a tree m the spring, and after having lain expo- 
posed to the sun for six weeks, some scions were cut from them and 
set, and grew well. A' distinguished culturist and fruit-grower, in 
some practical observations relating to the propation of this fruit, says : 
— " The scions we have set, usually blossomed the first year ; and we 
have now ten full grown apples of this kind presented to us that grew 
on a scion the same season it was set. A few years since we put 
scions of different kinds into the same tree, and the Siberian Crab 
bore plentifully before the other kinds." — N. E. Farmer. 

American Jnventions. 

mtmmm^ guide. 

'gtttwt Ji m e r i c E w | n ij nt t i ii; s . 

Progress of Mechanics. 
No view that we can take, illustrating the immense value of the mechanic arts 
to the people of this country, is moi'o convincing or more pleasing than that of 
the rapid advance of large mechanical establishments in the new settlements of 
our Western States. "We have been especially gratified with the perusal of the 
first two or three numbers of the Chicago Magazine, exhibiting, among many 
other good things, very satisfactory evidence on this point. The third number 
contains several well-drawn views, (the work of their own artists) of the new 
city of Aurora, which, but a very few years ago was a wilderness. The first 
saw-mill ever built on the Fox river, upon which Aurora stands, was erected 
here in 1834, and it was about the same time that the attention of emigrants was 
first attracted to this spot. In 1835, " the first village plot" was laid out. Now 
the population is estimated at about 7000. But it is progress in mechanical in- 
dustry to which we would invite special attention. 

Three large carriage manufactories are now in operation there, one of which 
employs 85 hands, which are engaged chiefly on fine and common carriages, 
buggies and lumber wagons. Another employs 25 men, engaged chiefly in the 
manufacture of carriages and ploughs. The third is a carriage and wagon fac- 
tory employing 18 hands. Various smaller shops are also in operation. 

The Black Hawk Mills turn out about 175 barrels of flour daily. The Eagle 
Mills about 80 barrels, and the Aurora City Mills about 100 barrels of flour daily. 
The latter also contains a good saw-mill. 

Here too are the buildings for the manufacture of the machinery of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington and Quincy railroad, in connection with which, not less than 
a quarter of a milUon of dollars has been expended in Aurora, and in its vicinity, 
in bridges, embankments, buildings, and gradings. The locomotive shop is of 
hewn stone, two stories high, 180 feet by 50, and employs 200 hands, who re- 
ceive about $8000 per month. The blacksmith shop is 154 feet by 50, the car- 
shop 234 feet by 63, carpenter shop 100 by 30, paint shop 200 by 43, oil shop 
22 feet by 20, etc., etc. The area of all the flooring in these buildings is two 
acres. The whole number of hands employed is 335, at a cost of $13,400 per 

We need not add, for the foregoing necessarily presumes, that mercantile es- 
tabhshments are numerous and profitable. But if anything is wanting to ren- 
der such an inference inevitable, it is found in the fact that schools are well 
patronized. An elegant building for the Clark Seminary is now in the process of 
construction, $40,000 of the $85,000 required to set the institution in operation,, 
being already taken. Newspapers, banks, and last not least, churches, are other 
palpable demonstrations which speak well of the intelligence and virtue of the 


34 American Inventions. 

Artificial Stone. 

We have been this day, June 19th, to the office of Mr. Hardingc, who claims 
to have discovered a mode of manufacturing stone, both for ornamental pur- 
poses and for building, which shall supersede the use of many natural forma- 
tions, both in the fine arts and in architecture. This process also affords, as he 
claims, a very cheap and complete process, by dissolution, for perfectly separating 
the gold from quartz rock, and at a rate surprisingly cheap and expeditious. 

"We are well satisfied that this claim of Mr. Hardinge is well founded. "We 
do not know, of course, the precise process by which this solution is effected, 
but we can see the results. We have in our possession the liquid quartz, which 
by a very simple and cheap process causes a deposition of the quartz, which 
forms about two thirds the entire liquid solution. This deposition may be used 
as a cement to bind into a solid mass, as in a wall or in a block of any desired 
shape, fragments of rocks or pebbles, making an artificial breccia, or pudding 
stone, the specific character and appearance of which is dependent upon the 
nature of the fragments or pebbles used. The liquid may also be colored, as 
you please, by different means, and imitations made of different kinds of pre- 
cious stones or marbles. We have seen a very fliir carnelian, and an agate, the 
chief fault of which was a lack of color. Nor is such a result so surprising, 
after the dissolution is once effected, for the artificial stone consists, essentially, 
of the same elements with these natural gems. Carnelian is 94 per cent silex, 
and quartz is silex almost perfectly pure, with water. Agate, opal, chalcedony, 
onyx, sardonyx, and many other precious stones, are almost entirely composed 
of the same elements. The diamond, on the other hand, is totally unlike these, 
being pure carbon. This liquid quartz is rapidly and cheaply procured, so that 
a fortune could readily be made by selling it at fifty cents a gallon. The variety 
of uses to which it may be applied are obviously indefinite. For busts, sta- 
tues, ornamental architecture, and solid masonry of all kinds, it is just what is 
wanted. For water-proof walls, as in cellars, cellar floors, and for cisterns, etc., 
etc., we can not conceive anything more convenient. As a covering or varnish 
for walls of wood, brick, or stone, being applied with a brush, like paint, it 
would seem to furnish the most thorough coating, durable and effective, exclud- 
ing all absorption of moisture, and furnishes a sort of indestructible coating 
even for perishable materials. No worms can eat into it. No ordinary acid, 
even, affects it. 

And yet if the fact be as the discoverer states, that every natural locality 
where quartz abounds also forms in abundance the natural solvent for it, 
which he uses in some of his operations, there is opened a field of inquiry as to 
the process by which these immense mountains of quarts were deposited, and 
the chemical agency by which the solvent and the substance solved became 
separated. And again, does their proximity give us any occasion to inquire 
whether the solution will ever occur a second time? But we are wandering, 
and must return. The series on the elements of chemistry, now in hand by 
our Senior, may be read with increased interest, in connection with these and 
similar inquiries. 

We are not among those who jump at once to desirable conclusions whenever 
some enthusiast makes claim to an important discovery or invention, but in all 

American Inventions. 


such investigations are cautious in our admissions. But in this instance, as- 
suming the correctness of the statements of Mr. Hardinge, as to the cheapness 
of the process of solution, we can not conceive of anj^ question in reference to 
the immense value of the discovery. Were it our property, we would not part 
with it for any amount short of that which would meet any possible wants or 
reasonable desires of ourself and family, on the most liberal rates of calculation. 
We have witnessed the process of deposition, and have seen the specimens after 
they have become hardened, and the practical uses to which the discovery vaa,y 
hereafter be applied will be multipled by every year's experience on those ap- 
plications which already are so obvious. Since the above was in type it has ac- 
curred to us that this solution affords a most perfpct covering for insects that 
are to be preserved, especially if they are to be transported a great distance. 
We all have seen insects imbedded in amber, presenting the appearance of life 
for an indefinite period. We commend this suggestion to naturalists. 

Self-Generating Gas Light. 

In our April number we gave a description of this new lamp in terms of high 

commendation. It is not necessa- 

1 J cent per hour, l} cent per hour. 1 cent per hour. 

■J cent per hour. 

J cent per hour. 

ry to repeat what we then wrote. 
Our more recent experience con- 
firms us in the opinions then ex- 
pressed. The engraving in the 
margin shows the diflFerent forms 
of the lamps and jets of flame, with 
their estimated cost per hour. 
We have not measured the quan- 
tity consumed, except compara- 
tively, but we do not expect a 
brilliant light from any gas or 
fluid, without a more rapid con- 
sumption of the material em- 
ployed than is produced by a 
small or dull flame. See adver. 

New Brick Machine. 
In the list ol patents recently issued is a new brick machine, by R. R. 
Hasbour, of Oskaloosa, Iowa, which appears to combine practical utility with 
cheapness and simplicity of construction. This machine combines the circular 
leverage of two rotary wheels with a simple lever, thus producing a very power- 
ful pressure by the emplojTnent of a small amount of motive power. The clay 
is fed into the machine and the bricks when pressed, are discharged from the 
mold, without the aid of hand labor. The immense amount of capital employed 
in the manufacture of bricks, and the fact that heretofore this branch of industry 
appears to have received but little aid from the introduction of machinery to fa. 
cilitate the making of b'-icks, must render Mr. Hasbour's invention an object of 
interest with capitalists and builders everywhere. 


American Inventions. 

Galvanic Gas Lighter. 
Broadway Theatre. — The only novelty at this house durinf;; the early part 
of the week, was the introduction of a galvanic gas lighter, exhibited for the first 
time on Monday evening. The new invention is simply the attachment to each 
burner of a platina tipped wire, comnnmicating with a galvanic battery — the 
moment the connection is made, the platina tips become simultaneously red hot, 
and ignite the gas at each burner instantaneously — as a method of lighting chan- 
deliers, etc., placed at an altitude difficult of access by the ordinary means. 
This application of an old invention will be found exceedingly useful. 

The above item is found in Porter's Sjnrit of the Times, of May 30th. Though 
fjimiliar with 2.40 operations, our accomplished co-laborer docs not seem to have 
learned that our Boston neighbors have lighted their elegant Music Hall, by a 
similar process for several years. When the hall was first erected, this mode of 
lighting the gas was introduced for some hundreds of small burners which near- 
ly or quite surround the entire hall. 

Artificial Ears. 

'He that hath no ears," may now buy them of the artisan. Mr. Edward 

Haslam, 181 Broadway, has contrived 
a pair of artiScial ears, which can not 
fail to be of service to those whose 
hearing is partially destroyed. 
Those with good ears, by the use of 
these instruments, it is said, can hear 
at a greater distance from the sound- 
ing body than they can without 
them. The contrivance consists of an 
ivory tube, to be placed in the ear, connected with two auricles, with a steel 
spring, and a slide by which it can be adjusted to the size of the head. Wc 
commend it to the examination of those who need such helps. They cost $5. 

Harrison's Automatic Whistle. 
Any invention which diminishes the danger of " accidents" on our railroads is 
a public benefit of no ordinaxy value. Such we believe to be the invention des- 
scribed by our caption. Its object is to give the signal of danger independently 
of the engineer, on the approach of a train to a public crossing. The contrivance 
is attached to the locomotive, and acts by a lever and gearing connected with 
the driving wheels of the engine. "When once arranged for a particular route, 
it is of course independent of the prompt action of the engineer, who has in fact 
no control over it. Our railway managers should adopt any invention which 
is well calculated to promote the safety of passengers or of the general public. 
It is now in operation on the Harlem, the Philadelphia Wilmington and Balti- 
more and the Pennsylvania Central Railroad and Central Railroad of New-Jer- 
sey, and we understand that it will probably be in operation on several other 
railroads in this vicinity. In our next edition wc purpose to give a more parti- 
cular description with an engraving. 

American Inventions. 37 

Broughton's Hand Seed-Planter. 
Mr. Broughton has been very successful in this invention. It is scarcely 
heavier than a substantial walking cane, and the only motion required in its 
operation is to raise it from the hill last planted and to set it down at a proper 
distance for the next. One cin plant about as many hills in a day as he can 
reach by walking without incumbrance. We w^ill endeavor to give an engrav- 
ing of this in a future number. 

New Building Material. 
New inventions of a practical character, and in very important departments 
of industry are multiplied and fast multiplying. A new material for building is 
now used, in Paris, it is said, consisting of a concrete, the larger part of which 
is ashes. Slabs are now made, seven metres long by six metres wide, (a metre 
being 39,37 inches,) while its strength is such that slabs of that length do not 
require beams or vaulting beneath them. The inventor offers to furnish all 
parts of a house, floors, roofs, exterior ornaments, cellars, drains, paving flags, 
etc., with this material, as hard as the best stone. This seems allied with Mr. 
Hardinge's discovery described in another place, or if different from it, the two 
together may lead to results of immense value. 

Manufacture of Steel. 

Expeehients of scientific men, and the novel modes of producing steel lately 
introduced, tend pretty strongly to show that steel is not merely iron carbon- 
ized. It is possible that as in the case of animal organisms, where the small 
proportion of nitrogen found in muscular tissues is quite as essential as the much 
larger proportion of carbon. So a minute quantity of nitrogen is necessary 
in this manufacture. In the manufacture of steel, the presence of cyano- 
gen seems to be very useful, and the theory is that it furnishes nitrogen to 
the iron. In a discussion before the Society of Arts, Manchester, England, this 
idea was presented, and the experiments and analyses of engineers go far to 
render the theory probable. Various nitrogenized substances have been used 
in the manufacture or tempering of steel, such as horn, shavings of leather, ani- 
mal charcoal, etc., while the influence exerted by them seems not to have been 
understood. The old practice of using ferro-cyanide of potassium, in this pro- 
cess, is also worthy of note in this connection. Our readers may also remember 
that in a short account given by a correspondent, in our February number, of a 
new process used by the Damascus Steel Company, cyanogen was mentioned as 
one of the most important ingredients. They produce fine bar steel from 
crude iron in a single day. We shall watch the progress of this discussion, 
with more than ordinary interest. 

Cheap Butter- Cooler. 
Hard butter is a great desideratum. The Scientific American publishes the 
following, by one of its correspondents. — Ed. 

" Procure a large, new flower-pot of a sulficient size to cover the butter-plate, 

38 American Inventions. 

and also a saucer large enough for the flower-pot to rest in upside down ; place 
a trivet or meat-stand (such as is sent to the oven when a joint is baked) in the 
saucer, and put on this trivet the plate of butter ; now fill the saucer with 
water, and turn the flower-pot over the butter, so that its bottom edge will be 
below the water. The hole in the flower-pot must be fitted with a cork ; the 
butter will then be in what we may call an air-tight chamber. Let the whole 
of the outside of the flower-pot be then thoroughly drenched with water, and 
place it in as cool a spot as you can. If this be done over night, the butter will 
be as ' firm as a rock' at breakfast time ; or, if placed there in the morning, the 
])utter will be quite hard for use at tea hour. The reason of this is, that when 
water evaporates, it produces cold ; the porous pot draws up the water, which 
in warm weather quickly evaporates from the sides, and thus cools it, and as no 
warm air can now get at the butter, it becomes firm and cool in the hottest day." 

New Steam Propeller. 

A STEAMBOAT propelled upon a new principle made its appearance upon the 
Delaware yesterday, and attracted considerable attention. Her propeller was 
driven by an engine the power of which was applied direct from the engine to 
the propeller without intervention of a crank. The power exerted is more regu- 
lar and uniform in its motion than that of the old-fashioned engine. The depart- 
ure of the boat for Washington attracted a crowd of spectators at the wharf, and 
as she went down the river at the rate of twelve miles an hour much excitement 
was manifested by them at this unexpected rate of speed. 

Mr. Atherton, of this cit}', is the inventor of this new engine, and from the in- 
terest exhibited by scientific and practical mechanics of this city, it bids fair to 
create as great a revolution as the original invention of the steam-engine. — Savan- 
nah Enquirer. 

Splitting Rocks Without Blasting. 

Some French inventors have taken out a patent in England for splitting rocks 
by the generation of heat without causing an explosion. They use a substance 
composed of 100 parts of sulphur by weight, 100 of saltpetre, 50 of sawdust, 50 
of horse manure, and 10 of common salt. The saltpetre and common salt are 
dissolved in hot water, to which 4 parts of molasses are added, and the whole 
ingredients stirred until they are thorougly incorporated in one mass, which is 
then dried by a gentle heat in the room, or by exposure to the sun, and it is fit 
for use. It is tamped in the holes bored for blasting rocks in the same manner 
as powder, and is ignited by a fuse. It does not cause an explosion upward like 
gunpowder, but generates a great heat, which splits the rock. 

Engineers and Firemen. 

In a communication to the Paris Adademy of Sciences, Dr. Duchesne states 
that engineers and firemen on locomotives improve in health and grow stout 
during the first two years of their employment, but after this period a dangerous 
change takes place in their health. Among the earliest unfavorable symptoms 
are a weakening of sight, loss of hearing, and rh jumatic pains, chiefly on the right 
side. These arc followed by pain, and a difficulty of standing while the locomo- 
tive is in motion. We have never heard of American railroad engineers being 
affected in this manner. — Scientific American. 

Salt in Dyeing. 

F. A. Gattv, of Accrington, England, has taken out a patent for the use of 
common salt (chloride of sodium) in dyeing with garancine, alizarine, and other 
preparations of madder. One pound of the salt is employed to every twenty-five 
pounds of the garancine in the boiler or a vat. The salt, it is stated, produces 
more beautiful and permanent colors. Some of our country dyers employ salt 
in coloring woolen goods black. — Scientific American. 

American Patents. 39 

%tit\\\ latntls, 

[issued from the d. s. patest office, from april 28 to jcne 2, 1857.] 

Reaping and Mowing Machine, Cha^. Crook, New Hope, Pa. — Straw Cutter, 
E. G. Gushing, Dryden, N. Y.— Plough, Thos. C. Garlington, Lafixyette, Ala. 
Bracing the beam, and securing the mold board to the stock. — Cutting and 
binding grain, Hiram Kellogg, McHenry, 111. — Plough, Jackson Gorham, Bairds- 
town, Ga. Means of securing foot piece to the beam, and the lower end of the 
brace to the foot piece. — Land Fertilizer, Charles Stearns, New- York. A sepa- 
ration of the useful matters from the green sand marl, and also the animal 
matters and the super addition of ammonia. — Cotton Seed Planter, H. L. Jus- 
tice, and John H. Galbreath, Goodlettsville, Tenn. — Corn Planter, John Brough- 
ton, New- York, (see p. 37.) — Seed Planter, John H. Bruen, Penn Yan, N. Y. — 
Corn Husker, E. F. French, Franklin, Vt. The husk is first loosened by rub- 
bing between two aprons, and the ear is then dropt upon revolving teeth, which 
strip the husks which fall from the machine. — Seed Planter, John Haselton, 
Oxford, N. H. — Harv^ester, Moses G. Hubbard, Penn Yan, N. Y., (two patents.) 
— Press for cotton, Henry Hughes, Port Gibson, Miss. — Treating Raw Cotton, 
Julius C. Hurd, Medwa}'', Mass. By bleaching, previous to picking or carding 
it, for removing the motes, etc. — Clearing guard of Grain Elevators, Geo. Mann, 
Jr., Ottawa, 111. — Seed Planter, Charles Ketchum, assignor to C. G. Judd, Penn 
Yan, N. Y. — Portable Barrack, Matthias F. Branting, Sangamon Co., 111. For 
protecting crops from the weather. — Cleaning Grain, J. R. Gates, Eckmansville, 
0. — Grain and Grass Harvesters, John H. Heyser and Edward M. Mobley, 
Hagerstown, Md. — Mowing Machine, Thomas Harding, assignor to Warden, 
Brokaw & Child, Springfield, 0. — Mowing and Reaping Machine, Armery Ams- 
den, Rochester, N. Y. — Hand Seed Planter, Silas P. Briggs, Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y. — Grain Scourer and Separator, Samuel Canby, Ellicott's Mills, Md. — 
Tongue and castor plate for Harvesting Machines, Ralph Emerson, Jr., Rock- 
ville, 111. — Corn Planter, Robert Kuschke and Peter Merkel, St. Louis, Mo. — 
Cotton Cultivator, A. A. Roberts and Baldwin Davis, LaGrange, Ga. — Fertili- 
zing compound, L. S. Robbins, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Corn Planter, T. J. Smith, 
Four Corners, 0. — Seed Planter, Jesse Whitehead, Manchester, Va. — Mowing 
Machine, S. P. Briggs, Saratoga Springs. — Plough, John S. Hall, West Manches- 
ter, Pa., a plan for adjusting ttie draft of the beam, vertically. — Potato Digger, 
Isaac GriflBn, Quaker Springs, N. Y. — Sowing seed broadcast, Daniel Haldeman, 
Morgantown, Va., an adjustible graduating bar in connection with the vibrating 
agitator and scatterer. — Harvesting Hemp, John B. McCormick, Versailles, Ky., 
for adjusting the position of the reel, and for chscharging the cut hemp on the 
ground in gavels, no raking attachment being employed. — Atmospheric churn, 
Robert McCutcheon, Towanda, Pa. — Sowing Seed broadcast, A. C. Miller, Mor- 
gantown, Va. — Churn, Henry C. Nicholson, Mt. Washington, 0. — Seed Planter, 
S. G. Randall, Dixon, 111.— Harvester, Wm. T. B. Read, Alton, 111.— Plough 
clevis, J. D. Willoughby, Pleasant Hall, Pa, — Corn Husker, J. N. Whitaker, Pe- 
catonica, 111. — Dressing Water Furrows in land, Jesse Whitehead, Manchester, 
Va. — Plough, John Ormeston, Center Township, 0. 


Screw Cutting Machine, Wm, N. Adams, Olmstead, 0. — Nut Machine, Richard 
N. Cole, St. Louis, Mo. — Door Bolt, Jeremiah M. Crosby, Norwalk, 0. — 
Wrench, Charles Pinder, Lowell, Mass. Moving, holding and releasing the 
moveable jaws by a double wedge or key, etc. — Lock, Alfred Williams and Ed- 
ward P. Cummings, Philadelphia. — Horse Shoes, David Cummings, Sorrel 
Horse, Pa. A holding plate in connection with calks, screwed into the bottom 
of the shoe. — Bridle Bit, Kasson Frazer, Syracuse, N. Y. — Nail Plate Feeder, 
J. C. Gould, Boonton, N. J. — Lock, Stuart Perry, Newport, N. Y. — Blacksmith's 
Striker, Hartwell Kendall, East Dorset, Vt— Rock Drill, John D. Hope, Niagara 

40 American Patents. 

Falls, N. Y., assignor to G. A. Gardiner, New-York.— Rollers for journals of 
shafts, axles, etc., Wm. H. Main, Litchfield, 0. — Spring Hinge, Dr. Joseph S. 
Smith, New- York. — Reducing zinc ores, Alfred Monnier, Camden, N. J. Com- 
bination of gas generator and reducing furnace. — Cutting or bending sheet 
metal, Elias F. Coates, Mystic Bridge, Ct. Cutting and bending sheets of tin 
for roofs, etc., at one operation. - Ore crushing machine, Samuel F. Hodge, De- 
troit, Mich. — Manufacture of iron and steel, Robert Mushet, Coleford, Eng. — 
Making stove pipe, M. C. Root, Toledo, 0. — Ore Washer, Pierre P. Martin, Paris, 
France. — Door Lock, Thomas B. Atterbur}-, Pittsburgh, Pa. — Skates, B. W. 
Celson, Philadelphia. — Door Hinge, S. M. Ballard, Hollister, Mass. A detached 
tititi-friction roller, inserted between two inclined planes. — Lock, Julius M. 
Cook, Hinsdale, Pa. — Manufacturing screws, John L. Mason, New-York.. — Ma- 
chine for making shovels, D. B. Rogers, Pittsburgh, Pa. — Die Stock, J. L. Shaver, 
New-Yoik. — Door Bolt, Amos Wescott, Syracuse, N. Y. — Same, S. B. Wilmot, 
assignor to S. B. Guernsey, Watertown, Conn. — Die for punching fork tines, L. 
S. AVhite, Hartford, Conn., assignor to S. S. Rogers, E. W. Spering, J. H. Ash- 
mead, and E. Hurlbut, of do. 

Manufactcke of Textiles. 
Sewing Machine, Br3-an Atwater, Berlin, Ct. A chain stitch made by a 
single thread. — Loom for weaving pile fabrics, Erastus B. Bigelow, Boston, 
Mass. — Picker motion for looms, Samuel Boom, Lowell, Mass. — Piinting sub- 
sciibers' names on newspapers, Stephen D. Carpenter, Madison, Wis. — Napping 
cloth, John C. Miller, Starracca, Pa., and C. N. Tyler, Washington, D. C. Ar- 
rangement of two or more napping cylinders, and teazling disks, in combina- 
tion, etc. — Turning the edges of cloth, J. P. Marston, Charlestown, Mass. — 
Pocket Safe, G. R. Mcllroy, Covington, Ky. — Coupling for Shafting, William 
and Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia. — Ladies' skirts, H. C. Traphagen, New- 
York. A series of air tight tubes to expand the skirt. — Combing wool, Cullen 
Whipple, Providence, R. I. — Cylinder for printing fabrics, R. F. Sturges, Bir- 
mingham, Eng. — Clothes Pounder, Sardis Thompson, West Otis, Mass. — Stitch 
for Sewing Machines, Chas. F. Bosworth, Petersham, Mass. — Hook Temples for 
Looms, Warren W. Dutcher and Geo. Draper, Milford, Mass. — Needles for 
sewing, Benjamin Garvcy, New-York. A sewing needle having a self-closing 
eye, with a slit leading outwardly, and made to terminate at a point more or 
less remote from the eye, through which slit the thread may be forced into the 
e^-e. — Hemp Brakes, J. L. Hardeman, Arrow Rock, Mo. — Soap substitute for 
scouring woolens, Louis Wilman, Worcester, Mass. Composition of soda, ash, 
salt and bran. — Preparing canvass fi>r printing, painting, etc., Elisha Lee, Bal- 
timore, Md. Composition used without sizing the canvas. — Copying Press, 
AVm. M. Smith, assignor to himself and Peter Ranney, Washington, I). C. — 
Binding Books, A. H. Rowland, AUeghanj', Pa. — Cordage Machine, Jas. P. Ar- 
nold, Louisville, Ky. A series of puUies revolving each on its own axle, and 
round a common center, with a ring concentric to said circle of revolution 
whose surface adjacent to the puUies is elastic, and forms a track for the pullics 
to roll on, etc. — Treating straw braid for hats, etc., Geo. Cornwall, 2d, Milford, 
Conn. A method of stretching, beveling and curving the braid, before done by 
hand. — Blanket and Calico Printing Machine, John Fallow, Lawrence, Mass. 
Combination of the short India-rubber blanket with the multiple fold of " gregs"' 

Eassing once through the machine. — Shuttle motion for loom, Levi Ferguson, 
owell, Mass.— Dressing Sewing Thread, etc., J. D. Minder, Killingly, Ct. 
Mode of arranging and operating bruslies, and obviates the use of a blower. — 
Folding paper, Edwai-d N. Smith, Springfield, Mass., assignor to Steuben T. 
Bacon, Boston, Mass.^Loom, N. B. Carney, assignor to J. B. Livingston, C. 
H. Haswell, and R. C. Root, of New- York — Stencial plate printing, Samuel F. 
Sanford, Fall River, Mass. — Sewing Machine, Solomon B. EUithrope, New-York. 
— Registering apparatus for printing presses, Gordon McKaj'', Boston. — Loom, 
Wm. H. Howard, Philadelphia. — Reel for yarn or thread, Christian Knauer, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Sizing composition, John Leigh, Manchester, Eng. — Making 
paper pulp, M. A. C. Mellier, Paris, France. — Sewing Machine, T. S. Wells, 

American Patents. 41 

Utica, N. Y. — Loom, Franklin Painter, assignor to the Nashua Wannock 
Manufacturing Co., East Hampton, Mass. — Printing Press, S. D. Learned, Bos- 
ton, assignor to A. C. Learned, Nevr-York. — Sleeve Fastener, Wm. A. Bates, 
Boston, Mass. — Fastening for garments, Jeremy W. Bliss, Hartford, Conn. — 
Sewing Machine, James E, A. Gibbs, Millpoint, Va. — Filing Saws for cotton 
gins, J. T. Turner, Bridge water, Mass. — Pickers for Looms, T. J. Mayall, Rox- 
bury, Mass. 

Chemical Processes. 
Purifying Gutta Percha, Robert Haering, New- York. Bj^ means of ether and 
alkali. — Blasting Powder, Antoine Murtineddu, Marseilles, France. — Devulcan- 
izing India-rubber, Conrad Poppenhusen and Ludwig Held, Brooklyn, N. Y. — 
Projectile, Christopher C. Brand, Norwich, Ct. An improved fuse tube and 
manner of making it. — Gunpowder, Lammot Dupont, Wilmington, Del, — Lan- 
tern and oil can, Wm. G. Russell, assignor to himself and Wm. Sewell, New- 
York. The attachment of a light to an oil can for illuminating the place to be 
oiled. — ^Electro-Magnetic fire alarm telegraph, for cities, Wm. F. Channing, 
Boston, and M. S. Farmer, Salem, Mass., assignors to said W. F. C. — Feeding 
Gas Generators, C. B. Loveless, Syracuse, N. Y., improvement in Portable Gas 
Apparatus. — Condensing vapors and gasses, for evaporating liquors, A. F. W. 
Partz, New- York. — Wood Gas Generator, C. F. Werner, New- York. — To prevent 
counterfeiting bank notes, etc., C. D. Scropyan, New- York. 

Calokifics, Gas Lights, Lamps, etc. 
Close or Open Stove, Henry Scitz, St. Mary's, Va. — Heating and cooking by 
gas, R. Snowden Andrews, Baltimore, Md. — Roasting meat, John G. Brown and 
John P. Derby, South Reading, Mass. A new article for this purpose, consist- 
ing of a pan with handles, ratchet wheel, etc. — Coal Stove, John C. Keller, 
Philadelphia. New arrangement of draft and current. — Heating soldering 
tubes by gas, J. H. Stimpson, Boston, Mass. — Gas Generator, James A. Bruce, 
assignor to Maryland Portable Gas Co., Baltimore, Md. A new gas retort, with 
smoke attachment, admitting atmospheric air to clean the retort and purifj-ing 
material by combustion. — Gas Regulator, Robert Cornelius, Philadelphia. — 
Griddles, Wm. Bennett, New-York. — Cooking Stove, Joseph Hackett, Louisville, 
Ky. — Sugar boiling apparatus, Adolph Hammer, Reading, Pa. — Cooking Range, 
Charles J. Shepard, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Steam Engines, etc. 
Stuffing boxes, N. R. Bates, New-York. An annular plate, adjusted by 
screws, as the stuffing wears away. — Heating feed water apparatus for locomo- 
tives, Peter S. Ebbert, Chicago, 111. — Locomotive Engine, Horace Gray, Boston, 
Mass. — Directing the exhaust of locomotives, Robert Hale, Roxbury, Mass. — 
Metal packed pistons for steam engines, Geo. W. Cotton, St. Louis, Mo. — Semi- 
rotative steam-engine, C. B. Gallagher, Alleghany City, Pa. Means for pro- 
ducing continuous rotary motion from the semi-rotative piston of the engine. — 
Boring flue sheets of steam boilers, Sylvanus V. Lowe, Reading, Pa.— ^Safety 
valves within steam boilers, Geo. P. Clark, assignor to himself and Wm. M. 
Little/ Newark, N. J. — Therma-Pneumatic Safety Valve, S. H. Whitaker and 
Ezra Cope, Cincinnati, O. — Packing pistons and stuffing boxes of stenm engines, 
Patrick Clark, Rahway, N. J. The foil or plastic metal packing — Steam pump- . 
ing apparatus, George R. Corliss, Providence, R. I. The arrangement of a 
series of steam cylinders and pumps combined radially around a central crank 
shaft, with a centi'al crank and crank shaft, with which the whole series of 
pumps and steam cylinders are connected. Also, the method described of 
forming the connection between the pistons of a series of cylinders and a 
single crank pin, by means of a disk-ended connecting rod, and which is ap- 
propriated to one piston in the series, and which is fitted with a series of pins, 
to which the remaining connecting rods of the series of cylinders are applied, 
thus obviating the direct application of all the connecting rods in the series to 
the same crank pin. — Locomotive Boiler, J. E. McConnell, Wolverton, Eng. — 
Water Guage for steam boilers, D. E. Rugg, assignor to D. N. Force and D. E. 
Rugg, New-York. 

42 American Patents. 

Navigation and Maritime Implkments. 

Boats for duck shooting, Robert Bogle, Rock Hall, Md. — Ice cutting attach- 
ments to vessels, Thomas Estlack, Philadelphia, Pa. — Ship's hawse holes, R. R. 
Osgood, assignor to Jason C. Osgood, Troy, N. Y. — Propeller Blade, George 
Hibsch, Buffalo, N. Y. — Submarine Excavator, Wm. Kennish, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
— Indicating the speed of vessels, and depth of water, David Hinman and F. B. 
Fournier, of Berea, O., assignors to themselves and R. I. Parker, Ogdensburg, 
N. Y. — Recflfing Topsails, Jas. E. Cole, New- York. — Bomb Lance, Julius Grud- 
chos and Selmar Eggars, New-Bedford, Mass. — Apparatus for examining vessels, 
keels, James E. Simpson, Boston. — Projectile for killing whale, Rufus Sibley, 
assignor to C. C. Brand, Norwich. Ct. 

Civil Engineering and Architecture. 

Vault Cover, John B. Cornell, New-York, (two patents.) — Door sill and strip, 
Henry Tryon, Steuben, Pa. — Blind Fastenings, Horace Vansands, Middletown, 
Ct. — Stair steps, Charles Robinson, Cambridgeport, Mass. A spring or springs 
beneath each step, so as to give an elastic movement. — Fastening sheet metal 
on roofs, etc., Asa Johnson, Cairo, N Y., assignor to himself, Wm, Higbee, and 
Henry Link, Little Falls, N, Y. A self adjusting fastener, admitting contraction 
and expansion. 

Land Conveyance. 

Adjustable pole for carriages, Sherlock H. Bishop, Orange, Ct. — Transmitting 
motion, Mathaus Kaefer, Alexandria, Pa. A balance wheel, the momentum of 
which moves the carriage as it passes the dead points. — Sleighs and Cutters, L. 
B. Randall, Penn Yan, N, Y. — Securing hubs to axles, Leonard J, Worden, 
Utica, N. Y, — Wrought iron plate railroad car wheels, G. W, Alden, New- York. 
New construction of the tread and flange, etc. — Signal Lamps, R, P. Bailey, 
Niagara, N. Y. — Railroad Car Brakes, Louis Brauer, Sommerville, Tenn, — Gear 
of Carriages, Richard Murdoch, Baltimore, Md, Giving the brace levers a for- 
ward and outward projection from the short axles. — Vehicles, Charles Atkin- 
son, Danville, 111., and Gilbert S. Manning, Springfield, III. New arrangement 
of plate springs, diminishing the irregular motion of the carriage. — Carriage 
Hubs, Sylvester W. Beach, Chicago, 111. — Wagon Couplings, W, D. Guseman, 
Morgantown, Va. — Discharging a horse and shafts from a carriage, Gilbert 
Hubbard, Sandersville, Mass. — Securing nuts on axles, T. W. Williams, assignor 
to himself and H. T. Hoyt, Philadelphia. — Cast Iron Carwheel, Albert & Moury, 
Cincinnati, 0. 

Hydraulics and Pneumatics, 

Chain Pump, James Harrison, New^-York. The use of coiled wire lifting 
ropes, in connection with the buckets of a chain pump. — Gate of turbine wheels, 
L. M. Wright, Niagara Falls, N. Y. — Pump, Silas Ilewit, Seneca Falls, N, Y. 
Arrangement of tubes, piston head and valves.— Raising water, Andrew Nicol, 
Carbondale, Pa. New mode of raising water, specially designed for mines. — 
Basin Faucet, Erastus Stebbins, Chicopee, Mass. — Hydrodynamic machine for 
testing the strength of materials, Francis C. Southrop, Trenton, N. J, — Wind 
wheel, James Mitchell, Woodsfield. 0. — Hydrant, Wm, W. Benney, Seneca 
Falls, N. Y., a self-closing hydrant. — Water Wheel, Reuben Daniels, Wood- 
stock, Vt. 

Mechanical Powers, etc. 

Weighing Machine, Rufus Porter, Washington, D, C. — Hand Truck, Le Butt, 
Lincolnton, N. C, New mode of constructing, arranging, operating, etc., the 
dumping truck. — Lifting Jack, Wm, Thomas, Hingham, Mass, — Compressing , 
gaseous bodies, Wm. A. Boyce, Newburg, N. Y. — Drop Press, Milo Peck, New- 
Haven, Ct. 

Grinding Mills, and Mill Gearing. 

India-rubber Belting, Robert Hale, Roxbury, Mass. Mode of folding and 
cementing strips of India-rubber cloth by a series of mechanical devices, of moist- 
ening the seams and applying the India-rubber, etc. — Redressing Mill Stones, 
Wm. G. Gill, Henderson, Ky. Combination of two or more picks^ Mith the grind- 

American Patents. 43 

ing and operating screw shaft and lifting cams, etc. — Hanging mill stones, Wm. 
A. Clark, Samuel D. Porter, and William D. Simpson, St. Louis, Mo., suspend- 
ing the upper stone from above by means of a ball and socket joint, or its equi- 
valent, when the ej^e of the said stone is made to embrace the upper portion of 
the spindle of the running stone, and is secured thereto with a sufficient degree 
of rigidity, by means of an elastic packing. — Faucet, Lucius J. Knowles, War- 
ren, Wis. — Fluid metre, James K. Maxwell, Cincinnati, 0. — Feeding grain to 
mill stones, Milton and Charles Painter, Owing's Mills, Md. — Hydraulic blast 
generator, August F. W. Partz, New-York. 

Lumber, and Machines for Working it. 
Cutting Veneers, Gilbert Bishop, New-York. — Portable Field Fence, Ezra 
Cole, Fairhaven, Mich. A picket fence, without rails or clasps. — Opening and 
Closing Gates, Solomon Cole, Rochester, N. Y. — Pannels of Portable Field 
Fence, Isaac D. Garlick, Lyons, N, Y. — Saw Mill, Daniel and Angus A. Methven, 
Wooster, 0. — Adjustable Bed and Gauge, David Hodges, Suffolk, Va. — Turning 
Cylindrical Wooden Boxes, Henry Mellish, Walpole, N. H., assignor to Chas. 
Pope, Brookline, Mass. — Rotary Shingle Machine, Wm. Bevard, St. Louis, Mo. 
— Cutting Match Splints, Thos. Cook, New- York. — Mortising Chisel, George P. 
Ketchum, Bedford, Ind. — Joiners' Plane, Benjamin J. Lane, Newburyport, 
Mass. New and efficient mode of securing the plane iron on the stock. — 
Joiner's Bench Strip, Charles T. Pearson, Chelsea, Mass. A new contrivance 
for adjusting the strip to the height of the board to be planed. — Planing chair 
seats, Edward Q. Smith, Cincinnati, 0. — Dressing pieces of lumber, Harvey 
Brown, New- York. Dogging lumber in planing machines, David N. B. Coffin, 
Jr., Newton, Mass., and Henry D. Stover, Boston, Mass. — Machine for gathering 
and depositing dipped matches, Thos. Cook, New-York. — Joiners' Plane, James 
Lashbrooks, Owensborough, Ky. — Rotary Planing Cutter, Henry D. Stover, 
Boston, Mass. — Allowing play to the arbors of circular saws, Harvey R. Wolfe, 
Louisville, Ky. — Compressing the end of blind slats, Luther T. Smart, Man- 
chester, N. H. — Shingle Machine, C. M. Young, Sinclearville, N. Y. — Bit for 
cutting out cylindrical plugs, C. W. Saladec, Columbus, 0. — Cutting grooves 
and slots, R. F. Underbill, Indianapolis, Ind. — Compound Guage, Albert Wil- 
liams, Philadelphia. — Gage for Hand Saws, Michael Kennedy, Troy, N. Y. — 
Scroll Sawing Machine, John J. Curtis, East Boston, Mass. — Portable Cross cut 
Sawing Machine, Stephen Scotton, Wayne Co., Ind. — Riveting the panels of 
portable fences, Charles Van De Monk, Oaks Corners, N. Y. — Shingle Machine, 
Wra. A Garratt, Patonsville, Tenn. 

Leather, Tanking, etc. 
Leather Shoe Binding, Eugene L. Morton, Charleston, Mass. — Cutting of heels 
of boots and shoes, John Shaw, Natick, Mass. — Splitting Leather and Hides, 
Isaac Lippman, Paris, France. 

Household Furniture. 

Folding Bedstead, James A. Johnson, Antrim, 0. — Bed Bottoms, J. F. Kecler, 
Cleveland, 0. — Curtain Rollers, Chandler Fisher, Milton, Mass. — Washing Ma- 
chine, Abraham HufFer, Hagerstown, Md. — Folding Bedsteads, J. B. Wicker- 
sham, New- York. 

Arts, Ornamental, etc. 

Swells for Melodeons, etc., Jeremiah Carhart, New-York, — Violin Attach- 
ment, Andrew Hett, Ga. The application of vibrating strings to stringed 
musical instruments. — Photographic ground for wood engravers, Robt. Pierce, 
Worcester, Mass. — Pianofore Action, Henry Steinway, New-York. Mode ot 
securing a rapid repeat or tremulant note. — Machine for engraving cylinders, 
Robert Muckelt and AYm. Rigby, Salford, Eng.— Pianoforte Bridge, T, E. Power, 
Columbia, Mo. — Fountain Pen, C. A, Rodetield, Columbus, Ga. — Pianofore ac- 
tion, Spencer B. Driggs, New-York. Balancing or supporting the centers of 
motions of the keys, at above or near the top thereof. — Violin, Bradley Fitts, 
Charleston, Mass. Bells behind the sounding board of a stringed instrument. 

4-4 Foreign laventioiis. 

vibrating in harmony with the strings. — Removing photographs from glass to 
paper, Edward Howell, Ashtabula, 0. By means of a coating of beeswax upon 
tlie glass plate. — Printing in Colors, "Wm. Croome, Brooklyn, N. Y, — Printing 
Press, Jason L. Burdick, New-Yoik. — Oscillating Printing Press, Charles Pot- 
ter, jr.. Westerly R. I. — Printer's Composing Sticks, James and William Zedge- 
weil, Middletown, Conn. — Printing Press, 1). II. Windner, Cincinnati, 0. 


Fire-arms, J. B. Read, Tuscaloosa, Ala. — Overcoming windage in fire-arms, 
Ambrose E. Bainsede, Bristol, R. I. — Cartridges, Edward Lindmer, New-York. 
An annular wad and casing to contain the powder, formed of certain materials 
stated. — Revolving fire-arms, Fordyce Beal, New-Haven, Ct. Fire-arms, Edward 
Lindmer, New-York. — Repeating fire-arms, Wm. M. Marston, New-York. 
Medical and Surgical Instruments, etc. 

Surgical splint apparatus, J. H. H. Burge, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Spinal corsets, 
Alanson Abbee, Boston, Mass. 


Rotary Brick Machine, George Cranglc, Philadelphia. — Omnibus Coffer, 
Joseph T. Curtiss, New-York. — Brick Machine, J. W. Jayne, Sandusky, 0. — 
Same, James Hotchkiss and Wm. H. Scolfield, assignors to themselves and 
\\m. R. King, Yellow Springs, O. — Artificial Honey, Zenas Corbin and Gedcon 
Marlett, Syracuse, N. Y. — Coal Cracker, Townsend Poore, Carbondale, Pa. A 
rocking cracker, with fixed and swinging gratings. Trap for animals, Frederick 
Routhe, Hartford, Ct. Sliding and expanding spring barbed fangs, in combi- 
nation with one, two, or more exploding barrels. — Portfolio, Robert Arthur, 
Philadelphia. AVith an elastic back or pinge, and elastic fastening, both ad- 
justible. — Wash-board, Edward and Britain Holmes, Buffalo, N. Y. — Approach 
Opening Gate, Geo. W. McGill, Buffalo, N. Y.— Shirt Stud, W. Vogt and J. J. 
Klink, Louisville, Ky. — Centrifugal Battery, Albert Potts, Philadelphia. — Ink- 
stand, Bennett J. Heywood, London, Eng. — Brick Machine, Stephen Parks, San 
Francisco, Cal. — Tanning Apparatus, 0. B. Wattles, Waddington, N. Y. — 
Burglars' Alarm, David Coon, assignor to himself and B. F. Chessbrough, 
Ithaca, N. Y. — Cutting boot and shoe soles, Stephen Thurston, assignor to him- 
self, M. L. Ward, Huntington & Co., Newark, N. J. — Tips for sugar molds, John 
Turl, New- York, assignor to Samuel Turl, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Block for blocking 
hoots and shoes, Francis G. Harding, Boston, Mass. — Life Preservers, James 
Knight, New-York. — Paring horses' hoofs, V. N. Mitchell, Concord, N. C. — 
Hat Stand, John B. Wickersham, New-York, — Hominy Machine, 0. F. Mahew, 
assignor to W. H. Weeks, and 0. F. Mahew, Indianapolis, Ind. — Holders for Sad 
Irons, etc., Leon Londinsky, New- York. 

The Maniifactiire of Wire. 

The process of drawing wire is a matter of no little interest to all who have 
a taste for mechanical operations. A recent foreign journal contains a descrip- 
tion of the process employed at one of the principle establishments in England, 
from which we take the following. — Ed. 

The metal having been reduced by rolling to the proper diameter (known as 
No. 4 iron wire gauge) for undergoing the further stages of reduction, by means 
of draw-plates, is first " pointed," or hammered down at one end, to admit of 
its extremity being passed through the soft steel die or draw-plate, and then 
taken hold of by a pair of plyers at the opposite side of the die ; which plyers 
draw a small portion of the wire through the die and cause its elongation. The 
end of the wire is then released from the plyers and attached to a drum, which 

Foreign Inventions. 45 

is caused to rotate slowly, and draw the metal through the draw-plate (which is 
held fast on a " draw-bench") and wind it up in a coil upon its periphery. The 
wire, provided it is not steel wire, may then be passed through a second draw- 
plate or die, having a somewhat smaller hole, and drawn down to a size corres- 
ponding with the diameter of the hole in that die. After two drawings, the 
metal will be found to have atttained such hardness and brittleness, that it 
would be impossible to reduce it further while in that condition ; it has, there- 
fore, to be softened by the annealing process. For this purpose an annealing 
oven is employed, consisting of a cast-iron cylinder, set up vertically in a brick 
furnace, the flue or fire-place of which surrounds the cylinder. Into this cylin- 
der the hanks of wire to be annealed are thrown, until it is filled with wire ; 
the cylinder is then closed at top, and it is fired up for about 15 hours. "When 
the whole mass of iron wire is suflBciently heated in the closed chamber, the 
fire is damped and let out, and the furnace is allowed to cool. After the lapse 
of about 36 to 48 hours from the time of charging the oven, the wire is re- 
moved in an annealed or softened state. A hard thick scale is now, however, 
found on the surface of the wire, caused by the heat to which it has been sub- 
jected ; and before the wire is re-submitted to the drawing process, it must un- 
dergo the operation of "pickling," that is, it must be subjected to the corroding 
action of dilute sulphuric acid, in order to loosen and remove the scale. This 
operation is thus effected : The hanks are thrown into a tub lined with lead, 
containing the dilute acid, and piled one upon the other to the height of some 
f lur or five feet, the whole pile being covered with the liquid. When the wire 
has remained sufficiently long immersed for the uppermost hank, which was 
the last placed in the liquor, to become sufficiently corroded to insure the ready 
disengagement of the scale, the wire is removed from the tub and thrown into 
a water tank to be washed. By this method the hank that was first inserted is 
the last to be removed from the action of the acid ; and that which was last 
submitted to the acid is the first to be withdrawn from its action. The acid 
having been washed out of the hanks, they are next washed with " lees," and 
placed in a heated chamber to dry. The outer ends of the hanks are then again 
pointed, and the drawing action is recommenced. These operations are repeated 
in succession, as described, until the wire is reduced from gauge No. 4, the 
starting point, to any gauge, say No. 10, 20, or 30, as may be required ; every 
reduction in the diameter of the wire, when steel wire is being made, and every 
second drawing, when iron wire is made, entailing extra labor in all branches 
of the process. ^ 

A Liverpool gentleman, Mr. James Cocker, has contrived some valuable im- 
provements in some of these details, and especially in the annealing process, 
by which the operation is rendered continuous, and by which one batch of wire, 
when suflBciently heated, may be removed without disturbing the rest. This is 
done by means of sliding doors in an oven of peculiar construction, with a 
series of chambers, railways, etc. By this means a bath of wire may be annealed 
in three or four hours. The cost of fuel is also diminished. 

Another improvement is in a simple machine, by which the wire is poUshed. 
This is effected by the rapid oscillating motion of a padded box or rubber, 
which is supplied with emery, the drums holding the wire at a moderate tension. 
The pickling process has also been improved. 

An improved method of obtaining or preparing printing surfaces and in 


Rabouin O'Suluvan, of Paris. 

This invention has for its object to obtain printing surfaces as a substitute 
for lithography and other similar methods of printing, the use of which, besides 
being much cheaper than lithographic printing, offers this advantage, that a 

46 Foreign Inventions, 

design consisting of a number of diflferent colors can be printed at one and the 
same time ; while in ordinary printing each color has to be worked oflF separately, 
and entails a great amount of labor. 

In carrying out the invention, the patentees take any suitable permeable sub- 
stance or fabric, such as linen, calico, cloth, canvas, or other woven or suitable 
material, or, it may be, a reticulated metal surface, or metallic plate or sheet, 
perforated with minute holes to impart the required degree of permeability, and 
on this surface they draw or write the desired figures or characters in an ink 
composed of lamp-black, Indian ink, gum, sugar and salt. 

A coating of this ink being applied to the permeable surface in the form of 
the design or character or characters required, they next coat the permeable 
substance, on the side drawn upon, with a thin coating or film of gutta-percha 
or of gelatinous material, covering the drawing as well as the other part of the 
permeable material. When the coating of gutta-percha or other gelatinous 
material is dry, the fabric, or other surface, so coated, is washed. The gutta- 
percha or gelatinous material, at that part where it comes in direct contact with 
the permeable material, adheres firmly thereto ; but at those parts covered by 
the ink, it has no such adhesion, and simply holds to the ink design. The ink, 
being readily soluble in water, is removed in the washing, and carries away the 
gutta-percha covering it ; thus the design drawn upon the permeable material 
is now the only pervious part remaining in the surface. 

The back part of the pervious substance or fabric is now to be coated with 
the ink or color or colors required to be printed ; and the ink or color having 
been applied, the impression is taken from the face of the fabric or substance 
by pressure in a suitable press ; the paper or surface to be printed being placed 
in contact with the face of the fabric or printing surface, the ink or color pasess 
through the pervious part, and is thus applied and printed on the paper or other 
surface required. 

Instead of applying the ink or color to the back of the pervious materia^, the 
design in that material may be placed on a pad containing a reservoir of ink or 
color, by which the ink or color is supplied by pressing it on such pad ; from 
which it passes through the pervious parts of the material constituting the de- 
sign, to the paper or substance placed on the face of the printing surface to re- 
ceive the impression. 

An improved pkocess of tanning. By Emile Constantin Fritz Sautelet, of 


In carrying out this improved process of tanning, the skin or hide is first 
freed from the hair in the ordinary manner, and it is then cleansed from grease 
by means of soap and water, or alcohol, or other solvent which does not injure 
the fibres. A solution of bark, tannin, sumach, catechu, or other tanning ma- 
terials is then caused to filter or soak through the skin by means of pressure 
or suction, produced by mechanical or physical means. This filtration is con- 
tinued from fourteen to forty-eight hours, or for a shorter or longer time, ac- 
cording to the nature and thickness of the skin. The quality of the leather is 
improved by employing weak solutions and continuing the action from two to 
fifteen days. A solution of gelatine, or other matter capable of precipitating 
the tanning material, is then introduced by pressure or suction. This solution 
and the tanning solution may be introduced repeatedly and alternately. By 
these operations the skin may be tanned in a very short time. The skin is 
stretched during the process in a double frame, which confines and clips the 
edges of the skin, which is sustained by a trellis or open framework. This 
frame prevents the skin from being forced out and torn away from its attach- 
ments by the pressure of the liquid to which it is subjected. The skin, thus 
held and supported, is made to form the partition between two vessels or com- 
partments. Into one compartment the soap and water or other cleansing liquid 
is introduced by a pump or by a pipe from an elevated cistern, and the liquid 
is thus forced to pass through the skin into the other compartment. The pres- 
sure may also be given by a piston, acted on by steam, or by water or other 
fluid, or by forming a partial vacuum in the other compartment. Several skins 

Foreign Inventions. 47 

may be fixed in the same apparatus, and traversed successively by the same 
sohition ; and several apparatus may be arranged in stages, so as to operate 
upon a large number of skins at the same time. After acting upon the skins 
in this manner for three or four hours, more or less, the cleansing liquid is 
drawn off, and water is introduced to wash out the cleansing liquid. The water 
is then drawn off, and the tanning solution is then introduced in a similar man- 
ner, and its action is continued for a period varying from a few hours to fifteen 
days, more or less, according to the nature and thickness of the skin and the 
the strength of the solution employed. A solution of gelatine, or other similar 
substance capable of precipitating the tanning material in the interior or pores 
of the skin, is then introduced in a similar manner. By thus impregnating or 
nourishing the skin with gelatine, an additional quantity of leather is formed or 
precipitated in the pores of the skin, and the quality and density of the leather 
is thus improved. The alternate filtration of the tanning liquid and the solu- 
tion of gelatine may be repeated several times, if desired. The nourishmg of 
the skin with the solution of gelatine may also be effected by simply immersing 
the skin in the solution, or by rubbing it into the skin by hand, or by mechani- 
cal means. The density or weight of the leather may be still further increased, 
if required, by impregnating it with a solution of a salt of baryta, or a salt of 
lead, or other suitable metallic salt, and with another salt capable of forming an 
insoluble precipitate with the first salt. Thus, the skin may be impregnated 
successively with solutions of sulphate of soda and chloride of barium, which 
decompose each other, and produce an insoluble sulphate of baryta, and also a 
soluble sulphate of soda, which may be washed out by causing water to traverse 
or filter through the skin as before. 

Iron. — Mr. H. Gilbee, Finsbury, Eng., has patented an invention, which con- 
sists in receiving a stream of melted iron as it flows from the melting or refining 
furnace into a suitable trench, and projecting downwards upon it, either per- 
pendicularly or obliquely, and at several places as may be required, a strong 
current of atmospheric air, so that the stream of melted iron may be thereby 
cut through, or nearly so, and every portion of the liquid metal brought suc- 
cessively in contact with the current of air. It is also proposed by means of 
suitable bridges or stops placed across the stream of liquid metal to arrest the 
progress of the slag or scoriae, so that the pure surface of the metal may be 
brought into contact with such currents of air. Currents or blasts of air are 
also forced directly or obliquely upon the surface of pools or reservoirs of melted 
iron, kept nearly full by adjusting the supply of metal, so that the current of 
air shall decarbonize the said metal at the surface, and force such decarbonized 
portion over the edge of the reservoir, into a second reservoir, where the said 
operation may be repeated as often as may be required. 

New Electric Magnetic Engine. — On the invitation of the Emperor of the 
French, Mr. Thomas Allen, of London and Edinburgh, has recently visited 
Paris, for the purpose of exhibiting to a scientific commission, appointed by the 
Emperor, an electro-magnetic engine of his invention, which solves, as he asserts, 
the problem of the application of electricity to the movement of machinery. 
Mr. Allen's engines are now at work at the engine manufactory of M. Cail, 
whither scientific men, anxious to test this new motive-power, are flocking to 
witness the experiments. Napoleon I. was greatly interested in this scientific 

48 Foreign Inventions. 

problem, and the present Emperor is not less so, and, it is said, is about to order 
a practical application, as an experiment, to a locomotive engine. 

Fire-Arm Prize. 

The Sardinian Government, through their Minister of "War, has caused a 
proclamation to be issued, inviting the inventors and manufacturers of small 
arms throughout the world to contest for the best fire-arm as a war weapon. 
A premium of 10,000 francs will be awarded to the party or person whose wea- 
pon shall eventually be approved by the Central Committee of Artillery, at the 
city of Turin, as worthy of adoption by the infantry of the line, or riflemen. — 
Scientific American. 

Clay Retorts in Generating Gas. 

Clay retorts are well adapted for generating gas from the Scotch cannel coal, 
which produced coke of no appreciable value ; but it might be doubted, whether 
they were, in useful effect, equal to iron retorts for the distillation of coals con- 
taining or yielding a large quantity of liquid matter ; as, for instance, with coals 
which yielded 350 lbs. per ton of ammonical liquor, instead of the very usual 
quantity of 100 lbs. Nor were they to be commended for small works, using a 
coal producing valuable coke, for in such works an exhauster could not be ap- 
plied ; neither was the management and employment of the retorts so careful 
as in larger establishments, conducted under intelligent and experienced super- 
vision. An error had been committed by some speakers in supposing that clay 
retorts could be worked at a pressure of seven inches of water with more advan- 
tage than at lower pressures. Clay being a porous material, allowed the gas to 
transpire through its capillary passages, and hence it was better to work under 
a low pressure. Neither was it ordinarily correct to say, that clay retorts would 
produce more gas than iron retorts, or gas of better quality. In fact, clay re- 
torts would not evolve more, nor indeed so much gas as iron retorts, if they 
were not, by the expenditure of a much larger quantity of fuel, sometimes 
worked at a much higher temperature than would be prudent with iron retorts. 

Method of Regulating the Height of Water in Steam Engines. 

A WORKING model was exhibited in the library after the meeting, of Lapham's 
'■'■ Method of regulating the height of water in steam hoilersy This consisted of 
a pipe and cylinder in communication, situated at the proper level of the water 
in the boiler, and kept filled with cold water. Two pipes proceeded to this 
cylinder, the one from the steam portion of the boiler, and the other from the 
water space. When the water fell below the proper level, steam would pass 
through the lower or water pipe, and expanding the water in the cylinder and 
pipe, would cause an expansive action against an india-rubber diaphragm, to 
which was attached a lever, acting by cranks and levers upon the £top-ccck, or 
valve in the feed-pipe. 

Curiosity of Art. 

Rev. Dr. Kirk, in a letter from Manchester, England, says : "I had in the old- 
est factory of the town, a striking exhibition of the value of human art and 
labor. A pound of cotton was pointed out as worth a pound of gold. Its cost 
as crude cotton may have been eight cents. And as a curiosity of art, I was 
shown a pound of cotton spun into a thread that would go around our globe at 
the equator, and tie in a good large knot of many hundred miles in length." 



Chemistry for the Million. 

" Chemistry made easy" and applied to all useful purposes, is our object in these 
articles. In our last we gave a somewhat protracted account of oxygen as one of 
the most abundant and important elements of matter. If we were to enlarge as 
much on each of the other fourteen elements, of which, in combination with oxygen 
and with each other, nearly all known bodies are composed, it would take too long, 
and the reader would despair, of coming to any practical application of these things 
to the necessities and conveniencies of life. We therefore give below a very brief 
description, little more than a definition, of the other fourteen, requesting that the 
reader will review, what we have said of oxygen and form as definite an idea as 
he can from so short a description of the following. 

Chlorine. — A yellowish green gas, twice and a half heavier than air ; exists large- 
ly in sea water ; constitutes more than half of common salt; enters slightly into all 
soils, and is essential to their fertility. The most economical way in which a soil 
deficient of it, can be supplied, is in the form of cheap agricultural salt, such, for 
instance, as comes from fish barrels, or has been damaged by shipping, and is worth 
little or nothing for other purposes. 

Sulphur. — A yellow, solid substance, insoluble in water, pretty generally known 
as Roll Brimstone ; flowers of sulphur, a fine yellow powder, or the milk of sulphur 
(lac sulphuris) a still finer powder, nearly white. Sulphur exists in all soils ; consti- 
tutes a portion of guano, superphosphate of lime, of animal manures, and of ferti- 
lizers generally. If we were to analyze 86 lbs. of ground plaster, we should find it 
to consist of precisely 32 lbs. oxygen, 20 lbs. lime, 16 lbs. sulphur, and 18 lbs. water 
Derived from the soil and fertilizers, sulphur passes through the food into the ani- 
mal economy, forming a part of the tendons, skin, horn, hoof, and especially of hair 
and wool. 

Phosphorus. — A yellowish substance, of about the hardness of bees' wax, existing 
in all good soils, essential to the growth of the cereals, grasses and most other crops. 
Is supplied to the soil originally from the decomposition of the rocks. Re-supplied 
to soils exhausted of it in the form of guano, superphosphates and barn manures. 
Passes from the soils to the crops, and thence to animals, making up a large part of 
the bones and a considerable portion of the muscles, blood, and some other parts. 

Carbon. — Charcoal is carbon, mixed with a little soot and ash. Diamond is pure 
carbon. Plumbago, wrongly called black lead, as used in our pencils, is a less pure 
form of carbon. Strange as it may seem to our young readers, charcoal, diamond 
and plumbago, are one and the same thing, except that in the two last there is an in- 
termixture, almost too small to mention, of other ingredients. 

Silicon.— This is the basis of sand, flint and quartz rock. It is a brownish pow- 
der, a little resembling the paint called Spanish brown ; is very abundant in nature, 
constituting probably as much as one fifth of the entire globe. 

Nitrogen. — A colorless gas. About four fifths of the air are nitrogen. The re- 
maining fifth is mostly oxygen. It constitutes a part of all plants and animals ; is 
supplied to the soil in the form of ammonia and the nitrates, as they exist in guano* 
animal manures, vegetable fertilizers, green crops ploughed in, <fcc. 

50 Scientific. 

Hydrogen. — A colorless gas, about fourteen times lighter than air, used on account 
of its levity for filling baloons. "Water is composed of one part by weight of nitrogen 
to eight parts of oxygen. In bulk, the hydrogen in water is twice that of tlie oxy- 
gen. If you simply heat a gallon of water it will expand into some 1700 gallons of 
steam ; but if you decompose a gallon of Avater, that is, separate the oxygen from 
the hydrogen, it makes 1000 gallons of the former, and 2000 gallons of the latter ; 
and then if you mix the two and set fire to them, they return back with a violent 
explosure, to one gallon of water. It is quite possible to educe light and heat from 
water, but as no economical mode of doing it is yet discovered, we shall probably 
have to resort to other materials for replenishing our hearths and lamps a while longer 
yet, notwithstanding Mr. Paines' promises to the contrary. "We do not despair how- 
ever of important discoveries being yet made in this line ; and if they should be 
let us not be more surprised than our fathers would have been at the thought of 
sending our errands by electricity across the ocean in a second, a thing which we 
hope is on the eve of being done. 

Iron. — This is too well known to require us to speak at large here. In another 
place we shall illustrate facts concerning it of great importance to the farmer as 
well as to many others. 

Manganese. — ^This is a metal somewhat resembling iron. Like iron it exists in 
most soils, like that it is never found separate from other substances, but has to be 
prepared, like iron, by separating it first from other matters with which it is com- 

Potassium. — This is a brilliant, silver- white metal, light enough to swim on water, 
and so combustible, that it takes fire and burns with great heat, on falling upon 
water, however cold, or even upon ice. It is the basis of potash ; and it exists in 
all soils, as variously compounded with other substances, also in all plants, and in 
the animal tissues. 

Sodium. — This is the basis of soda ; is a dingy whiteish metal, comparing in ap- 
pearance with potassium about as copper does with silver ; is lighter than water ; 
floats on water and takes fire, if the water be a little warm, but is not enkindled, 
like potassium, by cold water or ice. 

Calcium. — This is a yellowish-white metal, and is the basis of lime. It is verj- 
abundant in all limestone regions. ' 

Ilagnesiwn. — A white, shining metal, the basis of the magnesia of the shops. 

Aluminum. — ^The basis of clay; a bright, silver-like metal, not easily rusted, hav- 
ing nearly the strength of iron, with little more than the weight of wood. 

Of these elements, it will be perceived that four, oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen, 
and nitrogen, are gases. Four, sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, and silicop, are solids, 
at ordinary temperatures. Seven, iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, 
magnesium, and aluminum, are metals. 

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, are regarded as organic elements, because 
entering largely into organized bodies — plants and animals. All the rest are con- 
sidered as inorganic elements, because not found in organized bodies, except in small 
quantities — that which constitutes the ash when the vegetable or animal matter is 
burned; and it should be remembered — what we have before stated — that when an 
organized body perishes, its organic elements pass into the air and become a part of 
it, while the inorganic fall as ash, and become a part of the soil, and that whether 
the body be destroyed by the rapid process of combustion, or by the slow process of 

Very few of the above fifteen substances are ever seen in their pure, elementary 

Scientific. SI 

state, except in the chemist's laboratory ; and it is difficult for those who have not 
seen them, to form a just conception of their properties. We have endeavored to 
give as good an idea of them, as we could by mere description, because it is out of 
these that nature constructs those compounds with which we have to do in actual 
life — those which constitute the rocks, the soils, plants, animals, our own bodies 
even, and all that we see about us. 

If two elements combine with each other, they form what is called a binary, (or 
two-fold) compound. Three elements combined, form a ternary, (or three-fold) com- 
pound. But it seldom, or never happens, that three elements combine with each 
other directly. It is a general law of nature, that the elements combine first in 
pairs, and then these pairs combine with each other. If the warp for a piece of 
cloth be of cotton and wool, here are two substances. If the filling be of wool and 
flax, here again are two ; but how many are there in the texture ? Not four, but 
three, because one is common to the warp and the filling. So it is with chemical 
combinations ; — sulphur and oxygen form sulphuric acid ; oyxgen and iron form oxide . 
of iron ; now put these two pairs together, and you have sulphate of iron, a ter- 
nary, or triple compound. If every farmer in North America, in addition to his 
practical skill, understood the nature of this- one compound, as well as the chemist 
in his laboratory, it would be worth at least a hundred millions annually to the con- 
tinent. Millions of acres, now almost useless, would soon be producing valuable 
crops, and the reclamation would be at a trifling cost, compared with the value of 
the increased produce. It is so with a great many other compounds that either en- 
rich or ruin the soil ; if the practical farmer understood their nature, he and the 
whole country would feel the benefit. But can he understand them, and yet be in- 
dustrious in the practice of his profession ? "We admit there is some difficulty. A 
shrewd, common-sense, and pretty intelligent farmer, once said to an editor in our 
hearing : " You tell us we should know a great deal, but we know nothing more for 
your telling us that." He was right. The agricultural press has been in fault. It 
has told the farmer that he should know every thing, but has it helped him to know 
any thing of the real science that underlies his practice ? Certainly it has, and it 
has been of immense benefit to the farming interest. But, to our apprehension, it 
has not done the thing right end first. It has not begun at the beginning, and 
taught the rudiments of science, and defined its terms, and made itself understood — 
has not measured out its teachings to the wants of men, who are not students of all 
day long, but have to catch a little now and a little then, as opportunity occurs. 
"We are resolved to reform in this respect, and the farmer, or the farmer's boy, or the 
farmer's wife or daughter, who will follow us in these articles, shall not have occa- 
sion to say that we have taught nothing practical, or within their reach. Bear 
with us in one or two more of these rudimentary articles, (which we know are dry,) 
as they are absolutely necessary to a just understanding of what is to follow, and we 
will be as practical as you wish, will use no jaw-breaking terms that can possibly 
be avoided, and will come with our chemistry into your every-day aff'airs, and it 
shall show you not only what sulphate of iron is, but why it sours the soil and how 
you may sweeten it ; not that genial warmth and gentle motion with free access of 
air makes the " butter come," for you know that well enough, but why it does ; 
nor that yeast makes the bread rise, for you know that better than we, but why ; 
and so of other things both pleasing and profitable for you to know, but which, 
hitherto, have been known but to a few. 




Appearaxce of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N. Y., in May, ISST. 

By R. HoweU. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about 40 feet above 
the Susquehanna River. 

































































































9 P.M. 

















Rain set in at 4 P.M. ; some snow ; barn swal- 
Rain by squalls all day. [lows came. 

Hard rain near all day ; began before day. 

Light rain by squalls ; soft maple iu bloom. 

Light rain in the night. 

Light rain in the night ; toads first heard. 

First whip-poor-will heard. 

First bumble bee and small white flower seen. 

Peach trees in bloom ; first water snake seen. 

Dandelion and black currant besrin to bloom. 

Hard rain all day ; daffodils and sugar maple 
Very hard rain nearly all day. [bloom. 

Hard shower in the night. 

Water-trough froze over ; blue-belle in bloom. 
Rain set in at 6 P.M. ; rain all night. 
Hard rain all day, with snow — hills white. 
English cherries begin to bloom. 
A few plant corn ; first humming-bird seen. 
Plum trees and Juneberry begin to bloom. 
Common cherries begin to bloom ; sugar ma- 
ple in full bloom. 
White ash in full bloom ; red currants bloom. 
A few apple trees begin to bloom. 
Rain set in at 5 P.M. 
Three fields of corn up on Susquehanna flats. 

Light rain in morning ; apple trees in full 

Observations on the Month of May. 
With the exception of a few days, cold and very wet, so much so that by 
the time farmers could get their land ready for sowing a heavy rain would set in, 
90 that at the end of the month hundreds of farmers had not finished sowing oats, 
and but little corn was planted till the 23d, and the following Monday and Tuesday, 
and on the hills a number of farmers had not finished at the end of the month. 
There was but little grass till after the 20th, although many turned out before the 
15th because they had no fodder. Hay and all kinds of fodder scarcer than before 
in a number of years. Hay rose from $6 or $7 in the winter to $14 or more during 
the month, and corn rose from 62J cents in April to $1 06 cents at the end of tlie 
month ; and oats from 40 cents to %1\ cents. All kinds of fruit trees were from 
eight to fifteen days later in bloom than in former years. Apple tree leaves on the 
20th were no larger than a five cent piece, and at the end of the month forest trees 
generally showed but little greenness, and on many of them the leaves hardly to be 





Having, by chance omitted, for one number, our familiar illustration of this branch 
of economical farming, -which has so long occupied our attention, we again recur to 
the topic with fresh interest. But if we have been inactive for a month, not so ex- 
actly with those of whom we are now to speak. 

Hybernians, are a group of caterpillars, chiefly without any covering, or naked, 
which are exceedingly destructive to various kinds of trees. They have ten legs, 
six before and four behind. The eggs are laid in rows in the spring, upon the 
extremities of the branches by the parent moth, from sixty to a hundred in number, 
which are hatched about the middle of May or when the currant is in blossom, and 
she then dies. Canker-worms belong in this group. The young canker-worm is of 
various colors, but generally a dark brown, or blackish, with a stripe on each side, 
and two light bands across the head. The belly is also light colored. On the tip 
of the last ring are two warts. When not eating they lie at full length on the leaf, 
or rather beneath it. They are about one inch in length, and are sometimes called 
Inch worms. When about four weeks old, they drop down by a thread to the 
ground, and descending from two to six inches beneath the surface, according to 
Dr. Harris, they become crysalids in twenty-four hours. They are of a light brown 
color. They come out chiefly by night. The females are destitute of wings. 

Canker-worms or Span-worms, (Geometers,) are naked or covered only by a very 
short down, smooth, except the warts already spoken of. As they grow older they 
grow darker in color. Some species, instead of lying at full length when at rest, ex- 
tend themselves like a short twig, their hind legs only being in contact with the leaf 
or twig, and remain so for hours. When they are alarmed, they drop by their 
thread and hang suspended in the air, and when the supposed danger is passed, they 
clunb up by the thread, seizing it with their jaws and fore legs, while they draw up 
their hind legs, and then extend themselves as before. A few make for themselves 
thin cocoons, protected partially by leaves, and thus undergo their transformations. 
A few others fasten themselves to the stems of plants without any protection, and 
are thus changed to crysalids. 

In their perfect state, they are slender moths, with tapering antennas, those of the 
males being often feathered. Their feelers are short and slender, the thorax not 
crested, wings large, angular, thin, often marked by one or more bands, and when 
at rest, slightly inclined or nearly horizontal. A very few species carry their wings 
like the skippers, the hind wings extended horizontally and the fore wings somewhat 
raised and but partially closed, or one or both pairs extended and elevated. 

The crysalis of this moth is of a light brown color ; that of the female is larger 
than that of the male. During a mild season, and after a hard frost, in the fall, the 
insect bursts the skin of the crysalis and comes up to the surface. This process is 
often delayed for weeks, and even months, so that they come up at almost all sea- 
sons. As the female has no wings, it is confined to a very limited space, scarcely 
leaving the ground covered by the limbs of the tree from which it dropt. She 
slowly finds her way up the trunk of the tree, to the branches. The male being 
provided with wings, soon follows after them, and being winged, they flutter about 
the female during her ascent, during which they pair. The more general time of 
this rising is in March. Soon after the female has laid her eggs she languishes and 
dies, as already stated. 

54 Scientific. 

The defenses generally employed, and most efficient, \re described on a former oc- 
casion. To prevent the ascent of the females, tar, or raw cotton, or dissolved or 
melted India-rubber, may be placed on bands of cloth or otherwise, around the 
trunk of the tree in October or early in November, and daily renewed till the insect 
ceases to appear. Collars of tin or lead, or troughs containing a cheap oil with some 
careful stuffing of fine hay, etc., which will not absorb the oil between them and 
the tree, is often used with good success. A little mound of sand viMU it remains 
dry, around the base of the tree, has proved an impassible barrier to this insect. 
Sprinkling the leaves, etc., with fine air-slacked lime is sometimes successful, if used 
when the leaves are wet with dew or rain. A mixture of a pound of soap to seven 
gallons of water, thrown upon the trees by a syi-inge, has also been found efficient 
in destroying these and other insects, without injury to the tree. 

After they have entered the ground, swine will destroy great numbers of them. 
Ploughing will facilitate this mode of their destruction. Some recommend plough- 
ing in June and the removal of the soil to the depth of six inches, for some four or 
five feet from the trunk of the tree, replacing it with compost or rich earth. The 
earth carried away should be thrown into a pond-hole and left covered with water. 
These last-mentioned plans are recommended by some of the best farmers in Massa- 
chusetts. Another mode of destroying caterpillars was accidentally discovered by a 
gardener in Glasgow, Scotland. A woolen rag blown by the wind into a currant 
bush, was found covered with these insects. Placing pieces of cloth among his 
bushes, through his garden, he found multitudes collected on them for shelter. In 
this way he destroyed thousands every morning. We know not why this should 
not succeed with one species as well as with another. 

The canker-worm has a destructive natural enemy in several kinds of birds, and 
in a large splendid ground-beetle, called Calosoma Scrutator. The ichneumon fly 
stings great numbers of them, depositing an egg in each worm which it piei-ces. 
Each a^g hatches a maggot that preys upon the worm and destroys it. The Platy- 
gaster, another four-winged fly, drops an egg in each egg of the canker-worm, which 
becomes a fly like its parent. 

Another span-worm, larger than the canker-worm, of a light yellow color, head 
rust-color, with black lines on the back, is often found very destructive to apple- 
trees, elms, etc. It appears at the same time with the canker-worm, resembles it in 
its habits, and can be kept in check by the use of similar means. 


A commission has been given, very judiciously, by the general government, to our 
learned friend, Mr. T. Glover, to investigate the habits and conditions of insects in 
the Southern States. In times past comparatively little has been done, in this direc- 
tion, in that section of country, although we should seem, perhaps, inexcusably un- 
just or ignorant, did we omit the mention of a splendid work, on " the rare insects 
of Georgia," by Mr. Abbott, a work, neither excelled nor equalled, as a work of art, 
on that subject, in this country. Other gentlemen have contributed valuable essays 
in different periodicals, but no general examination, as by State authorities, has, to 
our knowledge, been undertaken. We can not therefore do a better service to our 
numerous Southern readers on this subject, than to follow the track of Mr. Glovei-, 
presenting his experience in this investigation, as found in his official report, in con- 
nection with the other sources of knowledge at our command. 





This insect has been very troublesome ; many cotton fields being literally thronged 

with them, so that most of the plants were 
either eaten off or destroyed. "When such 
numbers are found, swine are perhaps 
the most efficient exterminators. Young 
pigs will not root deep enough to injure 
the roots of the plant, and experience 
shows that they will select those spots 
which are most infested by the worm. 
Like other moths, a lantern placed in and 
around the fields, will attract the insects, 
in their winged state, who fly into the 
flame and burn their wings, by which 
means they are or may be easily captured, their power of flight being destroyed. 
Mr. Glover describes a lantern of peculiar form, which may have some advantages 
over all others ; we should not, however, place much value on a lamp of any pecu- 
liar construction. 


This insect, sometimes called the Cotton-army worm, is very destructive to the 
leaves of the plant. Sometimes they appear in great 
numbers. In other years, they do not. In 1855, as Mr. 
Glover informs us, this insect first appeared in August, on 
the plantation of Mr. Hunter, of Tallahasse, Ga., and gra- 
dually spread over that region, so that in October, much damage had been done. 

The perfect insect, he describes as of a triangular 
shape, the head and the extremities of the wings 
forming the angles. The upper wings are reddish 
gray, having a dark spot, with a whitish center, 
on each. The under wings are reddish gray. As 
the insect grows older, the gray changes to a more 
reddish tinge. Like other moths, it flies by night, 
and if undisturbed, remains motionless during the 
day. When in the open air, they are found among 
and under the leaves of the cotton plant, and also 
among the weeds. The eggs are principally de- 
posited on the under side of the leaf, but often on 
tlie outer calyx, and sometimes on the stem, ten to 
COTTON CATERriLLAR. fifteen being on a single leaf They are small and 

being of a green color, and closely attached to the leaf, it is difficult to distinguish 
them from it. The eggs are hatched, according to Dr. Capers, in from fourteen to 
twenty days, but Mr. Glover found them hatched " invariably, in a Aveek from the 
time they were brought into the house." The young caterpillars are able to suspend 
themselves by a thread, when shaken from the plant ; when fully grown they mea- 
sure from one and a half to nearly two inches in length. The first brood appears in 
August and September. Those examined by Mr. Glover were all of a green color, 
with narrow, longitudinal light stripes along each side of their bodies and two 
broader light-yellowish stripes along each side of their backs, and down the center of 
each of which, was one distinct, narrow, light-colored line. Each of the broader 
bands was marked with two black spots on each segment, and on each segment of 
the sides, were three or more dark dots. The head was yellowish-green, spotted 

56 Domestic. 

with black. The caterpillars of the second and third generations are of a much 
darker color than those of the first, their undcrparts arc more of a yellowish green, 
and tlieir sides sometimes of a purple cast. Their backs are black, with three dis- 
tinct light-colored lines running down their length, and their heads are also darker, 
and of a yellowish brown, spotted with black. 

In fifteen or twenty days after this caterpillar has attained its full size it ceases 
to eat, doubles over a portion of a leaf, and fastening the edge by its own silk, forms 
an imperfect cocoon. The crysalis is first green, changing to a brown and almost to 
a black. It is furnished with small hooks by which it can fasten itself to the leaf. 
The habits of this insect do not seem as j-et to be definitely understood. Fires and 
lamps are resorted to for the destruction of these insects ; white cotton flags about 
a yard square, are also used, as are the woolen rags already mentioned. 


Health, Morals, Patriotism. 

After our thirtj--two pages of Agricultural matter, and our condensation of Me- 
chanical matters for the next sixteen, and our Scientific articles, done in plain Eng- 
lish for the general reader, we always feel a relief, in coming more freely into the fam- 
ily circle, where we may throw off restraint, talk with the o\^ folks, take a romp with 
the children, hear them laugh, and perchance give them now and then a bit of good 

Of all the thousand and one subjects to be talked of on these occasions, none is of 
more importance than the one at the head of these remarks. It is sad that scores 
are born with frail constitutions, are diseased from the dawn of being, and never 
know the blessing of anything like good health. But it is sadder far that hundreds, 
thousands, tens of thousands, are every year spoiling a sound constitution, inherited 
from healthy parents, worth more than all the gold of Ophir, and easier to keep, if 
thej' could but understand, in time, and obey the laws of health. The following con- 
siderations serve to illustrate the value of what thousands are throwing away, as if 
not worth preserving. 

You see men and women every day, with large hearts, of noble impulses, really 
desirous of enacting a useful part in life, but unable by reason of impaired health. 
Treasures of kindness, which they would diffuse, if their strength were equal to their 
will, they can now only receive. You often see them departing from life when life 
should flow at the highest — manhood, womanhood, youth and childhood lost to the 
world and the world lost to them. It would be rash to say that all this is chargeable 
to ignorance or disregard of the laws of life and health. But that a large part of it 
is to be so charged, who can doubt ? To say that the good, the virtuous, the pure- 
minded, those inchned to be industrious, useful, benevolent, ought not to die till after 
a long time, might sound very strangely. But we would like our readers to look 
around them and see if too many, with the buds of hope, or the blossoms of promise, 
or the rich but immature fruits of life upon them, have not left us too soon for the 
world, too soon for themselves, and sooner than Divine providence would have per- 
mitted, had not his own laws, imprinted on our very being, been violated. 

You hear a child cry. Nothing will pacify him. If the little one were a demon, he 
could not be more ungratefully regardless of everj^ kind effort in his behalf. A boy 
or a girl is peevish, sour, petulcnt, always in trouble, always troublesome, having per- 
haps no friend but the mother, and that one only because the mother's love knows on 

Domestic. 3^ 

bounds, and can hardly make distinctions. One man is recklessly brave— runs into 
dano-er when there is no good reason for it ; another trembles and flies when he 
ouo-ht to stand at his post. One is over excitable, easilj' thrown off his guard, now 
ano-rv without a cause, at another time boisterous with mirth, and at another sad 
enough to give the horrors to all about him, to-day endangering his own and others' 
safety by reason of excessive anger, to-morrow grieving himself to death for what he 
has done or left undone ; another has not spirit enough to be angry, and as for being 
glad or sorry for anything, you would about as soon expect it of a stick. There is a 
reason for this unhappiness somewhere. The instabilities, the inconsistencies, the 
failures of high expectations in life are not causeless. 

We do not mean to imply that all the babyishness, and petulence, and unhappiness, 
all the recklessness and cowardice, the outburts of passion and the consequent crimes,^ 
the lack of mental balance and the want of moral courage, in the world, are the re- 
sult of ill health. Nor would we insinuate that ill health alv/ays results from a viola- 
tion of natural laws ; but that it often does, is too plain to admit of a doubt ; and 
that a healthy body is favorable to the attainment of a well balanced mind and a 
good heart, is equally clear. 

The English are fast getting it into their heads that the Anglo-Saxon blood, or 
rather the Anglo-Norman, as they call their own race, can not be long propagated in 
this country ; that it can not be fully acclimated and yet retain its pristine vigor. 
Some among us would say, they wish to have it so. We do not think so badly of 
them. True there are narrow minds everywhere ; and envy is cruel wherever it ex- 
ists ; but we believe of England at large, that, as a mother rejoices in the fair propor- 
tions of a daughter, so she would rejoice to see us a great and happy nation, at peace 
and in honorable alliance with herself. Our climate is not as favorable to a full and 
manly development of the individual as hers. Nevertheless we have it in our power 
to falsify her predictions, whether uttered in malice or in sorrow. The problem turns 
not upon cUmate but upon ourselves. 

If we will insist that our youth be guided by age, instead of being left while yet 
inexpert to their own guidance ; if those of both sexes shall be trained to as much 
healthful, invigorating, out-of-door exercise as those of old England ; if we will prac- 
tically admit, what we all know to be true, that quiet comfort, innocent pleasures, 
industry, and a good conscience, arc infinitely more to be desired than sudden wealth, 
with all its accompaniments, including a guilty conscience among the rest, then will 
the predictions of transatlantic croakers be vain. They will pass over us, like slander 
over a good man, who lives it down. 

But if childhood is to receive no counsel from the experience of age; if young 
America at seventeen is to be too wise to be instructed by old fogy fathers and mo- 
thers of forty ; if the garden hoe, and rake, and the bridle reins are to be regarded 
as too vulgar things for delicate hands ; if our girls in their teens are to be too high- 
minded to assist their mother in the family affairs, or to do anything else, except to 
sit down and read a novel and wait for a beau ; if our sons are all to live by their 
wits, except the foolish ones, who were born to hew and grub ; above all if intempe- 
rance is to sweep over the land ; if our liquor dealers are to be made nabobs for poi- 
soning us to death ; if, in proportion as their vile concoctions lack exhilaration, we 
must swallosv the more, making the trade so much the better for them and the worse 
for us; if we are to smoke, chew and snuff from childhood on ; if we are to cherish 
visions of a deceitful liberty, that refuses all restraints, that neither fears God nor 
regards man, that may wrong others at pleasure, and abuse our own nature because it 
is nobody's business but ours, that allows practices utterly inconsistent with the pro- 
pagation of a healthy race, as if, forsooth, posterity might not complain of the in- 

58 Domestic. 

fliction of a deteriorated constitution, provided only that we who now live mind 
our own. business, have our enjoyments, elevated or vicious as we choose, and make 
our money, honestly if we can, but make it, then will those predictions prove too 
true. There will be neither health nor wealth, neither private worth nor national 
dignity nor independence ; and that the Anglo-Saxo-Norman race has deteriorated 
on our shores will become a matter of history. — Ed. 

Do Right. 

We sometimes get the hlucs — it is all wrong, and one never ought to have them — 
and we say, in view of the tricks, frauds, crimes and outrages all around, that men 
are taking leave of their virtue, their honor, and their integrity, as things that are 
done with, not suited to the age, to be cast off, like winter garments in spring 

Then, again, we think, it is so perfectly marufest that ''''Honesty is the best poUci/ ;" 
that all but fools must see it, and begin to do right from selfish motives if they have 
no better, and so the world will be saved from universal corruption and degradation. 
"We cheer up again ; we begin to look on the bright side ; we say, there will be vir- 
tue yet, there will be moral worth, there will be fair dealing ; honor, integrity, the 
fear of God, a generous love for man will outlive this boisterous squabble for sudden, 
ill-gotten wealth. 

That most execrable saying, that " all the world's a cheat, and he's a fool that 
won't have a hand in it," is magnificently refuted in the following, from Fowler & 
Wells' Life Illustrated. May they give us many such illustrations of life. We would 
rather be the author of the imperishable thought it contains, than the owner of mil- 
lions obtained by means th^ least questionable. Reader, if it makes you feel as much 
better as it has us, you will want to read it more than once. Duty should be done, 
reward or no reward in view; but we are always thankful to the man who makes us 
see and feel that well-doing and its reward is so nearly the whole of life, that it mat- 
ters little for the rest. 

"A wealthy merchant remarked a few days since, that he was fully convinced, from 
his own experience, that the means to achieve success lay in a nutshell — po right. 
' When I say success,' said he, ' I mean not only the accumulation of fortune, but the 
ability to enjoy it — to live a useful, happy life.' What is the use of much wealth if 
we know that it was obtained by wronging the widow and orphan, by the tricks of 
trade, selUng articles for what they were not, and a thousand modes of unfair dealing ? 
Granting that men grow better by doing kindly acts, and feel the better for seeing 
others do them, how sickening it must be to the true man to know that by false deal- 
ing he has curdled the milk of human kindness in one breast, turning it to bitter gall ! 
If wealth comes by such means let it come not at all. Shall an active man, possess- 
ed of God-given powers, turn back to his past life and be able only to say : I have 
done nothing to add to the wealth of the world in gold or silver, or in artistic pro- 
ductions, but have coveted the labors of ochers, heaped treasures sordidly to myself, 
foolishly supposing that I might trample down all feelings and sympathies not directly 
productive of gain ? or shall he rather be able to say that. While I have industriously 
gathered wealth, I have done it with cheerful looks, kindly words, warm sympathies ; 
I have done it by making things which have added to the comfort of men, by bring- 
ing within the reach of the poor great means of present enjoyment, the opening of 
a brilliant future, by throwing lights of sympathy on the dejected, lifting up the 
down-fallen, strengthening the weak, infusing in all a fervent belief in the brighter 
part of their being ? Such a life will enable a man to throw off his ivealth as a scale, 
at the last day, bearing away only the imperishable soul, which has accumulated 
strength along with the mass of worldly goods justly and usefully obtained. Would 
you, young man, belong to the latter class ? do right. How much better to do 
right, if you die not worth a farthing, and feel that you have rather added to the 
good faith in the /lir/Iier life on earth, than to die while rolling in the luxury, pomp, 
and pride of ill-gotten gains ! Then do right ! do right ! anil if tempted for mone- 

Domestic. 59 

tary ease and vanit.y to abuse your better nature, rest assured that both the body and 
spirit will suifer in a ratio corresponding to the transgression. There is but one 
road to happiness and contentment — do right. 

A New Sport for Ladies. 

It is said that fishing is becoming a popular amusement for the ladies in some 
parts " out \7cst." Good, if they will dress accordingly. We would recommend an 
enlargement of the bonnet for sunny days, and india-rubber hoods and boots for rainy 
weather. Perhaps a slight shortening of the dress, as compared with Broadway 
fashions would be convenient. But let them go a-fishing. Anything to draw our 
women from the everlasting tread-mill round of kitchen, pantry, and sitting-room. 
If the garden and the side-saddle will not draw them into fresh air, let the fish-pond 
and the trout-stream do it. — Ed. 

Manufactures in Alabama. 

The Huntsville Advocate states that manufactures in Lauderdale county are rapidly 
growing in importance, value and variety. Water power there is great, and excellent 
sites for mills, factories, etc., abound. Manufacturing there is more profitable than 
any other pursuit. Seven thousand bales of cotton are expected to be required this 
year. Most of the operatives, too, are whites — men, bo^'s, girls and women, who 
now get paid for their labor, where before there was no demand at all for it. Villages 
are growing up where these manufactories are established as they do in the North, and 
have the same thriving appearance, with churches, schools, etc. The Advocate says : 

We hope to see the manufacturing spirit in Lauderdale grow and multiply until it 
becomes the Lowell of the South. She has greater power, free from disease, fuel 
labor, mental and practical knowledge. And there is no hmit to the demand for all 
that she can manufacture. There is wealth, power, population and independence to 
all in the business. — Ex. 

Our Southren brethren are beginning to understand it. Agriculture, or planting, (if 
the distinction must be made, we love to call it all agriculture, as this last fairly covers 
the whole) will impoverish anynation under heaven if the manufacturer is not amono- 
them. Here is another. — Ed. 

A LETTER from one of the upper counties in Georgia gives the most flatterino- ac- 
count of cotton manufacturing in that State. Many of the factories were established 
some years since, and even at the present high prices of the staple, are paj'ing the 
stockholders handsome dividends, seldom, if ever, falling below 20 per cent. The 
yarns and osnaburgs are of the first quality, and a better description of cotton bein<» 
used in their manufacture, they find a more ready sale in Baltimore, Philadelphia 
New-York and Boston, than similar products of Eastern mills. With cheap fuel, right 
in the midst of the cotton growing region, illimitable water power, and the most 
agreeable and healthful climate in the world, there is no reason why all the Southren 
States should not possess manufactories of this kind. — Natchez Courier, 9th. 

To us these views from such a quarter look the worse for old England, and not 
quite so well for New-England, but all the better for the South. In order to steady- 
prominent prosperity, Agriculture and the mechanic arts must dwell lovingly togeth- 
er on the same soil. The farmer helps the mechanic ; the mechanic helps the farmer. 
Part them, and both whistle for a customer ; the middleman gets the earnings of both. 
Part them and expect prosperity ! You might almost as well part a man and wife and 
expect a legitimate posterity. — Ed. 

Learn to Spell. 

An editor received a letter in which weather was spelt " wether." He said it was 
the worst spell of weather he had ever seen. 

60 Children's Page. 

Gentle Words. 

The sua may warm the grass to life, It is not much the world can give, 

The dew the drooping flower, "With all its subtle art, 

The eyes grow bright and watch the light And gold and gems are not the things 

Of Autumn's opening hour — To satisfy the heart, 

But words that breathe of tenderness, But oh, if those who cluster round 

And smiles we know are true, The altar and the hearth, 

Are warmer than the Summer time. Have gentle words and loving smiles, 

And brighter than the dew. How beautiful is earth! 

The Ploughshare. 

Thk bark may rest upon the wave, the spear may gather dust, 
But never may the prow that cuts the furrow lie and rust ; 
Its metal is unsullied, no blood stain lingers there, 
God speed it well, and let it thrive unshackled everywhere. 

, Eliza Cook. 

€I]ilbnn's fage. 

For the Children to Think of. 

Wonder if we could draw a word of practical instruction for our young readers 
from the things about us ? Let us see. 

Here is our office boy. He is a German. Eleven years have passed over him. 
Within that time his father has died. A brother and a sister have gone, and he alone 
is left to a mother of forty, in a strange land, feeble in health, and working hard for 
his and her support. 

Happening in the office with him alone just now, while the fresh morning breeze at 

our window inspired loving thoughts, we held the following conversation : A , 

do you love your mother ? Yes. Does she love you ? I suppose so. Does she not 
do for you every day what she would not, if she did not love you ? Yes. Then she 
does love you, docs she not ? Yes, she does. And does all she pof sibly can for your 
good; studies your comfort, clothes you neatly, sends you to the Sabbath-school? 
Yea, and she is going to send me to the day school soon. 

Well, A , I should almost know you had a good mother, though I never saw 

her, from your coming here so early every morning, so neatly clad and so clean and 
innocent looking. It must be that you have a good mother. Do you always go di- 
rectly home to her when you leave the office in the afternoons ? Yes ; but she some- 
times lets me go and play with the boys evenings. That is right ; she wants you to 
be happy, and she knows you love play ; but would she not love to have you in chat- 
ting with her? I suppose she would. Yes, the time seems shorter to her when you 
are in ; she then has less fear of your falling into bad ways, thinks less of the rela- 
tives she has lost, and more of you. Be a good boy ; be company for your mother 
as much as you can ; tell her all your heart ; make her feel that she has one little 
friend that will be kind always ; and when you have to be away use no words she 
might not hear, do nothing she might not see, and you will make a good man and be 
prosperous, if you love and obey your mother ; and now for the poet-office. 

Off he goes, and while he is gone, we write the above. But here he comes, with 
letters, containing, we hope, some of the needful, and we must stop. Children, most 
of you have a father to love as well as a mother. Be obedient to them both ; above 
all things be kind and loving to your mother ; and now read the fifth commandment, 
obey it, and be happy ; and we will see what the boy is bringing from the post- 
office. — Ed. 

Childreri's Page. 61 

A Stomachfull. 

An Irishman, in great fright and haste, rushed into Abernethy's office, and ex- 
claimed, — 

" Be dad, the boy Tim has swoUowed a rat 'i'" 

" Then, be dad,""said the Doctor, " tell the boy Tim to swallow a cat?" 

Epitaph on a Drunkard. 

Here lies the remains of a poor body. 
Who ne'er could refuse a glass of toddy ; 
Despite King Alcohol's power to save, 
Death has laid his subject in the grave. 
Beneath this stone, which now doth tell, 
Of all his falls where last he fell. 

The Toper's Nose. 

In a great storm at sea, when the ship's crew were all at prayers, a boy burst into a 
fit of laughter ; being reproved for his illtimed mirth, and asked the reason of it : 

*' Why," said he, " I was laughing to think what a hissing the boatswain's red nose 
will make when it comes into the water." 

Morning Reflections. 

Magistrate. — What has brought you here, sir ? 
Prisoner. — Two Policeman, please your honor. 
Mag. — Then I suppose liquor had nothing to do with it. 
Pris. — Yes, sir, they were both drunk. 

Parsing Extraordinary. 

Some one furnished a Frenchman with a conjugation of English verbs that will 
strike most people as being amusing if nothing more. He complained much of the 
difficulties of our grammer, especially the irregular verbs. " For instance," says he, 
" Ze verb to go. Did one ever see one such verb ?" And wdth the utmost gravity 
he read from a sheet of paper: "I go." "Thou departest." "He clears out." 
" We cut stick." " Ye or you make tracks." " They absquatulate." 

" Mon Dieu ! Mon Dieu ! what disregular verbs you have in your language." 

A Simile. 

WiNCHELL tells a story of a dog which undertook to jump across a well in two 
jumps. There are a great many people just Uke the dog — but they that undertake 
such a feat usuallj- "bring up " down in the water. 

Use no Bad "Words. 

Impure words stain the tablets of a virtuous mind, and the more we hear of them 
the less nice becomes our sense of the refined and pure. 

Learn to love the Beautiful, and appreciate it whether in sound, or objects of 
ght. We are convinced 
cultivation of this faculty. 

sight. We are convinced men do but half live in this world, from want of" proper 
ration of this faculty. We have too few artists in soul and sense. 

A Tumbler. 

" 'Tis strange," muttered a young man, as he staggered home from a supper party, 
" how evil communications corrupt good manners ; — I've been surrounded by tum- 
blers all the evening and now I'm a tumbler myself." 

Bring Water. 

" Are those bells ringing for fire ?" inquired Simon Tiberias. " No indeed," ans- 
wered Tibe ; " They have got plenty of fire and the bells are now ringing for water 
to match." 

" Capital punishment," as the boy said when the school mistress seated him with 
the girls. 

62 Booh Notices^ etc. 

S00I1 |[0tirt$, etc. 

Report of Wm. H. Ladd, President of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, for the 
year 1856. 

Through some one's favor this report has reached us. We see that Mr. Ladd speaks 
of a diminution in the wheat crop of that State for the last tela years, but he rejoices 
in a corresponding increase in the corn crop, and asks the Legislature, "if it docs not 
become them to provide by law against the worse than destruction of so many mil- 
lion bushels of this cereal annually," by distillation, we suppose he means. 

Ohio, it appears, had in 1855, 624,746 horses, valued at $31,415,004. In 1856 it 
had 621,443 horses, valued at $36,231, 127. A plain inference would be, since the 
horses have diminished in number but increased in value, that the Buckeyes are mak- 
ing money on their horses out of somebody. 

Their horned cattle have diminished from 1,791,189 in '65 to 1,687,710 in '56 ; but 
increased in value from $18,902,006 in '55 to $21,551,170 in '56. They are thus im- 
proving their breeds of cattle and making money on thom also. The President says, 
" That from the thousands expended by liberal, enterprising gentlemen, in introduc- 
ing superior horses and cattle, milUons are accruing to the State." "We have not one 
doubt it is so. 

The importance of pasturage to the State is spoken of in fitting terms ; and liberal 
seeding with more generous supplies of manure, especially in the way of top-dress- 
ing the thinner portions, is commended. President Ladd expresses the hope that by 
the next Agricultural report, " The vast interest of Ohio may be represented by 
8,000,000 sheep, yielding 25,000,000 lbs. of wool." 

The report closes with the recommendation of "A properly conducted Geological 
survey of the State, with a report of the same, digested with a special reference to 
the wants of the people." What could be more reasonable ? How could money be 
better spent, and how can the people of that State, so rich in undeveloped treasures, 
know how best to direct their industrial energies, till such a survey is had ? 

If we were a Buckeye, we would clamor for a more thorough survey than has yet 
been made on the Western continent. Ohio can afibrd it. 

The Farmer, an Agricultural Magazine, for New-Brunswick, N"ova Scotia and Prince 

Edwards Island. 

The first and second numbers of this new work are on our table. It seems to 
have commenced its existence with a good spirit, and we wish it all success. A sin- 
gle article in the first number, on the improvement of stock, viW\ pay for more than 
one year's subscription if the farmers of those provinces will heed it. 

