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Full text of "The Plough, the loom and the anvil"

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MEmCAN BRWEHS* MAGAZmE. 



Vol. XII. 



MARCH. 1858. 



No. 3. 



|. K r i ni ( t ii r a L 



HINTS FOR YOUNG FARMERS. 

March is an active month in the 
south ; and at the north even, nature be- 
gins to wake up and call the farmer 
forth from his winter quarters. During 
the previous month, little could be earn- 
ed, but much could be saved by a care- 
ful husbanding of the last j^ear's ci'ops. 
We suppose you have been using the 
hay-cutter, by hand, or horse, or steam 
power, as you found most economical 
for the extent of your farm operations ; 
that each bushel of feed, or each ton of 
fodder, from the best of June-cut hay 
down to the poorest of straw has, by a 
proper mixture of food, and by giving 
the right kinds to each animal, been 
made to tell for its whole worth, be that 
large or small ; and that your stock are 
coming out at a little cheaper rate and 
in a little better condition than results 
from careless feeding. 

If it is so, then keep on in the same 
way, and not lose in March what you 
gained in February. There is more than 
fifty per cent difference in the profits of 
wintering stock in the worst way and 
the best. Some would allow us to say 
one hundred per cent, and would justify 
the opinion by saying that, taking one 

VOL. XII. — 9. 



year with another, there is a fair profit 
in wintering in the right way, but none 
in wintering in the wrong way, because 
the feed in this way is worth more in the 
fall than the increased weight of the an- 
imal in the spring. At any rate it is 
safe to say .that a farmer may almost as 
well not have crops, as not to expend 
them with care and good judgment. 

Let the stock be gaining this month, 
and then again in April, and for what- 
ever stock you have for summer beef, 
the butcher will be paying you the cash 
in June or July. That farmer gencrall)'' 
gets the advantage who has his summer 
beef ready for the market earliest. It 
gives him the quickest return ; it ena- 
bles him to have plenty of feed in au- 
tumn, and it gives him an opening for 
other animals when they can be bought 
to advantiige. 

Do not fail to air the cellar, and to 
keep it sweet and clean. Not a particle 
of decaying vegetable matter should re- 
main ; and the windows should be open 
as much as consists with safety from 
frosts. Let the housewife see to this. 
She should remember that close cellars, 
unventilated, except so far as they steam 
through the door into the kitchen or 



130 



AGRICULTURAL, 



other occupied rooms, cause more deaths 
by fever in this country every year than 
the Mexican war caused by cold lead and 
gleaming bayonets ; and what is more, 
these fevers that come from df^caying ve- 
getables in an impure cellar, kill so slow- 
ly, so long time after the poison is inhaled, 
that neither the victims nor their friends 
have the satisfaction of knowing the 
cause. They think it a visitation from 
God ; and so it is, but it is through the 
cellar. Look out for tins part of the 
premises, in March and April and May, 
and then keep looking out for it as you 
value life and health. If there are not 
windows on the opposite sides of your 
cellar for the wind to drive through, so 
as to purge the air of efBuvia from de- 
caying vegetables that may have escaped 
the notice of even the neatest house- 
keeper, make them before this month 
goes out. Whether the sash slides or 
swings, have it so that it may easily be 
fastened wide open, partially open, or 
closed ; and our word for it (and every 
sensible doctor in the land will tell you 
so) you will have removed a most proli- 
fic cause of lingering disease and prema- 
ture death. 

"The maids along the Ohio sing, 
Of all the seasons in the year, 
The sweetest season is the Spring." 

So sang an Ohio bard thirty years 
ago — one, we suppose, who wanted the 
Yankees to come out there and buy his 
land, and so would have them under- 
stand that the maples there were abun- 
dant, and the lasses and molasses pecu- 
liar sweet, in both of which we suspect 
he was right, inasmuch as, in a new 
country as that was then, the girls are 
not as apt to be spoiled of health and 
merry mood by conventional usages 
against nature, and certainly no sweet, 
except that of maiden simplicity and 
worth, is equal to the flow from the su- 
gar maple. 

March is the time, and we must say a 
few words about making maple sugar. 
In tapping the trees, use a three-quarter 



bit, or one about that size. Let it be 
sharp, well adjusted to a good stock, and 
then turn it very rapidly, that it may 
cut the wood smoothly. From two to 
three inches is the best depth. Let the 
slope upwards be about 10", less rather 
than more. Let the spout at its inner 
end taper as much as is consistent -nnth 
firmness,, that the pinch may be at the 
outer surface of the wood. Put two 
spouts, four, six or eight inches apart, 
on both sides of the tree if large, on one 
side only if small. The projecting ends 
should converge a little, that both may 
drop so near the center of the tub as not 
to allow the wind to blow the sap away 
as it falls. It is well to have the part 
from which the sap falls blunt, not 
pointed. The sap will then separate 
fi'om it in large drops, and not be as lia- 
ble to be blown outside of the tubs. It 
is a common practice, and a good one, 
to hang the tub on a nail driven into 
the tree, in such a way as to prevent the 
possibility of loss by wind. We never 
saw it done, but should think it would 
be well to fasten the tub by a cord 
di'awn around the tree, as this would 
hold the tub as well, and would prevent 
the necessity of puncturing the tree, by 
which a small waste of sap is caused, 
and the tree slightly injured. Some 
hang the tub by means of a Avire bail on 
the two spouts. This is a good way. 
The spouts should be notched where the 
bail is to pass across them. 

The sap should be boiled soon after 
being collected, as otherwise, especially 
in warm weather, an incipient fermenta- 
tion takes place, and the sugar crystal- 
izes less perfectly. We have often made 
batches of maple sugar in April which 
would hardly crystalize at all, owing to 
this incipient fermentation in the sap. 
The molasses, in such a case, is of an in- 
ferior quality, not having that luscious 
maple taste which everybody loves. 
There are many varieties of sugar, of 
which cane-sugar and grape-sugar are 
the leading. The maple gives essenti- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



131 



ally the cane sugar, with that exquisite 
maple flavor. We believe that when 
the .sap stands too long before boiling, the 
constitution of the sugar is changed from 
that of the cane to that of the grape ; 
and, in the change, the maple flavor, as 
well as the tendency to crystalize, is par- 
tially lost. 

We could write all day, and detail 
only our own experience in this mat- 
ter, for fortunately we were irour/ht 
up in the backwoods, the best thing that 
ever happened to us, and these woods 
were remarkably sweet in more senses 
than one. But we will only say, use 
your own good sense in your arrange- 
ments for boiling economically of fuel. 
We have seen some people boil down ma- 
ple sap when we would have valued the 
fuel more than the sugar. Done econo- 
mically, it is a fairly paying business for 
a season when other work does not press. 

The sap should be kept clean. Let 
the kettles or the pan be so set that no 
sparks will blow into them. When the 
syrup is partially cooled, strain slowly 
through a thick cloth ; and in suguriiig 
off^ as it is called, let the heat be equa- 
ble, that no burning on the sides of the 
kettles may blacken the mass. Nearly 
every impurity in maple sugar is occa- 
sioned by uncleanliness in collecting and 
boiling the sap, or by burning on the 
sides of the kettle. If the sap could be 
kept of that limpid pureness with which 
it comes from the tree, no sti'aining nor 
clarifying would be needful, and you 
wouM have the purest sweet that nature 
atford-\ I5ut as this is not possible, it is 
well to strain the sap through cloth be- 
fore boiling, then to strain the S}Tup be- 
fore sugaring off, and in both cases wool- 
len cloth, of a pretty close texture, is 
best ; and as even this will not separate 
every particle, it is well to put in a litth 
milk — say one pint to 20 lbs. of sugar — 
and skim. The milk curdles ; the par- 
ticles remaining become entangled in it 
and are skimmed off. 

We might say much about clarifying 



with bullock's blood, with the blood and 
bristles where hogs have been slaughter- 
ed, with a thousand other things, mak- 
ing the remedy worse than the disease ; 
but it is all humbug. If you will boil 
clean, and add a little milk to the syrup, 
you will have as good an article as can 
be made. There will be a little color, 
more than in double refined sugar, but 
what of that. Those Ohio girls, thirty 
j-ears ago, probably had a little color in 
the face and lips, but were none the 
worse for it. 

Before this month expires, many of 
our readers will be speeding the plow. 
Shall we say, plow deep ? Yes ; but 
what is deep ? One says six inches, an- 
other two feet. IIow extravagant these 
agricultural papers are, and how they 
differ, say some. We say no certain 
rule can be laid down for all cases. How 
land is to be manured, how it is to be 
tilled, its annual value, whether it is un- 
derdrained, and what is the composition 
and structure of the soil, are preliminary 
questions. 

1. How is the land to be manured? 
If you have but ten loads of manure for 
the acre, and can get no more at paying 
rates, it would be folly to plow much 
deeper than before. But says some one, 
if you have no more than that, till but 
one-third as much, and make it hold out 
thirtj^ loads to the acre. Hold fiicnd ; 
your advice is good enough for the farm- 
ers to think of, but let them think a good 
while before they follow it in all cases. 
As a general thing, less land under the 
plow, higher manuring and maximum 
crops, is good advice. But there is a 
great deal of land, that in the present 
state of the coimt'-y, can not be so ma- 
nured and tilled as to give 100 bushels 
of corn to the acre, or 30 bushels of 
wheat, or 3 tons of hay, which may bet- 
ter be cultivated for half these figures 
than turned over to no use. Undoubt- 
edly, with a population of but ten to the 
square mile, giving G t acres to each per- 
son, it is wise to cultivate some acres for 



182 



AGRICULTURAL, 



half the crop that would be sought by 
a population twenty-five times as dense. 
The way to do it is to plow but slightly 
deeper than the land has been plowed 
before, to manure as well as you can, 
to stir often, practice clean cultivation, 
and be contented with moderate crops 
and small profit. 

2. How the land is to be tilled. Here, 
if the objector says, it is to be tilled well 
or not at all, we have not much to say. 
Still in a country where labor is plenty 
and cheap, but land scarce and dear, 
more careful weeding, and a more fre- 
quent stirring of the soil is advisable 
than in one where the reverse is true ; 
and in our own country there are some 
who will have a neat, clean, oft-stirred 
soil ; and where a farmer is bent on this 
course, he may plow the same land, with 
the same amount of manure, deeper than 
another who means to only half tiU it 
through the summer, because the first, 
by keeping his field clear of weeds and 
often stirred to let in the sun and air to 
warm and enliven his soil, will get paid 
for the extra expense of deep plowing, 
while most assuredly the second will 
not. The fact is shallow jilowing is a 
part and parcel of bad Arming through- 
out ; and if all the rest is bad, that may 
about as well be bad also. As we would 
patch an old garment with old cloth, or 
wear an old vest if our coat and pants 
were very old, so we would recommend 
shallow plowing, as a part of a husban- 
dry^, of which all the rest is to be bad. 

3. The annual value of land. If you 
pay $100 an acre for the use of land, as is 
done by some of our market gardeners, 
the cultivation must be good throughout 
or you can not get your money back. It 
would be only penny -wise to shrink from 
an extra expense of 3, or 5, or 10 dollars 
an acre to deepen the soil. But if you 
hire land at ^2 an acre, it might be wise 
to cultivate in a cheaper way. In the 
one case you would want to plow deep 
enough to make two acres of one ; in 
the other you might be contented with 



letting two acres go as one, that is, with 
half the crop which such land really 
ought, if it were in other locations, to 
produce. 

4. Has the soil been underdrained ? 
If so, it will better pay for deep plow- 
ing. One effect of underdraiuing is, by 
taking out the water to let in the air. 
This warms the soil. You need not fear 
to plow deep. Your crops are not in 
danger of being chilled by the turning 
up of soil that has long been hid from 
the sun. Unquestionably underdrained 
lands will bear deep plowing with less 
manure than lands that are not under- 
drained. Of course, we mean such l.ands 
as require uuderdi'aining. 

5. The nature of the soil. There are 
lands which will not bear deep plowing. 
They are rare, but they do exist. Two 
things are necessary to a decision that 
deep plowing must not be adopted ; one 
that the land consists of a thin soil, ly- 
ing on coarse gravel, the other that it be 
located where there is nothing to give a 
special value to its products. We have 
seen such land. To plow through the 
subsoil, would be like knocking the bot- 
tom out and letting the whole fall 
through. The best thing that can be 
done with this land is to run over it and 
get two or three small crops once in five 
years. The cost is but trifling. A 
cheap dressing of ashes and a little plas- 
ter will give fifteen or twenty bushels of 
corn, and a small crop of clover the se- 
cond year, with a little pasturage the 
third. But say some, these are the very 
lands to plow deep. They would let in 
the plow to the beam, would subsoil, 
mix in the fine top soil Avith the coarse 
gravel below, put on plenty of manure, 
and thus make a pretty soHd compact 
soil of it. Aye, that can be done. 
Money enough and labor enough will 
make good land of any thing. That 
would be good advice if such land lay in 
the suburbs of New-York, or any where 
else where it would be worth a thousand 
dollars an acre when made good, and 



AGRICULTURAL 



183 



rent for a hundred dollars a year. There 
is land on Long Island, of just this cha- 
racter,, and which should be treated in 
just this way — made good at a great ex- 
pense. There arc more than a hundred 
thousand acres on Long Island so situ- 
ated and of such a character, that $100 
an acre expended on them would make 
them worth $200 an acre more than they 
can now be bought for. Of course the 
man of small capital can not touch them. 
The man of large capital will not, though 
it would be one of the prettiest opera- 
tions in the world, and so they are a 
wilderness, within three hours of this 
metropolis. 

Bat we were speaking of such land, so 
situated that it would not repay a large 
outlay, and we are very sure there is 
such, and that the best use for it, as we 
have already said, is to grow small crops 
at a small expense. 

Undrained lands, with an impervious 
subsoil, will not bear deep plowing. 
The soil is too cold to be turned up. 
Some land of this kind will even give 
better crops with shallow than with 
deep plowing. The way is, first to un- 
derdrain, and then to plow deep. But 
do all lands require underdraining ? We 
might just as well be told that all coats 
need scouring, the unsoiled as well as 
the soiled. 

If the water passes down freely, so as 
never to accumulate and become stag- 
nant, that is enough, and such is the 
case with more than half the land we 
have yet seen. Lands that are cold and 
sour by reason of stagnant water, or by 
its too slow passage through them, are 
doubled, quadrupled, and sextupled in 
value by underdraining; but the majority 
of acres in this country, so far as we 
have seen, would not produce enough 
more to pay the cost. 

None too much is said in our agricul- 
tural journals in favor of deep plowing, 
but in our opinion it is said too indis- 
criminately. A consequence is, that 
some farmers arc rushing into the depths 



without knowing the why and where- 
fore ; while others know, or think they 
do, too well to be instructed, that all 
this talk about deep plowing is only a 
piece of modern tom-foolery. 

To the young farmer we would say, if 
you can not manure highly, if j'ou do 
not mean to cultivate well, if your land 
lies so far from a good market that its 
annual value is small, if it needs drain- 
ing but is not drained, if it has a thin 
soil lying on a treacherous subsoil, be 
cautious in any of these cases how you 
plow much deeper than you have seen 
the substantial old farmers plow. 

But if none of these causes prevent, if 
you mean to manure highly and till well, 
especially if your land is so situated 
with reference to markets as to possess 
a high annual value, if you mean to 
make something by farming, and are as 
willing to be paid in the increased value 
of your land as in money returns, then 
put in the plow eight, ten, or twelve 
inches deep, if you are growing the sta- 
ple products far back in the country, 
and twice those depths if your are grow- 
ing fruits and vegetables near a large 
city. 

The soil of an acre, one foot in depth, 
weighs, in a moist state, all of 2,000 
tons. It costs something to stir, hustle 
about and mix so much soil, but it will 
pay. If you do it in all the cases where 
we have recommended, and abstain in 
all others, we think you will have no- 
thing to regret. 

We have tried to be discriminate and 
to recommend nothing which a young 
farmer, or any other, might not follow 
with safety. 



THE CATTLE OP NEW-ENGLAND. 

The red cattle of New-England came 
over with the emigrants from England 
and Wales, and other countries in Eu- 
rope. 

The first emigrants or settlers in New- 
England came in colonies from tlie dif- 
ferent regions or counties in England — 



134 



AGRICULTURAL 



each emigration generally brought over 
with them their first stock of neat cattle. 
If a Pilgrim or emigrant had a favorite 
cow for milk, butter or cheese, he 
brought along the favorite animal as a 
household god ; and when the governor 
of the clan started with the embarkation, 
he had the best bull of the shire selected 
to perpetuate the stock in the new world. 
Thus a superior stock of cattle, embrac- 
ing the best from all parts of the mother 
country, and containing all the known 
different races, were landed in the New- 
England settlements when they first lo- 
cated. From all these fountains has 
arisen a new and peculiar stock of cattle 
in New-England, unlike any other ever 
known in the old world. The herds of 
New-England show strains from the very 
best stocks from England, Scotland, Ire- 
land and Wales, as well as from Holland 
and the northern and western depart- 
ments of France, and some other coun- 
tries on the continent of Europe. 
Varieties of Cattle in England. 
In England from the earliest times it 
is said that three distinct races of cattle 
were found, and now several other races 
have been brought into the country. 

1. The Long-horns. These were ori- 
ginally from Cumberland, Lancashire, 
Northumberland, and other high regions 
in the north of England. The old Craven 
bull was a type of this stock, and looked 
upon as the best. The race has also 
been spread over Ireland, in Tipperary, 
Limerick, Munster, and other counties. 
The breed has been greatly crossed and 
modified from the original. The first 
races were remarkable for the enormous 
length and bulk of the horns, and were 
large, strong and hardy. The gen- 
eral form rather coarse, limbs large and 
bony. But the cows yielded milk re- 
markable for its richness. 

2. TheDevonshires, Herefords, "Welsh, 
and the Scotch Highland cattle. The 
horns of these cattle are of moderate 
size, fine, well turned, sharp pointed, 
limbs clean, animated countenance. 



figure compact, fatten readily. The 
cows yield rich milk, and are known as 
middle-horned cattle. 

3. The Galloway and Angus ox, which 
were hornless, and are called polled cat- 
tle. The original country of this race is 
situated in the extreme south and western 
part of Scotland, next to the Irish Chan- 
nel. The majority of this race of cattle 
are black, but I have seen some of a 
deep blood bay color. Vast numbers of 
these cattle are driven to Norfolk and 
Suffolk counties in England, and are fed 
for the London market, where they are 
highly esteemed for beef. It is this race 
which has been crossed on the native 
cattle of Norfolk and Suffolk, and have 
produced one of the best stocks in Eng- 
land. A cross breed is of a dun color. 
Another cross seems to have been made 
with the white Chillingham Park cat- 
tle, which are also found in Northumlier- 
land, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Che- 
shire counties. The legs of this cross are 
mottled more or less with black, the roof 
of the mouth and tongue are spotted 
with black. 

4. The Alderney cattle are known to 
be of a French origin, and are not one of 
the original races in England. The is- 
lands on the south of the English Chan- 
nel, next to the coast of France, are 
called Jersey, Geurnsey, and Alderney. 
The Normandy and Alderney cattle 
were at an early day bred in Sussex, 
Hampshire, and other counties in Eng- 
land along the coast opposite to France. 
Inland the stock was much crossed on the 
English races, with theDevons and Here- 
fords most successfully. The Alderneys 
and Norman dys -produce an excellent 
quality of milk, and being crossed with 
the English stock make good milkers 
and oxen, which put on fat readily. 

5. The white Chillingham Park cattle 
are supposed to be an original race in 
England, but this type is found in India 
and in various parts of Europe, and was 
the favorite ox of the ancient Romans, 
even before the days of the C^sars. 



AGRICULTURAL 



135 



These cattle in England were earliest 
known to have existed in Lancastershire ; 
and the waste lands in Craven in York- 
shire were formerly ranges for these 
white cattle, so also the highlands in Eng- 
land, next to the mountains in ^Yales^ 

6. The Durhams and the old Short- 
horns and Yorkshire cattle are said to 
have been imported into England from 
the continent at an early day. These 
cattle have been the stock upon which 
the improved Durhams or Short-horns 
have been raised by a cross on the Red 
Galloways. The Teesvvater cattle in 
Durham and Yorkshire are descendants 
of this stock. They are all known at 
this day as Short-horns. 

Scotch Cattle. 
The Scotch cattle are of a mixed race. 
Many are black and hornless. Some are 
white, which appear to be the same stock 
as those of Chillingham Park in England. 
The mountains of Scotland were origin- 
ally a nursery of a race of black cattle, 
of mild aspect, beautiful symmetry, vig- 
orous, hardy, patient of hunger and cold, 
fattening rapidly, and were closely allied 
to the ancient Welsh cattle. These cat- 
tle are mostly middle-horns, and are 
called Kyoles. They are also found in 
the Hebrides and Western Islands. In 
the Orkney Islands, at the extreme north 
of Scotland, the same race is found, but 
stunted by cold and want of food. In 
Argyle these cattle are, many of them, 
models of beauty, and seem to have ])een 
descendants of the old Caledonia stock, 
which were in early times a mild race. 
In Ayrcshire in Scotland is found the 
Ayrcshire Cow, an admirable breed of 
milkers, as well a good stock for the 
butcher. This is an improved breed, 
and a cross on the Durham or Holderness, 
or perhaps the Alderneys. 

Irish Cattle. 

In the north and middle parts of Ire- 
land the English and Scotch cattle have 
been extensively introduced. But there 
is a native stock found all throuirh the 



southern and western highlands of this 
country. It is a middle-horned stock, 
and better known as the Kerry Cow. 
The animal is generally of small size, 
active and vigorous, of a variety of co- 
lors, some black, red, white, brindle, and 
mottled colors. The cow yields a fair 
proportion of excellent milk, according 
to its size, and fattens quickly. The 
cows when fed prove excellent milkers. 
This breed now partakes of many of the 
traits of the early English cattle, which 
were small, hardy, healthy, good and 
spirited for work. It is now looked 
upon as an inferior breed, as all the or- 
iginal races in England were in the days 
of the Edwards and Henrys. Many of 
these cattle have come into Maine. 

The Holderness cattle are an ancient 
race which existed from very earl}' times 
on the western coast of Europe, extend- 
ing fi-om the Baltic Sea to the confines 
of France. They were celebrated for 
the great quantities of milk which they 
yielded, and some of them had an extra- 
ordinary aptitude to fatten. They were 
introduced into the northern and east- 
ern parts of England at a very early pe- 
riod. 

DuKUAM Oxen and Cows. 

This race of cattle have been called the 
Teeswater cattle, from the river Tees in 
the north of England. The breed were 
brought into the north and eastern parts 
of England before we have any histori- 
cal accounts put on record. The coun- 
ties of York and Durham in England 
were the original location of this breed. 
The old Durhams were said to be slow 
feeders, but since 1801 the race has been 
crossed on the Red Galloway or Scotch 
or polled cattle, and is now called the 
best stock of England. One of these 
oxen weighed 3,780 lbs. live weight, 
and when slaughtered the carcase was 
supposed to weigh 3,180 lbs. ; tliese are 
among the largest cattle now in England. 
The original Durhams were said to have 
been first crossed on the wild white 
breedof cattle of Chillingham Park in the 



13f) 



AGRICULTURAL 



county of Northumberland and in Lan- 
cashire ; also they were formerly much 
crossed with the bulls and cows from 
Holland. At this day the new Durhams 
are a recent and artificial race of cattle, 
with very few of the original types re- 
maining. Holderness is in Yorkshire, 
England, but this section of England 
was foi-merly more mixed with Dutch 
cattle than any other. Great bulls were 
formerly brought over from Holland and 
esteemed the criterion of perfection for 
cattle. These Dutch cattle were used to 
improve the breed of Short-horns com- 
ing down to 1Y90; this was before the 
improved Durham cattle made their ap- 
pearance. The white cattle were known 
in Jutland, Denmark, Hanover, Olen- 
burgh, and Holland, from the earliest pe- 
riods. They are of a Danish stoclc ; the 
Danes ravaged the continent of Europe 
from the Baltic Sea to France for more 
than a hundred years, from A. D. 850 to 
A. D. 950. In A. D. 875 they conquer- 
ed Northumbria in England, which com- 
prised amongst others the countries of 
Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumber- 
land, and held it for nearly 200 years. 
Prior to the year 1235 the Short-horn 
cattle are known to have existed in the 
north of England. The White cattle and 
the Short-horns are believed to have 
come from the continent to England at 
the same time, and this accounts for the 
fact that very many of the Durham cattle 
are almost a, pure loliite ; and the fancy 
race of this day is mottled, red, and white 
in equal portions. 

The Yorkshire Cow. 

The Yorkshire Cow is a native of 
Yorkshire, England, and came from the 
early race of Short-horns. These ani- 
mals are the best milkers known, and 
have given (in rare instances) 36 quarts 
of milk a day ; it is by no means uncom- 
mon for them to give 30 quarts a day. 
This cow is a great favorite ; she yields 
more milk in proportion to the quantity 
of food consumed by her than can be 
found in any other race. This cow oc. 



cupics almost exclusively the best dai- 
ries in England. 

Leicestershike Ox. 

This race are long horned, and are one 
of the earliest races in England — healthy, 
strong, and hardy. 

The Cheshire, Derbyshire, Stafford- 
shire, Oxfoi'dshire, and Wiltshire cattle 
all wear long horns. They are properly 
called the " Long-horned race.'''' West- 
moreland, Cumberland and Lancashire 
in the north-west of England was the na- 
tive land of the long-horns. Bakewell, 
in his time, selected this race to breed 
from, and he succeeded in an eminent 
degree. Bakewell was born at Dishly, 
in Leicestershire, in 1725. 

The Derbyshire and Cheshire cattle, as 
well as the Shropshire cattle, were orig- 
inally long-horned, and by being crossed 
with the original Short-horns, they have 
made a very fine race of cattle — docile 
and giving great quantities of milk. The 
stronghold of the long-horns was in 
Craven in the West Riding of Yorkshire 
and Lancashire and Northumberland, but 
at this day they are not so often seen as 
formerly. From the Highland counties in 
the north of England the race was car- 
ried south towards Wales, and into the 
southern counties in England. 

Sussex Cattle. 

The old Sussex ox is one of the best 
in England. It has always found a rea- 
dy sale in the London market for beef. 
This is a large animal, well formed, with 
a fine head, neck and horns. When 
crossed with the Herefords, produce a 
large, strong ox, vigorous, good and 
obedient workers. The Sussex cow is 
principally kept for breeding. The milk 
is in small quantity, though excellent in 
quality. She is therefore not a favorite 
amongst the dairymen. The males of 
this race are amongst the best for work- 
ing oxen in England and America, and 
the females for breeding. The stock 
are much found also in Kent and Surrey 
counties. Sussex is a county in the ex- 



AGRICULTURAL 



137 



treme south-east part of England on the 
English Channel, bounded west by 
Hampshire county and north by Surrey. 
The prevaiUng color is a blood bay. 
The barrel well formed, capacious, back 
straight, hips wide and well covered, 
and the hide mellow. I have noticed 
many oxen of this tj^pe in New-England ; 
in Connecticut and on Connecticut River 
in Massachusetts. Many of this stock 
were brought into this country by the 
New-IIavcn colony. The original race of 
Sussex appear to have been much allied 
to some types of the Devons, but they 
had not so fine horns, nor were they 
possessed of the agility of the Devons. 
Many of the feeding grounds in Sussex 
are rich marsh lands, but the Devon- 
shire stock are from, mountain districts. 

Cheshire Cattle. 
These cattle are from the extreme 
west of England, near Liverpool. These 
were originally the Long-horned cattle 
from Nor thumb ei'land, crossed on the 
Scotch, Lancashires and other races. 
The stock has been long known as good 
milkers — cows had large udders. The 
belly deep, with prominent milk veins. 
Some of the cows have been known to 
yield 2-4 quarts of milk a day, and 10 
quarts a day during the whole season. 
Cheshire has long been known and re- 
nowned as a dairy county in England. 
There are complaints that the cheese 
in Cheshire is not what it formerly was. 
Indeed, American cheese is now sought 
for and used in the Cheshire hotels. 
The artificial grasses, cabbage and 
Swedish turnips deteriorate the milk, 
and we are sure that this kind of 
food will not compare with the Indian 
meal for fattening beef Tiie English 
beef is spongy, dull flavor, and is for be- 
hind the beef niade from Indian meal, 
both in flavor and substance. It is said 
that the Cheshires cross well on the 
Short-liorns ; but it is doubtful whether 
a total alteration of the old breed is ben- 
eficial. , Inured as it is to the climate 
and pasturage of the native hills, modi- 



fied as it has been by a combination of 
circumstances in such a manner as to 
meet the views of the farmer and dairy- 
man. 

The Welsh Cattle. 

These are said to be from the original 
native breed of cattle which existed in 
the country before the Roman Invasion. 
They are represented at this day by 
what is called the " Pembroke Cattle.'''' 
Great Britain does not produce a more 
useful animal than the Pembroke cow or 
ox. It is black. It is one of the ancient 
stock. 

Glamorgan Cattle. 

These cattle are from the ancient 
Welsh cattle. They have a great apti- 
tude to fotten. They are stout and ac- 
tive, strong for husbandry, and seem to 
be closely allied in their habits to the 
Devons. 

Devon Cattle. 

The Devons prevail in the south and 
south - western counties of England. 
They arc a deep red color, beautiful in 
the highest degree, in activity for work 
and aptitude to fatten altogether une- 
qualed. Great numbers of these cattle 
were shipped by the Pilgrims from Ply- 
mouth, Bristolj and other ports in the 
south of England, to Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, Boston Harbor, Martha's Vine- 
yard, to Rhode Island, the mouth of 
Connecticut River, and to Mil ford, Con- 
necticut, and the mouth of the Ilousa- 
tonic. With the Devons came also the 
Herefords, which are usually of a darker 
red than the Devons. There came also 
to New-England formerly Sussex cattle, 
as well as the N'orfolh and Suffolk races. 
They were originallj'' a middle-horned ox. 
Many of the first settlers in New-Eng- 
land brought their cattle from Surrey 
and Kent counties, situated soutli and 
east of London, and from Southampton ; 
along with these came many of the Al- 
derney cattle. At a later day cattle came 
into New-England from Colcraine and 
Belfast in Ireland. Tiio west highland 
oxen came in along with these, the Gal- 



138 



AGRICULTURAL. 



loways and the Ayrshires. At the pre- 
sent time the New-England cattle are a 
mixture of mixtures. In 230 years they 
have become an entire new race, in an- 
other country, in another climate, in an- 
other field of vegetation — strong, hardy 
and healthy in a remarkable degree. I 
never knew one of them to die of catarrh, 
consumption or gout. The per centage 
of mort Jity is less among the New- 
England cattle than among any other 
race. 

The Leicesters7iii-e cattle were brought 
into Massachusetts in 1629 by Francis 
Higginson, Esq., who brought one hun- 
dred and fifteen head of neat cattle. In 
1626 a bull and twelve cows were sent 
from England. These were supposed to 
come from Wiltshire to Cape Ann. In 
1625 the Dutch West India Company 
imported from Holland into New- York 
one hundred a'ld three animals, with 
horses and swine for breeding. 

The east end of Long Island, includ- 
ing the county of Suffolk to Hempstead, 
was first settled by people from Boston 
in Massachusetts ; they brought in the 
New-England cattle with them. The 
town of East Hampton was first settled 
in 1649 by about 30 fiimilies from Lynn, 
Massachusetts. The town of Hunting- 
ton was settled by a colony from New- 
Haven in 1646. Smithtown was first 
settled in 1641 ; the people first came to 
Boston, and were originally from Glou- 
cestershire in the south of England. 
Southampton was settled in 1640 by 
about 40 families from Lynn, Massachu- 
setts ; these people originally came from 
Southampton in England. Fishers'' Island 
and Plum Island were settled with people 
originally from Hingham, Norfolk coun- 
ty, England. They came in by the way of 
New- Haven. This colony came from 
near 100 miles north-east of London, not 
far from Lynn on the sea coast. The 
first neat cattle brought into Massachu- 
setts was by Edward Winslow, who 
came in the ship " Charity" from Ply- 
mouth. He brought a bull and three 



heifers; this was in 1624. Probably 
these were of the Devon stock. 

The people who first settled Salem, 
which was in the year 1625, came from 
Dorchester in the county of Dorsetshire, 
England, which is in the south-west of 
England. Another colony in 1629 came 
from Leicestershire in England, bring- 
ing with them 115 head of neat cattle, 
said to be mostly Leicestershire stock. 
Hence we find in the early settlement of 
Salem and the adjacent towns races of 
Devons and Leicestershire cattle. The 
inhabitants of the town of Rowley are 
descendants of YorTcshire colonists. 
They came in first from England in 1638, 
bringing with them the old YovTcsMre 
and the old Short-horns, and some of the 
white Chillingham Park cattle, while the 
inhabitants o"f Newbury, Massachusetts, 
in the same county of Essex, came from 
the county of Berkshire in England. 
This is one of the middle counties in 
England. This settlement was made in 
1634. The race of cattle here are the 
middle-horns. The people in Bristol 
county, Massachusetts, as well as those 
in Rhode Island and the Eastern part of 
Connecticut, many of them came from 
Bristol, England, and from Wales. 
Swansea was at one time a great port of 
embarkation, as well as the whole of the 
country round the Bristol Channel. The 
Black Welsh cattle and the Pembrokes, 
Glanm organs and the Anglesey ox, and 
the Devons, seem to have come into 
Rhode Island, the eastern part of Con- 
necticut, and the southern part of Mas- 
sachusetts. The Devons, however, were 
the ftivorite stock. They soon reached 
Worcester county and the central part 
of Massachusetts. 

The town of Hingham in Norfolk 
county, Massachusetts, was first settled 
hj a colony from old Hingham in Nor- 
folk county, England, in 1632. These 
people brought their cattle with them, 
which were the middle-horn cattle. 
Some of the towns in Norfolk county 
were first settled from Devonshire dnd 



AGRICULTURAL. 



139 



Plymouth. Many families came by the 
yrny of the Bristol Channel. Braintrec 
was settled from Devonshire. The great- 
grandfather of John Adams, President 
of the United States, came, as he said, 
from " TnE Dragon Persecution m De- 
VONSHIKE," to New-England. 

The counties of Suffolk, Norfolk and 
others on the eastern coast of England, 
in that day was possessed of a race of 
cattle known as the " SuffolTc Dini,^^ a 
middle-horned cattle. The cow was very 
much sought for on account of the ex- 
traordinary quantity of milk which she 
yielded. This cow was celebrated for 
her milk in almost every part of Eng- 
land. Many of this race of cattle were 
brought into the counties of Middlesex, 
Norfolk, and Essex in New-England, and 
were preserved as gi'eat milkers by the 
dairymen. 

This stock has spread its progeny very 
much over the southern part of Massa- 
chusetts and New-Hampshire and Maine, 
but it has been crossed by the long- 
hon^-1 and the Yorkshire types. 

Tliese cattle in the counties of Norfolk 
and Suffolk in England have been a good 
deal crossed out by the Galloways, and 
are looked upon as furnishing a new 
stock. The new race are now polled 
cattle. The colors are red, red and 
white, brindled and a yellowish cream 
color. The Suffolk cow is not inferior 
to any other breed in the quantity of 
milk that she yields. 

The cream colored cattle are also 
found in Maine. They generally ex- 
cel both for milk and beef The yellow 
cattle arc good workers, quick for the 
plow and cart. 

The first white inhabitants of Lynn, 
Massachusetts, came from Lincolnshire 
and bi'ought cattle with them. Here we 
find representatives of the old Lincoln- 
shire ox, with a cross of the earlj' Short- 
horns. The first colony came in 1G29 ; 
they were farmers ; but one of the most 
prominent men amongst them was Ed- 
ward Ingalls, who was a tanner. He 



erected a tannery, and from that day to 
this Lynn has been noted for its .shoe 
and leather trade. In 1G37 another col- 
ony came from the town of Lynn in Nor- 
folk county, England. They were also 
principally farmers, possessed a large 
stock of horned cattle, which they kept 
in one herd, and had a man to keep 
them. These people cut their grass in 
the meadows and marshes, which proved 
very serviceable to feed their cattle on. 
There were more farmers in Lynn, Mas- 
sachusetts, at that time than in an}'' other 
of the early settlements. Their grain 
was Indian corn. One of the historians 
of that period says, " Let no man make 
a jest of pumpkins, for with this food 
the Lord was pleased to feed his ])cople 
to their good content, tilt corn and cattle 
were increased." 

At this day the middle-horned cattle 
mostly prevail in New-England, but 
there still remain strains of the long- 
horns, as well as the short-horns. The 
Anglesey ox is also frequently repre- 
sented. 

In the year 1638 the New-Haven 
colony was planted. They first came from 
London after having sojourned at Ly- 
den in Holland. The inhabitants of 
Milford and Guilford, and other towns in 
New-Haven county, came out the 3'ear 
following from K(int and Surrey, bring- 
ing cattle with them ; but very many of 
the inhabitants of Connecticut came by 
the way of the Bristol Channel, bringing 
with them the Devon cattle in great 
numbers, also the Sussex and Herefords ; 
but there are more pure Devons in Con- 
necticut than in any other part of New- 
England. An early writer says, " that 
the first planters in New-England were 
plain men, bred to tillage and keeping 
cattle ; that a great deal of the same 
spirit has ever remained among these "" 
people." There is, says this wiiter, "A 
certain niceness and delicacy which still 
continues amongst their posterity where- 
in the perfection of husbandry consists." 
These remarks will apply to the present 



140 



AGRICULTURAL 



inhabitants of New-England with many 
addititional favorable items. In 1635 
the first colony from Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, camo across the country to 
Windsor, on Connecticut River. They 
brought a drove of cattle and other do- 
mestic animals with them. Before they 
got over the Connecticut River the win- 
ter set in ; the cattle lived in the woods 
and on the meadows without shelter. 
These fed as well as those which were 
housed, but many cattle perished during 
that winter. The Dorchester people 
who made up a part of the colony lost 
£200 worth of stock. The next spring 
came many settlers to Windsor, Hart- 
ford, Wethersfield, Farmington, and the 
towns along the river, from the Ply- 
mouth colony,' bringing great numbers 
of cattle with them. The first inhabi- 
tants of Dorchester, Massachusetts, came 
chiefly from Devon, Dorset and Somerset- 
shire in the extreme southern and west- 
ern part of England, bringing with them 
their cattle. These were the Devons 
and Alderneys; but the Devons were 
the prevailing stock. 

In 1636, Messrs. Hooker and Stone 
started from Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
with a colony for Connecticut River ; 
the company consisted of 160 persons, 
men, women and children ; they brought 
with them 160 head of neat cattle — the 
cattle fed upon the buds, leaves, and 
grass found on the way, the people sub- 
sisted on the milk of their cows. This 
colony came to Hartford — they passed 
over mountains, through swamps, thick- 
ets and rivers, they slept on the ground, 
with nothing to cover them by night but 
the heavens, and passed through track- 
less forests, overhung with high and 
thick branches and green leaves, with 
grape vines which canopied the whole, 
extending from tree to tree, fragrant 
xdth fiotcers. Mrs. Hooker was sick, and 
was borne through the wilderness upon a 
sedan chair, made by fastening two poles 
on the outside of two horses, one horse 
being placed ahead of the other with a 



chair between the two ; the horses were 
each guided by two men, and a boy on 
the back of each animal. They all came 
safe; but the planters in Connecticut had 
but few working oxen or instruments 
adapted to husbandry when they first 
landed in the wilderness. The deep red 
color was a favorite in early times for 
cattle, and they were very much brought 
to New-England. The Hcrefords formed 
a very fine breed for fattening. Many 
of them were a deep red, with not a 
white spot on them — the cows were said 
to have been excellent milkers, some of 
them yielding 17 lbs. of butter a week. 
The Devons were better adapted to this 
country than most of the other races — 
they were full of activity, healthy, full 
of spirit and courage, broad foreheads, 
clean limbs, with a pleasing vivacity of 
countenance, full of agility, sui'e footed, 
capable of traveling at a high speed, 
with a disposition to fatten unequaled 
by most other races. Coining from a 
mountain country in England and Wales, 
the breed suited the soil and climate of 
New-England ; they readily acclimated. 
These cattle are quick and honest at work, 
docile, and not inferior milkers. The 
race of pure red cattle, however, seemed 
to prevail more in Connecticut than in 
any other of the New-England States. 
The middle part of Connecticut is now 
distinguished for a fine breed of improv- 
ed Devons. Such a great variety of races 
being introduced into the country at its 
early settlement, many of the original 
stocks have been crossed out, forming 
an entire new race, superior to the ani- 
mals of any other country. I have seen 
the Leicester and the Irish lopped horns 
— the Galloway ox with its progeny, 
mixed with cattle from Suffolk and Nor- 
folk counties, England — the Shropshire, 
the Derbyshires and manj' others of 
the long-horned race. These occasion- 
ally show strains with an enormous 
growth of horns. The Yorkshire cattle 
in New-England have undoubtedly been 
the stock from which the best milkers 



AGRICULTURAL. 



141 



are obtained. I have seen a small herd 
of cattle, mostly red with a small band 
of white around the middle. My brotlier, 
now living in Hampshire county, Massa- 
chusetts, is working almost the best pair 
of cattle I ever saw ; they are a white, 
with every mark of having descended 
from a cross on the Chillingham Park 
Cattle ; black noses and black inside of 
the ears. Many of these crosses of color 
arc found in Maine, and north New-Eng- 
land, and put on an orange or cream 
color. 

After the Battle of Bunkcrhill, in 
1775, seventy-five patriots at Farming- 
ton, Connecticut, started for Boston, 110 
miles distant. They took an ox team and 
cart loaded with salt provisions, peas, 
bread, camp utensils, with a puncheon 
of rum to cheer on the soldiers and to 
wash their sore feet. They came to 
Roxbury in nine to ten days — the oxen 
stood travel better than the men. 

In 1778, the inhabitants of Durham, in 
Connecticut, sent to General Washing- 
ton, at Valley Forge, two oxen, driven 
almost 500 miles through the countr}'-, 
greatly exhausted of its forage. These 
cattle furni.shed a dinner for the oflBcers 
and soldiers of the American army. One 
of them, a steer, five years old, weighed 
when slaughtered 2,270 lbs. 

The Welsh cattle seem to have been 
very much crossed out in New-Eugland. 
The Reverend Mr. Buckley, of the town 
of Colchester, Connecticut, presided over 
the church of that town from 1703 to 
1731. A church in a neighboring town 
was much afflicted by dissensions ; they 
applied to Parson Buckley for advice ; 
he wrote them an affectionate letter, told 
them to heal all their dissensions, and | 
live in peace ; but while the parson was 
writing the letter to the church he found 
he had to write one also to his tenant, 
who occupied one of his farms in another 
part of the town, lie sealed his letters, 
and in superscribing them, the one for 
the church was directed to the tenant, 
and the one for the tenant to the church. 



The afflicted church convened to hear 
the letter from Parson Buckley read, 
which was to heal all their difficulties. 
In due form the Moderator broke open 
the letter in the presence of his assem- 
bled brethren, and read as follows : 

"You will see to the repair of the 
fences, that they be built high and strong, 
and you will take special care of the old 
hlach hulV 

This letter was deemed mystical. One 
of the elder brethren got up and said, 
this is just the advice we need. The old 
Hack lull is the Devil, and we must 
watch him thoroughly. The fences must 
be built high and strong to keep out all 
strange cattle off our fold. Go home said 
the elder, obey your Divine Master. The 
meeting was forthwith adjourned, the 
people departed, the animosities .subsi- 
ded, harmony was restored to the afflict- 
ed church. 

We are of the opinion that the old 
lilach Inll, was one of the black native 
stock of "Wales. Indeed a person travel- 
ing through New-England will see indi- 
vidual cattle which strongly represents 
every type found in England or along 
the western coast of Europe. 

Some of the people called the Puri- 
tans originated in the north of England 
and the south-cast part of Scotland. In 
the year 1607, some of them were driven 
from the north of England — they first 
settled in Amsterdam ; two years after- 
wards they went to Lyden, where the 
colony increased with numbers from 
London and the South of England, and 
remained until IG-IO. In 1621, the first 
colony came to Plymouth, ^lassachusetts ; 
these were a portion of the Lydcn con- 
gregation, alid other portions of the con- 
gregation afterwards came to Massachu- 
setts; finally the last portion of them 
came to New-Haven in 1637 to 1640. On 
the 3d of November, 1620, King James 
signed a patent incorporating tlie Duke 
of Lenno.x, Sir Ferdinand Gorges, and 
thirty-eight others, styling them the 
" Council established at Plymouth, in 



142 



AGRICULTURAL 



the County of Devon, in England, for 
planting, ruling^ ordering and govern- 
ing of ITeio-England, in Amerieay 
This company granted New-Hampshire 
to Captain John Mason, and the Province 
of Maine to Gorges. The first perma- 
nent settlements in Maine were begun in 
the year IBOY, in the extreme south- 
western part of the State, next to New- 
Hampshire. The colony of Maine, was 
originally a grant from the Plymouth 
Council in Devonshire, England. The 
colony remained under the Plymouth 
Company till 1677, M'hen it was sold to 
the Massachusetts colony, and remained 
under Massachusetts government till 
1820. 

In 1622, Mason went to New-Hamp- 
shire, and a son of Gorges to Maine, 
as governor. Mason established himself 
at Portsmouth, and Gorges made settle- 
ments at various places along the coast, 
to Machias. Governor Mason imported 
a large breed of cattle from Denmark, 
and when he died some of his stock were 
carried to Penobseot, and some to Nova 
Scotia. In 1658 Fi-ancis Norton drove 
100 oxen, a part of Mason's herd, from 
New-Hampshire to Boston, and sold 
them for 125 dollars per head. This was 
the current price for the best cattle 
in New-England at that time. New- 
Hampshire remained, with but few inter- 
vals, under the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts till 1749, more than 100 years, 
when the two colonies were separated. 
Gorges had been an officer in the British 
navy, under Queen Elizabeth, and 
James, in 1604, appointed him Governor 
of the island of Plymouth, in England. 
Mason had been a merchant in London, 
but became a sea officer. The first 
people to settle in New-Hampshire came 
from London, Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, 
Shrewsbury and Gloucester, and was 
called the Company of Laconia in Eng- 
land. 

In 1623 Daniel Thompson, a Scotch- 
man, and Edmond and William Horton, 
fishmongers in London, came over with 



a colony furnished with all the necessa- 
ries to carry on their design in forming 
settlements in the country. Some of 
the earliest settlers were of good estates ; 
some of great account in religion. 

In 1638 a company came from Norfolk, 
England, and settled Hampton, New- 
Hampshire. The Norfolk and Suffolk 
dun cattle were brought into New-Hamp- 
shire and Maine at an early date of their 
history. 

Mount Desert Island, in the county 
of Hancock, State of Maine, as well as 
many other islands about the mouth of 
the Penobscot river and on the coast, 
were formerly much settled with French 
colonists, who came from St. Malais and 
other parts on the north of France, bring- 
ing with them the French cattle. Many 
fishing vessels came from Marseilles in 
the Mediterranean Sea. The race of Hu- 
guenots afterwards came into Maine in 
great numbers. It is said that Talleyrand, 
the great French minister under Bona- 
parte, was born of a Quaker mother on 
the Penobscot liver. The cattle of 
northern and western France were ori- 
ginally well represented in many parts 
of Maine, as well as the western Highland 
cattle of Scotland. The fishermen of the 
west coasts of Ireland and Scotland were 
for a long time engaged in the fish trade 
of Maine. The New-Hampshire und 
Maine colonies started with the liest of 
stocks of cattle from Norfolk, Leicester- 
shire and Devonshire, England, and after- 
wards obtained herds from the Massa- 
chusetts colony, which first stai-ted at 
Salem, with cattle from Norfolk, Leices- 
tershire, and Yorkshire, and other parts 
of England. The Puritans were well 
acquainted with the value of the short- 
horns ; and the Yorkshire and ti'e old 
Norfolk dun cattle, were all great milk- 
ers. 

Large numbers of these cattle have 
been at various times brought into New- 
Eno-land. The Yorkshire and the Nor- 
folk and Devon types are found scattered 
over the best dairy districts in north 



AGRICULTURAL. 



148 



New-England, and our best milkers re- 
tain many of the Norfolk and Yorkshire 
forms of the original animals. These 
have been crossed with the Devonshire 
stock. A large portion of the cattle in 
Maine are descendants of the Yorkshire, 
Leicestershire, Norfolk, and Devonshire 
races. 

The working oxen in iLiine arc mostly 
red, with a strong cross of the Devons, 
and Yorkshires, and Leicestershire, and 
Scotch cattle. The lumlering huniness 
has trained up a race of oxen, possess- 
ing all and more than the original agility 
and flcetness and intelligence of the De- 
vons ; while the carcase has been improv- 
ed to a groat size and strength, both for 
work and for beef. The whole race of 
mountain cattle in New-England, is vastly 
superior to the original stocks of the old 
world. There are no dairy regions so 
good as those on the highlands of New- 
England and the State of New- York, 
where the pastures are full of red and 
white clover. 

Tlie (ialloway cattle arc now a horn- 
less race, but formerly were a middle- 
horned animal. They have lost their 
horns by debility or deterioration. New 
pastures — the buds and flowers of the 
grasses, shrubs and trees — yield the 
phosiihate of lime and ammonia abun- 
dantly, which are necessary' to form 
the bones and horns of cattle, and to 
give them a large, healthy and strong 
carcase. Old pastures and feeding 
grounds soon become cxlkaustcd of am- 
monia and phosphate of lime; hence the 
horns of cattle pastured on such soils 
become small and feeble; the horns fall 
off or do not show themselves; the ani- 
mal loses its health and hardiness, and 
docs not make a large, strong and 
healthy racp. This is the case with the 
Galloways and polled cattle in England. 
Those cattle can never equal the long- 
horned races for beef, milk, or work, and 
are not much grown or cultivated in 
New-England. 

The long-horns of Cumberland, "VVilt- 



shire,Lancashire, were originally brought 
into New-England, and from these 
strains the long-horn cattle show them- 
selves. These cattle })eing crossed on the 
north of England cattle, generally pro- 
duce the '■'■ middle-Tiornii^" which pre- 
vail in north New-England. 

In passing through New-England, a 
person can not but observe fine speci- 
mens of every tj'pe of cattle known in 
the west of Europe, and occasionally he 
will see oxen with horns of enormous 
length. 

The domestic ox, as well as the origi- 
nal wil 1 ox, ai'e naturally a mountain 
animal — they seek highlands ; tlie}'^ like 
the clear, cool air and pure spring water. 
When turned into a pasture to graze 
they go to the top of the hills, and at 
night select a little valley sheltered from 
the winds to herd themselves. The best 
butter, milk and cheese, and the sweet- 
est beef come from the mountain ranges. 
There are no cattle that a man can own 
to so good advantage as the New-Eng- 
land mountain cattle. A feeder can make 
more beef out of them according to his 
outlay, than from the best foreign 
stocks. When we import cattle we 
throw away our money, except when we 
import bulls into the country to cross on 
our native cow. The cattle from the old 
world have not constitutions adapted to 
our climate. Our native cattle have 
been acclimated for two hundred and 
twenty years. The cattle of Europe lose 
caste by importation ; they can not stand 
the extreme climate of winter and sum- 
mer. 

In the winter of 1799 the cold in New- 
England was excessive. During the 
preceding summer, from the 28th July 
to the Lst September the heat was in- 
tense, the mercury was from 8G° to 93°; 
vegetation failed, drought was excessive, 
many trees shed their leaves in August, 
and many cattle perished in the cold win- 
ter following for want of food. 

The town of Goshen, in Iiitchfield 
county, Connecticut, is on the most ele- 



144 



AGRICULTURAL. 



vated land in the State. This and the 
adjacent towns is one of the best tracts 
for the dairying business. Cheese and 
butter are made here in lai'ge quantities, 
the fame of which is widely and justly 
celebrated. We are all familiar with 
the butter and cheese brought from Jef- 
ferson, St. Lawrence, Herkimer, Dela- 
ware, Sullivan, Orange, and other 
mountainous counties in the State of 
New- York. This butter and cheese is 
equal to any in the world, but no better 
tlian that made in New-England. 

The cattle in New-England are well 
housed, especially in the winter. They 
are more docile than the original herds 
from Europe, healthy, hardy, and many 
of them are of a very large size, full of 
agility, and put on fat very fast when at 
the summer pastures or fed in the stalls. 
Many of the cows are excellent milkers ; 
some of the best progeny of the York- 
shires yielding in many instances from 
from twenty to thirty-four quarts a day. 
The New-England oxen are great travel- 
ers on the road. Wherever the New- 
England people have emigrated to, 
they take their cattle with them. The 
cattle which make up the trains for Cal- 
ifornia are mostly descendants of the 
New-England stock. Their ability to 
travel and endure privations render them 
almost invaluable. The largest cattle in 
En"-land weigh no more than 3,180 lbs. 
per carcase ; while some of the largest 
carcases of the New-England cattle have 
weighed from 8,500 to 3,600 lbs. after 
being slaughtered. Indeed, there are 
no better cattle for milking, fattening 
and work. The grazier, the feeder, 
and the butcher and dairy-man can 
find no better stock. The health of the 
New-England cattle is exceedingly good ; 
their horns and bones are strong, the 
horns set strong and well on the 
head. The true blooded Devons, Sussex- 
es and Hercfords are better preserved in 
the State of Connecticut than any other 
part of New-England, indicating that 
these were the original favorites. 



If our people bestowed half of the 
pains in breeding our native cattle, that 
the English do, we would have a far su- 
perior race to any in the old world. The 
following are some of the qualities of the 
New-England cattle. 

First. — They are very hardy, free 
from disease and epidemics of every 
kind in a remarkable degree ; with less 
nxortality than occurs to stock in the 
old world. 

Second. — The cows are more prolific 
in healthy progeny than any other class 
of cattle known. 

Third. — The geldings and bulls when 
put under the yoke will perform more 
labor by the day, and continue labor for 
a greater length of time, and keep in bet- 
ter condition, than any other stock of 
cattle. 

Fourtli. — These cattle have more agil- 
ity, more strength, more size, and will 
work better with the plow, harrow, or 
cart, than any other race of cattle of 
their cost and expense of keeping. 

Fifth. — The bulls and geldings travel 
well with large loads. The geldings are 
strong, patient, steady, and honest to a 
remarkable degree. It seldom requires 
more than the plowman to drive and 
govern his team. 

Sixth. — When fed they put on fat 
speedily. Their beef is of the sweetest 
and healthiest kind, juicy and marbled, 
and flavored better than any found 
abroad. 

Seventh. — ^The cows are the best of 
milkers, acclimated for 220 years, and 
the breed have been thoroughly crossed. 
The breed now is found suitable both to 
the soil and the climate — qualities de- 
manded by all stock growers. 

Eighth. — A breeder can make more 
money by the native stock to breed up- 
on, according to the expense or capital, 
than from any other known race. They 
are profitable alike to the graziers, the 
breeders, and the butchers. 

Ninth. — The flesh and beef, when kill- 
ed, is of the best flavor, easily cured for 



AGRICULTURAL. 



145 



barreling, and can be preserved with 
little care and skill, without much ex- 
pense. These cattle arc good and heal- 
thy feeders, and there is a greater yield 
of milk and butter from them than from 
any we have seen of the foreign cattle. 

Tenth. — The quantity of milk which 
cows give when running on pastures 
during the spring and summer, must 
vary to a considerable degree, according 
to the feed and milking qualities of each 
animal. Fair cows, fed on a new pas- 
ture, and a small supply of Indian meal, 
will produce from 10 to 24 quarts of 
milk per day. Many of the New-Eng- 
land cows put on the lineal Yorkshire 
type, with large udders, fine teats, clean 
head, shortish necks, deep chests, large 
carcases, straight backs, full thighs, 
strong legs, yielding from 20 to 30 
quarts of milk per day. The best milker 
in England is said to have given 36 
quarts per day, yielding 372 lbs. of but- 
ter in 32 weeks, averaging 20 quarts per 
day for 20 weeks. Some of the cows 
from the mountains in New- York and 
New-England, have done equal to this. 
But then a cow must be in thorough 
health, full grown, of a large size, fed on 
a new pasture, and with Indian meal, to 
enable her to come up to this point. 

Until within the last 300 years, the 
cattle in England were small, generally 
not well fed or housed in winter, fur- 
nishing but little good and fat beef When 
the stock was transferred to New-Eng. 
land it improved wonderfully in size and 
quality. 

The fresh, clover pastures, fine hay, 
grown on the newly cleared lands, the 
Indian meal, all made a feeding to which 
the cattle in the old world were stran- 
gers. The hills and mountains in New- 
England yield the richest pastures of any 
in the world, while the thousands of val- 
leys along the rivers and streams yield 
hay and Indian corn uncqualed in quan- 
tity and excellence of kind. It is on 
this keeping the New-England cattle are 
fed and fattened, and it is this keeping 
10 



and feeding which has given them their 
superior characters for beef and milk, 
uncqualed by anything of the kind 
found in the old world. 

The cold, damp climate of England 
and Scotland is not so favorable to stock 
as the pure, dryer air, clear skies, and 
summer vegetation of the New "World. 
The snow in New-England commences 
to fall the first • of December, and con- 
tinues to the 20th March, generally. It 
is dry and mealy, the climate is cool, dry 
and bracing, seldom damp and chilly. 
The mountains and hills furnish pas- 
tures for cattle, such as are unknown to 
the Old World. 

Cattle bred here grow to the largest 
size, their lungs and chest become ex- 
panded, their bones and muscles strong, 
the barrel of the carcase large, full and 
round. The geldings have borne the 
yoke in their youth, and have experienc- 
ed the good effects of it. Hence the 
working oxen are stronger, larger and 
better than any other, and make the best 
of beef when fattened. 

The States of Maine, New-Hampshire, 
and Vermont have as fine animals as any 
other. Their stock originally came in 
fi-om Plymouth, Bristol, Norfolk, Cum- 
berland, Yorkshire, Denmark and Scot- 
land, and from New-England. 

Many of the French cattle, the Scotch 
cattle, the English cattle, and the Irish 
cattle have been introduced into Maine. 

The Massachusetts colony began at 
Salem in 1621, and continued till 1692. 
They brought along with them the 
"Yorkshire," the early "Short-horns," 
the "Lincolnshires," the " Norfolks," 
the "Suffolk Duns," the "Leicester- 
shires," the " Devons," and the " Welsh 
Cattmj." 

Many settlements were made in New- 
Hampsliire and Maine, from the Massa- 
chusetts colony and the towns on the 
Merrimack river. 

The first grant of a patent of Maine 
extended from latitude 40" to 48" clear 
to the bay of Chalcur in Canada, and 



146 



AGRICULTURAL. 



from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. 
The grantees subsequently united mer- 
chants with them from London, Bristol, 
Exeter, Plymouth, Shrewsbury, and 
Dorchester, England. 

A great many ships came out to Maine 
in the spring, year after year, bringing 
from various ports in France, England, 
Scotland and Ireland, more or less emi- 
grants and cattle, and taking back a cargo 
of" fish in the fall and winter. These 
ships would introduce cattle from almost 
every seaport in the realm. Thus we find 
the cattle of New-Hampshire and Maine 
a more thoroughly mixed race than 
those of any other part of New-England. 
They are the best of oxen for heavy 
work, and when fed well, for beef 

BREEDING CATTLE. 

Ln order to do this with success, the 
parents should be full-grown, selected 
of a good size, from 4 to 10 years of age, 
living in a healthy country. A hilly 
country is much the best ; neither the 
bull nor the cow should be stabled, nor 
be ringed. Both bull and cow should 
run at large, the bulls be accustomed to 
the yoke while they are calves, and kept 
fairly and moderately to work under the 
yoke in the open air, fed on fresh grass, 
hay, Indian meal, with boiled turnips, 
potatoes or carrots — stabled only during 
the winter. These bulls make the best 
working teams ; strong, full of enterprise 
and courage — will plow deep furrows, 
draw heavy logs, cart good loads, make 
heavy stone wall. Indeed a breeding 
bull ought to be a working bull, and then 
they never' have the catarrh, consump- 
tion or gout to afflict them, or to render 
their progeny feeble or sickly. The 
calves should come in the month of Feb- 
ruary and on to May. They should take 
the whole milk of the mother the first 6 
to 12 months, constantly handled to keep 
them docile. They will gradually wean 
themselves when their teeth and sto- 
mach become adapted to other food. Af- 
t«r the first 3 months a calf ought to run 
in the pasture. When they begin to 



wean they should be fed with fine hay, 
fresh grass, and a small quantity of In- 
dian meal. In the winter the cow is fre- 
quently injured by drinking cold water. 
It produces constipation of the bowels, 
and cholic. Two pailsful of warm water, 
with a half peck of rye or wheat bran 
during the day will keep the bowels free 
and open. I have known cows dried up 
by drinking cold water immediately after 
calving, with violent symptoms of in- 
flammatory fever. In the winter season 
the cow had better drink warm water 
from the temperature of 55° to 64°, 
kept in clean, warm, and well-ventilated 
stables. The calf needs a warm stable, 
with straw or chaif to lie on. The food 
must be upland hay. Cattle never do 
well on wet, swampy land, nor will they 
feed to advantage on hay grown in 
mai'shes, nor put on flesh when they lie 
down in damp, cold places. Nor can cat- 
tle be fattened in the winter in the north- 
ern climates, without warm and dry 
stables, and a full supply of food of the 
best kind. 

The cow should never be milked or 
suckled during gestation. All the milk 
di'awn from the cow at this period of 
time is furnished at the expense of the 
growing foetus. Hence the calves of 
the great milkers are generally feeble, 
poor and bad milkers. The first-born 
calves are the best. Primogeniture in 
raising stock is a law that works well. 

The farmers of New-England have 
much neglected the breeding of stock. 
They do not seem to realize that they 
have the best stock in the world to im- 
prove on. It took all the best people 
out of the four kingdoms of the mother 
country to produce the institutions of 
NewEngland. The cattle came along with 
the first settlers, and the cattle were the 
best that the old world afibrded. The 
number of milch cows in Maine by the 
last census were 133,556 ; working oxen, 
83,893 ; other cattle, 125,890. While 
the butter made yearly is 9,243,811 
lbs. ; cheese, 2,434,454 lbs. The town of 



AGRICULTURAL. 



HI 



Bangor on the Penobscot river sawed 
and exported in 1850, 200,000,000 feet 
of lumber. Vermont had by the same 
census, cows, 146,128 ; oxen, 58,577 ; 
other cattle, 154,143 ; Massachusetts, 
milch cows, 130,099 ; oxen, 46,611 ; oth- 
er cattle, 83,284 ; Connecticut, cows, 
97,277;- oxen, 59,027; other cattle, 
114,606. 

Foreign cattle are not suited to the 
New-England climate, and when intro- 
duced lose caste. When brought into 
the country they are much like foreign 
trees and grape vines. 

Alanson Nash, 
36 Beekman St. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

SOME OF THE EVILS OF A SU- 
PERABUNDANCE OF LAND. 

Mr. Editor : — Among the many use- 
ful topics introduced into your magazine 
to interest and employ the thoughts of 
your readers, will it not be seasonable 
and to the purpose that some should 
have their attention called, for a moment, 
to an inquiry into the economy of duly 
proportioning the extent of forms to the 
ability of their occupants to put them 
to the best possible use? Are there 
none within the reach of your journal 
who are infected, to some extent, with 
that insane appetite which has inflicted 
ruin on many, and has been the bane of 
multitudes, of multiplying the number of 
their acres beyond the capacity or means 
they have for rendering them valuable ? 

Has not the proper time at length ar- 
rived for reminding such, they being ac- 
tual incumbents of the soil, that the land 
justly belongs to those only who can ap- 
preciate the obligation they are under, 
to use what has fallen to thena and come 
under their supervision, so as to carry 
forward and ultimately accomplish the 
design of the Creator in the bestowment 
of such an inheritance ? It is not suffi- 
cient that there is enough for all, unless 
each one, in the general partition, can be 
allowed to take and enjoy his rightful 



share. It was never intended by the 
great Father of the human family, in 
making provision for them out of his 
ample domain, to coimtenance invidious 
distinctions by allowing some to engross 
that they may waste what others need, 
so that the supply should not be equable 
and impartial. Though the abundance 
be ever so unlimited and overflowing, 
yet this is no valid plea in extenuation 
of prodigality in any quarter. When a 
miracle had fed thousands from a few 
small loaves and a residue had been left 
after they had eaten to their fill, yet the 
fragments were not to be thrown away. 
So the ground we inclose for ourselves, 
to have it under our own eye and sub- 
ject to our own particular and exclusive 
management, should be made to produce 
all for which it is available, or which our 
best industry and skill can elaborate from 
it. When it is otherwise, do not manifest 
evils and egregious wrongs show them- 
selves as the effect of miscalculation or 
misarrangement in the conduct of af- 
fairs ? 

Let us look into this matter a little, 
and inquire if something can not be done 
to put things in a better condition, that 
we may realize more from the exertions 
and expenditures we employ, and that 
others, the community to which we be- 
long, may reap benefit from the better 
course we are induced to take. 

Modern experiments in agriculture 
have abundantly demonstrated the good 
effects of labor judiciou.sly bestowed on 
small parcels of ground in the produc- 
tion of returns vastly beyond what has 
been usual, in times past, under other 
systems of cultivation, requiring large 
tracts for the attainment of small crops. 
Now, what does this prove, but that 
more land has heretofore, and is still, 
put under tillage than is necessary for a 
given amount of produce, and that a lit- 
tle land made fertile by the skilful hand 
of tillage, is of more value than a much 
larger quantity put to use with inferior 
results V Are there not then evils to be 



148 



AGRICULTURAL. 



deplored which must inevitably attend 
the practice of making farms consist of 
more land than can be worked, so as to 
insure proceeds in some approximation 
at least, to the susceptibilities which na- 
ture has given them ? 

One obvious evil is, that a great 
amount of time and labor, together with 
other domestic comforts and enjoyments, 
is wasted, thrown to the winds, and ac- 
counted as nothing. And who is dis- 
posed so to undervalue life, vigor, ease, 
leisure, abstinence from perplexing care, 
and the satisfaction of finding that his 
energies are wisely applied, as to double 
his expenses in all these things by as- 
signing himself a large area for his ope- 
rations when a much smaller would bet- 
ter answer his end ? 

Another evil, not unworthy of consid- 
eration, attendant on the division of a 
neigliborhood into few farms to make 
them large, is that the population is ne- 
cessarily sparse beyond what is desira- 
ble for convenience and comfort. Pub- 
lic expenses by this circumstance become 
burdensome. Where the people are 
few, taxes for the support of necessary 
public institutions, if such appendages 
to a prosperous and happy community 
are enjoyed, must be high, though the 
payers of them may be straitened in 
their means proportionably to their nom- 
inal wealth, predicated on the number of 
rods covered by their claims. If, by 
cutting down farms to a moderate size, 
a people, few in number, separated from 
each other by inconvenient distances, 
could be doubled or trebled in number, 
and be brought into compactness as near 
neighbors, who could fail of seeing that 
such an arrangement must greatly con- 
tribute to the prosperity and comfort of 
those who should become partakers of 
its fruits ? 

Another evil which should not be 
quite overlooked and disregarded, results 
■from the fact, that one man's having too 
much land occasions another's having too 
little. Is it not an obvious defect in so- 



ciety as it exists at the present time in 
our country, and more so perhaps in 
others, that in assigning places to all that 
none should be deprived of opportu- 
nity to exercise the talent they have for 
active usefulness, too few are retained 
on the soil to act the part of husband- 
men, while the larger portion ^y to un- 
productive employments, or to such call- 
ings as leave them dependent on others 
for their daily bread ? It is not pretend- 
ed, however, that though the earth was 
given to be the grand storehouse from 
which supplies of material good are to 
be drawn for the subsistence of all, that 
therefore all should be limited to follow- 
ing the plow, or to obtaining a livelihood 
by some other laborious means of ex- 
tracting from the earth its nutritive vir- 
tues. Man is not to live by bread alone. 
But as this is at least one of the indis- 
pensables in what goes to nourish and 
sustain human life, enough of human 
thought and energy should be always at 
hand and in actual service to produce a 
sufficiency for all. But to what result 
is the known tendency of the popular 
taste, in these days, as respects the mat- 
ter of obtaining food to eat and raiment 
to put on ? Do men, as they grow up 
to see the need of doing something to ob- 
tain what is needful to the body, covet a 
spot of earth on which they may pitch 
their tent and ply the implements of ag- 
riculture, until they have learned by 
their own experience what is meant by 
eating one's bread in the sweat of his 
face ? Is it not more common to see 
other expedients looked to and seized 
upon as promising pleasanter if not more 
remunerative methods of laying up trea- 
sure on earth and basking in the sun- 
shine of worldly good? And what is 
the eifect of this antipathy to plowing, 
sowing, and reaping, and the various 
rural labors which fill up the hours and 
exhaust the powers of the man who 
lives on the fruits of his own toils ? To 
what causes, in like manner, may it be 
attributed ? 



AGRICULTURAL. 



149 



Among the many influences which go 
to produce and nourish anti-farming pro- 
pensities, and to swell the ranks of mer- 
chants, and mechanics, and the indolent 
tribes, not the least, in my opinion, is 
the scarcity of land, made so in particu- 
lar localities by the greediness of pro- 
prietors in holding possession of all they 
can grasp, though of scarcely any worth 
to themselves in real profits. Could it 
be parceled out in such minor por- 
tions as would require an increase of 
labor, and would insure a still greater 
increase of profit, many landless traders 
and artisans would find themselves ac- 
commodated, if not with large freeholds, 
yet with snug auxiliaries and helps to a 
living. The evils to them of not having 
been thus favored many have unques- 
tionably suffered in the embarrassment 
and privations which for months past 
have lain with oppressive weight, on 
those especially who have not been pro- 
tected by their relation to the earth as 
its cultivators. Oh ! how blest the 
farmer in those days of destitution and 
suffering, who can open the door of his 
storehouse and there be met with the 
sweet smiles of plent}-. 

It is not in the heart of the writer of 
the above to dictate to any one, nor even 
to sketch a plan or give advice for the 
disposal of lands to enhance their value. 
His only object has been to offer hints 
and suggestions, and leave it to the dis- 
creet and prudent to consider and act as 
their own judgment shall prescribe. 

CiiARLEMONT, Jan., 1858. J. F. 



AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, 
ETC., ETC. 

BT A PENN3YLVANIAN. 

I DAVE received the first number of 
the American Farmers^ Magazine, and 
am much pleased with its form, appear- 
ance and contents, I think it is worthy 
of the patronage of every farmer and me- 
chanic ; and the minister, doctor and 
lawyer would not be harmed by a care- 



ful perusal of it monthly. I would most 
heartily recommend it to all. 

But little grain was sowed in this part 
of Pennsylvania last fall ; and owing to 
the dull prospects of the market and the 
scarcity of money, but little, compara- 
tively, is doing in the lumler line this 
winter. The price of property has fallen 
very much. It is almost impossible to 
raise money on any terms. There is 
great retrenching in family expenses. 
The people, one and all, rich and poor, 
have been living too lavishly, in eating 
and drinking, and wearing, to live long, 
and be healthy, happy and prosperous. 

Mankind seem to have lost sight of, 
or never to have had, a very foir or cor- 
rect view of the end and object of human 
existence. It is true that a man, that 
anybody, that everybody should eat to 
live, and live to enjoy life, to be healthy, 
cheerful and happy, and to ripen for im- 
mortality hereafter. 

Man should study the laws of his 
whole being. He should seek to grow 
healthy, wealthy, and wise as he grows 
older. Man, begotten in the image of his 
Divine Parent, should be ashamed,should 
consider it a sin to be sicTc. He has no 
business to be sicTc; and if he gets sick, 
he should anxiously seek for and remove 
the cause. The child should die, if at 
all, an hundred years old. Every one is 
the father of his own sickness. The 
man, or woman, or child that lives so- 
berly, temperately, wisely, and righte- 
ously, will seldom be skh, if ever. Every 
one should strive to be wealthy, not only 
in money, but in that wealth which con- 
sists of a healthy, noble and divine hu- 
manity. There is no sin in money 
wealth, if it is obtained in a wise, honest 
and honorable way, and for a wise and 
honorable use, and not b}' fraud, deceit, 
and robbery one of another, but by hon- 
est labor, by cultivating the earth, and 
developing its resources, so that while 
the individual is adding to his own ma- 
terial wealth, he is at the same time add- 
ing to the wealth of all mankind. 



160 



AGRICULTURAL. 



Every one should strive to grow wiser 
as he gi'ows older, by sipping the honey 
of truth from all the flowers of true 
knowledge in the domains of nature and 
revelation. I would like to see more, 
far more attention paid to the improve- 
ment, elevation, refinement, and perfec- 
tion of humanity. The whole nature of 
man needs to be developed. It must 
grow up and bring forth fruit in abun- 
dance. 

God speed the course of agriculture, 
and every kind of culture calculated to 
develop and improve the world and all 
its inhabitants. 

I made a trial of the new Chinese su- 
gar cane the past season. The season 
was a very poor one for the purpose. 
The spring was too late, and the autumn 
frosts too early for it to mature. I made 
about twelve gallons of very good mo- 
lasses. It took about ten gallons of 
juice to make one of molasses. I had no 
seed get ripe. 

We crushed the juice out with a pair 
of wooden rollers of my own construc- 
tion, worked by a horse. I intend to 
try it again next season if all goes well. 
It will do well in a dry, hot summer ; 
will mature its seed and make sugar. 

We think our correspondent speaks 
rather too strongly of the sin of being 
sick ; but we suppose he means, that if 
we would all live according to the dic- 
tates of reason and an enlightened un- 
derstanding, and not be governed so 
much by passion and appetite, there 
would be less sickness and longer life, 
which is certainly true. — Ed. 



SORGHO SUCRE, OR CHINESE SU- 
GAR CANE. 

BY A MASSACHUSETTS FARMER. 

Expectation has been so highly awak- 
-ened by the proclamations made of the 
benefits to accrue from the culture of 
this plant, that I determined to ascer- 
tain, if possible, whether or not it was 
worth cultivating. Accordingly, I look- 



ed at it, wherever I found it growing, 
and have inquired of those who planted 
it, and the result of their culture, where 
it matured at all, was plants growing 
from 10 to 15 feet in height, and from 1 
to li inches in diameter. 

As a forage plant, it is generally said 
to be less acceptable to animals than the 
stocks of good sweet corn, though cattle 
will eat it. I doubt exceedingly whether 
it is worth growing for this purpose, 
where Indian corn can be grown. Per- 
haps it will grow on a soil of poorer 
quality than -corn, though I never have 
heard that it was prejudiced in its 
growth, by the application of good fer- 
tilizers. 

Many of my neighbors grew small 
patches of it, say from one to ten square 
rods, and when it matured they cut it 
up, and have it now, waiting to learn 
whether any use can be made of it. 

Some have undertaken to press the 
juice from the stocks after the leaves 
were peeled off, and in this way they 
have obtained from one to two gallons 
of tolerable syrup from a rod of land ; 
but nobody thus far has realized any 
convenient benefits from its culture. To 
be sure it was a new thing ; they had to 
learn how to grow it, and how to use it 
after it was grown. Some have pro- 
duced seed that they think will come up 
another year ; but no one that I have 
met has produced any sugar, and very 
few are yet satisfied that the plant is 
worth growing at all. It is said the sea- 
son was so wet that it was not favorable 
for its growth, and that one trial is not 
a sufficient test of its value. I have not 
heard of any sugar obtained from it this 
side of Philadelphia ; and from the ex- 
periments there as detailed in the Tri- 
lune, I doubt whether the sorghum is 
worth cultivating. I have seen beauti- 
ful specimens of loaf and other sugars 
made by the gentleman from Philadel- 
phia ; but it should be remembered that 
he is a sugar refiner by occupation and 
long experience, with all the conve- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



151 



niences at hand for the operation of mak- 
ing of sugar. I do not think, therefore, 
that what he has done begins to prove 
the expediency of the farmers at the 
north, embarking to any considerable 
extent, in the culture of the so7'ghu?n, or 
even of the imphee — a rival plant intro- 
duced by another gentleman, who pro- 
fesses to have discovered it in the inte- 
rior of Africa. I am quite willing the 
African plants and African subjects 
should remain at home. We of America 
have enough on our own soil to engage 
our attention ; and if we mind our own 
business we shall be better off than to 
be constantly hunting after " some new 
thing." 

AVith many thanks for your polite at- 
tention, and an earnest solicitude for the 
prosperity of the cause you so ably ad- 
vocate, I am, now as ever, faithfully 
yours. 

We fear our friend from Massachusetts, 
in his well known opposition to all sorts 
of fanaticism, is getting over cautious 
about new things. New things are not 
necessarily good things. We agree with 
him that Indian corn is an excellent for- 
age plant, and that we have long doubted 
whether anything better would ever be 
found for our climate. When Hiawatha 
obtained the corn plant from the Great 
Spirit, rather when God gave it to man- 
kind, it was a magnificent gift. Still 
there are other valuable plants, and we 
see not why the sorghum should not be 
thoroughly tried. If those who are 
adepts in sugar making have succeeded 
in making large quantities of sugar, and 
that of a very superior quality from the 
sorghum, as we have occasion to know 
that they have, that should be set down 
in its favor ; and the fact that others have 
failed through ignorance of the process, 
or from the want of proper fixtures — 
causes that certainly are removable — 
that should not be put down against it, 
but charged to the true cause, one that 
will not necessarily be lasting. We would 



not advise any one to give up the staple 
crops of the country for the sorghum, 
but rathe* to hope for a better season 
and try again, but on such a scale as 
would not be ruinous in case of failure. 



ON THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW 

VEGETABLE CROPS INTO 

THE UNITED STATES. 

BY A FRIEND. 

The importance of the introduction of 
new crops into a country possessing 
within its limits so varied a climate as 
the United States, is too self-evident to 
require arguments in its support. Much 
credit is due to the efforts that have 
been made by the Patent Office in tliis 
direction during the last three or four 
years ; and we have reason to believe 
that it is to the personal exertions and 
intelligence of Mr. D. S. Browne since 
his connection with the department, that 
we are, in great measure indebted for 
the attention that has been paid to this 
subject. 

The difficulties that surround its 
successful prosecution are much greater 
than would strike the casual observer ; 
and it is of course that many well di- 
rected experiments have to give place to 
renewed efforts before success can be 
attained by the introduction of even one 
really valuable new family or variety of 
plant. 

It is too early yet to speak positively, 
but the sorghum certainly bids fair to be 
one of the most valuable acquisitions 
that have been made for some years, not- 
withstanding the diversity of opinions 
relative to it that were prevalent not long 
ago. 

We do not, however, propose, in the 
present article, to review the character 
of recent introductions, but to throw out 
some suggestions upon the most proba- 
ble mode by which the search for new 
plants may be advanced. 

The subject is one that all those who 
have relations or friends traveling or re- 
sident in other continents should direct 



152 



AGRICULTURAL. 



their attention to ; for by the simple 
collection and transmission of seeds, 
much may be done. It is desirable, how- 
ever, that the subject should be prose- 
cuted in a more systematic method, and 
governed by scientific principles, as to 
the direction in which the search for 
novelties is made. 

The constitution of plants is, beyond 
certain limits, fixed and unalterable. 
Different families of plants, as we know, 
vary greatly in their powers of endur- 
ance of drouth and moisture, heat and 
cold, light and darkness. Most families 
will submit to considerable variation in 
each of these respects, when transferred 
from their native habitat to other cli- 
mates. But what the amount of that 
variation will be can, in each case, be 
only known by experiment. 

Much has been said and written upon 
what has been called " acclimating 
plants." It is too lengthened a discus- 
sion to enter upon at present ; but the 
remark may be made, en passant, that 
there is no doubt that many an assured 
fact of "acclimating" has had no foun- 
dation beyond the discovery, from exper- 
iment year after year, of the amount of 
cold or heat that the particular plant 
could bear without destruction to its vi- 
tal power, in the locality to which it has 
been introduced. 

But, the constitution of plants being 
fixed, it follows that we may reasonably 
expect those plants to succeed in this 
country that are found, indigenous, in 
climates the most similar to it. 

In considering again the question of 
climate, it may be remarked that too 
much regard is frequently paid to the 
question of latitude taken alone ; and too 
little to two other considerations that 
should always be taken into account in 
connection with latitude, as indicative 
of climate, namely : the elevation of the 
locality above the level of the sea ; and 
its vicinity to, or distance from, the 
ocean or any large inland lakes. To any 
one who is familiar with the climates of 



the several Middle and Northern States, 
this, on reflection, will be evident ; and 
a reference of a map of this continent 
that is marked with isothermal lines, 
will demonstrate it at a glance. 

It is from the circumstances referred 
to in the preceding paragraph, that the 
Himalaya Mountains have been so pro- 
lific of horticultural riches to Europe. 

There is another circumstance con- 
nected with climate as affecting vegeta- 
ble life that also deserves the attention 
of the plant collector. It is found that 
the eastern sides of different continents 
are much better adapted to the develop- 
ment of the flora of either than are the 
western ; and vice versa. For this rea- 
son it is highly probable that China will 
one day be found to possess many plants 
that will thrive luxuriantly in these 
States that will not succeed in Europe. 
Nor does this apply to the Southern 
States alone. For there is in the north- 
ern and southern districts of China a 
greatly varying climate; and, although 
not to the same extent as in the northern 
parts of this continent, yet the difference 
of summer temperature in the north of 
China, as compared with its winter, 
bears a much nearer relation to the 
same changes in this country at the 
same season, than to those in Europe. 
Consequently it is not at all unlikely 
that many of the plants of Northern 
China that may not submit to the vicis- 
situdes of winter in many of the more 
western parts of Europe, may yet find 
themselves quite at home here in the 
Northern States. 

China, therefore, presents a promising 
field to the enthusiastic botanist and 
vegetable physiologist. And we hope 
that our neighbors who have friends in 
the celestial dominions, will call their at- 
tention to this interesting subject. 

It can not be expected of course, that 
those who have not paid attention to 
matters connected with agriculture or 
horticulture, should have that degree of 
accurate information which would be 



AGRICULTURAL 



168 



requisite to enable them in a foreign 
country to make those discriminations 
necessary for the researches of the bo- 
tanist. It may, therefore, be at first 
sight supposed that it is a difficult, if not 
impossible matter, for the traveler for 
business or pleasure successfully to take 
up. But this is not so. For whoever 
he may be, he carries with him at least 
the recoUectioa of the vegetable produc- 
tions of his own country, by which he 
has himself at home been surrounded. 
He knows the fruits he ate, and the 
kind of cereal from which his bread was 
made. "When, therefore, he finds in 
China, or elsewhere, fruits and vegeta- 
bles for food, or used in commerce or the 
arts, with which he is unacquainted, it 
is highly probable that they are not yet 
introduced to his own country. He can, 
therefore, at all events, make inquiries 
about them, and if practicable, (which 
often if not always it will be,) he can 
procure seeds or plants for transporta- 
tion to his friends at home. 

With regard to the transportation of 
seeds from distant parts of the world, it 
is now well ascertained that they pre- 
serve their vitality much better packed 
simply in paper or in linen bags and ex- 
posed to the air, than when shut up in 
boxes, or in tin cases. But it is essen- 
tial that the packages or bags be kept 
dry. 

Roots (and frequently cuttings for 
moderate periods of time,) will retain 
their vitality if packed in dry earth or 
sand, but they should always be packed 
and forwarded at the time of year when 
they have their natural season of rest. 



DAIRY MANAGEMENT. 

BY A FARMER. 

In consequence of the very destructive 
ravages of the weevil or wheat midge 
for some years past, it is highly proba- 
ble that not a few in wheat-growing dis- 
tricts will be induced to abandon wheat- 
raising, for a time at least, and to de- 
vote their time, attention, and lands to 



dairying, stock raising, or some other 
branch of agricultural industry. In the 
case of some of those who may make this 
change in their mode of farming, it is like- 
ly to be accompanied with a few diflQcul- 
ties and perplexities, which may be all 
the more annoying from being unexpect- 
ed and unprepared for. There may be 
some, for example, to whom the business 
may be so unfamiliar that they have no 
idea of what number of cows or other 
stock can be summered and wintered on 
any certain number of acres in pasture 
and in meadow. An error in either di- 
rection, that is, either by over-stocking 
their farms, or by imdcr-stocking them, 
would be a source of annoyance and loss. 
In the one case the stock would suffer in 
condition, or the dairy produce be di- 
minished, in consequence of the want of 
sufficient 'supplies of food; and in the 
other case, (of the frequent occurrence 
of which, however, there is no great 
danger in this country,) the source of 
the loss is too obvious to require to be 
mentioned. 

If any one desirous of avoiding errors 
in regard to this point, were in pursuit 
of information so as to enable him to de- 
termine the amount of stock his farm — 
that is, so many acres of pasture, so 
many of meadow, and so many of corn 
and other grain, with roots, etc. — would 
carry, and resolved to determine this 
matter, not by mere guess-work, but ac- 
curately and by the light of the experi- 
ence of farmers in dairy and stock-rais- 
ing districts of country, he would find 
considerable difficulty, so far as our me- 
mory at present serves us, in finding 
such information on record in any of the 
agricultural journals which have for 
some years come under our eye. The 
most accurate source of information to 
which such an inquirer would be direct- 
ed, we think, would be the Patent Office 
Report, (Ag.) for 1856. There he would 
find, for example, that in Gloucester- 
shire, Eng., where nine-tenths, often, of 
all the land on dairy farms is in pasture 



154 



AGRICULTURAL, 



and meadow, twenty-five cows, at least, 
are ordinarily kept to each 100 acres, 
besides the usual number of heifer calves 
to maintain a full supply of milch cows. 
One and a half acres of pasture is the 
usual allowance to each cow, exclusive 
of all other stock, from May 1st to Dec. 
1st. During the winter and spring 
months, hay is almost the only food giv- 
en ; and as each cow will consume two 
and a half tons of hay, it requires about 
the same extent of land — one and a half 
acre — for the winter as for the summer 
keep. In Cheshire, another famous 
dairy district in England, only twenty 
cows are kept to the 100 acres, or in that 
proportion, instead of twenty-five as in 
Gloucestershire. This, too, is exclusive 
of young heifers to keep up the stock of 
cows. 

Further details may be found in the 
Report named. In making calculations 
based on these facts, allowance must be 
made for the fact that the climate of 
England is more favorable to the growth 
of grass than that of this country. 



MORE ABOUT NATIVE STOCK. 

BY J. W. PROCTOR, ESSEX CO., MASS. 

Editor of Farmers' Magazine : — I 
thank you, sir, for the kind expression 
of confidence, in my judgment, as to the 
value of the " old red cattle of New-Eng- 
land." From my earliest years, when a 
boy in my father's barnyard (say 55 
years ago) to the present time, my at- 
tention has been particularly directed to 
this class of animals. It was a favorite 
idea of my old master, Timothy PicTcer- 
ing, that our best chance to obtain good 
stock on our farms, was to select the best 
animals we could obtain, and breed 
therefi'om. It was in this way he said 
that the best improvements had been 
made in the herds of England. This was 
before animals of the improved breeds 
had been imported. I do not remember 
to have seen many of these until after 
the late war with England, that com- 
menced in 1812. About 1820 they be- 



came quite common with those gentle- 
men who had most enterprise in these 
matters ; still Col. P. held the opinion 
while he lived, that our best hopes were 
in rearing the best calves from the best 
cows in our stalls, provided bulls of like 
character were used as their associates. 
My intimacy with this gentleman led me 
to adopt these notions ; and my obser- 
vations and inquiries since, chiefly in 
my own county of Essex, have confirmed 
these impressions. 

Essex is not a stock-raising county. 
Most of our heifers are brought in from 
Maine, New-Hampshire, and Vermont^ 
Not moulded with a pedigree attached, 
but still moulded in form to meet the 
wants of an experienced eye, which is 
better than any pedigree. In this way 
is their selections made when the droves 
come along in the autumn ; and if the 
heifers do not prove as expected after 
one yeai-'s trial, they are shoved off or 
turned over to the butcher. I have 
known many such selections. I partic- 
ularly recollect the heifer selected by my 
neighbor, Benj. Goodridge, then an in- 
holder, which afterwards proved to be 
the far-famed OaJces Cow, second to none 
that has been owned in Massachusetts 
for butter-making ability, more recenir 
ly the Huntington Cow, now owned by 
my friend, R. S. Fay, President of our 
Society, scarcely inferior to the Oakes 
Cow. And this last season her cal^ 
owned by P. L. Osborne, which, for one 
year next following her first calf, gave 
an average of between ten and eleven 
quarts of first-rate milk per day, on com- 
mon feed only. I mention these in- 
stances because I know the facts stated 
to be so. 

Far be it from me to speak disparag- 
ingly of any other classes of stock ; but I 
do know those of best experience in this 
vicinity have best hope of good milkers 
and good butter products from the old 
red stock of Neic-England — what I am 
disposed to call Ratives, until some more 
appropriate name can be found. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



155 



Pardon these hasty, off-hand sugges- 
tions. If they should chance to find fa- 
vor in your sight, I will endeavor, at a 
convenient opportunity, to give you 
some views more elaborately digested. 



RAIL FENCES. 

BY AV. TAPPAN, BALDWINSVILLE, ILL. 

On the prairies of Illinois the people 
have commenced raising thorn fences, 
but I still express my admiration for 
rail fences. Long experience has proven 
them to be the best fences we can put 
on our fdrms. tiCt a good rail fence be 
built seven or eight rails high, with siza- 
ble stones put imder the corners, rails 
eleven feet long — not too large nor too 
smaU — laid up with the desired zigzag 
crook. That is the kind of fence for the 
farm and for the people. 

It is durable ; it is tidy, and presents 
a fine appearance ; it is a portable fence, 
and will long stand the storms and winds 
of our northern and southern climes. A 
rail fence sometimes blows down, so do 
board fences. Stake a rail fence down, 
with two stakes at each corner, with 
wire or wood binders, and it will stand 
even the howling tempests of the sea-like 
prairies of the west. Chestnut rails are 
not everywhere to be found, nor are ash 
rails everywhere abundant, but almost 
every country furnishes some kind of 
timber out of which rails can be made, 
and therefore I do approve of laying 
them up into good, straight and well- 
built rail fences. Not that board fences 
are not good do I thus speak, but that 
rail fences seem to last, are movable, and 
are usually considered proof against cat- 
tle, horses and sheep. 

We all, perhaps, have our peculiar 
tastes and notions about fences, but I 
never did really fancy a stone-fence, and 
yet there are many good ones, particu- 
ticularly those which have been laid up 
with selected, flat lime-stone. I have 
seen some very fine fences of this kind 
in Steuben and even in our own county. 
On the farm of the Hon. Geo. Geddes 



you will find some nice and creditably 
built lime-stone fences. But there is 
one serious fault that can be urged 
against stone fences, which is that they 
make a great and long nest for elders, 
briars, and noxious weeds. By pru- 
dence and labor these pests might be 
prevented from springing up, but really 
it seems to be their most natural harbor 
— around a stone fence. 

Rail fences are the cheapest fences in 
the long run that can be built. They 
will last a life time, though the kind of 
timber must be taken into consideration 
if we are to judge of their durability. 
Usually good chestnut rails, perhaps, are 
preferable, though there are other kinds 
of timber that have proven very valuable 
for rail timber. 

One thousand rails will build nearly, 
if not quite, sixty rods of fence. Count 
your rails, delivered on the spot, worth 
$40 per thousand, and then your fence 
will cost you about G7 cents per rod. A 
board fence will cost in New- York State 
more money than this, and yet will not 
last half as long as the former kind. 

Sandy land soon rots a post, whether 
that post be cedar or chestnut, "or what 
not." Along the road board fences usu- 
ally look very pleasant, and therefore, as 
as a matter of taste, very many people 
use them. 

I have recently seen a new contrivance 
for fences. It is a kind of board fence 
with panels, and can be put up or taken 
down in a great hurry. It presents a- 
zigzag appearance when up, and hooks 
or ties are used for staying it. Of course 
it is a patent. Like all fences that are 
made of boards, it is quite expensive, 
though its agents insist that it is de- 
cidedly the cheapest fence ^yet brought 
into notice. 

But fences considered in any light are 
very expensive. They cost an immense 
sum, and the annual repairing done upon 
them is an item which would build up 
many fine palaces and ornament scores 
of parlors and bed-rooms. 



166 



AGRICULTURAL, 



Many parts of the world are forced to 
do without them, and then trouble many 
times follows as a consequence. They 
are, above most everything else in agri- 
culture, of the most importance, and yet 
thousands upon thousands of our farm- 
ers pay but a very little attention to their 
fences, and then comes on the tug of 
war — crops are destroyed, quarrels en- 
sue, law-suits take place, profane lan- 
guage is heard — all in consequence of 
board fences put up in a bad way. 

For the Farmers' Magvazine. 

FARM ECONOMY. 
A FEW months since I saw the ques- 
tion in your paper. Why should the ani- 
mal products of a farm equal its vegeta- 
ble products ? As no one has furnished 
an answer, I send you a few thoughts 
upon the subject. The most profitable 
farming in the end, is that which keeps 
the soil in the most productive state. 
This needs nourishment to sustain it, as 
well as the animal system. When in its 
native state the amount of vegetable 
matter that decays upon it, annually 
compensates for the fertilizing properties 
abstracted in its growth, and thus an 
even balance is preserved in nature. But 
by removing the products of the soil 
from year to year, without some compen- 
sation in return, we remove so much of 
its vitality, if I may so speak. This bal- 
ance is destroyed. We subtract from 
its ability to produce, and the conse- 
quence is, it soon becomes exhausted of 
fertility. I speak of ordinary soils. 
There are places in our country where 
the soil will produce from year to year 
without any apparent exhaustion. But 
this is not true of a large portion of it. 
The soil, by being compelled to employ 
her strength for the production of annual 
crops, without any renovation of it, like 
the ill-fed and over-worked beast, soon 
fails. Compensation must in some way 
be made for what is thus taken from the 
farm. The soil must be fed, to keep it 
in a healthful condition, as well as the 
tillers of it. 



The question then arises. How shall 
this be the most efficiently, and the most 
easily eflFected ? In what way can a suf- 
ficient quantity of manure be obtained, 
to keep the land in a proper state of 
productiveness ? It is believed that this 
can be accomplished in no way so surely 
as by having the animal and vegetable 
products of the farm suitably propor- 
tioned to each other. With proper care, 
a farmer may, in this way, make a great 
amount of manure, and an article too, 
that is much more reliable, than that ob- 
tained from any other •feource. If he 
procures it from the stables iu a city or 
village, he usually gets an article that is 
firefanged, and much poorer than he can 
manufacture on his own premises. If he 
purchase concentrated manures, he is li- 
able to be duped, and humbugged, and 
cheated out of his money, and thus left 
to future disappointment. But the in- 
telligent, thinking farmer, knows what 
dependence can be placed ordinarily on 
that which he produces himself, and can 
make calculations accordingly. 

In a wheat growing country, the straw 
and chafi" may be left on the ground. 
But this, in its native state is compara- 
tively valueless. It adds but little to the 
fertility of the soil. But by being cut, 
and mixed with meal, and then passed 
through the bowels of an animal, its 
value is greatly increased. I consider 
the animal stomach a better laboratory 
for the manufacture of manure, than 
those from which issue the so-called su- 
perphosphates of lime. By keeping ani- 
mals on a farm, a vast amount of refuse 
matter, which in its native state is of lit- 
tle value, may be made of great utility. 
Straw, if not wanted for feed, may bo 
used to litter stables and yards, and thus 
not only be made conducive to the com- 
fort of the stock, but become an absor- 
bent of liquid manure, which is by far 
the most valuable part of that produced 
by animals. Muck, forest leaves, pota- 
to tops, refuse cornstalks, and the like, 
may also in this way be turned to good 



AGRICULTURAL. 



IS*? 



account, in keeping the soil in a health- 
ful and productive state. 

The pig-sty is also a laboratory for the 
manufacture of manure, of the value of 
which many of our farmers seejn but 
little aware. The small number of hogs 
necessary to be kept for family use, may, 
if rightly managed, be made to pay in 
part for their keeping, by their labor. 
Swine are excellent coiupostcrs, if you 
will furnish the materials for this. Give 
them plenty of refuse straw, chip ma- 
Hure, decayed vegetable matter, turf from 
the road-side or corners of the fences, 
the reeds and decayed vegetable tops 
from the garden, and other refuse matter 
which may easily be collected in mo- 
ments of leisure, and at the end of the 
season you need not send to the city for 
the patent humbugs called fertilizers. 
You will have a mine of wealth on your 
own premises, that will render your soil 
productive. 

Farmers who live at a distance from 
market, may consume an amount of ve- 
getable products, in fattening animals, or 
in feeding the cows in the dairy, or the 
young stock on the farm, which would 
otherwise be lost. In this way, with the 
aid of a little labor, much may be turned 
into cash, that otherwise would be em- 
ployed in some barter trade, or wasted. 
A mixed husbandry may thus be made 
productive of more gain than one single 
branch. The several departments act as 
aids to each other. They seem depend- 
ent — each being necessary to keep up 
the fertility of the soil, and to yield the 
greatest income. Without the aid of the 
manure produced by animals, the farm- 
er may plow and hoe to but httle pur- 
pose. The soil by being constantly rob- 
bed of its strength, refuses to yield its 
increase, and the cultivation of it must 
soon be abandoned. Mixed husbandrj' 
also affords variety of employment, and 
employment for all seasons of the year. 
In the winter months when the frost and 
snow claim possession of the soil, the 
farmer may be busy in caring for his 



stock, in collecting materials for manure, 
and preparing it for future use. Thus 
he will be constantly kept in a healthful 
activity. He will find employment for 
both mind and bod}', which will act re- 
ciprocally on each other, to preserve an 
even balance between them. Monotony 
soon tires, but variety gives zest to the 
spirits, and thus contributes to health 
and prosperity. Hubert. 

There are but two thoughts in the 
above from which we would dissent in the 
least, and hardly from these, as the wri- 
ter has very guardedly expressed them. 

One is, where he speaks of straw to be 
used as an absorbent, but immediately 
recommends other substances, equally 
good for that purpose, but, unlike straw, 
valueless for feeding. Our idea is — and 
we presume he does not differ from us a 
single shade — that straw is worth some- 
thing for the stomachs of cattle, and 
therefore should not be used for their 
bedding, but should be cut, moistened 
and mixed with Indian meal ; or given 
in alternation with a little good hay, and 
a plenty of roots, and thus be made a 
valuable help in getting the stock cattle 
through the winter. 

The other point is that of " mixed 
farming." We quite agree with the wri- 
ter, that it is desirable, and we fully ap- 
preciate his arguments. Still we believe, 
as we have no doubt he does, that where 
the nature of the form, its location, or the 
genius of the owner, point to a particular 
branch of husbandry, the general rule 
may give way, and the former may bet- 
ter turn his attention to that branch or 
those few branches, which circumstances 
seem to indicate. 

We seldom meet with an article more 
to our liking than this of Hubert. May 
we not hope to hear from him again and 
often. 



DIMINUTION IN WOOL! 

The Wool G-roirers' Reporter states 
the decrease of the wool crop in Ohio in 
1857, as compared with 1850, to be two 



168 



AGRICULTURAL, 



hundred and twenty-seven thousand 
three hundred and seventj^-three sheep, 
or six hundred and eighty-two thousand 
one hundred and forty-two pounds. 
The dip of 1856 w^as ten milhon five 
hundred and eleven thousand and twen- 
ty-eight pounds, and that of 1857 nine 
miUion eight hundred and twenty-nine 
thousand eight hundred and nine pounds. 



TESTIMONIALS, QUERIES, RE- 
PLIES, &c., &c. . 
From and to Correspondents. 

A FARMER, whom WG have not had the 
pleasure of seeing, says, among other 
sensible things, the following : 

Mr. Ed. : — I have just received the 
February No. of the American Farmers' 
Magazine^ or more familiarly Plough, 
Loom and Anvil. I am much pleased 
with the improved appearance of the 
work, though lyefore the change, it was 
second to no journal, in matter and ap- 
pearance. 

I have got all the volumes — 10 of 
them — of the Plough, Loom and Anvil, 
that have ever been published, and there 
are no books in my library that I value 
more highly. In your prospectus for 
1858, you propose to furnish the Kniclc- 
er'bocker and Atlantic Monthly , together 
with your own monthly, at reduced 
rates. I shall take both of them, when 
I renew my subscription. 

My subscription to your magazine has 
been paid to May 1858, I think, but I 
am not certain as to that matter. Will 
you inform me, and I'U be on hand with 
a renewal ? I think you are right with 
your terms. " Cash in Advance" seems 
to be the only true principle of publish- 
ing a newspaper or periodical 

A DIFFERENT LETTER. 

The writer of the following treats us 
to a whole volley of questions ; and that 
is all right, provided he will look into 
our past and future numbers for replies, 
and be contented with short answers for 
the present. He seems to be a sort of 
city farmer as yet, but when he gets into 



the thick of it, we hope he will make 
out better than the celebrated Mr. Spar- 
rowgrass did; and there is some reason 
to think he will ; for it can not be de- 
nied, that while some of these citizens 
are rather green when they get into the 
country, others do first-rate, even outdo 
the old farmers themselves. 

Mr. Editor: — ^Your "hints to young 
farmers" in the February number of the 
Farmers^ Magazine ^nst received, are tho 
very thing I wanted, and I am sure 
many more as well. This encourages 
me to write to you for information, that 
I can not get from books. You tell us 
to read agricultural books, and I lately 
have done so, because I have been get- 
ting a little place in the country for my 
children to run about in, and I mean to 
farm a bit to help keep down expenses. 
But although I find a great deal in books 
about manures, and many other things 
that I don't understand now, whatever I 
may do by-and-by, I can not find out 
things that I do want to know ; and as 
you are willing to teach us " know-no- 
things," I am encouraged to write. 

As I have all my life kept a store in 
the city, it seems not very wonderful 
that I should have to ask, although you 
farmers may laugh at my questions. 
However, here they are : 

I mean to keep a horse and a cow, 
maybe two. Now, of course, I want to 
grow my own keep for them ; and as I 
see you farmers all now recommend cows 
to be fed in the yard all the year round, 
I mean to adopt that plan. 

Now I want you to tell me how much 
hay I shall want for the horse, and how 
much for each cow. Then how much 
corn. And how much straw, or sedge, 
or something for bedding, etc. And 
how much land it will take for the corn, 
as near as you can say. They tell mo 
my land gives about two tons of hay to 
the acre ; so when I know fi'om you the 
quantity for each animal, I can tell what 
land it will take to grow it. Then again 
do you advise me to feed any root crops. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



159 



and what to the cows ? And how much 
land for them ? 

You see, Mr. Editor, all these things 
may be like A B C to an old farmer like 
you, but unless you tell me something 
about it, I am as likely as not to gi'ow 
only half what I want, or if I grow 
enough, to sell too much off the land, 
thinking I shall not want it. 

Excuse the trouble ; I may be wrong, 
but I think it is this kind of every-day 
knowledge that publications like yours 
are wanted for. I mean just what we 
can not get out of books. 

A CiTT Trader. 

Let us see ; " keep a horse ;" that is 
well if you can afford it ; "a cow, maybe 
two ;" you may better say two, and 
then take care to get such good ones and 
keep them so well, that the profit will 
encourage you to keep a couple more ; 
" want to grow my own keep ;" certain- 
ly, or you will find it a poor business. 
As to keeping them in the yard, that de- 
pends upon circumstances — maybe well 
for small farmers near the city ; but that 
the great mass of cattle in this country will 
perform the labor of gathering their own 
forage in summer, and charge their o\vn- 
ers less than two dollars a day, or one for 
the work, till labor among us is cheaper 
than at present, is quite certain. Let 
us say to you here, if you keep two or 
three cows, keep as many or more swine. 
It would be well to have a few sheep, 
and don't fail to have a poultry-j-ard. 

"Ho'.vmuch hay to keep a horse?" 
Why, about as much as you please. If 
you give a horse the first best hay, and 
you should give him no other, and if at 
the same time you feed him nothing else, 
he will consume a hundred dollars' worth 
of such hay in a year," as prices range 
about here. But if you will give your 
horse four quarts of oats a day, and a 
peck of carrots, to be increased a little 
when he works steadily, he will eat less 
hay and be in better order, and will do 
more work. We should think, that with 



cut straw for a part of the feed, moisten- 
ed and sprinkled over with Indian meal, 
and the oats and caiTots above, j'ou 
might get ahorse through the year with 
two tons of hay, and that the whole ex- 
pense of the keeping would be a little 
more than a dollar a week near the city, 
and considerably less, far back in the 
country. 

If your land has been wont to give two 
tons of hay to the acre, that is pretty 
well. Two tons of good hay to the acre 
is a large income. But if the land is 
strong, and withal rather moist, we pro- 
pose that you undertake to cut two tons 
early in July, one or one and a quarter 
at the end of August, and have a pretty 
good growth to feed off in autumn. 
You can do this, and when you have 
done it, we would like to hear fi-om you 
again. 

" How much to keep a cow ?" A cow 
of good size, and giving milk freely, re- 
quires three tons of the best hay in a 
year, and more if you give nothing else ; 
but could be got through the year with 
a trifle less, if you feed a plenty of 
roots, and a little Indian meal, as we 
would by all means advise you to do. 
Some have taught that oat or rye meal 
is better for the production of milk than 
com meal; and if you estimate milk 
solely by the quantity, we think it is ; 
but if you look at the real value of the 
mUk — to make butter, or cheese, or to 
feed children with, or use for cooking 
purposes — June-cut hay, bright and 
cloan, and 2 or 3 quarts of corn meal a 
day, are what you want ; and we would 
recommend carrots rather to keep down 
the expenses of hay, than for any other 
purpose. They have no tendency to de- 
teriorate the milk, and in the absence of 
corn meal perhaps improve it. 

If your stalls are warm and conven- 
iently constructed, you will use very 
little straw, sedge or anything of that 
kind for bedding, and that mostly for 
your horse. But remember to use large 
quantities of dry leaves, leaf mold, 



ISO 



AGRICULTURAL 



swamp muck, or partially decayed turf, 
for absorbents in your yard, pig-pen and 
stable, if you would raise the corn you 
will need on the smallest possible piece 
of ground. If you will look over our 
Magazine, you will find where we have 
told you how to raise fifty bushels of 
corn on an acre, and from that all the 
way to a hundred, according to the land, . 
at a cost which leaves a handsome profit. 
This latter has often been done, and you 
can do it, without making your cultiva- 
tion so expensive as to leave no margin 
for profit, if you will follow our advice, 
and depend mainly upon the home ferti- 
lizers for enriching your ground. Buy- 
ing manure from the Chincha Islands, 
and neglecting to make it from your own 
resources, is bad policy. 

" Grow more than I want !" There is 
no danger, A man's wants are like a 
piece of India rubber in a lazy school- 
boy's fingers. They will stretch to any 
measure, and besides you can consume, 
or find animals to consume, all you will 
grow. "Or only half what I want." 
No danger there either, if you husband 
the manure heap well, and practise deep 
and thorough tillage. Why man, if you 
have 25 acres of land, or even 20, or 15, 
if it is of a fair quality, and if you can 
begin with 1 horse, 3 cows, 5 swine, 10 
sheep, and 20 hens, and will husband 
the manures, not only saving all the 
excreta, but adding about three times as 
much of something else everyday in the 
year, in the way of a divisor and ab- 
sorbent, your land will be growing better 
all the while; you may gradually in- 
crease your stock ; and you will always 

have enough. 

We advise you to have an eye to the 
old farmers, not to do as they do in all 
respects, but to do as well at any rate, 
and better if you can. 

Another correspondent, on a subject 
so important in agriculture that we do 
not like to reply hastily, about which 
we here solicit the experience of practi- 
cal farmers, inquires : — 



"I hope you will excuse the liberty I 
take in writing to you, and if it is not 
too much trouble, I would like you to 
answer me a few questions on the sub- 
ject of clover, 

" Which is the best way to cultivate 
it ? How much seed does it take to sow 
an acre ? What does the seed cost ? Is 
it a good manure for cotton land ? When 
must it be sowed ? And what kind of 
manure must be used in cultivating it ? 
By answering the foregoing questions 
you will greatly oblige a reader." 

A single word, on the last question, 
and then we leave the subject unbroken 
for our agricultural correspondents. 

Clover is peculiarly a lime plant. It 
will not grow well unless there is carbo- 
nate of lime in the soil or manure. 
Hence, ashes are favorable to clover, be- 
cause they contain a great deal of this 
compound. There is carbonate of lime, 
as well as all other substances required 
by plants, in the barn manures, and 
hence we should want no other for clo- 
ver nor for anything else if we only had 
enough of these. 

Shell or stone lime applied to previous 
crops is good for clover. We do not 
think that lime applied to the clover at 
the time of sowing, would help the first 
year's growth much. It requires time 
and exposure to become assimilable by 
the plant. Many farmers tell us that 
lime does no good on their soil. In 
some cases undoubtedly this is true. It 
does no good because there was already 
lime enough in the soil, or enough had 
been applied in the manures. But in far 
more cases this bad opinion of lime 
arises from expecting the effect too soon. 
The best effect of lime is not to be look- 
ed for till the third year ; and the whole 
effect, in not less than ten years. But 
we have kftown men to apply it in May, 
and because the corn looked no better in 
June, to say lime does their land no 
good. 

To show the slow but sure action of 
lime on clover, we will state a fact. ' A 



AGRICULTURAL 



161 



friend of ours was plowinj^ a field in Au- 
jrust, where a careless farmer, twelve 
years before, had applied a few bushels 
of lime to the acre, spread when wet, in 
lumps. The field had not been depas- 
tured that year, and yet nothing had 
grown upon it except in spots. Here 
and there, amid the general barrenness, 
were monstrous tufts of clover, so tempt- 
ing to his cattle, that they could hardly 
be whipt by them, and the roots so rank 
and strong that the plow could hardly 
be drawn through them. Our friend 
ilug for the cause, and found a lump of 
lime under every tuft of clover. 

In plowing that whole field, and it was 
a large one, he found without a single 



exception, that wherever lime showed 
itself in the furrow there was clover, and 
where there was no clover no lime ap- 
peared. He drew the conclusion that 
lime is fiivorable to clover. He might 
have drawn another conclusion ; — 

That field had all the pabulum requir- 
ed for clover, except lime, but was des- 
titute of lime, except where these lumps 
had lain unappropriated for twelve years. 
We draw another conclusion still ; — 

It is, that there is a great deal of land 
in the same condition. But we leave 
the field to practical farmers. Sound, 
practical farmers are better worth hear- 
ing on this subject than others. 



BREEDS OF CATTLE. 




DEVON BULL. 



It was our purpose to have said some- 
thing this month of the Improved Dur- 
hams. But our friend and namesake 
has furnished us so long an article on 
the Cattle of New-England, that we have 
not space even for a subject of so much 
importance. 

The cuts in our last, as we then stated, 
wure not designed to represent the Im- 
11 



proved Devon-s, but rather to give the 
general features of the old Devons, 
which were the basis of the Improved, 
or North Devons, as they arc called, and 
which we believe have dilTuscd their 
blood more radically into the cattle of 
New-England, and of this country gene- 
rally, than any other race. 

The bull represented above we do not 



162 



AGRICULTURAL. 



consider a Tair type of the North De- 
vons, as they are seen in many Ameri- 
can and EngHsh herds, but rather of a 
grado of the Devons in the way of a 
higher improvement. The swell for- 
ward of the shoulders, and the falling in 
of the hind legs below the round, are no 
part of the improved North Devon. If 
any of our herdsmen who have cuts of 
their finest, pure blood, improved North 
Devons, will send them to us, we will 
publish them in our next. We have no 
fear that the artist will have surpassed 
nature in the fineness of his picture, for 
there are scores of these animals in our 
own country, as well as in England, 
finer in their forms and proportions ; 
and if more cuts are sent than we have 
room for without intrenching too much 
upon our reading matter, we will enlarge 
our next number for the purpose of giv- 
ing them room. We should like to see 
a whole herd of pure North Devons, in 
the pages of our April number ; and if 
the insertion serves as an advertisement 
of these cattle, we have no sort of ob- 
jection. Why should we object to giv- 
ing publicity to a good article? and such 
certainly are the North Devons. 

Of course we do not agree with our 
friend of the long article, on New-Eng- 
land cattle, from whom by the way we 
hope to hear again, in every particular. 
We are not as fearful as he, that Ameri- 
cans will be humbugged by the English. 
It appears to us, that we J.mericans are 
about as smart as Englishmen are clever^ 
though we believe they have asked and 
Americans have paid a little too much, 
in some cases, for even their finest cat- 
tle. But we have only to refuse such 
prices, and they will come to their 
senses when they see we have. The 
competition among American breeders 
has been one of the main causes for 
keeping English cattle at fabulous prices. 

Our friend has done a good thing in 
notiiyiT^g; us of what is unquestionably 
true, that England is not the only source 
of fine cattle. While some breeders are 



availing themselves and the country of 
cattle from abroad, that have had the 
benefit of correct breeding for genera- 
tions, we have not the least doubt that 
others will bring equal, if not supe- 
rior results from our own long-neglected 
cattle. 

Whether cattle have ever been slaugh- 
tered in New-England, weighing as 
much, when dressed, as his article re- 
presents, is more than we know, 
and we believe nothing without proof. 
We icere irovght 7tp to think 250 
Jbs. of beef to the quarter doing 
pretty well ; and we shall leave it to the 
writer of the article to prove that an ox 
has ever graced the Brighton (Mass.) 
market or any other with about four 
times as much. But we regard his arti- 
cle as exceedingly valuable ; and we be- 
lieve that there is truth enough in it to 
lead to most valuable results, if candidly 
received and practised upon by the farm- 
ers of this country. — Ed. 



ANIMALS IN WINTER. 

Farmeks do not sufficiently sub-di- 
vide their yards in winter. Large and 
small animals are turned in promiscuous- 
ly together, and, as every farmer knows, 
the large ones are very ferocious and 
domineering towards those much inferi- 
or, but careful not to provoke the wrath 
of such as are nearly equal. Turn those 
together which are of similar size, and 
they will be more quiet all round. 
Calves generally are too much neglected, 
and come out small and puny in Spring. 
A good manager has constructed a spa- 
cious stable for calves in one of his sheds, 
moderately lighted, and v/ell sheltei-ed 
from all currents of wind. This apart- 
ment is kept clean, the calves fed on 
good hay, and supplied with good water. 
They present a very different appearance 
from other calves in spring. — Tacher^s 
Annual Register. 



^W The autumn is the best time for 
painting all wood that needs this protec- 
tion. Paint, therefore, soon, all fences, 
posts, gates, sheds and buildings that 
need painting, whether new or old. 



IIORTICULTURA L 



16»- 



Hortiniltitral 



CALENDAR FOR MARCH. 

FLOWEKS. 

As soon as the winter breaks up the 
flower borders should bo dug up and 
manure added. Perennial herbaceous 
roots may at the same time be divided 
and arranged ; and this is the time to 
obtain any new ones that are wanted 
from the nurseries. 

Cuttings should be rooted under hand 
or bell glasses of many things that will 
add much in summer to the beauty of 
the flower garden, as Heliotropes, Fack- 
iids, Petunias, Minmlas, Chrysanthe- 
mum, Pansey, Phlox, Antirrhinum., 
Verhenas and others. These will root 
in a room window under a tumbler glass 
in any light garden soil to which a fourth 
of coarse sand is added. The glass 
should daily be taken off and the inside 
of it wiped dry, and then immediately 
replaced. Whilst the inside of the glass 
is found to be moist, no water will be 
required. 

Tender or Hardy Annuals may be 
sown in a cold frame now, to remove af- 
terwards into the borders, which will 
enable them to bloom earlier than those 
.sown next month for general bloom. 

Greenhouse. — The plants will be grow- 
ing more rapidly, and therefore their 
young shoots will be more susceptable 
of frost, en which account fires must 
only be discontinued when that can be 
done with safety. But the more gradu- 
illy the growth is made, the finer will 
be the bloom, on which account it is de- 
sirable to use as little artificial heat as 
possible. For the same reason, in mild, 
sunny weather, more air should be ad- 
mitted in the day. At all times avoid 
winds and sharp currents of air. 

More water will be required as the 
plants advance, and the syringe phou'd 
be used freely every day, except iu se- 
vere weather. 



Keep the new growth of all plants 
well tied out, which, by admitting light 
and air to their centers, eucourages a 
strong growth and a bushy habit. 

Fruit Garden. — Prune all fruit trees 
not j'ct done. If any are to be planted, 
let the ground for them be prepared, so 
that they be got in as soon as the spring 
weather is sufficicnaly advanced to ren- 
der it fit to remove them. 

Strawberries may be planted the end 
of this, or beginning of next month, ac- 
cording to the situation and the weather. 
Old beds that were covered over in the 
fall, should be uncovered as soon as the 
severe weather is past, and the earth be- 
tween the plants should be stirred three 
inches deep with a garden fork. 

Easpherries laid down in the fall 
should be uncovered, and the canes tied 
up for bearing. 

KITCIIEX GARDEN. 

As soon as the fi ost permits, accord- 
ing to the locality, the ground should be 
dug over and manured, preparatory to 
getting in the crops. But it is better, if 
the ground is very wet, to wait a few 
days, for it works to better advantage 
when not saturated with water. 

Unless seed has been sown in frames 
for early crops, that should now be done 
immediately ; especially Lettuce, Early 
York, and Early Ox-heart Cabbage. 

Radishes may be sown in a warm bor- 
der as soon as it can be got ready. 

In a hot-bed, Tomatoes, Egg-Plants, 
Pepper.;, and other things that may be 
wanted early, may be sown. 

Cabbage and Cauliflower plants that 
have been kept in frames through winter, 
should be thinned out to give them room, 
and the earth between those left stirred an 
inch or two deep. The plants taken out 
may bo put into another frame to stand 
a few weeks, till they can be planted out, 
or they may be put in rows six inches 



164 



HORTICULTURAL 



apart, and be protected at night with 
boards or some litter scattered over 
them. 

Potatoes for the early crop may, in 
many places, be planted towards the end 
of the month. 

Spinach, Turnips, Radishes, Peas, 
Mustard, Lettuce, Cabbages of various 
sorts, and Parsley, may be sowed in 
small quantities for first crops, or to fol- 
low plants now in frames of same sort. 

Asparagus beds may have a good 
dressing of salt, (a pint to every square 
yard,)and the litter or manure laid on in 
the fall should now be forked in under 
the surface ; but with care, so as not to 
injure the crowns of the plants. 

Rhubarb beds not forcing, may be 
treated in the same way, (except the 
salt.) 

Herb beds may be sown. Sage, Sum- 
mer and Winter Savory, Thyme, Sweet 
Marjoram, Mint and Pennyroyal, as the 
most useful. 

All Kitchen Garden seeds whether to 
stand where sown, or for transplanting, 
should be sown in rows, and not broad- 
cast. The plants will be much stronger, 
better in quality, and earlier at maturity 
by adhering to that plan. 

If it is wished to have Celery very 
early it may now be sown in a hot-bed. 



THE GARDEN, ORCHARD, FLOWER 
YARD, ETC. 

We copy the following from the Cot- 
ton Planter and Soil of the South, one 
of the very best journals of the kind 
that comes to our table. In that cli- 
mate the suggestions are adapted to 
January, but if our northern readers 
will attend to them in March, or even 
early in April, they will do well : 

Garden Work for January. — At the 
expense of telling an " oft told tale," we 
begin our year's gardening again. Truth 
loses some of its force by repetition and 
new discoveries in horticultural science 
are too rare to fill up a monthly Journal 
like this. The fact is, the true prin- 
ciples of culture, are as yet, so little un- 



derstood and practised by the multitude, 
that there will be novelty for a long time 
to come, even in making a garden. The 
vegetable garden should now be highly 
manured and the manures well tui-ned 
under, coarser manures may be used 
now than at planting time. At the ex- 
treme South, hot-beds may now be got 
ready for starting early lettuces, rad- 
ishes and early cabbage. Let the ground 
work be fresh stable manure, cover this 
with good garden mold, and place the 
sash and frame over. A common win- 
dow sash will answer. The box or 
frame should slope towards the sun. 
Some straw or matting should-be conven- 
ient to cover the glass in very cold nights. 
Plants as hardy as cabbage, lettuce, cress, 
etc., may be advanced so as to come into 
the transplanting bed nearly as soon as 
the seeds sowed in the open ground have 
sprouted. Those who have garden plots 
that aie all c'ay, should now cart on 
sand, and those whose plots are all sand, 
should cart on clay. The clay will bind 
the sand, and the sand will loosen the 
clay. Both are as essential to the pro- 
ductiveness of a garden as manures. 
The constant cropping of a garden is 
very apt to exhaust some quality of the 
soil that manures do not supply again. 
In this case, where it is convenient cover 
the whole surface with virgin earth from 
the woods or swamps. 

New Asparagus beds may now be 
made ; select a locality with a clay sub- 
soil, excavate the bed as large as it is to 
be, two feet deep, fill this in with old, 
well rotted manure, until nearly full, 
then cover with good mold and set out 
the roots ; seeding roots of one year, 
are preferable ; plant them about eight 
inches apart each way ; let the roots 
spread as they originally grew, and 
cover the crown bed about two inches. 
The second year, the bed will yield a 
fine cutting for the table, and continue 
to improve, with good management, for 
twenty years to come. We look upon 
asparagus as the most delicious vegeta- 
ble grown in the garden. It is simple 
and easy of culture. The bed properly 
made, most of the work is done. Onion 
sets, buttons and bulbs, should now be 
planted. Plant all the shallott tribes, 
both by the button and dividing the 
roots. Hen manure is especially adapted 
to the onion family; pulverize it well, 
spread it evenly over the surfoce of the 
ground and spade it under ; plant the 
button or set in drills wide enough for 



HORTICULTURAL 



lOS 



the hoe to go between, six inches apart 
in the drill. 

Irish potatoes may now be planted 
under straw. Plow the ground well, 
open furrows two feet wide ; in the bot- 
tom of this furrow scatter wheat bran, 
on tliis drop the potatoes a foot apart, 
level the ridge down and cover the 
whole surfiice two feet deep, with wheat, 
oat, pine or straw or oak leaves. The 
rains will beat down the loose straw to 
a few inches, hut there will be a mois- 
ture between the straw and leaves, and 
good mealy potatoes will be grown. 

The Flower Yard. — This will be a 
cold month for flowers, but preparation 
must be made for Spring and Summer 
flowers. Lose no time in planting out 
all hardy shrubbery ; imported flower- 
ing bulbs may yet be planted. All bulbs 
bloom best in a sandy soil. Early bloom- 
ing bulbs, like the hyacinth, tulip, crocus 
jonquille, polyanthus, narcissus and the 
lily, may be planted on bor crs in the 
shade of shrubbery and trees, without de- 
triment to their bloom, as they bloom so 
early. Their blomn has come and gone 
before the trees need all the moisture, or 
have put out foilage enough to sh'dc 
them. Late flowering bulbs, such as the 
Amaryllis and Gladiolus, want all the 
sunlight and air they can have. Chinese 
Pe<jnias may now be taken up, separated 
and replan ed. In souarating, take care 
to leave a bud with each root to be 
planted ; these are very desirable and 
showy flowers, and blnom best in a sandy 
soil ; some of the varie'ies are perfumed 
like the rose. Dahlias that have not 
been taken up, should now be taken up 
and placed iu a dry iilacc, secure from 
frost, until planting time in March and 
April. Cuttings of all kinds of sh'ub- 
bery may now be planted. Virgin earth 
should he worked in around roses and 
hardy vinns. The earth may be made 
too rich for flowers producing a large 
growth of wood and foilagc, with but 
few flo vcr buds. Be'is for annuals 
should now be manured and well spaded 
under ; well rotted cow manure is the 
Vjcst animal manure for flowers. Hardy 
annual seeds may now be pbmted. Ap- 
plications of lifjuid guino around the 
roots of flowers :iftcr they have l)udded, 
wdl increase the .size and brilliancy of 
the bloom. 

TnE Fruit Okciiakd. — Wo do not 
mean when we he:id this article, to only 
converse with those wlio have acres in 



fruits trees — but to all who have a single 
apple, pear or peach tree. It is a good 
time this month to look over the triniks 
and limbs of the apple, pear and peach 
tre*. If the bark of the tree is rough 
and mossy, there is something at fault in 
the food. The earth should be carefully 
removed from the roots, and its place 
filled with rich virgin earth, with some 
strong wood ashos. If this can not be 
got, fill in with old, well rotted manure. 
Take an old knife and scrape the trunk 
clean of moss, atid all parasites, and give 
it a rubbing with soft country soap. 
Examine the limbs of the Pear; if they 
are found wilted or shriveled, cut them 
back to sound wood. Remove the eai th 
around the base of the Peach tree, and 
if a black gum is found oozing from the 
roots, scrape it carefully awaj'^ and probe 
the wounds with a sharp knife, a long 
white flat worm will be found, which 
has caused the gum ; pour boiling water 
into the holes where the knife can not 
reach, and on the gum removed, to kill 
any of the worms that may be concealed ; 
fill in around the tiee with fresh earth. 
There are many fruit trees standing in 
3'ards and gardens, that yield but a poor 
return of fruit, from the feet that their 
falling leaves are carefully swept away, 
and they have none of nature's food to 
feed the next crop of fruit. All the 
leaves that have fallen in the orchard, 
should now be worker) in the soil ; they 
may be worked in with alight p'ow, but 
near the tree should be turned under 
with a pronged fork to prevent cutting 
the roots. If the soil is p'>or around 
fruit trees, there is no crop that will pay 
better for manure. The question will 
be, how to work the manure under, with- 
out mutilating the roots, for it is the 
surface roots of trees that feed for th« 
fruit, hence the importance of planting 
fruit trees in a soil naturally rich. But 
art will overcome almost every obstacle; 
fO' k up the soil around the tree as far as 
the roots extend, (and they run horizon- 
tally, as far as the limbs extend from 
the ground,) and aF>ply liquid manure; 
th's may be applied at any season with 
safety. No time should now be lost in 
planting out fmit tices. Jlore than half 
of the tri'cs planted, are ruined by being 
planted too deep. Deal only with such 
nursery men as take them up with care, 
preserving all their roots, and plant them 
just as they stood in tlie jm-und, Mith 
all their latterals spread, and not one inch 
deeper than they stood in the nursery. 



166 



HORTICULTURAL. 



If an orchard is to be planted, it should 
be well sub-soiled, and the holes for the 
roots dug twice as large as the root-! ex- 
tend ; good surface mold should be filled 
around the roots. All bruised roots 
should be cut clean before being inserted 
in the ground, and if the tree has lost 
much of its roots, the top should be cut 
back to correspond. Do not be anxious 
to plant large trees. A tree as large as 
the little finger, is more certain to live, 
and if a grafted tree, will produce fruit 
quicker than one as* large as the arm. 
Plant the tree firmly at once, and not 
rely on ramming it afterwards. If the 
soil is well sifted around the roots, it, can- 
not be rammed too firmly at once — the 
little rootlets which are to be its feeders, 
will find something to hold upon, and 
will go to work immediately. 

The Strawberry Bed. — There is no 
better time in the year, to plant out 
strawberry vines than this month. The 
pistillate varieties should be planted in 
the vicinity of the staminates. Hovey's 
Seedling is a pistillate, and will not pro- 
duce fruit without being impregnated 
with a staminate. Every tenth row of 
staminates will impregnate the Hoveys 
well. Our new Hautbois is a staminate, 
and is a good impregnator for pistillate 
varieties. This pla.nt being a vigorous 
grower, requires more room than most 
strawberry plants. The ground designed 
for the strawberry bed, should be covered 
with vegetable matter, with a coat of 
ashes, either bleached or unbleached, the 
whole well turned under ; the Hautbois 
should be planted two feet by three ; 
other varieties may be planted nearer. 
As the plants begin to run, the snil 
should be kept mellow that the runners 
may take root freely. When cultivated 
entirely for fruit, the runners should be 
kept down ; as fast as the runners appear 
pinch them out; this is easily done when 
they are young and tender, with the 
thumb and forefinger ; when the plant 
begins to bloom, unless it rains often, 
water freely just at night; frequent 
watering will cause the fruit to set, swell 
rapidly and ripen quick. When the 
ptrawbei'ry is cultivated on a large scale, 
new fresh land should be selected if 
possible. All animal manures should be 
discarded in strawberry culture when 
the plant has once got possession of the 
ground; ;ill the space between the plants 
should be mulched with decomposing 
leaves. Chip manure from an oak or 



hickory wood pile is one of the best of 
fertilizers for the strawberry. 

Shade and Ornamental Trees. — There 
are many trees indigenous to the South, 
suitable for shade and ornamental pur- 
poses. It is not alone the flowei ing tree 
that is ornamental, there are deciduous 
and evergreen trees, highly ornamental ; 
the live and water oak, are both shade 
and ornamental ; the tulip tree and 
sweet gum, are gems in the leafy coro- 
net. Among the evergreens, the magnolia, 
cedar, holly and wild olive are perpet- 
ual emeralds, and even the common pine 
of the country is not to be despised. All 
these evergreens grow readily from seed ; 
they may be planted on dry upland, and 
will grow and flourish where they will 
not bear transplanting. There are some 
beautiful evergreens being introduced 
from abroad, but not one that we have 
ever seen, that will compare for beauty 
with the wild olive. It is beautiful as an 
evergreen, with its dense glossy foilage 
and graceful form. It is beautiful in 
flower, showing its myriads of white 
blos-oms among the glitte>ing foilage. 
It is beautiful when in fruit, producing 
thousands of bright black beri-ies, which 
clustering among the green foliage gives 
winter the air of summer. It is easily 
propagated from the seed. The seeds of 
all evergreens should be planted in the 
fall. When trees are removed from 
damp localities to dry uplands, the earth 
in which they grow should be carried 
with them, so that the roots may be em- 
bodied in it, until they have taken hold 
of the ground. The fancy pruning of 
an ornamental tree, is bad taste. It is 
folly f )r man to attempt to improve upon 
one of the mnst perfect and beautiful 
creations of God. Lose no time in plant- 
ing out trees ; plant them on the road 
side for shade ; plant them on the avenue 
for shade and ornament too. 



FRUITS WHICH SUCCEED WELL 
IN NEW-JERSEY. 

BY D. PETIT. 

The following, which we take from 
the NeiD- Jersey Farmer, will be valuable, 
as embracing the conclusions of the Am- 
erican Pomogical Society, especially to 
such of our readers as live in the latitude 
of New Jersey ; and the remarks of the 
writer respecting the influence of climate 



HORTICITLTURAL 



167 



and location on fruits will give it a high 
value for all : 

At the American Pomological Society, 
second session, held at Philadelphia, in 
1852, " The Committee for the State of 
New-Jersey report the following list of 
fruits that have been tested by us, or 
under our immediate notice, and have 
produced well ; arc good varieties of 
their several classes, and arc worthy of 
general cultivation in our State :" 

Applet. — Bough, large yellow, Early 
Harvest, Fall Pippin, Ilagloe, Red June 
Eating, Monmouth Pippin, Maiden's 
Blush, Newtown Pippin, Rhode Island 
Greening, Sheepnose, Striped Harvest, 
Tewksbury, Winter Blush, White Sc-ek- 
nofurther, Woolman's Summer Rose. 

Apricots. — Burlington, Peach, Moor- 
park. 

Currants. — ^Black Naples, Large Red, 
Knight's, Large Red, Wilmot's, Sweet 
Red, Knight's, White Dutch. 

Grapes, Natke. — Catawba, Isabella, 
Elsenborough. 

Peachen. — Alberge, Early Tillotson, 
Early Red, Troth's, Early York, (Seratte,) 
Largo Early York, Late free, Ward's, 
Late Heath Cling, Late Malecaton, Mor- 
ris White, Neiv-YorkRare Ripe, Oldmix- 
on cling, Oldmixon free, Red Check 
Malecaton, Marker's Seedung, Tippeca- 
noe, Cling, White Malecaton, Coles. 

Pears. — Andrews, (American,) Bart- 
lett, Beurrc Bose, Beurre d' Anjou, 
Beurre d' Aremburg, Beurre Easter, 
Beurre Golden, of Bilboa, Bloodgood, 
(American,) Doyenne d' Ete, Duchcsse 
d' Angouleme, Elizabeth, Mannings, 
Flemish licauty, Fondante d' Autorane, 
Glout Morceau, Lawrence, (American,^ 
Louise Bon d' Jersey, Winti^r Nelis, 
Dearborn's Seedling, (Am.,) Seckel (Am- 
erican,) Tyson, (American,) Urbaniste, 
Washington, (American.) 

Plums. — Drap d' or, Golden Drop, 
Coe's, Green Gage, Imperial Blue, Large 
Yellow Gage, Orleans, Smith's, Washing- 
ton. 

Quinces. — Apple Shaped, Pear Shaped, 
Portugal. 

Raspherries. — Antwerp Yellow, Ant- 
werp Red, Fastolf, Franconia, 

SirawherricH. — Late Pine, Turner's 
Methven, Scarlet, Ilovey's Seedling. 

At the third session, held at Boston, 
in 185 1, Wni. Reid and JabczW. Hayes, 
for the northern part of the State, have 
added the following to their list : 



Fall Apples. — Orange Pippin, Graven- 
stein, Fameuse. 

Winter. — Hubbardson's Nonesuch, 
Wine Sap, Bahlwin, Ro.xbury Russet, 
Northern Spy, Bellflower. 

Thomas Hancock, for the locality of 
Burlington, added : 

Lady, Autumn Pearmane, Smith's Ci- 
der, Monstrous Pippin, Cooper's Redling, 
Roman Stem, Summer Pearmane. 

Reid and Hayes adds : 

Peaches. — Early Newington, or Honest 
Johns, C'awford's late. 

Thos. Hancock added : 

Yellow Rare Ripe, Columbia, Early Mal- 
ecaton, Crawford's Early, Imperial, Hon- 
est John, or Geo. IV., Nonpyrcil, Scott, 
Red Rare Ripe, Stump of the World. 

Reid and Hayes add : 

Slimmer Pears. — Madeline, Early Ca- 
tharine, Dearborn's Seedling, Beurre Gif- 
ford. 

Fall Pears. — Belle Lucrative, St. Ghis- 
lain, Marie Loui.se. 

Winter Pears. — ^Vicar of Wakefield, 
Benrre Diel. 

Hancock adds : 

Early Catharine, Lemon, Henrietta, 
(Edwards,) Rostiezcr, Stevens' Gcnessee, 
St. Ghi.slain, Oswego, Muscadine, Os- 
band's Summer Trimble, Echsissery, 

The fourtli session, held in Rochester, 
in 1856, adds but few to the list. 

Having no published list of fruits suit- 
ed or adapted to the southern counties 
of New-Jersey, I am induced to send the 
following list, comprising such as have 
succeeded well with us ; though there are 
many other kinds of pears and apples 
which promise well, but have not been 
sufficiently tested to place on the list, 
but may be added at some future time : 

Summer Apples. — Woolman's Summer 
Rose, Lippincott Early, Early Harvest, 
Prince's Early, Bough, large sweet. Sum- 
mer Queen, Bevan. 

Fall Apples. — Codling, Spice, Van- 
dyne, Blush, Fall Pippin, Cabhigehead. 
Winter Apples. — Roman Stem, Turn 
of Lane, Winter Queen, Lady, Lambert, 
Smith's Cider, Sweet Can, Wine Sop, 
Ridge Pippin, Tewksbury, Winter Blush, 
Jersey Russet, Gray House, Rhode Is- 
land (Greening, Cooper's Redling, Lippin- 
cott Sweet. 

Summer and Fall Apples. — SuTnmer 
Pearmane, Jeisey Sweeting, Hagloe, 
Holland Pippin. 

Fall and Winter Apples. — Hay's or 
Wine, Redstreak, Morgan, Cumberland 
Spice, Fall Brown, White Seeknofurther. 



168 



HORTICULTURAL 



Summer Pears. — Madeline, Catharine, 
Bartlett. 

Fall Pears. — Duchesse d' Angouleme, 
Seckel, Finne d' Naples, Urbaniste, Bon 
Louise d' Jersey, Graslin, Epine Damas, 
Flemish Beauty, Napoleon, Doyenne 
Boussock, Beurre Bose. 

Winter Pears. — Gratolege Jersey, 
Knight's Monarch, Duchesse d' Mars, 
Beurre Easter, Glout Morcca,u, Passe 
Colmar, Chaumontel. 

Peaches. — Froth's Early, Early York, 
Geo. IV., Red Rare Ripe, Oldniixon, 
Cling and Free, Malecaton, Mignone, 
Ward's Late Free, Cook, Petit's Imperial, 
Crawford's Late Free, Mammoth White, 
Smnck, Lateheath. 

Gheriies. — May Duke, Early Rich- 
mond, Kentish or Pie Cherry, Black 
Tartarian, White Heart, Bleedi.ig Heart 
or June Duke, White Bey;arreau, Napo- 
leon Regarreau, Carnation Elton, Belle 
d' Choicy, Bullock Heart, English Black 
Heart. 

The Newton and Green Pippins, Spit- 
zenburgs, Bellflowers, and some other 
apples, which do w^ell at the North, fall 
from the ti'ees too early in this latitude 
to make good winter fruit, except in eld 
seasons, when they have done well The 
Gilpin or Carthouse has iiot borne well 
for .several years, and the fruit has been 
defective. It was foinierly one of the 
best bearers. The fall Seeknofurther, fi ir- 
merly one of the best, appears to have 
run out — trees very defective in jirowth. 
The Ml Pearmatie does not keep well. 
The American Pippin doe^ not bear well. 
TheBevan, which originated near Salem, 
is thought to be the best of all summer 
apples, for baking — will keep longer, and 
will command as high a price in the Phil- 
adelphia market as any other early apple. 
The Holland Pippin — the largest of all 
summer apples — has borne well lately. 
The Codling bears well — fruit is some- 
times defective or knotty. The Spice is 
a flat apple — very fair and good for dry- 
ing — trees bear abundantly. The V.-tn- 
dyne is one of the best npples known. It 
is yellow with a blush — a good size and 
very tender — in season about a month ; 
trees grow well, with yellow shoots. The 
Blush and Fall Pippin are too well known 
to be noticed here, except the Fall Pip- 
pin sometimes passes under the name of 
Golden Pippin. The Cabbagehea<1 is a 
flat apple, from yellow to very vellow, 
when fully ripe, very cri'^p, rich and 
juicy — a good market apple. The Wine, 
Hay's or Redstreak, is a popular apple. 



The Morgan is a good one. The Cum- / 
berland Spice is good, but rather a shy 
bearer. The Fall Brown is always fair 
and good. The White Secknnfurther, 
when in perfection, has not a superior. 
The Roman Stem is A., No. 1, in all re- 
spects except size. Turn of Lane and 
Winter Queen are both small and good — 
good bear ers. The Lady is a good fancy 
apple. The Lambert is a new fruit, and 
promises to be second to none, when con- 
sidered in all respects. It is a large red 
good keeping apple. The Cider is a 
great bearer — fiuit large. The Sweet 
tJan is good for apple-sauce and cider — 
an excellent bearer. The Ridge Pippin 
is a large, ribby apple, and pt omises well. 
Jersey Russet is one of the best, though 
small. The Gray House i.-^ a great bear- 
er, even when others fail- — this fruit is 
better than none. 

Peaks. — The White Doyenne, Brown 
Beurre, and some other varieties, crack 
so badly that they are hardly worth cul- 
tivating. The Rousclit Hatif of Down- 
ing, or Early Cfitharine, is a well known 
pear in this section, better than the Bart- 
lett with me — which is some what astrin- 
gent, though the tree grows and bears 
well, particularly on the pear stock. The 
Duchesse d' Angouleme is very large, 
and a first rate pear in all respects ; so 
is the Bon Louise d' Jersey. The Gras- 
lin has reached ten feet in height, in three 
years, on the quince, and has borne ex- 
cellent fruit. The Beurre Bosc is large, 
and a first rate fruit on the pear, almost 
equal to the Seckel, but wi!lnot giowon 
the quince without double w^orking. 
The Duchesse d' Mars, of Downing, is a 
small pear or nearly medium ; flesh very 
melting and juicy, somewhat l)uttery, 
with a rich and perfumed flavor — Octo- 
ber to November. I have a tree from 
France, under that name, which bore fruit 
last j'ear l;irger than the Bartlett, and 
very handsome. They are later than the 
Beurre Easter, as I have not succeeded 
in ripening them yet in a stove room, 
and it is now Christmas ; tlie tree is a 
strong grower. So is the Chaumontel 
and bears large and good fruit. The 
Bloodgood is recommended elsewhere, 
but what I purchased under that name 
proved a fall variety. 

Peaches. — The Cook peach is one of 
the best. It is a large white and red 
free stone, ripens about the time of 
Ward's late free. It received its name 
from Joseph Cook, of Philadelphia, who 
furnished the buds from a seedling tree 



MECHANICAL. 



169 



in that city. " Petit's Imperial," is of the 
first size — is considered here the best 
Colored and richest peach known. It 
has sold higher in the Philadelphia mar- 
ket than any other peach ever placed the 



!-ide of it. The tree is a strong upright 
grower; it originated here, and first 
came into bearing in ] 843. 

Salem, N. J., ]2mo, 25, 1857. 



m 



nlwuxic'ii 



ADJUSTIFIABLE SELF-RAKING 
REAPER AND MOWER. 

Wk call attention to Manny & Co.'s 
advertisement of this machine, the mo- 
del of which we have examined with 
great i;arc, and we see not why it may 
not prove all that the patentee and man- 
ufacturers claim for it. 

Oui- opinion has heretofore been that 
the self raking apparatus must necessa- 
rily make a mower and reaper more 
complicated than is admissable for a ma- 
chine to be subjected to such " rough and 
tumble" usage. 

But our examination of this machine 
leads us to doubt the correctness of our 
former judgment ; and if the self-rakmg 
operation can be made to save the labor 
of a man in harvest time, it is an object. 
— Ed. 



PLANING MACHINE. 

We have examined a new planing ma- 
chine, patented by II. II. Baker, of New- 
market, New-Jersey. 

This machine seems to us to combine 
great simplicity with efficiency of action. 
The smallest size, for dressing sashes, 
blinds, small casings, etc., can be worked 
with the foot, and from sami^les dressed 
by it, we judge that it does its work well. 

Machines for working larger stuff are 
moved by a one-horse power. The 
prices vary with the size, from $25 to 
$7 50. This machine is eminently porta- 
ble, weighing but about 400 lbs., and 
very compact when put up for removal. 
It strikes us as the very thing for house 
carpenters, and others doing an itinerant 
business, as the cost is but trifling, and 



the machine dresses wood, goring, be- 
velled, or almost any shape, as well as 
the regular oblong form. — Ed. 



WEST'S IMPROVED PUMP. 

There are but few places cither in 
town or country where the aid of a pump 
is not required. iJence the huge supply 
of them and the multiplicity of patterns. 
Simplicity and durability are essential 
requisites in a good working pump, if 
one is to have continued satisfaction in 
the use of it: 

We have had in use for months past 
one of West's pumps, which has given 
us more S'ltisfaction as a force or lifting 
purnp, than any we have ever used. It 
is one of great power and well adapted 
for ship decks, mines, factories, green- 
houses, graperies, &c. &c. The Mtni/,g 
Ghrohicle and ludhr ay Journal says: 

" It is commended for its extreme sim- 
plicity of construction, great strength 
and consequent durability, and cheap- 
ness of rcp^iir. Although it has but two 
valves necessary to its action, (an addi- 
tional foot-valve being T)ut in for greater 
security,) it is perfectly douhlc-acti. g, 
throwing a continuous stream, with great 
force. There is no stuffing-box in this 
pump — the pressure being held by a cup 
packing, like that upon the working pis- 
ton, working in a cylinder titteri for the 
purpose within the upper air chamber — 
which we think must be a great iinjirove- 
ment, <as stiilfing is so liable to be de- 
ranged and to leak under a strong pres- 
sure, and to say nothing of the great loss 
by friction incident thereto. It also has 
two air-chambers — the one as before 
mentioned suirounding the upper cylin- 
der and connnunicating with the pump 
above the valves, the other surrounding 
the lower or working cylin<ler, and com- 
municating below the valves ; thus the 
action of the valve is cushioned upon 
both sides by air — preventing water- 
hammer and vacuum thump, and ena- 



170 



MECHANICAL. 



bling a much smaller and less expensive 
pipe to supply the pump. The valves 
are very accessible, and simply and 
cheaply repaired. They work much 
easier than any other pump we have 
ever seen, the 4 inch cylinder size being 
worked by children in wells 100 feet deep, 
and as they are extremely cheap, as well 
as simple and strong, we freely recom- 
mend them. They are manufactured 
and sold only by A. W. Gay & Co., 118 
Maiden Lane, at the Warner Pump De- 
pot. — iV". Y. Observer. 



PATENTS. 

Implement for Holding open Shoes, 
&c. — John AUender, of New-London, 
Conn. 

Sewing Machines. — ^Benjamin J. An- 
gell, Attleborough, Mass. 

Pumps. — William Boyers, of Mount 
Carroll, 111. 

HyoRO-CARBON Vapor Lamps.— Robert 
R. Crosby, of Boston, Mass. 

Cards for Currying Cattle. — 0. S. 
Dickerman, of Lansingburg, N. Y. 

Grinding Mills. — H. V. Duryea, Ful- 
ton, N. Y. 

Railroad Car Axle Boxes. — George 
W. Geisendorff, of Indianapolis, Ind., and 
Jacob C. Geisendorff, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Lubricating Apparatus for Journal 
Boxes of Railroad Cars. — Jacob C. 
Geisendorff, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Machine for Cutting Tenons on 
Spokes. — Mahlon Gregg, of Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Shingle Machlne. — William Gregor, 
of New-York City. 

Potato Planters. — Edward E. Haw- 
ley, of New- Haven, Conn. 

Stave Machine. — Elias Moore, Wil- 
liam Clark, and James Lyndsey, of Shel- 
byville, Ind. 

Mode of Burning Brick. — A. J. Mul- 
len, and R. Hall, of Greensboro', Ala. 

Musical Instruments. — Ureli C. Hill, 
of Jersey City, N. J., and Charles F. 
Hill, of New- York City. 

Hominy Mills. — Philip Homrighaus, 
of Royalton, Ohio. 

Washing Machine, — Edsvard Julier, 
of McConnellsville, Ohio. 

Straining Reciprocating Saws. — G. 
P. Ketchan, Jr., of Bloomington, Ind. 

Removable Window Sash. — Robert 
H. Ku-ck, of Utica, N. Y. 



-Tho- 



Scrapers for Grinding Mills.- 
mas E. Little, of Janesville, Wis. 

Flour Bolts. — Samuel G. McMurtry, 
of Memphis, Tenn. 

Operating Railroad Station Pumps. 
—William McVeigh, of Boone, 111. 

Attaching India Rubber Soles to 
Boots and Shoes. — Abram T. Merwin, 
of New-Haven, Conn. 

Manufacture of Wrought Iron Rail- 
road Chairs. — James Milliken, of Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Clamp for Holding Rectangulab 
Pieces of Wood while being Bored, &c. 
— Henry Miller, of Grafton, Va. 

Churn. — Enos Page, of Streetsbor- 
ough, Ohio. 

Machines for Cutting Brush from 
Cotton Fields. — Elisfs Peck, of Canton, 
111. 

Pedals for Organs, &c. — Thomas 
Robjohn, of New- York City. 

Lead Pipe Machine. — Charles E. Rock- 
well, of New-York C\ty. 

Joints for Sheet Metal Roof. — Ste- 
phen Scotton, of Richmond, Ind. 

Washing Machine. — W. H. Tambling, 
of Berlin, Wis. 

Painting and Varnishing Machine. — 
H. Thayer and L. L. Martin, of Warsaw, 
N. Y. 

Collapsible Boats. — N. Thompson, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lap-Joints for Belting. Henry Un- 
derwood, of New-York City. 

Grain and Grass Harvesters. — Aa- 
ron VanDuzen, of Goshen, N. Y. 

Corn Huskers. — F. M. Walker, of 
Greensboro', N. C. 

Plows. — George Watt, of Richmond, 
Va. 

Machines for Planting Potatoes. — 
T. B. Whyte, of Greenwich, N. Y. 

Bottle Stopper. — J. B. Williams, of 
New-York City. 

Cotton Gins. — L. J. Chichester, (as- 
signor to H. G. Evans, Saml. Barstow, 
and D. L. Winteringham,) of Ne«--York 
City. 

Corn Huskers. — A. R. Davis, (assign- 
or to himself and B. D. Moody,) of East 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Corn Huskers. — Daniel Lombard (as- 
signor to himself and G. F. Richardson,) 
of Boston, Mass. 

Fire-Arms. — F. D. Newbury (assignor 



SCIENTIFIC 



171 



to Richard V. Dewitt, Jr..) of Albany, 
N. Y. 

Cane Gun. — John F. Thomas, (assign- 
or to liimself and Saml. Remington.) of 
Dion, N. Y. 

Hand Corn Planters. — Joshua Fair- 



bank and E. C Durfee, of Leon, N. Y., 
administrators of the estate of J. B. 
Fairbauk, deceased, late of New- York 
City. 

Hydrants. — Kingston Goddard, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



^rii)nti|ir, 



SCIENTIFIC. 

We are obliged this month to omit 
our Chemical article for want of space. 
It shall appear in our next. 



For the American- Farmers' Magazine. 

THE ANALOGY BETWEEN PLANTS 
AND ANL\L\LS. 

The analogy existing between plants 
and animals, in many respects, is very 
striking. In some instances the resem- 
blance is so near that it is difficult to 
discriminate between them. The link 
which binds the two kingdoms together 
is so vcrj'- small, that the most skillful 
physiologist can scarcely tell where ani- 
mal life begins, or vegetable life ends. 
The spongi and other sea animals are in- 
.stanccs. This connecting link seems to 
extend throughout the animal kingdom. 
Man and brute seem to be linked to- 
gether in the monkey family ; quadru- 
peds and fowls in the bat, etc. 

Both animals and plants are possessed 
of a principle called Z//b, Vhich is essen- 
tial to their existence, and distinguishes 
them from mere inert matter. All we 
know of this principle is that it exists — 
the cause lies hid, and must be referred 
to the immediate agency of an all-crea- 
tive power. This life, or living princi- 
ple, both in animals and vegetables, is 
sustained through the medium of organ- 
ized matter. This matter or body must 
be fed and nourished by food adapted to 
its nature ; and as long as the bod}' con- 
tinues in a state capable of being nour- 
ished, the life remains unimpaired ; but 
whenever the matter composing the body 



becomes disorganized, and consequently 
incapable of assimilating its food, the 
life is endangered, "and unless the func- 
tions can be restored or brought into 
proper action, the life becomes extinct. 
How important then is it to understand 
the whole organization of the system, 
and the modus operandi of food and me- 
dicine on all the organs, in order to keep 
the body in a healthy condition and pre- 
vent life from going out. 

In the animal body there are certain 
organs whoso oflBce is to supply and re- 
ceive nourishment and assimilate it to 
the various wants of the system. The 
stomach is the receptacle of food in the 
animal body. There, by means of the 
gastric juice, this food becomes changed 
into chyme, and then, by means of other 
secretions, it is formed into chjie, and 
finally, by coming in contact with the 
oxygen, inhaled into the lungs, a portion 
is turned into blood, which circulates 
through the arteries and veins into every 
part of the system. The food for the 
animal stomach, particularly in man, is 
prepared by artificial means. 

In like manner the life of plants is 
sustained by food, differe ;t indeed from 
that necessary for animals, but such as 
is adapted to their nature ; and they will 
grow and flourish, or they will languish 
and die, according as this food is given 
or withheld. But what is the food of 
plants ? and how is it digested and as- 
similated, and made to circulate through 
the s\'stem, so as to become a part and 
parcel of the plant? We answer, that 
nature has provided for all these things 



m 



SCIENTIFIC 



by a most beautiful arrangement. Their 
food consists of the soluble parts of the 
earth, and the numerous and small spon- 
gioles at the ends of the fibres or roots 
may be called the stomach. The food is 
digested — not in the stomach as is the 
case with animals, but without the sto- 
mach — by the rain and action of the at- 
mosphere. In this way the particles of 
the soil that are too gross to enter the 
spongioles of the plant are decomposed, 
so that water can hold them in solution. 
The food is now in a state of digestion 
and can easily enter the spongioles of 
the I oots, and thence by capillary attrac- 
tion is made to circulate through the 
pores of the plant, as blood circulates 
through the veins of the animal. Now, 
as blood is said to be the life of animals, 
so this food or sap, as it is called, is the 
life of plants. By some mysterious or 
chemical action this sap is assimilated, 
and forms the bark, wood, leaves, and 
flowers of the plant. 

Plants also, like animals, seem to have 
the power of 'breathing. The leaves 
supply the place of lungs, or rather they 
are the lungs of plants. As is the case 
with animals, when the atmosphere en- 
ters the lungs, it is decomposed ; but 
with this difference, in animals the oxy- 
gen is retained, and the carbon is thrown 
off; in plants the caAon is retained and 
enters the circulation, while the oxygen 
is thrown off. In this w^ay plants seem 
as a great pui'ifier of the atmosphere. 
Plants and animals mutually assist each 
other, and contribute to each other's 
health and vigor — the one receiving as 
nourishment what the other rejects. 

Another resemblance between plants 
and animals is, the distinction of sex. 
It is well known that the distinction ex- 
ists in the vegetable world. All plants 
producing flowers and seed, have male 
and female organs, that is stamens and 
pistils. In most plants, these different 
organs are produced on the same blos- 
som ; but in many species, they are 
formed on different plants. These belong 



to what botanists call dimcious. Wit- 
ness hemp, parsimmon, mulberry, &c. 
The pollen contained on the anthers of 
the stamens, is wafted by the wind, or 
carried by insects, from one plant to an- 
other, and fertilizes or impregnates the 
pistilate flowers. In this way, too, cross- 
es are made and hybrids produced. 

This is a curious and wonderful pro* 
vision of nature, and answers muny val- 
uable purposes. It not only gives brauty 
and variety to plants, but, no doubt, hasi 
a tendency to perpetuate and strengthen 
the different species. We believe it to 
be a law of nature, however it may be 
accounted for, that extends both to the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms, tha1> a 
cross is necessary to give strength and 
vigor to the system ; and to propagate 
from the same species, for successive gen- 
erations, without change, the offspring 
will degenerate, and die out, having lost 
their invigorating power. 

Plants also, like animals, seem to be 
possessed of the faculty of feeling or 
perception. They feel the influence of 
heat and cold, of light and darkness. 
Some plants are so sensitive as to shrink 
from the slightest touch. Some will turn 
their tops to the sun, and follow his 
course through the day. Some will un- 
fold their beauties to the light, and shut 
themselves up at night, as if to go to 
sleep and take their rest ; and then in 
the morning, as if refreshed with sleep, 
they will expand their flowers to the 
genial influence of the sun's rays. 

There are others, however, which re- 
verse this order of nature, and like some 
animals sleep during the day, and are 
wide awake during the night. 

There is something very curious, and 
to us short-sighted creatures very unac- 
countable, in plants. The food which 
they receive from the earth, becomes as- 
similated, and is carried up in the form 
of sap, and circulates through all the 
pores ; and organizes every part of the 
plant. But how is it that the same nour- 
ishment produces some plants that are 



SCIENTIFIC. 



178 



pleasant to the taste, while others are ex- 
ceedingly nauseous ; some are harmless, 
otht-rs medicinal ; some are wholesome 
as food, others are absolutely poison ; 
some have hard fibre, some have soft ; 
some have beauty of symmetry, while 
others are destitute of form ; some are 
capable of enduring the rigors of winter, 
while others die at the approach of frost. 
And all these different results arc pro- 
duced, as far as we know, by one and 
the same cause, the sap or nourishment 
which they receive from the earth. This 
sap, as soon as it enters the circulation, 
undergoes some change, and accommo- 
dates itself to the peculiar nature of the 
plant. That the cause of this change ex- 
ists in the plant, is evident from the fact 
that if a sweet apple be grafted on the 
stock of a sour crab, that sap which 
would have produced a sour apple, be- 
comes so changed, as soon as it enters 
the grafts, that it produces a sweet apple. 
Again, how is it that the same sap, in its 
passage through different plants pro- 
duces flowers of different colors ? And 
not only so, but we often find that plants 
of the same kidd and variety will have 
flowers of different colors ; and even 
flowers of the same plant, and which we 
might suppose would be of the same 
texture in every respect, will have 
variegated flowers — spotted witli every 
hue ; and often these colors are placed 
upon the petals, in rings or circles, with 
as much regularity as if it had been done 
by the nicest pencil and the most skillful 
painter. 

We know that everything is depend- 
ent on light for its color. The leaf is 
green, because it reflects the green rays 
of light ; the rose is red, because it re- 
elects the red rays, &c. Now, we might 
suppose that it was owing to some differ- 
ence in the structure or texture of the 
leaf and rose that caused them to reflect 
rays of different colors; but what differ- 
ence can there be in the same petal, to 
cause one part of it to reflect one color, 
and another part another ? This is some- 



thing that lies far beyond our ken. We 
simply know the fact, but the reason of 
it we do not know. 

But from these inscrutable things, we 
may learn some very important lessons. 
1st. How limited is human knowledge ! 
2d. How great, how good, and how wise 
must He be who has formed such a won- 
derful, beautiful, and harmonious sys- 
tem ! 

In all the works of nature, we see so 
many proofs of almighty power and in- 
finite wisdom, that we may well exclaim 
with the Psalmist, " Lord, how mani- 
fold are thy works ! in wisdom hast thou 
made them all : the earth is full of thy 
riches." J. R. B. 

Rosemont, Jan., 1858. 



"CHEMISTRY FOR THE MILLION." 
Read our articles, formerly under this 
head, but now under the shorter head- 
ing, " Chemical." We say this espe- 
cially to young men. They will not fail 
to acquire a valuable insight into that 
most important science, even by what 
we can communicate on paper, with all 
the disadvantages of having no labora- 
tory, no apparatus, no opportunity to 
look you in the face, to see your difficul- 
ties and remove them. A most sensible 
correspondent, one who has given many 
a valuable article for this journal, says : 
" The articles on chemistry, that have 
appeared in the Flovffh, Loom and An- 
vil, and in the Farmers' Magaziiie for a 
number of months past, should be read 
by all. Those that have neglected to 
read them should do so now. They 
contain the very information that every 
person wants. I consider it very essen- 
tial that a person understand the compo- 
sition of the different gases and the rela- 
tion they hold to one another, also to the 
soil and different farm products. The 
articles are plain and comprehensive, 
and adapted to the understanding of all 
classes." 



174 



SCIENTIFIC. 



FOB THE AMERICAN FARMERS' MAGAZIHB. 

THE WEATHER. 

Appeakance of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N. Y., in January, 1858. 

By E. HoweU. 

Place of Obftervation, 42 degrees North, 07i a Diluvial Formation, about AO feet above the 

Susquehanna River, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the New- York and Erie Railroad. 



Jan. 


TA.M. 


2 P.M. 


9 P.M. 






1 


32 


42 


32 


S.&N. 


Cloudy. 


'2 


20 


39 


30 


South 


" 


3 


19 


39 


33 


" 


Fair. 


4 


26 


48 


29 


" 


Clear. 


5 


26 


45 


31 


" 


Cloudy. 


6 


31 


36 


33 


" 


" 


1 


29 


26 


20 


West 


" 


8 


16 


25 


-0 


N.<kS. 


Fair. 


9 


24 


35 


29 


South 


Cloudy. 


10 


14 


36 


33 


S. E. 


Fair. 


11 


36 


53 


43 


South 


Cloudy. 


12 


37 


39 


24 


K<feS. 


Fair. 


13 


30 


42 


26 


South 


Cloudy. 


14 


24 


37 


20 




Fair. 


15 


19 


36 


36 




Cloudy 


16 


39 


43 


36 


N.&S. 


" 


lY 


26 


28 


25 


N. W. 


" 


18 


24 


34 


26 


N.&S. 


" 


19 


27 


32 


23 


S.&N. 


" 


20 


19 


36 


19 


" 


Fair. 


21 


16 


40 


20 


K&S. 


Clear. 


22 


27 


31 


15 


" 


" 


23 


12 


33 


23 


S. E. 


" 


24 


30 


42 


33 


" 


Fair. 


25 


37 


54 


39 


South 


Cloudy 


26 


48 


46 


32 


S.&N. 


" 


27 


33 


40 


32 


North 


" 


28 


26 


30 


26 


" 


" 


29 


26 


25 


20 


" 


" 


30 


22 


22 


20 


N. W. 


" 


31 


14 


22 


9 


" 


Fair. 



Remarks. 
Light rain in the afternoon. 



[10 P.M. 6 inches felL 
Snow commenced about 12 A.M. and stopped at 

Bright aurora in the evening. At zero. 

[P. M. Snow about gone. 
Rain commenced at 4 A. M. and stopped at 3^ 
A few farmers plowing. 



Light snow commenced at 4 P.M. 
Rain at intervals all day. 