Spirit of the Agricultural Press. — A large, well printed sheet with this title, 
full of valuable matter, has reached us from West Urbana, 111. It is Vol. I., No. 1, 
and promises well. L. G. Chase and A. Gore are editors and publishers. We heart- 
ily welcome them to the brotherhood of workers for the great cause of Agriculture. 
They will get away some of our subscribers, but no matter ; there will be enough for 
us and them. Their price is $2 a year in advance. 

American Corn Planter, — This monthly Southern Rural Magazine, devoted to 
improve Plantation economy, the advancement of Southern Horticulture, Manufac- 
tures, and the Domestic and Mechanic Arts, is well worthy of the attention of the 
Planter, Horticulturist and Housewife. Price $1 a year. It is pubUshed by N. B. 
Cloud, M.D., Montgomery, Alabama. 

JBook Notices^ etc. 63 

Granville, O., June 12, 1857. 
Messrs. Nasu & Parish: 

Gentlemen : — I do no set much value on my own productions and presume that 
you or your readers will think less, but perhaps you can glean something from the 
following statement that may be of some use to your valuable paper. Central Ohio 
Avas visited last fall with the most severe drouth we have ever experienced, proba- 
bly not more than one-fourth part of the wheat sown ever came up, or if it came up 
it soon died out, and the months of March and April were also hard on the wheat. 
It looked the first of May as if we could not have more than one-fourth of a crop. 
But May and June thus far have done wonders for it, and, although it is late, if the 
midge and rust let it alone we may have two-thirds of a common crop, and occa- 
sionally a field bids fair to be fine. 

Oats and grass look finely. Meadows though thinned out by the drouth last fall, 
that were not pastured this spring, look well. 

Corn, though late has come finely, and with good cultivating and a favorable sea- 
son, we shall make a larger crop than ever before, as there is a large amount 

Fruit bids fair to be a large crop, except peaches and grapes. Most of our peach- 
trees and grape-vines were destroyed by the cold winter of '55 and '6 ; what remain 
alive, bid fair for a full crop of fruit. 

Cattle were never so scarce and high as at this time since the settlement of the 
country. Sheep, in better supply, but in this county not more than one-half as 
many as five years since. The wool has been much of it taken off but none sold yet. 
Buyers are not quite ready to enter the market. 

Hogs are abundant and high. If they should not be thinned off by the disease 
that prevails in some parts of the country (but not here,) and if we get a good corn 
crop, I think pork-eaters may hope for cheaper fare a year from this time. 

Respectfully yours, Wm. S. Wright, 

Extracts about the Crops. 

" Corn and cotton crops look well in the region of Vicksburg, Miss." " The 

ai'my worm is committing great ravages in Barren County." " There is a general 

complaint throughout this County, (Bait. Md.,) of the destruction of wheat by the 

fly." In Illinois " The wheat crop is almost an entire failure, owing to being 

winter killed." " In Illinois, the prospects for the yield of wheat and other small 

grains are excellent." (Take which you please, or neither. We believe that the 

ground in which winter wheat had been killed, was much of it sown with spring 

wheat, on account of the high prices. Ed.) " The corn crop" in Illinois " will 

be small." (Nobody knows that yet, for July and August are the months that 

make corn. Ed.) "Hay," at the West," will be abundant." (It can hardly 

fail to be so everywhere, in consequence of so much cool, rainy weather. Ed.) 

" The wheat crop, in upper Georgia, is the most promising we have had in many 
years ; the oat crop is represented as being uncommonly good ; and both crops 
unusually large." 

The Lawrenceville (S.C.) Herald, thinks the effect of the cold spring may be only 
to retard, but not ultimately to diminish the cotton crop. It would now seem to 
be about settled, that the grass crop — one of the most important — will be every- 
where good. Of the wheat crop, we hardly know what to think, but from all ac- 
counts, incline to a belief that it will be short of an average for the whole country. 
Corn may be an average, or more even, but the prospect certainly is not favor- 
able. Shall we advise to the putting in of Jurnips in July ? But there will be 

64 Book Notices^ etc. 

probably a liard drouth after these long rains, which is bad for the turnip ; and 
then we see not when the farmer is ever to do his summer work, aside from the put- 
ting in of late crops, if these long rains continue. 

Accounts from almost all quarters indicate favorably for the fruits. — Ed. 

5I10W and Trial of Implements. 

A grand exhibition of Implements, with a thorough trial and comparison of their 
respective claims is to come on July 13th, at Syracuse, N.Y., under the auspices of 
the U. S. A. G. Soc, Col. Marshall P. Wilder, President.— Ed. 

"We renew the offer of our May and June numbers, containing the valuable articles 
on " Wool," on the " Artificial Propagation of Fish" and on " Chemistry for the Mil- 
lion," to all new subscribers advancing for the next year ; and we here extend the 
time to the first of August, provided the large number of extra copies, which we 
printed for the purpose, shall last so long. This applies to the members of clubs, 
forwarding at club rates. We also renew the offer in our last, of premiums to local 
agents and to old subscribers, who will jiromote the formation of clubs in their res- 
pective neighborhoods. — Eds. 

New- York Wholesale Prices of Country Produce. 

Fkuit. — ^The fruit market is well supplied with Strawberries from Soutli Jersey 
and Hackensack. Gooseberries, Cherries, and Currants are beginning to be more 
plentiful and cheaper. South Jersey berries are selling at f 2 50 « 3 50 per 100 
baskets ; Hackensack, $4 a $6 per 100 baskets. Gooseberries, $3 75 a $4 per bushel. 
Currants, 16c. per lb. Cherries, 12 a 15c. per lb. 

Dried Fruit. — Peaches pealed, 18 a 21c. per lb. ; do. unpealed, 10 a 12c. per lb. 
Dried Apples, 11a 13c. per lb. 

White Beans, $2 a $2 25 per bushel. 

Potatoes. — There has been no arrival of Bermuda Potatoes the past week, which 
has made them rather scarce, and the price has advanced §1 per bbl. Charlestons 
are also liigher, and selling well. Old Potatoes of good quality are also stiffer, and 
the demand is better than it was last week. Bermuda New Potatoes, $6 50 a §7 per 
bbl. Charlestons — Mercers, $6 per bbl. ; Round Ones, $5 per bbl. Sweet Potatoes, 
$3 75 a $4 per bbl. Old Potatoes — Mercers, Western, $3 75 a $4 per bbl. ; do. Kid- 
neys, $4 a $4 25 per bbl. ; Northern and Western Carters, $3 50 per bbl. ; do. do. 
Junes, $2 75 a $3 per bbl.; do. do. Mercers, $3 25 a 3 50 per bbl.; do. do. Reds, 
.$2 25 a $2 75 per bbl. 

Turnips.— Ruta Bagas, $1 25 a $1 50 per bbl. 

Onions. — New-Orleans, |3 25 a $3 50 per bbl. ; Bermuda, $3 per bbl. 

Vegetables are not over plenty in market, owing to the cold, stormy weather of 
the past week, which has had a tendency to make the prices of all kinds higher. 
Green peas — Jerseys are selling at $3 50 a 4 25 per bbl. Green Beans, $G a %1 per 
bbl. Long Island Peas, $1 25 a $1 37 per basket. Asparagus, $1 per doz. Lettuce, 
$1 25 a %\ 50 per doz. Radishes, $1 50 a $1 75 per hundred bunches. Pie Plant, 
75 a 87c. per doz. New Turnips, $6 a $8 per hundred bunches. 

Butter. — Orange County Pail, 23 a 25c. per lb. ; good State yellow (firkins), 24c. 
per lb. ; good State yellow (tubs), 22 a 23c. per lb. ; good State Welsh (tubs), 20 a 
22c. ; common State, 18 a 19c. per lb. ; good Western, 19 a 20c. per lb. ; common 
Western, 13 a 14c. per lb. 

Lard. — 13 a 15c. per lb. 

Cheese. — 10 a lie. per lb. 

Poultry. — Dressed Fowls, 13 a 14c. per lb. ; do. Turkeys, 15 a 17c. per lb. ; Live 
Fowls, 68 a 81c. per pair; do. Ducks, $1 per pair; do. Turkeys, 14 a 15o. per lb. ; 
Pigeons, |1 50 a 1 75 per dozen. 

Eggs. — State, 19-J- a 20c. per dozen; Western, 18c. per dozen. 

Beef. — By side, 10 a 12|c. per lb. Veal — 10 a 13c. per lb. 

Mutton. — 9 a lie. per lb. Lambs — $3 a $4 each. 

Pork.— Corn-fed, 9 a 9ic. per lb. ; Still-fed, 8| a 9c. per lb. 

Calves. — Slaughtered, 9 a lie. per lb. ; Live, 7 a 7^0. per lb. 

\N. Y. Times, June 20th. 

awEmciiN vhnmnz 

Vol. X. 


No. 2. 

Eural Economy of England. Scotland, and Ireland. 


In 1855 a Frencliman of the above name, after enjoying great ad- 
vantages for understanding the agriculture of his own country and of 
Great Britain, published a book of 400 pages, octavo, with the above 
title, in which he gives a vi\4d description of the agriculture of the 
United Kingdom, and with admirable discrimination compares it with 
the less prosperous condition of this great branch of human industry 
in his own France. 

Lavergne's book was translated into English, and republished in 
England and read by everybody there. He did the English 2>eople 
ample justice, and by this they were gratified ; he did it better than 
any Englishman had been able to do the same thing, and by this 
they were mortified. They were astonished that a little Frenchman 
should run over the Channel, mingle among them a few years, and 
then go back to belle France, knowing more of them than they knew 
of themselves, and telling the story better than their best writers had 
told it. That they should feel a little chagrin can not be wondered 

But the English have always had the good sense when a thing was 
done, to make the best of it, even if their king-had lost them their 
best provinces. It was so now. The book praised them, and they 
praised it. As the laudations were deserved on both sides, there was 
nothing unfair in the exchange. It might serve to prolong the alliance 
between the granddaughter of George III. and the nephew of Napo- 
leon. To praise and be praised is well enough ; but to be praised 
first and then to return the compliment better comports with Johu 

<36 Rural Economy. 

Bull's dignity ; and as for his writers, we advise them to redeem their 
laurels, by giving the world as truthful and graphic an account of 
French agriculture as Lavergne has of English. 

We have mentioned this book for the purjiose of giving our read- 
ers a few instructive facts from its pages ; and first with regard to 
Sheep culture, 

Lavergne informs us that wool has always been the primary object 
with the French farmer; meat only a secondary object; while with 
English farmers, the reverse has always been the favorite policy. He 
does not tell us, that now the carcase of an English sheep is worth 
more than both the carcase and wool of the French. If he had told 
us this, it would not have been far from the truth, Robert Bakewell, 
of the Dishley farm, in Leicestershire, conceived the idea of breedmg 
a race of sheep, that would give as much meat at the end of one year, 
as the old did at fehe end of three. He set about it. By the perse- 
verance of a lifetime, he accomplished the object, made himself rich, 
trebled the profits of sheej) farming throughout the midland counties, 
and gave England more wealth than their Australian gold will ever 

While Bakewell was doing this for the central regions, John Ell- 
man commenced an operation equally favorable for the chalk hills of 
the south, which resulted in the establishment of the farmers' South- 
downs, so called from the downs (hills) on which they were first rear- 
ed, though why those hills, which skirt nearly the whole south of 
England are called Downs, is more than we know, unless it be from 
the short, sweet, downy grass that grows upon them. Others com- 
menced the Cheviot race, a hardy, large-bodied, long-wooled (we 
suppose we ought to say long haired) race, adapted to the cold moun- 
tainous regions of North Britain. 

These races soon spread into other parts; and as the English have 
long studied adaptations, it was natural that each should diverge to- 
wards regions similar in soil and climate to that in which it originat- 
ed. Other breeds have arisen, but these are the principal ; the South- 
do^vn for the chalky or lime regions, where the grass is short, thick, 
and sweet ; the Leicesters, or Dishleys, as sometimes called, from the 
farm of the originator, for the rich valleys ; and the Cheviots for the 
cold, mountainous regions. Up to the time of these improvements, 
it had been the custom of English farmers to give their sheep good 
,, pasturage through the summer, and to leave them to shirk as they 
Vjould in winter. From being very fat in the fall, they became very 
lean in spring. Such men as Bakewell and Ellman reasoned that if a 
frog will be long in getting out of a well, by jumping up three feet 
in the day time and falling back as far in the night, a sheep will come 

Rural Economy. 67 

slowly to maturity, if he gain in summer and lose about as much in 

Their idea was to breed from parents maturing early, so as to create 
a tendency to early maturity, and then to feed in winter sufficiently 
to make up for the deficiency of the pasturage, in order to mature 
them by one continuous growth instead of three or four growths and 
retro-growths. Would not animals reach a larger size in one or two 
years, than in three or four ? The result has shown that they will. 
The present generation of English farmers are growing team horses, 
oxen, cows, sheep, swine, in about half the time their grandfathers 
did, and in many cases of larger size. Since George III., instigated 
by the very learned and amiable, but much mistaken Lord North, set 
the dogs of war upon our fathers, the average weight of horned cattle 
slaughtered at the Smithfield market has doubled. The average 
weight of sheep in the whole kingdom has probably mcreased as 

Lavergne assures us that the cattle strengthened in England, includ- 
ing veals, are twice and a half as heavy as those slaughtered in hi;- 
own country, on the average. It should be considered, however, that 
in France a larger proportion are slaughtered as veals, and fewer are 
raised from the very fact that by the practice there prevailing it re- 
quires about twice as long to rear an animal, and consequently the 
farmer can rear but about half as many. Lavergne states that the 
Leicester sheep get their full growth in one year, and average one 
hundred lbs. of mutton ; that the South-doAvns, on the shorter feed 
of calcareous soils require a year and a half, and average 80 lbs., and 
that the Cheviots in the North of England and the adjoining regions 
of Scotland, come to maturity in about two years, and give on an 
average a Uttle less weight than the South-downs. He believes 
that the present tendency is for these three races to absorb all others ; 
and he considers the English to have been profoundly wise in looking 
as they have, almost exclusively, at the meat producing qualities oi 
their flocks. If they have hitherto palmed upon us rather too mucL 
of the cloths made from the sheep, whose mutton chops are more to 
be commended than their wool, it may be well for us to look to that 
hereafter ; and if our Congress should look at it the next whiter, and 
correct what we consider to be an error of the last, the material pros- 
perity of our country would not fail to be promoted. 

That large portions of this coimtry can produce the finest of wool 
advantageously, there is not the least reason to doubt. That such 
wool should enjoy a reasonable protection we do not object, but wish 
that the duty in its favor were somewhat higher than it is, because 
we believe that the French and the German policy of keeping sheep 

68 Bural Economy. 

almost entirely for their wool — sheep that will give 10 or 12 lbs. of 
meat to the quarter and 3 or 4 lbs. of exceedingly fine wool, is the very 
best policy for a portion of the farmers of this country, promotive of 
their own and the national wealth. But we as confidently believe 
that the policy of the English, that of feeding sheep to weigh 25 lbs. 
to the quarter, and to give more wool but coarser, is the true policy 
of another portion of American farmers. Are the only sheep " pleas- 
ant to the eye and good for food" to be driven from the country, be- 
cause the lazy Spaniards or Creoles on the pampas of South Ameri- 
ca, with their stolen farms of three leagues square, can afford to grow 
wool for nothing, and throw away the carcase ? Is there a man among 
us who is unwiUing to give a cent more for his blanket, or two 
cents more for his working pants, or three more for his business coat, 
if made from wool grown by American farmers and manufactured by 
American mechanics ? And yet we do not believe that a protection 
on medium and lower grades of wool, sufiicient to quicken the hands 
of industry in every part of the land, would raise the price of these arti- 
cles so much ; and sure we are that it would give us more money to 
buy with of one another, than if the money for such articles is all to 
be sent to other countries. We have heard a great many reasons 
why the grower of sheep, whose meat is needed among us, but will 
not alone quite remunerate the grower, should be turned off without 
a cent of protection on the wool, because not of the first quality ; but 
all the reasons which we have heard seem to us just no reasons at all. 
Our reasoning is, that the meat of these large, beautiful, hardy sheep, 
which everywhere adorn the hills and valleys of Old England, will al- 
most remunerate the grower of them. If then he alone is not to go 
unprotected, he can make it a good business to grow them, for their 
ineat and wool together, to adorn with them our shores and river 
sides and lake coasts, and to make them as truly a source of national 
supply and of general industry as the finer- Avooled sheep better suited 
to higher and more inland situations. We believe that if there is one 
thing that should be protected more than any other, if it be admitted 
that a government may care in any respect for the industries of the 
people, it is the fleece of these very sheep, which Lavergne considers 
the surest source of agricultural wealth, aftbrding the best of food 
but not the finest of wool, quickly growing, of hardy habit, and 
better suited to large portions -of our country than any other. 

We may have recorded too many of our own thoughts, where 
we promised interesting and important facts from Lavergne, but 
our readers shall hear more from him hereafter, — Ed. 

Peruvian Guano. 69 

Peruvian Guano. 

An 4,ccount of the Guano Trade at the Chincha Islands, on the 

Coast of Peru. 

An intelligent gentleman, Maurice F. Nash, of New-York, who has 
been employed in loading ships with guano at the Chincha Islands, on 
the coast of Peru, has communicated to me much interestiuo- infor- 
mation with regard to the trade. He has been at the islands at three 
different times, and nearly six months in all. The last tune he was 
there was in the fall and summer of 1855. He says that he found at 
times five hundred sail of vessels together at the islands load- 
ing with guano, generally large ships ; one ship was 4,500 tons bur- 
then. Not less than 500 sail of vessels are now at the islands loadino- 
for the United States, Spain, Portugal, France, and English and Ger- 
man ports; some cargoes are sent to Constantinople, and some to 
Russian ports in the Black Sea. This was before the war in the Cri- 
mea ; the Russian trade will now open again, both from the Black Sea 
and the Baltic. Freights are high, £6 10s are often paid a ton for 
Liverpool and Hampton Roads ; generally 10 shillings more per ton 
freight is paid to Europe. At the rate at which guano is now shipped 
from the Chincha Islands, it will be exhausted in eight years ; not a 
ton will be left. Twenty thousand tons are sometimes removed from 
the islands in a single day. These islands arc situated opposite to 
the city of Pisco, 130 miles south and south-east from Callao and 
Lima, on the west coast of Peru, within the tropics, in latitude about 
13°, 46' south of the equator, in the great bay or bight of the coast. 
It never freezes, snows, or rains at these islands ; fogs are seldom seen • 
but in the winter months, which are June, July, and August, dcAvs 
come on at night occasionally ; water does not fall in sufficient quanti- 
ties to funiish a drink at the islands from one year's end to another 
nor do the eaves of the houses drop water. 

The Chincha Islands form a group about 10 miles from the main- 
land on the Peruvian coast; the rise and flill of the tide at the islands 
are regular and often equals six feet. The current of the gulf stream 
works up along the coast from the Straits of Magellan and Capo 
Horn, out of the Atlantic Ocean towards Panama Bay, by Valparaiso, 
Lima and Callao. This current is one branch of the Gulf Stream' 
which divides on the coast of Brazil ; one current runs north to the 
Gulf of Mexico, the other south toAvards Cape Horn and then up 
tlie coast of Peru to the coast south and east of Callao. Here the 
shore forms a bay or bight, into which the sea exuviae, consisting of 
animal matter, the remains of sea animals, floating and shell fish^ de- 
posits itself, and forms a vast bed of sea mud, of a chalky substance, 

70 Peruvian Guano. 

containing ammonia^ nitrogen and phosphate of lime and soda ; this 
mud is of a M'hite greeyi color. When the anchors of the ships arc 
raised at the ishmds they bring up hirge quantities of this guano mud, 
which, when dried, forms a substance like the guano on the islands, 
and when mixed with the guano, can not be distinguished from it. 

It will be asked from whence has come this great deposit of guano V 
We answer, from the animal and vegetable matter of the sea. A 
writer in one of the late English Reviews says : " That sea weed grows 
from the bottom of the ocean to the surface, in stalks from 1000 to 
2500 feet high, having stems scarce as big as a man's finger. A surface 
fifteen times greater than that of Great Britain covers the ocean with 
sea weed, stretching west from the Canaries and Caj)e Verd Islands, 
and east of the Gulf Stream ; this vast dominion is not only filled with 
vegetable, but also with animal life. All over the ocean in every 
clime and latitude the water is filled with animal life until every 
wave is converted into a crest of light by animals of the minutest 
form uj) to sea monsters, which derive nutriment from the waters 
impregnated with animal matter. Reason and imagination are 
equally confounded by the effort to conceive the numbers of those 
hosts of mdividual existence generated or annihilated at every pass- 
ing instant of time. No scheme of numbers can reach them even by 
approximation. All the materials of organic life are in a state of un- 
ceasing change from the minutest animalcule of the ocean to the le- 
viathan of the great deep." 

The laws of life and death in the ocean are the same as on land ; as 
we have above hinted the transformations are governed by the same 
Divine economy. The bones left on the field of Waterloo were gath- 
ered up to be put on the corn and grass fields of England to make 
other bones for the fields of Sebastopol and Balaklava. 

Man in his natural state was the last and most finished work of crea- 
tion ; he is naturally the longest lived of the whole animal kingdom. 
We are told by the philosophers that since the creation the remains of 
the human family alone would cover the land on the globe more than 
a foot deep of soil. What shall w^e say, then, of all the other animal 
and vegetable productions ? When death takes place a large portion 
of aU the animal and vegetable productions are carried by the streams 
and rivers into the ocean and there deposited ; the purest water from 
our springs contains much animal and vegetable, not to say mineral 
matter, which glides ofi" into the ocean and is there deposited and 
forms guano. 

We find the ocean also instinct and alive everywhere with vegeta- 
bles and animals in numbers and species beyound concej^tion ; these 
come on the stage of life at periodical times, from a moment to a hun- 

Peruvian Gxiano. 71 

dred years, live and all die ; and are changed and form other organi- 
zations. These decaymg animals and vegetables form guano, and 
form the blue and green mud around our bays and creeks, which is a 
fertile guano itself. The Gulf Stream commences in the Bay of 
Panama on the west coast of America, and is occasioned by the com- 
bined laws of attraction and motion, or by the centrifugal force of the 
fluids and air which lie on the surface of the globe. The earth turns 
on her axis east with a velocity of more than 1000 miles an hour ; on 
the equator it turns so rapidly that it runs away from the power of at- 
traction. The wind and water are not carried forward as fast as the 
surface of the earth, hence both the wind and the water of the ocean 
withki the tropics form a current to the westward, or rather the earth, 
runs away from both wind and water and leaves them behind, hence 
they both set off currents to the west, forming the trade winds, aud 
the Gulf Stream, These are forced west imtil they strike the Asiatic 
continent ; one branch turns off or is directed by the Eastern shore of 
Siam, China, and Japan, and forms a gulf stream, which sets north 
and east to Kamskatska, Another current sets south along the east- 
ern coast of New-Holland to New-Zealand and the Fejee Islands. 
But the main current continues on through the East Indies into the 
Indian Ocean, and through it and by the Cape of Good Hope, thence up 
to the Bay of Guinea and across to the Gulf of Mexico, while another 
large current sets over from the Cape of Good Hope to South Ameri- 
ca direct, and then it parts ; one stream runs north to the West Indies 
and the Carribean Sea, and thence mto the Gulf of Mexico. The 
south stream runs below Pernambuco, up along the South American 
coast, and is kept inside of the Falkland Islands through the Straits of 
Magellan, thence up by the coast of Chili and Pern, and then falls again 
into the Bay of Panama to commence another circuit of the globe. 
The north current on the American coast passes along North Ameri- 
ca to the coast of Europe, to Norway, then east of Spitsbergen Islands, 
thence into the Arctic Ocean, north of Russia, which greatly modifies 
the climate of the Arctic shores, and thence out to Behrings Straits, 
<Iown the coast of California to the Bay of Panama. It is the law of 
motion and attraction which is the principal cause of the ocean tides. 
The waves wash the American and Asiatic coasts, and are deflected 
back to the East, to the opposite shores in unceasing motion, like the 
pendulum of a clock, keeping one eternal time by tides like the 
motion of the earth in her orbit and on her axis, hence the high tides 
of the western sides of the ocean and the Eastern shores of the conti- 
nents, and that so rapid is the tide that on the occasion of the great 
earthquake at Japan, in 1855, the surge or tidal wave reached from 
Japan to California in five hours. 

72 Penivia7i G-uano. 

Along these great currents in the ocean the vegetable and animal 
matter, which fills the ocean, finds its great deposits. When life be- 
comes extinct they become the feeding grounds of the living races, 
hence the great deposits oi guano on the western coast of Peru, hence 
the great feeding grounds of fish on the Grand Banks of ISTewfouud- 
land, Scotland, Norway, California, Oregon, Behrings Straits, and 
Brazil, hence the sea eels or the Beach La Mer on the coast of Ncav- 
Holland, and at the Fejee Islands ; hence the great whaling grounds 
on the coast of America and Brazil, in the Okhotsko Sea, in the Indian 
Ocean, and on the coasts of Africa ; hence the sperm whale only is 
foimd within the tropics where an abundance of food of a peculiar 
kind is supplied to produce the white flesh and bone of the sperm 

The largest of the Chincha group is two miles in length, and a quar- 
ter of a mile wide ; this contains only a small quantity of guano. The 
most northerly is the smallest, being about a mile in length by half a 
mile in breadth. Guano on this island is 250 feet deep. This island 
contains a Ohinese settlement of Coolies, about 1,000 in number, who 
are employed in digging guano and loading the vessels. A task is 
given them each day, and if the gang fail to get out the given number 
of wagon loads of two tons each a day, their bondage is continued a 
longer jDoriod to make it up ; so many months or days being added as 
wagon loads are wanting. 

The Coolies are cheated into the belief that they are to be shipped 
from China to California and the gold diggings, and are further de- 
ceived by the offer of a free passage. The knowing Chinese, or the 
mandarins, ship them ; the shipmaster carries them to the Peruvian 
coast and sells the cargo of living Chinese to the Peruvian Govern- 
ment for his freight money ; all this time the Chinamen are kej^t in 
irons and confined below in the hold of the ship. The Peruvian Gov- 
ernment purchase the cargo of living Coolies, paying the Yankee or 
English captain a roimd sum for his care, dilligence and labor in steal- 
ing Chinamen from their homes to be sent into the guano 7nines of 
Peru for life, or for five or seven years, and to be held in bondage or 
peonage to pay their passage to the glorious land of the Incas I Once 
on the islands a Chinamen seldom gets off, but remains a slave, to die 
there. The guano is hard and firmly imbedded m strata on the 
islands, and can only be broken up with the pick-axe and crow-bar ; 
it is then broken and shoveled into the Avagons and rolled into the 
shutes of the vessels and then stowed in the hold of the ship as cargo 
in bulk, in which shape it is sent to market all round the world ; but 
it loses much of its ammonia in the transportation and exposure to the 
atmosphere, and is often adulterated with earth. The guano, when 

Peruvian Chiano. '73 

pressed into the hold of the ship is very offensive ; the seamen of ships 
do not go below to trim the ship or to stow cargo ; this is done by the 
native Peruvians, who strip themselves naked, fasten a sponge or a mop 
of hemp over their mouth and nose, and cover their eyes with a thin 
gauze, and work below to stow cargo ; generally the men below can 
not work longer than from ten to twenty minutes before they come 
on deck to catch a breathmg spell, when another gang go immediately 
down below to work and repeat the same operation every fifteen to 
twenty minutes. These stevedores are paid by the Peruvian Govern- 
ment to stow the cargo at the rate of only one dollar every 500 tons 
of cargo ; this is again a charge on the ship, and amounts to about 
twenty cents for 100 tons cargo stowed. 

The smell of the guano when stowed in the hold of the ship is 
strongly like quick-lime and hartshorn combined ; indeed it is mostly a 
carbonate of ammonia ; the ammonia may have come from a chemi- 
cal action of the atmosphere, working on animal matter, lime and soda. 
The animal matter, nitrate of lime and saltpetre, has much to do in 
the composition of guano at these islands. Such is the opinion of our 

No person can go upon or come away from the islands without a 
pass, as they are guarded by more than one hundred armed soldiers 
belonging to Peru. 

The Peruvians send all their prisoners of state into the guano mines? 
say about two or three hundred, where they are let out to work by 
day, and at night are shut up m their cells with only two meals per 

The prisoners are given twenty-five cents a day by the Government 
for their support, out of which they are to clothe and feed themselves, 
and when they can spare a little money they keep a woman ; they 
generally make out to provide themselves with wives, or female com- 
panions who have been permitted to go to the islands and hire them- 
selves out for work and prostitution. These are mostly Indian women, 
who are natives of the country. 

There is no fresh water on the islands, and each vessel is compelled 
by law to carry a ton of fi-esh water there for every 100 tons burthen 
of the ship. The oldest captain in the fleet, from each nation, is ap- 
pointed Commodore jp:)ro tempore^ hoists his flag as such on his ship, 
where all disputes are settled. Indeed, the municipal laws of the 
islands and of the fleet are decidedly of Yankee origin. 

The islands are composed of new red sandstone, the guano is (not 
much of it) composed of bird clung^ but is composed of the mud of the 
ocean. That brought from Peru is so. 

Sea birds and seals come upon the islands when the people are not 

74 Peruvian Guano. 

at work, but it does not appear that their dung or decayed bodies are 
more than a foot deep on any of the islands. Fish are taken in great 
quantities about these islands, as are also seals, which come there in 
large shoals ; sea-lions also abound. The composition taken from the 
islands called guano is stratified, and lies in the same form it did 
before it was hfted up from the botton of the ocean. Our informant 
says that a geological examination of the islands will satisfy any man 
that what the guano ships are bringing away from these islands is a 
very different thing from the dung of birds or decomposed land ani- 

The whole Peruvian coast opposite these islands is of the latest 
geological formation, and seems to be volcanic. The Chincha Islands 
evidently have been thrown uj) from the bottom of the ocean with 
their guano on them. The bottom of the ocean on the west coast of 
Peru contains vast deposits of guauo. An island during an earthquake 
rose up in the bay of Callao, some years since, from the sea, containing 
guano four feet deej), the formation the same as the Chincha Islands. 

The average depth of the ocean is said to be about ten thousand 
feet, while the average height of all the laud above does not exceed 
one thousand feet. The proportion of land to water is only one fourth 
of the surface of the globe, perhaps less ; now as the ocean is the great 
basin into which m6st of the animal and vegetable matter from laud 
and sea is ultimately deposited, and there forms guano, we must look for 
fertilizers in the dej^osits of the ocean ; and from this source they come. 
Also the mud of the River Nile, in Egypt, is very fertile ; this is so 
because it is largely comjjosed of animal matter ; so is the mud of the 
Oanges, of the Amazon, of the Mississippi, and of all the great rivers ; 
to is the mud deposited from our cities. The nitrogen from vegetable 
and animal matter carried down the rivers afford great quantities of 
food for the fish of various kinds that visit the mouths of the streams, 
hence the great feedmg grounds for fish at the mouth of the Colum- 
bia river, the La Plata, the Amazon, the Chesapeake Bay, the St. 
Lawrence, the Amoor in China, and other notorious streams. So are 
the deposits of animal matter in the ocean, which raised up have formed 
the Chincha Islands — guano. 

The composition of the guano at the Chincha Islands is evidently 
marine animal exuvice mixed with* lime and soda, which gives out car- 
bonate of ammonia in large quantities when broken ; much of the fertili- 
ty of the guano is lost by exposure to the atmosphere even before it 
reaches us. The white and blue mud found in our creeks, bays and 
harbors along the Atlantic coast, is one of the most valuable fertiUzers. 
This mud is mostly composed of animal matter and marine exuvise. 
Milhons of tons are at hand to be transferred to the compost heap. 

Peruvian Guano. 75 

This should always be under a shed to preserve the ammonia, and this 
creek and bay mud will prove itself adequate to the renovation of 
the fields of the Atlantic coasts. The more animal matter which can 
be worked into artificial manure, renders them more fertile for vege- 
table life. Whatever produces ammonia produces fertility. 

A snow storm in April is said to be as good for a farmer as a top 
dressing of manure for his farm. When great storms of snow come 
down on the earth in winter, we always find heavy crops of vegeta- 
tion succeed in the summer following. The reason is, when the snow 
crystalizes in particles m the heavens, they absorb ammonia from 
the atmosphere, and bring it down to the earth. 

The ammonia liquor is the great stimulent for both animal and vege- 
table life. The reproductive powers of animals contain a superabun- 
dance of ammonia, and without it nothing is fertile, but all is barren. 
During drouth time we have often witnessed attempts at irrigation, 
but the growth of vegetation under irrigation is small indeed compared 
with the growth during the same length of time under the operation 
of rains and showers. The great rains within the tropics produce an 
abundant growth of vegetation. The water from the heavens brings 
<lown large quantities of ammonia. 

The guano along our coasts, at the mouths of our rivers, and in the 
bays and creeks through the Atlantic seaboard, is vast in quantity, 
almost beyond calculation. This can be transferred to the barn-yard 
at one half the cost of Peruvian guano, and will prove an invaluable 
manure. On the south side of the north island, the rock has much 
slag and iron ore^ and volcanic cinders in it. On this island is the most 
of the guano which is found at the islands, and it is stratified in its bed. 
There are many small islands composmg the Chincha group, where 
birds and seals resort, but very little guano, comparatively speaking, 
is found on them, and this of an inferior quahty. They are not cover- 
ed with the real guano, but with a deposit of bird lime, or dung, and 
dead animals, small in quantity and thickness. The seals, when they 
become sick, come on to the islands to die ; they are much inclined 
also to come on to the shore when not disturbed, to bring forth their 
young ; so does the animal called the sea-lion, which is an enormous 
seal., strong and ferocious. Whales and black-fish are plenty around 
these islands, and come in shore to clean themselves of the barnacles 
Avhich accumulate on them. 

The sea-elephant is a very large species of seal, from which the sea- 
elephant oil is taken, and occasionally it appears at these islands ; the 
fish around these islands are eels, in a great abundance also a species of 
bass, and rock cod, herrings, the fly-fish, the shad-fish, or a fish very sim- 
ilar, a large shell fish, like sea snails and cockel, are found in great quan- 

Did Tou Emrf 

tities around these islands. Tlie -whole ocean is alive with inliabitants. 
This resort offish brings the seals and bu-ds into these waters in great 
quantities, which makes this sea their feeding grounds. The same 
cause on the western coast of Peru, ag those on the Grand Banks of 
Newfoundland, produce the great shoals of fish at the Cliincha 

Messrs. Gibbs & Bright, of Liverpool, have a lease of the guano 
islands from the Peruvian Government for five years, which expires in 
1857, but they expect a renewal. This house pays the Peruvian Gov- 
ernment about 84 50 a ton for the privilege of taking all the guano 
from the islands, the Government furnishing the men to dig the 

The ships that load at the islands are mostly ships chartered to carry 
a cargo, or are sent there by the owners to take away a cargo bought 
of Gibbs & Bright, who have the entire monopoly of the trade at the 

The day will come when the guano at these islands "udll be drudged 
uj) with boats, like mud from our rivers and harbors. 

Ai/ANSON Nash, 
36 Beekman street, New York. 

Did You Ever? 

We feel just like telling our farmer readers a story. Some days 
since a gentleman (we are not so sure of that, a man at any rate) came 
into our ofiice for the purpose of getting a machme of his, for pulver- 
izing the soil, put before the public, with our commendation. We 
were out at the time. Our associate told him precisely as we should, 
had we been on hand, that we could commend nothing till fully satis- 
fied of its excellence, that if he could give us proof that it would be for 
the farmer's interst to purchase his implement at the price he would 
sell it for, we would speak of it in fitting terms. 

He thought it a prodigious pity that we should have more sympathy 
for the rich farmer, selling his produce at enormous prices, than for 
the poor inventor, struggling against poverty, dear bread, and a hard- 
hearted, unbelieving world, too stmgy to throw away the old ploughs 
and get something better. But the chapter ended, and he left in a 
dudgeon, as we have since learned he before had several other offices. 

A friend of his invited us, some evenings afterwards, to call with 
him at the inventor's rooms and see him. With some reluctance we 
called. It was not over and above pleasant to have our associate 
abused for the very thing we would have done. Nevertheless, we 
bore it like an Atlas ; heard the whole corps editorial used up ; 

Did You Ever? 77 

there was not a decent grease spot left ; and were told that we were 
not a whit better than the rest, simply because we were iinY>^illing to 
commend a new machine, till we could see it, know how it would 
work, whether it could be had at a price within the profits of agri- 
culture, &c,, &c. We made some feeble efforts to show that editors, 
high and low, Greeley, Bennett, and all the rest, down to om* humble 
selves, are only about as wicked as the rest of mankind. But it was 
no go. Volubility and loud talk are weapons, from which we think 
the wisest part of valor is to retreat. 

We have told this story for tUe sake of the moral. The moral is 
this ; — ^The farmers being industrious, working men, always at home, 
more or less out of the centers of the earliest news, are very liable to 
be jockeyed by a set of men who have their foci of operations in our 
larger cities ; and the consequence is, either that they are compelled 
in self-protection to resist all innovations, and so to hinder the pro- 
gress of their own most important art ; or, if they catch the spirit of 
the age, and adopt proposed improvements promptly, there is a strong 
chance for them to be sadly mortified and deeply injured — cheated 
(we don't know a better word for our purpose) out of their hard earn- 
ings, by gross imposition. It is not the mechanics who do this. The 
mechanic is the farmer's best friend — makes his market, is willing to 
do his work at a reasonable price, and to exchange commodities at fair 
rates, to live and let live. It is not the inventors, as such, that do the 
mischief. No man should be held in higher repute than the honest 
inventor. Nor yet is the manure vender necessarily a rogue. That a 
good many rogues have got into that business, does not prove that all 
are such. The business of transfering city ofial to the farms is a good 
business for all parties, if honestly conducted. There is room m it for 
a large number to operate, and yet so as to leave the country the 
richer and the city the cleaner. 

Who does not know that not one in ten of all useful inventions re- 
main long in the hands of the men who did the brain work ? And 
nearly all useless inventions, either die quick, and are out of the way, 
or they flill into second hands. It is mainly those who are ever ready 
to jump on another man's horse and throw the owner ofi", and not the 
original inventors, who cheat mankind fore and aft with patents. We 
will stand up for the inventors, for we want the world to go ahead 
and to do things in a better way, whenever'a better way can be found. 
But let us ask them one question ; — why is it that so many of you fail 
to hold your own inventions and to reap the reward instead of leaving 
them to enrich sharpers ? Is it not, in too many cases, (we by no 
means say always,) because you hold the privilege to use your machines 
or your discoveries so high, that the world will wait longer before it 

Bid You Ever? 

consents to the bargain, than you can wait for your money? We 
would say to manure venders and patentees, do not be too grasping. 
Be willing that the buyers, and those who use your wares, should 
make money as well as yourself. A deal of guano has been imported 
into this coimtry. Money has been made on it. But who has made 
it ? The shipper ; the vender ; we wish we could say the farmer ; and 
doubtless some farmers have profited by it ; but not the farmers who 
have used it, as a whole ; for they have bought so much stuft' for 
guano, that was something else, that the real article, as a whole, has 
cost them over $100 a ton, and the profit has been either small, or out 
of pocket. The merchants, the middlemen, some of the inventors 
even, are grasping. They object to a fair division of the profit. Give 
them a sudden fortune, and they do not care whether God or the devil 
takes care of the rest. 

A case in point ; — there is now in this city a plough, digger, spader, 
pulverizer, or what you choose to call it, seeking buyers at six 
hundred dollars. The holder of the patent assures us that it will do 
wonders. O ! yes, it can be drawn by a single horse, or a man even, 
so light is the draft, and it will do more work and better, in one day, 
than the strongest team with a plough in three, and then it will never 
get out of repair. The real facts are, that it has some excellent 
l)oints ; but in our judgment, formed from a drawing only, the draft 
would be entirely too heavy for anything short of a steam power, and 
the machine always out of running order, except in the most feasible 

That the holder of a j)atent should indulge in expectations, more 
fanciful than well formed, is nothing strange ; nor is it very strange 
that this man should run away with the idea, as he does, that he has 
an invention, which the farmers can not get along without, and so will 
be glad to pay his price, whatever it may be. But let us see how he 
proposes to divide the profits. He informs us that he can build the 
machine for $150, and from that to $200 for the very largest and best, 
but that not one shall be sold short of $600. Now if this man has a 
machine, which all who cultivate the ground must have ; if, as he 
says, no farmer without it can compete with those who use it, is it 
generous, is it right to hold it quite so high ? Supposmg one million, 
or about one m five, of the farmers in this country, should pay his 
clean profit of $400, what would one man do with so much money ? 
Or, if he could carry thirty times as much as Jacob Astor ever possess- 
ed, would he feel any better for taking so much from the farmers of 
his country ? 

We are very far from wishing to compare all who seek the farmer's 
patronage with this man. There are hosts of implement makers, 

Bearing and Feeding of Swine. 1^ 

seedsmen, manure venders, and patentees, who are willing to deal 
fairly. But there are others, men who seem to live by honest labor, 
and to become rich by sIoav degrees, who are seeking to gouge the 
laborious, home-keeping cultivators of the soil. They love the farmer 
no doubt ; but they love his money-bag a great deal better ; and they 
are not satisfied to deal with him on terms equally beneficial to both 
parties ; but are managing to make more rich in a year by their trade, 
than he can in life by constant labor. The evil is a great one, because 
it forces the farmer to be so on his guard against imposition, that he 
almost unconsciously falls into an attitude of resistance to real im- 
provements. This unceasing schemmg in our cities to gouge the farm- 
ers is what more than any other one thing now impedes the progress 
of agricultural improvement in the whole country. It is a crime 
against patriotism and humanity, and ought to be intensely detested. 


Rearing and Feeding of Swine. 

Messes. Editors : — It has struck me that I might, in some small 
measure, aid the cause you advocate, by communicating my views ou 
the rearing and feeding of swine ; a topic recently discussed at the 
meeting of Legislative farmers m Massachusetts. Every farmer 
should raise and keep a few hogs. In themselves they are valua- 
ble, essential in the feed of his family. No man can get along 
comfortably without the use of a certain quantity of pork. All the 
parts of the hog will be found convenient in their domestic arrange- 
ments. They can be reared and fed without much extra expense, 
especially on a farm where the dairy processes of making butter and 
cheese are carried on. But what I would paticularly notice in re- 
lation to the hog, is the benefit of his services in preparing fertilizers 
for their fields. Let a farmer keep half a dozen hogs, and take care 
to sujDply them well with material for the making of manure, from the 
swamp, the meadow, and the road-side, and I hesitate not to say that 
the value of the manure made by them, at the close of the year, will 
be quite equal to the value of the meat, even, though it bring, as noAV, 
12 cents per pound. How can the farmer apply some portion of his 
leisure hours to better advantage, than by looking after such a family 
of hogs ? I remember this was always done on the farm where I 
was brought up, and they found their account in so doing. What 
breed of hogs is to be preferred ? For a time the Sufl:blk, with their 
short legs, round and plump bodies, have been all the go ; but since it 
is ascertained that their meat does not cook well in the pot ; that 
there is much uncertainty in procuring fair litters of pigs ; and that 

80 In Health Prepare for Sickness, 

their growth costs more a pound than many of our native hogs, their 
admirers have become few and far between. I heard a man of much 
experience say, that he would sooner grow the common hog at ten 
cents the pound, than the Suffolk at twenty-Jive cents per pound. If 
this be so, the Suflblk will go down, for no man will continue to grow 
pigs for their beauty alone. Beauty is of value, but utility more so. 
Essex Co., Mass. P. 


In Health Prepare for Sickness, in Summer for Winter. 

Messrs. Editoks : — Experience is a good school, although we too 
often pay a high tuition for that branch of education. The exj^erience 
of last winter has proved such to many a farmer in this section of the 
country ; and it has taught them a lesson that they will not soon forget. 
It has been the practice of many to put up just what hay they thought 
would possibly do by letting their cattle run in the stalk field after the 
corn was picked. Here they would keep their cattle until they had 
eaten (because they were forced to) everything they could eat, of the 
frost-bitten leaves of the cornstalks, before they would feed any hay or 
even corn. The winters previous to fifty-six and seven have generally 
been very mild in this portion of country, so that it has required but 
little care and attention to winter stock. Many prophesied an open 
winter last fa'l, and for that reason laid up but a small portion of feed 
for their stock, cut up but little if any of their corn fodder, but left it 
for them to pick for themselves, as heretofore. 

What has been the consequence ? Winter set in very early, and 
very severe, with a heavy body of snow, so that the cornfield that 
was designed to keep the cattle for a month or more was entirely 
buried under snow, and remained so until the last of February. The 
small quantity of hay that many of them had on hand v/as entirely 
fed out. The straw, when the wheat was threshed ofi" from it, was 
thrown into a pile, and of course was of but little use. After the last 
of January, or the middle of February, many were out of feed, espe- 
cially those that were too lazy or negligent to cut hay for stock ; and 
the result was that many of them died. 

When I was quite young I was sent from home, owing to the mis- 
fortune of having a poor father, to " pick my own living," and as I 
had the good fortune to get a good place, I stayed there for fourteen 
years, and during that time my " boss" told me, when I went for my- 
self, to be sure and " lay in a good supply of fodder ; to use every thing 
that would make good food for cattle, and to be sure to have enough 
in the fall to last through the winter." This advice I have followed. 
Last August I cut a good supply of hay, and then cut and secured my 

In Health Prepare for Sickness. 81 

corn fodder, so that I had sufficient to last me through a long and 
severe winter. 

This country has taken more curses for its backward spring " than 
you could shake a stick at." Every one has growled because he has 
not had feed enough to keep his stock through the long winters, and 
it is the " meanest country in the world." Who is to blame ? Is the 
Ahnighty the one to find fault with because we have not feed enough, 
when he has furnished us thousands of acres of grass, and all we had 
to do was to cut it and put it up ? iVo ; it was our own negligence. 
There was the grass, and why did we not cut it ? 

Last winter was a severe one. Let us take heed from it, and never 
let another fall pass over our heads without putting up plenty of fod- 
der, as long as there is plenty of it to cut. Let us take care of our 
own fodder, cut it up, and secure it, and learn a lesson from the past 
to guide us in the future. One million of dollars would not cover the 
money that has been lost by cattle dying for the want of feed, 
and this in the State of Iowa. Iowa farmers, lay in fodder this com- 
ing fill for the extra forty days of winter. Do not say as did Ezekiel, 
" can these dry bones live ?" but say " that these lazy bones shall 
move." Mr. Editor, may the past winter teach Oliver Shiftless 
and Mr. Negligent to prepare while in health for sickness. May it 
teach Mr. Let-go-to-waste to take care of what he has got, and not 
let his dumb beasts starve. Simon Go-to-town-too-often, stay at home, 
and put up feed enough to winter your cattle. Do not find fault with 
Him who makes the grass grow, because you are not at home long 
enough to cut it. It is your fau't, not His. 

Farmers, and pretend-to-be farmers, take heed from the past, for 
another winter will soon be iipon us. L. S. Spencer. 

Lyme, Warren Co., Iowa. 

The writer of the above said to us in a private note, " This was 
written in haste ; please put it in shape." We have made the fewest 
possible alterations, because we like the shape as it is. 

Not all parts of the country, like that of our corresi)ondent, have 
grass enough, and to spare, nor do all parts give hay for the cutting. 
But where the winter food cannot be increased at pleasure, the stock 
should be diminished, as good sense and forethought may decide. It 
is bad policy and worse humanity to begin our winters with less feed 
than stock. Every farmer should be prepared for a hard winter. — Ep. 

82 More about Guano. 

More about Guano. 

Is it of any consequence how we pronounce this word ? Not much. 
It will make the corn grow under one name as well as another ; and it 
will cheat the farmer as Ladly, if he buys it of a rogue, under one 
pronunciation as another. Still it might be as well to pronounce the 
name of an article so common among us correctly. No one of us 
says lan-gu-age^ but lan-guage^ runnuig the u and a into one syllable. 
Why then should we say guan-o or gu-a-no ? This is murdering the 
Spanish Queen's lengua and our own language to boot. Make the 
word of two syllables ; pronounce the gua precisely as in the English 
word language ; but give the a the sound of a in father, and not the 
flat sound, and you will be right. So much for the word, and now 
for the thing. 

Our object is to give the farmer some tests, by which he may form 
an oi)inion, not very accurate perhaps, yet better than none, of the 
value of an article that may be presented, with this name. It has be- 
come very clear, we think, that no guano yet offered, except that ot 
the Chincha Islands, nor that unless it comes to the farmer very du-ect 
nor always even in that case, is worth buying. There may be honest 
dealers in other guanos ; new guanos may yet come mto the market ; 
the American guano company in this city has an article which may 
prove good, and they 7nay offer it, for a wonder, at a price which 
would be fail*, as between them and the farmer ; but as the case now 
stands, we would advise the farmers not to buy a dollar's worth of any 
guano except the Peruvian, nor that without the utmost care to get a 
pure article, inasmuch as it is quite certain that no other will pay at 
present prices. The truth is, notwithstanding mterested efforts to 
prove the contrary, that the Peruvian guano is not all gone yet. 
There is considerable of the same sort left, and we should not be sorry 
to see the holders so brought to their stomachs, as to be willing to 
dispose of it on the broad principle of " live and let live." 

If the buyer is shown an analysis, which he can make up his mind 
to place confidence in, let him look specially at the figures rejDresenting 
the organic matters containing ammonia, those representing phos- 
phates, and those expressing the proportion of Avater. In a first rate 
guano, there will be little water, which, although a good thing for 
vegetation, we could hardly afford to buy and transport ; not more 
than 20 or 25 per cent of phosphates, which, if good fertilizers, as they 
certainly are, especially for permanent amendments of soils, are not 
good enough to be bought at guano jDrices; and as much as 50 per 
cent, of organic matters, containing ammonia. Or if, instead of the 

More about Guano. 83 

organic matters, the amounts of actual and potential ammonia are 
stated, these should be large, not much less than 20 per cent., if you 
are to get your money back, as these are the only ingredients for 
which anything Hke |60 a ton, or even half that, can be afforded ; and 
we think that the buyer would do well to ascertam, if he can, that 
the analyst is not a very particular friend of the seller. 

But if you are going to buy largely, it would be well to take home 
a few lbs. as a sample, and experiment with it yourself Put an ac- 
curately weighed lb., spread thinly upon a sheet of paper, into an 
oven nearly hot enough to bake bread. This should be done soon 
after the guano is taken from the bulk, as its tendency is to absurb 
water from the air and become heavier by keeping. If it looses large- 
ly, in weight, although the loss might not be wholly of water, yet 
this would indicate that it contains more water than you would care 
to buy at a high price. 

A general rule is, that the lighter the color, the letter the guano. 
This may not in all cases be true, especially with small samples. We 
have seen those, which were nearly white, and yet not very valuable. 
But lightness of color is a good indication as far as it goes. It gives 
at least a strong probability, that the guano is not so far decomposed 
as to have lost its organic matter. 

Rub a pinch of the guano, with as much quick-lime, slightly mois- 
tened, between tw^o shingles or bits of board. If it gives out a strong 
pungent odor, affecting the eyes, causing one to sneeze, and producing 
a dense vapor about a feather, first dipped in strong vinegar or muri- 
atic acid, and then held over it, it is probably good. If it fails to do 
this it is certainly inferior, and may be set down as not worth the 
present price of Peruvian guano. 

Next, put a little, say a teaspoonful, into a pint of pure, soft water. 
Stir it about for some minutes, and then pour off the water with the 
fine matters floating in it. If any considerable coarse matter remains 
at the bottom, it is a bad indication. The coarse sediment remaining 
in the vessel is worth nothing, and much of the finer parts, that flow- 
ed off with the water, may be, and probably are, worth but little. 
But if the guano seems nearly all to dissolve, so that the water flows 
off but little riled, and almost no sediment is left, the indication is 
avorable, though not alone to be depended upon. 

You might now heat a portion to redness, and throw what is not 
burned away, into dilute muriatic acid. This can be obtained at 
almost any apothecary's ; one part of acid to three or four of water 
would be a good proportion. If nearly the whole is not dissolved the 
indication is a bad one. In the ash of a high priced guano, there 

84 Ifowers. 

should be nothing, or next to nothing insoluble in dilute muriatic 

If, then, you are gomg to purchase a high-priced guano, relying on 
analysis, insist that it be highly ammouial, not very phosphatic, and lit- 
tle Tratery. If you trust to your own judgment, look for that which is 
nearly dry, which is light in color, stings the eyes and tingles the nose 
when rubbed with quick-lime, leaves little sediment when washed 
with water, and almost none when burned and treated to muriatic 

In what ratio the value of guano diminishes, as it fails to give the 
above favorable indications, would be hard to say. But we very 
much suspect that a good many American farmers have paid conside- 
rable sums for guanos sold under false names, and not so valuable, 
ton for ton, as the sheep manure in their own folds, which they perhaps, 
though we think unwisely, would have sold for one dollar a ton. — Ed. 



Messrs. Editors : — I regret my inability to witness the entire- 
operations of the mowers presented at Syracuse ; for I consider the 
exiDcriments iindertaken by Col. Wilder and others, of the first im- 
portance to the farming community. They have long been waiting 
with anxious solicitude the perfection of this class of implements. But 
so long as those who construct them are more anxious to serve them- 
selves by the sale, than the farmers by their use, we may expect to 
postpone their maturity. There can be no apology in using timber 
or iron of bad quality, or bad skill in their construction — nothing but 
the best of material and the best of art will answer for such imple- 
ments. I will not presume to speak of particular implements, because 
the Committee themselves are much more competent to do this. For 
thi'ee years 1 have been waiting to see a machine that can be relied 
on, to operate through the day without giving out in some of its parts. 
Nothing can be more annoying to the practical farmer, who is not ex- 
pected to be expert in all the mysteries of mechanics, than when his 
horses are trained ready to move, and his grass is grown ready to be 
cut, and the sun is shining ready to cure it, and his hands are in readi- 
ness to operate, to have his implement fail in a manner that he can not 
repair — and for reasons that should not have existed, if the maker had 
been honest. A few such occurrences will forever blast the hopes of 
the enterprise. I do not mean to charge upon the makers of farm 
implements, any greater degree of dishonesty than is to be found in 
most other employments. The fact is the all-absorbing desire to make 

Underdraining. 85 

money, and to make it without delay, is the bane of all healthy ad- 
vancement. Too much credit can not be awarded to the highminded 
and honorable gentlemen, who have come together, from the East, 
the West, and the South, with a determination fully to understand 
this matter — and it is to be hoped that their perseverance, with the 
suggestions of honest Editors, like yourselves, wiU give the community 
opinions that will stand the racket. 

Ever faithfully yours, 
Bkooklyn, July 17th, 1857. J. W. Peoctoe. 


The importance of a good drain under every post fence, is not gen- 
erally understood. Wherever post holes retain water, they are sure 
to be heaved by frost, and the fence thrown out of shape ; and the 
posts can not last so long, where they are alternately subjected to 
water soaking and drying. But if all the water which foils, passes im- 
mediately down into the ditch, it can not lie in contact with the posts 
long enough to soak them, and as a consequence, they must remain 
perpetually dry, and last for a long period. Robert B. Howland, 
of Union Springs, N. Y., who has used Pratt's Ditcher with success, 
found it cheaper to cut a ditch with this machine, in which to set the 
posts for a fence, than simply to dig the post-holes by hand, and he 
thus attained all the advantages of drainage besides a practice well 
worth copying. 

A single suggestion on the efficacy of underdraining, on lands that 
do not at all appear to need it. It is a very good rule for determin- 
ing its necessity, to observe whether water will stand in holes dug 
two or three feet for this purpose. If the subsoil is porous, the water 
will immediately sink away, and ditches would be wholly useless. 
But if water will stand 48 hours in the holes, draining is necessary to 
reUeve the subsoil of this cold and chilUng mass which fills it. 

Now, if the surplus water in the soil and subsoil at the wettest 
period, is only equal to a depth of two inches, then for a ten acre field 
it would amomit to more than seven thousand hogsheads. Suppose, 
therefore, that this field has such a slope as to give it what many 
would suppose a natural drainage — " not needing ditchiag"— " dry 
enough already" — then, in getting rid of these seven thousand hogs- 
heads of hurtful water, it must, every gill of it, soak drop by drop, 
from one particle of earth to another, until it all passes slowly down, 
and almost imperceptibly from one side of the field to the other. No 
wonder that days and even weeks are required to complete the pro- 
cess, and to render the land dry enough to become friable and fit to 
receive seed, and promote the extension of the young roots of crops. 
Now, give this field a smooth tabular channel or tile, for every two 
rods of its whole surface, the shortest way down the slope ; the water 
, in the soil has then only about one rod to soak through the soil before 
reachmg one of these drains, and most of it much less than a rod. 
When it reaches them, it shoots rapidly down the smooth descending 

86 Green-Manuring. 

tube, and in a few minutes has passed the boundary of the field, in- 
stead of being otherwise compelled to soak its weary way the Avhole 40 
or 50 rods, or entire breadth of the field. This rapid discharge reduces 
the dryness in so short a time, as to surprise those who have never 
witnessed it, and to lead to tlie common supposition that the simple 
statement of the practical advantages of thorough underdraining, by 
those who have given it a trial, are wild exaggerations. — 0. Yal. Far. 


Ban vers Town Farm, Essex Co., Mass. 

Messrs. Editoes : — Two years since, I had occasion to speak to the 
farmers in the State of Maine, of practical culture m Massachusetts, — 
and for want of something better, I told them what had actually been, 
within my omti observation, in my own village. Friends Southwich 
and Shoves, two gentlemen of standing and means, having long acted 
freely m the cajjacity of overseers of the poor of the town, advised to 
the purchase of a farm for their residence, employment, and support. 
xVccordingly, a farm of about 200 acres Avas j)urchased — situate 
about two miles from the population of the village — one half of which 
was covered with wood — the other half, poor exhausted gravely soil, 
and peat and sunless meadow — from which crops of the smallest pat- 
tern had been gathered by the former occupant. Many were recon- 
ciled to the purchase in the belief that the wood m a few years would 
pay for the farm. The wood was mainly cut at first, and taken to 
market, and then the treasury was relieved of the purchase. 

After the wood was gone, a system of deep ploughing and full ma- 
nuring was introduced. Some fifty swine were constantly kept to 
operate the materials gathered from the meadows and swamps. The 
offal from all the slaughter-houses of the village was secured for the 
feed of the swine. More than 200 cords of manure was made in the 
yards. All the liquids from the house, the stable, and the pig-yard, 
were conducted to the fields for grass. Meadows Avere ditched and 
drained. The hard lands were planted with corn, rye, and other grain? 
and crops of 30 bushels of Indian corn, 45 bushels of rye, and 50 
bushels of oats, and 25 bushels of wheat, were grown to the acre. 
Hay, from three to four tons to the acre, has repeatedly been cut from 
the reclaimed meadows. So much for the application of industry and 
skill. J. W. P. 


" If, instead of having the land exposed only to the action of the 
atmosphere, we crop it with a plant whose roots run in every direc- 
tion for food ; and if, when this plant has arrived at considerable 
growth, we turn it into the surface-soil, we have not only enriched the 

Utility of Birds. 87 

latter by the elements derived from the air, but also by matters both 
mineral and vegetable, fetched up from the subsoil. The j^lant thus 
acts the part of collecting the nourishment for a future crop, in a way 
that no mechanical subsoiling or trenching could eifect.'' — Way. 


Utility of Birds. 

Every o^ste who has paid attention to the matter, knows that even 
crows and blackbirds are productive of more good than harm, and 
that the vast increase of late years of destructive insects, is owing al- 
most entirely to the wanton destruction of birds which are not even 
legitimate game. 

In Japan the birds are regarded as sacred, and never under any 
pretense are they permitted to be destroyed. Durmg the stay of the 
expedition at Japan a number of officers started on a gunning excur- 
sion. No sooner did the people observe the cruel slaughtering of 
their favorites than a number of them waited on the Commodore and 
remonstrated against the conduct of the officers. There was no more 
bird shooting in Japan by American officers after that ; and when the 
treaty between the two countries was concluded, one express condition 
of it was, that the birds should always be protected. What a com- 
mentary upon the inhuman practice of our shooting gentry, who are 
as eager in the pursuit of a tomtit as of an eagle, and indiscriminately 
shoot everything in the form of a bird which has the misfortune to 
come within the reach of their murderous weapons. 

On the top of the tombstones in Japan, a small cavity or trough is 
chiseled, which the priests every mornmg fill Avith fresh water for the 
use of the birds. Enlightened America should imitate these customs 
of the barbarous Japanese, if not by providing fresh water for the 
feathered warblers, at least by protecting them from the worthless 
louts who so ruthlessly destroy them. Unless something is done, and 
that speedily, our insectivorous birds will be wholly exterminated, and 
then farewell to fruit-growing. A thousand plans have been suggested 
for the destruction of the curculio, all of which have proved worthless. 
We have one which we know to be infallible — " protect the birds." 

The swallows are the natural enemies of the swarming insects, liv- 
ing almost entirely upon taking their food upon the wing. The com- 
mon martin devours great quantities of wasps, beetles, and goldsmiths. 
A single bird will devour five thousand butterflies in a week. The 
moral of this is, that the husbandman should cultivate the society of 
swallows and martins about his land and buildings. 

The sparrows and wrens feed upon the crawling insects which lurk 
within the buds, foliage and flowers of plants. The wrens are pugna- 
cious, and a little box in a cherry tree vv^ill soon be appropriated^ by 
them, and they will drive other birds away that feed upon the fruit, a 
hint that chei-ry growers should remember this spring, and act upon. 
The thrushes, blue-birds, jays, and crows, prey upon butterflies, grass- 
hoppers, crickets, locusts, and the larger beetles. A single family of 
jays will consume 20,000 of these in a season of three months. 

The woodpeckers are armed with a stout, long bill, to penetrate. the 

88 Onions. 

■wood of trees where the borers dejiosit their larvre. They live almost 
entirely upon these worms. 

For the insects that come abroad only during the night, nature has 
pro\'ided a check in the nocturnal barn owl, which take their food 
upon the wing. 

How wonderful is this provision of Providence for restraint of dep- 
redators that live upon the labors of man, and how careful we should 
be not to dispute that beneficial law of compensation by wliich all 
thmgs are preserved in their just relation and proportion. 

Onions. 3 

Mr. Brown- :— In your March number of the Farmer^ I noticed a 
request of a subscriber for information respecting the culture of onions 
— and an invitation from yourself to any one who may possess such in- 
formation to impart it. I perceive, also, in the same number, a com- 
munication from Hollis Chafiin, of Providence, R. I., which purports 
to contain the secret of the whole business, but which, I am sorry to 
say, I have found to fail in my own case. Having tried almost every 
experiment in the growing of this vegetable, I feel some confidence in 
addressing your correspondent on the subject, and assuring him of 
07ie successful— ^though it may not, for large crops, prove a very profit- 
able mode of raising them. 

It was in 1848 the maggot first appeared among my onions, almost 
entirely destroying the crop, which led me the following year to test 
many of the modes recommended by agricultural journals for protect- 
ing the same. All these plans proved abortive. The next year ncAV 
experiments were tried, among which was freeing the ground of in- 
sects by great fermentation, but this also failed of success. A small 
crop was raised the subsequent year on rockweed, well decomposed, 
mixed with soil from an upland pasture. At that time, as none of my 
neighbors could succeed in the least, I imagined I had discovered the 
" secret," and presumed that a saline manure was all that was required 
to prevent injury from maggots, but in this I was mistaken, for the 
very next season the principal part of the crop was destroyed by this 

Spealdng one day with a person who had witnessed a mode of raising 
onions pursued in Nantucket, I was induced to try the follo-sving ex- 
periment, which I found to succeed. I marked out my bed the size I 
desired it, and threw out the soil to the depth of eight or ten inches. 
I then filled in with clam shells, which I then had leveled, and beat 
into a solid bed with a heavy maul, then slightly covered with rich 
soil, say less than one inch deep. In this I planted the seed, and ever 
smce have found no difiiculty in raising fine onions entirely free from 
the maggot. 

The origin of the maggot I have spoken of before in another journal, 
but for the benefit of such as are unacquainted therewith, I may re- 
peat the substance of what I then said. Almost invariably where a 
plant droops, it will be found to contain one or more maggots. Now 
by carefully removing the earth around the plant, will be seen a small 
insect, which will run from one lump of dirt to another, making great 

Drouth — Protection Against. 89 

exertions to secrete itself, which if allowed to do, it will work its way- 
deep into the soil, but if not permitted to hide, will fly away. This 
insect unquestionably deposits its O:^^ in the envelope of the stock, 
just under the surface of the ground, and next to the bulb, where it 
soon starts into life, and eating into the interior of the plant, works 
its destruction. This pest will not assail the plants where the fly can 
not penetrate easily into the earth. Old Oechaed, 

Maine, April 13th, 1857. New-England Farmer. 

Br oiith" -Protection Against. 

The frequent stirring of soils between the rows, is undoubtedly a 
protection, and, in ordinary cases, a sufficient protection against 
drouth. The air passes freely through soils frequently stirred ; and 
whenever air conies in contact with a body colder than itself, it de- 
posits moisture, as in a tumbler filled with ice water at the dinner ta- 
ble, or in the particles of a soil at some inches depth, and consequently 
colder than the air above the surface. When the farmer sees his 
tumbler sweat, as it is sometimes expressed, he may be assured, that 
so it fares with the soil six or eight inches below a well-stirred surface, 
provided the soil were mellowed to that or a greater depth before 
the crop Avas put in. 

Mulching is often an efficient protection against drouth. Straw, 
coarse hay, leaves, mold from the woods, chips, or even a pile of 
stones, laid around the roots of a newly-set tree, retards evaporation, 
and secures a moist condition for the roots. It is 'so with strawberries 
if the ground is mulched between the rows. Raspberries, blackber- 
ries, gooseberries, and many other crops may be partially protected 
in the same way. 

But the great source of protection in our country is in deep plough- 
ing. On a soil of any decent consistency, it would be impossible that 
a crop should suffer from the droiith, if the soil were pulverized to a 
depth of fifteen inches, because the lower portions of such a soil would 
retain moisture till long after the surface should have received new 
supplies from the clouds. If our readers are alarmed at fifteen inches as 
a depth which they despair of reaching, we think them too easily alarm- 
ed, but still we will meet them on higher ground. A field thoroughly 
pulverized to a depth often inches will seldom sufler from the drouth. 
Abundant and reliable testimonies have been published, going to 
show that fields jDloughed to a depth of eight or ten mches have es- 
caped unhurt, when other fields, equally well cultivated, with the sin- 
gle exception that they were ploughed but half as deep, have utterly 
failed of giving crops. That deep ploughing is a sufficient remedy 
agamst any ordinary drouth — any but the very longest and severest 
— is an estahlisJwd truth. — Ed. 

90 The Cotton Crop. 


The Cotton Crop. 

Edwards, Miss,, July 11th, 1857. 

Messes. Editors : — We have heard an old adage since our youth, 
" what is everybody's business is nobody's business," which is veri- 
fied daily. One may make a sweeping remark that interests a large 
community, yet no one takes upon himself to deny. 

My mind is thus directed from seeing the circular of one of the 
large houses in your citj^, Messrs. Stewart &> Co., as to this crop of cot- 
ton, and as yet have seen in only one or two of the many papers I see, 
any denial. The circular was gotten up for Europe, I think in May, 
and gave the information that the growing crop promised to be the 
largest ever known. Having loaned the paper out containing the ar- 
ticle, I can not quote the language. 

I have denied the fact m the Delta., published in New-Orleans, long 
enough to have been corrected by any Southern house of the same way 
of guessing, and now earnestly ask of you to permit me to deny in 
the positive the fact and to give some facts., as are facts. I know 
nothing of the house ; it may be reliable and only guesses occasionally, 
or it may not be worthy of a planter's notice, but nevertheless, I have 
never known a wilder guess in all my life, unless when a certain gentle- 
man went on to "Washington City as a member of Congress, waiting 
there for his papers — guessing he was elected, when lo ! the real mem- 
ber presented himself with his commission. AVhether these gentlemen 
are interested in purchase or sale, I know not, but I guess I know they 
could not have guessed wider of the truth, even had they a wish to 
depress prices and then to buy. Now for the facts : 

April 6, Ther. 31°, ice, sleet and hail last night. 
" 7, " 32°. 

" 12. Snowing fully two hours after daylight, and from near midnight. 
" 23, Ther. 31°, ice. 
" 24, " 35°. 
May, 5, " 54°. Yesterday morn. 49°. 
" 18, " 51°, 7 P.M., not above 53° all day, 51° at sun rise. 
" 19, " 40°, 6 A.M. 

I reside nearly east of Vicksburg, about lat. 32° 30', about the center 
of the best cotton region. How much more unfavorable say 2J° 
north, I leave you to guess. 

I never planted an acre of cotton over, before this year ; did j)lant 
over 60 acres on the 22d and 23d of April, and should have doubled it, 
but risked — now I would have preferred that I had planted over 160 
acres. Many of my friends living remote from protection of water, plant- 
ed all cotton over, and some again and again, even to three and five times 
planting before they secured a stand. Now, up to May, where is the 

Editorial Correspondence. 91 

man that had even a show for a crop of any size, should it be one half 
crop ? Since that time, we have had rains and cold weather beyond any 
former experience of mine, and this is my twenty-seventh crop in 
Mississippi. Even in July, we have had a fire over one half the morn- 
ings, and blankets needed at night three fourths of the time. I learn 
from a large planter of Alabama, whom I saw to-day, that when he left 
there, Jime the 1st, his cotton was not up. 

Present prospects. — The earliest bloom I had, and as early as any I 
have heard of near here, was on the 25th of June ; the earliest before, 
was on the 27th of May, the latest I have any record of in 27 years 
was on the 13th or 14th of June. Cotton is smaller than I ever saw 
it before. I have seen larger cotton and more blooms on the 10th of 
June, than now. 

What the crop may be I know not, nor would I venture now to say, 
but this I do say, if that house will only insure me the average crop for 
'57, that my crop on same land was in 1852, 1412 lbs. per acre, I will 
make them safe in any way they require, to $2000. This is no idle 
remark. I am willing to pay $2000 to insure my crop, as to pay $50 
to insure my gm house for four months. 

Yours, with esteem, M. W. Philips. 

Editorial Correspondence. 

Hadley^ Mass., July 1st. — The cultivation of broom corn has been 
for the last quarter of a century a great business in this region, and 
for the most of that time has afforded a profit considerably above the 
average of farming. The process is much the same as for Indian 
corn. Similar land is required. Manures suitable for Indian corn are 
favorable to this crop. Less, however, is required, the broom corn 
being a less exhausting growth, and more of the stalks, where not 
taken to the paper mill, being left in the field. On the alluvial soils 
of the Connecticut river, free, arable, but not the richest, seven loads 
of barn manure to the acre wiU insure a good crop of broom corn in 
a favorable season, and leave the land in pretty good heart for a suc- 
ceeding crop. 

But alas, for the broom corn ! Other regions are competing for the 
profits; and the farmers of these jDarts have caught the tobacco 
mania. For some years past the profits of this disgusting weed have 
been quite seducing. It is a httle amusing to see how some of the 
fathers, who a few years ago would have consigned tobacco and all 
who use it, over, we will not say to whom, are now rejoicing in the 
enormous profits of the last year's crop. But it is no strange thing 
to hear men denouncing others, and then doing the same thing for 
good pay. We would only suggest that the growers of the weed are 

02 Editorial Correspondence. 

shreM^der than the consumers ; inasmuch as a pocket full of money is 
more desirable than a sallow skin, a nose turned into a chimney, a 
foul breath, dyspej^sia and a swolen liver. 

Westfiekl., July 2c?. — ^This town has mamifactured more whips pro- 
bably than any other town not more than 200 years old. Its industry 
is of late turned very much to the growing of tobacco and the manu- 
facturing of cigars. Puritanism itself has caved in. An agent of the 
Homestead, printed at Hartford, m'C learn, has promised $400 an acre 
clear profit on tobacco to all those who will take that paper. "Whether 
the j)roprietors of that journal instruct their agents to tell great 
stories, is more than we know. But we were amused at learning how 
the device didn't take. Four hundred dollars an acre, said the agent 
to a rather fogyisli friend of ours hereabouts. Too big tallc for me, 
said our friend ; never made but $200 an acre ; can't take your paper. 
Said agent grappled with a sturdier farmer next time, one whom we 
have long known as manuring highly and getting great crops. His 
promise of only $400 an acre was met with astonishment. What do 
you mean, said this deep-ploughing, manure-stuffing tobacco grower ; 
I have been getting $600 an acre ; should'nt like to go back to $400 ; 
can't take a paper that talks of no more. 

Farmington, Conn., July ^d. — We said in our last that we were 
exceedingly pleased with Allen's mower, as a piece of mechanism, 
which we should judge, by the manner in which it is got up, might 
work well, but that we had not seen it in operation. On the farm of 
Hon. John F. ISTorton, of this place, we have had the pleasure of 
seeing it work. The grass was stout ; equal we judge to two and a 
half tons of hay to the acre. Much of it was badly lodged. But 
the machine, though drawn by horses not accustomed to it, and man- 
aged by a man then receiving from Mr. N. his first lesson in the busi- 
ness, worked to a charm, and cut the grass better than we could have 
believed it possible, in case of so heavy and tangled a crop. 

Port Jerms, N. Y!, July 8. — Having to choose between the heat 
of the city and the sun and dust of the country, we are again oiF. 
Port Jervis is a pleasant little place on the Erie Road, some ninety 
miles from New- York, grown suddenly, we believe, into being by 
railroad influences. The Fowler House in this village, by reason of 
its new and elegant building, its pleasant location, and the gentle- 
manly deportment of its keeper, H. Foster, Esq., might satisfy some 
of our readers, who like us, are willing for a while to forego the 
pleasures of city life. 

Bdnghaniton, July 9.— Here is one of our active growing villages ; 
and to see how the agriculture of the region has improved smce we 

Lime. 93 

were familiar with it some eighteen or twenty years ago, does one's 
heart good. Our journal conies largely to tliis place, and has contri- 
buted no doubt, with others of a similar kind, to promote the im- 
provements everywhere seen. Pine stumps were the bane of hus- 
bandry, but the farmers have given them hoist, at very considerable 
expense, but wisely, as we think. Many of them had extended their 
long enduring roots over nearly a rod, so that by removing them the 
owner adds about that extent to his field, and gives himself a chance 
to make straight furrows. There is abundant use for the stump puller 
in this region, but not in this only. 

Syracuse^ July 10. — Here we are, at this city, to be honored by 
the first trial of reapers and mowers, under the auspices of the U. S. 
Agricultural Society, Hon. Marshal P. Wilder, Pres. Before leaving, 
we hope to learn something concerning these important machines, 
which we may communicate for the benefit of our readers. — Ed. 

The Camel Experiment. 

A Washington paper has an interesting item relative to the 
Camels in Texas, based on recent informatiou. The animals are doing 
well, the experiment of their acclimation having thus far proved suc- 
cessful. Those first imported are now transporting supplies between 
St. Antonio and Camp Verdo. "Three little ones were born in 
March and are thriving, and five or six more births are expected. 
From the reports of the conditions of the animals, at present, and 
through the eleven months that the first importation have been on the 
Continent, we may regard all doubts as to their acclimation dissipated, 
and that so much of the experiment is v. fixed fact. The only remain- 
ing intermediate point is the character of the stock that may be pro- 
duced. For this, time will be required. The oflicers in charge are, 
however, sangume that it will fully equal that of Asia Mmor and Af- 
rica, and may, by proper attention, be more highly developed." 


To receive the greatest benefit from lime, it must be kept as near 
the surface as possible. The reason is this ; its weight and minute- 
ness give it a tendency to sink ; and after a few years of cultivation, 
a large portion of it will be found to have gone beyond the depth of 
its m^st efiicient action. Hence it is advisable to spread it on the 
ground after ploughing ; then harrow it well in, and allow it to re- 
main ua grass as long as good crops can be had. When the lime is 
settled down beyond the reach of the common j)lough, the sub-soil 
plough will prolong its effect, by enablmg the atmosphere and the 
roots of plants to penetrate the sub-soil likewise. 

lirpoETANT Agkicultural Mattee will be found in Brevier type. 
It was received too late for insertion elsewhere. 

94 Horticultural. 



Horse Radish, Prussian Culture. 

Mr, Editor : — Horse radisli is found in almost every farmer's garden, 
yet I dare say very few, if any, know how to raise and cultivate the 
same. To the gardner I think it is known, but to the most of the 
farmers it is not. I think it, therefore, my duty to send you a pre- 
scription, the way I have seen it done in Prussia. I think it an excel- 
lent plan, and I follow the same with mine. 

Take the longest roots you can find, (the young ones I mean,) ruh 
them with a cloth up and down, so it takes all the fibre off. About 
one-half inch at each end should not be rubbed, as the lower end is to 
make the roots for the next years' setting, the upper the leaves. 
Plant them in rows about eighteen inches ajiart each way. Lay them 
in the ground in a slanting way. They are planted with a stick made 
for the purpose, crooked at the ujaper end. The stick is stuck in the 
ground in the above manner, pulled out, the root then put in the hole 
left, and then tightened as any other plant. The bed should be planted 
with the roots all in the same direction. They should never be 
planted straight down. Keep them free from weeds, and pull the 
heads up once m a while durmg their growth to keep the heads from 
rooting. If the heads, in spite of this, make root, cut them off. In 
the autumn dig them up by starting at the first row planted and dig- 
ging a ditch two feet deep, to get every particle of root, as if there 
are any left in the ground, they will be a nuisance. When the first 
row is out take the next, throwing the ground in the ditch left from 
the first row, and so on till it is done. If the ground is rich or well 
manured, the roots, that is those planted last year, attain the size of 
a man's arm. The young roots which are grown out of the lower 
end should be sorted by taking the best for next years' planting. The 
old roots which are for use can be kept in cellar in the winter. They 
might be kept all the year by putting them in sand. 

If the rows are planted north and south direction, they should be 
dug east and west. "Wm. K. 

Bolivar P. O., Bolivar Co., Miss. 

Vegetable Garden. 

Read the following remmders, from the Horticulturist for June, by 
William Sanders : 
The beneficial effects of mulching to transplanted trees is well 

Horticultural. 95 

known, and very generally practiced. Its eifects in the vegetable 
garden are no less striking. The mowings of short lawn grass, rak- 
ings of leaves, &c., thrown around and over the roots of egg-plants, 
or between the rows of peas, and other crops, will .be found of great 
service during dry weather. Previous to applying it, the soil should 
receive a deep hoeing or forking up ; if covered immediately after- 
wards, surface evaporation will be retarded, and the bad effects from 
heavy rains dashing on the surface prevented. Green vegetable mat- 
ter, when used as above, should be spread very lightly ; otherwise in- 
jiuy may result from fermentation. 

Thin oiit the rows of beets, carrots, parsnips, &c., as soon as the 
crops are fairly advanced ; nothing is gained by defering the opera- 
tion too long, but much loss if the plants are crowded, as they will 
grow weak and slender ; thin them to stand six inches apart. 

Asparagus beds ought to be kept clean. Young plantations should 
not be cut very severely, as it will weaken the plants. The green 
portion only of this vegetable is fit for use ; there is no occasion to 
cut below the surface with a view of getting it white. It is strange 
that white asparagus should ever be brought to market, and stranger 
still, that horticultural societies should award it a premium in prefer- 
ence to equally well known green samples. Water, with salted ram 
water, m the proportion of two ounces of salt to a gallon of water ; 
this is preferable to sowing the salt over the plants. 

Pleasure Ground akd Lawn. — Frequent mowing is necessary to 
preserve a neat lawn ; mow it when damp and clean the grass cut 
thoroughly off with the patent grass rake. — Lawn mowing machines 
are now constructed which economize labor and leave a beautiful sur- 
face. Lately jDlanted trees should be secured from swaying about in 
the wind ; they will grow better if the soil round their roots is kept 
clear of weeds. Trees fairly established do not require this treatme nt. 
It destroys the harmony of the lawn when the grass does not gro w 
close up to the stems of the trees and shrubs. For the same reason 
all grass edgings should be kept low ; nothing is more unsightly than 
deeply cut edgings to roads and walks, although they should in all 
cases be well defined and neatly trimmed. — Horticulturist. 

A Small Field and a Large Yield. 

ISIe. Isaac Faiechild, keeper of the Eagle Hotel, at Cortland ville, N. 
Y., and cultivator of a ten acre farm, or rather garden, tells us that 
last year, on one-eighth of an acre of a deep alluvial soil, heavily 
manured, he grew 400 bushels of carrots ; that they were sowed in 
rows nine inches apart, thinned to four inches in the row, the spaces 
being carefully filled, so as to leave no vacancies ; and that although 
he ploughed but ten inches deep, the roots, owing to the richness of 
the soil, extended to twice that depth, and some of them more, actu- 
ally measuring two feet in length, and from two to three inches 
through at the large end. Mr. F. does not claim that he saw the 
measurement — says that he took the statement of the men who har. 
vested the crop, and thmks, what we very much suspect maybe true. 

96 Horticultural. 

that possibly they may have enlarged the number of bushels, by care- 
lessly allowing the roots to fall crosswise into the measure — influenced 
perhaps by a desire to make as large a story as the case would admit. 
Now four carrots f o the square foot, according to his mode of plant- 
ing, would give 174,240 to the acre, making no allowance for vacant 
spaces; and if the size were such that 54.45 carrots, or about 5 4|, 
would fill a bushel, they would give 3,200 bushels to the acre, not 
less than 60 tons. But we are quite sure, that there is very little 
land on which carrots would grow so thickly and yet attain a good 
size ; nor does Mr. F. commend this mode of cultivation. He only 
tried it once to see what could be done ; and has this year planted 
his carrots in rows 18 inches apart, and is cultivating them by horse 
power, mstead of hand, as last, believing that this way he will grow 
as profitable, if not as large a crop. He esteems carrots the very best 
of feed for milk cows ; the best to fatten horses not at work ; and bet- 
ter for working horses, given in part with oats, than oats alone. — Ed. 

The Flower Garden. 

The warm weather has now fully come, every day adding to the 
trojjhies won from the soil of a most reluctant spring. Already, to 
those who have fulfilled the conditions, the flower garden begms to 
give back the small percentage of time and labor it has cost, with a 
principal rich in the glory of its many-colored gifts. 

How kindred to our hearts seem the plants, upon whose culture we 
have bestowed careful and personal attention. We have planted the 
tiny seed, and, waiting in patience for its growth, done the little in 
our power to hasten the result, around which, next to the upgrowth 
and development of animal life, hangs the most inscrutable of myste- 
ries. We have helped up, out of the cold, dark earth, the tender leaf, 
and unfolding bud, till rejoicing in the warm sunshine and airs of hea- 
ven, these flower children have stood around us, clothed in a beauty, 
and breathing a fragrance that led the thought, and lifted the worshij) 
to Him who is the Father of the blue-bell and violet, the lily and the 
rose, no less than of the soul that fills Avith adoring wonder, and de- 
light, in the presence of those beauteous emblems of his goodness and 

Even so, O parent, entrusted with the care of plants whose bloom- 
ing is for eternity ! see to it that no dew-drop of kindness, no smile 
of affection, no husbanding of natural goodness and health-giving re- 
sources, no pruning ofi" of useless, or ruinous habits be wanting in 
your great life-work of unfoldmg, and perfecting those immortal flow- 
ers, the beauty and purity of whose being ought to be the incense, 
whereon your own daily life might ascend to the fountain of light and 
love. — Wisconsin Farmer. 

" Oh ! if thei-e is one law above tlie rest 
Written in wisdom ; if there is a word 
That I would write, as with a pen of fire, 
On the unsullied temper of a child, 
'Tis human love." 

American Inventions. 9Y 

Salomon's Carbonic Acid Gas Engines— A Great Triumph. 

In our fifth volume, page 211, (Oct., 1852,) we published a very interesting 
communication from our much-esteemed friend. Dr. Newman, now deceased, in 
reference to Prof. Salomon, and several very interesting experiments with his in- 
vention, the " carbon engine." It will pay well for re-perusal, especially in 
connection with the statement recently made, that the learned professor has at 
length completely succeeded in making a practical working engine of which 
carbon is the moving power, which for economy, simplicity, power, etc., is far 
in advance of the steam engine, and will work out a thorough change in this de- 
partment of practical mechanics. These hopes and expectations may be more 
or less disappointed, but the present position of the matter is certainly such as 
to give very great delight to the persevering professor, and if capital for such 
operations is not freely and abundantly offered, if required by Professor Salo- 
mon, it will be a disgrace to the country. But perhaps we are too fast (or too 
slow) in this, for it may be that this hour of his need is already past, and he 
may make a similar reply to such offers, as was made by Dr. Johnson to the 
English nobleman, who offered to be his " patron" after his reputation had be- 
come so great and wide, that such kind oflSces were needed no longer. The 
Doctor's reply was the concentration of sarcasm. On this point we are informed 
that "for this fortunate result. Prof. S. acknowledges himself under obligations 
to some of our most intelligent and opulent citizens, who, becoming persuaded of 
the feasibility of his design, did not hesitate to aid him with their means and en- 
courage him with their confidence, without which, notwithstanding his own 
close and sanguine application and unyielding energy, he may have failed tO' 
bring his labors to a prosperous termination, at least for some time to come." 

"We take the following account from Tlie Baltimore Repiiblican, and will, with 
unusual delight, set before our readers any further developments that may reach 
us, on this immensely important subject : 

" Prof. Salomon calls his discovery the ' Sulph. Oil Carbonic Acid Engine.' It 
is now located in Cyprus alley, between Pratt and Lombard streets, where its 
operations have been witnessed by numbers of scientific and practical machinists, 
all of whom agree in pronouncing it a complete triumph of science and mechani- 
cal skill, and regard its destiny as the doubtless early supersedure of steam for 
the motor of vessels, railroad cars, manufactories, etc. The machine we saw was 
merely an experimental one, and, of course, is still susceptible of improvement. 
The engine differs in no material feature from an ordinary rectilinial or recipro- 
cating steam engine, and is calculated for four-horse power. 

" The motor is produced by a compound of de-sulphiated bi-sulphuret of car- 
bon, coal-tar, and volatile, or fixed oil, which under certain influences of heat be- 
comes powerfully expansive, and hence is derived the momentum. The fluid or 
gas, on being heated, passes into the cyHnder, acts on the piston, and is then 
conveyed through pipes into the condenser. Thence it is again returned to the 
heater, and again sent on its errand of imparting motion to the engine, to again 
be returned by the way of the condenser, thoroughly renovated and ready for 

98 American Biventions. 

farther labor; and so on it continues until wasted away by such leakage, etc., 
as may not be prevented. 

The heater into which the fluid or gas is introduced is submerged in a cistern 
of oil kept hot hy a gentle fire, and in this the gas expands, gains its power, and 
passing to the cylinder, acts on the engine to be carried oft" and condensed as we 
have described, thus keeping up a constant active force, without the most re- 
mote danger of accident or explosion. The apparatus and all its appliances are 
without complication, easy to be understood, and at the same time not at all lia- 
ble to disarrangement. 

The cost of the fluid is about ten cents per gallon, and with careful attention, 
about eighteen gallons, it is said, will serve an engine of the capacity of the one 
now in use for at least an entire year. The engine alluded to has a piston of 
twelve inch stroke and six inch crank. It was worked up to ten horse power 
under the brake of a wheel three feet three inches in diameter, with a rim of two 
and a half inches, which was pressed between two bars, each having attached a 
friction block of seven and a half inches in length and two and a fourth inches 
wide, and under a weight of one hundred and twelve pounds. In this condition, 
the wheel easily made eighty revolutions per minute. The heat required was 
only 23G' Fahrenheit, which produced 60 lbs. working povrer, under exhaus- 
tion, and an atmospheric pressure of 15 lbs. adverse, which should be added 
to the active agent. Steam, in the same proportions and under similar circum- 
stances, with 267" Fahrenheit, only yielded 25 lbs. to the square inch, and, 
when tested, the engine moved but slightly. 

An elaborate report of a scries of experiments made with this apparatus, has 
been prepared for publication by Wm. H. Shock, Esq., United States Naval En- 
gineer, which we would gladly give in our columns, did space permit. His ex- 
periments were made for the following {purposes, viz. : First — To determine the 
pressure in the boiler at different temperatures of the oil-bath. Second — To as- 
certain the capacity of the boiler to supply the steam engine, and to test the ca- 
pacity of the condensing apparatus. Third — To ascertain the declining ratio of 
temperature and pressures — the pressure recorded being due exclusively to the 
heat in the oil-bath, as the fire was permitted to burn out at the commencement 
of the trial. The thermometer used was Fahrenheit's ; the engine, an ordinary 
condensing one, with four inches diameter of cylinder, and twelve inches stroke. 
The fuel was coke and pine wood mixed. Mr. S.'s experiments were all emi- 
nently successful. They commenced on the 23d of May last, and continued till 
June 6th, and were so thorough as to leave no doubt of the capacity of this in- 
vention to perform all which is claimed for it. The engine was at work on Fri- 
day in the presence of a large number of persons, some of whom were well 
versed in machinery, and all agree in confirming the opinion set forth above, 
that this is truly the invention of the age. 

American Cutlery. 

We took occasion, some months since, to censure with some severity a cir- 
cular of New- York hardware dealers, who took ground against our own manu- 
factures, and forbade, on penalty of their displeasure, the use of a stamp of the 
name and residence of the maker, on such wares. It is not a little singular 
that at the same time the English were actually using, fraudulently, and to a 
considerable extent, these same American stamps. In Germany the same thing 
is done, to a still greater extent. It is also said that American mechanics use 
more of English steel of the first quality, in our cutlery shops, than is used in 
England. Of that known and marked as Hoop L, we use ten times as much as 
is used in England, though they manufacture fifty times as much cutlery as we 
do, A writer whom we all know as of high authoritj^, Mr. Fleischman, says : 
*' The manufacturers of cutlery in the United States have far surpassed those 

American Tnventions. 99 

of the old world in the manufacture of tools, and that, not merely in the excel- 
lence of the metal used, but especially in the practical utility of their patterns, 
and in the remarkable degree of finish of their work." With such evidence of 
success, the American artizan can not fail to make strenuous efforts to reach the 
highest possible degree of skill in his profession, and he will thus acquire great 
honor both for himself and the country. Further evidence in this subject is 
found in the following paragraph, which we find in an exchange : 

American MANUFACruRss Abroad. — An Illinois plough-maker, Mr. Deere, has 
recently received an order from Naylor & Co., steel manufacturers of England, 
for three ploughs, of different kinds, for their own use in England. Mr. Deere 
made an order from the same firm, eight years ago, for German silver and cast 
steel, and has since made so many orders that the manufacturers felt a natural 
curiosity to know the purpose to which their customer applied it. It is some- 
thing to talk about, that English material is sent to this country and to the 
" Far West," to be manufactured into agricultural implements to return again 
in its changed form to plough up English soil. 

Architecture of the Capitol Extension. 

This great work proceeds slowly, but well. The new dome will be a splendid 
tribute to and evidence of American skill. It is divided into four sections — the 
first occupied by thirty-six columns of cast iron, twenty-seven feet high, and 
about three feet in diameter at the top. The foundation of the dome is the cir- 
cular wall of the rotunda, carried up 24 feet above its interior cornice, and sur- 
rounded above the roof of the main building by an octagonal entablature and 
balcony. From the cast iron brackets embedded in this circular wall are to rise 
a double row of hollow cast iron columns to the height of 27 feet. These 
columns rest on a foundation consisting of cast iron plate, which again rests on 
a circular wall, belted, girded, cramped, and compacted into a mass of solid mat- 
ter, forming, as it were, but a single body. On these columns, (which are hol- 
low and fluted, and about an'inch thick,) when in position will be placed a ring 
to form the foundation for a superimposed section of pilasters, less in size then, 
the columns, but agreeing with them in number, on which will be strong panel 
work, constituting a third section or attic. The fourth section is the dome or 
cupola proper, and differs from other domes in having an elliptical instead of a 
circular section. Above the cornice of the rotunda, on the interior of the found- 
ation wall of the dome, will appear a continuous belt of sculpture, 300 feet in 
length, representing the history of America. 

The whole structure (the dome) will be of cast iron and glass, 124 feet in dia- 
meter at the base of the columns, and rising above the main building more than 
200 feet. It is surrounded by stout circular plates of iron, bearing an altar-like 
structure girt with fasces, all of iron, supporting a globe, around which will pass 
a belt inscribed with the motto, " E Pluribus Unum." The apex consists of a 
lantern 52 feet high, 17 feet in diemeter, surmounted by a female figure of the 
goddess of liberty, 161 feet high, of bronze, erect, with sword and shield, and a 
fillet studded with stars round her forehead, the work of Mr. Crawford. 

The dome is to be ascended by spiral stairs between its outer and inner shell, 
or its roof and ceiling. There will occur frequent landings or balconies, afford- 
ing both external and internal views. 

100 American Inventions. 

Transatlantic Cable. 
The process of this enterprise is uninterrupted. At the last accounts sev- 
eral hundred miles of it were already on board the ship Niagara, and her whole 
quota of this unique cargo would soon be complete. The cable is placed in 
five coils of a conical shape, on the floor of the hold, and also of all the decks, 
(orlop, berth, and spar,) both before and aft midships. These coils are about 
twenty-five feet in diameter at base, and from three to four and a half feet high ; 
and weighing from about 90 tons to 173. The coils he over and under and 
around the hatches. They are wound upon a cone of hollow plank. It will 
be placed on board the Agamemnon in a single coil. The cable weighs about a 
ton to a mile, and is 2500 miles in length. Instead of one copper wire, it con- 
sists of seven, " each about as thick as a pin." Eighteen strands of iron wire, 
around these, form a protection or covering, which is within the insulating or 
gutta percha wrapper, which forms the outer part of the cable. 

Breckenridge Coal Oil Company. 

Our readers will recollect what we have so lately written in reference to the 
value of coal oil and coal gas, and also of Paraffine for candles. In looking 
over the annual report of the company, the name of which forms our caption, 
we notice several statements which are of great importance in reference to these 
immense sources of profit and of convenience. It appears that " the Boghead 
coal of Scotland, the Albert coal of the Province of New-Brunswick, and the 
Breckenridge coal," are "the only coals yet discovered peculiarly adapted for 
the production of oils." On page 558 of our March No., we stated that the 
Boghead cannel was the richest coal known for the production of gas, and that 
Scotch Parrot coal was the next. We see that the Breckenridge Company 
claims " preeminence" for their coal in the production of oil, though the 
grounds of the claim are not given. It is no doubt very valuable, and probably 
the richest, for this purpose, in this country. 

In our April number, page CI 9, we presented some of the statistics of this 
company, and gave our readers to understand, as we supposed, that we looked 
for very valuable results from it. We present below a few short extracts 
from their report, in confirmation of our opinions there set forth. 

"Hitherto, sperm oil has been unapproachable in its adaptabihtyto lubricating 
and burning purposes — now it is equalled by coal oil, and it is only reasonable 
to expect that, with the further developments in their manufacture, coal oil 
will leave this article far behind. In the higher branches, such as the finer 
portions of intricate machinery, and in cotton spinning, coal oil has already the 
decided preference, and before long, linseed oil, which is yet considered essential 
as a paint oil, will have to yield its place to this new rival. The lighter por- 
tions of this production are not to be overlooked. Benzole and Naphtha are 
now becoming known, and they only require to be properly known to be appre- 
ciated as the perfection of light, and of solvents. Paraffine, too, deserves your 
attention. Possessed of properties which place it on an equality with the very 
finest spermaceti in the manufacture of candles, it contains others, which ren- 
der it valuable to the artists in the production of various works of rare beauty 
and elegance. . . . 

" The question has frequently been asked, if our supply of coal warrants the 

American Inventions. 101 

erection of extensive works for its manufacture into oil — if we should not soon 
run out of coal, were we to consume, say a hundred or more tons per day in these 
works ? It will be gratifying to you to know that, although this quantity were 
consumed daily, according to the statement given under oath by Professor Silli- 
man and his associates, commissioners appointed by the Governor of the State 
of Kentucky, to estimate the extent of the coal lands belonging to the Company, 
we have a supply that will last over 570 years, so that instead of running out of 
coal, we may increase the manufacture of oils to any conceivable extent, and 
have a supply for many generations." 

The Victoria Bridge, Montreal. 

The new bridge that is to cross the St. Lawrence, near Montreal, will be one 
of the architectural wonders of the day. It is to cross the river from Point St 
Charles to the South Shore, the distance l^ing a little less than two miles. It 
is to be on the tubular principle ; there will be a track for railroad cars in 
the center, and on the outside of the tube will be, on each side, a balcony, 
with a foot-path for passengers. The bridge will rest on twenty-four piers 
and two abutments of limestone masonry, the center span being 330 feet 
long, and 60 feet high from summer water-level, descending at either end at 
the rate one in 130. It is to be built, in every respect, in the most sub- 
stantial manner, and when finished will cost $6,250,000. 

Clough's Traps for Insects. 

A VERY learned friend one 3 said to us that the invention of friction matches 
was one of the most useful inventions of the age. He who will defend us 
from the inroads of barbarian insects deserves to be placed in the same 
niche in the temple of fame. Mr. Clough, 489 Broadway, thinks he is this 
happy man. His fly and mosquito trap and coakroach trap are certainly full 
of promise. For after standing, when properly charged, they are often found 
full of flies. Those who have tried them speak highly of them. We have 
seen evidence of their eflBcicncy. Price 25, and 40, and 50 cents each. 

Demorest's Miniature Gas Stoves & Dress Patterns. 

Our readers have not forgotten what we published in regard to Demorest's 
pattern of these useful articles. They might be called " Diamond Gas Stoves," 
with far less impropriety than in the case of California Quartz, for this term 
is technically applied by printers to a very fine type, and it may also indi- 
cate a great value in a small compass, Mr. D. has sold immense numbers of 
them. The same establishment, 375 Broadway, also supplies Premium Dress 
Patterns for twenty-five cents, which will save a housekeeper perhaps as 
many dollars. By these patterns any dress may be cut at home, and made 
up in the ftimily. Full sets of trimmed patterns, of any style, "including 
cloak, mantilla, sack, basque," etc., etc., etc., costs but three dollars. This 
enables any one to do all her work at home, as long as the fashion lasts. It 
is a " capital institution." 

102 American Itiventions. 

To make Hard Candles of Soft Tallow. 