Snow squall. • 

Light snow in the night. Snow squall through 
[the day. 



Rain in the morning before light, and in the A.M. 
Hard shower in the afternoon from the N. W. 
A few farmers plowing. 

Light snow before daylight. 
Snow squall. 



You will perceive that I have changed 
the time of observation, to agree with 
the observations that I keep for the 
Smithsonian Institution or Patent Re- 
port. 

In order to give the reader a better 
idea of our climate, where there is a day 
only one-fourth or one-half cloudy, like 
a number of hay days, I have substituted 
the word Fair instead of Cloudy, and 
cloudy when the day was all day cloudy, 
or more cloudy than clear. 

In the last fourteen months there have 
been more dark, cloudy days than in the 
same length of time before, I presume, 
in twenty years. R. H. 



FOR BLACK INK. 

Two quarts of rain water, one half 
pound of nutgalls, three ounces gum Ara 
bic, three ounces sulphate of iron ; soa) 
the nutgalls in three pints of the water 
the gum arabic in half the remainin; 
water warmed and kept so ; the sulphat 
in the other half; let them stand in tLe 
several vessels forty-eight hours, then 
mix them and the ink wiU be ready for 
use in a short time. 

It is cheaper and better for almost 
every family to make than to buy their 
ink ; and if they will follow the above, 
they will be sure of having a good arti- 
cle. — Ed. 



'LITERARY 



175 



l^iterarjr. 



THE HERMITESS OF SOUTH 
SALEM. 

AN ORIGINAL TALK OF TOE REVOLUTION, 
FOUNDED ON FACT. 
[Entered according to Act of Congres'', in the year 
1S52, by .1. A. Nash, in the Clerk's office of tlie 
District Court of iho United States, for theSouih- 
ern District of New-York.] 

[Concluded from the February No!] 

From the view of social politics in 
Ridgcfiekl, which the few preceding 
pages disclose, it may well be assumed 
that Jim Smithson was disposed, after 
bringing home his young wife, to wait 
the coarse of events ; and it was not un- 
til he found that the hand of sociality, 
if not of friendship, was freely extended 
to him and his wife, that he troubled him- 
self about his neighbors. The cheerful, 
merry face of his bride, however, soon won 
for her from the young of both sexes a 
cordial welcome, which the decisions of 
the worthy committee, be they what they 
might, could not have cither given nor 
long withheld; and a series of house- 
warmings and merry-makings in honor 
of the young couple, rapidly succeeded 
each other throughout the village. Uncle 
John arrived at Ridgefield when these 
festivities were at their height ; and ho 
soon found that through the affectionate 
premonitions of his adopted niece, his 
visit was likely to assume a character of 
unwonted gaycty for one of his staid 
habits. All sorts of jaunts, parties, pic- 
nics, and junketings were planned, aban- 
doned, replanned and executed, with an 
ardor in the executants worthy of special 
laudation. 

At one of these parties it was propos- 
ed that an excursion should be under- 
taken at an early day to the neighboring 
mountain, " to see the Herraitcss." This 
proposition led to an animated discus- 
sion among the young people — some of 
whom rejected it on the ground that the 
Hermitess was "a crabbed old witch, that 
was no better tlian she should be," 
whilst many others, with pertinacity 



maintained that they knew her to be 
" the kindest creature in the world," and 
in support of their assertion related in- 
stances in which she had been known to 
take care of little urchins, who had been 
overtaken by storms in their blackberry 
hunts on the mountain, and other kind 
offices that she had performed on various 
occasions. 

Frazer had often heard of hermits, but 
not of ladies of that ilk ; and his curios- 
ity was raised to know more of the in- 
dividual alluded to. He could get, how- 
ever, but little satisfaction from the juve- 
nile members of the party ; who could 
only express their surprise, in manner if 
not in words, that one so old as he 
was, should be ignorant of the fact, that 
they had been familiar with all their 
lives, that an odd old woman lived in a 
cave on the mountain side ; and there- 
fore to their young minds there seemed 
nothing more extraordinary in that cir- 
cumstance, than in a thousand other 
things of daily occurrence. 

On the morning following the party, 
the subject of the Hermitess on the 
mountain was again introduced by Fra- 
zer ; but his host could give Iiim no more 
satisfaction than he had obtained on the 
preceding evening. Smithson, however, ■ 
seeing Frazer's curiosity was strongly 
aroused, proposed to call on an elderly 
lady who had been an old friend of his 
mother, and who was an exception to the 
character that has been delineated of too 
many of the elder members of the fair 
sex of Ridgefield. Accordingly Smith- 
son accompanied by Frazer, after break- 
fast, visited his old friend, from whom 
they obtained the following particulars. 

Many years ago, possibly twenty or 
more, the Hermitess was for the first 
time discovered, living on the mountain 
side, in a small cavern, that Avas parti- 
ally concealed by a projecting rock. At- 
tempts were made to induce her to aban- 
don her abode, and to learn something 



176 



LITERARY. 



of her previous history ; but all such 
eflforts were fruitless, as she shrunk as 
much as possible from communication 
with all persons with the exception of 
children. With children she would con- 
verse familiarly at times ; and after a 
while many of the village girls visited 
her, to whom she was invariably kind ; 
but even with them, as they grew up to 
womanhood, her manner became re- 
strained and reserved, apparently with 
the motive to wean them, as it were, 
from repeating their visits; an effect 
which it usually produced. Her young 
visitors were frequently the conveyers of 
presents to her from their parents. 

She occasionally brought to the stores 
in the neighboring vilLiges, wild honey, 
blackberries and herbs, for sale; but 
at those times, her visits were never 
prolonged beyond the time necessary 
to fulfil the object of them, and all ef- 
forts to draw her into .conversation 
were futile. She was never known to 
speak to any man living in the locality ; 
but on a few occasions, she was observed 
to stop some passing stranger, and con- 
verse with him for a few minutes. On 
one of such occasions, when the subject 
of conversation happened to be over- 
heard, it seemed to relate to political 
events of the day, intermixed with in- 
quiries by her as to some two or three 
families whose names, not being those of 
people in that part of the country, made 
no impression on the person who repeat- 
ed the conversation. 

The only times at which she had been 
known to come amongst the surrounding 
community was on the Sabbath ; when 
sometimes she would attend at Ridge - 
field church ; leaving always immediately 
on the conclusion of the service, with a 
hasty step, to avoid contact with the 
congregation. 

Seeing that she was inoffensive and 
harmless, pity gradually usurped the 
place of curiosity, in the minds of the 
good people of Ridgefield, and they very 
properly confined their interference with 



the poor-women, to good offices ; sending 
her by the intervention of their children 
presents of food, and clothing. Atten- 
tions which she was found invariably to 
return in some way, by small contribu- 
tions from her little garden, or her bee- 
hive. In shot t, the opinion of the neigh- 
borhood was, that care or trouble of 
some kind had made inroads on her 
mind. 

Such was all the story Frazer could 
learn of the Hennitess of the mountain. 
This, however, was more than enough to 
whet his curosity to the highest pitch. 
Nor was curiosity the only feeling indu- 
ced by the recital. He had a warm 
heart, and his circumstances were easy, 
(for he had many years before succeeded 
to a patrimony beyond his wants,) and 
he could not repress the desire to make 
another attempt to relieve one so aged 
and so destitute, from the coming suffer- 
ing, which he knew, in her situation, ad- 
vancing years, with their weakness and 
incapacity, could not fail to bring upon 
her. 

Some few days afterwards on a bright 
morning Frazer therefore, with Smithson 
and his young wife, started off on their 
walk to the mountain. The autumnal 
tints were just peeping through the 
summer's green foliage, tinging tlie trees 
with the forthcoming golden purple, 
orange, or brown shades that clothe the 
distant hill-side in autumn with the ra- 
diance of a garden. Passing up the 
mountain and crossing an elevated ridge, 
upon walking some way down the south- 
ern steep, a perpendicular f;ice of rock 
presented itself, in the front of which 
was the cave. Some few rods of fertile 
ground, offering a slight declivity to the 
rising sun, ran alo"g the rock, and 
formed a natural garden plot terminated 
in a sudden precipice. At the foot of 
this, at a distance of some eight or nine 
hundred yards, lay a sheet of water call- 
ed Long pond. The north side of the rock 
disclosed the entrance to the cave, im- 
mediately before which, and so placed 



LITERARY 



177 



as to form at the same time a natural 
door way and a side wall of the abode, 
lay an enormous toass of rock, which ap- 
parently had been, by some convulsion 
of nature, separated from the main 
body ; and had therelry left the cavity 
which constituted the interior. Some 
peaches and vegetables of diflferent 
kinds were growing in the piece of 
garden ground; and a very large and 
luxuriant grape vine had spread widely 
in all directions its branches, whose num- 
berless purple clusters, reclining amongst 
its leaves on the surface of the rock, gave 
to it the character of rich velvet drapery 
studded with jewels. 

From a fissure on the opposite side of 
the rock issued a crystal jet of water, 
whose sparkling column, reflected from 
its thousand falling di'ops the rainbow's 
varied hues, and gave a sprightliness to 
the surrounding scene which clothed it 
with life, and offered a marked contrast 
to the still solitude of the valley below. 

As the party approached within sight of 
the cavern they saw fi female, advanced 
in years, whose appearance was charac- 
teristic of her abode. Her covering could 
hardly be designated clothes. An as- 
semblage of rags of all sizes, and colors, 
some sewed together, others apparently 
heaped on in one confused mass without 
shape or arrangement, covered her per- 
son from head to foot, being drawn tight- 
ly round the waist by a wide bandage. 
Her head was without any covering save 
that of her lank gray hair, which hung 
down in wild profusion, and half hid her 
countenance. She appeared to be en- 
gaged in tending a plot of groimd a few 
yards square that adjoined her rocky 
domicile, in which some corn and other 
vegetables were growing. 

Perceiving the visitors, she instantly 

(piitted her occupation, and retired to her 

cavern. It had been arranged that Jim's 

wife should first approach the hermitage • 

and walking up to the door of the cave, 

Hannah Smithson saw the old lady 

crouched down in a Goi'ncr, with her pierc- 
12 



ing eyes fixed on the door. Her face was 
wrinkled and furrowed, but the geaeral 
expression, indicated a vivacity and 
quickness, which seemed to say that care 
and grief, had worked more than age, up- 
on her frame. Notwithstanding this, the 
coarseness of character that her harsh 
mode of life and exposure to the ele- 
ments had produced in her counte- 
nance, gave to it the appearance of ex- 
treme old age. 

" Good morning, mother," said Han- 
nah, addressing the old dame, " what a 
beautiful morning it is to range over the 
mountain ; my husband and my uncle 
thought they would take a walk with 
me this morning, and hearing of your 
pretty place we have come to pay our 
respects to you. You must know I am 
a stranger to these parts, and I have 
only just come to live amongst you." 

" Ah, young woman," replied she, " the 
world is bright to you, because you are 
ayoung, silly thing, that fancy the storms 
of life can never burst upon your head. 
I thought so once. But go; — God bless 
you, I wish you well; I have done 
with the world years ago, and only 'bide 
my time here. That is not in my hands, 
or I should long since have been beneath 
the sod j-ou tread on. Please God it 
can not be long now." 

The voice of the Hermitess was much 
less harsh than her exterior. She spoke 
in a melancholy tone, but with much 
emphasis, and an evident attempt was 
appai ent to soften a hoarseness that op- 
pressed her, as if she wished not to be 
thought uncivil or unkind, in thus sum- 
marily dismissing her visitor. 

As she ceased to speak, Frazer and 
Smithson had gradually advanced to the 
door, and the former addressed to tlu 
Hermitess the customaiy salutation by 
which Hannah had introduced herself. 

The old lady had, on concluding her 
address to Hannah, turned away, and con- 
sequently she had not seen the near ap- 
proach of the speaker. The instant that 
Frazer' s voice fell upon her eai', she 



178 



LITERARY. 



turned round with a sudden start, and 
looked him steadily in the face for a mo- 
ment without uttering a word. Then 
turning back again she muttered to her- 
self in a scarcely audible voice, " No, 
no, not him ;" and heaving a deep sigh, 
added, "Long since gone ; long, long," 

"Mother," continued Hannah, "pray 
do not refuse to receive us. We come, 
not to intrude upon your privacy, but to 
comfort you, and if j'^ou wiU allow us, to 
offer you any little comforts that oiu" 
farm can supply." 

" Thank you," said she, " thank you, 
my good child. But I want nothing, 
I have too much now, here. The end of 
time is what I want ; tliat you can not 
give me. But I must 'bide my time. 
There, God bless you — go !" 

" Nay, good dame," rejoined Frazer, 
" you will not thus send friends away, 
for " 

" Friends !" burst forth the Hermitess 
in tones of withering reproach, " Dare 
you, a man, address that word to 
woman ? Friends ! Fiends you mean ! 
Whep was man the friend of woman ? 
Man may be friend to man. Together 
like blood-hounds, may they hunt down 
the women kind for prey. Remorseless, 
merciless, selfish, Godless man may 
cherish in his breast the lust he calls 
love, and offer this, his treacherous lie, to 
woman. Talk not to me of man's friend- 
vship. Lord of the creation as he calls 
himself, he treats all creatures as his 
slaves, and woman as the greatest. His 
honor is his shame, for it scorns not to 
sacrifice the happiness of woman to the 
grossest sensuality with which he is en- 
dowed. No, no, woman can for woman 
feel ; but never, never, vian .'" 

Ceasing to speak, she sank down in a 
corner of her abode again, and buried her 
face in her hands. 

Fraz€?r was moved by the earnestness 
and acrimony of the old woman's ad- 
dress, and perceiving that it was vain to 
persist in his object, he resolved to re- 
frain, for the present 



" My good lady," said he " since our 
presence is unpleasant to you we will 
take our leave. But you must permit me 
to assure you, that however unfavorable 
an opinion your experience may have in- 
duced you to ^rm of mj' sex, you do 
mankind great injustice by your unre- 
served condemnation. It has been the 
privilege and joy of many generations of 
men to devote their lives and fortunes to 
the promotion of woman's happiness. 
Such would have been my joy, had 
heaven not in early life removed from 
this troublesome scene, the choice of my 
heart. Your troubles must indeed have 
been severe to induce you to have formed 
the opinions you have just expressed. 
But, remember, that an Almighty Will 
formed man and woman for each other. 
Were they not meet helpmates, He would 
not have formed them thus. Therefore 
be sure that, although many, alas, of both 
sexes err widely from the path of duty, 
upon the whole in this, as in aU earthly 
things, 'whatever is, is right' Farewell." 

The party now commenced to retrace 
their steps, but as Hannah turned away 
she perceived the Hermitess beckon to 
her and advance towards the door. She 
waited, and the woman in a half whisper 
said, 

"How that man talks! — What's his 
name?" 

" Frazer." 

She turned from Hannah and again 
sank down upon her seat, and Hannah 
hastened to join her companions. The 
friends returned home, and notwithstand- 
ing the discouraging nature of their vis- 
it, they resolved to repeat it at no dist- 
ant day, and make another essay to im- 
prove their acquaintance with the Her- 
mitess of the mountain. 

It was not long before these intentions 
were acted upon, although from an im- 
mediate cause that they little anticipat- 
ed. 

One morning a little girl came to theF 
farm, and said that she had been request- 
ed by the Hermitess to call and tell Mrs-' 



LITERARY 



179 



Smithson that she was very sick, and 
wished to sec her and her uncle. Han- 
nah soon was ready, and in a few minutes 
after receiving the unexpected message, 
they were on the road to the mountain, 
where they found the poor woman, 
stretched on her only couch, our mother 
earth, upon a heap of straw and rags. 
By her side was a low stool, on which 
she motioned to Frazer to sit down, then 
placing her withered hand upon his knee, 
she fixed her eyes, suffused in tears, upon 
him. 

"John Frazer," she exclaimed, "'tis 
no wonder that in these poor remnants 
of mortality, you can not recognize the 
once loved form of Sarah Butler, your 
aflBanced bride. Even my voice possess- 
es no longer a tone by which it could be 
known. Not so with you, for your loved 
voice struck upon my ear like the wel- 
come sound of some lost village chime. 
Long have I mourned you dead, and 
waited but to meet again my only love 
in heaven, where I am now fast going ; 
for my strength is exhausted, and that 
release from earthly woes, for which I 
long have prayed, is granted now. My 
time is short, and I must quickly tell my 
tale ; for I would not go hence, till you, 
my still-loved Frazer, have known your 
Sarah has proved faithful to her vows. 

"Leaving the burning ruins of my 
home at that dread time that withered 
all our bliss, I hastened to the water side, 
and by the aid of a friendly fisherman I 
crossed the sound at night, and just at 
dawn of day set foot upon the opposite 
shore. My object was to seek my sister's 
farm ; but worn out and exhausted by 
anguish and fatigue, against which a 
sense of present danger had until that 
time borne mc up, as soon as I felt safe 
from further insult, my scattered senses 
left mc, and I roamed about uncon- 
scious and unknown. IIow long I wan- 
dered thus, or where, I know not. A 
blank in my meniory exists from the 
hour I left the boat, until I found my- 
self lying, — where I Uc now- My wan- 



derings must have occupied both days 
and weeks, for my tattered clothes, and 
swelled and wounded feet, told plainlj- 
that my travels had been far. Doubt- 
less I had lain down exhausted, and 
kind Time, — that truest of physicians, 
and the quiet stillness around me, had 
by degrees composed my burning bi-ain, 
and thus restored my reason to its seat." 
" \Yhen reflection had enabled me in 
some measure to recall the past, the ex- 
tremity of my position, and the extent of 
its wretchedness became overwhelming. 
For several days I meditated upon it 
without any remission of my anguish. I 
remembered to have seen you shot down 
in the affray, to all appearance dead. I 
*abhorred the world ; I abhorred myself; 
and the only thought that dwelt upon 
my mind was, the most speedy means of 
terminating my existence. This feeling 
was, thank God, of short duration, for 
my duty to Him, reminded me that it was 
not for me to take away a life that He 
had given ! " 

" In some measiu"c calmed by my re- 
flections, I thought of my beloved sis- 
ter's happy home; but my feelings were 
too intense, and my sense of degrada- 
tion too deep, to allow me to subject my- 
self, although an innocent victim, to the 
scoifs and gibes of a sensorious and piti- 
less world. Beyond my sister I had no 
ties that bound me to this life, whilst 
my bitter but short experience of its 
sorrow.?, was not likely to make me desir- 
ous to prolong it. From week to week 
I lived on here, satisfying at fir.st the 
calls of nature for sustenance, with the 
berries and roots of the mountain ; in 
rambling over which, I sought to drive 
away the dismal foreboding consequent 
on my forlorn state. In these rambles 
my enfeebled frame gained strength ; 
and without a settled purpose, except 
the one of avoiding contact with a world 
I despised, I dragged on, month by month 
of my wearied existence. At length my 
haunts were discovered, and I resolved to 
adhere to a mode of life more congenial 



180 



LITERARY 



to my desires than a return to civiliza- 
tion : and the better to sustain my charac- 
ter of a recluse, I stained my skin with 
berries, and assumed as much as I could 
the manners and appearance of age ; 
efforts which the rigors and hardships 
inseparable from the life I led, soon ren- 
dered needless, as these told rapidly up- 
on my tender frame. These hardships 
however I regarded not. Habit soon 
made most of them familiar to me, and 
consequently, they were unheeded ; and 
when the bitter cup of suffering some- 
times seemed too great for human nature 
to endure, I solaced myself by the 
thought that kind death would the soon- 
er release me from these trials, and re- 
unite me in heaven to you.'''' 

"Many have been the offers made to me 
to change my mode of life ; but, John, 
my pains have been my only pleasures. 
The more intense my sufferings, the 
more vivid I thought my insight into 
eternity, where you, as in life, were the 
idol of my thoughts." 

" The dear children of the surrounding 
country found me out, and have often 
seemed like ministering angels to my 
necessities. And in their innocent prat- 
tle, and affectionate sympathy, have I 
found my heart give proofs sometimes, 
that I was woman stiU. The honey from 
my mountain bees, and the produce of 
my little garden, have enabled my in- 
dustry to yield me the means of buying 
bread, and of returning at least some ac- 
knowledgment for the kind presents that 
my young friends brought me. Thus 
have I lived rich, in all my wants ; and — 
poor enough, to be left alone!" 

" Since my early days of sorrow have 
passed away, and my mind by slow de- 
grees recovered its serenity, my health 
has generally been good ; — too good, as I 
thought, — and I have led a tranquil life." 

" My Bible has been my constant 
friend ; here it is, take it, and read it daily 
for my sake. 'Twill lead you, John, where 
I am going before you ; but where I read 
it, in hopes to follow you, for I beUeved 



you there. Without that book, my lot 
would have been intolerable ; with it, I 
have long had peace. From Job I learnt 
patience to submit to my lot, seeing that 
my sorry state was free fi'om many dread- 
ful ills he bore, and my burden thence 
seemed lighter. And when I pondered 
o'er the life of Him who was ' the man of 
sorrows and acquainted with grief,' and 
thought upon His sufferings for me, I felt 
remorse and shame at my selfish repin- 
ings. Read it, John, you will find in it 
directions for your guidance, examples 
for your imitation, promises for your 
encouragement, and eternal happiness 
for your reward! And if, at times, when 
cares, vexations, or bodily sufferings di- 
vert your mind from its first balance, and 
passion making plaything of your reason, 
causes you to give way to bitrsts of an- 
ger, (as, alas, I have too often done,) that 
book will remind you not ' to let the sun 
go down upon your wrath,' but to forgive 
freely, as you hope to be forgiven." 

" Oh ! who could have thought that I 
should on this bleak mountain side, live 
to see this happy day ! To press the hand 
of him I have loved so well, and die at 
last in peace." 

A tear ran down her cheek ; — she sigh- 
ed, — and her gentle spirit cast off its 
earthly coil ! 

Many is the tear that has since been 
dropped upon the tomb it was Frazer's 
care to consecrate to the memory of the 
Hermitess of South Salem. 

Note. — The aim of the writer of these series of 
tales, of which the " Hermitess of South Salem," is 
the first, is not to amuse alone ; but if it may be so, 
to lead the young to reflect. That " truth is often 
more strange than fiction," is an adage that every 
year verifies; and there are lessons to be learned by 
old as well as young, from many a strange matter of 
fact that passes unheeded, and by most unknown. 

The name of the Hermitess is changed, (for the 
wi'iter would not intentionally, should any members 
of her famUy now survive, recall events distressing 
to their feelings, to the attention of the present 
generation,) but the mode of life of the Hermitess 
and the cause which led to its adoption, the descrip- 
tion and place of her abode, and her religious feel- 
ings, are facts. She died about ISIO. 

There is a dignity of personal character manifest- 
ed in the resolution of this poor woman, and in the 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



181 



persererance with which she adhered to it, that 
must command the admiration, as her sorrows must 
the sympathy, of all who read her history. And 
when it is borne in mind, that her conduct did not 
take its rise from misanthropic delusion ; and, more- 
over, that her trust in Providence appears never to 
have been shaken by her woes, we may respect that 



intensity of sensibility which could face the rigors 
of near forty winters, in the cavern of a mountain 
side, rather than live in social intercourse with a 
world, whose verdict on the conduct of its denizens 
she knew is too often warped by conventionalities, 
rather than weighed in the scales of even-handed 
justice. 



Mikx^i ^iMt 



Booh Notices, etc. — " A New Orchard 
and Garden ; or the best way for plant- 
ing, grafting, and to make any ground 
good, for a rich Orchard ; Particularly 
in the North, and generally for the whole 
kingdomc of England as in nature, rea- 
son, situation, and all probabilitie, may 
and doth appeare. With the Country 
Housewifes Garden for herbs of common 
vse, their vertues, seasons, profits, orna- 
ments, varietie of knots, models for trees, 
and plots for the best ordering of 
Grounds and Walkes. As also the Hus- 
bandry of Bees, with their seuerall vses 
and annoyances, all being the experience 
of 48 yeeres labour, and now the third 
time corrected and much enlarged, by 
William Lawson. Whereunto is newly 
added the Art of propagating Plants, with 
the true ordering of all manner of Fruits, 
in their gathering, carrying home, and 
preseruation. Skill and paines being 
fruitfuU gaines. l^emo fibi natm. 
Printed at London by J. H. for Francis 
Williams. 1626. Reprinted by Robert 
Pearsall Smith, Philadelphia. 1858." 

A curious old book this. It is in the 
old black letter of a bye-gone age, and is 
a real curiosity. Mr. Smith has done 
well to give us a sample of what things 
our ancestors thought about horticul- 
ture, how they said them, and how they 
printed them. 

On the BEST, SVREST, and Readiest 
way to make an Orchard and Garden, 
the 1st chapter treats of the Gardener 
and his Wages, the 2d of the Soyle, 3d 
of the Site, 4th of the Quantitie, 5th of 
the Forme, and so on. 

Of the Gardener and his Wages, the 
author says : 



" Whosoeuer desircth and cndeuour- 
eth to haue a pleasant, and profitable 
Orchard, must (if he be able) prouide 
himsclfe of a Fruicterer, religious, honest, 
skilfull in that faculty, and therewithal! 
painfull : By religious, I meane (because 
many thinke religion but a fashion or 
custome to goc to Church) maintaining, 
and cherishing things religious : as 
Schooles of learning, Churches, Tythes, 
Church-goods, and rights ; and aboue 
all things, Gods word, and the Preachers 
thereof, so much as he is able, practising 
prayers, comfortable conference, mutuall 
instruction to edific, almes, and other 
workes of Charity, and all out of a good 
conscience." 

This was beginning right. Tlie gar- 
dener must be religious, or his work 
would not prosper. Whether the mas- 
ter was to be religious, we have not read 
far enough to ascertain ; but we suspect 
not over and above, by the wages he 
was to pay, though money was probably 
worth more, when there was no Bank of 
England in London to play the mischief 
with the currency. 

This work is superbly " got up," as 
they say, and it contains a great deal of 
sage advice, more needed perhaps in 
those days than in ours, and yet very 
much of it such as we might profit by. 
To see the men in the picture on the ti- 
tle page sinking the spade to the very 
top of the handlc,one would think that 
deep tillage is no modern invention. 

The book contains 40 pages, and the 
price is $1. All who have a dollar to 
spare, and a curiosity for good old things, 
should buy it. 



182 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



American Journal of Science and, 
Arts, by Profs. B. Silliman and B. SiUi- 
man, Jr., and others, New-Haven ; $5 a 
year and cheap at that. This is the lead- 
ing, and for aught we know, the only 
work in this country, whose vocation is 
to extend the area of science by the 
yearly annexation of new territories. 
Men of progress and means ought to en- 
courage, and we suppose do encourage 
it, as a great national work ; one of which 
the country has reason to be proud. 

Patent Office, Agricultural Depart- 
ment. — A much valued reader, in Phila- 
delphia, calls our attention to this sub- 
ject, one about which we find opinions 
widely differing, and on which we are 
not at present prepared to speak at large. 
We will only say here, whatever may 
have been the errors committed, we be- 
lieve Dr. Browne, at the head of the de- 
partment, to be sincerely and earnestly 
devoted to the great agricultural interest 
of the country. This we say the more 
cheerfully, because some remarks ob- 
tained a place in our last which did 
that gentleman injustice. Of the agri- 
cultural department we may have some- 
thing to say hereafter, and we shall give 
something pro and con by others, bet- 
ter qualified than ourselves, perhaps, to 
speak on that subject. 

The Berhshire {Mass.) Culturist. — 
This Journal, we see, has assumed the 
folio form, and become monthly instead 
of weekly ; a good idea certainly. Agri- 
cultural Journals should be in a form to 
be preserved, and should not be too fre- 
quent in their issues. We have too 
much agricultural literature that is 
hashed up in a hurry, and too little that 
is deliberately and well considered be- 
fore it is thrown upon the country. Dr. 
Reed, of the Citlturist, has heretofore 
made a good weekly, and he will now 
make a better monthly, we have not one 
doubt. 

American Veterinary Journal, by 
George H. Dadd and others, Boston. 



This is a reliable work, and should be in 
the hands of all who would know how to 
treat their horses and other animals well, 
in sickness and health. 

We are reminded by this of our pro- 
mise of an article on the horse's foot. It 
has not come. The promiser was an 
Englishman, and we suppose was offend- 
ed by our severe, but, we think, just 
strictures on English misrule in India, 
with the accompanying wish that her rule 
abroad be materially mended, or very 
scarce on this continent. If there is sin 
in that wish we are ready to answer for 
it. 

Message of the Governor of Ohio. — 
Somebody has sent us this document. 
We are sorry to see, by its statistics, 
that the sheep culture of that State is 
falling off. Undoubtedly the farmers of 
that great State know their own interests, 
and it would be folly for us to advise 
them to grow sheep, if they find it un^ 
profitable. But ^ohy should it he so ? ? ? 

All can not be right with us, when 
the only State that has ever got half way 
into the sheep culture is getting out of 
it. 

Western World and BeTcalh Review ; 
a spirited weekly hailing from Dekalb, 
111., and a contribution to that wide- 
awake character of journalism, in which 
the West means to beat the slower East. 
We are often agreeably surprised, in 
tracing the progress of American news- 
paper manufacturing, as manifested in 
our exchanges, from the West, the South- 
West, California, and even beyond, from 
Honolulu. The California Farmer, for 
example, is in our judgment one of the 
very best agricultural papers in the Eng- 
lish language. 

Transactions of the Essex County 
(Mass.) Agricultural Society. — This 
comes to us with the well known direc- 
tion of John W. Proctor, who we fear is 
a little off the track in writing so dis- 
couragingly of the sorgho, but whose 
well known love of agriculture will hoist 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



188 



him on again very quick, if he finds him- 
self off. The book — too large to be call- 
ed a pamphlet — contains 208 pages, 
which is its least recommendation, the 
value of the matter being the principal. 
For half a century that society has done 
better than many sisters that have done 
well. 

American Farmer. — This oldest agri- 
cultural journal in our countiy, is on our 
table ; and we find it not so very old af- 
ter all, but well filled with matter, fi-esh, 
earnest and useful. 

Reports of Committees of the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society. — This is 
a valuable document, of 104 pages, for 
wliich the society and its secretary have 
our thanks. Josiah Stickney is Presi- 
dent ; E. S. Rand and Eben Wright, Vice- 
Presidents ; Wm. R. Austin, Treasurer ; 
Eben Wright, Corresponding vSecretary ; 
F. L. Winship, Recording Secretary ; 
John L. Russell, Prof of Botany and Ve- 
getable Physiology ; J. AV. P. Jenks, 
Prof of Entomology ; and E. N. Horsford, 
Prof, of Horticultural Chemistry. 

Germantown Telegraph, New-England 
Farmer, Country Gentleman, Maine 
Farmer. — These are the leading agricul- 
tural journals in their respective States. 
We never take up one of them without 
wishing that all the farmers in its State 
had it. If they want another, it is true, 
and we will not deny it, that we have no 
sort of objection to their having ours. 

Under the same category would wc 
put the Michigan Farmer, the Wisconsin 
Farmer, the Ohio Cultivator and Ohio 
Farmer, the Southern Cultivator, and a 
host of others on our exchange list, lead- 
ing agricultural journals in their several 
States. We have a sort of a notion in 
our head, that the farmers of the coun- 
try would do well to take at least two 
agricultural journals, one for their own 
State and one for all the States, nation- 
al in character. It may be because 
wc are selfish, wishing to come in for 
the second chance. Every one must 
j udge of that. 



Southern Progressionist ; Published 
at Newnan, Ga., and Pulaski, Tenn. ; J. 
M. H. Smith, editor ; H. A. Livingston, 
publisher ; at $1 a year in advance, 
$1 50 in six months, and $2 at the end 
of the year. That is right ; make them 
pay in advance ; one dollar in hand is 
better than two always coming, both for 
the payer and the payee, for the former 
because a man respects himself — feels 
better — ^whcn he has paid a just claim 
than if he shirks it, besides that he has 
less to pay ; and for the latter, because 
it is a real comfort to pay the hard work- 
ing printer and the paper maker prompt- 
ly, and so pass it along. We will promise 
to pass along a good many bits of comfort, 
if those old subscribers, who used to 
have this work on tick, will square up 
by mail. Bless them, if they knew how 
much go:d it would do us, they would 
not wait to be asked ; we think better of 
them. But to the Progressionist. It is 
an earnest, progressive work as its name 
imports ; but it is universalist in its cha- 
racter, its theology diflers, we presume, 
from that of most of our readers, and 
certainly fi-om oui's, and we could not 
therefore recommend it, otherwise than 
as we heartily approve of an unbiassed 
investigation of all important subjects, 
nor to others than those capable by age 
and reflecting habits of such investiga- 
tion. Seriousl}^ our fears are that its 
progress will not be in the right way. 

Fish, Guano. — This article, as manu- 
factured at Southhold, L. I., (see adver- 
tisement) is, we believe, new in this 
country, Mr. Brundred, the manufac- 
turer, has explained to us at length the 
process by which it is made ; and we 
can not see why the fertilizing matter 
contained in four or five tons of fish 
should not be retained in the one ton of 
guano made from them. It would seem . 
that a very powerful manm-e must bo 
the result. But we know nothing of it 
practically. The sea is certainly a pro- 
Ufic source of fertility, if we can work its 
productions into a concentrated, porta- 



184 



E D I T R'S TABLE. 



ble manure. We would recommend that 
trial be made of this fertilizer, as the 
only sure test ; and if the farmer wishes 
to be on the safe side, as he ought cer- 
tainly, let him try it on such a scale as 
can not in any event result in an inconve- 
nient loss. Because there has been a 
great deal of adroit dealing on the part 
of manure dealers, by which farmers 
have been swindled, it does not follow 
that they should condemn untried every 
article that is oflfered. 

PullerHs Catalogue of Fruit and, Or- 
namental Trees^ Vines, Sc, Hijhtstotoii, 
IT. J. — We have seen Mr. PuUon at his 
home, and we believe him to be an ac- 
complished gardener and a true man. 
He offers a rich variety in his line. 

After so much said a'bout our cotem- 
poraries, it will not be deemed amiss if 
we say a word for ourselves. One rea- 
son why so many valuable articles are 
crowded out this month is, that during 
the first half of February, we were re- 
solved to enlarge the Farmer'' Magazine 
from 64 to 96 pages. We had actually 
procured and sent to the printer the ex- 
tra paper for the purpose. But although 
subscribers are coming in well and we 
have nothing to complain of, yet in the 
present aspect of the times, we feared to 
venture the increased expense just yet, 
but hope to be able to do it at no distant 
day. In the meantime, will not our sub- 
scribers aid our design by promoting the 
circulation of this work in their respec- 
tive neighborhoods ? To encourage an 
effort of this kind, we will say, that any 
one now a subscriber may add another 
to our list by sending us the club price, 
$1 50 ; and, as our January and Febru- 
ary numbers are nearly exhausted, we 
will agree to send the work for the bal- 
ance of the year, commencing with 
April, for $1, forwarded to this oflBce. 
Clergymen of all denominations, who 
from an interest in agriculture desire a 
work of the kind, may order this for $1 
a year. Give us a lift, friend, in your 
various localities, and we pledge you 



that we will either give it to all next 
year for $1, or, what is more probable, 
will enlarge it before this year is out to 
once and a half its present size. 

U. S. Ag. Soc. — We omitted, owing to 
a press of matter, to say much at the 
proper time of the late exceedingly in- 
teresting and important meeting of this 
society at Washington, at which Col. 
Wilder, its able, earnest and devoted 
president resigned, and another. Gen. 
Tilghman, equally energetic and effi- 
cient, we have good reason for believing, 
was chosen in his place. The Sorgho 
and Imphee question was ably discussed, 
and we now regard it as settled that 
both plants will be of great value to our 
agriculture ; but which will prove best 
for each latitude of our widely extended 
country, we do not think has yet tran- 
spired. 

In our last we spoke with reserve of 
Gay & West's " Warner's Patent Pump," 
and "West's Double Acting Water 
Earn," as we always mean to speak of 
things about which we have the least 
doubt. We have since learned that the 
pump is an excellent one, beyond all 
question. See advertisement. 

A pretty little Blunder. — The printer 
has made us, page 162, March number, 
advise our readers to paint their houses, 
barns, fences, etc., now in autumn. The 
seci'et of it is, that we did so advise four 
months age, and this item has lain over 
with the printer till this time. But edi- 
tors and printers both have their vexa- 
tions ; we must forgive them and they 
have to forgive us ; and our readers 
must remember the advice till sol, with 
his fiery horses, has gone nearly round 
the circle again. They can afford to re- 
member it, for it is worth knowing that 
paint put on in the fall, does them near- 
ly twice as much good as in spring. 

Peabody's Premium Prolific- Corn. — 
We have before us a circular of this new 
production ; and although we are unpre- 
pared to speak positively with regard to 



E D I T O R'S TABLE 



186 



it, we are favorably impressed ; and were 
we in the active line of farming, we 
would certainly address Charles A. Pea- 
body, Columbus, Ga., for further infor- 
mation. Whatever may be its merits, 
we are satisfied that Mr. Peabody has 
yet used all proper precautions to keep 
it perfectly pure, and that last year he 
grew 23G0 bushels on 25 acres, so isolat- 
ed as to avoid all danger of hybridiza- 
tion. His certificates, by reliable men, 
fully establish these facts. But whether 
Georgians can not and ought not to grow 
at that rate, of any corn, on their land 
and in their sunny climate, is more than 
we know. 

A Correction. — In our February num- 
ber wc published an article without ex- 
amining it as carefully as is our wont, 
partly owing to a press of engagements 
at the time, but more to our great re- 
spect for its author, reflecting, with 
something more, perhaps, than might be 
set down to good natured pleasantry, on 
somebody, somewhere, by the name of 
Browne. The agreeable acquaintance 
we have had with the writer of the fol- 
lowing, and our high esteem for his cha- 
racter and services, render ns doubly 
cheerful in complying with his request to 
correct an error : 

"Sir: — In the February number of 
the American Farmers' Magazine^ I no- 
tice an article entitled, "A Theory 
Spoiled ; or are South Downs Pure 
Blooded Sheep ? By C. M. Clay, of Ken- 
tucky," in which there are thrown re- 
flections upon a person bearing the name 
of Brown, to which are prefixed my ini- 
tials. As the individual referred to was 
Mr. A. P. Brown, of Philadelphia, you 
would oblige me if you would make a 
proper correction at your convenience. 
" Yours, respectfully, 

" D. J. Bkowne. 

" J. A. Nash, Esq., 
Editor Amer. Farmem'' Magazine.'" 



a body consisting largely of practical 
farmers, we cheerfully copy the follow- 
ing from the proceedings made by order 
of the American Institute. The article 
was read before the Farmers' Club of 
that society ; — 

American Institute Farmers' Club. 

Regular meeting, Feb. 16, 1858, K Meigs, 
Secretary. 

Mb. Alanson Nash, one of the earliest 
members of the Farmers' Club, and who 
has on all suitable occasions manifested 
his appreciation of it by sustaining it, 
has, by particular request, undertaken 
with much industrious research among 
the scattered fragments of knowledge to 
give us a history of and relative to the 
now well marked and acclimated and 
well taught red cattle of New-England, 
and has produced in his essay on that 
subject all that may be useful or desira- 
ble in relation to this first and nobly 
created American stock of cattle. He 
has done for this very useful purpose 
what our Washington Irving did long 
ago in his analectic magazine for litera- 
ture, according to his own motto, 
"Sparsas CoUigere Flores." Tuscany 
has for centuries been celebrated for her 
spotless white cattle, looking like snow 
on her green meadows ; but our Amer- 
Red is worth more than that race for 
work and beef ten to one. 



To show how the article on the red 
cattle of New-England is appreciated by 



CHANGE OF NAME. 

TrrE writer of one of the most sensible 
articles in this number says : 

" I am not a whit behind TJie Inde- 
pendent (Jan. 14) in gladness at the 
changes you have made in title, &c. ; nei- 
ther do I any less fervently hope and 
trust that you will find increased favor 
and a larger field of usefulness. I should 
be happy to contribute to this end, and 
will whenever I have an opportunity." 
Will not others of our friends go and do 
likewise ? 



186 



CHILDREN'S CORNER. 



OEIjilbrnfs €mm\ 



In ^sop's 
time, when 
the beasts 
talked, a 
wolf and a 
fox, seeing 
a dog, fat, 
sleek and 
well provid- 
ed for, while 
they were 
lean a n 
h u n g r J , 
asked per- 
mission 
of the dog 
to accompa- 
ny him to 
his home. 
But seeing 

A Stag, 
drinking 
from a foun- 
t a i n, saw 
himself in 
the water. 
His horns 
a p p e a r ed 
long, bran- 
c hy and 
b eautiful. 
He was 
proud of 
them. His 

A dog 
with a piece 
of meat, saw 
his shadow 
in the wa- 
t 6 r, and 
trying to get 
the other 
dog's meat, 
he lost that 
which he 
had. 

Moral. — 

"M u c h 




his neck 
worn, and 
learning 
from h i m 
that it was 
in c n s e- 
=- quen c e of 
ii being Chain- 
ed, they con- 
cluded to go 
back and 
live in the 
woods. 

The chil- 
dren m a y 
exercise 
themselv e s 
in guessing 
at the moral 
of this fable. 

legs seemed 
slender and 
ugly. He 
was asham- 
ed of them. 
But when 
the dogs 
bayed, his 
legs would 
have saved 
him, but his 
horns, en- 
tangled in 
the trees 
caused his 
ruin. 

wanted 
more and 
lost all." 

AVhen we 
want more 
than b e- 
longs to us, 
we s o m e- 
times get 
less than we 
should have 
if less crav- 
ing. 



DOMESTIC, 



181 



1^" " You charge a dollar for killing 
a calf," said a planter to an old negro. 
" No, no, massa ; charge fifty cents for 
killum calf, and fifty cents for the know 
how /" 

The negro was right ; and now if the 
children will learn well at their schools. 



and read good books and periodicals at 
home, they will " know how" to do a 
great many things that are well paid for, 
and will feel the benefit of what they 
learn now all their life, in being of more 
value to themselves, to their friends and 
their country. 



g omti^ixc. 



CORN BREAD. 



Not many years ago, half the bread 
eaten in New-England was made of corn 
and rye meal ; now the majority of fam- 
ilies see nothing but wheat bread, ex- 
cept on very rare occasions, from one 
year to another. The farmers of the 
West, the planters of the South, live on 
corn bread, and sell their wheat to us, 
because corn bread costs onlj^ half, or less 
than half as much as wheat bread. Yet 
there are thousands of poor families in 
New-England, who do not know one 
week where the next week's supplies are 
to come from, who would feel a sort of 
degradation in living on corn bread ; 
and if they resort to it occasionally, eat 
slyly and by stealth, that it may not be 
kno^vn that they are so poor as to live 
on Indian meal. 

There is a mistake in this. There is 
notliing more palatable than corn meal 
properly cooked. There are a variety of 
articles for the table that may be pre- 
pared from it, that are highly toothsome, 
and will be preferred to anything else 
by many people, almost universally by 
the children. Here is an opportunity 
for considerable economy and one at the 
.same time productive of health. Let 
Indian meal be partially substituted for 
flour, and the expenses of the table can 
be very considerably reduced by this 
one change. — Sj)ringjield liepublican. 

Yes ; and there will be more health 
and strength, better looks, a more man- 
ly or womanly personal development, 
greater energy and longer life. Our 
Southern brethren, we believe, have not 
yet repudiated hominy and hoe-cakes ; 
and in this they are wiser than the Yan- 
kees, taking the word to mean all north 
of them. — Ed. 



TO CATCH OWLS. 
If troublesome to your poultry, set a 
steel trap on the top of a pole, near the 
hen roost, and they will certainly be 
caught. 



TO MAKE STICKING SALVE. 
TnREE pounds resin, half a pound of 
mutton tallow, half a pound of beeswax, 
and a tablespoonful of sulphur ; melt- 
ed, poured into cold water, and worked 
and pulled an hour. 



KEEPING CIDER SWEET. 
A PINT of mustard seed, put in a bar- 
rel of cider, will preserve it sweet for a 
number of months. I have drunk fall 
cider in the month of May, which was 
kept sweet by this means. 



KEEPING POULTRY. 

The late Judge Buell kept poultry in 
the winter more than two months, in a 
perfect state of preservation, by filling 
them after they were dressed with pow- 
dered charcoal, and then hanging them 
in an airy loft. 



TO DESTROY MITES IN CHEESE, 
A PIECE of woolen cloth should be 
dipped in sweet oil, and be well rubbed 
on the cheese. If one application be 
not sufficient to destroy the mites, this 
remedy may be used as often as they ap- 
pear. The cheese shelves should be well 
washed with soap and water. 



TO KNIT HEELS. 
To knit the heels of socks double, so 
that they may last twice as long as other- 
wise, skip every alternate stitch on the 
wrong side, and knit all on the right. 
This will make it double, like that of the 
double ply ingrain carpet. 



188 



MISCELLANEOUS 



IBttllKntQU^. 



RIGHT NAMES. 



If a man should set out calling every 
thing by its right name, he would be 
knocked down before he got to the corner 
of the street. 



FAT AND LEAN. 

A MAN praising porter said it was so ex- 
cellent a beverage, that it always made 
him fat. 

"I have seen the time," said another, 
when it made you lean." 

"When?" asked the eulogist. 

" Last night against the wall." 



LARGE CROP OF OATS. 
"We learn that on the farm of Jacob Lee, 
just west of this town, there was threshed 
out, as the product of one acre, the im- 
mense quantity of one hundred and thirteen 
bushels and one half of oats. We never 
heard of a crop to exceed this, and we 
should be inclined to doubt the fact, were 
it not substantiated by the best of testi 
mouy. — Marion Rep. 



^^ Some one has beautifully said of 
those who die young, that " they are like 
the lambs which the Alpine sheijherdsbear 
in their arms to higher and greener pas- 
tures, that the flocks may follow." 

|^°° Health comes of itself; but we 
are at great pains to get our diseases. 
Health comes from a simple life of na- 
ture ; diseases from an artificial life. 

^W A French paper states that the 
American engineers who undertook, by 
means of a special apparatus, to raise the 
Russian ships of war sunk in the harbor of 
Sebastopol, have given it up and returned 
to Constantinople, declaring that their 
contract can not be performed, except at 
an enormously disproportionate cost. 

It^" Tliere was a volcanic eruption on 
one of the Sanquiir islands, near Borneo, 
in March last, which destroyed a whole 
village of 3000 persons, besides an im- 
mense amount of growing rice. The 
emission of lava, stones and ashes was so 
great as to obscure the sun and produce 
total darkness. A violent hurricane and 
lightning accompanied the eruptions. 



A $500 lump of gold has been 
taken from a mine in Cabarras County, 
N. C. 



There are 50,051 rice plantations 
in the South, the annual product of which 
is worth about $4,000,000. 

It costs twenty-six dollars an hour to 
light the new hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives at Washington, with gas. 

pW' The cost of printing for the 34th 
Congress to the United States Government, 
is said to have been two millions of dol- 
lars, and to have netted a profit of half a 
million to the fortunate individual possess- 
ing the contract. 

E^° The amount expended by American 
travelers in Europe is estimated at over 
$10,000,000 annually. 



'Good morning, Jones; how does 
the world use you ?" 

" It uses me up, thank you." 



There is no part of husbandry 
which is more neglected than that of 
planting trees. 

U;^" Truly great men have ever been 
the workers of the world. An English 
writer in a paper upon Andrew Fuller, 
says: "Walk around the cathedral aisles 
where the memories of the great dead are 
found, and you will see the tombs at which 
the crowd stop and hold their breath in 
reverence, are not the tombs of dreamers 
but of workers — all of workers. Mark 
them as they pass frem statue to statue ! 
They come to Shakspeare, and the memory 
of pleasant hours of quiet enjoyment finds 
its way to the face. But moving on to 
Howard, see how they pause before the 
tall figure with a brother's love beaming 
from the cold marble, and the chained 
prisoner at his side, while the lifeless 
memorial of a love yet warm and living, 
bids the big tear steal unchallenged to its 
shrine. 

^[W There is a medium between an ex- 
cessive diffidence, and too universal a con- 
fidence. If we have no foresight, we are 
surprised ; if we are too nice we are miser- 
able. 

Jacob Steawn, the celebrated cattle 
dealer and landholder of Morgan county, 
Illinois, has recently sold off a corner of his 
farm in that county, being 3300 acres, at 
$30 per acre, amounting to the insignifi- 
cant sum of $99,000. He has made sever- 
al other sales of land lately, and yet has 
ground left sufficient to raise enough to feed 
the whole i:)opulation of Illinois. 



MARKETS 



189 



OCCUPATION. 

What ca glorious thing it is for the hu- 
man mind! Those who work hard sel- 
dom yield themselves entirely up to fan- 
cied or real sorrow. When grief sits 
down, folds its hands, and mournfully 
feeds upon its own tears, weaving the 
dim shadows that a little exertion 
might sweep away, into a funeral pall, 
the strong spirit is shorn of its might, 
and sorrows become our master. When 
troubles flow upon you dark and heavy, 
toil not with the waves, wrestle not with 
the torrent ; rather seek, by occupation, 
to divert the dark waters that threaten 
to overwhelm you in a thousand chan- 
nels which the duties of life always pre- 
sent. Before you dream of it those wa- 
ters will fertilize the present and give 
birth to fresh flowers that maj' brighten 
the future — flowers that will become 
pure and holy in the sunshine which 
penetrates to the path of duty, in spite 
of every obstacle. Grief, after all, is but 
a selfish feeling, and most selfish in the 
man who yields himself to the indulgence 



of any passion which brings no joy to his 
fellow-man. 



LIFE. 

The mere lapse of years is not life. 
To eat, drink, and sleep ; to be exposed 
to darkness and light, to pace around in 
the mill of habits and turn the mill of 
wealth, to make reason our book-keeper, 
and thought an implement of trade — this 
is not life. In all this but a poor fraction 
of the unconsciousness of humanity is 
awakened, and the sanctities still slum- 
ber which make it woi th while to be. 
Knowledge, truth, beauty, love, good- 
ness, faith, alone can give vitality to the 
mechanicism of existence ; the laugh of 
mirth which vibrates through the heart, 
the tear which freshens the dry wastes 
within, the music that brings childhood 
back, the prayer that calls the future 
near, the death which startles us with 
mystery, the hardship which forces us 
to struggle, the anxiety that ends in be- 
ing. — Chalmers. 



ark^ts^ 



Mabeets. — ^Want of space obliges us to omit our 
monthly review, and to stop with very few words 
on the markets. 

Friday, February 19th, there is considerable ac- 
tivity in the general produce market. Business ra- 
ther active for the season. 

The following table will show the difference be- 
tween the currency for the leading kinds of Bread- 
stuffs yesterday and a week previous : 

PRICES OP BREADSTUFFS IN NKW-TORK. 

Feb. 10. Feb. 17. 

Superfine St. Flour..$4 15 @4 25 $4 15 @4 25 

Extra State 4 25 ®4 50 4 80 (^4 50 

Super. Iiid. & Mich. 4 15 ®4 80 4 15 @4 30 

Super. Ohio 4 80 @4 40 4 20 @4 80 

Fancy Ohio 4 85 @4 45 4 40 @4 50 

Extra Ind & Mich... 4 40 (a6 00 4 30 ®C 00 

Extra Ohio 4 60 ®6 50 4 60 ©6 50 

Fancy Genesee 4 30 @4 40 4 80 @4 40 

Extra Genesee 4 75 ®6 50 6 00 ©7 00 

Extra Missouri 5 00 ®8 00 5 00 ®8 00 

Super, to Ex. Cana'n 4 15 ®6 00 4 20 ®5 50 

MixedtoEx.South'n 4 60 ©7 50 4 50 ©8 25 

Rye Flour 3 00 ©8 87^3 00 ©3 Vl}i 

Corn Meal 8 00 ©8 50 8 00 ©3 50 

White Wheal ^ bush. 1 10 ©1 40 1 10 ©1 42Ji 

Red wheat ^ bush.. 99 ©120 97 ©120 

New Corn 65 © 67 65 © 68 

Northern Xiyc 68 © 70 70 © 72 

Barley 70 © 78 70 © 73 

Western Oats 44 © 45 44 © 45 

State Oats 41 © 44 41 © 44 

Jersey & I'enn. Oats. 83 ® 39 88 © 89 

Southern Oats 27 © 85 27 © So 

White beans ^ bueh 1 87X{f<il 40 1 87^^©! 40 

Canada peas ^ bu.. 1 20 (<t!.l 25 1 10 ©1 16 

Black-ejed peas^bu 3 \'i\(sj> — 8 12^@8 25 

Cotton opened actively yesterday at advancing 
prices, but closed heaviiy, with a downward tenden- 



cy. The week's sales amount to about 12,700 bales. 
Our available supply is 10,927 bales, against 83,285 
bales same period last year. The receipts at jill the 
shipping ports, to latest dates this season, have 
been 1,607,290 bales against 2,105,210 bales to the 
corresponding period of last season. The total ex- 
ports from the United States so far this season have 
been 880,030 bales, against 992,2(iC bales to the same 
date last season. The total f.tock on hand and ship- 
board in all the shipping ports, at the latest dates, 
was 673,899 bales, against 770,757 bales at the same 
time last year. The stock in the interior towns at 
the latest dates was 133,782 bales, against 109,i00 
bales at the corresponding date a year ago. 

In reference to the probable yield of the cotton 
crop, Neill, Brothers & Co. state that " 2,800,000 is 
now perhaps the favorite estimate." 

Provisions have been less freely offered, while 
they have been in good demand at rising prices. 
The Pork packing trade at Cincinnati is diminish- 
ing, the season Ijoing very nearly closed, and the 
receipts of Hogs having fallen off to about 12,000 
head. 

The market has been very quiet for all kinds of 
Wool during the past week. The demand has been 
less active, and buyers have manifested very little 
disposition to purchase, unless at reduced prices. 

Tobacco is in pretty fair request at about previ- 
ous figures. 

In the Live Stock Market the average price of 
beeves was X to ^c. lower this week than last. 
Prices this week from 12^c. for premium cattle to 
8c for poor. Price of Milch Cows with calves un- 
changed, from $30 to $00, less than $80 for very 
mean, and more than $60 for uncommonly fine. 
Veals from 6>^ to 7><fc. for good, and 6 to 6c. for 
ordinary. 

Receipt of Sheep and Lambs moderate, and prices 
unchanged. Sales ranging from $3 to $5 50, and a 
few as high as $6 50. iUceipts of Swine moderate, 
with an upward tendency in price, varying from 
6Ji to OJ^c. gross, and from 6 to 7>^c. . 



190 



ADVERTISEMENT S 



^iirertisments. 




p. MANNY'S PATENT ADJUSTABLE SELF-RAKING REAPER AND 
MOWER COMBINED. 

Manufactured by Manny & Co., Fkeepoet, III. 
Being tliree macMnes in one, simply adjusted and perfectly adapted to either pur- 
pose. These are important features not to be found in any other machine, and need 
only to be seen to be appreciated. 



THE VERY BEST 

Agricultural Paper in New-England. 

THE NEW-ENfiLAND FARMER is now gener- 
ally acknowledged to be superior to any other pub- 
lication of its class in the New-England States, and 
equal in merit to any in the country. Its circula- 
tion is unequalled by that of any other agricultural 
paper in New-England. 

It is published weekly, on fine paper, and has just 
been put upon new type throughout. It is ably ed- 
ited by Simon Brown, a thorough and practical 
farmer, and has the best corps of intelligent corre- 
spondents that can be found in New-England. 
Among these are Hon. Hbnrt F. French, of New- 
Hampshire, Hon. F. Holbrook, of Vermont, Wilson 
Flagg, author of " Studies in the Field and Forest," 
&c., &c. 

Besides the agi'icultural matter, the Farmer con- 
tains a complete digest of the news of the day, a 
condensed report of the markets, a large variety of 
Interesting and instructive miscellaneous reading, 
and everything that can make it a welcome weekly 
visitant at the fireside of every farmer in the land. 
Also published at the same ofilce, 

NEW-ENGLAND FARMER, MONTHLY. 

This is a pamphlet containing 4S pages in each 
number, printed on fine book paper, beautifully il- 
lustrated, and devoted entirely to subjects connect- 
ed with the farm. 

Terms. — New-England Farmer, Weekly, $2 a year. 
New-England Farmer, Monthly, $1 a year. 

No Club Prices, and no discount iu any case, as 
our rule is to serve aU alike. Bend for a specimen 
copy, and judge of the merits of our publications 
for yourself. 

JOEL NOURSE, 

Publisher New-England Farmer, 

Mar. 3t* No. 13 Commercial St., Boston. 



Fisli Guano.— $35 Per Ton. 



The attention of Farmers and others is called to 
the FISH GUANO manufactured by the Long Is- 
land Fish Guano and Oil Works, at Southold. Long 
Island. It is composed of the Bones and Flesh of 
Fish, after extracting the oil and water, and has 
been thorotighly tested in England and France, and 
from testimonials received, is found to be equal to 
Peruvian Guano and other manures ; is free from 
smell and not injurious to health. Price in bags, 
$35 per ton. Pamphlets containing full particutara 
and testimonials may be had on application to 
BRUNDRED & ROGERS, 

Mar. ly. CO Pine street, N. Y. 



Illustrated Book of Pears. 



Just published and for sale by A. O. MOORE, No.' 
140 Pulton St., N. Y., and STARR & CO., 4 Main St., 
New-London, Conn., the above valuable work, con- 
taining plain, practical directions for Planting, Bud- 
ding, Grafting, Pruning, Training, and Dwarfing the 
Pear-Tree ; also instruotions relating to the Propa- 
gation of new varieties, Gathering, Preserving, and 
Ripening the fruit; together with valuable hints in 
regard to the Locality, Soil, and Manures required 
for, and best arrangement of the Trees in an Or- 
chard, both on the Pear and Quince stocks, and a 
List of the most valuable varieties for Dwarf or 
Standard Culture, accurately described and truth- 
fully delineated by numerous beautifully colored 
engravings. 

The above work, beautifully illu"trated, should 
have a place in every family where a taste for good 
fruit prevails in all its choice varieties. 

Orders promptly executed. Dec. tf. 




AMEmcAN umiu' MaoAzmE. 



Vol. XII. 



APRIL. 1858. 



No. 4. 



|. D r i r ii 1 1 u r a [ . 



HINTS TO YOUNG FARMERS. 

Of wintering stock we have said so 
much in former numbers, that we need 
only touch upon the subject, important 
as it is, in this place. 

In estimating the work for April, see 
that you do not lose the benefit of your 
former care and labor and cost of keep- 
ing on stock, by neglecting them in the 
last stages of winter. It is bad policy 
to let them lose flesh in December, 
when a long winter is before them ; but 
it is hardly better policy, not to carry 
them through well when you have 
brought them in good condition into 
April. 

Let the working oxen be so fed and 
cared for as will make them strong to 
labor. ' ' Much increase is by the strength 
of the ox," not in the number of the ox- 
en. Some farmers keep too many work- 
ing animals, but do not keep them so as 
to develop the greatest strength. It is 
cheaper to manufacture a given amount 
of strength from a smaller number of 
cattle, fed and cared for in just the way 
to make them strong, than from a larger 
number enfeebled by bad treatment. 
How often have we seen a farmer in the 
last days of April plowing after cattle 
VOL. XII. 13. 



with tongues out, lolling, almost ready 
to drop down and die in the furrow, 
making precious little headway in the 
business of the season; and then we 
have seen his next door neighbor, in an 
equally sunny exposure, on equally hard 
soil, turning a deeper and a better fur- 
row, whistling a merry tune as the heavy 
soil rolled from his share, and his oxen 
in such pluck that they would almost 
have whistled in concert, if they had 
possessed organs fur the purpose. 

Give the cattle that are to do your 
spring and summer work plenty of good 
hay and a little Indian meal, or a few 
roots. Their food should be of such a 
kind that they can consume it quickly, 
and lie down to digest it and rest them- 
selves. Observe the effects of the food 
you give on the alimentary canal, and so 
apportion it as to keep them in proper 
condition, neither bound nor scoured ; 
and their strength to labor and to endure 
the sudden change of our climate from 
winter to summer, will be greatly im- 
proved. Your milking cows will require 
special care at this season. Corn meal 
should not be given immediately after 
calving. It is too inflaming. Rye meal 
or oat meal is safer for the first day or 



194 



AGRICULTURAL. 



two. Do not allow the cow to drink as 
much cold water as she would the first 
day. It might do her no harm, as thou- 
sands would testify that it has not in 
their experience, but is is safer to give 
water slightly warmed. Good hay and 
tepid water for the fij'st day or two are 
safer and better. After that you may 
give high feed with safety. As soon as 
the calf has learned well to suck, he 
should be removed from the cow, except 
at regular intervals, say morning and 
evening, that the udder may have time 
to be fully distended and the teats to be 
healed. By judicious management now 
the calf will be worth more at six weeks 
old, and the cow will produce more milk 
through the whole season. Ewes should 
be so fed and cared for that their lambs 
will be fat early ; and if you have cattle 
designed for beef, the earlier you can 
have them ready for the butcher the bet- 
ter, because they then, taking one year 
with another, bring a larger price ; and 
if sent off early they leave more feed for 
the rest of your stock. 

Now is the time to transplant trees. 
If your premises are not ornamented by 
a reasonable number — not an over-dose 
to cut off the prospect and dampen the 
buildings — of shade trees, do not let this 
spring go by without providing for the 
beauty and comfort they afford. It will 
be but little hindrance to your more im- 
portant business, to set a dozen shade 
trees. Take them up with a good many, 
but not very long, roots. If any of the 
roots are badly mutilated, cut them off 
with a sharp knife. New rootlets will 
very soon start, if you set them well, fill- 
ing in carefully with a fine top soil. No 
strong manure should be added. If the 
soil is decidedly meagre, a few shovels 
of garden soil would be a valuable addi- 
tion. Let the tree stand at least as high 
as it stood before ; and in order to keep 
it firm in its position, tie it to a stake. 
Apply very little water at the time of 
setting— none unless the ground is quite 
dry. Four trees are injured by over- 



watering to where one is by the want of 
water at transplanting. What the tree 
wants the first summer is a moderately 
rich soil and an equable degree of mois- 
ture. It should be neither baked nor 
drowned ; and to secure it against either, 
it should be set quite as high as it stood 
before ; the ground should be loosened 
a foot or more below its roots, that the 
water of heavy rains may freely perco- 
late through, and the surface should by 
all means be mulched, to prevent evapo- 
ration. The cost of setting a dozen good 
trees, in the best manner, might be 
about twenty dollars, to a retired mer- 
chant with money enough, and a plenty 
of lazy fellows around lying in wait for 
his coin ; but to a resolute farmer it 
would be but a trifle. With a hired 
man and a boy, and a horse and wagon 
to bring the trees from the .wood, he 
would almost do it before breakfast in 
the morning, or after an early supper in 
the afternoon. The trees would benefit 
his place as much as they would the 
fancy man's, but would not cost him 
one-tenth as much. An important ad- 
vantage that the farmer has over others 
for ornamenting the grounds about his 
house is, that he has all the means for 
doing it efliciently and economically. 

Have you all the fruits, large and 
small, which are suited to your location ? 
If not, now is the time to be providing 
for the future in this important respect 
Beginning with the smallest ; — currants, 
gooseberi'ies, strawberries, raspberries, 
blackberries, quinces, peaches, cherries, 
plums, and pears, are really worth more 
than it costs to have them in abundance 
a"d apples are worth quite as much as 
all the rest. The farmer never need fear 
the want of a market for apples, for he 
has a home market ; and if he will cul- 
tivate a few summer, more fall, and still 
more winter apples, there can be no loss, 
even if the home market is over supplied 
and he has to throw them to his cattle. 
As with shade, so with fi-uit trees, the 
farmer can produce them more advan- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



196 



tageously than any one else, and he can 
always make the fruit worth its cost or 
something more to be consumed at home, 
giving the surplus above the family 
wants and the poorer qualities to his 
stock, and not forgetting to make friends 
by sending portions to such of his neigh- 
bors as have more children than fruit. 
Children are apt to grow up fast friends 
to tliose who give them fruit. We re- 
member a case in point. There was a 
man in the school district where we 
grew up, of tremendously coarse features, 
and hard, stern aspect ; but he had more 
fruit than all the rest of the neighbor- 
hood. Wherever he found us he gave 
us fruit. Sometimes it came out of a 
basket, sometimes out of a deep, wide 
pocket, but oftener in the form of a per- 
mit to go into his orchard and get as 
much as we could eat and carry off. His 
stern features were very amiable in our 
young eyes, and but for hearing the re- 
marks of strangers about his rough vi- 
sage, we should probably never have 
suspected but that he was a downright 
pleasant faced, handsome, good looking 
man. He looked well enough to us, and 
we never shall forget how he looked ; 
and we say, therefore, from experience^ 
that there is no better way of making 
fast friends of the children, and thus se- 
curing a pleasant remembrance for our- 
selves, than to have a plenty of fruit and 
to be pretty liberal with it Some may 
think this will not pay, but then we 
have no sympathy with that sort of rea- 
soning. 

Much attention should be given at this 
season to the manures, not so much to 
prevent their waste by evaporation, for 
there is little danger of this till the wea- 
ther is warm and the yard dry, but to 
apply them so as to produce the best re- 
sults. If you will throw the yard and 
stall manure into heaps, and mix with it 
swamp muck for a divisor, it will fer- 
ment. First the excess of water will be 
given off, rendering the mass from 25 to 
50 per cent lighter to remove, and thus 



the labot" saved in carting will be nearly 
enough to balance the extra labor of 
throwing up and composting. 

But it is not well to let the fermenta- 
tion go too far, as then the nitrogen will 
escape in the form of ammonia. When 
you throw the manure into heaps, there 
is no ready formed ammonia' in it. But 
the nitrogen and hydrogen are there, 
and by a fermentation carried too far, 
ammonia is formed from them. As soon 
as formed it combines with carbonic 
acid, which is also a product of the fer- 
mentation, and passes as volatile car- 
bonate of ammonia into the air. The 
loss to a manure heap, if suffered to fer- 
ment long with no admixture of clayey 
or peaty matter to retain the ammonia, 
is very great, amounting in extreme 
cases to half its value. 

But for manure to be used for the 
spring crops, the main object of compost- 
ing and partially drying, is to lighten 
the labor of its removal, and more espe- 
cially to bring it into a pulverulent state, 
that it may be spread more evenly and 
better incorporated with the soil. Few 
realize how much of the effect of ma- 
nure for the first season is lost for tho 
want of a proper admixture with tho 
soil. A lump of manure here and a cu- 
bic foot of earth there is not the same 
thing for a crop as if the two were finely 
and evenly mixed. There is no possi- 
bility of working the two together too 
much for the good of the crop. The 
question is how to mix and incorporate 
them with a moderate consumption of 
time and labor, and if the manure is ren- 
dered somewhat pulverulent by compost- 
ing and partial fermentation, the labor 
of a tolerably equal diffusion of it in the 
soil is lessened. 

As regards the appropriation of tho 
different manures to particular soils and 
crops, not much, we fear, has yet been 
said, or can be, that is sufficiently prac- 
tical to be of much value. In the pre- 
sent state of knowledge on this point, 
the farmer can not do much better than 



196 



AGRICULTURAL 



to mix the different kinds of fertilizers 
about his premises as much as can be 
done without too great an increase of la- 
bor, that the weak points on some may 
be made up by the corresponding strong 
points in others. But for the extra la- 
bor, we would wish every species of ma- 
nure on the farm to be mixed and 
wrought into a perfectly uniform mass. 
This would embrace the excrements of 
all kinds of stock, the night soil, the 
soap suds, sink washings, and wastes of 
every kind, from cellar to garret, and 
from the street to the farther end of the 
barn-yard. But as this is not practical, 
at least not so as our farm buildings are 
now mostly constructed, we would use 
a discretion in the appropriation, to a 
limited extent, for instance, to use fine 
manure for top dressing, such as would 
settle down among the grass roots, in- 
stead of lying up loosely to be dried up 
by the sun and wind. A fine manure, 
that falls down among the roots and 
comes in contact with the ground, gives 
its ammonia to the soil ; one that is 
coarse and Hes above the grass gives it 
to the air. The ammonia generated from 
manure used in top dressing, if not seiz- 
ed upon by the soil, it is true, is not lost 
out of the world, but it is mainly lost to 
the farmer on whose land it is generated 
— goes into the general stock of aerial 
plant food and is very widely diffused. 
We would, therefore, advise that top 
dressing, which in some cases, in many 
even, is a wise course, notwithstanding 
all' that has been said to the contrary, 
should be done with finely pulverized ma- 
nure, spread evenly, and brought as much 
as possible into actual contact with the 
soil, and if the application can be made 
just before a long rain, to wash the 
strength of the manure into the soil itself, 
so much the better. 

There may also be something gained 
by selecting the warm, quickly acting 
manures, as that of the horse stall, for 
crops which you specially desire to bring 
forward early, and applying the colder 



manures, as from the cow stall and the 
pig pen, and the yard generally, to crops 
on which a more permanent influence is 
sought. Not only the suds, &c., col- 
lected about the sink-run, but all the 
soil impregnated with it is valuable for 
top dressing, often producing better re- 
sults in the grass crop than so much 
green manure from the barn. The scrap- 
ings of the chip-yard and wood-house 
are also valuable. The coarser parts, as 
large chips and blocks of wood, should 
be saved for fuel. The smaller portions 
may be advantageously burnt by throw- 
ing them into a large pile, and giving 
them time to smoulder away into ashes, 
charred wood, soot, and the like. In 
this state, together with the scrapings of 
the wood-house and yard, they make a 
fine and valuable top dressing. 

Wood ashes contain nearly all the in- 
gredients of our cultivated crops, pot- 
ash being the most valuable, and lime 
the most abundant ingredient. Conse- 
quently they are valuable for all soils not 
abounding in both potash and lime, and 
these are almost too limited to form an 
exception. We advise the old farmer to 
note carefully his expei ience with ashes, 
and not to sell them till quite sure that 
the soap boiler is giving more than they 
are worth for his land — a thing which we 
believe will rarely happen ; and to the 
young farmer we would say, do not sell 
your ashes at any price, till you have 
fairly tested their value for your land. 
In ninety-nine cases in a hundred the 
farmer who sells his ashes is a loser by 
it. By reason of the potash they con- 
tain, they are admirably adapted to the 
potato crop, as also to the grape vine, 
and to nearly every kind of fruit ; and 
by reason of the large per cent of lime, 
they are specially favorable to the apple 
tree, and to clover and peas. Suppose 
a field is to be cultivated this year with 
potatoes, next with peas, and then to be 
followed by clover, no manure could be 
so appropriate as ashes — the potash, ea- 
sily soluble and quick in action, for the 



AGRICULTURAL 



197 



potatoes; the lime, insoluble and'slower 
of operation, for the peas and then for 
the clover, as these last are peculiarly 
lime crops, and as the action of lime is 
lasting. 

Leached ashes, as a part of the potash 
has been taken out and considerable 
lime added, would seem more suitable 
for such crops as require a good deal of 
lime, as apples, peas, clover ; while im- 
Icached ashes might be expected to pro- 
duce more favorable results on the pot- 
ash crops, ns potatoes, tobacco and 
grapes. There is policy in manuring 
with reference mainly, but not solely, to 
the first crop. A plan for each field 
should be adopted, and the requirements 
of the after crops should come in for a 
part of the farmer's consideration, inas- 
much as a quick return is desired on the 
one hand, while the permanent produc- 
tiveness of his field is not to be disre- 
garded, nor its preparation for future 
crops by present management to be 
wholly overlooked. 

Plaster is condemned in many regions 
under an impression, correct it may be 
in some cases, but generally incorrect, 
that " it doe.s no good there." Unless 
you know absolutely, that plaster is in- 
effective on your land, use a little of it 
with your farm manures ; sow it on 
your young clover, and apply from 80 
to 100 lbs, an acre to your pastures. 
More than half of it is sulphuric acid 
and the rest is lime. These are the very 
elements that clover is made of Plaster 
it is true is but slightly soluble. It re- 
quires about 500 lbs. of water to dissolve 
one of plaster. But the rains of our 
climate are sufficient to dissolve 80 or 
100 lbs. of it on an acre in a year, and 
it would take very strong testimony to 
make us believe that so much as our 
rains will dissolve is not beneficial to 
any crop, and particularly to clover, 
corn, potatoes, and other crops in which 
lime and sulphuric acid abounds. We 
believe that many an old pasture, now 
producing only wire grass, will grow 



white and red clover, if fifty cents' worth 
of plaster be applied each year to the acre, 
or, what some might prefer, as less labori- 
ous, one dollar's worth once in two years. 

As planting time is just at hand, we 
will say to the young farmer, plant your 
potatoes as soon as the ground is in good 
condition. You should have them in the 
ground before our next number will 
reach you. It may be that this year the 
early planted will rot and the late planted 
escape. No certain prediction can be 
given ; but all experience goes to show 
that the early planted are the safest. 
And here let us say, do not apply strong, 
nitrogenous manure (such as contains 
much urine) to this ci'op. Carbonaceou.s 
composts (such as contain much vegeta- 
ble matter — straw, leaves, etc., but half 
decomposed) are a safer application for 
potatoes, since subject to the rot ; and 
do not fail to give them ashes, to supply 
the requisite amount of potash. A com- 
post of four bushels of ashes, two of lime, 
one of plaster, and a half bushel of salt, 
is a good prescription f )r potatoes, to be 
put at the rate of a small handful in the 
hill, not compactly at one point, but con- 
siderably scattered. If you omit the 
salt, it will be no great matter, nor do 
we suppose the plaster to be very im- 
portant, nor would we stickle about the 
lime, as the ashes contain that largely, 
but stick to the ashes as the main thing ; 
and if you use all, in about the propor- 
tions we have named, be sure and throw 
the compost over a considerable space in 
the furrow, and then cover the seed to a 
good depth, not less than four inches, as 
otherwise you may be in our hair next 
fall, complaining that the heating effects 
of our prescription killed your seed and 
you had no crop. We have known this 
to happen, where the compost was placed 
in a small compass, the seed put in it 
and but slightly covered. If the weather 
is ch-y and hot after planting, the danger 
is the greater ; but with proper care in 
the two respects mentioned, there will be 
no danger, whatever the weather after 



198 



AGRICULTURAL, 



planting may be. We have never known 
potatoes to become diseased where the 
foregoing mixture was apphed, and that 
while in neighboring fields nearly the 
entire crop was destroyed. We do not 
offer it as a specific, but we believe that 
it greatly improves the crop in quantity 
and quality, and diminishes, if it does 
not wholly remove, the danger from dis- 
ease. It is, however, mainly to the 
ashes, and not to any empyrical com- 
pounding of other substances that we 
ascribe the good effect. The potato is a 
potash plant, and it can not develop it- 
self vigorously without a plenty of that 
ingredient. 

The potato should be covered deeply ; 
as soon as up, it should be weeded nice- 
ly, but not hilled ; early after the weed- 
ing, say not more than fifteen days, at 
any rate before the tops begin to fall, it 
should be slightly hilled, and then let 
alone till harvested. It is worse than 
labor lost to make large hills around po- 
tatoes, and to hill them more than once 
is folly. It only causes new setts, and 
increases the number in a hill, without 
increasing the Aveight, and that with a 
decided injury to the quality. 

Of Indian corn, unquestionably the 
most important crop for this country as 
a whole, we want to say a great deal, 
but our next number will be in time for 
that. Only remember, before disposing 
of your manure for other purposes, that 
corn is a gross feeder — will devour a 
good thick turf and almost any manure 
you choose to put with it ; and in our 
next we will give you some hints on the 
corn crop, which, if you think and act 
for yourself, as every farmer should, 
following nobody's advice till he sees its 
correctness, you may turn to a good ac- 
count. — Ed. 



THE AIMS, SPIRIT AND VALUE 
OP THE AMERICAN FARM- 
ERS' MAGAZINE. 

One who is entirely unknown by us 
personally, and who has been a reader 



of this magazine only since our connec- 
tion with it, reports to us that he has 
been so well pleased with it that he 
mry readily complied with our request 
accompanying the January number of 
this year, to the effect that all old sub- 
scribers, and all who received that num- 
ber, should, if they approved the work, 
pass the word round among their neigh- 
bors, and help us to double our list. He 
writes us that he sent the January num- 
ber to an inteUigent and enterprising 
farmer in a distant State, " one whose 
patriotism takes mainly the direction of 
a very thorough devotion of his energies 
to the promotion of the interests of agri- 
culture and agriculturists in this coun- 
try," and that he forwarded by the same 
mail a letter to this friend, giving him 
the reasons which had led to the sending 
that number, and asking his attention 
to its spirit and tenor, its aims and con- 
tents. He has sent us the substance of 
that letter, remarking as follows. — Ed. 

" I have sent you the substance of the 
letter which I wrote to my friend when 
I sent him the January number of your 
magazine, thinking it quite likely that 
others might be led to do something 
similar, and call the attention of their 
friends to the merits of the magazine, 
either by sending a single number as a 
specimen, or by ordering it sent to them 
for a year in the way of a present at the 
commencement of each month. Your 
modesty may revolt at publishing any 
commendations of your work, but as the 
passages of my letter herewith sent con- 
tain nothing but "words of truth and 
soberness" from one friend to another, 
and were intended originally merely to 
point out to that friend a publication 
which I thought he would find interest- 
ing and instructive, without any refer- 
ence to the interests of its editor or 
publisher, I hope that any reluctance 
you may feel will yield to these and sim- 
ilar considerations, and that many may 
be induced to follow the example and 
submit your work to the examination of 



AGRICULTURAL 



199 



their friends in one or other of the ways 
which I have named." 

The considerations suggested by our 
unknown correspondent having prevailed 
over our rcUictance to occupy any of our 
space with what might be construed as 
self-praise, we submit for candid exami- 
nation the following passages of the let- 
ter which accompanied the sending of 
our January number to a friend, as sta- 
ted in the foregoing paragraph. — Ed. 

" I have used the liberty of sending 
you the first number of an agricultural 
journal, (which in one sense is a new one, 
though more strictly a continuation of 
the Plough^ Loorn^ and Anvil,) because 
I think you will find it such a publica- 
tion as you can heartily approve, and 
such as you would like to countenance 
and support. Its editor is not wholly a 
stranger to you, as I have seen his work 
entitled " The Progressive Farmer''' in 
your library, and as we have had some- 
thing to say in our correspondence in re- 
gard to some of his letters from abroad, 
published in The Country Gentleman. 
The perusal of that book and of these 
letters has doubtless left on your mind 
an impression of a soundness of judg- 
ment and a comprehensiveness of views, 
not possessed by every writer or even 
every editor. 

•' In addition, however, to this some- 
what rare qualification, you will find in- 
dications, I think, in the course of this 
single number of his magazine, of his 
profession of several other qualifications 
for the production of a first-rate journal 
for the use of farmers and their families. 
Even on the very first page you will 
catch a glimpse of the spirit and aims 
which characterize the American Farm- 
ers^ Magazine. You will perceive that 
while it aims at promoting an increase 
of the material wealth of the readers, it 
neglects no opportunity of making addi- 
tions to their intellectual pleasures and 
treasures, or of advancing their children 
in knowledge, goodness, and prepared- 



ness for a life of usefulness and respect- 
ability. 

"You will perceive, also, here and 
there throughout the editorial notes and 
articles in this number, that the editor is 
actuated by an appreciation of the im- 
portance of agriculture, which rises to 
the fervor of an enthusiastic devotion to 
the honor and interests of all who are 
engaged in it. He avows his belief that 
agriculture must be honored in the 
hearts of all men, ' if a higher civiliza- 
tion is to dawn on mankind, or if Chris- 
tianity is yet to have a more perfect 
work.' You will see here and there 
proofs of his sincerity and earnestness 
in desiring and endeavoring to redeem 
farm-work from the stigma of being 
merely a business for the muscles at the 
expense of the mind, and to elevate it to 
the dignity of a concern that will make 
both mind and body strong and active. 

"Firmly convinced that in farming 
we are not at the end of all improvement 
as yet, he manifestly endeavors, by stim- 
ulating the energies of men of science, 
practical farmers, and mechanics of in- 
genuity, to aid in the introduction of 
those improvements which will surely 
relieve the severity of toil, and elevate 
the farmer to a higher position in socie- 
ty. In conclusion, you will see that the 
aim of this work is to contribute, not 
only to the material prosperity of farm- 
ers, but also to the happiness of their 
homes, and to their intelligence, influ- 
ence, elevation, and respectability as cit- 
izens and members of society at large." 