To TWELVE pounds of tallow take half a gallon of water, to which add three 
tablespoonfuls of pulverized alum, and two ditto saltpetre, which heat and dis- 
solve ; then add your tallow and one pound of beeswax ; boil hard altogether, 
until the water evaporates, and skim while boiling. It should not be put in your 
molds hotter than you can bear your hand in. The candles look much nicer 
when the wicks arc not tied at the bottom. It is not only a disagreeable task to 
cut the wicks off, but it injures the mold. Never heat your mol(k to draw your 
candles in cold water. 

Tallow from beeves fed on corn or grain, is much softer than when fed on grass 
or clover. Therefore the tallow froiu grass-fed cattle should always be selected 
for summer use, and the candles will always be hard with the addition of very 
little alum and beeswax. In very cold weathei- much less alum must be used, or 
they will crack so as to fall to pieces sometimes ; and a third more of each should 
be used in warm weather if the tallow is verj' soft. With a little management 
you can always have hard tallow for summer use where you make all your own 
candles. — Country Gentleman. 

To Render Textile Fabrics "Waterproof. 

Take 1 pound of wheat bran, and 1 ounce of glue, and boil them in 3 gallons 
of water in a tin vessel for half an hour. Now lift the vessel from the fire, and 
set it aside for ten minutes ; during this period the bran will fall to the bottom, 
leaving a clear liquor above, which is to be poured off, and the bran thrown 
away ; one pound of bar soap cut into small pieces is now to be dissolved in it. 
The liquor may be put on the fire in the tin pan, and stirred until all the soap is 
dissolved. In another vessel one pound of alum is dissolved in half a gallon of 
water ; this is added to the soap-bran liquor while it is boiling, and aU is well- 
stirred ; this forms the waterproofing liquor. It is used while cool. The tex- 
tile fabric to be rendered waterproof is immersed in it, and pressed between the 
hands until it is perfectly saturated. It is now wrung, to squeeze out as much 
of the free liquor as possible, then shaken or sti'ctched, and hung up to dry in a 
warm room, or in a dry atmosphere out-doors. When dry, the fabric or cloth 
so treated will repel rain and moisture, but allow the air or perspiration to pass 
through it. 

The alum, gluten, gelatine, and soap unite together, and form an insoluble 
compound, which coats every fibre of the textile fabric, and when dry repels 
water like the natural oil in the feathers of a duck. There are various sub- 
stances which are soluble in water singly, but when combined form insoluble 
compounds, and vice versa. Alum, soap, and gelatine, are soluble in water singly, 
but form insoluble compounds when united chemically. Oil is insolul^le in 
water singly, but combined with caustic soda or potash it forms soluble soap. 
Such are some of the useful curiosities of chemistry. — Scientific American. 


The Mechanical Problem in April Number. 

Clinton, Mass., June 24th, 1857. 
Messrs. Plough, Loom, and Anvil : — Your correspondent, G. W., takes excep- 
tion to my solution of the " Mechanical Problem" by saying that the point at 
issue is taken for granted. All that can be said to be taken for granted is, that 
the inference which I drew from my demonstration, was a legitimate result of 
that demonstration, and thus, in my opinion, a proof of the point at issue ; which 

American Patents. 103 

result is, in brief, that the only power actually applied to propel the boat, con- 
sists of the physical force of the man in the boat, who is pulling upon the rope, 
with his feet braced against the side or bottom of the boat, and the other end of 
the rope made stationary on the shore, by being attached either to a post or man, 
either of which must be supposed to pull upon the rope precisely as hard as they 
are pulled upon, and no harder ; for if the force of the man in the boat is more 
than counterbalanced by the man on shore, our nautical hero is pulled over- 
board, and the experiment ends. The case is the same with the two boats sup. 
posed by G. W., with a man in each, and their ropes attached to a post in the 
center of the pond. "We will suppose the man in the boat A — for convenience — 
draws against the post with a power equal to fifteen pounds ; the post with- 
stands this power by an equal reacting force. The man in the boat B also 
pulls against the post with a power of fifteen pounds, which is also reacted b}^ 
the post ; and the power of these two men being applied in opposite directions, 
the action of each neutralizes that of the other in their effect upon the post, so 
that the result is necessarily the same, whether the lines are attached to the post 
in the center, or "detached from the post, and fastened to each other." 

Having eliminated the post as an unnecessary quantity, we will proceed with 
the solution. The men are now pulling against each other, and obviously, mnst 
pull with equal force, or the weaker must yield and get a ducking. The man in 
the boat A applies the supposed power, which produces a given velocity to his 
own boat, and, on the principle of the equality of action and reaction, it is im- 
material whether the other end of his rope be attached to a man or post in the 
other boat. And now the conclusion is, that all the diflference between the man 
in the boat A pulling against boat i?, and pulling against a post on shore is, 
that in the former case, boat B yields to the power applied, with a velocity 
equal to that of boat A, and makes it necessary to haul in slack rope to double 
the amount of his own motion, while in the latter case, the post on shore main- 
tains its position, and the slack rope exactly measures the motion of the boat 
Will G. W. please " devise a way" for arriving at a different conclusion ? 

Yours, P.'W. F. C. 

1 e c nt t intents, 



Self-loading cart, J. S. Brow, "Washington, D. C. Combination of revolving 
elevator and scraper. — Grain Separator, Elihu Doud, Oshkosh, "Wis. — Self-acting 
"Wagon Brake, M. C. Chamberlain, Johnsonsburgh, N. Y. — Portable Fence, 
Wm. Morrison, Carlisle, Pa. — Stump Extractor, Peter Traxier, Scottsburg, N, 
Y.— Cheese Hoop, C. P. S. Wardwell, Lake Village, N, H.— Mould board for re- 
versible Plows, Henry S. Akens, Berkshire, N. Y. ; composed of rods or bars, 
susceptible of torsion, or of being twisted to the right or left, &c. — Harvester, 
Nicholas Clute, Dunnsville, N. Y. — Butter "Workers, Chas. W. Gage, Homer, N. 
Y.~Corn Planter, Ives W. McGiftey, Buffalo, N. Y.— Seed Planter, Solomon T. 
Holly, Rockford, 111. — Cutting apparatus of Harvesters, M. G. Hubbard, Penn 
Yan, N. Y.— Plow, C. B. Ingersoll, Morris, 111.— Plow, E. D. & L. "W. Legg, 
Speedville, N. Y. Combination of adj ustible cutter and reversible mould board. 
—Sowing grain in drills, Frederick Moehlmann, Belleville, 111. — Corn Planter, 

104 American Patents, 

Wm. T. Pcpyor, Rising Sun, Ind. — Same, Sylvanus Richardson, Jericho, Vt. — 
Gang Plows, Joseph Sutler, St. Louis, Mo. — Cultivator Plows, Micajah Tollc, 
Newport, Ky. — Excavating Machines, Alonzo Taggart, Warrentown, Mo. — 'Mow- 
ing Machine, J. B. Wardwell, Methuen, Mass. — Cleanicg rice, John F. Taylor, 
Charleston, S. C. The kernels are rubbed together in a screw cylinder. — Earth 
Excavator, Curtius Colby, Wilson, N. Y. — Raking attachment for Harvesters, 
John Mcintosh, Geneva, 111. — Harvester, D. S. McNamara, N. Hoosick, N. Y. — 
Fences, James Moore, Pittsburg, Pa. — Lozenge formed slats, and the alternate 
twisting of the wires between the slats. — Frame for combined mower and reap- 
er, J. A. Moore, and A. H. Patch, Louisville, Ky. — Chilling Plowshares, James 
Oliver and Harvey Little, South Bend, Ind. — Farm Gates, Wm. Sherwood, Be- 
loit,Wis. — Raking Apparatus, for Harvesters,Daniel C. Smith, Tecumseh, Mich. — 
Harvester, C.T. Stetson, Amherst, Mass. Mode of raising and lowering the sickle 
of harvesters. — Harvester, Henry D. Hammond, Batavia, N. Y. — Harvesting 
Machine, John K. Harris, Allensville, Ind. — Self-acting rakes for Harvesters, S. 
T. Lamb, New- Washington, Ind. — Automatic rake for Harvesters, Joseph H. 
Manning, Philadelphia. 


Holding the bit in the brace, Geo. Benjamin, Avoca, N. Y. — Grooving Stove 
Pipe, Charles Bigelow, Hastings, Min. Tcr. — Making horse-shoe nails, Calvin 
Carpenter, Jr., Providence, R. I. — Making wrought nails, Smith Gardiner, New- 
York. — Nail Machine, E. W. Scott, Lowell, Mass., and A. M. George, Nashua, 
N. H. — Wrench, Edward J. Worcester, Worcester, Mass. — Nut Machine, Samuel 
H. Whittaker, Cincinnati, 0. — Tongueing and grooving Hand Plane, Porter A. 
Gladwin, assignor to himself and Thos. F. Caldicott, Boston. — ^Forging Horse- 
shoe nails, Robert Cook, assignor to himself and Samuel Norton, South Abington, 
Ms. — Screw Cutter, James M. Evarts, Westville, Ct. — ^Bending Sheet Metal Pans, 
E. A. Smead, Tioga, Pa. — Wiring Tin-pans, hj same. — Screw wrench, G. C. 
Taft, assignor to A. W. Mason, Worcester, Ms. — Keeper for Locks and Latches, 
Andrew Patterson, Birmingham Pa., assignor to J. H. Jones, Pittsburgh, Pa. — 
Saw set, Jacob Erdle, West Bloomfleld, N. Y. — Manufacture of Iron, Wm. Kelly, 
Lyon Co., Ky. — Straightening Knife-blades, H. Pierce, Claremont, N. H. — En- 
ameling Iron pipes and Hollow Ware, Edward Pierce, Philadelphia. — Hardening 
Axes, &c., J. N. Rockwell, Napanock, N. Y. — Candlesticks, Timothy Rose, 
Courtlandville, N. Y. — Taps and Dies for cutting screws, Ira A. Richard, assignor 
to Silas Stevens, East Brookfield, Mass. — Boring Mill, Wm. Sellers, Philadelphia. 
— Making bolts and rivets, Joel R. Bassett, Cincinnati, 0. — Machine for riveting 
boilers, Sylvester Bennett, New-Orleans. — Iron Pavements, for streets, Geo. W. 
Bishop, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Making Horse Shoes, Henry Burden, Troy, N. Y. — 
Horse Shoe, Wm Cooper, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Journal box for shafting, Daniel 
Taylor, Carbondale, Pa., a brass lining embodying the latter being cast upon 
the former. — Die Stock, James Teachout, Waterford, N. Y. — Permutation Lock, 
Frank G. Johnson, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Iron truss frames for bridges, Francis C. 
Lowthup, Trenton, N, Y. — Lock, Ludwig Baier, assignor to Joseph Lippencott 
and Wm. C. Barr, Pittsburg, Pa. — Strap Pillow block for Shafting, Geo. H. Rey- 
nolds, Medford, Mass., assignor to himself and D. B. Hinckley, Bangor, Me. — 
Hob for cutting screw cutters, G. C. Schneider, Washington, D. C. — Making 
cast iron malleable, A. K. Eaton, New-York. — Screw Cutters, J. M. Evarts, 
AVestville, Conn. 

Fibrous and Textile Fabrics. 

Making paper, Edward B. Bingham, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Coloring yarn on the 
bobbin, James Thompson, and W. P. Wakelee, New-Hartford, N. Y. The use 
of a vacuum, to fiicilitate the absorption of coloring matter. — Sewing Machine, 
Elias Howes, Jr., Cambridge, Ms,, and Wm. R. Bliss, Boston. — Same, William 
Sage, Durham Center, Conn., assignor to Henry Sage, Berlin, Conn. — Preparing 
India Rubber cloth, Charles Winslow, Lynn, Ms. — Roller Temple for looms, 
"Warren W. Dutcher, Milford, Mass. — Sewing Machine, Daniel Harris, Boston, 
Mass. — ^Ladies' Skirts, E. F. Woodward, Brooklyn, N. Y., a spiral stiffener, &c. — 

American Patents. 105 

Knitted Fabrics, Joseph Vickerstiif, assignor to Martin Landenberger, Philadel- 
phia, a new article, a fabric, knitted with threads of different colors, and com- 
posed of two separate thicknesses, interlocked at intervals, as required, by trans- 
posing the threads, so that both sides shall present a plain uninterrupted surface 
of loops. — Blotter, R. G. AUerton, New York, a convex surface with a handle, 
<'0 be used by a single rocking motion. — Manufiicturing felt cloths, Thos. B. 
Butler, Norwalk, Ct. — Carpet Fastenings, David N. B. Coffin, Jr., Newton, Mass. 
A screw with a head on one side of its axis, so that a turn half round will re- 
lease the carpet. — Drying pasteboard, Patrick Clark, Rahway, N. J. Heated 
hollow tables, one above another. — Rope Machine, Wm. R. Dutcher, Lansing- 
burgh, N. Y.— Camp Tents, Benjamin Hinckley, Troy, N. Y. The rafted frame 
is hingefi, in sections, so that the frame can be folded for convenient carrying. — 
Sewing Machine, Daniel Parris, Boston. — Machine for folding paper, James F. 
Weeks, Columbus," 0. — Carpet Bags, Joseph Zepfel, assignor to himself and 
John B. Radley, New -York. 

Chemical Processes. 

Covering insulated wire with lead or other ductile metal, Samuel C. Bishop, 
New- York. — Making Lampblack, J. A. Roth, Philadelphia. — Brine Evaporator, 
Charles "W. Atkeson, Henderson, Ky. — Condensing apparatus for salt and gasses, 
J. C. F. Solomon, Baltimore, Md. — Refrigerator, J. C. Schooley, Cincinnati, 0. — 
Preparing liquid Rose Pink, John W. Perry, assignor to James W. Gates, Bos- 
ton. — Separating oil from steam, Robert Hill, Roxbury, Mass. — Electric Tele- 
graph, Harrison G. Dyer, New- York. — Starch from Maize, Wm. Watt, Belfast, 
Ireland. The corn is first steeped, whole or broken, in water, at a temperature 
of 70° to 140° F., the water being changed several times, or applied in continu- 
ous streams, it is then ground or " levigated" with water at 70° to 140°. The 
starch is then separated by process as described. — Smelting Furnace, Charles C. 
Alger, Newburgh, N. Y. — Condensing liquid in gas main pipes, John Walton, 
Louisville, Ky. — Defecating cane juice, Leonard Wray, London, Eng. 


Steam Heating Stove, Asa Blood, Norfolk, Va. — Bakers' Oven, John Chilcott, 
Baltimore, Md. — Solar Lamp, Joseph Hassell, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Coal Stove, 
John B. Kohler, Philadelphia. — Gas Generator, Augustus A. Hayes, Boston, 
Mass. — Gas Burner, John 0. Walsh, Lockport, N. Y. — Foot Stove, J. W. Lef- 
ferts, Brooklyn, N. Y. Heated by a lamp. — Fire grates, or lining of fire pots, 
Daniel H. Dean, Lowell, Mass., assignor to Wm. J. Coggsliall, Fall River, Mass. — 
Gas Stove, Patrick Mihan, assignor to himself and Robert F. Fitts, Boston. — 
Gas Generator, Napoleon Aubin, Albany, N. Y. — Vapor Burner, Horatio Fair- 
bank, South Brookfield, Mass. — Fountain Lamp, Henry W. Adams, New- York. — 
Steam Radicator, for heating apartments, J. H. Chester, Cincinnati, 0. — Gas 
Regulator, John H. Cooper, Philadelphia. — Street Lantern, John Reese, and 0. 
N. Tyler, Washington, D. C— Gas Generator, J. W. Smith, Washington, D. C. 
Gas burner, Asa D. Gates, Binghamton, N. Y. 

Steam and Gas Engines. 
Guiding and cushioning paper valves, Joseph Hyde and Wm. Stearns, Wil- 
mington, Del. — Damper regulators for steam boilers, Patrick White, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — Steam pressure gage, Joseph L. Eastman, Boston, Mass. — Valve con- 
nections for Steam Engines, B. L. Phillips, Providence, R. L — ^Valve Gear for 
steam engines, Samuel Swartz, Buffalo, N. Y. — Gas generator, E. W. White- 
head and J. L. Conklin, Newark, N. J. — Steam pressure gage, J. H. Miller, and 
John Kailey, assignors to themselves and John Danner, Canton, 0. — Vane gov- 
ernor for steam engines, &c., Francis Gustine, Medford, Mass. — Safety steam 
boiler, W. G. Pike and Isaac R. Scott, Waltham, Mass. — Steam boiler, Harry 
Whitaker, Buffalo, N. Y. — Steam Whistle, Sylvester W. Warren, assignor to 
himself and Dexter N. Force, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Cylindrical Throttle Valve, 
James H. Simmons, Erwin, N. Y. — Valve Gear for Steam Engines, Sidney Malt- 
by, Dayton, 0. The link and hook motion, in the reverse cut off and lead of 

106 American Patents. 

the valve are dispensed with, and a direct attachment to the wrist of the engine 
crank is substituted. — Metallic Packing for Steam Pistons, Daniel Lasher, 
Brooklyn. N. Y. — Valves in Steam Cylinders, M. G. Stacy, assignor to John W. 
AVuy, Fk-mington, Ga. — Slide Valve for Steam Engines, Thomas Winans, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Navigation and Maiutime Implements. 

Steering apparatus for ships, Phineas Smith, Patchogue, N. Y. — Rudder, R. S. 
Harris, Galena, 111. An outer or second rudder, attached to and working in the 
first rudder, with a short tiller, held and worked by stationary chains and ropes. 
Propellor canal boats, G. W. Swartz, Buffalo, N, Y. — Propelling vessels in shoal 
^\^ater, J. "W. Wetmore, Eria, Pa. — Reducing Topsails, Thomas Batty, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — Ships' Windlass, J. Peev}' and Abraham Sanborn, Bangor Me. — Ships' 
Capstances, Robert Dunbar, and John F. Robertson, assignors to the Buffalo 
Eagle Iron works, Buffalo, N. Y. A new mode of imparting a variable motion 
to the capstan. 

Civil Engineering and AiicniTECrcRE. 

Catch for doors, Jeremiah M. Crosby, Norwalk, O. — Roofing Machine, J. B. 
Driscole, Knoxville, Tcnn. — Hanging Doors, Albert W. Morse, Eaton, N. Y. — 
Laths for buildings, John L. Brabyn, New York. — Constructing Stores, W. L. 
Johnson, Peytonsville, Tenn. — Excavating Tunnels, Charles Wilson, Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Land Conveyance. 

Repairing R. R. Bars, Lyman Beebe, and Geo. F. Smith, Michigan City, Ind. 
Railroad switch dock, Wm. L. Cawthro, Harper's Ferrj^, Va. — Carriage Brake, 
Geo. Hanck, Mechanicsburg, Pa. — Carriage Wheel, J. D. Sarven, Columbia, 
Tenn. — Setting tires on wheels, John II. Williams, Pleasant Hill, 0.— Railroad 
Snow Excavator, S. G. Ludlum, Oyster Bay, N. Y. — ^Ventillating Vault, and 
platform light, John C. Wolvin, assignor to Geo. Peckham and himself, New 
York. — Central draft joint of carriages, Luther 0. Rice, Caistorville, C. W. — 
AYhiffletree hook, Anthony Cooley, Paw Paw, Mich. — Brake for Wagons, Hugh 
Slater, Auburn, N. Y. — Carriage Top, R. S. Jennings, Waterbury, Ct. 

Hydraulics and Pneumatics. 
Basin Faucet, Wm. C, Marshall and Horace W. Smith, Hartford, Ct. — Rotary 
Pump, Robert Ramsden, South Easton, Pa. — Method of increasing Hydrants, 
William Bramwell, New- York, assignor to Samuel P. Ayers, New-Rochelle, N. 
Y. — Valvular arrangement for Basin, and cocks, Edward G. Bunham, assignor 
to himself and Henry A. Chapin, Springfield, Mass. — Hydrant, Joel Bryant, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. — Elevating Water, by compressed air, Archibald Thompson, 
Detroit, Mich. — Faucet, D, N. B. Coffin, Newton Center, Mass. — Valvular ar- 
rangement for Faucets, &c., Edward Hamilton, Chicago, 111. — ^Pump, W. H. 
Harrison, Philadelphia. — H3alrant, G. P. Fcrrine and J. E. Boyle, Richmond, 
Y-A. — Attaching air chambers to Pumps, Charles N. Lewis, assignor to Geo. C. 
King, Seneca Falls, N. Y. — Water Meter, Peter H. Nilcs, assignor to himself 
and Alfred Douglass, Jr., Boston. — Blast Blower, John Brough, Aurora, 111. 

Grinding MrLLS, and Mill Gearing. 
Automatic Fans, Lawrence Rebstock and N. Reimel, Philadelphia. — Grinding 
Mill, Ezra Coleman, Philadelphia. — Distributing apparatus of Flouring Mills, 
Alfred T. Clark, Lancaster, Pa. 

Lumber, and Tools and Machines for Preparing it. 
Miter Box, Geo. L. Chapin, Perrysburgh, N. Y. The saw may be so guided 
as to cut at any desired angle. — Preparing hubblocks for the Lathe, Lovctt 
Fames, Kalamazoo, Mich. — Wheelrights' Machine, E. N. Kilpatrick, Byhalia, 
Miss. — Machine for felling trees, Elliot F. Miller, Chelsea, Mass. — Shield and 
Guide for circular saws, G. W. Rodeboy, Mihvaukie. Wis. — Adjusting circular 
saws, obliquely to their shafts, G. R. Scrivcn, Philadelphia. — Automatic Saw 
Mill Blocks, Hiram Wells, Florence, Mass. — Stock for Bench Planes, Joel Bryant, 

American Patents. 107 

Brooklyn, N. Y.— Cork Machine, Edward Conroy, South Boston. — Making Axe 
Poles, Richard H. Cole, St. Louis, Mo. — Portable Steam Sawing Machine, S. R. 
"Wilmot, Watertown, Conn. — Holding and adjusting plane irons in their stocks, 
W. W. Shipman, Lowell, Mass. — Basket handles, Anthony Faas, Philadelphia. — 
Picker sawing machine, John Haw, Old Church, Va. — Sawing Mill, J. G. Ken- 
nedy, Cincinnati, 0. — Boring Machine, L. B. Lloyd, Warwich Township, Pa. — 
Finishing brush handles, Thomas Mitchell, Lansingburgh, N. Y. — Securing and 
adjusting plane irons in their stocks, Wm. Stoddard, Lowell, Mass. — ^Bench 
Plane, Thomas D. Worrall, Lowell, Mass., assignor to Thomas F. Caldicott, 
Charlestown, Mass. — Mortising Machine, H.B.Smith, Lowell, Mass. — Adjustible 
fender posts for Saw Mills, Henry Harpold, Racine, 0. — Sawing machine for fell- 
ing trees, Matthew Ludwig, Boston. — Cross cut sawing apparatus, Henry F. 
Wilson, assignor to himself and Henry B. West, Flemington, Ga. 

Leather, Tanning, etc. 
Manufacture of boots, James Scrimgeour, Brooklyn, N. Y. So cutting out 
the leathers that they do not require to be crimped — Pegging boots and shoes, 
B. F. Sturtevant, assignor to himself and Elmir Townsend, Boston. — Deplating 
compound for hides, A. K. Eaton, New-York. — Splitting leather, Dexter H. 
Chamberlain, West Roxbury, Mass. — Scouring and Setting leather, Peter E. 
Hammel, Pulaski, N. Y. — Machine for skiving boot counters, Wm. Butterfield, 
Boston, and Bradford Stetson, Uxbridge, Mass., assignors to themselves and El- 
mer Townsend, Boston. — Polishing raw-hide whips, Eugene Blattner, Phila- 

Household Furniture. 

Paring, coring and quartering apples, Charles F. Bosworth, Petersham, Mass. — 
Mop-head, E. P. Thompson, Worcester, Mass. — Invalid Bed Elevator, D. String- 
ham, Dunham, New-York. — Chair for invalids, James G. Holmes, Charleston, 
S. C. — Bedstead, Peter Hinds, Kendalls' Mills, Me, — Spring bed bottom, Geo. 
W. Dow, assignor to himself and Walter F. French, Lynn, Mass. — ^Elastic Loop 
for bedstead slats, Charles Robinson, Cambridgeport, Mass. 

Arts, Polite, Fine, and Ornamental. 
Rounding and backing books, Theodore Bergner, Philadelphia. — Card printing 
press, Charles E. Emery, Canandaigua, N. Y. — Melodeon, Wm. Evans, Lock- 
port, 111. — Constructing watch and locket rings, Henry A. Phillips, Providence, 
R. I. — Power printing press, Jedediah Morse, Canton, Mass , assignor to the 
S. P. Ruggles power press manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass. — Card printing 
press, Franklin & Bailey, Boston, Mass. — Motion for preserving rolling contact, 
&c., Geo. P. Gordon and Frederick 0. Degener, New-Yoi'k. Adapted to type 
and lithographic presses, &c. — Printing press, F. L. Bailey, Boston. — Caligraph, 
Charles Thurber, Worcester. Mass. — Background for photographs on glass, J. 
W. Wykes, WheeUng, Va. — Printing Ink, George Matthews, Montreal,* C. E. 

Fire Arms, &c. 

Breech loading fire arms, Gilbert Smith, Buttermilk Falls, N. Y.— Same, John 
Schenkl, Boston. — Fire arms, Jacob Shaw, Jr., Hinckley Township, 0. — Car- 
tridges, Gilbert Smith, Buttermilk Falls, N. Y. 

Surgical and Medical Instruments. 

Uterine Supporters, W. E. Cooke, Philadelphia. 


Metallic band fastening for bales, &c., Asa 0. Broad, Louisville, Ky. — Clay 
Pulverizers, Ira Herzey and James H. Van Riper, New- York. — Brick press, R. 
R. Harbour, Oskaloosa, Iowa. — Paper file, D. A. Stiles, W. Meriden, Conn. — 
Safety attachment for hatchways, James Bridge, Augusta, Me. — Animal trap, 
Henry Hackman, Jr.,Pequa, Pa. — Safety Pocket, Horace Harris, Newark, N.J. — 
Stamp label sticker, Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia. — Smut machine, James 
Tompkins, Libc ty. Pa. — Umbrella and Parasol, James Willis, London, Eng. — 
Machine for graduating linear measures, S. C, Hubbard, assignor to C. C. Hub- 

108 Foreign Inventions. 

bard, Midtlletown, Ct. — Lighting street gas, John Reede and Charles N. Tyler, 
Washington, D. C. — Preserving green corn, David Rowe, Baltimore.-^Corapound 
for covering Hams, Carter Van Veeck, Macomb, 111. 

Puddling Pig Steel. 

A Prussian correspondent of the Mining Journal, published in London, ex- 
presses surprise that some of the capitalists in England do not turn their atten- 
tion to puddling pig steel, which in Prussia is making rapid strides. Puddling 
both iron and steel with ga=, is very general in Prussia. In some instances the 
gas is obtained from the blast furnace, but in most cases it is generated to each 
furnace ; dry wood, charcoal, lignite and turf, are employed as fuel. At one of 
the iron works where wood is used for gas, the charges are eight hundred 
weight of white mottled iron for each furnace, bringing out twenty to twenty- 
one tons of puddled bars per week, at a loss of only four or five per cent., and 
with a consumption of four cubic feet of timber per hundred weight of puddled 
bars. At another establishment they charge with ten hundred weight of gray 
pig, and bring out the charge in two and one-half hours with 8.70 cubic feet of 
wood per hundred weight of puddled bars. A large rolling-mill is arranged to 
puddle steel with gas from iron lignite, to be converted into railway wheels and 
tires, for which there is an increasing demand ; these are forged under the 
hammer to nearly the required form, and then passed through a pair of rolls to 
finish them. A preparation of pig iron, of the following character, is found to 
possess some excellent qualities : A small quantity of common salt — say one 
and a half to two per cent. — is introduced into coke ovens, along with the small 
coals ; the salt removes the sulphur from the coke, and hence the iron made 
with this coke in the blast furnace is materially improved. Bars made fi'om 
this iron have broken like crown iron, and it makes capital rails. All such 
processes tend to bring the manufacture of this important metal to a continually 
higher degree of perfection. 

Manufacture of the Celebrated Eussian Leather. 

In the production of the well-known Russian leather, the hides to be tanned — 
whether wet or dry — are first laid to soak for three days and three nights in a 
solution of potash, to which some quicklime is added. The potash used is 
made of the common elm, which is said to be preferable to any other, if not es- 
sential ; it is not purified, so that it is of a brown color, and of earthy appear- 
ance. About four hundred and thirty-two pounds of this and seventy-two 
pounds of lime, serve for one hundred skins. When the lie is weak, they let 
the skins lie longer in the solution. When the skins are taken out, they are 
carried to the river and left under water for a day and night. Next, two and a 
half gallons of dog's ordure is boiled in as much water as is enough to soak fifty 
skins ; but in the winter time, when the ordure is frozen, twice that quantity is 
found necessary. The skms are put into this solution when it is about as hot 
as the hand can bear, and in this they remain one day and one night. The 
skins are then sewed up so as to leave no hole ; in short, so as to be water-tight. 
About one third of what the skin will contain is then filled up with the leaves 
and small twigs chopped together of the plant called bearberry, which is brought 
from the environs of Solikamskaga, and the skin is then filled up with water. 
Thus filled, they are laid one on the other in a large trough, and heavy stones 
upon them, to press the infusion through the pores of the skin in about four 
hours — the filling up being repeated ten times successfully, with the same 
water. They are then taken to the river and washed, and are ready for the 

Foreign Inventions. 109 

dyeing — the whitest skins being laid aside for the red and yellow leather. The 
skins are softened, after dyeing, by being harrassed with a knife, the point of 
which curves upwards. 

Discovery in Veneering^. 

A PROCESS of veneering by transfer is mentioned with approval in the French 
journals. The sheet of veneer or inlaying to be copied is to be exposed for a 
few minutes to the vapor of hydrochloric acid. The sheet of veneer is then laid 
upon one of calico or paper, and an impression struck off by means of a common 
printing-press ; this impression remains invisible until, as with many of the sym- 
pathetic inks, it is exposed to the action of heat, which is to be appHed imme- 
diately after the sheet is printed off, when a perfect impression of all the marks, 
figures, and convoluted lines of the veneer is instantaneously produced. This 
may be repeated for an almost indefinite number of times, wetting the veneer 
occasionally with the dilute acid, without the impression growing fainter. The 
designs thus produced all exhibit a general woodlike tint, most natural when 
oak, walnut, maple, and the light colored woods have been employed. 

Fire-Place Shutters. 

In many of the first class houses recently erected in England, fire-place shut- 
ters are provided, which, when partly drawn down, act as powerful blowers, and 
when wholly drawn down, so as to touch the hearthstone, entirely close up the 
fire-place, and instantly extinguish the combustion of the fuel in the grate, or 
that of the soot in the chimney, should it accidentally take fire. 

Improvements in Reducinu the Friction of Axles and Axletrees of Carriages 

ON Railways. Leon Joseph Pomme de Mirionde, Paris. 

This invention consists in mounting saddlewise, in axle-boxes, two fi-iction 
rollers, which are shaped to correspond with the journal of the axle ; and in a 
method of lubricating the axes of the rollers and the journal itself. Bearings 
are provided in the axle-boxes for the axes of the two saddle friction rollers, 
which rollers take the bearing of the journal of the axle. • 

To each side of the journal is affixed a ring, to which is connected a band or 
covering of some suitable flexible material : this material dips in an oil reservoir 
in the bottom of the axle-box, and being carried round with the axle, keeps up 
a continuous lubrication to the axes of the friction rollers, and to the journal of 
the axle. 

Improvements in Apparatus to Facilitate the Printing of Yarns or Threads. 

Richard Whytock, Edinburgh. 

According to the method usually practiced for producing figural fabrics by the 
use of printed yarns, hanks are formed on cylinders, and remain on the same till 
printed. Now there are certain difficulties in this process which it is desirable 
to remove. The first is, that the length of pattern is limited by the size of the 
cylinder : thus, a cylinder six yards round only extends figures in velvet pile to 
forty inches. Hence, recourse has been had to cylinders nine yards and eleven 
yards in circumference ; but this is still not enough, although beyond this they 
are scarcely manageable. Attempts have been made to get over this by using 
two cylinders, placed at a distance asunder ; but no practical means have been 
devised for covering them with yarns. 

Now, this invention consists in employing two cylinders, or, in preference, 
two open reels, and placing them opposite each other : these are held together 
by connecting bars of wood or other suitable material, so that they can be lifted 
about from place to place. These reels are covered with a continuous coating of 
yarn or threads, laid in as regular order as the threads or yarns on a cylinder 

110 Foreign Inventions. 

are ; and this is effected by the following process :— The reels or cylinders are 
each placed between two wheels of rather larger diameter than the reels. End- 
less bands connect tliose wheels, that is, one fore-wheel and one hind-wheel ; so 
that the two endless bands run parallel to each other. Upon those parallel 
bands a light carriage is fixed, which conveys the bobbins containing the 
threads or yarns with which the reels or cylinders are to be covered. The bob- 
bins are passed over the reels or cylinders, and then under the reels or cylinders, 
until so many coils or threads are placed in regular order, embracing both reels. 
It is a motion directly the reverse of that used in covering the cylinders ; for 
while the cylinder revolves on its center, the hank with the bobbins is station- 
ary. Here the reels remain passive, and the hank with the bobbins revolves 
round them. The change in the distance of the reels or cylinders from each 
other regulates the size or length of the coil. These coils maybe removed fiom 
the reels, and printed on tables or under cylinders — ^for such patterns as are 
termed turn-over patterns ; but it is proposed to print the coils before removal 
of the yarn by means of a printing machine, with traversing-pulleys, (formerly 
patented by the present patentee,) so that all kinds of patterns can be produced 
as by the cylinders, and with greater advantage. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Iron. Joseph Gilbert Martien, of 

Newark, N. J., U. S. A. 

This invention consists in applying to and disseminating through and amongst 
fluid iron, or fluid metal possessing the characteristics of iron, of any kind, form, 
or description whatsoever, as it flows from or whilst in a transition state from a 
melting or re-melting furnace, cupola, fire, vessel or place of any land or form 
whatsoever from which fluid iron may or can flow, (except from a smelting fur- 
nace,) atmospheric air, oxj^gen gas, chlorine gas, hydrogen gas, carburetted hy- 
drogen gas, or any desirable vapor, gas, or gases, separately or combined, and 
in a natural state, or in a more or less heated state, as may be required, for the 
purpose of heating, oxidizing, deoxidizing, carbonizing, decarbonizing, purifying, 
strengthening, changing the nature of the metal, more or less, whatever the form, 
character, nature, or name the metal may have or be known by, in consequence 
wholly or in part of such treatment. 

This invention also consists in applying to and disseminating through and 
amongst fluid iron of any kind, form or description, as it flows from or whilst in 
a transition state from a melting or re-melting furnace, cupola, fire, vessel or 
placqiof any kind or form whatever fi'om which fluid iron may or can flow, (ex- 
cept from a smelting furnace,) nickel, or matter containing nickel, zinc in the 
fjrm of an oxide or otherwise ; manganese in the form of an oxide, carbonate, 
carburet, or otherwise ; carbonaceous matter of any kind, or compound contain- 
ing carbon ; kaolin, or any matter containing kaolin, chloride of sodium, chlo- 
rates, carbonates, nitrates, or any saline, alkaline, vegetable, earthy, mineral, or 
metallic matter, or matters, separately or combined, and in any form, state, or 
condition that may be desirable for the purpose of oxidizing, deoxidizing, car- 
bonizing, decarbonizing, purifying, alloying with the iron, or any matter con- 
tained in the iron, strengthening, changing the nature of the metal more or less, 
whatever the form, character, nature, or name the metal may take wholly or in 
part in consequence of such treatment. 

An Improved Mode of Adjusting Circular Saws. Henry Laxton, of Arundel 

street. Strand. 

This invention consists in securing a circular saw to its spindle in an oblique 
direction, so as to enable the saw to cut grooves and rebates of any required 
widths. This is effected in the following manner : — Between the saw and a col- 
lar on the spindle are two bevilled washers, each capable of being turned inde- 
pendently of the other ; and on the opposite side, is a plain washer, having a 
concave recess for receiving a convex nut, which screws on to the end of the spin- 
dle and secures the saw firmly thereto. The whole is so arranged, that by chang- 
ing the relative positions of the two bevilled washers, a surface more or less 
oblique with the axis of the spindle is presented for the saw to be secured 

Foreign Inventions. Ill 

against. Thus the obUquity of the saw with the axis of the spindle may be va- 
ried at pleasure ; and grooves of various widths may be cut into the wood sub- 
mitted to its action. 

An Improvement in the Manufacture of Band-saws, and other Endless Bands 

OR Hoops op Metal. Robert Thomas Eadon, Sheffield. 

This invention consists in binding a bar or rod of cast steel, or other metal 
suitable for the purpose required, into a circular form, and welding the ends 
thereof in order to insure a perfect joint ; then in reducing the bar to the 
thickness required between rolls, whereby an endless band, whether for band- 
saws, casks, hoops, or for other use, is produced, of uniform strength. 

The exact manner of carrying out the invention is as follows : — A bar of weld- 
ing cast-steel having been prepared, of length, width, and strength suitable 
to the size of the saw, band, or hoop required, and of suflQcient strength and 
weight to enable a smith to obtain a perfect weld, the same is welded into a 
hoop. This hoop is put into such a furnace as is ordinarily used in the saw 
trade, and, when heated red hot, it is placed between a pair of open-end rolls. 
The pressure exerted upon the rolls is regulated by a screw made to act upon 
the top roll : the alternate heating and rolling are continued until the hoop or 
band is reduced to the extent required. If intended for a band-saw, it is toothed 
with a bed and punch with the common press or fly. The teeth and back of 
the saw are afterwards filed. 

The saw-band or hoop is now folded up into several coils and put into a saw 
hardening furnace : it is heated red hot and precipitated into a cistern containing 
fish oil ; when removed therefrom, the oil is partially wiped oflF, and the coil 
again placed in the furnace until the requisite temper is obtained. The saw- 
band or hoop is afterwards smithed, planished, or hammered, until it is free from 
twist and bends, and straightened on both edges. The saw-band is then ground 
and glazed in the ordinary manner, except that in tiurning over from one side to 
the other, the saw-hoop or band is turned inside out, so that both sides may be 
ground and glazed. Any irregularities or bends that have been caused by grind- 
ing are afterwards straightened on a wood block of lignum-vita? or other hard 
wood, by a smooth-faced hammer, so as not to cut or mark the body. The band 
is afterwards tempered by "blueing" in an ordinary blueing stove, in sand; 
any elasticity that hammering, grinding, etc., may have deprived it of being 
thereby restored. When the teeth have been shaped in the ordinary manner 
followed in the trade, the saw is ready for use. 

Descripticn op Improved Corn-mill Machinery. Mb, Alexander Wright, of 


In the ordinary mode of grinding wheat, the grain, after being properly 
cleaned, is placed in a hopper above the millstones, and is thence fed in a regu- 
lar manner into the eye or central aperture of the running or top stone, and by 
the centrifugal effect of the stone's rotation is can'ied round in a spiral direction 
between the two stones, until it gradually reaches the circumference of the 
stones, whence it issues in a ground state and passes down a spout into a bin be- 
low. In this system, which has been in use for centuries, there is, the writer 
thinks, ample room for improvement, involving both an increase in the speed of 
production, and superior quality of the flour. 

An injurious efiFect is exercised upon the grain by its coming in contact with 
the central portion of the stones, as at that part it is tortm-ed over and over on a 
sharp flinty surface of nearly five feet area, and with a motion which, being in- 
suflScient to grind it, tears the husk and kernel, to the detriment of the flour ; 
this action taking place before the grain reaches that portion of the stones where 
there is motion at once sufficient to grind it and to discharge the ground parti- 
cles from between the stones. 

In the improved arrangement of corn-mill machinery, forming the subject 
of the present paper, the area at the center of the stones is altogether removed, 
the stones being cut away at that part ; whilst in the opening there is inserted 
a large distributing disc, which is driven at a high speed, lor the purpose of de- 

112 Foreign Inventions. 

livering the prepared grain between the stones, and also causing a current of air 
as afterwards described. 

The grain is supplied from a hopper along a spout to a small crushing appa- 
ratus, (placed above the stones,) consisting of a pair of rollers driven from the 
damsel spindle, hj means of bevil wheels. The grain passing between the 
rollers on its way to the grinding surfaces, is bruised or crushed, which greatly 
facilitates the grinding process, and improves the quality of the flour. The 
crushed grain from the rollers falls upon the distributing disc, the surfece of 
which is corrugated or notched radially, to aid the distribution of the grain : the 
distributor is recessed half way into the face of each stone, and revolves clear of 
the lower stationary stone, and also of the running stone. 

The distributor is constructed so as to serve the double purpose of delivering 
the grain between the stones, and also of supplying a current of cool air along 
with the grain. The distribution disc, on which the crushed grain falls, forms 
the upper side of a horizontal fan, which discharges a current of cool air along 
with the grain between the stones. The air is drawn up through the enlarged 
eye of the bed stone, which is left open, like the eye of the running stone, to al- 
low of the free introduction of cool air, to act upon the grain where the grinding 
action comes into most effective play. The fan of the distributor is made with a 
number of curved arms, the spaces between which form horizontal curved pas- 
sages for the air ; the outer ends of the air passages terminate at the circumfer- 
ence of the distributor, and the inner ends open into the central chamber of the 
fan, which communicates at the under side with trumpet-mouthed air tubes 
which pass through the eye of the lower stone and are thus capable of taking in 
cool air from below. 

The action of the fan is such that, as the upper stone revolves, a current of 
cool air is drawn up through the trumpet-mouthed tubes, and discharged in a 
powerful stream upon the grain. By these means the grinding is accomplished 
very rapidly and well, and the grain and flour are kept quite cool and in good 
order. If the simple rate of the stones does not produce a sufficient current of 
air by means of the fan, as may be the case with stones of large diameter, the fan 
is driven at a greater velocity than that of the stones, by means of gearing, and 
is arranged to revolve freely about the mill spindle. 

A further improvement is effected in the discharge of the flour from the mill- 
stones. Instead of allowing the flour to be carried round the inside of the 
casing, so as to be delivered down a spout placed at one side, the casing is formed 
with openings almost all round it, through which the flour falls in a thin film 
into the conical or funnel-shaped casing below. In passing down this casing the 
flour is exposed to the beneficial action of the upward current of cool air, which 
is ascending to supply the fan — the heated air passing off by the ordinary open- 
ing in the case over the top of the running stone. When the floor leaves the 
casing, by a spout at the bottom, it is in a perfectly cool state, and may be im- 
mediately bolted and put up into sacks for the baker. 

The present improvements may be applied to a certain extent to old stones ; 
but in erecting new mills or machinery, the stones should be made considerably 
larger than hitherto ; that is to say, they should be at least six feet in diameter, 
instead of only four feet or four feet six inches. These large stones should be 
composed of a ring of burr blocks one foot broad, built up and nicely joined 
round a center ring, composed either of a single piece of free-stone, or of cast- 

Stones fitted up with the various improvements above described have, in prac- 
tice, been found to do double, and in some cases more than double, the work 
done by ordinary stones, whilst the flour produced has been of greatly superior 
quality ; and where the lai-ger size of stones can be got, still better results will 
be obtained, whilst the motion will be easier, and there will be less of the tremor 
and vibration which, with ordinary arrangements, frequently annoys and frus- 
trates the expectations of the most careful miller. 

Reapers and Mowers. 113 

Trial of Reapers and Mowers. 

Commencing July \ith, 185*7, at Syracuse, N. Y., under the direction of the United 
States Agricultural Society. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, President, Major Benjamin 
Perley Poore, Secretary. 

Previously to Tuesday, the day appointed for the opening exercises, H. S. Olcott, 
Secretary of the Implement Committee, had received notifications of entries for 38 
mowers, 28 reapers, 22 combined machines for both mowing and reaping, 2 reapers 
with automaton rakes, and sundry other machines for various farm purposes. Only a 
small part of these implements, however, appear to have been actually entered. Most 
of those entered were either on the ground the week before, or were brought forward 
on Monday morning. Monday was altogether a quiet, pleasant day, and the arrange- 
ments afforded to inventors and manufacturers the best opportunity of the whole 
week for exhibiting their machines at rest. The pleasant, shady grounds of the Onon- 
daga County Agricultural Society, were used for the purpose. This Society's great 
tent was spread for the occasion. A tent for the President and officers of the 
United States Agricultural Society, a large tent for refreshments, and several others 
for various purposes, adorned the grounds, and added much to the comfort of exhibit- 
ors and others. 

On Tuesday morning, after the large procession had reached the grounds, at about 
eleven o'clock, Gov. King, accompanied by Gov. Morehead, of Kentucky, and Ex- 
Gov. Clark, of New-York, arrived on the ground under the escort of the marshals 
and the Syracuse Dragoons and Washington artillery, a squad of the latter firing a 
salute as they entered the ground, and the band playing " Hail Columbia." 

The machines then formed, and mai'ched in procession around the track, preceded 
by the marshals and Sutherland's brass band. When in front of the President's 
stand, the procession halted, and the President of the Society, the Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder, then delivered an address, characterized by his usual earnestness and devotion 
to the cause of agriculture. 

In addressing the board of judges, Mr. Wilder said, I shall not attemjit to instruct 
you minutely in reference to your duties. There are a few points, however, to 
which I deem it important that your special attention should be directed. 

1. Cost of machine. 2. Simplicity of construction. 3. Durability. 4. Effective 
power, — or power required for a given amount of work, including the necessary at- 
tendance. 5. The rate of motion, or what a machine will accomplish under an or- 
dinary rate of speed for daily work. 6. Quality of work, or the manner of leaving 
the grass and grain. 7. Facility of management. 8. Any machine posssessing spe- 
cial points of excellence, although as a whole it may be inferior, such special advan- 
tages should be noted, and a diploma awarded therefor. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Wilder's address, which abounded in practical good sense, 
and was listened to with great apparent interest, loud calls were made for Governor 
King, who came forward and addressed the crowd in some very appropriate re- 
marks, in which he paid a handsome compliment to the President of the United States 
Agricultural Society, Mr. Wilder. 

Governor Morehead, of Kentucky, being vociferously called for, next came forward 
amid hearty cheers, and made a most interesting and patriotic speech, in which he 
represented his State as ever true to the Union ; and as standing with one arm 
around the agitators of the North and the other around the disorganizers of the 
South, hugging each to her bosom, and ti'ying to make them love each other, but des- 
tined to be the bloody ground of fraternal sti'ife, if she could not succeed. He ex- 

114 Meapers and Moioers. 

presses a wish that the extremists of North antl South miglit oftencr come togetlier 
as on this occasion, and look each other in the face. He thought tliat neither might 
look so uglj' to the other as both seem to tliink, -while keeping apart. 

These ceremonies concluded, next followed a brilliant collation, in the President's 
tent, of which the President, the invited guests, the marshals and gentlemen connect- 
ed with the press partook. When " the love of eating ceased," and good things could 
no longer tempt the appetite, the line of march was taken up for a large, and unfor- 
tunately a rough and tangled clover field, one mile distant. Reapers, mowers, six 
pounders, and other signs of peace and of war alternated along the line. The cannon 
we suppose were well enough, though we could not exactly see why the smell of 
powder should mingle with the fragrance of newly cut clover. It was about two 
o'clock when the procession reached the field. 

The machines entered the field in the manner in which they had drawn, as 

1. D. M. Osborne, Buffalo, mower. 2. Seymour &, Morgan, Brockport, N. Y., 
combined machine. 3. Miller, Wright <fe Co., Louisville, Ky., combined machine. 
4. Warder, Brokaw & Co., Springfield, Ohio, combined mower. 5. Ball, Aultman 
<fe Co., Canton, Ohio, mower. 6. T. R. Hussey, Auburn, N. Y., combined machine. 
7. M. HoUenbeek, Albany, mower. 8. Ilowland Sanford, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
combined machine. 9. W. A. Wood, Hoosick Falls, N. Y., mower. 10. W. F. Ket- 
chum, Buffalo, mower. 11. T. P. Burrall, Geneva, N. Y., combined machine. 12- 
Pells Manny, Freeport, III, mower. 13. Ball, Aultman & Co., mower. 14. W. A. 
Wood, Hoosick Falls, K Y., combined macliine. 15. A, H. Caryle, Boston, Mass.. 
mower. 16. W. H. Hovey, Springfield, Mass., mower. 17. Rufus Dutton, Dayton, 
Ohio, combined machine. 18. R. L. Allen, New-York, mower. 19. Pruyn &, Lan- 
sing, Albany, K Y., mower. 

An acre of ground was staked out for each machine. The unevcnness of the sur- 
face and the lodged condition of the clover were calculated to put the machines to a 
hard trial. If they could stand the test, it was thought they could stand anything. 
The teams were started at three o'clock, and at four nearly the whole field was cut 

Ketchum's improved harvester, manufactured by Messrs. Howard & Co., of Buf- 
falo, made wholly of iron, and certainly a beautiful piece of work, did its acre expe- 
ditiously and well. 

J. Manny's Patent Adjustible Self-Raking Reaper, manufiictured by Manny & Co., 
Freeport, III, also did its work rapidly and in good style, and apparently without 
violent effort on the part of the horses. This is a recent Pells Manny, father to J. 
II. Manny, and we heard it said, that the machine here used was the first and the 
only one yet manufactured. The son, we apprehend was not easy to be beat; but if 
the father should beat him, we should not be sorry. 

Of Allen's ^Mowing Machine, we heard it said by many that it worked admirably. 
We saw little of its work, as it was impossible among so many machines, far apart 
from each other, to make accurate observations on each. But having seen Allen's 
mower in operation a few days before in Farmington, Conn., where it worked well 
under exceedingly unfavorable circumstances, we were prepared to think well of it. 
We are prepared to think well also of J. H. Manny's patents, both of combined 
reaper and mower and the single mower, as also of Kirby's improved reaping and 
mowing machine, and of Burrell's mower and reeper, the frame of which is wholly 
of iron, its draft appearing to be easy, and its work well done. 

It will be understood that there were other machines than those we have named 
on the ground. We were under necessity of leaving at an early stage of the trial- 

Reapers and Mowers. 115 

Our remarks relate to only a few which attracted our particular attention. The in- 
vestigation of the Committee, we hope will be thorough, persevering, impartial and 
as far as the nature of the case admits, reliable ; though it must be admitted that 
their task is as difficult as it is important, and while from our knowledge of the men, 
we are inclined to believe that " If any right arm could save Troy, these would," yet 
we fear it will be utterly impossible for them either to do full and equal justice to 
the manufacturers of these machines, or to give the farmers more than half of the 
real, reliable information they want. If they can do so much, it will be something; 
it will be worth a good deal ; and we shall thank the United States Agricultural So- 
ciety, at least, for what it has attempted, and for what we trust it will have partially 

Our confident expectation is, that great improvements are yet to be made in mow- 
ing and reaping by other power than that of human muscles. None but the smallest 
farmers should think of mowing and reaping much longer in the old way. It was 
very naughty in the human race, that they did not search out better ways long ago. 

In the present state of things, we see not how large farmers, who must have some 
one of these machines noiv, can do better than to use the best light they can get. 
For smaller farmers, would it not be wise, either to wait a little, or several of them 
to join in the purchase of a machine to be used in common, or perhaps to hire their 
grass and grain by a machine held by some one in their neighborhood for the pur- 

Certainly- it would not be very comfortable for a farmer of limited means, who 
should have purchased a machine, with the hope of its lasting many years, to be told 
in a few months, that his machine was behind the times, only about as good as an 
old almanac. 


On our way home from the National trial of Mowers and Reapers, at Syracuse, 
we stopped a day for the purpose of being present at a less extensive, but to us 
hardly less interesting trial of mowers, on two adjoining farms, midway between 
the beautiful and flourishing villages of Homer and Courtlandville. 

This trial came off on Wednesday afternoon, July 21st, imder the auspices of the 
Courtland County Agricultural Society. The first field entered was of very heavy 
clover and herdsgi'ass, considerably lodged in spots. The borders had been previ- 
ously cut and the hay removed. This gave ample room for the immense assemblage 
of farmers and others to witness the working of the machines without crowding 
upon the teams. 

There were present ten mowers, nine of which were worked. An acre had been 
previously marked off for each. The field was cut over in about one hour, some of 
the teams finishing their portions in lesss than half that time. But we did not un- 
derstand that this was a match on time, but rather a test of the quality of work 
done by each machine, as the teams seemed to be going and standing alternately, to 
suit the investigation of the committee. 

The work of this field being finished, the line of march was taken for another 
field on an adjacent farm. Here, too, the borders had been relieved of their crop 
to admit the multitudes, and the field was soon set off into three quarter acre par- 
allelograms, and a proper mowing match on time commenced. It was a brilliant 
scene. The grass on this field was lighter than in the other, and for the most part 
stood erect. Most of the lots were cut in from twelve to twenty minutes. But one 
machine, we believe, failed of doing its work quickly enough, and that one failed 
altogether owing to a break of a finger and one or more cutters. 

116 Meapers and Mowers. 

Our readers, no doubt, are by this time complaining that we deal too much in 
generalities. They want we should tell them outright which was the best machine, 
which was the worst, and so of all the grades. But really this is a harder task than 
we are able to accomplish. The considerable number of the machines, all in motion 
at once ; their distance from each other; the rapidity of the work; the falling rain, 
which hindered our taking notes, and the difficulty of ascertaining precisely the charac- 
ter of the work while yet covered with the crop, all rendered it impossible for us to 
feel very confident in any opinions we might form. Wishing that we could do justice 
to all, but conscious that we can not, and sensitively alive to the importance of doing 
injustice to no worthy competitor, we shall attempt little more than to name the ma- 
chines, with a passing remark on some of them. 

1. Hussey's patent, manufactured by T. R. Hussey, at Auburn. This looked like 
an " old settler ;" and if we were rightly informed it was the first mowing machine 
introduced into this region. Many farmers said in our hearing ; " It is an old 
friend ; give us the old Hussey after all ; it is the best yet," and words to that effect. 
Some accused other patentees of stealing Hussey's "thunder," and said that the in- 
fringement was shameful, and never ought to be sustained. Of all this we leave 
others to judge. But it is certain that Hussey's machine did its work well and ex- 
peditiously, and was of easy draft. 

2. Ketchum's Patent, manufactured by R. L. Howard, of Buffalo, K Y. This is 
wholly of iron. It appeared to be a good piece of workmanship, aud it worked 

3. J. H. Manny's Patent, with Daggert's improvement, manufactured by Daggert <fe 
Jordan. Do not know how it worked, but think well. 

4. J. H. Manny's Patent, with Wood's improvement, manufactured by Walter & 
Wood, at Hoosick Falls, Renss county, N. Y. Remark same as of the last. 

5. Hallenbeck's Patent, manufactured by HaUenbeck &, Cunningham, Albany, N. Y. 
Our impi-essions of it favorable. 

6. Ketchum's Patent, owned by Jedediah Barber, of Homer ; another old settler, 
said in our hearing to have been the first sold in that village. Worked well. 

7. R. L. Allen's Patent, manufactured by A. B. Allen, Brooklyn, and sold by R. 
L. Allen, New-York. Worked well, but not quite as well as we have seen it other 
wheres. Our impression is, that in heavy tangled grass, in a bottom not over 
smooth, it does better relatively than in lighter and smoother work. It is an excel- 
lent grass-cutter. 

8. A mower got up by Stephen W. Card, of Homer, not yet patented, we believe, 
but protected by a caveat. This was the only machine of the kind yet manufac- 
tured. Promises well we should think, but can say nothing positive. 

Last, but it may yet turn out not least, a new machine, on really new principles, so 
far as we know, manufactured by Stephen R. Hunter, of Courtlandville. We have 
long suspected that sooner or later, a circular motion would take the place of the 
vibrating motion in all these machines. Mr. Hunter's machine is an effort in that 
direction, and though it does not confirm our previous expectations of a revolution 
in the grand principle of cutting grass and grain, it strengthens them. We advise 
Mr. H. to persevere, nothing discouraged by the breaking of a knife or two and not 
finishing his lot. He had not had time to complete his machine, nor to practice with 
in advance of the trial. We strongly incline to the belief that he has got hold of 
an idea which will be of great utility. Let it be thoroughly tested. 

The time was a pleasant one, with the exception of a little rain, and the gather- 
ing could not fail to give a favorable impression of the farmers and farming iu this 
beautiful valley. 






Appearance of Birds, Flotvers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N". Y., in June, 1857. 

By E. HoweU. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about 40 feet above 

the Susquehanna River. 














9 P.M. 





N. W. 
N. W. 

S. W. 



s. w. 























Hard shower before day; lilacs begin to bloom. 
Fe-w dashes of rain; crane's-bill begins to blo-w. 
Few dashes of rain. 

Light black frost in morning. 
Quite a frost in morning. 

Considerable rain in N.W.; began at 5 o'clock. 
Light rain in P.M., and hard rain in evening. 
Hard rain at sunrise ; moderate rain all day. 
Light rain in A.M. ; peony begins to bloom. 
Hard rain all A.M.; at intervals in P.M. 
Showers in P.M. and evening. 
Sprinkle of rain. 

Hard rain near all day ; roads as muddy as 
Light rain near night. [in evening. 

Rain in morning ; aurora and sheet lightning 
Hard rain before light; wild blackberry begins 

to bloom. 
Short hard shower at dark. 

Hard rain nearly all the P.M. 
Rain all night; a few dashes near night. 
Button rose begins to bloom. 
June 25th and 26th, a majority of farmers hoe 
corn the first time. 

Sprinkle of rain before light ; lightning in 
Light rain before day and hard rain in P.M. 
Considerable rain before and after the day. 

Prospect of the Crops in Nichols and vicinity, July 13th, 1857. 
Of wheat, there was sown last fall more than usual, perhaps on the account 
of the crop last year being but little injured by the insect wheat-fly or midge ; the 
wheat this summer appears finer than I have seen before in a number of years, being 
very large and even, but I understand the insects have appeared in some crops in 
great numbers. I examined but two fields, and them but lightly ; they were 
Mediterranean species, which are not generally as much injured as other species by the 
insect ; this insect has been here nine or ten years. The rye crop is very fine, and 
a large amount on the ground. Oats, with the exception of a few fields on hill, are 
better than before in a number of years, and most probably a number of fields will 
be too large. The corn is about two weeks later than usual at this time of year ; a 
number of fields have been ploughed up and sown with buckwheat or are being 

118 Scientific. 

now sown. There never was a season that cut-worms and birds have done so 
much damage as this year. Potatoes, so far, very large, that is, the tojis. Meadows 
newly seeded generally fine ; old meadows poorer than before in a number of years, 
being very thin and short; the hay must be light, also the pastures do grow but 
little, and older fields thin in the bottom, being injured by the drouth last season 
and also by the winter. 

Toe usual chapter on Chemistry is omitted, on account of the absence of the Se- 
nior. "The Markets" are also necessarily omitted. 

Insects Injurious to Vegetation. 

[Insects attackikq the Cotton Plant, continued.] 
In continuing this branch of our subject, we present our readers with the following 
extracts from Mr. Glover's Report, referred to in our last issue. 
The Cotton-Louse. — Aphis? 

"When the cotton-plant is very young and tender, it is particularly subject to the at 
tacks of the cotton-louse, which by means of its piercer, penetrates the outer coating, 

or parenchyma of the leaf or tender 
shoots, and sucks tlie sap from the wound. 
The under part of the leaves or joung 
shoots are the places mostly selected, and 
the constant punctures and consequent 
drainage of sap enfeebles the plant and 
causes the leaf to curl up, turn yellow, and 
subsequently fall to the ground. The 
young lice are extremely minute, and of a 
greenish color ; but when they become 
older, they are about a tenth of an inch in 
length, and often dark green ; but, in some instances, they are almost black. It is 
conjectured that the color somewhat depends upon the health of the plant as well as 
that of the insect, or, perhaps, upon their food, as I have seen green and black lice 
promiscuously feeding upon the same plant. The female produces her young alive 
throughout the summer, when she may often be seen surrounded b^' her numerous 
progeny, sucking the juice from the leaves and still producing young. Some natural- 
ists state that the females, late in the fall, produce eggs, for the generation of the next 
spring. If so, it is in order to preserve the species, as the insects themselves are ea- 
sil3' killed by frost and cold ; and their increase would be incalculable were it not that 
Nature has provided many enemies among the insect tribes to prevent their too rapid 
multiplication. Both males and females are said to possess wings at certain seasons; 
but the females and young in summer appear to be wingless. The end of the abdo- 
men of both sexes is provided with two slender tubes, rising like horns from the back, 
from which often exudes the " honey-dew," or sweet gummy substance, seen sticking 
to the upper sides of the leaves beneath them, and which forms the favorite food of 
myriads of ants. Although young plants are mostly attacked, yet I have seen old 
"stands," in Georgia, with their young shoots, completely covered with this pest as 
late as November. 

The principal insects that destroy the aphides are the lady-bird, the lace-fly, and the 
syrphus, all of which wage incessant war upon them, and devour all they can find. 
Another fly, the ichneumon, hkewise lays an egg in the body of the louse, which, 
hatching into a grul), devours the inside of the still hving insect until it eventually 
dies, clinging to the leaf even in death, and the fly makes its appearance from the old 
skin of the aphis. 

When old cotton plants are suSering from the attacks of the louse, many planters 
cause their tops to be cut off and burned, and by so doing partially succeed in destroy- 
ing them ; yet, when we consider that, by this method, many young blossoms and 
" forms" must likewise be destroyed, it must be confessed that the remedy is almost 
as bad as the disease. In a garden or green-house, a solution of whale-oil soap, from 



a syringe, showered upon the upper and under parts of the foliage, has been used 
with much advantage ; yet, upon the extended scale of a cotton plantation, such a re- 
medy is altogether impracticable, and, until we can collect further information upon this 
subject from intelligent planters, we must rest content with the instinct of our insect 

THE LEAF-HOPPER. — Tetigotiia ? 

The leases of the cotton-plant are often injured by the leaf-hopper. This small in- 
sect is found upon the plant in the larva, pupa and perfect state. In all 
these forms, it sucks the sap from the leaf, causing small diseased and whit- 
ish-looking spots, much disfiguring the foliage, and irguring the plant itself, 
when the insects are very numerous. They are also found in great numbers 
on grape-vines, in Florida, and injure the foliage to a considerable de- 

The perfect insects are very small, measuring only from one-tenth to 
three-twentieths of an inch in length. The head is somewhat crescent-shaped, of a 
green color, with two red spots on the upper surface. The thorax is also green, with 
two crescent-shaped spots of red on each side of a small red spot in the center The 
wing-cases are green, with two stripes or bands of red, running parallel down each 
wing-case, from the thorax to the upper margin, where they form an acute angle. 
The legs are yellowish-green, the hinder pair being much longer than the others, and 
furnished with bristles on the tibia. In the larva state, they are able to leap with 
great agihty ; but it is only in the perfect state that they are able to fly, the under- 
wings being hidden by the wing-cases, and not perfectly developed in the larvae or 
pupa3. There are several species of these insects found upon cotton, which it will not 
be necessary here to describe, as their natural history and habits are nearly the 

In using the lantern already described, it was found that thousands of these small 
insects were attracted from some grape-vines in an adjoining field. The use of fires or 
lights may therelore be recommended to destroy them, when they become verj 
numerous, although, as regards the cotton, they are not often found on it in nuni- 
bers sufficient to do much harm. 


Much injury is done to the cotton-leaf by a minute red spider, which presents very 

V . much the appearance of incipient rust, except that the leaf is of a more rus- 

s»*AA ty-brown in spots, instead of the bright-yellow of the real rust. This red 

M^ spider principally attacks the under side of the leaf, the spots caused by its 

^^'iiife^ punctures turning brown, and finally increasing until it is completely stung 

m^\ all over, and falls from the plant. 

t % This insect is extremely minute, and when on the leaf, it can scarcely be 
discerned by the naked eye. Some of the young appear to be of a greenish cast ; but 
when they are advanced in age, the abdomen assames a dark crimson shade, with 
darker maroon spots upon its upper surface. The legs, which are hairy, are eight in 

This family of the mites, (acari,) do much injury to vegetable life, as they are so 
extremely minute as to escape the notice of the superficial observer. When they in- 
fest grape-houses, or rose-bushes, it has been recommended to dust the leaves while 
moist with flour of sulphur. 

THE BOLL-WORM. HdiotheS ? 

The egg of the boll-worm moth is generally deposited on the outside 

of the involucel, or outer calyx of the 
flower, and I have taken it from the outer 
calyx even of the young boll itself. It has 
been stated that the egg is laid upon the 
stem, which also forms the first food of the 
young worm ; but, after a thorough and 
careful examination of several hundred 
stems, I found only one egg in this situation, 
and that, from its being upon its side instead 

of its base, had evidently been misplaced, and never hatched. 

The egg of the boll-worm is laid singly upon the involucel, about twilight, and is of 

a somewhat oval shape, rather flattened at the top and bottom, and is formed with 

120 Scientific. 

ridges on the side, which meet at the top in one common center. The color is yel- 
lowish until nearly hatched, when it becomes 
darker, the young enclosed caterpillar showing 
through the translucent shell. A single boll-worm 
moth, dissected by Dr. John Gamble, of Tallahasse, 
contained at least five hundred eggs, which differed 
much from those of the cotton-caterpillar moth, 
which are round and flattened like a turnip, of a 
beautiful green color, and scarcely to be distin- 
guished from the leaf on which they are deposited. 
The eggs of the boll-worm moth hatched in three 
or four days after being brouglit in from the field, and the young worms soon com- 
menced feeding upon the parenchyma, or tender fleshy substance of the calyx, on 
the outside, near where the egg was laid. When they had gained strength, they 
pierced through the outer calyx, some through the petals into the enclosed flower-bud, 
while others penetrated the boll itself. Sometimes the pistil and stamens are found to 
be distorted and discolored, which is caused by the young worm when inside the bud, 
eating the stamens and injuring the pistil, so that it is drawn over to one side. When 
this is the case, the young worm bores through the bottom of the flower, into the 
young boll, before the old corolla, pistil, and stamens fall off, leaving the young boll, 
inner calyx and outer calyx, or involucel, still adhering to the foot-stalk, witn the 
young worm safe in the growing boll. 

The number of buds destroyed by this worm is very great, as they fall off when 
quite young, and are scarcely observed as they lie brown and withering on the ground. 
The instinct of the caterpillar, however, teaches it to forsake a bud or boll about to 
fall, and either to seek another or to fasten itself to a leaf, on which it remains until 
the skin is shed ; it then attacks another bud or boll in a similar manner, until, at 
length, it acquires size and strength sufficient to enable it to bore into the nearly- 
matured bolls, which are entirely destroyed by its punctures; for, if the interior is 
not devoured, the rain penetrates the boll and the cotton soon becomes rotten and of 
no value. 

The rotted bolls serve also for food and shelter to numerous small insects, such as 
t'lose already mentioned, and which have been erroneously accused of causing the 
rot. Whenever a young boll or bud is seen with the involucre, or outer calyx, called 
by some the " ruffle," spread open, it may be safely concluded that it "has been 
attacked by the worm, and will soon fall to the ground and perish. The older bolls, 
however, remain on the plant ; and if many of the fallen buds or bolls be closely ex- 
amined, the greater portion of them will be found to have been previously pierced 
by the worm, the few exceptions being caused either by the minute punctures of some 
of the plant-bugs, from rain, or other atmospheric influences. Those injured by the 
worm can be distinguished by a small hole on the outside where it entered, and which, 
when cut open, will generally be found partially filled with small fragments of 
foeces. * 

When very young the boll-worm is able to suspend itself by a thread, if blown or 
brushed from the boll or leaf on which it rested. After changing its skin several 
times and attaining its full size, the caterpillar descends into the ground, where it 
makes a silky cocoon, interwoven with particles of gravel and earth, in which it 
changes into a bright chestnut-brown chrysalis. The worms which entered the 
ground in September and October, appeared as perfect moths about the end of No- 

A boll-worm, which was bred from an egg found upon the involucel, or ruffle, 
of the flower-bud, grew to rather more than a twentieth of an inch in length by the 
third day, when it shed its skin, having eaten in the meantime nothing but the paren- 
chyma, or tender fleshy substance from the outside. On the fifth day it bored or 
pierced through the outer calyx, and commenced feeding upon the inner ; and on the 
sixth day it again shed its skin, and had increased to about the tenth of an inch in 
length. On the tenth day it again shed its skin, ate the interior of the young flower- 
bud, and had grown much larger. On the fourteenth day it for the fifth time shed 
its sKin, attacked and ate into a young boll, and had increased to thirteen-twentieths 
of an inch in length. From this time it ate nothing but the inside of the boll, and on 
the twentieth day the skin was again shed, and it had grown to the length of an inch 
and one-tenth, but unfortunately died before completing its final change. 

These moths probably lay their eggs on some other plants when the cotton is inac- 
cessible, as a young boll-worm was found this season in the corolla of the flower of a 

Scientific. 121 

squash, devouring the pistils and stamens ; and as there is a striking similarity be- 
tween the boll-worm and the corn-worm moth, described in the Agricultural Report 
for 1854, in the appearance, food and habits, alike in the caterpillar, chr3'Salis, and 
perfect state, it will perhaps prove that the boll-worm may be the j'oung of the corn- 
worm moth, and that the eggs are deposited on the young boll, as the nearest substi- 
tute for green corn, and placed upon them only when the corn has become too old 
and hard for their food. 

Colonel B. A. Sorsby, of Columbus, in Georgia, has bred both these insects, and 
declares them to be the same ; and, moreover, when, according to his advice, the 
corn was carefully wormed on two or three plantations, the boll-worms did not make 
their appearance that season on the cotton, notwithstanding that, on neighboring 
plantations, they committed great ravages. 

The worms, or caterpillars, have six pectoral, eight ventral, and two anal feet, and 
creep along with a gradual motion, quite unlike the looping gait of the true cotton- 
caterpillar, and vary much in color and markings, some being brown, while others 
are almost green. All are more or less spotted with black, and slightly covered with 
short hairs. These variations of color may perhaps be caused by the food of the 
caterpillar. Some planters assert that, in the earlier part of the season, the green 
worms are found in the greatest number, while the dark brown are seen later in the 
fall, as we know is the case with the cotton-caterpillar. 

The upper wings of the moth are yellowish, in some specimens having a shade of 
green, but in others of red. There is an irregular dark band running across the wing, 
about an eighth of an inch from the margin, and a crescent-shaped dark spot near 
the center ; several dark spots, each enclosing a white mark, are also discovered on 
the margin ; the under wings are lighter colored, with a broad black border on the 
margin, and are also veined distinctly with the same color. In the black border, 
however, there is a brownish-yellow spot of the same color as the rest of the under 
wings, which is more distipct in some specimens than in others, but may always 
be plainly perceived. There is also, in most specimens, a black mark or line in the 
middle of the under-wings, on the nervure ; but, in some, it is very indistinct. 

These moths multiply very rapidly ; for, as I have before observed, one female 
moth sometimes contains five hundred eggs, which, if hatched in safety, would ra- 
pidly infest a whole field, three generations being produced in the course of a 

In an interesting communication from Colonel Benjamin F. Whitner, of Talla- 
hassee, he states that the boll-worm was scarcely known in his neighborhood before 
the }-ear 1841 ; and yet, in the short period of fourteen years, it had increased to 
such a degree as to have become one of the greatest enemies to the cotton on several 
plantations in that vicinity. 

It has been recommended to light fires in various parts of the plantations, at the 
season when the first moths of this insect make their appearance, as they are attracted 
by light, and perish in great numbers in the flames ; and, if the first brood of females 
be thus destroyed, their numbers must necessarily be reduced, as it is highly probable 
that it is the second and third generations which do the principal damage to the 
crops. Some successful experiments in killing these moths with molasses and vine- 
gar were made by Captain Sorsby a year or two ago, which I here describe in his 
own words : 

" We procured eighteen common-sized dinner-plates, into each of which we put 
about half a gill of vinegar and molasses, previously prepared in the proportion of 
four parts of the former to one of the latter. These plates were set on small stakes, 
or poles, driven into the ground in the cotton-fields, one to about each three acres, 
ami reaching a little above the cotton plant, with a six-inch-square board tacked on 
the top to receive the plate. These arrangements were made in the evening soon 
after the flies had made their appearance. The next morning we found from eighteen 
to thirty-five moths to each plate. The experiment was continued for five or six days, 
distributing the plates over the entire field, each day's success decreasing until the 
number was reduced to two or three to each plate, when it was abandoned as being 
no longer worthy of the trouble. The crop that year was but very little injured by 
the boll-worm. The flies were caught, in their eagerness to feed upon the mixture, 
bj^ alighting into it and being unable to make their escape. They were doubtless 
attracted by the odor of the preparation, the vinegar probably being an important 
agent in the matter. As flies feed only at night, the plates should be visited late 
every evening, the insects taken out, and the vessels replenished, as circumstances 
may require. I have tried the experiment with results equally satisfactory, and 

122 Scientific. 

shall continue it until a better one is adopted." It miglit be well also to try the lan- 
tern-trap before mentioned, as another means of destruction, and, likewise, the 
method of poisoning recommended in the general remarks on insects. As it appears 
from Colonel Sorsby's communication that the moth is attracted by, and feeds with 
avidity upon molassee and vinegar, could not some tasteless and effective poison be 
mixed with this liquid, so that all the early moths which might partake of it would be 
destroyed before laying their eggs ? 


This destructive insect is found by millions in East Florida on the cotton planta- 
tions, where it does immense damage by staining the fibre of the cotton in the boll', 
and rendering it unfit for use where pure white fabrics 'are required. The specimens 
figured were found near Jacksonville, in October, on the open bolls, 
under the dried calyx, and congregating together on the dead leaves 
under the plants, or on rotten logs or decayed wood. Several of 
the open bolls were actually red with these insects, exhibiting 
every stage of growth, from the larva to the perfect bug. all clus- 
tered together in such masses as almost to hide the white of the 
cotton itself. The beak, or rostrum, is four-jointed, with the end 
blackish, and, when not in use, is re-curved under the thorax, 
which is somewhat triangular in shape, with the anterior part red ; 
a narrow, distinct band of whitish-yellow divides the thorax from the head; the pos- 
terior part is black, edged between the thorax and wing-cases with whitish-yellow ; 
the scutellum is triangular, red, and edged with a distinct line of whitish-yellow on 
each side, and partly down the center of the wing-case ; the elytraj, or wing-cases, 
are flat, brownish-black, and containing two distinct x-shaped whitish-yellow Hues on 
them, intersecting each other near the center ; the wing-cases are also edged with a 
distinct yellowish line, as far as the x. The body is flattened, and, in the female, 
projects on each side beyond the wing-cases, showing the bright red of the abdomen, 
and contrasting with the dark color of the wing-cases. The under wings are hidden 
imder the upper wing cases, and are transparent, veined, and of a yellowish color, 
clouded with black. The thighs of the fore-legs are somewhat spiny near the tibi^, 
and of a red color. The tibia) and tarsi are black; the under part of the body is 
bright red, with rings of yellowish-white running around it on the edge of each 

The female produces about one hundred eggs ; the young larva is completely red, 

almost scarlet, with distinct whirish-yellov/ bands around the body, on the edge 

of each segment. The thighs are red, with the tibia;, tarsi, and antennas blackish. 

The pupa differs only in size and in having the unformed wing-cases very small and 

black, contrasting strongly with the vivid red of the body. 

The perfect male is about three fifths an inch in length, and the female about seven 
tenths of an inch, from the head to the end of the abdomen. They are similar in 
shape and color, differing only in size. The head and eyes are red, the antennte 
black, with four long joints. 

The following communication on the subject of this insect was received from Mr. 
B. Hopkins, of Jacksonville, a practical Sea-Island planter, of nearly thirty years 
experience : 

" The ' red bugs,' or, as they are sometimes properly denominated, the 'cotton- 
stainers,' generally make their appearance about August or late in July, which is near 
the usual season for cotton to begin to open. They can readily be distinguished from 
other bugs, harmless in their nature, by their being of a red color, and more sluggish 
in their movements. The nearer the fruit advances towards maturity, the more injury 
they do to the cotton. The pod, or boll, is perforated by this bug. "Whether the 
staining matter is imparled to the fibre of the cotton during the perforation directly, 
or by a slow process diffusing itself with the sap abounding at that time in the pod, 
is not yet ascertained. I am of the latter opinion from the fact that almost the entire 
product of the boll is discolored when it opens, which does not seem at all to cause a 
premature development. As winter approaches they gradually retire and take refuge 
among the logs, or burrow into the soil at the root of the cotton-plant, where they 
hybernate. After a wet season, in winter, they may be found in hundreds on the 
sunny side of the stalKs, enjo-ying the genial atmosphere until towards evening, when 
they again retire. They can be kept down very easily when there are not more than 
five acres planted to the hand. 

" I have been in the habit of offering a reward every night to the negro that brings 

Scientific. 123 

in the greatest quantity, each of whom is furnished with a pint bottle suspended 
across the shoulders, into which, as they pass along picking the cotton, they depqeit 
all they can discover. In many instances I have seen the bottle filled by one negro 
in a day. They may also be greatly reduced by destroying them when they come 
out in winter in their half-torpid state ; a torch of fire in that case is best. They may 
be buried a foot under ground, and most of them will still escape from their inhuma- 
tion. If there should be stumps or trees in the fields, they should be burned, and 
that will generally reduce the quantity for a year or more. In fact, when they re- 
ceive timely and proper attention, they need not be dreaded. 

"No process that I know of can extract the stain produced in the bolls ; it is indel- 
lible, and considerably reduces the price of the cotton in the market. These insects 
have been much on the increase for the last ten years, which I attribute to the excess 
in planting, as well as the want of proper efforts for their destruction." 

It has been stated by other planters that the fceces of the insect produces the red- 
dish or greenish stain, and that the red-bugs will collect where there are splinters 
and fragments of sugar cane. Advantage has already been taken of this habit to 
collect them b}- means of small chips of sugar-cane, when they may be destroyed 
by boiling water ; and as they also collect around piles of cotton-seed, they may 
thus be easily decoj-ed and then killed, either by fire or hot water, when congregated. 
All stumps and dead trees standing in the field should be well burnt out. The ex- 
periment to destroy them by means of the crushed sugar-cane and poison has been 
tried, but as no report of the experiment has been received, it remains doubtful 
whether it can be recommended or not. 


Origin of Plants. 

"Mk. Nash : — Dear Sir: — I wish to propose a question, suggested to me by our 
mutual friend, whom you know to be one of the students of Nature, and an ardent 
inquirer into her mysterious operations — a question that I know you wid elucidate 
and enliven, with your active mind and pen : " Do not the elementary principles of all 
vegetable life originate in the rocks?" Or, it might be stated thus: •' Did not the 
elementary principles of primal vegetable life originate entirely from the rocks ? " 
This question, suggests an innumerable train of curious and interesting inquiries. 

It takes us back to the pre- Adamite period, when vegetable life existed in its rude 
and more imperfect forms. There must have been a time when the first form of 
vegetation made its appearance. Did it come from the vitalization of seeds ? I be- 
lieve it did. Seeds, in the first instance, must have been created hy the direct power 
of God; but he always works by the most natural, direct, and immediate causes; and 
seeds probably were formed from materials at hand ; immediately at hand. I believe 
there is not an element of vegetable life, on the closest analysis, that can not be 
found in the atmosphere, water, soil, and rocks ; nor is there an element in the first, 
that can not be found in the last. Am I right? Please give us a chapter on this 
question, and oblige yours truly." 

This was manifestly intended as a private note, but with the suppression of names 
we venture to publish it. It contains the germs of thought, which we should like to 
have the writer or any other person, who is able to do it as philosophically and as cor- 
rectly, enlarge upon. For ourself, we know not why the oak springs up after the 
pine on old worn fields, where the acorn is not known to be imbedded in the soil ; nor 
from what seed the blue grass comes, after the fire on our western soils ; nor where 
the white clover, from hard pan thrown from the bottom of a well. If anybody can 
throw light on our correspondent's questions we will gladly give a reasonable space. 
T-here is no reason to fear that religion will suffer, nor to doubt that theology will be 
improved, by any candid researches into nature. 

124 Domestic. 


Air Poison. 

People have often said that no difference can be detected in the analyzation of 
pure and impure air. This is one of the vulgar errors difficult to dislodge from the 
pubHc brain. The fact is, that the condensed air of a crowded room gives a deposit 
which, if allowed to remain for a few days, forms a solid, thick, glutinous ma«s, hav- 
ing a strong odor of animal matter. If examined by the microscope, it is seen to un- 
dergo a remarkable change. First of all, it is converted into a vegetable growth, and 
this is followed by the production of multitudes of animalcules ; a decisive proof that 
it must contain organic matter, otherwise it could not nourish organic beings. This 
was the result arrived at by Dr. Angus Smith, in his beautiful experiments on the Air 
and Water of towns ; where he showed how the lungs and skin gave out organic 
matter, which is in itself a deadly poison, producing headache, sickness, disease, or 
epidemic, according to its strength. Why, if " a i^s^i drops of the liquid matter, ob- 
tained by the condensation of the air of a foul locality, introduced into the vein of a 
dog, can produce death with the usual phenomena of typhus fever," what incalcula- 
ble evil must not it produce on those human beings who breathe it again and again, 
rendered fouler and less capable of sustaining life with every breath drawn ? Such 
contamination of the air, and consequent hot-bed of fever and epidemic, it is easily 
within the power of man to remove. Ventilation and cleanliness will do all, so far as 
the abolition of this evil goes, and ventilation and cleanliness are not miracles to be 
prayed for, but certain results of common obedience to the laws of God. — Dickens' 
Household Words. 

Educate the Whole Man. 

Everybody should have his head, his heart, and his hand educated ; let this truth 
never be forgotten. 

By the proper education of his head, he will be taught what is good, and what is 
evil — what is wase, and what is foolish — what is right, and what is wrong. By the 
proper education of his heart, he will be taught to love what is good, wise, and right, 
and to hate what is evil, foolish, and wrong ; and by the proper education of his hand 
he will be enabled to supply his wants, to add to his comforts, and to assist those who 
are around him. 

The highest objects of a good education are to reverence and obey God, and to 
love and serve mankind ; every thing that helps us in attaining these objects is of great 
value, and everything that hinders us is comparatively worthless. When wisdom 
reigns in the head, the hand is ever ready to do good ; order and peace smile around, 
and sin and sorrow are almost unknown. — Cotton Planter. 

Statistics of English and French Agriculture. 

Some interesting statistics relative to the agriculture of Fi-ance and England, were 
given in a lecture delivered lately in Cornwall, England, by M. R. de la Trehonnais. 
In England, out of 50,000,000 acres cultivated, 10,000,000 are sown to wheat or other 
cereal crops, while in France 50,000,000 were cultivated for that purpose. The 
average growth of wheat per acre in England is four quarters — the quarter is eight 
bushels — and in France only one and three-fifth quarters ; while the produce of Eng- 
lish land is about £3 4s. per acre, and that of French £1 12s. per acre. The number 
of sheep grown in each country is about 35,000,000, and the wool produced about 
60,000 tons; but, owing to the difference in the acreage, there is something less than 
one and one-half sheep per acre in England, and only about one-third of a sheep per 
acre in France. In France there are annually slaughtered 4,000,000 of cattle, the 
average weight of each being two cwt. ; while in England there is not half the num- 
ber slaughtered, but the average weight is five cwt. — The Farmer. 

We can hardly believe all of the above statements. So far as true, they afford an 
argument in favor of large farms, which has always been the policy of England, 
while the reverse has prevailed in France. 

Domestic. 125 

The Emigration to America. 

The number of passengers arrived in the United States, during the year 1856, was 
135,308 males, 89,188 females; tdtal, 224,496— a smaller number than in any year of 
the last ten, except 1850, when the number was only 65,570. The largest number 
was in 1854, 460,474; the number in 1855 was 230,476. Of the emigrants arrived 
last year, there were born in German}^ 63,807 ; Ireland, 54,349 ; England (princi- 
pally Mormons,) 25,904 ; United States, 24,060 ; Great Britain and Ireland' 14 331 • 
France, 7,246 ; Prussia, 7,221 ; British America, 9,493 ; China, 4,733 ; Wales, 3 297' 
etc. The number landed in JSTew-York was, 162,108; in Boston, 19',225- New-Or- 
leans, 18,758; Pennsylvania, 8,450; Maryland, 6,123; California, 5,668; and Texas 
1,576. ' 

There are said to be 100,000 German inhabitants in the city of New- York. They 
have upwards of twenty places of public worship, upwards of fifty schools, ten book 
stores, and five printing establishments ; and a German theatre. 

Simple Cure for Dysentery. 

An old friend handed us the following simple recipe for publication. It has been 
practiced in his family for many years, with uniform success, even in the most 
alarming stages of the complaint : Take Indian corn, roasted and ground in the 
manner of coffee, (or coarse meal browned,) and boiled in sufiicient quantity of water 
tp produce a strong liquid like coffee, and drink a tea cup full, warm, two or three 
times a day. One day's practice, it is said, will ordinarily effect a cure.— 3Iiddleton 

Not a bad medicine to take. Safer, in a bad case, to call a physician.— Ed. 

Some Truth. 

In the museum, at Hifalutin, is a flea skin containing seven misers' souls, seven rich 
men's consciences, the " principles" of seven leading politicians, seventeen old bach- 
elors hearts, and the remaining sweetness of seventy old maids. 

All right but the last. A woman's not being married is not always evidence of the 
want of a large soul. The patient toil, the self-sacrificing spirit, the modest worth 
of many an old maid, are among the brightest things of earth. Many a man has 
been great and good, a blessing and an honor to his race, who would have been a 
loss, or a curse to the world, but for the self-sacrificing affection of a maiden sister, 
or a maiden aimt. Leave off this indiscriminate laughing at old maids. It's a 
shame. — Ed. 

Agricultural College. 

The State of Michigan has established a College of Agriculture, on a farm of seven 
hundred fertile acres, near the city of Lansing, where the state capital is located 
Joseph R. Williams, late editor of the Toledo Blade, is President. It has now an en- 
dowment of fifty-six thousand dollars, the proceeds of the Salt Spring given to Mich- 
igaa Territory by the federal government. The legislature h is appropriated twenty 
thousand dollars per annum for two years to the support of the College. There are 
already accommodations for eighty students. No charge is now made for tuition but 
each student is required to work three hours per day, for which he is paid. ' 

Costly Bridges. 

_ THEsuspension bridge about to be erected over the Mississippi, at St. Louis, will. 
It IS said, cost about two millions of dollars ; it will be about eighty feet above high 
water, and over a mile in length, and the bottom of the towers will be sixty feet below 
water. It has been stated that this structure will be the most costly of any of its 
kmd in the world. There are, however, many bridges in the world which have cost 
more money than will that of St. Louis. Three of those crossing the Thames at 
London, cost— the London bridge, ten millions of dollars ; the Southwark, eight mil- 
lions ; and the Waterloo, five millions. The celebrated tunnel under the Thames, at 
London, cost over three millions of dollars. 

126 Domestic. 

Infidels often grumble about the cost of preachers, who, by the by, are the poor- 
est paid set of men in the United States, as a whole, with here and there an excep- 
tion ; and who, in order to live, must hav» donation parties, as though they were 
paupers, because they were preachers of eternal realities. The cost of all the clergy 
in the United States is but $12,000,000 annually, while the criminals cost $40,000,000, 
the lawyers $76,000,000, and intoxicating liquors $200,000,000. 

If the talent of ridicule were employed to laugh men out of vice and folly, it might 
be of some use to this world ; but instead of tliis we find that it is generally made 
use of to laugh men out of virtue and good sense, by attacking evervthiug that is 
solemn and serious, decent and praiseworthy, in human Ufe. 

Protection to Game. 

The Legislature of Ohio has passed a law for the protection of the birds, &c., which 
makes it a fiucable ofl'ence to any one to kill a rabbit, deer, or any of the feathered 
tribe mentioned, between the 1st of February and the 16th of September, or to kill a 
blue-bird, mocking bird, red-bird, or any other singers at any time. 

Children (especially grown up children) should seek pleasure in almost anything 
rather than in destroying birds. Birds are of enormous value to a country by de- 
stroying insects hurtful to fruits and other crops. There is httle danger of having 
too many birds ; and it is a great pity that one should be destroyed wantonly. — Ed. 

The Future, 

The fate of this country depends on nothing so much as on the growth or decline 
of the great idea what lie^ at the foundation of all our institutions — the idea of the 
sacredness of every man's right, tbe respect due to every human being. This exists 
among us. It is now to stamp itself on manners and common lite — a far harder 
work. It will then create a society such as men have not anticipated, but which is 
not to be despaired of, if Christianity be divine, or if the highest aspirations of the. 
soul be true. — Channing. 

A Sensible Doctor. 

A HANDSOME widow applied to a physician to relieve her of three distressing com- 
plaints, with which she was afflicted. 

" In the first place," said she, " I have little or no appetite. What would be best 
for that ? " 

"For that, madam, you should take air and exercise." 

" And, doctor, I am quite fidgety at night and am afraid to sleep alone. What 
shall t do for that ?" 

" For that madam, I can only recommend that you take — a — husband !" 

" Fie ! doctor. But I have the blues terribly. What shall I do for that ?" 

" For that, madam, you should, besides taking air, exercise, and a husband, take a 

Sensible Doctor, that. 

A Hint for the Season. 

The simplest and best way of preserving wooU'iis through the summer from the 
destruction of the moths is to wrap them well up, after brushing and beating them, 
in Cotton or linen cloths. The moths can pass neither. Two covers well wrapped 
around, and secured from the air will be effeptual. An old sheet Tvill answer and 
save all expense of camphor, etc. 

Fanning Mills. 

In calling attention to the advertisement of R. M. Welles, of Athens, Bedford Co., 
Pa., we will only Bay, that we have recently visited his establishment, and we judge 
from the general good order prevailing, from the intelligence of the men employed, 
and from the appearance of the work, that the public may rely upon Mr. Welles for 
a good article in his line. 

Children'' s Page. 127 

€>\iUxt\V$ lap. 

Sowing" and Reaping, or Work for all Seasons. 

Ne^er stand still, brave youth or fair maiden, -with hands folded and eyes half 
shut, upon the supposition that you have nothing to do in making the world's ma- 
chinery go with less creaking and jarring. Neither adopt the other extreme, and 
because you are of somewhat an ambitious and active temperament, fancy you can 
manage the whole affair yourself, and like Atlas carry the globe on your shoul- 

"We have each and all of us something to do, but it can be done without much 
noise or trouble, if we only think so. Our words, actions, our every look, tone, 
smile, or frown, are exerting an influence upon those around us, and the sum of hap- 
piness they enjoy increased or diminished by us. Smiles which cost us nothing, but 
whicli, rightly bestowed, may enliven a whole day, we must not grudge, and kind 
words and gentle tones we can surely afford to the friend at our fireside or the beg- 
gar at our gate. 

There is no neutral stand for us to take. We are positively good or bad. While 
we profess to love our fellow-creatures, we are acting the part of a hypocrite if we 
do not manifest that love by sympathy in their troubles and joy in their prosperity. 

There are persons whose presence in a room is like " the sunbeam in a wintry day," 
making all hearts feel better and happier; " in the clear heaven of whose uncloud- 
ed eyes an angel-guard of loves and graces lie." 

" They are sowing the seed of word and deed, 
Which the cold know not, nor the careless heed, 
'Of the gentle word and the kindly deed. 
Which have blessed the heart in its sorest need, 

Sweet shall the harvest be." 

There are others whose repelling, forbidding faces are like the door of a tomb on 
which is written, " Wit, and grace, and all that is lovely, lie buried here." Their 
hollow, grating voices give one a feeling of chilliness and gloom, and every naiTow 
expression of their dwarfed and barren minds causes us to shrink from contact witli 
such poor, suspicious, perverted natures. Sowing in young minds seeds of discord 
and miserj', of wrath and bitterness — holding the wine cup to the lips of the inex- 
perienced and careless — tempting with gold the poor and needy — enticing them to 
the haunts of the gambler — instructing them in villainy — luring with honeyed 
words the young and innocent to the very lowest dcptlis of moral, mental, and phy- 
sical pollution — these agents of t'.e powers of darkness are ever busily at work. 

" Daily sowing the seed of pain. 
Of late remorse and a maddened brain ; 
And the stars shall fail, and the sun shall wane 
Ere they root the weeds from the soil again ; 

Dai'k will the harvest be." 
Dwellers in peaceful happy homes, young men and maidens, the pride of your 
parents and the future hope of your country, there is work enough for you all. 
Without anjj^ clamoring or struggling for official stations on the one side, or step- 
ping aside from the sacred ministries of home in a contest for " woman's rights" on 
the other, you can help to accomj^lish what legislation never yet effected — the 
moral regeneration and redemption of faUen humanity. — Annie Lcc in Life Illust. 

" Mr. Green, when you said there was too much American eagle in the speaker's 
discourse, did you mean that it was a talon-ted production ; and to wliat claws of 
the speech did you especially refer '?" 

What a world of gossip would be prevented if it was only remembered that a per- 
son who tells you of the faults of others, intends to tell others of your faults. 

The " eye of the law" has become so weak from the want of proper practice in 
the different courts, that it is going to advertise for a pupil 

128 Book Notices^ etc. 

The Congregational Hymn Book, for the Service of the Sanctuary. Boston ; John 

P. Jewett &, Co. 1857. 752 pages. 

This manual is executed on beautiful paper, and tlie hymns, 1081 in number, print- 
ed in a new and elegant tj'pe, are choice, evangelical, and admirably arranged by 
topics. The work does honor to editor and publishers. 

The Cotton Planter ; Montgomery, Ala. N. B. Cloud, M.D. Agricultural Ed. ; 

Chas. a. Peaisopy, Horticultural Ed. 

This monthly reaches us in a style and dress which clearly indicates either that the 
publishera are "casting bread upon the water" with the belief that it will sooner or 
later come back to them, or that the farmers of those regions are already giving it a 
generous support. The latter we hope. The July No. is pccuharl^^ rich ; and is fault- 
less in its style of execution. 

SouTUERN Planter ; F. G. Ruffin, Ed. Ruffin k August, Proprietors. 

The July No. of this monthly comes to us replete with matters of the highest inter- 
est to the cultivators of the soil. If Virginia farmers comprehend their true interests, 
they will give it a hberal support. 

TuE Norwich and Worcester route to Boston has many attractions. It has flue 
boats, well oflBcered, and its train of cars from Norwich, arrive in Boston in the 
morning in season for trains going East. 

United States and State Fairs for 1857. 

Fair of the United states Agricultural Society, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Presi- 
dent, wall be held at Louisville, Ky., September 1 — 4. 

Annual Exhibition of the American Institute, in the Crystal Palace, New-York, 
opens September 15. (Goods received now.) 

Ohio Cincinnati September 14 — 18. 

Canada East Montreal September 16 — 18. 

Illinois Peoria September 21 — 26. 

Pennsylvania Sop. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Vermont Montpelier Sep. 30, to Oct." 2. 

Wisconsin Janesville Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Michigan Detroit Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

New-Jersey ...... .New-Brunswick . . . .Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Maine. Bangor Sep. 29, to Oct. 1. 

California Stockton Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Canada West Brantford Sep. 29. to Oct, 2. 

United States Louisville, Ky October 1 — 6. 

Indiana Indianapolis October 4 — 10. 

New-York Buffalo October 6 — 9. 

Iowa Muscatine October 6 — 9. 

New-Hampshire. . . .Concord October 7 — 9. 

Kentucky Henderson October 13 — 16. 

Connecticut Bridgeport October 13 — 16. 

East Tennessee Kuoxville October 20 — 23. 

Massachusetts Boston October 21 — 24. 

Maryland Baltimore October 21 — 25. 

West Tennessee. . . .Jackson ,. .October 27 — 30. 

Virginia October 28—31. 

Tcnnesse Nashville October 12 — 17. 

Alabama Montgomery October 27 — 30. 

MHEtoaN ummz 

Vol. X. 

SEPTEMBER, 185*7. 

N"o. 3. 

Hints for the Season. 

Between the summer and the fall harvest is an interval favorable 
to general and permanent improvements on the farm. 

The gathering of materials for composting and increasing the ma- 
nm-e, is among the most important. Abundance of these from the 
swamj?, from the borders of the woodland where leaves have drifted 
for years, from old hedges which you are about to clear up, or wher- 
ever you can get them most economically, should be scattered about 
the barn-yard, and a portion of them packed away in the barn, where 
they can be found for bedding in winter. 

It is not of very much consequence what they are, any thing that 
■ will absorb the urine and retain it for the next year's crops. This is 
the farmer's guano, and he should save it. Fifteen dollars worth of 
labor, applied to saving and applying the urine of the farm, is worth 
more than any ton of guano ever brought around Cape Horn, Brakes 
mowed in the pasture, salt hay, leaves, dry muck, road scrapings, 
mold from old hedges, almost any thing Tvill answer the purpose of 
an absorbent. 

"Wheat straw, oat straw, rye straw, pea vines, salt hay, if of a toler- 
able quality, and even the poor hay cut in pastures after the meadow 
haying is over, half brakes and weeds, are too good to be used for this 
purpose. These should be run through the hay cutter and fed to an- 
imals, when stock of all kinds and meats for the markets are as high 
as at present. Put on the corn meal and make these a help to the 
growing and fattening of stock ; or if you have root crops, as most 
farmers in our country ought to have to a limited extent, these being 
of a succulent, juicy nature, will help to a consumption of the straw 
and inferior hay ; and the farmer is not true to his own interest who 

VOL. X. 5 

1 30 Hints J or the Season. 

does not make his straw and coarse hay tell favorably towards the 
feeding of stock ; for although these are not sufficiently nourishing 
when given alone, yet as a material for fdling up with more nutritious 
food, they are worth too much to he thrown under foot. They should 
be turned into manure for the next year's crop, not by being thrown 
out as bedding, but by beiqg passed through the digestion canal of 

If you dry swamp muck for an absorbent in winter, remember what 
we said in a former number about freeing it from hurtful acids, by ex- 
posure to sun and rains, and by occasionally turning over with the 
plough. It should not lie in high piles. All the sun and air it gets 
makes it the better. It is better therefore to dump it a single load in 
a place than to put it into large heaps ; and if the loads are dropped 
along in a line, one after another, it is no great trouble to turn it over 
now and then with the plough. Farm engineering — what is it ? Not 
a contrivance to get rid of work, but an application of common sense 
to make every stroke of labor tell to the best advantage ; as, for in- 
stance, it is miich easier to turn over a hundred tons of swamp muck 
with a plough if laid in a long line, than to fork it over if laid in a large 
pile. If you have more of this muck than you care for in the yard and 
the stables, look into one of our back numbers and see how, by the 
addition of a little quick lime, and by throwing it into large heaps 
just before winter, (the larger the better,) you may have it fermenting 
during the coldest weather, and ready to act an effective part in start- 
ing and carrying through the next year's crop, a richer fertilizer (in 
proportion to the cost) than any manure you can buy for sixty or se- 
venty dollars a ton. 