* ♦ 

Of our ability to carry out successfully 
the high aims which this writer ascribes 
to us, we may not speak, and we shall 
perhaps be blamed for allowing another 
— one many hundreds of miles from us, 
whom we have never seen and wh» 
knows us only through our writings — to 
speak in these pages ; but, as he speaks 
only of our aims, and as we are deeply 
conscious that these are such as he de- 
scribes, wo admit the article, with some 



200 



AGRICULTURAL 



hesitation, and take the liberty to say, 
that if others of our readers, who ap- 
prove our course, will copy the example 
of this writer, in making this woi'k 
known to their friends, now at the be- 
ginning of the year, they will do us a 
substantial favor, and we will not be un- 
grateful. — Ed. 



THE RED CATTLE OF NEW- 
ENGLAND. 

We continue the article on the Red 
Cattle of New-England, a portion of 
which was excluded from our March 
number for leant of room. — Ed. 

Avglesey Ox. — Anglesey is an island 
on the extreme north and west of Wales, 
south of Liverpool, connected with the 
main land by a chain bridge. Ten thou- 
sand cattle a year have been bred on this 
island, and on coming to maturity driv- 
en to the eastern part of England to fat- 
ten for the London market. The Welsh 
cattle are generally black or dark color- 
ed, astonishingly hardy, vigorous, full of 
health, round barrels, elevated and well- 
spread shoulders, chest deep, forehead 
flat, horns rising boldly up, broad 
chimes, roomy hips, and are a race that 
put on fat early. 

Wales has always been a remarkable 
country. The land of Cambria was re- 
nowned even before the days of the Ro- 
mans. It is a mountainous country, 
looking right over into the Western 
Ocean, and is about one hundred and 
fifty miles long, and fifty broad. It con- 
tains twelve counties, and sends twenty- 
four members to Parliament from the 
counties, besides the borough members. 
It is the country to which the ancient 
Britons fled when England was invaded 
by the Romans, the Saxons, and the 
Danes and Normans, and in 1283 was 
the first time it submitted to a foreign 
dominion. The general face of the coun- 
try is bold, romantic, with ranges of 
lofty mountains and extensive valleys. 
The cattle in this country have always 
been numerous, strong and healthy ; in 



color inclining to the black. The stock 
is an original race far back in the annals 
of time, before any historical memorials 
a,ppear. Pembroke, Glamorgan, Rad- 
norshire, Flintshire, Monmouthshire, 
Montgomeryshire, and other counties, 
contain different herds, sometimes called 
distinct races. In many places the cat- 
tle are of all colors ; by crossing it is 
changed to brindle, brown, red, bay and 
black, with white faces and bellies, or 
red with white faces and bellies. 

We have spoken of the Glamorgan 
stock in our previous number, and we 
will only add the following relative to 
these, the Montgomerys, and the Here- 
fords. No less than four counties of 
Wales border on the Bristol Channel ; 
besides Hereford, Shropshire, Cheshire 
and Gloucester, are in its immediate 
neighborhood. 

The American people in early times 
came very much from Wales, especially 
into Rhode Island, the southern part of 
Massachusetts, and the eastern part of 
Connecticut, bringing their cattle with 
them. The Welsh people have ever 
been renowed for their love of liberty 
and independence, and it is said that no 
less than thirteen members who signed 
the American Declaration of Indepen- 
dence in 1776, were descended from dif- 
ferent families in Wales ; in other words 
they were the descendants of Welsh- 
men. 

Glamorgan Cattle. — The Glamorgan 
cattle were originally esteemed one of 
the best breeds in England. They were 
of the ancient Welsh stock, but more or 
less crossed on the Devons. The old 
feeders in Leicestershire, Warwickshire, 
and Wiltshire were in the habit of pur- 
chasing these cattle for their stalls for 
fattening. The Warwickshire people 
have themselves long possessed breeds 
of cattle of a superior kind, which seem 
to have been a race of long-horns with a 
cross of the Herefords and Alderneys. 
George III. had a well selected stock of 
these Glamorgan cattle on his farm at 



AGRICULTURAL 



SOI 



Windsor. Indeed the fattening qualities 
of tlicse cattle and other Welsh cattle 
were proverbial. The best cross on this 
breed is said to be on the Ayrshire, of 
Scotland, producing a hardy animal, apt 
to fatten, a good milker, and when fed 
affording excellent beef. The color of 
these cattle was red and brown, with a 
small head, lively countenance, neck well 
arched, carcase round and well turned, 
good workers and docile. 

Mon^gomerysMre Cattle. — This coun- 
ty is situated in the highlands of Wales ; 
it po.cscssed two distinct races of cattle, 
one from the hills, red, brindled and 
black ; the animal was healthy, hardy, 
apt to fatten, and made a strong, light 
ox, quick at work, full of spirit, but the 
cows were said to be inferior milkers. 
The other race was found in the vale of 
the Severn River. The ox fattened read- 
ily ; the color was brown with white 
under the belly, the horns slender, but 
well turned. The cows, when properly 
fed, were good milkers and made excel- 
lent cheese. This race is evidently a 
cross on the Devons and the old Welsh 
cattle. 

The Severn River heads in the moun- 
tains of Wales ; after running east into 
England, it then turns south and finds 
its way into the valle}'' of the Bristol 
Channel, which was formerly the great 
place of embarkation of the Pilgrims to 
America. 

The Hereford Cattle.— The Herefords 
originally were a brown, or red brown, 
with not a white spot about them. They 
originally had almost exclusive posses- 
sion of the county of Hereford. This 
county lies along the extreme west of 
England, adjacent to Wales. These ox- 
en were considerably larger than the 
Devons ; they arc higher and broader, 
heavier in the chime, rounder and wider 
across the hips, better covered with fat, 
eyes full and lively, forehead broad, good 
horns, long neck, head small, chest deep, 
broad and full, loins broad, hips wide, 
rump level with the back, barrel round 



and roomy, carcase deep and well spread, 
ribs broad and flat, flesh mellow and 
soft. These cattle fatten to a greater 
weight than the Devons — they are docile, 
of great strength, adapted for heavy work, 
rather active, generally not considered the 
best for the dairy ; when crossed on the 
Devons they materially improve each 
other. The Herefords are said to be an 
aboriginal breed, and descended from the 
same stock as the Devons. When fatten- 
ed the beef is said to be fine grained and 
beautifully marbled. The ox f:itt ens kind- 
ly, and they are much esteemed in the 
London market. When a cow is inclin- 
ed to give a large quantity of milk, the 
breeding qualities of the animal arc lessen- 
ed,and the form of the animal is deteriorat- 
ed. They were considered one of the best 
breeds for graziers and butchers in Eng- 
land. 

The Gloucestershire Cattle. — Glouces- 
tershire is in the southern part of Eng- 
land, situated on the River Severn, up 
from the Bristol Channel, north of Wilt- 
shire, and south-east of Herefordshire. 
This was formerly one of the best dairy 
counties in England. A great quantity 
of cheese Avas formerly made in this 
count)'^; it is of two sorts — the single 
and double. The first was made of skim 
milk, or from a mixture of skimmed and 
pure milk. Ttie double from pure un- 
skimmed milk. The best cows have 
been known to produce 24 quarts of 
milk a dny for seven months after calv- 
ing. It is said that the original race of 
cattle in this county was small, of an in- 
different figure, but were well adapted 
to active work in a hilly country. The 
color a reddish brown. 

A cross on the old long-horns of Wilt- 
shire produced a larger race, with a ten- 
dency to fatten. Crosses were made at 
an early day upon the Duihanis and 
Yorkshire, and the old short-horns which 
produced animals of good milking quali- 
ties, remarkable for milk large in quan- 
tity and rich in quality ; it is said that 
the Herefords and Devons were much 



202 



AGRICULTURAL. 



sought after for crossing. A great many 
of this race of cattle were brought into 
New-England, especially into the old 
Massachusetts colony in the county of 
Middlesex, and into the Plymouth colony. 

Somersetshire Cattle. — Somersetshire 
lies east of the Bristol Channel, and 
north-east of Devonshire, joining the 
two. This was also a noted dairy coun- 
ty in England. The cheese of Somerset- 
shire is celebrated for its good and rich 
qualities. The dairy farmers sell off 
their cows at the age of 12 years. The 
milk now begins to deteriorate and les- 
sen in quantity. The original race of 
cattle in this county were the South De- 
vons, but they were early crossed on the 
old short -horns and the Durham stock, 
producing one of the best breeds of milk- 
ers. It is said that the improved race 
are of a superior quality, and nearly 
equal to the short- horns in the quantity 
of their milk. This county, lying upon 
the Bristol Channel, supplied many cat- 
tle for the first New-England settlements. 

Dorsetshire Cattle. — Dorsetshire, Eng- 
land, is bounded on the south by the 
EngUsh Channel, west by Devonshire, 
north by Wiltshire and east by Hamp- 
shire. The towns of Dorchester and 
Weymouth, in this county, lie right op- 
posite to the islands of Alderney and 
Jersey, on the French coast, looking 
right over to Normandy and Brittany. 
The original race of cattle in this county 
were said to have been a race of South 
Devons, but crossed upon the Alderneys 
and French Cattle. The Durhams and 
Herefords were early brought into this 
country. 

Dorsetshire has ever sent great quan- 
tities of butter to the London market, as 
well as cheese made from skimmed milk. 
It is one of the noted dairy counties in 
England. 

It is said that the long-horns of Wilt- 
shire were formerly crossed on the Dor- 
setshire cattle. This breed was early 
known and noted for two qualities — good 
for the milk and for the stalls. Many of 



the early Puritans came in from Dorset- 
shire to New-England ; (the Dorchester 
people were almost entirely from this 
county.) The soil of this county was 
generally rich and fertile. The climate 
was rather mild and congenial. Old 
Dorchester was the capital of the county 
while Portland was a seaport town of 
notoriety, as well as the towns of Wey- 
mouth, Bridgeport and Wareham. The 
people from Dorsetshire liberally sup- 
plied themselves with cattle when they 
came into New-England. 

A modern writer declares that there 
is no breed of cows in England superior 
to the French cows from Flanders, Nor- 
mandy and Brittany, for the quantity 
and quality of their milk, nor for the 
proportion of milk given for the quanti- 
ty of food consumed ; that the best ow in 
the British empire are the Alderneys ; 
that a large number of heifers are sold 
annually into England, where they are 
in great request among the wealthy 
classes for the dairies. 

Many of the early cattle brought into 
New- England were from towns along the 
English Channel, Bristol Channel, and 
the German Ocean. Falmouth was at 
one time a port of embarkation. Ber- 
wick, York, Plymouth, Weymouth, 
Southampton, Brighton, Portsmouth, 
Newport, Dover, Chelmsford, Colchester, 
Ipswich, Yarmouth, Norwich, Lynn, Bos- 
ton, Hull, Beverly and Scarborough, were 
all maritime towns on the southern and 
eastern sides of England, and places of 
embarkation for the Pilgrims. 

DerlysMre, Wiltshire, Shropshire, 
Oxfordshire, and Warwicl'shire Cattle. 
— These were a race of long-horns, 
strong, healthy animals, and when fed 
well in the pastures the cows were good 
milkers. The animal was rather raw- 
boned and stood high feeding well. 

The Wiltshire cattle were esteemed 
some of the best in England. Many of 
these were brought into New-England 
by the first Pilgrims. 

The Warwickshire cattle were nearly 



AGRICULTURAL 



20S 



allied to the Leiccstershires ; indeed the 
Leiccstcrshircs, Derbyshircs, Oxford- 
shires, Staffordshires, Wiltshires, and 
Shropshires were all originally descend- 
ants of the long-horns of Craven and 
Cumberland. The long-horns were one 
of the strongest, healthiest, and hardiest 
race of cattle in England. This animal 
by a cross on the Iloldernesshas made a 
strong, large, and vigorous race. The 
cow gives a great quantity of milk, and 
has become an excellent dairy animal. 

The cattle from the Midland counties 
in England have ever shown themselves 
a strong, healthy and valuable race, and 
when transplanted to America easily be- 
come acclimated, and now furnish many 
of our best cattle for beef and milk. 
They were races of cattle that perpetuate 
themselves on the New-England moun- 
tains to very great advantage, making 
strong, large, healthy, and rather bony 
animals ; but when come to maturity 
and fed well, produce some of the best 
beeves for market in New-England. 
They are all excellent cattle for heavy 
work. The short-horn stock are gen- 
erally animals which give a large quan- 
tity of milk ; but the milk is not very 
valuable for cheese or butter, and the 
cattle are generally not strong for work. 
They are feeble compared with the long- 
horns or the middle-horns. They gen- 
erally put on flesh very quickly, but the 
cattle of this description do not furnish 
so fine or healthy beef as the long-horns. 
The middle-horns and the animals gener- 
ally speaking belonging to the short- horn 
race, are not so healthy ; they breed out 
easily and do not retain the good quali- 
ties of the parent stock for any great 
length of time. The people of the east- 
ern part of England are aware of this ; 
hence they are continually procuring 
droves and herds of cattle from AN'ales 
and Scotland, and from the mountain 
districts in J^ngland. Parlies who read 
the proceedings of English Agricultural 
Societies will discover that the prize ani- 
mals mostly come from or are bred in the 



hilly regions of England, or among the 
mountains in Wales or Scotliind. 

Many of the people in Amcsbury and 
Salisbury in Essex Co., Massachusetts, 
about the Merrimac river, came from 
Wiltshire in the southern and western 
part of England. The first settlements 
were made here prior to 1640. They 
brought in with them at that time the 
Wiltshire cattle, which were the long- 
horns, crossed on the Aldcneys, the 
Devons and the Ilercfords with occasion 
ally a strain of the Welsh cattle. 

Salisbury in Essex county, was 
named from the old town of Salisbury 
situated in the south of England. The 
county of Wiltshire lies east of Dorset- 
shire and Somersetshire, and south of 
Gloucestershire. It is 53 miles long, 
and embraces quite a large territory. 

While the inhabitants who first settled 
Andover, in the county of Essex, came 
from old Audover, in the county of 
Hampshire, bordering on the English 
Channel, oppo.^ite France, many of the 
settlers of this town came in direct from 
England, bringing with them their cat- 
tle, and among the rest a race called at 
that day, the Hampshire Ox. This ani- 
mal was closely allied to the Sussex, was 
crossed upon the Alderneys as well as 
the South Devons and the Wiltshire 
long-horns, producing a large, strong 
animal, good for beef, work and milk ; 
the color was generally red. 

This part of England was formerly the 
resort of many of the early Saxons, who 
originated in the mountain coUntrj', in a 
region about the head waters of the river 
Elbe in the middle of Europe, in Saxo- 
ny and Bohemia. Indeed we may go to 
the highlands on the continent of Europe, 
north of Italy, through Austria, Bohe- 
mia and Bavaria, for the race of cattle 
which prevailed in England in early pe- 
riods of its history. 

The best cattle are mountain animals, 
and they do not improve in health by 
being sent to the lowlands, marshes and 
plains for breeding and pasturage. The 



204 



AGEICULTURAL, 



town of Bilericay in Middlesex county, 
Massachusetts, was named from the olfi 
town of Bilericay. in the county of Essex 
in England. This is a beautiful, fertile 
and maritime county, bounded east by 
the ocean, south by the river Thames, 
which separates it from the county of 
Kent. In early times it was noted for 
its butter ; latterly it is called the Ep- 
ping butter, which it supplies in greater 
proportions than any other county in the 
kingdom, for the London market. 

The old Suffolh Dun Cow was former- 
ly much found here, as well as a race of 
short-horn cattle, imported from Holland 
and Belgium. They were good milkers, 
and when taken to the stalls produced 
great quantities of beef. The settlement 
began in this town as early as 1637 ; in- 
deed many of the people in the counties 
of Essex and Middlesex, in Massachu- 
setts, came in originally from the eastern 
and southern part of England, with 
their cattle. These cattle were general- 
ly good for the dairy ; most of them were 
the middle-horns ; a few of them were 
of the long-horns, some were Leicester- 
shires, some were Yorkshires, and some 
Durhams, but not so many of the Devons 
and Welsh cattle were introduced into 
the Old Massachusetts Colony by the 
first settlers, as were into the New Ply- 
mouth colony, and into Connecticut and 
Rhode Island. 

In looking at the statistics of Massa- 
chusetts at the present day, we find that 
Middlesex is one of the best dairy coun- 
ties in the State. Worcester is the 
best, having produced 1,637,978 lbs. of 
butter, and 1,791,030 lbs. of cheese in 
one year. The stock of cattle in this 
county are the descendants of the races 
first introduced into Essex, Middlesex, 
and Norfolk counties by the first Pil- 
grims. 

Berkshire county produced 1,262,845 
lbs. of butter and 2,658,192 lbs. of 
cheese. The old county of Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, produced 2,445,289 lbs. 
of butter within the same period. This 



county includes Franklin, Hampden and 
Hampshire. 

The cattle of Berkshire county, Mass., 
came in originally mostly from the Hou- 
satonic Valley, and from the western part 
of Connecticut, and also from the Hudson 
river, including a large share of the origi- 
nal Dutch or Holland stock. The cattle 
of Old Hampshire county came from the 
New-Haven and Connecticut colonies, 
and from Dorchester, which was at one 
time the head- quarters of a large emigra- 
tion. The same remarks will apply to 
many of the cattle first introduced into 
Worcester county. 

The old Aldcrneys crossed on the 
Devons, the Sussex ox, and the Wilt- 
shire long-horns form a large and strong 
animal, among the best for beef and 
milk. Along with these came some of 
the long-horns fit»m Cumberland, Nor- 
thumberland and Leicestershire, Eng- 
land. Indeed Miles Standish, one of the 
original Puritans, and the captain of the 
band that first landed at Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, was born in Lancashire, 
England, and was an officer in the Brit- 
ish army before he joined the congrega- 
tion at Lyden. 

The county of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, received a very large supply of its 
original inhabitants from the Plymouth 
colony, and subsequently from Middle- 
sex and Essex. 

The Massachusetts colony had import- 
ed by the year 1640 large numbers of 
cattle. There had come into the colony 
up to this period 21,200 passengers in 
about 298 ships. 

The Puritans were at great pains in 
settling their colonies and grants. It 
had cost them by the year 1640, more 
than $1,000,000 for emigration to New- 
England. The people were mostly of 
high intelligence ; they knew what 
good farming was, apd what kind of cat- 
tle were necessary for their stock. Com- 
parison and observation had given the 
eye of the Pilgrims the expo ience to 
discover and pick out the very best ani- 



AGRICULTURAL, 



206 



mals. Such were brought over by the 
early fothcrs. 

The town of Mcdford, in the county 
of Middlesex, Massachusetts, was first 
settled b}^ emigrants from Lincoln and 
Northampton counties, in the north and 
east part of England. Here were found 
the long-horns and the old Leicester- 
shire cattle, as also many of the short- 
horn cattle. 

Northamptonshire contained less waste 
land and more seats of the nobility and 
gentry than any of the other counties in 
England. The town of Northampton, 
England, has long been noted for its ca- 
pacious markets, while the trade for 
boots and shoes manufactured in this 
county was very great. 

The county of Norfolk, England, at 
an early day, produced great quantities 
of butter ; while in the county of Lin- 
coln the breed of cattle was larger than 
that of any other county in England ex- 
cept Somersetshire. Lincoln has ever 
stood noted as an agricultural county in 
England. The old Lincolnshire ox was 
a middle-horn. The county is a mari- 
time county on the German Ocean. 

The soil of Durham, East Yorkshire, 
Lincoln, Suffolk and Norfolk counties, 
England, is of the most recent formation, 
full of the remnants of exeuvia, from the 
ocean. Many cattle from these counties 
were transferred to the counties of Essex 
and Middlesex, Massachusetts, and were 
the originals out of which a portion of 
the dairy cattle introduced by the first 
emigrants into the old Massnchusetts 
colony, and subsequently into Worcester 
county and the south part of New-Hamp- 
shire were produced. 

The town of Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, was first settled in 1635 by a col- 
ony under the old Plymouth grant in 
England. William Pynchon, Esq., was 
the leader of this settlement ; he got his 
commission in England. The colony 
first came to Roxbury, Massachusetts. 
The cattle brought in by this colony 
were the old North Devons, the Here- 



fords, and Welsh cattle crossed on the 
Alderneys ; they formed an exceedingly 
fine race of cattle for the new w<rld. 
The grant to this colony M-as a tract 25 
miles square, lying on both sides cf Con- 
necticut river, and included the towns of 
Suffield, Southwiclc, Westfield, West 
Springfield, Old Springfield, Sommers, 
Ludlow, Long Meadow, and Enfield in 
Connecticut, embracing a very fine tract 
of country exceedingly fertile and well 
adapted to the growth of neat cattle. 

Northampton, 20 miles above Spring- 
field, was settled in 1G53 by a colony 
from Springfield and Hartford, Connect- 
icut. The land was purchased of the 
Indians. This tract was located along 
the west side of Connecticut river, em- 
bracing the towns of Northampton, East- 
hampton, Southampton, Norwich, and 
Chesterfield. The descendants of the 
old Devons and Alderneys, Herefords, 
Wiltshires and Welsh cattle were the 
first stock introduced into this region. 

Hadley, on the opposite side of Con- 
necticut river from Northampton, was 
settled in 1G56 by a colony that came 
from Hartford, Connecticut, and also 
from New-Haven. This tract of coun- 
try was also very large ; it embraced 
Williamsburgh, Whateley, old Had- 
ley, South Hadley, Amherst, Sun- 
derland, Leverett, and Pelhani. The 
New-IIaven colony and Hartford colony 
supplied cattle which were the descend- 
ants of the North Devons, Herefords, 
Alderneys, the old Sussex ox, and many 
strains from the Welsh cattle. Occa- 
sionally cattle would come in to the val- 
ley of the Connecticut river from the 
long-horns of Wiltshire, Worcester, and 
Berkshire in England, as well as strains 
of the Leicestershires, the Cumberland 
and Lancashire long-horns. These set- 
tlements in the valley of the Connecticut 
soon extended to old Deerfield, Green- 
field, Northfield, and ultimately up the 
river through New-Hampshire and Ver- 
mont to Canada. In passing up the val- 
ley of the Connecticut river from Long 



206 



AGRICULTURAL 



Island Sound to Canada, a person will of- 
ten see a race of long-horns apparently a 
progeny of the old Cumberland types. 
These cattle have large Hmbs, bones and 
carcases, the horns very large, stout 
and long. The animal when young ap- 
pears rather coarse, but when grown at- 
tain an immense size, exhibiting an ox 
which produces the largest quantity of 
beef of any similar animal known. These 
cattle come to maturity rather slow, but 
they will stand higher and longer feed- 
ing in the stalls than any other race. 

There is no country in the world that 
furnishes better well-fed oxen than the 
towns along the Connecticut > iver. The 
hills and pastures on each side of this 
noble stream are the most fertile of any 
in this or any other country, in grasses 
and feed for cattle while at pasture ; and 
the broad valley of the Connecticut river 
yields hay, Indian corn, and other grain 
superior to any other in America, and in 
quantities almost beyond comprehension, 
while the climate is clear, cool, generally 
rather dry, and the most healthy for the 
animal races. New-England may be 
proud of her cattle as well as of her men. 

In almost every part of Europe and 
England skulls of cattle have been dug 
up and found far exceeding in bulk any 
now known. There is a fine specimen 
in the British Museum. Such skulls 
have been found in the vicinity of the 
mines in Cornwall, England, showing 
types of the Devons, Ea>t Sussex, and 
Welsh cattle, as well as of the Scotch 
Highland cattle. Calves, when permit- 
ted to run with the cow, will suckle two 
years and longer. Mr. Pell, of the Am- 
erican Institute, killed a calf which had 
run and suckled two years ; it then 
weighed, when slaughtered, 2000 lbs. 

The largest cattle can only be raised 
by letting the calves suckle until they 
wean themselves ; at about two years of 
age the teeth have now become a new 
set, the milking teeth fell out, and the 
animal is now able with its Inrge, firm 
teeth to crop the grass and obtain a liv- 



ing for itself without the aid of its mo- 
ther. 

"We violate the laws of nature when 
we wean the calves and feed them on 
skimmed milk, or undertake to control 
their feed ; the stock now becomes stunt- 
ed and dwarfish. There is no tampering 
with the laws of nature with impunity 
without producing injury, and breeders 
only want to follow those laws to secure 
the largest, the best, and the most pro- 
fitable stock. 

Whilst the lumbering business lasted 
in New-Hampshire, the breeding of large 
cattle was much attended to. Calves 
were allowed to run with the cows and 
suck at pleasure. Men were ambitious 
to be distinguished by the size and 
strength of their oxen. Bets were fre- 
quently made upon the exertion of their 
.strength. The prize was contended for 
as earnestly as the laurels at the Olym- 
pic games. As husbandry has gained 
ground, less attention is paid to the 
strength and more to the fetness of cat- 
tle for the market. From the upper 
part of New-Hampshire great herds of 
fat cattle are driven to the Boston mar- 
ket. It is said that there are twenty 
cattle in New-Hampshire to one horse. 
(See Sd Vol. of Belknap's New-Hamp- 
shire, page 105.) 

Alanson Nash, 

36 Beekman street. 



DUTIES OF FARMERS. 

The following from the Ohio Valley 
Farmer, by Geo. Trowbridge, Camden, 
N. J., is the introduction to a longer ar- 
ticle on the same subject, and it so 
abounds in truth and good sense, that 
we can not forbear to copy it : 

Among the many duties which devolve 
upon farmers, there is none of higher 
importance, or to which is attached a 
greater share of responsibility, than that 
of affording to the rising generation the 
means of instruction, and the facilities 
for cultivating the vind. In is in vain 
that we talk of improving the soil and 
elevating the standard of agriculture in 



AGRICULTURA L 



207 



this country, while the youth, the sons 
and dauj^htcrs of farmers, are denied the 
privileges of education and moral cul- 
ture — which every sound and thinking 
mind will admit are necessary to enable 
them to pursue their avocations with 
pleasure and profit, and to discharge in 
a proper manner their duty in the vari- 
ous relations of life. 

The subject of education in schools is 
of vast importance to farmers, and may 
with propriety be discussed in an agri- 
cultural journal ; but I intend in this ar- 
ticle only to point out some of the er- 
rors and omissions of dvty, with which 
many farmers are chargeable, in the edu- 
cation and training of those who are soon 
to enter upon the stage of action, and to 
whom the agricultural interest must look 
for its friends and advocates. Educa- 
tion does not consist solely in the know- 
ledge gained at schools. The history 
of some of our most eminent men shows 
that individual exertion, when aided and 
encouraged by parental advice and aid, 
may be the means of acquiring a degree 
of knowledge and of reaching a position 
which the mere advantages of school 
would never afford. I here repeat, what 
wc have often in effect said, that self-cul- 
tiu'e is more neglected among the farmers 
than any other class of persons. It is 
time that there was a reform in this res- 
pect, and we are happy in being able to 
say that there is evidence of a desire for 
agricultural reading, which pervades to 
some extent the youth of this country. 
It is the duty of those having the care 
of yoiith, so to encourage the first ap- 
pearances of these desires, as to form 
permanent habits, and a disposition for 
investigation, which alwaji's leads to val- 
uable results. The youthful mind is 
never inactive, and if it is thwarted from 
its laudable inclination, will be very 
likely to engage in the pursuit of objects 
which it would be wiser to avoid. 

There is no subject in which the mind 
of young men can with more propriety 
be emplo)'ed, than in the improvement 
of agriculture \ and we think the judg- 
ment of our readers will coincide with 
ours, when we say that the surest means 
of leading the niind to an investigation 
of agricultural science, and the best 
means of accomplishing objects of im- 
provement, is to place before them pub- 
lications which have for their aim the 
good of the agricultural interest. 

Often have we heard the boy of 12 or 
15 years urge his father to subscribe for 



an agricultural paper, which would cost 
only a dollar a year, and promising to 
read it attentively, and in some insiances 
to earn the subscription money by ex- 
tra exertions, whi'e the father would 
utterly refuse to allow him the privilege 
of storing his mind with information, 
which might be the means of adding 
greatly to his usefulness, and preventing 
him from acquiring habits of dissipation 
and idleness. And why is this refused? 
Simply because it will cost a small sum 
of money, while ten times as much 
would perhaps would be freely expended 
on objects which can V)e of no possible 
advantage to the \outhful mind. There 
are hundreds of such cases, and we wish 
in a respectful manner to call the atten- 
tion of such individuals to the subject, 
and to show them the rcsj^misihility 
which they have thus voluntarily as- 
sumed. Where is the man who is will- 
ing to stand in the way of improvement, 
by keeping, as far as his influence goes, 
the sons and daughters of farmers igno- 
rant of the means of improvement which 
shall be extended to them in their youth ? 
Every opportunity should be embraced 
to impress upon young persons the ad- 
vantages, as well as the respectaMlity of 
agricultural pursuits. 

The above and much more, which we 
would copy if our limits permitted, is 
all sober truth. The greatest men that 
have blessed the world have been j'our 
practical, self-made men. They are men 
who have seized the home opportunities 
and made much of them. 

Reader, just cast your thoughts around 
you, and sec how many young men 
there are in your neighborhood who 
ought to have the reading of this maga- 
zine but do not have it. Some such jou 
will certainly find. Go to them ; tell 
them of its advantages ; tell their fa- 
thers the benefits of such a journal for 
themselves and their families. We told 
you in our last, that as our January and 
February numbers are nearly exhausted, 
we would send the work to new subscri- 
beis the balance of the year, commenc- 
ing with April, for $1. We will now go 
one step further; we will send it one 
year, from the first of April, for $1 each 
to clubs of twenty and upwards. Every 



208 



AGRICULTURAL 



one of our readers can raise such a club 
if he wills it, at such a price. And now, 
reader, give us a push. Our motto is 
Onward. We want our farmers to have 
this work. We want their sons to read 
it, and to achieve a higher destiny in life 
for reading it, and they will if their fa- 
thers do the right thing — let them have 
it. Give it to them in their own name 
if they prefer. Young people sometimes 
value a thing more if it is their own, and 
this is all right and well. Let fathers 
order it for a son who is little inclined 
to inform himself, and, our word for it, 
that son will take a new turn — will be 
more inquisitive, less satisfied with low 
pleasures, and a safer hope and reliance 
for the old age of the parent. Will our 
readers carry out these thoughts, and 
see what they can do to give them a 
practical effect in their town or county ? 
Every man is now our agent who will 
send us names, with the money, at rates 
stated in our Prospectus, and on receipt 
of the money we will acknowledge the 
same to him and to each of his subscrib- 
ers, and will faithfully fulfill the contract 
to send the numbers. To say nothing 
of the benefit of such a work to an old 
farmer, at least 50,000 young men, not 
yet supplied with the most useful read- 
ing, ought to have it ; and if our readers 
will just do up the business of a volun- 
tary agency about home, such will be 
the result, and another result will be, 
that next year they and all others, in 
consequence of the large number re- 
quired, can have the work for one dollar 
as it is, or for a little over one dollar, 
greatly enlarged. 



UNDERDRAINING, IRRIGATION, 

ETC. 

BY E. li. WATERBtJRY, M. D. 

In 1851 I purchased a meadow of 
about six acres, consisting of two 
very different kinds of land. The up- 
per part of it was composed of what 
geologists term drift or loose stone, with 
their corners worn off" by attrition against 



each other, and deposited in a direction 
and inclination nearly uniform during 
some uncertain ancient period. The 
lower part, which was not quite so hu-ge, 
was composed of swampy ground under- 
laid by clay, and was very much the 
most productive. A mountain brook 
that crossed a corner of the upper part, 
suggested to me the idea of converting 
the dry hill side into a wet land like the 
lower part, and thus rendering it equally 
fertile. Accordingly, by means of sluices 
from the stream taken along the side of 
the hill, at a downward inclination of 
about the half of one degree, I managed 
to obtain a sufficient supply of w;jter, 
but when applied instead of wetting the 
soil generally I found it to percolate al- 
most directly down until it met the im- 
pervious lower strata, running along 
which it made its appearance as numer- 
ous springs at the upper edge of the na- 
turally wet part of the meadow. During 
the same and the subsequent season I 
had occasion to subject some fifty acres 
or more of meadow land of clayey soil to 
irrigation with in every case a beneficial 
result ; in some cases the annual growth 
of grass being more than quadrupled. 
From these experiments I drew the con- 
clusion that irrigation to be of practical 
value must be practised on soils not too 
open, but which have enough plasticity 
of composition to prevent too rapid fil- 
tration through them, and that when 
practised on such soils as nature dresses 
with water, it is one of the cheapest and 
most effective means of improving them 
in fertility. 

The water that was supplied to this 
hill side during the two years in whic"h 
the experiment was conducted, was like 
all surface water, roilly, that is more or 
less charged with organic matter, and 
yet after the filtration, when it made its 
appearance in the springs, it was not 
only quite free from any such taste, but 
it had dissolved out and brought to the 
surface from within the hill such salts as 
rendered it hard. The extent of this ex- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



200 



periment and the time during which it 
continued, leave no doubt that the water 
under certain very common circum- 
stances carries no organic matter which 
may be dissolved in it below a foot or so 
in the soil, while it dissolves and brings 
to the surface continually soluble sub- 
stances from within the earth. 

The water of irrigation is merely a 
substitute for rain, and consequently ir- 
rigation is most necessary, and of course 
furnishes the most stinking results on 
such soils and such crops as feel drouth 
soonest. As the substances that com- 
pose plants must at first enter into their 
composition in a soluble condition, and 
as the solution from which they are re- 
vived by the action of the sun on plant 
tissue is exceedingly dilute, it follows 
that the growth of the plant is princi- 
pally governed by the supply of mois- 
ture. It is the principal province of the 
laborious processes of tillage to retain 
the natural supply of water and furnish 
it to the plant as it is needed during the 
action of the sun. In the same manner 
that a cloth wrung is freed from mois- 
ture and refuses to absorb, so docs a 
hard soil. The bed of a turnpike road 
is sooner dry than the neighboiing plow- 
ed field. The surface of the earth stir- 
red by the plow to the depth of six 
inches, will absorb and retain one or two 
inches of rain which will give growing 
plants a fair supply of water for ten days 
or two weeks of exposure to a bright 
sun. By increasing the depth of tillage 
to twelve inches, the risk of a longer 
drouth is avoided and a greater aggre- 
gate growth is secured, as there are less 
extremes of variation. It is in this way 
that deep tillage of land seems to ef- 
fect so much benefit, and indeed it is 
extremely difficult to account for the 
well known benefits of frequently stir- 
ring the soil on any purely chemical hy- 
pothesis. 

The supply of rain to the difierent 
countries of the earth, when not inter- 
fered with by local causes, such as ranges 
14- 



of mountains, will be found to corre- 
spond to the intensity of sunshine, and 
the same is generally true of any given 
place for the difieront seasons of the 
year. Thu.s, while we have some thirty- 
five inches of rain annually, the average 
fall in tropical countries is over a hun- 
dred, and two-thirds of our thirty-five 
inches fall during the hottest third of 
our year. 

In countries that are thoroughly cul- 
tivated the greatest part of the rain that 
falls never passes into the earth more 
than a foot, being absorbed and retained 
to be exhaled again by the growing 
plants. Of that other part which passes 
down by filtration to appear again in 
springs, most of it is also evaporated 
from the land those springs irrigate, but 
a very small percentage finding its way 
to the ocean. 

It has been frequently remarked in 
clearing away the forests of this country 
and superseding them by a growth of 
the grasses, that the springs become 
smaller and in some cases di-y quite 
away at times, where previously they 
had been permanent, and also that the 
annual freshets in the streams do not 
rise so high as when the country they 
drain was wooded. To account ior this 
we may refer to some late experiments 
in Europe that show that when soil is 
trenched to the depth of three feet there 
is no filtration, and that at less depths 
the plants growing in it can use more 
water during the -season in addition to 
the rain than what drains away. In- 
deed common observation shows us that 
most plants growing on the banks of 
streams where they obtain an unlimited 
supply of water by upward filtration, 
are greatly increased in growth. Hence 
we may conclude that if in addition to 
culture so deep as to retain all the rain 
that falls we were to supply some addi- 
tional water, it would increase the 
growth. 

We are not to conclude from these 
facts that an unlimited supplj' of water 



210 



AGRICULTURAL. 



to a soil is all that is necessary to render 
it fertile ; although a soil in this condi- 
tion does give a much better growth than 
one in the opposite state of aridity. Wa- 
ter and air are both necessary for the 
decay of organic matter, and consequent- 
ly for the supply of carbonic acid in the 
soil on which vegetative growth depends. 
It is probably by furnishing air as much 
as by removing water that underdrain- 
ing produces its effects. It is a well 
known practical fact, that in those under- 
drains that are working effectually, a cur- 
rent of air is continually generated, and 
this draft is probably connected with the 
oxidation of organic matter in the soil. 

If the processes of agriculture, then, 
laborious as they are, derive their prin- 
cipal value from the fact that they fur- 
nish a steadily continuous supply of wa- 
ter to plants ; and if the fertility of a 
country may be judged of by its rain 
gauge ; and if we have sunshine enough 
to use up all of our rain, and even more 
if it fell, then we ought to make such ar- 
rangements as would save the greatest 
possible amount of the water that annu- 
ally falls, and leave as little of it as pos- 
sible to run away iuto the sea. In the 
case of meadows, when we can not plow 
them annually, and when consequently 
the soil becomes very hard, so that they 
are the first to suffer from drought, 
every little rill should be scrupulously 
saved and distributed over the greatest 
possible amount of surface. The same 
is equally true of pasture, and even 
plowed soils may be vastly benefited by 
an additional supply of water. 



SHOULD MANURE BE PLOWED 
UNDER DEEPLY? 

B. N. Feench, Esq., of Braintree, Mass., 
referring to a statement of ours last 
month, in which we represented him as 
opposed to the deep plowing in of ma- 
nure, and alluded to an experiment of 
bis, writes us as fuliows ; — 

The case was as near as I can recollect 
as follows. I had planted a lot of sod 



land and found I had manure to spare. 
I decided to take up an additional strip 
of land on the side, of about 10 rods by 
50 feet. At this time, 11th May, grass 
quite forward, I had some excellent ma- 
nure offered me for sale, which induced 
me to try an experiment, which I had 
heard recommended, of putting the ma- 
nure on the grass, and plowing it under ; 
which I did by putting this manure on 
one end of the strip. I think this ma- 
nured end was the best land. I plowed 
under a sod of about ten inches. Then 
all was manured alike and planted, but 
the crop, where manured under as well 
as on the top, proved no better th^n 
where it was manured only on the top, 
nor have I ever derived any benefit from 
it since. I am opposed to putting ma- 
nure in deep, but have not ascertained 
the best depth. But as now advised, the 
deeper the soil is disintegrated the bet- 
ter, if it be well drained ; and with my 
present opinion, I should prefer manure 
to be covered one and a half inch rather 
than three inches with soil. Light and 
air I consider essential to all vegetating 
roots. Trees are often set too deep. A 
covering of three inches on the roots of 
trees is abundant. But what depth 
seeds should be planted and manure cov- 
ered (I mean with exactness) I am only 
able to give my opinion ; but of this I 
am persuaded, there is no subject of 
more importance to the farmer, and, I 
might add, to the country, than the ao- 
quisition of all fertilizing matter to the 
soil, the safe keeping of it, and the most 
judicious application of the same. 

Eemarlcs. — We suppose that no exact 
rule can be given as to how deeply ma- 
nure should be covered ; that much de- 
pends on the nature of the soil ; that if 
clayey it should be nearer the surface, 
only harrowed in ; but that in a light, 
sandy, or gravelly soil, it may be covered 
deeper ; and that in all cases it should 
be so worked with the soil that, if possi- 
ble, it may permeate and mingle with 
the whole, from the surface downward, 



AGRICULTURAL 



211 



as far as in that particular soil it is ad- 
visable that it should be sunk. 

With regard to seeds it is manifest 
that those which are small, and which 
produce feeble plants, should be deposit- 
ed nearer the surface ; those of larger 
size, and producing powerful shoots, 
may bg planted deeper ; and then there 
is something in the nature of the seed 
itself to be observed, as well as in the 
condition of the soil. A chestnut will 
sprout best on a hard, gravelly soil, with 
nothing over it but leaves enough to 
mulch the ground and keep it moist. 
Corn will sprout more vigorously if 
buried in a mellow soil one, two, or three 
inches deep, according as the soil is hea- 
vy or light ; and we suppose the best 
reason for covering potatoes four or five 
inches deep, is that the new potatoes may 
set at sufficient distance below the sur- 
face, and may grow there undisturbed, 
without the useless practice of making 
high hills.— Ed. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

TOWNSHIP AGRICULTURAL AS- 
SOCIATIONS—THEIR BENEFITS. 

BY A WESTERN FARMER. 

Mr. Editor : — About two years since 
some of the leading farmers of this place 
met and formed themselves into an Agri- 
cultural Association for their mutual 
benefit. The idea became popular, their 
meetings drew a crowded house, and 
most of the liberal minded, intelligent 
fjirmers soon became members of it. The 
results have been highly beneficial to 
the cause of agriculture in our commu- 
nity, even greater than were anticipated 
at first. The officers are a President, 
who presides at all our meetings, a Vice- 
president, a Secretary, a Corresponding 
Secretary, and a Reporter, who keeps 
the association posted in respect to the 
state of our principal markets from 
month to month. The meetings are 
held once a month. The exercises are 
an oration from some member appointed 
b)' the President at a previous meeting. 



and the discussion of some question or 
subject pertaining to agriculture, agreed 
upon by the members at a previous 
meeting. Every member is at liberty to 
offer his opinion upon the subject under 
discussion. Each speaker by the con- 
stitution is restricted to ten minutes, and 
when all who wish have spoken, each 
one is at liberty to speak again. At the 
close the President gives a synopsis of 
the arguments that have been advanced, 
and also gives his own opinion upon the 
question. The Secretary also makes a 
record of the arguments for future refer- 
ence if desired. If the time of the meet- 
ing is not all occupied by the exercises 
mentioned, opportunity is given for the 
communication of any intelligence per- 
taining to the science of farming, or any 
experiments any individual may have 
made. A township fair is held in the 
fall for the exhibition of stock and vege- 
tables ; and in the winter for the exhibi- 
tion of winter fruit, wheat, corn, oats, 
etc., at each of which meetings an ad- 
dress is delivered by some one previous- 
ly appointed. Our fair the last fall was 
acknowledged by good judges to be su- 
perior to many county fairs, and the 
fruit exhibition in January was highly 
creditable to the place. 

This brief notice has been communi- 
cated with the hope that other townships 
may be influenced to follow the example. 
Agriculture is one of the most noble em- 
ployments — one that calls for the exer- 
cise of intellect as well as of manual la- 
bor. The old stereotyped method of 
farming which our ancestors practised, 
is, much of it, a relic of the past, to be 
forgotten amid the improvements of the 
present day. The age demands progress 
in this science as well as others. And 
for this thought, and study, and obser- 
vation, and experiment are necessary. 
Farmers should be men of liberal and 
well disciplined minds, ready to break 
loose from the shackles of antiquit}"-, and 
to think and reason for themselves — 
ready to investigate with candor the 



212 



AGRICULTURAL 



opinions of others, though they may dif- 
fer from their own. They should seek 
knowledge from every reliable source. 

It is believed that from associated ef- 
fort like that mentioned above, much 
good may result ; at least such has been 
the effect here. An impulse has been 
given to farming in this place, that is 
seen and acknowledged by the commu- 
nity around. In this way much useful 
knowledge may be obtained. An indi- 
vidual who expects to take part in the 
discussion, will be led to study, to reflect 
upon, and to investigate the subject. 
And thus while preparing to impart in- 
formation to others, a reflex influence 
will be exerted upon his own mind. It 
will be expanded, his stock of knowledge 
will be increased, and his views enlarged 
and rendered more liberal. Much infor- 
mation may also be derived from the dis- 
cussion. New views will be advanced 
that will lead to reflection and research. 
Where mind is thus brought in contact 
with mind, new trains of thought will 
be awakened that otherwise would have 
lain dormant in the mind. Something 
may be learned from aN, even the weak- 
est member. There may be points to 
which he has turned his individual at- 
tention more closely than others, and 
concerning which he can impart infor- 
mation that may be useful. No one 
should excuse himself on the ground of 
inability. The result of experiments 
conducted by different individuals and 
under a variety of circumstances, may 
here be examined and compared, and 
from the comparison the intelligent, 
thinking farmer may deduce conclusions 
that will lead to the best practical re- 
sults. And all may learn in conducting 
experiments, to observe minutely all the 
circumstances attending thenj, lest they 
be led into error. A spirit of emulation 
may also be awakened in the member 
that will lead to beneficial results. A 
man of any force of mind, while learning 
the success of his neighbor, will feel a 
desire to keep pace with if not to rival 



him. And the result will be, better 
stock will be raised, the soil will be bet- 
ter cultivated and yield more remunera- 
tive cropSj his farm will assume an air 
of neatness, his home be rendered more 
inviting, and his income increased. 
When the community yield to the influ- 
ence that goes out from such an associa- 
tion, it will become more intelligent. 
Agricultural literature will be diffused 
among them, and the varied publications 
of the agricultural press will be likely 
to supplant the light trash that has 
flooded the country. And as the mind 
is thus enlightened and expanded, old 
prejudices, that have ever been a bar 
to improvement, will give way. Men 
will no longer follow in a beaten track, 
and plow three inches deep because their 
grandfathers did, and use the oldfashion- 
ed tools that were in vogue in their 
childhood, but a spirit of improvement 
will be cherished that will give new fea- 
tures to the landscape. 

Such associations tend to cherish a 
mutual interest in each other's prosperi- 
ty. Here those engaged in the same 
pursuit are brought together from month 
to month, for an interchange of opinions, 
and to learn the views, and pursuits, and 
success of each other. An acquaintance 
is thus cultivated that binds them in 
closer connection. A sympathy of feel- 
ing and interest is produced among the 
members that tend to soften the rugged 
asperities of life, and to which the iso- 
lated miser is a stranger. Those who 
were before comparatively strangers 
form an acquaintance and become inter- 
ested in each other's welfare. The bar- 
riers of selfish exclusiveness are broken 
down, and a liberal, friendly disposition 
prevails. Much more might be said up- 
on this subject, but I leave it for abler 
pens. 

Edineukgh, Ohio, March 6, 1858. 



Sheep appear to be animals peculiarly 
adapted to the treatment by preventives, 
and if due caution be obsei'ved we need 
seldom be troubled with curatives. 



AGRICULTURAL 



213 



POTATOES. 

Mr. Editor : — I notice in the last Tcl- 
egrajih, a request that some of your cor- 
respondents would give their experience 
ill raising potatoes. If mine can be of 
any use, here it is. I usually put in 
about two acres. 

Seed. — I use about ten bushels of seed 
to the acre ; I think it best to change 
seed every three years ; in selecting seed 
I take tliem as they grow, large and 
small, the large ones I cut in ten or a 
dozen pieces, being careful to have one 
or two eyes on each piece ; the small 
ones I cut in half. 

The' Ground. — I commonly put pota- 
toes where corn grew the season before ; 
1 cut the cudgels oft" in the winter close 
to the ground. 

The 3fami7-e. — If I take out of the 
barnyard, I have thrown in a heap as it 
comes from the stables, in order to let it 
heat before hauling out, which I do early, 
and have it spread evenly over the 
ground. I put on a good coat of manure 
for potatoes. 

The Sifjns. — I am aware there is a 
number of farmers ruled by the " signs" 
for planting this crop. My sign is, when 
I am ready, and the ground is in good 
order. 

Planting. — When I commence, I plow 
round the outside, dropping the seed in 
every other furrow, about a foot apart, 
until I have it wide enough for the head- 
lands. I then start a couple of lands, 
having four rows going on at the same 
time ; by this way I economize time, as 
the droppers need never wait. The 
same way in gathering the crop. 

Cultivating. — After planting I harrow 
the ground well ; when they are up an 
inch or two, I give them another good 
harrowing; and as soon as they are 
large enough to go between the rows 
with a horse; I cultivate them twice be- 
fore plowing, which I do with a light 
plow, just before the vines fall or the 
blossom shows itself. After this they 
require nothing more than to pull up the 
weeds as they appear. 

Last season 1 planted three different 
varieties — the black, white, and blue 
Mercer ; but the season was such that it 
was difficult to say which turned out the 
best, as the rot affected them all. I shall 
give them each another trial. The lat- 
ter variety, however, will command the 
liighcst price and the most ready sale in 
Philadelphia. Simon. 



We have copied the above from one of 
the best agricultural papers that come 
to our office, for the sake of agreeing and 
disagreeing with it, and of thus enforc- 
ing some remarks already in this num- 
ber on the same subject. 

The writer's " sign" is a good one, 
*' when he is ready and his ground is in 
good order," only let him be ready as 
soon as the ground is in order, for the 
experience of the few past years has 
taught us that April, unless on very 
backward ground, is the month to plant 
potatoes. • 

Ilis selection and treatment of manure, 
if he would add to the heap before fer- 
mentation large quantities of well cured 
swamp muck, leaf mold, or headland 
soil, would be just the thmgfor the corn 
crop, but not for potatoes. This plant- 
ing them in green, fermenting manure 
is one of the causes which, we believe, 
produced, and, if persevered in, will per- 
petuate the potato disease. This wri- 
ter's potatoes rotted, and we think his 
experience valuable, as others may, and, 
if they are wise, wiU avoid his error with 
regard to manure. 

With respect to seed, we would not 
plant very large potatoes, and if we could 
avoid it, would plant none very small, 
though we have obtained excellent crops, 
and have known others to, from the 
very smallest. As to quantity, ten 
bushels is enough, if they are large ; 
eight bushels is quite enough if of me- 
dium size ; and six is too much if they 
are small. There is no greater blunder 
than to make up in number what the 
seed want in size. A very large potato 
is equal to half a pint in measure or 
more. Suppose now you should plant 
half a pint of very small ones in its stead. 
In one case you might have ten shoots, 
in the other five hundred. Could so 
many obtain nutriment from one spot of 
ground ? If we were to plant potatoes 
no larger than a chestnut, we would put 
but one in a hill, provided that one were 
sound, ripe, and sure to germinate. 



214 



AGRICULTURAL 



Perhaps it is good policy to put pota- 
toes after corn. Every farmer knows 
his own business, in some respects, bet- 
ter than any one else can ; and he may 
have very good reasons, in a particular 
case, for planting potatoes after the corn 
crop. But we doubt whether it would 
do for a general rule. At times, and 
under peculiar circumstances, all rules 
yield to common sense. We have plant- 
ed potatoes after potatoes ten years in 
succession, and got good sound crops all 
the time, and we would do it again in 
precisely the same circumstances. In 
that case our crops entirely escaped the 
rot the whole ten years, while for a large 
part of that time those of our neighbors 
rotted badly. This of course was not 
because we planted every year in the 
same patch. It was because the ground 
was warm, sweet, deep soil, well suited 
to the potato, and moreover because we 
manured it with ashes, lime, plaster, and 
salt, and left the vines to rot on the 
ground, a course which supplied the very 
pabulum the potato requires, and which 
left that ground after ten years better 
prepared for another potato crop than it 
had been before, as the experience of 
our successor showed, for without any 
manure whatever he grew a splendid 
crop the eleventh year, and we know not 
how many since. 

We would not be too confident in any 
thing that relates to the cultivation of 
crops. The earth is 6000 years old, and 
man has been upon it all that time. Still 
there is yet more to be learned about ag- 
riculture than all that has yet been 
learned. We may not, therefore, be too 
confident, but still we believe we know 
something about this good, old fashioned 
crop, and we say : plant medium sized 
potatoes or rather smaller ; those of the 
size of a butternut, if sound, hard, per- 
fectly ripe, are as good as any; plant 
them on dryish, not very dry, warm, 
sweet soil. The land should be in good 
condition, but not as rich as for a corn 
crop. All nitrogenous, fermenting ma- 



nures, as from the stables and the barn- 
yard, should be avoided. Use the New- 
Jersey green sand marl, if you can get 
it, and no other manure, for that contains 
all that the potato wants, in addition to 
what is furnished by such a soil as we 
have described. A turf is on the whole 
to be preferred, but this is not essential. 
If you can not obtain the green sand 
marl, do not fail to apply the mixture 
we have before mentioned of ashes, etc., 
giving the preference for this crop to the 
unleached, because the potash is the 
most important ingredient in the potato 
plant, and this has been largely abstract- 
ed from the leached. The ground should 
be thoroughly mellowed six inches or 
more. Scatter the mixture, if you use 
it, somewhat, that it may not scorch the 
seed, and cover four or five inches. Our 
neighbor. Prof. Mapes, says six, and we 
are not sure but he is right. It is a 
good plan to harrow. the ground over, 
with a many and short -toothed harrow, 
just before the sprouts appear. Let the 
cultivator be run through soon after they 
are up, and as often as you can aiford 
afterwards, keeping the ground perfectly 
clear of weeds, and then, before the tops 
begin to fall, hoe them once for all, hill- 
ing but very little. It is nonsense to 
make hills of the size of a two bxishel 
basket around the potato plant, and, un- 
less the ground is wet, in which case it 
is not fit for potatoes, the high hilling 
does more harm than good. 

We have said above that wet land is 
not fit for potatoes. There is one excep- 
tion. Swamps, in process of reclama- 
tion, may well be planted with potatoes 
a year or two preparatory to being laid 
down to grass. If first drained, and if 
then the acidity of the soil is corrected 
by the application of ashes in the hill, 
they will often give large crops and of good 
quality. We have known swamps, be- 
fore worthless, worked into the choicest 
mowlands, and the potatoes grown dur- 
ing the process to richly pay for all the 
labor. But as far as our observation has 



AGRICULTURAL, 



215 



extended, the soil, though before sour 
and cold, has been corrected of its natu- 
ral acidity by draining and the applica- 
tion of an alkali, generally in the form of 
wood ashes, before a large crop of good 
quality has been obtained. We feel jus- 
tified, therefore, notwithstanding this ap- 
parent exception, in saying that, wet, 
sour land is not fit for potatoes. It cer- 
tainly is not, unless you correct its acid- 
ity by alkaline applications. On lands 
naturally sweet and but moderately 
moist and in fair condition, twelve bush- 
els of the mixture we have recommended 
to the acre, will increase the quantity 
and improve the quaUty of the crop far 
beyond the cost of the ingredients. On 
land that is quite moist the amount may 
be profitably increased from 18 to 20 
bushels to the acre ; and in proportion 
to the moisture, we suppose the plaster 
and salt become less important ; and on 
a partially reclaimed swamp, wood ashes 
alone are probably the best. 

Four years ago a farmer came to our 
ofiicc for advice. He said he had six 
acres of land which had been broken the 
fall before. It was cold land, rather wet, 
and very rough, and consequently had 
been plowed very unequally, some to a 
great depth, other portions hardly plow- 
ed at all. He wished to plant one-half 
to potatoes, and a neighbor of his was to 
plant potatoes on the other half, to find 
his own manure, and to have the crop 
for cultivating the land. We told him 
we feared his chance would be poor, and 
that his neighbor would have a hard 
bargain ; but suggested that if he would 
harrow thoroughly, furrow out, and put 
in the hill twelve bushels to the acre of 
a mixture of four bushels of ashes, two 
of shell lime, one of plaster, and a half 
bushel of salt, it would give him the best 
chance for a crop at i very moderate ex- 
pense that we knew of. We remonstra- 
ted against the use of liarn manure, and 
told him his potatoes would almost cer- 
tainly rot if he used it on that land. He 
at first laughed at tlic small quantity. 



Twelve bushels to the acre seemed to 
him quite homeopathic. We explained 
that we did not mean it as a dressing to 
enrich the land, as by his account it was 
strong land naturally, but cold and yet 
uncultivated, that there was probably 
food enough in that soil for a dozen crops 
of potatoes, that it was in a dormant 
condition, would not act alone, but that 
the application we proposed was of the 
nature of yeast to set it at work, and at 
the same time afford pabulum for the 
crop to start upon, and that he certainly 
would not lose much by the experi- 
ment. In the fall he returned to our 
oflQce well pleased, to report progress. 
He had on his arm a basket of potatoes, 
as fine as were ever seen, and said that 
he had cultivated precisely as we advised 
in every particular, and the result was 
300 bushels of just such potatoes as those 
in his basket, not a large crop, certainly, 
but obtained at a very moderate expense. 
He had urged his neighbor to take a 
similar course with the other three acres ; 
but he, after blowing off a tirade against 
book farming, and declaring that he 
knew more about farming than all the 
agricultural editors in the country, 
whicli by the way might be true, and 
yet their labors not be beneath his no- 
tice, carried on to his three acres green 
manure, to more than four times the 
value of the compost used on the other 
three. The result was that few potatoes 
grew, and what did grow were little, 
watery things, and nearly all rotted, 
while scarcely one rotted on the other 
side of the field, the land being, as was 
reported to us, (we did not sec it,) equal. 
He gave most of his crop to some poor 
people for digging, and it was thought 
that they had a hard bargain in digging 
them, as he had in growing them. 



For the Am. Farmer's Magazine. 

AGRICULTURE. 

BY A REFOKMKI!. 

From the earliest ages of man, we can 
not discover a single era, in which agri- 



216 



AGRICULTURAL. 



culture, as a science and employment, 
has received anything like its due appre- 
ciation. 

Although historic facts plainly indi- 
cate that whole nations and empires, in 
a great measure, rest upon the stability 
and sterling worth which agricultural 
communities render to its people ; and 
that wherever it has been neglected 'and 
discouraged inevitable ruin follov>'ed ; 
yet many intelligent, and in many re- 
spects, useful members of society, are 
remarkably tardy to comprehend this 
obvious truth. 

"We may truly apprehend the vast 
amount of conservation which must ne- 
cessarily be overcome to elevate the 
science of farming to the standard which 
it is destined to assume before the polity 
and government of our national great- 
ness can be transmitted to future ages 
as worthy of imitation. 

When the tilling of our mother Earth 
is viewed as the very basis and super- 
structure of a country's prosperity, the 
most salutary element for its advance- 
ment and perpetuation, the first signs of 
its ultimate triumph will first appear ; 
although the knowledge essential to its 
success is not yet universally dissemi- 
nated. The day is fast approaching when 
its few persevering votaries will realize 
the value of their labor, in exalting the 
noblest, most honoi"able, and most intel- 
lectual pursuit of man ; and we, as a na- 
tion, should hail with joy the dawn of 
that day in which will be proclaimed the 
superiority of the vocation, and enforce 
for ever the power of its truth upon the 
minds of the people of all coming ages. 

Labor is the pristine pursuit of man, 
without which we, as a people, would 
dwindle into supineness and decay; 
without which we could not support or 
propagate those natural laws, for the ex- 
ercise of which we are constitutionally, 
providentially, and divinely intended; 
but heinously connive at the most fla- 
grant violations of justice and humanity, 
of which we now, refined in aU that is 



noble and useful, are so free to express 
our abhorrence. 

The constitutional immobility of ad- 
hering to ancient customs is a character- 
istic of our American farmers, deeply 
rooted in the prejudices, with which they 
consider all modern investigations and 
discoveries ; and the most zealous advo- 
cates of revolutionizing our agriculture, 
do not seek to disguise the Dead Sea of 
ignorance, which must be drained from 
their minds before they can hope to have 
their work crowned with success. This 
is difficult to accomplish ; yet by gra- 
dual extermination of those hurtful no- 
tions of " old fogyism," which to a 
large majority pervade the mind of our 
farming people, and by enforcing on 
their consideration some of the princi- 
ples and results of new discoveries and 
inventions much may be effected. 

RemarTcs. — ^We do not suppose that 
this writer means to ascribe to farmers, 
generally and indiscriminately, the im- 
motility, and Dead Sea, and old fogy 
terms above. "We have been a_ farmer 
ourself, and we can see why the farmer 
can not jump at any change which out- 
side parties, and perhaps interested ones, 
might propose ; but we think we see» 
and we rejoice in it, a good degree of 
willingness on the part of farmei'S, to 
look at new measures, and to adopt them 
as soon as the old can safely be given up. 
There certainly is progress, and there 
will be greater. — Ed. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Ed. Farmer's Magazine : — Will you 
favor me with some information on the 
value of oyster-sheU lime as a fertilizer, 
compared with air slacked lime ? 

We can not speak very confidently on 
this subject, because the testimony of 
practical men does not agree. We have 
often used oyster-shell lime as an ingre- 
dient in a compost for potatoes, men- 
tioned otherwhere in this number ; and 
it seemed to us to do vi^ell. The whole 
compost did well beyond a question, but 



AGRICULTURAL 



217 



how much of the good cfifect was to be 
ascribed to the lime, is more than we 
know. 

Some farmers, who have tried oyster- 
shell lime, think well of it ; others say 
it does no good, and that too in circum- 
stances where the diOcrence of opinion 
can hardly be ascribed to peculiarities 
of soil. We incline to the conclusion that 
those who report unfavorably to oyster- 
shell lime, have not given it a full and 
fair trial. Lime in any form acts slow- 
ly. Conclusions concerning it can not 
be found as promptly as concerning 
most fertilizers. 

Our own opinion — we do not hold it 
very obstinately, and our correspondent 
need not value it at more than he 
pleases — is, that oyster-shell lime is 
worth more, ton per ton, than air-slack- 
ed lime, more even than the water-slack- 
ed (hydrate of lime.) 

But when you buy oyster-shell lime, 
you should know what you get. If two- 
tliirds of it were the ashes and fragments 
of anthracite coal, it might not be worth 
much. 

We will seek, and if we can find, will 
communicate more information on this 
subject ere long. 

Growing Wood and Timber. — A cor- 
respondent from " down east," inquires 
incidentally, while writing on another 
matter : "If the rough lands of New- 
England will not grow timber and wood 
more profitably than anything else." 
Taking him to mean those lands which 
are too rocky and impracticable to think 
of plowing, and which will not give good 
pasturage without, of which there are 
great extents, wo say yes ; get them 
into wood as soon as possible. In twenty 
years they will produce a good crop of 
fuel, and in twenty-five they will give 
chairs, milk pails, churn.s;, hoe handles, 
clocks, baby jumpers, carriages, mous? 
traps, and every other useful contrivance. 
With Yankee energy and ingenuity, 
wood growing and wood working will 
turn out as good an investment there, as 



wheat growing and wool growing in 
more favored region.s. The New-Eng- 
land people must cultivate their arable 
lands better than any other people, be- 
cause they have less of them, and they 
will ; and yet their rocky hill tops and 
mountain gorges will afford the basis for 
as much industry ar.d the means for ac- 
cumulating as much wealth. Their 
mountain streams were made to work, 
and they will work ; and timber in all 
quantities will be wanted. Don't let a 
year go by till the plantations, on other- 
wise useless acres, are growing. They 
will mend your climate a little and your 
purses a good deal. 

The view we have just taken of high 
culture for the arable lands of New-Eng- 
land and wood growing for the rough 
lands, is strengthened by the statement 
of an experienced farmer in the Massa- 
chusetts Ploughman. He says : *' My 
governing principle is, never to clear or 
plow land faster or more tkan I can ma- 
nure and seed. I prefer the groicth of 
wood, large or small, to ordinary tillage." 

How with Gardens? — A correspon- 
dent, who commends the discrimination 
of our article in the February number 
on deep plowing, suggests the foregoing 
inquiry. The answer is plain. Your 
garden must have a deep soil. We said 
with regard to fields that can not be 
highly manured, and which, neverthe- 
less, you are resolved to cultivate, do 
not plow as deeply as you would if you 
had four times as much manure to ap- 
ply. But if you would have a good gar- 
den, and nearly every farmer we have 
ever seen at home ought to have a bet- 
ter one than he has, j'ou must give it 
manure, and you must have a deep mel- 
low soil, must undcrdrain if necessary, 
and stir tiie soil to a great depth. Of a 
quarter of an acre you must make an acre 
by deepening the soil, else you can not 
expect to get paid for the extra labor of 
garden over field culture. The soil 
should be twenty inches or two feet 
deep, and all alive with manure. How 



218 



AGRICULTURAL. 



often have we seen men picking away on 
a shallow garden soil, not more than six 
inches deep, and all below that as hard 
and cold as the bottom of a gold digging, 
soil so thin as to be more than saturated 
after a rain, and then dried to a crisp by 
a single week's sun. It is folly to ex- 
pend extra labor on such a soil. Under- 
drain if need be, cart on clay if it is too 
sandy, and sand if it is to clayey, and 
work in the manure till you have a soil 
deep enough and just right to work 
easily. 



CHARACTER AND FORMATION 
OF SOILS. 

Soils are those portions of the earth's 
surface which contain a mixture of min- 
eral, animal, and vegetable substances 
in such proportions as to adapt them to 
the support of vegetation. We quote 
from a valuable article in Mortoii's En- 
cyeli>pedla^ " On examining the various 
soils in this or any other country, they 
will be found to consist generally, 

1. Of larger or smaller stones, sand, 
or gravel. 2. Of a more friable, lighter 
mass, crumbling to powder when squeez- 
ed betvv^een the fingers, and rendering- 
water muddy. 3. Of vegetable and an- 
imal remains (organic matter.) 

On further examination of the several 
portions obtained by means of washings, 
we find, 

1. That the sand, gravel, and frag- 
ments of stones vary according to the 
nature of the rocks from which they are 
derived. Quartz-sand, in one case, will 
be observed as the predominating con- 
stituent ; in another, this portion of the 
soil consists principally of a calcareous 
sand ; and, in a third, a simple inspec- 
tion will enable us to recognize frag- 
ments of granite, feldspar, mica, and 
other minerals. 

2. In the impalpable powder, the che- 
mist will readily distinguish principally 
fine clay, free silica, free alumina, more 
or less oxyd of iron, lime, magnesia, pot- 
ash, soda, traces of oxyd of maganese, 
and phosphoric, sulphuric, and carbonic 
acids, with more or less organic matter. 

3. The watery solution of the soil, 
evaporated to dryness, leaves behind an 
inconsiderable residue, generally colored 
brown by organic matters which may be 
driven off by heat. In the combustible 



or organic portion of this residue, the 
presence of ammonia, of humic, ulmic, 
crenic, and apocrenic acids, (substances 
known under the more familiar name of 
soluble humus,) and frequently traces of 
nitric acid, will be readily detected. In 
the incombustible portion, potash, soda, 
lime, magnesia, phosphoric, sulphuric, 
and silicic acid, chlorine, and occasion- 
ally oxyd of iron and manganese, are 
present. 

All cultivated soils present a great 
similarity in composition, all containing 
the above chemical constituents, and 
yet, notwithstanding this similarity of 
composition, we observe a great diversi- 
ty in their character. This is caused by 
the different proportions in which the 
constituents are mixed together, the 
state of combination in which they oc- 
cur, and the manner in which the differ- 
ent soils are formed. — Rur. New- YorTcer. 



VARIETIES IN SPECIES. 
Dk. Wateebury of this city has re- 
cently published in a neat pamphlet the 
results of his investigations into the ori- 
gin of varieties in plants and animals. 
The following are his conclusions, some 
of which seem to us practical and of 
great value economically. 

I. The construction of the different 
species of animals and plants is such that 
no one individual can be taken as the 
type of the race, there being to the ori- 
ginal type a margin to allow of variation, 
and that margin being so wide as to be 
covered by no one individual form. 

II. This variation is produced to meet 
necessities by the law of development, 
the exercise of any organ increasing its 
growth. 

III. When the variation occurs it is 
attended with a change in the chemical 
composition of the animal or plant, based 
on a change in the chemical composition 
of its food. 

IV. If the food be defective, or can not 
be assimilated, the modification does not 
occur but the animal dies. 

V. These changes are always made in 
a direction to adapt the subject of them 
more perfectly to such new conditions 
as require them. 

VL There is a tendency to reproduce 
these variations in the progeny. 

VII. The variations go further as they 
are reproduced in the x'ace. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



219 



VIII. They stop at the line of species, 
and nevci" pass that lino. 

IX. While the pressure of circumstan- 
ces urges them against that line the}'' 
are permanent. 

X. By cro.ssing they may be carried 
over the line, but the resulting hybrid is 
unstable, and alwaj^s returns, after a few- 
generations to one or other of the parent 
species. 

XI. The limits of modification are wid- 
est in those species that can assimilate 
the most various kinds of food. 

XII. Perfection of breed is a relative 
term, implying different organizations 
for different purposes. 

XIII. As fine breeds are introduced 
into this country more pains must be ta- 
ken to protect and feed our cattle well 
and fittingly, or they will " degenerate" 
to the same stock. 

XIV. Fine varieties, when protected, 
do give a greater product from the same 
amount of food than the coarse. 



SOMETHING ABOUT BUTTER- 
MAKING. 

A COMMITTEE of the Rhode Island So- 
ciety for the Encouragement of Domes- 
tic Industry^ after a series of careful ex- 
periments in the making of butter, come 
to the following conclusions. They say : 

From these experiments it is shown 
that to obtain the best of sweet butter 
that will keep for a greater length of 
time than any other without being ran- 
cid, we must churn sweet cream — that 
if the buttermilk is valuable in market, 
and the butter can be disposed of soon 
after it is made, there will be the great- 
est gain by chm-ning the sour milk and 
cream together — that by scalding the 
milk and then taking off the cream, the 
milk is best for market — although the 
yield of butter is greatest, and the flavor 
good, it must be put into market direct 
from the churn and consumed without 
delay or it becomes rincid and worth- 
less ; — that in proportion to the quantity 
of butter produced from the cream of a 
given measure of milk, reference being 
had to the length of time the cream is 
suffered to remain upon it, will be its 
liability to become soonest rancid ; that 
the excess of weight as exhibited above 
is to be attributed in a great measure to 
the absorption and combination of caso- 
ine (curd,) with the oleaginous (oily) 
portions of the cream ; — that the pres- 



ence of caseine, although it is not objec- 
tionable by its imparting any unpleasant 
flavor wliile new, renders the butter of 
less value, as it soon grows rancid; and 
for the further reason that it is used, ne- 
cessarily, more profusely tlian pure but- 
ter, which has less curd in it. It has 
been fully proved that milk contains on 
an average only one per cent more curd 
flian butter. 

In a former communication on the 
subject of butter making, we disapprove 
of the practice of adding water to the 
cream, and of washing the butter, to rid 
it of its buttermilk. It is in all cases 
safest not to wash it, even if the water 
be pure, it will in a measure destroy its 
fine flagrance and flavor. The use of pure 
salt can not be too often recommended 
to those who have dairies in charge. 
Let the farmers club together, and send 
to a seaport and get the best of rock salt, 
sift out the fine, wash and drj- the lumps, 
and have it ground at any gristmill in 
the neighborhood, as our fathers did be- 
fore the introduction of the very improved 
fine Liverpool bag or blown salt. 
For the Committee, 

Stephen Smith. 



THE BEST CROSSES FOR MUTTON. 

A FRIEND of ours who has had expe- 
rience in raising mutton sheep in Eng- 
land, and who is now engaged in that 
business, called on us the present week 
and gave us his experience. He had 
twelve pure China ewes and twenty 
China bucks, of the broad tail species. 
The great desideratum in crossirg is to 
aim at size, quality and quantity. The 
China sheep are very prolific, and good 
mutton sheep. The Mexican sheep are 
large size, and by the cross of the China 
with the Mexican a large and excellent 
mutton sheep is obtained. 

Another fiict, too, the prolific nature 
of the China is retained, as we were 
shown that by means of the China 
Bucks to a large flock of the Mexican 
sheep, an average of twin lambs was the 
result, and many cases of three and 
sometimes four. 

There is no gain, to cross the China 
upon the American sheep, but the other 
cross improves the sheep, both the mut- 
ton and the wool. 

We desire particularly to state, that 
from long experience, we learn that the 
Cliina cross of the Mexican, gives supe- 
rior restaurant mutton, i. e., the kind 



AaRICULTURAL, 



that choiis up well, as young mutton, 
without forcing — weigh abput sixty- 
pounds. 



The Biggest Bull that "was ever 
FED WITH Hay." — The show-men who 
have talked about oxen weighing 4000 
pounds each, may as well give up — a 
larger specimen of the genus Bos has 
been found " down east," than was ever 
heard of elsewhere. According to the 
Maine Farmer, J. G. Huston, of Damar- 
iscotta, has a bull " four years old next 
May," which weighs 5800 pounds ! 
Whether there is any typographical er- 
ror in the statement or not, it may as 
well stand as a check to exaggeration 
among those who are unvvilling to be 
beaten. — Boston Culti'oator. 



WISE SAYINGS ABOUT FARMING. 
Meadow Muck. — I speak advisedly in 
saying the decomposed leaves and other 
matters washed from the forest and hills, 
and found in Meadow MacTc, (and still 
more if clay be added) when thus ap- 
plied, will worh wonders! — Ploughman. 

Isolated mammoth hogs or vegeta- 
bles ought not to be the highest ambi- 
tion of the farmer's husbandry,. but the 
largest general product, retaining all that 
may be valuable for the succeeding crop, 
for men make nothing in spending their 
strength in single spasmodic efforts, dis- 
abling themselves for all the future. — 
Ex. 

Mr. J. W. Proctor, of Danvers, spoke 
of the cultivation of the Derby farm 
in Salem. Twenty acres manured 
with a compost of night soil, barn 
manure, etc., yield a profit of $200 to the 
acre, in garden vegetables. People in 
Salem and Marblehead found sea-weed 
a valuable auxiliary. Home materials 
were abundant, and there was no neces- 
sity to go away from home for manures. 
—K E. Far. 

The Turkey. — This noble American 
bird has now become common to every 
civilized country, says the Vermont 
StocTc Journal, and the more widely 
known the more highly is he appreciated. 
It would be disgraceful to us as Ameri- 
can agriculturists and breeders, to suffer 
this splendid bird to deteriorate. — Cal. 
Far. 

Planting Chestnuts. — The "secret" 
of success in planting the chestnut con- 



sists simply in never allowing the outer 
shell to become dry. As soon as the 
well-ripened nuts drop from the tree and 
are loosened from the bur, pack them 
the same hour in moist sand, peat, or 
leaf mold, and keep them thus moist 
(not wet) till planted — ^which may be 
late in autumn or the next spring. The 
chestnut is diflBcult to transplant, and 
hence it is better to plant the seed on 
the spot where the trees are intended to 
stand. They may be planted like corn 
in "hills," and all but the thriftiest 
pulled up afterwards. As they need not 
be so thick as corn, they might alternate 
with it, if the ground could be prepared 
very early, so as to plant both at the 
right time. Early cultivation, like corn, 
causes them to grow rapidly ; and being 
in rows, the wagon could pass easily 
through, in thinnuig out and drawing off 
the timber. — Country Gent. 

The plans the farmer intends to 
pursue during the summer, if not al- 
ready perfected, should be studied and 
matured. Each field should be con- 
sidered, and a determination formed as 
to its summer management. — Gran. St. 
Farmer. 

If the farmer were to devote one 
hour to the garden before breakfast, 
much labor could be very pleasantly 
performed in a very short time, and cost 
but little. — Ignotus. 

It is a good thing to rear a crop 
which shall net you $500 or a $1,000 a 
year ; but it is a better thing to rear a 
crop of ideas which shall net you moral 
and mental elevation ; which shall fit 
you for the place we all hold, as part 
and parcel of this great Republican ex- 
pei'iment. Live down with all your 
heart, and all your mind, and all your 
soul, that old brutal notion that a farmer 
must needs be uncouth, and unkempt, 
and unsocial, and ignorant. There may 
have been an excuse for it in the old 
days. — Homestead. 

Rich barn-yard or other putrescent 
manures applied plentifully to the potato 
crop, is almost certain to bring the rot ; 
and the quality of the potato is not so 
good, as when grown on a sod without 
manure. — L. S., in American Agricul- 
turist. 

Sprins is not far distant, when work 
comes crowding on, and time is scarce 
to do it in. Farmers, get your hot-beds 



HORTICULTURAL. 



221 



ready ; recollect, a good garden is half a 
farmer's living. Get all your iinplc- 
ments ready for work, and in your 
social visits to j'our neighbors, learn 
vrhat he has new in the way of improve- 
ment or intentions for the coming year. 
— Prairie Far. 

Fields occupied by winter grain, if 
partially winter-killed, should be har- 



rowed, the bare spots sowed with spring 
grain or clover, and suitable top-dress- 
ings, and then the whole rolled. Any 
roots disturbed by the harrow will be 
partially restored by the roller to the 
soil, and the abrasion will cause such 
roots to tiller (throw out new shoots 
from the first joint,) and thus give full 
crops — Worhing Farmer. 



Sortiniltunil 



CALENDAR FOR APRIL. 

FLOWERS. 

As soon as the frost is out of the 
ground, flower borders should be dug 
over and the perennial flower roots di- 
vided and replanted. In doing this care 
should be taken to place them so that 
the taller kinds are in the back ground, 
and also that they be so arranged as to 
blend the colors of the flowers well, and 
also to distribute the sorts that bloom in 
the latter part of the summer through- 
out the border in order to keep up a 
continuous bloom, which when this is at- 
tended to in the perennials, at this sea- 
son, can be readily effected by introduc- 
ing late sown annuals amongst them. 

Amongst the late blooming Perennials 
of the flower border, the different varie- 
ties of Phlox and Chri/santfiemum, are 
amongst the most desirable. 

Floicering Shrubs should be planted 
also at the spring dressing of the orna- 
mented grounds, such as Spirceas, Phila- 
delphus, SnowherrieK, Golden Pose, Li- 
lacs, and numerous others which can be 
obtained at any nursery. 

Poses should be pruned as soon as se- 
vere frosts are no longer to be expected, 
the Hybrid Perpetual Roses, which are 
the best division of this family for out- 
door culture, should be pruned to about 
one-third of their last growth. But the 
Cabb.age, Moss, and old Garden Roses 
should be cut back to within two or 
three inches of the preceding year's 
wood. The China Roses and Noisettes 
should not ha much cut back but some 



of the old M'ood should be taken out al- 
together, and young wood brought for- 
ward in its stead. A good di-es^ing of 
old stable manure after digging round 
roses will well repay in the succeeding 
bloom. 

Greenhouse. — Plants coming into 
bloom must be kept well supplied with 
water, and water should be throvra on 
the floor of the house in the afternoon 
to produce a moist atmosphere at night, 
as soon as severe frost is not apprehend- 
ed ; this will encourage the growth of the 
buds. Syringing over head must be 
discontinued as the buds open. 

Any plants that are going out of bloom 
should be pruned, if they require it, and 
should then be encouraged to start their 
young growth before they arc subjected 
to the annual repotting that most Green- 
house plants require. For that purpose 
they should be placed in a warm part of 
the house and be syringed daily. As 
soon as the new growth has started and 
become from a third of an inch to an 
inch long they may be repotted. After 
repotting continue the syringing, and 
keep the earth in the pot just moist 
throughout ; but be careful not to give 
more water than is necessary for that 
purpose, until the roots get through the 
new soil to the sides of the pot, or the 
plant will be seriously injured. 

Give more air as the season advances, 
to the greenhouse, but avoid admitting 
cold winds. Air at the roof is the safest 
and best to induce a strong growth, be- 
cause it keeps the temperature more uni- 



222 



HORTICULTURAL, 



form throughout the house than when 
the sides only are opened to give air, 

KITCHEN GAEDEN. 

When the weather opens plant fi'om 
the frames for crops Cabl)ages, Lettuce 
and Caulijlowers, and sow more seed of 
each for successive crop?. 

Sow all hinds of VegetaMe seeds for 
the principal crops, selecting such sorts 
as are preferred. Do not sow any broad- 
cast but all in drills in rows, which 
saves time in tillage afterwards and also 
yields the finest and largest crops. 

Potatoes for main crop may be plant- 
ed from middle to end of the month. 

Peas. — For early crops the Albert^ 
Warwiclc and CJtarlton are good sorts. 
For succession the Champion., Hairy 
Dwarf, Mammoth., British Queen and 
KnighVs Tall Marroio, will give a suflfl- 
cient variety. Brussells Sprouts should 
be sown towards the end of the month, 
to be treated like Cabbages, and trans- 
planted two feet apart, by three feet in 
rows, where iu the autumn they will 
yield an excellent crop. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

CONTRACTION BY FREEZING ! ! ! ! 
Mr. Editor : — In the February num- 
ber of the Magazine, in the communica- 
tion commencing on page 76, Snoio and 
Vegetable Life, alluding to " the effect 
of frost upon the organization of vegeta- 
bles," the writer says : " This arises 
chiefly from the contraction of the water 
or sap whilst freezing in them ;" and re- 
ferring to the snow on the branches of 
trees, he says, "The white mantle 
guards the covered limbs from the direct 
action of the sun's rays." This certain'y 
is very pretty if not poetical, but what 
are the facts ? Simply these : In a large 
majority of cases no snow lodges on the 
branches, and when it does, the first 
passing breeze dislodges every particle 
of it, and the tree is left as destitute of 
protection as though such a thing as 
snow never existed. Speaking of the 
snow melting on the branches, he says. 