That there may be no mistake in our reference to a past number, and 
that our new. subscribers, fast becoming a majority of the whole, may 
have the benefit, we will repeat in our next article one mode (tried 
over and over again, and thoroughly proved to be good) for dealing 
with swamp muck to prepare it for a next year's crop. 

But there are other things to be done between summer and fall 
harvest. That wall that you have been contemplating to put up along 
the road these ten years — is it done yet ? If not, can you be doing 
it now ? Perhaps you say the corn is growing on the very ground 
from which the stones are to come. Well then, you must let it rest 
awhile longer. But can you not remove the old fence a little inside 
of w^here it now stands, and plough down and excavate with the spade 
and then fill up with small stones, and thus prepare a foundation for 
the wall, so as to be read)'- to build as soon as the corn crop is off? 
Remember that if you excavate, and lay the foundation of your stone 
wall two feet imder ground, every foot of land within twenty feet of 
that wall will produce more ever afterwards. And remember too, 

Hints for the Season. 131 

that if you do up now all that can now be done to advantage, you 
will not be so hardly pressed with work by and by, after the fall 
harvest comes on. One grand secret of American farming, is to equal- 
ize the work for the whole year, so as not to be out of work at one 
time and at another to have more than you can possibly do. A farm- 
er of the right stripe never is out of work, and seldom has more than 
he can do. °One of the wrong stripe, is often out of work, and very 
often unable to keep up with his work. 

How is it with the public way through your farm or along side of 
it ? you own perhaps, a quarter of a mile on both sides of the way, or it 
may be half a mile or more on one side. Is there a beautiful row of trees, 
maples, ehns, apple trees, anything that wiU afford beauty and com- 
fort to you and the passing stranger ? Is the ground smoothed, made 
decent, safe, such as to indicate that a man of sense and public spirit 
lives in that house of yours, or is all as some slouchy surveyor of 
roads lift it, rough, shadeless, just as the King's— no, a republican- 
highway should not be ? Just answer this question honestly, and if 
the highway through your premises presents a beautiful lawn, no 
Canada thistles, no rampart weeds, shades in plenty, fruit, if the soil 
permits, all right, a beautiful lawn each side of the drive, tasteful, safe, 
such that a carriage would hardly be upset, if the horses should run 
away, then we praise you ; we say you are a good fellow so far ; but 
if all is wrong, homely, ugly, deformed, no shades, nothing neat and 
safe, then we are down upon you ; we say you are lacking in self re- 
spect. Why should the passer-by be compelled to say " a sloven lives 
there." You are devoid of public spirit. If you will not make the 
borders of the highway through your farm neater than some taste- 
less, slovenly surveyor of roads leaves them, you ought not to have a 
farm. Shame on a rude, stumpy, weedy, pest-producing way past a 
farmer's house ! It ought never to be. 

How is your farm laid out ? Are the fences crooked, where the 
nature of the soils would just as well admit of their being straight ? 
Are your lots of such shape as to escape conviction under the second 
commandment, because not of the shape of anything else in heaven or 
on earth or under the earth ? Are they so small as to make the ex- 
pense of even a poor fence around them enough to eat up all the profit 
of the crops ? The cutting of a farm into mince meat, havmg more 
fences than you can possibly afford to keep in good repair, devoting 
one-foiu-th of the whole land to broken fences and filthy hedge rows, a 
gathering place for mice, weeds, briars and all unclean thuigs, is a 
miserable policy. A well laid out, well fenced, and well cultivated fainn, 
is the most beautiful object in nature. The eye of taste and sound judg- 
ment sees there the beauty of nature, and the beauty of utility, and is 
satisfied. If your farm is not laid out as taste and convenience, and 

132 Swamp ATuc/c, etc. 

economy in the matter of fencing requires, Sejitcmber is a good month 
in which to connnence a reform, to be carried on next spring, and 
completed in future years. — Ed. 

Swamp Muck"-Indian Corn. 

Swamp Muck — IIoio to get it out and apply it toithout too imicU la- 
bor. Indian Corn — How to groio it loith composted much. 
After it lias been thrown up a few days, exposed to the sun and 
drained, carry it to the barn-yard, strew it over the whole yard, and 
at some convenient time when there has been no rain for a long time, 
pack away a portion of it for an absorbent in the stalls for winter's 
use. Every farmer who has this material on his farm, as most have, 
can make use of a considerable quantity in this way to great advan- 
tage, and it will increase the value of the next spring's manure much 
more than the cost of the labor. 

But when you have enough out for the yard and stalls, or if it is 
distant from the barn, and not far from the fields where you M'ill use 
it, so that it would be bad policy to haul it all the way to the barn 
and back again, then dump it on a level or gently sloping piece of 
ground, a cart load in a place, m a long line, and occasionally run the 
plough through it from the time you get it out, say in August or Sep- 
tember, till nearly winter, that the v/hole may be washed and sunned. 
This is to remove the sourness. Then, just before winter sets in, mix 
a bushel or two of lime (one bushel if lime is high where you live, two 
if it is cheap) to each load of muck, and throw it (with the scraper 
will be the most economical way) into a very large, or as the case may 
be, into several large heaps, the larger the better, provided the labor 
be not thereby too much increased, and let it lie thus till spring. 

The effect of the lime is to neutralize any remaining sourness and to 
create a fermentation in the mass, keeping it warm through the cold- 
est winter. On any gravelly, sandy, or loamy land, or even on clayey 
soil, if nearly destitute of organic matter, this can hardly be applied 
amiss, whether as a top-dressing or to be plowed in. It should never 
be applied to peaty soil, not but that it would benefit such, when pre- 
pared with lime as we have described, but it would be of more value 
for other soils. 

The best use we have ever observed for this compost, is to put with 
each load a load of barn manure, a bushel of ashes, half a bushel of 
salt, and a peck of plaster, and when the whole has come into a toler- 
ably active fei'mentation, to plough in ten loads to the acre on the 
corn field, and piit ten more in the hill, and to drop and cover the corn 
as fast as the application is made, so that the heat of the compost will 
hasten the germination of the seed. 

Swamp Muck^ etc. 133 

This mode of growing corn has been long practiced in some parts 
of our country, and with signal success. We will not say that such a 
compost is as good as Peruvian guano. That would be extravagant ; 
for we believe it is now a settled, point that Peruvian guano is the best 
fertilizer, ton per ton, in the world. We are as loud in our praises of 
it as we are obstinate in our opinion, that the great mass of American 
farmers can not., for the ordinary purposes of farming, afford to pur- 
chase it at present prices. 

No, no ; the compost we direct for preparing is not as good, ton 
per ton, as Peruvian guano, not half as good, not a quarter ; and yet 
the farmer can afford to use it, because if he has the material at hand, 
as most farmers have, he can get a whacking profit on the labor of 
preparing it. This swamp muck is more valuable than most farmers 
are willing to admit. Its composition is much the same as that of 
cow-dung, with the exception, of a few salts which have been washed 
out and must be restored in the process of composting ; and with one 
other exception, which is, that in most cases it has accumulated cer- 
tain acids of a hurtful nature. 

In other words, it is the same as cow-dung, with a few valuable 
salts taken out and some hurtful acids added. It should not be used 
in this state. Those who so use it always give a bad account of it. 
The plan we propose — a plan that has been tried out and out, no mere 
theory — provides for disposing of the acids and for restoring the salts. 
The autumn suns and rains will take away the acidity mostly. The 
lime, with which it lies in compost over winter, will neutrahze the re- 
maining acidity and bring it into a slow fermentation. The barn ma- 
nure, ashes, plaster and salt, proposed to be added in the spring, will 
supply the lost salts and bring the whole into an active fermentation. 

The cost of manuring Indian corn with twenty loads to the acre of 
this compost, say ten or twelve loads to be plowed in, or harrowed in 
near the surface, if the soil is at all heavy, and eight or ten loads in 
the hill, appUed hot from the heap, and the corn covered immediately, 
is not a very expensive dressing. It insures a good crop — forty to 
eighty bushels shelled corn to the acre, according to the quality of 
the land, with good cultivation — and it leaves the land in excellent 
condition for after crops. 

Who, that has not before, will try it ? Remember to get out the 
muck early this fall ; drop it not more than a foot in thickness, that it 
may feel the sun and rains ; stir it occasionally with the plough, that 
the whole may be sunned and aired ; add the lime late, just before 
winter sets in ; the other ingredients should be added early in the 
spring, that the whole may have time to come into a pretty smart fer- 
mentation at the time for using it. For starting the crop, wdiich is 

164 Osage Orange. 

always an important matter with corn, much depends upon its being 
applied in a fermenting state. 

If the manure you add in the spring is of a fair quality, having a 
due share of urine, there will be no difficulty about the fermentation 
coming on in time. Should it fail however to ferment, it mil be easy 
to bruig on a fermentation by applying to the heap a load or two of 
fermenting horse-manure, which will act as a yeast, and send the fer- 
mentation through the mass. — Ed. 


Osage Orange. 

Messes. Editors : — Questions like the following are often asked : 
" Will it not vnniQY-kill in this Northern cUmate, it being a Southern 
plant?" On page 171 of the previous volume of The Plough^ the 
Loorriy and the Anvil., I gave my experience in raising the plant from 
the seed ; and another hard winter has proved to me that they will 
stand this climate, and not winter-kill but very little, if rightly man- 
aged. A more severe winter was never known in these parts than 
the last. No winter has ever hurt fruit trees worse. My osage 
plants " came out safe and sound." It is my opinion that this plant 
will become acclimated, and be the adopted fence of this prairie coun- 
try. One way to protect it fi-om the frost is, to cover it over with 
straw or something else that will protect it from the wind, and cause 
the snow to drift upon it, while it is young. After it gets to be three 
or four years of age, if the frost does kill the tops down, it makes it 
all the better for a fence. Last season being very dry in the fore- 
part, I had my hedge cut, and kept it clean from weeds until harvest 
and the busy season of haying came on, and several heavy showers 
of rain started the weeds. My being busy at cutting hay, I did not 
lioe thcni out and keep them from growing, as a tidy farmer ought 
to, but let them grow until the frosts killed them forever. 

When cold winter made his appearance, accompanied with tinghng 
frost and snow, searching winds, that meddled with every one's busi- 
ness out of doors, and very often in the house, especially where the 
cracks between the logs were open, and took great pams to take the 
snow from the field and prairie and pile it upon heaps behind fences, 
etc., then the weeds that I neglected to cut out of my fence came 
into good " play." Here it was that the snow had been piled nearly 
to the top, and the result was that they did not kill down but a few 
inches. This no doubt saved them in a great degree from being 
killed down much lower. Those that did not have the " luck" to 
stand where the snow drifted upon them, were killed within twelve 
inches of the ground, the stem being some two feet high. After the 

Osage Orange. 135 

stalk becomes old, I do not think the frost will injure it for a fence. 

In a letter published in the North- Western Christian Advocate., 
by Wm. G. Nevitt, he says, speaking of the osage orange : "After 
about four years experience in trying to make a fence of it, I believe 
I shall succeed very well, when I have a good board fence outside 
and an old rail fence inside. In this way it will be preserved iu winter 
from the frost by filling up with snow, and from stalk in the summer ; 
but when it is left by itself it will winter-kill sufficient to spoil it for 
a fence, on most of our prairie lands." I can not agree with Mr. 
Nevitt, although experience may compel me to do so. I have seen 
hedges at five, and even at four years of age, that cattle could not 
break through nor over it, in this State, and I think the winters are 
as severe here as in White-side county. 111. A portion of my hedge 
lay exposed to the N. W. winds all winter, and they have come out 
" right side up" this spring. 

" Nothing ventured, nothing have," is an old proverb, and I have 
commenced with the seed two years ago last spring, and I mtend to 
carry it through and see what it will do. If it will not do for a fence, 
then we farmers of the prairie must do something else in regard to 
fencing our farms, for our small piece of timber will soon be gone, 
and if the osage hedge will not stand the winters, then we shall have 
to get up some other Yankee invention. Something certainly will 
have to be done not only upon the prairies but in the old settled tim- 
bered States. 

Osage hedge may want, and must, like everything else, have care. 
No farmer expects to raise a crop of corn without tending it. He 
ploughs and hoes it ; he must do the same with his hedge ; he must 
cultivate it and keep it trimmed down, so that it will thicken up at 
the bottom. Unless he does this, he can not expect to have a livmg 

Messrs. Editors, neither you nor your correspondents have ever 
said much upon the subject of fencmg. Why is this? Are your 
correspondents asleep upon this important subject? a subject that 
costs the farmmg community millions of doUars annually. Rails and 
boards will soon become extinct in fences. 

I hope that the correspondents of The Plough., Loom., and Anvil., 
wUl speak out upon this subject, the editors not excused. Our coun- 
try, both east and west, and all of Uncle Sam's dominions, will soon 
see the want of something to fence with besides boards and rails. 
Unless something is used for a substitute we shall have to return back 
to the days of the patriarchs for an example. 

Ltn^, Warren Co., Iowa. L. S. Spencek. 

BemarJcs. — This subject is important, though perhaps not quite as 

136 What a Woman ThiiiJcs. 

pressing as the writer seems to think. Our country is large, and it 
will produce not only rich harvests, but thnber lor fencmg them with. 
From a quarter to a third of every country should be timbered. It 
should be so on the prairies ; and if the occupants of these vast re- 
gions miderstand their true interest and comfort, they will make 
haste to break the prairie winds v/itli trees, in clumps and groves and 
small forests ; several farmers, in many cases, uniting to extend these 
wind-breaks continuously past their premises. Almost any country, 
if rightly managed, will grow timber enough for shelter, and for pur- 
poses of fuel, fencing and building. 

The subject of hedging, however, is one of great interest. A live 
fence is better in some respects than any other. It breaks the wind 
better ; is not liable to be blown down ; gives beauty to a region ; and 
above all, affords a covert to birds, which, we begin to think, are the 
only power that can war successfully upon insects destructive to the 
products of husbandry. We really hope that the osage orange will 
bear our Northeni winters, but do not think that point yet fully set- 

In some parts of our country fences are beginning to be dispensed 
with. This practice, in connection with soiling, may be extended ; 
but we see not how it can become general ; and we quite agree with 
the writer of the foregoing that it is important to experiment, and to be 
ascertaining, as fast as may be, what shrub is best adapted to the con- 
struction of living fences m our various latitudes. The writer of the 
above has our thanks for his experience, though it does not seem to 
us very decisive ; and if others will give us the merits and the defi- 
ciences of the hawthorn, buckthorn and other plants that have been 
used or recommended for hedging, our pages shall be open to their 

What a Woman Thinks about Farming and Farmers. 

A LADY writer at the close of a very womanly and very sensible 
communication, not designed, we suppose, for the pubUc eye, thus 
gives vent to her admiration for the farmer's calling : 

" Your journal has much improved in its style, composition and sub- 
ject matter. Even the children now, have a little corner. Though I 
may not raise corn, yet I like to read how others raise it. If I had 
the means, I would be a great farmer though I am but a woman. It 
i.^ the noblest pursuit of earth, one that leaves no sting after its ac- 
complishment, but on the contrary gains a contented, cheerful spirit, 
and brings with, not overwearied limb and brain, the sweetest sleep, 
and a calm conscience. A man can not be bad-hearted who is a steady, 
untiring farmer. How can a man's heart be anything but fresh 

Seed Wheat. 137 

and green when lie works in nature's wide domain with the bhie sky 
over him ? He must be good, in spite of himself, whether he will or 
no. Give me a farmer before other men. But I am tiring your pa- 
tience. Please excuse me ; — you know I am a woman and I mu&i 

Seed Wheat— Mixing of Varieties. 

As the season for putting in the wheat crop is near, farmers would 
do well to consider the importance of sowing only the best seed. They 
have been too much in the habit of threshing out a few shocks for 
sowing, without much consideration of the soil on which it grew, and 
without sufficient care to cleanse it perfectly of smut and of such for 
eign seeds as might injure the crop, as if they Avould say, "Wheat is 
wheat, the world round, and if we sow Avheat we shall get wheat." 

We see it stated in the agricultural journals of some of our great 
wheat-growing States, that great advantage is derived from the ex- 
changing of seed. It is recommended not to brmg seed from a Avidely 
different climate, but to select with regard to variety of soils — to sow 
clay lands with seed from loamy soils, and the reverse. There may 
be something in this. We presume there is, or it would not come re- 
commended from so high authorities as it does, as from the Michigan 
Farmer., for instance. Still we should look more at the perfection of 
the crop out of wliich the seed is taken, than at the character of the 

Suppose we had harvested but a small crop the past year, and that 
not of the best quality, and that a neighbor, no matter whether very 
near or not, for good seed is worth gomg after a considerable distance, 
had harvested a very perfect crop, say 40 bushels to the acre, clean, 
not a particle of smut, no cockle, nothing but the unmingled gift ol' 
Ceres, and suppose he would sell it for a trifle more than the average 
price of wheat at the time, we would sow that seed in preference to 
our own, provided the variety were one we approved ; and then we 
would cultivate with the same nicety and care that over neighbor had. 

A new thought, at least new to us, about wheat. M. Lucien Rous- 
seau, of Angerville, France, has broached the idea, or rather has stum- 
bled on it by accident, that the mixing of varieties of seed is favorable 
to the wheat crop. In 1855, he experimented apon fifteen varieties of 
wheat, sowing each by itself, and noting the results, both in weight 
of wheat and of straw. The disparity, on the same land and with the 
same cultivation, was remarkable. But what was more remarkable, 
and the only point to which we wish to call attention, was that after 
sowing the fifteen varieties, a Httle seed of each remained. These fif- 
teen parcels he mixed together and sowed on a separate patch, and 

138 >>eed IVJieat. 

although the land was no better, was more shaded, and no better cul- 
tivated, tlic crop far surpassed cither of the plots sown with a single 

M. Rousseau's reasons, wliich avc copy below from the Michigan 
Farmer^ appears hardly satisflxctory to us, and yet there may be some- 
thing in them. At any rate we would recommend a trial of the same 
exi)eriment. It would be but Uttle trouble to sow a field with five or 
six of the varieties accounted best for that region, keeping each va- 
riety separate, and then sow another part of the same field with a mix- 
ture of all, and note the results. The farmer who would make the 
trial for himself would have the advantage of knowing Avhether there 
is utility in the new idea, or whether it is to be ranked with the thou- 
sand and one humbugs of the day. M. Rousseau's reasons are as fol- 

1. The several varieties do not head out at the same time, and 
therefore the period of flowering is lengthened, and the chances of 
fertiUzation are thus increased. 

2. The several vai-ieties are unequal in height, some being shorter 
than others at the time when the plants flower ; the heads therefore^ 
are not so close, are more exposed to the air, and the floration is likely 
to be more perfect, and the fertilization more general. This theory 
seems to be confirmed by the fiict that where wheat plants are most 
exposed, or are a little thin, other circumstances being equal, the fer- 
tilization is more general over the whole head, than where the wheat 
is thick. 

3. The crop seems to ripen bettor from the same cause, namely, the 
inequality in the height of the varieties, and in proof of this it has been 
remarked that in mixtures of wheat and rye, often sown in Europe, 
and of barley and spring wheat, the grain is finer than that of the 
same grains grown separately, and under the same conditions. This 
is considered to arise fi-om tlie more complete aeration afibrded by 
the two kinds of plants, one of Avhich grows high and leaves room for 
the sun and atmosphere to ripen the whole more perfectly, than when 
the surface is composed of one unbroken mass of heads of grain which 
shut out the light from the leaves and stems, and thus ripens one part 
of the plant before the other is matured. 

4. Another advantage claimed by this mixture of seed, is that the 
crop does not depend altogether u})on one variety, which of itself may 
be unsuitable for the soil where it is sown. The strong and healthy 
varieties will always fill up the spaces left by the decay of the more 
delicate or tender kinds, and thus in some degree be more likely to 
insure a croj). 

We have often noticed that a kernel of wheat in a rye field tillers 
wonderfully and produces remarkably well. Is it possible that the 
different kinds of wheat will produce a like effect on each other? — Ed, 

Many Things in Little Space. 13f» 

Many Things in Little Space. 

A FEiEisT) of ours tells us that, not long since, his garden and or- 
chard became infested with myriads of worms, (does not know the 
name,) and they increased to such a degree that it seemed as if every 
green thing would be devoured. There came along a flock of cherry 
birds, which gorged themselves on the worms, and when hungry re- 
turned again to the attack, till in three or four days not a worm re- 
mained. "We know not what kind of worms these could have been, 
nor did we know that cherry birds devoured worms of any kind. But 
of one thing we have no doubt,— that our friend's premises were sadly 
infested with some sort of worms, and that some kmd of birds, which 
he called cherry birds, did him a capital job in clearmg them off. In 
a recent trip of 1000 miles, out and back, we have scarcely stopped 
at a public house where there were not two or three thmgs m the 
shape of men, with double-barreled guns, talkuig over their grog oi 
their exploits in shooting birds, not those desired for food, not because 
they had done mischief, but simply for the pleasure of killing them. 
Pleasure ! What pleasure can there be in killing an innocent bird 
and leaving its young to perish for want of a mother's care ? Shame ! 
shame ! It is not Gothic ; it is not Vandal ; it is not barbarian ! The 
insmuation would be a slander upon Goths, and Vandals, and barba- 
rians. It is simply American. City gents lead off and country boys 
follow, and whole regions are being desolated of their rightful tenants. 
Song and beauty and the poetry of motion ceases from the grove. 
Insect life will of course become rampant. Again, we say, shame ! 

We see that a writer in the Ohio Caltivator recommends the plant- 
ing of wormwood about the roots of trees to keep off the borer. He 
says that the wormwood operates as a raulchmg to the roots, securing 
them against injury from drouth, and that its odor prevents the de- 
posit of the eggs which produce the borer. It may be so. 

We have from our correspondents not a few accounts hke the fol- 
lowing : "The span-worm has lately made its appearance in Meigs 
county, (Oliio.) In May it completely destroyed the leaves and left the 
trees destitute of their foUage, with the appearance of having been 
scorched by fire." Whether the span-worm of our correspondent is 
the canker-worm that is doing so much mischief in the Eastern States, 
is more than we know. The effects of his ravages are similar. Nor 
do we know whether the cherishing of birds by all possible means, 
such as surrounding our buildings with trees, planting hedges for 
fence where we can do it with tolerable economy, leavmg them to en- 
joy Ufe, instead of shooting them in cold-hlooded fun, would cure all 
the ills flesh is heii' to from insects ; but we are strongly inclmed to 

140 Many Things in Little Sjxice. 

think that Divine Providence has set one tiling over against another, 
as the birds agauist the insects, so that the former are to feed mainly 
upon the latter, and the latter to be thereby kept within bovmds. 
Man can not destroy insects. Birds can. Two hundred of the whcat- 
lly were found in the maw of a wren. Supposing one-half of these 
two hundred flies to have been females, and that each would have de- 
posited in the heads of wheat one hundred eggs, then 10,000 enemies 
of the wheat crop were prevented from having a being in one morn- 
ing by a single wren, and this, looking only at her own food. But 
who knows but that she had two young, and that she gave them an 
equal number. Thii-ty thousand enemies, in that case, were cut short 
of a being ; and if thirty thousand in a morning, then perhaps a hun- 
dred thousand in a day ; a million in ten days ; and if a million by one 
bii-d, then how many by all the birds on a farm, from which the mon- 
sters, with double shooters, are excluded ? Enough, it may be, to 
essentially diminish the ravages of the weevil for the present and has- 
ten its extermination by many years. 

The Western Farm Journal says that, in agriculture, " there is no 
capital so essential as intelligence, and that a dollar's worth of this 
kind of capital will return a hundred fold in corn and cattle." True, 
every word. 

Mr. Robert Leevers, of loAva, publishes that on a patch, 59 feet by 
14, (less than three rods,) he has gathered this year four bushels and 
three pecks of strawberries, equal to 232 bushels to the acre. Mc- 
Avoy's Superior was the kmd. This is a great story, but not too 
great to be true. We have seen crops this season that could not fall 
much short of this. 

We understand that Baldwin, De Witt & Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, 
have turned out 900 of Manney's reaj)ers and mowers this year, and 
yet have not suppHed the demand. John S. Wright, of Chicago, told 
us last fall that he expected to manufacture 5000 of these machmes m 
that city, and 3000 in Dayton, Ohio, in one year. These establish- 
ments are but two out of many. A great country. 

Lysander Pelton, of Gustavus, Ohio, purchases the curd of his neigh- 
bors, and will make, it is said, 250 tons of cheese this year. A con- 
siderable business this. 250 tons is 500,000 lbs. This at 10 cents a 
pound would come to $50,000. As the prices of meats and dairy pro- 
ducts have been for several years past, it would be hard to see why 
grass farms will not pay. 

At a recent discussion by the American Pomological Society, it 
seemed to be agreed on all hands that the Roxbury Russet is an ex- 
cellent fruit for nearly all parts of the country, more a national apple 
than any other, except that Mr. Ernst, of Cincinnati, had found it to 
vary much in quality on different soils, succeeding well on alluvial, but 

Smut on Wheat. 141 

not as well on clay soils ; and it was stated not to be doing as well in 
some parts of Ohio as formerly. The Baldwin, so valuable in the 
Eastern States, is not sufficiently hardy for the West. Most of the 
trees in Iowa and Northern Illinois, which were reported well of a 
few years since, are dead by the severe wuiters. Possibly this may be 
from growing too rapidly on an over fertile soil. 

The committees on reapers and mowers at the late trial in Syracuse, 
we understand, are not to report till after the national fair at Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

While we write these items, the temperature is but little below the 
scalding point. Perspiration flows, but not ideas. Our clothes stick 
to us. Why may not gentlemen wear hoops also ? — Ed. 

Smut on Wheat. 

Smut seems to be a parasitic fungus, of which there are several va 
rieties, as on Indian corn, wheat, etc. The black dust of matured 
smut is to be regarded as its seeds, each particle of which, however 
light and evanescent, is capable of germinating and producing its kind 
when brought into favorable circumstances. It is difficult to say pre- 
cisely how these seeds find their way into the receptacles of growmg 
wheat. But it is probable that they adhere to the kernals of wheat 
when sown ; and we know that in some way they are carried upward 
with the growing plant ; and are developed at the base of the newly 
forming kernels, simultaneously with the bursting of the spike from 
its sheath, or perhaps a little before the head makes its appearance. 
From this time the fungus grows and develops itself more or less ra- 
pidly, as the weather favors or otherwise, drawing its nutriment from 
the plant, thus partially depriving the forming wheat of its appropri- 
ate food, as well as insmuating a hurtful ingredient. 

Now, on the supposition that the smut in wheat comes from sporules 
(smut seeds) distributed with the seed wheat, which we suppose to 
be correct, it follows,* that if you could wash the seed before sowing, 
perfectly clean, there would be no smut in the crop, for however 
warm, damp and lowery the season, smut will not grow, unless there 
is seed for it to grow from. But it is impossible to secure perfect 
cleanliness from these sporules or smut seeds. They are too minute 
to be all washed away ; and their vitality is not destroyed by pure 
water. Hence the importance of washing seed wheat in some solu- 
tion that will destroy the vitality of such of the sporules as fail to be 
washed out. 

Salt, plaster, quick-lime, arsenic, sulphate of copper and other things 
have been recommended. The first is always at hand, and the next 
two are seldom far absent from the farm; and we beheve that these 

142 Journal of a Farmer. 

are sufficient. If the seed be first washed in pure water, then in a 
weak brine, of say one quart of salt to a pail full of water, and then 
dried in plaster or quick lime, (the latter not to be used too fresh nor 
very freely, lest it injure the vitality of the wheat,) we think that 
there will be little danger from smut, and that the operation Avill be 
favorable rather than otherwise to the germination and early growth 
of the seed wheat. — Ed. 


Extracts from the Journal of a Tennessee Farmer. 

July 20, 1857. — I have just finished cutting and shocking the wheat 
crop, which, by reference to former leaves of this journal, has been 
done about eighteen days later than usual. Last September, about 
the 20th, I sowed sixty acres of bottom land in white blue stem, which 
I will call field No. 1. This was a field which had lain in clover three 
years, the crop of mat and seed was turned under in August at a 
depth of say five inches, and one and a half bushels of seed wheat was 
put down to the acre. 

Field No. 2, of twenty-five acres, was sowed October 1st, on oats 
stubble land turned in the same way, and mth one and three fourths 
bushels Quaker to the acre. Both fields were harrowed in. So far 
as I am now able to correctly guess, the yield to the acre of field No. 
1 over that of field No. 2, will be as 24 to 15. The past winter was 
long, cold and dry. The same sort of weather, though milder of 
coui'se, characterized the spring, and indeed up to the date compara- 
tively. This I think may account for the late harvest. 

Our farmers in East Tennessee, generally, have gathered this year 
one of the very best (in all respects) crops of wheat ever hai'vested 
here in the memory of man. Last year this (Hawkins) county sold 
to foreign markets about 50,000 bushels. Twice that amount can be 
doubtless spared this year. The crop of last year was good, the mar- 
ket fair, and transport easy. But the corn crop was short, which 
made the home consumption of wheat greater than usual, because 
horses, cows and hogs were fed upon this grain for several of the last 
months, there being no corn at all. Now we are promised a bounti- 
ful crop of the latter grain, though it is some four weeks later than 
formerly, just now exhibiting the tassel. On a former leaf it may be 
seen that "July 19th, 1854, we had full grown roasting ears in the 
field." In this year's crop of wheat I am thankful that I am able to 
record truthfully a marked improvement in the culture of it generally, 
which has conducted our farmers to the happy result of an evident 
superior quality of wheat, as well as increase in quantity as hinted. 
In this desultory and often hastily sketching of odds and ends upon 

Journal of a Farmer. 143 

various subjects, I am aware that repetition is very often chargeable 
to me. It may, for aught I know, be justly so in what I further 
say. But in the ideas I proceed notwithstanding. Then, of the va- 
rieties of wheat grown here, that mentioned as having been raised on 
field No. 1 seems to stand first, and I think, everything considered, 
merits the place. It is a smooth head and rather round, plump, small 
berry, with a very small mesh with thin, tough and whitish bran. 
This year there was generally about 90 to 120 grams in the head, 
three grains in a breast on two opposite sides, with two on the others, 
and from nine to twelve and now and then fourteen deep. The stalk 
grows rather taller than other varieties, the straw thinner and of a 
blueish yellow color, (imparting the name,) soft and tough like tanned 
buck leather, and hence very difiicult to harvest with a machine reaper. 
In my notes of last year I say 23|- bushels yield to the acre of this 
wheat on average of 65 acres, some of the land not very well prepared, 
nor adapted to the grain, but the greater portion might compare with 
most of my neighbor's favorably. My neighbor, Mr. C, told me he 
raised thirty-four bushels to the acre. When I speak of bushels I 
mean dry measure., four pecks or thirty-two quarts, which of this class 
of wheat weighs sixty-six pounds avoirdupois. When weU ground and 
bolted, the good flour is seventy per cent., or seventy pounds flour to 
one hundred pounds wheat of a snow white, is dryer and consequently 

Of that kind of wheat raised on field No. 2, much has been said in 
its favor. It is a bearded head, long, heavy red berry, w^itli a deej) 
mesh, two grams in a breast all round from eight to twelve deep. 
The straw is heavy, large, and of golden yellow hue. It is very sub- 
ject to fall on account of the immense cavity in the stock. It weighs 
sixty pounds the bushel, and fifteen bushels are an average yield per 
acre. The flour is of rich yellow cast, is not so glutinous, kneads 
freer and smoother than the former, and the bread may perhaps re- 
quire less condiment to be as nice to the palate. The bran is thicker 
and less elastic ; the proportion of flour sixty-five from one hundred 
pounds. Millers say their mills need not be so sharp to grind it, and 
that it bolts freer, whilst the size of the berry renders it less subject 
to waste. Meantime its advocates contend it is not so liable to dis- 
ease, which I think from my observation is true. 

It was, I tlfink, once said that wool and wheat grown south (of say 
36° north latitude) could not be so good as that raised farther north. 
I respectfully invite future facts in denial of the proposition, and whe- 
ther or not as far down as 32 degrees much difierence is found. Mr. M., 
a gentleman from Ripley, Mississippi, visited us this summer, and in 
talking on this subject, he asserted that there was as good wheat 

144 Old Pastures. 

raised in his State as in any other in the Union. And what is a little 
strange, he said good wheat is now grown on lands that fifteen years 
ago were covered with water the year round. Cold countries, it is 
generally conceded, have the advantages in the growth of wheat. In 
point of climate this may be fairly so. Yet may it not be very likely 
that a warmer country may have an offset in the way of soil^ so that 
the result may with the same farming in either country be the same ? 
Probably more lies in farming from the field to the table mclusive, 
than in either climate or soil, because we have been long ago ad- 
monished that, " In the sAveat of thy face shall thou eat bread till thou 
return unto the ground." A. L. B. 

Mill Bend, Tennessee, July, 1857. 


Old Pastures— How Shall We Reclaim Them, 


When I try to cure a sick patient, I, in the first place, study the 
pathology of the case, or, in other words, seek the exciting cause of 
the disease. The true nature of the complaint being found out, it is 
a very easy matter to apply the proper remedial agents. 

There is a certain disease called chlorosis, m which there is a lack 
of one of the elements of the blood — a loss of a portion of its coloring 
matter — iron. The patient suflering from it, loses the glow of health ; 
the light and life leave the eye ; the roses upon the cheeks are sup- 
planted by the pale lily, and a deadly pallor, almost like the touch 
from the easel and pencil of death, spreads over the whole body. The 
exciting cause here is a lack of one of the actual elements of the blood, 
rather than any foreign miasm acting through and poisoning the life- 
tluid, thereby communicating disease. We cure chlorosis by supply- 
ing the lacking element, administer iron, and it almost always effects 
a cure 

Old pastures that have lost their vitality — pastures that once luxu- 
i-iated in verdant greensward — whose broad surfaces were clothed 
with a thick, velvet verdure of green blades and tender clover foliage, 
])ut have now become dry, barren and sere, covered with a garb of 
sorrel and whortlebury bushes. Such pastures are really sick. The 
disease is a sjrt of chlorosis. There is a lack of some important ele- 
ment or elements of vitality. The continual cropping of the vegeta- 
l)le life has deprived the soil faster than the decomposition of the rocks 
underneath could supply of one of its sources of fertility, and the foun- 
tains of vegetable life are dried or drying up. 

Vegetable, as well as animal life, is dependent upon the presence 

Old Pastures. 145 

and operation of certain proper principles of nutrition. Take those 
away and life becomes extinct. Let the best pasture (unless it has an 
inexhaustible soil) be fed year after year, without supplying it artifi- 
cially with the necessary pabulum, and in the end it will become an 
" old pasture," a " worn out pasture." It will certainly die at last 
with a loss of vitality. 

Can such pastures be cured ? I answer, Yes. How shall we re- 
store them and cause them again to rejoice in the green garb of youth- 
fal beauty, and to bud and blossom again as in their pristine state ? 

We must bring about this revivification by supplying them with 
their lost or lacking elements, or supply some element or substance 
that wiU by unituig with the already existency and present agents 
exact more rapid decompositions among them, and in this way supply 
the loss. For it is certain that sometimes the apphcation of a single 
substance like ashes or gypsum, ^vill effect a wonderful transformation. 
In its afiinities, compositions, and decompositions, and double decom- 
positions will ensue, and a great many of the real elements of vegeta- 
ble hfe will be evolved ; and so the barren earth will rejoice in ver- 
dure and beauty, and the husbandman be compensated for his toil. 

How shall we ascertain the true pathology of the case, or how shall 
we learn what substances are lacking in order to apply the proper re- 
medy ? There are two ways— first, by chemical analysis ; second, by 
actual experiment. A practical agricultural chemist by viewing and 
analysing soil will readily teU what are the most proper fertilizers to 
apply to a worn-out pasture. 

Actual experunent, perhaps, is as good a way as any. Several sub- 
stances—plaster, lime, ashes, muck, bone-dust, guano, barn-yard ma- 
nure, or a mixture of two or three of these, can be appHed separately 
in sufficient quantities to small patches of pasture in a single season. 
The result will tell what is wanting. The want ascertained, then ap- 
ply it. This will do on pastures, but not on patients. We can ex- 
periment on the former to good advantage, but not on the latter. 
Let me tell you how an esteemed neighbor of mine cured a worn-out 
pasture of his by the application of plaster. Hear him. The gentle- 
man to whom I refer is Moses Field, Esq., of this town. 

" My experiments indicate that Plaster of Paris improves old pas- 
tures, when the underlying rock is new red sand-stone, or the con- 
glomerate or pudding stone, which is made up of rounded granite 
boulders and pebbles, cemented together and slow of decomposition. 

"In 1851 1 appUed 500 lbs. of plaster to five acres in Leverett, north- 
west of Long Plain, upon the lower slope of Mt. Mettawampe, with 
marked results. In two months the imperfection of the work of sow- 
ing was indicated by waves in the grass as distinctly as the waves in 

146 Birds. 

an unevenly sowed piece of grain. In October, 1854, I sowed sixty 
acres. The eifect Avas not A'isible tlie first season, and not nntil the 
latter part of the second ; but at the third season the diflerence on the 
whole was strikingly marked. On the more exhaused pasture lands, 
I think the quantity to the acre of plaster should be about three hun- 
dred pounds. My pasture that for sixty years has borne little nutri- 
tious food for my stock, is now clothed with rich waving grass." 

Mr. Field's experiment proved that plaster was needed on his land 
to effect a cure. It probably acted by new elementary principles 
from the rocky soil beneath, as well as by the effect of its own pre- 
sence. Another pasture might require lime, ashes, guano, or bone- 
dust, or a mixture of some of them. — Ed. 


Birds, Mischievous and Innocent, on the whole 


Amherst, Mass., August 10, 1857. 

Messrs. Editors : — Having for the last four or five years carefully 
studied the habits of our summer birds, I would like to say a few 
words through your Farmers' Magazine concerning the crow, one of 
the most common of our resident birds. 

It is considered doubtful by many whether the crow is in the habit 
of destroying the nests of other birds. On several occasions, upon 
visiting the nests of robins and other of our — I can almost say — do- 
mestic birds, in which only a few days before I had seen eggs, I have 
found them much disturbed, and, with the exception of a few small 
pieces of broken shells and drops of yolk, entirely empty. Until last 
May I was unable to account for this. About the middle of that 
month a pair of robins built a nest upon an apple tree m the yard. I 
felt a peculiar interest in these birds, for they had occupied a nest in 
that same tree for several successive years. Well, these birds in due 
time laid four eggs, and commenced the process of incubation. 

Everything was going on regularly and hap])ily, Avhen one day my 
attention was attracted by the loud screaming and cryhig of both pa- 
rent birds. Upon looking at the nest, I discovered an old crow sit- 
ting upon the branch nearest the nest deliberately eating the Qgg>i. 
The robins fought bravely, but were unable to force him to abandon 
the feast. I immediately took sides with the robins, and quickly 
drove the intruder to the woods, but it was too late. The nest was 
destroyed and the eggs eaten. I have ujion several occasions smce, 
seen the crow engaged in the same thieving business ; and I now con- 
sider it quite settled, that the crow, as has frequently been charged 

American Guano. 14Y 

upon him, is a robber and devourer of the eggs and young of the 
smaller birds, as Avell as a notorious rogue in the cornfield. 

But it is said, " The devil should have his due ;" and it can not be 
denied that the crow is a valuable scavenger, and that by the gorging 
of grubs, beetles, moths, etc., he is an eifective auxiliary to man in 
the battle he is constantly fighting with the insect tribes. Whether 
the good he does, or the evil, preponderates, I leave others to judge. 
Truly yours, N. S. C. 

The good done by any bird that enlivens our American heavens, 
probably outweighs the evil. We have not one quarter as many birds 
as we ought to have, and as we should have but for the insensate folly 
of popping them over for the fun of it. To us it seems a most cruel, 
heartless sort of pleasure to kill innocent birds when gathering noxi- 
ous insects for themselves and their young, and yet there are thou- 
sands pursuing it. Robins, swallows, everything that has wings, falls 
before them. It is a shame, and will cost the farmers of the country 
hundreds of millions, if it can not be checked. Man has no adequate 
protection against insects but in the birds. Let us proteet the birds 
and they will protect us. — Ed. 

American Guano. 

The ship Aspasia is hourly expected laden with one hundred tons 
of this superior fertilizer from Jarvis and Baker's Islands, two of the 
possessions of the American Company secured and protected by a late 
act of Congress. The attention of agriculturists is particularly called 
to the following facts : 


Ci'enates and liumates of ammonia 13.50 

Oily matter and eithific acids, embracing water and carbonic acids : 

Phosphoric acid and lime 86.00 

Magnesia from humates 2.21 

Sulphate of lime and sulphate of soda 14.96 

Silieia or sand 82 

Total 117.49 


Organic compounds yielding ammonia, etc 9.940 

Combined water 2.500 

Carbonic acid from organic compounds of lime 600 

Bone phosjihate of lime, and bone phosphate magnesia, (containing 

phosphoric acid, 38.67) 83.266 

Sulphate of soda 1.263 

Common salt 1.615 

Loss 816 

Total 100.000 

The analysis shows that more than 80 per cent, of these guanos con- 
sist of the phosphate of lime and of magnesia, in an insoluble state, or 

148 American Giiano. 

in just sucli a condition that the roots of plants will take up and ap- 
propriate so much of the salt as is requisite to perfect the same. 

Now, if we examine the analysis of wheat, one of the great staples 
of our Middle and Western States, Ave find that every 100 pounds of 
its ashes contains fi-om 50 to 60 pounds of these phospliates, w^hich 
must have been taken up from the soil. A large part of these salts 
are required to form the hull or envelope of the kernel, and are indis- 
pensable to the perfection of the seed. Hence the special value of the 
phosphate guanos. And furthermore, as they are only soluble by 
reason of the vital power of the i)lant, they remain in the soil as a re- 
servoir, ready to be drawn ujion only when the roots of the plant re- 
quire their ai)propriation to perfect the growth thereof Those are 
the reasons why the guanos in question should be used in prcferendb 
to the ammonia-yielding guanos. The effects of the former last for 
years, and the soil acquires from its use an arcmnulative power ; while 
the latter, annually applied, is exhausted with the crop ; the soil indi- 
rectly becomes exhausted from the annually forced crop. 

These are interesting and useful facts for the farmers of our coun- 
try, and for this reason ^ye publish them. 

The Commissioner of Patents has distributed five barrels of Ameri- 
can Guano to farmers and j^lanters in every section of the Union, from 
Maine to Texas, with cu-cular forms to be filled up by them of the re- 
sults of the exj^eriment. Any one may be convinced of the superior 
excellence of American Guano, by calling at No. 66 William street, in 
this city. The Peruvian article is now held at IVO per ton, while the 
American can be furnished at $50, and has been demonstrated to be 
far superior as a fertilizer. 

The above appears in a late number of the Weekly/ JVeics, without 
a name to indicate its authorship or inform its readers on what author- 
ity, other than the editor's, it goes forth. In copying it we offer our 
readers the following remarks : 

1. Tiie company, which it is said can afford this Guano at |50 a ton, 
is an American Company. The Islands whence it comes are Ameri- 
can Islands. The persons who will be employed to bring it to our 
shores, will be mostly Americans. It will be likely to come in Amer- 
ican shipping. All this is well. The sooner American citizens, native 
and adopted, furnish our necessaries and perforn our labor, the better 
will it be for us all. We should like to ride on a railroad constructed 
of American iron, smelted with American coal, by American hands. 
When we stop over night, we should like to sleep under American 
blankets ; and if we take a lunch by the way, we should really a little 
prefer that the wheat of which our bread is made sliould have been 
grown with an American fertilizer. We are all over American ; we 
would eat, drink, wear, sleep on, ride over, have, hold and use Amer- 
ican goods, if we could get them, in preference to any other ; and we 
really wish that our farmers would purchase this American guano in 
preference to Peruvian, just as soon as they can ascertain its intrinsic 
worth and find it offered at or within that figure. 

American Guano. 149 

2. Somebody, in the article above copied, states that Peruvian gu- 
ano is now held at $70 a ton. We suppose that is so. And we sup- 
pose that fancy farmers, who have amassed a fortune in speculating 
on the labor of the working farmer, can afford to pay that price, or 
perhaps almost any other. If market-gardeners, nursery-men, fruit- 
growers, and some others, say that they can afford to pay $70 a ton 
for Peruvian guano out of the results of their business, we have no 
controversy with them. They probably understand that matter bet- 
ter than we do. But we are bound to say, and to give Our readers 
the benefit of our opinion, if it shall prove beneficial, that the general 
farmer, having no special facilities for making money out of his crops, 
can hardly afford $70 a ton for Peruvian guano. It is the best ma- 
nure yet offered, but is not above all price, may be purchased too 
dear, and fail to leave the purchaser a fair profit. For most kinds of 
farming it is vastly better to have recourse to other modes of keeping 
up fertility, such as ploughing in clover, digging muck, preserving 
carefully all the home fertilizers, and thus making the farm enrich it- 
self, than to purchase manures at $70 or even at $60 a ton. We are 
no prophet, nor a prophet's son, but we do not believe that the time 
is far distant when $50 a ton will be found quite as much as is profita- 
ble for the general run of farmers to pay for any, even the best, ma- 
nures ; and if Ave were practicing to live by farming, we should cer- 
tainly take a coarse which, if other farmers would go with us, would 
soon bring the Peruvian government to be willing to sell their guano, 
of which they unquestionably have an immense supply, at that price, 
or less. That there are individual cases where purchasers have done 
well at a much higher price, is unquestionable ; but there are ten 
times more cases where a loss has accrued from its purchase at that 
price ; and since the fortunate holders of the Chmcha Islands can very 
well afford to sell so as to give the purchaser a good bargain, we 
really wish they may be starved to it. Fifty dollars a ton is enough 
for them to receive, and it is enough for us to give. 

3. Somebody in this same article, says that the American guano can 
be furnished at $50. There must be some mistake in this if the writer 
means by it that it can not be sold at less. We have heard the presi- 
dent of the company say that it can be afforded at $40, and leave room 
for a very large profit. This may mean one hundred per cent, on the 
capital invested. If so, it can be afforded from 40 all the way down 
to 20 dollars a ton, according to its real worth, when that point shall 
be settled. We would here say that the company have done a very 
fan- and honorable thing, in giving out considerable quantities of this 
guano to farmei's that it may be subjected to a fair trial. We have been 
of opinion that no phosphatic guano, as the analysis shows this to be, 
is worth fifty dollars a ton, nor forty ; but we sincerely hope that this 

150 Saving Se^d Coiii. 

may prove all that is claimed for it, better even than Peruvian. The 
discoverers have done a good thing for the country, should it prove 
valuable, and we hope their enterprise may be rewarded ; but as com- 
merce is in no respect a higher or more important calling than agri- 
culture, and as merchants have evinced in all ages quite as much com- 
petency as farmers to take care of themselves, we feel justified while 
calling upon the latter to be American in their feelings, to patronize 
an American guano company heartily, as fast as they can do so with- 
out compromising their own interests, in reminding them also to be 
cautious, to know the real value of the article before they purchase, 
and then to purchase only as liberally as they can afford. And if they 
remember that commerce steals a march upon agriculture ten times 
oflener than agriculture upon conmaerce, we have no sort of objection. 


Saving Seed Corn. 

Fkieitos Nash & Parish : — Your Plough is an excellant imple- 
ment, and works well in turning over the sod., and on old ground that 
has been worked for years. But good tools are not all that the thrifty 
husbandman wants to insure him good crops — those that will pay him 
for his expense and labor. He may have the best of Ploiighs., hoes., 
etc., and put his ground in the best of order, but unless he has good 
seed he can not expect a good crof). 

During the spring of 1856, the seed corn in this part of the coun- 
try proved almost a perfect failure, especially the first planting, as 
most who planted early had to replant. This, with early frosts, made 
a large quantity, of poor or soft corn. No one could give the reason 
for it. At the time I talked with many of my neighbors xipon the 
subject, and I found that nearly all of them planted the com that they 
had cut up and put into stouts. The corn crop proved a poor one. 
Hardly a farmer had enough for his own use. This caused the price 
of corn to rise from the usual price (thirty cents) to $2 per bushel, 
and it could not be had at that, for' it was not in the country. 

Last spring came around, and many of the farmers did the same as 
on the previous one. Corn that stood out all winter in the hill came 
uj) finely, while that which was cut and stouted up or put into bins 
proved a universal failure. Therefore, the crop of corn will be noth- 
ing like a full one this season. The season was cold and very late ; 
and where the seed failed the first planting, if frost comes as early as 
common, the second planting will be cut off. My reasons for corn 
not growing that is cut and stouted up or put in large bins, are the 
same as friend. Bacon's, given in the July nmnber of the Plough,, 
Looin^ and Anvil, on page 20. 

Saving Seed Corn. 151 

As the seed had proven such a faihire in the spring of 1856, 1 
thought that I would try a new mode of saving my seed corn., if any 
grew ; as my seed was old corn sent to me by a friend from Ohio, it 
nearly all grew, the first planting. In the latter part of September, 
when my corn Avas fairly out of the milk, and was glazed, I went and 
selected the best of it, picked it and strung it up under my shed upon 
poles, so that the air had a free circulation. It hung there until it 
was nearly dry, I then put it up in the chamber where a stove pipe 
went through, and it remained there until spring. 

When it got dry, it shriveled up and looked as if it had no substance 
in it. I thought it was uncertain whether it would grow. Before 
planting I put some into the ground to see if it would germinate, and 
it came up. I planted it into the field ; and while planting one of my 
neighbors was there, and he looked at it and laughed at me for being 
so foolish as to plant such corn this late season. " Why," says he, 
"if that corn grows, there is no danger but what all corn will grow. 
If that grows mine will grow, surely." His corn had been cut up and 
stood in the stout until cold weather came, thea it was picked and 
put into a crib. But did his all grow ? He planted it, and about one- 
half of it came, while the corn that I had in the chamber grew to a 
kernel. Even if the kernel was shrunk, the germination principle was 
not killed. This proves to me that corn for seed should be gathered 
as soon as the milk is out of it and it is fairly glazed over. An old 
farmer, who has seen seventy summers, said to me once : " If you 
want to have your seed corn come up well, save your seed before 
your corn is fairly ripe." My advice to all farmers that have 
had bad luck in having corn fail is, save your corn before it is fairly 
ripe, and put it where it will cure, and keep it dry until you want to 
plant it. Millions of dollars have been lost duruig the last crop of 
corn, and there will be dollars lost this fall, for no other reason than 
by planting poor seed. Messrs. Editors, I hope that you will give your 
opmion upon this subject, for it is of vast importance. I hope your 
correspondents will write, and if they have not tried it, may they do 
so and give their experience through the Plough, Loom., and Anvil. 
Respectfully yours, L. S. Spencee. 

Lynn, Warren Co., Iowa. 

We would prefer to select seed as soon as fairly ripe, but would be 
careful not to do it sooner ; and would then keep it in a dry and cool 
place, though it would not be seriously injured by wintering in a 
heated room, as all experience shows, many farmers always keeping 
it suspended over the kitchen fire. — Ed. 

152 Farm Life. 

Farm Life. 

" Oh, friendly to the best pursuits of mnn, 
Friendly to the thouG;ht, to virtue, and to peace, 
Domestic life, in rural ])leasure passed! 
Few know thy value and few taste thy sweets ; 
Thouixh many boast thy favors, and affect 
To understand and choose thee for their own." — [Cowper. 

Education is by no means confined to scliools. These are but rn- 
dimental and auxiliary to that training Avhicli is begun in the cradle 
and finished only at death. The nursery days of our life, and its bu- 
siness pursuits, have an important bearing upon the formation of cha- 
racter. What a man does, as well as what he studies in books, edu- 
cates him. The scenes amid which his boyhood is passed, out of 
schools, the objects which occupy his thoughts, the problems he daily 
solves in earning his bread, quite as much shape character as the 
scenes and problems of a school-room. Agriculture is the largest and 
most important of all our material interests, the occupation to which 
the largest portion of our countrpnen are born. It is a matter of in- 
terest to consider the bearmg of this pursuit upon the characters of 
those who are engaged in it. 

There are those who consider this a menial occupation — degrading 
to the body by the toil it imposes, and beUttleing to the mind by the 
attention it requires to the minute details of its business. They re- 
gard its implements as the badges of servihty, and look with disdain 
upon the plow-boy's lot. They dei^reciate the influence of farm life 
upon the social and mental culture, and look upon the rustic man as 
a type of boorishness and ignorance. They think it mainly a business 
for brute muscles, where mind can achieve no conquests, and where 
skillful labor finds a poor reward. They think the way of a man of 
genius is inevitably hedged up upon the larm — that there is no heroic 
work to be perfoi'med, no laurels to be won. If he Avould do deeds 
worthy of his manhood, gain wealth, gain honor, make himself a name 
that will live, he must turn to nobler occupations. 

If those who are strangers to the farm alone cherished this view, 
we could abide it in silence. But when farmers themselves admit this 
impeachment of their calling, and the pestilence of this heresy finds its 
way to our firesides, and makes our sons and daughters discontented 
with our rural homes, it is time to speak out. If comparisons must be 
made, which are invidious, the shadows shall not fall on the farmer's 
lot. It is time that other callings were stripped of that romance in 
which they are veiled, and that the sons of the farm should know what 
they have in prospect when they turn their backs upon the homes of 
their youth. It is meet that they should better understand the bless- 
ings of their lot, its capacities for improvement, and its superiority to 
all other occupations. We would arrest that feeling of disquiet which 
keeps so large a part of our rural population perpetually longing for 
new fields of enterprise. We Avculd have them settled, at least a por- 
tion of them, in the old parish, and bend all their energies to the im- 
provement and adornment of their homes. — Mei\ William Clift, 

JSFotes by the Way. 153 

Notes by the Way. 

Ox the New-York md Erie and the Lake Shore roads, between 
this city and the State line, a distance of about 500 miles, there is 
some rather poor land, considerable that is but ordinarily good, and 
a great deal that is excellent, so good that it would be difficult to find 
much better, consisting of fertile valleys and beautiful slopes, with hill- 
tops and broad table lands hardly inferior to either. 

Why is it that farmers on the inferior lands are - doing better, as 
compared with what one might expect, than those on the best ? If 
the fact is admitted, and we rather think it must be, how shall we ac- 
count for it ? Have those on the best lands set too high an estimate 
upon ease ? As nature does more for them, have they concluded to 
do less for themselves ? And does it require a rather hard soil to 
make your real energetic, go-ahead farmers ? We throw out these 
inquiries for others to answer, hoping it can be shown that the energy 
and enterprise of the farmer are not to deteriorate with the goodness 
of the soil. 

At Ripley, the last town in this State, on the Lake Shore road, we 
found a gentleman — we do not mean in any miserable, technical sense, 
as if a gentleman and a Avorking farmer can not be the same, for we 
found him with his coat off, hard at work— who is cultivating a large 
farm, and is destined we believe to distinguish himself as a breeder of 
fine stock, H. J. Cowden. Mr. Cowden's herd consists of thirty head 
of Durhams, pure bloods, we think he said, without exception, or at 
any rate with few exceptions. He has made a fine beginning, and will 
hardly fiiil of advancing his own interest, as he certainly will that of 
the country. Among Mr. C.'s stock, not to mention others, is the fa- 
mous bull Ivanhoe, from the imported bull, Harold 2d, 1688 Allen's 
Herd Book. 

In this same town of Ripley, we accepted an invitation to dine with 
Mr. Loren Shattuck, a good substantial flirmer, whose lady seemed at 
first rather disinclined towards the ISTew-York corj^s editorial, on ac- 
count of Mr. Greeley's criticisms on the cooking of farmers' wives. If 
loud laughing makes a good dinner, we certainly had it ; and if it does 
not, we had it ; for in the first place there was the staff of life, and a 
good staff it was ; we never ate such bread in N'ew-York ; Mr. Greeley 
never did and probably never will. It was made of wheat grown on 
the farm, made at home, made just right, was white as snow, porous 
without large cavities, tender, moist, perfect ; would have taken the 
premium at any fair in the Union. We ate just such at a neighboring 
hotel, but have not seen quite as good otherwhere. The butter was 
good also ; and where there is such bread and butter there can not be 

154 N'ot^s by the Way. 

very poor living. The meat was good enough, and the pies were jBrst- 
rate, and the good woman concluded to forgive Mr. Greeley after all, 
on the ground that there is some bad cooking in farmers' families, and 
that his strictures were on the whole adapted to abate the evil. The 
fact is, we interceded for Mr. Greeley as eloquently as Ave could, hav- 
ing some fear lest so many women as he had offended on the score of 
cooking might possibly cook up a plan to overthrow the New-York 
Tribune. We hope the editor of that journal will remember us if we 
should ever get into a like trouble with the ladies. 

John D. Patterson, of Westfield, has such a flock of French Marinos 
as we have nowhere seen before ; 300 in number, bred from the 
choicest importations, and certainly with eminent success. We un- 
derstood Mr. P. that it is not his intention to enlarge his flock, but to 
use every possible exertion to improve the quality. It has been 
his object to combine size of body with fineness and quantity of 
fleece. He does not claim that the quality of his wool is equal to that 
of the Saxony sheep, but that it is good, and that the quantity is large, 
and that the sheep are large and hardy. His shepherd told us that 
he recently sold two lambs of eleven months old, the weights of which 
(live weight, of course) were 185 and 197 lbs. Two lambs of nine , 
months old were shown us, the weights of which were not known ; 
but such was their size, that after seeing them we could the more read- 
ily believe the repoi't of the others. Several bucks, Ave understand, 
have been sold from this flock for $1000 each, and many ewes for $250 
each. So we were assured ; and we were informed by persons Avho 
ought to know, that Mr. Patterson is the last man to be suspected of 
reporting fictitious prices for the purpose of afiecting future sales. 
These prices are too high to be thought of for the ordinary purposes 
of farming; and yet we rejoice in such improvements, believing that 
the benefits Avill ere long pass round, and that the Avhole country will 
participate in them. 

Mr. Elam C. Bliss, of Westfield also, showed us a lot of very beau- 
tiful young DcA'on cattle, and stated that a few months ago he sold a 
calf previous to its birth for $100, all risks with the purchaser; and 
that the purchaser is now exceedingly pleased with his bargain. 

We name such facts as indicative of a spirit of improvement, Avdiich 
Avc are pleased to see, and not because we suppose it Avould be advis- 
able for all farmers to pay fabulous prices for fine stock. Call these 
high breeders fancy men, if you please, but there is some evidence that 
they knoAV Avhat they are about ; call those Avho purchase of them by 
what epithet you choose, but some of them at least will be likely to 
take care of themselves ; and the advantages of high-bred stock Avill 
pass around till all Avill become participants. We forgot to mention in 
the proper place, that some fifteen months ago Mr. Bliss, of Avhose 

N'otes by the Way. 155 

Devon calf, sold quite as eaiiy as some of our veal here in New- York 
is eaten for $100, paid $1500 for a Jack, which now promises to be a 
good investment, both for him and for Chataugue county ; and that 
one of Mr. Patterson's bucks is the same which drew a high premium 
(the highest we think) at the world's fair in Paris. The name we have 
forgotten, and of the price Ave only recollect that it was enormous ; 
but we understood Mr. P. that he would not wish now to retrace the 
measure of the importation if he could. 

Other observations between the western and the eastern extremi- 
ties of New- York we would l^ie to detail, but feel compelled to omit. 
On one thing, however, we will dwell a little, even at the risk of 
wearying our readers. It is the vmeyard of the Messrs. Fay, father 
and son, at Salem Cross Roads, in the town of Portland, Chatauque 
Co. Forty-six years ago the elder Mr. Fay removed from Worcester 
county, Mass., and settled in this county, then entirely new. Mr. 
Fay is an excellent f;irmer, as the land, which he took in its then 
primeval state, and has ever since carried on, with the aid of sons and 
a grandson, fully attests. The old orchard, planted with seeds he 
carried from Massachusetts, is to-day one of the freshest and most 
flourishing in the country. The trees at first were but seedlings. 
The trees are now ingrafted, and most of them are abimdantly pro- 
ductive of choice fruit. 

On one part of Mr. Fay's farm, is a water meadow of twenty acres, 
the finest by far we have seen m this country. The crop, which was 
being taken from it at the time of our visit, could be hardly less than 
three tons to the acre, and as good hay as ever was cut. The prac- 
tice, we believe, is to mow it but once, though we are not positive on 
this point. For twelve years it has been under the watering process, 
no manure having been used all that time, and we were told that the 
crops were good from the first, but have been steadily increasing, the 
present crop being probably a little better than any other. On a 
future occasion we may say more of this meadow, and give directions 
for producing the like; for though it must be confessed that few 
farms afford such an opportunity for inexpensive and yet effective 
irrigation as this, yet there are many on which the same process 
might be applied in a less extent. Think of the value of twenty 
acres, or even half that extent, or a quarter, producing three tons of 
lirst-rate hay to the acre, without a particle of manure, and then fur- 
nishing manure for other portions of the farm, and you will have 
some idea of the value of irrigation, Avhere the position of the land 
admits, as in this case, of a cheap application. 

But it was our present purpose to speak of the vineyard. The 
elder Mr. Fay and Ms son, and Mr. Bykmaii, a grandson of the 

156 JVbtes by the Way. 

former, have together five acres of vineyard. We have not space for 
particnliirs. Suffice it to say, that some of their vines are seven years 
old, others six, five, and so on do'mi ; and that tlieir plan has been 
from the beginning not to remit known and profitable crops, but to 
add the culture of grapes to these, so that in case of failure in the 
new branch of business, their success in the old M'ould not be much 
interfered with. This has ever seemed to us a wise course, in relation 
to new undertakings by the farmer. There is a j^lot, for instance, 
which might produce more income, if set with cranberries, than all 
the rest of the farai. But there is sojne imcertainty. The farmer 
fears to let go his hold of the old and sure crops for what is doubtful. 
In this he is right. But can he not experiment on what gives some 
sort of promise of being more profitable, without letting go what is 
better known and more sure ? It has seemed to us that the true 
policy is for the farmer to adhere closely to some one or two branches 
of farming, well known to him and suited to his land, as dairying, 
stock-growing, the cultivation of the cereals and others ; to make 
this or these his main dependence, but to try his hand at the same 
time at other branches so cautiously as not essentially to interfere 
with the main business. This is just what the Messrs. Fay have done. 
Without neglecting other, and perhaps more sure employment of 
their land, they have produced five acres of beautiful vineyard, and 
are going on to enlarge it by Httle and little from one year to another. 
Now if the vineyard should wholly fiiil, they will not be ruined by it. 
If, on the other hand, it should produce half as well as it now prom- 
ises, there is wealth in it ; and it would now seem hardly possible that 
they will fail of a rich reward for the labor bestowed upon it. Very 
much like this is the case of a farmer whom we have known in ano- 
ther part of the country. There was a plot on his farm well adapted 
to the culture of the cranberry. He was not certain of success ; and 
not being wealthy, and having an expensive family, he would not 
have dared to grow a bushel less of corn and other grains, but could 
make an experiment at the cranberry business at intervals which 
could be spared from the other crops. He did so, and the result has 
been that for the last ten years the ci-araberry has had yielded him 
more net income than all the rest of his farm, and he is now Avealthy. 
Two years ago this farmer said to us, " If I had bent all my force to 
the cranberry culture when I began, fifteen years ago, I should have 
been rich now ;" and he ended by saying, " what a fool I was." We 
replied, that he had taken a profoundly wise course ; because he had 
felt his way safely, without imperilHng his creditors, (for fifteen years 
ago he was deeply in debt,) and without subjecting his family to a 
doubtful support. Such was the literal truth ; for although the cran- 
berry culture turned out the most profitable investment, yet he could 

The Season^ Crops^ etc. 15'^ 

not have known that beforehand ; and he was wise to hold on upon 
the corn and the broom corn, the oats, peas, beans and clover, till as- 
sured by actual results that he had hold of something better. And 
then he was rich enough as it was ; a good farm, under high cultiva- 
tion, well stocked, all paid for, a few thousands beforehand, frugal 
habits, a family frugal, sensible, intelligent, healthy ; is there a richer 
man in the world ? If any, let him speak, for we want to go and see 
liiiii — would go farther to see a richer man than that, than to see all 
the sights about, from Daii Rice's circus to Christy's Minstrels, now 
attracting cockneys and fools in " famous London Town." 

We want to say more of farming on the Erie Road, but have not 
space. Our moral is, if the farmers in that southern line of counties 
will bear with us, that they are not doing quite as weU, comparatively, 
as farmers farther east, on poorer land. Too many of them are 
dreammg of a better country West. The truth is, their country is 
good enough. Its situation on the line of one of the greatest thor- 
oughfares in the world, makes it doubly desirable. Whether the 
New-York and Erie* Road is managed well for the stockholders, is 
more than we know. That it is well conducted for the traveling com- 
mimity, we have abundant reason to know ; and that it is of immense 
value to the farmers along the route, present prices as compared with 
former, two, three, and four times as much, sufficiently attest. If 
the farmers of Western Pennsylvania and Southern New-York had 
paid for the whole road, and were never to get a cent of dividend, 
they would still be gainers, by the rise of their produce and land. 
Immense extents are to-day worth ten, twenty and thirty dollars an 
acre more than they would have been worth for half a century to 
come without the road. In view of such facts, we shall venture to 
question whether the people of these regions are actuated by quite as 
liberal a spirit towards the road as becomes them. We think we have 
seen some evidence withm the last five weeks that they are not. — Ed. 


The Season, Crops, Harvest, etc. 

Newman's Mills, Indiana Co., Pa., Aug. 1, 1857. 
Messrs. Editors : — ^Last winter was a remarkable one. It was 
very cold and wintry, with deep snow till Tuesday, the third day of 
February, when it began to be a little milder. On the fourth of 
February it set in warm and rainy ; and the snow nearly aU went off. 
It was quite warm and spring-like. Some part of February was so 
warm and free from snow, and even frost, that the grain and grass 

158 The Season, Crops, etc. 

began to start to grow as they ordinarily do in April. This kind of 
weather lasted till the beginning of March, After that the weather 
was variable till the 23d of March, on the morning of which we had 
lightning, heavy thunder, and abundant rain. From that time, on 
through April and May, the weather was cold, windy, and back- 
ward, not half so spring-like as in February. 

We had morning //-os^s till the 6th of June. There was but little 
corn planted till after the 25th of May. Oats were sowed nearly a 
month later than usual. On Monday, the 8th of Jmie, it rained 
heavily in the forenoon, and washed the fields and roads considerably. 
But that night the rain fell in torrents. Next morning, such washed 
and gullied looking corn fields, oat fields, and roads ! And since that 
time we have had only seventeen days till the first day of August, 
during which it has rained more or less, at times powerfully, viz. : 
June U, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28, and July 3, 4, 7, 8, 14, 17, 
24 and 25. Nearly all of the rains have come from the east or 

Old grain is very scarce and prices high ; in faSt hard to be had at 
any price. The new wheat and rye are good. Many fields are heavy, 
A neighbor of mine has a field of wheat of ten acres, which I hear 
he rates at thirty bushels the acre. Others reckon on twenty bushels 
the acre. There was a large breadth sown last fall to wheat, and 
most of it on land newly cleared, as last season was a good one for 
clearing land. The oats were sown very late, but they give promise, 
at present, of a large yield, and corn looks tolerably well, or would if 
it were the first of July instead of August first. I fear the frosts, 
if at all early, will find it not ready to bear their cold touch un- 

Potatoes, as many as were planted, look well, and there are yet no 
signs of rot, so fiir as I know. So many potatoes were frozen last 
year, and seed was so scarce, that not very many were planted about 
here. As it rains almost daily, and some days almost all day and 
night, harvest is progressing very slowly and unsatisfactorily. There 
is a poor prospect of much new land being cleared this season in time 
for wheat next fall. There is so much rain, the tunber will not burn 
without great labor and pains-taldng. 

I esteem your Magazine of Agriculture very highly, and Avould 
most heartily recommend it to all cultivators of the soil everywhere, 
as a safe guide for them. I think it grows better, like wine, as it 
grows older. I am right glad to see in it such articles as " Multum 
in Parvo," "Chemistry for the Million," " Health, Morals, and Patriot- 
ism," and such like. Yours truly, David Mills. 

JSorticultural. 159 


Blanching of Celery in Trenches. 

There are two modes of blanching : one is to draw the earth up to 
the plants from time to time while they are growing ; the other is to 
defer the earthing until the plants are nearly full grown. We prefer 
the first method. Success in cultivatmg celery depends mostly on in- 
ducing a rapid growth ; and to insure this, an abundant supply of ma- 
nure and frequent stirring of the soil are indispensable. Waterino- 
with liquid manure is very beneficial. The hoe should be used as 
soon as the plants have fairly begun to grow, and the ground kept 
loose and free from weeds. The j^lants will be greatly benefited by 
stirring the soil immediately after a rain. As soon as rapid growth 
has become established, or when the plants are about a foot high, the 
process of earthing may be begun. As the leaves and stalks grow in 
a spreading manner, it is necessary, in the first place, to collect the 
stalks in one hand, and with the other draw up some earth and press 
it agamst the plant just liard enough to keep the stalks together. The 
hoe may then be used to complete the process, but the crown or heart 
of the plant must not be covered until the blanching is finished late in 
the fall. The earthmg must be repeated from time to time as the 
plants progress in growth, and it should be done during dry wea- 
ther, since, if the earth is wet, the celery is apt to become " rusted." 
In our next number Ave shall give directions as to the best mode of 
keeping celery durmg the winter. 

Eipening of Fruits. 

The ripenmg is a process as little understood as the period of pick- 
ing, and various directions have been given on this subject by diflerent 
writers, some advising it to be spread out upon shelves in the fruit 
room, and others to be kei^t m boxes or drawers, excluded from the 
fight and air. We have found that very few early pears will ripen 
well when exposed to the air on open shelves, even in a tolerably 
close fruit room. At this season of the year the atmosphere is too 
dry, and the cui-rents of the air too great, and the juices are too 
rapidly exhausted. It is far better to place the fruit in boxes of 
moderate size, and let them stand in the fruit room or some other 
cool and rather dark place, where they retain their juices better than 
if exposed on shelves. We have tried this experiment, and found 
that those fruits kept in small quantities m a drawer, shut out from 
the light, were more juicy, higher flavored, and more delicious than 
when preserved in other ways. As a general rule, we should advise 
all early pears to be placed in boxes or drawers, covered with one or 
two thicknesses of paper, and kept excluded from light and air, where 
the temperature is cool and as even as possible at that season. A 
damp, cool cellar is not so favorable a place as a cool, dry room, as 
the former checks the ripening process too suddenly ; such a situa- 
tion will do for the autumn and winter pears, but not for the early 

160 Horticultural. 

'Apples, being less dependent for their excellence on their delicacy 
of flavor, than for their tenderness, juiciness, etc., need only be gath- 
ered a few days before eating ; they are better placed in baskets or 
barrels, in moderate quantity, than to be spread out en shelves. Some 
of these arc about as good when they fall from the tree as by any 
process of keeping. The Red Astrachan, Porter, and some of the 
more acid kind, seem to acquire their highest flavor in this Avay. But 
as a general rule they should be gathered a few days before eating. 
Tlie sweet varieties, particularly such as the Bough, Golden Sweet, 
and some others, become mealy if allowed to hang too long. ^ 

Peaches and Plums, except clingstones and prunes, are only fit to 
eat as they drop from the tree. The only objection to this mode of 
gathering, is, that it bruises and disfigures the fruit. They should 
not, however, be picked unless they part from the stem upon the least 
touch. Clingstones and prunes may be kept in the fruit room for one 
or more months. 

Transplanting Strawberries. 

The best time is always eai'ly in spring, as at that time, we have 
only to set out the plants Avith ordinary care for all to grow. They 
will bear abundantly the second season, and if kept clean and cultivat- 
ed, for two or three years afterv»^ards. 

Transplanted immediately after bearing, and while the plants are 
somewhat exhausted, and consequently in a partially dormant state, 
strawberries will do well, and afibrd as good a crop next season, as by 
sjjring transplanting, but more care and labor are required. The 
ground is first to be prepared by properly enriching it, and making it 
clean and mellow. 

The plants should be selected from the youngest well-rooted run- 
ners of the previous year. They should be lifted out with a spade, 
and the earth shaken off", and not pulled out, as is often done to the 
injury of the roots. All the full expanded leaves are to be clipi^ed 
off, leaving only the small, half open ones. The roots are then to be 
dipped in mud, made in a pan or pail for this purpose, thick enough 
to leave a coating on them about the fourth of an inch. They are then 
to be transplanted, spreading out the fibres as much as may be con 
venient, and taking care not to cover the crown. — Country Gent. 

Memarks. — Every family that has a patch of ground should culti- 
vate a bed of strawberries. For more particular directions, see our 
number, Sept., 1S56, page 146. — Ed. 

Soap for Killing Borers in Trees. 

S. S. Green, of East Cambridge, has made an experiment with this 
article. He has in his garden a white ash tree, which was full of these 
worms, so fiital to our fruit and ornamental trees. He covered every 
place on the tree which appeared to be wounded by them, Avith com- 
mon hard soap, nicely rubbed into the place where the borer seemed 
to have entered. During the rains of this week, the soap dissolved 
and penetrated to the worms, which forced them out by scores, 
causing their death. — Eo:chcmge. 

American Inventions. 


fv n e n t ^ m c n c a « | n 1) ni t i it $ 

Reaping and Mowing Machine. 

We are not quite sure that the machine described below has not acquired a 
foreign reputation far greater than it has achieved as yet in this country. Our 
readers are aware that a great trial of reapers and mowers has been recently 
made in England, in which our own inventors have again carried off the palm. 
We have now before us the Mark Lane Express and The Salisbury and Win- 
chcster Journal, and both speak in unqualified praise of the "Eagle" Mower and 

162 American Incentlons. 

Ileaper. The latter paper says that English makers have nothing to fear " with 
the exception of the American Eagle." So far as we can judge, this was the 
only American Reaper that competed for the prize. The Mark Lane Express 
says : " It professes to cut grain or grass at all heights, and on any kind of 
ground, however rough and trying. It is only right to say that its performance 
so far approaches its promise." We make these extracts in the hope that our 
own agriculturalists will be careful not to neglect anything worthy of their at- 
tention, and that our inventors may see a practical proof that the world is their 
legitimate field, and that they have good reason for expecting entire fairness in 
the trials made even beyond sea of the comparative merits of their inventions. 
We only add that this invention received the premium of a thousand dollars 
from the Massachusetts Society in 1856. Its cost is $125, and is now manufac- 
tured by Messrs. Nourse, Mason & Co., of Boston. 

The proprietors arc interested in the manufacture and sale of Heath's Com- 
bined Mower and Reaper, manuflicturing it only as a combined machine. Some 
of the superior merits of this Machine are set forth under the following heads : 

1. The machine has no gear. The main or driving wheel, on which it moves, 
has two cams in its fiice or rim ; low down, near the ground, is a friction roller, 
between the cams ; this friction roller revolves on a pin which is attached to 
the vibrating bar. The vibrating bar is below the frame in front of the wheel, 
and moves between stirrups on the frame. The inner end of the vibrating bar 
is attached to the cutter bar. As the main wheel revolves, the friction roller is 
driven backward and forward by the cams or zigzags, imparting motion to the 
cutter bar. 

This main wheel and friction roller constitute the whole driving machiner}-, 
and the application of the power being direct to the cutters, very little of the 
draught is consumed by friction, so that in fact the machine is of very light 
draught and easily operated by two horses for an entire day, without any neces- 
sit}^ of change of team. 

2. There are two sets of cutters -an upper and lower set — the upper set 
vibrating, and the lower ones remaining stationary. The lower cutters project 
an inch beyond the upper ones, and seiTC the double purpose of cutter and 
guard — being each ^ inch thick and \ inch wide. Both upper and lower cutters 
are made of wrought iron, faced with cast steel ; and are equal in quality to the 
best edge tools in use. The cutters are held together by a spring pressure bar, 
and each one is held to the bar by a screw bolt, so that in case of accident the 
injured one can be removed and another substituted in a moment, in the field. 
It will thus be seen that the grain or grass is cut between two sharp edges, of 
the best quality of temper — the cutters acting like shears, excepting that one 
blade is stationary. Hence the ease and certamty of cut, whether the grain or 
grass be wet or dry, so that it is never necessary to urge the team beyond a 
natural gait, the machine cutting as well at a moderate as at a high speed. 

3. The arrangement for elevating the cutters in passing obstructions, is sim- 
])le, convenient and eftective. In front of the seat, but in no way connected 
with it, is a platform or foot-board, attached to the back rail of the machine. 
^VHien cutting through a wet place or slough, or passing other obstructions, the 
driver rises up and with his right foot throws his weight, or enough of it, upon 
the foot-board or lever, to instantly raise the cutting apparatus from one to 
eight inches, as may be desired, without checking the team ; and the obstruction 
passed, he removes his foot froni the lever, and the cutters at once drop down 
and are at work. Again, in turning the corners, it may sometimes be necessary 
to drive over the cut grain or grass ; and in such case, by simply elevating the 
front part, the machine will pass over tlixj grain or grass with as little inconve- 
nience as a cart. 

4. The seat is placed on hickory springs, wljich fasten to the hounds of the 
draught pole, just forward of the axle — the draught pole hounds being attached 
to the frame back of and below the axle. The springs of the seat bear on the 

American Inventions. 163 

cap of the box, over the axle, which thus becomes a fulcrum fn* them. B}'' this 
arrangement, the driver's weight is made to balance the weight of the draught 
pole — thus relieving the necks of the horses from burden. 

5. The end of the machine next to the standing grain or grass is carried on a 
wheel of about sixteen inches in diameter ; and the principal part of the weight 
being at one side of the draught pole, that counterbalances the greater length 
and the cutting apparatus of the machine at the other side of the pole — thereby 
preventing "aide draught" 

6. By means of the gauge-block attached to the draught pole, the cutters can 
be set to any desired height. 

7. "When the machine is stopped in the grain or grass, it can be started ahead 
at once into its work, without first backing the team. 

8. The reel is of essential service when the grain or grass leans from the 

Upon a trial instituted by the Indiana State Board of Agriculture, and con- 
tinued during three days, the Committee awarded the highest prize to Heath's 
Machine, This Machine has also won the prize at various other t'-ials in the 
Western States. 

Pratt's Family Sewing Machine. 

We have received many inquiries in reference to a " ten dollar sewing 
machine," and though we can not yet exhibit the exact thing described, we can 
come pretty near it. We have intended to give a short history of the progress 
of art and invention in this direction, and our readers may expect, ere long, a 
little narrative in this curious department of history. Thus far, however, a 
well working " ten-dollar" sewing machine has not come under our observation. 
But we now have some near approximation to it. Hand machines, that do as 
good work as hand machines can be expected to do, may now be had for twelve 
dollars, though their power is so much inferior to those moved by the foot, that 
we can not advise their use. We have just examined with great care the con- 
struction and action of one of these cheap machines, which certainly promises 
very much. We do not perceive why it is not a complete success. We refer 
to the sewing machine of Mr. S. F. Pratt, of Boston. It has been only some 
Ax ov seven months before the public, but has begun to acquire a good and 
wide reputation. Unlike other sewing machines, it stands upon a small table 
which is supported by a single pedestal, like a "light stand." Its action is 
also new. In most of the machines in use, the work is moved forward by the 
revolution of a wheel having a rough or corrugated surface, which cariies with 
it any substance (cloth, etc.,) placed upon it. In this the " feed motion" is se- 
cured by the ascent of a corrugated edge, from beneath which confines the 
cloth against the holder on one side, (the finished side,) while another behind it, 
like the end of a dull chisel, then coming up and lifting it, secures motion from 
the other side, the left hand holding and guiding the cloth, then draws straight 
this loop, and the material is ready for the next movement. Hence the motion 
of the cloth is not entirely unlike the movement of a canker worm or geometer, 
and the length of the loop is controlled by the position of this part of the 
machinery. Two or more thicknesses can thus be managed as well as one, 
while in some machines the under and upper pieces do not alwaj's move with 
t'xact uniformity. The upper piece moves more slowly than the lower, and the 
lining is either looser or tighter than the outside. 

Mr. Pratt uses a single thread on the original spool, thus avoiding the labor 

164 American I?iventions. 

of re-winding. The loop or chain is secured by a hook, but the action of that 
hook is not the same which is in use in some older machines. 

Hand machines make about three hundred stitches per minute, while those 
moved by the foot will make about a thousand. Hence, though the hand 
machine costs but twelve dollars, and though it can do the work of three or 
four pair of human hands, the other form is more economical, while it costs 
$25 and $30, because it works so rapidl3\ Yet, for a small ftimily, having but 
little work to do, the cheaper one may answer ever}* needful purpose. 

The arrangement of the machine can be changed so as to make five stitches 
to the inch, or forty, at pleasure, by turning a screw, and it will sew woolen, 
cotton or linen goods, with equal facility. Linen is, however, said to be the 
severest test of its working ability. It fastens its own thread when it stops, 
and thus prevents it from raveling. 

"We think this can not faU to prove a good family machine, and worthy of 
general attention. Our readers will remember that we have heretofore com- 
mended Robinson's as the best of all, because it takes different kinds of stitches, 
and exactly such stitches as are taken by a seamstress. But its machinery is 
comparatively complicate, and costs $100 and upwards. To those of small 
means, Pratt's machine commends itself both as cheap and capable of as good 
workmanship as any other of the high cost machines. When the sale becomes 
general, so that almost every family is accustomed to use them, the cost may be 
reduced still lower. But with present competition, and the great cost of giving 
publicity to any such invention by advertisements, agents, etc., probably the 
present terms are as favorable as can be reasonably expected. Mr. E. A. G. 
Roulstone, 7 Tremont street, Boston, has the right of this sewing machine, and 
an agency is established at New- York, 577 Broadway. 

Bradley's Sheep Shearing Machine. 
A SUBSTITUTE for the " sheep shears," so long used in cutting off the fleeces of 
sheep, has been invented by Mr. R. P. Bradley, of Cuyahoga, 0. Its cutters 
are after the fashion of our mowing machines, consisting of several fingers at 
the end of the implement, over which other moveable fingers slide. This slide 
is moved by a handle, and the zigzag motion is given by a zigzag slot, in which 
a pin, fastened in the slide, is inserted. It is guided by the left hand, and 
operated by the right. It may prove a very useful invention, but we have not 
<een it in operation. 

Kenovating Worn Apparel. 

To remove grease spots from silks and satins, use fresh ox gall, or pure tur- 
pentine, camphene or burning fluid. Camphene is purified turpentine, and 
burning fluid is a mixture of three parts of alcohol to one of champhene, and is 
perhaps the best of all these. To remove acid stains, apply an alkali, as ammo- 
nia, (hartshorn,) to the spot, very carefully. "With some colors, ammonia will 
produce spots, hence it should be used sparingly, and applied only to the 
stain. Ink can be removed by being soaked or repeatedly washed in solution 
of tartaric acid, or oxalic acid, or salts of lemon. "Woolen goods may be freed 
from grease by camphene, or burning fluid or alcohol, repeatedly applied, or 

American Inventions, 165 

even by soap, applied liberally and well rubbed in. The cloth must afterwards 
be thoroughly rinsed. Paint can be removed by camphene or burning fluid, 
repeatedly applied. Grease in a carpet may be removed by the same process, 
or by covering it with a considerable quantity of magnesia, which will gradu- 
ally absorb the grease, and at least very much improve the appearance of the 
carpet. This process may require several days, and perhaps more than one ap- 
plication. Dry French chalk, or powder, upon a grease spot, will also absorb 
the grease, whatever the material to be cleaned, woolen, silk, etc. It must be 
applied liberally, remain a day or two, and be thoroughly removed afterwards 
by a brush, This is on the principle of absorption. 

Ox gall may be prepared so as to be useful in this way, for an indefinite time, 
as follows : Take one pint of gall, boil and skim, divide into two parts. To 
one, add half an ounce of salt, and to the other, half an ounce of powdered 
alum, both being heated till everything is dissolved. Pour into separate bottles, 
and let them stand in a quiet place for six or eight weeks, or till bright. Then 
pour off the clear portions, and filter both through tissue or blotting paper into 
one vessel. In this state it will keep unchanged and free from odor. 

Iron vs. Hemp. 

Circumstances indicate that, in certain kind of steamers, iron will entirely 
supersede the use of wood as a building material. 

Another use has also been made of it, to a limited extent, in its substitution 
for hemp, for standing rigging. Careful tests have been made recently, in Liv- 
erpool, in which the superiority of iron seemed fully substantiated. These 
tests had special reference to the comparative strength of wire, and of hempen 
rope. The following are given as the sizes and materials of the samples sub- 
jected to the first experiment, with the results : 3f inch galvanized wire rope, 
broke at 20 tons 15 cwt. ; 8| inch Manila hemp, ditto, 5 tons 17 cwt. ; 3f inch 
Russian hemp, ditto, 4 tons 15 cwt.; Z\ inch galvanized wire rope, ditto, 16 
tons 10 cwt, ; 2^ inch galvanized wire rope, ditto, 8 tons 10 cwt. 

How far these results may be counterbalanced in the matter of convenience, 
it belongs to experience only to decide. The Liverpool Post says, in reference 
to the superior strength of iron as shown in the above experiment : 

" But from a table handed to us we perceive that this is not the sole, or in- 
deed we might almost say the greatest, of the advantages it presents. For in- 
stance, we observe that wire rope is a fourth less in weight, and not one half 
the bulk of that made of the hemp of the relative strength and enduring capa- 
city. The advantage of this, especially in beating to windward, needs no com- 
ment. Moreover, we are assured the cost is 25 per cent, in favor of wire rope 
over hemp, estimating weight and saving. Again, wire tigging is much Jess 
susceptible than hemp of atmospheric changes, the latter continually stretching. 
And when, in addition to all these advantages, it is remembered that wire rig- 
ging needs no stripping or refitting, as hemp rigging must have every few years, 
we can not but come to the conclusion that wire rope seems destined, ere many 
years, greatly to surpass, if it shall not entirely supersede, hemp rope in ships' 
standing rigging. Already, indeed, we see that for years it has been gradually 
creeping into more general use ; and if the approval of experience can add, as 
it must, to the value of scientific tests, the use of it will be even more than pro- 
portionately rapid, for those who have used it invariably prefer it over hemp. 

166 American Inventiotis. 

Manilla vs. Hemp. 
The experiments in Liverpool referred to as testing the comparative strength 
of iron and hemp, seem decisive as to the superiority of manilla over hemp, in 
various respects. It is not only stronger, but cheaper. It is lighter, runs more 
freely through blocks, and does not require tarring. The Boston Post says that 
the Americans were the first to demonstrate these facts, and also to show the 
gupcriority of machine spun over the hand spun fibre. 

Perfect Intonation. 

The Economist contains a short article informing us of an attempt to con- 
struct an organ capable of the same perfect correctness in all its keys and in- 
tervals as the violin, or the human voice. "The experiment," he says, "has 
been tried in the Enharmonic organ, and we have here a description of the 
manner in which it has been done." To us the history of that " enharmonic 
orn-au" is quite familiar. We were one of three who furnished the means far 
its int'enious inventor to go to work upon his favorite employment, organ 
building, although we did not employ him on the structure of that organ. We 
were not sufficiently impressed with its practibility or with the benefits which 
would result from it. All musicians know the imperfection common to organs 
and pianofortes, occasioning the differences between Gtf and A B, etc. The en- 
harmonic organ has a separate pipe for each sharp and each flat, and ingenious 
machinery connects the proper series of pipes with the key. Thus the number 
of pipes is nearly doubled, the key board remaining unchanged. In the use of 
the instrument, the organist brings into play, by pedals, a different series of 
pipes, at each change of the key, so that its use requires a thorough knowledge 
of "Harmony," and not a little tact in promptly noticing and preparing for 
sudden changes in the character of the harmony. A description of this organ 
was given a few years since in SllUmari's Journal of Science, the name of the 
ori"-inal inventor being omitted, as is too often the case, while he who furnished 
the capital carried off the credit of the inventor. The real originator of that 
organ was a Mr. John Alley, who is still engaged, as we suppose, in the con- 
struction of instruments, at Newburyport, Mass. It is chiefly for the sake of 
GOtmecting his name with this invention that we have written this paragraph. 
The value of the invention is another matter, about which different persons 
may not and do not agree, and subsequent generations may reverse the judg- 
ment hitherto pronounced on this point. But there is no question that " the 
enharmonic organ" produces sweeter harmony, especially in certain keys, and 
that an instrument of given size! pipes, constructed on this plan, produces 
more sound than does the common organ. The comparative silence which en- 
tervenes between the repetition of " the wolf," is unknown in the enharmonic 
organ, so that we have from its pipes a constant equal, smooth tone, at its loud- 
est pitch. Practice with the enharmonic organ also raises a question of no 
little importance in the theory of music, viz.. Is the seventh a discord ? It is 
found that on this instrument the chord of the seventh produces no " wolf," 
while other " discords" develop the same phenomena as are produced upon the 
eommon organ. 

American Patents. 167 

Ornamental Arts— Daguerreotypes. 
If our readers turn to those numbers of our journal in which we described 
various articles exhibited in different departments, in the Crystal Palace, of the 
World's Fair, they will find that we announced the daguerreotypes of Masury & 
SiLSBEE, of Boston, as decidedly the best. The collection was large, and the con- 
tributors numerous, and even some of the latter expressed opinions on this point 
coinciding with our own. This is not the only case, however, in which we and 
others have come to results unlike those announced by officials, nor was it the 
only one in that exhibition. But we refer to this now, because a visit at their 
establishment in Boston, furnishes us with accumulative evidence on that subject. 
It seems to us impossible to produce more perfect pictures than are to be fouud 
by scores, in their rooms. The photograph and the ambrotype, are also exhibit- 
ed in the same apartments, in the same excellent style, though we find that the 
latter are not regarded by these gentlemen as so well worthy of regard as other 
styles of this beautiful art. They say the pictures are not artistic, and in this 
opinion, we find that they are not alone. But we do not intend to form an issue 
on this question, with any one. Our present object is only to call attention 
to this firm, and to invite at least a passing examination of their work. Having 
once secured attention to this collection, we would have each one to determine 
for himself the time to be given to it, for we should not doubt the verdict that 
any one of ordinary judgment would arrive at by himself. Hence, we only say, 
drop in for a few moments. 

[issued from the d. s. patent office, from jclt 1 to july 28, 1857.] 

Machines for Husking Corn, G. W. Bachman, Clifton Springs, N. Y. — Grain 
Separator, Amasa Curtis, Lena, 111. — Corn Harvester, Israel Dodenholf, Bloom- 
ington, 111. — Cutting Apparatus for Harvesters, Joseph Irwin, Frankfort, O. 
Spiral cutters in combination with curved cutting fingers. — Machine for Husking 
Corn, Wm. Emery, Jr., Chester, 111. — Connecting the Panels of Field Fences, 
S. F. Jones, Milford, Ind. — Cutting Apparatus for Harvesters, John P. Manny, 
Rockford, 111.— Scroll Wheel for Harvesters, C. D. Rogers, Utica, N. Y.— Hay 
Rake, S. W. "Wood, Washington, D. C, assignor to Lewis H. Parsons, New- York. 
— Cultivating Ploughs, George G. Black, Crossinville, 0. A double plough, 
with two beams, joined at the clevis, and adjustible to different widths. — Har- 
vester, John P. Manny, Rockford, 111. — Churn, Charles H. Dana, West Lebanon, 
N. H. — Corn Planter, Alvin Franklin, Genoa Cross Roads, 0. — Churn, Silas 
Hewett, Seneca Falls, N. Y. — Cultivator, Howard Mann, San Francisco, Cal. — : 
Raking Apparatus for Harvesters, John P. Manny, Rockford, 111. — Draining Ma- 
chine, A. P. Routt, Somerset, Va. — Cultivator, Henry Schreiner, Jr., Berry s- 
burg. Pa. — Maohine for Planting Potatoes, Gatusha J. Bundy, Lyndon, Vt. — Ro- 
tating Harrow, James B. Glascock, Fancy Creek, 111. — Corn Harvester, G. D. 
Haworth, Mechanicsburg, 111. — Shovel Handle, George C. Howard, Hardwich, 
Mass. — Corn Planter, Norman A. Lewis, Glenn's Falls, N. Y. — Garden Hoe, 
Solomon Shutter, Alleghany, Pa. — Cotton and Cane Cultivator, T. E. Shannon, 
Woodville, Miss. A series or gang of cultivators in combination with a wheel 
carriage. — Straw-cutters, J. L. Sullivan, Lexington, N. C. Two sets of knives, 
rotating at right angles to each other. — Grain Separator, Wm. Zimmerman, 
Quinty, 111. — Machine for digging potatoes, Joseph tieulings, Philadelphia, Pa.^ 

168 American Patenta. 

assignor to W. II. Lawson, B. M. Heulings and Joseph Hculings, of do. — Clean- 
ing Rice, Philip R. Lachicotte and T. B. Bowman, Charleston, S. 0. — Guard 
Fingers for Harvesters, A. R. Reese, PhiUipsburg, N. J. — Corn Planter, Charles 
Schnepf, Lancaster, Pa. Semi-circular scooping hoes, with jointed ends, in com- 
bination with slides, and operated by revolving levers. — Cultivator, Harrison 
Ogborn, Greensfork, Ind., and George Taylor, Richmond, Ind., assignors to Har- 
rison Ogborn. — Machine for trimming hedges, William Wimmcr, Billingsville, 


Metal Separator, Edward Borlase, Bristol, Conn. — Machine for tapping nuts , 
A. B, Glover, Birmingham, Conn.— Wrench, J. H. Hathway, Millbury, Mass. — 
Lock, Henry Isham, New-Britain, Conn. — Goldwasher and Amalgamator, T. V. 
Tavnay, San Francisco, Cal. — Bit or Drill Holder, Amos J. Smith, assignor to 
himself and George W. Otis, Lynn, Mass. — File Cutting Machine, Wm. Van Ar- 
den, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. — Machine for gaging and filing saws, Emanuel An- 
drews, Elmira, N. Y. — Nail Plate Holder, Wm. H. Battell, Newcastle, Pa. — Coal 
Tar in iron furnaces, Isaac F. Johnson, Spuyten Duyvil. — ^Lock, L. F. Munger, Le 
Roy, N. Y. — 'Machine for cutting metal, James Tetlow, Salem, Mass. — Centering 
Machine, E. J. Whiton, West Stafford, Conn. — Lock, Wm. Whiting, Roxbury, 
Mass., and Henry Pickford, Boston, Mass. — Hand Wrench, G. Philips, Albany, 
N. Y. — Locking Cylindrical Door Bolt, C. G. Page, Washington, D. C. — Tem- 
pering Scythes, C. P. Grossman, Warren, Mass. — Shell Roller, bed for planing 
machines, Geo. Darby and James E. Young, Augusta, Me. — Seaming Sheet 
Metal Roof, Lucian Fay, Cincinnati, 0. — Punching and Shaping Metals, George 
Hazeltine, Washington, D. C. 

. Fibrous ai;d Textile Fabrics. 

Pasteboard Cutter, D. Burhaus, Burlington, Iowa. Of two cutters, each cuts 
half way through, and avoids the rough edge of former machines. — Cutting but- 
ton-holes, Wm. Chicken, Boston. — Sewing Machine, E. T. Lathbury, Buffalo, 
N. Y. — Mattresses, Wm. P. Ford, Cheneyville, La. — Rope Machine, Ezekiel 
Guile, St. Louis, Mo. — Hemp Drawing Machine, Samuel Loundes, Brooklyn, N. 
Y. — Cotton Gins, Daniel Pratt, PrattviUe, Ala. — Machine for cleaning cotton, L. 
S. Chichester, assignor to Hemy G. Evans, New-York. — Sewing Machine, 
Abram Bartholf, New-York. — Machine for manufacturing felt cloth, Thomas B. 
Butler, Norwalk, Conn. — Tension Apparatus for Sewing Machiaes, Abraham 
Hoagland, Jersey City, N. J. — Treating Paper Staff, J. A. Roth, Philadelphia, 

Hemp Brakes, Stephen Stafford, Carrol Co., Mo. — Stuffing horse collars, J. C. 

Tobias, Lincoln, 111. — Fastenings for carpets, Washington H. Penrose, Philadel- 
phia. — Crane, R. E. Schroeder, Rochester, N. Y. 

Chemical Process. 

Alcohol Blow Pipe, Edward Conway, Dayton, 0. — Making acid bi-sulphite 
cf lime, Laurent Gamotis and Sabin Martin, New-Orleans, La. — Retort Covers, 
J, R. Floyd, assignor to T. C. Kibbe, New-York. 


Cooking Stove, Wm. Resor, Cincinnati, 0.— Air-Heating Stove, Charles B. 

Sawyer, Fitchburg, Mass. — Gas Stove, Patrick Mihan, assignor to Robert B. 

Pitts, Boston, Mass.— Same, Thomas Watters, Boston.— Bagasse Furnace, Geo. 

M. Lingacre, New-Orleans, La.— Railroad Car Stove, James Spear, Philadelphia. 

Steam and Gas Engines. 
Packing of Pistons, George H. Hoagland, Port Jervis, N. Y.— Governor of 
Steam Engines, etc., A. F. Ward, Louisville, Ky.— Spark Arrester, Henry H. 
Graham, Paterson, N. J.— Same, J. F. Page, assignor to himself and Jas. Landy, 
Philadttlphia. — Governor for Engines, Frederick W. Howe, Newark, N. J. — 
Spark Arrester, Ethelred May, Boston.— Valves and passages to the cylinders of 
steam engines, John A. Reed, Jersey City, N. J.— Oscillating steam engines, 
John Wallace, PittsburR-h, Pa.— Governor, Nathan Scholfield, Norwich, Conn. 

American ^Patents. 169 

— Rendering joints steam-tight, Wm. S. Gale, assignor to Peter Poillon, New- 
York, — Regulating the fire of coal burning locomotives, John M. Hartnett, 
Waukegan, 111. 

Navigation and Maritime Implements. 
Steering Apparatus, D. H. Chamberlain, W. Roxbury, Mass. — Rigging of 
ships, James E, Cole, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Marine Canal, Thomas Bell, New-York. 
— Stopping Shot-holes in vessels, John WoodvUle, Chillicothe, 0. — Raising 
sunken vessels, John Ponton, New-York. 

CrviL Engineebing and Aechitectube. 

Truss Bridge, Josiah Brown, Jr., Buffalo, N. Y. — Bos Window-frame, J. B. 
Dodge, St. Louis, Mo. — Sash Lock, Marcus P. Norton, Troy, N. Y. — Segmental 
Truss, for Bridges, etc., Geo. S. Avery, Lewisboro', N. Y. — Pendulum Level, 
Calvin Cole, Tarry town, N. Y. — Mastic Roofing Composition, Samuel K. Lighter 
and James A. Morrell, Hamilton, 0. — Spindle for door knobs, Orrin Newton, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Gate Latch, A. E. Morgan, assignor to himself, David Todd, and 
H. Waddle, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. — Sash Fastener, F. Tarbell, assignor to himseli 
and D. C. Bicknell, Boston. — Roofing Composition, J. B. Wands, Chicago, 111. 

Land Conveyance. 

Upsetting Tires, Rockwell Hazen and Volney Gibbs, Homer, Mich. — ^Whiffle- 
tree, David A. Smith, Washington, D. C. — Applying railroad car brakes, Ira J. 
Webber, Salem, Mass. — Machine for making railroad chairs, Robert Arthur, 
Richmond, Va. — Fly AYheel to Hand Cars, Charles T. Kipp and John Lawren- 
son, New- York. — Seal for car doors, etc., D. W. Long, Baltimore, Md. — Freight 
Cars, Henry D. Mears and Wm. Houlton, Jr., Baltimore, Md. (Two patents,) 
covering the seal and the manner of defending it from accidental or designed in- 
jury. — Carriage, Rufus Nutting, Randolph, Vt. — Car Seats, B. J. Lamothe, 
New- York. — Railroad Car Coupling, Wellington Prosser, Kendall, N. Y. 

Hydeaulics and Pneumatics. 

Air chamber for water-pipes, Thomas Clark, Philadelphia. — Pump, Henry 
Pease, assignor to Eckler, Baswell & Co., Brockport, N. Y. — Pump, BirdsiU 
HoUy, assignor to Silsby, Mynders & Shoemaker, Seneca Falls, N. Y. — Governor 
for wind-mills, etc., Ethan Allen, Worcester, Mass. 

Mechanical Powers. 
Lifting Jack, Heber G. Seekins and Charles H, Goss, Elyria, 0. 

Grinding Mills, and Mell Gearing. 
Shaft Coupling, Edwin F. Schoenberger, Germantown, Pa. — Belt shifter for 
machinery, L. J. Knowles, Warren, Mass. 

Lumber, and Tools and Machines for Preparing it. 

Device for securing the stock to the guide-rods of joiner's planes, Stephen 
Going, New- York. — Straightening Veneers, J. H. Goodell, Bridgeport, Conn.- — 
Operating radical cutters in lathes for beaded work, Geo. W. Walton and Henry 
Edgarton, Wilmington, Del. — Bit Brace, Henry W. Porter, Rothsville, Pa. — 
Automatic Lathe, Alexander Edmonds, Mt. Pulaski, 111. — Mortise Boring Ma- 
chine, Hiram E. Paine, Troy, N. Y. — Adjusting Tenon Cutters, Melyn Weather- 
ington, Springfield, 0. — Cutting Tenons, W. H. Harrison, Philadelphia. The 
use of two circular saws, whose planes are at an acute angle to each other on the 
same shaft. — Sawing-Mill, Wm. M. Ferry, Jr., Ferrysburg, Mich. — Feed rollers of 
planing machines, etc., Jona. Hall, Worcester, Mass. — Sawing MiU, Franklin B. 
Kendall, Bath, Me. -^Method of turning carriage hubs, Alexander Rickhart, 
Schoharie, N. Y. — Feed for Sawing machines, Thomas J. Alexander, Wester- 
ville, 0. — Driving Circular Saws, Thomas J. Alexander, Westerville, 0. — Lathe 
for turning irregular forms, Samuel N. Baker, New-Haven, Conn. — Auger Han- 
dle Fastening, Wm. N. Clark, Chester, Conn. — Sawing and dressing staves, 
Elisha K. Collins, Cambridge, Mass. For sawing, jointing, dressing and shaping 

IVO American Patents. 

staves at one operation. — Mortising Chisel, Christian J. Ileistand, Rapho, Pa. — 
Mortising and Boring Machine, J. M. Jay, Canton, 0. — Bit l)racc for boring ob- 
liquely to the stock, Charles C. Plaistcd," Cliicopce, Mass. — Shingle Machine, E. 
Webber, Gardiner, Me. — Feeding the bolt in Shingle machines, Win. Wood, 
Westport, Conn. 

Leather, Tanning, etc. 
Tanning Composition, Ira Carle, Kingston Township, Pa. Hemlock or oak 
bark, nitric acid and Glauber's salts, all to be used in one bath. — Edge Plane, 
for boot and shoe soles, Charles Warren, Putnam, Conn. 


Washing Machine, Adam Fisher, Leavenworth City, K. T. — Bureau Bedsteads, 
Ethan Whitney, Boston, Mass. — Fixtures for curtain rollers, Lewis White, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Arts, Polite, Fine, and Ornamental. 

Backing Electrotype Plates, A. H. Jocelyn, New-York. — Metallic Pens, F. A. 
Wait, Philadcli)hia. — Embossing and Printing Press, Samuel J. Smith and 
Charles Loekle, New-York. — Melodeon Attachment, D, L. Sprague, Townsend, 
Vt. — Harp attachment, played by a series of hammers, moved by the same keys 
that play the reeds. — Pen and Pencil Case, Edward Baptis, Hudson, N. J. — 
Piano Forte, G. Henry, Hulskamp, Tro)', N, Y. — Breast Pin, John F. Mascher, 
Philadelphia. — Wrest Pins for Pianos, Gustav Schilling, Hoboken, N. J. — Ink- 
ing Rollers, E, E. Baftett, Chicago, III. — Metallic Bridge for piano-forte, G.H. 
Hulskamp, Troy, N, Y. — Photograpy, II. A. Marchant, assignor to E. D. Mar- 
chant, Philadelphia. — Fastening breast pins, Charles F. Kobb, Philadelphia. 

Fire Arms, &c. 

Self-priming gun locks, M. J. Gallager, Savannah, Ga. — Shot Cartridge, Wm. 
B. Johns, U. S. Army. — Projectiles and smooth bored guns, John L. McConnell, 
Jacksonville, 111. — Revolving Fire arm, James Warner, Springfield, Mass. — Fuze- 
making Machine, Albert F. Andrews, Avon, Conn. 

Surgical and Medical. 

Fastening Artificial Teeth, Theodore H. and Jas. P. Bradish, Utica, N. Y. — 
Pill Machbc, James C. Ayer, Lowell, Mass. — Artificial Legs, R. H. Nicholas 
and Douglas Bly, Rochester, N. Y. 

Miscellaneous. ' 
Dry Sand Cores, Wm. Gage and R. B. Felthousen, Buffalo, N. Y. — Paper Cap- 
tubes, Alexander McCausland, Providence, R. I. — Covering for Drawing Rolls, 
Jas. M. Smith, Manchester, N. II. — Rock Drilling Machines, Lemuel P. Jenks, 
assignor to George A. Gardner, Boston. — Same, Lemuel P. Jenks and George 
A. Gardner, assignors to George A. Gardner. — Device for sealing bottles, cans, 
etc.. Mills B. Espy, Philadelphia. — Self-setting Trap hook, Donald McLean, Bos- 
ton. — Lime Kilns, Leonard Phleger, Philadelphia. The use of a series of water 
cells, for supporting the lime. — Fly Trap, W. F. Shannon, Greensboro, Ga. — Oil 
Cans, George W. and George H. Simmons, Bennington, Vt. — Signal and Alarm 
Bells, George Hoagland, Port Jervis, N. Y. — Hog Troughs, Elmore Johnson, 
Winchester, Mass — Diaper pins, J. Heilmann, assignor to Ignatius Sturn, New- 
York — Smut Machine, Everard M. Clark, Lancaster, Pa. — Mop Head, James S. 
Harris, East Poultney, N. Y. — Lime Kiln, John McGregor, Selma, Ala. — Same, 
Clark D. Page, Rochester, N. Y. — Diilling Rock, M. F. Rowlands, Pittston, Pa. 
— Receiving boxes for passengers' fares, J. B. Slawson, New-Orleans, La. — Brick 
Machine, Stephen Ustick, Philadelphia. — Locking cylindrical door bolts, Charles 
G. Page, Washington, D. C. — Paring and Slicing Apples, R. W. Thickens, 
Brasher Iron Works, New-York. 

Foreign Inventions. 171 

'%m\\\ i\mi^\\ %\\\it\\M\$, 

Tjtpkoved Valve Cock — being a communication. William Webster, of 


This invention relates to an improved mode of working the valves of valve- 
cocks, and consists in having a screw-thread cut upon the lower end of the valve 
stem, such screw working through a fixed nut on the under side of the cock ; 
or in having a hole with a screw-thread formed in it, made inside the valve- 
stem in the direction of its axis, in which works a screw spindle, fixed to or 
made in one piece with the fixed nut hereinbefore referred to — the valve being 
opened or closed by turning the valve-stem or spindle by any of the usual con- 

Thprovement in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel. Henry Bessemer, of 

Queen-street-place, New Cannon-street. 

This invention consists in obtaining crude or grey pig iron, hard white iron 
and steel, or malleable iron, direct from carbonaceous iron ores, or from any 
mixture of carbonaceous ores, with oxides or other ores of iron, by the appli- 
cation thereto of a blast of hot or cold air or steam, or of any other gaseous 
matter containing or capable of evolving oxygen or hydrogen gas, and without 
requiring any fuel except such as is contained in or is evolved from the ores 
of iron, and from the gaseous matters forced into and among the pieces of ore, 
and into and among the particles of fluid metal which have been separated from 
the ore. 

The iron ore, either raw or previously roasted, and in a cold or in a heated 
state from such roasting process, is to be put from time to time into the upper 
part of a blast furnace. The blast of air or other gaseous matter is forced 
through suitable tuyeres situated below the surface of the fluid metal , or it may 
be in part directed into and among the pieces of ore at a level above the surface 
of the molten metal. 

In carrying out this system of fusing the carbonaceous ores of iron, one or 
more fire-clay tuyere pipes are inserted on three sides of the hearth of the fur- 
nace, the fourth side being provided with a tapping hole at the lowest level of 
the hearth— the tuyeres, before referred to, being placed, by preference, near 
to the bottom or sole of the heart, so that the air or other gaseous matters maj' 
enter beneath and bubble up through the fluid matters occupying the hearth of 
the furnace. Other tuyeres are also fixed above the level of such fluid matters; 
so that the air or other gaseous matters propelled through them will enter 
among the masses of solid matter under opei'ation, consisting of pieces of car- 
bonaceous iron ores and lime, or other fluxes used to assist in their fusion, and 
in giving fludity to the molten materials. In thus forcing air into a furnace or 
vessel containing ores of iron rich in carbon, it will be found that a very high 
degree of temperature will be produced in part by a further combination of 
such carbon with the oxygen of the air, and in part by other combinations of 
oxygen with combustible materials contained in the iron ore, and that the solid 
masses of ore will, by means of the heat so generated, pass fi'om the solid to the 
fluid state, and settle down to the lower part or hearth of the furnace. The 
temperature of the furnace may also be assisted by the introduction of hydro- 
gen, which, by uniting with tlie oxygen present in the materials, will also 
assist in raising the temperature and in the reduction of the metal. Hydrogen 
for this purpose may be most advantageously obtained in the form of carburetted 
hydrogen gas distilled from coal. When using air alone, large quantities of 
fluid cinder, rich in oxide of iron, are produced, and may be run into another 
chamber ; and solid carbonaceous substances or carburetted gases may be forced 
into and below the surface of such liquid cinder, whereby the oxide of iron will 
become reduced and metallic iron formed, as described in a patent of the present 
patentee, bearing date tha 19th of August, 1856. 

1^2 Foreign Inventions. 

The fluid iron may be cast into pigs, ingots, or other articles in molds ; or it 
may be run into a separate vessel, and be there converted into steel or malle- 
able iron, in the manner described in the specification of a patent granted to the 
present inventor on the 12th day of February, 1856. 

In commencing to work, some coke is put into the crucible or hearth of the 
furnace, and by a blast of air through the tuyeres the same is thoroughly ig- 
nited ; some pig iron is then placed on the coke, and it will rapidly melt and 
sink down on to the sole of the hearth. The furnace is then charged with carbo- 
naceous iron ores and lime or other fluxes, not mixed, as in the ordinary pro- 
cess, with coke, coal, or other fuel ; the lower tuyeres may then be opened, and 
a blast of air allowed to enter the molten iron. The intense heat produced, 
acting on the iron ore, will cause its fusion, accompanied by a further evolution 
of heat; and thus the process may be kept up, the charging on of materials 
going on as the charge diminishes from below ; so that a continuous fusion of 
the ore may be kept up without the use of any fuel other than is contained 
in the ore and in the air or other gaseous matters forced therein. 

Improvements in Ornamenting Glass, and in the Preparation of the Mate- 
rials EMPLOYED therein. William Wilkinson, of Nottingham. 
This invention consists, firstly, in interposing figured designs, pictures, prints, 
lace, and other textile fabrics, and ornamental and other devices (which are ren- 
dered transparent or not) between two sheets of glass, whereby the device may 
be apparent on the face of either sheet. 

Secondly, in rendering engravings, prints, and other designs upon paper 
transparent, by first soaking the paper in linseed or other suitable oil or oleagi- 
nous matter, then drying it and immersing it in turpentine or spirit ; or the 
same design may be printed on both sides of a sheet of paper and placed be- 
tween the surfaces of glass. The print is attached by transparent cement to 
one of the surfaces, and then to the edge of the glass a narrow strip of tape is 
cemented, and the remaining jjlate of glass is applied thereon. The two plates 
of glass are finally secured by India-rubber, gutta-percha, or a thin metal clamp 
or frame ; or the edges of the plates are united by melting the same by means 
of a blow-pipe. In order to add to or increase the effect of the printed design, 
at the back of one of the sheets of glass is placed a glass case containing water. 
This case may be formed in a piece with one of the sheets of glass ornamented 
as aforesaid, or it may be formed separately and be applied thereto. 

This invention consists, thirdly, in the application of prints and engravings 
made transparent as aforesaid to the inside of glass globes and shades. 

Fourthly, the invention consists in cementing a piece of paper, made trans- 
parent by oil and turpentine, as above-mentioned, upon a piece or sheet of 
glass ; then printing a design upon it in a lithographic or other suitable press ; 
in applying thereon another plate of glass ; and in sealing the two plates, as 
before mentioned. 

Fifthly, the patentee forms bottles and other vessels of capacity, of two 
thicknesses of glass, and interposes any device between the two thicknesses. 
In order to add to the effect, the outer surface of the outside is made plain, and 
any desired device is formed on the inner surface of the outside coat, or on the 
outer surface of the inner coat, whereby both the inside and outside of the 
bottle will be smooth, and thus be easily cleaned, and offer no inequalities of 
surface to catch the dust, etc. 

The manner of laying on colored engravings or prints between glass in order 
to ornament the same, is as follows : Over the face of the engraving is laid a 
wash, composed of linseed or other suitable oil, spirit of wine, turpentine, or 
other spirit, and the engraving is then placed face downwards on a sheet of 
glass, previously brushed over with spirit of wine or turpentine. When the 
engraving is thus fixed on the glass, a mixture of oil and spirit is applied to the 
back thereof until the engraving becomes distinctly visible. A corresponding 
sheet of glass, with white lead or paste round all the edges, is next laid evenly 
on the first sheet. The prepared engraving being interposed, the two sheets of 
glass are pressed firmly together, and retained by a metal clamp round all the 
edges, or by gutta-percha, or by other suitable means. 

Foreign Inventions. 1T3 

If a glass is desired to be ornamented, and to be placed against some opaque 
object, then the second sheet of glass becomes unnecessary ; and directly after 
the engraving has been applied on the glass, as before described, it may be let 
into a panel or otherwise, or may be let into a metal or other frame or dish. 
Glass, ornamented as aforesaid, let into metal dishes, would form a highly or- 
namental and fire-proof floor. 

In the case of oil engravings, such as those known as " Baxter's," white lead 
or paste is placed evenly upon a sheet of glass, and the back of the engraving 
is pressed thereon — then round the edges of the glass a layer of cement is ap- 
plied to receive the second sheet of glass ; or a thin strip of metal, gilt or other- 
wise, is interposed between the edges of the two sheets of glass. The outer 
edges of the two sheets of glass are held together by metal clamps, or by a 
metal or other fi*ame. Glass ornamented in this manner may be made to form 
the w^hole or part of the tops of tables, boxes, etc. 

Instead of paper, perforated metal or wire gauze, painted, embossed, or other- 
wise, is placed between two sheets of glass to form window blinds. 

Improvements in the Preparation op Size, which mat be used as a water- 
proof VARNISH OK coating. William Septimus Losh, of Wreay Syke, Cum- 

This invention consists in preparing from resin, resins, or stearine, or a mix- 
ture of the two, a substance or substances suitable for sizing or water-proofing 

The inventor, first, prepares a solution of caustic soda or potash (by prefer- 
ence soda) by boiling carbonate of soda or potash with about equal weights ot 
lime and a large quantity of water — about 100 gallons of water to 1 cwt. of dry 
soda or potash. This is effected in an iron vessel, heated by driving in steam 
from a boiler. After boiling about two hours the lime is allowed to settle, and 
the clear solution is ready for use. Into another iron vessel he puts the resins 
or stearine to be acted upon, and takes as much of the clear alkaline solution, 
prepared as aforesaid, as is required to render the resins or stearine soluble. It 
is found that 1 lb. of dry soda or potash answers for 6 lbs. of resin or stearine — 
but more or less may be used. The mixture is boiled by steam for about 6 
hours, and then allowed to cool, and about 100 gallons of water are added to 
each cwt. of the resin or stearine solution. This is then filtered carefully 
through cotton cloth, to remove any insoluble dirt, etc., and to the filtered solu- 
tion chloride of lime, also in solution, is added, in the proportion of about 1 lb. 
of dry chloride of lime to 20 of resin or stearine. This mixture, which forms 
a white insoluble precipitate, is then washed with an acid solution, or alum 
solution, and afterwards with clean water, and filtered ; the substance thus 
obtained is in this state fit for use as a size. When using it in sizing paper, 
it is added to the paper pulp, with or without the addition of ammonia, in the 
beating engines, by which means it becomes well mixed with the pulp. By 
mixing ammonia with the prepared size, in the proportion of, say 1 part of am- 
monia to 500 parts of size, it becomes more equally mixed with the pulp. 

When the size, prepared as above described, is to be used as a varnish, it 
must be dissolved in a spirit, or essential oil, or naphtha, or rendered viscid by 
ammonia. When used as a coating, it may be spread, with or without the ad- 
dition of ammonia, evenly on the surface to which it is to be applied, and passed 
upon such surface through heated or cold rollers, or be otherwise submitted to 
hot or cold pressure. 

Improvements in Agricultural DRaLs. Thomas Chambers, Jr., of Colkirk, 

Fakenham, in the County of Norfolk. 

This invention has for its object improvements in agricultural drills, with a 
view to deposit at intervals in place of continuously, and the same is applicable 
when drilling seeds and liquid manures, and also when drilling seeds, water, 
and manure. For these purposes there is applied a rotating hollow wheel or 
chamber to each channel or furrow made by the drill. The rotating hollow 

174 Foreign Inventions. 

wheel or chamber has spouts or passages at intervals at its periphery. The 
seed and liquid manure, or the seed, water, and manure, are delivered into the 
interior, of the rotating wheel or chamber from the separate compartments of 
the drill containing them, and they arc retained from flowing out from the 
wheel or chamber, except when, bv the rotation of the hollow wheel or chamber, a 
spout or outlet comes to the ground. The axis of the rotating wheels or chambei"s 
may receive motion by wheels thereon, which run on the land, and the run- 
ning wheels may be made to expand and contract, to vaiy the distance at which 
the deposit takes place from the spouts or outlets, or the axis may receive mo- 
tion by gearing from the drill. 

An Improved Method of or Apparatps for Inking, PRiNTrso or Stamping Sur- 
faces. Charles William Lancaster, New Bond street. 
This invention consists in mounting an inking roller upon an arm or lever in 
such manner, that when the stamping or printing surface is at rest, the roller 
is held clear thereof, and that when the printing surface moves, it acts upon the 
lever, presses it back, and causes the inking roller to traverse over and ink the 
printing surface. Upon the printing surface resuming the position from Avhich 
it started, a spring draws the lever and roller to their original position, and 
causes the inking roller in its course to travel a second time over the printing 

Mills Stopped. 

The number of cotton looms that have been stopped in New-England, in con- 
sequence of the high price of cotton and the low price of goods, is about six 
thousand, and orders have been given to stop many more, as fast as the yarn 
runs out. We heard, yesterday, of two large mills that will run only till the 
cotton now in process of manufacture is exhausted. This is the only remedy. 
We talk of the short supply of cotton. The evil is not there ; it is the over 
supply of cotton machinery. The looms now in operation are not only too 
many for the supply of cotton ; they are too many for the demand for cotton 
goods at anything like the prices which alone, at the present cost of the raw 
material, can return a new dollar for an old one. In England thirty thousand 
looms have been stopped, and prices have quickly responded to this judicial 
curtailment of production. — Providence Journal. 

Copper in tlie Sea. 

Experiments are now in progress to show that the sea is constantly charged 
with a solution of copper. Mr. Septimus Piesse caused a bag of iron nails to 
be hung from the sides of steamers passing between Marseilles and Nice, and 
obtained a precipitation of copper upon the iron. He finds the same metal in 
the substance of animals inhabiting the sea, and recommends the popular ex- 
periment of putting an oyster — a had one^ if possible — on the blade of a knife, 
and leaving it there for twenty-four hours, when, on the removal of the oyster, 
the copper will be found on the knife. In Mr. Piesse's opinion, the beautiful 
blue color of some portions of the Mediterranean is due to an ammonical salt of 
copper, while the greenness of other seas is owing to the chloride of copper. 

The Mechanics of this Number. 
On account of the absence of tlic junior editor in New-England, this depart- 
ment of the present number is not quite full. It is difficult to supply such mat- 
ter, exactly fitted to a pattern, either in quantity or quality, while absent from 
home. But we present a few matters of special importance, and will endeavor 
to make amends hereafter for all present deficiencies. Our future numbers will 
contain more of original inventions, than we have lately been accustomed to pre- 
sent to our readers. 

Scientific. 175 

Chemistry for the Million. 

Having before given the names and a brief description of the more abundant ele- 
ments in nature, the compound resulting from these will next claim our attention. 
The figures prefixed denote the proportions of each ingredient and of the compound. 
Thus, read the first ; — 8 lbs. of oxygen, combined with 1 lb. of hydrogen, form 9 lbs. 
of water ; and so the others, putting " combined with" after the first word in each 
line, and the word " form" after the second. 


"Water with other substances forms hydrates, as hydrates of lime, of iron, etc. 


Carbonic acid forms Carbonates, as Cai'bonate of Lime, (chalk, marble, lime-stone.) 

' .r;. Carbonate of Soda (washing soda,) bi-carbonate of soda, (cooking soda) etc. 


The three compounds above, water, carbonic acid, and ammonia constitute a very 

large part of the food of all growing plants. Nothing could grow if deprived 

of either of them. Decaying plants and animals are always giving them 

off; and living, growing plants are always receiving them. 

Water. The reader will see by the table above that this liquid is composed of 
two gases, oxygen and hydrogen. The first is the cause of all combustion; the se- 
cond is one of the most inflammable substances in nature ; and yet the liquid com- 
posed from them is the great extinguisher of flame. Oxygen is a little heavier than 
air; hydrogen is fourteen times lighter than air; and yet water composed from 
them weighs about 63 lbs. to the cubic foot. 

The laws by which water is governed ought to be understood by all. 1st. It is 
perfectly fluid at ordinary temperatures — seeks its level, and will obtain it perfectly 
if no disturbing forces operate to prevent — will rise as high in the spout of the tea- 
kettle as it stands in tlie kettle itself, as high in the penstock as in the fountain, and 
as high in one pai-t of the broad ocean as in any other part, so that, measuring from 
the center of the earth, every part of the surface will be equi-distant from that 

2. As water cools from a high temperature, say from the boiling point, it dimin- 
ishes in bulk, till it comes down to about 39° Farenheit. It then, contrary to the 
general law, that bodies shrink as they cool, expands gradually till it comes down 
to the freezing point, 32", where it suddenly expands and crystalizes into ice. This 
expansion below 39° is the cause of ice being lighter than water, so as to remain on 
the surfaces instead of sinking. By remaining on the surface it protects the water 
beneath from the cold air, and prevents freezing more than a few inches, or at most 
a few feet in thickness. Whereas, if it sunk to the bottom, the surface would freeze 
and sink successively, till the whole mass of our rivers, lakes, and even the ocean it- 
self, in the polar and temperate latitudes, would become solid bodies of ice during 
winter, and would not dissolve sufficiently soon on the return of the sun to admit 
of vegetation, by reason of the chill that would be produced on the atmosphere. 
Nothing more strikingly illustrates the wisdom and goodness of the Great Author, 
and the constant executor of nature's laws. 

176 Scientijic. 

3. When water is heated, it gradually expands from 39 degrees upward, enlarging 
its bulk so slowly as not to be perceived except by the use of nicely constructed 
vessels, until it reaches 212°. At this point it turns into steam, of which every drop 
of water gives a bulk 1700 times greater than its own. When a kettle of water 
over the fire comes to 212°, the boiling point, where it begins to form steam, all of 
it would pass into steam at once with a violent explosion but for one reason, and 
that is, that when water changes from a solid to a liquid state, and then again when 
it changes from a liquid to a vaporous state, it takes heat from the surrounding 
objects. Every one must have noticed that when snow melts it chills the air, and 
when it begins to freeze it warms the air. When it consolidates, it gives heat to 
surrounding bodies, and when it liquifies it takes heat from surrounding bodies. So 
when it turns from vapor to a liquid state it gives out heat, and when it changes 
from a liquid to a vapor, or steam, it takes in heat — steals heat, so to speak, from 
every object near it. You heat water to 212°. The first particle of steam that goes 
off takes away heat from the water that is left, and so between the stealing away 
of heat above by the departing steam and the infusing of heat by the fire below, the 
temperature remains at 212°, whether you have little fire or much. If the water 
is open and uncompressed, you can not heat it above that point, and if you have 
but very little fire, it will not fall below. The more fire you make, the faster the 
steam passes off; but the faster the steam passes off the faster it carries off with it 
heat from the water left behind. If it were not for this it might be as dangerous an 
operation to convert a kettle of water into steam as to explode one filled with gun- 
powder. At 212° the expansive force of water — its tendency to fiy off in steam — 
is 15 lbs. to the square inch, but as the pressure of the atmosphere is 15 lbs. to the 
inch, the one just balances the other. If you could heat it, when open and uncom- 
pressed, above 212°, the expansive force would overbalance the aerial pressure and 
there would be an explosion. But we have seen that this is impossible — ^that it 
can not be heated above 212° — because the steam passing off the instant it would 
rise above that point, takasaway heat precisely as fast as the fire infuses it. 

We have considered the facts of the fluidity of water from 32° to 212°, of its 
solidity below the former point, and of its gaseous, or vaporous state, above the 
latter. We desire the reader to impress on his mind the facts that, when water 
changes to ice it gives out heat, imparting it to surrounding objects, and that when 
it changes back to water it absorbs heat, taking it from all bodies near, and thus 
producing a chill ; also that when it changes to steam it absorbs still more heat than 
when it passes from ice to water, taking it from any body near, but mainly from the 
water which it leaves behind yet unevaporated. If it evaporates from the surface 
of the ground, then it takes its heat from the ground itself. There is no more pro- 
lific cause of cold, unproductive soils, than the evaporation of undue amounts of 
v,-ater from their surface. As the hottest fire will not heat an open kettle of water 
above a certain point, because the evaporation from the surface carries off heat as 
fast as the fire infuses it, so the sun can not heat a soil saturated with water, because 
the evaporation carries off the heat, which the sun would otherwise infuse in the 

Insects Injurious to Vegetation. 


We avail ourself again of the careful observation, and minute and reliable state- 
ments of our friend Mr. Glover, in relation to insects found in the South. And here 
we may be permitted to say that we regret very much that our learned friend has re- 
pigned his position in this department of the Patent Ofi3ce. His necullar genius is ad- 

Scientific. HI 

mirably fitted for such duties, and his retiring will cause a void not easily filled. His 
models of fruit, and the reports from which we gather what follows and the substance 
of our last chapter on this subject will bear perpetual testimony to his industry and 
skill. But we must proceed with our subject, and we first describe, 


The insect which has been so destructive to the once flourishing orange-groves of 
Florida presents the appearance of a minute, narrow, elongated scale, with a narrow 
semi-transparent, whitish margin. That of the female resembles one of the valves of 
a long muscle-shell, in shape, and adheres closely to the leaf or branch on which it is 
fixed, and is apparently formed by successive semi-circular layers added from time to 
time. When fully grown, it measures about the tenth of an inch in length, by about 
the fortieth part of an inch in breadth, at the broadest part. 

The young insacts are produced from eggs deposited by the female under the broader 
end of the outer case, or shell ; and, when first hatched, are furnished with six legs, 
by means of which they escape from under the maternal shelter, which is soinewhat 
elevated from the leaf, at the hinder part, to allow the egress of the young, which are 
extremely small, and appear in numbers, like minute, yellowish specks upon the leaf ; 
but, if magnified, the six legs, two antennae, and two short bristles, at the end of the 
abdomen, can be plainly distinguished. The body is of a pale-yellowish color, and di^ 
vided into segments. 

"When tired of rambling, and having arrived at a suitable place for feeding, the 
cocci fix themselves to the leaf, or branch, for life. A light-colored, semi-transparent 
film, or case, with two projecting points at the narrow end, is soon formed over the 
young insect, aud under this thin scale, it may at first be plainly perceived. The scale 
gradually increases in size, and becomes more opaque and brown, until the shell of 
the female attains its full growth, at which time it measures about the tenth of an inch 
in length. If the large scales are taken from the leaf, the female larva, or worm, may 
be seen in the concavity of the scale, in the same manner as an oyster or muscle, ra- 
ther in the concave valve of its shell. This grub is of a yellowish, or sometimes pink 
color. The case itself, when turned upside down, appears to have a narrow margiq 
of a whitish, or semi-transparent substance, where it had adhered to the leaf ; a flat 
flap, or wing, extends on each side from the head, or narrowest end, at least two- 
thirds down the shell. This appears also to have adhered to the leaf. A longitudinal 
opening is left between the two projecting pieces, where the naked body of the grub 
may be seen. The end towards the thicker extremity, is often vacant until filled with 
eggs, which, in color, are yellowish or pink. The head of the grub is placed towards 
the narrow part of the scale, and a piercer, or thread-like filiament, proceeds from the 
under part of the breast, by means of which it sucks the juices from the plant. If the 
scale is gently removed from the leaf, it will often be found to hang to it by means of 
this thread-like piercer. 

When the female commences to lay her eggs, under the shelter of the scale, they 
appear to be deposited in parallel rows on each side ; but it is difficult to ascertain 
their number correctly. As many as twenty or thirty, however, have been counted in 
one female scale. The female decreases in size in proportion to the number of eggs 
laid, and finally, after having deposited all under the scale, she dies and dries away in 
the smaller end, with the case still adhering to the leaf. The scale of the male is much 
smaller than that of the female. The grub inside, after changing in a pupa, of a yel- 
low color, with rudiments of wings, legs, and antennae, eventually emerges from the 
case a perfect two-winged fly, so extremely minute as to be scarcely perceptible to the 
naked eye. 

The head of the perfect fly is small, rounded, and furnished with two comparatively 
long, jointed, and somewhat hairy or brisky antennae ; the thorax is very large ; it 
has six short legs, and two large, transparent wings, in which are two nervure. The 
body is short, in comparison with the thorax, and has a long point, curved downwards 
at the extremity of the abdomen, which is somewhat hairy. It is said of some of the 
coccus tribe that the males escape backwards from the shell, or case, with the wings 
extended flatly over the head. 

Various reniedies have been tried to arrest their progress, such as fumigating the 
trees with tobacco-smoke, covering them with soap, lime, potash, sulphur, shellac, 
glue, and other viscid and tenacious substances, mixed with clay, quick-lime, salt, 
etc. ; but all have failed, partially or entirely, and it appears not to be in the power 
of man to prevent the ravages of these insignificant and insidious destroyers. 

The plan of highly cultivating and enriching the soil has also been much recom- 

1^8 Scientific. 

mended, as promoting a healthy, vigorous growth, and strengthening the coDStitution 
of the tree, so that it is better enabled fo withstand the attacks oltlicse toes. Grease from 
fat bacon, rubbed on the trunk and main brandies, or the rind or outside thick skin 
placed in the fork of the branches, where the fat and salt may run down the main 
stem, is said l)y one person to have been of much benefit ; but' others, who tried tliis 
plan, ifssert that the trees were killed in consequence of the application. In fact, so 
many diflerent remedies have been recommended, and so monv contradictory re])orls 
given of the results, that it will not be prudent to place reliance upon any of them, un- 
til a regular series of experiments shall have been instituted with the various mixtures, 
upon trees of the same age and strength in different soils and localities, and a faithful 
report given as to the success or failure — bearing always in mind, however, that al- 
though the old scale insect may be destroyed, yet millions of eggs may remain un- 
hatched under the sheltering scales, wailing only for a few days' genial sunshine to 
hatch and spread over the tree, which, perhaps, may have been washed in the mean- 
time by heavy rahis, so as not to leave a vestige of the mixture remaining to prevent 
the young from fixing themselves, ad libitum, when they first emerge from the shel- 
tering scale. 

Another kind of scale insect (coccus) is also found upon the orange-trees, which 
measures about the tenth of an inch when fully grown, and is of a much more oval 
form than that already described. The young cocci were of a yellowish-white color, 
and had the head and thorax somewhat defined by indentations on the sides, and 
marks on the scale itself. They are furnished with two antenna?, and had six legs, by 
means of which they moved about the leaf until they found a place suited to their 
taste, when they immediately fixed their piercers in a leaf or branch, and became 
coated with a scale-like covering, which appeared to adhere to the surface of the place 
where it v as fixed ; and here they remained motionless the remainder of their 

This description applies to the female coccus alone, as the males were not discovered ; 
but doubtless they resemble the species already described, in being provided with 
wings, as well as in general habits. As the female scale becomes older, it gra- 
dually assumes a brownish-black appearance, having a somewhat light colored margin. 
This coccus appears to be pccuharly subject to the attacks of parasitical insects, which 
serve materially to check its increase. Many of the scales were observed in Septem- 
ber to be punctured with small holes in their backs, made no doubt by small parasiti- 
cal flies, which had devoured the original tenant of the scale. One of the flies which 
came out of these scales measured about the twentieth of an inch in length; the body 
and thorax were of a metallic green color; the eyes black, and the legs of a brownish 
color ; the four wings were transparent, and the antenna; jointed and hairy. 

Another hymenopterons fly came out of the dead scales, which also measured about 
the twentieth part of an inch in length, the thorax and first segment of the body being 
light-brown, with the rest of the abdomen blackish and hairy ; the head was furnished 
with three ocelli; the four wings were transparent, and the antennae long, jointed, and 
hairy. These parasitical flies no doubt do much good in lessening the numbers of this 
kind of coccus ; as, although breeding in similar situations, and with apparently as good 
a chance to multiph- as the others, it was not found to be nearly so numerous as the 
scale insect first mentioned. This may perhaps be attributed to the attacks of these 
flics, as hundreds of dricd-up scales were seen with large holes in their backs, and the 
contents eaten out as above described. 

While on the subject of the orange-scale insect, it may be as well to mention that 
some time last year (1855) another coccus was imported into Jacksonville, Florida, 
on some lemons sent from Bermuda ; and, as they may perhaps spread in the vicinity, 
it would be well to draw attention to the insect, and describe it as far as known. The 
length of the full-grown female scale is rather more than tlic twentieth of an inch ; it 
is somewhat pear-shaped, and of a brown color ; the grub is of a reddish-yellow, and 
furnished with a piercer from its breast, like the coccus first described; the young 
have two antenna?, six legs, and two long hairs, or bristles, at the end of the body. 
The male scale is not so large as the female, and is formed of a white, cottony or 
parchment-looking substance, constituting a case, with an elevated and rounded ridge 
in the center, in which a reddish pupa was found. The mouth of this case wa? stopped 
up with a dark-looking substance, apparently the cast skin of the larva. The male 
larva is reddish in color, and measures not more than the fortieth of an inch in length. 
The perfect fly is also red, and is furnished with two hairy antenna;, six legs, and has 
the thorax very large. The two wings are transparent, and the end of the body is 
furnished with a curved, hard projection. As it is very probable that this insect will 

Scie7itijic. 179 

increase, it would be well (o note any progress it may make during the ensuing j'ear, 
and to use the remedies suggested in the tirst article on the coccus of the orange. 

There are also found on the orange-trees numbers of small mites which have fre- 
quently been mistaken for the young cocci ; but they may be very easily distinguished 
by their activity from the young scale insects, which crawl about very slowly. The 
mites have eight hairy legs, somewhat like those of minute spiders, and are mostly of 
a yellowish color, although some are also found of a delicate pink hue. They are ge- 
nerally seen briskly running among the stationary cocci, and may often be found con- 
cealed under the old scales ; but, whether they do any harm to the tree, or merely 
feed upon the dead or dying cocci, has not yet been satisfactorily ascertained. 

The pupa of a parasitical fly was found under the scale of one of the cocci; the 
head, wings, antennae, and legs were perfectly formed as in the ichneumon-tiies; the 
eyes were comparatively large and brown, and the rest of the body of a whitish-yel- 
low. The perfect fly could not be recognized, however, as the pupa died without 


Messrs. Editors :— There was a beautiful white horse of great value killed by 
lightning several nights ago. When found next morning his tongue was burnt, 
black and swollen, so as to expand his jaws frightfully. His snow-white skin ap- 
peared as though dotted all over with innumerable dark spots, which on close exam- 
ination were found to contain minute punctures as though small shot had been driven 
through from the internal parts outwardly, and the hairs immediately suri-ounding 
these holes were discolored almost to blackness. Is such a legitimate or common 
effect of the electric fluid ? It appeared almost as though it was conducted by the 
animal's breath through his mouth into his body, and there exploded into thousands 
of minute fragments which escaped through his hide, staining every hair it touched. 
It just occursto me, at this late moment, that the change of color might have been 
caused by the scorchings of electrical heat rather than any other chemical action. 
What do you think of it, if you please ? Yours, truly, 

Andoyer, Aug. lY, 185Y. E. Sanborn. 

The above shows a frightful effect of electricity. Will some one versed in the 
laws of this fluid, (so far as they are known, and that is not very far,) give us his 
views of its action in this case ? Were the punctures in the skin made by an in- 
ward or an outward movement of the fluid ? There was an instant when the animal 
was chai'ged (overcharged) with electricity. The next instant his body contained 
no more than the normal amount of the fluid. Was the charging instantaneous, 
and the discharging gradual ? or was the charging gradual and the discharging in- 
stantaneous? or were both instantaneous? Was the horse electrified by induction, 
or only by conduction, and if the latter, was the fluid passing from the clouds to the 
ground, or from the ground to the clouds ? If we knew half as much of the laws, 
which govern the electric fluid, as some of our learned professors. Prof. E. S. Snell, 
of Amherst College, for instance, and scores of others, whom we have not the hap- 
piness of knowing as well, we could give a theory of the operation and course of 
the fluid in the case mentioned by Dr. Sanborn, which should be at least plausible, 
and therefore measurably satisfactory. 

Such men as we have just alluded to do not half realize their obligation to throw 
Bome of their light outside of college walls. A practical article, if but five pages 
in length, detailing some of the more important laws of electricity, and showing 
what are some of the safer positions in a thunder storm, from the pen of the gen- 
tleman just named, or another equally well qualified to give it, would be a means 
of saving several valuable lives every year. Who will give us that very article, 
and thus entitle himself to o\ir and the world's thanks ? 



Appearance of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N. Y., in July, 1857. 

By B. Howell. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about 40 feet above 

the Susquehantia liivcr, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the New- Yrok and Erie Railroad. 

































6 AM. 


9 P.M. 





































































S. W. 
























N. W. 

































Hard rain nearly all day. [bloom. 

Ladies' blush and double damask rose begin to 
Liglit rain in afternoon. 
Tulip tree in bloom. 

[at 6 P.M. 
Hard short shower with hail and violent wind 
Shower at night and evening. 
Red currants begin to ripen. 
Common sweet elder begin to bloom. 

Timoth}^ grass begin to bloom. 
One field of oats seen in head. 

A few farmers begin haying. 

Milk weed begin to bloom. 

Thunder in afternoon ; chestnut trees in bloom. 

Hard shower with hail between 5 & 6 P.M. 

Very hard shower at 6 P.M., with hail. 

Liglit shower between 1 and 2 P.M. 

Light rain from soutli at 2 P.M. Th'r &, Lt'ng. 

Hard rain all afternoon ; commence about noon. 

Light dash of rain in P.M. Corn begin to silk. 

Light dash of rain in the afternoon. 

Bas3wood trees in full bloom. 

Rain at 3 P.M. from the south. 

Considerable rain in the afternoon. 


The Magic Square. 

Messrs. Editors : — If you do not deem it inconsistent with the object of your pa- 
per, I should like for you or some of your correspondents to throw a little light on 
the construction of the Magic Square. 

Many farmers have a taste for mathematical investigations, and it would, no doubt, 
afford them a pleasure to meet occasionally with the solution of some curious pro- 

Perhaps there are few school-boys who have not puzzled themselves in trying to 
form the Magic Square. The whole difficulty consists in not understanding the rule. 
There should be a rule for everytliing, and this rule should be founded on reason. 

It is no difficult matter to form one of those squares when the sides composing it 
consist of an odd number of places ; but when the number is even, hoc opus, hie labor 
est, and this simply because there is no rule — at least, I have never been able to dis- 
cover one. 

I was in hopes that Prof. Pierce, who introduced this subject in one of his Lee- 



tures, would have made the matter plain ; but he did not — at least to my mind. I 
shall here introduce a square of each kind, so that some of your youthful readers, in 
a leisure moment, may exercise their ingenuity in constructing similar ones, and in 
finding out the rule. 
The Magic Square with an odd number of places in a side. 


















































This square consists of 7 places in a side, consequently the highest series is 49, and 
the sum of the series, in each column both ways, is 175. 

The rule by which this square is constructed is easy, but the reason of it is not 

The Magic Square with an even number of places in a side. 








1 84 





























































































This square has 10 places in a side, making a series of 100, and the same each 
way 505. 

What we want now, is a rule by which this square was constructed. Will some 
one please make it known ? B. 

To the private inquiry of the person who sent the above, our answer is, yes, we 
accept your proposition, and we are obliged to answer in this way, because no date 
was prefixed to the communication, and the post-mark was too obscure to indicate 
the writer's place of residence. With regard to so much of the communication as 
we have published, will some one give us the rule asked? This is a kind of amuse- 
ment which has its utility. — Ed. 

182 DemesUe. 

§ nu $ t i c . 



Persons who use glue may save troulilo, los?, time, and glue, if tlicy -nil! prepnro 
it for use as follows : 

Dissolve the glue in as small a quantity of water as possible, and at the heat of 
boiling water, and while warm, (and away from fire where alcohol will not inflame,) 
pour into the thick mass enough of alcohol to make it as thin as you want it, stir- 
ring briskly while adding ihe alcohol. Put it in a bottle, over the mouth of which 
tie a piece of air-proof India rubber. Thus glue may be preserved during many 
years, ready for use at any time. In cold weather it may need warming a little be- 
fore use. Mercuaxt Kelly. 

Bkxtonville, Indiana. 

Puddings by the Wholesale. 

Here is a rule for building a dozen puddings or more on one foundation. What 
an idea ! It may be a good, one, however. Let the ladies loolc at it and see : 

Baked Puddings. — Take about three eggs for each quart of milk, beat them thor- 
oughly and stir with the milk, adding salt and sugar or molasses to the taste, and a 
little nutmeg, or other spice if desired. It is now ready to pour into the pudding- 
dish and set in the oven as a custard pudding, or with apple or other sauce stirred in, 
as a fmit pudding; or it can be used as a basis for almost any other pudding. Take 
the custard as prepared, and thicken it somewhat with cold corn cake or pone crum- 
bled fine, and you will have a light and excellent Indian pudding, or thicken with dry 
bread well crumbled, for a good bread pudding, that will please all. Or the pieces of 
stale bread may be sliced thin, and slowly dried and browned in the oven, then 
pounded fine or ground in the coffee-mill, and a little of this powdered rusk — about 
one tablespoonful to a quart — used to thicken it, with ground clove for spice, and 
you have a rusk pudding. 

Add rice which has been previously boiled in milk, to the custard, for a rice pud- 
ding, or a httle sago or tapioca, well soaked and boiled, for a still further variety. 
Hominy well boiled, or grated sweet corn, too, make puddings which some are fond 
of. A pudding which we particularly like, is made by taking very thin slices of bread 
buttered thinly, putting a layer of this at the bottom of the dish, then a layer of ap- 
ple sliced thin, another layer of bread, and so on till you have enough, then pour a 
custard made as first directed over the whole, and pat it into the oven. Or for the 
bird's nest pudding, take small turt apples, pare and core, put them in the pudding- 
dish and pour the custard over. 

The proportion of eggs may be increased or diminished in any of these puddings, 
according to the supply, and raisins or West India currants can be added or not at 
the pleasure of the cook. All of these puddings should be baked very slowly, and 
not suffered to boil in the oven. Sweet cream, with sugar, and if wished, a little nut- 
meg added, makes the best sauce for any of those. Or thicken boiling water with a 
little flour, add a small lump of butter, sugar, salt and spice, and either lemon juice, 
or lemon essence and vinegar, and you have a good, plain sauce. — Ohio Cultivator. 

Hard Cement. 

The following cement has been used with great success in covering terraces, lining 
basins, soldering stones, etc., and everywhere resists the filtration of water. It is so 
hard that it scratches iron. It is formed of ninety -three parts of well-burnt brick, 
and seven parts of litharge, made plastic, with linseed oil. The brick and litharge 
are pulverized; the latter must alwaj's be reduced to a very fine powder; they are 
mixed together, and enough of linseed oil added. It it then apjdied in the manner 
of plaster, the body that is to be covered being always previously wetted with a 
sponge. This precaution is indispensable, otherwise the oil would filter through the 

Domestic. 183 

hoAj, and prevent the mastic from acquiring the desired degree of hardness. When 
it is extended over a large surface, it sometimea happens to have flaws in it, which 
must be filled up with a fresh quantity of the cement. In three or four daj's it be- 
comes firm. — Mass. Ploimian. 

Potato Yeast. 

A New-Bedford lady vouches for the good quality of yeast made after the follow- 
ing recipe : 

Cook and mash ten peeled potatoes, pour on a quart of boiUng water and stir well, 
and add a coffee cup of sugar ; let this stand a few minutes ; pour in a quart of cold 
water, wanting a gill, and when lukewarm stir in a pint of yeast, and set in a mode- 
rately warm place to rise. When well fermented, put into a stone jug, cork tightly, 
and tie the cork down and keep it in a cool place. Afcer the first rising keep enough 
of this yeast for the second batch. A teacup of this yeast is sufficient for two large 
loaves of bread ; most excellent it is for muffins and griddle cakes also. There is no 
need for hops or flour in it, and in my opinion it is the best yeast I have ever tried, and 
I have experimented in all known recipes. 

Treatment of Hens. 

Herk is a timely item, containing a valuable hint to poultry keepers. An uncredited 
paragraph in an exchange says : " Two flocks of hens were compared. One laid eggs 
almost all the time. The other laid scarcely any. On examining their treatment the 
following difierences were found to exist ; the former had a warm cellar to roost in 
during the winter ; the latter roosted in a stable where the wind blew in. The former 
had a fine place in an open cellar for scratching among ashes, lime, and earth ; the 
latter scratched in the manure heap, or in the stable when the cows were put out. 
The former had plenty of good water, with milk, etc. ; the others had no drink ex- 
cept what they could find. It can be seen, we think, why one flock laid eggs gene- 
rously, and the other did not." 

Agriculture in Portugal. 

Professor Haddock, in his address before the State Agricultural Society in 1855, 
repeated the following legend: 

" When reminded of their want of progress in agriculture and manufactures, the 
Spaniards relate a legend, that Adam, once upon a time, requested leave to revisit 
this world ; leave was granted and an angel commissioned to conduct him. On 
wings of love the patriarch hastened to his native earth ; but so changed, so strange, 
all seemed to him, that he felt at home nowhere till he came to Portugal. 'Ah, 
here,' exclaimed he, ' set me down here ; everything here is just as I left it.' " 

Hatred of Work. 

Rev. Henry Ward Beecher says : " God is the most wondrous worker in the uni- 
verse^facile, sleepless, untiring ; but men instead of counting it a joy to labor, are 
always striving to evade what is to them a burden, and look forward witli delight 
to the time when they can 'retire.' As a worm, feeding upon mulberry leaves, 
might say, ' How glad I shall be when I am fat enough to roll myself into a cocoon ;' 
so they eat the leaves of duty and long for no higher joy than this silk worm's hap- 
piness. And thus we have cocoon merchants, cocoon lawyers, cocoon ministers, co- 
coon — everything. The worm's cocoon is worth unwinding, but these men are 
spoilt — it does not pay to unthread them." 

Fault Finders. 

In our judgment there can be no more detestable companion than a brutish fault- 
finder. AVe have them every where. Their tailor, their shoemaker, tlieir mer- 
chant, all are defective. On Sunday they complain that their preacher preaches too 
long or too short. In business their lawyer gives wrong advice, .and charges too 
much for it ; and the printers — bless the ci-aft, come in for a good share of their 
spleen. This one's editorials are too lively, that one's too dull and prosy ; this is 
perhaps in the wrong place, and there's a word the " devil" mis-spelled. Then the 
climate is bad, the weather is too hot or cold, and things are wrong generally and 
out of gear particularly. Such persons had better wait for a change in their mode 
of existence, when probably the weather will be really warm and dry. 

184 Domestic. 

Rare Plants for Distribution. 

It is Btftted in a letter from Washington, that the propagating department of the 
United States Botanical Garden there is in a position to distribute a large number 
of seedling trees, cuttings and other like matters, in the same manner as dry seeds 
are given out at the Patent Office. Mr. W. A. Smith, United States Horticulturist, it 
is said, has now under glass in the garden near the Capitol grounds, hundreds of 
species of trees, flowers and shrubs, procured through the expeditions to Japan, and 
to the South Seas, which will be distributed to the public this year. A considera- 
ble addition to the green houses is under way in the shape of a large octagon to ac- 
commodate the rapidly growing results of Mr. Smith's diligence and scientific enthu- 
siasm. The increased liberality of Congress to this highly useful enterprise will soon 
be felt throughout the whole country, and we hope our readers will not be backward 
in availing themselves of these facilities. — Southern Cultivator. 

Take Good Advice Whencesoever it Comes. 

Some folks are silly enough to disregard all good advice unless he who gives it 
lives up to his precepts. This is just about as smart as it would be in a traveler to 
scorn the directions of a finger-post, unless it drew its own leg out of the ground and 
hopped after its own finger. 

Potato Rot. 

The potato rot has made its appearance in parts of this county, says the Salem 
Standard, but as yet has not assumed an alarming aspect. It abounds most in pota- 
toes grown in low ground, and is doubtlees occasioned by the repeated rains with 
which we have been visited this season. The crop is more than an average one, 
and must pay a handsome profit to producers, if this blight does not prove of too 
serious a nature. — West jerseyman. 

A Sonr Blessing. 

A Frenchman learning English, and anxious to say something very striking, in 
parting from a lady, consulted his dictionary, and there finding that pickles meant 
to preserve, he bade her farewell, with the emphatic exclamation ; " May heaven 
pickle you !" 

^S' Lemon juice is relied upon by the physicians of London for curing the rheu- 
matism. Three table-spoonfuls per day is a dose for a man. 

Poor Substitute for Industry. 

" When a fellow is too lazy to work," says Sam Slick, " he paints his name over 
the door, and calls it a tavern or a grocery, and makes the whole neighborhood as 
lazy as himself." 

Gentlemen and no Gentlemen. 

Thb late Vicar of Sheffield, Rev. Dr. Sutton, once said to the late Mr. Peech, a vet- 
erinary surgeon, " Mr. Peech, how is it you have not called upon me for your ac- 
count ?" " Oh," said Mn Peech, " I never ask a gentleman for money." " Indeed," 
said the vicar ; " then how do you get on if he don't pay ?" " "Why," replied Mr. 
Peech, " after a certain time I conclude that he is not a gentleman, and then I ask 

Swallowing Poison. 

If poison should be swallowed accidentally, take two teaspoonfuls of ground mus- 
tard, mixed in warm water. It will operate as an instantaneous emetic. 

Cheap Fruit. 

An American, at Gibralter, writes that he bought " two pounds of grapes, two pounds 
of apples, two of peaches, two of lemons, and a basket to carry them, aod all for s 
quarter of a dollar." 

Children'' s Page. 185 

CljiUtu's i^P* 

Now, children, a little more about our German boy, and a bit of a moral ; and 
then we will give you a question or two in arithmetic, and you may get Henry, 
Charley, Fanny or Isabella, or any one else to help you solve them if you can not 
do it alone. 

To-day the boy brought us a bundle of letters. The first opened said : " Enclosed 
is that balance of one dollar." We looked; there was no dollar; we said, but per- 
haps not as playfully as we felt : "A, you must have got that dollar ; we shall take 
it out of your wages." Nothing more was said, and we supposed that the writer 
of the letter had posted it hastily and forgotten to put in the doUar, as we have 
done sometimes, and then written another and sent it with the money endorsed to 
chase the first, and carry on our apology. At the close of the day, A came to us 
and assured us most seriously that he had not taken the money. Of course he had 
not, for the letter was closely sealed, and we had not had the least suspicion. But 
he had been feeling badly for two hours or more. We hastened to relieve him by 
assuring him that we were only in fun, that we meant nothing, and knew he would 
do no such thing. Our moral is, that " it is a good thing for children (and every- 
body else) to be so honest, sincere and true, that nobody can suspect them." The let- 
ter, in this case, unbroken as it was, would have saved the boy from suspicion, but 
another time circumstances may be different, and it is always desirable to have a 
good character to fall back upon. A character above suspicion, is worth more than 
everything else. 


A thousand of the operations by which God constantly blesses mankind, are so 
silent, so quiet, so common, that we think little of them. Look at the falling rain. 
If men were to water a parched acre, what a bustle, what an array of horses and 
carts and drivers there would be ; and they could not do it half as well after all as 
it is effected by a single shower. It is the hydraulic power of the atmosphere that 
waters the earth, is it ? Yes ; but that power is God's power, as all otlier power is. 
His hand waters the earth and makes it fruitful ; and now in order that the children 
may have some idea of the extent of his power and goodness in this one thing, we 
want they should study out and answer these questions. Calling the cubic foot of 
water 63 lbs., how many tons of water fiill on an acre of land in a gentle shower of 
two or three hours continuance, which gives one inch in depth ? How many in a 
township of fifty square miles ? How many on a county forty miles square ? And 
how long a canal, 25 feet wide and 4 feet deep, would the water which falls in such 
a shower on a State of 50,000 square miles, fill 1 If an answer is sent us to these 
questions, with the figures neatly written out, we will propose others at another 

We advise the farmers' boys to exercise their judgment of distances, height, size, 
and weight, by a sort of game of estimating, to see which will come the nearest. 
Say, how far off is that tree ? 20 rods says William ; 25 rods says James. Measure 
it. It is 19 rods; William beats. How high is that plum-tree? 20 feet, 18 feet, 
25 feet, 30 feet, are said ; it measures 23 feet. The boy who said 25 has beat. How 
large is that log ? 9 feet in circumference, 8 feet, 6 feet. Draw a cord around it and 
see. If a yoke of oxen are to go on the scales, let the boys try their judgment at 
estimating beforehand the live weight. Or if an ox is to be slaughtered, let them 
pass their judgment upon the net weight. 

If you wish to be beautiful, you must be good. 

186 Booh Notices^ etc. 

§0011 |)[0titcs, ctr. 

IsTRODUciioN TO JIoxteith's Mamal uf Gkouuaphy. 

This is a good little work fur cliilJren ; is liiglily illustrated, as works for tliat 
class should be; and it makes us vish tliere had been such works when we were a 
child. Published by A. S. Barnes and Co., 51 and 53 John street, N. Y. 

TuK National Pkosouncixg Speller, by Richard G. Parker and J. M. Watson, au- 
thor of " The National Series of Readers." A. S. Barnes and Co., 51 and 53 John 
street, N. Y., Publishers. 
This is an eflFort, successful we should think, to smooth the passage, for both 

teacher and pupil, through that hard road to travel (it was so to us and wo have 

hardlj- got through it yet) of learning to spell English. 

How TO DO Business; a Pocket Manual of Practical Affiiirs, and Guide to Success in 

Life. Fowler and Wells, 308 Broadway, N. Y., Publishers. 

A good book for young men, and one in which older heads might see the causes 
of failure, and learn to do better in future. Young business men, and others who 
have not succeeded to their minds, would do well to read it. It contains mucli 
common sense, practical instruction. 

The Word-Builder ; or National First Reader, on a plan entirely new. By Richard 
G. Parker, A.M., and J. Madison Watson. Illustrated from original designs. 
This is one of those modern contrivances with which the age abounds, for making 
learning easy to children, some of which are really good, as we believe from a cur- 
sory perusal, this is. Success to all such attempts. Any facilities that consist with 
thoroughness are a public good. 

The Song of Hiawatha. By Henry Wadswortu Longfellow. Boston: Ticknor 

«fe Fields. 1857. 40th thousand. 310 pages, 12mo. 

Many products of the intellect as of the soil, spoil by keeping. Not so with this. 
It is as fresh and sweet as were its first sheets. Many others spoil by using ; but 
this seems to improve as we are familiar with it. It will live as long as the legends 
of the original tribes, and wOl be admired as long as it lives. 

White Lies. A novel. By Charles Reade, Author of " Never too Late to Mend," 
" Peg WofBngton," " Christie Johnstone," etc. Part 1. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 
1857. In 4 parts. 
Tlie reputation of the author secured for this book high anticipations. Nor will 

the reading of it cause any disappointment. In this part it opens well, and is full 

of promise for the future. 

Memories of the Loves of the Poets. Biographical sketches of women celebrated 
in ancient and modern poetry. By Mrs. Jameson, authoress of "Diary of an En- 
nuyee," etc, Boston : Ticknor & Fields. 

It is often a so.urce of perplexity with the general reader of poetry to know how 
much to regard as truth and how much as fiction. These little volumes -will be 
prized by such as of great value,, and every reader of taste will be at least entertain- 
ed and gratified by their perusal. They are beautifully executed, and should be on 
the center-table and the shelves of every reader and scholar. 

School Days at Rugby. By an Old Boy. Boston : Ticknor <fe Fields. 1857. 409 

pages, 12mo. 

" Tom Brown's school life" is full of interest, well written, full of life, recalling, 
by association, a thousand reminiscences in the life of many of its readers. It will 
be read wherever opportunity and good taste are found. 

Booh Notices^ etc. 187 

TuE Testimony of the Rocks ; or, Geology in its bearings on the two Theologies, 
Natural and Revealed. By Hugh Miller, etc. Boston : Gould & Lincoln. 
New-York : Sheldon, Blakeman &, Co. 

Huo-h Miller requires no introduction from us, Mr. Bayne well says, in a book 
notice with this, that " the Duke Avho would come to confer distinction on Hugli 
Miller by taking his hand, and showing him a little countenance, would get himself 
.simply covered with derision." Nor is it necessary to say that this book fully equals 
its predecessors, both in importance and in interest. No scientific scholar will vol- 
untarily be without it, nor fail to read it. A sketch of Mr. Miller's character and 
death occupies some 30 pages of the volume. It is richly illustrated with 152 en- 

Sermons ON Special Occasions. By Rev. John H.\rris. 1st series, Boston: Gould 
& Lincoln. New-York: Sheldon, Blakeman <fe Co. 1857. 363 pages. 
These are invested with tlie interest peculiar to posthumous publications. The 

high reputation of Dr. Harris is well sustained in this volume. These sermons were 

delivered on various special occasions, and his numerous friends will prize this 

among their choicest volumes. 

Essays in Biography and Criticism. By Peter Bayne, M.A., author of the Christian 
Life, Social and Individual, etc. 1st series. Boston : Gould & Lincoln. New- 
York : Sheldon, Blakeman & Co. 1857. 426 pages. 

We are sometimes half inclined to censure, lest our frequent encomiums should be 
c-onsidered as a tribute to publishers. But when as good books are sent us as many 
of those we receive, we can not hesitate to praise them. And now with this volume 
of Essays before us, we are constrained to commend highly. If our opinion is wor- 
thy the attention of our readers, surely the studied and detailed criticisms of Mr. 
Bayne, upon a long list of the most eminent authors of the times, including De 
Quincey, Tennison, Ruskin, Hugh Miller, etc., with Dickens, Thackeray, Bulwer, 
and Currer Bell, can not fail to bo of great value, and to command general atten- 
tion. Some of these essays, for we have not read them all, are intensely interesting. 

The Poetical Works of John Greenleaf Whittier. Boston : Ticknor & Fields. 

Complete in 2 volumes, 16mo. 

There is no sweeter poetry than some of Mr. Whittier' s, and very few authors can 
count more friends than he. A choice edition, like these beautiful little volumes of 
all his poems, will be hailed as a boon by them and by the multitude of his readers. 

The author of " The Lamp Lighter," Miss Cummins, has in press, and soon to be 
issued, a new tale, to be published by John P. Jewett & Co. We have been favored 
with a perusal of some of the proof sheets, and we can assure our readers that her 
L,'reat reputation already achieved, will rise still higher when this book is published, 
it is the result of more than two years' labor, is written with almost classic elegance, 
and will find a ready sale wherever reputation, talent and high culture can secure a 
favorable reception. The name of this beautiful tale is to be Mabel Vaughan. 

Sorgho and Imphee, the Chinese and African Sugar Canes ; by H. S. Olcott, Asso- 
ciate Principal of the Mt. Vernon Farm School, Westchester Co., N. Y. ; C. M. 
Saxton & Co., 14 Fulton street, publishers. 

This is a forthcoming work, on a subject about which many desire to be informed. 
We understand it is to contain about 400 pages, and to be sold at $1 00. From what 
we know of the author and his sources of information, we feel assured it will contain 
:i large amount of valuable matter on the culture of these plants, and their uses as 
food for cattle, and for the manufacture of sugar, syrup, alcohol, etc. By an arrange- 
ment with the publishers we shall be able to send it for $1 00 enclosed, prepaid to 
any who may order it through us. 

188 Book Notices^ etc. 

"We see by the Kegulations and Premium List, that a goodly sum is to be distri- 
buted, and that the mechanics and mechanic arts are not forgotten. That is right. 
There is not good land enough, even in our glorious West, to make farming a good 
business, unless manufactures and the mechanic arts flourish, too. — Ed. 

Ths Skillful HousE-mFE's Book ; a complete Guide to Domestic Cookery, Taste, 
Comfort and Economy, combining 659 recipes, pertaining to Household Duties, 
the Care of Health, Gardening, Flowers, Birds, Education of Children, etc. By 
Mrs. L. G. Abel, Author of " Gems by the Wayside," "Woman in her various rela- 
tions," etc. Published by A. M. Saxton & Co., 140 Fulton street, Ne-w-York. 
So far as we can judge of such matters, this book is judiciously executed, and con- 
tains a very large amount of practical and valuable instruction in things pertaining 
to the health, comfort and economy of families. Solomon, we suppose, had refer- 
ence to the subject, when he said, " She looketh well to the ways of her house- 

Thirty-fifth thousand on sale. We wUl send this book post paid to any of our sub- 
scribers on the receipt of the price, 25 cts. in paper, 50 cts. in cloth, post-paid. 

Ditson & Co., Boston, Mass. 

In a recent visit to Boston, we were shown over the new, beautiful and extensive 
publishing office and sales-rooms of these extensive dealers in music. The building 
was erected by them for their own exclusive use. It is 277 Washington street, is 
five stories high, 25 feet front, which is of granite, and nearly 100 feet deep. Their 
stock embraces every thing published in this country and a large quantity of for- 
eign music, whether in sheets or volumes. The basement is exclusively devoted to 
the wholesale department of sheet music, and its shelves contain about 4000 cubic 
feet of music. Here, too, is a safe to hold 50,000 plates, and even more, if closely 
packed. The story above the basement is for retail. The second story is the piano- 
forte room. The third floor is the book room, and some judgment can be formed of 
the extent of the business of this house, when we state that the number of their own 
publications in volumes and instruction books, and such like, exceeds 400. This 
room contains some 200,000 volumes. On the fourth floor is the stock of printing 
papers, covers, books in sheets, etc. On the fifth their sheet music is printed, giving 
employment to twelve presses and twenty workmen. The books published by them 
are printed elsewhere. The amount of paper used at this establishment annually, is 
not less than 100,000 reams. Their publications include much standard music. 
They have issued several volumes of operas in score, II Trovatore, that last and 
perhaps most beautiful, as it surely is one of the most popular of all brought out at 
the N, Y, Academy, has been published lately. It, like its predecessors, is executed 
and done up in excellent style, Nor is sacred music overlooked here. One of the 
recent issues of this house consists of a volume of Catholic music, called The Memo- 
rere, and contains the very gems of this splendid style of this divine art. The 
Golden Wreath, a collection " for schools, seminaries, select classes," etc., represents 
another extensive and very important department in this establishment. All these 
are standard works of their kind. We advise all our musical friends to avail them- 
selves of some opportunity to look over these attractive and loaded counters. 

A New Phase in the Iron Manufactitre. — John B. Wickersham, 312 Broadway, 
New-York, has put out a splendidly illustrated circular of his business, of 80 pages, 
folio, containing, in addition to private notices, a vast amount of information on the 
manufacture of iron and its trade, valuable to everybody. Price by mail three 3 
cent postage stamps. 

Booh Notices^ etc. 189 

A Suggestion kindly received. 

A CORRESPONDENT from the Far West says of our Magazine :—" It is to my mind 
defective in this— a horticultural or pomological department. Whilst I feel a deep 
interest in all agricultural improvements, stock growing, etc., yet it does not abate 
my interest in horticulture in the least. On the contrary I am increasing my or- 
chards, fruit and ornamental garden with renewed zeal." 

Just so every farmer should do, and if, in our zeal in the great and absorbing inter- 
est of agriculture at large, we have paid less attention than we ought to the hardly 
less important matters of the garden and the orchard, we will strive to mend our 
ways. — Ed. 

Another correspondent says:—" I have long since expressed my humble opinion 
that your monthly ranked with the very best pubUcations of this age, having been 
(pardon my vanity) a little proud of it, as a publication hailing from my native 
State, a State in which many years of my life have been employed in farming. In 
Ohio,' the third State of this confederacy, agriculture is the great interest. As a 
science it has been lamentably neglected in years past, but a better day is dawning 
in our State. Agricultural reading, agricultural schools, and every thing pertaining 
to the subject is constantly progressing, and I hope the day is not far distant when 
Ohio shall stand foremost in every department of agriculture." 

We are sorry when New-York looses such farmers as the above, but are glad 
when Ohio gains them. — Ed. 

How to make Water Cold without Ice. 

The following description of a method of rendering water almost as cold as ice has 
been going the rounds of the press for many years. Just now it is again " in season," 
and we copy it for the benefit of those of our readers who either have not the oppor- 
tunity or the inclination to purchase ice: rut 
Let the jar, pitcher, or vessel used for water be surrounded with one or more folds ot 
coarse cotton, to be constantly wet. The evaporation of the water will carry off the heat 
from the inside and reduce it to a freezing point. In India and other tropical chmes, 
where ice can not be procured, this is common. Let every mechanic and laborer have 
at his place of employment two pitchers thus provided, and with Uds and covers, one 
to contain fresh water for drinking, the other for evaporation, and he can always have 
a supply of cold water in warm weather. — Exchange. 

This should be received with some grains of allowance. If you could afford to 
keep the surface of the pitcher constantly wet with ether, you might even freeze the 
water in it. It is true also that keeping the surface wet with water, as above de- 
scribed, wiU cool the water within sensibly, if the air be dry, and evaporation conse- 
quently rapid. But in ordinary states of the atmosphere, the process is at best slow, 
and in a damp sultry day would be quite unsatisfactory. We have little doubt that 
it would be quite possible to construct a vessel in such a way that a part of the water 
contained in it might leak through, keep the outer surface moist, evaporate and leave 
such a chill upon the vessel that the water remaining in it would be so reduced in 
temperature, as to serve well for ice water. If we happen to thmk of this at another 
time we wiU suggest a mode in which we suppose it could be done, and any of our 
friends may try it, and, if they choose, may take out a patent, in case they succeed. 
Our present object is simply to illustrate a great principle, one exceedingly important 
to the farmer. 

It is a well known fact that when ice melts it contains more heat than it did when 
in the condition of ice, and is yet no hotter— wiU raise the thermometer no higher, 
and feels no warmer to the hand. Again, when water evaporates— changes from 
water to vapor, as before from ice to water— it contains 1000 degrees additional heat, 

190 Book Notices^ etc. 

and yet is no warmer as judged of by the thermometer, or by the senses. What was 
before sensible heat becomes insensible, or latent. Now, when water evaporates, it 
takes this thousand degrees of latent heat from the nearest objects. Dip your finger 
in ether, and then hold it in a current of air, and it will feel very cold, by rea.son of 
the natural warmth being drawn from your finger to supply latent heat to the evapo- 
rating ether. If you dip it in water, the same efifect will follow, only in a less degree. 
That is, whenever a liquid evaporates, it steals away the heat necessary to maintain 
it in the state of vapor from the body from which it evaporates, whether that body 
be the surface of a pitcher, or the surface of our bodies, or of the earth. 

If we are understood, it now appears why a soil from which the redundant water 
passes freely through a porous subsoil into the deep earth, or in the lack of a porous 
subsoil, runs freely through well laid drains, is many degrees warmer and the crop 
several weeks earlier llum happens in a soil from which the redundant water passes 
by evaporation into the air. 

An Old Absurdity. 

" We find the following old absurdity in a well written article by Mr. Nash, of New- 
York, in the last No. of the Plough, Loom and Anvil : 

" ' We are told by the philosophers that since the creation the remains of the 
human family alone would cover the land on the globe more than a foot deep of 

'•Take the most, populous country on the globe — say Belgium — with a population 
of 345 to the square mile, and suppose every day of the si.K thousand years since 
creation had produced a generation equal to the present, the whole crowd could stand 
on a square mile, and each have room to kick his neighbor oif his premises." 

Remarks. — We cut the above from Life in the West, an able and spirited little 
paper, published at, Sigouruey, Iowa. Our readers will perceive, if they look at the 
initials, that we were not the writer of that article. It Avas handed us by a namesake 
of ours, who probably descended from Julius Caesar, as we suppose we have, though 
we can not trace our ancestry to that source with absolute certainty, and who maj' 
have had nearer ancestors in common with us, possible the famous Beau Nash, who 
used to figure as master of ceremonies in somebody's (we forgot whose) court. It is 
also quite probable that we are both cousins of that John Nash who used to play the 
fool with poor old George the Third, or some of his progeny, (our memory is bad 
again,) as the king's architect, and who contrived to get money enough out of him to 
build himself a splendid mansion near 0:-born Ilouse, in the Isle of Wight, which we 
had the pleasure of visiting a few years ago, and that notwithstanding that he seems 
to have been a rogue and wc are honest men. But be all this as it may, the article 
was a good one, and we are proud of having published it from the pen of a relative, 
one who has undoubtedly a common origin with us somewhere a great waj* this side 
of father Adam. 

We fully agree with the editor of Life in the West, that the article is a " well 
written one ;" and wc agree with him further, that our friend has not at all committed 
himself to " An old Absurdity," but has only said, " We are told by the philosophers," 
etc. The article in question abounds in facts of great value and importance to the 
farmers of this country. If any of the philosophical deductions it contains are not 
perfectly accurate, or if allusion is made to speculative errors of "the philosophers," 
without correcting them, we regard that as of very little consequence. But our 
friend is undoubtedly able to defend any statememt he has made, and wc leave it 
with him. For ourselves, wc do not believe that all the humanity that has died for 
the last six thousand years would make a foot, nor half a foot, nor a quarter of an 
inch of soil over all the land on the globe. " The philosophers" are certainly mis- 
taken. But how is it with our Iowa brother of the pen ? He should consider that a 

Book Notices^ etc. 191 

generation of 345 a day would make 126,011 in a year, and 756,067,500 in six thou- 
sand years. Now it is said that Xerxes had an army of five millions, men, women, 
children, scullions, and all the rest. We don't believe it was more than half as large ; 
even allowing two hangers on for every man that could'nt or would'nt fight. But if 
there were 5,000,000, including the rag-shag and bob-tail, what then? 756,067,500 
men would make 151 such armies, and leave 1,067,500 men to be kicked out as un- 
army-worthy. Does our Western friend think they could all stand on a square mile, 
and leave a wide berth for the lower extremities to play in ? We doubt whether he 
could stick as many pms in a square mile, though we have made no calculations. 
Will some of our children readers answer the following questions, and send us the 
figarcs. If their elder brothers and sisters should help them a little, no matter. 

1st. If each man occupies only one square foot, and that would be close enough to 
prevent any far-fetched kicks, how much land would be required for 756,067,500 men 
to stand upon ? The answer may be in miles, acres, rods and feet. 

2d. How many pins could be stuck in a square mile, allowing that each pin, in- 
cluding the head, was one twentieth of an inch in diameter, or in other words, allow- 
ing each pin to occupy a square one twentieth of an inch each way, which would 
give 400 pins to the square inch ? 

These are not very difiicult questions. Let us have an answer. No matter if we 
have more than one, as it would be a good exercise for the children to write a hand- 
some letter, and such is our interest in children that we should not tire of reading 

Maine State Fair. 

This Fair is to be held in Bangor on September 29th and 30th and October 1st 
and 2d. The programme for the several days is generally announced as follows: 
On Tuesday, the several committees will call upon the Trustees in session at the 
City Hall, and fill any vacancy that may exist, and proceed to the examination of 
the departments entrusted to them, and make their decisions. On Wednesday there 
will be a drawing match for horses and oxen, a trial of speed for horses, and in the 
evening a meeting of the Pomological Society. On Thursday there will be a plough- 
ing match at 1 o'clock, a trial of speed of horses at 10 o'clock, ladies riding at 2 
o'clock, and another trial of horses at 4 o'clock. On Friday, the premium stock will 
be discharged after being ranged and led round the course ; then another trial of 
speed, sale of stock, etc. 

About these lady riders we say to our Maine friends in all earnestness; — if you 
can turn out from 150 to 300 ladies, well skilled in horsemanship, ladies of unques- 
tioned respectability, your own wives and daughters, not professional circus women." 
or men iu woman's clothing from town ; if you can furnish as many well trained 
horses, safe and suitable for ladies to ride on a public occasion ; if you can furnish 
the ladies a separate enclosure, where they can mount according to their own no- 
tions of convenience and propriety, and give their horses a trial before making their 
debut on the show ground, we advise you to let them ride by all means. Our fe- 
males need invigorating exercise. It should be encouraged ; and nothing is more 
exhilarating, invigorating, than riding horseback. But if you can only persuade 
half a dozen of them to compete with as many gii-ls or boys in skirts from the city, 
and especially if you have not perfect preparations for the game, don't try it. We 
advise no lady to take the staring, unless as many as a hundred and fifty will agree 
beforehand to divide it with her. — Ed. 


We have received from Wm. R. Prince, Flushing, L. I., his Descriptive Catalogue 
of Strawberries, embracing upwards of one hundred varieties, among which we no 
tice Peabody's Seedling. 

192 Markets. 

State Fairs for 1857. 

Ohio Cincinnati September 14 — 18. 

Canada East Montreal September 16 — 18. 

Illinois PeorLa September 21 — 26. 

Pennsylvania Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Vermont Montpelior Sep. 8, 9, 10, and 11. 

Wisconsin Janesville Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Michigan Detroit Sep, 29, to Oct. 2. 

New-Jersey New-Brunswick Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Maine Bangor Sep. 29, to Oct. 1. 

California Stockton Sep. 29, to Oct. 2. 

Canada West Brantford Sep. 29. to Oct,- 2. 

United States Louisville, Ky October 1 — 6. 

Indiana Indianapolis October 4 — 10. 

New-York Buffalo October 6—9. 

Iowa Muscatine October 6 — 9. 

New-Hampshire. . . .Concord October 7 — 9. 

Kentucky Henderson October 13 — 16. 

Connecticut Bridgeport October 13 — 16. 

East Tennessee Knoxville October 20 — 23. 

Massachusetts Boston October 21 — 24. 

Maryland Baltimore October 21 — 25. 

West Tennessee. . . .Jackson .October 27 — 30. 

Virginia October 28—31. 

Tennesse Nashville October 12 — 17. 

Alabama Montgomery October 27 — 30. 


August 26, 1857. 

Beevzs are sold by the estimated dead weight of the four quarters ; the so-called 
" fifth quarter" (hide and tallow) is not reckoned in here as it is in Boston and some 
other cities. When cattle are weighed or estimated alive, the dead weight is reck- 
oned at a certain number of pounds to the 100 lbs. of live weight, as agreed upon. 
The general rule in this market for medium cattle is 66 lbs. to the 100 ; 44 lbs. be- 
ing allowed for the "fifth quarter" and ofi'al. 

The average prices to-day, as compared with last week, are about 1 cent higher. — 
N. Y. Times. 

MiLcn Cows waTii Calves. — Not unfrcquently a cow is sold at $90 to $100, or even 
^120. The general price throughout the year for ordinary cows is |30 to .$40 or 
$50. Quite a number sell above $50, and more, perhaps, below $30. We often see 
apologies for cows go at $20 to $25. Market fully supplied and sales slow. 

Veal Calves. — Veal Calves are sold by live weight, each animal being weighed 
alive at the time of sale. " Bobs" — that is. Calves a few days old — are usually sold 
by the head at such prices as can be agreed upon, sometimes for but little more than 
the skin is worth. Prices of calves having less or more experience of life, from 6 to 
8 cents the lb., live weight. 

Sheep and Lambs. — These are cliiefly sold at Allerton's, Browning's, and Chamber- 
lin's, at so much per head for a particular lot of Sheep or Lambs, or of the two to- 
gether. They are also frequently sold by live weight, as this is readily ascertained. 
The actual prices at the different yards seldom vary greatly. The difference in re- 
puted prices is generally due to variation in the quality. When they are sold by 
weight, it is usually the net weight, which is ordinarily one-half what they weigh 
when alive, the pelt and offal making the other half If fiit and small-boned, thoy 
will dress 55 lbs., and in some cases 60 lbs., per hundred. The average run is about 
one-half the live weight. The receipts for the past week have reached a higher 
figure than for a long time previous. A very large proportion of these were lambs. 
Many of them light and thin. The market is at present overstocked and some sell 
at low prices. Sheep in good condition sell at 9 to 10^ cents per lb. dressed weight, 
and 8 to 12i cents per lb. for lambs. 

Swine. — These are sold alive at so much per lb., gross or live weight. Supply 

East week not quite equal to the demand. Corn-fed hogs from 8 to 8f ccnt.=> per lb. 
listillery-fcd 8 cents. Not half difference enough. Who, that knows what he is 
about, would not wish the pork steak for his breakfast to be out of the farmer's 
corn-fed hog ? Stock hogs, 7| to 7i. 


Vol. X. 

OCTOBER, 1857. 

No. 4. 

Our Agriculture. 

Is it prosperous ? If "vye look at the condition of the farmers, the 
gardeners, the orchardists, all who are drawing from mother earth for 
the suppoi't of her children, we shall say it is. A larger proportion of 
these, than at any former period in our history, are enjoying an en- 
viable fime, as the result of their head and hand labors in the soil. 
More, perhaps, than ever before, are becoming decidedly rich. Many 
are in a condition in which they have reason to be contented and 
happy. The workers in the soil, and all who are putting their intelli- 
gence and energy at work for the supply of necessary food and inno- 
cent luxuries, are better paid. 

But are agricultural and horticultural products increasing, as a 
whole, relatively with the population ? The contrary is true. From 
1840 to 1850, the faUiug off in the production of wheat was one 
seventh, in potatoes one third, and in horned cattle one tenth. That 
there may have been an increase m other products, is possible. It is 
true also that the aggregate products of the soil have steadily in- 
creased for these many years; but there can be no doubt that rela- 
tively with the population there was, from 1840 to 1850, considerable 
decrease. This appears from a comjsarison of the U. S. census at 
these two points ; and we might allow largely for inaccuracy, and 
stiU find a decrease, as compared with the population. 

Meantime our exportation of agricultural produce doubled in these 
ten years, and has nearly doubled again since 1850. Multitudes have 
rushed from the form to the building of railroads, from cultivating the. 
soil to speculating in land, from homes in the East, where, on a harder 
soil, they were producing a little more than they consumed, to homes 
VOL. X. 7 

194 Our Agriculture. 

iu the more fertile West, Avhere, of course, tliey produce for a year 
or two at first less tbau they consume. Otlier nations, the Avhile, are 
willing to take more of our produce ; and so "\ve present at this 
moment the sjiectacle of a nation producing relatively with the num- 
ber of inliabitants less and less, and exporting more and more. 

Such a state of things ought to produce good times for the culti- 
vatorj^i ; especially when we consider that increasing wealth enables 
many among us to enjoy the luxuries of the garden, orchard and 
vineyard to an extend hitherto unknown, and at prices which our 
fathers never dreamed of It has produced good times, and hence 
the truth of the assertion with which we started that the wise, fore- 
seeing head and hand cultivators are doing better than ever before. 
But it may not be unwise to pause a little and 'inquire whither we 
are tending. If the mechanic, by the reward of the shop, can not 
buy meats and vegetables at present prices, may he not turn to the 
soil for a living, and so the farmer have him for a competitor instead 
of a customer ? If the manufacturer, by reason of the high price of 
the raw material, can not keep his mills going, what will become of 
that five, six, eight, ten hundred of the farmer's customers that were 
gathered round him ? Will they be driven to cultivate the earth, 
and so the farmer lose them as customers, and the country lose the 
benefit of their superior skill as manufacturers, and take instead their 
unskillfulness in the soil ? 

As a nation, we are drifting somewhere. May it not be well to 
look out for breakers ? For our own part, though in a country of 
such immeasurable resources, and with the energy we possess to de- 
velop them, we would not be projihets of evU, yet for our lives we 
can not see all fair weather and high prices ahead for the farmer, 
unless the shop and the factory, as well as the plough and the reaper, 
are kept going. Right glad are we if foreign nations will continue to 
take our wheat and corn. All we shall export will be a little help to 
American agriculture — better than nothing. But really, so far as we 
can see, and we do not pretend that it is very far, Ave would rather, 
for the sake of our own fiirmers, im^^ort a hundred mouths than ex- 
port a million bushels of wheat ; and would sooner employ ten sets 
of muscles in our own shops, to bo fed by American farmers, and to 
make what Americans need or will have, than to pay for tlie work of 
a thousand sets of muscles abroad, to be sustained mainly, after all 
our exports, by the foreign farmer. 

We Avould rather use our own iron ore, since God has given us 
more than all the world needs, than pay for other people's ; rather 
use our own coal to sraolt it with, since God has given us more than 
enough ; rather work the iron, the cotton, the wool, and everything 

Bones. 195 

else into the forms we need, and be truly independent, than pay any- 
body else for doing these things ; and that not less for the sake of 
American farmers than of all other Americans, whether by birth or 
by choice. — Ed. 


The value of bone-dust as a manure lias been so thoroughly estab- 
lished in other places, and in fact alfords such permanent fertility to 
the soil, that it is matter of surprise that so little of it has been used 
in this region of country. We can only account for the neglects of 
this and other means of improvement, by the reliance which farmers 
have got into the habit of placing on Peruvian guano. This enters 
into the production of almost every crop ; and even at present prices 
it continues to be purchased with avidity ; though it is thought by 
many judicious farmei'S that if an accurate debit and credit account 
was kept with it, the profit would not be found in the majority of 
cases to counterbalance the expense. 

The waste of fertilizing material in the form of bones, in such a 
place as Petersburg, is incalculable. And we think a company of en- 
terprising gentlemen could not make a better investment, on a mod- 
erate scale, than by the establishment of a mill for the purpose of 
grinding the raw bones. That they could be collected in large quaji- 
tities can not well admit of a doubt. Whenever it is ascertained that 
there is a certain market for them, they will be carefully preserved 
by most housekeepers or their servants, just as ashes have long been; 
and they might both be collected at stated times in the same manner. 
Depots for their reception might also be established in the neighbor- 
ing towns, such as Lynchburg, Farmville, Weldon, and even in the 
city of Richmond. A little systematic eifort would soon bring all 
such arrangements to bear. 

In vie.v of some such enterprise, and in order to pi'omote it to the 
best of our ability, we submit some remarks on the peculiar value of 
bones as a fertilizer. Their composition is, when dry, of earthy matter 
about 66 lbs. in 100 ; and of organic matter 34 lbs., which is the 
amount carried off by burning. The earthy matter consists of phos- 
phate of lime, or lime in combination with phosphoric acid — sub- 
stances both of them, forming valuable applications to every soil. The 
organic part is called gelatine or glue, which is extremely rich in nitro- 
gen, and therefore an excellent manure. 

Bones are thus seen to unite some of the most desirable o^rganic and 
inorganic manures. For speedy action on the growing, crop,, they 
should be reduced to a fine state, which can only be done by very 
powerful machinery. Eight or ten bushels per acre are thought to be 
a libenil application ; but the effect will be more satisfactory when 
combined with half the usual quantity of barnyard or stable manure. 
What the eftect would be on tobacco, we are unable to state from ac- 
tual experiment ; but we have used it on cabbages and turnips with 
the besr, results. For plants of this class, indeed, it may be regarded 
as a specific manure ; and its action on tobacco would no doubt be 
equally conspicuous. 

The most popular form in whicii bones are now used as manure, is 

196 Sones. 

in a state of solution with sulphuric acid. This preparation is known 
under the name of siq)erj)hosphate of lime, and if made according to 
chemical principles, there can he no douht of its value. But since it 
has become an extensive article of manufocture and commerce, it can 
not always be relied on as genuine. Every farmer of ordinary intel- 
ligence, however, can make it for his own purposes. To every 100 
weight of bones, about 50 or GO of acid are taken ; or if tlie powdered 
bone is used, but little more than half the quantity of acid will be ne- 
cessary. The acid should be mixed with two or three thnes its bidk 
of water, and poured on the bones — one-third at a time — and permitted 
to remain for 24 hours, the mass being occasionally stirred. Another 
third may be poured on the second day, and tlie remainder the third 
day. A tub is a convenient vessel in which to prepare the mixture. 
Two bushels of bones, treated in this manner, will be sufficient for an 
acre of ground — the expense of Avhich will be something like the fol- 
lowing: bones 81 ; 50 lbs. acid, which, at the cost per carboy, would 
not exceed 3 cents jicr pound^say 8l 50. At an expense, therefore, 
of $2 50, a sufficient quantity of superphosphate of lime may be pre- 
pared for one acre of land. 

It may be thought that the acid will prove destructive to the oil 
and gelatine contained in the bones, but it is not at all injurious to 
them. The whole earthy or inorganic portion may be dissolved out 
by the acid, while the cartilage or gelatine \n\\ remain — retaining the 
size and form of the bone. Sulphuric acid may be also mixed with 
guano with manifest advantage ; not only with the phosphatic guanos, 
but with the Peruvian. It will act on the phosphates and prepare 
them for the immediate nse of plants, without diminishing the energy 
of the organic constituents. 

The above, originating with the /Southern Fanner, but taken by us 
fi'om the Richnond W/dg, is all true, and is of so much real, practi- 
cal importance that we are wilhng to do our part to keep it going, and 
we hope other editors, who can find or write nothing better, as we 
are sure not many can, Avill do the same ; and we here venture the 
opinion, that a ton of bones, finely crushed, as above recommended, 
with the gelatine and oil, applied to any and all crops, either Avith or 
without the sulphuric acid, at the rate of 250 lbs. to the acre Avith half 
the usual quantity of barn manure, Avill give a greater return than any 
ton of guano ever imported, except the best Peruvian. If applied with 
the acid, the return will be more speedy. If Avithout, the return will 
be more gradual, but probably about as great in the end, and less 
profitable only because farming, like other business, thrives best Avith 
quick returns. One other thing we wish to say here, and Ave wish 
both scientific men and practical farmers Avould consider it well : The 
very same arguments, which are being used to prove that 2'>hosphatic 
guano is better than the real ammoniacal Peruvian, woxdd prove that 
bones, crushed and used as reconvmnded hy the Southern Farmer, are 
better than Peruvian guano. — Ed. 

Something about Potatoes. 19i 

From Liebig. 

" In all cases of failure in the culture of a plant, the immediate 
cause must be sought in the soil and not in the want of the atmospheric 

" As the smallest particles of nutriment^ do not change their place 
in the ground while the soil retains them, it must he seen what an ex- 
traordinary influence upon the fruitfulness of the land, or the amount 
of the harvest, is exercised by worldngthe soil mechanically, by care- 
fully pulverizing, and thoroughly mixing it up for each successive 
crop." — Liebig. 

If we understand the first of the above, the idea is that if you feed 
your plant rightly at the root, the mechanical and chemical conditions 
of the soil bemg such as the plant requires, this causes a greater expan- 
sion of leaves, and thereby enables it to draw from the air so as in all 
cases to attain a reasonable growth and productiveness. In this sense 
it is undoubtedly true. But if he should go farther and deny that the 
chemical condition of the air has an influence on the growth of plants, 
it would be imtrue. Of two hills of corn, equally well cared for at 
the roots, if one is in a very pure atmosphere, and the other in an at- 
mosphere surcharged with the breath and exhalations of animals, af- 
fording carbonic acid and ammonia, the latter will grow the more 
luxuriantly. We have no doubt that the action between the roots 
and the leaves is reciprocal — if the feeding of the roots causes the 
leaves to spread and draw more strongly upon the air ; so the feeding 
of the leaves causes the roots to spread and draw more strongly upon 
the soil. 

The second remark, quoted above from Liebig, is of a more practi- 
cal nature. We can not believe, with him, that the particles of nutri- 
ment do no change their place in the ground. We believe on the 
other hand, that through the influence of suns, rains, frosts, and vari- 
ous chemical afiinities they are always in motion, always tending to 
an equal difi'usion through the whole soil. But Liebig's inference is 
important, whether from true or false j)remises. Unquestionably the 
" amount of the harvest" depends largely upon " working the soil me- 
chanically, carefully pulverizing and thoroughly mixing it uj? for each 
successive crop." — Ed. 

SometMng about Potatoes. 

An item is going the rounds, to the efl'ect that potato tubers are 
not exhaustmg to the soil, that the tops are very exhausting, and 
should therefore be spread as evenly as may be and left to decay in 
the field. 

198 The Cranberry. 

Allowing something for exaggeration, the premises seem to be 
true, and the conclusion of some practical importance. The facts are, 
that the tuber draws largely, and the tops still more largely, upon the 
potash of the soil. Consequently the growth of both must be exhaust- 
ing, but that of the top most so, on soils not over stocked with pot- 
ash ; but if the tops are lefi to decay on the soil, this ingredient is re- 
stored, and the whole result is not more exhausting (we believe this 
from experience as well as from reasoning) than the generality of crops. 

While on this subject we wish to say, or rather to repeat, for we 
have said it before and mean to keep it before our readers, that in pre- 
paring for a crop of potatoes, unless the soil is known to abound in 
potash, this should be a ijrominent ingredient in the manure. The po- 
tato being a potash plant, not that it carries off a very large amount 
of that substance, but using a great deal of it during its growth, re- 
quires that the soil should be well supplied with it. 

"We lay claim to no specific for the potato disease, but we have long 
suspected that the exhaustion of the potash in old fields may have had 
something to do with it; and if the plant is ever to regain a complete 
ascendancy above the i)0Aver of the disease, Ave are strongly inclined 
to the belief that it will be by supplying it plentifully through succes- 
sive growths with this its favorite food. — Ed. 

The Cranberry. 

This fruit affords a delightful acid, and is most genial to the human 
constitution. A plentiful use of it by all classes, the poor as well as 
the rich, would improve the general health, and prolong life. But 
for years it has been so high in price, and so scarce, that even the 
rich have not been able to enjoy it. At the present time, we doubt 
whether it can be had for love or money. 

Experience, we believe, has now decided that it can be grown on 
upland, and of a superior quality. But our own experience in keep- 
ing down the grasses among strawberries and other perennial ]jlants, 
does not allow us to believe that it can be so grown remuneratively ; 
and besides, we want our uplands for other purposes ; and it seems 
to us that it Avould be bad policy to devote them to a crop which all, 
we believe, will agree, does quite as well on lands which produce 
nothing else of value. 

With most crops, it is almost as fiital to have stagnant water a little 
under as on the surflicc. But this is just Avhat the cranberry deiiohts 
m. Xow there are thousands of acres Avhose surface is but a little 
elc'vaied above standing water, so situated that for the want of an 
outfiill they can not be drahied. The time will come when, by the 

Caution to Farmers. 199 

lowering of the bed of a river, or by elevating the drainage water 
by means of machinery driven by water, steam or wind, these lands 
will be drained and become the best lands in the world. But that 
time is not yet. It will not be for long to come. We have no doubt 
that there will be an immense demand for cranberries. Their value 
is just beginning to be known. At ten, fifteen, and twenty dollars a 
barrel, few can use them. "With fairly remunerative prices, every- 
body could use them plentifully, and they are far more conducive 
to health than the rich preserves which they would displace. 

The cranberry requires a water meadow, with a few inches, from 
five to seven, of sand on its surface. Those who have meadows so 
situated that they can not well be drained, and which, by a juxta- 
position of sand, can easily be covered with it to the requisite depth, 
would do well to establish cranberry plantations, small if they judge 
that prudent at first, to be enlarged as their success and the prospect 
of the demand shall justify. The spring is the best time to set them ; 
but fall and winter afford a better time for preparing the land. 

We propose, m an early number, to give a chapter on the best 
mode of establishing plantations of this fruit, and on its cultivation. — 


Caution to Farmers. 

It can not be too soon or universally known to agriculturists, that 
a new and fearful evil assails their interests m the wholesale destruc- 
tion of frogs which threaten to exterminate, root and branch, the 
whole race of these ever active and efiicient destroyers of noxious in- 
sects. Not only frog-eating Frenchmen hailing from all parts of the 
old world, but (mirabile ditu) frog-eating Americans, veritable Yan- 
kees, who having contracted this most unholy frog-eating mania, may 
be seen with their frog nets,- hooks, and spears ransacking fields, mea- 
dows, marshes, ponds, and brooks, doing more mischief to farmers 
than all the owls, hawks, crows, foxes and wolves in New-England. 
The frogs, as well as the toads and birds which dame Nature has kmd- 
ly provided to occupy our grounds, are worth their weight in gold, 
and indispensable to their safe-keeping and productiveness in counter- 
balancing and checking the increase of noxious insects which generate 
there by thousands and threaten the destruction of vegetation. They 
are indeed our chief defense in this respect, and he who wantonly 
luants or harms them in these their own legitimate spheres of useful- 
ness and self-enjoyment, is guilty of a Avrong and outrage not only 
against nature but our own best agricultural interests. An intelligent 
gentleman from one of the interior towns in New-Hampshu-e, says 

200 Caution to Farmers. 

hosts of caterers are overrunning our fields who, by paying farmers a 
iew shillings, are allowed to take away all the frogs on their grounds, 
and even to command the seiTices of tarmers and farmer's boys in do- 
ing it, so that bushels and bushels are taken daily by the cars to feed 
the idle frog-eating gluttons of the cities. Among the strangest and 
most unaccountable phenomena of the present time, is the ignorance 
or indifference of farmers in studying and following up nature's plan 
for guarding against the increase and ravages of insects. There is 
now and then one wide awake on this subject, and their clean produc- 
tive trees and grounds, and their abundant harvests fully testify to 
the fict. But how many, either through ignorance or blindness or 
greediness of temporary gain, act on the pound-foolish and penny-wise 
policy of kilUng the goose which laid the golden egg., and would for 
fifty cents allow sportsmen to shoot all the birds on their farms, and 
justify their folly by api:)ealiug to authority, as baseless and superficial 
as that of the scribbler who wrote a few weeks since in unqualified 
condemnation, even of the ever and everywhere consecrated robin, 
because forsooth it has occasionally, for a short week or two in the 
whole year, and in midsummer when its natural food, msects, are 
scarce, taken the liberty to wet its whistle and tune its throat to mel- 
ody with a currant, a cherry, or a strawberry or two from his (the 
scribbler's) own little solitary bush, tree or vine. For this he fulmi- 
nates, he explodes his one idea, and blazes lustily away to create a 
prejudice and a bad name for the total annihilation of a bird which, 
from early spring to latest autumn, is cheering us with his song, and 
ever busy and active in clearing our exj^ansive corn, grain, grass and 
vegetable fields and gardens, and our boundless orchards and wood- 
lands, of the hosts of vermin which would otherwise ruin their pro- 
ductiveness. Scout such contracted views and one ideaisms. The 
story of the yellow-bird which was killed and opened and found to be 
full of the noxious insects on which it feeds, has been the rounds, and 
is a fair sample and illustration of the subject. Similar results by sim- 
ilar investigations are foxmd true of frogs, toads, and several varieties 
of field and garden snakes, which also benefit vegetation by the car- 
bonic acid gas they are constantly exhaling ; and fai-mcrs may be as- 
sured that if they suffer their grounds to be divested of the good ser- 
vices of these wisely-provided guardians of nature, whether through 
prejudice or a desire to gratify the capricious appetite of epicures and 
gourmands, they will soon have abundant cause to regret their impru- 
dence and want of foresight. E. Sanbokn. 
AxDovER, August, 1857. 

Western Emigration. 201 

Western Emigration. 
The following very sensible article, from the Yorkville (S. C.) J^n- 
quirer, applies equally well to emigration from the Northern and Mid- 
dle States, as from the Southern. 