" Thus they become bathed with water 
of a temperature just Iclow freezing 
point." 

Water contracting while freezing. 
Water formed by snow melting in the 
rays of the sun, of a temperature below 
the freezing point. Such ideas emanating 
from an obscure individual in- some re- 
mote corner of this wild prairie country, 
might have been denominated absurd 
and ridiculous. 

" How many people live ? How few 
amongst them think." 

Now, w<3 thinh it is because water ex- 
p>ands while freezing that it bursts what- 
ever vessel it is confined in, whether it 
be of metal, wood, earth or stone ; and 
from the same cause, namely, its expan- 
sion, that it ruptures the minute and 
delicate organization of vegetables. We 
thinTc that only a casual observation will 
satisfy any person that sudden changes 
from a warm moist state of the atmos- 
phere to severe cold, (the very time 
when trees and all other vegetables suf- 
fer most from the effects of freezing,) are 
almost invariably attended with high 
winds, in which case no snow remains 
on the trees to be melted by the sun's 
rays. AVe also thinh that when water 
gets to be " of a temperature /wsi^ below'''' 
the freezing point, it is rather hard stuff 
to bathe with — in short that it will no 
longer be water, but ice. 

'Tis true, all this may be owing to the 
obtuseness of our intellect, to the want 
of a scientific education, or to a kind of 
old fogyism, as we are a hard working 
farmer, having had no advantages for an 
education but such as the common 
schools of Ohio afforded from twenty -five 
to thirty-five years ago. 

Perchance you may be satisfied by 

this time (if indeed you entertained a 

doubt on that point) that not all who 

take tiie trouble to thinh, think correctly. 

Respectfully yours, H. 

We do not see that our correspondent 
in the February number was essentially 



11 O II T I C U L T l^ R A L 



223 



incorrect, except in the use of the word 
'* contraction" for expansion ; and the 
error in that was so palpable as to show 
that, if not a lapsus linguae, it must 
have been a lapsus pcnna), and not an 
error under which the mind of the wri- 
ter labored. We will say for the friend 
who wrote the article, that he is not ig- 
norant of the fact that water expands in- 
stead of contracting below the freezing 
point. We can not, however, say that, 
although he might be called a good pen- 
man, he writes sufficiently plain to suit 
the type-man ; and we very much sus- 
pect that the blunder was with the com- 
positor, and that tho proof-reader over- 
looked it, although, if fit to be a proof- 
reader, he must have perceived that the 
writer was made to speak nonsense in- 
stead of sense. But, on the whole, we 
are inclined to take the blame upon our- 
selves, for we ought not to have let such 
a statement go to our readers, whoever 
else might have been faulty in the case. 

Henceforth, let us all remember, that 
it is the nature of water to contract by 
the withdrawal of heat, till it comes 
down to 32° Farenheit, the point of 
freezing, when it suddenly expands so 
as sometimes to burst the vessel con- 
taining it, to split rocks when confined 
in pores or crevices, and to injure the 
delicate organization of plants. Is it 
not, however, rather a sudden freezing 
after mild weather, than intense cold 
that does the mischief? We rather 
think it is ; and we should like an arti- 
cle from some careful observer on this 
point, showing under what circum.stances 
the cold injures or kills trees, and then 
again under what circumstances they will 
endure equally intense or even severer 
cold,and come out uninjured ; and wheth- 
er sudden thawing after severe cold has 
anything to do with the mischief "We 
all know that the manner of thawing — 
whether it be sudden or gradual — de- 
cides mainly the condition of vegetables 
that have been frozen, as to whether 
they shall be fit for use or not. — Ed. 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

The kind most known and best a 
ed to all kinds of soil, is the Bell variety 
or Egg shaped, and most cultivated in 
New-England. A round variety raised 
about Cape Cod is a larger fruit, hand- 
some, and only grows on very wet, 
marshy land, and not as well adapted to 
general culture ; there are also several 
other varieties which mature late, larger 
fruit than the Bell variety, but not as 
productive. They can be propngatcd 
from the seed, or from cuttings of by 
transplanting. The last method is most 
frequently adopted. The first crop ob- 
tained by planting the seed will be one 
or two years later than that produced 
by transplanting. When cultivated, the 
berries are large and abundant ; after 
being gathered, they turn from light 
scarlet to deep red, and sometimes al- 
most black. They will keep a very long 
time if not gathered too early — they 
should remain on the vines until it is 
necessary to gather them from the frost 
— thev should be properly dried by 
spreading them thin for three or four 
weeks ; they can then be packed and 
sent to any part of the world. If gath- 
ered too eaily, while some of the berries 
are green, they will not keep. 

The soil most suitable for their growth 
is low, moist meadow land that is not 
too cold and spongy. In that case, a 
drain should be cut to let off surplus 
water, which should always be within 
twelve inches of the surface, and sand 
covered over the top three or four inches 
will be of service, although not indis- 
pensable where it is not easily procured. 
When the ground is uneven, ."^and can 
be carted on to level it. They also do 
well on muck or any poor swampy land, 
where nothing else will grow ; they grow 
naturally on watery bogs and marshes — 
on the border of streams and ditches, 
and by draining wet land and then 
taking off the top of the ground to re- 
move the wild grass or vegetable matter 
and carry to the manure heap ; then 
cart on beach or other sand to tiie depth 
of two or three inches to level the 
ground and to prevent grass and weeds 
from choking the vines, and to Keep the 
ground loose around the plant. They 
bear abundantly on marshes covered 
with coarse .sand, and entirely di-stitute 
of organic matter of any kind, but ac- 
cessible to moisture — on pure peat cov- 
ered with .sand, and on every variety 



224 



HORTICULTURAL 



of soil, except clay liable to bake or be- 
come hard in dry weather, on soil that 
can be worked with a plow and harrow ; 
it can be prepared as you would do it 
for plantinp; out garden and other plants ; 
sometimes it can be burnt over so as to 
get it in a condition to set out the plants. 
They can also be raised on moist loam 
where corn and potatoes will grow, but 
not so abundantly on dry or sandy soil 
unless covered two or three inches with 
muck or spent tan. No animal or vege- 
table manure should be used, as the fruit 
draws most of its moisture from the at- 
mosphere. The poorer the soil, the less 
cultivation is needed. 

If you have a peat swamp and design 
converting it into a cranberry yard, your 
first step to be taken is to "find a level 
that is not too wet, and then clear off 
the turf or grass sods, and bring the 
rest of the swamp to the same height. 
When it is thus cleared and levelled off, 
it is not then ready for the reception of 
the vine. Should the vine be planted, 
it will do well through the winter and 
spring, but in the hottest weather the 
peat will bake and become hard ; it will 
therefore be impossible to take in the 
moisture of the atmosphere, which is 
absolutely required by the vine. The 
absence of this moisture will cause the 
plant to die, and thus both labor and 
money are lost. This will be prevented 
by leaving the prepared swamp exposed 
to the action of the frost for one winter, 
when it will, after it is thawed, crumble 
and present a light gravelly appearance, 
the largest lump of which will not ex- 
ceed an ordinary pebble. When the 
swamp has thus been treated, it will not 
afterwards bake and become hard ; its 
surface will be light and porous. 

When vines are planted, it is often the 
case that in the summer following they 
will appear as though they were dead ; 
and the cultivator, having this impres- 
sion on his mind, will take them up, be- 
lieving that it is impracticable on his soil 
to raise any fruit. 
• The plant is very tenacious of life, and 
if there is but half a chance it will take 
hold and live, though it may not yield 
much fruit. These vines should not 
have been taken up, for it is evident that 
their natural stunted appearance was 
mistaken for death. They ought to 
have remained in the soil at least ano- 
ther year, when it could have been fully 
determined whether they were living or 
dead. 



The Bell Cranberry is that which is 
mostly desired by cultivators, but even 
experienced men are often at a loss to 
distinguish the vine on which it grows 
from the Bungle or the Cherry. If 
found in the middle of a swamp in its 
wild state it will invariably throw off the 
runner towards the driest part of the 
bog. Hence it is found on the edges 
most frequently. When it is transplant- 
ed and brought under cultivation, it is 
true to the same law, and will send its 
suckers up the banks of the yard, and 
these will yield well. The inference 
drawn from this is, that it can be culti- 
vated on upland soils adapted to its 
wants, even should it not be overflowed, 
and is therefore best adapted for general 
cultivation. Lay out the grounds as 
you would for setting out cabbage, 
strawberry or other plants — have a 
pointed stick or dibble, and make a hole 
for the plant — have the plants immersed 
in muddy water so thick as to adhere to 
the root — place it in the hole from three 
to four inches under ground, and press 
the dirt very closely around it. To have 
the rows uniform, draw a line and put 
the plants, 18 by 20 inches, in rows — 
where small patches are desired which 
can be kept clean with a hoe ; the nearer 
they are together, the quicker they 
cover the ground — but where acres are 
planted it will save much labor by put- 
ting them 2 to 2 1-2 feet apart, then a 
plow or harrow can be used to keep out 
the grass and weeds. 

After one or two years' cultivation to 
keep out the grass, they will take care 
of themselves. At 18 inches apart, it 
will take 19,000 plants; 2 feet 10,000 ; 
2 1-2 feet, 7,000 plants to the acre. 
They can be planted out in the fall at 
the North from September until the 
ground freezes, or in the spring until the 
middle or last of May. At the South and 
West, if possible, they should be planted 
out in autumn and December ; if receiv- 
ed too late for planting out, the roots 
can be covered with dirt in a box or in 
a cellar (but not in the ground out of 
door) until early in spring. As it is of- 
ten late before we can start the plants, 
and the great press of freight often de- 
lays them beyond a desirable time, if not 
ordered in the fall, they will alwa,ys be 
forwarded as early as possible in the 
spring. The transportation of 10,000 
plants to Chicago, Cincinnati or Har- 
risburg will be about $2—1,000 to 
5,000 plants, from $1 to |1.50. Where 



HORTICULTURAL 



225 



land for Cranberry culture can be over- 
flowed ('which is by no means necessary), 
fall is the best time to plant them out, 
but where there is no overflow, I am 
satisfied that they can be planted out in 
early spring as well as fall. Every fam- 
ily can have their garden patch in that 
case, and in dryish soil, gra^s, meadow 
muck or tan around the plant will be 
beneficial to retain the moisture. They 
are highly ornamental in pots — the fruit 
hanging on the plants until the blossom 
appears for the next crop. The first 
year they often bear fifty bushels to the 
acre, and increase every year, until 
sometimes they bear from 200 to 300 
bushels per acre, perhaps the net aver- 
age is fr'om 100 to 150 bushels per acre. 
They usually bring from $2 to $4 per 
bushel — never less than $2 — this year 
they are worth from $4 to $0 per bushel. 
Cultivated fruit is less likel}^ to be affect- 
ed with drought than wild fruit. One 
man with a rake made for the purpose 
will gather from thirty to forty bushels 
a day, with a boy to pick up the scatter- 
ing ones. — Horticulturist. 



A GARDEN ON A STIFF CLAY 
SOIL. 

LESSON FROM EXPERIENCE. 

The Ohio Cultivator describes the 
manner in which a gardener near Co- 
lumbus, known as " Old Joe," made a 
good garden on a most forbidding soil. 

" Joe's garden was originally a com- 
pact clay soil, such as predominates 
throughout a large portion of Ohio, and 
is the greatest obstacle to successful gar- 
dening, especially among farmers and 
those who can not afford to do things 
thoroughly. But not so with our friend 
Joe. His first effort, after erecting a 
shelter for himself and his flowers, was 
to trench a portion of his ground two 
feet in depth, mixing with it coarse ma- 
nure and otlier inaterials to enrich it, 
and especially to admit air into it. This 
was a slow and laborious operation, but 
it was the only true way ; and by doing 
a little at a time, the whole was accom- 
plished without much expense, and the 
result has been such a healthy growth 
of his plants and shrubs, and such power 
to withstand drought, as to compensate 
tenfold for the lalior. 

" Since this first operation on his land, 
Joe's favorite application has been saw- 
dust, half rotted, if to be found, and in 
15 



its absence, mold of rotted logs from 
the woods. A good dressing of these 
materials is spaded into the ground as 
often as once in ten years, at a cost fully 
double the expense of ordinary manur- 
ing. 

" On my expostulating with Joe one 
day, about his free use of sawdust, and 
asking for his theory about its effects, 
he told me it was ' to give the roots a 
chance to breathe.^ This explanation 
was so sensible as well as philosophical- 
ly correct, that I wish it could be indeli- 
bly impressed on the minds of all own- 
ers of clay grounds, whether fields or 
gardens. 

" The great want of our strong clay 
lands, is not so much the materials for 
enriching, but to admit the air into them, 
or as Joe says, ' to give the roots a 
chance to breathe.' Let this be done, in 
connection with draining where too wet, 
and deep plowing or trenching, and the 
average products of our gardens and 
fields would be more than doubled, and 
the effects of our hot summers and se- 
vere droughts would hardly be noticed." 

We have copied the above from the 
Homestead, but not wholly to approve. 
If Joe's trenching was done with the 
spade, as we suppose, what is the mean- 
ing of saying that it did not cost much ? 
To trench such land two feet deep costs 
an amount of human strength, which 
ought to be worth a good deal, and 
would be if wisely exerted. It would 
be much better to plow one foot deep 
and subsoil another foot ; and we believe 
his fertilizers could as well be plowed in 
as dug in. If he had plowed a furrow 
one foot deep, then run the subsoil plow 
another foot, and then filled the furrow 
with his coai'se manure, and turned the 
next furrow upon it, would it not have 
been about as good an operation, at a 
much less expense ? 

We should have no objection to the 
use of "sawdust, half-rotted," in such a 
case, but we think the " half rotted" is 
the best part of the story ; and as for 
working in rotten wood, the same prin- 
ciple would hold. If reduced to a fine 
mold and mixed with a rich top soil, on 
which leaves had decayed for long years, 



226 



HORTICULTUEAL. 



it would be a good dressing for that or 
any other soil. 

Where a tenacious clay is to be amend- 
ed into a feasible garden soil, if there is 
a sandy field near, the best way is to 
amend both at once by carting back and 
forth, clay to the sandy soil, and sand to 
the clayey. If Joe's garden was but a 
patch, too small for a strong team to 
turn round upon, the trenching was well 
enough. If it was of considerable size, 
he could have found a better way. 

The time has not yet come, may it 
never come, in this country, when hu- 
man muscles are the cheapest power that 
can be employed. 

The weight of such a soil, two feet 
deep, is not less than 4000 tons to the 
acre. 



STRAWBERRY PLANTING. 

The present is a good time to plant 
Strawberry vines, and if now planted 
correctly upon good soil they will pro- 
duce a liberal crop the present year. 

Remember to select a good substantial 
loam ; to plow deep and work the soil 
well, applying no manure that contains 
grass or weed seeds. Leaf mold is good. 
Swamp muck, if long up and well 
cured, may be used to advantage. Twen- 
ty inches for the rows, and ten inches 
for the hills are good distances. Set 
none but the best varieties, and let about 
every eighth row be staminates. By 
early setting and eareful cultivation, you 
may have a small crop the first year, 
and a very large one the second year. — 
Ed. 



DON'T BE GULLED. 

Farmers, amateur gardeners, &c., 
should be careful in future not to be 
gulled by the wonderful stories of cor- 
respondents in the agricultural and news- 
paper i^ress, respecting new corn, pota- 
toes, pears, raspberries, grapes, currants, 
and other grains, vegetables and fruits ; 
as in nine cases out of ten these elabor- 
ate correspondents adopt this trick to 
pulT their own bantlings into notice, in 



this most desirable way, fi^ee of cost to 
themselves, and most likely to find favor 
in the eyes of those they are intended 
to deceive. Now, the common caution 
should be observed by those we address 
not to be led by the bombast of the tribe 
into buying these expensive articles un- 
til their value is established by reliable 
practical experimenters. It is much bet- 
ter to wait one or two years, when the 
article, if proved to be as represented, 
can be obtained at one-half or one-fourth 
the price originally demanded, than at 
once to rush into a purchase and get bit. 
— Gei'mantown Telegraxjh. 

We shall, for our part, take all care 
that the readers of the Farmer's Maga- 
zine shall be kept duly posted up in mat- 
ters of this kind ; and then if they choose 
to become a prey to these vampires, they 
will do so with their eyes open. — Ed. 



IMPORTANCE OF UNDERDRAIN- 
ING. 

To the perfect completion of a good 
fruit garden, it must be thoroughly un- 
derdrained. If possible, let it be done 
before setting out the trees, though it 
could be done at some future day with 
some slight root pruning, which might 
not prove injurious if carefully managed, 
only let it be remembered that it must 
ie done. — Mass. Sort. Society. 



POISONED HAY. 

A FAEMER in Ashtabula, Ohip, complains 
that he has lost seven head of cattle by 
their eating poisoned hay. It appears 
that the poison is in the form of ergot, a 
smutty excrescence which grows on the 
June grass. It grows as it does on rye, in 
the shape of a diseased and enlarged seed, 
of dark color, varying from the size of a 
wheat grain to three-fourths of an inch 
long. 

A Frog in Ice. — We were shown lately, 
by a Savannah gentleman, a lump of Nor- 
wegian ice, in which a medium sized frog 
was comfortably and coolly ensconsed. 
His frogship showed symptoms of life after 
his cool incrustation had dissolved, and 
having been placed in water was tiiawed 
into life and activity. It certainly was a 
curiosity to see a live frog thus done in 
ice ; but whether last winter it contem- 
plated a tour to Southern latitudes and 
considering the above was the coolest 
mode of traveling, we leave a question of 
debate with ichthyologists, et ia genus 
omne. — Savannah Gcorgiaii. 



SCIENTIFIC 



227 



riiJutijic. 



CHEMICAL, 

AMMONIA. 



What is this substance that all the 
world is talking about, that we are bring- 
ing from the Ohincha Islands, at a cost 
of at least 17 cts. a pound, and at the 
same time are wasting it at home ? 

It was first prepared for ladies smell- 
ing bottles and other fancy purposes, 
from camel's dung, in a region of Africa 
caUed Ammonia. Hence its name. But 
what is it ? What are its constituents ? 
In what proportions, and under what 
circumstances do they combine to form 
this much talked of substance ? 

Ammonia is composed of one atom of 
nitrogen to three atoms of hj'drogen. 
The atom in weight, of the former, is 
fourteen times that of the latter. There- 
fore, of 17 lbs. of ammonia 14 lbs. are 
nitrogen, and 3 lbs. hydrogen. These 
coustituents arc very abundant in na- 
ture. 

Nitrogen constitutes 79 hundredths of 
all the air, and hydrogen 1 ninth of all 
the water on the globe. The ammonia 
making materials arc therefore so abun- 
dant that one might suppose that this 
compound might be very plenty and 
cheap. But the nitrogen and hydrogen 
so abundant in nature, do not combine 
to form ammonia, except under peculiar 
circumstances. To a limited extent the 
process of its formation is always going 
on, and the atmosphere is always kept 
supplied with a small per cent of am- 
monia. Those who have made the most 
careful investigations estimate it at about 
one part in 10,000. So much nature 
supplies, and is always throwing into 
the air that great reservoir of plant- 
food. Science has yet discovered no way 
in which ammonia can be artificially 
prepared in such quantities as to render 
it plenty and cheap, notwithstanding 
that the ingredients are as plenty and as 
cheap as chips in the farmer's wood-yard 
in April. 



Nitrogen and hydrogen, in their ordi- 
nary state, have no affinity for each oth- 
er. You may put 14 parts by weight ol 
nitrogen and 3 of hydrogen, into a jar, 
but if you keep them there ever so long 
they will not unite and form ammonia. 
It is only in their nascent state that they 
will combine. The j^oung reader, if no 
others, will need to be inibrmed what 
their nascent state is. We will explain, 
for we are not writing for old chemists, 
but for persons who are convinced, as 
all ought to be, of the immense benefit 
to be derived by practical farmers fi'om 
even a little knowledge of this great and 
all pervading science — a science that has 
to do with every body's business, and 
especially with the farmer's. 

Well then, nascent means T)eing torn. 
That is the Latin meaning of it. By 
way of accommodation chemists have 
used it to mean newly formed. The 
forming of compounds from simples, and 
the separation of simples fi-om their com- 
pounds, is always going on in nature. 
Now although nitrogen and hydrogen in 
their ordinary state, will not unite, yet 
if they come together in their nascent 
state, that is, when first separated from 
other compounds, they will, at that in- 
stant, though not one moment after- 
wards, combine and form ammonia. 

We wish here to give some practical 
illustrations of the formation of ammo- 
nia, reserving its uses in agriculture, the 
best modes of preventing its waste, and 
its importance to the farmer, for future 
numbers. Let the reader understand 
that the ammonia so universally talked 
about is not the pure ammonia (ammonia- 
cal gas) described above as formed from 
nitrogen and hydrogen. It is this com- 
bined with some acid, as carbonic or 
sulphuric, forming a carbonate or sul- 
phate of ammonia. 

Thus, in the good old times, when cos- 
metics and perfumes were not as essen- 
tial to beauty as now, a lady would buy 



228 



SCIENTIFIC 



an ounce of carbonate of ammonia at the 
shops, and put it with as much quick- 
lime into a phial and cork it up. On 
removing the cork and applying to the 
nose, a tingling sensation would be felt, 
supposed to prevent fainting at church, 
and in other assemblies. "We should think 
it would cause rather than prevent 
fainting, and what is more, we know it 
would. 

The explanation is this ; — the lime 
had a strong aifinity for the carbonic 
acid in the carbonate of ammonia. The 
cjirbonic acid left the ammonia and join- 
ed itself to the lime, forming a carbonate 
of lime ; this left the ammonia to pass 
oif as pure ammoniacal gas, transparent, 
invisible, colorless. In passing from 
the mouth of the phial it mixed with the 
air, and so did not injure the person 
smifSng it as badly as it otherwise 
would. 

Now let us go from the old-fashioned 
smelling bottle, which, like many other 
things, had for a long time a better re- 
putation than it deserved, to the com- 
post heap. What takes place here? 
There is no ammonia in unfermented 
manure, but there are the materials to 
make it of. There is nitrogen, and there 
is water, and there are substances to be 
oxydized. As fermentation commences, 
the oxygen of the water combines with 
various substances — oxydizes them. 
This leaves the hydrogen of the water 
alone. At this instant, being just sepa- 
rated from its oxygen, that is, in its nas- 
cent state, it will combine with nitro- 
gen, if it can find any that is also in the 
same nascent state. This it can find, 
because there is nitrogen in the manure, 
and it is being separated from its various 
compounds by the fermentation. Both 
the hydrogen and the nitrogen being in 
the nascent state, unite and form ammo- 
niacal gas. But as we showed in our 
February number, carbonic acid gas is 
being formed in the compost at the same 
time. This combines with the ammonia, 
and forms carbonate of ammonia, which 



passes off in the form of an invisible but 
pungent gas, and being very light rises 
and rapidly diffuses itself far and wide, 
to be sooner or later absorbed by atmos- 
pheric moisture and brought down in 
rain, ten miles, or a hundred, or it may 
be a thousand, from where it ascended. 

When a compost is thus wasting its 
ammonia, you can not see it escape. It 
is invisible. By holding over the heap 
a feather wet with strong vinegar, or 
better, with muriatic acid, you will see a 
white cloud formed around the feather. 
The muriatic acid expels the carbonic 
acid, and with the ammonia forms mu- 
riate of ammonia, which immediately 
becomes visible to the eye, and falls as a 
mist or fog. This is a good test by 
which to judge whether manure is los- 
ing its ammonia. The sense of smell is 
a more practical test. Set it down, that 
no s^wt on the farmer's premises should 
have the least tinge of the odor of the 
old smelling "bottle. If the air in the 
stalls have the least of that pungent odor, 
you may know that something is wrong. 
If, on the other hand, none of this odor 
is perceptible, all may not be right, for 
it is no uncommon thing for so many 
foul gases to be generated at the same 
time, that the peculiar odor of the am- 
monia is disguised and becomes imper- 
ceptible to the olfactory nerves. 

Clay and peat have a strong attraction 
for ammonia. Hence if peat, or loam, 
which contains clay, or coal dust, or any 
carbonaceous matter, as leaf mold, head- 
land scrapings, or the scrapings from the 
chip-yard, be composted with manure 
and the mass be kept in a moist condi- 
tion, there is little probability of the es- 
cape of ammonia, for these seize upon it, 
become enriched by it and hold it till 
put into the soil and required by plants. 
Even water is a pretty good retainer of 
ammonia. So long as its surface is kept 
moist, little ammonia will escape. But 
the tendency of fermentation is to expel 
the moisture, and therefore if manure is 
to be fermented in the open air, some of 



SCIENTIFIC 



229 



the other substances named above should 
be mixed with it to operate as a retainer. 

Plaster has a good effect, so long as 
the manure is moist ; and some effect, 
we have no doubt, when dry ; and we 
think, therefore, that it is well to sprin- 
kle a little plaster about the stall, the 
manure heaps, and the yard. But the 
farmer's surest resource is, in such sub- 
stances as we have mentioned above, 
something that his own farm affords. 
There is scarcely a farm that does not 
afford just what will come in play for 
composting and preserving the manui'es. 
In the main, each farm must enrich it- 
self. 

From what we have said, it will be 
seen that there is r'O danger of the loss 
of ammonia after manure is put into the 
ground if the soil be a good one. A 
clay soil, or a peat soil, or a loam, any 
soil that does not consist almost entirely 
of loose sand, has in it enough to hold 
the manure till the crops take it. A 
very sandy soil has not, and therefore 
we would recommend that on such a soil, 
any manure that is capable of fermenta- 
tion should be composted largely with 
some substance adapted to hold the am- 
monia. For a similar reason we believe 
that when top-dressing is practised, the 
manure should be composted largely 
with some substance of a nature to hold 
the ammonia, and then worked down 
into contact with the soil, or as nearly 
as may be. 

More of ammonia in our next. The 
subject, we know, is not easy to compre- 
hend ; but it is very important to agri- 
culture, and we will try to make it avail- 
able to our readers, by dint of perseve- 
rance, and by such pi:actical illustrations 
as can be spread on the printed page. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE 
UPON VEGETATION. 

BY A FRIEND. 

In some remarks made in the March 
number of the Farmer^'' MiKjnzinc upon 
the introduction of new agricultural 



crops, we adverted to the importance of 
the study of the influence of climate. 

We recur to this subject again, more 
particularly for the purpose of introduc- 
ing to our readers- a very interesting and 
instructive extract from the Himalayan 
Journal of Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, one of 
the most talented and diligent natural- 
ists of the day. 

From the perusal of the following ex- 
tracts from the first volume of his work, 
it will be seen that in the Sikkim region 
of the Himalaya mountains, at an eleva- 
tion of several thousand feet the temper- 
ature, if judged of alone as indicative of 
the influence of the climate there upon 
vegetation, would lead to wholly erro- 
neous conclusions. And the Doctor has 
pointed out very lucidly the causes 
which operate to effect the difference. 

The Sikkim region is that in which he 
discovered the extraordinary new species 
of Rhododendron, (to which in a future 
article we may particularly refer ;) and 
it is during certain parts of the year en- 
veloped by a dense, moist atmosphere 
that is very favorable to the development 
of vegetation in certain stages of its an- 
nual growth, (namely, whilst it is form- 
ing neyv shoots in their earliest state,) 
but which is unfavorable to the process 
by which the young wood is hardened 
and assumes the ligneous texture. And 
the reason of this latter fact is, that the 
aqueous vapors held in suspension in the 
atmosphere prevent, in great measure, 
the direct rays of the sun fi-om generat- 
ing the amount of heat necessary for the 
maturing or ripening process. But this 
does not apply equally to all families of 
plants. From their difference of inter- 
nal organization, and from their variation 
in the length of their growing seasons, 
the amount of heat and of light required 
by different plants varies greatly. Hence 
the circumstances of the variations that 
Dr. Hooker points out between the ef- 
fects of a climate, although temperate, 
upon vegetation exotic, as compared 
with that which is indigenous to it. 



230 



SCIENTIFIC 



In all the more perfect forms of vege- 
table life, whether of an oak tree or of a 
cornstalk, there are similar processes to 
be gone through. First, the enlarge- 
ment of the frame, then the solidifying 
or hardening process, (to a greater or 
less extent,) then the fruit-bearing pro- 
cess, in which, be it observed, the same 
processes are again repeated. In the 
corn, the whole takes place in a year, in 
the oak the same system is repeated year 
after year by the same plant. But it is 
repetition, and the modus operandi is an- 
alogous the one to the other, 

This should be borne in mind in all 
our agricultural and horticultural opera- 
tions ; in the prosecution of which we 
should always in our tillage reflect upon 
which part of the annual process our la- 
bor, for the time being, is intended to 
urge forward or to assist. By so doing 
we shall find that the question of climate 
(not temperature alone, but that com- 
bined with other meteorological facts 
connected with the locality in which we 
work) becomes of primary importance to 
success. 

We have heard the remark made, that 
for jrractical purposes, in agriculture the 
study of climate matters little, since we 
can not alter that to suit our convenience. 
This is a very thoughtless conclusion. 
True it is, we can not alter the climate ; 
but if we know what effect a given cli- 
mate has upon a particular crop, we can 
oftentimes modify our system of farm- 
ing so as to adapt it to the climate, and 
thereby render the climate conducive to, 
instead of adverse to, our wants. And 
when we can not do that, we at least can 
save ourselves an outlay of time, money 
and labor in the attempt to grow a crop, 
that without the knowledge of the effects 
of climate, we might year after year 
vainly plant. 

With these observations we strongly 
commend the study of climatology to our 
readers, for it is that which promises 
more reward than many others to which 
agriculturists seem inclined to devote 



their leisure hours. And we think that 
the following remarks from Dr. Hooker's 
interesting publication will, when well 
weighed, justify to our readers the value 
which we attach to the subject that they 
so efficiently illustrate : 

" The potato thrives extremely well 
" as a summer crop at 7000 feet in Sik- 
" kim, though I think the root (from the 
"Dorjiling stock) cultivated as a winter 
" crop in the plains is superior both in 
" size and flavor. Peaches never ripen in 
" this part of Sikkim, apparently from 
" the want of sun ; the tree grows well 
" at from 8000 to 7000 feet elevation, 
" and flowers abundantly, the fruit mak- 
" ing the nearest approach to maturity 
" (according to the elevation) from July 
" to October. At Dorjiling it follows the 
" English seasons, flowering in March 
" and fruiting in September, when the 
" scarce reddened and still hard fruit 
" falls from the tree. In the plains of 
" India, both this and the plum ripen in 
" May, but the fruits are very acid. 

" It is curious that throughout this 
"temperate region there is hardly an 
" eatable fruit except the native walnut 
" and some brambles, of which the ' yel- 
" low' and ' ground raspberry' are the 
" best, some insipid figs, and a very aus- 
" tere crab-apple. The European apple 
" will scarcely ripen, (this fruit and sev- 
" eral others ripen atKatmandoo, in Ne- 
"pal, (altitude 4000 feet) which place 
" enjoys more sunshine than Sikkim. I 
" have, however, received very different 
" accounts of the produce, which, on the 
" whole, appears to be inferior,) and the 
" pear not at all. Currants and goose- 
" berries show no disposition to thrive, 
" and strawberries are the only fruits 
" that ripen at all, which they do in the 
" greatest abundance. 

"Vines, figs, pomegranates, plums, 
" apricots, &c., will not succeed even as 
" trees. European vegetables again 
" grow, and thrive remarkably well 
" throughout the summer of Dorjiling, 
" and the produce is very fair, sweet and 



SCIENTIFIC. 



231 



" good, but inferior in flavor to the Eng- 
" lish. 

" Of tropical fruits cultivated below 
** 4000 feet, oranges and indifferent ba- 
*' nanas alone are frequent, with lemons 
" of various kinds. The season for 
" these is, however, very short, though 
" that of the plantain might with care 
" be prolonged. Oranges abound in 
" winter, and are excellent, but neither 
" so large nor free of white pulp as those 
"of the Kasia hills, the West Indias, or 
" the west coast of Africa. Mangos are 
" brought from the plains, for though 
" wild in Sikkim the cultivated kinds do 
" not thrive. I have seen the pine-apple 
" plant, but I never met with good fruit 
" on it. 

" A singular and almost total absence 
*' of the light and of the direct rays of 
" the sun in the ripening season, is the 
" caxise of the dearth of friiit. Both the 
*' former and orchard gardener in Eng- 
" land know full well the value of a 
" bright sky, as well as of a warm au- 
" tumnal atmosphere. Without this 
" corn does not ripen, and fruit-trees axe 
" blighted. The winter of the plains of 
" India being more analogous in its dis- 
*' tribution of moisture and heat to aEu- 
" ropean summer, such fruits as the 
" peach, vine, and even plum, fig, and 
" strawberry, &c., may be brought to 
" bear well in March, April, and Ma}-, if 
" they are only carefully tended through 
*' the previous hot and damp season, 
" which is, in respect to the functions of 
" flowering and fruiting, their winter. 

" Hence it appears, though some Eng- 
" lish fruits will turn the winter solstice 
" of Bengal (November to May) into 
"summer, and then flower and fruit, 
*' neither these nor others will thrive in 
" the summer of 7000 feet on the Sikkim 
" Himalaya (though its temperature so 
" nearly approaches tliat of England) on 
" account of its rains and fogs. Further 
" they arc often exposed to a winter's 
" cold equal to the average of that of 
" London, the snow lying for a week on 



" the ground, and the thermometer de- 
" scending to 25°. It is true that in no 
" case is the extreme of cold so great 
" here as in England, but it is sufficient 
" to check vegetation and to prevent 
" fruit-trees from flowering till they are 
" fruiting in the plains. There is in this 
" respect a great difference between the 
" climate of the central and eastern and 
" western Himalaya, at equal elevations. 
" In the western (Kumaon, &c.) the win- 
"ters are colder than in Sikkim; the 
" summers warmer and less humid. The 
" rainy season is shorter, and the sun 
" shines so much more frequently be- 
" tween the heavy showers, that the ap- 
" pies and other fruits are brought to a 
" much better state. It is true that the 
"rain-gauge may show as great a fall 
" there, but this is no measure of the 
" humidity of the atmosphere, and still 
" less so of the amount of the sun's di- 
" rect light and heat intercepted by aque- 
" ous vapor, for it takes no account of 
" the quantity of moisture suspended in 
" the air, nor of the depositions from 
"fogs, which are fiir more fatal to the 
" perfecting of fruits than the heaviest 
" brief showers. The Indian climate, 
" which is marked by one season of ex- 
" cessive humidity and the other of es- 
" cessive drought, can never be favora- 
" ble to the production either of good 
"European or tropical fruits. Hence 
" there is not one of the latter peculiar 
" to the country, and perhaps but one 
" which arrives at full perfection — name- 
" ly, the mango. The plantains, oranges, 
" and pine-apples are less abundant, of 
" inferior kinds, and remain a shorter 
" season in perfection than they do in 
"South America, the West Indies, or 
" Western Africa." 



CAPACITY OF MATTER. 

There is undoubtedly much loss sus- 
tained through the want of a more ex- 
act and practical knowledge of the full 
powers and capacities of matter. Next 
to the want of a natural tact or aptitude 



SCIENTIFIC 



in a craftsman for his craft, is that of 
knowing how to bring out and appro- 
priate every element, however concealed 
in the material which he manipulates. 
The two, however, usually go hand in 
hand, and constitute the celebrity and 
success of every operator. Of the same 
quality of flour one baker so kneads and 
tempers his dough, that the praise of his 
bread is in every mouth, while another 
makes of it such stuff as were " Jeremi- 
ah's figs — too bad to give the pigs." So 
the same quality of steel may be manu- 
factured into Damascus blades or Rogers' 
cutlery by one, smith, and into "Peter 
Pindar Razors" by another. An honest 
old farmer friend of my early days was 
never known to swear a syllable, except, 
*' By the powers of mud !" and this was 
on his tongue's end about as often as his 
plow hit a stump, or stone, or any other 
especially exciting incident crossed his 
path. The superabundant ingathering 
from his wheat, corn, and potato fields, 
orchards, and gardens, however, fully 
proved that no man better than he un- 
derstood the powers of mud, or could 
better compost and coin tons and tons of 
it every year into golden treasures. If 
the well authenticated reports of " the 
lost arts" are true, there are many long- 
concealed powers of matter yet to be fer- 
retted out and brought into the light and 
service of the world. They may be dis- 
covered by chance as the scavenger 
sometimes sweeps up a lost diamond, or 
by men who are willing to look for them 
as the boy was told to hunt for the lost 
wedge, when he said he had looked 
everywhere that it could be. " Well 
then," said his father, " look every where 
that it can not be and you will find it." 
Infinitely more important discoveries are 
or may be made by laboring men pur- 
suing their daily avocations than by men 
of mere empty scientific pretensions, if 
they could only turn them to good ac- 
count. What unlimited advantages 
every farmer has for increasing the de- 
sired knowledge of insects for instance. 



as well as mechanics and manufacturers 
for unfolding the capabilities of the ma- 
terial in which they operate. Every one 
should find means of making public 
whatever may tend to public good. If I 
may be permitted to illustrate by exam- 
ple, I will do so by saying a few words 
about propeities which I have discovered 
in two simple articles, namely, calcined 
plaster and lead, which I think are not 
very generally understood or appreciated. 
And if my remarks favor one profession 
more than another, it shall be a profes- 
sion not of trifling importance to the pre- 
sent tooth-afflicted generation, nor one 
slow to appreciate and exert its best fa- 
culties to allay the fearfully prevailing 
dental defection. In taking a cast of the 
gum for fitting suction plate for teeth, if 
plaster is mixed very thin, say two 
spoonfuls to two of water, more or less 
as the case requires, and beaten up like 
eggs, it at length assumes a new aspect 
of cohesiveness and plasticity, and will 
spread like well tempered butter till on 
the very verge of " setting." Let it now 
be quickly transferred to the mouth-cup, 
and pressed to its desired depth on the 
gum, it conforms instantly to every pe- 
culiarity of shape and contour, harden- 
ing so quick that it may in less than one 
minute be taken from the mouth a per- 
fect smooth impression, while if it had 
been merely mixed as usual it would 
have required three or four times as long 
to harden, annoyed if not sickened the 
patient, and come out less perfect in 
every respect. How this matrix is to be 
immediately oiled and filled for a male, 
or counter cast, say two inches high with 
similarly prepared plaster paste kept in 
place by a paper wall around it, is well 
known to practical dentists, for whose 
sole benefit I am not, by the by, just 
now writing. My next subject is lead, so 
much more celebrated for its coldness 
and gravity than for any lively or accom- 
modating properties. But let us see ; — 
when the plaster model of the jaw or 
die, No, 2, is perfected with its provi- 



SCIENTIFIC. 



233 



sions for air-chamber and all, take a 
sheet-iron pan five inches square and 
one and a half deep, containing about 
eight pounds of lead. Heat it consider- 
ably above the melting point and set it 
where it will cool, not too rapidly. Stir 
in the lead from the corners and outer 
edges towards the center and up from 
the bottom, carefully moving every 
granulating particle into the middle of 
the pan. Very soon the whole mass ap- 
pears so equally and harmoniously tem- 
pered that you may pile it up like hasty 
pudding, and still see uncooled liquid 
lead flowing around its base. It is in 
this condition that I claim for it powers 
and properties not, I believe, very gen- 
erally known. Almost eveiy particle is 
mutually ready ■n-ith every other parti- 
cle, on the application of a very little 
chill to '■'presto, change'^ from an almost 
semi-fluid, soft and impressible state, to 
one of unyielding hardness, and still 
seemingly willing to linger a moment 
longer to take to itself any impression 
by which the true artist may be facili- 
tated in his labors. This, however, is a 
critical period of not more probably than 
fifteen seconds' duration, and allows of 
but little delay. Smooth now the mol- 
ten mass to a level in the pan, and while 
the quicksilvery glow yet remains on its 
surface, press steadily down with a firm 
hand the faultless plaster model to its 
desirable depth. Every particle of yet 
jhwing metal hardens as it receives the 
impression of the descending form, and 
is almost instantly, in concert with the 
rest, in a solid state. The model, if 
rightly shaped, may now be lifted unin- 
jured from the lead before cooling binds 
it in. This second or leaden matrix 
when cool may be painted with a thin 
solution of whiting and water, and sur- 
rounded by a strip of sheet lead two 
inches high, and filled with tin or type- 
metal, melted and tempered like the lead 
so that it will just flow into the matrix 
and cool instantly on receiving its form. 
It is advisable before marring the matrix 



by striking up the plate to take dupli- 
cate dies, say one of tin and one of type- 
metal, which is much the harder of the 
two. It can but be obvious to every 
philosophical and practical dentist, that 
by having the plaster elaborated to the 
point of " setting" in both cases, taking 
the gum impression and its model, there 
must be the least possible amount of con- 
traction. This is, if possible, still more 
obvious of the low temperature to which 
the metals are reduced before being used. 
Experience alone, however, can make 
any method pleasant and profitable. I 
will only add, in conclusion, that the 
whole operation of taking the four dies, 
namely, the female and male plaster dies, 
and the corresponding metallic ones, ca- 
pable of striking up a plate of the most 
perfect adhesive powers, seldom takes 
me more than one hour. I cool the lead 
in water, if in haste, as soon as the ma- 
trix is formed, and so the tin and type- 
metal as soon as poured in and hardened. 
And better than all, never since adopting 
this process have I had a patient return 
with the doleful story of having been 
shocked and horrified by their teeth 
dropping out, and "right before the min- 
ister." 

As my subject, Messrs. Editors, seems 
to contemplate the gathering up of the 
fragments that nothing be lost, will you 
allow me to add a word or two from per- 
sonal experience in relation to the value 
oi natural teeth and unbroken nerves to 
those who are " talking seriously" of 
having their mouths cleared of native 
occupants, to be filled with the gold and 
porcelain of the artist. Four years ago 
I had thirteen teeth extracted at one sit- 
ting of five minutes, and without anas- 
thetic agency. It was done most kindly 
and skilfully, but was still a most cruel 
outrage on the " harp of so many strings." 
It stands not to reason that such a sim- 
ultaneous crash and disrupture of nerves 
extending to every possible part of the 
system can be otherwise than disastrous. 
Sickness, death, and what is worse, the 



234 



SCIENTIFIC. 



loss of reason have occurred from such 
operations, especially in the hands of un- 
scrupulous, heartless empirics. Not a 
little suffering in this way is silently en- 
dured and concealed through fear of rail- 
ery. If natural teeth must be sacrificed, 
three, four, or five, according to the con- 
stitution of the patient, are as many as 
should be removed at once, and that only 
at intervals of several weeks. But where 
even three or four sound masticating 
teeth remain in each jaw, their removal 
is sacrilege. The most perfect artificial 
teeth ever made can not atone for their 
loss. I wear as good and useful ones as 
can be procured, but I know of a cer- 
tainty that, however well they please the 
eye, they do not admit of the dehcacy 
and completeness of mastication, the free 
and nutritious flow and mingling of sal- 
iva, and the refined taste, relish, and ap- 
preciation of food which every function 
of the system hankers after and pleads 
for as indispensable to their healthy ac- 
tion. I have not, however, the least 
cause or disposition to speak disparag- 
ingly of well-made and skilfully adjusted 
plate-teeth in a mouth which has not 
sacrificed too much natural advantage 
for their attainment. "They are capable 
of proving an inestimable blessing to the 
otherwise toothless, whose knife and 
fork, by the by, should work well for 
their benefit, that is, should be of a de- 
cidedly ^^ mincing" propensity, as food 
can hardly be made too fine or swallow- 
ed too moderately for the good of the 
wearer. Keep them in water during the 
night, with a good brushing as they are 
replaced in the morning. 

Yours truly, Eastman Sanborn. 
Andovek, Mass., Feb., 1858. 



For the American Farmer's Magazine. 

ON THE DUEABILITY OF WOOD. 
Mr. Editor: — In the number of your 
journal for December last, under the 
head of Interrogatories, your corres- 
pondent J. R. B., proposed several 
"questions, which he desired to have 



answered satisfactorily, either by your- 
seM", or by some of your scientific corres- 
pondents." The most of them were 
ably, and no doubt, satisfactorily answer- 
ed, at the time, by yourself. I have been 
waiting ever since, hoping that some of 
your many correspondents would reply ; 
but as none of them has done so, I send 
you the following answer to the other, 
and only remaining question, to wit, 
" On, what principle depends the dura- 
Mlity of wood." 

There are several circumstances and 
conditions upon which the durability of 
wood may depend, namely, whether it 
be subjected only to the influence of dry 
air, or entirely excluded from the atmos- 
phere by being kept under water ; or 
whether it be exposed to both elements, 
or in any way, so as to absorb oxygen, 
whereby slow combustion or oxidation 
would take place, or some other chemi- 
cal transformation. Its durability mate- 
rially depends also, upon the nature and 
properties of the constituents of the 
juices in the wood. It is to this last, 
that the most particular attention will 
be herein given. 

Woody fibre or lignin which consti- 
tutes the organic structure and tissues 
of wood, is the same in all kinds of it, 
and when pure, is very durable. But, 
wood, in its ordinary and natural state, 
is prone to rot and decay, whenever its 
vital action ceases. This is in conse- 
quence of its containing in its juices, 
certain nitrogenized albumenous sub- 
stances which run spontaneonsly into 
fermentation, putrefaction and decay, 
when exposed to moisture and an ele- 
vated temperature of the atmospheric 
air. To render wood durable, therefore, 
it is requisite either to neutralize and 
destroy the septic properties of those 
substances by artificial means, or to re- 
move them, and thereby counteract or 
prevent their contaminating and destruc- 
tive effects. 

In order, therefore, to understand the 
nature of those substances more clearly, 



SCIENTIFIC. 



235 



and the reason why some kinds of wood 
in the natural state are more lasting 
than others, and how to retard or pre- 
vent their spontaneous decomposition 
and decay, it is important and necessary 
to know also what are the component 
elements of the juices of each kind, and 
their chemical characteristics and pro- 
perties. 

It is a well ascertained fact, that the 
sap and cambium which constitute the 
juices in a tree, are compound sub- 
stances, composed of many different prox- 
imate principles, varying in number, 
quantity and proportions in each kind 
of wood, to wit, resin, oil, gum, sugar, 
starch, &c., none of which contains ni- 
trogen. These arc called non-azotised, 
or non-nitrogenized substances. Ac- 
cordingly, they are not of themselves, 
capable of running spontaneously into 
the putrefactive fermentation, nor of in- 
juring the wood by any of the chemical 
transformations which they are suscep- 
tible of undergoing. But, the sap and 
cambium contain also three other prox- 
imate principles, namely, albumen, glu- 
ten or vegetable fibrlne, and casein, all 
of which contain nitrogen as one of their 
ultimate elements, and consequently, 
they are the only causes of the sponta- 
neous putrefactive fermentation, and ul- 
timately of the decay thereby, of all 
kinds of wood, as well as of all kinds of 
animal matter. 

These three substances are known by 
various names, namely, nitrogenized sub- 
stances, azofisetZ substances, albumenous 
compounds, and also, by the more com- 
prehensive i&rm 2>r9tein. They are all 
three identical in properties and compos- 
ition, whether they belong to the vege- 
table or animal kingdom, differing only 
in their external character, as the vege- 
table albumen in nuts, almonds, and the 
sap of trees, the gluten or vegetable 
fibrine in wheat floor, and the vegeta- 
ble casein in peas and beans, are the 
same as the white of eggs, the fibrine of 
blood, and the curd of milk. They con- 



tain also, the same organic elements, in 
exactly the same proportions, and are 
the basis of all the vegetable and animal 
tissues. They are also alike susceptible 
of running spontaneously into the pntre- 
faetive fermentation, when exposed to 
the conditions necessary for affecting 
chemical transformations. 

These three protein substances possess 
certain other characteristic properties 
that distinguish them from resin, sugar, 
starch, and all the other non-nitrogeniz- 
ed constituents of the juices of the wood, 
prominent among which, is that of their 
being susceptible of coagulation by va- 
rious chemical agents, which produce 
antiseptic and preservative effects, by 
converting them into an insoluble and 
inert coagulum, incapable of fermenta- 
tion, putrefaction and decay. 

Some one or more of these protein 
substances are contained in greater or 
less proportions in all kinds of wood, and 
when it has lost its vitality, and conse- 
quently its power of resisting putrefac- 
tion, the fermentative process readily 
takes place, contaminating the sugar, 
starch, and all the other constituents of 
the sap, and ultimately involving the 
whole woody structure in decomposition 
and decay when exposed to moistiu-e, 
and a high temperature of the atmos- 
pheric air. 

There are many instances showing 
that certain kinds of wood, such as pine, 
cedar, chestnut, etc., possess naturally 
greater durability than others, and that 
" it does not depend upon the hardness ' 
of the fiber, or the closeness of the tex- 
ture," as J. R. B. says, nor indeed upon 
anything else pertaining to their organ- 
ism ; but it is generally owing to the cir- 
cumstance that the juices in some kinds 
of wood contain relatively but a small 
quantity of tho protein compounds here- 
tofore described, as compared with the 
larger proportion of resin, oil, sugar, 
starch, and other non-nitrogenized con- 
stituents, some one or more of which 
they always contain, and which, by vir- 



236 



SCIENTIFIC 



tue of their excess, and by their predom- 
inating and preservative influences over 
the former, counteract and prevent their 
putrefaction and destructive tendencies, 
and thereby preserve the vpood from de- 
composition and decay. Many familiar 
examples might be cited corroborative of 
this opinion. 

The following are the diflferent methods 
commonly employed by which the putre- 
faction, decomposition, and decay of 
wood are checked and prevented, and 
thereby rendered durable : 

1. By painting the surface to prevent 
the absorption of water and of oxygen, 
as with a mixture of the oxyde of lead 
or zinc and oil, or by besmearing it with 
varnish, pitch, or some resinous com- 
pound. 

2. Bykiln-drying, or by seasoning in 
dry air, to evaporate the aqueous portion 
of the sap, and thereby to render the 
protein compounds dry, hard, and inso- 
luble, and therefore incapable of under- 
going the spontaneous putrefactive fer- 
mentation and decay. 

3. By soaking in water to dilute, de- 
compose, and extract the sap, as is fre- 
quently done by lumbermen. In ponds 
where the logs are soaking for that pur- 
pose, it is a common occurrence for the 
surface of the water to be covered with 
a scum of the extracted sap. Steaming 
the wood is a process also employed for 
preparing timber for ship building and 
other uses. 

4. By Tcyanizing, -(the invention of 
Kyan.) This method consists in saturat- 
ing the wood in a solution of corrosive 
sublimate, (perchloride of mercury.) It 
is done by soaking the wood, cut into 
blocks, planks, or boards, for seven or 
eight hours in a tank of the solution, 
made in the proportion of one pound of 
corrosive sublimate to five gallons of 
water. As the protein substances, both 
vegetable and animal, possess the char- 
acteristic property of being coagulated 
by this solution, the result of the pro- 
cess is, that when it is absorbed by the 



wood, and combines with the sap, the 
protein constituents of it are instantly 
converted into an insoluble coagulum, 
that is inert and not susceptible of pu- 
trefaction, or any other chemical trans- 
formation. The wood is rendered by 
this process very durable for any pur- 
pose. 

There are other solutions which are 
also capable of coagulating the protein 
substances in the juices of the wood, and 
are used in the same manner for its pre- 
servation, as solutions of the sulphate of 
zinc, (white vitriol,) sulphate of iron, 
(copperas,) arsenious acid, etc. 

It is upon the analogous principle of 
coagulating the protein constituents of 
the blood, that the ingredients used in 
the modern process of embalming the 
dead bodies of persons, act anticeptically 
and retard decomposition. It is effected 
by injecting into an artery, commonly 
of the arm, with a force pump, a solution 
of arsenious acid which permeates 
through the whole body, and on com- 
bining with the blood, instantly converts 
the albumenous and fibrinous portions 
of it into an insoluble and inert coagu- 
lum, and thereby checks fermentation 
and retards putrefaction and decay. 

The bodies of birds and small animals 
are preserved in a similar manner for 
exhibition. Solutions of cori'osive sub- 
limate and sulphate of zinc produce the 
same effects. 

John B. McMunn, M. D. 
Port Jervis, N. Y., March 15, 1858. 



TO REVIVE BLACK LACE. 

Steep the lace in porter which has 
stood long enough to become slightly 
stale, rub it about in a basin until per- 
fectly soaked, then press out the liquid 
by squeezing, carefully avoiding wring- 
ing, which would tear or fray the lace. 
After stretching it to its proper width, 
pin it out to dry. This will be found 
preferable to the use of gum water for 
imparting to the lace the requisite de- 
gree of stiffening or dressing, and will 
make it appear as beautiful as when 
new. 



LITERARY 



23'7 



%\ttXMl. 



THE HEROINES OF ONEIDA. 

AN OKIfilNAL TALK OF NEW-YORK STATE, 
FOUNDED ON FACT. 

[Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 
1852, by J. A. Nash, in the Clerk's office of the 
District Court of the United States, for the South- 
ern District of New-Yorli.] 

Some few years before the Revolution- 
ary War, a New-England family, whose 
zeal for the advancement of the Cross 
amongst the Indian race predominated 
over their love of the comforts of life, 
took up their residence near the conflu- 
ence of the Sequoit Creek and the Mo- 
hawk on the borders of Lake Oneida. 
The son, a boy of six or seven years of 
age, and their daughter who was much 
younger, accompanied them. The form- 
er the good people had determined to 
devote to a missionary life ; and the red 
man's introduction to the knowledge of 
Christianity, was to become the aim and 
end of his future labors. 

In those times nature, in her sublime 
grandeur, spread far and wide over the 
surrounding country her towering for- 
ests, tracked only by the foot of the In- 
dians ; and the mark of civilization was 
there yet unknown. 

Cautiously at first did the native tribes 
approach the new settlers ; but by de- 
grees their intercourse had become luore 
intimate, and frequent visits of short 
duration were made to the " white man" 
by his tawny neighbors. 

One summer's evening when Mr. and 
Mrs. Dean were sitting in front of their 
log house watching the gambols of their 
little girl and boy, and resting from the 
rugged toils which were inseparable from 
the mode of life they had now entered 
upon, they observed a party of Indians 
approaching, who, on arriving at the 
house, proved to be an old chief with 
whom they were acquainted, and his 
wife and family, consisting of two or 
three grown up sons, and a mulatto wo- 



man, that had on former occasions acted 
as interpreter for them. 

The chief was-named Han Yerry, and 
he was known to the Deans as one of the 
most influential men of the tribe of the 
Oneidas, to which he belonged. 

The courtesies that usually passed up- 
on similar occasions having taken place 
between them, the old chief addressing 
Mr. Dean said in an earnest manner : 
" Are you my friend ?" 
•' Yes," replied he. 

" Do you believe I am your friend ?" 
said the chief. 

" Yes, Han Yerry, I believe you are." 
"Then," said Han Yerry, "if you are 
my fi'iend, and you believe I am your 
friend, I will tell you what I want ; and 
then I shall know whether you speak 
true words." 

" What is it that you want ?" said Mr. 
Dean. 

The chief reflected for a few minutes, 
looking around him as though searching 
for something, and then pointing to Mr. 
Dean's little gii'l, replied, 

" My squaw wants to take that pap- 
poose home to stay with us one night, 
and bring her back to-morrow. If you 
are my friend you will now show me." 

The horror of the parents at this un- 
expected proposition, can be better con- 
ceived than described. The mother in 
her agony was about to catch up her lit- 
tle darling immediately, and run with 
her into the house ; but Mr. Dean check- 
ed her. The tumult of conflicting feel- 
ings in his own breast was intense. He 
knew well that distrust was the ever 
prevailing feature in the character of the 
red man ; and that unfortunately the 
treatment he had frequently experienced 
from the whites gave him too much 
cause for the existence of it. On the 
other hand, he knew that from time to 
time the Indians had shown much grati- 
tude for kindness ; and where their word 



238 



LITERARY, 



had been taken, they had usually been 
remarkable for a strict observance of 
their plighted faith. His judgment led 
him to the conclusion, that the proposal 
had been made to him honestly by the 
chief as a test of his own sincerity ; and 
he therefore felt a confidence that if he 
complied with it, the child would be 
safe. Again he felt that, with the re- 
vengeful passions of the savage life, if he 
refused to place reliance upon the chiefs 
word and aroused his anger, the life not 
only of his little daughter, but of his 
wife and the whole family, could, and 
probably would, pay the forfeit of his 
adv«rse decision. For with the red rr'&ii 
every one who is not his friend must be 
his foe. 

The agonized mother, whose thoughts 
on the subject were confined for the time 
to the simple alternative of keeping or 
parting with her little prattler, could 
scarcely believe the evidence of her 
senses, when she heard Mr. Dean, after 
a short pause, reply to the chief: 

" Han Yerry, you are a father your- 
self, and therefore you can take my 
child ; for I know that as you are my 
friend, you will take the same care of 
her that I would take of yours. But 
you promise me that to-morrow you will 
bring her home ?" 

" I will ; and till then I will cherish 
her in my bosom, and protect her with 
my life," replied he. 

The squaw who had advanced towards 
the little girl, and engaged her attention 
by kind endearments, now took her up 
in her arms, and in a few moments the 
party were lost in the somber hues of 
the surrounding forest. 

It was long before Mrs. Dean could be 
convinced by her husband that he had 
acted wisely or justly towards their poor 
babe. However, when nature's first re- 
lief from intense suffering — a flood of 
tears — had somewhat restored the se- 
renity of her mind ; although still in 
doubt, she perceived the fearful alterna- 
tive, the ful; extent of which had pre- 



sented itself to her husband, and influ- 
enced his decision. 

In misery was the coming night past 
in the log house. The morning dawned, 
and the first gray tints that herald its 
approach, met the eyes of the disconso- 
late mother as she sat at the window 
looking towards the point, in the wild 
landscape before her, at which the last 
glimpse of her dear child had disappear- 
ed from her view on the preceding night. 

The day advanced, and its bright orb, 
dispelling the mists that hung around 
the foliage, had lighted up the forest with 
its meridian splendor. Still sat the mo- 
ther at the window, her weary eyes 
dimmed by tears that she strove in vain 
to conceal. For well she knew that 
every pang that wrung her breast had 
its fellow in that of her beloved husband ; 
and she would not willingly increase the 
severity of his sufferings by adding to 
them that testimony of her own. 

The shades of night were fast drawing 
near, and still no sign appeared of the 
lost child. The father almost repented 
his own course, and half wished he had 
resolved on any other alternative — he 
knew not what — rather than that he had 
adopted. To attempt to follow or trace 
the Indians, he was aware would be fu- 
tile ; for independently of the impossi- 
bility for his inexperience to find their 
trail, he well knew that if they had 
played him false, and intended to steal 
the child, their swift motions and know- 
ledge of their hunting grounds would 
enable them to elude his vigilance, even 
if he came within sight of them. The 
only thing, therefore, that the wretched 
parents could do was to watch on still ! 

The moon had risen and silvered over 
the limpid stream that murmured on- 
ward through its devious course at the 
foot of the rising ground on which their 
house was placed, and the hopes of the 
anxious parents were ebbing fast to the 
verge of extinction, when figures were 
dimly discerned in the extreme dis- 
tance, and in a few minutes the tall form 



LITERARY. 



239 



of the chief and mulatto woman were 
disclosed to the gladdened eyes of Mr. 
and Mrs. Dean. On the shoulders of the 
former sat their little daughter, but so 
changed in appearance that her identity 
was at first equivocal. The white man's 
pappoose had been converted into the 
red man's pappoose ; for its new friends 
had dressed it entirely in their Indian 
costume. 

" There is your child," said Han Yer- 
ry. " Now I know you are my friend; 
you have shown me now that you trust 
Han Yerry ; from this day we will be 
one. Never can you want a friend to 
fight your battles or avenge your wrongs 
whilst Ilan Yerry draws breath." 

From this time the intercourse be- 
tween the new settlers and their Indian 
friends increased ; and the latter afiforded 
much valuable assistance to them. 

A few years only had elapsed since 
the stirring events that we have men- 
tioned, when the future of their son re- 
quired that he should become familiar 
with the language and habits of the race 
to whom his labors were to be devoted ; 
and as he had now no misgivings upon 
the subject, Mr. Dean resolved to send 
his son, now fifteen years of age, to pass 
some years with the Oneidas, for the 
purpose alluded to. 

This course having been determined 
on, Mr. Dean sent for his friend, Han 
Yerry, and thus addressed him : 

"Han Yerry, you put me to the test 
when our friendship first commenced, 
and we have now known each other long 
enough to render any further proofs on 
either side to be unnecessary. But I am 
now about to (ifford you good evidence 
that my confidence in you does not con- 
fine itself merely to a trust in your fidel- 
ity, but extends to a reliance on your 
judgment. You worship the Great Spir- 
it, and you do well ; but you know not 
much of his attributes and goodness that 
the white man has been made acquainted 
with. To tell your people that, would 
make them good and happy; but to do 



it, the white man must know how to talk 
in your own tongue. I am too old, and 
my life is too far run out to do your peo- 
ple good in that way ; but my young 
son here will devote his future life to the 
purpose. Take him with you for a time, 
and teach him your way of life. "When 
he has learnt to live as you live, to learn 
your ways and to talk your language, he 
will know how, when he grows a man, 
to counsel you, and to make yovu- people 
understand the things they do not know. 
But you must remember that all around 
him will at present be strange to him ; 
and that as he will have no one but you 
for his friend, upon you alone will he de- 
pend for succor and for comfort. Twice 
a year bring him home to me, that we 
may thank you for your care of him, and 
have together some days of happiness 
and love. And at some future time will 
your sons, if not yourself, bless the 
white man who first taught you to look 
up aright to that Great Spirit that made 
both him and you." 

Whilst Mr. Dean was speaking the 
eyes of Han Yerry, fixed upon him, filled 
with tears, and his whole frame gave in- 
disputable evidence of deep emotion. 
(For during the past few years of their 
intercourse he had learnt the white man's 
tongue.) As soon as he ceased, Han 
Yerry seized Mr. Dean's hand and raised 
it to his lips. 

" My friend, my friend," said he, " if 
all white mans were like you, all red 
mans would love him too. Your Si,n, no 
more your son alone, but mine too. 
My squaw shall love him and take him 
for her son, and he shall be taken by our 
chiefs into the Oneida tribe. And woe 
to white man or red that touches my 
new son's head." 

The arrangements for young Dean's 
departure were soon made, and the well 
grounded confidence of his parents re- 
lieved their minds from any feeling of 
anxiety beyond that consequent upon 
their son's separation from them, to com- 
mence the walk in life that they had 



240 



LITERARY 



marked out for him ; and which the 
scenes of forest life with which he had 
now been for some few years familiar, 
well fitted him to encounter. Of a stur- 
dy frame of body and of a buoyant and 
ardent temperament, the lad himsejf 
stood quite ready to seek and take part 
in those adventures which the anecdotes 
that he had heard, had taught him to be 
inseparable from Indian life ; and he en- 
tered upon his travels, therefore, with 
all the enthusiastic anticipations that a 
young English nobleman, of the same era 
in the world's history, started with from 
London under the surveillance of his tu- 
tor to make the " Grand Tour." 

Young Dean soon became accustomed 
to his new mode of life, and was adopted 
into the tribe as the son of Onata, the 
wife of Han Yerry, to whom as well as 
to her husband he soon became attached, 
from the care and anxiety which they 
uniformly manifested towards him. 
Open hearted and sprightly he quickly 
made friends of the younger members of 
the tribe, and partook alike of their 
amusements and toils. The latter con- 
sisting principally of hunting and pre- 
paring the skins of the animals that re- 
warded their rude sportsmanship. 

Amongst the young men of the tribe 
the son of the head chief, whose name 
was Omi, had especially attracted James 
Dean's attention by his proficiency in 
field sports, and the success and tact 
that marked his career as a hunter. He 
was some half dozen years beyond young 
Dean in age, with an athletic, well de- 
veloped frame. Omi had no idea, how- 
ever, that a batchelor's life was essential 
to his notions of forest freedom ; on the 
contrary he had long cast a wistful eye 
upon a young maid of the tribe. The 
beautiful Howala was a maiden of his 
own age, and formed in a mould that 
Venus might have lent to celebrate her 
birth. 

It was now some four years since 
young Dean had joined the Oneidas, and 
he had become so much one of them, 



that they would willingly have kept him 
amongst them altogether. But the time 
was approaching when he had arranged 
with his father upon the last occa- 
sion of his temporary visit to him, that 
he should take leave of Indian life, and 
return home to prepare himself by a 
course of study at Dartmouth College 
for the future duties of a missionary. 

The tribe was then on their journey 
from a distant hunting excursion to the 
neighborhood of his father's settlement, 
and he was anticipating the pleasure in 
another month to enjoy that flood of hap- 
piness which, be it regal or bumble, is 
the blessed attribute of " home." 

Strolling one afternoon over an open 
glade in the forest, fi-om the interior of 
which the view was excluded by a dense 
thicket of underwood, he heard the 
piercing shrieks of a female voice quick- 
ly reiterated in strains of poignant grief. 

Dashing through the thicket into the 
forest in the direction from which the 
sounds issued, he at once perceived their 
cause. At a distance of a few yards 
from which he stood was his friend Omi 
struggling in the embrace of a huge bear, 
and a little way off stood the lady-love 
Howala wringing her hands in helpless 
misery, and screaming at the top of her 
voice. 

Young Dean was unarmed, and had 
no weapon save his knife. Hastening to 
the scene of contention, he plunged the 
knife into the beast aiming at his heart, 
but it struck against a bone. The 
wound produced pain enough, however, 
to induce the animal to let go his grasp 
on Omi, and turn upon his new assail- 
ant. The injuries that the bear inflicted 
upon Omi wholly incapacitated him 
from continuing the contest, and the 
whole rage of the infuriated animal was 
now, therefore, concentrated upon Dean. 
The fight was sharp and close ; Dean 
was active, and contrived to avoid the 
embrace which his adversary vainly tried 
to fix upon him, and plying his knife 
nimbly, he inflicted numberless wounds. 



LITERARY. 



241 



without being able to strike in a vital 
part. It must not be assumed, never- 
theless, that the laurels were all on his 
side. Bruin used his claws as efficiently 
as Dean did his knife. Dean felt that 
his exertions, added to weakness from 
loss of blood, rendered it impossible for 
him much longer to continue the unequal 
contest ; and he knew that unless he 
could strike the heart, there was no 
means in his power to put an end to it. 
Summoning, therefore, for the effort, all 
his remaining strength, he rushed into 
the extended arms of the bear, driving 
his knife before him into the animal. 
Fortunately he was this time successiul ; 
but his victory was gained at the bare 
preservation of his life, for at the same 
ini|,ant that he delivered the flxtal blow, 
the bear, in its attempt to hug him, had 
also fixed her huge jaws into Dean's left 
shoulder, and inflicted a wound of fear- 
ful character. They both fell toge- 
ther; and although released by the 
death of the animal from a grasp which 
had only been half clinched. Dean re- 
mained faint and senseless on the ground, 

Omi laid helpless beside him ; but as 
soon as Howala was relieved by the 
death of Bruin from fear about her lover, 
she ran off with the swiftness of an ar- 
row for help ; and a few minutes sufficed 
to bring her relations to the spot. 

The wounded men were immediately 
removed with all the care their primi- 
tive means afforded, and became objects of 
the unremitted anxiety and solicitude of 
the whole tribe. Han Yerry and his 
squaw watched over young Dean day 
and night; and the mother of Omi, in- 
formed by her intended daughter in-law 
that nothing could have saved the life of 
Omi had not Dean released him from the 
bear, dividcil her care between her son 
and young Dean. 

The laceiated nature of the wound on 
the shoulder rendered it doubtful for 
some time whether permanent injury to 
the arm would not result. Too far bu- 
ried in the forest to obtain medical aid 
16 



beyond that of his adopted tribe, young 
Dean lay many ■vweeks a cripple ; but 
with youth and a hardy constitution in 
his favor, nature prevailed at last, and 
rewarded the assiduous attentions of his 
nurses with success. The wounds which 
they had bound up gradually healed ; 
and except from the presence of seams 
here and there on his limbs, which re- 
mained as permanent memorials of his 
prowess, he at length was enabled to re- 
sume his journey homeward, which these 
events had thus unexpectedly delayed. 

The powers of endurance and the re- 
solution that the bear fight had so prom- 
inently called into action, were not 
thrown away upon a race, in whose esti- 
mation courage and physical energy. are 
among the first steps to pre-eminence. 
The elder chiefs now were loud in Dean's 
praise, and profuse in their professions 
of friendship ; and it was determined to 
reward . the white man that had thus 
saved one of their number at the expense 
of so much danger and suffering, with a 
memorial of their regard and tsleein. 
For this purpose they held a solemn 
council, in which it was resolved to 
make him a present of a tract of land, in 
such locality as he should select, when 
he was of an age to determine upon his 
future fortunes. 

The longed-for hour at length arrived 
that restored James Dean to his father's 
home, but which vras to separate him 
from forest life and forest friends. Han 
Yerry and his wife were deeply moved 
when the time for separation came, and 
Ilowala and Omi's mother were little 
less willing to part with him. His young 
friend Omi, however, consoled them all 
with the assurance that neither space 
nor force .should long separate him from 
the preserver of his life — an a.ssuranco 
which young Dean knew his character 
well enough to place iui[ilicit reliance 
upon. 

The next few years of his life were 
spent by young Dean at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, shortly after which he had the mis- 



242 



LITERARY. 



fortune to lose his parents, who quickly- 
followed each other to the tomb ; solaced, 
nevertheless, by the reflection that they 
had lived to see their son grown up to 
manhood, and well provided with friends 
amongst those to whose benefit they had 
designed his future labors should be de- 
voted. 

Circumstances, imperious in their cha- 
racter and uncontrollable in their na- 
ture, soon occurred which completely 
changed the current of James Dean's af- 
ter life. 

(to ee continued.] 



THE MECHANIC. 

A YOUNG man commenced visiting a 
young woman, and appeared to be well 
received. One evening he called at the 
house when it was quite late, which led 
the girl to inquire where he had been. 
" I had to work late to-night," he re- 
plied. " Do you work for a living ?" in- 
quired the astonished girl. " Certainly," 
replied the young man, "I am a mecha- 
nic." "My brother doesn't work," she 
remarked, "and I dislike the name of a 
mechanic," and she turned up her pret- 
ty nose. 

This was the last time the mechanic 
visited the young woman. He is now a 
wealthy man, and has one of the best of 
women for his wife. The young woman 
who disHked the name of a mechanic is 
now the wife of a miserable tuol — a re- 
gular vagrant about grog-shops — and 
she, poor and miserable girl, is obliged 
to take in washing in order to support her- 
self and children. 

Ye who dislike the name of a mecha- 
nic — whose brothers do nothing but loaf 
and dress — beware how you treat young 
men who work for a living Far better 
discard the well-fed pauper, with all his 
rings, jewelry, brazen-facedncss and 
pomposity, and take to your affections 
the callous-handed, intelligent and in- 
dustrious mechanic. Thousands have 
bitterly regretted their folly, who have 
turned their backs on industry. A few 
years of bitter experience taught them 
a severe lesson. In this country, no 
man or woman in health should be re- 
spected, in our way of thinking, who 
will not work bodily or mentally, and 
who curl their lips with scorn when in- 
troduced to hard working men. — Ex. 



THE FARMER. 

Here is another. It came within our 
own knowledge — is true to the letter. 

Jemima Drake was a beautiful girl. 
Her father was a farmer. His wife was 
a farmer's wife and a good one too — 
loved her husband, was faithful to her 
family, had but one fault, and strange 
was it that she had that one, but it was 
so ; — she alwaj^s felt that it would have 
been a little better to have had a husband, 
as good everyway as hers, who had some 
other employment ; and she cherished a 
hope, seldom uttered, that lier daughters 
would marry well, but would not marry 
farmers. 

Jemima was twenty, with all the glo- 
ries of young, blushing, just developed 
womanhood upon her. There v^&m corar 
shuckings, quiltings, apple parings, and 
all such pleasant things in the neighbor- 
hood. The young folks saw each other 
at church, and sometimes met between 
Sundays. James Darlington loved Je- 
mima. John Davenport and Joseph 
Clark loved her. Jemima loved James, 
and could have loved John and Joseph 
just as well as not. She was a girl to 
love and to be loved. Any young man 
would have been a heartless fellow not 
to have loved her, and any girl, not to 
love James Darlington, would have 
shown a lack of appreciation for the 
good and the true hearted. 

Between these last two there would 
have been a solid, bona fide engagement 
but for the advent in that quiet neigh- 
borhood of Mr. Silk Ribbon, from New- 
York. He talked large, told of brisk 
business, and rejoiced in princely pros- 
pects. Jemima, partly with the hope of 
a big house up-town, and more to please 
her mother, delayed to make engage- 
ments with James, and in less than a 
3^ear married the New- York merchant — 
that was to be. 

We must hasten to the end, for we 
hate a long story. Mr. Silk Ribbon has 
made money, and lost it ; has been up 
and down in the world, and is just now 



MISCELLANEOUS 



248 



down low enough. Twenty years of 
city lifo have added nothing to Jctnima's 
charms. Her life has been one of com- 
parative ease, but of incessant agitation 
by elating hopes and depressing fears ; 
and DOW at the age of forty she has no 
verj'' flattering prospects. 

James Darlington mourned, as who 
would not, that she should prefer an- 
other. But there was Kate Grimes at 
the next house. She was plain, modesf, 
good, a true-hearted girl, of eighteen. 
Her mother was forty, and was hand- 
some. Who could tell but Kate would 
be like her when she should have borne 
the cares of womanhood a few years. 
James Darlington was quite willing to 
take the risk. 



He soothed his sorrows for the loss of 
his first love, and took the second. He 
is not rich. You do not hear him talk 
of millions. But he has provided ad- 
mirably for the comfort and the educa- 
tion of a family as large as a small flock. 
He has been prosperous in what the Silk 
Ribbons would call a small way ; but it 
has been large enough to insure solid 
happiness ; and to-day Kate Darlington, 
among the host of promising boys and 
girls that are grown and growing up in 
the farm-house, looks ten years jounger 
and a great deal happier than Jemima 
Ribbon ; and she has not a single fear, 
when her husband goes out, that ho will 
encounter a dissatisfied creditor. 



i s t £ 1 1 a lu a It J} . 



THE WEATHER 
Appearance of Birds, Flo-wers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N. Y., in Febrcary, 1858. 

By B. Howell. 



Feb. 


TAM.2P.M. 


9 P.M. 






Remarks. 




1 


4 


34 


28 


East. 


Cloudy. 


Snow commeDccd at 5 P. M., and turned to 


rain. 


2 


34 


41 


35 


S.<feN. 


" 


Light rain at intervals all day. 




8 


34 


36 


28 


West 


Fair. 






4 


24 


30 


20 


N. W. 


" 






6 


13 


26 


19 


" 


" 






6 


20 


29 


27 


N.cfeS. 


" 






7 


37 


37 


30 


s&w. 


Cloudy. 






8 


26 


27 


14 


North 


" 


Snow squalls. 




9 


23 


38 


37 


S. E. 


" 


Snow squalls. 




10 


29 • 


26 


12 


West. 


" 


Snow squalls. 




11 


3 


12 


-2 


" 


Fair. 


Light snow squalls. 




12 


10 


25 


6 


S&W. 


" 


Crossing on the ice on the Susquehanna River at 














Fonda. 




13 


1 


22 


17 


S.&N. 


Cloudy. 


Snow commenced in the evening about 
clock. 


1 0'- 


14 


15 


26 


24 


" 


" 


Snow at intervals all day. 




15 


16 


20 


2 


N. W. 


■ " 


Snow squalls all the forenoon. 




16 


20 


20 


7 


<i 


<( 


Snow squalls in the forenoon. 




17 


4 


12 


-3 


" 


" 






18 


7 


18 


1 


" 


" 


Lunar halo at 7 o'clock, P. M. 




19 


4 


12 


17 






Snow commenced about llj A. M., and conl 
all P. M. from N. W. 


iDBed 


20 


15 


30 


21 


" 


" 


Snow continued from yesterday. 




21 


12 


38 


27 


S. E. 


" 


A few flakes of snow in the evening. 




22 


15 


22 


14 


N. W. 


'* 


Suscjuchanna River frozen bo as to cross 
teams a number of places. 


with 


23 


10 


22 


-3 


North 


Fair. 






24 


-13 


31 


22 


S. E. 


" 






25 


20 


37 


28 


S. W. 


Cloudy. 


A few flakes of snow in P. M. 




26 


22 


36 


14 


" 


Fair. 






27 


18 


49 


88 


S. E. 


" 






28 


38 


50 


34 


S.E&S 


Cloudy. 


Light rain commenced at 5 P. M. 





244 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



METEOROLOGICAL. 

chapman's precalculations. 

[-Entered according to Act of Congress, in the 
year L'^56, i(/ L. L. CHAPMAN, in the, Clerk's 
Office ofthe District Court, for the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Dennsj/lvania.'] 

FIRST DEPARTMENT. 

explanatory. 

THE TERM POSITIVE is here given 
to conditions abounding 7nore with nital 
electricity, inspiring more iiealth, vigor, 
cheerfulness, and better feelings for bu- 
siness intercourse, etc., and consequent- 
ly greater success, enjoyment, etc. 

THE TERM NEGATIVE is given to 
those conditions which abound less with 
electricity, and consequently are more 
uv/acorable to health, feelings, business, 
social intercourse, etc. 

IF Indicates Sundays. 

FOURTH MONTH, (April,) 1858. 
Tendency. Time d'cloc'k 

1st, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 noon. 

Positive, from 1 to 12 eve. 
2d, Mixed, from 1 morn to 2 eve. 

Negative, from 2 to 12 eve. 
3d, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
4th, IT Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
5 th, Negative, from 3 morn to 12 eve. 
Gth, Negative, from 1 to 9 morn. 

Positive, from 10 morn to 1 eve. 
Negative, from 2 to 12 eve. 
7th, Negative, from G morn to 2 eve. 

Positive, from 3 to 12 eve. 
8 th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
9th, Positive, from 1 to G morn. 

Negative, from 7 morn to 3 eve. 
Positive, from 4 to 9 eve. 
lOih, Mixed, from 1 to 11 morn. 

Positive, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
1 1th, IT Mixed, from 1 morn to 6 eve. 

Positive, from 7 to 12 eve. 
12tb, Negative, from 6 morn to 12 eve. 
13th, Negative, from 1 morn to 6 eve. 

Positive, from 7 to 12 eve. 
]4th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
15th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
16 th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
17th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
18th, IF Negative, from 4 morn to 5 eve. 

Positive, from G to 12 eve. 
19th, Mixed, from 3 to 7 morn. 

Positive, from 8 morn to 12 eve. 
20th, Negative, from 1 to 9 morn. 

Positive, from 10 morn to 12 eve. 
21st, Negative, from 3 morn to 12 eve. 
22d, Positive, from 1 to 7 morn. 

Negative, from 8 morn to 5 eve. 
Positive, from 6 to 12 morn. 
23d, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 



24th, Mixed, from 1 to 10 morn. 

Positive, from 11 morn to 12 eve. 
25th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 noon. 

Mixed, from 1 to 12 eve. 
26th, Positive, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Mixed, from 4 to 12 eve. 
27th, Negative, from 7 morn tolO eve. 
28th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
29th, Negative, from 4 morn to 3 eve. 

Positive from 4 to 12 eve. 
30th, Positive, from 1 to 6 morn. 

Mixed, from 7 morn to 12 eve. 
SECOND DEPARTMENT. 
The changes ax'e four minutes earlier 
for each degree of longitude (GO miles) 
west. Difference of latitude in the same 
meridian is immaterial. The dry condi- 
tions are fair, and the damp conditions 
cloudy or wet, at least three or four times 
out of five in the average. When fair, 
the damp conditions diffuse a cool, damp 
sensation through the atmosphere. 

Blanks indicate very weak, or mixed, 
or uncertain conditions. 
IF Indicates Sundays. 

FOURTH MONTH, (April,) 1858. 
Time d'clocli. Ray-angle. Tendency. 
1st, At 10 morn R" warm, diy. 

At 11 morn YV cool, damp. 

At 12 noon Y' warm. 

At 6 eve I„ cool, damp. 

At 10 eve . 

2d, At 5 morn V" cool, damp. 

At 6 morn GB- windy. 

At 7 morn Y' warm. 

At 2 eve 

At 3 eve BI" cool, damp, windy. 

At 12 eve GI" cool, damp. 
3d, *At 1 eve .. wind stirring. 