From a glance at our advertisements it will he seen that there is 
now a large quantity of land for sale in our district. The mania for 
moving West has never been greater, although the crops promise to 
be abundant and provisions plenty. To those desirous of developing 
the resources of the State, this tide of emigration presents a picture 
altogether disagreeable. Its direct effect on the State will be, to re- 
tard the progress of that agricultural reform, which has been in agita- 
tion for the last few years. And it is questionable whether those emi- 
grating will better much their condition. There are difficulties to be 
met, privations to be suffered, and risks to be rim which should make 
men hesitate, ere they break up the associations of life, and go forth 
to tabernacle among strangers in a strange land. A mistaken view 
of the nature of wealth and the true objects of life, we imagine, influ- 
ences many of those who are leaving forever the land of their nativity. 
A man who has the comforts and conveniences of life around him here, 
is much richer than any one can possibly be in the far West, no mat- 
ter what may be his resources. For money is not wealth, any farther 
than it is the synonyme of all that is desirable or all that renders us 
happy. And there are many pleasures here which money can not pur- 
chase in the West. Years must elapse before social life can be fully 
developed, before convenient churches can be built, good teachers 
and good academies be procured, and all the appliances to make men 
moral, happy and intelligent, be put in operation. 

Nor should it be imagmed that fortunes are to be made in the West 
by any new and simj^le process. Industry and economy are the only 
honest paths to affluence. Circumstances may be favorable, but these 
qualities are indispensible requisities. The same negligence or indo- 
lence which has prevented them from securing an independence here, 
must wherever they go operate against them. 

But let it not be inferred that we would check altogether the spirit 
of emigration. There are many in the older States who have no 
strong ties to bind them, no comforts to leave behind, no associations 
to make them cling to any particular spot of earth and repeat, with 
the fervor of Scott, " This is my own — my native land." To such the 
West proffers strong inducements. The cheapness of the land Avill 
enable them to secure homesteads with very limited means. To this 
cla,ss we would say, go. With industry and economy you can soon 
gain " the glorious privilege of being independent," for which the 
hapless bard of Scotia vainly sighed. 

On our first page will be foimd an instructive article on this sub- 

The following is from the article referred to in the last sentence.-ED. 

If those who immigrate to the newer States and territories would 
but_ apply the same energy they are obliged to use there to the reno- 
vation of the ill farmed lands of the Atlantic border, and would con- 

302 Buncombe County. 

sent to wear homespun, to live in log houses, and, eschewing all lux- 
urious appliances, be satisfied to live upon the products of the home- 
stead, they could acquire a competence with more ease in settled 
neighborhoods than on the fertile and sparsely populated prairies of 
the great West. 

Now we are not inclined to be critical upon the foregoing. "We 
believe it to be true, that if young men will put forth as much energy 
and endure as many privations in the East as in the "West, they will 
thrive as well, all along the coast from Maine to Georgia. But then 
it is a very different thing to endure privations in the East and the 
"West. We would rather live in a log ca^iin, where our neighbors 
would look out of log cabins at us, than where they would look doion 
upon us from tall houses ; and if our sons must live in log cabins, much 
as we would like to have them near, where they could come home and 
see us of a Thankscjivi/ifj day, if no more, we say, let it be in Nebraska 
rather tlian in this State. Whether it is better to be first in a hamlet 
than second in Rome, we Avill not undertake to decide. But really, 
if we were a young man, with strong hands, we should feel quite in- 
clined to go where we could live in about as good a house as the rest 
of the world thereabouts. In this we believe the editor of the Courier 
very nearly agrees with us. Moneyed men who love ease and social 
advancement will cei-tainly do well to remain East, but young men, 
whose capital is in their energy and endurance, will benefit the coun- 
try and themselves by " pushing out West." 


Buncombe County. 

Dear Sir : — I have for some time past purposed writing to you, 
setting plainly before you the advantages this place possesses, I 
might say, before any other part of the States. It is allowed that Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina possess the best climate in the States, and 
for healthiness I believe Buncombe Covmty exceeds all others. It has 
long been famous for the speeches of its representatives in Congress, 
nor has it fallen off in that respect. As it has been a by-word on that 
account, so it should be celebrated for the fruitfulness of its soil, the 
healthiness of its climate, the value of its waters, possessing chalybe- 
ate, sulphur, and warm springs. I am not going to infliict an account 
on you of all their virtues; but I will bring imdcr your notice a few 
plain and estabUshed facts, such as can not be gainsayed or denied. 
But as to its fertiUty, N. W. Woodfire, Esq., one of our most enter- 
prising gentlemen, three yeai's ago raised 149 bushels of shelled corn 
from an acre of ground. Last year 18 acres of his crop produced 1800 
bushels. He also last year, from a field of six acres, had 180 bushels 

buncombe County. 203 

of wheat, cut the 22d June, after which he planted in corn and raised 
a good crop, and but for the unprecedented early frost of the 23d 
Sept. would have had 50 bushels of corn to the acre, and off the same 
ground in the intervals had a moderate crop of turnips. The same six 
acres he has in corn this year, and I feel satisfied it will at least aver- 
age 120 bushels to the acre. A Mr. Ripley raised a crop of excellent 
wheat last year, averaging 35 bushels an acre. From the same ground 
he had upwards of 400 bushels of excellent turnips to the acre. I 
could give you many more instances of good heavy crops of corn, 
wheat, rye, barley, oats, hay, potatoes, carrots, etc. I will only state 
that Mr. James W. Patten had 1100 bushels per acre, measured, of 
Irish potatoes. No country is better suited for growing fruits, I 
might say of all kinds ; its apples and pears can not be surpassed in any 
country in the woi'ld, and its native grapes, the Catawba, for instance, 
has got a wide-world celebrity, and not without reason. I have cause 
to believe that there are a very great number of what may be called 
wild grapes, natives, fully as good and perhaps of better qualities. 
However, that is a matter likely soon to be tested, as that enter- 
prising gentleman, N. Leveysworth, of Cincinnati, has taken the mat- 
ter in hand. One advantage its climate and soil possesses, that I never 
saw the Catawba grape here, no matter what season, either mildew or 
rot, and where in Ohio this year such is the case to a great extent, we 
are free from any thing of the kind. 

Dr. Samuel Dickson, of Charleston, S. C, has often said the climate 
of Buncombe is superior to any other part of the world for consump- 
tive or delicate persons ; if they can not live here they need not go 
elsewhere for health. I don't want it too generally known lest all the 
sick might flock here, and some might die and give the place a bad 
name ; but you may, if you please, let any of your friends know it. I 
believe for good farming there is no country better fitted to repay the 
steady, enterprising farmer. For a wine country and the cultivation 
of the grape, it can not be surpassed — the greatness of the neighbor- 
hood is proverbial — and if we had a railway so that its advantages 
might have a chance to become known, few places could compete with 
Buncombe. But the narrow-minded jealousy of the Eastern members 
to the State Senate and House of Representatives has hitherto with- 
held from us such a privilege — so narrow-minded and selfish as to be 
a disgrace to any State or people. 

The Chinese sugar cane promises exceedingly well. Seven or eight 
gentlemen here have sown largely, and an intelligent West India sugar 
planter of great experience informed me yesterday he feels no doubt 
of being able to make sugar of the very best quality from it. I have 
told you a few, very few, of the many advantages of Buncombe, If I 

204 Origin of Plants. 

stated half, this communication -woulcl be so long you would reject it. 
Should any of your friends require any further information, I ^nll be 
happy to give or procure it, and they may rest assured they shall hear 
nothing but the truth. In sheep and cattle raising, the land and cli- 
mate is most favorable ; and the osage orange grows so well that the 
expense of fencing is decreased four-fifths — a matter of no small con- 
sideration to the farmer. Believe me, yours respectfully, 

AsHEViLLE, August 26, 1857. W. M. 

Remarks. — It must be confessed that our coi"resj)ondent goes it 
strong for Buncombe. Eleven hundred bushels of potatoes is the larg- 
est yield by 100 bushels we have ever heard of. A farmer in the 
Green Mountain State was once reported to have grown a thousand 
bushels. He was said to have raised them in this way : — Ploughed 
the ground, harrowed it thoroughly, soAved the seed-potatoes broad- 
cast plentifully, and covered with a composition of chip-dung, leaf- 
mould and yard-manure some five or six inches deep, and then let 
them pretty much alone until harvest-time. Whether the Vermonter 
ever grew 1000 bushels to the acre, we do not know. If he did, he 
must have grown lyfli piuts, or just about a pint and a half to the 
square foot. Will some of the boys see if we are right ? In the 
olden times, when old fashion whigs and potatoes were both rampant 
in that State, it might be done, but we do not believe it can be beat 
in these times except in Bmicombe couuty, N. C. 

Speculations on the Origin of Plants. 


I. Natural Laws. — There are certain fixed facts known to philoso- 
phers existing perpetually the same, always operating in the same 
way, pertaining to things in nature that are styled " Natiiral Laws." 
Attraction of cohesion is one ; — it brings together the particles of bo- 
dies and holds them in union. Gravitation is another ; — attracting all 
matter to the center of the earth. By the power of gravitation, bo- 
dies fall to the earth, or arise to a stratum of air of their own density. 
It is a law in chemical attraction, that elementary principles unite in 
certain definite proj^ortions. Oxygen and hydrogen unite thus and 
form water. Oxygen miites Avith a mmeral, forming an oxide or an 
acid. It is a law that particles of matter, united in a certain way, 
form an opaque body. Agaiji, united in a more perfect manner, the 
body is crystalline or transparent, or becomes resolved into geometri- 
cal, perfect forms, such as a cube, or a hexagon, or an octagon. These 
we call natural laws. 

II. The laii's of nature are the fixed toill of God. — All the fixed 

Origin of Plants. 205 

laws of nature, as well as the constant exhibition of chemical affinities, 
both in the animal, vegetable, and mineral worlds, are nothing more 
nor less than the oi^eration of the will and wisdom of God. These 
phenomena we are too apt to regard as merely scientific facts, natural 
and matters of chance in themselves. But however we regard them 
they are no less the operations of the Divine mind, and in all their 
methodical complicity and beauty, in their immensity of scope and 
constancy of operation, they reveal only the original, the immediate, 
the eternal will of God ! He spoke, He speaks ; it was, and it is done. 

ni. Operation of natural laws in the formation of the earth. — 
There is no doubt hut that the Creator worked methodically, bring- 
ing these same natural laws mto operation in the creation and forma- 
tion of the globe on which we live. In the immensity of space, two 
or more loving affinities joined hands, and from the great gaseous 
realms of chaos, manufactured a particle of matter, and yet another. 
Attraction of cohesion united them together. The nucleus of the 
earth was formed, and the great operation went on, particle iiniting 
with particle, until, rocked in the cradle of infinite space, the infant 
globe became a full grown world, created and governed by the me- 
thodical workings of divine wisdom, which we call Natural Laws. 
Without saying a word in regard to the phenomena and changes that 
must have occurred during the countless years anterior to the time 
when the earth was prepared to sustain vegetable life, the time did 
come at last. And I believe that the Creator observed the same 
beautiful method, working by natural laws, in the creation of vegeta- 
ble life as in the formation and development of the earth, and as in all 
the great and admirable operations of nature ever since. 

I do not believe that God spake into existence, in a short period of 
time, vegetable life and forms in all their variety and maturity. I do 
not beheve that the earth was clothed " in a day" with verdure, that 
the valleys waved with grass, and the forests teemed with full grown 
trees. Why should God work by miracle in the formation of plants, 
more than in other formations ? I believe that seed was first created, 
and that the first vegetable form sprang from seed. Vegetable forms, 
at first, no doubt, were very few, such as the earth was fitted to sus- 
tain — the fungi, the mosses, and the ferns ; but I believe they all 
sprang from germs or seeds, of whatever variety, in \he first instance., 
and that those germs or seeds were eliminated, created, formed from 
the immediate elements existing in earth or air. Analyze seeds and 
you resolve them back into elementary principles, always found in 
earth or air. It was no more for the Creator to form seeds from ele- 
ments ready existing and immediately at hand, than to form full-grown 
oaks or shrubbery, as some suppose he did. Natural operations are 

20G Origin of Plants. 

constantly going on in the deep laboratories of the earth, eliminating 
earths, ores, and precious stones in all their beautiful and perfect 
forms. In the formation of these God works by fixed, natural laws. 
Was the formation of seeds more ditlicult than the formation of dia- 
monds, or rubies, or pearls ? I think it far more rational to suppose 
that Our Creator, in the gradual clothing of the earth with vegetable 
life, first formed seeds or germs, than to conclude that it was done by 
miracle, as many suppose. 

JMy speculations may appear to many somewhat dogmatical, but I 
feel that they are at least as rational as the "Miracle theory."* 
" Method," I was almost tempted to say, was another attuibute of 
God. The formation of worlds, and the laws which govern them — 
all the phenomena of earth, of animal and vegetable life, are bom of 
method. With Him, method is eternal. JMiracle, in His works, ne- 
ver appeared as a fixed, creative agent ; but only to instruct, convince, 
or punish mankmd. Method is and ever was, with Ilim, a fixed and 
eternal purpose, by which he creates and governs, originates and 
brings to perfection. Reasoning then from analogy, and form a com- 
prehensive view of the ordinary operations of " God in Nature," we 
may safely infer that plants may have originally come from germs or 

Leverett, September,' 1857. 

* We have not the least wish to enter into any theological specu- 
lations Avhich may be suggested by the above. A word, however, 
with regard to miracles. What is a miracle? A miracle— miracu- 
lum, Avonder, something that astonishes — is simply a thing out of the 
common course, and is no more an exhibition of power than the ordi- 
nary operations of nature. If you admit with the writer of the above, 
as we most certamly do, that all things are of God, that the opera- 
tions and results of nature are his works, so that, when an ear of corn 
matures in the field, by a slow elaboration of its materials from the 
soil and air, we have just as much occasion to admire the Divine 
power and goodness and to be grateful, as if God had created it for 
us in some new and strange way instead of the old and common, then 
you must admit that a miracle differs from the other works of God 
only by being out of the common course of things. 

If a sick man, almost too feeble to move a limb, should all at once 
rise from his bed, bid his doctor and nurse farewell, and go to work 
in his field, that would be a miracle, a miraculum, a most astonishing 
occurrence. But if under the influence of medicine, kind nursing, and 
genial food, he should go through an agreeable convalescence, happy 
every day in being a little stronger, grateful to his God, his physician 

Origin of Plants. 207 

and his nurse, till at length he should find his health restored and his 
age renewed, would not the result be the same, and would not the 
only difference be that in the latter case a beneficent result Avas 
reached in a very common, and in the former, in a very uncommon 

So, if God should in an instant create a mighty oak, or a wide-spread 
elm, or a luxuriant fruit tree laden with fruit, would it imply more 
power, more beneficence, or more of any attribute, entitling him to 
our reverence and love, than the way in which he is creating millions 
of oaks, and elms, and fruit trees all the time ? AVe can not see that it 
would. Some people are terribly afraid of new truth, lest it should 
circumvent the old, as if all truth were not consistent with itself No 
truth can discredit the truths of the Bible. No knowledge of facts, 
as they really are, can be dishonorable to God. Whether the sun 
goes round the earth or the earth goes round the sun, it will do no 
harm for mankind to know it. What a pity that Gallileo's persecu- 
tors could not have known this. It would have saved the good man 
both pain and ignominy. 

It would be so, iF it should yet be shown, that God originally crea- 
ted all things by the slowest possible process ; that he did not create 
fuU grown trees at once, nor seeds even, nor germs, but only by an ap. 
titude in matter, under fitting circumstances and regulated by his own 
laws, to produce trees and the various plants which have sprung and 
may yet spring into being. This idea makes God no less the Creator. 
It represents him as the perpetual Creator. We teach no such doc- 
trine. We are ignorant. We don't know why the fireweed sjDrings 
upon the burned fallow. We don't know why, on earth thrown from 
the bottom of a well, plants spi'ing up before unknown to that region. 
We don't know why, after the pine, oaks spring up where it seems 
next to impossible that acorns should exist in the soil. We know not 
whether God created the world and everything on it in an instant, or 
whether he wrought billions of years before the work could fairly be 
said to have begun, and is working yet, and will work on, a perpetual 
Creator. We only say that some facts are more easily explained on 
the latter theory ; and that if it is true, the world will not be harmed 
by knowing it ; nor will the least injury come from so far suspecting 
it to be true as to induce candid investigation, even if it have no foun- 
dation in truth. It is high lime for mankind to learn, what but few 
have yet learned, that two persons may think very differently, and 
that on the most important subjects, and yet both behave pretty well. 

208 Ethics in Agriculture. 


Ethics in Agriculture. 

Messks. Eds. : — The Avorth, dignity, ami influence of classes in com" 
munity depend not as much on the skill and dexterity, with which 
their pecuUar business operations are conducted, as on the reputation 
they win and the character they sustain in regard to moral principle. 
No enterprise or pursuit can stand well in general favor, or reasonably 
expect approval from tlie judicious and discreet, the men Avho ordina- 
rily give tone to popular sentiment, which bids defiance to the ac- 
knowledged laws of moral right and wrong. This social characteristic 
is essential to all that is estimable and truly desirable in human life. 
And since a good deal has been said, at one time and another, about 
elevating the standard of respectability in the farming interest, as 
compared with other professions, the topic seems to be fairly initiated 
into the routine of subjects which resort for discussion to such journals 
as the American Farmers'' Magazine. 

And as most that has hitherto appeared in publications of this sort, 
lias, as far as I know, been directed towards the economical, I see 
not why it may not, properly enough, devolve on me to venture a 
word or two on the tnorale of the thing, it being a concern of such 
magnitude and extent. 

The grand and all-absorbing question among tillers of the soil seems 
generally to reach no further than to the mere matter of pecuniary 
profit. Will the crop I contemplate ^>a?/ loell for the labor and cost I 
am about to bestow on it ? "Will the market receive the product and 
make me a generous remunerative return ? In what kind of cultiva- 
tion shall I be likely to find my best money account ? 

Now, Mr. Editor, in all soberness and honesty, let me ask, Is this 
properly the decisive consideration which is to prevail and overrule 
all others ? Is no respect to be had to the interest and the well-being 
of those who are to be consumers of the articles prepared for them ? 
Is it enough that the producer is compensated to his heart's content ? 
Is his responsibility bounded by the gains which are to accrue to him- 
self alone? "The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof;" and 
has he put it into the hands of the cultivator to be used by him as an 
instrument of life or death, as he may arbitrarily and capriciously 
elect? If man has a conscience that is at all alive to moral distinc- 
tion, he Avail not suffer himself to be seduced or allured into any ap- 
propriation of the soil for the production of a bane, how high soever 
it may stand in the market, or however loudly called for by the vic- 
tims of an appetite, which knows not how to refuse a drug pregnant 
with poison and death. 

Ethics in Agriculture. 209 

Having said this, let me in the name of the farming community, 
which I dehght to honor, enter a decided protest against any desecra- 
tion of eveujthe least portion of American soil for the vile purpose of 
raising tobacco, that insidious enemy and destroyer of health and cor- 
rupter of good morals. Let that nauseous, that worse than useless 
weed alone ; and let us use our lands for such increase as will afford 
plenty of wholesome nutriment, good bread and meat, together with 
needful covering for our bodies, and all this made doubly valuable by 
by additions of a " conscience void of offence towards God and man." 

J. F. 

Memarhs. — We would dissuade everybody, if we could, from the 
use of tobacco, because we believe that all, or if not all, at least an 
overwhelming majority of those who use it, would be healthier, strong- 
er, and longer lived without it. Their companionship would be worth 
more to their friends. They would enjoy life better, and be more useful. 
Their children would be happier and live longer. This will seem ex- 
travagant to many, but we do not say it without having looked at the 
subject long and in all its bearings ; and we are just as well convinced 
that the general, habitual use of tobacco tends to the deterioration of 
a race, as that plenty of food, suitable clothing, sound education and 
reasonable labor tend to its elevation. The ethical bearings of the 
subject we leave with our correspondent. It would be easy to an- 
athematize him and his arguments. Whether it would be easy to an- 
swer them, others must judge. 

On the tendency of a free and general use of tobacco to deteriorate 
a people, we will say (not without some hesitation, because it may seem 
to imply an indelicacy of which we oitght not to be guilty) that no 
sensible breeder of stock would endure that those animals, which are 
to be the fathers of his flocks and herds, should wear a seaton in the 
mouth or be made to drule constantly from any other cause ; nor 
that their nostrils should be stuffed with Spanish flies or other sub- 
stances to irritate the membranes and produce an unnatural sneezing ; 
nor that their heads, trachea and lungs should be smoked half a dozen 
times a day. He insists that they shall be in condition — no ailment, 
no symptom of disease, perfect health. He would mourn if his favor- 
ite Eclipse or his Duke of Cambridge should betray a foul breath. He 
is wise. 

How is it with those who are to be fathers of our grandchildren ? 
The general, the habitual, the excessive use of tobacco augurs badly. 
There is no use in closing our eyes to the fact. But enough has been 
said. Think out the rest. — Ed. 

210 Mne Wool Sheep. 

History of Fine Wool Sheep. 

The following, M^hich we extract from the speech delivered by Hon. 
J. CoLLAMER, "on the Tariff and Wool interest," in the U. S. Senate, 
February 26th, ^yill be found highly interesting to all classes of read- 
ers, and especially to sheep breeders. It is in reply to the suggestion 
of Mr. Hunter, of Virginia, that we did not raise fine wool in this 
country. — Vt. Watchman and State Jour. 

There are no fine wools in the world, raised anywhere on this earth, 
which are not all from the same family of sheep. By fine avooI, I 
mean such wool as is sometimes called spinning wool, which is spun 
and wove into broadcloths and kerseymeres, especially those Avhich 
are required to take a finish ; that is, after they are woven and fulled, 
there is a face raised upon them, by either carding or teaseling, and 
then they are sheared and pressed and calendered, for the ])urpose of 
making a finish on them. That can be done only with fulling wool. 
Now, where do the fulling wools come from ? I say they are all from 
the same family of sheep. 

At the period of our earliest acquaintance with Spain, there was 
found a certain breed of sheep called merino sheej^. "We do not 
know how early they were there. We have seen inklings that they 
were there at as early a period as the Romans had control of the 
country. Where they came from we know not ; but the word " me- 
rino" means " over the sea," and it was connected with the idea that 
these sheep came over the sea, so that probably they were not indige- 
nous to Spain originally. This is the family of sheep out of which all 
the fine wool sheep of the world were produced. For a number of 
centuries these sheep were entirely owned by the nobiUty and royal 
family of Spain. They were pastured and-driven north \\\ summer, and 
south in winter, so that they were always kept on green fields. They 
Avere kept in large flocks. They roamed South into Andalusia, and 
north into Castile. For many centuries men were prohibited, under 
the most severe penalties, from carrying any sheep out of the king- 
dom. A man who exported a sheep was sentenced to the galleys for 
life. None of these sheep were obtained in the rest of Europe. In 
1784 or 1785 — I will not be exact in the date, but at any rate between 
1780 and 1790 — the King of Spain gave a flock of these sheep, forty 
in number, to George the Third. The English Kmg gave him, as a 
royal present in return, six English coach horses. These sheep were 
placed at Windsor, vender the care of Sir Joseph Banks, and the ut- 
most exertions were made to induce the use of that kind of fine sheep 
among the farmers of England. To this day, England does not raise 
a pound of wool out of which you can make a yard of broadcloth that 
any gentleman in this house wears. For a long time all her fine wool 
has come from abroad. After Sj)ain went into the business of digging 
gold in South America, all her wool was exported to England, there 
manufactured, and sent back to Spain to be sold, and they dug gold 
to pay for it. The result has been that, while they have run down, 
England has run up. 

I wish to show why that flock of sheep did not succeed in England, 
and to show the difference between their condition and ours, to see 

Fine Wool Sheep. 211 

why fine wools succeed here and can not there. At the same time 
that that present was made to George the Third, a similar present 
was made to Louis the Sixteenth. The flock given to the King of 
France Avas put on the Ramboullet farm, which was then the royal 
farm, and is still, Bonaparte having always kept it. That flock of 
sheep, bred in, as I shall hereafter mention, is the French merino of 
the present day. 

At the same time, the same present was made to the Elector of 
Saxony. The flock which went to the Elector of Saxony was attend- 
ed to, and selected all the time for the finest wool, without regard to 
size. The French selected with regard to size. The Germans select- 
ed for fineness of wool merely. The flock given to the Elector of Sax- 
ony is the basis, the origin, the parentage of all the Saxony wool of 
the world, now to be found all over Bavaria, Silesia, Hungary and 
Russia, and this country — as I shall directly show. 

About the latter part of last century, there was introduced into 
England that branch of farming called the turnip culture, which is the 
basis of prosperity to the English agriculturist at the present day. 
Everything in England which sustained human life, everything that 
the people could eat was very dear, as we all know, imtil a )-ecent pe- 
piod, since they have taken ofi" their sliding scale of duties on wheat, 
and allowed foreign provisions to be introduced for the benefit of man- 
ufactures. The turnip culture was this ; they sowed a large field, es- 
pecially on the downs of England, with turnips — generally the Swedish 
turnips — and then in the fall of the year they would put upon the tur- 
nip fields a flock of their native long wool sheep — the best improved 
breeds of which are the South Downs and the Leicestershires. Those 
sheep ate the turnips on the ground. There was no gathering them 
— ^no cutting them up. When they exhausted one field they went to 
another, and so on through the winter. The climate being mild, they 
wintered in the fields on the turnips, and were in a fine condition for 
mutton in the spring. A mutton sheep in England, at that day and 
noAv, averages from eighty to one hundred pounds dressed oft* The 
French merinoes, with all the improvements they could give them by 
breeding in, do not average more than forty pounds dressed oft". The 
mutton of the English sheep would command in the British market, 
and has all the time for thirty years back, from ten to twelve cents a 
pound. It is a very superior mutton. 

That is not all. When a piece of land in England had been tilled in 
the manner I mentioned, and the sheep herded upon it, it would pro- 
duce twenty- two bushels of wheat to the acre, and that wheat ave- 
rages from two dollars to two dollars and fifty cents a bushel in Eng- 
land at all times. Bearing these facts in mind, you will see how fruit- 
less was the attempt to introduce into England these little merinoes, 
small sheep, which shear about three pounds and a half in their natu- 
ral condition as they came from Spain. Even the French merinoes, 
as they have improved them, yield but six, and ours from three to 
three and a half or four pounds. The farmers were told by the nobil- 
ity, " The King has made me a ^jresent of some fine wool sheep, and 
we want you to attend to them, so as not to be dependent on foreign 
countries for our supply of fine wool." The farmer saw at once that 
the wool from these sheep would not bring him more than two shillings 

212 A Trifle. 

sterling a pound foi* three pounds, while the long wool sheep would 
shear eisrht or ten pounds of wool ; and then the inquiry was, how 
much Avill that little sheep bring for mutton ? Not a cent. You can 
never make valuable mutton of it. In Vermont, where we have so 
many fine wool sheep, our people use little or no mutton, though we 
have a little lamb occasionally. I never saw any mutton there that 
compared at all Avith the Virginia mutton which I see here. Indeed, 
I am reminded of an anecdote of an old neighbor of mine who was 
rather fond of mutton. He used to talk about these little merino 
sheep, and said, " When you got a quarter of it dressed off, you could 
see the Ught between the' ribs. In good old times, Avhcn we had the 
large sheep, a man might go out and steal a sheep, and bring home 
something for his family to eat, but now, if you bring home one of 
these little merino sheep, you might as well have a tin lantern to eat." 



A Trifle. 

Farmers are a class who should regard more than others, the small- 
est trifle. Yet how many we meet who disregard the small things, 
and deem them unworthy their consideration. Men of ti-ade learn, 
from experience, to treasure up the items and fragments, as it is 
from those alone that they obtain their living and accumulate their 
fortunes — from saving as well as from getting. 

"With farmers it is different ; they look ujion the vast fields of grain 
and count the proceeds to be obtained from the crops now being har- 
vested, and overlook the waste occasioned by the carelessness of their 
workmen. The crop is estimated by the hundreds of bushels, and not 
by the ear. A thought is not entertained that bushels are made of 
the smallest kernels. 

In times when grain of all kinds was cut with the sickle, it was 
gathered much cleaner than by the processes now employed ; yet an 
instance is related of a boy who ran after the reapers and picked up, 
straw by straw, what was dropped. It took some time to gather a 
handful, but gradually that swelled to a large sheaf by the addition of 
straws. So astonishing Avas the success of the boy, that the man from 
whose land the grain was gathered suspected something was wrong, 
and accused the lad of appropriating to his own use from the already 
gathered grain, but was assured by the reapers that such was not the 
case, and was induced from the circumstances to try it himself, and he 
asserted that he could gather enough to pay his men ! It is no less 
astonishing than true. 

By the above illustration it is not meant that farmers could or 
should adopt the plan of saving all the grain that may be wasted ; but 

Menhaden Oil. 213 

only to serve to picture out the necessity and utility of saving in every- 
thing. Many things there are which go to waste because people do not 
consider their imjjortauce. Those chips which are allowed to lay there 
and rot, would warm the hearthstone of a dark chamber in the crowded 
city, and perhaps save many from suffering, and as a necessary conse- 
quence, suppress crime. On this subject there is room for much spec- 
ulation. To specify all the things in which a saving could be affected, 
would occupy time and space to no consequence. 

Some people think they have learned to perfection the art of saving ; 
but there is one thing which demands their consideration : They save 
in quantities and don't mind a trifle. O. A. Gould. 

Wateetown", N. Y. 

Sorgho in the South. 

Judge De Ltok states in the Savannah Georgia, as the result of 
his experiment, that an acre of the cane will produce three hundred 
gallons of syrup, twenty-five bushels of seed, of the average weight 
of thirty-five pounds, and twelve hundred weight of fodder. He is 
also convmced that the syrup, by proper management, can be made 
to granulate. On the same subject, an experiment stated in the 
Chester (S. C.) Standard gives six hundred and twenty-five gal- 
lons of the syrup as the product per acre. Thus far the reports vary 
from one hundred and fifty to six hundred gallons. The Charleston 
Standard thinks the average will be finally settled at four hundred 

One planter in Louisiana will send to the New-Orleans market this 
fall about three hundred barrels of sorgho molasses, and will put a 
large part of his plantation in the cane next year. It is his opinion 
that it will form a staunch ally to the old sugar cane. 

It will be a strong spoke in the wheel of Virginia agriculture if 
every farmer can make his own sugar and molasses, besides an exten- 
sive addition to his forage, which is always in demand, and of which 
the supply generally runs short towards spring. — Winchester ( Va.) 

We suggest to our Virgmia friends that the supply should not run 
short with the same man but once m a lifetime. — Ed. 

Menhaden Oil. 

Men"hade]S', or " pogies," as the fishermen call them, are a species 
of fish which swarm in millions along our shores in the summer sea- 
son, and although formerly used only for bait, they are now caught 
in large quantities by the " down-east" fishermen for the manufacture 
of an oil which is valuable for dressing leather and other purposes. 
This business, as we learn from the Bangor Wliig, is now an impor- 
tant and growing one, producing many thousand dollars annually, 
with a large profit. They are taken in nets in large quantities, boiled 

214 Gice so Much, Take so JIuch. 

in a large kettle fitted up in a furnace at the shore, then passed into a 
press constructed like a cider press, and the oil pressed from them. 
It is then banded up and sent to the Boston market and elsewhere. 
When the tish become fat, they yield a gallon or more per hundred, 
(the fish being about the size of an alewive,) or a barrel of oil from 
2500. The fishermen sometimes take from 1500 to 2000 in a single 
net set over night. The oil was worth $20 per barrel last year. This 
year it is not worth quite so much — say from $15 to $18 — but it pays 
a lai-ge profit at that. The refuse or "chum" left, after expressmg 
the oil, is used for manure, and is said to be almost equal to guano. 


The "Old Fogy." 

Yert few farmers come under this title, yet we know some who 
still use the old-fashioned " bull-plough," because their fathers or 
grandflithers did ! Such a man may be called an " old fogy." An 
old fogy imagines he has an independence of mind. He will not 
listen to reason, because he thinks he knows quite as well how to 
manage his affairs as the inventor who claims superiority over the 
old-fashioned instrument w^hich the fogy continues to follow. An old 
fogy has his eccentricities, odd habits, vague ideas, notions, proverbs, 
and steadiness. He always follows the same plough, swings the same 
scythe, and always uses that fork Avith the " tine bent," milks the 
same cows, and, in fact, steps in the same tracks throughout the entire 
year, turning neither to the right hand nor left. 

The old fogy always makes money. Perhaps not so flist as his 
neighbor ; but he mvariably dies rich, though he never lived happy. 
His life is a constant, unbroken monotony, which, if once disturbed, 
renders the victim unhappy. Don't be a fogy. There are other and 
better ways to acquire property. Would you live for yourself alone ? 

WATERTowjf, N. Y., 1857. 0. A. Gould. 

ron TUB AiiERicAN farmers' magazine. 

I'll Give so Much, and I'll Take so Much." 

NO. I. I'll give. 
Sucu is the language of the merchant, I care not what grade of 
merchants he belongs to ; Avhether he uses a basket, a wheelbarrow, 
a cart, a stall, a shop, a warehouse, a counting-room, or a bank. All 
are the same — men that live by buying and selling. This class of 
men at present are the ruling class of the nation. It is the merchant 
who regulates the price of all articles of commerce, not only in dry- 
goods, groceries, etc., but on everything the farmer has to sell. He 
regulates the price of grain, of beef, and of pork ; the producer, the 

Give so Much^ Take so Muck. 215 

farmer, wlio is the foundation of all other business — I say the founda- 
tion of all other business, because when the farmer ceases to exist, all 
other business must forbear — he has no say in the market. Why is 
this ? The farmer, for the last five hundred years, has been nothing 
but an " understrapper," a despised class of people ; if the men have 
not been, their profession has. But a short time has passed since he 
was thought worthy to have a voice either in Church or State. If a 
young man wanted to be somebody in the world, he must be a 
lawyer, doctor, or a merchant. The stigma is not all gone yet. 
There is something in the wordi farmer that is despised, especially by 
the young of both sexes. 

Why ? because the word ' ' uiork " can not be stricken out. It is 
joined to farmer, and is as immovable as the Rock of Gibralter. If a 
young man farms for a livelihood, he must expect to have his hands 
tanned by the sun, and to get his shirt bosom " dirted in the bar- 
gain ;" kid gloves and starched collars seldom, if ever, raise much 
grain. Black boots and superfine broadcloth pants seldom dig pota- 
toes in the mud. 

A firmer goes to market with a load of grain ; when he enters town 
Mr. Land-Shark is there, meets him in the street and says to him, 
" Is that grain for sale ?" " Yes." " What do you want for it ?" or 
"What do you expect to get for it?'' " Money," is the reply. Mr. 
Shark says, " I'll give you so much ; it's more than you can get any 
where else in town." If his load is wheat, Shark's ofier is fifty cents 
per bushel, he tells him that wheat is "down, the market is full." 
Farmer says, " That is low ; can't you give a little more." " No, I 
can not afibrd it ; I shall loose on it at that, but to accommodate you, 
I'll give that." Shark knows all the time that he is telling a falsehood 
as regards his " loosing on it." Farmer, instead of selling it to the 
consumer, like a fool tells Shark that he can have it at that price. 
Shark, instead of " loosing on it," sells it to the consumer at one hun- 
dred per cent profit. A scene like the above I saw m Fort Des 
Moines but a short time within the present century. 

Another case. A boy of some seventeen years came to town with 
a load of some thirty watermelons. He no doubt had worked hard 
in planting, hoeing and taking care of his " patch," in order to get a 
little " change," perhaps to take a " spree" with his young "belle" of 
the i^rairie. Being unused to the customs of town, and in a hurry to 
get home, he too was met by a young shark or a clerk, and asked if 
those melons were for sale. " Yes," was the reply. " What are they 
worth," says the boy. " We can afibrd to give you one dollar for 
the lot ; they are large, nice melons, but the market is full, and they 
are dull sale ; that is the best we can do ; you can't hardly sell them 

216 Give so Much^ Take so Much. 

in town ; we are paying the highest price of any one." The boy be- 
lieved him, and sold his melons. He thought that the clerk had told 
him the truth, and he believed him. After the boy had gone, I 
stepped into the store and a.sked what the price of those melons Avere. 
Fifteen cents. I asked if melons had not taken a rise. " Xo ; they 
cost us nearly that." I do not say that all merchants are of this 
kind ; there is now and then an honest merchant. The above cases 
that have been i-eferred to, are of common occurrence among what 
are called " middle men," men that stand between the producer and 
the consumer. These " middle-men," instead of being a blessing to 
community, are a curse ; they are the ones that make the " money," 
and if they can not get it honestly, then dishonestly. 

Merchants are as necessary for the transacting of business as any 
other class of people, but " middle-men" are drones to society. Messrs. 
Editors, how long must this mode of swindling be practised upon the 
farmer? Until the farmer gets his eyes oj^en. How is he to get 
his eyes open ? It is through the press, the agricultural press, by 
reading such works as the Aiu. Mir. JIag., and by exposing such 
modes of doing business as the above. "Who is the most to blame in 
this swindling business, shark or farmer. Shark is to blame for 
telling a falsehood, but farmer is to blame for several reasons, these 
reasons I will explain in my next number. 

Mr. Editor, if you think these few lines Avorthy of publication, 
throw them to view among the farming class. The Am. Far. Mag. 
is the farmer's friend, and such things should be exposed. They are 
the truth, it can not be denied. You are at liberty to make such 
comments as you deem necessary, and I hope that the formers will 
look to their own interest, expose such things to the world — read 
and inform yourselves. L. S. Spencer. 

Lynx, Warren Co., Iowa. 

We shall avail ourselves of the liberty given — should take the lib- 
erty Avhether or no — to comment on the above. 

1. Our correspondent's definition of merchants — " all who live by 
buying and selling" — is good, is true to the letter. Our mercantile 
friends in the city plume themselves on being a very select class ; and 
it is true that in their banking houses, their exchange offices, their tall 
stores and their gatherings about Wall street to raise and to cheapen 
property at pleasure, they appear like very gentlemanly men ; and 
you would certainly suppose they had no design to cut your throat 
or pick yovir pockets. And then they know a good many things, 
though it must be confessed that their knowledge is mostly about 
matters of mere effemeral interest, things of the day and not worth 
remembering till to-morrow. And when avc take into account that all 

Give so Miich^ TaJce so Much. 217 

the petty dealers and tricksters, the agents, the drummei's, the hateful 
and hated middle-men, all who buy and sell for a living, are part and 
parcel of the mess, we think they have no great to brag of as a 
class. "We may as well put each man of them to trial on his own ac- 
count, from the bank director who eats a great dinner at five o'clock, 
and the over-grown rum-dealer, who mourns that his daughter should 
be of so low instinct as to fall in love with a common chap, down to 
the poor news-vender, who eats a cold potato when he can get it, and 
is glad to have anybody marry his daughter who will take good care 
of her. If any of the kit and kin will do an honest business, that 
harms none, and is of general utility, let us honor them. Otherwise, 
let us think them scamps, as well as if they figure in Wall street and 
cheat the honest workers out of millions, as if they sell bad fruit by 
the street side and cheat the buyer out of pennies. This is the best 
rule we know of for judging of the class — to put each upon his indi- 
vidual responsibility. 

2. We can not quite agree with Mr. Spencer, that the merchants 
control the prices of every thing, and that farmers have no " say" 
in the matter. It is the farmei''s business to look after the market 
prospectively, and to cultivate as far as may be such things as will 
be wanted. In this way the intelligent, far-seeing farmer, though 
he says little, does, nevertheless, what will more or less influence 
prices. Commerce does not alone fix the price of every thing. Com- 
merce does not desire fixed prices. It prefers that prices should 
be ever changing, up and down, down and up, even and round, here, 
and there, and nowhere, like the angler's bob on the wavy stream, 
because the merchant is sure to out-wit the producer in such fluctua- 
tions, if not in every instance, yet in a great majority of instances. 
And then if he gets bit now and then at his own tricks, he can wipe 
out all former obligations with a very soft sponge, and begin anew, 
just as good in Water street and along the wharves as if he had turn- 
ed no somerset by and for the benefit of his own brains. That mer- 
cantile contrivances and connivances are always shuffling prices, to the 
great detriment of the laborer and honest holder of property, is quite 
certain. This effects the farmer — sometimes favorably, but generally 
very unfavorably. At one time it makes jKoduce higher than it would 
be, by the natural law of supply and demand, and then the farmer 
profits by it, if he happens to hold the article in Ms own hands. At 
another it depresses the price below where it ought to be, by the same 
law, and then the farmer is pretty sure to loose. The merchant ascer- 
tains sooner than the farmer whether the tendencies are upward or 
downward, and of course he has the advantage, and his very instinct, 
keen as the scent of a blood-hound, leads him to use it. It will always 

218 Give so Much, Take so Much. 

be so, as long as our present banking system, and a consequent over- 
grown credit system, exists. Any bank in this city can make a par- 
ticular butcher rich in a few days, partly at the expense of the farmers 
and more at that of the New-York eaters of meat, and they icill do it, 
if that butcher happens to be the friend of an influential director. 
The banks make a great many men rich ; and tlmt would be a good 
thing, if they did not make a hundred laboring men poor, while they 
enrich one sharper. It is with farm produce generally, as with butch- 
er's meat. Banks and shar])ers are always making it more precious 
with the consumer than with the producer. How many produce mer- 
chants are there to-day in this city who burst up in other business ten 
years ago and left their creditors to go ichlstling, who are now worth 
more money — not worth more, but Avortli more money — than all the 
farmers together, who have grown all the produce they have bought 
and sold ? They are not great men, don't know much, but know one 
thing well, and that is how to make a tub of butter or a fat (cheese 
cost the consumer about twice as much as it brings the producer, i 
such a way that they get the lion's share of the difference, and give 
the ass's share to the carrier. That is our idea of commerce; and a 
long as our bloated credit system, giving to sharpers, not worth a red 
penny, millions to speculate with to the detriment of better men, lasts, 
there will be a few honest merchants doing a useful business, worthy 
of all praise ; but the great body of those who buy and sell for a liv- 
ing, will be scamps, and they will live and some of them get rich at 
the expense of honest men. 

3. The story of the man selling his wheat and the boy his melons, is 
a very good illustration. It shows how the merchant sells the farmer. 
But courage, friend ! It does not prove that the farmers of the coun- 
try are all dolts. Much less does it prove that they always will be. 
There is a better time coming. There was a time when we bought 
all our manufactured goods of other nations. There "were no consu- 
mers of agricultural produce among us except those who grew it, and 
no money came for the jDroduce that Avas put into their own mouths 
It was then that the farmers learned that they were underlings. Plow 
could producers without a customer be anything else ? But now we 
make half of our own iron. We make nearly half of all our manufac- 
tured goods. The farmer begins to have a few customers about him. 
The times are better for him ; and they will be still better when our 
government wakes up, as it assuredly will, sooner or later, to its obli- 
gations to the great agricultural interest, so far as to inaugurate mea- 
sures that will give to the American fanners the feeding of the men 
who make their coats, log-chains, bed-blankets, etc., etc. Let us look 
at the question, whether we shall supply our own wants or depend 

Horticultural. 219 

upon other nations to supply tliem, not as partizans, not in the light of 
stump speeches which we may have heard, not as the abetters of some 
theory which we may have taken up hastily about its being cheaper 
to buy than to make our own necessaries, but as farmers, as men ca- 
pable of thinking for ourselves, who mean to be at least on a level 
with the rest of mankind, and who will have, yes, will have the pro- 
fit of feeding the makers of our sheep-shears, case-knives, wearing ap- 
parel, and what else we want. — Ed. 

m^^ « * « ^^ 


Preparation of Soil. 

In the cultivation of the garden, as of the farm, the first thing is to 
select the locality for a particular crop, or for a permanent object, as 
that of a garden, for instance, and to prepare the soil. 

After all the divisions of soils that have been made, they may for all 
practical purposes be reduced to three, sandy, clayey, and loamy, in 
the first of which saiid predominates, and in the second clay, while in 
the third sand and clay are happily blended in about those proportions 
which render them desirable to the cultivator. 

A loamy soil is to be preferred for gardening purposes. Choose 
such a soil, if you have it on your farm, and in a location suitable for 
the garden. But remember that the garden is a part of the home- 
stead ; it is to be beautiful as well as profitable ; its elegances and lux- 
uries are to be on hand and not afar oft'; it is to adorn your dwelling, 
as your dwelling is to adorn it ; is to be the rendezvous for many a 
social enjoyment, earlier in the morning than you go to the broad 
field, and later in the evening than you return from its weary labors. 

If, then, your buildings are already erected, or even if the ground 
for them is chosen, you have no great range for the choice of a "gar- 
den spot." If the soil, where as a matter of taste and convenience 
you want to meet your wife and children and friends, among flowers 
and fruits and esculents, is not a feasible loam with a porous subsoil, 
one that will both stand the drouth and drink in excessive rains so 
readily as not to keep the surface long flooded, you must make it such. 
The expense will be considerable, but it will pay, and you can not en- 
joy the pleasures and profits without. » 

An expense may be necessary which migljit well alarm you, if it 
were to be applied to your whole farm. But what is it for an acre, or 
half an acre? Nothing compared with the substantial benefits prom- 
ised, to say nothing of the exquisite pleasure. If the soil is so exceed- 

220 Horticultural. 

ingly refractory that it can not be made deep and mellow and rich, 
without a very great exjiense, it might be well to content yourself 
with a smaller garden than you would otherwise cultivate, though as 
a general rule we believe the gardens of our country are too small, 
and should be enlarged rather than diminished. If the mechanic or 
tlie i)rofessional man has but the six-tenth of an acre, it is worth a 
great deal, and we would advise him to make the most of it. But 
why should not the farmer, who has land enough, take a generous 
piece for a garden ? Of all that the garden produces, there is scarcely 
an item which he can not dispose of advantageously, if he have a sur- 
plus, either by sale, or by giving it away, or feeding it to stock. An 
acre is perhaps better than more, because if the enclosure is too large, 
it may foil of getting cultivated so well as to be ornamental and high- 
ly productive ; and half an acre is certainly better than less, because 
the person who but half appreciates the economical and ornamental 
value of a garden, can not do all he would desii-e on less ground. An 
acre, with fruit borders occupying one-half, and leaving an oblong or 
square half acre for the garden proper, would be to our mind, and that 
whether the farm of which it were a part were thirty acres or three 

If your soil is a medium loam, and has a porous subsoil, you have no- 
thing to do m the way of preparing the soil but to plough 10 or 15 
inches deep, harrow, grade, plough again, and work in a plenty of 
good barn manure, so incorporating it with the soil that it shall per- 
vade every inch, and you are ready to set your trees and make your 
garden. But suppose it to be a stiff instead of a medium loam, a few 
loads of sand in addition to the manure will effect the requisite amend- 
ment. Or if it is a light, sandy loam, then a few loads of clay will 
make it just what you want. And the cost in either case will hardly 
be worth naming. If instead of being a loam, a little too stiff or rather 
too light, it is a sandy soil, then clay in addition to manure is all you 
want to make it just what you would have it. The more sandy the 
more clay will be required. Or if your soil is the stiffest clay, sand 
enough with manure will make it as good a loam as you can desire. 
■Where clay is used as an amendment, it should always be exposed to 
the frosts of winter before ploughing in, and should be thoroughly in- 
corporated with the soil ; and even when sand is used the soil should 
be j)loughed more than once, harrowed many times, and the new ingre- 
dient evenly mixed. And where sand or clay, as one or the other may 
be required, can not be obtained within a reasonable distance, swamp 
mud, long out and well-warmed in the sun, and washed with rains, will 
go far towards producing the same amendments — will really produce, 
only less permanently, both the effect of clay on sand, and of sand on 

Horticultural. 221 

clay, rendering a compact soil lighter, and a light soil more compact. 
The difference is, that this application would need to be repeated 
every few years, whereas the amendment of a soil by applying its 
opposite, is a j^ermanent amendment. 

The above is all on the supposition that the subsoil is porous, such 
that water passes downward freely, neither floods the surface, nor 
stops and becomes stagnant one, two, nor even three feet below. If 
there is any doubt about this, dig holes, like post holes, one, two, 
three, and three and-a-half feet deep, and if water stands more than 
a very few minutes in them after even the hardest shower, that grovmd 
requires draining, in order to be fit for a garden. You then have to 
preface your other amendments, whatever may be required, by un- 
derdraining. Of course, you would not have an open drain in your 
garden or anywhere near your house. A tidy farmer will hardly have 
them anywhere. Go to work then, and lay down the under-drains. 
For a garden where you expect to do a good deal of work, and would 
deem it bad economy to render your labor less satisfactory by any 
defect in the soil, the drains should be near each other. In some 
cases one very deep drain running through the center, and side 
drains falling in from opposite directions, not quite as deep, and near 
to each other, would be advisable. But we all know that " water 
runs down hill," and the owner can decide where to lay his drains 
better than somebody a thousand miles off. 

We will only add, that the autumn is the best time to prepare the 
ground for a garden. Winter even need not be lost, in case of large 
amounts of heavy earth to be drawn from a distance. How we wish 
that one million of farms in our land, now showing only a little, stingy, 
miserable apology for a garden, not the most beautiful nor always the 
most productive spots on these farms, could show next spring, as the 
snow leaves them, grounds already prepared for gardens beautiful 
enough and fruitful enough to tempt the angels to come do^m and walk 
in them in the cool of the morning and evening. 

Reader, we are not talking about the garden. It is only about 
preparmg the ground. Do this, and next spring you can set your 
trees, begin your flower-beds, plant your seeds, and all that you do 
will prosper. We will tell you how to proceed as best we can. 
Have a good garden, you who have land. We have none — are 
doomed to look on brick and mortar and doT\Ti on pebble stones. 
But you, who have land, should have a proud garden You may be 
proud of it. If it is a sin to be proud of a good garden — we don't 
believe it is — we'll act the priest and give you absolution. Have a 
garden that any one could be proud of, and not sin, and if the angels 
do not visit you there, your wives and daughters and their female 

222 horticultural. 

frifends will, and Teith a little aid of the imagination, you can think the 
angels wore helping you. Prepare the plot before winter. 

Fruit Garden and Orchard. 

Hakdy trees should be reviewed in autumn. Manure unthrifty trees. 
Top-dress straw-berry beds late in the month. Bank \\\) trees to i)re- 
vent the attack of mice. Lay down and protect tender grapes. — 
Grape layers may be removed from the vLie. — Grafts may be cut 
and preserved. — Workiyig Farmer. 



We have been astonished at the growth of this vegetable. We 
have recently seen a field of two acres or more covered with the 
drum-head cabbage, (so called) their leaves extending so as to inter- 
fere with each other, some of the larger plants weighing between 
thirty and forty pounds, and very few of them less than twenty 
pounds. Suj^posing the plants to number 3000, and their average 
weight to be 25 lbs., this would give 85,000 lbs., or forty-two and a 
half tons to the acre. Is there any other vegetable that will produce 
so large a crop ? 

This crop was produced on land of ordinary quality, simply by ap- 
plying one shovelful of a compost to each hill of cabbage, made of 
equal quantities of barn and sea manure and night-soil, thoroughly 
mingled. This crop is grown witli as little labor as any other, and 
requires no special skill in planting or growing. Great quantities of 
these cabbage are used by the Germans and the Irish, and it is found 
one of the cheapest and most palatable articles of their food. 

We know of no man who has been more successful in the growth 
of cabbage than Mr. S. A. Merrill, of Salem, Mass., on the farm of 
the late E. H. Derby. 

Sept. 12, 1857. 

Kitchen Garden. 

Thin out turnips by pulling the larger ones for market, leaving 
the smaller to increase in size. Prepare for gathering fldl crops ; 
gather such as the weather may demand. Continue to weed si)innge, 
etc. Pl'irth up celery on dry days, after the dew has dried oif. Pre- 
pare frames for parsely, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, and such other 
plants as were sown last month. Put away vegetables by the latter 
part of the mouth for protection, and sales during winter. Potatoes 
should be cellared or put in pits or jjiles, so as to secure them from 
wet and frosts. 

Horticultural. 223 

In taking np roots and storing them, begin with the most tender, 
and take advantage of dry weather while you have it. 

Expose pumpkins and winter squashes to the sun and wind, placmg 
them on a dry board before storing them. Pack beets in sand in cel- 
lar, or put them in pits. Horse-radish may now be dug for use as 
wanted, leaving the old stools for future production. 

Weeding at^his time should not be considered as useless, and in- 
deed the removal of parasites cannot receive too much attention in 
late fall. Mulching soils intended for early gardening, will add ma- 
terially to their profitable culture and earlier products. 

To Destroy Weeds. 

Those who have visited the Nursery of Wm. Reid, at Elizabeth, 
New-Jersey, have seen 20 acres free from weeds. We once heard 
the question asked of Mr. Reid, how he managed to have his weeds 
so thoroughly pulled ? He replied that " they were never pulled, but 
that the cultivator and other tools were run between the trees and 
crops so frequently, that the weeds were disturbed and destroyed be- 
fore they became large enough to pull." The only question in our 
mind was, " Will so many disturbances of the soil as \^ ould be neces- 
sary to destroy all weeds be paid for by increased crops ?" Our ex- 
perience since has proved, that row crops of all kinds pay a better 
profit when the soil is so frequently disturbed as to destroy all weeds, 
than with a less number of disturbances, and this, too, on soil natur- 
ally as full of w^eeds as any other we ever have seen. It must be ad- 
mitted, however, that hand hoes are not the proper implements with 
which to disturb row crops, or to destroy weeds among such crops, 
with the single exception perhaps of a few weeds between plants in 
the rows, but never between the rows. — Working Far. 

Only, among potatoes, the earth should not be thrown around the 
hills but once, and we would recommend great caution about disturb- 
ing the roots of corn, after the plants have attained a height of two 
or three feet. — ^Ed. 

High Farming. 

Me. F. Mechi, whose name is associated with the first triumphs of 
American reaping machines in England, which occurred on his farm 
at Tiptree, has recently written a little work called " How to Farm 
Profitably," in which he disposes, in a good humored manner, of all 
those who have taken grounds against hi gJi farming. He says : 

"I have often been much amused by the compassionate look and 
manner in which my friends inquired after my doings at Tiptree. The 
translation of these sentiments is this : ' Mr. Mechi, you are kindly 
losing money by your experiments to oblige the country, and we 
ought to feel grateful to you.' But I sternly ejaculate that what 
does not pay in agriculture is not an improvement. The fact is, for 
several years I have been deriving a most gratifying return for my 
expenditure, and it is of a very enduring and continuous character ; 
but the world does not believe it." 

224 horticultural. 

Hygienic Influence of Trees. 

The cultivation of forest trees is becoming more and more a sub- 
ject of serious consideration among public economists. 

The relation of ti*ees to the comforts and conveniences of life, and 
the great question of a future supply, which arises in \'iew of tlic con- 
tinual destruction of our forests has attracted the attention of the best 
intellects of our country 

To the physician the subject has an additional importance in view 
of the hygienic influence of trees upon the atmosphere, and conse- 
quently upon the human system, both in health and disease. 

It is well known that naw diseases make their a})pearance as the 
forests are cleared away, and the superior physical power and health 
of backwoodsmen over the inhabitants of treeless plains, has always 
been acknowledged. 

The influence of animal and vegetable life, one upon the other, has 
not escaped the attention of observing men; but little or no eflbrt has 
been made to inform the public of many facts in coimection with this 
subject Avhich it is vitally important should be known ; and a whole- 
sale destruction of our forest trees has gone on to an extent that 
threatens to leave us, at a time not far in the future, comparatively 
destitute of the great pride of America — its forests. 

The physiological influence of trees of all sorts is apparent to every 
one who knows the avidity with wliicli they absorb carbon and am- 
monia, the two great extractions of animal life, which, if left free in 
the atmosphere, render poisonous the air we breathe. 

The planting of trees in our cities, and the preservation of forests, 
would do more to preserve the public health than many other more 
expensive hygienic measures. — JSF. II. Jour. Med. 

The Fruitery. 

Those who have them of a few years' growth, will now be realizing 
a very pleasant advantage over their less provident neighbors ; but 
not ^^■ithout still constant and faithful care. Insects are to be ob- 
served and destroyed ; blight to be prevented ; every useless leaf and 
twig to be carefully removed. Whatever does not add directly to 
the health and productiveness of the tree or bush, is to be avoided ; 
whatever does, to be appropriated. 

The mildew, which is the greatest foe to the Gooseberry, may be 
prevented l)y removing the earth from directly around the roots, and 
mulching with salted hay, or any light compost well saturated with 
salt. Indeed, this system of mulching can not be too highly recom- 
mended for fruits generally. It should cover the ground four or five 
inches in depth, and extend as far out as the hight of the bush or tree ; 
thus protecting the roots from the effects of intense heat and sudden 
changes of temperature. 

If the (7«<a/i7y of your fruit is a more desirable object than the quan- 
tity^ a lai'ger size and better flavor may be secured by thinning out 
from one-third to one-half, as soon as it is fairly set ; or, perhaps, bet- 
ter still, by pinchmg ofl" the blossoms. — Wisconsin Farmer. 

American Inventions. 225 

g u nt t 1^ m e ri c R H | it ,lj ni; t i n $ , 

Sewing Machines. 

A GENERAL interest appears to be awakened upon the subject of these domes- 
tic labor-saving machines, -which extends to all classes of the community. In our 
recent tour to the East, we visited scarcely a single family who did not make 
some inquiry in reference to them. Every sewing girl regards her fortune as 
secure if she can possess one. Housewives look upon them as a godsend, that 
will save them a large portion of the time now devoted to the preparation of 
clothes for the family. And among even the extra fashionable, there seems a 
quiet current in actual motion, freighted with sewing machines for their special 
use. Our Fifth Avenue could make quite a parade of these implements. But 
there is, for obvious reasons, a universal fear of being cheated in the purchase. 
The wrong machine, or a machine badly constructed, or not in complete pre- 
paration for use, may be chosen, from the entire want of experience and of all 
knowledge in regard to them. Hence the anxiety of those who, in scores, have 
inquired of us, "what is the best?" 

To answer this question is about as difficult as to tell which is the best apple 
in the market, or the best pear, or the handsomest dress pattern. But there 
are certain things that we can state in reierence to them, which will be a useful 
guide, to some extent, for all those who would procure this curious and useful 

The world is indebted to the mechanical genius of this countrj'' for all the 
sewing machines in actual use in every country under the sun. The patent of 
Mr. Howe, for the " shuttle movement," which was obtained in 184G, is the 
beginning of the history of sewing machines for general use, and although he 
was not able to perfect his machinery so as to make a good machine, those who 
were competent to this, or rather who were successful in doing this, were obliged 
to use his "shuttle movement," because his patent covers all the known contri- 
vances for using two threads, and all the recent inventors are obliged to pay 
him a handsome tribute for the use of that movement. This, of course, secures 
to him an immense income from sewing machines, though he never made one 
that the public would bu3^ Leaving the construction of the various parts of 
these machines, we proceed to make such suggestions as are of interest to one 
who would purchase. 

Each kind of machine makes a peculiar stitch, and is confined to that, with 
the exception mentioned hereafter. The length of the stitch can be varied in 

The machines familiar to us make one of the three following stitches : The 
tambour or chain stitch, the lock stitch, or (as in Grover and Baker's) a stitch 
with a compound or double looping. 

The tambour stitch is that in common use in manufactories of broadcloth, 
etc., for marking their goods. It is formed by di'iving the needle through the 
cloth, (the eye of the needle being near the point.) then withdrawing it, but 
n 8 

2-26 American Inventions. 

leavin'^ a loop " slack," or not drawn out. The needle is again driven through 
the cloth, in the place of the second stitch, and a second loop left as before. 
The first loop is then hitched on to the second, which second loop secures the 

first as soon as the second is itself hitched on to the third, as already described, 
and so the process goes on. Each loop is fostcned by the next to the end of 
the work. Hence if this end of the thread is not properly secured, a slight 
force applied to it will draw out the whole seam. But it can not be thus ripped 
from the end at which the work was commenced. This is essentially the same 
stitch that is formed in plain knitting. 

Another stitch is the lock or shuttle stitch, patented by Mr. Howe. This stitch 
is made by nearly all the machines which use two threads, the second thread 
being wound on a " shuttle" or its equivalent, on the under side of the work. 

This is formed by locking one thread in another, as a man would hook his two 
fore fingers together. The second diagram exhibits this loop. This is some- 
times called the mail bag stitch. The needle is thrust through the cloth, and 
then withdrawn, leaving a slack loop, when a shuttle or some other similar con- 
trivance draws a thread through this loop. The next descent of the needle 
draws this loop tight, while the shuttle thread prevents the first or needle 
thread from escaping through the cloth. This action is constantly repeated. 
The lower thread may be nearly or quite straight, as it always is when Jiard 
cloth as linen is sewed. It then operates like a wire, running through every 
loop, or like the chain of the mail-bag, and thus holds the work firm. If, in 
u.sino; this stitch, the lower thread is quite straight, and the work drawn too 
tight, or gathered, whenever force is applied, as in washing, ironing, etc., to 
pull the cloth straight, the thread is liable to break. But few stitches, however, 
would be "let down" by this, the tightness of the work securing the thread in 
its place. If the under thread is drawn nearly or quite into the center of the 
cloth as it would be in thick goods, if both threads are equally tight, the elas- 
ticity of the cloth will secure the thread from breaking, and the work will be 
much more durable. 

A third stitch is made only by G rover & Baker's machine, and is formed as 
follows : The needle is thrust through the cloth and withdrawn, leaving a loop 
as in those before described, which loop is kept in its place by a rotary hook 


till a second loop is formed. The first loop is then passed between the threads of 
the second loop, and hitched over the third loop, and the whole is drawn tight. 
The second loop, passing between the threads of the third, is hitched over the 
fourth, and so on. 

The complication of the stitch made by Grover & Baker's machines, in other 
words, the double looping of each stitch, produces on the under side of the 
work a small ridge, which is a blemish to its appearance where both sides are 
exposed to view, as in shirt collars, wristbands, etc. Hence they manufacture 

American Inventions. 221 

another kind of machine, to be used for such purposes, which makes the same 
stitch as the otlier high-priced machines, though with different machinery. 

The machine referred to as forming different stitches, is Robinson's, or rather 
" Robinson's with Roper's improvement." This uses only a needle-full of thread, 
the whole length of which passes through the eye of the needle at every stitch, 
the eye being a kind of hook, and the needle re-seizing the thread at every 
movement. Hence, if there is any imperfection in the thread, it will be dis- 
covered at once ; its rupture is almost certain. This machine takes any stitch 
in use, we believe, except the " button hole" stitch. A friend informs us that 
Mr. Harrison, of this city, has a machine designed for sewing button holes, but 
we have never seen it. 

The machines of Wheeler & Wilson, and Singer & Co., make the lock stitch, 
as shown in the second diagram. All the ''cheap sewing machines" we have 
examined, as Pratt's, Watson's, Avery's, etc., make the tambour stitch, as 
shown in the first diagram. 

So far as any advantages are to be found in one or the other of these, we are 
aware of none except what results from the difference of the stitch, and 
also the ease with which the different machines are kept in motion. One form 
of machine may be thought more neat and tasteful than another, and one 
or the other be more easily managed by particular individuals, its mysteries 
being more readily understood, but hosts of certificates might be obtained by 
each, testifying that each one is far better than all the rest, The chief point of 
difference between the several machines may therefore be stated as follows : 

Grover & Baker's double-locked stitch is peculiar to their machines. Their 
shuttle machine, Wheeler & Wilson's, and Singer & Co.'s, all make the same 
stitch, but by different machinery, and into these mechanical differences we can 
not now enter. They do not very materially affect the comparative value of 
either, Robinson's makes its various kinds of stitches, but it has complicated 
machinery, does less work in a given time, and requires more effort to work 
it It requires also the very best of thread. The cheap machines make the 
tambour stitch only, as in first diagram, and will not do so much work as the 
more expensive machines. There are other machines, too numerous to mention, 
both using the shuttle and a single thread, the special merits of which have not 
been brought to our notice. Some are " high priced ;" some are " cheap," and 
one or two, like Woodruff's, are more costly than those named as cheap, and 
cheaper than those called high priced. i 

Telegraphs for Railroads. 

A NEW system of telegraph for railroads has been devised by Mr. L. Solo- 
mons, of Savannah, Ga,, which seems to us very promising. The subject is 
one of very great importance, and all suggestions in relation to it should receive 
due consideration. If a plan proposed is a bad one, it may suggest a good one. 
Mr. Solomon uses signals, consisting of lanterns placed at intervals of five or 
ten miles along the whole line of the road. The sides of the lanterns next to 
the road are closed so as to exclude the light. Revolving shades, governed by 
an electrical current, alternately shut off the light of the lamps, or expose it so 
as to throw its rays up or down the road. A single wire connects these re- 


American Inventions. 

volving shades in a series of telegraphic circuits, which are completed only 
when an additional wheel, attached to a locomotive fur the purpose, passes over 
a lever which is fixed with necessary insulation on the track near each signal- 
I&mp. As soon as this wheel presses on the lever, its further aim is thrown 
up, and the point of contact completes a telegraphic circuit of five or ten miles, 
and thus makes a magnet of a coil of wire, which changes the position of the 
revolving shades, and exposes the light of the lamp five or ten miles ahead, 
warning engineers on trains moving in counter directions that they must go 
forward cautiously, if at all. When the train reaches the next signal lamp, the 
wheel again depresses a second lever, which by a like operation closes the shade 
at the starting point or depot, opens that at the second signal lamp, and that also 
at the lamp five or ten miles in advance. The lights thus opened disclose the 
fact to one engineer that another train is w'ithin the section over which the 
light is shed, while the absence of the light notifies him that the track is clear. 
During the day the same effect is produced upon the shades, and the same 
warning given, which engineers may as plainly learn fiom the position of the 
shades as they could from the light of the lamps at night. The shades stand 
upright when the track is clear, and lie horizontally when there is a train on 
the section to be passed. 

Nutting's Carriage Gear. 

We here present our readers with a description and engraving of an improve- 
ment in carriage gear, by Mr. Rufus Nutting, of Randolph, Vt., for which a 

patent was obtained in July 
last. The improvement con- 
sists in so constructing and ap- 
plying the springs that a variety 
of pressure upon them shall 
not vary their length, so as to 
put the wheels out of " track," 
if the pressure happens to be 
greater upon one spring than 
the other ; also in so combining 
springs and guard rods or straps 
for carriages with the body and 
axles, that they will answer the 
five-fold purpose of springs, 
reaches, perch, braces, and 
rocker, thereby greatly dimin- 
ishing the weight and cost of carriages, while they are not only not injured in 
auy respect, but greatly improved. 

A is the forward axle, raised in the central part for increased stiffness, and 
ateo that the downward curvature near the end of the springs, C, may not hit 
it v^hile turning the carriage. The hind end of the springs are T shaped and 
firmly held to the upper side of the axle, B, by the clasp, T, and the bolt, K, 
which also holds to the luider side the curved bar or plate, E, which projects 
Ibrwai'd and downward about four inches, or to a certain point which is always 
»t the same distance from the ear, H', however much the axle, B, is made to 

American Inventions. 229 

roll by the depression of the springs, and into which is linked the guard, D, 
attached to the ear, H', which is a part of the chafing iron, H. The object 
of the guard, D, is to prevent any extension of the spring when the wheel sud- 
denly strikes any obstruction, and also to support the body in case the spring 
should br_ak. 

The springs, 0, are curved downward near each end just so much that in de- 
pressing them those parts below a straight line, from one end to the other, in- 
crease just as much as that part above decreases, and vice versa, and being 
firmly fastened near to the outer ends of the hind axle, converge to the king- 
plate or fifth wheel, F, to which they are bolted, and through which the king- 
bolt, G, passes loosely, and screws into the under side of the forward axle, 
which is rounded a httle upon its upper side, that the springs may play freely, 
the thills being firmly attached to it, instead of being connected by joints or 
Jmiges, as is sometimes the case. The body is attached to the springs by 
spring-bars, as usual. 

The advantages of this invention consist chiefly in simplicity of construction, 
as by it 2 reaches, 1 perch, 1 rocker, 6 iron plates or braces, 18 bolts, and 4 
hinges or joints, usually used, are whoUy dispensed with, thus lessening cost 
and weight ; in admitting of longer and consequently more elastic springs 
without increasing the length of the carriage ; in shorter turning ; in allowing 
the hind axle to be much smaller and lighter ; in admitting of having the four 
wheels of equal size, which renders the jolting much less and the draft easier; 
in stillness in running, it being impossible for the king-bolt to work loose or 
rattle, and the guards being alwaj^s tense, so that they can make no noise ; in 
lightness of appearance, etc., etc. ' 

The chief features of this improvement have been thoroughly tested in one 
one-horse and one two-horse carriage for more than a year, and it proves entirely 

American Institute. 
The twenty-ninth Annual Fair of this honorable and useful institution was 
opened to the public, as has been announced. We have been able to make but 
a very partial examination of the numerous machines and useful inventions there 
collected, nor have we space fully to describe the few we have examined. 
Besides, many pieces of machinery are not yet in operation. Hence we can 
make but a beginning in this direction. The show will prove a good one, and will 
pay well for the time given to it. For the better appreciation of the extent and 
value of the exhibition, in some of the more important branches, we shall take thera 
up in classes. But convenience requires us now to refer to several of a mis- 
cellaneous character without much order or arrangement. 


Mr. Charles Robinson of Cambridgeport, Mass., exhibits his Patent Elastic 
Spring Stairs. This invention was patented in May last, and consists of a steel 
spring in connection with an India rubber supporter, which arc placed upon a 
cross slat under the stair, upon which the stair rests. At each tread of the foot 
the spring yields, and in its expanding or upward movement, it diminishes the 
effort required for rising to the next stair. The yielding of the spring is also a 

230 Anierica?i Inventions. 

relief as the foot rests upon a stair, cither in ascending or descending, prevent- 
ing all the jarring which sensitive nerves or weak or tired persons sometimes 
feel even in descending a steep hill. The whole cost of a stair thus connected, 
is within a dollar and a half. 


Mr. John Casey, whose Depot is announced as 345 Broadway, exhibits a 
new and ver}- much improved method of attaching the cords and puUies to a 
window sash, and of removing the sash from its casings. The invention was 
patented June 185G, and is very simple, consisting only of a large spherical 
knot at the end of the cord, let into a corresponding nitch made for it in the 
edge of the sash. Hence there is no untying or cutting of cords, when the 
window is to bC;,rcmoved. The sash is taken out from its position in its frame 
without drawin a nail or turning a screw. 


McMaken's Bhnd Operator is designed to open and shut an outside blind, 
without opening the window. This is done by jointed levers, running through 
tlie lower side of the frame, fastened to the blind, and secured in its place on the 
inside of the window by a small brass plate. The change is effected very easily ; 
the blind is moved to and kept at any desired position, and docs not interfere 
with shutters. Several architects have given it their commendation. 


Messrs. Groebl & Volkmar, of Baltimore, Md., exhibit some very handsome 
specimens of "improved marquetry," which they claim to be an improvement 
upon all hitherto in use. It consists of Mosaics of various patterns, and is suit- 
able for private or public buildings. It is very highly ornamental. Its cost is 
$1.5 or $1.25 per squai'c foot, more or less, according to its figure, etc. 


*""■ We saw at the Mechanic Fair, in Lowell, a chair, the rocking of which kepi 
in motion a large fan, just over head. But a much more luxurious arrangement 
is on exhibition at the Crystal Palace. Between the back ends of the rockers of 
a well-stuffed chair, arc arranged compound bellows, placed upon tlie floor ; a 
pipe leads from these bellows into an ice-box under the seat, where the draft is 
cooled. Another pipe leads from the ice-box up the side of the chair to a con- 
venient height, which then turns towards its occupant, who receives the draft 
upon his person. In its passage the draft passes through a box provided with 
any desired scent, so that this artificial current breathes of roses, or spices, and 
will carry any medical influence which is placed within its course, to the lungs 
of an invalid. The whole arrangement costs from $18 to $20 and upwards, ac- 
o-ording to its style. It is exhibited by Mr. David Kahnweiler, of Wilmington, 
N. C. 


A very simple little affair, which one wonders never was thought of before, is 
Lowe's Patent Portable Printing Press, which does its work very neatly. The 
smallest size prints a sheet 5 by 6 inches, and costs but $5, and the largest 
13 by 17 inches. This costs $15. It may also be conveniently used as a letter 
copying press. It is exhibited by the Lowe Press Company, Boston. 

American Inventions. 231 


Very elegant furniture is now manufactured, exclusively of iron. Many 
articles are on exhibition at the Crystal Palace. Among the most beautiful are 
Patent Spring Chairs from the ware-room 292 Broadway. These are even 
luxurious, so perfectly are they arranged. But whenever iron comes even in 
indirect contact with the person, it is found to be uncomfortable in winter 
These chairs are designed to be proof against this. How successfully this is 
carried out we can not judge. 

weight's bed bottom. 

This old friend of ours again makes its appearance. Continued use of it con- 
firms our conviction that it is at least as good as the best. It has also the 
advantage of being easily kept clean, every part being perfectly accessible 
both to the brush and the scouring cloth. It is for sale 640 Broadway. 

We have memorandums of other articles equally worthy of special mentio23, 
but our pages are full, and we must defer the mention of them to our next num- 

Mechanics Fair, Lowell, Mass. 

The second exhibition of the Middlesex County Mechanic Association is now 
in progress. We had the pleasure of being present at its opening, and of exam- 
ining its numerous apartments. 

Lowell is the center of a vast array of mechanical talent. The mantle of it? 
founders, the Lowells and the Moodys, now rests on not a few whose inventive 
skill, and whose executive energy have wrought and are still working out an 
amount of good through the world, the origin of which the world is ignorant of, 
and which it constantly uses as a means of wealth and of power, while the in- 
ventors are seldom thought of, and their very names may not endure longer 
than will their tombstones. 

The anxiety and paralysis which have seized whole communities of business 
men, in almost every section of our country, have not failed to make a deep mark 
upon the industry of that city. One " corporation" after another has stopped 
its machinery and dismissed its operatives— the same process that is going on 
at Lewiston, Newburyport, in Rhode Island, and indeed in almost all manufac- 
turing districts. This turn of affairs has no doubt operated unfavorably upon 
the Fair. Mechanics and inventors had less than their usual ardor of ambition, 
and less hope of present advantage from the exhibition of their ingenious pro- 
ducts. In several departments the show is therefore less extensive than we no- 
ticed in their first exhibition some two or three years ago. 

Nevertheless, enough is there collected to show the high attainments and con- 
summate practical skill, which characterize the people of that city and county, 
while strangers residing at a distance make some very valuable contributions, 
to the show. 

Of cotton, woolen, and silk goods, white and colored, there is a very extensive 
and very elegant assortment from the Merrimac and Hamilton corporations of 
Lowell, the Lowell Bleachery and Dye Works, from the Lawrence Mills, and the 
Lewiston Mills. Most of these are from the well known house of Lawrence & 
Stone, the agents of these and other manufacturing establishments, whose repu- 

232 AmericaJi Invetitiotis. 

tation is world-wide and not excelled by that of any house in Christendom, while 
it is equalled by few. 

In the home-made department wc saw much to admire and some to censure. 
A quilt composed of some six or seven thousand pieces, sewed together by a 
j^l of thirteen j-ears of age, proves, by "six or seven thousand" witnesses, that 
" all the fools are not dead yet," and that some mothers have very debased and 
debasing views of the elements of true education, and of the essence of good do- 
mestic training. Each of those little polygons, scarcely larger than a dime, in 
emphatic tones, proclaims time wasted, energies prostituted, temper tried, and 
labor worse than thrown awaj'. Let it be regarded as a warning to parents who 
are responsible for the proper development and training of the mind and affec- 
tions, and for the due growth and strengthening of each and every part of the 
physical being. 

In the same apartment is a new gas light by Mr. Mace, of Springfield, Mass., 
which promises well. A passing view of it will not warrant us, however, in any 
wholesale commendation. "We can only say it looks well and seems quite wor- 
thy of attention. The same idea is also applied by ]Mr. Mace to a portable gas 

All the varieties of fancy work, in silk, linen, etc., silver wares, hair work, 
musical instruments, etc., etc., are here collected, and furnish opportunities for 
those fond of examining these departments of art. 


This department is limited in extent, but excellent in its detail'?. Some few 
of them demand a more extended notice than we can now give. Among these 
is the Improved Turbine, which is used very generally in the Lowell mills, and 
i.s of far greater value than the public generally seem to suppose. Some other 
matters should be described, did our space permit. We can give room, how- 
ever, only to the following : 


We often see " marbles" of various sorts, and composed in fact, of all sorts of 
things, wrought into articles of furniture and utensils of various kinds. But wc 
do not remember to have seen soap-stone wrought into so useful and tasteful 
forms as in the exhibition of Wm. H. Maine & Co., of Boston. A medal was 
awarded them at the Exhibition of the Massachusetts Mechanic Association, of 
1856. Sinks, buckets, etc., etc., are "finished, complete in every part," in the 
language of the judges. We commend them to public attention. 

The Newburyport, Mass., Fisheries. 

TnEr.E are employed in the mackerel lisliery of this city, fifty sail of vessels, 
with a total tonnage of 3,827 tons, valued at one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars ; the outfits for the same are upwards of thirty thousand dol- 
lars ; the number of barrels used exceeds fifteen thou.sand ; number of hogs- 
heads of salt, twenty-five hundred ; bait, two thousand barrels. This fleet 
employs six hundred men, to whom are disbursed some fifty thousand dol- 

The Labrador fleet, engaged in cod fishing, comprises ten vessels ; aggregate 
tonnage, 1,200 tons, valued at twenty thousand dollars; outfits for the same, 
fifteen thousand dollars ; number of hogsheads of salt used, two thousand ; 
number of hands employed, 180 ; amount of disbursements, about fourteen 
thousand dollars. The population of the city is about 10,000. 

American Patents. 


Manny's New Mower and Reaper. 

The following engraving represents a new Mower and Reaper, invented by 
that hero in the conception and construction of agricultural machines, Pells 
Manny of Freeport, 111. We have not room now for a protracted description, 

but will 
place of 

give it hereafter. There is a Reel, not shown in the engraving, the 
which will be obvious to those ftimiliar with this implement. 

[issued from the h. s. patent office, from august 28 to september 8, 1857.] 
Raking apparatus for harvesters, Israel Dodenhoff, Bloomington 111 — Hay 
and manure forks, Wm. Jones, Speedsville, N. Y.— Harvester, Pells Manny, 
Waddam's Grove, 111. A new mode of constructing the fingers of the cutting 
apparatus and of securing them on the finger bar.— Fence for poultry yards, 
Wm. P. Thomas, White tvater, Ind.— Rake for harvesters, J. W. Brokaw, as- 
signor to Warder Brokaw and Child, Springfield, 0.— Cultivator OH. Sayre, 
Utica, N. Y., assignor to himself and Samuel Remington, Ilion, N. Y. A com- 
bined horse hoe and double mould board plow.— Cutting corn stubble, John 
Ausparger, Trenton, 0. A combination of teeth of a rake and rotating knives. 
—Rake, Andrew J. Blodgett, Newport, N. H.— Seeding machine, Charles AJ . 
Caohon. Brooklyn, N. Y.— Straw Cutter, Aury G. Goes, Worcester, Mass. bo 
constructed that its bed and knife shall each operate with a compound motion 
produced by a lever, crank, fulcrum rod and guides.— Operating the cutters _ot 
Harvesters, James Haviland, Milton, N. Y. By means of a spirally grooved in- 
termediate shaft, and a series of hemispherical or oval-headed teeth projecting 
from the face of the main bearing wheel.— Raking device for harvesters, Stephen 
R. Hunter, Cortland, N. Y.— Cotton seed Planter, Thomas J. Rogers, Cassville, 
Ga.— Attaching scythes to snaths, Oliver Clark, Henrietta, 0.— Seed Planter, 
Cyrus C. Aldrich, Fairbault, Min. Ter.--Corn Planter, D. R. Alden, Unionville, 
—Same, H. R. Allen, Athens, 0.— Corn Sheller, Andrew Dillman, Plainfaeld, 
111 —Seed Planter, J. W. Ells and James Charlton, Pittsburgh, Pa.— Mowing 
Machine, G. C. Dolph, West Andover, 0.— Hand Seed Planter, Joel Haines, 
West Middlebury, 0.— Straw Cutter, Porter Hill and C. E. Jones, Millport, JN. 
Y A. combination of the rotating knife, or cutting disk, and a series of revolv- 
ino- chambers, arranged round a central shaft, in such manner that its revolu- 
tions shall bring the straw in each, successively, between the edge of the knife 
and the periphery of the chambers. There is also a new method of feeding the 
straw to the knife.- Corn Planter, D. W. Hughes, New-London, Mo.— Sheep- 

234 American Patents. 

phearing Machine, J. V. Jenkins, Jackson, Mich. — Scythe Snath, Abner H. Fin- 
ney, Columbus, O. — Churn, Daniel E. True, Lake Village, N. II. — Harvester, 
C. M. Lufkin, Ackworth, N. H., assignor to Norris Lufkin, Unit}-, N. II. — Culti- 
vator Teeth, Edmund L. Freeman, Brownville, N. Y., assignor to himself and J. 
and G. Lord «fc Co., Watertown, N. Y. 

Metallurgy and JIanltacture of Metals. 

Dressing; saws, Philo Maltby, Dayton, 0. — Bending metal plates, E. L. Gay- 
lord, Terrysville, Conn. For bending metals at right angles. — Same, Julius Per- 
ry, Plymouth Hollow, Conn. For accomplishing the sume point. — Metal but- 
tons, Jared 0. M. Ingersoll, Ithaca, N. Y. — Shears for cutting metal, T. F. Taft, 
Worcester, Mass. A rolling lever, upon an inclined plane, which is on the side 
or blade holder. — Twisting curb chains, Lauriston Towne, Providence, R. I. — 
Separating ore, Thos. J. Chubb, New-York. Effecting a separation of a thin 
layer of finely pulverized ore, into layers or sti'ata of different specific gravity, 
upon a perforated bed, or its equivalent, b}- means of applying light, minute puffs 
of air up through the interstices of the said bed, and through a thin layer of ore, 
evenly spread, and resting thereon, for the purpose of gently agitating said layer 
of ore and floating the lightest substances therein to the top, and allowing the 
heaviest to gravitate to the bottom. — Pin sticking machine, Thaddeus Fowler, 
^Yaterbury, Conn. — Bending machine, Lewis Haj'mond, New-York. An ar- 
rangement of three rollers, convex and concave, for bending sheet metal trans- 
versely and longitudinally by one operation. — Setting saw teeth, Pearson Cros- 
by, Fredonia, X. Y. — Vibrating shears, John Toulmin, New-Worcester, Mass. 
Hanging the movable blade of a pair of shears by two adjustibls center pivots 
upon an adjustible pillar block. — Ore Separator, Thos. J. Chubb, New-York, 
an addition to the 2>atent above described, perfecting the operation of the device 
there secured — Swedging hatchet heads, Levi Dodge, Cohoes, N, Y. — Planing 
saw teeth, John N. Wilkins, Waukegan, 111. Two planers and cutters for sha- 
ping the edges of saw teeth. — Forging metals, Elbridge Wheeler, Feltonville, 
Mass. — Pipe coupling, E. Wright, Boston, Mass. A compressible packing ring, 
inserted in a groove round a pipe on each side of the joint in combination with 
screw threaded or flanged and bolted couphngs, and a thimble for holding the 
packing rings in the grooves, so as to form a water light joint and resist separa- 
tion. — Head Rest, Wm. M. McCauley, assignor to J. N. j\rclntire, Washington, 
D. C, — Casting bearings on water wheels, Chas. Taylor, Little Falls, N. Y. — 
Socket coupling for lathes, G. N. Trowbridge, Lowell, Mass. — Cutting figures 
out of sheet metal, C. P. S. Betts, New-York. — Improved wrench, H. M. Clark, 
New Britain, Conn. — Bolt for safes, Stuart Perry, Ncwpoit, N. Y. Combining 
:i .safety bolt with the lock of a bank, vault, etc., by means of a bar or trigger, 
so that the forcing of the lock by any means, from the door, shall trip or release 
the safety bolt and allow it to securely fasten or lock said door. — Lock, John P. 
Sherwood, Fort Edward, N. Y.-~-Door Spring, Edward P. Torrey and Wm. B. Til- 
ton, New- York. — Padlock, Linus Yale, Newport, N. Y. — Sash Lock, AVilliam 
Patton, Towander, Pa. — Machine for forging nuts, Edward Pay and Samuel Hall, 

Maxufactcre of Fibrous and Textile Substances. 

Hoops for ladies' skirts, Charles S. Goodman, Washington, D. C.' — Self-acting 
mules for spinning, George Wright, Grafton, Mass. — Wetting and cutting paper, 
.Moses S. Beach, iirooklyn, N. Y. — Manufacturing hat bodies, Joseph Booth, 
Newark, N. J. A rotary flat hurdle, having its perforated surface divided, in 
combination with a picking or bowing apparatus, and air exhausting apparatus, 
;dso an arrangement of the fan-shaft upon the spindle of the revolving hurdle. — 
Umbrellas and Parasols, Sheldon Confield, Derby, Conn., the form and construc- 
tion of the clasp. — Loom, Edwin A. Scholfield," Westerly, R. I. A driving or 
revolving cam or tappett wheel, which acts to spring the harness, or produce a 
shed in weaving, by an intermittent or variable motion, by the use of star gears. 
— Sewing Machine, Wm. Wickersham, Boston, which we" shall notice hereafter. 

American Patents. 23S 



—Same, Henry Behn, assignor to himself and Thos. Scwall, New-York 
method' of looping by two pointed bars, one moving in a plane above the 0-_- 
and so operating in combmation with the needle, that the loop is formed and 
held open by bending the thread in opposite directions.— Same, Samuel Larkm, 
assio-nor to Wheeler & Wilson Ma.niif;ictnring Co., Bridgeport, Ct. A spring 
brake.— Folding Paper, 0. P. Wiggins, A. H. Nordyke, and Benj. Strawbndgo, 
Pachmond, Ind. ^Spooling thread, Charles H. Bradford, Lynn, Mass back 
fastener, Wm. P. and Jacob E. B. Maxson, Albion, Wis. A spring tongue, 
pressint^ the string against a side flange or projection.— Sewing Machine, Orson 
0. Phelps, Rochester, N. Y. Constructing the needle bar with a cap or i^elmet 
on its top, and a spring or clastic material interposed between the parts, for the 
purpose of giving a yielding bearing to the thread bolt, whereby a very tme 
thread may be used without breaking.— Carding Engines, H. N. Gambrill and 
S. F. Burgee, Woodbury, Ind. Delivering the cotton into the main cylinder 
always at'^two and sometimes at three different places, while using but one set 
of feeding rollers, etc.— Wash mixtures for woolens, etc., Wm. Reisig, ^storia, 
N. Y. A cheap aqueous solution, with alkali in excess.— Condenser tor list 
speeders, Wm. Mattison, assignor to J. C. Whitin, Northbridge, Mass. 

Chemical Processes, Manufactures, etc. 

Telegraph Repeaters, J. E. Smith, Troy, N. Y.— Filter, Wm. W. Ayres Wm- 
cester, Mass.— Glass Furnace, Samuel Richards, Philadelphia, Pa.— bpirit btiii 
Edward Herring, Walton-on-Thames, Eng.— Insulated telegraphic wires inclosed 
in metallic tubing, Samuel 0. Bishop, New-York.— Manufacturing A ercUgri.' 
Ludwig Brumlen, Hoboken, N. J.— Gas Retorts, Sounders Coates New- York. 
A false bottom of metal of different degrees of fusibility, as one of lead in com- 
bination with one of iron, resting upon the easily fusible metal.— Vapor l-amp, 
J G Gilbert, New-York.— Machines for punching paper fillets, for transmitting 
paper fillets, John P. Humaston, New-Haven, Conn.— Blast Furnace, Samuel 
Wilkes, Hammondville, 0. The application of steam in blast lurnaces at the 
boshes.— Saccharine Evaporators, Joseph Bour, Forbach, France, assignor ti. 
Charles Parlange, Parish of Point Cupee, La. 

Calorifics, Including Lamps, Stoves, &c. 

Coal sifters, Cyrus C. Aldrich, Faribault, Min. Ter.- Signals for stcam-Jjoats, 
Albert Potts, Philadelphia.— Extension Gas Tubes, Charles Monson, New-Haven, 
Conn.— Coal Sifter, William D. Brown, Wevmouth, Mass.— Chimney <^ap, Ira 
Mahew, Albion, Mich.— Gas Regulator, John H. Powers, Nev^'ark, IN. J.— 
Lantern, J. S. A. Rohrman, Philadelphia, Pa.— Portable Gas generatoi;s, War- 
ren A. Simmons, Boston, Mass.— Cooking Range, Samuel Pierce, Troy, N. 1.— 
Cupola Furnace, Philip W. Mackenzie, Jersey City, N. J.— Water vessel tor 
hot air furnace, Wm. Moultrie, New-York.- Gas Regulator, John H. Oooper, 
Philadelphia, Pa. -Grate Bars, Edward Dugdale, Burlington, N. J.— Cooking 
Stove, Sidney Godley, Lockport, N. Y.— Baker for Cooking Stoves, P. P. Stewart, 
Troy, N. Y.— Hot Air Register, J. V. Tibbetts, New-York. 

Steam and Gas ^^ngines, &c. 

Tube for steam pressure gauges, E. H. Ashcroft, Boston, Mass.— Metallic Pack^ 
ing for pistons of steam engines, G. H. Corliss, Providence, R. I-— ^^^'^ 
Pressure Regulator, Lucius F. Knowles, Warren, Mass.— Packing of Rotary 
Engines, Gerard Sickles, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Navigation and Maritime Implements. 

Surf and Life-Boats, Richard C. Holmes, Cape May C. H., N. J.— Life preserv- 
ing berths, Eldridge Foster, Hartford, Conn. —Attaching whiffle-trees to tow 
lines, Andrew Seaman, Amsterdam, N. Y.— Ships' Berths, Henry Getty, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.— Ships' Capstans, Charles E. Marwick, Portland, Me. 

236 American Patents. 

Mathematical, Philosophical, &c. 
Eye Shading Apparatus, Francis H. Jones, Federalsburg, Md. 
Civil ENCiiNEERiNt;, AucniTECTuuK, &c. 

Macliine for ramming under the cross-tics of railroads, R. B. Harrison, Vicks- 
burg. Miss. — Wiring Blind Rods, Byron Boardman, Norwich, Conn. — Drawing 
the curve of circular stair railways, Geo. S. Stewart, Meadville, Pa. — Suspending 
Eave's troughs, James A. "Watrous, Gi-een Sjiriiig, Ohio. — Moving stores, &c. in 
case of fire, Asa Blood, sen., Norfolk, Va., and Robert "W. Brown, Washington, 
D. C. — Boring Machine, Ennnett Quinn, Trenton, N. J. 

Land Conveyance. 

Reversible Railroad-car coupling, Joseph Boothroyd, Michigan City, Ind. — 
Tightening tires of carriage wheels, J. M. Dick, Buffalo, N. Y. — Automatic rail- 
road car-brake, W. R. Jackson, Baltimore, Md. — Wear iron for carriages, I. Geo. 
Lefler, Philadelphia, Pa. — Thills, Philipe Baillau, New-York. — Hub for carriage 
wheels, Jas. W, Jackson and Luther W. Burchinal, Smithfield, Pa. — Adjusting 
Carriage Tops, C. W. Saladec, Columbus, 0. — Railroad Car Brake, James 
Mitchell, Osceola, Iowa. — Railroad Rail, Edward W. Stephens, and Richard 
Jenkins, Covington, Ky. 

Hydraitlics and Pneumatics. 

Sealing Cans, Edwin Bennett, Baltimore, Md. — Locking faucets, Henry Getty, 
Brooklyn, Nj,Y. — Hermetically -sealing Cans, Win. Borrman, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mechanical Powers. 

Portable Horse Power, Daniel Woodbury, Rochester, N. Y. 
Mills and Mill Gearing. 

Winding Mill, William Staufler, Middlebury, Ind. — Feed and Gigging for saw 
mills, Geo. D. Lund, Yonkers, N. Y. — Tubular Shafting, Zacharia Allen, Pro- 
vidence, R. I. 

Lumber, Including Implements, &c. 

Mortising chisel, John A. Scroggs, Burlington, Vt. — Manufacturing Modem 
Washboards, L. B. Batcheller, assignor to West, Canfield & Co., Arlington, Vt. 
— Sawing Staves, Peter Deal, Amsterdam, N. Y., and James Greeman, North- 
ampton, N. Y. — Saw Clamp, Leonard 0. Fairbanks, Bridgeton, Me. — Sliding Rest 
for lathes, E. S. Gardiner, assignor to Smith, Gould & Co., Philadelphia. — 
Crozing and champering staves, H. L. McNish, assignor to D. C. Butler, and H. 
L. McNish, Lowell, Mass. — Piercing Blind slats, John Carpenter, Stonington, 
Codd. — Clamping Logs in sawing machines, Stephen Woodward, New-London, 
N. H. — Rotary Plaining cutters, H. H. Baker, Newmarket, N. J. 

Stone, Clay, Glass, &c. 

Brick Machine, Stephen Ustic, Philadelphia, Pa. — Same, P. S. Devlan, 
Reading, Pa. 

Leather, Tanning, &c. 

Machine for lasting boots and shoes, John Kemball, Boston, Mass. — Pegging 
boots and shoes, Seth D. Tripp, Winchester, Mass., assignor to himself and 
Luther Hill, Stoncham, Mass. — Boot Crimp, William W. Wilmot, assignor to 
Iiimself, Amos H. and Charles H. Brainard, Boston, Mass. — Tanning Liquid, Leo 
de la Peyrouse, Paris, France, assignor to Michael J. A. Guiet, New -York. 
Household Furniture, &c. 

Washing Machine, Philip N. Woliston, Springfield, 0. — Shower-bath apparatus, 
Wm. Meyer, Progress, N. J. — Smoothing-iron, Wm. V. Shaw, Boston, Mass. 
A new mode of constructing the iron with ascending and descending flue.s, so as 
to heat it more effectually and conveniently by gas. — Washing Machine, Hiram 
F. Everett, Benton, Pa. — Self-waiting table, William B. Farrar and Jonathan H. 
Parrar, Evans' Mills, N. C. A table with a central revolving top. — Washing 
Machine, Wm. M. Hammond, Jonesville, Mich. — Same, Justin Loomis, DcRuyter, 

Foreign Inventions. 


N. Y.— Same, Isaac A. Sargent, Springfield, Ohio.— Same, Abram Wcod, 
Camden, N. Y. 

Arts Polite, Ornamental, &c. 

Photogalvanographic Printing, Paul Pretsch, Austria. — Inkstand, Thomas 
Rotjohn, New-York.— Watch-key Finger-ring, EUhu Bliss, Newark, N. J. 

Fire Arms, &c. 

Cartridges for breech-loading fire-arms, J. D. Greene, Cambridge, Mass.^ 
Percussion cap primer, Geo. W. Baker, Burlington, Vt. — Projectile for rifled 
cannon, Theodore T. S. Laidley, U. S. Army.— Percussion Powder, Magnus 
Kling, Reading, Pa, 


Machine for drying grain, etc., Christian Custer, Philadelphia. — Attaching 
wires to bell telegraphs, Henry Hochstrasser, Philadelphia, Pa.— Washing 
bottles, Henry N. Degraw, Watervleit, N. Y.— Animal Trap, George Hart, 
Granger, Ohio.— Rendering trunks water-tight, Chas. A. Hinckley, Stoning- 
ton. Conn. 


%m\\\ lorngn |iib,euti0ns. 

Improved Union Gas Stove for Lighting and Heating. 
By Geo. Neall, Northampton, Eng. 
We have already given our readers to understand that we regard this as one 
of the few great points, which, when it is fairly brought out, will be one of the 
grand discoveries of the age. Light and heat, by artificial means, are two of 
the absolute necessities, and in a sense, the highest luxuries to be offered any 
community. We present the following description of Mr. Ncall's invention, as 
promising something in itself, but as of still greater value as a suggestion tobe 
improved upon. It combines, as will be seen, the stove and the lamp, warming 
and lighting by the same apparatus. 

Fig. 1 represents the apparatus as resting on a pedestal. 
The gas is supposed to be carried up through the center of 
the pedestal, a, and through the base or stand of the stove, 
6, and through the radial arms, partly shown in dotted lines, 
d, e, /; and to these arms (which may be of any convenient 
number) the circular rim, cj, r/, is attached, around the out- 
side of which a slight fence or rim is formed, which may be 
pierced or raised in any ornamental pattern or suitable de- 
sign, and within this rim or fence the glass dome, /;, rests. 
Tne burners y, /, are fixed perpendicularly to the radial arms, 
or they may be inclined inwardly, if desired. In some con- 
venient place, at or near the stove, it is necessary to have a 
stop-cock for regulating the supply of gas ; the necessity of 
this will be hereafter referred to. The shape of the dome 
may be varied, but the form herein exhibited is preferred ; 
and must be made without any openings or apertures other- 
wise than at its base ; and, as a rule, the dome should be 
ground or deadened on the outside, which will tend to soften 
the effect of the light, and at the same time allow of its being 
painted, stained, cut, or otherwise ornamented. 

In lighting this union stove and lamp ft is necessary, as a 
precaution, to turn on at first but a little gas, (which may be 
regulated by means of the stop-cock above referred to,) and 
to light all the jets as simultaneously as possible. The small 
quantity of gas at first lighted will have the effect of gradu- 
ally and uniformly heating the dome, and that done, the gas 
may be further turned or increased, as required. This heat- 
ing of the dome is effected by the then rarified and heated state of the air 

Foreign Inventions. 

within it, which has no way of escaping but by being forced down by the 
continuous supply tliat is constantly rushing; in around the burners svipporting 
the flames, and ascending to the center of the dome, there distributing itself, 
and descending close to its interior surface, and escaping beneath the rim, g, g ; 
thus there is a continuous stream of heated air continually pouring out under- 
neath the rim of the dome, and diffusing itself around the apartment ; and at 
the same time that light is emitted through the dome, heat is also thrown off 
from the surface of the dome by radiation. 

This union stove and lamp may be constructed with or without the reflector, 
marked 1% k ; but when that is used, the light is thrown down and diffused 
around the floor of the ajuirtincnt ; and this reflector being roughened, ground, 
or deadened on its under side, may, like the dome, be painted," stained, cut, or 
otherwise ornamented. 

The same description of gas stove or lamp may be applied to a bracket sup- 
port, suitable for being placed around galleries or walls of churches, chapels, or 
such like buildings, where light and heat are required to be generally diffused. 
The gas in this instance is conducted through a tube constructed or applied to 
the bracket, and thence to the burners ; and around the rim that supports the 
dome, glass drops or prisms are suspended, and merely introduced here by way 
of ornaments. 

Fig. 2 represents a plain view of the rim, radial supports, and burners,/, /; 
the eccentric circle, I; I; representing the glass dish or reflector. 