At 3 eve Y, , warm, dry. 

At 6 eve I, cool. 
4th, IF At 8 morn .. warm. 

At 10 morn • 

At 11 morn G,, warm, dry. 

5 th, At 3 morn V, cool. 

At 7 morn R' warm. 
At 12 eve V cool, damp. 

6 th, At 9 morn Y" warm, dry. 

At 1 eve R,, warm. 

At 7 eve I" cool, damp. 
7th, At one morn YO' damp, windy. 

At 5 morn G" warm, dry. 

At G morn V,, cool, damp. 

At 2 eve B" wind stirring. 

At 4 eve 0.. 

At 11 eve Y, warm, dry. 
8th, At 3 eve 0, 

At 8 eve G, warm, dry. 

At 12 eve Y,, warm, drj'-. 
9th, At G morn B, wind stirring. 



d 



MISCELLANEOUS 



24/ 



At 3 eve V,, cool, damp. 
At 9 eve G,, wai-m, dry. 
10th, At 6 morn Y' warm. 

At 8 morn B,, wind stirring. 
At 10 morn R, warm, dry. 
At 11 morn I' cool, damp. 
At 12 eve V, cool. 
11th, If At 8 morn R,, warm, dry. 
At 12 noon I„ cool, damp. 
At 6 eve Yl" cool, damp, ^vind3^ 
At 9 eve V,, cool. 
12th, At G morn 0,, damp. 
At 11 morn R' warm. 
13th, At 8 eve I" cool, damp. 
At 6 eve Y- warm. 
At 10 eve 0, damp. 
14th, At 2 eve G- warm, dry. 

At 9 eve I, cool. 
15th, At 3 morn B- wind stin'ing. 
At 2 eve R- warm, dry. 
At 4 eve I,, cool, damp. 
16th, At 1 morn Y- cool. 

At 9 morn 0" 

At 8 eve •• warm. 
17th, At 10 eve G' warm. 
18th, If At 3 morn Y,, warm, dry. 

At 5 eve R' warm. 
19th, At 2 morn G,, warm, dry. 

At 7 morn 0' 

At 6 eve R,, warm, dry. 
At 8 eve I- cool, damp. 
At 12 eve G, warm, dry. 
At 7 morn, end of the zodiacal pe- 
riod, or natural month, 
20th, At 9 morn Y" warm, dry. 

At 12 noon 0„ 

At 5 eve R, warm. 
21st, At 2 morn V, cool. 

At 10 morn G" warm, dry. 
At 12 eve R ' warm. 
22d, At 7 morn RI„ cool. 

At 10 morn V" cool, damp. 

At 5 eve 0" 

At 7 eve Y,, warm, dry. 
23d, At 1 morn BT,, cool, damp, windy. 
At 11 morn BR- warm, windy. 
At 10 eve G„ warm, dry. 
24th, At 7 morn I,, cool, damp. 
At 8 morn R,, warm, dry. 

At 10 morn • 

At (5 eve V,, cool, damp. 
At 7 eve Y, warm, dry. 

At 11 eveO,, 

25th, 1 At 12 nnon .. wind stirring. 
At 10 eve V cool. 
At 1 1 eve G, warm. 
26th, At 6 morn R, warm. 
At 4 eve V, cool. 
At 5 eve I" cool, damp. 

27th, At 7 morn . 

At 10 eve Y" warm, dry. 



28th, At 2 morn GI,, cool, damp. 
29th, At 3 morn GR- warm. 

At 4 morn I,, cool. 

At 6 morn R" warm. 

At 7 morn B" windy. 

At 11 morn •• warm. 

At 3 eve V" cool, damp. 

At 7 eve 

30th, At 5 morn RV,, cool, windy. 

At 6 morn GB- windy. 

At 10 morn I' cool, damp. 

GENERAL RE.MARKS. 

Cool Periods, longer and more promi- 
nent, are more liable near the 1st, 11th. 

Greater tendency to windy, cloudy or 
stormv periods, or gusts, near the 1st 
or 2d,>th, 11th, 23d. 

Periods more prominently negative 
near the 1st, 2d, 7th to 11th. 

Periods of greater electrical deficiency, 
1st to 20th. 

The natural zodiacal tendency to dry 
during the month is liable to be much 
superceded by the nature of the com- 
bined currents, intercepted, so much so, 
perhaps, as to give a more than usual 
tendency to damp. 

GENERAL BEAEINGS. 

The prevailing electrical tendency 
from the 1st to the 20th is negative, 
bearing less favorably upon health, bu- 
siness and social feelings. I fear not on- 
l}'' unusual prevalence of sickness and of 
spreading disease in epidemic forms, but 
from the unusual deficiency in electrical 
supplies fi-om the 3d to the 20th, I judge 
that the cholera will be developed to a 
greater or less extent in some places dur- 
ing some part of that interval, if the pe- 
culiar tendencies of the spring season do 
not counteract. The bearing of the last 
week of April is more positive. 

I judge that the progress of vegetation 
will be slow during that interval, and 
fear that that which is more early will 
receive a check fi'om the cool change in- 
dicated near the 11th insr. 

COINCIDENCES. 

From Feb. Ixt to 28?7<.— Since the 1st 
of January, I replied to many inquiries 
that the natural causes which usually 
produce the coldest weather in winter 
would operate 7iear tlm lith o/Fehrvary, 
which was the date given in the above 
interval. The coincidence with this 
date, and with the indications given on 
the 9th eve, 14th morn, and 10th eve 
fully corroborate the precalculation. The 
cool change on the 2Gth, eve, was slight. 



246 



E D I T O R'S TABLE 



itor'ji SfaBIi^. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE FARMERS' 
CLUB. 

At a meeting held at the Society's 
rooms in Broadway, March 16th, Presi- 
dent Pell in the chair, several important 
and interesting papers were read by 
Secretary Meigs. 

One was on Steam Cultivators, from 
which it appears that the Royal Agiicul- 
tural Society of England have, after a 
trial by four competitors, recently award- 
ed their premium of 500 sovereigns 
($2,500) to Mr. Fowler's machine, though 
not as perfect as they could have desired. 
(Yankee ingenuity will yd do what 
British genius has not accomplished — 
make steam plowing cheaper than plow- 
ing by animal power. — Ed.) Judge 
Meigs expressed the belief that steam 
plowing will succeed on large, unbroken 
extents of arable land. (Most assuredly 
it v.'ill, but nowhere else. — Ed.) He 
said, " we can not be successful farmers 
if we discard the working ox. We can 
never dispense with oxen and cows." 

A discussion took place in the pro- 
gress of the meeting on the Long Island 
lands, particularly the central regions, 
embracing from one to two hundred 
thousand acres, known in common par- 
lance, though wrongfully, as the harrerm. 
These lands are wholly uncultivated. 
Various opinions were expressed con- 
cerning them. We find ourself repre- 
sented in some of the daily papers as 
having said that " these lands would not 
pay for cultivation except on the old 
skinning process of surface tillage." 
We warn our readers that we said no 
such thing, and we hope the reporter, 
who represented us as saying it, will hit 
nearer the truth next time. What we 
did say was, that to subdue these lands, 
to bring them to a high state of product- 
iveness, to erect buildings and make 
fences, where there is no timber but 
stunted pines and scrub oaks, to procure 



water, where none exists but far below 
the surface, and to create an inviting 
homestead, would require capital ; that 
it would be a good employment of capi- 
tal, and would pay well in the end ; but 
that the poor man could not undertake 
it, because he could not get a sufficiently 
speedy return fur his labor. This we 
said, and nothing more, and this we are 
willing to stand by. 

Solon Robinson, Esq., of the New- 
York Tribune, read an exquisitely 
amusing and a ready instructive paper 
on the grindstone, as an index to agri- 
cultural progress and of advancing civil- 
ization. Our readers will have seen it 
in the Tribune before this reaches them, 
or we would* publish it entire, that they 
might have before them a short w;iy of 
ascertaining whether a man is progress- 
ing or retrograding in the world, viz., to 
look at his gi indstone, for if that is right, 
everything else is, and the man is 
going ahead. (Wonder if anybody has 
lately made a large importation of the 
article.) 

Dr. Wellington read a long and ex- 
ceedingly valuable paper on Agricultu- 
ral Education, the substance of which 
will be found in many of the daily, and 
we presume of the weekly papers. 

Hkdges and Evergreens ; A complete 
manual for the cultivation, pruning, and 
management of all plants suitable to Am- 
erican Iledjiing, especially the Madura 
or Osage Orange ; Fully illustrated with 
engravings of plants, implements, and 
processes ; To whi<-h is added a treatise 
on Evergreens, their different varieties, 
their propagation, transplanting, and 
culture in the United States. By John 
A. Warder, Editor of the Western Hor- 
ticultural EevieiD, President of the Cin- 
cinnati Horticultural Society, etc. New- 
York : A. 0. Moore, Agricultural Book 
Publisher, 140 Fulton street. , 1858. 

In his Preface, the writer of this book 
says: "The subject is one of immense 
importance to the future of this country, 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



247 



inasmuch as it is an efficient aim of the 
great agricultural interest. The people 
of these United States have settled the 
quo-tion of distinct inclosures, whether 
wisely or unwisely, in the ailinnative. 
Fences of some kind being one of the re- 
cognized institutions of the countr}', and 
the miijoiity of our best farms being 
destitute of rock for walls, and being ra- 
pidly divested of timber for wooden 
fences, foreign materials, whether of 
boards or iron, present themselves as 
candidates for public favor ; and I here 
beg to oiler that agreeable alternative — 
the useful, the economical, the practical, 
and at the same time, ornamental, Live 
Fence or Hedge." 

We fully agree with Mr. Warder in 
the importance of his subject, and as we 
believe he has treated it with ability and 
fairness, we commend his work to all 
wishing to be informed, with regard to 
tlie increasingly interesting and impor- 
tant subject of live fences, as a substi- 
tute for others, for which materials are 
already becoming scarce. If the same 
or a little more ground than is required 
for other fences to stand upon, or as too 
often happens, to lie down upon, can be 
made to grow a live fence perpetually, it 
is worth considering. 

Fifth Eeport of the Children's Aid 
Society; New-York, 1858. John L. 
Mason, Esq., is President of this society ; 
J. E. Williams, Esq., Treasurer ; and C. 
L. Brace, Secretary. It would appear 
from this interesting and able report, as 
well as from facts that have come to our 
knowledge from other sources, that the 
Children's Aid Society is doing, and do- 
ing efhcioatly and economically, a great 
and good work, in alleviating distress, 
in preventing crime, and in promoting 
industry. We believe that Secretary 
Brace and his co.idjutors are eminently 
worthy of the public confidence. May 
God anj man speed their work. 

Belding^s North Western Eeview, Vol. 
1, No. 9, is on our table. This is a good 
number, and we sec it contains a valua- 



ble agricultural department. It is pub- 
lished at Keokuk, Lee Co., Iowa. Suc- 
cess to it. Its editor shows the right 
spirit in the matter of agricultural im- 
provements, and we wish he may go 
ahead and prosper. Farmers of Lee 
county, sustain your own paper first, 
and then wc will send you ours, if you 
want another ; but we never yet asked 
a farmer to neglect his own State paper 
and take ours, and we never will. 

The Farmer and Fluntcr, Vol. 9, No. 
3, is an excellent number, as all the 
numbers of that work arc. To the S. C. 
planters, we cheerfully admit that their 
own editor can tell them many things 
about southern agriculture better than 
we, and we say to them the same as to 
Iowa farmers above — support your own 
journal first, and then ours if you can 
aflbrd it. 

Monthly Bulletin oi ih<iTJD.\iG(\. States 
Agricultural Society, Washington, Vol. 
1, No. 1. This is a neat work of 8 
pages, 8vo., and the present number 
contains an interesting, and we have no 
doubt, a far more correct report of the 
late proceedings of the U. S. Ag. Soc.,- 
than usually gets into the daily papers. 
Such a journal, whether to be issued oc- 
casionally or statedly, will not fail to be 
useful. 

The Bepository ; Devoted to the cause 
of Truth, Virtue, and General Intelli- 
gence. Vol. 1., No. 1. ; New-London, 
Conn. ; by W. H. Starr & Co. This is 
a small sheet, but bright and readable, 
and filled with valuable matter ; to be is- 
sued weekly at $1 a year. 

A VALUED correspondent, who com- 
mends our work more highly than we 
should dare, criticises us on one point 
in thiswise: "What have such narra- 
tions as the ' Ilermitess of South Salem ' 
to do with agriculture ?" Ah ! fi iend, 
not much, we confess. But then, after 
giving forty pages of agiiculture and 
horticulture, we must have a little 
change for variety's sake ; and a well 
written Uile, founded on facts, and illus- 



248 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



trating the early history of the country, 
and bringing us into communion with 
our forefathers, will please the boys and 
girls — will do them good — will benefit 
us all. Just look at it in that light and 
be liberal. That you will, friend, we 
have not one doubt, for we see that you 
are inclined to be generous. 

S. II., on the corn crop, and the va- 
rieties for different localities, shall ap- 
pear in our next. 

W. H. G., on The Culture of the 
Mind, (a good subject, and well treated 
in a short space,) shall also appear in 
our next. 

To T. T. r.— You ask us to "give the 
best, most simple, and sure way for 
farmers to make their own superphos- 
phate of lime." We can not in this 
number. Will endeavor to do so soon. 

To D. L. — Is the money expended in 
the importation of seeds, by the Patent 
Office Agricultural Department, misap- 
plied ? We fear it is, much of it ; and 
yet we feel that the gentleman who pre- 
sides over that department, has a diffi- 
cult task to perform. The trial of new 
plants for our climate is undoubtedly 
important ; and we rejoice that some- 
thing is being done by Congress to aid 
in the necessary experiments ; but 
could wish that the business could be so 
managed tlirougii the Patent Office as 
to encourage and not to discourage home 
industry. More we are not prepared to 
say at present. 

To THE Peess. — We are about to cor- 
rect our exchange hst, and to reduce it 
somewhat. In doing so, it is more than 
possible tliat we shall cut off some who 
are fully entitled to our magazine. 
Should any find themselves dropped, to 
whom we owe the work, by any former 
contract, either expressed or implied, 
we beg they will inform us at once, 
as we will shrink from no real obli- 
gation, while at the same time we 
wish to diminish that class of exchanges 
which is merely a matter of courtesy, 



with little benefit to us and perhaps 
none to the other party, owing to the 
diversity of objects pursued by the jour- 
nals exchanged. 

What's there ? On having occasion 
to cross Park Square, hard by our office, 
since writing our last item, we were sur- 
prised to observe about thirty big sheep 
standing and lying at ease, chewing the 
cud, and seeming wholly untroubled as 
to the object which may have brought 
them to town. On inquiry we learned 
that they are the property of Samuel and 
John Ferran & Co., and were here for 
exhibition to the passers-by, perhaps to 
sharpen public appetite for mutton chops 
and the like. They were grown by Mr. 
Hugh, of or near Clinton, N. J. Their 
live weight, we were told, averages 250 
lbs. Four are a cross of the Bakewell 
on the Merino. These were as large as 
any others. The rest were Bakewells. 
The wool of the four cross breeds is of a 
fair quality, that of the others long and 
coarse. The average of the fleeces can 
not be much less than 10 lbs. Our re- 
flection is, that sheep of from 200 to 300 
lbs. weight, with wool fine enough, in 
some cases, to make our bed blankets of, 
and from that to the quality fit for our 
coats, ought to be more common among 
us than they are. No meat is healthier. 
Some, at least, ai'e fond of it, Many 
hke it for a change. The growing of it 
is not very expensive, and, with a mod- 
erate return for the wool, could hardly 
fail to pay, and yet a good-sized, well- 
fattened sheep is rather a marvel in this 
good city of New-York. 

An Old Subscrieer, who sends us two 
new names, with the money, one of them 
the name of his pastor, to whom he gives 
the work as a token of good will, says: 

" I wish I could do more to circulate 
your magazine. I am well acquainted 
with several of our best agricultural pub- 
lications, and I I'noio that yours is se- 
cond to no other. It only needs to be 
known to procure for itself a wide cir- 
culation. It has greatly improved since 



E D I T O R'S TABLE. 



249 



it came into your hands. I like the dis- 
crimination you exercise when giving 
advice to farmers. The article on deep 
plowing illustrates my meaning. That 
article respecting the cleanliness and ven- 
tilation of cellars would save much sick- 
ne^^s if heeded as it ought to be. The 
Cattle of New-England is a very valuable 
essay. Is not the weight given on page 
144 too large for any cattle raised in 
New-England or elsewhere ?" 

Answer. — Few men who wiilc with 
spirit and force enough to be read, fail 
of making some rather extravagant state- 
ments ; and the New-England Cattle 
man certainly deserves much credit for 
his research. Few, if any, could have 
furnished the valuable historical matter 
that he has, and the view he has taken 
of the origin and crossing of the cattle 
of this country by early importation is 
one of great interest. The men that 
came to this country were not the worst 
in Old England ; and our friend thinks 
the cattle were the best, and are still. 
Our pages are open for temperate arti- 
cles on the other side, and for more on 
this. Our own article on breeds of cat- 
tle must be again deferred, as we do not 
like to have too much of one thing in 
the same number. 

Of course our readers can do as they 
like about believing the story in this 
number, from some down-east paper, of 
the 5,800 lb. bull in Maine. To us it 
sounds amazingly large, and we should 
think it might be set down for a whop- 
per. 

We invite attention to the advertise- 
ment of J. A. Wagner. We have not 
seen his harvester in operation, but it 
appears like a very perfect maclunc, and 
we should think that it would work 
well. A sample is to be seen at the 
Globe Iron Works in this cit3^ Many 
who have seen it have, to our know- 
ledge, expressed the highest confidence 
in its success ; and we understand that 
it has a diploma and two medals at difler- 
ent exhibitions of the Amerifan Institute, 
also a diploma and a medal from the 
committee of the World's Fair in New- 



York, and higher testimonials than were 
given to any competing machme. 

The Granada (Miss.) Hepvblican, we 
see, has enlarged its Agricultural depart- 
ment, under "the head of "Rural Gen- 
tleman." Its motto is " Too much 
study can not be bestowed upon agri- 
culture" — a good one, and the spirit is 
well be carried out. 

In speaking of BaTcer's Rotary Plan- 
ing Machine, in a former number, we 
said that the price was from $25 to 
$7.50, according to size. This is be- 
yond question a valuable machine, and 
it seems to us very cheap, but we did 
not mean to soy that it could be had for 
$7.50. A comma did the mischief in 
part, and a in part. It should have 
been $25 to $75.— Ed. 

new-york live stock market, 
etc;. 

WEEK ENDING ILtVRCII 16, 1858. 

Average number of beef cattle received 
weekly, 3,143. Number received last 
week, 2,572. Number this week, 2,100, or 
1,043 less than the general average. 

Prices from lOic. for premium cattle, to 
61} for poorest quality. General selling 
prices from 8c. to 9^c. Average of all 
sales from 8i to S^c, nearly half a cent 
less than last week. 

Of Mitch Cows ivith Calves, not a large 
number was received. Sales of poor from 
$25 to $30 : of good, from $30 to §40, of 
extra, of which there were but few, from 
$40 to $50. 

Calces weighing 100 lbs. net sold as low 
as $3. Some that were uncommonly line, 
sold as high as 7c. per lb. Shirket bad. 

The demand for live sheep was very 
limited. Carcases and hind saddles arriv- 
ed in large quantities from Albany and 
Philadelphia, tlie former selling at 7e. the 
lb. Sheep brought to this market usually 
dress just about half the live weight. 
Those that are fat and small boned give as 
high as 55 lbs. to the 100, and in rare 
cases CO lbs. 

Sicine. — Arrivals large, markets abun- 
dantly supplied. Prices from 5^c. net, for 
the poorest, to 7^c. for the best. 

Potatoes, according to quality, from 
§2.50 to $5 per bbl. ; Onions, $1.75 to $2.50 ; 
Beets, $1.75 to $2 ; Carrots, $2 to $2.25 ; 
Parsnips, $1.50 to $1.75 ; Cranberries, $1 1 
to $14; Apples, $3 to 5 ; Turnips, 62c. to 
75c. 

Tobacco, demand rather improving. 
Kentucky and Maysville, per lb., 8i to 14e. ; 
llorida, 15c. to 25c. 

Cotton on the rise. 



250 



CHILDREN'S CORNER 





,ii0M 



;l 







CHILDREN'S CORNER. 

Well, children, these little cuts have a meaning. The first, 
or fruit cut, means that now is the time to tease your papas 
to look out before hand, and see that they and your mamas 
and you have just such fruits in the fall, and you may tell them 
that if they cultivate a little more than is wanted at home, no 
matter ; they can sell it, in all probabilily, and if not they can 
give it away ; and there are always enough who like to 
be treated to choice fruit.^ ; nd then, haven't every one of you 
a friend to whom you would like to make a present of fruit, if 
3'our fathers should make a mistake, and raise too much ? 

The second, or bird-nesting cut, signifies that children may 
observe the habits of birds and insects as closely as they 
please, the closer the better, for there is a great deal to be 
] arned from animate nature, but that 
they should not wrong the birds by 
breaking up their nests. If your parents 
approve you may take a single egg of 
each kind of bird, and blow it, and then 
varnish the shell and keep it in y our«abi- 
net, though we should rather you would 
not take even one. But of all things do 
not destroy the nest. It is too bad. 
We have seen pretty good boys do it 
sometimes, but it wasooly because they 
had not been properly instructed. A 
boy who would break up a bird's nest, 
after his mind had been led to think of 
it as he should by the teachings of a kind- 
hearted father or mother, or teacher, 
we should be afraid, would do worse 
things when he grows up. We hope 
our boy and girl readers will never be 
cruel to any living thing. There is a 
meatjing also in these two cuts coming 
together. They signify that if you de^ 
stroy the birds, the insects will destroy the fruit. There is not the least doubt 







BUSINESS DIRECTOBY, TER]\IS, ETC. 



251 



but that God designed that the birds 
should hve on insci^t'J, and by devouring 
them in great numbers, they prevent 
their increasing to such an extent as to 
destroy the fruits. 

The third cut represents E;.;yptian 
wheat, spoken of as corn in the Bible. 
If you will turn to the place where the 
fat and lean kine are spoken of, you will 
find something said about seven ears 
growing on one stalk. It was not 
Indian corn, but just such wheat as you 
see above. Wheat in England is called 
corn, and the great E.xchangc in L'mdon, 
in Mark Lane, where immense quantities 
of wheat are bought and sold, is called 
the Corn Exchange. If it rains in that 
country when tha wheat is ripe for har- 
vesting, you will hear the farmers say, 
" This will be bad for the corn." To an 



American there it sounds oddly enough, 
as he knows that the climate in that 
country is too cool and damp to raise 
the least of what we call corn. 

If any one of the children will send 
us a description of the tread fruit, what 
climate it grows in, its use as food, whe- 
ther to be cooked, if so how, &c., we will 
illustrate the bread fruit in our next by 
an engraving, showing it as it appears 
when growing on the tree. 

By the way, we should like it, if the 
children would, once in a while, review 
the less )ns we gave them in back num- 
bers, say in October, November and De- 
cember last. 

Those compositions that we spoke of 
once, send them on ; we will read them 
with real pleasure, and if any one is first 
rate we will publish it in the children's 
corner. 



BUSINESS DIRECTORY, TEEMS, ETC. 



THE AMERICAN FARilEIlS" MAGA- 
ZINE is the result of an earriest dojire, on 
the part of its Editor, to furnish a journal 

of AGRICULTURE, AND OTHER BRAXCllKS OF RU- 
RAL ECONOMY, of an elevated character, na- 
tionalin its sph-it, entcrtaiuing, j«s<rMC<M'e, 
and reliable, at a price somewhat lower 
than the wealthy and liberal farmer would 
demand, and such as to bring it fairly 
within the means of all intelligent family 
circles. 

Its success hitherto confirms our belief 
that it is what the farmers of this country 
want, and encourages us to renewed efforts 
■ to extend its circulation. The price is $2 
a year to single subscribers; $1.50 to clubs 
of from four to nine; $1 25 to clubs of 

from ten to twenty; AND $1 TO 
CLUBS OF TWENTY AHD UP- 
WARDS. 

Clergymen, of all denominations, who 
cultivate a piece of land, and post-masters, 
who are also farmers, and desire the work 
for themselves, are invited to order this 
work at the lowest club price, $1, pay- 
ment as in all other cases to be in advance. 

Individitala so situated that tliey can not 
well club with others, yet desiring to econ- 
omize, shall receive the work seven months 



for r$l ; fifteen months for 2 ; and two 
years for $3. 

Any person is hereby authorized to be- 
come an agent for the work on the follow- 
ing conditions ; — he may receive subscrip- 
tions at the foregoing rates ; send us $1, 
current money, for each subscriber, with 
the name and post-office address plainly 
written, reserving the balance as compen- 
sation ; and on receipt of the same, we will 
send tlie work one year, addressed to each 
subscriber. 

It will be seen by the above that we 
have put it in the power of nearly all who 
desire it, to get this work for $1 ; and yet 
those who are at all aware of the expense 
of publication, must perceive that it can 
not be afforded at that, but with a very 
large circulation, and hardly then. 

Able farmers, therefore, who appreciate 
our object, which they can not but regard 
as a generous one, will do us the favor to 
advance according to our programme of 
prices, and to fiivor the circulation of the 
work in their neighborhood. 

Money may be sent at our risk if enclos- 
ed with suitable precautions. 
Address J. A. MASH, 

7 Beokman St., N. Y. 



252 



ADVERTISEMEXTS 



^iberttsemeiits 




p. MAKKY'S PATEMT ADJUSTABLE SELF-IlAKmG EEAPEE AND 
MOWEH COMBINED. 

Manufactured by Manny & Co., Freeport, III. 
Being three maeliines in one, simply adjusted and perfectly adapted to either pur" 
pose. These are important features not to be found in any other machine, and need 
only to be seen to be appreciated. 



THE VERY BEST 

Agricultural Paper in New-England • 

THE NEW-ENSLAND FARMER is now gener- 
ally acknowledged to be si>perior to any othei' pub- 
lication of its class in the New-England States, and 
equal in mer't to any in the country. Its circula- 
tion is unequalled by that of any other agricultural 
paper in New-England. 

It is published weekly, on fine paper, and ha? just 
been put upon new type throughout. Ic is ably ed- 
ited by Simon Brown, a thorough and practical 
farmer, and has 'he best corps of intelligent corre- 
spondents that can be found in New-England. 
Among these are Hon. Henry F. French, of New- 
Hampshire, Hon. F. Holbrook, of Vermont, Wilson 
Flagg, author of " Studies in the Field and Forest," 
&c., &c. 

Besides the agricultural matter, the Farmer con- 
tains a complete digest of the news of the day, a 
condensed report of the markets, a birge varie'y of 
interesting and instructive miscellaneous readin?, 
and everything that can make it a welcome weekly 
visitant at the fireside of every farmer in the land. 
Also published at the came oflice, 

NEW-ENGLAND FARMER, MONTHLY. 

This is a pamphlet containing 48 pages in each 
number, printed on fine book paper, beautifully il- 
lustrated, and devoted entirely to subjects connect- 
ed with the farm. 

Terms. — New-England Farmer, Weekly, ,$2 a year. 
New-England Farmer, Monthly, $1 a year. 

No Club Prices, and no discount in any case, as 
our rule is to serve all alike. Send for a s-pecimen 
copy, and judge of the merits of our publications 
for yourself. 

JOEL NOURSE, 

Publisher New-England Farmer, 

Mar. 3t* No. 13 Commercial St., Boston. 



Fish Guano.— $35 Per Ton. 



The attention of Farmers and others is called to 
the PISH GUANO manufactured by the Lnng Is- 
land Fish Guano and Oil Works, at South old Long 
Island. I', is compced of the Bones and FUs7i of 
Fish, after extracting the oil and water, and has 
been thoroughly tested in England «nd France, and 
from testimonials received, is foun^ to be equnl to 
Peruvian Guano and other manures; is free from 
smell and not injurious to health. Price in bags, 
$3 ■> per ton. Pamphlets contain'ng full particutara 
and testimonials ma.y be had on applica'ion to 
BRUNDRED cfe ROGERS, 

Mar. ly. tiO Pine street, N. Y. 



Illustrated Eook of Pears. 



JnsT published an-l for sale by A. O. MOORE, No. 
1-10 Fulton St., N. Y., and STARR <£• CO., 4 Main St., 
New-London, Conn., the above valuable work, con- 
taining plain, oractical directions for Planting. Bud- 
ding, Grafting, Pruning. Training, and DwarBng the 
Pear-Tree ; also in'tructions relating to the Propa- 
gation of new varieties. Gathering, Preserving, and 
Ripening the fruit; together with valuable hints in 
regard to the Locality, Soil, and Manures required 
for, and best arrangement of the Trees in an Or- 
chard, both on the Pear and Quince stocks, and a 
List of the most valuable varieties for Dw-irf or 
Standard Culture, accurately described and truth- 
fully delineated by numerous beautifully colored 
engravings. 

The above work, beautifully iiluHrated, should 
have a place in every family where a taste for good 
fruit prevails in all its choice varieties. 

Orders pio;«vvily executed. Dec. tf. 




AMEmCM FABMERS^ MaCAZmE. 



Vol. XII. 



MAY. 1858. 



No. 5. 



|i I] li f II 1 1 u r a i . 



HINTS FOR YOUNG FARMERS 
AND OTHERS. 

May, glorious May, the best month, 
we suppose, in all the year at the South, 
and certainly the best in the North, ex- 
cept its successor, more glorious Jime, 
has at last come. We have waited 
for it through a winter as long as usual, 
though not as cold, and are glad to see 
it here with its flowers and its promises 
of fruits, its mild breezes and its charm- 
ing sunshine. 

We need not exhort the farmer to turn 
out and breathe its exhilai'ating influ- 
ences without a wall, or a pane of glass 
even, between him and the wonderful, 
elevating, gratitude-begetting works of 
his Creator. He is out before us, out of 
necessity, out by a blessed privilege of 
his calling. Let him not forget that he 
ought to be the happiest and best of all ; 
and that if he ever envies others of dif- 
ferent calling.*:, it is only because he has 
not the experience of their trials. 

If the wives and daughters of the farm 
homes will accept a homely hint at our 
hands, we will say to them, what we 
need not say to their husbands and sons ; 
— be out, breathe the May airs, strength- 
en your physical nature, and elevate 
VOL. xu. 17 



your spiritual by a free communion with 
nature. Know what the "men folks" 
are doing, and take an interest in it. 
Nature is beautiful, lovely, exquisite. 
But left to herself she is wild, erratic, ex- 
travagant, little inclined to the useful. 
It is the business of your other halves — 
whether better halves or worse, we can 
not now inquire — to train and direct her 
powers to the practically useful — to 
make her grow sweet roses, sustaining 
food and luscious fruits, where if left to 
herself she would produce only tangled 
underbrush and fruitless trees. What 
an avocation is his ! Can women be 
indifierent to it ? Slanderous thought ! 
We put it behind us. 

But American women have not yet 
sufiiciently informed and instructed 
themselves in the affairs of the fiirm 
Earnestly but kindly we say to you, let 
it not be so always. Give yourselves 
the great benefit of a little more out- 
door exercise, and your husbands the 
benefit of feeling that you sympathize 
with them in their labors, and rejoice 
with them in their successes. You 
know that farm work should be done 
well and handsomely. There is a right 
way for doing any thing, and there are 



AGRICULTURAL. 



a great many wrong ways. Good sense 
and sound judgment are the traits in 
which farmers are apt to excel. An eye 
to the beautiful in laying off lands and 
finishing up jobs, can add to the pleasure 
of their labors without subtracting at all 
from the profit. If your husbands found 
you admiring some of their doings, but 
dubious about others — about twice as 
ready^to see and admire what is pi-etty 
and nice in your eyes as to find fault 
with what is otherwise — it would really 
do a them deal of good. 

Woman's taste should have something 
to do with the landscape her husband is 
creating. It is common property for 
both to look upon. Man's strong ten- 
dencies towards the useful, cooperating 
with woman's keen perception of the 
beautiful, could hardly fail to arrive at 
good and pleasant results. In the loca- 
tion of buildings, in the general appear- 
ance of the homestead, in the manage- 
ment of the garden, on the question whe- 
ther the highway through the farm, with 
the exception of the drive, shall be a neat 
and tidy lawn, or an "omnium gather- 
um" of all that is foul and ugly, and on 
various other points of common interest 
to the whole household, woman's taste 
should be consulted, and should not 
shirk the responsibility of expressing its 
choices. Aye, many an unseemly spot 
would assume new beauty and fertility 
if the " women folks" oftener manifested 
a modest wish about the out-door mat- 
ters. 

But we turn to the lords of the soil. 
Is your garden made ? We hope so ; 
and we hope you have it neatly laid out, 
and tastefully fenced, with walks here 
and there as convenience requires, and 
the small fruits, such as gooseberries 
and currants, and such early vegetables 
as radishes, lettuce and the like up and 
growing. 

And then the manure, unless you 
have reserved some for composting 
for the corn hills, should all have been 
out before this time, mingling with the 



soil, and working its effects for the com- 
ing season. Everything that can add 
fertility, should be removed from the 
possibility of vitiating the air to be 
breathed through a long summer by the 
household. The farmer can not afford 
that his family should breathe bad air, 
because he wants for his fields all that 
produces it, whether in cellar or garret, 
in chip-yard or barn-yard, in vault, sty 
or stall. For field's sake and health's 
sake, let the premises be immaculate 
now ; let the very sod be ckan ; and let 
the grass be growing, with nothing to 
impede. If we could have a green sod 
about us here in the city, what volumes 
of ammonia and other poisonous gases 
would the growing grass absorb, to make 
it green instead of making us pale by in- 
haling it ! Don't forget to remove every 
particle of decaying vegetable matter 
from the cellar. In February we told 
you that more than half of the fevers 
that sometimes afflict families in regions 
generally healthy, come from the cellar. 
Eminent physicians have since told us — 
some have even taken the trouble to write 
us — that we were true to the letter ; and 
that if we could only persuade all to 
ventilate their cellars by windows open- 
ing on opposite sides, and to keep them 
well cleaned, we should save thousands 
of lives. 

But to the fields. We spoke largely 
of the potato crop in our last, and in 
terms which we believe commended 
themselves to thoroughly observant 
farmers. A curious narrative has since 
been given us, about a remarkably fine 
crop from remarkably bad seed. The 
man relating it had a suitable piece of 
ground well prepared for planting. But 
lo ! a faithless servant had stolen and 
sold his seed potatoes. He applied to a 
grocer near by for ten bushels, but was 
inf )rmed that he had none except refuse 
potatoes — very small, such as had been 
thrown out as he had served his cus- 
tomers. Enraged at the loss of the seed 
he had selected the fail before with much 



AGRICULTURAL 



259 



care, and in haste to finish his planting, 
he put in the grocer's small refuse pota- 
toes, cultivated well, and had an uncom- 
monly fine crop. "We have not one 
doubt of the truth of the statement, be- 
cause we have seen just such cases be- 
fore, and because we know the man and 
can rely upon his word. It is a fact be- 
yond all doubt, that remarkably fine 
crops have been obtained from very un- 
promising seed. Still, if there is no im- 
perative reason for using such seed, if 
medium sized potatoes, sound and 
healthy, can be obtained at no very ex- 
horbitant price, and planted whole, one 
to the hill, that is the safest way. Po- 
tatoes are not an exception to the general 
rule that good seed is more likely to 
produce a good crop than bad. 

Indian corn is a more important crop 
than potatoes. To American agricul- 
ture it is of more value than any other. 
The crops of this grain have varied in 
past years from less than one to more 
than a hundred bushels, shelled corn, to 
the acre ; and modes of culture have 
been practiced which might be expected 
beforehand to thus vary the results. 
The smallest crops, of course, have not 
paid for the cultivation ; and probably 
the largest have not in every case given 
the greatest net profit. A question 
arises here ; — what is the amount we 
should seek to obtain per acre ? Some 
would say, the largest amount possible. 
We like to see a monster crop of corn ; 
and if any farmer could show 150 bush- 
els of shelled corn from a single acre in 
one year, we would go far to see it, and 
we should be willing that he should re- 
ceive a big premium from the agricul- 
tural society, although it may have cost 
him more than it is worth, because we 
believe there is a benefit in testing the 
utmost power of manure and soils to 
produce. But we certainly could not 
wish that the bone ai»d sinew of the 
country should be exhausted in growing 
crops, worth less, however large, than 
their cost. 



The true answer to the foregoing ques- 
tion, we suppose to be, that we should 
never aim at a small crop, and not al- 
ways at the largest possible, but to such 
as can be cultivated with the greatest 
profit on the quality of land we have to 
cultivate. If the land be of the highest 
capability, and near a city, whence ma- 
nure can be brought cheaply, if cultivatr 
ed with corn (other crops in that case 
would be more profitable) nothing less 
than a hundred bushels, shelled corn, to 
the acre should be thought of If, on 
the other hand, the soil be light, of small 
capabilities, far firom market, where no 
manure can be bought, and none except 
the portable can be transported, twenty- 
five bushels to the acre might be doing 
well. If this could be obtained by the 
use of 300 lbs. of guano, or a like weight 
of superphosphate, and but Uttle labor, 
you may take out interest on the value of 
the land, the price of the guano and la- 
bor, taxes and something for fencing, 
and have a profit left. 

Taking into consideration the qualitj- 
of the land, its value, its location, the 
ease or difiiculty of procuring manure, 
and the market facilities, we believe that 
no man ought to plant an acre of corn 
with the view to getting less than twen- 
ty-five bushels; and thut, Jbr the sake 
of ]}roJit, no one should aim at more 
than a hundred. In farming fur a pre- 
mium, or for fame and notoriety, we 
may aim only at the maximum crop. 
But farmers who expect to live by their 
business, will look for the maximum 
profit, and that very wisely as we think. 
Each will inquire what is the most pro- 
fitable amount to grow on his land ; and 
the answer will vary — 25, 33, 50, 75. 
100 l)ushels to the acre. The first is 
200 fold on the seed necessary ; the se- 
cond, 2G4 fold ; the third, 400 fold; the 
fourth, 600 fold ; and the last, 800 fold- 
so many bushels gathered for one plant- 
ed. We have dwelt on the matter nf 
maximuni profit, because we believe it 
is one whicli every farmer should study 
with reference to his own land. 



260 



AGRICULTURAL, 



The way to do it. On thin, light, plain 
land, (not so near a large city that it 
ought, at any required expense, to be 
made into good land, by deep plowing 
and thorough manuring,) we would say, 
plow six inches deep; apply — plowing 
it under — 300 to 500 lbs. of Peruvian 
guano ; harrow lightly ; furrow four feet 
each way ; drop a single handful of ashes 
at the crossings ; and plant 4 kernels of 
corn in the hiU. We are satisfied 
that nothing is gained by planting any 
but the smallest varieties at a less dis- 
tance than four feet. Dress the crop 
three times, doing the work mostly with 
the cultivator or horse hoe. The first 
dressing should be as soon as the plants 
are up five or six inches ; the second 
twelve or fifteen days later ; and the last 
not after the first of July. Nearly level 
cultivation is the best for such a soil. 
As to the time for planting, no rule can 
be given for all latitudes. It may vary 
within our national domain all the way 
from the first of March to the last of May. 
One principle wiU hold good every- 
where ; — corn depends more than almost 
any other crop upon a good start, and a 
good start is a sudden start. It is not 
wise, therefore, to plant before the 
ground becomes warm, and is likely to 
contiuue so. Hence the value of ashes 
in the hill. Their action is to warm the 
adjacent soil, and to throw the plants 
into a healthy, growing condition ; and 
hence also the reason for waiting till the 
15th, and, in some cold seasons, till the 
20th of May, rather than not have a 
warm soil and a quick start. Some 
plants will linger weeks and months 
with cold soil and cold air, and then be- 
come very thrifty after warmth comes ; 
but if corn is kept thus lingering it ne- 
ver becomes as thrifty as it otherwise 
would. We believe it should be planted 
the first moment the ground is warm 
and there is a reasonable expectation 
that it will remain so, and that this is 
about as definite a rule as can be given. 
But suppose your soil to be of a bet- 



ter quality, and such that you would not 
be contented with twenty-five bushels an 
acre, and to lie conveniently for the ap- 
plication of a heavy compost. We would 
say, plow once and a half as deeply as 
before recommended, and apply barn 
manure composted for the purpose, as 
hereafter to be stated. If the soil be ra- 
ther light, it is as well to plow in the 
manure, provided you will plow again 
and haiTow smartly, so as to mix it 
pretty evenly through the whole soil. 

We do not believe in leaving manure 
in one stratum, at the bottom of a fur- 
row eight or ten inches deep. What- 
ever the soil is, it should be mixed 
throughout as evenly as may be. And 
if the soil be a pretty fair loam, what 
would be Called fair corn land, we be- 
lieve that harrowing in the manure is 
quite as good as plowing it in. That 
part of the manure which consists of in- 
soluble salts works downward. The so- 
luble salts tend downward rather than 
upwards ; and such land as we are now 
speaking of has sufficient strength to 
hold the ammonia fi'om escaping into the 
air. 

Depth, in depositing manure, is not so 
much to be regarded as distribution, 
mixture^ thorough incorporation with 
the soil. 

The compost we ?ire about to recom- 
mend, will not be new to those who 
were our readers several years ago. To 
them it may be well to have their atten- 
tion again called to the subject ; and to 
others we trust it will be valuable. 

Wherever black swamp mud abounds, 
as it does almost every where, the farm- 
er should always have large quantities 
out, sunned, aired, washed with the rains 
of six months or more, and ready at all 
times to be put into the stalls, pens, or 
yard, as an absorbent, or to be compost- 
ed with barn manure on the cornfield. 
It is of little value to ajjply in a fresh, 
uncured state, but of great value if cured 
as above stated. If a bushel or two of 
shell lime, or one of stone Ume, were 



AGRICULTURAL, 



261 



mixed with it soon after being dug, it 
will be more perfectly cured of its sour- 
ness, and its fertilizing value greatly in- 
creased. We believe that its immediate 
effects are greater on the corn crop than 
on any other, because corn is a gross 
feeder, that is to say, it will convert into 
food and absorb as nutriment coarse, 
half-decomposed manures more rapidly 
than most plants. 

AVe know of no way in which corn 
can be grown at a profit better than the 
following, wherever the materials are at 
command, and we contend that they 
should be at command wherever corn is 
to be gi'own on land not abounding in 
organic matter, provided the swamp mud 
can be obtained at no great distance 
from where it is to be used. We say on 
land not abounding in organic matter. 
Of course we would not recommend this 
compost for rich prairies. They already 
contain essentially the same thing, con- 
tain it in too large quantities even for 
some crops, so that several crops of corn 
arc often grown on the same field, in or- 
der to use up this organic matter before 
wheat can be grown to advantage. Nor 
would we recommend this compost for 
peaty soils. It would be too much like 
carrying coals to New Castle. But for 
gravelly, loamy, or clayey soils, not 
over-stocked with organic inattcr, we do 
not believe there is any dressing as good 
for corn, relatively with its cost. 

It is this ; — take, about the last of 
April or the first of May, a load of well- 
cured swamp muck to a load of green 
barn'manure and compost them together. 
The muck should have had a bushel of 
lime composted with it last fall, and laid 
in a large heap over winter. IJut if that 
was not attended to in time, add the 
lime now ; and add at the same time a 
bushel or two of ashes for each load of 
muck ; also common salt enough to give 
five or six bushels for each acre after ap- 
plying as much of the compost as you 
intend ; and add also plaster sufficient 
to give from one to two bushels to the 
acre. 



If you can not conveniently obtain all 
these ingredients in the hurry of plant- 
ing time, use such as you conveniently 
can, only do not fail to put in the lime, 
as it is this especially that tends to 
change the muck from an inert to an ac- 
tive state, so that it will influence the 
present crop instead of lying a year or 
two inert in the soil, as it often has, and 
thereby given many farmers the impres- 
sion that it is of httle or no worth. Un- 
derstand that we are not making an im- 
pyrical prescription, so many grains of 
calomel to so many of jalap. That is 
the doctor's business, not ours. We 
are trying to show you, without being 
troublesomely particular, how you may 
prepare a cheap di-essing for the corn 
crop — one that vdll be about certain to 
give you a rich return next autumn, and 
quite sure to leave your land in good 
condition for after crops. The difference 
between this and some light portable 
manure, as guano or superphosphate, is, 
that although the latter might give as 
good immediate returns, the former lays 
more effectively the foundation for fu- 
tvu-e success. We would rather see our 
farmers paying their money for labor 
done on the farm, than for fertilizers 
brought from other countries ; because 
we believe that between the home ex- 
penditure of crops and the gathering up 
and saving of the home fertilizers, the 
farm (as a general rule, not without 
many exceptions) must be made to en- 
rich itself, or in other words must be 
made and Tcept rich without sending 
much money abroad for fertilizers. 

But to return to our compost. We 
would have the load of muck, the load 
of manure, and the other ingredients, or 
so many as you choose to employ, well 
mixed together in the yard or on the 
field, as you find most convenient, Thc- 
manurc should be sufficiently urinaccou.^ 
to insure a pretty speedy fermentation, 
say within ten or twelve days. To tliis 
end it should be laid as lightly as may 
be, and if there is strawy matter in the 



262 



AGRICULTURAL 



manure, not too long and coarse, it will 
aid the process as the air will more read- 
ily circulate among it. If the fermenta- 
tion becomes too violent, so that fiie- 
fanging is likely to take place before 
your ground is ready for planting, it may 
l)e necessary to check it by forking the 
pile over, though this is an extra labor 
that can generally be avoided, either by 
liastening the time of planting, or by 
crushing down the fermenting pile so as 
to exclude as much as possible the cir- 
culation of air, and thus checking the 
process till the time for planting. 

The object should be so to time the op- 
eration that the compost may be applied 
in a heated state, and immediately cover- 
ed in soil. Like yeast it will then com- 
municate its fermentation to such organ- 
ic matter in the soil as is capable of fei-- 
mentation, warming the soil and induc- 
ing a quick germination of the seed, and 
a healthy, early growth — a point more 
important to the corn crop than to any 
other. 

How this compost should be applied, 
and how much to the acre, are two ques- 
tions on which we have not much to say, 
because in some respects every farmer 
knows his own business much better 
than any one can tell him. For our- 
selves we would plow it in six or seven 
inches, and then harrow smartly with a 
long-toothed harrow, if the soil were a 
rather light loam ; but if a heavy loam, 
we would sooner spread on the furrow 
and only harrow in ; and if we had a few 
ashes to put in the hills, we would ap- 
ply the whole thus ; but if not, we would 
reserve six or eight loads to each acre 
for the hills, dropping the seed in it 
while yet warm, and covering it imme- 
diately. Nothing is better adapted to 
giving the plant that vigorous outset so 
favorable to this crop. As to the quan- 
tity, it is safe to say the more loads to 
the acre the more corn. Most farmers, 
we believe, are now convinced that it is 
better to have a large crop on a few 
acres than a small one on many, that is, 



if their land is of a fair quality, and so 
situated that they can afford to lug 
heavy, bulky manures to it. But cir- 
cumstances, known only to the farmer 
himself, have a controling influence. 

We can imagine circumstances in 
which we would apply as little as ten 
loads of this compost to the acre. There 
is many an acre of lightish loam which, 
with no manure, would give less than 
twenty bushels of corn, but would give 
more than forty, with ten loads of this. 
In other circumstances we might apply 
as many as a hundred loads to the acre ; 
and would do it with a feeling of all but 
certainty, that we should get at least a 
hundred bushels of corn, and what is 
more, get back the whole cost of the ma- 
nure in the next three crops. But either 
of these quantities would seem to most 
farmers extravagant, the first too small, 
the last too large, and probably they are 
so with regard to general practice. 
Thirty loads to the acre will be likely, 
on medium corn land not badly reduced 
by previous cropping, to give at least 
sixty bushels of shelled corn. We would 
expect fifty loads on the same land to 
give from eighty to ninety bushels, and 
to leave the soil in a highly valuable 
condition for future crops. Let it not 
be understood that we are recommend- 
ing this process for growing corn to all, 
without regard to climate, location, soil, 
etc. We are well aware that the farm- 
ers on our broad, western prairies would 
laugh at the idea. In future years they 
may come to it. But undoubtedly they 
think the time is not yet, and we pre- 
sume they are right. So at the South, 
if the farmers can grow broad fields of 
corn at a profit with only a few hundred 
pounds of guano or superphosphate, (and 
they are certainly the best judges,) they 
will of course be slow to adopt a more 
laborious process. But in many of the 
older portions of the country, where 
pretty heavy manuring has become a ne- 
cessity, and where the farmers are not 
yet convinced of the benefit of neglect- 



AGRICULTURAL, 



263 



ing home fertilizers to purchase foreign, 
we think our suggestions will be tried, 
and that they will be valued in propor- 
tion as they are fairl}"^ tested. It is no 
new thing which we propose. If we had 
not seen the practice in a great many 
cases, and seen its good results, we would 
not recommend it. Our suggestion of 
putting quick lime with barn manure, 
will frighten some. But let them consi- 
der that we present an antidote. The 
swamp muck will not fail to retain the 
ammonia, which the lime might other- 
wise drive off from the barn manure. 

We feel that our subject is a plain, 
homely affair. The season might sug- 
gest more flowery subjects, and a more 
flowery way of treating them. But if 
we are understood, and if cur sugges- 
tions shall leiid to the production of in- 
creased crops at a diminished cost, or with 
an increased value of the soil for after 
cultivation, we shall be satisfied. — Ed. 



A NEWLY COINED NAME. 

The editor of the Michigan Farmer 
shows himself amusing and classical, as 
follows : 

During March we were among the 
nifiiomaclis. Don't start, dear reader, 
we did not go to a foreign country to 
find them, there is any quantity of them 
in Michigan, native and indigenous to 
our soil. The Hippomachs mean the 
horse-disputers. We have coined the 
word from the Greek hippos, a horse, 
and mache, an altercation, a contest, a 
dispute. Nothing short of the dead lan- 
guages should give a name to a set of 
men .^o nervously alive as the advocates 
•of the various equine tribes. To call 
them " horsemen," or to speak of them 
as " all horse," or to designate them as 
" horsetalkers," is too inexpressive and 
unjust. In the first place to call them 
*' horsemen," is a perversion of the word 
as defined by Noah Webster, for whose 
judgment we have much respect, as 
hardly one of the hippomachs ever rides 
or puts foot in stirrup. Second, the hip- 
pomachs are not " all horse," as many of 
them take as much interest in cattle and 
sheep as they do in horses, and are to be 
heard with respect when they discuss 



those subjects. Third, "horsetalkers" 
would be derogatory and unjust, and 
would make them appear to be narrow 
minded and one-sided, as they would thus 
be always placed among the "neighs." 
Hence we believe that hipjwmach, as a 
term logical, dignified, classic in origin, 
and extremely expressive, as referring 
to a class of men who discuss matters 
connected with horses and breeding, is 
a word that should be adopted at once 
into the great American language, which 
is one day to be spread by the legitimate 
expansive force of our institutions, from 
Bhering's straits and Baffin's bay to Cape 
Horn. 

If the aforesaid editor intends to ap- 
ply this Greek compound to that class 
of men who are earnestly endeavoring 
to improve our horse flesh, who seek to 
establish improved races, and only difier 
honestly as good and true men always 
will about matters of so much impor- 
tance^ while all are aiming at the same 
end, that of producing races of great 
excellence for the various purposes of 
life, we must needs doubt the correct- 
ness of the application. 

We want horses for the road, for the 
field, for heavy teaming, and for the 
saddle. It is well to have all these 
specialities in view. But most of all 
we want horses for all work, because, 
although the European nobleman may 
be able to keep a dozen horses for 
each of the various purposes that noble 
animal is put to, the American noble- 
man, on his farm of two or three hun- 
dred acres, finds it more compatible with 
his notions of thrift to keep one or a 
span, and to train that one horse or one 
span to all kinds of work. 

The one horse, if but one is kept, 
should be able to carry a bag of grain to 
the mill on his back, with a stout boy on 
top of it, or to draw it in a lumber wa- 
gon ; to take the whole family to church 
"of a Sunday;" to plow among the 
corn ; to carry his master or mistress in 
the family carriage, to an afternoon or 
evening's visit ; to carry the girls on a 
side-saddle, and learn to be proud of his 
charge, for we hold that the future mo- 



264 



AGRICULTURAL, 



thers should have rode a great deal on 
horseback ; in short to do anything that 
horse ever did, and to be about anything 
that horse ever could — good in the har- 
ness and good under the saddle, good 
every where, and withal good looking 
enough to make his owner proud of him, 
for we believe it to be a sin not to be a 
ittle proud of a well bred and well kept 
horse, and that, too, although his breast 
and sides may show marks of faithful 
service. 

But if we are to have horses good for 
special works, and good for all work ; 
not intolerably fast, nor unendurably 
slow, but just about right ; horses to be 
proud of, to love, and to show kindness 
to ; and to be grateful to the Almighty 
for as often as we enjoy their immense 
utilities, it is no wonder that there 
should arise differences of opinion as to 
breeds and breeding, rearing, training, 
&c. That one honest, earnest seeker for 
a high development of this noble ani- 
mal should pursue one line, and another 
pursue a different line, and that pretty 
warm contention should spring up, is no 
marvel. It would be marvelous if it 
were not so. Good will come out of it ; 
and the result will be, we hope so at 
least, to give us ere long every possible 
variety, and the highest possible utility 
of the equine race. 

We rather object to the designation, 
given by our brother editor out "West, 
to men, who, though on different tracks, 
may all come out well; and since ac- 
cording to the best recollection of the 
little Greek that was whipped into us in 
boyhood, the term is a little reproachful, 
though we know our western brother did 
not mean it so, we would reserve it for 
another class of personages. If we mis- 
take not, there are men among us, who 
would monopolize our fairs, national, 
state, county and town, for the horse — 
no, not for the horse, but for themselves. 
They care not a fip for the oxen, the 
cows, the sheep. "What is meat for the 
poor to them ? Let who can get milk, 



butter and cheese. Clothes for all are 
of little account. And how posterity 
shall fare in consequence of our doings is 
quite too remote a thing for them to 
think of. They want to be cock of the 
ring to-day, and let to-morrow take care 
of itself. 

Meantime, a good, honest, hard-work- 
ing farmer — a plain man to be sure, with 
nothing to recommend him, except that 
he is one of the best and most useflil 
men in all the country, a trifling recom- 
mendation no doubt in the eyes of the 
horse gentry — has brought up a splendid 
herd, from a distance of perhaps a hun- 
dred, or it may be of five hundred miles. 
Another has brought far over hill and 
dale the cows of a magnificent dairy, 
with beautiful samples of their products ; 
another has brought a flock of sheep, 
that ought to make us all, M.C.s, and 
downwards, and upwards too, ashamed 
of ourselves, that we have hitherto so 
slighted that important source of national 
wealth and comfort. 

Anybody, whose soul is not narrower 
than the tip end of nothing, can see that 
these cattle and sheep men are doing a 
good thing, actually laying the country 
under obligation to them, a blessing to 
their contemporaries and to posterity. 

But no matter. Let the herds lie in 
their stalls, and long for a beholder. Let 
the flocks display their fine fleeces and 
goodly proportions for the sun to look 
down upon. Let the Stirling farmer, 
who has brought them from his far-off 
home, sigh for a little notice. No mat- 
ter, the farmers are a very tame set of 
men — so the fasts think. If they bite 
their lips a little with chagrin, they 
will get over it before another year. 
Will they ? We are not so certain of 
that. If the farmers who are going 
ahead in the way of fertile farms well 
stocked, should always be willing to 
stand in the back-ground at their own 
fairs ; if they should contentedly see all 
the large prizes carried off by the owner 
of a horse, that has no earthly merit, ex- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



26'7 



cept that of being as impudent as his 
master, and scrambling by the crowds 
on a smooth surface, and with a very light 
load, faster than any decent horse could ; 
if, in short, the horse, without much re- 
gard to real, solid worth, judged only by 
a cajjricious, gambling spirit, is to be 
everything, to fill all eyes, and take all 
prizes, while his confreres of the home- 
stead, the ox, the cow, the sheep, and 
swine, may as well ruminate and root at 
home, we have some misgivings, whe- 
ther the farmers will always teear it pa- 
tiently. 

The ox is patient. His driver is apt 
to be patient, and it is a great virtue. 
But we remind the earnest, working, im- 
proving farmers of the country — those 
who desire fair plaj'^, and an improve- 
ment in all branches — that there is a 
point beyond which virtue turns to vice; 
and we advise them to be patient under 
the horse mania, just as long as is best, 
but no longer. We think they will be 
pretty good judges where that point is. 

We propose that the 2. 30 men — those 
who insist upon all eyes, all ears, and all 
money, at our shows, for their favorite 
animals, who care not a picayune for the 
great agricultural interest of the coun- 
try, who despise honest labor, and if 
they work at all, would sooner worh 
down a bumper, than work up a foot of 
soil — be called TiyppomacJis ; and that 
our Western friend, who, we presume, 
remembers more Greek than we do, 
should coin another term for the men 
who are striving to improve the horses 
of our country, and only differ, as good 
men always will, in matters of impor- 
tance, about the best means to accom- 
plish the object. — Ed. 



For the American Farmer's Magazine. 

NOW. 

BY N. 0. W. 

IToio ! Let us improve the present 
moment while we are sure of it. " Put 
not off till to-morrow what can be done 
to-day." When the thought to do a 



piece of work enters the mind, proceed 
at once to put it into execution. You 
may forget to do it until too late. For 
instance, a man comes home in the 
night, and in the cold, forgets to draw 
the sleigh into the barn. He discovers 
his forgetfulncss in the morning, and 
says to himself, " When I return from 
my work I will draw the cutter in." In 
returning he passes by the spot, but is 
in a hurry to do something else. Next 
time he passes he has plenty of time, but 
thinks some other time will do as well, 
and so the sleigh remains until a fall of 
snow tills it and covers up the buffalo 
robes. In the morning the farmer 
wishes to go to town and finds his robes 
all wet, and the snow to be shoveled out 
of the sleigh before he is ready to start. 
He is forced to ride on a wet seat, and 
takes a violent cold. No great damage 
done, to be sure ; but even this trouble 
could have been avoided by obeying the 
impulse of the mind, and doing now 
what was thought to be as well done 
some other time. If you are at loss 
when to do a piece of work, if possible 
do it noio. Putting things off, and do- 
ing things " for the present," are some 
formers greatest faults. N. 0. W. 

Antrim, Mich., 1858. 



SUMMER FALLOWING, ETC. 
A Cal^obnian, in the California 
Farmer for March 19th, thus goes in for 
summer fallowing, deep plowing and 
subsoiling. If the old globe we inhabit 
were not considerably large, there would 
be danger of his plow point meeting 
those of the Chinese in the other hemis- 
phere. 

FACTS ABOUT FARMING. 

Messrs. Editors : — I now beg leave to 
say, through your most valuable paper, 
a few things in reference to wheat and 
grain-growing in this part of the State. 
When I first came to this country, in 
1852, I advocated that it was all-impor- 
tant to plow our lands in the spring sea- 
.son for the next year's crop, and was 
met by this objection: that in this, 
California, the seasons were dry and 



268 



AGRICULTURAL. 



hot, and the lands would be injured by 
the great drought and heat that prevail- 
ed in the summer season ; therefore it 
would not do to plow and leave the 
ground so exposed, destitute of a cov- 
ering by some kind of crop. Notwith- 
standing the argument made, I was de- 
sirous to know if such was the fact. I 
was inclined to dissent and differ in 
opinion from such notions. So in the 
spring of 1853 I tried the experiment, 
this being the first spring I had enjoyed 
in this State. The result was most as- 
tonishingly satisfactory. The ground 
so plowed was sown in December, fall 
of '53, and the yield was one-third to 
one-half more than the same land sown 
the same day, that was only then jpst 
plowed ; and those of my neighbors who 
had opposed this mode of farming, ac- 
knowledged their error and began to 
spring-plow to some extent. 

Yet too little attention is paid to this 
branch of farming, so far as regards 
spring plowing, as I have stated to you 
and your readers in former years. And 
here let me say to your many readers 
that there is another serious evil in re- 
gard to plowing : Often the rains do not 
come until late in the season, and then 
not in sufficient quantity to wet the 
earth properly for plovving; yet the 
work is commenced, and hurried along 
with, in a very indifferent manner, and 
often, too, when the ground is entirely 
too wet on the surface and not to a suffi- 
cient depth. Often the land is cold and 
unfit to receive the seed sown, and is 
generally not plowed more than two and 
a half to three inches deep, and at this 
season of the year the crows and birds 
are very troublesome and get a great 
amount of seed. The result is a light 
crop, and not sufficient to reward the 
laborer for seed, time and money ex- 
pended. 

Now let us take another view of this 
subject. Suppose we all try one acre, 
if no more ; plow in the spring, say this 
month; get one of Thos. Ogg Shaw's 
plows, made in San Francisco, large size, 
say the largest size ; put it to three or 
four yokes of oxen, and plow from 
twelve to fourteen inches deep ; two to 
three pairs of horses will do as well ; 
and then sow seventy-five pounds of 
good clean seed in the month of Sep- 
tember next ; use a cultivator to cover 
with, or harrow well, then use a heavy 
roller to smooth down with, which wiU 



put the ground in a good condition to 
harvest and prevent the birds from get- 
ting much of the seed, also it will endure 
more drought ; as also it does not take 
as much seed to sow early as when sown 
late, for the first rains are generally 
warm, the grain readily comes up and 
is not liable to suffer for want of rain 
during winter. 

Now, friend farmers, if you will make 
the trial this once, and find me in error, 
you may publish my name to the wide 
world as a quack, and writing what I do 
not know to be a fact. And if any of 
you thinR I have not made reasonable 
statements, please call on me at my 
ranch, and I think the vail may be re- 
moved from your eyes. Last season I 
began to plow for fallow on the 10th day 
of January, and continued until the dry 
season forbade plowing. In the month 
of September I commenced sowing my 
fallow grounds. The first piece was 
sown in barley ; on the first day of this 
month the heads began to put forth, and 
notwithstanding for the last six weeks 
we have had only one light shower, the 
promise is good for a crop, and a good 
crop. On the first days of October I 
began to plant wheat, this also bids fair 
for a good crop ; and all the lands that I 
plowed in the fall, and some of them 
sown on the same day that some of the 
fallow was, do not bid as fair for a crop, 
not being more than half the growth. 

Here let me state that this fallow land 
was plowed from six to eight inches in 
depth. This season I obtained at the 
State Fair, from T. Ogg Shaw, one of his 
largest sized steel plows, fourteen-inch 
cut. It is also a deep tiller ; I use with 
it a team of four horses, and when the 
ground is sufficiently wet, plow thirteen 
to fourteen inches deep. If any doubt 
this, please call, and I will satisfy you 
on this point. In addition to this I have 
used a subsoil to some extent, and put 
that down thirteen inches below the bot- 
tom of the plow. And I am satisfied, 
from actual experience, we can not till 
too deep. The deeper we till the more 
rain the land will endure and withstand 
the greater drought. Yet I wish to be 
distinctly understood, that although we 
may plow early, sow soon, plant good 
seed, and on good ground, yet if we have 
no fence or that which is not good, or 
good for nothing but to make breachy 
stock, our labors will be in vain. 



AGRICULTURAL 



269 



ORDER AND ECONOMY ON THE 
FARM. 

"Without order on the farm, peace of 
mind, success and proiit are inii)ossible. 
\\"atchfiilness and cai-e are implied in 
this forciljle word, order. Who is the 
farmer that does not know of serious ac- 
cidents happening to animals and crops 
for want of proper care ? Some Jarmers 
are negligent of their animals when at 
grass, as if no accident could happen. 
We once knew a most excellent horse to 
get on his back in the furrow of a pasture 
field that was " seeded down" with a 
gi'ain crop grown on " lands" or ridges. 
Sheep of good quality (and what farmer 
should grow any other) are liable to 
meet with similar accidents — so, too, to 
be injured bj- dogs, etc., and for which 
care seems, after all the experiments 
that have been made, to be the best 
remedy. 

The farmer should not allow his cattle 
that are used in his farm work, to 
be scattered indiscriminately over his 
fields. In the most busy season it often 
happens that a great deal of time is lost 
in catching working animals that are let 
out on pastures while the men eat din- 
der. In the heat of a hot day, as at 
noon, horses and oxen would do much 
better in the stiibles if supplied with 
green food. For such purpose no farm- 
er should be without the necessary 
quantity of clover to be used as soiling. 
^Ve do not refer to that grown on mea- 
dow land with grasses, but to clover 
produced on meadow land heavily ma- 
nured. Such clover will be succulent, 
and while it furnishes a highly nutritive 
feed for woiking animals, it prevents 
them from having a desire to consume 
large quantities of water. Clover grown 
in the manner referred to, would pro- 
duce the second season three crops. 
After each cutting it should be heavily 
top-dressed. If the pastures are bare 
from being over-stocked, or parched by 
the heatof sunnuer, the cattle should be 
fed clover or other soiling. The value 
of it for increasing the (piantity and 
quality of milk and butter, will soon be 
understood by any person who pursues 
such a course. This system of practice 
has its infiueuce in suihikj time. If the 
fences are bad, or that cattle roam in the 
wood-, by the feeding of special green 
food in a particular place, thus causing 
cattle to come in search of it, much time 
may be saved. We know of a shiftless, 



disorderly farmer — and perhaps there 
are others as well as he — who drives his 
cattle three or four miles to be milked, 
often when above their knees in mud. 
He has several horses to spare, and milk 
cans growing rusty for want of use. He 
does not estimate the loss arising fi-om 
such a practice. His cattle travel in 
coming home twice a day to be milked, 
and returning to the pasture, make four 
journeys equal to twelve miles — when 
the roads are muddy the labor is much 
increased — the feet of the cattle become 
subject to disease — while traveling they 
are not feeding, and consequently not 
supplying the raw material Irom which 
to make fiesh, milk, or butter — they 
dung on the road and its manurial effects 
are lost to the pasture — and in addition 
to these losses, arising from carelessness 
or a want of " order upon the form," 
the time of a man or boy is also lost in 
making thejourneys referred to. — Work- 
ing Farmer. 



DEEP PLOWING. 

We are all too apt to follow blindly in 
in the beaten track. The first plow 
was a tough, forked stick, whereof one 
prong served as a beam, while the other 
dug the earth as a coulter. Of course, 
the plowing was only scratching — neces- 
sarily so. It would have been prepos- 
terous to expect the plowman of Hesiod's 
or of Virgil's time to turn up and mellow 
the soil to a depth of fifteen or sixteen 
inches. Down to the present age, plow- 
ing was inevitiibly a shallow affair. But 
iron plows, steel plows, subsoil plows, 
have changed all this. It is as easy to- 
day to mellow the earth to the depth of 
two feet, as it was a centur}^ ago to turn 
over a sward to the depth of six inches. 
And our fierce, trying climate, so differ- 
ent from the moist, milder one of Great 
Britain, Ireland, or even of Holland and 
the Atlantic coast of Germany, whence 
our ancestors migrated, absolutelj'' re- 
quires of us deep plowing. Drouth is 
our perpetual danger. Most crops are 
twenty to sixty per cent, short of what 
they would have been with adequate 
and seasonable moisture. That moisture 
exists not only in the skies above, but 
in the earth beneath our»plants. Though 
the skies may capriciously withhold it, 
the earth never will, if we provide a rich, 
mellow subsoil, through which the roots 
can descend to the moisture. The hot- 
ter and dryer the weather, the better 



270 



AGRICULTURAL, 



our plants will grow, if they have rich, 
warm earth beneath them, reaching 
down to and including moisture. We 
can not and we need not plow so very- 
deep each year to assure this, if the sub- 
soil is so under-drained that the super- 
abundant moisture of the wet season 
does not pack it. Under-draining as 
the foundation, and deep plowing as the 
superstructure, with ample fertilizing 
and generous tillage, will secure us 
average crops, such as this section has 
rarely ever seen. Our corn should 
average from fifty to seventy bushels per 
acre ; our oats still higher. Every field 
should be ready to grow wheat if re- 
quired. Every grass-lot should be good 
for two or three tons of hay per acre. 
Abundant fruits, including the grape and 
the pear, should gladden our hill-sides, 
and anrich our farmers' tables. So 
should our children seek no more, in 
flight to the crowded cities, or to the 
wide West, an escape from the ill-paid 
drudgery and intellectual barrenness of 
their fathers' lives, but find abundance 
and happiness in and around their child- 
hood's happy homes. — Horace Q-reeley. 

LIVE AND DRESSED WEIGHT OF 
ANIMALS. 

The following rules for computation, 
which we believe to be accurate, and 
which may be of use to many of our 
readers, we cut from the Ohio Gulti- 
vator : 

1st. For finding the net weight of 
stock, etc., where one-fourth is taken 
out, or allowed for tare. 

Rule. — Multiply the gross weight by 
the decimal 8 tenths, and the product 
will be the net weight. 

Example. — Suppose a farmer has a 
hog that weighs 345 gross, how much 
will he weigh net? 34:5X.8=276.0. Ans. 

2d. To find the gross weight, having 
the net weight. 

Rule. — Divide the net weight by the 
decimal 8 tenths, and the quotient will 
be the original gross weight. 

Example. — What is the gross weight 
of a hog that weighs 345 pounds net ? 
345-:-.8=431i. Ans. 

3d. To find the price per hundred net, 
where the price per hundred gross is 
given. 

Rule. — Divide the price per hundred 
gross by the decimal 7 tenths, and the 
quotient will be the price per hmidred 
net, and vice versa. 



Example. — How much per hundred 
net will a farmer get for his hogs, who 
sells them for three dollars and forty 
cents per hundred gross ? $3.40-:-.8= 
$4.25. Ans. 

Thus it will be seen that $3.40 gross, 
is the same as $4.25 net. The reasons 
for these are obvious ; comment is there- 
fore unnecessary. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

ON THE CORN CROP, AND THE 
RIGHT SPECIES OF CORN FOR 

THE RIGHT LOCALITIES. 
My method of raising corn is : I take 
an old meadow or pasture that wants 
plowing up, and if there are any places 
that appear rather barren, I put on a 
few loads of barn-yard manure, (but the 
most of my manure I generally put on 
my meadow.) In April I generally 
plow or break up the corn ground. If 
not convenient in April, I generally try 
to have it done by the middle of May. 
I generally intend to plow seven inches 
deep ; a few days before planting, drag 
thoroughly, and immediately before 
planting drag again, so that the ground 
is as mellow as an ash-heap, and mark 
so as to plant three feet each way, and 
sometimes three and a half each way. I 
generally try to plant by the 2oth of 
May, and if the weather will admit, as 
early as the 18th or 20th, and as soon 
as the corn is up plaster or ash, and a 
few days after go through with the plow 
or cultivator, and go through with hoe 
and take out the grass and weeds, and 
place a little fresh dirt around each hiU, 
and a few weeks after plow and go 
through again, only not hill up much 
the last time. Plowing here conies gen- 
erally the first week in July. I cut mj- 
corn down by the roots five rows at a 
time, by taking four or five hills for the 
middle of the shock, and after the mid- 
dle generally put fifteen hills to it, so as 
to have twenty in all, and put one band 
around the top and another around the 
middle of each shock, and let them 
stand from four to six weeks before 



AGRICULTURAL 



211 



husking. In husking we generally se- 
lect our seed corn by taking all the 
soundest and largest ears, and leave a 
few husks on each ear intended for seed, 
and braid a number of cars together and 
hang them in some dry, airy place. 

The corn I plant, or have planted for a 
number of years past, is the red glazed, 
or sometimes called small yellow, and 
the small Hutton ; each kind get ripe at 
the same time, generally from the 10th 
to the 20th of September. Those tvro 
varieties will generally ripen on the tops 
of our highest hills ; the height of our 
hills I suppose to be 500 or 600 feet 
above the Susquehanna River flats, and 
the flats here are 800 feet above tide, and 
latitude of this vicinity 42 North. A 
large amount of money is lost here every 
year by planting large late varieties of 
corn that will not ripen on the hills in 
this vicinity, the hills being generally 
from ten to fifteen days later than the 
Susquehanna River Hats. It is getting to 
be well understood here that the large 
varieties of corn generally raised on the 
i-iver flats seldom ripen on the hills, or 
ten or fifteen miles up the creek. Those 
varieties are the large Dutton and large 
eight-row yellow and white corn, and if 
they will not ripen on the hills, etc., it is 
not very probable they would ripen far 
north of here in the center of the State. 
In the summer of ^o6, Col. B. P. Johnson 
told me that a large farmer, I think it 
was near the center of the State, lost 
>L-veral hundred dollars in one year by 
[ilanting the large Dutton corn that did 
not got ripe. The Delaware White, a 
large valuable kind raised on the Sus- 
quehanna flats, is said to be an early va- 
riety, but of that I can saj^nothing with 
certainty. Last season a number of 
fields of corn on the Susquehanna flats 
did not ripen good, and not one half the 
tiL'lds back from the river, it being a 
backward season. I would recommend 
farmers far north of here and on high 
lands here, to plant no kinds but the 
small Dutton, red glazed, small yellow 



Canada and white flint Canada, and 
King Philip, and King Philip improved. 
Last year I raised a few hills of the King 
Philip improved, but for all its being a 
Northern variety, it did not ripen earlier 
than my small Dutton, I think it to be 
a valuable kind, and shall plant all the 
seed I have, enough for one acre or more. 
R. Howell. 

Nichols, March 15th, 1858. 

It may be good policy to plant these 
small varieties as near as 3 feet or 3| ; 
but we are convinced that nothing but 
extra labor is the result of planting large 
varieties less than four. — Ed. 



APPROPRIATE PREMIUM. 
A Mr. Palmer, of Toronto, C. W., re- 
cently presented the Markham Agricul- 
tural Society a plow, all of iron, and of 
unconunonly good workmanship, esti- 
mated to be worth $40, to be given as a 
premium to the best ploughman, at the 
spring plowing match, at the village of 
Markham, C. W. A pretty good idea. 
The winner will gain a good thing, and 
the giver will loose nothing. — Ed. 



AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS OF 
PATENT OFFICE FOR MARCH. 

We regret to learn, unofficially, that 
the publication of the Agricultuial Re- 
port of the Patent Office will this year 
be delayed, by a resolution recently 
passed in Congress, which requires that 
all reports and documents shall be hand- 
ed in compkite. Heretofore a proyraiume 
of the Agricultural Report has been ac- 
cepted early in each session, and the 
publication commenced at once, the 
comjiiler furnishing " copy" as the print- 
ing progressed. 

Among other illustrations in the fol- 
lowing report, will be a portrait of 
"Duke," a Suffolk draft horse, the pro- 
perty of the late Mr. Catling, of Wood- 
bridge, Suffolk, which gained the first 
prize of thirty pounds at the show of 
the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land, at AVindsor, July, 1851, painted 
by Wm. H. Davis, of Chelsea, England, 
who has been engaged for upwards of 
forty years in painting prize animals in 
Great Britain. 



212 



AGRICULTURAL, 



Mr. Henry C. Williams, who was last 
fall dispatched by the Patent Office to 
make explorations in Western Arkansas, 
part of the Indian territory, and North- 
ern Texas, for the purpose of obtaining 
information respecting the grape vines 
of that region, and making collections of 
the same, returned about the middle of 
March. He explored the region extend- 
ing from a little east of Fort Smith on 
the Arkansas, to the Lower Cross Tim- 
bers in Texas, and includes a considera- 
ble portion of the Choctaw Nation. 
Eight hundred miles of this he traversed 
on foot, examining and collecting. He 
brought back a large number of cuttings 
and roots of the native vines, which the 
Commissioner of Patents has had so 
planted as will insure their propagation. 

Mr. Williams left soon afterwards for 
the " Cherokee country," Upper Georgia, 
to obtain scions of the celebrated apples 
for which that region is justly famous. 
These apples originated from seed sent by 
order of President Jefferson for gratuitous 
distribution among the Cherokees. Sev- 
eral varieties ripen in May and June — 
others are later, and will keep the entire 
year. 

Mr. Robert Fortune, whose appoint- 
ment as agent to China for the purpose 
of collecting seeds of the tea-shrub, was 
mentioned in the last Bulletin, wrote a 
letter under date of " London, March 
1st, 1858," from which we are permitted 
to make the following extracts : 

"I have now to inform you that in 
compliance with instructions, I have 
taken my passage for China, and shall 
sail from Southampton on the 4th inst. 

" It shall be my careful study to ac- 
complish the important objects which 
you have entrusted to me, and you may 
rely on my not submitting to exorbitant 
charges, and on my acting in good faith 
to the Government of the United States. 

" I have had so much experience in 
packing and shipping seeds and plants 
from China to India and England, that I 
venture to suggest to you that my opera- 
tions should be conducted in the follow, 
ing manner : It will be imprudent to 
trust my collections in one or two ves- 
sels, as living plants are easily damaged 
during a long sea voyage. The more 
prudent course would be to ship by as 
many vessels as possible, say six or 
eight. But, as this will occupy some 
time, I think I had better come home 
by the overland route, and bring the 
seeds (not tea-seeds) with me, and en- 



deavor to reach America as early as 
possible, in order to receive the plants 
on their arrival. If, on the contrary, I 
accompany the last shipment, via the 
Cape, the first would necessarily be 
home several weeks before I could be 
upon the spot to examine it and do what 
is needed. My object in offering this 
suggestion is to secure, if possible, the 
success of my mission, and I have no 
doubt you will agree with me in the 
propriety of such a course of procedure." 
— Bulletin U. 8. Ag. Soc. 



A NEW COTTON IN TEXAS. 

Mr. D. C. Sharpe, of Cherokee Co., 
Texas, has sent to New-Orleans speci- 
mens of cotton grown by him from seeds 
brought from Nicaragua, near Leon, in 
the mountains. It is the third year's 
production, on land lying near the 32d 
parallel of latitude, in a prairie country, 
the soil of which is sandy and saline, 
crystals of salt, saltpeter and alum being 
naturally formed on its surface. The 
stalk and bolls of this cotton, Dr. Sharpe 
states, are about as large as those of the 
Petty Gulf cotton ; the seeds are much 
smaller, black and smooth, as a conse- 
quence of which, 1000 pounds of un- 
ginned yields 500 pounds of ginned cot- 
ton. But it is the lint of the cotton that 
is most noteworthy and remarkable. 
For fineness and silkiness, as well as 
tenacity of fiber and tenuity of thread, 
it has never been surpassed, if at all 
equalled. These qualities have led some 
to believe it the Sea Island cotton ; but 
Dr. Sharpe is convinced that it is not, 
since it differs from that cotton in many 
material respects, whatever may be the 
correspondence between their respective 
staples. For instance, he says that 250 
pounds of this cotton can be picked by 
one hand in a day, whereas of the Sea 
Island not more than 30 pounds can be 
picked. He beheves that it can be suc- 
cessfully grown in nearly eveiy part of 
Texas. If so, it may go as a great ele- 
ment of a new agricultural era in that 
magnificent State. — Ihid. 

THE WHEAT CROPS. 

The accounts of the growing wheat 
crop, from all the grain-growing States, 
are favorable. In the western States 
the quantity of land sown with wh^at in 
the fall was larger than the previous 
year, the weather during September 
being especially favorable for it. At the 



AGRICULTURAL 



273 



commencement of winter, the growth 
was more forward than for many years ; 
the winter has been quite favorable in 
all the States, and the prospect of an 
abnndant crop was never more favorable 
at the close of the month of March. 
Many express the fear, however, that 
the jilants are too thick on the ground, 
and that, with favoraVile growing weather 
during April and May, the growth will 
be too rapid, producing a weak plant, 
and inducing rust or " lodging." It 
seems to be generally conceded that the 
crop is past the dangers of winter, and 
tiiat it will do well until about the first 
of June, when the next crisis of the 
crop comes. — I hid. 



EXTRACT 

FROM AN ADDRESS OF HON. N. P. BANKS. 

In Holland, in 1841, the product of 
agricultural industry was $181,000,000; 
that of manufacturing industry, $144,- 
000,000 ; and the estimated products of 
commerce, $65,000,000 ; thus of $390,- 
000,000, commercial industry gave but 
little more than a sixth part, wliile 
manufactures and mechanics afforded 
37 per cent, of the entire wealth of the 
state. In France, in the same year, the 
product of agriculture was $800,000,000 ; 
manufactures, $400,000,000 ; commerce 
and navigation, $268,000,000. Of an 
industrial product of $1,466,000,000, 
that of commerce is but 18 per cent., 
while the mechanic arts furnish a third 
of the amount The industrial product 
of England in 1840, was $630,000,000, 
and of all other pursuits, $855,000,000. 
Allowing to commerce a fifth of the ag- 
gregate, as in the case of Holland or 
France, or even a quarter part, it is still 
fcr below that of manufactures and the 
mechanic arts. 