The union stove and lamp may also be adapted so as to be suspended from 
the ceiling, and may or may not be fitted with a slide and compensating or bal- 
ance weights. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Artificial Stone, etc. 
By Frederick Eansojie, Ipswich, Eng. 
The discoveries of Hardinge in this country, and of scientific men in Eng- 
land, promise much for the next generation, in the economical preparation of 
building stone, not inferior to any natural rock, and nearly or quite as cheap as 
bricks now are. Mr. Ransome is doing much in this direction. 

This invention, as now made known, is applicable to those descriptions of 
artificial stone which are compounded with sand, cla}% and other mineral or 
earthy substances, together with soluble silica or a soluble silicate; and consists 
in adding thereto a substance which will fuse more readily than the sand, and 
will run into and fill the pores of the stone, and thus increase its density. The 
substances preferred for this purpose are pumice-stone, or a readily fusible 
glass. AYhen pumice-stone is employed, it is prepared in the following man- 
ner : Take finely-powdered pumice-stone and mix it with a solution of soluble 
silica, (1-700,) so as to form a stiff paste capable of being moulded, and 
mould it into balls of about one inch in diameter, and fuse it in an ordinary 
crucible. When fused, grind it in to a powder and mix with it a solution of silica, 
so as again to form a paste. In preparing the artificial stone the ingredients 
are mixed with the following proportions, by measure : Siliceous sand 80 parts ; 
finely-powdered silica, 10 parts; solution of silica, or what is called silicious 
cement, described in the specification of a patent granted to the present 
patentee, 22d October, 1844,5 parts, sp. gr. 1-700 ; powdered pipe-clay, 5 parts ; 
and pumice-stone, prepared in the way above described, 5 to 10 parts. These 
materials arc mixed together and treated in the way described in the specifica- 
tion above referred to, and which is now well understood. When a readily 
fusible glass is employed in the manufjicture of artificial stone, the glass is pre- 
pared by fusing together, in a reverberatory furnace or crucible, the following 
materials: Silicate of soda, 100 parts, sp. gr. 1-400; oxide of lead, 100 parts. 
And in preparing artificial stone, for the 5 to 10 parts of the prepared fusible 
glass, is substituted 5 to 10 parts of the pumice-stone in the mixture before 

This invention also consists in a method of rendering artificial or natural 

Foreign Inventions. 2^ 

stone, bricks, and other materials used for building purposes, less liable to 
decay. For this purpose the stone or other material is coated or saturated 
wholly or superficially with a solution of soluble silicate, and has afterwards 
applied to it a solution of chloride of calcium, by which an insoluble silicate of 
lime is formed in the body of the stone or other material. In place of a solu- 
ble silicate and chloride of calcium, other preparations may be used ; the in- 
vention consists in the application, in succession, of two solutions, which, by 
mutual decomposition, produce an insoluble substance, which is deposited in 
the structure, and on to the surface of the stone or other material. When 
a soluble silicate is employed, the patentee takes a solution of silicate of soda 
or potash (the sp. gr. of which must depend upon the texture of the stone to 
be operated upon, but generally about the s;:i. gr. of l--iOO at ordinary tempera- 
tures,) and after having removed from the stone, etc., as much extraneous mat- 
ter as is convenient, the solution is applied over the surface of the stone or 
other material, with a brush or otherwise, until it has absorbed a sufficiency. 
A solution of chloride of calcium is immediately, or as soon after as conve- 
nient, applied — taking care to incorporate the two solutions as much as possible 
by means of a brush or otherwise. By this application the silica combines 
with the lime, forming silicate of lime in the pores and on the surface of the 
stone or other material, whilst the chloride, combining with the soda or pot- 
ash, forming chloride of sodium or potassium, is readily removed by washing. 
When the stone or other material is of a very porous nature, the strength of 
the silicate solution may be increased, and one coating will be sufficient ; but if, 
on the other hand, the stone or other material is very slightly porous, then the 
strength of the silicate solution should be reduced, and several coats should be 
laid on. Or, for some descriptions of stone, more particularly sandstones or 
freestones, a saturated solution of sulphate of alumina instead of the silicate of 
soda or potash is preferred, followed by a solution of baryta ; by which means 
a compound precipitate of alumina and baryta is produced. Where convenient, 
instead of applying the solutions by means of a brush, the stone or other 
material may be immersed in . the several solutions. When desired, the pre- 
cipitates can be colored to any tint to suit the stone or other material, by means 
of soluble salts of chrome or iron mixed with the solutions employed. 

Improvement in Dyeing-. 
By Frederic Albert Gatty, Lancashire, Eng. 

This invention consists in the use of nitrate of soda, sulphate of soda, chloride 
of sodium, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of lime, and cliloride of calcium in 
dyeing cotton with logwood, quercitron bark, Sapan wood, peach wood, Lima 
wood, and other dye woods of the same description. 

In carrying out this invention, it is found that one pound of either of the 
above-named salts, or a mixture of two or more of them, placed in the vat with 
fifteen pounds of any of the above-named dye materials, produces a good result ; 
the quantity of the salt may, however, be varied, as an excess produces no bad 
effect. Instead of mixing the said salts with -the dye materials in the vat, as de- 
scribed above, they may be previously mixed with the dye materials. The pro- 
cess of dyeing is carried on in the ordinary manner. 

Improvement in the Manufacture of Wire Ropes. 
By John Fowler, Havering, Essex, Eng. 

In the manufacture of wire ropes, instead of having all the wires which are 
around the central core of one size or diameter as heretofore, and in place of all 
the wires being of iron, one of the wires in each strand is of larger size or diam- 
eter than the others, and this larger wire in each strand is made of steel ; hence 
each strand of wire will have a spiral ridge around it, and when such strands 
are laid together, the projecting ridges of the strands which are outwards rest 
on or against any surface on which the rope is moved, and the steel projecting 
wires are the ones which are first worn away. 

The patentee says : "I have found that about three sizes larger is a conve- 

240 Foreign Inventions. 

nient size for the larger wires, though I do not confine myself thereto, as the 
size may be varied ; and I make such larger wires by preference of steel, in or- 
der that they maj' wear better and longer, and preserve the others from wear." 

Patent Manure for Vines, etc. 
By Ann'e Marie Mack, Paris. 

Madam Mace is the widow of Georges Fremont, late of Rue dcs CoUonnes, 
and is the patentee of what is called " Fremont's Maniu-c." The " invention" 
consists in employing the ashes of wood and charcoal, or coal cinders, or other 
similar ashes, combined with human urine, in equal proportions by measure. 

The use and purpose of such compost is similar to that of any other artiticial 
manure. For vines, it is only requisite to apply to the foot of each stock a com- 
pound of about two pints of ashes and two pints of urine. For tilling land the 
quantity to be used may differ, according to the quality of the soil to be opera- 
ted upon, but the mixture must be in the proportions, or about the proportions, 
before named. Such manure destroys a quantity of insects noxious to the pro- 
ducts of the soil, and greatly improves the lands submitted to its action. 

Transmitting Signals by Musical Sounds. 

The France Musicale gives an interesting account of experiments made in 
presence of the Emperor of the French when at Plombieres, to test the effi- 
ciency of M. Sudre's plan for transmitting signals to the troops of an army or 
navy by means of musical sounds. During the Emperor's stay, M. Sudre, the 
inventor of what is called telephonie, or the art of transmitting signals and 
phrases by sound, had, with his wife, the honor of exhibiting before his 
Majesty. Placing himself in the middle of the saloon, he announced that he 
would, with his violin, express any phrase his Majesty might please to dictate 
to him, in such a manner as to enable Mme. Sudre, who was seated at the further 
end of the room, among a group of ladies, to say what it meant. The Emperor 
immediately wrote on a piece of paper the words : ^'' Le premier qui fat roifat 
un soldat heureux,'^ and M. Sudre produced a few sounds from his violin. Mme. 
Sudre immediately rose and repeated the phrase word for word. Another ex- 
periment was then made — it consisted in speaking the notes instead of playing 
them. The Emperor wrote, ^'■Plombieres est une ville charmante ce soir,^'' and 
M. Sudre, after reading the phrase, pronounced, without any intonation of 
voice, certain notes. Mme. Sudre at once gave the words correctly. Experi- 
ments in telephonie were made. M. Sudre's system reduces the transmission of 
signals to three sounds expressed by the trumpet, the drum, or the camion ; or, 
in the event of high winds preventing sounds from being heard, to three signs. 
The Emperor gave the order, " Construct batteries on the height," and M. Sudre 
produced three sounds on the clarion ; Mme. Sudre at once repeated the phrase. 
Another order, given by General Espinasse, was repeated by the drum, and 
translated instantaneously by the lady. The order, " Let the artillery paralyze 
the fire of the enemy's battery," was transmitted by taps on the table, to imi- 
tate cannon, and was in like mamner at once repeated by Mme. Sudre. The 
Emperor asked if proper names and the names of towns could be transmitted by 
the .system, and being answered in the alfirmative, wrote the name of Nabucho- 
donosor; some soimcls from the trumpet enabled Mme. Sudre to repeat the 
name alouJ. The ICmperor expressed his satisfaction at what he had witnessed. 
He then graciously invited Mme. Sudre to sing one or two morccaiix^ after 
which his Majesty dismissed her and her husband with marks of his munifi- 

Letters Patent. 

We have made arrangements with one of the most experienced and able of the 

late examiners in the Patent Office, at Washington, for the transaction of any 

business, in that line, committed to us, and we invite all who would apply for 

patents to communicate with us. The business shall be done promptly and well . 

Scientijie. 241 



Chemistry for the Million. 

Having before given the names and a brief description of tlie more abundant ele- 
ments in nature, tlie compound resulting from these will next claim our attention. 
The figures prefixed denote the proportions of each ingredient and of the comjjound 
Thus, read the first ; — 8 lbs. of oxygen, combined with 1 lb. of hydrogen, form 9 lbs. 
of water; and so the others, putting "combined with" after the first word in each 
line, and the word "form" after the second. 

Water with other substances forms hydrates, as hydrates of lime, of iron, etc. 

Carbonic acid forms Carbonates, as Carbonate of Lime, (chalk, marble, lime-stone,) 

Carbonate of Soda (washing soda,) bi-carbonate of soda, (cooking soda) etc. 


The three compounds above, water, carbonic acid, and ammonia constitute a very 

large part of the food of all growing plants. Nothing could grow if deprived 

of either of them. Decaying plants and animals are always giving them 

off; and living, growing plants are always receiving them. 


The influence of water on rocks, soils, manures — whatever goes to make uj) the 
seed bed and standing place of plants — is prodigious. 

1, Water is the principal agent in the reduction of rocks to soil. Without it we 
can hardly suppose that soil wotild ever have been formed. The whole surface of the 
earth, but for its agencies, must have presented, at this moment, one unbroken mass 
of rock, with not even a lichen or the smallest stem of moss to variegate its surface. 
It is water, by its expansion in freezing, that has split the rocks. By freezing in 
large quantity it has removed the cleft fragments from their beds, and often rolled 
them down mountain sides, grinding them and other rocks in their fall to powder. 
By the freezing of water, icebergs have carried large and small fragments thousands 
of miles; and glaciers have rounded them into boulders, or ground them into 
minute particles. Running streams have carried down the pulverized rock to form 
our fine alluvial soils ; and standing waters, as oceans, seas and lakes, receiving the 
fine sediment of streams, have deposited it in the form of outstretched plains or 
rolling prairies. Large portions of the Gulf of Mexico probably would need but to 
be upheaved, as other portions of the globe undoubtedly have been, to afford as 
beautiful plains and prairies as any of our Western States, made up of materials 
transported by the agency of water from large portions of North and South Ame- 
rica, and enriched by myriads of plants and animals that have perished and left 
their remains mingled with the soil. 

2. TTie agency of water is constantly improving soils mechanically, Probably no 
change, from wet to dry, or the reverse, takes place without meliorating the soil. 
It is the opinion of observing farmers that some drouths even are followed by good 
effects ; that excessive rains — Avhat we call excessive, perhaps only from ignorance 
of what we need — are beneficial also ; and that for the damage of both we are 
more than repaid in the after influences on the soil. But however this may be, 

242 Scientific. 

whether those extremes are essential to tlie best influenees of water on the soil or 
not, it is certain that the freezing and tliawing process is of vast benefit. Investi- 
gations go to show that the fineness of a soil is among its best qualities. Some 
liave gone so for as to say tliat it matters little what a soil consists of, if it is sufR- 
cientl}- fine; that the New-England granite soils, if as fine as those of the Ohio 
valley, would be as good. This Aiay seem extravagant, and probably is so, yet all 
will agree that fineness is a most important quality. Now a December frost, stiffen- 
ing the ground for eight, twelve, sixteen inches deep, is a silent, quiet operation, 
but it is one in which an immense meclianical power is exerted. By reason of the 
expansion of Avater at the point of freezing, particle is made to impinge against par- 
ticle, by a slow but irresistible movement, both held as in a vice, and pressed against 
each other, till probably more particles in an acre of soil are broken up and divided 
into two, five, or a dozen, than could be effected by the labor of a score of men in 
a whole summer. Clay soils are rendered less adhesive, and coarse soils (not made 
up too much of mere silicious sand, that holds no water,) are rendered finer by 
freezing. Throwing them into ridges in autumn to give the frost greater access, is 

3. Water improves the soil chemically — manures it. Exhalations from the sea, 
from lakes, rivers and ponds, from decaying animal and vegetable matter wherever 
found, affluvia from cities, from barn yards and pig-styes, and light, downy particles 
of solid matter from thousands of sources, are always ascending into the atmosphere. 
The air is the great receptacle of the world's filth. None of us could live long in cities 
if it did not lift our bad odors. But the air itself becomes filthy by the operation. 
It wants washing. It contains, at times, over such a territory as ours, millions upon 
millions of loads of what we maj^ call manure, because it is made up of the very 
ingredients which promote plant growth. Water, in the form of rain, washes this 
out, and brings it back to the soil, where it is wanted. Every drop of rain deposits 
in the soil ammonia, carbonic acid, various organic and some inorganic matters, em- 
bracing probably every ingredient required by the growing plant. It is the same 
with snow. That snow is the poor man's manure, is no fiction. It is the rich 
man's also. Neither could thrive but for wliat the air takes away from cities and 
towns, sea and land, and the rains and snows bring back and deposit in the fields. 

4. Wafer preserves mamires. All ammoniacal manures, as those of the stable, the 
field, the pen, the barn yard, tend to ferment; and if the weather is warm and 
they arc not sufficiently moist, they fire-fang, as the farmers say. The expression is 
a good one. But what is it to fire-fang? It is to ferment too violently, to become 
very hot, to evaporate nearly all the water in a manure heaji, and to send off its 
ammonia into that vast receptiele of the atmosphere, not to be lost from the world, 
but to be brought back, as before explained, in the rain and snow, some of it per- 
chance on the owner's land, but more on other farms within a few thousand miles 
of him. It is the province of water to prevent this violent, wasteful fermentation, 
which scatters from one tenth to four or five tenths of the value over the wide 
world, in the state of invisible gases, and makes it common instead of private 

5. Water enables light soils to retain the manure put upon them. Perhaps a 
btrong clay soil would retain the manure commingled with it without tlie aid of 
water. A substantial loam might to considerable extent. But a sandy soil (and, by 
the way, sandy soils are about as profitable, not as productive , not equally capable, 
but about as pofitable, considering their feasibility, as any others) is not sufficiently 
retentive to hold the manure till such time as the plants appropriate it to their own 

Scientific. 243 

growth, without the aid of water. If we could be assured beforehand of a smart 
rain twice a week for a whole year, it might be good policy to apply 30 loads ot 
manure to a sandy acre and plant corn. So many rains would hold the manure 
down — keep it in the soil, instead of letting it go into the air — so that the current 
crop would appropriate largely from it, and leave the rest for future crops ; where- 
as, in an ordinary season, we should expect less to go into the present crop, little to 
be left in the soil, and much to go in the form of ammonia and carbonic acid, into 
the air, to be returned in future rains, as much for the benefit of others' crops as of 
our own. So much as went into the air would become public property. We sup- 
pose that the man who applies 30 loads of manure, in a green state, not composted, 
to a sandy acre, before one of our hot dry simimers, contributes some ten dollars 
worth to the general productiveness of that region — a tax which the public need 
not find fault with, but which he would be slow to pay if he knew what he was 

6. Water conveys plaiit food from jilace to jjlace in t/te soil. Liebig says not. 
" The smallest particles of nutriment do not change their place in the ground while 
the soil retains them," is his language. Ploughing, harrowing, mixing the soil me- 
chanically are, according to him, the only means of equalizing the nutriment 
throughout the soil. We are sorry to differ with so great an authority. But as 
with some German preachers, whose pliilosophy is better than their common sense, 
80 we think his chemistry is better than his pliilosophy or common sense either. 
He reasons, as we understand him, that because, if you pass brown water from the 
barn yard through a few inches of earth, it comes out pure enough to cook one's 
breakfast in, therefore no plant food — that which constitutes the impurity of the 
water — moves from place to place in the ground. We would ask him whether he 
would drink the brown water when he had i:>assed it through one inch of soil. If 
he says no, we have the case; for if the plant food, alias the impurities of the water, 
pass through one inch, then they move in the soil with the water, and that is all we 
claim. With Liebig we believe in ploughing, harrowing, lifting, stirring, mixing 
the soil. It can hardly be done too much. But we believe that nature co-works 
with the farmer at every step ; that the falling rain helps him to an equal diii'usion of 
his manures through the seed bed ; and that the agency of water is of immense 
value, not only in equalizing the plant food in the soil, but in carrying it (short dis- 
tances of course, and the stronger the soil the shorter the distance) to meet the 
roots of plants. 

What we have said thus far of the uses of water in agriculture, relates to its 
agencies in the formation of soils and the preparation of soils and manures to become 
a fit seed bed and standing place for jilants. Of its agencies in the germination of 
seeds, in conveying food for the growth of j^lants, and in bringing them to maturity, 
we will speak in our next. 

The Salt Works at Syracuse. 

Your readers may be pleased to learn something about the Salt Works at Syracuse. 
From many years residence near them I will ventm'e to say a few words in regard to 

The salt-blocks, as they are called, are principally located at Salina, (from saline,) 
Syracuse and Geddes, but there are several large blocks at Liverpool, a village four 
miles distant from Syracuse. The solar evaporating vats are spread over a large dis- 
trict, and occupy, perhaps, over 300 acres of land. The land is reserved by the State 
for constructing the vats upon. The season being an unusually wet one in this vicin- 

^^^ Scientific. 

ity, not much solar salt will be made. It requires a good deal of sunshine to make 
solar salt successfully, and the vats should be thoroughly made in order to hold all 
the water safely. The.^e vats, to which we have alluded, are so arranged that the 
covers can be removed at any time in a few moments, and replaced as soon. In case 
of a heavy thunder shower the covers are all shoved over the vats, and in this way no 
rain water is admitted into them. The solar salt is very nice for salting butter. Ic is 
usually prepared for this purpose by grinding in salt-mills, which do a driving busi- 
ness in putting up "fine salt" in small "shilling bags" This solar salt is usually 
crystalized, and assumes many queer shapes. 

The number of salt-blocks about and in Syracuse is about 305. Each block makes 
about 20,000 bushels of salt annually. From this amount to each block, you can easily 
calculate that there are nearly G, 000,000 of bushels of salt manufactured at Syracuse 
every year. Some of the blocks fall short of 20,000 bushels, but the solar evaporat- 
ing vats make up the amount. 

The expense of keeping the different works in water is immense. The water is 
supphed by the State, and is carried to a large reservoir by huge pump-logs bored out 
for the purpose. There must be many miles of these pump-logs, for they reach over 
a large territory. The salt water is conducted from the springs to a certain elevation 
by force pumps, and then goca into the reservoirs. 

The amount of wood that is consumed annually is immense. Wood is getting to 
be a scarce commodity here, and demands now at the works from $3 50 to $5 50 per 
cord, according to the kind, hard or soft wood. The kettles in the blocks are placed 
in long arches, from 20 to 30 kettles occupying each arch. The front kettles boil 
salt down the fastest and the hindermost ones boil more moderately. 

The " bitterns," as the sediment is called, is thrown out of the kettles, and may be 
seen in large quantities near the blocks. Some formers make use of this substance 
to put on their lands. I have no experience in its use. 

The salt blocks arc rough looking buildings, and will last a great number of years 
on account of being pretty well saturated with salt. They present a queer appear- 
ance to the stranger, and I should judge emit about a? much smoke and vapor as the 
volcanoes of Italy. 

When the salt business first started at Salina, some fifty or sixty years ago, wood 
was very abundant immediately in the vicinity of the works, but now is principally 
boated into the city by scows and wood-boats. It is carried from the banks of the 
Oswego, Oneida, and Seneca rivers, and from the Erie and Oswego canals. Some of 
it is boated at least forty miles. 

The experiment of burning coal in the arches has, I believe, proven a failure. It 
burns the grates out too often, and there are other objections to its use which I can 
not now make a note of. 

" The Citj' of Conventions" (Syracuse) owes its growth and prosperity to the man- 
ufacture of salt within its corporate limits. At one period, where the city now stands, 
the land was a dense cedar swamp almost impenetrable from any quarter ; but now 
the country assumes a different aspect, and is noted for its garden products. So how 
easy it is to see what changes these salt springs have made in this growing city. 
There has been a good deal of dispute with respect to the qualities of the Ononda- 
ga salt compared with that coming from Turk's Island. I am of the opinion that the 
Syracuse salt is as good for all purposes as any now in use, but may be prejudiced in 
its favor. When it is made right, it is an excellent salt, and meets the approbation of 
the butter-making community generally. A great many thousand barrels are shipped 
annually to the west by the " Salt Company," the said company binding its members 
to give to the manufacturer so much per barrel at the works. The " Salt Company" 



receive a certain per centage upon each barrel sold, but advance the money to the 
manufacturers previous to removing the salt from the blocks, or, at least, the money 
is paid in due season. There was a surplus on hand last season which was not dis- 
posed of until this year. It is presumed all the salt will be sold in the course of the 

coming winter. 

I will conclude this article by merely stating that all efforts at boring for the mam 
body of salt have proven failures. Large sums of money have been expended in this 
direction. It would seem that the great deposit does not lie in this vicinity. There 
must be some great subterranean passage by which the salt water finds its way into 
the valley of the Onondaga lake, and therefore centuries may pass away ere the 
greatfountain of salt is found. Yours, etc., W. Tappan. 

Baldwinsville, N. Y., Sept. 


Appearance of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., K Y., in August, 185'?. 

By E. HoweU. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about 40 feet above 

the Susquehanna River, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the New-Yrok and Erie Railroad. 




6 A.M.I P.M. 

62 84 

















































9 P.M. 


S.&N. Cloudy 

S. W, 






S. W. 



60 In. w. 

60 S.East 
N. E. 






Sprinkle of rain in afternoon from north. 

Light rain in the evening. 
Fog in the morning. 

Shower went south at 6 P.M. Liglitning in 

evening. Hard shower 11 P.M. 
Oats ripe. 
Light sprinkle of rain during the day. Hard 

rain in the evening. 
Fall cricket first heard in the evening. 
Few drops of rain in the morning. 
Light sprinkle in the afternoon. 
Light sprinkle at 11 A.M. 
Corn in the field large enough for eating. 
Light rain before light; short shower at sun- 
[rise ; two hard showers in P.M. 
Light rain in afternoon ; hard rain in evening. 
Potatoes found to be rotting very fsist. 

Light sprinkle of rain in P.M. Hard S. wind. 
Light rain before light ; number of squalls in 
Light drizzling rain at sunrise. [P.M. 

Harvest apples about ripe. 

[and evening. 
Light mist of rain in A.M. Hard rain in P.M. 
Hard rain all night. Light sprinkle in morn- 
Light shower in" the afternoon. [ing. 
Wild blackberries generally ripe. 

Christianity and Science. 

PROFESSor Joseph Henry, the distinguished head of the Sniithsonian Institute, tes- 
tifies that he knows but one man among the scientific men of the United States who 
is an infidel. 

246 Domestic. 

il m n t i r . 

Chinese Sugar-Cane in Massachusetts. 

Joel Lake, the Topsfiold nurseryman, has sent the juice of the sugarcane, ot this 
year's growth, to the Boston Journal otfice. -The seed was phmted June 1st, and the 
stocks are now thirteen feet high. There is considerable of the cane growing along 
the upper route to Boston, in Top.-ficld and Danvers, and it has done better there 
than here. The best that we have heard of in this city was planted in May and is 
not yet eleven feet high. The yielding of the sap, in Mr. Lake's experiments, is 
1200 gallons to the acre, and he reduced it to 100 gallons of syrup. The experiment- 
ers are becoming more confident that this cane will be a profitable crop. It stands 
drought and frost better than corn. We notice that several hundred barrels of this 
molasses has already been received at New-Orleans, and it may be possible that in 
these parts it will not be less profitable than the maple groves. — Newburyport 

Fresh Milk. 

The Journal of Commerce mentions a new discovery of Gail Borden — who has 
become somewhat distinguished for his various inventions for the preservation of 
human food — by which famihes in cities can be supplied with the pure arlicle, without 
the adulteration of chalk or other admixtures. This fluid also suffei-s no deterioration 
from a long voyage. 

Mr. Borden's process is simple. It evaporates 'ZoO of the 840 parts of water in all 
milk, afl determined by chemistry, and leaves as a residuum, a thick paste, which can 
at any time be reconverted into milk by restoring the water. One tea-spoonful of the 
condensed substance to four of pure water will make rich country milk, precisely as 
it comes from the cow, while one to five will produce a richer compound than is often 
sold in cities. The addition of one or two parts of water makes a rich cream. 

Mr. Borden has established a condenser (capable of reducing five thousand quarts 
per day) in Litchfield county, one of the richest grazing districts in Connecticut, 
where the unadulterated article can be bought for two cents a quart. The heat is 
applied under a covered kettle, from which the air is c-ihausted and the water is thus 
evaporated. The]reraainder is brought to market. It will be sold in New- York at 
about 32 cents a quart. This will bring'the cost, when restored, by the addition of 
four times its bulk of water, to sixpence a quart. If any one wishes to use cheaper 
milk, he has only to add another quart of water. The milk trade of New-York is 
stated by the Journal to amount to over $1,000,000 per year. That of Boston must 
exceed §1,000,000 per year; and if Mr. I3orden's invention will really accomplish 
what is contended for it, it is of no slight importance to housekeepers in this city. 

Soup, Beef Tea, Mutton Broth, etc. 

I.v the preparation of these, our object is the reverse of that which has been previ- 
ously considered. We desire to take the nutritive and savory principles out of the 
meat, to a liquid extract of meat, in the form of soup, broth, or tea, the flesh is finely 
chopped and placed in cold water, which is then slowly heated and kept boiling for a 
few minutes, when it is strained and pressed. In this manner we obtain the very 
strongest and best flavored soup which can bo made from flesh. Liebig says, " When 
one pound of lean beef, free of fat, and separated from the bones, in the finely- 
divided state in which it is used for beef-sausages or mince meat is uniformly mixed 
with its own weight of cold water, slowly heated to boiling, and the liquid after 
boiling briskly for a minute or two, is strained through a towel from the coagulated 
albumen and fibrin, now become hard and horny, we obtain an equal weight of the 
most aromatic soup, of such strength as can not be obtained, even by boiling for 
hours, from a piece of flesh." To make the best article it is desirable not to boil it 
long, as the effect is to coagulate and render insoluble that which was extracted by 
cold water, and which should have remained dissolved in the soup. It is obvious, 
from what has been said, that a piece of meat introduced undivided into boiling 
water merely thickens and apparently enriches the soup. This is effected by the 
gelatin, which is gradually extracted from the tissucs,bones and other parts, but in a 

Domestic. 247 

nutritive point of view, this ingredient is a fiction, as will be shown in the proper 
place. Soup-making is a kind of analysis of alimentary sub-atances used iu its pre- 
paration — a part is taken and a residue usually rejected. Yet it is clear that we shall 
have the completest nourishment by taking both parts, as the fibi-e of meat and the 
softened beans and peas of their respective soups. 

Preserving Green Corn for Winter Use. 

One of the greatest luxuries of the table, both in summer and winter, is the sugar 
or s-weet corn. To our taste all other varieties of corn to eat green, are worthless 
compared with it. Our method is to keep a constant supply, by successive plant- 
ings, from June to the period of frost, making the largest planting about the first of 
July, with an early variety, for drying for winter. This matures usually in Septem- 
ber, which is the best season for drying. Our method is this : — When there is pro- 
mise of a fair day, early in the morning the corn is gathered — such only as is well 
filled. It is then husked, put into boiling water, and allowed to remain eight or 
ten minutes. It is then taken out and immediately cut from the cobs with a sharp 
knife, and spread on a clean sheet upon a roof or scaffold inclining to the south. It 
should be stirred once or twice during the day, and by night it Avill become so dry 
as to bo past danger of injury. It should be covered during the night to keep off 
the dew, and exposed again for two or three days to the sun, when, if the weather 
is fair, it will usually be perfectly dry, and may then be put into a keg and headed 
tight, or hung up in a firm linen bag for use. 

"We have recently eaten corn of the common kind, preserved by a new and easier 
method, which seemed to be as tender, with all the sweetness and freshness of flavor 
that it had when first gathered, and may answer equally well in preserving the 
sweet corn, which we regard as the only variety worth preserving. 

It is simply gathered and boiled in the usual manner, fit for the table. It is then 
cut from the cob and packed in a tight keg or jar, (wood is said to be best,) in alter- 
nate layers of salt sufficient to preserve it. Some, in the i:>lace of salt, apply a strong 
brine. When wanted for use, it is soaked in fair water, which must be changed, to 
remove the excess of salt, and then boiled, adding butter or cream and a little sugar 
to suit the taste. — Louisville Journal. 

Lightning Eods for SMpping. 

An invention of Dr. Cushman, of Wisconsin ; being made of four copper wires, by 
a new process which we are not familiar enough with to explain. The conductor has 
the appearance of a rope, being put in such form by machinery got up for that pur- 
pose, which presses or compacts the wires into form, making a beautiful rope, which 
is intended to be a permanent conductor, forming a backstay or a part of the rigging, 
passing into a copper plate, which is attached to the ship or vessel in such a manner 
that it is entirely out of the way ; the rope having sufficient power of expansion and 
contraction to render it pliable and easy tathe vessel; the plates being attached in 
such a way as to be at all times in contact with the water, thus maldng an un- 
broken conductor from the top of the mast to the water, being a cheap and rehable 
protection. Every vessel of any importance upon our lakes should have one or more 
of them. The different insurance companies would do well to attend to this matter. 

Smith & Co. are the manufacturers of this new rope, who have a house at Cleve- 
land, Chicago, Waukegan, 111. ; and Racina, Wis. — Western Paper. 

Vermont Horses in the West. 

In our report of the State Fair it will be seen that Chas. Semple, of St. Louis, took 
with him to his western home, a stallion and a pair of matched mares. The num- 
ber and value of horses annually sent to the Western States would surprise one 
unacquainted with the extent of these transactions. 

Dr. Richard F. Barrett, of St. Louis, who has been boarding at the Lawrence 
Water Cure in this village for a few months past, recently shipped for that city eleven 
valuable Morgan mares, all animals of the best blood and action. They will make a 
desirable acquisition to the stock of that region. — Vermont Phoenix. 

Love of God. 

It has been beautifully said that man's love to God is only an echo called forth by 
the divine voice. " We love him because he first loved us." 

248 Domestic. 

Healthy Food. 

In regard to diet, a plentiful use of ripe fruit should be indulged in. Every family 
should have the table constantly supplied with baked apples. Cooked in this way 
their preparation for the table gives but little trouble to the housewife, and anything 
that lessens her labor is particularly desirable. For supper we wont no better meal 
than good light bread and rich country milk, accompanied with a plate of good baked 
apples. And especially for a children's supper, notbing can surpass it. A plenty of 
stewed tomatoes as an accojnpanimeut for breakfast and dinner is also excellent. — 
Ag. Press. 

Hints to Farmers. 

Toads are the best protection of cabbage against lice. 

Plants, when drooping, are revived by a few grains of camphor. 

Pears arc generally improved by grafting on the mountain ash. 

Sulphur is valuable in preserving grapes, etc., from insects. 

Lard never spoils in warm weather, if it is cooked enough in trying out. 

In feeding corn, sixty pounds ground go as far as one hundred pounds in the 

Corn meal should never be ground very fine, it injures the richness of it. 

Turnips of small size have double the nutritious matter that large ones have. 

Rats and other vermin are kept away from grain by sprinkling of garlic when 
packing the sheaves. 

Moneys expended in drying land, by draining or otherwise, will be returned with 
ample interest. 

To cure scratches on a horse, wash their legs with warm soap suds, and then with 
beef brine. Two applications will euro the worst case. 

Timber, when cut in the spring, and exposed to the weather with the bark on, 
decays much sooner than if cut in the fall. 

Wild onions may be destroyed by^ cultivating corn, j)lowing and leaving the corn 
in the plowed state all winter. — Ex. 

Tobacco Poison. 

The French poet, Santeuill, was killed by a little snuff being thrown into his wine 
glass at the Prince of Conde's table. Bocarmy, of Belgium, was murdered in two 
minutes and a half by a little nicotine, or alkali, of tobacco. Dr. Twitchell believes 
that sudden deaths and tobacco arc found together, and he sustains this opinion by 
an array of facts altogether conclusive. Tlie names of scores of men can be given, 
who were found dead in their beds, or fell dead in the streets or elsewhere ; who had 
been the victims of this poison. 

The Gapes in Chickens. 

A correspondent says: " Tell those of your readers who are interested in raising 
chickens, that a small pinch of gunpowder, given to a chicken with the gapes, will 
effect a sure and complete cure in from one to three hours time, and leave poor chick 
healthy and hearty." 

Remedy for Diarrhoea. 

The following is said to be \(^vy eificacious: 

Take a handful of strawberry leaves and pour on them halfapintof boiling water ; 
let it remain one hour and drink the tea. If you can not get boiling water, chew 
and swallow the juice. This is a most valuable and efficient remedy. It rarely 
fails to give immediate relief, and performs a permanent cure. 

Poisoning Mice- 

Take one fourth oz. powdered mix vomica: half pint common boiling peas; sim- 
mer them with as much water as will jjrevent their burning, for half an hour, and 
take them off. When any person sows his peas, let him add one third of the pois- 
oned ones to what he intends to sow, and throw them together in the same drills. — 

Domestic 249 

Defective Religion. 

A RELiGiox that never suffices to govern a man, will never suffice to save him ; that 
which does not sufficiently distinguish one from a wicked world, will never distinguish 
him from a perishing world. — Howe. 

l^ " The press, the pulpit— and petticoats — the three ruling powers of the day. 
The first spreads knowledge, the second spreads morals, and the last spreads con- 

p^ To give brilliancy to the eyes, shut them early at night and open them early 
in the morning; let the mind be constantly intent on the acquisition of human 
knowledge, or the exercise of benevolent feelings. This will scarcely ever fail to 
impart to the eyes an intelligent and amiable expression. 

^° Max feels yearnings which nothing here can satisfy, entertains hopes which 
on this side of the grave never can be realized, forms designs which by reason of 
the shortness of his mortal existence can not be accomplished. 

JJ^ Life, properly speaking, is progress, for we commence our pilgrimage here, 
but only commence it ; all nature is in a state of development, and man above all 

1^" The hog disease has appeared on the farms near Minerva, Mason county and 
one in Fleming county. One farmer in the latter lost 300 hogs. 

^^ To carry a Collins steamer from New-York to Liverpool requires eight hun- 
dred tons of coal, enough to keep an ordinary family forty years. 

|^° In 1745 hoops were worn as large as now. Sir Robert Strange, fleeing from 
pursuit after the battle of Culloden, was concealed in the crisis of his trouble by a 
young lady, who offered to shelter him under the ample folds of her petticoat. To 
this strange proposal, considering all circumstances, it is not strange that he assen 
ted, and here he remained undiscovered. Either love or gratitude suggested the 
sequel, and they were subsequently married, 

t^= It is estimated that the decline of the market values of Railroad Stocks in the 
last three months, amount to an aggregate of $60,000,000. This immense sum is lost 
by somebody to be gaiued by somebody else, for the railroads are worth as much 
now as three months ago, all for a restless, ambitious, unprincipled spirit, that won't 
work, and must live out of somebody, no matter who, and grow rich. 

|^° A PARTY of ladies, who were proceeding to bathe in a beautiful cove at Gene- 
va, Wis., discovered a young farmer in a thicket watching them, and gavehim a 
sound beating in the hazel-bushes in which he was hid. Served the sneak right. 
So says Prentice of the Louisville Journal, and who will dispute him? 
(J^^ The man who thought he could learn to make boots by drinking "sherry 
cobblers," has just issued a work in which he attempts to prove that by eating hops 
you will acquire a knowledge of waltzing. Queer old customer ! 

^^ If we could read the secret history of our enemies we_ should find in each 
man's life, sorrow and suft'ering enough to disarm all our hostility. 

l^ In the affairs of life, activity is to be preferred to dignity ; and practical energy 
and dispatch, to premeditated composure and reserve. 

1^ Louisiana promises 300,000 hogsheads of sugar against less than one-third of 
that amount last year; Cuba will come up to tlie full limit of her past production, 
if she does not surpass it, under the tumults of the late high prices. Brazil shows 
no falling oft'; Mauritius continues the ratio of increasing production that has doub- 
led her crop in seven years, and it is doubtful whether India will not yield as large 
a supply as ever. 

Ij^" The hoop question, like most others, has two sides to it. The ladies take the 
inside, and of course we must take the other. 

'^^ " The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars. 
But in ourselves, that we are underlings." 
J^" A PRETTY pair of eyes the best mirror to shave by. " Yes," replied a bache 
lor, on reading the above, "many a man has been shaved by them." 

250 Children^i Page. 

CbiUrcu's ^agc. 

Well, chil<iivn, here we are again, at tho eml of aiiotlior month. To lis it has 
l)oeu a very short oue. We hope it has with you. 

But with us there is a draw-back — one wliich you hanlly need feel, but which we 
can not help feeling sensibly — for we have been inquiring, within, what we have 
done this month, and really we can not make out a very large history of good things 

Uncle John — you may call us so if you like — is at an age when half a century has 
gone (how long that seems to j'ou,) and when something is to be done, and done 
pretty soon, if ever. You are at an age when there is less for you to do, and more 
to learn. Nevertheless, there is something for you to do, as we will show. 

We have much to do ; you have much to learn. While we strive to do something. 
you must strive to become something ; yes, to become something — to be good and 
USEFUL, and perhaps great. The last i? not of nuich consequence, and then it is 
pretty sure to come, if you attend to the first two. To be good and to do good, is the 
text on which we want to give you a bit of a lay sermon for children. 

Like the rest, we must have some divisions. Thoy used to have about thirty long 
ones. Three short ones are enough for those times ; 1, to be good ; 2, to do good ; 
3, to show that both are about one and the same thing, since persons that are really 
good are very apt to be showing it by kind and civil actions, and those that are 
bad generally show it by unkind, uncivil, selfish and dishonest acts. 

I. To be good. — God is good beyond all others. In order to be good we must be 
like him. What an idea for children, and yet these children can begin to compre- 
hend it. Thej' understand that "God is love;" that is, that he loves other beings 
who are capable of happiness and of misery, and that he delights to sec all happy. 
Now you can not be like God in his greatness and his power. The greatest man 
living can not. But you can cherish a kind, loving disposition, and that is the 
greatest step which any mortal has ever taken towards being truly good. 

Next to God, your parents are your examples. They love you. They wish you 
to be happy. When thej' grant your requests, it is because they love and desire 
your happiness. If they ever deny you, it is because they are unable to grant what 
you ask, or because they see that it would not really be well for you. That is a 
beautiful arrangement by which children, while they yet know little of the Avorld 
and have almost every thing yet to learn, are placed under tlie direction of others 
who have been longer in the world, who know more of its dangers, and who have 
a parent's lieart to love and care for them ; and if j-ou will strive to be as kind and 
affectionate to one another and to every bodj' as your mother is to you, you will 
liardly fail of having an example calculated to advance you in goodness. 

Among others whom you know, j'ou will see some who seem to delight in vexing 
the children, getting awaj' their play-things, disappointing them, making them and 
every body else unhappy. We suppose you do not like such. Well, then do not 
be like them. And you will see others who arc always saying a kind thing, re- 
membering to bring presents for the children, and seeming to delight in making all 
around them happy. The more you try to be like these the better. 

II. To do good. — Here again, God is our first example. You can not be like him 
to create worlds, to govern them, to make his sun shine, to open the beautiful flow- 
ers, to mature the luscious fruits. No, no ; nor can all the kings and queens of the 
earth. But you cau make somebody very happy or very unhappy. Think of it. 

Children'' s Page. 251 

If you had a large, blushing peach, and should bi-eak it open, and give your little . 
sister half, she would be happy. If you had two such peaches, and should insist 
upon eating both, while your little brother was looking on, he would be unhappy. 
The veriest child can create happiness, or destroy it. Your father may seem to you 
a stern man, quite beyond your reach ; but we will answer for it, he is happier 
when you meet him affectionately than when he sees you sour ; when he sees you 
kind and obedient to your mother than when he sees you pouting ; when he sees you 
generous and noble hearted than when he sees you mean and selfish. 0, yes ! and 
your mother is happier, and your brothers and sisters, and all about you. 

III. "When we see persons always saying and doing kind things, striving to do 
right always, and often doing a little more than could be absolutely demanded, we 
are apt to form a high opinion of them. True, we can not see their heart ; but we 
gee the streams that are always flowing from it, and we see that they are good. If 
we see them" saying and doing unkind things, excessively careful not to do more 
than could absolutely be demanded of them, the inside goodness becomes doubtful, 
because the streams are not remarkably good, and these are all we can see. 

Children, you have but just began life. Take advice of those who have seen the 
woidd longer than you have. Your parents are your best friends, your safest ad- 
visers. If we tell you any thing different from what they do, believe them, not 
us. But we rather think they will agree with us, when we tell j-ou that the more 
you try to be good and to do good, the more kindness and love you will meet from 
others, and the happier you Avill be. 

Answer to Cluestions in Last. 

One boy replies that a shower of one inch average would give on an acre 214 Ions 
and 600 lbs, of water; on a square mile, 73,180 tons and 1600 lbs.; on a township 
of fifty square miles, 3,659,040 tonsj on a coxmty forty miles square, ll*? ,089,280 
tons ; and on a State of 50,000 sqiiare miles, enough to fill a canal twenty-five feet 
wide and four feet deep, for 220,000 miles, long enough to reach about nine times 
around tlie arlobe. 


" I don't see why you do not like them. They are a good fit, and the best boots 
we have in the store. Them's a good fit." 

The above words were addressed by a storekeeper to a customer, evidently a 
farmer, who was examining a pair of boots with a view of purchasing, and who, 
when the clerk had finished his sentence, regarded him sternly for a moment, and 
then said firmly, " Are you buying those boots, or am I 'C " You are, I suppose, 
said the person addressed, a little nettled. " Well sir," said the farmer, "/ know 
what kind of goods I want without any of your assistance, /say these boots don't 
suit me. If you have others show them, and if not I will go where they are to be 
had, and I don't think I shall take you along to tell me what I want .'" 

There was decision. Some 2:ieople will go to a shop to purchase goods, and in 
stead of depending upon their own judgment, allow the seller to force things upon 
ihem which they do not want, and frequently become dissatisfied with their pur- 
chase before they leave the store. Manifest decision in everything. 0. A G. 

Take what you Give. 

What do we often drop, yet never etoop to pick up ? A hint. 

252 Booh Notices^ etc. 

oak Maticcs, M c, 

Tut: Illustrated Family Gymnasium, containing the most improved methods of 
applvincf Gymnastic, Calistlienic, Kincsipathic, and Vocal exorcises to Ihc develop- 
ment of the Uodily Organs, the Invigoration of their Functions, the Preservation 
of Health, and the cure of Diseases and Deformities ; witii numerous illustrations ; 
By R. T. Trail, M.D. P'onler & Wells, publishers, 308 Broadway, New-York. 1857. 
What a title page! and yet it describes but what the author has earnestly attempled, 
and we think has ably accomplished, viz., to furnish an ample range of illustrations 
for the attainment, by the cheapest and simplest means, within every one's reach, of 
freedom from deformity, health, strength, agility, beauty, and long life. 

We have no more to say of the book. Of its object we would speak in terms to be 
heard from New-Brunswick to Mexico, if our voice was strong enough to be heard 
so far. Americans, you arc missing it. By spitting life away in chewing, or 
smoking yourselves to skeletons, or snuffing spoilt tobacco and hurtful aromatics; by 
absorbing poisoned liquors, instead of stickling for good, or drinking none ; by a rest- 
less, figitting ambition to be suddenly rich ; by your love of votes and a reckless hurry 
to be shabby politicians, instead of being honest business men ; above all by dis- 
qualif>ing yourselves by these and other vices in early life for being the parents of 
sound, healthy offspring, you are sinning at a rate that none but the thoughtful and 
far-seeing can realize, against the health of posterity and the future greatness and 
happiness of our country. 

This is a heavy charge, but too many of us deserve it. We are not as conserva- 
tive of health as we ought to be, and we arc far less observant of the influence of 
our own doings, of our virtues and our vices, upon the destinies of our race, than 
becomes an intelligent people. That "the iniquities of the fathers are visited upon 
the children," jy/tysifaWy, is too evident to doubt. It is written in the Bible ; but we 
need not go to the Bible to learn it. It is extant, patent, wide open every where — is 
seen wherever the human race is seen. Every man and woman, whose conjugal life 
is not yet achieved, ought to see it, feel it, and abstain from foolish and hurtful indul- 
gences, from higher considerations than any that affects the welfare of any one 
being. Young man, let alone that tobacco ; throw away j'Our cigar; flee from adul- 
terated liquors — and you can hardly get any other these days — as if all the evil spirits 
in the universe were after you. The groggery will spoil you, and the greatest fear is, 
that it will not spoil you soon enough to prevent your leaving a spoilt image of your 
spoilt self behind you. 

The physical in our being, whether relating to our own health, or the untold evils 
of a half spoilt parentage on posterity, or the training of children with the first and 
ever constant care to make them hale, sound men and women, is too much neglected. 
Encourage in your boys manly exercises. Work them ; yes, work them. If you are 
rich as Crcsus, no matter. Give them something, occasionally at least, in the way of 
employment, that they may have the high enjoyment of feeling that they arc useful, 
helping somebodj-, doing good. It is the best feeling any mortal ever enjoyed. Why 
should rich men's sons be deprived of it? And then your daughters — are they up in 
the early morning? do the garden walks feel their nimble feet? do the roses blush 
less beautiful by the comparison of lips and checks tinted by morning zephyrs ; are 
they helping their mother, when that is needful ? are they learning to make hoe-cake 
and hasty-pudding, supawn, mush, whatever you call it? yes and pound cake, break- 
fast cake, pics for dinner, poor-man's cake, rich-man's cake, and all the rest ? and 

Book Notices, etc. 253 

more, are they learning the luxury of doing good ? When you lay out and adorn 
your grounds arc the wife and daughters out, exercising an exquisite, womanly taste, 
counting on the efiect of that tree you are setting when full grown, seeing how this 
winding path sorts with that straight fence, and reckoning where luscious fruits may 
combine utility with beauty. Or if their hands, a little softer perhaps than yours, 
should seize the proper implement and round off an unseemly prominence, what harm 
would be done ? And where is the old side-saddle that your daughter's grand- 
mother used to ride on ? Have the rats eaten it, and have you got no other ? 

But perhaps we say too much. We would not be always talking in this strain if it 
were not a matter of prime importance. The fact is, we want that some of the old 
American blood should survive all the onslaughts of foreigners. But it never wiU, 
unless we cherish good habits and educate our children to be hale, stout, physically 
able men and women. And wUl this spoil them intellectually ? Will it hurt them as 
ladies and gentlemen '? V¥ill it dwarf them morally ? Reader, you know better. It 
does not take a frail helpless thing to make a lady. It does'nt take a weak, shamble- 
legged thing to make a gentleman. And surely it does not require an imbecile, in 
body, to make a giant in mind. A sound body is the substratum of all intellectual 
greatness, not a hindrance, but a help to all that is intellectually and morally great 
and good. 

Sorgho and Imphee, the Chinese and African Sugar Canes By Henry S. Olcott, Esq. 
A. 0. Moore, 140 Fulton street, publisher. New-York. 1857. 

This work contains 350 pages, 12mo, and treats of the origin, varieties, and culture 
of these two plants, which it is hoped will prove of immense value to our country. 
The prominent topics are, " Their value as a forage crop, the manufecture of sugar, 
alcohol, syrup, wines, beer, cider, vinegar, starch, and dye stuffs ; "with a paper by 
L. Wray, Esq., of CeftVasia, and a description of the patented process for crystaUzing 
the juice of the Imphee. It promises a great amount of information, specially valua- 
ble at the present time ; and from a cursory perusal of the work, but more especially 
from what we know of the author's zeal and abiHty, we are sure its promises are weU 
redeemed. The work is published in the best style of the firm whence it emanates, 
which is saying much for its typography and style of execution. As stated in our 
last, we will forward this volume, prepaid, on the receipt of the publisher's price, $1. 

E. N. Wade's Music Store, Boston.— We can not forget our old friends in our re- 
gard for more recent ones. Wade's music store is one of the best in Boston, and 
his publications are numerous and valuable. Some of his recent issues of sheet 
music are very beautiful. The Fisherman's Cottage, by Weiss, words by Long- 
fellow, and in his volume of poems they are thought worthy of a beautiful illustra- 
tion. " May guardian angels hover o'er thee," is another beautiful ballad, music 
by Frank Remer. " Soft and gentle twilight," by Lindley, is also beautiful. 

White Lies, part 2d, by Charles Reade, published by Ticknor &, Fields, is on our 
table. The plot thickens, and the interest of the story much increased. Four 
parts complete the story. 

United States Agricultural Fair at Louisville, Ky. 


This Fair came off on the 1st, 2d, 3d and 4th of September. By the glowing ac- 
counts in the papers of Louisville, we are justified in the conclusion that there was 
a tivic, and a good one too. The weather was most propitious. The heavens smiled, 
the breezes fanned, and even the hotel-keepers didn't swindle the thousands assembled. 

234 Boole Notices^ etc. 

aflcr doin!^ all they could, more than they could comfortably, to provide for them. 

As this Fair was held a thousand miles from us just at the time we were going to 
press with our September issue, we could then publisli nothing from it ; and now 
what would have been news at that time, is a month old. We must content our 
selves, therefore, with barely stating that so fixr as we can learn, the indications 
were highh' favorable, alike honorable to the society, and encouraging to all wlio 
wi:=h iox our country a higher agricultural condition. 

Men Y,-ho arc doing so much as some of these Ohio, and Kentucky and other 
Western farmers, for the improvement of horses, horned cattle, sheep and swine, 
ought to enjoy a wide spread and lasting fome. They are doing what will greatly 
benefit our generation, and redound to the good of generations to come. Their 
names ought to be blazoned by the press; their stock should be advertised gratui- 
tously ; and we are glad to sec that the daily and weekly press has done its duty. 

Had our October issue been nearer the time of the sliow, we would have copied 
the eatire list of premiums awarded, and that with a view to benefit the receivers, 
both by contributing to a well earned fame, and by making their business known. 
But at this time it hardly seems Avorth while to exclude other matter fur what the 
dailies and weeklies have done so well. 

ITorwicli Route— The Commonwealtli. 

Though we know the high reputation of the boats of the Korwich route, we had 
never experienced the comfort of a trip in the Commonwealth till within the last 
month. It is a beautiful as well as an immense structure. Iler length is three 
hundred and eighty feet, and her other dimensions are proportioned, and her frame 
so firm that she moves through the water with remai-kable ease. Her births are 
admirable, and her state-rooms uncommonly desirable. Her engine is counted as a 
sixteen hundred horse-power. 


A GENTLEMAN of great practical skill in agricultm'c, and thoroughly versed in those 
sciences which throw light upon the soil and its cultivation, says : 

'• In this periodical is found a pleasing variety of mat'icr pertaining both, to agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts ; a combination of thought and interest that never should, 
and never can be, with propriety, separated; and while these two are caused to go 
hand in hand, the great field of science is not left unexplored." 

"Among the many pariodicals upon the subjects of agriculture, science and art, I 
consider this among the foremost, and take great plcasm-c in commending it to favor- 
able notice." — J. Bernard, Prof, of Mincralorfy, Geology, and Botany, in the Ohio 
Agricultural College. 

This is beyond all comparison the most valuable Agricultural work published in the 
United States. Every farmer who wishes to keep himself properly posted in his pro- 
fession, will do well to become a subscriber for this important and truly valuable work. 
— Geneva (iV. Y.) Courier. 

The price of tliis oxcelleut Farmers' Magazine has been reduced to $2 a year, with 
ao diminution in the quantity or value of its contents. It is, in fact, one of the very 
best agricultural monthlies published. — Independent Republican. 

It has the impress of talent, research, and industry on every page, and while it has 
these, it is courteous and true to sections as well aa individuals. — New-England 

This periodical will distance anything in its peculiar province published in America. 
— Genesee Argus. 

Markets. 255 

New- York Mai-kets. 

[From the N. Y. Times, Sept. 26.] 

Tlie Produce Markets have been very much injured by the pressure for money 
during tlic past Aveck. The receipts of the leading articles were on a pretty large 
scale, and receivers were anxious sellers. These circumstances worked against any 
prominent improvement. Yet, Breadstuffs were freely dealt in, especially by ex- 
porters, whose orders could be executed as prices here fell within their limits. This 
export movement led to an advance in freights, the shipping accommodation having 
been inadequate to the requirements of the trade. Towards the close, favorable 
news was received from Europe, which stimulated the demand for grain for export 
at rising prices, chiefly for Wheat and Corn. Oats were very freely offered at much 
reduced quotations, ye"t they were lightly dealt in. Advices from the principal n;ar- 
kets of the interior report heavy arrivals and limited sales of Oats, prices generally 
leaning in favor of purchasers. Rye and Barley were plentier and cheaper, with a 
moderate inquiry for each. 


Cotton has been lightly dealt in throughout the week at nominally unchanged 
quotations. The reported sales do not exceed a daily average of 500 bales. The 
export movement from first hands continues. The total exports from this port since 
the 1st inst. reach 5,3G8 bales, against 5,639 bales same period last year. Our available 
stock is now but 6,645 bales, against 25,213 bales this time last year. The receipts 
at all the shipping ports to latest dates this season, which commenced with the 1st 
inst., have been 7,324 bales, against 38,961 bales to the corresponding period of last 
season. The total exports from the United States, so far this season, have been 6,149 
bales, against 8,694 bales to the same date last season. The total stock on hand and 
on shipboard in all the shipping ports at the latest dates was 2*7,648 bales, against 
61,118 bales at the same time last year. The stock in the interior towns at the latest 
dates was 5,353 bales, against 3,993 bales at the corresponding dates a year ago. 

Poultry is active at former prices. 

Potatoes— Junes, ^ bbl $2 00 o$2 25 Turnips— Flat, <(3 bb! % 50 a 75 

Potatoes— Mercer, ^ bbl 2 75 a 8 25 Pumpkins— Yankee, ^ 100 4 00 o 6 00 

Potatoes— Dykeman, ^ bbl 2 50 a 2 75 Pumpliins— Cheese, ^ 100 5 00 a 6 00 

Potatoes— Peach Blow, ^ bbl 2 50 a 2 75 Squashes— Marrow, ^ bbl 1 25 a 1 50 

Potatoes— Sweet, Va., ^ bbl 2 50 a 2 75 String Beans— ^ basket 3T a 50 

Potatoes— Sweet, Delaware, ^ bbl 3 00 « 3 25 Beans— Lima, ^ bushel 50 a 62 

Onions— Rareripes, %? 100 strings 3 00 a 8 50|Corn--Sweet, ^ 100 50 a 't5 

Onions— Eed, ^ bbl I S5 o 1 50|Corn— Common, ^ 100 ears 50 o 70 

Onions— White, ^ bbl 1 75 a 3 00 Cabbages— ^ 100 1 00 a 3 50 

Onions— Yellow, ^ bbl I 75 a 2 OO^Cauliflower- ^ doz 87 a 1 00 

Beets— ^ 100 bunches 1 00 a 2 00 Kohl Rabi— ^ 100 bunches 2 50 a 8 00 

Carrots— ^ 100 bunches 2 00 « 3 OOJ Egg Plants— f doz 50 o 62 

Parsnips— ^ doz. bunches 87 a 44,Leeks— ^ 100 2 50 a 3 00 

Blackberries— Lawton,^ 100 q.b's... 25 00 a — jOkra— flOO 20 a 25 

Whortleberries—^ bushel 1 50 a 2 00, Celery— ^ dox 75 a 1 00 

Cranberries-^ bbl S 50 a 9 00 Garlic— ^ 100 7 00 a — 

Chickory— f 100 75 o 1 OOjPeppers— ^ 1(0 37 a 50 

Cucumbers— Pickles, ^ ItOO 2 00 « 2 SO'Butter- Orange ('o.,pails,^ fi) 25 a 28 

Tomatoes— 5tp basket 25 a 37!Butter— State, ^ B> 21 a 2S 

Apples— Common, ^ bbl 1 50 a 2 00, Ohio and other Western States, ^ fi). 14 a 18 

Apples— Table, f} bbl 8 00 a 4 OOXard— In bbls I5ia 16i 

Apples— Fall Pippins, ^ bbl 3 00 a 5 0O|Lard— Kegs 16 a 16J 

Pears— Cooking, ^ bbl 2 50 a S (0 Cheese— ^ fi> 8 a 10 

Pears— Seckel, ^ bbl 5 00 a 8 00 Eggs— Fresh, State, |9 doz 15 a — 

Pears- Common, ^ bbl 1 50 a 2 00 Eggs— Western, ^ doz 16 a 12 

Pears— Bartlett, ^ bbl 12 00 al6 dO Fowls— ^ pair 88 a 1 00 

Peaches— Jersey, ^ basket 1 .50 a 2 50 Chickens— Roast, ^ pair 63 a 1 00 

Peaches — Delaware, ^ basket 1 75 a 2 25 Chickens — Broileis, @. pair 50 a CM 

Peaches— Extra, ^ basket 2 50 a 8 00 

Plums— Damsons, ?p bushel 8 50 a 4 00 

Plums— Peach, ^ bushel 3 00 a — 

Plums— Egg, # bushel 4 50 a 5 00 

Grapes— Fox, ^ E> 6 a 7 

Watermelons— Prime Jersey, ^ 100.. 15 00 a25 00 

Ducks— ^ pair 75 a 1 

Turkeys— #fi) 20 a 22 

Turkeys— Spring 88 a 1 25 

Geese— Each 1 00 a I 50 

Pigeons— Squab, ^ doz 1 50 a 1 63 

Pigeons— Wild, ^ doz 63 a 75 

Watermelons— Common, ^ 100 2 00 a 4 00| Woodcocks— ^ doz 3 7.5 a 4 50 

Nutmeg Melons— Common, ^ bbl .50 a 75iReed Birds— ^ doz 81a 88 

Nutmeg Melons— Primes 1 25 a 1 75' Plover— Grass, ^ doz 2 50 a 3 00 

Turnips -Rutabagas, f bbl 1 25 a 1 50! Roasting Pigs 1 75 .» % fi 

256 Markets. 


A cool, coniforfaljle day favored the outdoor transactions of the cattle market, 
■which was mucii more lively than last Wednesday, although higher prices were 
only obtained upon the verj' few droves of good stock. There is always a demand for 
fine, fat cattle, of moderate size, no matter hoAV abundantly the market is supplied 
with common and poorer grades. This class was especially in demand to-day. 
There were quite enough light, thin steers and cows, with a sprinkling of coarse 
oxen and stags. We call the market Je.rt^c. higher on a few of the prime cattle, but 
no better on the majority of very Common stock, a part of whicli was left over from 
last week. The numbers at Allerton's were 3,472 for to-day, and 2,722 for the 
week. Last week the corrc?jionding numbers were 3.230 and 3,464, showing a fall- 
ing off of about 750 head. The footings give 3,685 as the weekly sales at all the 
markets, which is more than the general average of last week. Butchers had bought 
quite freely at Bergen and the city markets, which, with a good supply, laid in last 
Wednesday, in a measure curtailed their wants to-day, so that the yards were barely 
cleared at night. About 600 cattle were either purchased at Buffalo and Albany 
for the Brighton market, or tJiken there by owners, and some 500 or 600 head were 
sent into the country from those points as store cattle. 


Milch Cows are sold at each of the above yards, usually loith their calvca at their 
sides. The prices vary somewhat with the supply and the demand, and vary great- 
ly, of course, upon the milking value. The particular fancy of the buyer "has also 
considerable to do with the price. Not unfrequently a Cow is sold at $90a$100 or 
even $120. The general price throughout the year for ordinary Cows is $30 to $40 
or $50. Quite a number sell above $50, and more, perhaps, below thirty. We often 
6ee apologies for Cows go at $20a|25. The weekly reports from the different yards 
will give the weekly fluctuations. There is scarcely any variation in prices, or the 
market generally, since our last report. Quite enough are offering for the present 
demand, which has increased of late. 


Veal Calves are sold by live weight, each animal being weighed alive at the time 
of sale. " Bobs," that is. Calves a few days old, are usually sold by the head at such 
prices as can be agreed upon, sometimes for but little more than the skin is w'orth. 
Tlie markets have been well supplied the past week, the receipts being 150 in excess 
of the preceding week. Pi-ices remain unchanged, with a little more briskness in 
the market. 


These are chiefly sold at Allerton's, Browning's? and Chauberlin's, at so much 
per head for a particular lot of Sheep or Lambs, or of the two together. They are 
also frequently sold by live weight, as this is readily ascertained. The actual prices 
at the different yards seldom vary greatly. The difference in reputed prices is gen- 
erally due to variation in the quality. When thoy are sold by weight, it is usually 
the net weight, which is ordinarily one-half what they weigh when alive, the pelt 
and offal making the other half. If fat and small-boned, they will dress 55 lbs. and 
in some cases 60 lbs. per hundred. The average run is about one half of the live 
weight. Afalling oft' of 1,300 head of live Sheep from last week's footings, is about 
made up by arrivals of dead Sheep from Albany. Prices are a little firmer, and 
an advance may be quoted on good stock. 

These are sold alive at so much per lb. gross or live weight. Considerable num- 
bers are sold at Allerton's, Forty-fourth street, and at various other yards, while 
large droves are sold direct from the ears or boats, and driven immediately to the 
various slaughter-houses. Receipts have been moderate, being about 2,200 from all 
Bources. One lot of fat Hogs, on their way to this market, were wholesaled at 
Albany, at 7ic. This is the highest market price today. 

AMBHiOAM unmn^' 

Vol. X. 

NOVEMBER, 1857. 

No. 5. 

Bivision of Labor. 

At a, recent fair of the " Hanipsliire, Hampden, and Franklin Agri- 
culture Society," held at Northampton, Mass., the orator of the day 
Ex-Governor Everett, illustrated this subject by comparing Massa- 
chusetts now with what she was half a century ago ; " Then," said he, 
" agriculture was almost the only element of our domestic industry. 
There were then only 15 cotton mills in the country, and not one 
item in ten now contained in our industrial statistics had an existence. 
Now we can show a million of dollars of our productive industry for 
every day in the year." 

And so the workers of Massachusetts are paid a million a day for 
the toil of heads and hands. What a pity that her statistics do not 
run back fifty years. But we venture to say that they would show 
an annual industry of less than one-twentieth of the present. Think 
of the whole population grubbing among rocks and boulders, not more 
than half a million acres in the whole State fit to cultivate without 
costly improvements, and no capital to make improvements with ; 
tliink of a glut of agricultural produce at that, everybody having a 
little of that commodity and nothing else to sell, and nobody wishing 
to buy it, because all grubbed for themselves in that time, and if they 
got any money, paid it for foreign productions ; think of a farmer car- 
rying his veal twenty miles to a little country town, selling it for 2^ 
cents a pound, and taking slazy India cotton at 5 cents a yard for pay ; 
(we have seen that done withm much less than fifty years ;) think of 
the whole wealth of the State, consisting at that time of old brown 
school-houses, that could but just stand alone, in churches so ugly that 
the evil spirits certainly would not trouble the worshipers unless they 

VOL. X. 9 

258 Division of Labor. 

are devoid of all taste for architectural beauty, in agricultural imple- 
ments that ^vouId make any decent horse laugh if he should see them 
now-a-days, and in land that, as things then were, was better to emi- 
grate//-o?;i than to immigrate to ; and you have a pretty good view of 
Avhat Massachusetts was fifty years ago. 

Her people toiled prodigiously, and got little for it. Still they toil. 
It is their nature. Soil, cUmate, education, every conceivable influ- 
ence, all conspire to make them work. But the difference is that 
now they get something for it. They earn a million a day. And 
what has made this change ? Manufactures. Not that manufactur- 
ing labor is better paid than agricultural, but that agricultural labor 
is better rewarded Avhen manuflicturing is carried on in its neighbor- 
hood. In our humble opinion Massachusetts, and we ought to know 
something about her, is naturally the worst State in this Union for 
agricultural purposes. On the whole, we do not believe there is an- 
other spot on the globe, M'here, till the last fifty years, the people toiled 
as hard and got as little for it. The little, which the people scattered 
over the 5,000,000 hard acres of the State, earned in a summer, the 
Boston merchants were sure to take before the next spring. Enough 
was retained this side the Atlantic to make a few prince merchants in 
Boston, and the rest went to Europe to pay for doorlocks which 
wouldn't keep a rogue out, and sometimes wouldn't lot the o\TOcr in, 
for lo"' chains that wanted tinkering amazingly often, and for cotton 
shirting that wouldn't keep afelloxo warm, nor always cover his naked- 
ness very long. 

Commerce had every thing in its own way, and its way was to take 
to itself about all the earnings of the people. Their system was es- 
sentially the free-trade system, and it cursed the people. They 
worked twice as hard as any planter in the Union would dare or wish 
to work his slaves, and for it had the pleasure of seeing the Boston 
merchant and the English manufacturer grow rich at their expense. 
Now the people of that State earn a million a day, and it does not 
([uite all go straight to Boston, and thence to England. 

Free trade principles, if fully carried out, would reduce the whole 
American people, spite of exhaustless resources, to just the position 
of Massachusetts people fifty years ago, all working at one calling, and 
all working more for the benefit of middle men than their own. That 
plaguey Indian cotton — the e2)ithet is none too harsh — it makes us 
feel as if all the bed-bugs in creation were biting, to think of it — came 
to us by a very round-about course, just as conmierce would like to 
have every thing come, that there may be a great many freights and 
a heap of profits. 

Let us see how it worked. The girl in India that span and wove 

Division of Labor. 259 

it, probably got one cent a yard for her work ; the peddler who helped 
it along to Calcutta may have sold it there for two cents. The Cal- 
cutta merchant shipped at four cents, and the London merchant gave 
it a cant Americanwards at eight cts. The Boston merchant made on it 
just what he chose ; the country merchant ditto, and the hard-work- 
ing fai-mer paid fifty cts., and i:>aid in agricultural produce dog cheap. 
For what the worker at one end got one cent, the worker at the other 
paid fifty, and half a dozen princely fortunes were being built up by 
the way. 

That is free trade, nothing more nor less ; no fancy sketch. It is 
just what was going on in Massachusetts less than fifty years ago, 
when the people couldn't earn a million a day, nor keep but the small- 
est fraction of what they did earn. If the majority want that state 
of things again, we must have it. The mighty resources of the 
country can not save us from it. You may shout " free trade" tilli 
you are hoarse, but if you will have it you are done for ; mineral and 
agricultural resources never will be developed profitably by a nation 
that spurns manufictures. History has written this with a pen of 
iron. Theories about its being cheaper to buy than to make ar® idle 
nonsense in the presence of such testimony. The nation that pays its 
gold, or even its agricultural produce to any great extent for foreign 
manufactures, is doomed in advance, must be poor, however rich her 
soil or teeming her mines. Agriculture and manufactures, hand hi 
hand, will enrich a state as poor in soil and mines as Massachusetts 
was fifty years ago, having nothing but ice and granite to export. 
Agriculture Avithout manufactures, be the soil and mines ever so deep, 
or mountains of ore piled ever so high, will impoverish. Despise 
manufactures,- let them languish and die among you, depend upon the 
industry of another country, or another State even, and that moment 
you give yourself over to a spirit of commerce, that never has treated 
and never will treat the worker in the soil fliirly — a spirit that loves 
better to malce money than to earn it, and that will be very contented 
if the Indian girl gets a cent for her cloth, for which the consumer 
pays 50 cents, provided it can pocket the difference. Our mothers 
fancied that the Indian cotton was nicer than the homespun linens of 
their day, because they paid a great deal for it ; and we are not yet 
so much wiser than our ancestors, that we may not do as foolish 

Let free trade have its way, and such a tornado as now sweeps over 
the land, cursing city and hamlet, making the poor poorer, and with 
some hateful exceptions the rich no richer, and destined to fall heavily 
upon all the true workers, will sweep over us once in ten or twelve 

Hard Times. 

years, and in each case the longer it delays, the more withering force 
will it acquire to expend upon us. 

On the other hand, let us have a revenue taritV, fully adequate to 
the wants of the government, Avith sometlquig to spare for the high 
purposes of national education and general improvements ; let it dis- 
criminate slightly in favor of articles which advancing art among us 
would now enable us to produce Avith a little protection against half- 
paid labor abroad ; and the sun never yet shown on such a country as 
ours will be fifty years hence. The history of Masssachusests for the 
last fifty years will be the history of the whole country for the next 
fifty, only that the half has not yet been told. 

If Massachusetts, with a proper division of labor, from being what 
she was, has become what she is, what may not States a hundred fold 
richer in soils, and a thousand times richer in mines, become vmder 
the influence of alike system. We have no wish to glorify Massa- 
chusetts. She has faults enough, everybody knows. Uut we M'ould 
hold her up to the gaze of the nation, in one point of view, and that 
is her union of manufactures with agriculture. Why, fifty years ago, 
all Massachusetts out of Boston, that is about half of the State — Bos- 
ton being at that time the biggest half— could have been bought for 
four-aud-sixpence, but for a childish attachment of the people to their 
own rocky hill tops and swampy dells. Then the workers could earn 
little and keep nothing. Xow they earn a milUon a day, one dollar 
for every man, woman, and child, and keep a part of it. Then it was 
a blessed State to emigrate from. Now it would, not be a bad State 
to immigrate to. Despite the hardness of the soil, agricultural capi- 
tal pays as high a per cent., and agricultural labor receives as good a 
reward in that same little Massachusetts as in any other State in the 
Union ; and from being the worst State, agriculturally considered, 
she is destined in another fifty years to be as good as any other. — Ed. 

Hard Times. 

No wonder. We have been importing half of all that we need, and 
more that we do not need, time out of mind, and the only wonder is 
that we have had hard times no sooner. 

Such a system of governmental encouragement to American labor 
as James K. Polk commended when seeking the presidency, such as 
Zachary Taylor approved while on his way to that high office, and 
such as Henry Clay sighed for to the last day of life — a system by 
which Americans would pay Americans mostly for Avhat they eat, 
drink and wear, instead of buying of foreigners, and which, while se- 
curing an ample revenue, should incidentally protect such branches of 

Hard Times. 261 

industry as can be about as well prosecuted in this country as any 
other, but can not be inaugurated solely by private enterprise unaided 
— would have prevented all -this. 

Under such a system, every man, woman and child, not too feeble 
or too proud to work, would have had employment. Nobody would 
have been out of work ; nobody out of money. There would have 
been to-day more workers and less speculators, fewer merchants and 
better, and a great many more honest men. It may seem boastful, 
but it is true nevertheless, that if the doctrines advocated by this 
Journal from its commencement had been heeded by the nation, there 
would be no revulsion, no prostration of credit, no loss of confidence — 
these ten banks failed yesterday, sixteen more gone to-day, all the 
rest going over, would not have been ringing in our ears, as they are. 
But, government and people, we have been acting like madmen — have 
sown the wind and are now reaping the whirlwind — and it is just 
about good enough for us. If the virtuous, industrious poor, those 
who have done as much to create our wealth as any others, but have 
not been sharp enough (how we hate the term) to get their part, were 
not going to suffei", we should hardly care for the rest. 

Oh, but here is a rich merchant gone do^vn ! " He was worth eight 
millions." An honest man, who pursues a useful calling intelligently 
is worth more than eight millions. He is not to be estimated in dol- 
lars and cents. But the possession of eight nullions, or one million, 
as the result of a few years' trade, is no certain proof that the holder 
is a richer man than the rest of us in any decent sense of that term. 
It comes much nearer proving that he is a greater thief. But here 
we are in the midst of a mighty crash ; and if it turns out that the Shy- 
lock over his bags of gold is a god to be sought to in trouble, but 
sought to in vain, and the merchant who has stimulated our folly by 
his display of foreign silks and laces is more pitied than the real suffer- 
ers, it will be but the old thing over. Our abominably inflated credit 
system gives the sharpers untold advantages over the honest worker, 
and if the jDresent crash makes us more cautious of gassy inflations it 
will not be without its good effects. 

The fact is we have bought too much and manufactured too little. 
It is not true that if we buy a handkerchief for a belle in Broadway 
at $100, and pay for it in wheat at $1 a bushel, we are no poorer for 
it. Enough such exchanges would ruin the richest nation on the globe. 
Much less is it true that if we pay for gewgaws in California gold, we 
are no poorer for it. We are poorer at least by the amount that the 
gold diggers would have earned in other employments. If you build 
a substantial barn, worth $2500, the nation is richer by that sum ; but 
if you were to dig gold the while, and then exchange it for what only 

262 Hard Times. 

gratifies the mawkish folly of wislung to have something which other 
peoitle as good as yourself can not get, who is the richer for it ?^or 
who the better ? Nor is it true that if we purchase the real substan- 
tials of life and of national wealth and comfort, we arc no worse off, 
even if we pay for them in our own produce. The producers of the 
two countries are too far from the consumer. They are, , it is true, 
producers and consumers to each other, and so lar so good, but are 
too far apart. Too many freights and quite too many profits are be- 

Suppose England should make our ploughs and we should jiay her 
in corn. Would that be good policy ? Would the plougli-maker get 
more for his work ? Would the corn-grower get more for his corn ? 
or would the intervening freights and profits take something out of 
both ? TIic latter unquestionably, and it is so with everything. Com- 
merce is necessary only because not all climes produce all that is de- 
sirable. It is good only as it promotes necessary exchanges, and .is 
evil whenever it induces mmecessary exchanges, as if the English 
plough-maker and the American corn-grower should exchange com- 
modities at arms' length instead of each trading with his own neigh- 
bors. The interests of both producer and consumer are safer in their 
own hands, whenever and wherever they cSn be brought together, 
than in middle hands. Commerce is always a toll upon the results of 
labor, paid by the producer, or consumer, or both. When necessary, 
by reason of the remoteness of these parties, it is to be submitted to 
as a necessary evil. But the sober matter of fact is, that more than 
half the so-called commerce of this age, is a made up affair for the 
benefit of somebody between the producer and the consumer. We 
not only trade too much with foreign nations, but we trade too much, 
or rather employ others to trade too much for us, among ourselves. 
Too many of us are practising to live by buying and selling, and not 
enough by producing. AYe prefer a big slice of what others have 
earned to earning something ourselves, to live by our wits rather than 
by our energies, to be sharp rather than industrious. 

Now if the Congress at its next session, will lay aside its party 
bickerings for once, and consider what is due to the farmers and me- 
chanics of this country in the way of legitimate protection to Ameri- 
can industry, it can hardly fail to take a mighty step towards the pre- 
vention of such crashes as the present. In perfect consistency Avith 
our republican institutions, and with the eternal laws of right and 
justice between man and man, state and state, section and section, 
American industry may be fostered instead of being crushed, and we 
may become an independent nation in place of being as now the most 
dependent, with more wants, real or imaginary, that we can not our- 
selves supply, than any other people under heaven. 

Middle Men. 263 

Autl if Congress will do its duty, let the people do theirs. Let about 
500,000 of the runners, drummers, agents of all sorts and sizes, who 
are steaming people up to buy what they do not need and to sell what 
they ought not to part with, and swap away Avhat they should keep, 
go to work. We see more every day, who are teasing for a place, 
where they can run up and down for a paltry commission, without 
hardening the inside of their hands, to whom we want to say, " Go 
into the woods, cut down a tree, hew it into some useful form and do 
the world some good; or let yourself to a son of Vulcan and learn to 
be a blacksmith ; or to a son of Ceres and learn to be a farmer ; or to 
some other master of an honorable calling, and learn to be indepen- 
dent, instead of hanging upon others for their shillmgs. 

And then, if we can learn to work, it is more likely than not we 
shall learn not to spend so foolishly for what other nations manufac- 
ture. Here in New- York is a merchant (there are thousands such) 
who is sharp y yes, very sharp, sharp as a razor, sharp enough to cut 
all that come near him ; prides himself upon bemg shreicd ; shrewd 
is the term ; he is not talented, but shrewd ; and he has made a quar- 
ter of a million smce the last " burst up" before the present. His sons 
are fast learning to' be spendthrifts. His wife and daughters don't 
work, could'nt make a loaf of bread or a pie, nor order either made 
Avithout an extra house-keeper to run between them and the Irish girls, 
who know more than both of them. They know how to sport foreign 
goods uj) and down Broadway, and that is about all. So we go — 
sweep our streets with amazmgly expensive brooms, and no wonder 
there is a crisis, for surely the disease could'nt " get" much worse and 
the patient live. 

Aye, if the government will favor American industry and the peo- 
ple will be industrious, and not senseless spendthrifts, we shall get on 
))etter. — Ed. 


"Middle Men." 

Messrs. Editors : — I have read Mr. Spencer's article in the October 
number of the American Farmers' Magazine, and your comments 
thereon. It seems to me a great mistake to attribute the exploitation 
of the producer and the consumer by the merchant to the rascality 
of individual merchants. The difficulty, I aj^prehend, will be found 
inherent in the entire system of exchanges — in the relation which ex- 
ists between the producer and the exchanger. 

Let us inquire a little into this, and try to throw some light upon 
this darkened subject. To go back for a moment to first principles, I 

264 Middle Men. 

hold it to be an axiom, self-evident, needing no proof, that labor is 
the only legitimate source of wealth. "Whoever produces, is entitled 
to the product ; this right of course carries with it certain duties, 
which we all recognize, but which it does not come within the scope 
of my present purpose to discuss. 

But the fact is that the accumulations of wealth constituting capital 
are found, not in the hands of the producer, but in those of a class 
called by various names, merchant, banker, speculator, etc., who de- 
vote themselves to the busmess of acciumdat'mg the wealth produced 
by others. These accumulators generally act, directly or indirectly, as 
distributors and exchangers of products, and contrive while so doing 
to retain in their possession a very considerable part of the articles 
exchanged. This per centage of other people's property which they 
are thus enabled to obtain, is called their profits, and under the dis- 
guise of that little word all the wrong is eifected. How do they make 
their profits ? By buymg cheaj^ and selling dear, by thus getting a 
real for a fictitious value. And just so long as the producer sells his 
products to the merchant, just so long will the evil continue. It is 
necessary that there shoiild be some mediation between the producer 
and the consumer, since society is too complicated to make it possible 
or desirable that the farmer should make his own tools, houses, cloth- 
ino-, and other necessaries or luxuries, or that he should directly ex- 
change his products himself. For performing the labor required in 
making these exchanges the exchanger should receive a just and libe- 
ral compensation and no more. He should act as the servant of the 
producer and the consumer, exchanging for their benefit the goods of 
one for an equal cost of the goods of another, but not buying on his 
own account or owning any of the goods he exchanges. As certainly 
as the trader buys and owns the goods he will manage to get more 
than a fair compensation for his labor. 

This business of PROFITS, that is, of gambling, or getting something 
for nothing, also leads to the evil of ten men bemg employed in mak- 
ing exchanges where one or two would be ample to do all the neces- 
sary work. If there were no profits to be made, only compensation 
to be received for lahor, no more would be anxious to go into that 
business than could find actual work needed to be done. 

Whereas now, the producer has to support at least five (more likely 
ten) times as many exchangers and spoliators as would be necessary 
for the transaction of the busmess, who rush mto it hoping to accumu- 
late wealth without producing it, or to Hve better than their neigh- 
bors with less labor. Brain work is honorable and entitled to fair pay 
when usefully directed, as for example, to secure the proper adapta- 

3Ianures and their Amplication. 265 

tion of supply to demand for the good of all; but brain work di- 
rected simply to making profits is not honorable. 

If farmers then wish to enjoy the results of their labors, they should 
employ exchangers to sell their products for their benefit. • They 
should not undertake to sell their own goods to a " middle man," who 
in turn is to sell them for his benefit at the largest advance he can 
get, and who, devoting his whole energies to the business of buying 
and selling, is sure to be more than a match in sharpness for the 

I know it is not easy to efiect a complete and thorough refoi'm in the 
whole system of trade — it is not possible to do it at once. In the first 
place farmers must take the pains to study the relations of man to 
man, must endeavor to ascertain what constitutes equity in exchanges, 
then the first step will be taken toward practically realizing justice. 
I know the difficulty of finding those who love equity enough to be 
willing to act for the producer, without trying to spoliate him, and 
who are both capable and honest ; but there are those. The demand 
will never be long without the supply ; that is a law of God. I have 
only given hints where volumes may be, and have been written, but if 
it leads any to search for the law of justice or equity between man 
and man, I shall be satisfied. F. S. Cabot. 


Manures, and their General Application. 

The present is the season when farmers in general, and good far- 
mers in particular, scrape up and remove all manures, and give them 
immediate application in top-dressing, or pile it for future use. How fiir 
either of the above ways of disposing of it, are pursued mth the strict 
economy of good husbandry, we shall not attempt to decide. Our ob- 
ject, just now, is to tell of a course we have for several years adopted, 
and which we have found productive of very good results. 

Our manure for next year's corn crop. — This is made up of such as 
remained and accumulated in the barn-yard through the summer, and 
is composed of the droppings of the animals and such other material 
as comes to hand for the purpose. We draw it to the ground where it 
is to be used the following year in September, and make it into a pile 
as nearly conical as possible. The object of this is, to keep it compact, 
and in a shape to shed rain, an object we consider as important in a 
manure-stack as in a hay-stack. In building our manure heap we have 
plaster at hand, and every three or four loads, (cords) we spread a 
coat of plaster over the whole, and when the stack is finished we give 
it a covering of plaster of the eighth of an inch in thickness, and here 

266 Drainage. 

wc leave it until spring, to find it in a beautiful conditiou at i>lanting 
time, for putting under the bill. 

For top-dressing meadows, wc spread the same kinds of manure 
evenly upon the surface, as near as we can before the fall rains, at the 
rate of four or five cords i)cr acre. We then give a coat of plaster at 
the rate of fifty pounds (it looks small in quantity) per acre, in this 
case the two ingredients act together, arc actually worth more than 
double the quantity of cither would be if used separate. 

The foregoing system of preparing and applying manures we have 
found to be a decided imjjrovement. We believe it is generally admit- 
ted that the action of plaster (gypsum) is greatest on newly stocked or 
recently manured lands. This being so, the more the manure and 
plaster are incorporated the more each will help the other, and the 
greater benefits will result. When they are spread and sown on grass 
lands at the same time, then their action must be in close connection, 
and if i)ut on M'hcn the rains of autimm come into their aid their eflect 
will be early and strongly marked in the coming spring. 

We might carry our experience one stej) further. When manures 
are to be apj^lied as toi>dressings, on grass lands, the quantity may 
be greatly increased without any material diminution of quality, by 
composting muck, or indeed any absorbent soil in the pi'opor- 
tion of one half. Indeed, wc have top-dressed by simply takmg earth 
from the way-side, often removing the thin sod, and sj^reading it over 
meadow, in the same proj^ortion we would other manures. If its fer- 
tilizing j^roperties were not so great as guano, it possessed this quality, 
— it covered the exposed roots of grass and furnished them soil in 
which to throw new fibres and of course contributed to a more abun- 
dant future growth. Where manures are scarce, it is certainly worth 
trying. Yours truly, Wm. Bacon. 

RicuiiOND Oct. 4, 1857. 

Improvement of Land by Brainage. 

In every State in the Union are larger or smaller extents of land, 
imfit for cultivation and injurious to health by reason of stagnant 
water. Smce 1849 the general government has ceded to the States 
some 50,000,000 of acres of swamp-land, with the idea that the States 
in which these lands lie might devise means for their reclamation to 
agricultural purposes, or at least take mea.sures to abate their evil in- 
fluences on the health of the people. 

Over the whole Union, on the sea-coast, along the margin of rivers, 
on the steps of hill-sides, in mountain glens, in valleys and on flats, 
there are wet lauds, useless for agriculture and injurious to health, 

Drainage. 267 

Avhich are destined, beyond all question, to be reclaimed and to be- 
come the most productive and the most beautiful and healthy portions 
of the country. In this view the subject of drainage becomes one of 
great and general interest — of great interest because of the vast 
amount, productiveness and wealth involved, and of general interest, 
because nearly every land-holder has, directly, a work to do and a 
benefit to receive in this line, while, indirectly, all are to be benefitted 
by the increased productiveness and healthfulness of the country. 

Lands requiring drainage may be divided into uplands and swamps, 
calling those uplands, M-ithout reference to actual height, whose sur- 
face is free of water, and those swamps whose surface is inundated a 
considerable part or the whole of the year. In this view of the subject 
we find uplands on the very sea-shore and swamp lands on mountain 
tops. When uplands require draining it is generally owing to an im- 
pervious subsoil alone, there being no want of an outfall for the water, 
nor higher lands aroimd to prevent passing off freely. 

On the drainage of uplands we propose to speak now, and on the 
reclamation of swamps at another time. But does upland require 
drainage ? On this point we quote from the report of the committee 
on draining of the New-York State Agricultural Society for 1848. 
They say: "There is not one farm in seventy-five, in this State, but 
needs draining — yes, much draining — to bring it into high cultiva- 
tion." They say further, " It will be conceded that no farmer ever 
raised a good crop of grain on wet ground, or on a field where pools 
of water become masses of ice in winter." The late Mr. Delafield said, 
" No man ever raised good Avheat from a wet or moist subsoil." On 
land not prepared by underdraining, farmmg becomes too much a 
matter of chance, a sort of lottery in which you draw a prize if the 
season is just right for your land, but a blank if it is not ; whereas if, 
instead of waiting for a season right for your land, you make your 
land right for any season, by plowing to a good depth and under- 
draining where necessary, then there are no blanks in the case. Every 
year returns you a crop, and farming becomes a matter, not of chance, 
but of calculation. 

It is now as settled a point that depth of pulverized soil, so under- 
drained by nature or art, that no water M'ill remain stagnant in it, is a 
security against injury from severe drouths, as that it is a guarantee 
against the bad influence of excessive rains. One foot of pulverized 
soil on a porous subsoil, whether the subsoil be such by nature or be 
made such by drainage, is as good an insurance against injury, to any 
great extent, from too much or too little rain, as any farmer ought to 
ask. If the subsoil is naturally so porous that no water will stand in 
it — a point easily decided by digging three or four feet after a long 

268 I>rainage. 

rain — then the flirmer Las nothing to do but to mellow the surface for 
a foot in depth and to enrich it properly, to he more certain of a crop, 
be the season what it may, than we ever are that the banks, which 
give us their promises to pay, will redeem them ; and forming becomes 
the surest business in which capital and labor can be invested. But 
if the subsoil, owing to clay, rock, or hard-jjan, be impervious to wa- 
ter, it is just as unwise to keep on trying to cultivate it, without 
first preparing it for cultivation, as it would be to mow all day with a 
dull scythe, instead of first grinding it in the morning, and then grind- 
ing it as often as necessary through the day. Why grind the scythe ? 
Is there not labor enough without this ? Yes, but if you add the labor 
of grindhig, your labor will avail you more as a whole. And just so 
it is with the labor of under-draining. If the subsoil is impervious 
the labor of under-draining, added to that of cultivating, will be more 
surely and better paid, as a whole, than that of cultivating without 

Under-draining deepeyis the soil, greatly increasing the amount of 
vegetable food that is made available to plants. It alloios of a more 
thorough ^pulverization, thereby increasing the amount of soil with 
which the roots will come into contact. It alloios the water to circu- 
late more freely, to sink readily, and to be drawn upward again by ca- 
pillary attraction as evaporation from the surface goes on, thus charg- 
ing it with the soluble matters in the soil, to be brought to the roots 
by it, as plant food. It j^revents surface washing, and thereby retains 
in the soil plant food that would otherwise be carried off, and preserves 
the field from being gullied into rude, unseemly forms. Streams of 
water should never be seen running' from the barn-yard ; because they 
carry off the strength of the manure ; and for a like reason they should 
not be seen running from a richly- cultivated field. They dissolve and 
carry away the strength of the surface soil. It lengthens the season, 
making the ground warm earlier, keeping it Avarm all summer, for- 
warding the crojis, and delaying in some small degree the autumn 
frosts, or if not actually delaying them, at least making them later 
relatively with the ripening of the crops. It prevents freezing out in 
winter, toarms the soil in spring and summer, and tnaJces the crops ear- 
lier owX of the way of frost in autumn. Every one of these assertions 
could be backed up by sound, philosophical reasoning, if there were 
space ; and what is more, every one of them, without exception, is sus- 
tained by the oft-related experience of the very best farmers in this 
and other countries. 

But supposing that all who are not hopelessly behind the times are 
now convinced of the benefits of under-draining, let us inquire after 

Drainage. 269 

the best means, confining ourselves for the present to uplands, and 
leaving the reclamation of swamps for another occasion. 

A stone drain, sides eight inches apart, with flat stones over them, 
making a culvert of about eight inches square, and then covered sev- 
eral inches deep with small stones, and filled above with earth, is a 
pretty good drain, and will operate well for a long time, provided the 
bottom be brought to a perfect grade before laying it, and provided 
also that no vermin be allowed to burrow about it and expose it to 
sudden gushes of water. But there are too many provisos and too 
many uncertainties for so expensive a drain — the most expensive, we 
believe, that has ever yet been proposed. It is one which we would 
recommend only in a case where there are round and flat stones in 
abundance for the culvert and pebbles for the filling up, all within a 
stone's throw of the ditch. This is an expensive drain for two reasons : 
1. In order to lay it well the ditch has to be very wide, quite to the 
bottom, nearly doubling the labor of excavation above that of exca- 
vating for a tile drain. 2. The handUng of such an amount of stones 
is ex23ressive of labor. We would never resort to this mode of con- 
structing a drain, unless we were willing to charge about all the labor 
of handlmg the stones to surfiice improvements in the immediate 
neighborhood of the drain. The carrying of so many stones a consid- 
erable distance would be hardly better policy than " carrying coals to 

A pretty good drain is constructed by digging from three to four 
feet deep, filHng up two feet with small stones, dumped in from the 
cart at random, and then covering with straw, bark, shavings, or salt 
hay, and filling to the surface with earth. Where a good fall can 
be obtained, and the adjacent grounds are full of pebbles to be 
got rid of at almost any expense of labor, it might be recommended. 
We would prefer this drain, on the whole, as costing less, and if right- 
ly done, quite as reliable. The stones should be small, only from the 
size of a hen's q^^ to that of an ostrich, larger ones, if any, to be 
broken. In this case the ditch may be narrower. Six inches at the 
bottom would do well. Care should be taken so to even the stones 
that the earth will not fall in around them, and the bottom of the 
drain, pre\dously to filling in with stones, should be brought very 
nearly to a regular grade, with a uniform descent from the upper end 
to the outfall. Indeed no drain which has not a very nearly uniform 
descent, can be relied upon to carry water long ; for the steep runs 
will be very sure to lodge obstructions in those less steep, till the 
whole becomes inefiective. 

Brush drains are better than nothing, and pretty effective and dur- 
able if made in the best manner, and may be recommended where 

2V0 J>rainage. 

there are no stones to be disposed of, and the tiles can not be obtained 
without great expense for transportation. If resorted to, tlie butts of 
the brush should be laid upward, the work to be commenced at the 
outfall, after the manner of shingling, from the eaves upward, each 
l)u-5h drawn in a little as compared with the last, till the whole is fin- 
ished, the ditch to be nearly filled, as they would settle on being cov- 
ered with earth, to allow room for the plow above them. 

Filling with poles laid parallel with each other ; with rails, two laid 
a little apart, and a wide one over them, or if rail timber is so plenty 
as to be worth but little, six or eight rails thrown in at random and 
covered with earth, makes a tolerably good drain. Wo have seen 
such working well after many years, and we have often heard of their 
answering a good purpose for a quarter of a century or more, but we 
could not I'ecommend them. It is manifest that a drain constructed 
of wood, in any form, whether of brush, poles, or sjjlit timber, would 
be more durable in cold grass-lauds than in cultivated fields, because 
in the latter the air penetrates more freely, the soil becomes warmer, 
and the brush or timber would decay sooner. But we doubt whether 
it is good policy to construct such drains m any soil, unless where 
timber is a drug, stones scarce, and tiles can not be transported with- 
out great expense, and even then the farmer might be led to inquire 
whether he might not better procure a machine and make his own tiles. 

Three strips of board, say four inches wide, nailed together in a trian- 
gular form, the ends fastened by nailing to a shorter strip, so as to 
be kept firmly in place, that the ends might match perfectly, would 
carry water well for a while, and if laid deeply in a cold soil would 
last many years. But we should think that there are few sections 
where true policy would permit the construction of such drains. " Cir- 
cumstances," we know, " alter cases ;" and every man is the best 
judge of the circumstances in his own case. 

Where cii'cumstances peculiar to a location, such as abundance of 
round and flat stones, that want to be sunk into a culvert drain to get 
rid of them ; of pebble stones to be disposed of in a cheaj) way, as in 
a fiUed-in stone drain; of brush at hand, already cut, or to be cut in 
order to clear the land of them ; or of timber so plenty as to be of 
little account — with these and perhaps some other exceptions, which 
may now escape us — the best way is, beyond all controversy, to lay 
the best tile drains, and in the long run it is the cheapest and pays 
best to lay them in the best possible manner. Let the excavations be 
from 3 to 4 feet deep, and if you set your own judgment at work, in- 
stea<l of waiting for some one to tell empyrically, to an inch, how deep 
to go, we think your drains will turn up nearer 4 than 3 feet ; or if 
you bring the bottom to nearly an exact grade, which we would urge, 

Drainage. 271 

because Ave believe an uneven grade, now steep and then nearly level, 
to be tlie bane of all draining, it will happen that your drains will 
vary all the Avay from three to four feet, and in quite uneven surfaces, 
perhaps in some extreme points two and a half to five feet. 

The sole tile is the best ; that is, the tile which has the bottom or 
sole attached, moulded in . one piece. Some have used collars. The 
collar is but a short piece of a larger tile, say 4 inches long when the 
tile itself is about 13 inches, so made that the ends of two tiles, at the 
place of joining, slide into the collar, and are held by it exactly end 
to end, so as not to be liable to be displaced in covering, or ever after 
to get out of place, by any possible heaving of the ground. In laying 
the tiles, even if collars are used, and especially if they are not, be 
careful to make them firm in their places, the ground under them to 
be made equally hard, so that one will not settle more than another, 
which can be efiected with certainty only by making all so firm as not 
to settle at all. Too much care can not be given to the attainment of 
a regular descent, or rather ascent, as you will begin to lay them at 
the lower and not the upper end. Laterally^ a line of tiles may 
curve, if the nature of the ground requires it. You might even run 
your drain in a semi-circle, especially if the collars be used, provided 
the shape of the field demanded it, which, however, would rarely if 
ever happen, it being quite attainable, in most cases, to make the 
drains perfectly straight, and this being decidedly the best way when 
jsracticable. We only say, that laterally you may give the drain a 
gentle curve, without serious injury if you regard that as desirable, 
but let them be straight, unless your ground presents a special reason 
for the curve. Vertically., the drain should not curve, but should 
descend by a regular gradation, whenever the face of the ground will 

With regard to distance of drains from each other, much depends 
upon the character of the soil and more on the depth. In a very 
clayey, tenacious soil, through which water passes with the greatest 
difficulty, they need to be near each other. Twenty feet in extreme 
cases would be far enough ; and if the ground is to be cultivated in 
the highest manner, as in some branches of gardening it might be 
wise to put them but one rod. On soil but ordinarily impervious to 
water, depth takes the place of nearness, so that whether you lay the 
drains 2 feet deep and 33 feet apart, or 4 feet deep and 66 feet apart, 
nearly the same object is gained, a little more speedily perhaps by the 
first, but we think more durably and at less expense by the second. 

ISTot only does a deep drain extend its influence more widely, but 
its cost we think must be less in proportion to the breadth of land af- 
fected by it. The deeper a drain the less likely is it to be made in- 

272 Drainage. 

effective by the insinuation of roots, a fruitful cause of failure with 
shallow drains. "We have seen tiles that liad lain but two and a half 
feet deep, so completely filled -wdth grass roots for rods, that very lit- 
tle if any water could be passed through them. It is true, also, we 
believe, that the deeper a drain is the less the danger of its being 
stopped by sediment, because in this case the water is more i^erfectly 
filtrated before reaching it. "We incline, therefore, to the oiiinion that 
few drains and deep is the best policy, but no certain rules can be 
laid down. The man who is about to expend money in draining should 
study the subject in the light of all the experience and observation he 
can summon ; should call in the advice if possible of those Avho know 
more than he of the subject ; and after all should leave a wide margin for 
the exercise of liis own judgment, acquainted as he is, better probably 
than any one else, with the nature, tendencies, and wants of his own 

As regards the size of drain tiles, something depends upon the 
length of the lines, those which are longer havmg to carry more water 
towards the lower end. "We see that the sizes advertised by James 
M. Crafts, of "Whately, Mass., by whom excellent tiles are made, are 
two inch, three inch, and four inch calibre. The two inch are sold at 
8ig per 1000 pieces, about 13 inches long; the three inch at $10 per 
1000 ; .and the four inch at SlO per 1000. Rarely, however, do the 
main drains require so large a calibre as four mches ; and for all ordi- 
nary cases, the run not bemg unreasonably long, a two-inch calibre is 
quite as good for the secondary drains as larger. A one-inch calibre 
will carry a large amount of water by constant running. A two-inch 
cahbre will carry just four times as much, alloAving nothing for differ- 
ence in friction or retardation of water by the sides of the pipe ; and 
after making due allowance for friction, and considering that the fric- 
tion is less the larger the pipe, it is probable that a two-inch calibre 
would carry six or eight times more water with a moderate fall, say 
one inch to the rod, than a one-inch calibre. 

It is not uncommon to lay tiles with a fall of but half an incli to the 
rod ; and they have been known to work well with even less fall than 
this ; but a greater fall is desirable, and there is room for the exercise 
of much judgment in so laying out the j^lan of operations as to secure 
a considerable, and as far as may be, a uniform fall for each drain. 

The first of the cuts below exhibits the section of a drain, such as we 
have described, with the exception that the culvert is differently 
formed. Perhajis the mode here shown is the best, where stones of 
precisely the right quality are at hand. The second represents a fill- 
ed-in stone drain. Such a drain, if three feet deep, and filled a foot 
and a half with small stones, well covered to prevent the earth fall- 

Mules at the St. Louis Fair. 


ing in, could hardly fail to do good service, and is not very expen- 
sive if half or three-fourths of the fiUing in be charged to improve- 
ment of land in the vicinity. The third, fourth and fifth cuts suffici- 
ently explain themselves. 

'-^i/lu , 

lyeyLM tdli. 

Mules at the St. Louis Fair. 

TiiH exhibition of mules at the St. Louis Fair was said to have been 
the finest ever seen in this country, A Mr. Adams, of Clay county, 
Missouri, bore off ten premiums of the aggregate value of ^250. His 
matched mules, four years old, were elephantine feUows — seventeen 
hands high, of remarkable breadth, with the finest of shoulders and 
hind quarters, as symmetrically formed as a fine horse, easy trotters, 
docile, and worth any fancy price their owner might place upon them. 
Under the class of saddle mules, Mr. Adams exhibited a beautiful an- 

274 Sugar 3fill. 

imal, nearly black, ha^^ng three gaits, to which he was well broken, a 
trot, pace and cantor. In size, he was less of a manunoth than the 
others, but large enough, and well suited to the saddle or buggy, 
quick in his motions, graceful and perfectly manageable. Mr. A. ex- 
hibited him in a buggy, sliowing a square speedy trot, that would roll 
a buggy along at the rate of ten miles per hour. — Prairie Farmer. 

Manure Water. 

Manure water is a great assistance, judiciously applied, to plants in 
pots, j)articularly to increase the size and coloring of flowers, if given 
when the flower buds are swelling, and before they expand. An ex- 
cellent manure water for this purpose is made by mixing one ounce of 
guano and two ounces of superphosphate of lime in four gallons of 
water, previously stirring it well, and use it when it has become clear. 
This is quite strong enough, and should be given alternately, with 
waterings of jjure water. — Me. Farmer. 

This is all very well ; and it is well enough to have some guano 
and superphosphate for such uses always on hand ; but as few have 
them, or care to go to a dealer for a few pounds, Ave venture to say 
that four shovelfuls of well-rotted manure from the various animals 
of the farm, including the hens, thrown into a barrel of water, to stand 
a few days in the sun, and to be occasionally stirred, will give a 
manure water equally good — one that will make a potato hill grow 
as luxuriantly, the fruit on a dwarf j^ear ripen as luxuriously, or the 
rose blush as sweetly. 

In a shovelful from each of the various sources of fertility about 
the farm-house, as the yard, stables, pig-pen, and hen-house, mixed 
together and fermented, or if they be taken in only a partially decay- 
ing state, are all the elements found in guano and superphosphate, 
and they are sufiiciently soluble for the above purpose. 

There is not a farm-house — scarcely a house of any kind — in the 
country, where we could not find decomposing matters, on the 
shortest notice, that would be valued by the occupant at one cent or 
less, which would make a barrel of mainire water, just as good as 
that recommended above. 

It is true that a homosopathic dose of guano or superphosphate, 
especially the former, and perhaps both better than either alone, will 
give a wonderful richness to the colors of flowers. But they are not 
the only things that will do it. 

It would be Avell for us not to forget that there are manures other- 
where than in the merchant's back-room. — Ed. 

A Sugar Mill for the People. 

Two weeks ago, we stated in the Local Department of our paper, 
that we had been informed by certam iron-founders of New-Jersey, 

Indian Corn. 275 

that they had constructed a sngar-mill, which they Avould haye m 
operation at the Burlington County Fair on the 6th and 7th uist. ; 
that it was our intention to he present at the Fair, and that we would 
examine the mill and report our opinion of its merits. We were there 
the first day of the Exhibition, and saw the mill in operation ; the 
juice in process of conversion into molasses ; and tasted the manufac- 
tured article. It was a success throicghout. The mill seemed to us 
to be exactly what every good farmer needs — for we believe that 
every good farmer will speedily go into the cultivation of this cane to 
supply his own family with both molasses and sugar. It is a very 
simple and substantial piece of machinery, and apparently it is impos- 
sible to get out of order with anything hke fair usage. The canes 
pass between three iron rollers, put in operation by a sweep similar to 
that used in old-fashioned cider mills. About ten canes are crushed 
at a time, producing about one gallon of juice per minute. _ The juice 
falls through strainers into a receivmg vessel. The driving^ of the 
mill is quite easy work for one horse ; and the feeding of it is mere 
play for a small boy. The juice was most thoroughly crushed out. 
The cost of the mill is |125, and we feel very sure that a better arti- 
cle for the money can not be obtained or would be desirable at this 
time. Half a dozen farmers might join in the purchase of one. 

The makers of this mill — we feel it our duty to announce, for the 
benefit of farmers— are Risdon & Son, of Mount Holly, N. J. ; and we 
presume that any order for the mills will be promptly filled in time 
for the present crop. But not a day is to be lost in securing the canes 
from the frost, and converting the juice into molasses, if advantage is 
to be taken of the canes still standing. — Germantow?i Telegraph. 

Indian Corn. 

Maize, or Indian corn, originated in America, and is not yet, we 
think, cultivated to any extent on the European continent. Though 
the people of Great Britain can not be made to appreciate its merits 
very fully, the aggregate exports of corn in 1856, in the form of whole 
grain, meal, corn starch, farina, etc., amounted to between seven and 
eight milHon dollars, or about one-fortieth of the whole exports of 
the country, and 6,700,000 bushels, considerably more than half, went 
to England alone. Corn has always been an important article in this 
country, both of consumption and export. The total amount of this 
produce exported in 1770 was 578,349 bushels; in 1791, 2,064,936 
bushels of which 351,695 were Indian meal. The value of corn and 
its manufacture exported from the United States in 1830, was 
$597,119 ; in 1835, $1,217,665 ; in 1840, $1,043,516 ; in 1845, 
$1,053,292 ; in 1850, $4,652,804. The export increases more rapidly 
than the production. The export of corn quadrupled between 1840 
and 1850, while the production did not quite double. The great 
amount of invention bestowed on corn-planters, corn-cutters, shellers, 
cob-grinders, etc., tends each year to promote the increase of produc- 
tion. It has been estimated that as a general rule, seven pounds of 
corn will produce one pound of pork ; so that m localities where, 
through distance from market or from transportation facilities, the 
cereal can not be raised at profit for sale, it is frequently the material 

276 Manure for Com. 

used in fattening the more concentrated form of diet, and on which, 
consequently, the freight is less. Cob meal, we bclieA'e, is most valu- 
blc fur animals that chew the cud ; horses and hogs, as a general 
thing, deriving less benefit from the cob-grinding invention. With 
all animals, however, we believe, there is a perceptible advantage 
realized by mixing the cob Avith the denser meal. — Scientific Amer. 

Fattening Properties of Peas ''and Beans. 

These articles have been found by chemical analyses rich in nitro- 
gen. The inference has been that they Avould be specially useful in 
supporting the waste of the muscles of animals, and it has been sug- 
gested that they would be particularly useful in the production of 
wool. They are evidently valuable for these purposes, but not the 
less valuable for the production of fit. Those persons who have used 
peas for fattening hogs, consider them worth as much as Indian com. 
In districts where that grain is not groA^na, very fine pork is produced 
from peas. Dickson, in his work " On the Breeding of Live Stock," 
states that a sweep-stakes Avas entered into between five East Lothian 
farmers, to be claimed by the one who should be pronounced the best 
feeder of cattle. Forty cattle of the same breed, and in equal condi- 
tion, were divided equally among them, as fairly as possible. They 
were put up together the second week in September, and killed at 
Christmas following. The Manner of the stakes fed his animals wholly 
on boiled beans with hay. — Exchange. 

Mouldy Peas, Beans, Grain. 

The generation of mould in peas, beans, and grain, when put into 
granery in a somewhat moist or humid state, is with difficulty pre- 
vented. When this evil occurs the legumes or cereals aftected are 
supposed to be rendered utterly worthless thereby ; but such is not 
the fa^t. Peas or beans, corn or wheat, tliat has become mouldy, 
may be perfectly deprived of its unpleasant smell and taste by im- 
mersing it in hot or boiling water and permitting it to remain therein 
till the liquid becomes quite cool. If one immersion does not prove 
effectual let it be repeated. Animals devour mouldy grain when 
managed in this way as greedily as any, and are apparently as much 
benefited by it. Peas constitute an excellent feed for swine ; and 
few articles are more strengthening to shee]) than beans. They should 
be given before and after casting their lambs, with a small quantity of 
clioi)ped turnips — say about two quarts per day — one quart in the 
morning and one quart at night. This will generally be sufiicient, and 
will tend to promote the action of the lacteous system, and procure a 
copious flow of milk, besides proving highly promotive of the general 
health of the system — Germantown Telegraph. 

Privy Manure for Corn. 

A GEXTLEiiAN mauurcd one-third of a corn plat with guano, one- 
third with barn manure, in which the urine had been saved, and one- 

Fine Wool Sheep. 211 

third with privy manure, in which swamp muck had been mixed as 
an absorbent. While the corn was growing, that which had been 
treated with guano seemed the most luxuriant, but on harvesting it, 
the section manured from the privy produced the most corn, both m 
the ear, and m shelled corn, by weight. — Ilaine Farmer. 

How to Increase Manure. 

If you have not hitherto done so, permit us now to prevail on you 
to take this advice : Have as many loads of rough materials hauled 
and spread over your cow-yard as will make twelve inches in depth. 
In spreading, so fashion the materials as to be basin shaped, the low- 
est point being in the center to prevent the escape of the urine. 
While the rough materials are being placed in and spread on the yard, 
dust each layer so spread, with j)laster, or with pulverized charcoal, 
and when completed, dust the surface with either of the substances 
named ; then roll the yard to consolidate its contents — the heavier 
the roller the better. Occasionally throughout the yarding season 
spread plaster over the yard, and from time to time add rough ma- 
terials. — American Farmer. 

History of Fine Wool Sheep. 

[concluded fbom our last.] 

The English farmer said at once : " I can do nothing with these lit- 
tle sheep ; I may get two or three doUars for the wool, but I can get 
ten dollars for the carcase of the mutton sheep, if I loose all else. 
Besides, these little sheep can not live in the fields in the winter. They 
are not stout enough to endure that. I must have the large sheep for 
the mutton I can get out of it, and because it wUl live on the fields in 
the winter and enrich my land, so that it will yield twenty two bush- 
els of wheat to the acre." That is the average in England ; our ave- 
rage is not fourteen. Do you wonder, Mr. President, why they would 
not introduce and adopt the merino breed of sheep in England ? You 
can see at once why it was so. After the utmost exertions, for some 
thirty years, in trying to do this, and succeeding not at all, finally the 
royal flock of fine wool sheep was sold at auction. I have seen the 
account of those sales in the Library of Congress, showing to whom 
each sheep was sold, and hoW: much it was sold for. 

While this business was going on in England with this w^ant of suc- 
cess, in Saxony they had attended to that family of sheep which came 
to the Elector of Saxony, and had bred in entirely with regard to the 
fineness of the wool. They had shepherded them on the fields and 
plains of Germany, and bred them in fine, by selecting the finest aU 
the time, without regard to size. The result was, they got a delicate, 
small, tender sheep, called the Saxony sheep, which is all over the re- 
gions I have mentioned. 

The gentleman who bid off, in ISIV, I think, the greater part of the 
royal flock that was sold in England, was a captain in the British 
Navy. His name I do not remember ; I think it was Mitchell, or some 
common name of that kind. He went, about the same time, to Sax- 

278 Fine Wool Sheep. 

ony, and bought a larger flock of the Saxony breed, and carried them 
both to Australia. 

That is now the family of Australian sheep ; their wool is a fine 
silky wool. It has been produced by crossing the breeds from Eng- 
land and Saxony. 

Kow, how came these in our country ? Mr. Livingston, who was 
our Minister to France in the latter part of the reign of Louis XVI., 
got a few sheep from the Rambouillet flock in France, and carried 
them to Xew-Kochelle, in New-York. Colonel Ilum^ihries, of Con- 
necticut, M-as our Minister to Spain at that time, and he got a few 
sheep as a present from the King of Spain. They were taken to Con- 
necticut ; but they never amounted to much. 

About 1810, at Bonaparte's second invasion of Spain, when he had 
possession of the Prmce of Peace, and endeavored to reestablish Jo- 
seph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne, the Cortes ordered the sale of 
the royal flocks, for the purpose of raising money to defend the nation, 
giving to the purchasers the right to carry them out of the kingdom. 
WilUam Jarvis who is still Uving in Vermont, was then our consul at 
Lisbon, Seeing this advertisement, he went into Estramadura, and 
at that auction bid ofi" eleven hundred of the sheep. He sent them to 
this country — to Baltimore, Philadelphia, New-York and Boston — re- 
serv'ing a flock to himself, as he was about to return home. He re- 
turned with his flock to his farm in Vermont, where he now resides, 
and where he has kept that family of sheep to this day. He has 
shearings of each year from that time to this, marked with the dates, 
so that you c^n compare them, and see whether the wool is improving 
or deteriorating. There is a decided improvement. It is a great deal 
better than when he brought the sheep from Spain. His importation 
Avas the basis of the merino sheep of this country. I well remember 
that soon after the close of the last war with Great Britain, in ^vhich 
we suffered so much for the want of woolens, some of these sheep, a 
year or two old, sold for $400 a piece. 1 have seen a little merino 
sheep, that a man could carry under his arm, sold for $400. They 
were thus introduced mto New-England, and they have gradually 
spread ofi* into Pennsylvania, New- York, Ohio, and so on West. As 
late as 1826, after we had entered upon the protective system in rela- 
tion to woolens, and especially after the act of 1828, our people went 
to Saxony and obtained some of the Saxony flock as a finer wool sheep. 
Considerable numbers of them were imported in those two years; but 
they did not answer our purpose at the north. They were too feeble ; 
they were not stout enough for our climate ; they did not winter well ; 
but they have done pretty well in some parts of the country — I have 
particularly on my mind Washington county, in Pennsylvania, where 
they are producing Saxony wool of high quality. In Ohio they have 
crossed the Saxony with our eastern merinos ; and a large part of the 
wool of northern Ohio now is of as high grade as the full blood meri- 
no, and perhaps a grade beyond that and Saxony together. 

I have thus, Mr. President, attempted to show, in a brief, summary 
manner, that fine wool is all the produce of a single family of sheep. 
Whatever difference there is in its quality depends on the care, and 
the breeding, and somewhat slightly on the climate and feeding. In 
Saxony their flocks are driven under shelter in hot days of summer. 

Bones as a Manure. 2V9 

There are sheds for them to protect them from the heat of the sun. 
That care is not taken in this country ; perhaps they do not need it 
here. In Australia the wool made from the English and Saxony 
merino sheep is a fine and rather longer wool than ours. It is 
silk. Some few of these sheep have been taken to Brazil and Chili, 
and there crossed with the native sheep, producing a rather better 
quahty of wool, but still a coarse wool. The great body of the long 
wool, which is combing wool, for the making of worsteds, is English 
wool. The coarser wools, which we use for bocking, carpets, blankets, 
and coarse articles, are the Smyrna and Rio Janeiro wools. The 
wools cited in your commerce and navigation reports as Smyrna wool 
comes from Asia Minor ; and the wool quoted as Buenos Ayres is 
from Rio Janeiro and other parts of South America. 

The Steam Plough. 

The whole world seems waking up to the importance of the suc- 
cessful introduction of the Steam Plough. At the present time it 
would be particularly fortunate for the whole coimtry. A great many 
are looking for a wide-spread revulsion in the monetary aiFairs of the 
country, consequent upon the immense speculations in Western lands. 
Whether such a revulsion will occur or not, depends upon the ability 
of the coimtry to occupy and make productive these lately purchased 
lands. The . amount of labor applicable for this purpose is Hmited. 
But if the Steam Plough can be invented, that shall go over twenty 
acres a day, and do the work icell, which we believe will yet be done ; 
then the manual and horse labor that can be procured, coupled with 
the new invention, will be made to occupy and render productive 
twice the quantity of land that could otherwise be done. 

Mr. Bronson Murray, of Illinois, has offered a reward of $50,000 
for the best practical Steam Plough. And we presume that Mr. 
Murray, in doing this, does not lay claim to any great liberality or 
public spirit, for the patent right of such a plough would probably be 
worth half a million of dollars. In offering, therefore, such a re- 
ward, it simply shows that Mr. Murray, (living among the prairies,) 
can appreciate the immense demand there would be for such a plough, 
when once practically and satisfactorily tested. The inventive mind 
of the nation is now busy at work, and we hope soon to be able to 
announce a satisfactory solution to the problem proposed. — Ohio 
Valley Farmer. 

Bones as a Manure. 

A LATE number of the Country Gentleman has an elaborate article 
by Levi Bartlett, of New-Hampshire, on bone manure. He conclude's 
that there is no other manure whose effects are so lasting as an appli- 
cation of ground bones. Besides the increase of crops, he says it sup- 
plies phosphate, "vvhich the grasses generally lack, on old and long 
grazed fields in New-England, and the want of which, cause what is 
called " bone disease" in cattle. Mr. B. recommends that the bones 
be pounded, and thus broken to pieces, boiled or ground, and then 
spread evenly over the soil, and mixed with it. He has a field that 
was thus dressed years ago, and the efiect is yet perceptible on clover. 

280 Spirit of the Press. 

Spirit of the Agricultural Press. 

Of a recent trip among the flirmcrs of New- Hampshire, the editor 
of the Country Gentleman says, among many other good things : 

" In the vicinity of the manufacturing places, many farmers are in 
the practice of selling large quantities of hay, yet these farms are 
annually improving, without the purchase of manures to any great 
extent. The muck beds, barn cellars, the tying up of their cows and 
some other of their stock in hovels the year round, and skill m col- 
lecting other materials for enriching their grounds, solves all mystery 
in this matter." 

On the cultivation of the grape for the purpose of manufacturing 
domestic wines, he has the following remarks : 

"At many farm-houses we were treated with domestic wmes, 
generally that made from currants, and in most mstances the wine 
was of superior quality. At one farm-house we partook of some 
superior grape wine, manufactured fi'om the domestic grape — the 
worthy old farmer assuring us that it was the pure juice of the grape, 
having neither strychnine or any other poisonous ingredient in its 
composition. We think it would be well for farmers, generally, to 
cultivate more extensively the currant and the grape, for the manu- 
facture of domestic wines for family use." 

As to whether it is twelve or fourteen degrees below zero, irre- 
spective of other circumstances, that kills peach trees, we find the 
following, a poser, we should think, to those who ascribe the winter- 
killing of peach trees simply to cold : 

" In most parts of this State, the mercury, the past winter, sunk fi-om 
30 '^ to below the freezing point of mercury, and yet the peach buds 
in many localities survived, and we have freely partaken of New- 
Hampshire peaches the past week." 

The editor of the Germantoion Telegraph., on Horse-Racing at 
Agricultural Fairs, after admitting the necessity of a reform, has the 
following, as we think, very sensible remarks : 

" But may they not go a little too far, and destroy this important 
feature of these occasions ? The horse is the noblest and most valua- 
ble animal owned by man ; and the farmer should be the last of man- 
kind to strike a blow at the position which it must always hold in the 
interests which he represents, and the sympathies and affections of his 
heart. What ever is done ui the premises, ought to be well considered 
by practical men — those who cultivate the soil, and would, naturally, 
promote the respectability and benefits of agriculture and agricultural 
exhibitions. We think there can be no solid objection to the trial of 
the speed of a horse upon a ring, which should never be more than 
one-fourth of a mile in circumference, inasmuch as the action and 
general movements, and, we may add, hardihood, or bottom of a 
horse, can in no wise be judged of better than from such a display. 

S2nrit of the Press. 281 

But matches — that is, the trial of the speed of more than one horse at 
a time — are what produce all the mischief, and cause all the complaint. 
These we have been always opposed to ; and if our advice had been 
taken in due season, there would have been no reason for the hostility 
of our local society to the horse track., at the present time. The idea 
that an exhibition of " steam culture " would be of more importance 
to this community, at our annual shows, than the proper display of 
horses, is one that may be cultivated by intensely philosophical mmds, 
but it win cause only a broad grin among the farmers of Pennsylva- 
nia. No, gentlemen, reform, not destroy, the manner of exhibitino- 
horses, or you wiU speedily put an effectual damper upon the success 
of any future exhibition which our good, time-honored, beloved but 
neglected society may attempt to hold." 

" Reform, not destroy," says the editor of the Telegraph., and so 
say we. No man can be more opposed than we are to changing the 
fair grounds from delightful gathering places for honest farmers, into 
rendezvous for all the impudent jockeys in creation, and yet we would 
not exclude that noblest of all animals, the horse, nor would we 
exclude the man who inaugurates improvements in our horse flesh, 
from a participation in the funds of our agricultural societies. 
" Reform, not destroy," is the word. 

The California State Journal tells us of a new cereal, but does not 
know its name. Probably it will turn out to be Sorghum Cereale, 
Imphee ^dibile, or something as strange to our ears. It gives the fol- 
lowing description : 

A New Ceeeal. — ^We saw, a few days since, a specimen of a new 
cereal, grown in this county. We could not get a description of the 
stalk, or an account of its origin, and, with nothing to guide us beside 
the ripened grain, we could not class. It appeared to be the fruit of 
a rank grass, stronger and larger than wheat, but more light and fra- 
gile than Indian corn. The ear or cluster of grains, formed on the 
summit of the stalk, was about three and a half inches in length, about 
four inches in circumference, and of an irregular, oblong shape. The 
grains, of Avhich there were several hundred in the cluster, resembled, 
in size and form, the grain of the common broom corn, were compactly 
set, without an outer or general covering, each grain haviuo- a del- 
icate husk, covering about half its bulk. The grain was harder than 
wheat, rather brittle, and, when broken, gave a taste undistinguishable 
from that of Indian corn. From the limited knowledge of the nature 
and habits of the plant to be gathered from a cursory examination of 
this isolated specimen, we incline to the opinion that it may become a 
prolific and valuable article of agriculture. The " head," or cluster, 
that we saw, will yield about as much in weight and volume as 
fifteen or twenty ordinary heads of wheat. We shall learn more 
about this interesting specimen in a few days. — S. J. Be}). 

Mr. E. D. Boylston, of the Amherst (N. H.) Cahinet, has experi- 
mented quite extensively with the Chinese sugar cane. He says : 
" We have continued our experiments with the sugar cane up to 

282 Spirit of the Press. 

the present time. Tlie yield of syrup has steadily increased from 
the time of the ai)penrance of the panicles some weeks since, and the 
quality has as steadily improved. Our last trial yielded one-sixth of 
syrup of the thickness of sugar-house molasses, and of a very fine 
quality. We think it will still improve until after a heavy frost, 
which will not injure the cane itself, which may be left standing while 
the leaves may be gathered at any time when likely to be destroyed. 
We are, as we were last year, fully sanguine in our belief of the prac- 
ticability of raising this crop for syrup in this State." 

Similar statements of opinions appear from various places in Ncav- 
Hamj^shire, and from other places as far south. One writer says: 
" The taste of the syrup is indeed something like that of the " sugar 
house molasses, or syrup, and, in our opinion, much better for warm 
cakes than ordinary molasses." Will our readers send us a statement 
of their experiments with the sugar cane? 

Our opinion has inclined favorably to the new plant for the South ; 
and if it benefits the South, we have believed it would benefit the 
whole country, on the principle that the good of a part is the good of 
the whole ; but we now incline to the opinion that it may be of direct 
benefit to all the parts ; not to the North probably as a sugar-plant, 
but as one that may produce syrups, and is without much doubt a 
valuable forage plant. 

• The Honolulu Commercial Advertiser has the following " Hints to 
Agriculturists," not bad for this or any other latitude : 

Independekce or the Farmer. — The merchant or manufiicturer 
may be robbed of the reward of his labor by changes in the foreign or 
domestic market entirely beyond his control, and may wind up a year 
in Avhich he has done everything which intelligence and industry could 
do to insure success, not only without profit, but with an actual di- 
minution of capital. The strong arm of mechanical industry may be 
enfeebled or paralyzed by the prostration of those manufacturing or 
commercial interests to whose existence it so essentially contri- 
butes, and on whom in turn it so essentially depends. But 
what has the intelligent and industrious firmer to fear ? His 
capital is invested in the solid ground. He draws on a fund which 
has never wholly suspended or repudiated ; his success depends on no 
earthly guarantee, but on the assurance of that great and beneficent 
Being wlio has declared that while the earth endureth, seed-time and 
harvest shall not cease. 

Not so bad this from the Chicago Ledger : 

"To Persons out of Employment."— Go to work! Take oft' 
your coat, roll up your sleeves, and look about you ! If you can't find 
anything congenial or remunerative, in the city or town, betake your- 
self to the country. Better weed gardens and tend sheep, or fi)llow 
the plowshare bare-footed, and tread on the furrows, or to act as a 
scare-crow in the cornfield, tlian to remain in the city, out of pocket, 
out at the elbows, in debt, in distress, and in misery, generally. 

Good Cheese. 283 

Don't be afraid to commingle freely with your mother earth, and sit 
under a cataract and be washed clean — be invigorated and feel like a 
man. The country is the place for you, decidedly, where pure air 
costs nothing, where the sunbeams steal through the cracks in your 
chamber and dance on the floor, where one doesn't have to walk a 
mUe and a-half to see the sun rise, and where the waving grains bows 
gracefully to the gentle breeze, and eggs can be had for the hunting. 
Once there, and reinvigorated, and you will look with pity upon us, 
poor mortals, walled in by brick and mortar on all sides, with the 
heavens far, far before us, and no hope of ever reachmg that blessed 

New-England Faeming. — We cut the following from the Valley 
Farmer^ Louisville, Mo. Whether the New-England farmers manage 
as well as the writer represents, we are not so certain, but we are quite 
certain that he has " good notions" since he has been down east, about 
feedmg, sheltering, caring for, and making improvements in cattle. 
Hear him : 

" I see much in my New-England travels that I would like to speak 
of to your readers. There is life astir in all the valleys. There is 
beauty on all the hills. The season is a wet one and very productive, 
so that greenness and freshness make lovely every landscape. But 
just now I wish to speak of the stock of this country. As yet I have 
not seen a mean, poor, scrawny ox, cow or hog. They are all fat, 
sleek, and generally large. There has been a wonderful improvement 
in the stock of this country in the last ten years. And it has been 
almost wholly effected by good keeping and care in breeding from the 
best animals of their kind. In the parts in whicli I have traveled I 
have seen but little foreign blood. I think I have not seen a speckled 
or parti-colored ox or cow in New-England. I have met with one roan 
bull of the Durham breed. The farmers here like handsome cattle, 
80 they choose their color. Dark red or chestnut is the prevailino- 
color. Sometimes brown verging near to black will be found. The 
general build of the stock here is compact, close and hardy. It looks 
thrifty and active. One seldom sees a sleepy, dull looking animal. 
There is something bright and animating in the countenances of 
all the cattle I have met. They seem to be alive with the stir of the 
times, and to partake of the intelligence of the age. I speak not of 
horses, for New-England has not improved her horses so much as her 
cattle. What I have seen has convinced me more than ever that 
good keeping, good shelter, (for all stock is well housed here) and in- 
telligent care in fcreeding, will be sure in the end to make good stock. 
This is emphatically a stock country. Stock is the main reliance of 
the farmer for money. Hence the farms here are continually improv- 
ing. All the hay and grain raised is consumed on the farm, and con- 
verted into manure. Let the western farmer take heed in season." 

Good Cheese. 

For a cheese of twenty pounds, a piece of rennet about two inches 
square is soaked in a pint of water twelve hours. As rennet differs 

284 Cornfields. 

much in quality, enough should be used to coagulate the milk suffi- 
ciently in about forty minutes ; no salt is put into the chcsse, nor any 
outside during the first six or eight hours it is being prepared, but a 
thin coat of fine salt is kejjt on the outside during the remainder of 
the time it is in the press. The cheeses are pressed forty-eight hours 
under a weight of seven or eight hundred pounds. Nothing more is 
required but to turn the cheeses once a day on the shelves. 

Mother's PKEMiUii Cheese. — The milk strained in large tubs over 
night, the cream stirred m milk, and in the morning strained in 
the same tubs ; milk heated to natural heat ; add rennet ; curd broken 
fine and whey off, and broken fine in hooj) with fost bottom, and put 
in strainer ; pressed twelve hours ; then taken from hoop, and salt 
rubbed on the surface ; then put in hooj), without strainer, and pressed 
forty-eight hours ; then put on tables, and salt rubbed on surface, and 
remain in salt six days for cheese weighing thirty pounds ; the hoops 
to have holes in the bottom ; the crushings are saved and set and 
churned to greese the cheese. The above is for making one cheese 
per day. 

1. No salt to be put into the cheese, but fine salt rubbed on the 

2. Remain in press forty-eight hours. 

3. Dry, cool cellar, not damp. 

4. To make whey, add the rennet while the milk is warm. 

I would like a cheese made after either of the above plans. — J. M. 
-S., in the Neio-England Farmer. 


We copy the following from that excellent paper, the Germantoion 
TeUfjraph., not supposing that it will be quite new to all our readers, 
but because we regard it so practical and imj^ortant as to be worth 
their reading twice, if any of them may have seen it before. Some 
will say, it is too laborious to prepare soil as nicely as the writer re- 
commends. Perhaps so, and yet, while we are sure you will get more 
corn to the acre by such cultivation, we are by no means sure you 
will get less, in proportion to the labor required. We commend you 
to the article : 

Mk. Feeas : A few suggestions at this season, to those of my fel- 
low agriculturists in relation to the management of lands that have 
been cultivated in corn, may not be unimportant. It is a common 
practice to harvest this crop, by cutting it up at the roots, leaving the 
latter and a portion of the stalks in the soil. When so left, both the 
roots and the stalks attached present a serious obstacle in the way of 
the after cultivation, diminishing, to a certain extent, the subsequent 
product whether of roots or grains. The most economical method, 
perhaps, that can be adopted, is to pull the plants from the soil, and 
detach the roots by the aid of a keen knife, or other efiicient instru- 
ment, and convey them to the compost heap or hog yard. This prac- 
tice secures a clean surface, and renders the operation of plowing, har- 

Cornfields. 285 

rowing, cultivating and hoeing, much more easy, and secures a much 
larger extent of surface for the occupancy of the crop. Before plow- 
ing — whether that operation be performed in spring or autumn — 
every vestige of spurious vegetation should be moved, and the surface 
rendered as clear as circumstances will admit. Stones, stumps, and 
all substances of a similar character, oppose a serious obstacle to the 
successful performance of all the more important operations of hus- 
bandry, and their presence should not, on any account, be allowed. 
Very little time is required to get rid of them. As a general practice, 
I prefer plowing corn lands in the autumn. N"ot only is there more 
leisure time than during the more busy and exciting season of spring, 
but the team is more energetic, and consequently labors with less re- 
luctance, and less fatigue. There is also another important advantage 
resulting to the farmer from the autumnal preparation of the land. 
Where clay abounds, the pulverulent action of frost and the elastic 
gases are of decided importance, rendering the texture fine and easily 
managed, and securing a more speedy decomposition of the manure 
when applied the subsequent spring. By careful examination, and 
fi-om information of a most reliable nature, obtained from practical 
men during the last twenty years, I am irresistibly compelled to ac- 
cord by suffrage to this practice, as being every way sujDcrior to every 
other method now in use ; and this, I am persuaded, will be the con- 
clusion of every one who carefully examines the subject. The finer 
the soil is made, the better adapted will it be to the production of any 
crop ; but this fact does not appear to be appreciated as it ought by 
most of our farmers. They seem to suppose that if land is plowed, it 
matters but little how it is performed, or whether it be fine or coarse 
— reduced to a light, compressible mass, or merely broken into lumps. 
This is a fatal mistake, and one that requires to be corrected at once. 
If those who are at all sceptical on this point, will but make an ex- 
periment, they ^vill have palpable evidence of the superiority of fine 
over coarse tillage. To all such, I would saj^, as a friend, try it. 
Jethro Tull promulgated the doctrine that pulverization alone would 
produce fertihty, and that all that was actually necessary to secure the 
productiveness of any land, was to divide it into infinitesimal atoms, in 
which condition it would, he contended, be competent to produce, 
indefinitely, any and every variety of vegetable required. But this, 
subsequent experience demonstrated to be a fallacy. Still, how- 
ever, the advantages found to result fi-om the careful comminution of 
lands intended for cultivation, were, at the same time, demonstrated 
to be very great, and his views, although deprecated in the main, 
were nevertheless adopted in part, especially by those who had heavy 
and tenacious soils, and who could well afford to bestow the labor ne- 
cesary to reduce them to the tilth required. We are all aware that 
garden beds receive far more thorough culture than lands devoted to 
field crops ; that they are much more thoroughly plowed, to begin 
with, that they are worked till every lump is broken and reduced to 
that fineness of subdivision which renders it a fit medium for the finest 
and most minute seed. To this superior tillage, in a very great de- 
gree, we attribute the superior productiveness of lands under garden 
culture, to those imder field culture. It has been proved, by repeated 
and accurate experiments, that a fine, light surface acts as a non-con- 

286 Horticultural. 

ductor, and that all lands finely divided in their paiiiclcs, are capable 
of Avitlistanding tlie effects of drouglit and 'intense heat for a much 
longer period than those Avliich are not finely pulverized. Some 
"practical men" assume to question this fact ; but let any one try it, 
and he Avill soon see enough to convince him of its truth. It is only 
making the trial, and will cost but a mere trifle. 

A New Animal for Farmers. 

A VALUED friend and correspondent, in New-York, informs us, 
upon authority which is undoubted, that a naturalist in South Amer- 
ica has imdertaken to introduce into the United States from one 
hundred and forty to one hundred and fifty Llamas^ the well-known 
animal of Peru and Ecuador, which are used there as beasts of bur- 
den, and which produce the wool, or rather hair, called alpaca. The 
adventure has been entered into by a very responsible house on 
the south-west coast of South America, who have collected the ani- 
mals and chartered a vessel to transport them to Panama, whence 
they will be conveyed to New- York, where they are expected shortly 
to arrive, and will be offered for sale. 

These are very hardy, docile animals, capable of carrying over the 
rockiest portions of the mountains of South America about three 
hundred pounds weight each. They are easily nourished, and it is 
believed that though coming from a much warmer climate than our 
own, they will stand our winters as well as our sheep, and be equally 
or more profitable in the production of wool. We shall keep our 
farniers apprised of the arrival of the first importation, and, if we are 
furnished with it, with the address of the party or house, having the 
disposal of them. — Ger. Tel. 


Northern Muscadine Grape. 

The Maine Farmer^ always somid, sensible and conservative, 
though we can not say whether correct in the present case, has the 
following remarks on this fruit : 

The Northern Muscadine Grape.— The Northern Muscadine 
grape has made some noise in the world, and in regard to it the most 
contradictory opinions seem to exist, some pronouncing it a first-rate 
grape, some an ordinary one, and some good for nothing at all. It 
has been extensively propagated by the Shakers and claimed to be a 
seedling of theirs. 

Friend Otis Sawyer, a member of the West Gloucester family, ex- 
hibited some of the fruit at the State Fair in Bangor, and specimens 
were laid before the Pomological Society. These were quite ripe, 
althoiigh raised in the open air. Although not coming up to the class 
ot A. No. 1, It IS nevertheless a good grape to those who relish a little 

Sorticutturah 287 

touch of the musk, (and many do,) and considermg its hardy charac- 
ter and early maturing, is worth a trial in this section of New-England. 
A prolific, hardy, and early ripening grape, is yet a desideratum with 
us in Maine. We should therefore make a trial of everything that 
promises to be successful in this way. The Northern Muscadine can 
be obtained of friend Sawyer. We are aware that our horticultural 
brethren farther south turn their noses up at it and call it " old red 
fox," but a good " red fox" with us is not to be despised, and it may 
lead to the propagation of a still better early variety. We must ex- 
periment on these matters for ourselves, and with reference to our 
own climate. 

Leather Scraps. 

The parings of shoes, boots, harnesses, whi2:)s, trunks, portmanteaus, 
etc., are an excellent fertilizer, hardly equalled for durability. Noth- 
ing is better for vines ; and they are good for all kinds of fruits. In 
some districts in England as high as 4 cts. a pound ($80 a ton) have 
been paid for them. Their excellence lies in the fact that they last a 
long time, and if placed xmder vines and fruit trees at transplanting, 
they will be changing into purj)le clusters and golden fruits for a life- 
time. — Ed, 

HovtT True. 

In a recent number of IIovey''s Magazine^ the remark is made that 
" few complete and thoroughly made gardens and grounds are to be 
foimd. We see everywhere in the rapid increase of wealth and pop- 
ulation in our suburban towns, fine buildings, erected almost by 
magic, in the highest style of architectural art, and finished without 
regard to expense. These costly dwellings, as well as those of more 
humble pretensions, meet our eyes in every direction, and would com- 
mand our highest admiration, but for one defect. They are Avanting 
in the elegant surroundmg which should belong to every suburban 
residence ; the lawn, the ornamental grounds, the fruit garden, or 
even the little parterre, have been entirely neglected, and they stand 
bleak and alone, an ostentatious display of wealth vnthout taste^ on the 
one hand, or the appearance of a depleted purse without the means of 
doing anything more on the other." 

A Good Method of Keeping Grapes. 

" Dr. E. Liffingdale, of Aurora, N. Y., assures the horticulturist, 
that both himself and neighbors have no more difficulty in keeping 
grapes than apples. Gather them carefully on a dry day, remove all 
unsound or unripe berries and pack them in small, shallow boxes, 
with paper on the bottom and between the layers ; set them in a cool, 
dry place for ten days, when they vali have passed the sweating jjro- 
cess, and then close them tight and keep them at a low temperature 
without freezing. A dry cellar will answer." 

288 Horticultural. 

The Birds. 

Mr. Editor : — You are probably aAvare that against certain species 
of the feathered tribe, there exists a very strong prejudice in the 
minds of our farming friends. Of these, the crow comes in for rather 
more than his share, I tliink, considering the good he does. His la- 
bors may not, it is true, always result m the good of the farmer ; but 
we should be candid in this matter, and allow the good he does to 
oifset the evil. In the spring of the year, when there is a scarcity of 
those insects which nature has set apart, by a sort of special appro- 
l)riation, as his peculiar food, he sometimes preys upon the farmer's 
corn ; but as soon as the various tribes of vermin which throng the 
fields and " people the multitudinous air," issue from their dormitories 
and commence their depredations upon the vegetable world, the crow 
heroically enlists in the farmer's defence. He is no inactive ally, eith- 
er ; he carries the war into Africa, at once, and destroys whole heca- 
tombs of voracious bugs, Avorms, flies, caterpillars, and other vermin 
which would soon lay waste his fields and his hopes, and efiect more 
injury m one month, than his crowship efiects in a lifetime. To hunt 
and destroy him, therefore, because during a period of scarcity, he 
manifests an inclination to take pay for his future services, is ungener- 
ous and unkind, to say the least. When the farmer rightly compre- 
hends Ms own interests, and looks upon the subject as he ought, he 
■nail be as anxious to preserve the crow from harm, as he is now to 
destroy him. There are other birds who, in like manner, are made to 
share in this ungenerous proscription ; yet there is not one in the whole 
catalogue — quite a lengthy one, by the way — which does not efiect far 
more good than harm. The number of insects which these birds des- 
troy, is prodigious ; and were it not for their labors, our fields would, 
in a very short time, be completely overrun and devastated l)y them. 
The fecundity of many of the aligerous, or winged depredators upon 
our crops, is truly astonishing, and nothing but the ceaseless and efiect- 
ive labors of our winged friends of the air prevents the total destruc- 
tion of every vegetable upon which we rely for subsistence, both for 
ourselves and our animals. It is therefore much better to adojit some 
simple means for the protection — partial or entire — of our crops, than 
wantonly to destroy the birds, and let our fields be overrun with ver- 
min. — Germantoion Telegraph. 

Stunted Unthrifty Pear Trees. 

Wm. Day, of Morristown, N. J,, considers that one great cause of 
the unthriftiness of the pear, lies in the fixct that many of them are 
worked (budded) upon sucker stocks. He tried the experiment by 
planting out 1000 of these suckers, obtained from old trees, and after 
nursmg them for several years, during which he budded some and 
grafted others, giving all careful culture in good ground, he w^as com 
pellcd to discard the whole of them. A neighbor of his held on to 
them for ten years, but failed to get four good trees out of 100 
planted. We fully endorse his (Mr. Day's) closing remarks, viz, : 
" Good, thrifty stocks and clean culture will alone produce vigorous 
and thrifty trees, and no respectable nurseryman wiU use any other." 

American Inventions. 




Jewett's Patent Artificial Leg. 
This leg is so constructed that its lower end overlaps the foot on all sides. In 
Mr. Palmer's patent, the leg overlaps the foot behind, and the foot overlaps the 
/ T^L(/' 2 ^^^ before. Mr. Palmer also 

has an opening in the top of 
the foot at the joint, allowing 
the entrance of dirt and lint 
upon the spring within the 
foot. Ml". Jewett's is free fi'om 
this objection. The toe is kept 
down by a spiral spring, G, one 
end of which is inserted into 
the foot, and the other presses 
against the toe above the joint, 
and it is prevented from open- 
ing too far by the contact of 
the bottom of the foot and the 
toe. A spiral spring inserted 
in the hollow of the foot keeps 
the foot in its proper place, a 
cord passing through the 
spring and terminating in a 
wire hooked to a cross bar in 
the leg near it. The toes are 
so connected with the foot, that 
they can be removed by mere- 
ly taking out a screw in each 
side of the foot. The knee and 
ankle bolts, B, are slightly tapering, both ends being squared and fitted to the 
inside of the plates, with a flat-headed screw in the smaller end, to secure the 
bolt in its place. By taking out those screws, the bolts can be easily removed 
for lubrication. These bolts pass through metallic boxes, F, and both bolts 
and boxes are of cast steel and hardened. By the use of a bent steel sprin"- E 
in the leg, attached by a wire to the front of the knee, which may be used with 
any length of stump above the knee, the use of the wire spring used by Mr, 
Palmer is avoided. The tendon Achilles and knee cord, D and C, pass through 
apertures in the knee, and are attached to the thigh with blocks fitted into 
sockets in the wood. Every part is so constructed as to be easily removed. 

New Type Setting and Distributing Machine. 

One of the most ingenious inventions we have ever examined is a new typ e 
setting and distributing machine, just patented by Mr. Alden of this city. The 


290 Americati Inventions. 

patent covers twenty-one points, and of course it requires many diagrams to 
exhibit the whole so as to be understood by the reader. These diagrams arc 
not in existence, except in the letters patent, and hence we make only a state- 
ment of the prominent parts, with the specific points covered by the patent, 
viz. : 1. A method of conveying the type to and from the cases and the com- 
posing tables. These convc3-ers receive all tj-pc indiscriminately. 2d. The 
mode of attaching the conveyors to the carrier. 3d. A contrivance for giving 
to the conveyor a vibratory or tilting motion. 4th. Devices for arranging the 
types edgewise. 5th. Mechanism for pushing out the type upon the conveyors. 
6th. Mechanism for preventing the stopping of a setting conveyor at a channel 
■when full of types. 7th. The method of discharging the type from a distribut- 
ing conveyor into the type channels. 8th. Mechanism for setting the gripping 
bolt upon the conveyors. 9 th. The method of securing the deposit of the 
types into or taking them from the case. 10th. Stationary inclined planes. 
11th. Movable indicators. 12th. Method of setting the distributing indicators. 
13th. The graduated stop, in combination with the indicating levers, for regu- 
lating the feed of the line of jtype. l-ith. Mechanism for moving the levers. 
15th. Mechanism for feeding up the column of types into the channel, 10th. 
The method of engaging or disengaging the feeding pacols. The points num- 
bered from 17 to 21 inclusive, regard the mechanism used in securing right 
movements in the parts already mentioned. 

We regard this as a work of genius of high order, and fi'om the evidence 
already exhibited, can hardly doubt that it will become of practical value. 

Brown's Safety Alarm Detectors. 

We saw and carefully examined sundry contrivances, or rather sundry appli- 
cations of the same contrivance, now on exhibition in the Mechanics' Fair at 
Lowell, Mass., devised and patented by Mr. Ephraim Brown, of that city, for 
the detection of burglars. One of them is 


It looks precisely like any other mortise lock, with a knob handle, but when- 
ever an attempt is made to open the door, a bell is rung. This bell is con- 
cealed within the casing. Ingenious arrangements are made by which the ring- 
ing may be prevented, and the alarm is thrown off from a given lock by difier- 
ent means, so that one who can open his own door without detection, can not 
open his neighbor's. Nor can even the maker of the lock. One hundred of 
these locky, it is said, in use only one year in one city, have detected seventy- 
four thieves, and not a case has occurred in which a thief has succeeded in open- 
ing one of them without ringing. AVithout reference to the alarm machinery, 
the lock is a very good one. 


The same application is fitted to a money drawer, and similar modes are 
adopted for preventing the action of the alarm, by any who are in the secret. 
It is also applied to a window, so that it can not be raised without making an 
alarm. The bell is in the casing. It does not ring when the sash is lowered. 
It holds the sash in different positions like any other spring. In the country, 


American Inventions. 291 

where watchmen cind policemen are seldom employed, these detectors would be 
of very great service, and in the cities they might sometimes detect even the 
guardians of the peace in criminal attempts. Mr. Brown has pubHshed the tes- 
timonials of several gentlemen of high respectability, assuring the public that 
his statements may be relied upon, and that his engagements will be honorably 
fulfilled. Several thousand detectors have already been sold, many of them as 
a substitute for the night locks, so extensively used on outside doors. 


Mr. Brown has also contrived a very convenient and useful aifair for steaming 
vegetables, etc. It consists of a wire basket, to be set in any boiler, above the 
water for steaming, or in the water for boiling. In boiling eggs they are espe- 
cially convenient. The whole number being immersed at the same moment, and 
all removed at once. They may be used advantageously in cooking potatoes 
and ia general they are convenient as a security against the scalding of the hands. 

Sewing Machines — Grover & Baker's Stitch. 

In our last number we described the different kinds of stitch taken by several 
of the most popular sewing machines, with diagrams of the stitch. The third 
diagram, (Grover & Baker's stitch,) gives an incorrect idea. We described this 
as a shuttle machine, that is as using two threads, while the diagram shows but 
one. The waving thread, advancing and retreating, there given, was intended 
to show only the general movement of the lowei', which is operated on this machine 
by a curved hook beneath the cloth, and the diagram gives only an imperfect idea 
of this. This hook thread traverses only upon the lower side of the cloth and 
this is curiously and ingeniously hooked into and interwoven with the needle 
thread, and each thread being doubly locked forms a stitch of great strength 
and elasticity. Each stitch fastens itself, and holds on, even if the seam be cut 
or broken every quarter of an inch. We make these corrections to prevent any 
injustice to the proprietors of this machine, from an error which was purely ac- 
cidental, and shall probably have more to say upon the subject in our subse- 
quent issues. 

New and Curious Printing- Machine. 

There is no end to the progress of inventive genius. Hoe's exploits, on a 
grand scale, seem to bid defiance to competition, but some happy thought, 
directed by accident perhaps, may result in throwing even his wonderful inven- 
tions into the shade. At the other end of the series, the contrivance of simple, 
portable printing machines, stands a recent invention of Mr. S. W. Francis, of 
Frankfort street, in this city. Mr. Francis has availed himself of the simple 
and eflicient arrangement of the finger board of the pianoforte, each key stand- 
ing for a letter, by which he plays out printed lines with the same facility with 
which the musician throws off his melodies. His hammers are types, and all 
the strings or wires he uses are for the management of his types and the sheet 
to be printed. As to speed, he states that he can print " seven letters in a 


American Inventions. 

.swond." Two copies may be printed at the same time, on the principle of the 
letter copjinj^ press. The types may be of any size required. Mr. Francis 
believes that for editors, clergymen, etc., the use of this is preferable to that of 
the pen, and certainly for reporters and the like, aside from the inconvenience 
of transportation, it is a very useful invention, and clergymen whose sight is 
flcfective can hardly fail to find it of great convenience. For capitals, Mr. 
Frrincis uses the lower case, with a dash over the letter. Whether he can mul- 
tij>ly his keys, so as to include a set of capital letters, without interfering with 
his mechanism, we are not informed. But he has contrived an ingenious and 
efficient machine, for which we hope he will receive a large pecuniary return. 

American Institute. 
We have made several visits, during the past month, to the Crj^stal Palace, 
and have carefully examined many of the articles on exhibition. The increase 
of machinery and of works of art, meanwhile, is very noticeable. We invite 
the attention of our readers to the following, and shall no doubt continue our 
descriptions in our next issue. There are thousands of useful and ingenious 
contrivances there quite worthy of the public attention. 


Waymouth and Page, Fitchburgh, Mass., have one of the most ingenious 
machines we have ever seen. We have seldom seen one that works so rapidly 
and so well. It turns out some twenty-five wooden druggist's boxes per min- 
ute, though probably one man could not continue at this rate a long while. It 
is a most admirable invention, and can scarcely fail to be a good property to 
the patentee. 

A.merican Inventions. 293 


L. Wright of Newark, N. J., has a pa,tent scroll saw, which for nicety of 
movement, and for the ease of its management, and its 
capacity in meeting any demand made upon it in the way 
of scroll cutting, excels anything we have seen. We 
have made reference to this in a former exhibition of the 
Institute. These machines are of different sizes, accord- 
ing to the nature of the work required of them. By a pe- 
culiar arrangement of the saw and the spring, the latter 
moves only a fraction of the distance of the movement 
of the saw. Hence a speedier motion is practicable than 
if the spring had a longer vibration, and this also enables 
ths operator to avoid the shaking or jarring usually pro- 
duced by rapid motion of a saw. 


When cider, beer, ale, etc., are on tap, and the barrel is partly filled with at- 
mospheric air, it is well known that constant and rapid changes in its condition 
are unavoidable, and if the bung is tight, no liquor can be drawn from the tap. 
These evils are readily obviated by a very simple contrivance of Mr. A. F. Boyd, 
of Zanesville, Ohio, who exhibits his elastic sack of thin India rubber, which is 
applied at the bung hole, or at the vent hole in the head of the barrel, and 
which expands as the liquor is drawn away, t'll it fills the barrel. It thus ex- 
cludes all atQios[jheric air, prevents rapid fermentation, and secures a free dis- 
charge at the tap. A single bag may be made to serve for several barrels, all 
being connected by a tube. 


W. R. Dutchei-, Lansingburgh, N. Y., exhibits a very neat and compact mar 
chine for the manufacture of rope and cordage. His improvement, whiih was 
patented June, 1857, consists of a self-adjusting thimble, applied in combination, 
with a grooved cone, through which grooves the yarns or strands run, and by 
which the yarns are kept at a proper tension. It is cheap, simple, and effective. 


This machine was patented in April, 1857, and consists of a sliding and re- 
volving top, the under side of which, as well as the botrom of the tub, consists 
of a kind of corrugated surface, or a surface resembling one of boy's marbles, 
(though immovable,) by which the amount of friction is very much increased. 
The clothes are placed in the tub, the cover is allowed to drop down upon them 
through a central spindle, and is then made to operate in a kind of see-saw 
motion, by means of a handle upon the cover. It is by Josiah Mayes, Cohoes, 
N. Y. He claims that he can wash a dozen shirts in twelve minutes. 

king's washing MACHINE, 

Which we have favorably noticed in former volumes, is also on exhibition, and 
is offered by the inventor, Thos. King, of Westchester, as saving much labor, 
and as secure agrainst tearing even the finest fabrics. 

294 American Inventions. 


This department, as usual, is very fully represented at this fair, and it is im- 
possible to make a perfectly fair comparison among them. Each one may be 
specially commendable in a certain view, or for a specific purpose, and taking 
cheapness into the account, the less meritorious, viewed as a power, may be 
preferable for ordinary family use, or even for more important positions, 

Gary's pumps, for the amount of water they will throw a large distance, or 
for rapid work, we have considered the best. They have often commanded 
the first premium. They are valuable for ships, and for all cases where great 
power is desired. For fire engines, they have been preferred over all others, 
although they won a hardly-contested field before our city fathers, a year ago, 
in competition with a pump, now on exhibition also, from Seneca Falls. "We 
fully described Gary's pump in our number for July, 1854, page 44. 

The chronometer steam pump of Ruperts, Crumble & Go., Brooklyn, N. Y., 
will throw a stream of f of an inch, 120 feet high, with a piston of 4^ inches 
in diameter. 

The steam pump of Taylor, Campbell & Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., throws two 
streams, each 1\ inches in diameter, to the height of 125 feet. But this re- 
quires a piston ten inches in diameter. 

The steam pump of C. and G. M. Woodward, with a piston seven inches in 
diameter, delivers 240 gallons in a minute. 

The steam pump of Guild, Garrison & Co., Williamsburgh, N. Y., with a pis- 
ton seven inches in diameter, throws a stream 1 inch in diameter, ninety-six feet 

Wm. D. Andrews, of this citj'-, has a power pump in the palace, which throws 
a powerful stream, we should judge, five or six inches in diameter. 

Heed and Birkbeck, of Jersey City, have a very excellent portable engine, sim- 
ple, compact, and efficient, suited for any kind of farm business. It received the 
first prize medal at the Industrial Exhibition in Paris, in 1855, where it is said 
to have been tested by the most eminent engineers of Europe. It is manufac- 
tured, to order, from two horse to two hundred horse power, and costs, com- 
plete for service, from $350, upwards. A fifteen horse power, complete, costs 
$1,550. If not portable, the cost is much less. 

The Forest and Agricultural Steam Engine Co. have also a portable steam 
saw for felling trees, cross-cutting wood, etc. The steam is led through flexible 
hose a hundi-ed and fifty feet, if desired. The boiler is mounted on wheels, and 
can be moved by a yoke of oxen. Three men, it is claimed, with one of these 
machines, will cut from 15 to 40 cords of wood per day. A slight change in the 
machinery, produces a farm engine of from six to eight horse power, capable of 
application to a great variety of farm labor, as driving a threshing machine, 
shingle mill, corn mill, cotton gin, straw cutter, pumps, etc. The cost is from 
$800 to $1,300, the last including extra machinery. 

The hand suction and force pumps are quite as numerous as the power 

American Inventions. 295 

Carpenter's rotary force pump and fire engine may be worked by hand or 
steam power. It has no valves and requires no packing. It seems to be a mo- 
dification of the device used by Cary. Its working machinery is contained in 
a hollow cylinder of some four or five inches in diameter, in which a revolving 
solid piston plays, moved by a crank or other convenient machinery. It is said, 
by the proprietor, to work efficiently in deep wells, mines, etc. 

Dodge's Suction and force Pump is operated by steam or hand power, and is a 
capital pump. It is without valves or chambers, India rubber balls being sub- 
stituted. Hence it requires no packing. Prices vary from $15, for cylinders two 
inches diameter and three inches stroke — often used as a green house engine, to 
$175, which will buy a small fire engine for villages, factories, or plantations. 
It is well worthy of public attention. 


This old friend of ours shines as brightly as ever. The only difficulty with 
this, as we have repeatedly stated, is the want of benzole. The market, hither- 
to, has not been well supplied with it. 


This is a recent addition or annexation to the Benzole gas light, is very con- 
venient and economical, and is worthy the attention of chemists and mechanics. 


These oils are variously prepared for illumination, lubrication, etc., and the 
former produces a very brilliant light at a very moderate cost. It requires a 
lamp of peculiar construction. Coal wax, or paraffine, gas, naptha and asphalt, 
are produced from the same coal. The paraffine makes beautiful candles, as 
we recently stated. Depot in New- York, 98 Greenwich street. Manufactory, 
Cloverport, Ky. 

safford's patent window-sash adjuster. 

This has been in use three years, on several railroads in New-England, and 
in steamboats, and has proved itself to possess several advantages. It is free 
from noise, excludes the dust when the window is closed, dispenses with 
catches, bolts, etc., provides for the shrinking and swelling of the wood, and is 
easily repaired. It consists of a small spii'al spring, fixed in the edge of the 
sash, pressing against the casing. Hence it can be applied to any window. As 
long as the spring retains sufficient elastic force to resist the tendency of the 
sash to fall, it is certainly the most desirable of all the adjusters we have seen. 

Plimpton's combined secretary, bedstead, and toilet-table. 
This is not a new thing to our readers. It was one of the attractive features 
of the "World's Fair, and has been exhibited in many State Fairs. As a taste- 
ful and convenient combination of useful furniture, as its name imports, it is 

New Process in Forging Iron. 

One of the most valuable processes in the forging of iron is that invented by 
Mr. Nasmyth, by which the certainty of the production of perfectly sound 


American Inventions. 

cylindrical forgings, especially those of large size, such as shafts, axles, and the 
like, is increased. A wedge-shaped or V anvil is used, between the jaws of 
which the work to be hammered is i)]accd. In this case, instead of a tendency 
to spread, so as to render the central portion of the metal less compact and 
solid, tliere is exactly the opposite effect, besides which the article is more easily 
kept under the hammer, and the scales or impurities which fall from the hf)t 
iron fall down into the apex of the V out of the way, thus removing tlie blemish 
and roughness which is caused by the scales collecting on the face of the anvil 
and being beaten into the surface of the metal. 

Machinery for Cutting Down Trees. 
We have by accident delayed a notice of the invention of Mr. G. C. Ehrsam, 

of this city, for cutting 
down trees, patented in 
June, 1856, and manufac- 
eured and sold by Eveleth 
& Bissel, Pine street. The 
cutting part of the machi- 
nery is represented in the 
engraving in the margin. 
This is made to encircle 
the tree, and is moved 
around it by strong and 
accurate gear work, which 
is connected with a crank. 
It is claimed that these 
cutters will do the work 
of from four to eight men ; 
that a two-foot tree can be 
felled in from eight to twelve minutes, and that each cutter will fell from a hun- 
dred to a hundred and fifty trees without sharpening. It can be used within 
five inches of the ground. The cut surface of the stump will be left flat, there- 
by securing speedy decay. Price, from sixty dollars, (for machines two feet in 
diameter,) and upwards according to size. 

Concentrated Milk. 

The Winstead (Conn.,) Herald contains the following description of Mr. Gail 
Borden, jr's., process of concentrating and preserving milk : 

" The milk, as it is received from the neighborhood farmers, (they being paid 
some two or three cents per quart for it,) in cans of six or eight gallons each, 
is at once deprived of its animal heat by placing the cans in ice-cold water. It 
is then, while in the cans, subjected to a heat of IGO to 190 degrees — a few 
degrees below the boiling point. Thus prepared, the milk is immediately trans- 
ferred to the boiler, a huge receptacle of cast iron, of incalculable strength. 
While there subjected, by means of steam, to a heat of but 120 to 160 degrees, 
the air is withdrawn by two nicely adjusted air-pumps, and the process of 
evaporation commences. The vapor, as it forms, and this it does with sur- 
prising rapidity, within the vacuum, is as rapidly condensed and thrown oflF by 
means of the pumps, and so quick is the process that, according to our infor- 

American Patents. 297 

mation, a boiler of 500 quarts can be reduced to 125 quarts within one and a 
half hours. The liquid thrown off by the evaporation is clear, like water — has 
a sickish, unpleasant taste— in no way resembling milk, and its smell is slightly 
offensive. It is considered that the concentrated article is rendered purer by 
the process, to say nothing of its other advantages." 



Hulling Rice, Wilson Ager, Rohrsburg, Pa. — Cleaning Rice, same. — Mowing 
Machine, A. H. Caryl, Sandusky, 0. — Raking Attachment for Reapers, same. — 
Same, Christian Yost, Lea'cock, Pa. — Apparatus for Grain and Grass Harvest- 
ers, J. W. Bultzly and Wm. Hobson, Pana, 111. — Machine for Binding Grain, 
Jos. F. Black, Lancaster, 111. This sheaves and binds the grain as fast as it is 
cut by the reaper. It is to be attached to reaping machines. — Reaping and 
Mowing Machine, J. G. Dunham, Raritan, N. J. — Harvester, A. B. J. Flowers, 
Greenfield, Ind. Grinding the machine by means of castor wheels, and adding 
an endless apron and a new discharging device. — Rake for Harvesters, Isaac 
Van Doren, Somerville, N. J. — Hax-vester, Samuel Pennock, assignor to himself 
and Morten Pennock, Kennett's Square, Pa. — Corn Sheller, J. J. Parker, Mari- 
etta, 0. — Grain Drill, Henry Beitzell, Centerville, Ind. — Corn Sheller, A. M. 
Cook, Milford, Mass. — Mode of attaching Scythes to Snaths, Wm. T. Clement, 
Shelburne Falls, Mass. — Sod Cutters, Nelson Newman, Springfield, 111. — Reap- 
ing and Mowing Machine, M. E. Ellsworth, Hudson, 0. — Cultivator, Wm. J. 
Forshee, Indianapolis, Ind. — Corn Husker, A. M. George, Nashua, N. H. — 
Same, H. P. Gerrish, Sandoval, 111. — Seed Planter, W. Y. Gill, Henderson, Ky. 
Same, A. M. Gould and Albert Flanders, Cambria, N. Y. — Plough, Manasseh 
Grover, Clyde, 0.— Hill-side Plough, A. J. Hardin, Shelby, N. C— Rake, A. A. 
& Andrew Hotchkiss, Sharon Valley, Ct. — Guard finger for Reaping Machines, 
Charles Howell, Cleveland, 0. — Machine for Shucking and Shelling Corn, Sand- 
foi'd Kingsbery, Carrolton, Ga. — Gang Plough, L. S. Kingston and David Gore, 
Plain View, 111. — Seed Planter, C. 0. Luce, Brandon, Vt. — Seeding Machine, 
Daniel and A. S. Markham, Monmouth, 111. — Seed Planter, Hosia Willard, Ver- 
gennes, Vt. — Plough, Thos. Sharp, NashviUe, Tenn. — Corn Sheller, Ancil Stick- 
ney, Concord, N. H. — Corn Husker, W. H. Smith, Newport, R. I. — Seed Sow- 
ing Machine, Wm. C. Squier, Rockford, 111. — Balancing Threshing Cylinders, 
Damon R. Averhill, assignor to himself, James F. Davis, and Henry Twitchell, 
Pulaski, N. Y. 

Metallurgy and Manufacture of Metals. 

Socket for Bolts, H. W. Collendar, New-York. — Pointing Wire, C. Jillson, 
Worcester, Mass. — Lock, H. W. Covert, Roxbury, N. Y.^— Same, J. L. Hall, 
Cincinnati, 0. — Nut Machine, S. H. Whitaker, Cincinnati, 0. — Wrench, H. D. 
Blake, New Hartford, Ct. — Bit Holder, Ben. B. Hill, Chicopee, Mass. — Spike, 
Orin Newton, Pittsburgh, Pa. Constructed with concave sides, etc. — Wire 
Fences, J. B. Reyman, Bloomington, 111. A mode of bending or kinking the 
wires. — Manufacture of Metallic Squares, Samuel Darling, Bangor, Me. — Saw 
filing Machine, Harley Stone and J. S. Cole, Blackstone, Mass. — Curry-comb, 
N. C. Harris and Alonzo Butler, Poultney, Vt. — Melting and Refining Iron, G. 
P. Miller and Hugh Dougherty, Lancaster, Pa. — Power Looms for weaving wire 
cloths, E. B. Bigelow, Boston, Mass. — Cutting Metal Caps for nail heads, Zacha- 
riah Walsh, assignor to Cornelius Walsh, Nevrark, N. J. — Stove Cover Stand, 
Hiram Carsley, Lynn, Mass. 

298 American Patents. 

Manxfactctke of Fibrous and Textile Substances. 

Hardening^ Hat Bodies, Joseph Booth, Newark, N. J. — Making paper pulp 
from ivor}'^, AVilliam N. Clark, Lancaster, Pa. — Treating fibrous and textile 
substances, Julius A. Gillson, Poughkcepsie, N. Y., and Henry Whitney, New- 
York. In a perfect vaccuuni for extracting coloring matter, grease, etc. — 
Treating cotton and linen waste, Eben Norton Horsford, Cambridge, Mass. 
The use of acid to dissolve metallic particles in cotton and linen factory waste. — 
Harness for Looms, George !Matoon, Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. A mode 
of making a harness so that its lease and knot shall be below its eye, and 
the threads of each loop be caused to pass against one side of their shaft 
or bar instead of being caused to embrace opposite sides of it, namely, first 
knitting the harness with a lease at top and one at bottom, or one above as well 
as one below each eye, and subsequently changing the upper shaft so as to pass 
it between tlie several loop threads of the upper side of the harness in such 
manner as to make both thieads of each loop pass against one side of the shaft. 
— ^Preparing tracing muslin, Jesse K. Park, Marlborough, N. Y. The use of 
the oil of Palma Christi, or of castor oil, alone or as an ingredient, in the com- 
position for increasing the transparency of tracing muslin. — Carding Engine, 
\Vm. H. Walton, Brooklyn, N. Y., and G. H. Phinney, New-York. The use of a 
rotary brush for stripping the main cylinder in combination with a lever or its 
equivalent. — Sewing Machine, Edward A. Jcnks and John Underwood, Lowell, 
Mass. A new kind of loopcr and a spring feed piece, with its pressure guide 
or sheatn, etc. — Hemp Brake, Conrad Simon, Louisville, Ky. — Coating hose 
pipe, Charles R, Hinckley, Stonington, Ct. Constructing a hose pipe of textile 
and fibrous materials, with an internal coating of vulcanized India rubber, first 
applying the rubber outside, and afterwards inverting the same by drawing it 
over and through a metallic cylmder. — Cork sole stuftj William Johnson, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. The making of cork cloth, by said process, for inside soles and lining 
of boots, shoes, and other articles, for which solid sheet cork has been used. — 
Machine for measuring cloth, Wm. Y. Wythes, St. Clair, Pa. — Machine for 
forming and hardening hat bodies, A. C. Arnold, Norwalk, Ct. — Machine for 
packing wool, Chas. Carlisle, Woodstock, Vt. — Curtain Boilers, D. N. B. CoflBn, 
Jr., Newton Centre, Mass. — Machine for Packing Wool, Albert Dorr, Orleans, 
Mich. — Sewing Machine, Millford H. Nettlcson and Charles Baymond, Bristol, 
Ct. — Same, E. H. Smith, New- York. — Machine for picking cotton in the field, 
Jos. W. Thorn, Courtland, Ala. — Sewing Machine, Wm. C. Watson, assignor to 
himself, Geo, H. Wooster, and Ira W. Gregory, New- York, 

Chemical Processes, Manufactures, etc, 

India rubber paint, Wm. & Wm. A. Butcher, Philadelphia. A composition 
for making a water-proof paint. — Mastic Roofing, Wm. 11. Carver, Covington, 
Ky, and J. Bcekley, Cincinnati, 0. "The precise manner employed of mixing 
and comi)ounding the ingredients composing the cement, when combined with 
the proportions of ingredients, as specified, by which process of mixing and com- 
pounding and combination of ingredierits, and applying the cement to use, we 
are enabled to decompose or destroy the ammonia contained in the coal tar, to 
prevent it from destroj-ing the cement and eating the canvas on which it is 
spread, and at the same tmie produce a cement that is not brittle and subject 
to cracking, but hard enough to resist forces that roofs are generally subject 
to, and at the same time elastic enough to expand and contract to suit all con- 
ditions of heat and cold, and make the cement water-proof." — Preserving 
alkalies, George Thompson, East Tarcntowu, Pa. The use of metallic boxes, 
united with refusible cement, for putting up caustic alkalies in small quan- 
tities. — Cooler, W. F. Messenger and Henry Rchahn, New-York, Adapt- 
ed for casks containing liquids on draught. — Composition for covering meats, 
John J. Bate, Brooklyn, N. Y., and Francis S. Lowe, Jersey City, N. J. 

American Patents. 299 

The use of shellac, varnish and beeswax, etc., in composition.— Lard rendering 
kettle, John J. Bate, Brooklyn, N. Y.— Prepariog rooffing cements, Robert f. 
Havens, Casstown, 0.— Factitious oils, Joseph W. Harman, Elizabethtown, 
N. J. The use of the residuum of candle factories in the manufacture of com- 
pound oil.— Separating oily matter from water, James Naughten, Cincinnati, 0. 
— Cooler for breweries, Adolph Hammer, Reading, Pa.— Drip pots for sugar 
houses, John Turl, New-Yoik.— Brewer's Coolers, Adam Wood, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. A double bottom of corrugated iron, through which cold water con- 
stantly runs.— Making white lead, Henry Hannen, Dubuque, Iowa.— Bronzing 
liquors, Henry Hoflman, New- York. 


Gas Generator, John Butler, Brooklyn, N. Y Generating gas in a retort 
over the surface of melted lead and other fusible metal.— Illuminating Gas Ap- 
paratus, Chas. B. Waring, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.— Gas Burner, Wm. W. Batch- 
elder, New- York.— Steam Heating Apparatus, Edmund Gibbs, Madison, Wis.— 
Gas Burner, William H. Lindsay, Brooklyn, N. Y.— Apparatus for roasting on 
cooking stoves, ranges, etc., Samuel Peirce, Troy, N. Y.— Protecting buildings 
from fire, Thomas Odion, Portsmouth, N. H. By means of a portable screw.— 
Hydro-carbon Vapor Lamp, Isaac Suggitt, Providence, R. L— Hot Air Registers, 
Sylvester J. Sherman, New- York.— Coal Stove, Wm. H. Stinson, Baltimore, Md. 

Steam and Gas Engines, &c. 

Operating valves of steam engines, Robert H. Fletcher, Brooklyn, N. Y.— 
Valve gear for oscillating steam engines, John C. Penninghu, Paterson, N. J.— 
Arrangement of passages and means for working steam valves, by the direct 
action of steam, Barnabas Roberts and Alex. Crumble, assignors to themselves 
and John Benson, Brooldyn, N. Y. An arrangement of the steam channels, 
which are opened and closed by the travel of the main piston, connecting the 
steam chest and cylinder as described in combination with pistons of equal 
areas, or their equivalents, etc.— Metallic packing rings for steam engines, P. 
Clark, Rahway, N. J. A number or series of layers or lamina of sheet metal, 
with flexibility enough to be bent round a rod, etc.— Rotary Steam Engine, D. 
C. Turner, Aztalan, Wis.— Valve gear for oscillating steam engines, N. W. 
Wheeler, New-York.'-Steam Pressure Guage, Henry Bates, New-London, Ct — 
Steam Boiler, Wm. M. & Jonas B. Ellis, Washington, D. C— Variable eccentrics 
for operating the valves of steam engines, S. L. Wiegand, Philadelphia.— Tank 
for Locomotives, John Kimball, Concord, N. H., assignor to Robert Hale, Rox- 
bury, Mass.— Steam Generator, Julien F. Belleville, Nancy, France.— Locomo- 
tive Oow-Catcher, James Mitchell, Osceola, Iowa. 

Navigation and Maritime Implements. 

Ships' Pump, Abraham Coates, New-York.—Feathering paddle-wheels, Lewis 
T. Howard, Smith's Mills, Miss.— Reefing and furling sads, G. W. La Baw, 
Jersey City, N. J., assignor to himself and Chas. A. Durgin, New-York.— Life- 
boats, M. M. Camp, New-Haven, Ct.— Diving Apparatus, George Williamson, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.— Life-Preserver, Charles J. Banker, New-York.— Marine Pro- 
pelling Apparatus, Ethan Campbell, Boston, Mass., assignor to Wm P Pa^-e 
Cambridge, Mass., and Edward F. Hodges, Boston. ° ' 

Civil Engineering, Architecture, &c. 
Excavator, Ze Butt, Lincolntown, N. C- Sustaining Window Sash, Edward 
T. Briggs, Salem, Mass.— Street Sweeping Machine, John Critcherson, Boston, 
Mass.— Bridge, Charles H. Earle, Green Bay, Wis. A bridge so constructed as 
to rise and fall with the change of water level, being self adjusting.— Safety 
fuse compositions, Edward Gomez and Wm. Mills, New-York.— Operating Win- 
dow Sash, John 0. Grant, Salem, Mass.— Controlling cog gear sash balance 
John Mac Murtry, Lexington, Ky., assignor to Dan. Wiehl, Fayette Co., Ky.— 
Apparatus for loading logs on wagons. Philander Gilbert, Alexandria, 0. A 

300 American Patents. 

portable frame combined with a windlass. — Connecting: and disconnecting the 
blocks of iron or other pavements, B.irzillai C. Smith, Burlington, N. J. — 
Trussed Bridge, Abram S. Swartz, Buffalo, N. Y.-;-Ap|)rnach Opening Gate, 
Charles A. Howard, Pontiac, Mich. — Oi)ening and closing Vertico-latern) fulding 
gates, Francis Thrasher and H. B. Horton, Akron, 0. — Rock Cutting and Drill- 
ing Machine, Wm. Plumer, Boston, Mass. — Extension Elevator, Pierce Porter, 
Hookset, N. H. — Oil pressing machiner}', Wm. Wilbur, New-York. 

Land Conveyance. 

Railroad Car Seats, J. H. Swan, New-York. — Carriage Prop, Chauncey 
Thomas, West Newbury, Mass. — Window for Locomotives, Henry Skinner, 
Fulton, N. Y. — Lubricating Carriage Axles, Albert A. Vedder, Lysander, N. Y. 

Hydraulics and Pneumatics. 

Hydraulic Engines, John I). Heaton, Dixon, 111. — Pump, J. D., New- 
York. — Regulating the velocity of wind-wheel.';, Francis Peabody, Salem, Mass. 
— Shower Bath, Wm. Miller, Walthcm, Mass. — Wind-wheel, Wm. Zimmerman, 
Quincy, 111, 

Grinding Mills, and Mill Gearing. 

Grinding Mill, Aaron Arnold, Troy, N. Y. — Flour Bolt, N. Bauman, Elmore, 
m. — Hanging Mill Stones, Edwin Clark, Lancaster, Pa. — liearings for mill stone 
drivers, same. — Horse Power, G. E. Burt, Ahriim Wright, and G. F. Wright, 
Harvard, Mass. — Drilling and Milling Machine, Wm. D. Sloan, New-York. — 
Journals of axles with fi iction rollers, George A. Prentiss, Cambridge, Mass. 

Lumber, Tools for Preparing, etc. 
Spoke Machine, Samuel Lord, Perry, Ga.^ — Tenoning Machine, Perry Putnam 
and John E. Crone, Lowell, Mass. — Manufecturing Shingles, J. E. Young, 
Augusta, Me. — Lathe for the manufacture of clothes-pins, etc., John Humphrey, 
Keene, N, H., assignor to himself and Amos E. Perry, Hanisville, N. 11. — 
Filing and setting saws, Ansby C. Smith and Joseph K. Creighton, East Bir- 
mingham, Pa. — Holding and setting logs in circular sawing machines, James 
H. Batchelder, Rome, Mich. — Cutting Bungs, Josiah Kirby, Cincinnati, 0. — 
Attaching adjustable handles to joiners' planes, Thos. D. Worrall, Lowell, Mass. 
— Saw Flier, J. J. Near, Oneida, N. Y., assignor to Eli Noar and Levi Vandusen, 
Madison Co., N. Y. — Joiners' Bench, J. W. Mahan, Lexington, 111. — Sawing 
Shingles, Jesse Gilinan, Nashua, N. H. — Wood Boring Machine, Lafayette Ste- 
vens, assignor to Wm. L. Gibson, Elmira, N. Y. 

Stone and Clay Manufactures. 
Brick Machine, G. J. Washburn, assignor to himself and Anson L. Hobart, 
Worcester, Mass. — Manufacturing Pottery Ware, Philip Pointon, Baraboo, Wis. 
— Brick Press, E. H. Bellows, Worcester, Mass. 

Leather, Tanning, Dressing, &c. 
Belt Tool, David A. J. Lamson, Cherry Valley, Mass. — Improved boot and 
shoe sole cutter, Parker Wells, Middletown, Mass., assignor to Samuel Mower, 
Boston, Mass. A cutter with a yielding slide. — Edge-plane for trimming boot 
and shoe soles, J. A. Dunham, North Bridgewater, Mass. A cutting blade and 
guard that, together, forms a circle or very nearly, and so arianged as to be set 
up to its guard as fast as it becomes worn, by simply turning said cutter on its 
center. — Stirrups for riding saddles, James Neill, Yorkville, N. Y. An arrange- 
ment for releasing the stirrup from its strap when the rider falls. — Hame tug 
fastening, Wm. J. Lockwood, Sturgis, Mich. — Manufacture of the uppers of 
boots and shoes, without seams, Samuel Middleton, England. — Hollow metallic 
.asts, Sylvanus H. Whorf, Maiden, Mass. A last with a yielding spring instep. 

HousF.noLD Furniture, Machines and Implements for Domestic Purposes, &c ' 
Kneading dough, Hiram Berdan, New-York. A rotating "flipper" to rotate 

Foreign Inventions. 301 

through the dough, cutting it, etc. — Invalid Beds, George H. Clark, Poutiac, 
Mich.— Fly Trap, S. R. Wilmot, Watertown, Ct.— Spring bed-bottoms, Henry 
J. Smith, Washington, D. C. 

Arts — Polite, Fine, Ornamental, &c. 

Expanding spectacle bows, George N. Cummings, Hartford, Ct. — Painter's 
Easel, George Gillett, Little York, N. Y.— Watchmaker's Lathe, Roswell H. St. 
John, Bellefontaine, 0. — Diaphragm for photographic cameras, J. R. Werner, 
New-York. — Type setting and distributing machine, Tunothy Alden, New- 
York, (see another page.) — Safety clasp for bracelets, etc., Isaac Hermann, New- 
York.— Sleeve Fastener, David C. Peacock, Brookl.yn, N. Y.— Hand Stamp, T. 
J. W. Robertson, New- York. — Machine for distributing type, Wm. H. Mitchell, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. — Pencil Sharpener, J. W. Strange and Samuel Darling, Bangor, 
Me.— Fastenmg for Jewelry, John T. Folwell, Philadelphia. — Reed stops tor 
musical instruments, Amos B. Hughes, Philadelphia. — Setting diamonds, etc., 
Isaac Lindsley, Providence, R. I. — Stemming and polishing peanuts, Samuel 
Sheppard, Nashua, N. H. — Fountain Pen, A. F. Warren, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Fire Arms, &c. 

Ball Carti'idges, Lemuel Wells, Astoria, N. Y. — Safety fuse compositions, 
Edwin Gomez and Wm. Mills, New-York. 


Burglar's Alarm, Simeon Coon, Ithaca, N. Y. — Portfolio, or music Stand, 
Augustus Eliaers, Boston.— Fly Trap, S. R. Wilmot, Watertown, Ct— Fire 
Escape Ladder, Henry Lorvenberg, New-York. — Apparatus for opening oysters, 
Waldren Beach, Baltimore, Md.— Cribs of horses stables, William Croasdalc, 
Hartsville, Pa.— Burglar's Alarm, E. M. & J. E. Mix, Ithaca, N. Y.— Awning 
frame for horses, N. Pullman, New-Oregon, Iowa. — Fastening for metallic bands 
of cotton bales, etc., Charles J. Provost, Sardis, Ala. — Mode of attaching elastic 
soles to horse shoes, Wm. Somerville, Buifalo, N. Y, 

New Process for Preserving Timber. 

Among the expedients adopted for the purpose of preventing the decay of 
wood, the following, by the eminent French chemist. Dr. Boucherie, seems wor- 
thy of special attention. The following is his method of operation : 

After the tree has been felled, a saw-cut is made across the center through 
about nine-tenths of the section of the tree. The tree is then slightly raised at 
the center by a lever or wedge, so as to open the saw-cut a little ; a piece of 
string or cord is placed all round the edge of the saw-cut, and on lowering the 
tree again, the cut closes upon the string, which thus forms a water-tight joint 
in a simple and eflfectual manner. An auger hole is then bored obliquely into 
the saw-cut from the outside, into which is driven a hollow, wooden plug, to 
which a flexible tube is fitted. The tube communicates with a raised cistern, 
placed at a height of from 30 to 40 feet above the timbers that are to be pre- 
pared, and containing a solution of sulphate of copper. When the preparations 
have been completed, the liquid flows through the tube into the saw-cut in the 
tree, and forces itself along the log in both directions, driving the sap out at 
each end. As soon as the liquid has reached the ends of the log, the process is 
finished and the log is ready for use. 

If the timber is required of the entire original length, the cross saw-cut at 
the center can not be made, and instead thereof, a cap, consisting of a piece of 

302 Foreign Inventions. 

board, J inch or 1 inch thick, is fixed on the end of the log by screws or clampsr, 
and made, by means of a piece of strinp; or cord, to enclose a space at the end 
of the tree. As tlie direction of the ,'::rain in the board forniin^ tlie cap is trans- 
verse to that of the tree, the Hq;iid can not pass through the cap, and the injec- 
tion proceeds from one end of the log to the other. 

In order to ascertain when the process has been continued for a sufficient 
length of time, so that the sap has been all expelled and replaced by the solu- 
tion of sulphate of copper, a piece of prussiate of potash is rubbed on the end 
of the timber while in the damp state, and if the solution has reached the end 
of the log a deep reddish brown stain is produced, showing that the timber is 
thoroughly impregnated with sulphate of copper. 

The sap expelled fiom the timber in the process of impregnation contains at 
most only l-lOdOth part of organic matter in solution, and accordingly no in- 
convenience is experienced in emi)loying it as a solvent for the sulphate of cop- 
per. It is, indeed, preferable to many kinds of spring water, particularly those 
containing lime, which decomjiose a considerable proportion of sulphate of cop- 
per. Tioughs are therefore laid under the ends of the logs to catch the sap and 
the waste solution, which are conducted to a reservoir to be pumped up to the 
cistern and mixed witli sulphate of copper to the i)roper strength. 

The solution that has been found most effectual for pi-eserving the timber is 
composed of 1 part by weight of sulphate of copper, and 100 parts by weight of 
water. The strength of the mixture is ascertained by a hydrometer, having a 
properly graduated scale. The specific gravity of water at G0° Fahr. being 1000, 
if 1 per cent, of sulphate of copper is added, the specific gravity of the mixture 
will bcl 006, nearly. 

The sooner the trees are prepared after being felled, the better, and it is 
therefore advisable to pi-epare them as near as possible to the place where they 
are felled. Trees felled at any time between November and May, may be pre- 
pared in May ; but those cut down in May, or at any time from May to the end 
of November, should be prepared within three weeks from the time of being 

In tlie course of the operations carried out in the practical application of this 
process, the following focts have been ascertained : 

All kinds of wood do not absorb equally, and the absorption of the liquid is 
more rapid in the sappy parts than in those nearer the heart of the tree. 

The quantity of the solution forced into the timber is equal in cubic measure 
to at least one-half of the cubic dimensions of the timber. "When a solution 
containing about 21 lbs. of sulphate of copper in every 22 gallons, has been 
force i through a log, it appears, after allowing for the sulphate carried off by 
the sap, that every 35 cubic feet of wood have retained from 11 lbs. to 13 lbs. of 
sulphate of copper. 

For a log about 9 feet long, the process of impregnation occupies two days, 
when the timber is newly felled and the solution is sujjplicd by a head of 
about 3^ feet. If the wood has been felled three months, three days are re- 
quired ; and if four montlis, four dajs are necessary to complete the impregna- 

Of different kinds of tree, those which possess most moisture are most easily 
penetrated b}' the solution ; and of the same kind, those which have groAvn in 
the dampest soils. Hence the least valuable and cheapest kinds of timber are 
precisely those which give the best results when impregnated with the sulphate 
of copper. 

Improvements in Castors. 
Br Tnos. Bird and Tnos. Bose, Manchester, Eng. 

This invention consists in making the lower or rolling part of castors in the 
form of spheres, globes, or balls, of any convenient dimensions, having their 
upper parts pressing against one or more smaller balls or spheres, the whole 
being enclosed in suitable standards or frames, either with or without anti-fric- 

Foreign Inventions. 303 

tion rollers, pulleys, or balls. The frame of the castor is provided with a screw, 
in order to lengthen or shorten it, when required to adjust the article of fur- 
niture to a proper height, and if the surface of the floor is uneven, to adjust it 
to the various inequaltties, and give it a perfect level, which arrangement will be 
found peculiarly applicable to pianos and similar articles. 

In this improved castor the large sphere or ball is made of glass, and the 
small one of ivory, or similar material, — thus making it a double spherical insu- 
lator peculiarly applicable to pianos, harps, or other musical instruments. 

Improvements in the Construction of Axles and Boxes of Carriages 
for Common Roads. 

By Richard Emery, St. James's Square. 

This invention consists in so constructing the axles and axle-boxes of car- 
riages for common roads that the wear on the bearings of such axles and boxes 
will be uniform, and that the lateral lashing against the back and front of such 
axle-boxes will be provided for in a better, cheaper, and more simple way than 
is common in axles and axle-boxes of the present known constructions. 

The improvements consist, firstly, in having the front and back bearings paral- 
lel with the axis of the axle, or in other words, parallel with a center line drawn 
through the axle bearings, which parallel bearings, although of different diame- 
ters, will be always uniform in their wear ; the surfaces being equal both in 
the busbing, for the bearing in the axle-box, and the bearing part of the axle- 

Secondly, in constructing the axle-boxes of any known or suitable metal, and 
bushing them with a different metal from that which the box is made of. 

These beaiings may, if of steel, or case-hardened iron, or hard compositions, 
be screwed or driven into their places, or shrunk in, or be run in, if of the softer 
compounds or simple metals. 

New Mode of Applying Metals to Surfaces of Wood, Pottery, etc. 

The process for coating vitrified or enamelled surfaces is as follows : Suppose 
the object to be treated by the process to be a china vessel, cover first that part 
of it which is inteaded to receive the coating of metal with a layer of varnish, 
or gold size ; and when the layer of varnish has become sufiBciently dry, apply 
copper leaf to it, so as to cover it well, and leave the whole to dry completely ; 
carefully remove all dust from the surface, and place the vessel so prepared in a 
bath containing a solution of sulphate of copper. By submitting now the vessel 
so prepared to the action of a galvanic battery, as usual a deposit of copper 
takes place ; and when the deposit has acquired a suflacient thickness (for which 
purpose about 60 hou? s immersion will be necessary) the vessel is taken out of 
the bath, cleaned, and smoothed by filing off the asperities, and finished with 
pumice-stone, to be finally polished as required. 

The coppering may also be effected by another process, which is considered 
to be as efficacious, and more convenient and easy than that just described. It 
consists in making use of German gold dust or bronze powder containing much 
mercury ; this metallic powder is a very good conductor. It is to be triturated 
with common salt. When well mixed, it is put into an earthen basin, and hot 
water is poured over the mixture ; the salt then dissolves, and the copper dust 
is left to settle. The deposit thus formed is collected, dried, and used as a con- 
ductor for the metallic coating to be given to the vessel. 

By a similar process the silvering of looking glasses can be preserved irom the 
efiects of dampness, — the glass being thus rendered at the same time less liable 
to break. It is done as follows : Melt together equal quantities of bees'-wax and 
taUow : when the mixture has become completely fluid and quite homogeneous, 
the glass is dipped into it and taken out immediately ; it is then allowed to 
cool, and the parts which are required to be coppered are prepared with metallic 
powder, and treated in the same manner as before mentioned. 

304 Foreign Inventions. 

For metallizing objects the surface of which are soft, such as animal bodies, 
the following process is adopted: First stop all the apertures with modellers' 
wax, or some other convenient material, and place the dead animal body, which 
may be a human corpse, in a suitable attitude, and spread over the skin, which is 
of a greasy nature, a layer of suitable metallic salt ; pulverized nitrate of silver 
being used by preference. This salt then penetrates into the pores of the skin, 
and when a sufficient quantity of nitrate of silver has been thus applied to the 
body in question, by means of a brush or otherwise, it is then put into a bath of 
sulphate of copper, and the galvanic current being established, the whole sur- 
face soon becomes covered witti a metallic deposit of copper of the requisite 
thickness ; the result being a metallic mummy. 

Similar objects, either of china or earthenware, may be covered with iron in- 
stead of copi)er by preparing them as above described, and plunging the said 
objects in a bath containing a solution of protosulphate of iron. The objects 
which have been thus coated wiih copper, may receive afterwards another coat- 
ing of either silver, gold, or platinum. 

This is applicable to vessels of china and earthenware, pottery, crystal, glass, 
and the like, and also to soft or supple surfaces, as leather, India rubber, gutta 
pei'cha, and "other organic substances." 

Improved Filter or Drainer. 
By Fbedekic Albert Gatty, Accrington, Lancashire, Eng. 
These improved filters or drainers are made by preference of wood and of a 
square shape, but thej- may be of other shapes, and other materials may be 
used. The sides and bottom of the filter or drainer are furnished with narrow 
slots made with a circular saw or otherwise. When the filters or drainers are 
made of wood it is requisite to make the slots in a line with the grain of the 
wood. They may be rendered suitable for filtering dilFerent materials by in- 
creasing or diminishing the width of the slots, according to the fineness or 
coarseness of the substances to be separated from the liquids. In some cases 
the slots of these filters or drainers may be filled with animal charcoal or other 
purifying material. These impi-oved filters are said to possess considerable ad- 
vantages over those in general use, which are usually made of woolen or other 
fabric, and are soon injured V)y being continually wet, and bj'^ the action of acids. 
The improved filter, after being in operation, is easily cleaned by passing a suit- 
able instrument through the slots, to free them from any substances adhering 

Mining in Prussian Westphalia. 

It is asserted that in Prussian Westphalia no less than sixteen mining and 
smelting companies have been formed since 1848 — twelve of them since 1854, 
showing a very considerable progress. In 1853, this province produced but 
603,525 cwt. of iron, and 118,064 cwt. cast iron ware, while in 1854 the product 
was 709,110 cwt. pig iron, and 332,061 cwt. cast iron ware, showing an increase 
of 73 per cent, in one year. In 1855 the province produced 1,513,039 cwt. pig 
iron, and 1,126,052 cwt. bar iron. 

Tenacity of Metals. 

As the results of numerous experiments in regard to the tenacity of metals, 
M. Baudrimont has arrived at the following conclusions : That the tenacity of 
metals varies with their temperature ; it generally decreases, though not with- 
out exception, as the temperature rises; with silver, the tenacity diminishes 
more rapidly than the temperature ; with copper, gold, platinum and palladium, 
it decreases less rapidly than the temperature ; iron presents a very remarkable 
case; at 212 degrees its tenacity is less than at 32, but at 392 degrees it is 
greater than at 32. 

Scientific. 305 

' Chemistry for the Million. 

The figures in the following tabular view denote the proportions of each ingredi- 
ent and of the compound. Thus, read the first ;— 8 lbs. of oxygen, combined with 1 
lb. of hydrogen, form 9 lbs. of water; and so the others, putting " combined with" 
after the first word in each line, and the word "form" after the second. 

Water with other substances forms hydrates, as hydrates of lime, of iron, etc. 

Carbonic acid forms carbonates, as carbonate of lime, (chalk, marble, lime-stone,) 

carbonate of soda (washing soda,) bi-carbonate of soda, (cooking soda) etc. 


The three compounds above, water, carbonic acid, and ammonia constitute a very 

large part of the food of all growing plants. Nothing could grow if deprived 

of either of them. Decaying plants and animals are always giving them 

off; and living, growing plants are always receiving them. 

Water.— 7ifs agencies in the germmation of seeds, in conveying food for the growth 

of plants, and in bringing them to maturity. 

Three conditions are essential to germination, air, warmth and moisture. Give to 
a seed that free circulation of air, which naturally takes place in a cultivated soil, and 
give It a genial warmth, yet without moisture it will not germinate. Most seeds 
can adapt themselves to various degrees of moisture. A kernel of corn, for instance, 
with the requisite air and warmth, will sprout and grow vigorously, whether there 
be much or little water in the soil. But without some moisture it will lie dormant 
though ever so well supplied with air and warmth. 

As soon as the germ, or minature plant, contained in the seed, begins to swell, it 
does so, manifestly, by receiving into itself the material for its growth That ma- 
terial it receives from the seed itself As yet it has no organs for receiving it from 
without. The seed is nothing else than a young plant, microscopically small but 
containing all the parts it wiU have when grown, closely wrapped up, in a mem- 
braneous envelop, together with a convenient supply of food, to furnish material for 
Its growth, till it can put forth roots and leaves, and draw from the soil and air 

This food, so snugly enveloped with the germ, is mostly starch. A little of it is 
gluten, and a very little ablumen, the former containing no nitrogen, the latter being 
a nitrogenous substance. But plants absorb no food that is not in a limpidly fluid 
state-perfectly dissolved either in air or water. Now starch is insoluble in water 
It will form with water a kind of jelly, but not a transparent solution, and hence it ' 
can not be taken into a plant as food so long as it remains starch. That is a condi- 
tion favorable to its preservation till wanted for the young plant, but before actually 
feeding the germ, it has to be changed into some thing that is soluble in water, and 
that somethifig is sugar. 

Every one must have noticed that when a seed sprouts, it becomes sweet. This is 
because the starch is turned to sugar. Out of the nitrogenous substances in the seed 
is formed a new substance, called diastace. This diastace operates upon the starch, 
turning it into sugar, But this change from starch to sugar can not be effected with- 

306 Scientific. 

out the aid of water. If it could, nothing would be gained ; for the germ could not 
feed and grow upon dry sugar any more than it could upon dry starch. But tho 
sugar will dissolve in water, whereas starch is insoluble. "Water, then, is essential, 
both as a means for the formation of sugar, and as a solvent for it when formed. It 
is not proposed here to investigate all the secrets of germination, nor to state all that 
is well known on the subject. Enough has been said to show the importance of 
water to the first step in plant growth. As soon as the germ begins to swell, it 
must have oxygen, hj'drogcn, carbon and nitrogen, and a few mineral substances, 
all of which are contained in tlie seed ; but not one could find its way into the or- 
ganism of the germ without the agency of water. 

As with the commencement so with the continuance of plant growth, water is a 
most important agent. Some plants require more of it ; some less. Strawberries, 
if the soil is porous, and made up largely of decaying vegetable matter, can hardly 
have too much at fruiting time ; Indian corn, at the time of ripening, can hai-dly 
have too little. But whatever water each plant, at its various stages, requires, is a 
necessity. ]S'"ot only is all plant food prepared, as in the case of the sugar made 
from starch, by the agency of water, and dissolved in water, but water becomes the 
carrier of the food, first from the soil, at short distances, to the roots, and then along 
the roots, and through the organism of the plant. 

On the first of these points others differ from the view here taken. Liebig seems 
to consider that plant food is perfectly immovable in the soil, except so far as it is 
moved by the plow and other implements, or is seized by living roots in actual con- 
tact with the portion of soil in which it is contained. He would have it, that the 
roots go after food, and that is undoubtedly so. A grape root will run towards a 
decaying bone, when but for the bone it would have traveled in another direction ; 
and when it approaclies the bone, will divide itself into a thousand fibres, and at- 
tack the bone on every side. But while it is clear that a root will turn out of its 
course to come upon a richer source of food, is it not true also, that the food, by a 
kind of reciprocal action, is drawn towards the root ? 

"We know that water, by a natural law, passes downward in the soil. But by 
another law of nature, that of capillary attraction, it will, under certain circumstan- 
ces, travel upwards. For instance, if the sun evaporates the surface water, then the 
water below will rise to take its place. Or if you put into a moist soil a shovelful 
of soil that is perfectly dry, the Avater around and below it will travel out of its 
course to supply it with moisture, till it becomes about equally moist with the sur- 
rounding soil. It is evident that the movement of water in soil is downward, up- 
ward, lateral or sloping, according to various causes operating upon it, and that its 
tendency always is to an equal diffusion of moisture. It is evident also, that water, 
in passing from point to point in the soil, always holds in solution more or less of 
plant food. Now, while this plant food attracts the roots, it is reasonable to suppose 
that the roots attract it. "We can hardly conceive of an attraction that is not mu- 
^tual. If I give my hand to a drowning man, the pull between us tends as much to 
draw me into the water as to draw him out of it. So it is hard to see how the plant 
food can attract the roots without being attracted by them. AVhatever may be the 
cause of the attraction, whether it is owing to different electrical states of the living 
root and the dead matter surrounding it, or to some other cause, it would seem that it 
must be reciprocal, that if tlic roots run after the food, the food, dissolved in water, 
runs after the roots, and that the place of meeting is not where either was an hour 
before ; but at an intermediate point, a meeting half way. 

Liebig seems to suppose that a root exhausts of plant food, or rather of the food 

Scientific. 307 

specially adapted to that plant, tlie portion of soil immediately in contact with it, 
but no other. To us it seems more reasonable to suppose that water, -which is known 
to move in all possible directions in a soil, not only tends to equalize the plant food, 
where no disturbing influences, as of hungry roots for instance, prevent, but also that 
it acts as a carrier, transferring food from every possible direction to the roots. 

That water acts as a carrier along the roots and throughout the organism of the 
plant, there can be no doubt. Of all plants, in a growing state, by far the largest 
portion is water. The quantity of water that a thrifty plant passes through its 
organism in a day is great, often many times its own weight. "Why is this ? Not 
merely to keep its average amount of water, for then it would not be, as it is, thrown 
off by the leaves into the air. Its errand through the plant, from the earth to the 
air, is to carry up, and deposit by the way, distributing wherever wanted, what is 
to compose the solid jiarts of the future plant. 

If any thing more were wanted to prove that water acts as a carrier of food to the 
roots, consider this : any plant, a maple tree for instance, maybe regarded as a self-act- 
ing pump. A wide-spread maple, thrifty, and standing in a rich soil, on a dry day in 
June, pumps up from the earth a hundred gallons of water, nearly as quick as we, or 
any of our readers, would care to pump as much from a deep well. Ninety-nine 
gallons, at least, it throws, in the same time, into the air, as watery vapor — not ex- 
actly watery vapor, for then it would be seen, but water dissolved in air, a perfect 
solution of water in air being that state in which the air appears clear and transpa- 
rent, while an imperfect solution of water in air implies that state in which the 
water, not being wholly dissolved, becomes visible to the eye, as clouds or fog. 
This may be further illustrated, by comparing it with solutions of solids in water. 

Throw a bit of sugar, or salt, into a tumbler of pure water. It dissolves. Does 
the appearance of the water change ? Not at all. It is as clear and transparent as 
ever. You see no sugar or salt, yet you know it is there. But it has diffused itself 
equally throughout the water, hidden itself away among the partic