NEW-YORK AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE. 

The first annual report of the Trustees 
of the State Agricultural College has 
been submitted to the Legislature of 
New-York by Governor King. The re- 
port contains a brief history of the early 
efforts of the friends of the College to en- 
list the support of the farmers of the 
State and the favor of the Legislature ; 
of the success which attended these ef- 
forts, in the liberal suljscription of $45,- 
000, principally by the farmers of the 
county of Seneca, and in the loan of 



$40,000 by the State for twenty years, 
without interest. It further states that 
a farm of 700 acres, of great variety of 
soil, weU wooded and watered has been 
purchased in the town of Ovid, Seneca 
county, on the eastern slope of Seneca 
lake, on which the College buildings are 
to be erected ; that the site of the Col- 
lege has been agreed upon, and contracts 
have been entered into for a portion of 
the materials to be used in the edifice ; 
and that there is every reason to hope 
that, dvu-ing the present year, the center 
building and south wing will be com- 
pleted and in readiness next spring to 
receive those who may desire to acquire 
a sound, practical agricultural education 
and training. 

Appended to the report is a statement 
of the amounts received from individuals 
and from the State, the manner in which 
they have been applied to the purchase 
of the farm, and in the outlay for man- 
aging and providing adequately the ne- 
cessary stock and implements, leaving 
an unexpended balance of $30,000 yet 
to be received from the State treasury. 
This sum, it is confidently believed, will 
enable the trustees to complete the cen- 
ter building and south wing of the Col- 
lege, with the principal room for instruc- 
tion and scientific purposes, and the ne- 
cessary accommodation for one hundred 
and eighty students. The trustees de- 
clare their intention to make this, in fact 
as well as in name, an Agricultural Col- 
lege. 



AGRICULTURAL PAPERS. 

"(?« the propriety of farmers support- 
ing none hut jnirely agricultural pa- 
pers, as svch; and is their pnhlication 
monthly often enough?" 

It is an admitted principle in political 
economy, that the more labor is divided 
the better and cheaper it is performed ; 
consequently the manner in which labor 
is divided in any country is a pretty 
good index to the prosperity, intelli- 
gence, and refinement of its people. 
Fifty years ago we had no agricultural 
papers, and few if any religious. Our 
journals then partook more or less of 
the commercial, political, religious, and 
agricultural characters. As we have ad- 
vanced in civilization and refinement the 
wants of tln' reading people couhl not be 
met without a division of labor in this 
departmeit, and we now have separate 



274 



AGRICULTURAL, 



newspapers devoted to all the trades, 
professions, and occupations, and who 
will say that this division has not con- 
tributed to our progress ? Take one of 
the newspapers of even thirty years ago 
and compare its articles on agriculture 
with, for instance, the editorials of the 
Genesee Farmer of the past year, and 
you will find abundant evidences of pro- 
gress. We have, to be sure, many valu- 
able articles on agriculture in journals 
devoted mainly to other professions, but 
they are invariably credited to agricul- 
tural papers. If there is any one sub- 
ject which more than any other requires 
the undivided energies, mind and atten- 
tion of a conductor of its journal, that 
subject is agriculture. The world is just 
awakening to the fact that more science 
and intelligence is necessary in this de- 
partment than in any othei', and one of 
the great reasons is that it is incapable 
of that division of labor which tends so 
much to advancement in the mechanic 
arts. We have journals of law, of health, 
of medicine, and of mechanics. We 
have miners' journals, farmers' journals, 
railroad journals, vetrinary journals, and 
gardeners' journals — journals hydropa- 
thic, homeopathic, phrenologic, scienti- 
fic, and spiritual — and if a man wishes 
to turn his attention to any particular 
branch of industry he can make his se- 
lection and pay only for what he wants. 
Surely these journals can be, must be, 
and are better conducted than are the 
same departments in those which have 
with agriculture a little of politics, love- 
tales, casualties, shocking accidents and 
dreadful tragedies, with a sprinkling of 
conundrums, rebuses, and enigmas. By 
this division of labor newspapers have 
become very much reduced in price, 
while at the same time the ability of the 
reading community to pay for them has 
been doubled if not quadrupled, and on 
the farmer's reading table instead of the 
weekly miscellany, which perhaps went 
the round of the neighborhood, we see 
the quarterly review, the monthly mag- 
azine, the weeldy, semi-weekly, and per- 
haps the daily journal. These dailies, 
semi-weeklies and weeklies, although 
they perhaps answer well the purpose 
for which they were intended, must still 
be got up in somewhat of a hurry, and 
are liable to many blunders and mishaps, 
and when recaived by the subscriber are 
often laid aside for the moment and ne- 
ver resumed till wanted to wrap up a 
bundle. In fact they are of little value 



for future reference. The monthly jour- 
nals are got up with more care, in less 
hurry, are less liable to errors and over- 
sights, are in a more convenient form, 
the subject matter more condensed, con- 
tain more grain and less chaff, are more 
thoroughly read and better vinderstood, 
contain more useful matter for future re- 
ference, seldom condemned to the rub- 
bish heap, but are laid up in the library 
and read perhaps by the next genera- 
tion. They take the place among news- 
papers, of standard works among books. 
— Gen. Far. 



CULTIVATION OP TOMATOES. 

A WRITER in the Genesee Farmer thus 
describes his method of transplanting 
and growing tomatoes. We should have 
said three feet each way ; but perhaps 
he is nearer right. Fruit-bearing plants 
should not be too much in each others' 
sunlight. 

My method is as follows : Cut with a 
long-bladed knife the dirt between the 
rows of plants each way, to the depth of 
six or eight inches. Then, with a troioel 
or sharp spade, carefully talce tq) each 
2)lant with as large a "ball of earth as 
possible. Do not trust their removal to 
careless hands. With a hoe, dig holes 
three inches deep ; set in the plants with 
earth attached, and finish by hilling up, 
making large hills. If the work has 
been well done, the plants will scarcely 
wilt under a hot sun. By this method, 
the roots are brought near the surface, 
to receive the influence of the sun. The 
fruit is also well exposed to the sun, and 
my little mounds of tomatoes are not 
"forever and the day after" in ripening. 
No watering is necessary, except a little 
in the holes before transplanting, and 
then only in a dry time. 

Tomato plants may be grown very 
well in crocks or boxes in the kitchen 
window ; and inverted sods, nicely cut 
in squares, and then placed in a shallow 
box, make an excellent substitute for 
erodes, especially in these hard times. 
The plants thus grown should be set out 
of doors a few days to harden, previous 
to transplanting, taking care to cover 
cold nights. 

Trimming off a portion of the side 
branches close to main stem, will pro- 
duce larger and finer fruit. 

Tomatoes give the greatest yield on a 



AGRICULTURAL. 



273 



rich soil, but do not ripen fruit so soon 
as when grown on a poorer one. 

W. C. P. 



DEEP PLOWING. 

We are by no means sure that the fol- 
lowin{5 is correct in every point ; but we 
are quite sure that no farmer can read 
it carefully without finding himself bet- 
ter qualified to form his own judgment 
in this important matter; and to that 
point we suppose all agricultural wri- 
tings should tend. Agricultural jour- 
nals, we take it, are not to do the farm- 
er's thinking for him, but to aid him in 
being a good thinker and a sound judge 
in his own affairs. 

Question. — At what period of the year 
of rotation would deep plowing be *advi- 
sable ? AVhat kinds of soil does it bene- 
fit, and when should it be avoided ? 

Answer. — Deep plowing is most efiect- 
ive in the autumn, thus exposing the 
laud to the influence of fi-ost, rain, and 
wind during the winter, which act upon 
the mineral ingredients of the soil, ren- 
dering them available for the succeeding 
crops, and pulverizing the soil, and thus 
facilitating the passage of the roots into 
the subsoil. As regards the period of 
the rotation it is generally considered 
that deep cultivation is most beneficial 
after the wheat crop, as a preparation 
for the root crop and the whole succeed- 
ing rotation. At the end of every rota- 
tion it is deemed advisable that the land 
receive a deeper stirring than would be 
considered safe or expedient in prepara- 
tion for a corn crop, in order to disturb 
the hard impenetrable stratum formed 
by the continuous treading of horses and 
the passage of the plow, and also to 
bring to the surface a fresh portion of 
unexhausted soil to be incorporated with 
that from which the previous rotation 
has derived its nourishment. Moreover, 
the first crop which follows requires a 
deep, well pulverized soil ; a soil, in fact, 
which will offer as little resistance as 
possible to the expansion of the bulbs. 
Therefore, taking all these points into 
consideration, we conclude that the most 
suitable time for deup plowing is in au- 
tumn, previous to the root crop, or for 
the bare fallow after a corn crop in cases 
whei-e the soil is unsuited for the root 
crop. 

The soils most benefited by deep cul- 
18 



tivation are stiff clay lands, those soils 
resting immediately upon rock can not 
be subsoiled even if it were desirable, 
which is very doubtful. As a rule, we 
may say, plow deep, when the subsoil is 
of the same character as the surface, if 
both are tenacious, or when the subsoil 
is composed of good clay, only requiring 
atmospheric influence to sweeten it. 
Deep cultivation should be avoided in 
nearly all very light soils. It should be 
avoided when preparing for corn, either 
for barley after roots fed off, in which 
case we should by deep plowing bury 
the manure beyond the reach of the crop, 
and in plowing the clover lea for wheat 
it would be especially injurious. In un- 
drained claj's deep plowing would be 
objectionable. Deep plowing benefits 
most clay soils, in f;ict to plow such 
heavy land as No. 4 in the autumn is 
equal to half dressing of manure. Pro- 
fessor Wey estimates a clay soil to absorb 
as much ammonia during the fallow as 
would be contained in 2 cwt. of guano ; 
those clays containing a large quantity 
of insoluble silicates of potash are gene- 
rally benefited. Clay, from which the 
air is excluded, exhibits a dark bluish 
color. The frost during the winter pene- 
trates the soil, and acts mechanically by 
destroying the adhesion of the particles. 
After draining clay it is not advisable to 
bring to the surface more than two inch- 
es of new soil at a time, otherwise more 
is brought up than the winter frost, &c., 
can pulverize and sweeten, and the first 
crop that follows, finding an uncongenial 
seed bed, will not flourish. — London 
Magnet. 

THE POTATO DISEASE. 
Another theory has been recently 
suggested on this subject. It proceeds 
from a man of much experience and of 
high reputation as a thorough practical 
gardener ; one who has been in charge 
of extensive establishments for many 
years in England. He suggests that the 
disease is caused by the potatoes that 
are used for seed having been permitted 
to become over-ripe when grown ; and 
his remedy is to take up the potatoes 
that are wanted for the following year's 
planting at an earlier period than the 
general crop ; that is, as soon as they 
have grown to their size, and whilst the 



214: 



AGRICULTURAL 



leaves remain green. To get a pure 
sort, free from disease, he advises (as 
others have done) raising from seed, and 
thenceforth to propagate as above pointed 
out. He also recommends potatoes to 
be invariably planted vphole, and never 
cut into sets. 

This last recommendation we believe 
to be good, beyond all doubt. Whether 
the other is, we will not undertake to 
decide. It may be worth trying. — Ed. 



LIFE IN THE COUNTRY. 

A MERCHANT, tumed farmer, in a let- 
ter to one of his old city friends, says : 

" You seem to think that the society 
of farmers and rural residents must be 
exceedingly dull and stupid. I can as- 
sure you it is not so. My neighbors in 
the country may not be so quick and 
ready in conversation as my old friends 
in the city, and their attention may not 
have been directed to so great a diversity 
of subjects, but their knowledge is less 
superficial, and their judgment far more 
sound and reliable. But even if intel- 
lectually inferior, which I do not admit, 
they ai'e certainly morally superior. 
Take a hundred individuals, without any 
picking, from my new neighbors, and a 
like number from the old, and there will 
be found more among the former than 
the latter who deserve and might com- 
mand your moral respect and approba- 
tion — men who are honest, sincere, I'eli- 
able, and of good moral habits and worth 
of character. For my own part, I take 
more pleasure in the society of the good 
than in that of the roguish and unprin- 
cipled, be the latter ever so smart. 
Then, again, I can be more with my 
family than when keeping store, and can 
more easily keep my children from the 
contamination of evil companions. But 
the crowning recommendation of my 
farming pursuits is this : I feel that I am 
working together with God in providing 
for the primary wants of his human 
family." 



DOGS, HOGS, AND SHEEP. 

" What a dog lives upon will keep a 
hog." If any farmer doubts the truth 
of the saying, let him kill his useless 
dog and put a pig in the pen and give it 
the dog's allowance. He will find in a 



few months that he has a fine fat porker 
fit to be eaten, a use the dog could not 
be possible applied to by any Christian 
man. There are too many dogs in the 
country, by far too many — if they had 
all been killed a year ago, there might 
be two hundred pounds of good fat pork 
to balance against every dog so set aside, 
which would be no inconsiderable item 
in the supply of food for the country. 

If dogs were merely useless, they 
would not deserve so scivere a reproba- 
tion as is now their just due. While 
dogs are so numerous sheep stand a poor 
chance to get through the world and 
yield their annual fleece with untorn 
throats. The increase of the dog popu- 
lation accounts in part for the scarcity 
of sheep. An exchange paper says that 
" fourteen farmers of Stockbridge, within 
the jpast five years, have suffered the * 
loss, by dogs, of 295 sheep, valued at 
$1025. One farmer alone computes his 
killed and injured animals at 177, and 
their value at $450. Some of the sheep 
were of choice varieties, and valued at 
from $5 to $20 per head." We doubt 
not that of many another town in Mas- 
sachusetts, a worse story may be told. 

The great damages that have been 
done by dogs to sheep led to the enact- 
ment of a stringent dog-law by the last 
Legislature. Persons owning dogs, 
whose lives are precious in their sight, 
will do well to give heed to its provi- 
sions. By this law the owner of every 
dog is obliged to have him numbered 
and registered on or before the first of 
May, and any unregistered dog can be 
killed. It is made the duty of every 
sheriff, deputy sheriff, or constable, to 
kill said unregistered dogs upon the call 
of any legal voter. Any person who 
allows a dog to remain on his premises 
is to be presumed to be the owner of the 
dog, and he is commanded to obtain a 
collar with his name and the registered 
number of the dog upon it, and any per- 
son killing such a dog without justifiable 
cause is liable to an action for damages. 
Male dogs are to be assessed one dollar, 
and female dogs five dollars, and in case 
the tax is not paid by the owner on or 
before July 1st of each year, the dog is 
liable to be destroyed. All moneys col- 
lected under this law in the towns of the 
State, are to be kept separate as a " dog 
fund," to remunerate any person who 
may have had sheep killed, and any dogs 
found to have been engaged in killing 
said sheep are to be destroyed provided 



AGRICULTURAL. 



2^6 



the owner is unable to save his life by 
conjpounding with the owner of the sheep 
for a money compensation. 

We confidently e.xpcct that after the 
1st of May the number of the canine 
race will greatly diminish, and that sau- 
sa.i^es will be dog-cheap in the cities. — 
Hamp&liire and Franklin Express. 



LONGEVITY OF MULES. 

The Medical World says that there is a 
mule in pofsession of a farmer, near Bal- 
lingloss, Ireland, whieh has been employed 
in the transit of amnuuiition, <fcc., to Vine- 
gar Hill, since 1798. There is a saying 
that a white mule lives longer than any 
other mule. Some years ago, one of that 
color on Col. Middleton's estate, in South 
Carolina, was over eighty years old, and 
was still at work. 



EARLY BARLEY. 

We were favored with a sight of a 
stalk of fine Barley, grown on the ranch 
of J. Beam, Esq., near Sacramento. It 
was a sample of Barley, of which there 
are forty acres of the same kind, and it 
was three to three and a half feet high. 
It was rai^ed upon land which had been 
summer falhfwed the year previous, and 
this was the second or " volunteer crop," 
and it now gives promise of yielding an 
enormous crop. When will farmers look 
carefully to the system of subsoiling and 
summer fallowing for the grain crops of 
our State ? They must come to it sooner 
or later. — Cal. Far. 



WHERE THE FIRST MAPLE SU- 
GAR WAS MADE. 

In Dodsley^s Register for October, 
1705, it is stated that "a method of 
making sugar and molasses from the sap 
of a certain tree called the maple, com- 
mon in the New-England colonies, has 
just been discovered and put in practice 
at several portions of New-England, but 
especially at Bernardston, about 20 miles 
fi-om Alhol.'' — Ohio Farmer. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

J. D. inquires, Whether fallowing i 
can be practised to advantage in this 
country. Had this question been pro- 
posed to us a few years ago, we should 
have said no, and we should have won- 
dered that there could be a doubt on the 



subject. We should have said that 
there could hardly be a more senseless 
practice than to expose the surface soil 
to the suns and winds through our long 
and hot summers. And we are still 
clear that with a shallow plowing, such 
as has generally been practised among 
us, and with the object solely of killing 
the weeds and resting the land, as used 
to be said, there could be no great differ- 
ence of opinion. But whether, in con- 
nection with deep plowing, with the ad- 
ditional object of warming and ventila- 
ting the soil newly turned up from a 
great depth, it may not be wise in some 
cases, we are not now so certain, and 
we invite attention to the extract in this 
number by Mr. Morley, taken from the 
California Farmer. He seems to have 
borrowed his ideas from Scotland, where 
the climate is about as unlike ours as is 
possible ; and yet we are not sure but he 
may be correct, as regards farming in 
California, and perhaps in other portions 
of this country. We would like an ar- 
ticle or two on this subject from any who 
are prepared to state the results of care- 
ful experiments. 

0. N'. rallies us on our notions about 
deep plowing, thinks we are not up to 
the times, and says we should write 10 
inches, where we say 7, 13 inches where 
we say 9, and go on towards the point 
where the Australian's plow and ours 
should approach each other. We have 
only to say in reply, that when we say 
any number of inches we mean that 
number, and not 40 or 50 per cent. less. 
The depth of plowing is almost always 
overestimated. We have heard men 
bragging that they plowed a foot deep, 
when we would not have paid them for 
much more than 6 inches. It will not 
do to say that land is plowed a foot 
deep, because here and there a spot is 
mellowed to that depth. If the whole is 
pulverized to the depth of six inches, 
most will give the owner credit for plow- 
ing at least eight inches. For many 
soils, unless manured very highly indeed, 



2Y6 



HORTICULTURAL 



that is deep enough. We are yet will- 
ing to stand by what we said in a recent 
number, where we undertook to discrim- 
inate, in what circumstances it would be 
advisable to put the plow down to the 
beam, and in what it would not. 

'■'■Can yoxi give me any information 
about the Hungarian Eye Grass V Not 
much. We have seen it growing in only 
one field. That was a fine crop. Its 
appearance is that of rather coarse food 
for cattle ; but all who have tried say 



they love it exceedingly, and that it is 
peculiarly adapted to stand a drouth, 
that in any land it grows fresh and green 
when other grasses fail ; but we do not 
know the truth of this except from gen- 
eral report. It grows about the height 
of oats, and the side leaves are numer- 
ous and extend almost to the top. The 
heads are something like those of herds 
grass but three or four times as large. 
It produces an immense crop of seed, 
and one bushel of the seed is enough to 
sow three acres. 



iortirulliiral 



CALENDAR FOR MAY. 

FLOWERS. 

Annuals of all descriptions may now 
be sown in the flower garden. And 
some should be sown also a fortnight la- 
ter in a shady border, in small patches 
to be afterwards transplanted into the 
flower border, to supply the place of 
plants gone out of bloom. This may 
readily be done by taking them up with 
a trowel with a good ball of earth. 
When night frosts are gone many gera- 
niums and other plants from the green- 
house may be planted in the flower 
beds, such as Fuchsias, Heliotropes, 
Salvias, Petunias, Verbenias, and nu- 
merous others. 

CUmhing plants and vines may be 
sown and planted against trellises and 
arbors, or placed at the root of any old 
dead tree, they will run over it and be- 
come beautiful objects during the au- 
tumn months. For this purpose Mau- 
randias, Nastiirtiums, Cypress Vines, 
and the Hop are excellent plants. 

Dahlias may now be propagated by 
division of the roots, or by placing them 
in a greenhouse or frame, and in a few 
days taking off" the shoots that will 
spring forth, which will root readily 
round the edge of a pot. It is best not 
to plant out Dahlias until the middle of 



June, until which time keep them under 
glass with plenty of air. They will be 
more healthy and bloom more freely 
than if planted out earlier. 

Greenhouse. — As soon as the weather 
permits, fires at night should be alto- 
gether discontinued, or the new growth 
making at this season by the generality 
of plants will be too much drawn up. 
Give all the air possible, and when night 
frosts have ceased, place some of the 
most hardy plants at once out of doors 
in a north aspect to keep them from the 
direct rays of the sun, which, striking 
on the sides of the pots, injures the roots 
and dries up the soil too rapidly. It is 
a good plan to plunge the pots in ashes, 
saw-dust, tar, or some such material, 
and to let them stand upon it also, to 
prevent worms from entering the pots. 
In this situation they will require daily 
attention in watering. 

Before the plants are put out of doors 
they should be shifted into other pots ; 
giving each plant a compost suited to it. 

With the three kinds of compost fol- 
lowing almost all kinds of Greenhouse 
plants will thrive well. One or other of 
them being suitable for each so as to 
grow it in good perfection, although 
florists and nurserymen use a great va- 
riety of other compositions. 



HORTICULTURAL 



27*7 



1st. Half old hot-bed manure; half 
loam or the top soil of a good pasture ; 
one-sixth in bulk of white sand. This 
is adapted for Geraniums and other half 
succulent plants that make a rapid 
growth in a few months, but much of 
which growth is cut down in culture af- 
ter the blooming, and is consequently 
renewed every year. 

2d. One-half of the compost No. 1 ; 
one-half of peat earth or leaf mold. This 
is adapted for Greenhouse evergreen 
plants, as Camillias, and also for Fuch- 
sias and plants of a slightly ligneous 
growth, that are rapid growers and have 
fine roots ; also for bulbous rooted 
plants. 

3d. Two-thirds peat ; one-third leaf 
mold ; one-sixth white sand. This is 
adapted for Heaths, Epacris, and New- 
Holland evergreen plants of a tough lig- 
neous kind, usually called hard-wooded 
plants. 

Special attention should be given to 
the drainage. An inch at least of bro- 
ken pot-shards should be filled in the 
bottom of each pot before putting in the 
composts. 

All the above composts should be 
thoroughly mixed by turning over re- 
peatedly before they are used, but 
should be used in the rough state and 
not sifted. 

KITCHEN GARDEN. 

Celery may now be planted out in 
trenches from the seed bed. 

Snap and Running Beans may be 
sown. Of the Snaps the Early Valen- 
tine and the Early Yelloio will be the 
first crop, and Early Dun, Early Ra- 
chel, and Large White Kidney are good 
kinds for succession. Of Running Beans 
the SpecJied Cranberry, Dutch Case 
Knife, and W7iite Lima will give satis- 
faction. 

Tomatoes, Melons, Egg Plants, Cu- 
eumhers, and Marrow Squash may be 
planted or sown as soon as the weather 
is settled ; but no time is gained by 
planting them out too early. To have 



them and also beans very early, the best 
way is to sow in frames under glass, and 
transplant afterwards in the open 
ground. 

Brocoli, Cauliflower and Callages 
should be transplanted from frames to 
the open ground. It is a good plan to 
plant out part early this month, and re- 
serve part to put out a fortnight later, to 
guard against a return of cold nights, 
which may check those first set out. 

It is useless to plant vegetables unless 
attention be given, especially during 
the early growth, to their tillage. Weeds 
must be kept under, or there will not be 
half a crop. 



ON ROSES IN POTS. 

BY ROSA. 

How often do we see our lady friends 
at this season of the year purchasing 
roses in pots, which as soon as they cease 
to bloom in their drawing-room are 
either set aside as useless or else drag on 
a miserable existence without ever after 
producing a bloom worth seeing. This 
would be avoided if in May or June they 
were turned out into the open borders 
and then treated as the following re- 
marks suggest : 

Roses in pots may be bloomed by a 
little forcing as earlj' as Christmas. But 
without that, they may with the aid of 
a garden frame to protect them in win- 
ter, be very successfully had in bloom in 
April and May, and in a greenhouse still 
earlier. It is best when roses are stand- 
ing out in the borders in the autumn, 
not to take them up for potting until the 
first sharp fi-ost has checked their 
growth. But then no time must be lost, 
but the whole stock required for pots 
must be at once taken up, and they may 
be brought into a shed or under the 
greenhouse stage, and have their roots 
there covered over with earth, when 
they will take no harm for a week or 
two until attention can be given to get- 
ting them into pots. In taking up the 
roses, however, from the ground, great 



2*78 



HORTICULTURAL. 



care should be taken to lift their roots 
well out of the soil with the spade, and 
not merely loosen and then pull them 
out to the destruction of half the roots. 
Roses do not require very large pots. 
Those from six to eight inches across 
will be sufBcient, unless the plants are 
very large. The best mode of potting 
roses is to have two good heaps, the one 
of good loam, the other of very well de- 
cayed stable manure. Fill the pot one- 
third full of the manure, then place a 
little of the loam on that, and then the 
rose, filling up the pot with loam only. 
We know that some persons prefer mix- 
ing the above ingredients and adding to 
them some peat or leaf mold, and in such 
a compost roses will grow very well. 
But from many years' experience we con- 
sider that both in size of bloom, color, 
and fragrance, roses will be found far 
superior if potted as we have above di- 
rected. Some additional caution, how- 
ever, is required in giving water to roses 
thus treated, because the loam is more 
retentive of water than the compost 
would be ; and therefore, until they have 
made their bloom buds and these are 
rapidly swelling for expansion, water 
must only be given when the loam is 
becoming dry. A little practice will re- 
gulate this. 

After potting, the plants will require 
to be moderately cut back. The prun- 
ing will depend upon the kind of rose. 
The China, Tea, and Bourbon Roses 
should not be too severely cut. The Hy- 
brid Perpetual will require closer prun- 
ing, say to six or eight buds on a shoot, 
and the Common Moss, Cabbage, Gallica 
and Provence roses should have each 
shoot cut back to the third or fourth bud 
at their base. After pruning the plants 
require to be neatly tied to sticks ; and 
then they may be placed in a gar- 
den frame or on the stage of a green- 
house. If they are in a frame, it is a 
good plan to plunge the pots in tan, saw- 
dust, or cinder ashes ; in such a situa- 
tion they will require no water scarcely 



until March ; and the glass light on the 
frame with a little straw or a mat over 
will be sufficient protection. During se- 
vere frost, care must be taken not to re- 
move the mat or straw entirely^ so as to 
expose the stems of the plants to the ac- 
tion of the sun ; but still some light and 
air should be given whenever the wea- 
ther permits. AVhcn frost has touched 
the stems they should 7iecer, until thaw- 
ed, have the sun upon them. Let them 
thaw in shade. 

As the season advances and the roses 
progress towards blooming, care must 
be taken to guard against the ravages of 
insects, especially the green fly (or aphis) 
and the red spider. The syringe is use- 
ful for this purpose ; and tobacco smoke 
will also remove the fly. They should 
be especially attended to in this respect 
just before the season of the principal 
bloom, because when the flowers are ex- 
panded they sustain injury ffom these 
remedies. But at all times the inroads 
of these insects must be prevented, for 
if the plants once become badly infested 
with them their beauty will be destroyed 
for the year. 

We have the pleasure of knowing 
Rosa very well ; and we assure our 
readers that all her articles, like herself, 
are characterized by good sense ; and 
under whatever name they appear, are 
always well worth reading. Sound 
judgment and an entire ft-eedom from all 
affectation are the marks by which you 
may recognize them. — Ed. 



For the Am. Farmers' Magazine. 

TREES AND FRUIT BUDS vs. COLD 
WATER. 

Mr. Editor : — I may not be regarded 
as a " careful observer," but I will ne- 
vertheless attempt to give my views on 
the causes that kill fruit trees and fruit 
buds. Now, I may err in what I shall 
advance on this subject, for it is a theme 
upon which many singular opinions can 
be put forth, and yet all of tlieni may 
look more or less plausible. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



279 



In the county in which I live, (and it 
is more or less so in all the Northern 
States,) we often, in the winter months, 
have very cold weather, particularly, you 
know, in January and February. The 
bud of the peach tree and other fruit 
trees sometimes expands in the fall, so 
that it is made more or less forward. 
Well, now, the cold weather of January 
comes on ; mercury drops in the tube of 
the thermometer down to 14*^ or 15° 
below zero ; the germ of the bud — a 
little peach in every sense of the word, 
just fairly organized — can not withstand 
this condition of the weather (15° below 
zero) and consequently dies ; and when 
the weather " slackens up," or grows 
more moderate, the small miniature 
peach turns Mack, and never again recov- 
ers from the stroke it has received. The 
tree, which has grown rapidly, the shoots 
of which are vigorous and juicy, also 
receives a death stroke many times 
through intensely cold weather, when 
the thermometer indicates a condition of 
the atmosphere 15° or 20° below zero. 
There is a point in almost every thing 
beyond which it will not do to go. The 
peach tree in our more northern climates 
is particularly subject to be killed by 
frost, and there are counties in New- 
York State where the peach can not be 
raised, the country being too frosty. On 
high elevations it seems to do the best. 
We hear it reported that in Northern 
Illinois the people have not raised many, 
if any peaches, within the last two or 
three years. Why is this ? Plainly be- 
cause the weather was too cold for 
the trees to recover from its effects in 
the spring. The apple and other trees 
also have died in that State, as well as 
in Wisconsin. Now, we have a large 
peach orchard, and in the winter of 1856, 
the weather being very cold, thousands 
of branches died, and I removed them in 
the spring. Our apple trees also suffer- 
ed amazingly hereabouts. Indeed, we 
really thought that a new system of the 
laws of nature had dawned upon us, so 



poorly did many of our quince, apple, 
peach and other trees look. Sometimes, 
very many times, fruit buds are killed 
in consequence of the cause which you 
mention, namely, "« sudden freezing 
after mild weather,'''' but I believe this is 
not the case so frequently as through in- 
tensely cold weather. A peach blossom, 
or any other blossom, will stand quite a 
little frost, and yet the fruit will not be 
materially injured. Now, for instance, 
I have been making an examination of 
some of our peach buds. I notice that 
about two-thirds of them are dead this 
season, while what remain look very 
well. Where the west wind struck the 
most severely during the 24th of Febru- 
ary, or about that time, mercury being 
about 8° or 10° below zero, at that 
point the buds are more frequently dead 
than on the east side of the limbs or 
trees. Immediately after the cold 
" snap," I went into the orchard and 
made the examination, and the buds 
turned out to be dead as above men- 
tioned. We all have our peculiar notions 
about these matters, but I know that a 
shoot on a tree which has had a rapid 
growth during the summer, is most like- 
ly to suffer from the cold of a subsequent 
winter on account of its tender organiza- 
tion. Now, a tree that is thoroughly 
acclimated, a native of the country, will 
stand the winter much better than some 
of " those celebrated imported varieties" 
from France, &c. We can not raise the 
" raisin grape" with any kind of success 
in New-York, and it does not grow very 
well, I believe, in the southern part of 
Ohio. From these observations, if they 
be mainly true, it will be seen at once 
that the weather has its percei)tible 
effects upon trees and their organization.s, 
and that fruit buds must die on peach 
trees when the thermometer indicates 
from 12° to 15° below zero. Apple trt- e 
buds are more hardy, and will come out 
safe many times when the weather is in- 
tensely severe, but when you gather the 
fruit, then you sec what perceptible in- 



280 



HORTICULTURA L 



roads the cold weather of the previous 
winter has made upon your apples, &c. 

About the contraction and expansion 
of water — that matter I shall willingly 
leave to yourself and your correspond- 
ent. The subject is a very good one, 
but how to preserve our trees from the 
effects of cold weather is still more im- 
portant in my opinion. Last winter the 
weather was generally mild, though we 
had our " cold snaps" in February. The 
season, however, promises very well for 
fruit of most kinds. The country will 
not, I think, be over supplied with 
peaches, but aside from this wholesome 
fruit, we may look forward to a bounti- 
ful fruit harvest. 

In conclusion, allow an old reader of 
your journal to express his approval of 
the variety of matter which the " Farm- 
ers' Magazine''' contains. Give us a va- 
riety, with a rich spice of miscellany if 
you please. It is taken for granted, 
though, that you know how to manage 
your own journal. W. Tappan. 

Baldwinsville, Onondaga Co., ) 
N. Y., April 10, 1858. ] 



POWERS OF VEGETATION TO RE- 
SIST EXTREMES OF TEM- 
PERATURE. 

BY A FRIEND. 

It is most essential to the success of 
the operations, both of the agriculturist 
and the horticulturist, that as compre- 
hensive a view as possible should be ob- 
tained of the organization of the vegeta- 
ble kingdom, and of the powers of resis- 
tance that it possesses of the extremes of 
temperature. For although practically 
he may pass through life without ever 
even seeing the moss which in Lapland 
not only lives, but groios beneath the 
snow, and furnishes the frugal meal of 
the docile reindeer, and without boiling 
eggs for his breakf3,st reposed upon the 
herbage which we shall presently advert 
to as growing in the hot springs of the 
Himalaya mountains, yet the know- 
ledge of such powers of endurance in dif- 



ferent families of plants, when combined 
with other knowledge of various descrip- 
tions, connected with the organs of 
plants, tends immensely (if it does no- 
thing else) to make the inquiring agri- 
culturist cautious and careftil in his ex- 
periments, and in the deductions which 
he draws from them. 

Hastily-formed conclusions are seldom 
very accurate in whatever branch of sci- 
entific inquiry they are arrived at, and 
applied to. But in no department of 
practical knowledge is it more needful to 
guard against them, than in the prosecu- 
tion of agricultural pursuits. Slight dif- 
ferences of temperature, of moisture, or 
of atmospheric change, have frequently 
been suflScient to confound and to ob- 
scure the most carefully conducted ex- 
periments. And in the much canvassed, 
but yet unsolved, problem of the potato 
disease, we have at this moment unfor- 
tunately patent evident that our present 
acquirements in agriculture, have by no 
means attained a degree of eflBciency, 
with which we can rest satisfied. 

Nothing is more surprising in the 
study of vegetable physiology than the 
variation of the poicers of endurance of 
the extremes of heat and cold in differ- 
ent families. And this is the more re- 
markable, because those powers appear 
to have little or nothing in connection 
with the texture of their organization. 
In reference to the powers of endurance 
of moisture and drought, it is otherwise, 
at least to a considerable extent. For 
we find the Cacti family, and many 
others that are indigenous to climjites 
that have long seasons of drought, are 
provided with organs that are calculated 
to retain, as it were, reservoirs of mois- 
ture, whilst the organization of their cu- 
ticle is such as to lessen evaporation and 
exhalation from their surface. But 
in regard to the powers of resist- 
ing extremes of heat and cold, many 
families of plants with organizations of 
the most fragile texture, are found to 
have these powers equally ; some as to 
heat, others as to cold. 



PIORTICULTURAL. 



281 



This is a subject that deserves consid- 
eration in connection with the study of 
climate, to which we have directed at- 
tention in recent numbers of this maga- 
zine, and the following description of the 
hot-springs of the Himalaya from Dr. 
Hooker's Journal, to which interesting 
work we referred in a preceding article, 
are well deserving attention : 

" The hot-springs (called Soorujkoond) 
near Belcuppee (altitude 1219 feet) in 
the Beliar Mountains, north-west of Cal- 
cutta, (lat. 24 N., long. 86 E.,) are four 
in number, and rise in as many ruined 
brick tanks about two yards across. 
Another tank fed by a cold spring about 
twice that size flows between two of the 
hot, only two or three paces distant from 
one of the latter on either hand. All 
burst through the Gueiss rocks, meet in 
one stream after a few yards, and are 
conducted by brick canals to a pool of 
cold water about 80 yards off. 

" The temperatures of the hot springs 
were respectively 169°, 170°, 173°, and 
190° of the cold, 84° at 4 P.M., and 75° 
at 7 A.M. the following morning. The 
hottest is the middle of the five. The 
water of the cold spring is sweet but not 
good, and emits gaseous bubbles ; it was 
covered with a green floating conferva. 
Of the four hot springs the most copious 
is about three feet deep, bubbles con- 
stantly, boils eggs, and though brilliantly 
clear, has an exceedingly nauseous taste. 
These and the other warm ones cover 
the bricks and surrounding rocks with a 
thick incrustation of salts. 

" Conferva abounds in the warm stream 
from the springs, and two species, one 
ochreous brown and the other green, oc- 
cur on the margins of the tanks them- 
selves, and in the hottest water ; the 
brown is the best salamander, and forms 
a belt in deeper water than the green ; 
both appear in broad luxuriant strata, 
whenever the temperature is cooled 
down to 168°, and as low as 90°. Of 
flowering plants, three showed in an em- 
inent degree a constitution capable of 



resisting the heat, if not a predilection 
for it ; these were all cyperacea, a cy- 
2)erus, and an elescharis, having their 
roots in water of 100°, and where they 
are probably exposed to greater heat ; 
and a timbristylia at 98° ; all were very 
luxuriant. From the edges of the four 
hot springs I gathered sixteen species of 
flowering plants, and from the cold tank 
five, which did not grow in the hot. A 
water-beetle, colymbetes, and notonecta, 
abounded in water at 112°, with quanti- 
ties of dead shells ; frogs were very live- 
ly, with live shells at 90°, and with va- 
rious other water-beetles. Having no 
means of detecting the salts of this wa- 
ter, I bottled some for future analysis." 
From the foregoing quotation it will 
be perceived that the temperature of the 
hottest spring was 190° Farenheit, which 
is but little below that of boiling water. 
And although not so luxuriant as in the 
cooler springs, yet vegetable life was 
found to exist and grow in that high 
temperature. Had a cabbage or a po- 
tato been placed by the side of the cov^ 
ferva in that spring, it would have been 
soon cooked ready for the dinner table ; 
and the powers of endurance of the ac- 
tion of heat possessed by a living plant, 
therefore, can be easily conceived. 

With such well attested facts before 
us, we may well hesitate before we form 
a decided opinion upon the adaptability 
of any plant of a new character, that it 
may appear desirable to introduce as an 
agricultural crop. It is not possible to 
judge of many, from the result of two or 
three trials only. Because although often- 
times we may be quite right in the view 
we take of our first experiments, yet it 
will frequently occur that until by re- 
peated trials we become by experience 
well acquainted with the constitution of 
a new plant, we may attribute our suc- 
cess or our failure to causes which in 
fact had nothing to do with either. And 
therefore we may so be led into error 
which further experiment would dispel. 
That this is so, will be evident to any 



282 



HORTICULTURAL, 



one who is familiar with the vast changes 
that have taken place within the last tew 
years in the cultivation of fruits and ve- 
getables. Many crops that some years 
back were considered to require years 
(especially in fruits) of previous care of 
the plants to produce them, are now pro- 
duced in less than one. And this with 
things that have been familiar to the 
gardener for above an hundred years. 

In fact the agriculturist no less than 
the horticulturist, who would prosecute 
his calling with due reference to the 
guidance of scientific principles, will ne- 
ver assume that he has arrived at a 
knowledge of the l)est mode of cultivat- 
ing any crop. Whilst he will be cau- 
tious not to experimentalize without due 
regard to prudence and to principles, 
he will nevertheless be ever earnest in 
the " forward" effort, and will take care 
that his labors are as steadily directed 
by his judgment, as his plow is by his 
hand. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

GROWING CUCUMBERS. 

BY A N.H. MAN. 

Something for Boys to do. 

Nothing is more profitable than cu- 
cumbers as a crop. A few hills will 
yield enough fruit to make pickles to 
amount to a much larger sum than any- 
thing that can be planted. The general 
culture of this plant is fully understood ; 
but I find by placing a frame of lattice- 
work for the vines to run upon, the 
yield is much larger, the fruit moi'e 
easily gathered, and is also kept up from 
the ground. The frame is placed near 
the plant, and allowed to slant at an 
angle of forty-five degrees, the vines 
trained upon it, and the cucumbers al- 
lowed to hang through the spaces be- 
tween the slats forming the frame. 

If the fruit is raised to sell, the smaller 
it is the better — from three to four 
inches in length is the proper size. Pick 
QY&tj morning, and lay carefully in bar- 
rels, and cover with whisky (? ! Ed.) and 



water — one part of the latter to three of 
the former. Lay a cloth over the 
pickles, and when more is added take it 
off and rinse it. When the barrel is fall 
head it, and it is ready for market. 

I have known a dozen hills to yield 
two barrels of pickles, which sold read- 
ily for nine dollars per barrel. The bar- 
rels were such as are used to pack pork 
in. Let the boys try raising cucumbers, 
they will at least make enough to spend 
of a "Fourth of July." 

Antrim, Mich., 1858. 

Yes, boys, that is a good thought. 
We will give a beautifully bound volume 
of the Plough, Loom and Anvil to the 
boy who will verify to us the best story 
about growing cucumbers this summer, 
on a plot of not less than one or more 
than two rods. He must give us his 
age ; must do the work with his own 
hands ; give us a handsomely written 
statement of the process and results ; 
and send us the certificate of his father 
and a good neighbor that his statement 
is correct. That will be a sufficient 
guaranty for us, for we do not believe 
any father would wish his son to win by 
a false statement. — Ed. 



THE GARDEN OF THE FARM. 

* 

With ft,ll the improvements, and they 
have been many, three-fourths of the 
farm gardens in the State are still a dis- 
grace to our husbandry. The most 
easily raised vegetables are not to be 
found in them as a rule ; and the small 
fruits, with the exception of currants, are 
the rare exceptions. Not half the farm- 
ers in the State have ever tasted an Early 
York Cabbage. 

If they get cabbages or potatoes at all 
by August 1st, they think they do pretty 
well. They do not understand the sim- 
ple mysteries of a hot-bed, and force no- 
thing. Now, with this article, which 
need not cost five dollars, and which a 
boy of ten years can manage, you can 
have cabbage and potatoes, the last week 
in June, and beans, tomatoes, cucum- 
bers, and squashes, and a host of other 
delicious vegetables a little later. 

By selecting your seed, you can have 
lettuce, green peas, onions and beets, by 



LITERARY. 



283 



the last of June, or before, witliout any 
forcing. A good asparagus bed, cover- 
ing two square rods of land, is a luxury 
that no farmer should be without. It 
will give hira a palatable dish, green and 
succulent from the bosom of the earth 
every day, from May 1st to July. 

A good variety of vegetables is within 
the reach of every farmer the year round. 
They are not only an important means 
of supporting the family, paying at least 
one half of the table expenses, but they 
are conducive to health. They relieve 
the terrible monotony of salt junk, and 
in the warm season prevent the fevers 
and bowel complaints so often induced 
by too much animal food. 

Make your preparations this month 
for a good garden — better by a hundred 
per cent than you have ever had before. 
Got the seeds now, before they are sold. 
Look over the advertising lists, as if they 
were meant for you. If you do not go 
to the market yourself, this is an age of 
expresses, and even post-office carries 
seeds cheap enough for you to use it. 
Cabbage, lettuce, onion, carrots, pars- 
nips, and other seeds can all come by 
mail, at small cost. — The Homestead. 



PRUNING AND MANAGEMENT OF 
BLACK CURRANT. 
Black currants require quite a differ- 
ent system of pruning from the other 
varieties ; the great point to aim at is to 
get as much young wood as possible 
every year from the lower part of the 
tree. This is increased by thinning out 
the old wood from the bottom, and the 
finest fruit is obtained from the young 
wood. In striking the black currant you 
should select young shoots about 10 or 
12 inches long, insert them in the 
ground, with the buds on, about six 
inches. The buds of the other sorts are 
rubbed off except about four, which are 
left on the portion out of gro\md. I 
have had black kinds struck on the same 
system, but they never lasted long ; they 
die off limb by limb about the time they 
ought to make good trees. They like a 
moisture holding soil ; if planted on dry 
ground they suffer much in hot summers. 
Red and white sorts like a much lighter 
soil ; they produce their fruit from spurs 
on the old wood. In pruning cut a por- 
tion of the young wood back evcay j'ear 
and thin according to the growth of the 
tree. — London Gardeners' Chronicle. 



THE HEROINES OF ONEIDA. 

AN ORIGINAL TALE OF NEW-YORK STATE, 
FOUNDED ON FACT. 

[Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 
1852, by J. A. Nash, in the Cleric's oflHce of the 
District Court of the United States, for the South- 
ern District of New-York.] 

[CONCLCDBD FROM THE APRIL NUMBER.] 

Scarcely had young Dean performed 
the last sad duties to his honored pa- 
rents, when the Revolutionary War 
broke out, in which, on one side or on 
the other, red man and white, were 
speedily involved. At such a time mis- 
sionary duties were out of the question ; 
and instead of entering upon them, 
James Dean found himself in 1775 ap- 
pointed Indian agent, (for which office 
his [)revious experience had well fitted 
him,) with the rank of a major in the 
army. The duties connected with his 
new calling he continued to discharge 
throughout the war, being principally 



employed in Oneida and its neighbor- 
hood, where his influence with the In- 
dians was of infinite value to the service. 

About the time the war was growing 
to a close he married ; and when it ceas- 
ed, and his official duties with it, he re- 
minded his Oneida friends of their pro- 
mised gift, a call to which they readily 
responded, and made him a grant of two 
square miles of land near Rome, which 
they subsequently, at his request, ex- 
changed for a tract in Westmoreland, to 
which he removed about 17S6 with his 
newly mai'ried wife. 

The next two or three years of James 
Dean's eventful life were passed in the 
tranquil pursuits of the farmer — clear- 
ing and improving the lands and laying 
the foundation for that scene of future 
development of the resources of that fine 
country which, at the present time, has 
taken the place of his primitive labors. 



284 



LITERARY 



His wife had presented him with two 
pledges of her love. 

It is an opinion strongly maintained 
by some learned men of the present age, 
that amongst the red race of North Am- 
erica is to be found remnants of the lost 
ten tribes of Israel, who, as they con- 
tend, found their way to the north-west- 
ern shores of this continent from the 
north-eastern part of Asia. How far 
the evidence adduced is adequate to war- 
rant this dictum, we can not stop to in- 
quire. Be this as it may, many plausi- 
ble coincidences of customs and habits 
have been brought forward in aid of it, 
and amongst them the fact that in the 
traditions and customs of the Indians at 
the present day, may be traced a simi- 
larity to some of the provisions of the 
Mosaic laws too specific to be rationally 
accounted for, except on the supposition 
that they both owed their existence to a 
common origin. The custom that we 
are about to mention is one of these co- 
incidences. 

Amongst the Oneidas and some of the 
neighboring tribes, a custom has from 
time immemorial prevailed, that if one 
of their number is murdered, the nearest 
relative of the victim shall follow the 
murderer and avenge his death if it be 
committed by a member of the same 
tribe. But if by a member of another 
tribe, then it becomes the duty of the 
whole tribe to take the matter under 
their cognizance, and to inflict retribu- 
tion by seizing and immolating a man of 
the tribe to which the murderer belongs. 

This custom or law of their polity is 
not regarded simply as an act of retribu- 
tive justice or of personal revenge; but 
as being essential to the happiness of 
the departed spirit of the victim. And 
it is looked upon, therefore, as a religi- 
ous duty agreeable to the will of the 
Great Spirit. It is in this assumed ori- 
gin of the custom itself, as emanating 
from the supernatural source, that the 
presumed connection exists, which some 
persons see between the Mosaic and this 



Indian law. Because were that wanting, 
the vengeful passions of human nature, 
especially in the unciviMzed state, (and, 
alas, it is scarcely needful to refer to 
that,) are amply sufficient otherwise to 
account for the practice of the righteous 
law of blood for blood. 

During the years that had elapsed 
since Dean's youthful domicile amongst 
them, his friends amongst the elder 
chiefs had many of them died, and most 
of the leading men were now those, who 
at that period were mere boys. The na- 
tural consequence of which was, that as 
Dean had long ceased to have any con- 
nection with the tribe, except in his of- 
ficial character of Indian agent, and as 
that had now also ceased for some years, 
his ties with the tribe were limited to 
the few remaining old friends of his early 
life. Of these Han Yerry and his wife, 
who adopted him as her son on his ad- 
mission to the tribe, and his friend Omi 
with Howala, who had become his wife, 
and her mother Hama, still survived. 
Faithful to their grateful remembrance 
of him, these kind-hearted redskins paid 
him periodical visits, and evinced to- 
wards him a warmth of gratitude and 
strength of aflfection, that in the civilized 
world too frequently is lost in that self- 
ish indifierence and forgetfulness of our 
benefactors, which affords but poor tes- 
timony in favor of the improvement, that 
the culture of the mind, is said to pro- 
duce upon the feelings of the heart. 

An event, however, now occurred that 
brought Dean again, for a short time, in- 
timately in contact with his Indian tribe. 

About three years after James Dean 
had settled upon his Indian grant, it 
happened that one of the Oneida Indians 
was murdered by a white man. That 
he was a white was known to them, but 
all attempts to trace the murderer proved 
futile. 

In this state of things the chiefs of the 
tribe held a council to determine upon 
the course to be adopted. That some 
white man must be sacrificed to satisfy 



LITERARY 



285 



the requirements of their ideas of duty, 
was unquestionable ; but the mode to be 
adopted to eflfect that, and the selection 
of the victim, became the subject of long 
debate. Some of the younger chiefs 
proposed that Dean should be selected 
for the purpose. He was well known to 
them from the office he had held, and 
was therefore assumed to be a man of 
great influence and character amongst 
the whites. They therefore urged that 
his immolation would be calculated to 
strike terror into the whites, and be a 
probable means of rendering it less like- 
ly that they would again be guilty of a 
repetition of the crime, on account of 
which the Oneidas purposed to take his 
life. 

Against this it was urged by older 
members of the tribe, that Dean having 
been in early life adopted as a son into 
the tribe, could not without breach of 
honor and an outrage on their own in- 
ternal polity, be now treated as a stran- 
ger. And further, that his death would 
not, on account of the relationship into 
which they had taken him, satisfy the 
requirements of their law, or rather, that 
it would be inefficient to give peace to 
the spirit of their murdered brother; 
seeing that as the murderer did not be- 
long to the Oneidas, the atonement for 
the offense must be made by the death 
of one of that tribe to which the mur- 
derer himself belonged, and this, it was 
contented Dean could not be considered 
to be, since his adoption into the Oneida 
tribe. This view of the question it may 
well be supposed was strenuously sup- 
ported by Han Yerry. , The council 
broke up, however, without any decision 
being agreed upon, and the subject was 
left open for further discussion. 

Knowing the revengeful character of 
his associates, and seeing that the chiefs 
favorably disposed towards Dean were 
in a fearful minority, Han Yerry's mind 
foreboded an unfavorable result, and his 
heart yearned towards his tohite son 
with the affection almost of a parent 



He was nevertheless, as an Indian, a 
stei'n disciplinarian, and regarded sub- 
mission to the customs of his tribe and 
conformity to their solemn decisions, as 
duties to which private feelings must 
give place. Still he had sworn to be the 
friend for life of Dean, and the struggle 
in his savage breast, to satisfy his sense 
of duty to his tribe, and at the same 
time to his friend, gave rise to emotions 
that he could not conceal from his Squaw. 
Though children of the forest, their de- 
votion to each other had given rise to, 
and kept alive feelings as keen, and ob- 
servant eyes as sensitive, to detect the 
sorrows of each other, as if these esti- 
mable, but too often absent, amenities of 
married life, had resulted from the refine- 
ment of highly cultivated minds. 

The deliberations of chiefs in council 
were secret ; no women were allowed to 
take part in them, or to be present when 
they were held. Nor were the chiefs 
permitted to divulge the result of their 
decisions, until they were formally an- 
nounced to the tribe by the head chief 

The state of mind which the conflict 
in his breast produced, rendered it im- 
possible for Han Yerry to conceal from 
his wife that some unusual excitement, 
of no ordinary character, was harrowing 
his most sensitive feelings. 

Seeing that it was impossible for him 
to avoid some violence on one side or the 
other to what he deemed to be his strict 
line of duty — for he must either divulge 
the proceedings of his council, or run 
imminent risk of sacrificing the life of 
his friend — Han Yerry resolved to tell 
his wife the true cause of his distress. 
He knew well his Squaw's energetic cha- 
racter, and her tender regard for Dean ; 
and it is by no means impossible that he 
thought it likely that her fertile imagi- 
nation and ingenuity would devise a way 
to save their friend, without his own 
honor being directly compromised in the 
transaction. 

The ipstant that Han Yerry had made 
this unlooked-for communication to his 



286 



LITERARY, 



wife, she understood the delicacy and 
difficulty of her husband's position, no 
less than the danger of her adopted son. 
The fire of woman's anger flashed for 
the moment in her eye, with the vivid- 
ness of lightning. But as transient as 
lightning Avas its presence. Thoughtful 
for a few minutes she sat motionless ; 
then springing from her seat she ex- 
claimed : 

" By the Great Spirit, Han Yerry, our 
white son shall not die ! But leave all 
to me. Do your duty, and I will do 
mine. You see this cup of water. When 
the council have decided, if our son is 
safe drink it ; if not, pour it out on the 
ground." 

Having said this Onata, without wait- 
ing for a reply, ran at once to her friends 
Howala and Hama, whose affection for 
Dean she knew to be little less than her 
own, and in conclave together the three 
heroines (for such the sequel will dis- 
close they proved themselves) meditated 
over the matter. Numerous were the 
plans that they discussed, first adopt- 
ing and then rejecting them, for securing 
the safety of their friend. At length 
they resolved upon their course. 

No sooner had this been resolved up- 
on than Onata started off to apprise 
Dean of his danger, and to prepare him 
for its consequences. He was, as may 
be supposed, astounded at the announce- 
ment, and had he not known that he 
could place the most implicit reliance on 
his informant, he would have distrusted 
the correctness of the intelligence. Hav- 
ing told him all she knew, her aged 
cheeks the while overspread with tears, 
she desired him to remain quiet. To 
take no step himself for security, nor to 
attempt escape, assuring him that should 
her tribe, unfaithful to him as their son, 
and ungrateful for the many services 
he had rendered them, determine upon 
his destruction, that she had secured a 
mode of escape ; but she steadfastly re- 
fused to disclose to him the means by 
which it was to be effected. To his 



earnest desire to know how she could 
be sure of success, her only reply was : 
" My son, you are safe ; the Great Spirit 
has given your life to me. You will be 
safe." 

Notwithstanding his confidence in the 
sincerity of his Indian mother, and his 
knowledge of her ability in that peculiar 
species of cunning which forms so prom- 
inent a feature in the life of uncivilized 
man, he was by no means so confident 
that he was as remote from the threat- 
ened danger as she had assured him. 

His first thought was to fly instantly ; 
but the impracticability of removing his 
wife and children, one an infant, with- 
out exciting suspicion in the Oneidas, 
by whom the vicinity of his abode was 
thickly surrounded, precluded the pos- 
sibility of making the attempt. He re- 
solved, therefore, to wait the course of 
events until some mode appeared possi- 
ble to avert the catastrophe. And 
knowing that to tell his wife of the 
threatened danger, would only be to 
create a pang of misery which he would 
have no mode of soothing, he determined 
to confine to his own breast a woe that 
providence alone could avert. 

The councils were renewed from time 
to time, and were as often postponed 
through the strenuous eflforts made by 
the chiefs friendly to Dean to save him, 
for several weeks, until at length the fa- 
tal die was cast, and the formal decision 
came to that Dean must expiate with his 
blood the crime of the unknown mur- 
derer. 

Han Yerry and his wife had by a kind 
of tacit consent observed to each other a 
perfect silence on the subject of the 
coimcils ; but no sooner had the dread- 
ful issue of the deliberations been pro- 
nounced, than Han Yerry hurried home, 
took up the cup of water, and dashed it 
to the ground. 

His wife turned pale on the instant ; 
the next, recalled the lightning to her 
eagle eye, and she ran with the speed of 
the antelope (for woman's vengeance 



LITERARY, 



287 



nerved her aged limbs) to join her con- 
federates on mercy's errand. 

A bitter winter's night had closed in 
with unusual severity around James 
Dean's woodland home ; the wind rush- 
ing in gushes through the leafless forest, 
lulled for the moment only to gather 
strength, as it seemed, to reiterate with 
redoubled might its previous efforts to 
drive all obstacles before it, that crossed 
its boisterous tract. The rain, made 
plaything by the air, was hurried down- 
ward and onward by its impetuous force, 
and threatened to beat in the well-barred 
door. 

Dean awoke by the uproar of the con- 
tending elements, lay pondering over 
the phases of his dangerous position ; 
and calculating in every way his imagi- 
nation could devise, the chances of his 
o'erhanging fate. 

The gale lulled for a few minutes, and 
he was again trying to sleep, (a solace 
and relief that for some weeks now, his 
anxieties for those to him more dear 
than .self, had almost denied his wearied 
frame,) when to his horror the war 
whoop of the Oneidas burst suddenly 
upon his maddened ear, and he doubted 
not that he was the object of their rage. 

Waking his loved wife, he quickly 
now told her his fears, desiring her to 
keep quiet with her little ones, whilst he 
went to receive the Indians in the ad- 
joining room, and endeavored to turn 
them from their purpose. Commending 
his wife and children to Him who careth 
for the widow, but with aching heart, 
(for he presumed his Indian mother had 
failed in. her intended purpo.se for his 
relief) he left his wretched family, and 
went to meet his fate. 

Eighteen chiefs entered, whose solemn 
countenances and war-dresses at once 
announced their purpose. Amongst 
them was Han Yerry, whose downcast 
aspect and heaving breast, bespoke the 
wretchedness that dwelt within ! 

The head chief immediately entered 
upon the object of their visit. 



" We come," said he, " to take your 
life ! To you we bear no ill ; but the 
justice of our ways demand it. One of 
our brothers has been killed by a white 
man ; and in the world of spirits he can 
not have peace till we have given to the 
Great Spirit a white man's life. Our 
council has resolved that yours must be 
that life, and duty, therefore, brings us 
here. You must die. If you have a 
word to speak, we will hear." 

" My friends," said Dean, " you do 
me much wrong ; and yourselves no 
less. Although a white man, I am one 
of you. You took me for a son into 
your tribe. You taught me your ways 
of living, and your laws ; and by your 
laws, you know that you must seek ven- 
geance of the murderer's tribe ; not of 
your own. I therefore am free, and 
your council must think again. Be- 
sides, was I not of your ti'ibe, would 
the Oneidas take the life of an old friend 
that has for years brought benefits upon 
them ? Would you make my poor wife 
a widow, and my dear children father- 
less ? No, no, Oneidas, I know you 
well. You have warm hearts, and love 
your own dear pappooses too well to 
wish to see mine wretched and forlorn." 

" We know you well," replied the 
chief, "and sorry are we for your fate. 
'Tis not for vengeance that we seek your 
life, but for the happiness of our poor 
muudered brother. True, you are our 
son, but you are white man still, and 
that will satisfy the Great Spirit. For 
your wife, your children, we will well 
provide. Your land shall be theirs, and 
more will we give them if they want, as 
we gave this to you. But you must die. 
Our chiefs in council have the death-lot 
cast, and so must your lot be." 

Poor Dean felt that his chance of life 
was ebbing fast, without vestige of hope, 
when suddenly the door opened, and 
Onata entered the apartment. She stood 
by the entrance without speaking. An- 
other minute and Ilowala entered also, 
and stood beside her companion ; a 



288 



LITERARY. 



pause, occasioned by so unwonted an 
inti-usion, was broken by the door 
opening a third time, and Hama appear- 
ed, and placed herself by the other two 
women. The three stood motionless, 
with their blankets drawn closely around 
them. 

The chiefs appeared to be astounded 
at the hardihood that had induced the 
women to intrude into their presence, 
when they were met in council ; and for 
a little time they waited in silence, ap- 
parently expecting the women to tell 
the purport of their visit. The latter, 
however, neither moved nor spoke. 

At length one of the chiefs desired the 
women to retire. As before, they re- 
mained motionless and silent. 

The head chief then addressed them, 
commanding them instantly to quit the 
place, and leave them to finish their 
business. 

Onata immediately replied, 

" Oneidas, I know your business here. 
You come to take this good white man's 
life. He is my son — your son, for you 
gave him to me for the tribe, and he is 
one of us. But he is more ; he is our 
friend with the white man. He has for 
a hundred moons been ftiithful to us, and 
has made the white mans of this coun- 
try love us. He has saved our brother 
Omi's life, and for it, all but gave his 
own. Curst be that chief that scalps 
this white man's head. He is my^son, 
he is son to Omi's mother and his wife 
now here, and the first blow that falls 
upon his head shall plunge these scalp- 
ing knives into our breasts. Never shall 
Oneida's daughters live to see that white 
man murdered by his friends." 

As she gave utterance, with the ve- 
hemence of intense passion, to the con- 
cluding words of her harangue, the three 
heroines opened their blankets and dis- 
played each, in their upraised hands, a 
gleaming blade, the bright luster of 
which afforded evidence that their re- 
solves were not empty threats. 

Had a tlnmderbolt descended from the 



stormy heavens above them, the effect 
upon the chiefs could not have been 
more electric. They seemed petrified 
and lost in astonishment at the scene 
before them, and they gazed for a short 
time vacantly around. 

Han Yerry, availing himself of the 
consternation and uncertainty which he 
saw visible in their countenances, ex- 
claimed, 

" Oniedas, we are wrong ! The Great 
Spirit has caused this. These women 
could not do this but for Him. Let us 
reverse the decree. 'Tis not his will 
that the white man should die !" 

Lost in amazement, the chiefs unani- 
mously adopted Han Yerry's proposal, 
the decree was reversed on the spot, and 
James Dean owed his life to 

The Heroines op Oneida. 

Note. — The leading incidents in the 
above tale in the life of the Dean family 
are founded on fact, with the exception 
of that with which it opens relative to 
the little girl's visit for twenty-four 
hours to the Indians. This, however, is 
a true account of a similar circumstance 
that occurred to another family about 
the same period of time. It has been 
introduced to increase the interest of the 
narrative, as well as to point out the inv- 
portance of circumspection in the exer- 
cise of a sound discretion in our conduct 
to others. 

The influence that slight circumstances 
frequently exercise upon our future wel- 
fare, is oftentimes far beyond their ap- 
parent sphere. A courteous word or 
even gesture has often won an opinion, 
that subsequent intercourse has ripened 
into esteem and friendship. And few 
people, we fear, have arrived at what 
are usually called "years of discretion," 
without being able to charge themselves 
with many instances oi indiscretion that 
have weighed, in their unforeseen re- 
sults, heavily upon their after hfe. 

We must not close this note without 
adding that meed of praise which the 
female character undoubtedly deserves, 
when viewed in the general, for perse- 
verance and true moral courage. In the 
hour of difficulty and danger, whatever 
may be its kind, both history and daily 
experience prove that (after the first 



LITERARY. 



289 



outburst of alarm) the weaker sex al- 
most universally at such times sets an 
example of energy, combined with pa- 
tience, endurance and resignation which 
her stronger helpmate finds a useful 
stimulus to his failing powers ! 



For the Am. Parmer's Magasine. 

CULTURE OF THE MIND. 

BY WM. H. GAIGE. 

" Mind makes the man — 
Want of it the fellow." 

This motto, somewhat altered from 
Pope, has a peculiar bearing upon the 
agriculturist. The farmer possesses all 
the advantages of other classes of the 
community ; and if he will improve his 
mind, his influence will be as potent, and 
his example as salutary, as the influence 
and example of any other profession. 
The richest soil will produce neither 
bread nor meat without culture. Good 
culture not only improves the mind and 
fits it for high mental qualification and 
enjoyment, but it lightens the toils and 
greatly increases the profits of labor. 
Franklin owed his usefulness, his fortune 
and his fame to his early habits of study, 
of industry, and of virtue. Without 
these early habits he probably would 
have risen to neither fortune nor fame. 

Some minds, like some soils, are richer 
than others, j'et even apparently sterile 
minds like unfertile soils may by good 
culture be made to yield great retm-ns. 
However menial and servile agricultural 
labor jnay have been considered among 
the privileged classes of Europe, and 
however degrading it may yet be held 
by the would-be aristocracy of America, 
it has commanded the highest respects 
of good men in every age, and constitu- 
ted in our country the favorite study of 
a Washington, a Jefferson, a Jackson, a 
Madison, a Monroe, and a Humphrey, of 
an Livingston, a Shelby, an Armstrong. 
a Lowell, a Lincoln, and a great many 
others whose names will stand out in 
bold relief among the future annals of 
our country. Let then no young aspi- 
rant for fame and usefulness shun rural 
19 



employment because it does not feed his 
hopes of distinction, and let no one en- 
gaged in this employment forego the op- 
portunity which his condition presents 
of cultivating his mind as the surest 
means of sinking the fellow and rising 
to the dignity of the man. 

CuAUMONT, N. Y., March 3, 1858. 



From Dr. Waterhury's Lectures on Physiology and 
Natural History. 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE 
YOUNG— THE CAT'S PAW. 

Fair and softly Miss Pussy ! Come 
and sit with us a minute. We'll smooth 
your back until you purr-.— become mag- 
netized, as our friends the mesmerists 
would say, and then you must let us 
look at your foot, that dainty little foot 
of yours, that you take such nice care 
to keep from the wet. 

First let us notice the soft pad at the 
bottom, on which she treads. How 
noiselessly she steals along through the * 
dark ! When she approaches, the long 
ears of the mouse, though they can de- 
tect the slightest rustle, hear no sound. 
When the ox or the horse moves as 
swiftly, the very earth trembles beneath 
his tread ; but the whole cat tribe steal 
on their prey and doom them in death- 
like stillness. 

Both these tribes of animals are alike 
in this — they walk on the ends of their 
toes ; that is, what corresponds to the 
toes in man. Hence they are called dig- 
itigrades ; to distinguish them from such 
fiat-footed animals as we, and the bears — 
the plantigrades. 

The feet of digitigrades are all made 
after one plan. In the horse and cow 
the toe nails are very thick and stout ; 
in fact are hoofs, and enclose the pad, 
which is then almost as hard as horn, 
and is called the frog: In the horse 
there is but one toe, and consequently 
but one toe nail on each foot ; but that 
one is made very large and hard, in order 
to bear fast travel on firm ground. In 
this respect the foot of the horse corre- 
sponds in structure to the iron rails on a 
railroad ; while the cloven foot of the ox 
and other ruminating animals more 
nearly corresponds to the mechanism of 
a plank road. Hence the horse prefers 
dry, hard ground, and shuns wet, 
swampy places, for when his foot is once 
sunk in the mire, it is very difficult to 
draw out. 



290 



LITERARY. 



When the ox, however, treads on soft 
ground, his split hoof spreads a little as 
it sinks into the earth, so that when he 
begins to extract it, it becomes smnller, 
and comes out more readily. Hence 
oxen are better adapted than horses to 
boggy ground or deep snow, and this 
structure of the foot allows of a habit 
cows have of frequenting marshy pools 
in hot weather. 

In the reindeer, an animal made to 
inhabit the polar regions, the two rudi- 
■Vnentary toes above the heel, which in 
oxen and swine are called dew claim^ are 
so large as to be used in deep snow, like 
the other toes ; thus making the ani- 
mal's foot spread over a great surface, 
like a snow-shoe ; yet when the foot has 
sunk into the snow, it is di'awn out as 
readily as that of the ox. The feet of 
birds that wade in marshes are made 
after the same plan, and for the same 
reason. 

When we place the finger on the pad 
under the cat's foot, and press gently on 
the upper side of the toes with the 
thumb, four sharp claws protrude. 
Their points are like needles. The dog, 
the squirrel, and the woodchuck also 
have claws, but they are so exposed to 
the weather and the dirt, that they are 
dull. How are the cat's claws kept 
sharp ? 

By a very simple and beautiful ar- 
rangement. The last joint of the toe, 
that which supports the claw, doubles 
hachcard and to one side, into the 
space between two toes ; so that when 
she walks she does not, like other ani- 
mals, put that joint foremost, but rather 
the second joint. When the nails, to- 
gether with the last joint, are doubled 
back in this way into the space between 
two toes, the cords which run to them 
are placed at such disadvantage that they 
can only move the toes for the purpose 
of walking. When the cat seizes her 
prey, however, a little muscle throws 
the last joint of the toe, that which sup- 
ports the claw, over into the same posi- 
tion as in other animals, and then the 
claw is driven by the same muscle and 
with the same power with which the 
animal moves the foot. The tiger wields 
these terrible weapons with as much 
force as a horse kicks ; so that a single 
blow from the front side of one of his 
claws, as the beast was leaping over, 
has been known to fracture the skull of 
a man. 

In animals like the squirrel, made to 



inhabit trees, the claws are intended for 
holding fast to the bark, and so are not 
retractile like those of the cat tribe. 
One of the toes also is turned backwards, 
so as to act like a thumb in clinging to 
limbs and in holding nuts. By means 
of these thumb-like toes, squirrels run 
down a tree almost as readily as up. 

In the sloth, a South American animal 
that lives almost exclusively in trees, 
hanging by its fore paws, the claws of 
the fore feet are enormously large and 
long — quite too large to be retracted 
like those of the cat. When on the 
ground, they must be doubled directly 
under the foot, so that the animal walks 
very awkwardly, as it were on its knuc- 
kles. 

Mr. Jefferson, having discovered some 
of the claws and bones of the foot of an 
extinct animal of this sort, supposed 
they must have belonged to a kind of 
lion, as large as an elephant. He sent 
the bones to M. Cuvier, the great French 
naturalist, who, on examining them, 
could find no marks of the backward 
and sidewise joint, that exists in the cat 
tribe, and so concluded the animal to 
have been rather a hugh sloth, than a 
lion. 



SCEAPS OF TENNESSEE. 

BY A. L. B., A TENNESSEAN. 

It has been but about two centuries 
since the first one of the Japhetic race 
set foot upon the soil of this new well 
peopled State. The sons of Shem, found 
here, had no scepter of empire or of ef- 
fectual government. Possessing some 
art, they had cultivated the soil but lit- 
tle, they were idolatrous in religion, in 
fact but little less savage than the wild 
beasts upon which they lived. No refu- 
gee from Ham's progeny had escaped 
hither. The Red man had absolute 
sway. The Christian had not long ti'a- 
versed the country until he named the 
country in tragical parlance the " Bloody 
ground." Penetrating still deeper into 
her unbroken cane brakes he added 
' 'The darJc and bloody ground." Digest- 
ing what of history relative to Tennessee, 
it was in 1665 or thereabouts that the 
first white man inhaled the vital fluid, 
or ti-od the ground of Tennessee. The 



LITERARY 



291 



company was from Yirj^inia. The buf- 
falo, bear, panther, wolf, deer, and other 
wild beasts fed in thousands on the liigh 
rustling cane, or skulked in the dark 
ravine to grind the bones of the lesser 
animals. The Indian's arrow had no 
music or fire to alarm them. If their 
then taraeness could be now experienced 
or told, the sight or recital would doubt- 
less astonish the most valiant. Mo.>t of 
the animals named have followed or re- 
ceded in advance of their landlords, 
westward, for westward the star of 
Empire took its way. Well might the 
sturdy pioneer in the year stated ex- 
claim, " I am richer than he who had 
his flocks of a thousand hills," because 
he knew no king but God. These 
twenty decades have passed away. How ? 
The Tennessee pioneer suffered, lived, 
and died. "What were his feats of daring 
will never be half told — no historian has 
performed half the task. Yet upon the 
true heart of every Tennessean is in- 
scribed as upon a lasting cenotaph some 
of the honor's due, " requiescat in pace " 
for Olim meminisse jnvabit. There is 
a melancholy consolation in retrospect of 
the past, though the life's blood of many 
watered the ground under the stroke of 
the tomahawk of the swifter savage. 
The future recollection will be pleasing, 
when we compare what Tennessee is to 
be, and what she now is. I will leap 
over the jpace intimated as perhaps un- 
interesting, and proceed to quote from 
recent data. 

In 18-50 Tennessee had attained a high 
rank in comparison with her sisters. 
The euphony of the Indian Tanasee was 
nobly contended for in the United States 
Congress as the appropriate name for 
this territory by her valiant son, Jack- 
son. The independent integral Frank- 
lin or Frankland, as a sovereign state, 
had died away. The name, in Indian 
dialect meaning "a .spoon," was given 
instead. She wears the euphony brighter 
and more beautiful, whilst the emblem, 
the spoon, obtains. .Some idea, I think, 



in that name. She has an area of 
45,fi00 square miles, five-sixths arable— 
in size is about medium in the sister 
family. She had over one million of in- 
habitants, being the fifth in population 
in the Union. In improved acres the 
eighth. In live stock the seventh. She 
produced 52,137,863 bushels of Indian 
corn, while ten years before she exceed- 
ed all her sisters in the growth of this 
valuable cereal. But she stands at the 
head of the galaxy in home made manu- 
factures, and averaged about $3 to head 
of population in value of articles sold 
that year. She strikes hands with eight 
of her sisters in geographical location, 
an emblem I claim of the social charac- 
ter of her children. Two Presidents 
have hailed from her border. I don't 
mean to discuss whether the old Domin- 
ion is justly entitled to the appellation 
of the mother of statesmen, but I claim 
Tennessee, as have others, to be the 
mother of States. She has peopled 
more States than any other. For the 
truth of this proposition I refer to the 
emigrants in all the States south and 
west of her. The warlike and lethal 
weapon of the Tennessee soldier ha.^ 
been beaten into plowshares and pruning- 
hooks, and from her fertile knobs and 
loamy valleys, and still more productivi 
bottoms, she has now in store from the 
crop of 1857 a surplus of the necessaries 
of fife sufficient to feed for the present 
year twice her population. All you 
have to do is send in your orders, and 
we would like to have you all speak at 
once. More anon. 

Mill Bend, Tenn., March 5, 1858. 



For the Araorican Farmers' Magazine. 

INSTITUTIONS OF MICHIGAN— 
HER PROSPECTS. 



B Y A N E W-Y OK K E R . 

An Eastern man being asked his opin- 
ion of the West, replied, " It is a most 
beautiful countiy, and for farming can 
not be surpa.'Jsed, but, for ni}' part, I 
had rather live at my old home \u th 



292 



LITERARY. 



East, where I can see hundreds of young 
people pass my window daily to and 
from the halls of learning, than be pro- 
prietor of the most extensive farm in the 
West." He loved learning, and loved 
to see those who were acquiring it. But 
the "West will not always remain behind 
in this important particular. Already 
has a decided stand been taken in favor 
of education. Michigan can claim warm- 
est praise for the part she is taking in 
the cause of education. The same in- 
terest that prevails at the East in regard 
to educational privileges, is noticeable 
here. The fact that the only Agricultu- 
ral College in the United States is located 
in this State, is a favorable indication 
that, ere long, she may rank among the 
first in education, if not in agriculture. 

Michigan has won the title of a tem- 
perance State by the decided interest 
she has manifested in favor of this 
cause. Temperance organizations were 
formed, and the beneficial results were 
apparent from the influence they pos- 
sessed. Such seeming the earnest wish 
of the people, a prohibitory law was 
passed. For a time the good efforts of 
such a law was seen ; but the ofiBcers 
whose duty it was to enforce it, for fear 
of losing their offices, ceased to prose- 
cute its violators, and, until quite re- 
cently, no efiect has been made to stop 
the sale of liquor. Now, however, we 
are glad to observe that the people are 
taking the matter in hand, and in the 
towns where prosecutions have taken 
place, no liquor is sold publicly, except 
for medicinal purposes. If the thing is 
pushed forward, Michigan may deserve 
the name of a " Temperance State." 

If there is anything in which this 
State is deficient, it is her Press. The 
number of her presses is large enough, 
but they seem to be in the hands of par- 
ty demagogues, who look only to their 
own interests. The press does not ex- 
ert that influence it is capable of produc- 
ing. A turbid river bears a ship upon 
its bosom quite as well as though its 



waters were clear ; but when drank, the 
water does not quench thirst, but pro- 
duces sickness. The press of Michigan 
bears ne%Ds to its patrons ; but the moral 
tone which should pervade the columns 
of all newspapers, is seldom found in 
those published in this State. 'Tis true 
there are a few excellent papers pub- 
lished here, but their numbers should 
be multiplied. 

A large number of the farmers in this 
section commenced their labors without 
sufficient capital, and a kind of " slip- 
shod" method of farming has, in many 
instances, been commenced. A patch 
of "girdlings" in the edge of the forest, 
and a log house among them are indica- 
tions of this kind of farming. But thrift 
is visible in many places. Elegant farm- 
houses are being reared around us, and 
the march of imrpovement is apparent. 
Here, too, can be witnessed the almost 
wonderful eflTects of draining. Our 
farmers know the value of this inven- 
tion, and their marshes are transformed 
into the most beautiful meadows by a 
thorough practice of this system. 

The winter of 1857 destroyed nearly 
all the peach trees here, and fruit grow- 
ers seem to think it useless to try again 
to establish this fruit. Other fi-uit flour- 
ishes well, and in a few years fruit will 
become one of the principal productions 
of the State. 

The abundant yield of grain, and the 
high prices of 1856, induced the farmers 
to contract debts, which they intended 
to liquidate this fall ; this could have 
been done readilj^ enough had the prices 
for grain remained high, but the ex- 
tremely low prices has made the farmers 
unable to meet the demands of the store- 
keeper. In many cases the prices paid 
for grain will scarcely pay for carrying 
it to market. The merchant becomes 
enraged at the long delay of the farmer 
in making payments, and dispatches an 
officer to enforce payment. Thus it hap- 
pens that many are sued for debt who 
never were before sued in their lives. 



LITERARY 



293 



The farmer's credit is impaired — for the 
merchant spares no one — and in many 
cases discouragement comes upon the 
new-comer, who is not long in denounc- 
ing the tradesmen of the West. The 
press is unjust in its censure of the 
farmers for not selHng their grain when 
the prices will not pay for harvesting. 

Michigan needs union of sentiment. 
There are so many who entertain differ- 
ent thoughts on subjects of interest. I 
have seen a man disregard his own in- 
terest, for the sake of opposing the 
wishes of his neighbor. This feature 
can be observed to a greater extent in 
Michigan than in the State of New- York. 
Give this State union of sentiment, and 
a free, unsullied, uncontaminated press^ 
and she will rank among the first States 
in the Union in every particular. 

0. A. GOOLD. 

Antrim, Mich., Feb., 1858. 
SPRING. 

AN ACROSTIC. — BY J. MC. C. 

S-pring with its balmy air invites the muse witli 

tender strain, 
P-ortraying with a gentle hand its sunshine and its 

rain, 
E-eflecting in its ope'ning flowers the life and bUss 

and love — 
I-n store for every child of God in yonder courts 

above ; 
N-ew pleasures there will fill the soul, — no winter 

with the spring — 
6-ive then your heart unto your God, — an humble 

offering. 
New-Yoek, 1858. 



(From the British Tribune, Canada West.) 

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

Celtic was the language originally 
spoken by our ancestors, which, by suc- 
cessive invasions, gradually changed its 
form into the Anglo-Saxon, which be- 
came developed into our modern Eng- 
lish. Chaucer and Wickliife were the 
first to make use of the spoken language 
in writing ; and hence our language is 
not yet five hundred years old. It as- 
sumed in the Elizabcthian age its most 
perfect form. The received Vernacular 
Bible has helped to render our language 
more stable. Our language has never 
yet been equalled, take it in all its 
branches. It is more widely spoken 



than any language under the sun ; and 
it is highly probable that it will, in fu- 
ture, become the universal tongue. That 
is to ray mind its glorious destiny. 

READING FOR FARMERS AND 
MECHANICS. ' 

Mr Editor : — Believing the old adage 
to be no less true at the present time 
than in its infancy that " reading is the 
avenue which leads to intellectual great- 
ness" and feeling it the duty of man, 
whatever may be his profession to secure 
for himself the benefit of the experiences 
and investigations of others, I have 
thought proper to solicit a space in your 
columns in which to offer a few sugges- 
tions on the propriety of the farmers of 
this county securing for themselves more 
agricultural reading matter, and not only 
the farmer but the mechanic should be 
supplied with a journal containing well- 
considered, reliable articles on all the 
leading questions which directly and 
materially affect the interests of both. I 
believe that every man should be intelli- 
gent in his business, that the great in- 
dustry of the country should be wisely 
conducted, that it is simple nonsense for 
him who "feeds the race" and who 
" smites the soil and the harvest comes 
forth" to remain forever in the furrow, or 
the wielder of the plane and mallet to for 
ever lie hidden beneath the litter from 
his bench. I would that every laboring 
man would feel the importance of taking 
that position among his fellows which 
belongs to those who hold the balance of 
the world's life in their stalwart hands. — 
Oourtland County liepublican. 



U^" Great men never swell. It is 
only your " three-cent individuals," who 
are salaried at the rate of two hundred 
dollars a year, and dine on potatoes and 
dried herring, who put on airs and 
(lashy waistcoats, swell, blow, and en- 
deavor to give themselves a consequen- 
tial appearance. No discriminating per- 
son need ever mistake the spurious for 
the genuine article. The difference be- 
tween the two is as great as that between 
a barrel of vinegar and a bottle of the 
" pure juice of the grape." 



•294 



SCIENTIFIC 



CHEMICAL. 

Ammonia. 
The fact stated in our last, that cer- 
tain substances, usually found on the 
farm, or, if not found there, easily ob- 
tained, as clay, charcoal, and swamp 
mud, or peat, have a strong attraction 
for ammonia, affords ground for a prac- 
tical application to farm practice. 

Clay and charcoal are the two sub- 
stances to be relied upon for retaining the 
ammonia of manures. It is tiue there 
are other substances which will answer 
the purpose. Sulphuric acid, for in- 
stance, if diluted with water and sprin- 
kled about the stalls and the fermenting 
manure heaps, will change the carbonate 
of ammonia into a sulphate, which is not 
volatile, and will therefore prevent the 
dissipation of the non-volatile carbonate. 
Muriatic acid produces a like effect — 
changes the volatile carbonate of ammo- 
nia into a non-volatile muriate, and thus 
prevents its escape. Plaster, to a limit- 
ed extent, and especially in a moist state, 
produces a similar effect. 

But the farmer wculd sooner use such 
substances as his own farm affords than be 
dealing with the apothecary. Sulphuric 
acid is sold by the quantity for 2^ cents 
a pound. Country apothecaries seldom 
charge less than 12^ for small quanti- 
ties. Besides, these acids are not things 
that the farmer is much conversant 
with. They are unsafe, unless managed 
with discretion and care. Practically, 
then, clay and charcoal are the sub- 
stances to be relied on for retaining am- 
monia. 

Clay, constituting as it does a portion, 
though in some cases a very small por- 
tion, of all soils, is the principal thing 
which gives them the power of retaining 
ammonia ; and it is this mainly for which 
loam is valuable for composting with 
manures as a retainer of ammonia. 



^rJcnii^r. 



Charcoal, on the other hand, is what 
gives to peat, leaf-mold, earth gathered 
from old hedges, etc., their value as re- 
tainers. Is there charcoal in these? 
Strictly there is not. Charcoal is the 
result of a slow combustion, with par- 
tial exclusion of air, by which the oxy- 
gen and the hydrogen of wood are 
driven off", while only the carbon is left. 
But decay is but a sort of slow combus- 
tion — a combustion so slow as to pro- 
duce but little heat ; and there is a point 
in the process of decay where the same 
effect has been produced — the oxygen 
and hydrogen gone from the decaying 
bodj^, and nothing but the carbon left. 
If a wisp of straw were ignited, and then 
suddenly extinguished by covering it 
over with something that would exclude 
the air, it would be reduced to charcoal. 
But if the same straw were left to decay 
in the soil, or wherever the air is par- 
tially excluded, there would be a point 
in the process where it would be almost 
as black, owing to its carbonaceous 
character, as if charred by fire. Swamp 
muck, leaf mold, indeed any vegetable 
matter that has turned black in the pro- 
cess of decay, may therefore be regarded 
as a sort of charcoal. 

It is often recommended to use an 
abundance of charcoal — coal dust — with 
manures ; and this is well, where it can 
be readily obtained, since nothing is bet- 
ter as a retainer of ammonia and other 
gases. Where it can be readily obtain- 
ed, it should be used freely for this pur- 
pose — thrown into the sink run, the 
privy, the pig pen, or wherever foul gases 
are likely to escape to the injury of the 
health, or to diminish the value of a fer- 
tilizer. 

But as coal dust, in most places, can 
not be had in sufficient quantities, swamp 
muck, or any black mold, made up as it 
is mostly of vegetable matter, reduced 



SCIENTIFIC. 



295 



to a state strongly resembling charcoal, 
affords a good substitute — is very effect- 
ive in seizing hold of and retaining float- 
ing gases, and especially ammonia. 

In view of what we have said, let us 
ask and answer three practical ques- 
tions : 

1. What is the use of applying clay 
to a sandy soil V In addition to the 
physical effect of amending the soil, so 
as to render it more solid and more re- 
tentive of water, it serves to aid the 
feeble powers of such a soil for retaining 
the gases generated from the manures 
put into it, especially the ammonia, for 
the nutriment of plants. Ou many a 
light soil, we suppose one load of clay 
(pulverized b}' a winter's frost) and one 
load of barn manure will benefit the soil 
and produce an increase of crops equal 
to two loads of manure without the 
clay. 

2. Why apply swamp muck, leaf- 
mold, hedge cleanings, etc. ? These 
also tend to a physical amendment of 
soils. If a s^il be very sandy and light, 
they render it more compact, more re- 
tentive of water, better suited to the 
conditions of vegetable growth ; if clayey 
and compact, they open its pores and 
make it more pervious to the air ; and 
in their further decay in the soil, they 
afford carbonic acid largely, and, in a 
small degree, ammonia, as food for 
growing plants. Their own matter, like 
that of ordinary manures, is manufac- 
tured into new and living forms. But 
their main object after all, especially 
when used in the yard, stall or pen, or 
for the purpose of composting, before 
being applied to the soil, as they ought 
in most cases to be, is to retain the am- 
monia of other manures. And here 
again we say that on many soils— on 
nearly all that arc of a lightisli texture 
and not very well supplied with organic 
matter — one load of swamp muck com- 
])osted with one of barn manure, will 
give just about as good residts as two 
loads of manure. The farmer, there- 



fore, who has a muck bed on his prem- 
ises, has the power of doubling the 
quantity, without much if any deteriora- 
ting the qualitj' of his manures. 

3. vShould the farmer make a liberal 
use of these substances, notwithstanding 
the expense of the labor required ? We 
think he should, because we think that 
the labor so expended will save a greater 
amount of ammonia and other fertilizing 
matters than an equal money value will 
bring from the Chincha Islands. — Ed. 



METEOROLOGICAL. 
chapman's precalculations. 

[Entered according to Act of Congress, in iht 
year ls56, !>;/ L. L. VIIAPMAN'^in the ClerWa 
Office of the hhtrict t\iitrt,/or the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Fennsylvania.l 

FIRST DEPARTMENT. 

EXPLANATORY. 

THE TERM POSITIVE is here given 

to conditions abounding more with vital 
electricity, inspiring more health, vigor, 
cheerfulness, and hetter feelings for bu- 
siness intercourse, etc., and consequent- 
ly greater success, enjoyment, etc. 

THE TERM NEGATIVE is given to 
deficient, or less genially modified elec- 
trical conditions, which conse([uently 
are m,ore unfavorable to health, feelings, 
business, social intercourse, etc. 

These conditions do not depent on the 
weather. A negative condition is often 
fair, and a positive condition cloudy, and 
vice xersc. — w shows weak conditions. 

IT Indicates Sundays. 

FIFTH MONTH, (May,) 1858. 
Tendency. Time o''clocTc 

1st, Positive, from 1 to 5 morn. 

Negative, from 6 morn to 11 eve. 
2d, ITPositive, from 1 morn to 4 eve, w. 

Mixed, from 5 to 12 eve. 
3d, Negative, from 1 to 8 morn. 
Mixed, from 8 to 10 morn. 
Negative, from 10 morn to 12 eve. 
4th, Positive, from 6 morn to 9 eve. 
5th, Positive, from morn to 12 eve, w. 
6th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
7th, Negative, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Positive, from 2 to 12 eve. 
8th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
9th, IFMixed, from 1 morn to 9 eve. 
10th, Negative, from 1 to 9 mom. 

Positive, from Ju morn to 12 eve, to. 
11th, Negative, fi'om 1 morn to 12 eve. 



296 



SCIENTIFIC. 



12th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
13th, Positive, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Negative, from 1 to 12 eve. 
14th, Positive, from 6 morn to 12 eve. 
15th, Positive, from 1 morn to 6 eve, w. 

Negative, from 7 to 12 eve. 
16th, ITNegative, from 1 morn to 3 eve. 

Positive, from 4 to 12 eve. 
17th, Positive, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Negative, from 5 to 10 eve. 
IQth, Positive, from 1 to 11 morn. 

Negative, from 12 noon to 10 eve. 
19th, Mixed, from 1 to 8 morn. 

Positive, from 9 morn to 8 eve. 

Negative, from 4 to 8 eve. 
20th, Mixed, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Positive, from 2 to 12 eve, w. 
21st, Negative, from 3 to 11 morn. 

Positive, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
22d, Positive, from 6 morn to 9 eve, w. 
23d, IFMixed, from 7 to 10 morn. 
24th, Negative, from 7 morn to 12 eve. 
25th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
26th, Positive, from 1 morn to 3 eve. 

Negative, from 4 to 12 eve. 
27th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
28th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
29th, Positive, from 1 to 11 morn. 

Negative, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
80th, ITNegative, from 5 morn to 10 eve. 
31st, Negative, from 6 morn to 5 eve. 

Positive, from 6 to 12 eve. 

SECOND DEPARTMENT. 

The changes are four minutes earlier 
for each degree of longitude (60 miles) 
west. Difference of latitude in the same 
meridian is immaterial. The dry condi- 
tions are fair, and the damp conditions 
cloudy or wet, at least three or four times 
out of five in the average. When fair, 
the damp conditions diffuse a cool, damp 
sensation through the atmosphere. 

Blanks indicate very weak, or mixed, 
or uncertain conditions. 

IT Indicates Sundays. 

FIFTH MONTH, (May,) 1858. 
Time o'cloch. Ray-angle. Tendency. 
1st, At 5 morn Y, warm, dry. 

At 12 eve Y' warm. 
2d, ITAt 9 morn R, warm, dry. 

At 3 eve V, cool, damp. 

At 4 eve G, warm. 

At 7 eve GV- cool, damp. 
3d, At 8 morn GO" damp, windy. 

At 9 morn Y,, warm, dry. 

At 10 morn V' cool. 

At 12 noon G' warm. 
4th, At 5 morn I" cool. 

At 10 morn R„ warm, dry. 



At 3 eve BR- warm, windy. 
At 4 eve V„ cool. 

At 5 eve 0,, 

At 9 eve G,, warm, dry. 
5th, At 3 morn OV" damp, windy. 

At 4 eve 0, 

At 12 eve .. wind stirring. 
6th, At 1 morn Y" warm, dry. 

At 7 eve B" wind stirring. 

At 9 eve R" warm, dry. 
7th, At 1 eve G" warm. 

At 9 eve I' cool, damp. 
8th, At 4 morn BI„ cool, damp, windy.. 

At 11 morn R,, warm. 

At 12 noon V, cool, damp. 

At 3 eve Y„ warm. 

At 12 eve I„ cool, damp. 
9th, ITAt 6 morn R,, warm, dry. 

At 7 morn 0„ 

At 8 morn .. warm. 

At 12 noon OR" windy, exciting. 

At 9 eve Y' warm. 

At 12 eve G,, warm, dry. 
10th, At 9 morn 0' 

At 11 eve 0, damp. 
11th, At 4 morn I" cool, damp. 

At 5 morn G' warm, diy. 
12th, At 10 morn I, cool. 

At 3 eve YB- wind stirring. 

At 12 eve B- windy. 
13th, At 5 morn I,, cool, damp. 

At 12 noon R- warm, dry. 

At 1 eve V- cool. 
14th, At 11 morn G- warm, dry. 

At 5 eve YI„ cool, damp, windy. 
15th, At 11 morn .. warm. 

At 6 eve 0, 

At 9 eve B' wind stirring. 
16th, lAt 7 morn Y' warm, dry. 

At 3 eve YO" windy. 

At 9 eve B„ wind stirring. 

At 12 eve .. damp. 
17th, At 6 morn I- cool, damp. 

At 8 morn 0,, 

At 10 morn Y„ warm, dry. 

At 1 eve R,, warm. 

At 3 eve V„ cool. 

At 4 eve B, wind stirring. 

At 10 eve G, warm, dry. 
18th, At 9 morn YV, cool, windy. 

At 11 morn V, cool. 

At 10 eve B" wind stirring. 

At 11 eve G,, warm, dry. 
19th, At 8 morn 0" 

At 3 eve YR- warm, dry. 

At 6 eve Y" warm. 

At 7 eve V" cool, damp. 

At 10 eve G, warm, dry. 
20th, At 11 morn YV- cool, windy. 

At 1 eve I' cool. 



SCIENTIFIC 



297 



At 8 eve 0, 

21st, At 2 morn B, wind stirring;. 

At 5 morn, end of the zodiacal pe- 
riod, or natural month. 

At 11 morn G" warm, dry. 

At 2 eve 0„ 

At 5 eve I,' cool. 
22d, At 1 morn R,, warm. 

At 4 eve I, cool, damp. 

At 9 eve B, wind stirring. 
23d, TAt Y morn R' warm. 

At 9 morn RV- cool. 

At 10 morn Y' warm. 
24th, At 2 morn G„ warm. 

At 3 morn I" cool. 

At 4 morn .. cool. 

At 7 morn "• warm. 

At 8 morn GI, cool, damp. 
25th, At 10 morn Y' warm, dry. 

At 10 eve B" wind stirring. 
26th, At 2 morn GO, damp, windy. 

At 7 morn G, warm. 

At 8 morn 

At 3 eve I„ cool, damp. 

At 11 eve R" warm, dry. 

At 12 eve V" cool. 
27th, At 1 eve Y" warm, dry. 

At 9 eve I' cool, damp. 
28th, At 5 morn . . warm. 

At 1 eve GV, cool, windy. 

At 3 eve I, cool. 

At 9 eve B, wind stirring. 
29th, At 11 morn GR, warm, dry. 

At 4 eve G" warm, dry. 

At 10 eve 0' 

30th, ITAt 4 morn R, warm, dry. 

At 7 eve V cool, damp. 

At 10 eve R' warm, dry. 
31st, At 1 morn B,, wind stirring. 

At 3 morn 0„ 

At 5 eve I" cool. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Cool Periods, longer and more promi- 
nent, are more liable near the 5th, 16th, 
20th. 

Greater tendency to windy, cloudy or 
stormy periods, or gusts, near the 2d 
or 3d, oth, 8th, 9th, 14tl^ IGth, 18th, 
20th, 23d, 25th or 26th, 28th. 

Periods of greater electrical deficiency, 
29th to 31st. 

Natural tendency of the zodiacal pe- 
riod from the 1st to 21st dry. From the 
22d to 31st damp. 

OENEKAL BEARINGS. 

From the 1st to 6th a mixed condition 
prevails, in which the negative predomi- 
nates. From the 7th to the 29th the 
general tendency is more positive with 



the exception of short intervals near the 
9th, 16th, 19th. From the 29th to 31st 
negative. 

Near the above negative dates, espe- 
cially the 3d,5th, 9th, ieth,the atmospheric 
conditions tend more to nourish combus- 
tion, rendering fires and explosions more 
liable. They also tend to more excita- 
ble contentious feelings and to spreading 
disease in epidemic form of an inflamma- 
tory or typhoid nature as small pox, 
scarlet fever, sore throat, etc. 

COINCIDENCES. 

Fro7n March 1st to 31s?.— The bril- 
liant aurora on the morning of the 12th 
inst., rousing the fire departments, etc., 
occurring at a date given to the public 
some three weeks previous, as more pre- 
disposing to auroras, is another of those 
coincidences which give the impress of 
unevadable truth to the reality of the 
discovery I claim. 

The cold interval from the 3d to the 
7th was strongly indicated in the table 
by the four combined currents ending 
with V or I on the 3d, (BI, GV, BV" 
BV, — see explanation,) more than occur- 
red on one day so ending, for months 
previous or since. This interval was 
more marked than the subsequent cooler 
alterations. 

Of the periods given for greater windy, 
cloudy, or stormy tendency, 10 of the 14 
were fully corroborated. 

I^*^ Early mailing to distant patrons 
precludes the convenience of giving the 
coincidences of the immediate preceding 
month. 

GENERAL EXPLANATORY RE- 
MARKS. 

The First Department, giving the pos- 
itive and negative electrical conditions 
of the atmosphere, constitutes the chief 
importance of this document. 

These alternating conditions not only 
affect all the minutia of life, health, and 
enjoyment among mankind, but also 
bear universally upon the various ani- 
mal and insect tribes, and even upon the 
vegetable world. For electricity is the 
universal principle of pTiysiral vitality. 

By glancing at the first department 
synopsis the physician can usually judge 
whether he will find his patients better 
or worse. The out-of-door business man 
may also judge when in a strongly posi- 
tive day, he may succeed more in all bu- 
siness depending on the will of others, 
especially of the sensitive, than in often 



298 



SCIENTIFIC 



several negative days — not from lucTc, 
cliaioce, or fortune! — but because man- 
kind usually act as they feel. 

The synopsis is of universal bearing 
and application, and of great usefulness 
to all professions and classes of mankind. 
The general tendencies are given, but 
their effects vary according to mental 
discipline and constitutional sensitive- 
ness. A robust person may only feel a 
shade pass over his mind from a condi- 
tion that would prostrate another by 
sickness. 

The Second Department, or synopsis 
of changes in the atmospheric tempera- 
ture is less important, because not infal- 
lible. Yet it is suflBciently correct to be 
deemed useful by many. The changes 
usually corresponding to within the hour 
before or after, three or four times out 
of five in the average. 

In this synopsis the first letter of each 
colored ray is given, instead of the word 
in full, after the words morn, eve. They 
show the angle of the solar spectrum in 
which the current of reflected light that 
produces the condition is intercepted. 
Thu.% R for the red ray, O for the 
orange, etc. Cm-rents intercepted in 
the angles of the Y., or R.,or G., rays tend 
to a warm and usually fair temperature. 
R, sometimes showery. V, or I, to cool 
and damp — three or four times out of 
five cloudy or wet. B, and often V, to 
electrical, and more or less wind stirring. 
O, to variable — in most cases cloudy or 
wet ; but when dry to sultry or exciting. 
Single letters show single currents. 
Double letters show combined currents 
which usually operate longer and with 
greater force ; often so superceding the 
effects of passing single currents that 
the latter becomes only modulations in 
.a long dry or wet, warm or cool period, 
induced by the former. They can r^ot 
be calculated so accurately as the single 
currents, but seldom vary many hours. 
_ Longer or more prominent cool pe- 
riods usually occur near combined cur- 
rents ending with V, or I. 

Warm periods usually occur near com- 
bined currents ending with R, or G. 

Windy, or cloudy, or stormy periods, 
or gusts, usually occur near combined 
currents which end with B, V, I, or 0. 

Periods of greater electrical deficiency 
are such as predispose more to vegetable 
defection or Might, to cholera, etc. 

All the combined currents predispose 
more to electrical disburbances, earth- 
quakes, auroras, etc. 



Periods (.) in the place of letters, show 
currents under investigation — hmlle 
periods (..) combined currents — HypJiens 
(-) after letters show confluent currents 
— Commas (,) after the letters show pos- 
itive — Apostrophes (') negative condition. 
See second department. They also show 
the force of the intercepted current. 
One comma or apostrophe shows weaker, 
two commas, etc., (,,") strongev curreuts. 

Many of the weaker changes are per- 
ceptible only by instruments. Those in- 
struments are the Prism, Thermometer, 
Barometer, Hygrometer, Electrometer. 

To Agkiculturists. — The electricity 
supplied by the reflected light of the 
moon during her increase is more posi- 
tive. During her decrease m^re nega- 
tive. Hence fruit trees should be prun- 
ed, and vegetables growing above the 
ground should be sown, etc., between 
the first quarter and the full moon, to 
thrive best. Esculent roots, potatoes, 
etc., thrive best planted in the decrease 
of the moon. 



THE ATMOSPHERE. 

Our atmosphere may be viewed as an 
ocean 50 miles in depth, and being ex- 
tremely elastic, the lowest portions, or 
those nearest the earth, are under a pres- 
sure of 15 pounds to the inch. As by 
atmospheric tides this portion rises up 
the mountain side it expands, and its ca- 
pacity by such expansion, for heat is in- 
creased. It therefore robs the heat from 
the dews of the mountain top, and causes 
the eternal snows, while the same por- 
tion re-descending by currents to the 
valley, gives up its latent as present 
heat, and renders them verdant. It may 
be viewed as Nature's porter, carrying 
and disseminating all the lighter poi tions 
of decomposition, and giving them up 
where most required under the organic 
law. 

At all times a large amount of water 
occupying our globe is to be found in 
the atmosphere in the form of vapor, and 
during its motion it deposits this general 
lubricator of nature on all surfeces colder 
than itself Every plant is kept moist 
by condensations from the atmosphere. 
Every particle in nature is lubricated by 
moisture thus supplied, and prevented 
from abrading itself The under-drain- 
ing, plowing, and general manipulation 
of the soil, are mere adjuncts to the ad- 
mission of atmosphere for the deposit of 
moisture and of gases, foreign to itself, 



SCIENTIFIC. 



299 



but held mechanically in suspension. 
All chemical laws owe their activity to 
its presence, and even the effects of lif?ht, 
heat, and sound, would be unintelligible 
without it. Its refractive force prevents 
the Sim's heat from a.u:!j;reg;ating to such 
an extent on the surface of our globe as 
to melt it, while its mechanical action 
spread over so immense an area causes 
all those manipulations which tend to 
assist mankind in accelerating the oper- 
ation of Nature's laws. It is Nature's 
motor, and equilibrated to her will. It 
carries the decay of continents across 
the surface of oceans, and fertilizes is- 
lands ; it is the vehicle by which the 
furina fecundi of plants meets the de- 
sires of organic lif<s and gives birth to 
varieties. It maintains precise propor- 
tions of its two constituents in their com- 
bination as atmosphere, despite extra 
quantities of either that may be thrown 
ui)on it, and thus, while one of its con- 
stituents, oxygen, will cause immediate 
apoplexy, if breathed alone by animals 
or plants, and the other, nitrogen, would 
cause asijliyxia^ from its inability to sus- 
tain life; still the two in the proportion 
in which they are combined, exhibits 
that function to which we are all indebt- 
ed for continuous existence. It, in com- 
mon with water, is Nature's regulator. 
-\.I1 the known changes in inorganic mat- 
ters would be arrested by the absence of 
either. It completes the chain of the 
wonderful machinery which, within it- 
self, has all the elements of creative 
})ower developed through these engines 
from the primary principles emanating 
from a great first cause. — Worh. Far. 



TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD IN THE 
HORSE. 

Mr, Farrall, an Irish veterinary sur- 
geon, has publi-shed in the Dublin Quar- 
terly Journal of Medical Science, a re- 
port of his successful experience in the 
transfusion of blood in the horse, in dis- 
eases attended with low vital action, 
Mr. F. says : j 

" [laving selected a healthy young 
h(ir.se from which to obtain the blood to i 
be transfused, I opened the jugular vein 
in the patient and in the healthy subject, 
and having in.sei'ted the tube into the ' 
vein of tlie healthy horse, I placed the j 
india rubber tube in the tin trough con- | 
taining the hot water, to maintain its ' 



temperature, and the other curved tube 
into the descending portion of the vein 
in the patient. As soon as the current 
from the healthy hoise had completely 
expelled all atmospheric air, the blood 
Howed freely from the vein of one horse 
into that of the other in an unbroken 
current. The average quantity of blood 
transferred in each of these cases was 
about three quarts. I observed no par- 
ticular symptoms to follow from the 
transfusion until two quarts or more had 
passed from one to the other ; but as 
soon as about that quantity had flowed 
into the diseased subject, there appeared 
to be produced an amount of stimulation 
indicated by an increased degree of ac- 
tion of the heart, at the same time the pu- 
pils began to dilate, and the countenance 
evinced an anxious expression. My 
former experiments led me to watch 
with great care the progressive dilation 
of the pupil, and I deemed it expedient 
in each case when this symptom was 
well developed, to compress the tube so 
as to diminish the current, and allow the 
transfusion to proceed more gradually. 
Occasionally I almost completely inter- 
rupted the current until the subsidence 
of this symptom, and I found that when 
about three quarts had been transfused, 
any additional quantity was followed by 
unpleasant symptoms, which indicated 
the necessity of stopping the operation. 
On removing the tube and closing the 
vein, all .symptoms of irritation gradually 
subsided, and the pulse, from being ra- 
pid and irritable, became slower, strong- 
er and fuller, gradually approaching the 
healthy standard. In every instance I 
found action in the healthy animal suf- 
ficiently strong to pro[)el the blood into 
the vein of the patient ; but if it be 
found requisite, the circulation may be 
strengthened by giving the horse from 
which the blood is to be abstracted, a 
little brisk 'exercise immediately before 
the performance of the operation. 

" In each of my four cases the reac- 
tion was stead}' and progressive. The 
natural warmth of the extremities was 
gradually restored, and in the course of 
ten or twelve hours the patients pre- 
sented other equally unmistakable symp- 
toms of amendment, such as returning 
appetite, more quiet and steady respira- 
tion, cheerfulness of countenance, will- 
ingness to move about, and in a short 
time they were pronounced cured." 



800 



MECHANICAL, 



FOB THE AMBRICAN FARMERS' MAGAZISE. 

THE WEATHER. 
Appearance of Bikds, Flowers, etc., in Nicuols, Tioga Co., N. Y., in March, 1858. 

By K, Howell. 

Place of Observation, 42 decrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about ^0 feet above the 

Susquehanna River, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the New- York and Erie Railroad. 



Mar. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

n 



10 

11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
16 
11 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
80 
31 



TA.M. 
80 
13 



2 

3 

9 

9 
14 
16 
23 
38 
24 
26 
36 
40 
42 
42 

50 
35 

26 
46 
34 
27 
25 
31 
31 
28 
35 
29 
27 
30 



2 P.M. 

40 
19 
23 
15 
8 
22 
24 
83 
22 
38 
46 
43 
40 
46 
52 
65 
75 

53 
46 
56 
61 
43 
41 
45 
50 
42 
48 
43 
48 
52 
69 



9 P.M. 

22 
11 
13 
6 
4 
11 
16 
18 
20 
25 
31 
35 
82 
40 
45 
47 
57 

39 
27 
47 
39 
80 
26 
25 
38 
28 
34 
31 
80 
81 
31 



N. W, Fair. 

Cloudy. 
S. E. 
K W. 



West. 
N. W. 



South. 

S. E. 
S.&N. 
S. E. 
South 



s&w, 

N&W, 

N. W 



Fair. 



Cloudy. 

Fair. 
Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Cloudy, 



Fair. 



Remarks. 

Light" snow before daylight, half an inch. 
Light snow before daylight, one-fourth inch. 
Snow squalls in P. M. and evening. 
Snow squalls. 
Snow squalls at intervals all day 



Light snow squalls at intervals all day. 
Light snow squall in the morning. 

Light snow squall at 9 P. M., and aurora at 9 P. M. 

Small or light aurora at 9 P. M. 

Light rain from 6^ to 9 A. M. 

Light rain at intervals all day ; first blue bird seen. 

Ice in some places moved down the river. 

First blackbird and butterfly, and red and black 

caterpillar seen. 
First robin seen ; ice all went down stream. 
The bee bird first seen, and frogs first heard. 
First flock of pigeons, and ground squirrel seen. 
Light dash of rain before light and through the day. 



Cloudy 

Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Clear. 
Fair. 



Plowing commenced. 

Light dash of rain in P. M. and evening. 

A few very large flakes of snow at 5 P. M. 
Snow in the morning ; lunar halo at 9 P. M 

Meadow larks first seen. 



it^rltantraL 



PATENT CLAIMS 

ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT 
OFFICE. 

CuLTivATRRS. — Joseph Banks, of 
Dadeville, Ala. : I claim the construc- 
tion, arrangement and combination of 
the body of the implement and its mo- 
vable teeth, as described, whereby it is 
readily adapted to properly receive in 
turn the several scrapers employed for 
performing the various modes of cultiva- 
tion specified. 

Machines for Hulling and Cleaning 
Clover Seed. — J. V. Blackwell, of Ovid, 
N. Y. : I claim the application of the 



gravitating curtain, H, at the point of 
the eduction of the blast, for the purpose 
of modifying and diffusing the same, and 
preventing the waste of seed, substan- 
tially in the manner shown and de- 
scribed. 

I also claim the combination and ar- 
rangement of the overshot grating cylin- 
der, C, and feed roller, D, with the blast 
generator, G, and blast-regulating cur- 
tain, H, the whole operating conjointly 
in the manner and for the purpose de- 
scribed. 

Harvesters. — George E. Chenoweth, 
of Baltimore, Md. : I claim compensat- 
ing for the wear of the worm or groove 



MECHANICAL. 



301 



in the driving cylinder, by making the 
parts of that cylinder adjustable, as de- 
scribed, thus giving increased certainty 
to the action of the cutters. 

Horse Hay Rakks. — Asahel Cowley, 
of Harpersfield, N. Y. : I claim the de- 
scribed combination of a separator with 
a wheel rake, the whole being construct- 
ed, arranged and operated in the man- 
ner and for the pm'pose as set forth. 

Compositions fok Tanning Leather. 
— Clinton Daniels, of Elk Horn, Wis. : 1 
claim the combination and use of cream 
of tartar and bicarbonate of soda with 
catechu in making a liquor, and using 
the same for tanning hides and skins, 
no claim whatever being made to the 
discovery and use of the catechu alone, 
for tanning purposes, by me. 

Self-Loosening Horse and Cattle 
Tie. — John J. Eshleman, of Lancaster, 
Pa. : I claim the bolt, B, in two sections, 
connected by the sliding scarf joint, H, 
for the purpose of instantly loosening the 
horse, as set forth. 

I also claim the devices of the bolt, B, 
spiral spring, F, and casing, A, all in 
combination, operating together, sub- 
stantially in the manner and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

Method of Lighting Gas by Electri- 
city. — Samuel Gardiner, Jr., of New- 
York City : I claim placing a coil of pla- 
tinum wire, or its equivalent, in the re- 
lative position to the jet of gas, as de- 
scribed, for the purpose of lighting the 
jet by electricity, and for the re-igniting 
it whe.i blown out under the circum- 
stances and for the purposes set forth. 

HuRSE-powEB Machines. — ^Jas. Grant, 
of Rochester, N. Y. : I claim making 
iron horse-powers with an open center 
to the caps, A, and an adjustable or a 
fixed bridge-piece, a, and making a dou- 
ble length or reversible pinion, B, as and 
for the purpose .specified. 

Straw Cutters. — W. W. HoUman, of 
Eddyville, Ky. : I claim the combination 
of the movable bottom, when construct- 
ed as set forth, with the cam shaft, C, 
cams, A and B, and connecting rod, 1), 
for giving a projection of straw under 
the knife by raising the lever, AY, said 
projection being gaged and furni.shed by 
the upward and downward motion of the 
lever, in the manner and for the purpose 
set forth. 

Churn. — J. A. Jordan, of Shelbyville, 



Tenn. : I claim the employment of the 
revolving wheel, J), and stationary wheel, 
C, constructed and operating in the 
churn as set forth, the bottom of the 
same being fitted to a stove casing in the 
manner and for the purposes specified. 

Washing Machine. — James McVicker, 
of Green Co., Pa. : I claim forming a re- 
ceptacle within the wash-box for con- 
taining the clotlies to be steamed pre- 
paratory to their being washed by metins 
of the ribs or slats, m, attached to the 
wash-box, and the ribs or slats, r, at- 
tached to the lid, P, so that upon open- 
ing the lid of the wash-box, the recep- 
tacle also is opened for the introduction 
or removal of the clothes, substantially 
as described. 



HYDRAULIC CEMENTS AND MOR- 
TARS. 

The wonderful powers of durance 
which some mortars possess is to be ex- 
plained with ease ; but before doing so, 
let us recollect that the mortar and ce- 
ment found in Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, now nearly two thousand years old, 
is as hard and compact as the volcanic 
rock on which it is found ; and there are 
many specimens of cements in the muse- 
ums of Europe, that, after having been 
under water for centuries, are as good, 
if not better, than wlien put down. Re- 
collecting also the vast importance of 
good hydraulic cements in the construc- 
tion of lighthouses, breakwaters and 
piers, and all submarine works, perhaps 
more attention may be given to the sub- 
ject than otherwise would by non-inter- 
ested readers. These hydraulic cements 
are such as set under water, and are not 
decomposed by its action like ordinary 
mortars. They are made either from 
natural or artificial mixtures of carbon- 
ate of lime with silica, or silicate of alu- 
mina or magnesia. The mineral dolo- 
mite, when calcined at a moderate heat, 
exhibits the projierty of hydraulic lime ; 
and half-burnt lime (containing still a 
quantity of carbonic acid,) will 6'ff under 
water. From a French engineer — M. 
Vicat — we learn that the hardening 
depends much on the amount of carbonic 
acid left in the lime ; thus he informs us 
that a stone that had thirty per cent of 
carbonic acid left in it alter burning, 
hardened in fifteen minutes, while anoth- 
er, in which there was twenty -six per 
cent, hardened in seven minutes, and one 



302 



MECHANICA L 



containing twenty-three per cent, took 
nine days to become hard. Two varie- 
ties in Europe are known as Trass and 
Puzzolana ; and there is an hydraulic 
mortar used in England known as "Ro- 
man cement," made by burning some 
nodules found in the tertiary formation. 
Neither clay, (silicate of alumina,) nor 
lime alone, will set under water, but if 
an intimate mixture of clay and chalk be 
calcined at a moderate heat, and after- 
wards mixed with water, a hj^drated sil- 
icate of alumina and lime is formed as a 
hard mass, and this is hydraulic cement. 
If the clay or limestone should contain a 
little alkali, it seems to aid the solidifica- 
tion. There is an excellent cement made 
near Paris from one part of clay and 
four of chalk, which are intimately mix- 
ed with water, afterwards allowedto set- 
tle, and the deposit thus obtained is 
molded into bricks, which are then dried 
and calcined at a gentle heat. This hy- 
draulic lime, like the best from natural 
sources, is entirely dissolved by acids. 
All mortars, but especially hydraulic 
ones, are solidified quicker and better 
under the influences of pressure and 
high temperature. 

When an hydraulic cement is required, 
it is advisable to collect specimens of the 
minerals of the district in which work 
is to be carried on, and send them to 
some chemist for analysis. This will, in 
many instances, save much time and 
money, for we have known cases where 
Roman cemerjts, and other hydraulic ce- 
ments, have been brought from a great 
distance to carry on a work, quite 
close to which there was plenty only 
wanting the trouble of burning. — Scien- 
tifio American. 



AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 
The following, which we take from 
several of the western papers, will give 
an idea of what is in contemplation and 
in progress, in that growing quarter of 
the Union, for the promotion of agricul- 
tural instruction. Could a better use be 
made of a portion of the public lands than 
by encouraging such enterprises ? 

Michigan. — It seems that the example 
of Michigan in founding the first Agri- 
cultural College on our side of the At- 
lantic, is deemed worthy of emulation. 
We give below sundry extracts showing 
that several other States are earnestly 



engaged in establishing institutions of 
the kind. They seem to be regarded as 
a necessity of the age, destined tf) supply 
a great desideratum in the otherwise ad- 
mirable educational systems of many of 
the States. 

Our own Institution has succeeded 
educationally beyond the expectation of 
its most sanguine friends, in spite of the 
severest tests, and those inevitable obsta- 
cles incident to all new and important 
enterprises. 

The next term commences on the first 
Wednesday of April, and we understand 
that applications are on file already-, for 
four times as many vacancies as will 
exist, many of them from other States. 
The public confidence seems firmly es- 
tablished in its triumphant success. 

In addition to the States mentioned 
below, we notice that Maryland has 
during the past winter actually organized 
an Agricultuial College and established 
it upon the estate of Mr. Calvert, near 
Washington. It is the joint work of the 
State and individuals. 



Iowa Agricultural College. — We 
last week gave a brief synopsis of the 
establishment of an Agricultural College 
in Maryland. In another column will 
be found a notice of the Bill establishing 
a similar institution, on a comprehensive 
plan in Wisconsin. We have now re- 
ceived a Bill reported to the House of 
Representatives of Iowa, designing to es- 
tablish a similar institution in that young 
and vigorous State. 

The Bill in question establishes a State 
Board of Agriculture and a State College, 
and affiHates them closely. At the same 
time it contemplates a paternal charge 
over the genei-al agricultural interests of 
the State. It authorizes the purchase 
of a tract of Land, the erection of build- 
ings, the election of Professors, under 
I^roper restrictions and limitations. The 
Bill, in its general features, resembles 
the Act of Organization of our own Col- 
lege. In this case, as in the case of 
Wisconsin, the founders and promoters 
■ of the College, look with great satihfac- 
tion and solicitude to our own pioneer 
institution in Michigan, and its educa- 
tional success thus fax-. No legislation 
nor act of Michigan, has ever elevated 
the State so highly in the opinion of her 
sister States, as the bold sagacity mani- 
fested in the establishment of her Agri- 
cultural College. The probability, in- 
deed the certainty, seems to be establish- 



MECHANICAL 



ed, that our own will be the harbinger 
of otiier institutions of the kind in nearly 
every State in the Union. — Laming Re- 
puiliean. 

Wisconsin Aoricii.tl'ral Collkp.e. — 
A Committee of the Senate in Wisconsin 
have reported a Bill for the estal)lish- 
ment of an Agricultural College in that 
State. It adopts the main features of 
the Act creating the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College, a rare compliment to our 
State. 

It is proposed, however, to do what 
Michigan did not do, endow the Institu- 
tion ])ermanently at once, with a fund 
to he created from 20 per cent, of the 
proceeds of the Swamp Lands. The 
interest of the fund so created is to be 
forever appropriated to making Tuition 
Jree in the College. 

Labor and study are to be indissolu- 
bly united in the Institution, and the 
student is to be educated physically as 
well as mentally. • 

As soon as $40,000 is subscribed and 
received by individuals, the same sym 
is to be supplied ft'om the Treasury for 
the immediate purchase of a farm, erec- 
tion of buildings, &c. We learn that 
the citizens of two or three localities ten- 
der in advance the subscriptions of $4-0,- 
OUO, provided. the institution can be lo- 
cated among them. — Detroit Tribune. 

Kentucka' for Agricultural Colle- 
(;bs. — The Board of Directoi s of the State 
Agricultural Society of Kentucky re- 
cently adopted the following Preamble 
and Resolutions : 

Whereas, A bill has been introduced 
into the Congress of the United States, 
appropriating a portion of the National 
domain for the endowment of a school 
in each State of the Union, for the edu- 
cation of farmers and mechanics — there- 
fore, as the sense of this Board, 

RiHitlred, That the Kentucky Agricul- 
tural vSociety, and the Farmers and Me- 
chanics of Kentucky, do mo.st cordially 
approve of .said measure so far as it is 
known to them without distinction of 
l»arty jis to national politics ; and that 
our Senators and Representatives in 
Congress are requested to use all rea- 
sonable and honorable elforts to promote 
its passage. 

Onio Aouicui.TURAL CoLLEP.E. — The 
iJill which Mr. Raymond has introduced, 
pursuant to the views of (iov. Chase as 
contained in his Annual Message, pro- 



vides for the purchase of a thousand 
acres of land in one body, at no more 
than $2.5 an aci'e, and appropriates $50,- 
000 for tliat purpose, and for the erec- 
tion of buildings, purchase of furniture, 
apparatus and library. The College to 
be under the supervision of the State 
School Connnissioner and State lioard 
of Agriculture. The cour.se of instruc- 
tion to include a thorough English 
course, Mathematics, Natuial Philoso- 
ph}'. Chemistry, Botany, Animal and 
^'egetable Anatomy and Pliysiology, 
Geology, Mineralogy, Meteorology, En- 
tomology, Veterinary Art, Horticulture, 
Political Economy, Civil Engineering, 
Book-Keeping, and the Mechanic Arts 
directly connected with Agriculture. 
The sum paid to Professors the tirst year 
shall not be more than $.5,000, the rent 
$6,000, and any year thereafter such 
sum as the Board of Supervision shall 
deem necessary. Tuition in the College 
shall be forever free to pupils residing 
in Ohio, and in case more pupils a[)ply 
than can be accommodated, they shall 
be apportioned to each county, accord- 
ing to the ratio of its population. — Tole- 
do (0.) Blade. 



ENGLISH AGRICULTURAL IM- 
PROVEMENTS. 

TnE New-York Tribune alludes to 
several improved machines and processes 
recently produced in England. One, b}- 
Alfred Newton, relates to the cultivation 
of land by spades, operated by locomo- 
tive power as the machine progresses in 
the Held. It breaks up, disintegrates 
and turns over the sward more thor- 
oughly than can be done by the plow. 
A series of spades is made to enter the 
land in succession, and cut it into the 
arc of a circle, when the cut slices are 
suddenly thrown up again.st a shield 
plate, at once reversing them and break- 
ing them almost into powder. 'I'his ma- 
chine is only a new form of .steam plow, 
at which English mechanics are still try- 
ing with unabated activity. Mr. John 
Fowler has al.'jo invented an improve- 
ment in the mode of operatit g the ordi- 
nary ste;im plow, which greatly simpli- 
fies its niovement.s, and enables it to 
travel through the furrow with more 
certainty and freedom. Mr. AVilliam 
Dray, of London, has patented an im- 
provement in plows, which applies to 
such plows as are provided with a share 
in the ' form of a pointed bar, and con- 



304 



MEGHAN" ICAL. 



sists in the means of securing the bar in 
its position, after being pushed forward, 
as may be from time to time required by 
the wearing away of the point thereof. 
The patentee claims the construction of 
plows which are provided with movable 
share bars, in such a manner that the 
bars can be tightened or slackened by 
means of an eccentric roller or collar. 
Mr. Robert Reeves, of Wiltshire, has pa- 
tented a cart body for the purpose of de- 
livering manure over a field, without re- 
quiring it to be thrown out by hand. 
The bottom of the cart is supplied with 
longitudinal openings, in which re- 
volves drags or blades attached to an ax- 
is under the body. As the cart moves, 
these drags pull down the manure in a 
condition of complete pulverization. 



ACTIVITY AMONG INVENTORS. 

During the week ending April 10th, 
says the Scientific American^ there were 
filed in the Patent Office thiety-two ap- 
plications for patents from this office 
alone, exclusive of a number filed by the 
branch office of Munn & Co., located in 
Washington. For the same week there 
were issued at the Patent Office twenty- 
four patents to parties whose cases were 
prepared at this office and conducted 
through the Scientific American Patent 
Agency. 

The above statistics for a single week 
shows that the inventors throughout cm- 
land are not slumbering. 



ARCHITECTURAL DECORATIONS. 

The ordinary house decorations that 
usually have any connection with their 
architectural proportions are, if not of 
the same material as the front of the 
house itself, generally made of plaster or 
stucco. When the house is new, these 
answer very well, and after a short time 
look in keeping with the whole ; but it 
does not take long for the weather to 
cause them to crack, then little bits 
break off, and finally the whole crumbles 
away. A new material has been intro- 
duced to supply the place of these friable 
plasters and stuccoes, which is easily 
molded and can be cast into any pattern ; 
it is basalt. There are works in Bir- 
mingham, Eng., where architectural de- 
corations are cast from it in hot molds. 
The products are very firm and beauti- 
ful, and are represented as possessing 
characteristics of great durability. 



When cast in cold molds, a glassy lava 
termed obsidian is produced. The ma- 
terial generally employed is the rag, 
stone of the neighborhood, but furnaces 
are in operation for the reduction of 
quartz by direct fusion according to a 
peculiar process, in which the pulverized 
quartz is mixed with flour spar, lime, 
and oxyd of iron, which agents combine 
with the silica and render the whole per- 
fectly fluid. 



ANOTHER AMERICAN TELE- 
GRAPH. 

There is a project on foot at St, 
Petersburg for establishing a strictly 
overland telegraphic company with North 
America. The plan has been presented 
to the government by a Belgian engineer, 
and consists in carrying a telegraphic 
line by Siberia, and to establish a sub- 
marine communication between Capes 
East and Prince of Wales, then to join 
the line to those of the United States 
through the territories of Russia and 
England. — Scientific American. 



^W° An alchemist, who knew that 
Leo the Tenth was a great encourager 
of the arts and sciences, addressed him. 
on a discovery he had made of turning 
other metals into gold. The Pope read 
his address with great attention. Whilst 
the philosopher was gaping after his re- 
muneration from his holiness, he re- 
ceived from the Pope a very large empty 
purse, with these words, "You can fill 
it." 



1^^ Eggs by Weight. — Many of our 
people are in favor of the sale of eggs by 
weight. We saw an experiment made 
this forenoon by one of our grocers, who 
had just received a fresh lot, that con- 
verted us. He first selected a dozen of 
the large sized and placed them in one 
scale ; and then put twenty-one of the 
smaller sized in the opposite ; to balance 
them. The customer chose the dozen 
paying the price that was asked for the 
twenty-one. — Lowell News. 



£^" Six barks are now preparing at 
Chicago to make voyages to Liverpool. 
Last year one — and the first — made this 
voyage, and seemingly with success, or 
others would not be induced to follow 
the example this year. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



305 



i J5 1 e U a n u w s . 



COAL ASHES FOR POTATOES. 

1^^ A SUCCESSFUL gardener in Nor- 
wich, Ct, last year planted half an acre 
of potatoes, partly with bad seed, very 
much decayed, on land where potatoes 
had rotted for several years before. He 
put a large handful of anthracite coal 
ashes into each hill. The crop was 
large and perfectly sound. All around 
him potatoes rotted badly. These are 
the facts. 

Our comment is, that the ashes saved 
the potatoes. But coal ashes are not 
unique in their composition, neither are 
the causes of the disease always pre- 
cisely the same ; and hence^although 
the above statements are undoubtedly 
accurate, yet we would not infer that 
coal ashes will always prevent the dis- 
ease. 

The experiment, however, is well 
worth repeating by all who have coal 
ashes on hand. — Ed. 



CURE FOR DRUNKENNESS. 

" The best cure for drunkenness that 
we can recommend is total abstinence 
from all intoxicating drinks. Where 
the unfoitunate victim docs not possess 
the necessary firmt>ess to resist the 
temptation of the intoxicating draught, 
we would recommend those interested 
in his fate to first employ those delicate 
means which are di^taed by the spirit 
of Christianity, to bring him to a proper 
sense of liis condition, before resoning 
to the forcible ones too often attempted. 
Instead of trampling upon him, strive 
to nurse into life the still glimmering 
embers of a nearly exhausted virtue. 
Think of him as a being whose frame is 
still capable of being agitated by feelings 
the most rtfmed, delicate and inteilect- 
uai, and endeavor to inspire in him a 
desire for those virtuous joys which he 
experienced before he became a victim 
to this terrible habit. " 

So says a much-valued contemporary, 
and we believe every word of ,it. A 
kind and Christian spirit that, most 
20 



truly. But virtue that will not with- 
stand temptation, is no virtue ; and the 
drunkard should be made to feel, not 
when he is drunk, but in his sober mo- 
ments, that it is a terrible sin, and not 
merely a sad misfortune, to be a drunk- 
ard, agaiftst God, again.st himself, against 
his family, and against the whole world. 
—Ed. 



THE ENGLISHMAN'S SNUFF-BOX. 

The French papers have not, under 
the influence of the alliance, ceased to 
have their jokes upon Englishmen, and 
une of the drollest is told as follows, by 
the ,Ui4on Bretonne, from which we 
translate it: 

Lord C, well known for his eccentri- 
cities, went lately to the establishment 
of one of our most celebrated workers in 
fancy articles. 

" I want you to make me," said he, 
" a snuff-box with a view of my chateau 
on the lid." 

" It is very easily done," was the re- 
ply, *' if my lord will furnish me with 
the design." 

" I will ; but I want also, at the en- 
trance of my chateau, a niche in which 
there shall be a dog." 

" That, too, shall be provided," an- 
swered the woikman. 

"But I want, also, that some means 
should be contrived by which, as soon 
as any one looks at the dog, he shall go 
back into the niche, and only reappear 
when he is no longer looked at." 

The workman looked inquiringly, as 
if to ascertain whether his customer was 
not the victim of some mystitication. 
Reassured by his examination, and like 
a clever man, undei standing how to take 
advantage of the affair, he said to the 
Englishman : 

" What you ask of me is very hard to 
comj)ly with ; such a snuff-box will be 
very expensive ; it will cost you a thou- 
sand crowns." 

'* Very well ; I will pay you a thou- 
sand crowns." 

"Then, my lord, it shall be made ac- 
cording to your wishes, and in a month 
I shall have the honor of delivei ing it to 
you." 



806 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



A month later the workman present- 
ed himself to lord C. 

" My lord," said he, " here is your 
snufF-box." 

Lord C. took it, examined it, and said, 
" That is my chateau with its turrets, 
and there is the niche by the door-way. 
But I see no dog." 

" Did not your lordship," said the 
workman, " say that you wished the 
do2; to disappear when he was looked 
at?" 

" I did," replied his lordship. 

"And that he should re appear when 
he was no longer looked at?" 

" That is true, also," was the reply. 

" Well," said the workman, " you are 
looking at it, and the dog has gone into 
the nirhe. Pcit the box in your pocket, 
and the dog wdl re-appear immediati-ly." 

Lord C. reflected a nioment, and then 
exclaimed, " All right, all right." He 
put the box in his pocket, and took out 
of his pocket-book three bank bills of a 
thousand francs each, and handed them 
to the skillful workman. 



Those who lose have to pay over money 
first earned by some one honestly and 
industriously, money that those who 
squander had no right thus to appropriate. 
How many a family, brought up in afflu- 
ence and with large expectations, has been 
reduced to beggary by these reasons, let 
each English race-course declare. Indeed, 
the best families everywhere, having a 
mind to maintain their position and wealth, 
are learning increasingly to avoid the dan- 
gers of the race-course and its belting. — 
Philadelphia Ledger. 



MICE 



HORSE RACING. 

We are convinced that the whole system 
of racing for lieavy bets is quite unne- 
cessary to keep up high breeding in horses 
among an enterprising and industrious peo- 
ple like our own, while it is even rather 
prejudicial to the keeping up of hardihood 
and bottom, and ten times more injurious, 
mor.ally, to all immediately engaged in it. 

We say nothing of cruelty to the horses 
engaged, and danger to the men, as the 
race-course, last year and this, botii exhib- 
ited. This, however, causes horse racing 
to differ much from boat racing. But we 
speak particularly of the gross and whole- 
eale systems of betting vast sums, common 
on such occasions, leading to frauds and 
defalcations to an inmiense amount. 

It may indeed be said, that for the pro- 
pi'ietor of a horse to have a large interest 
at stake on his success, makes it worth his 
while to produce the higlusfc possible 
epeod. But what can be said in regard to 
the mere spectators betting amongst each 
other? Eich one, if he wiiF, obtains 
money without having performed any cor- 
responding benefit to society. Such 
money, because it comes easily, goes easily ; 
and habits of waste and ]>rofligacy are in- 
troduced ; and men are educated to seek for 
money, and find it most readily, not by in- 
dustry and economy, which are the true 
fouudations of national prosperity, but by 
low cunning, idling and chance. Their 
money is usually lost much in the same way 
in which it is made. 



A GOOD trap? That soon ceases to be 
of much effect. Cats ? There are a nui- 
sance in themselves, unless where train- 
ed as pets. Poison ? That is danger- 
ous. 

Listen a minute, and I will tell you a 
plan of a very simple T>atnre, which ex- 
perience teaches me is efficient. On en- 
tering th* house the writer now occu- 
pies — a rather old one, as it was built in 
the rei^n of James II — the floors and 
shelves exhibited the usual proofs to eye 
and nose that they were a haunt of large 
numbers of mice. It seemed hopeless to 
trust to the ordinary remedies. Think- 
ing over what else mi-iht be done, I be- 
thought me that, if it could be made not 
worth their while to remain, the mice 
would be sensible enough to desert the 
house for better quarters. It was re- 
solved, therefore, to act upon the princi- 
pal, tliMt prevention is better than cure. 
The reader must excuse a somewhat mi- 
nute detail on a domestic subject of no 
small importance. 

We chanced to have a thoroughly 
clean and r;iiher reasonable cook at the 
time, who though fond enough of her 
own way in most other things, did me 
the favor to let me have mine in this af- 
fair, and to carry out my plan with the 
greatest strictness and fidelity. On that 
very evening, after the last meal at night, 
every crumb of bread was carefully swept 
from the tab'e, dresser, and kitchen 
floor, and the sink was carefully sluiced 
and clensed from all culinary debris. 
The sweepings were thrown, not into the 
dirt heap, but int'> the kitchen fire, so as 
to secure their pei feet destruction. This 
was done regularly every night ; and of 
course the mice soon found out that there 
was nothing for them to eat, excepting 
a trifling morsel of cheese in a common 
trap, by which a few were caught. In 
about a fortnight, one weakly mouse was 



MISCELLANEOUS 



807 



caught by the hand ; but from that time 
to the present — about a year and a 
half — not a trace of a mouse has been 
visible, tliouj^h they have been heard 
runnin^behiiul the wainscotting in some 
parts of the house. No trouble has been 
t;iken t> stop up the mouseholes, which 
remain as at first; not a single cat has 
been known to enter the house, and no 
dog has been ke()t. It is evident that 
what is carelessly left on the floor, &e., of 
mealrooms, constitutes the chief support 
of mice ; and if the trouble were taken 
to deprive them of this, they wrould soon 
be so far reduced in numbers as to be 
rarely seen or heard. Every occupant 
of a house, miizhr, at all events, in this 
way compel the mice to migiate to Ins 
less cleanly an<l less pains-taking neigh- 
bors ; and if the custom of removing 
ever}' particle of food every evening, 
were established in all houses, as it might 
very easdv be, the propagation of these 
troublesome little animids t\ould nearly 
cease in large towns ; at all events those 
which did exist would confine them- 
selves to tlieir proper hablta's, the drains 
and sewers. An unlooked for additional 
benefit, moreover, of a similar kind, was 
the tes(dt of tliis practice, which may 
possibly be men'ioned on another occa- 
sion. — Chi/libers' Journal. 

THE WAY TO COMMENCE. 

The folliiw ng is the testimony of a 
distinguished and very wealthy mer- 
chant of this city, of how to commence 
making a fortime and how to push along: 

" I entereil a store and asked if a clerk 
was net wanted. ' No,' in a rough tone 
whs the reply — all being too busy to 
bother with me — when I reflected if they 
did not want a clerk they might a la- 
borer, but as I wo-s dr.ssed too fine for 
that, I went to my lodgings, put on a 
rough garb, and the next day went into 
the same store, and demanded if they 
did not want a po'ter, and again ' no,' 
was the respons.- ; when I exclaimed in 
despair almost, ' not a laborer V Sir, I 
will work at any wages — wag<>s is not 
mv object — I must have employment, 
and I want to be useful in husiness.' 
These last 'emaiks attrac;ted their atten- 
tion, an<l, in the end, I was employed as 
a laborer, in the basement and sub- 
celijir, at a very low pny, scarcely enough 
to keep body and sou! together. In the 
b:tseinent and sub-cellar [ soon attracted 
the atteniioi! of the counting room ; and 



of the high clerk. I saved enough for 
my em|)loyers in little things wasted, to 
pay my wages ten times nvcr, and they 
soon found it out. I did not let any- 
body connnit pettj' larcenies without re- 
monstrances and threats of exposure, 
and rcjil exposure if remonstrances 
would not do. I did not ask for any ten 
hour law. If I was wanted at 'S A. M., 
I was there, and cheerfully there ; or if 
I was kept till 3 A. M., I never growled, 
but told everybodj', 'go homesind I will 
see everything right' I loaded off at 
daybreak, packages for the morning 
boats, or carried them myself In short 
I soon became indispensable to my em- 
ployers, and I rose and rose — and rose 
till I became head of the hou,-e, with 
money enough, as you see, to give me 
any luxuty, or any position a mt-rcjintile 
man may desire for himself or children 
in this great city." 

TOMATOES FOR WINTER USE. 

Dear Farmer : — We are now enjoying 
the luxury of table tomatoes, as fresh as 
when first prepared, and at verj^ little 
expense. We prepared one bushel of 
ripe fruit by removing the skins and 
cooking, seasoning only with salt and a 
very little sugar. They were cooked 
till thoioughly done — rather thicker 
than for immedi.ite use, having been 
stirred with care to prevent scorching, 
and poured, boiling, into common stone 
jugs, and sealed whde hot. We u.sed 
grafting wax. One jug was not quite 
full, and we feared it might not keep 
well, but on opening it a few days since, 
we found it covered with a white coat- 
ing, resembling mother in vinegar, but 
entirely sweet, as were also the toma- 
toes. 

The first gallon was opened the day 
before Christmas, and remained, only 
corked, in a cool dry cellar, kec])ing good 
till the first of Febi uary. 

When wanted for the table, add but- 
ter, pepper, etc. ; and scald. We were 
careful to use only sound fruit, scalding 
it just enough to separate the skin, 
(which is best done by keeping the water 
boiling and dropping in four or five at 
once and skimming out immediately) 
which may influence their keeping. 

1 send you this imw that all lovers of 
this fruit may prepare for the coming 
winter by planting abundantl}'. I as- 
sure you that we shall not make one 
gallon last us more than a month another 



SOS 



MISCELLANEOUS, 



winter, if we can get the tomatoes to 
make up. 

Spiced Tomatoes are also nice. Pre- 
pare as above, and throw into boiling 
vinegar and sugar (at the rate of four 
pounds of sugar to one gallon of vine- 
gar) without cutting, cooking till re- 
duced to the desired consistency, and 
kept in jars, or better in large mouthed 
jugs (as they will not cook to pieces) 
and sealed. Season to the taste by en- 
closing ground spices in a cloth and boil- 
ing with the fruit. 

VV^e have them as good as if used at 
first, saved fir pickles, green or nearly 
so, (not having tried ripe ones,) by put- 
ting them up late, in water with only 
salt enough to season them, sny three 
pints to the barrel ; if much salt is used 
the seeds harden and they are not good. 
When required for use you have only to 
prepare them as in the fall when they 
i-ome from the salt water. Do not fail 
to put out plants. 

Mrs. E. p. F. Bkadner, 
in Mich. Far. 

Redford, March, 1858. 



A MICROSCOPIC WONDER. 
The mold on decayed fruit, stale bread, 
moist wood, etc., is shown by the mirros- 
cope to be plants, bearing leaves, flowers, 
and seeds, and increasing with incredible 
rapidity, for in a few hours the seeds 
spring up, arrive at maturity, and bring 
forth seeds themselves, so that many 
generations are perfected in a day, — 
Scieutijic American. 

J^^ We know a man so mean that 
he won't draw his breath for fear that he 
will loose the interest. 



31^" Mrs. Twaddle says one of her 
children don't know nothing and the 
other one does. The question now is, 
which boy is ahead. Answers may be 
forvrarded till the mail closes. 



K^" One of the Western editors, 
speaking of a large and fat cotemporary, 
remarked thnt if all tlesh was grass, he 
must be a load of hay. " I suspect I 
am," said the fat man, "from the way 
the asses are nibbling at me !" 



|cp=° If a man empty his purse into 
his' head nobody can take it from him. 
An investment in knowledge always 
pays the best interest. 



SMALL THINGS. 

A TRAVELER through a dusty road, 

Strewed acorns on the lea, 
And one took root and sprouted up, 

And grew into a tree, 
love sought its shade at evening time, 

To breathe its early vows ; 
And age was pleaded, in heats of noon. 

To bask beneath its boughs. 
The dormouse loved its dangling twig, 

The birds sweet music bore ; 
It stood a glory in its place, 

A blessing evermore. 

A little spring had lost its way 

Amid the grass and fern, 
A passing stranger scooped a well. 

Where weary men might turn ; 
He walled it in, and hung with care 

A ladle at the brink — 
He thought not of the deed he did, 

But judged that toil might drink. 
He passed again — and lo ! the well, 

By summers never dried, 
Had cooled ten thousand parching tongues, 

And saved a life beside ! 

A dreamer dropped a random thought, 

Twas old, and yet 'twas new — 
A simple fancy of the brain, 

But strong, in being true ; 
It shone upon a genial mind. 

And, lo ! its light became 
A lamp of life, a beacon ray, 

A monitory flame. 
The thought was small— its issues great, 

A watch-fire on a hill ; 
It f beds its radiance far adown. 

And cheers the valley Btill. 

A nameless man, amid a crowd 

That thronged the daily mart, 
Let fall a word of hope and love. 

Unstudied from the heart ; 
A whisper on the tumult thrown — 

A transitory breath — 
It raised a brother from the dust. 

It saved a soul from death. 
germ ! fount I word of love ; 

thought at random cast I 
Ye were bat little at the first, 

But mighty at the last. 



2^=° The housewife who has fruit in 
her cellar and neglects to place it on her 
table, neglects the health of her family, 
and undervalues one of the richest orna- 
ments for table garniture in her posses- 
sion. 



1^" A FARMER said to a barber that 
he ought to reduce his prices now that 
corn is cheap. " No, siree," replied the 
shaver, "for when corn is low, farmers 
make such long faces that I have twice 
the ground to go over." 



MISCELLANEOUS, 



3fi9 



A BIG STORY, BUT TQUE. 

Jason Clapp, a carriage maker, a farm- 
er and a gentleman in the ej'es of all who 
know him, in Pittsfiekl, Berkshire Co., 
Mass., weighed four tons of well made 
hay, of the very best quality, every ton 
worth a ton and a quarter of medium 
hay, from one acre of reclaimed swamp, 
heavily dressed with horse manure ; and 
he has grown crops approaching this in 
value, every year for nearly a quarter of 
a century, on that acre. 

We do not think much of big stories 
but know this to be true ; and it is only 
one of many that go to show that our 
filthy swamp holes may be reclaimed, 
with much advantage to the health of the 
people living near them, and with pay- 
ing results. 

A YOUNG lady in one of the leading 
circles at Washington was compliment- 
ed by a gentleman on the simplicity and 
good taste of her dress at an evening 
party. She replied, " I am glad you 
like my dress ; it cost just seven dollars, 
and I made every stitch myself." When 
young ladies pride themselves upon the 
cheapness of their attire, instead of ex- 
pensiveness, we shall have fewer " brok- 
en" fathers and husbands, — Colorado 
Citizen. 

That is the right sort of a young lady. 
Where are the young men ? There is a 
chance. — Ed. 



Charles Lamb is reported to 
have said : " The water cure is neither 
old or wonderful ; for its only as old as 
the deluge, which, in my opinion, killed 
more than it cured." 

Rather severe. The water treatment 
kills more than it cures only when not 
administered with care and great good 
judgment. 

^^ Senator Hammond, of South 
Carolina, has, it is said, one of the largest 
landed estates in the South, his farm 
comprising over 11,000 acres. 

(^f° A MERCHANT lately advertised 
for a clerk " who could bear confine- 
ment," He received an answer from one 
who had been seven ycai s in jail. 



Leakning and Unlearning. — At five 
years of age the father begins to rub the 
mother out of his child ; at ten the 
schoolmaster rubs out the father ; at 
twenty a trade or profession rubs out 
the schoolmaster; at twenty-five the 
world rubs out all its predecessors and 
gives a new education till we are old 
enough and wise enough to take reason 
and religion for our pastors, when we 
employ the rest of our lives unlearning 
what we have previously learned. 



An old lady combated the idea of the 
moon being inhabited by remaiking, 
with emphasis, that the idea was incre- 
dible, " For," said she, " what becomes 
of the people in the moon when there is 
nothing left of it but a little streak V" 



Arab Proverbs. — If your friend is 
made of honey do not eat him all up. If 
you ti-avel through the country of the 
blind, be blind yourself When you are 
the anvil have patience ; when you are 
the hammer, strike straight and well. 
He who can not take a hint, can not com- 
prehend a long explanation. Take 
counsel of one greater and one less than 
yourself, and afterward form your own 
opinion. 

1^° A STiRCTLY orthodox old gentle- 
man in Massachusetts, returned home 
on Sunday afternoon from church, and 
and began to extol to his son the merits 
of the sermon. 

" I have heard, Frank," said he, *' one 
of the most delightful sermons ever de- 
livered before a Christian society. It 
carried me to the gates of heaven." 

"Well, I think:" said Frank, ")'ou 
had better dodged in, for you will never 
get another such a chance." 



^^ A PRETTY woman pleases the eye ; 
a good woman pleases the heart. The 
one is a jewel, the other a treasure. 



1^* Ctke for Polygamy. — Punch 
says that President Buchanan need not 
throw away powder and shot ujion the 
Mormons. Let him send them fashion 
books. The necessity of crinoline will 
destroy polygamy. It will render Brig- 
ham Young himself unable to support 
more wives than onj. 



810 



CHILDREN'S CORNER 



'InlhTii's (Corner. 



i^M^&m 




W) 



Above is represented a position into 
which we would advise children to put 
themselves as often as they have oppor- 
tunity — out of doors, with some one who 
has learned more than they yet have, 
though not as much perhaps as they 
will, but who is now in advance of them 
and can teach them something they did 
not know before. 

May is a fine month to be out in the 
open air, to absorb the genial influences 
of the sun without being scorched by 
his too fiery beams, and to observe the 
operations of nature. Nature is an ever 
present teacher ; but children will com- 
prehend her lessons more readily if they 
have some one to direct their observa- 
tions. The girls even should be out this 
month, and their mothers should some- 
times go abroad with them. But look 
below. What a fine employment for 
boys. If the girls work a little in the 
garden it would do them good. If their 
mamas fear it would make their hands 
too large and coarse, we think that an 
idle fear. But never disobey your mo- 
ther, even if she should forbid you to 
handle a light hoe and spade, or a trowel, 
to dig about the flowers. But here are 
some boys and they are well employed. 

It would be well if every boy in the 
country knew the use of farm and gar- 



den tools. If they should go to college 
by-and-by and learn to be great men, 
would it do them any harm to know first 
a good <leal about farming and garden- 
ing ? Not a bit. If they were to be 
Clays, Calhouns and Websters, it would 
do them no harm, but, on the contrary, 
much good to be so trained, as to know 
how work should be done and to be able 
to do it. 




Nothing so contributes to the great 
end of education — a sound body and a 
sound mind, as farm and garden work in 
early life, to be continued at intervals, 
till the mind is severed from the body 



CHILDREN'S CORNER 



311 



and soars above all weights and hin- 
drances. 




Next after work in the open air, those 
thousand and one plays which boys love 
to engage in are best adapted to expand 
the chest and develop the muscles. 
Boys love to be useful, to aid their pa- 
rents, to do something which benefits 
some one besides themselves, and for 
which they feel that they deserve appro- 
bation. That is right. There is not a 
purer, noliler pleasure tlian that of doing 
good, of feeling that we are of some con- 
sequence, are benefitting somebody. 

But then there are times when boys, 
and men too, must have their relaxa- 
tions. Especially should boys have 
them ; and all kind parents love to sec 
their children enjoying themselves in 
some innocent sport. Well they maj^ ; 
for in one-half hour's play, such as is 
going on above, the lungs are filled a 
thousand times; the blood is purified 
by the inhaled oxygen and the exhaled 
carbon better than by all the quack me- 



dicines recommended for that purpose ; 
every muscle is brought into exercise. 
In short, those boys are nature's jjupila 
just now. They are practising the les- 
sons she distates. They will be men 
sooner, and probably better men for 
what they are now doing. 

The children, listening to instruction 
above, are doing well, and the man there 
looks as if he wanted to give them a 
good thought. Tlie boys with spade and 
rake in hand are doing well. We advise 
all boys t9 use such implements. But 
the other boys in the last cut are doing 
quite as well as any, provided they have 
done their more important duties first, 
and are now playing innocentlj' and hon- 
estly (fair in their counts) with each 
other. 



An Arkansas Father's Advice to 
HIS Son. — "Bob, you are about leaving 
home for strange parts. You are going 
to throw me out of the game and go it 
alone. The odds are against you ; but 
remember always th:it industry jukI per- 
severance are the winning cards. Bonk 
larnin' and all that sort of thing will do 
well to fill up with, like small trumps, 
but you must have the bowers to back 
'em, or they ain't worth shucks. If 
luck runs agin you pretty strong, don't 
cave in, and look like a sick chicken on 
a rainy day, but hold your head up and 
make believe that you are flush of 
trumps. They won't play so hard agin 
you. I've lived and traveled around 
some, Bob, and I've found that as soon 
as folks thought you held a weak hand, 
they'd all buck agin you strong. So 
when you are sorter weak, keep on a 
bold front, but play cautious. * * * And 
above all. Bob, be honest ; never take a 
man's trick wot don't belong to you, 
nor clip cards, nor nig, for then you 
can't look your man in the face, and 
when that's the case there's no fun in 
the game ; it's regular ' cut throat.' 

" So now, Bob, farewell : remeniber 
wot I tell you, and you'll be sure to w in, 
and if 3-ou don't, sarves you riglit to get 
'skunked.'" 



A YouNo thief charged with 
picking pockets, protested tiiat he didn't 
])ick 'em at all, but took them just a.s 
they came. 



812 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



fiiditors ^'Mt 



Life of George Stephenson, Railway 
Engineer, by Samuel Smiles, from the 
Fourth London Edition. Boston : Tick- 
nor & Fields. 1858. 486 pp., 12mo. 

This is a beautifully executed book, 
with a beautiful portrait of its subject. 
Its chief excellence consists in two 
things. First, it affords an admirable 
history of railroad building and manage- 
ment in England, made interesting from 
beginning to end by the living, acting 
presence of the hero of the narrative. 
In the second place it presents a rematk- 
able instance of what a young man, 
without early instruction, with no pow- 
erful friends to lift him, in a country 
where it is more diflBcult to emerge from 
a low to a high position than in ours, 
can do for himself by the unaided ener- 
gies of his own mind and will. We 
wish every young man in our country 
would read it, review it, ponder upon it, 
and consider what sort of a man it is 
possible he may become, if true to him- 
self. Why, young man, it would do you 
more good to read this one book, than to 
read colunms of love stories, got up by 
the penny-a-liners, long enough to reach 
round the globe. 

Ran Away to Sea, an Autobiography 
for Boys, by Captain Mayne Reid, au- 
thor of " The Desert Home," " Boy Hun- 
ters," etc., etc. Ticknor & Fields, Bos- 
ton, pp. 359. 

This runaway boy had a prodigious 
hard time, and would have given every- 
thing to get back again, and so we ad- 
vise boys, who have a good home, not 
to run away ; but after almost intolera- 
ble sufferings, he became a pretty de- 
cent man ; and so we advise parents, 
who have a boy that is fool enough to 
run away to sea, not to be entirely dis- 
consolate, as he may see his folly, and 
behave better. The book is interesting. 
So says our clerk, who has read it. We 



can not afford time to read such, but 
from casting an eye over its table of con- 
tents, we suppose it to be one of those true 
stories, concocted to suit the times, with 
a good moral of course ; but we would 
much rather our own sons would read 
the book noticed before it. 

Andromeda, and other Poems ; by 
Charles Kingsley, author of "Amyas 
Leigh," " Two Years Ago," etc., etc. 

This is the old story of the beautiful 
Andromeda, chained to the rock, and 
about to be swallowed by a huge sea 
monster, but delivered by the hero Per- 
seus, done up in a sort of long lined poe- 
try, and pretty well interlarded with 
Homeric epithets, such as long-haired,* 
fair-eyed. Aegis - wielding, far - fjimed, 
ivory limbed, and the like. We judge 
the author a pretty good poet ; but he 
does not wield his epithets with quite as 
much ease and grace as blind old Homer 
did. Our language is not as well adapt- 
ed to poetry as the Greek. The world, 
we think, has never seen a poet equal to 
Homer, and we reckon it never will. 
Mr. Kingsley's book contains 111 pages, 
and would be a tolerable desert after a 
light dmner, or better, after a cup of 
Oolong at sun-set, for one who wished 
to revive a nearly forgotten acquaintance 
with Grecian Mythology. 

Transactions of the New- York Statk 
Agricultural Society for 1856. 

We are indebted for this valuable doc- 
ument to B. P. Johnson, Esq., Secretary 
of the Society, and an indefatigable 
worker in its cause. It is smaller than 
some of its predecessors, more select, 
and is a truly valuable work. 

Agriculture of Massachusetts, by 
C. L. Flint, Esq., Secretary of the Massa- 
chusetts Board of Agriculture. 

This work also is smaller than its pre- 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



81S 



deccssors, more select, and therefore bet- 
ter. It is all that could be expected of 
the gentleman above named, and that is 
as much as to say it is good. We be- 
lieve no State has yet beat the old Bay 
State in the value of agricultural docu- 
ments for the people. 

Report of the United States Coast 
SuRVKY. Prof. A. D. Bache, Superinten- 
dent. 

Ill a national point of view, one can 
not doubt that these accurate, scientific, 
recorded surveys are of very great im- 
port;ince and value. For the present 
volume, a large quarto, with abundant 
engravings, our thanks are due to Super- 
intendentBache. It is published in bet- 
ter style than is usual at our national 
capital ; and we can not but hope that, at 
Washington where so much is paid for 
printmg, the art of printing will ere long 
be learned. 

Transactions of the Michigan State 
Agkicdltural Society. 

We are indebted to J. C. Holmes, Se- 
cretary, for this volume. 

It contains a large amount of valuable 
matter, and is executed in a style highly 
creditable to that young Stjxte. 

A single remark with regard to these 
annuals. Are they not still too large ? 
The State treasury, we believe, usually 
pays for the printing, and that is well. 
Nobody should complain of a tax that 
serves to develop agricultural resources, 
because it puts into the treasury ten 
times more than it takes out. But it is 
never good economy to publish what is 
not worth publishing. There is no good 
in making an ass of the State or national 
treasury, to carry needlessly heavy loads. 
We have thought that an annual volume 
of three or four hundred pages, prepared 
by men who have the talent for conden- 
sation, might benefit the people as much 
as one of six or eight hundred pagrs, 
le.ss pruned and condensed, and we 
throw out these remarks for those espe- 
cially concerned in compiling them. If 
much is gained by letting in some wri- 



ters, as much may be saved, in paper 
and ink, by shutting out otlicrs. 

If it should be said that our sugges- 
tions would shut out the formers, the 
very men who have the richest experi- 
ence to tell, we deny it. Farmers a^re 
more apt to be strong handed, than long 
winded. They are generally reluctant 
to write, but when they can be persuaded 
to undertake it, come to the point quick- 
ly. According to our notion^ they would 
be more likely to find a place than any 
other. 

It is with no ordinary emotions that 
we give place to the following too brief 
tribute to the worth of an old acquaint- 
ance, a good man and an intelligent 
fi-iend of agriculture and of humanity ; — 
Essex Co., Mass., March 20, 1858. 

Friend Nash: — We have lately lost 
by death one of our most reliable farm- 
ers in Massachusetts. Col. Moses Newell 
died at his residence in AVest Newbury 
at the age of 03 years. He and his sis- 
ters inherited from their father about 
300 acres of the best land in the county 
of Essex, situated on the southerly bank 
of the river Merrimack. For nearly 40 
years he was a member of the Board of 
Trustees of the Essex Society, and for 
four years President of the Society. Al- 
ways ready with heart and hand to do 
all in his power to aid the farmer, his 
loss will be severely felt by them — his 
physical health giving assurance of ten 
y cars more of life and usefulness. When 
a man so worth}' is suddenly called 
awaj'-, it is proper that his virtues should 
be noticed, that others may imitate his 
example. Truly yours, 

J. W. Pkoctor. 

Convention of Agricultural Editors. 
— Such a convention we see is proposed, 
and we go in for it. The place is not 
yet agreed upon, but wc notice a very 
gener.il expression of willingness to ac- 
connnodate in this matter, and we con- 
clude, therefore, it will find a location. 
July or August, of the coming summer, 



814 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



is the time proposed. Great good can 
not fail to result from a comparison of 
views and a free discussion of the more 
important subjects pertaining to this 
greatest of all mateiial interests. 

'Tall Herds Groin^. — We have before 
us a clump of herds grass, grown on the 
farm of A. N. Smith, Lenox, Berkshire 
Co., Mass., almost too tall to describe, 
lest we should get the name of telling 
tall stories. We knew long ago that 
these Berkshire mountaineers grew the 
tallest men, but were not aware till noiv 
that they grew the tallest herds grass. 
But it is so. The stalks are as tall as a 
man six feet high, and the heads are 111, 
11, 10, 9, 8 and 7 inches in length. 
Who will send us taller herds grass with 
longer heads? 

Laiotoii Bladiberrxj . — In referring to 
the advertisement of Mr. Lawton, it is 
proper to meJiiion that plants put out on 
or before the 16th of May will give a fine 
crop of fruit next year, whereas if plant- 
ing is delayed till autumn, a season is 
lost. Mu'-h has been said of the supe- 
rior qualities of this fruit, and we most 
heaitily endorse it all. It is an enor- 
mous bearer, and the fruit is large and 
sweet. Any soil which will produce 
corn is suitable for this plant. A rich 
loam, rather heavy, suits it best. 



REMARKS ON THE TIMES. 
Congress has now been in session five 
months. The opponents of the domi- 
nent party say it has yet done nothing. 
Its friends undoubtedly think it has done 
well. It seems to us that neither are 
right. An indiscriminate censure of an 



HULLED CORN. 

The way to make this excellent arti- 
cle of food is this : Boil a quart of sound 
ripe corn in very strong lye, until the 
outer kernel of the grain is removed, 
which will be in about eight minutes. 
Now wash it in two waters, and cook 
until tender, and you have four quarts of 
most excellent and nutricious food. 



admini>tration by its opponents, and a 
predetermined approbation of all its do- 
ings by its friends, are alike unfavorable 
to the best interests of the country. 

A patriotism that lises above party, a 
candor to give opponents deserted cieriit, 
a fidelity to scan the action of friends, 
and do even balanced justice to all, is 
what the country wants, what it lacks 
now more, we fear, than in the days of 
our fathers. We will not speak of mea- 
sures or men, for the reason that this 
journal is not for such a purpose, and it 
shall not be perverted to other than its 
legitimate object, so long as we control 
its pages. 

It is well known to our readers, that 
we believe it quite possible for our gov- 
ernment, within the legitimate scope of 
its powers, with no frightfully high tar- 
iff, without much increasing the price of 
a single article of consumption, with no 
legislation purposely partial, and none 
that would ixi its effect opetate injuri- 
ously to any, to secure a state of things 
in which American wants would be sup- 
plied by American hands, and that such 
a state of things wculd be favorable to 
all the great interests of the countrj^, and 
not less so to the farmer than to the me- 
chanic. 

But between selfish, log - rolling 
schemes to gain undue protection on the 
one hand, and too much fear, as we must 
think, of interfering with the laws of 
trade on the other, the great industrial 
interests of the country have never yet 
obtained a judicious, persistent, reliable 
protection and support at the hands of 
the government. A consequence has 
been overtrading, too much buying and 
too little producing, dependence on for- 
eign nations and terrible revulsions, such 
as the one we are not yet out of 

In the great religious revival we cer- 
tainly rejoice. Will it be followed by 
an increase of honor, truth, fair dealing, 
sobriety, moderation of desires for self- 
aggrandisement, patriotism, virtue, cher- 
ished in the heart and acted out in the 



MARKETS 



816 



life. We hope it will ; and we believe 
it will ; and that religion will hereafter 
be estimated more by what a man does, 
and less by the particular dogmas in 
wliich he believes. IJelieve as I do, and 
it is not much matter what you do, has 
been too much the rule. We hope it 
may be less s"» hereafter. It would 
seem as if what has transpired the last 
few months could not fail to result in 
great improvements, religious, moral and 
social. 

But we shall see. The next few years, 
perhaps the next few months, will de- 
cide on the value or worthlessness of 
great religious excitements, as that ques- 
tion was never decided before. A man 
must live well in order to be a good 
Cliristian, as well as pray well — must be 
straight manwards as well as Godwards. 
If there .«hall be as much necessity in 
this great city to watch men of high pro- 
fessions, le^t they cheat you in trade ; 
if there shall be as much mad haste to 
be rich, heaven willing or unwilling ; if 
as resolute efforts to live by wit and not 
by work shall continue the order of the 
day ; if there shall be as much trading 
wildlv, on the principle that if the bold 
operator wins the gain is his, if he lo.ses 
another bears the loss ; if there shall not 
appear more decided integrity, and if 
rasca'ity, successful nr unsuccessful, does 
not meet a darker frown in the public 
mind, and if not put down, at least be 
put out of the church, then the revival 
will have done little good here, and we 
suppose it will be much the same in 
other cities and throughout the country. 

Never was a greater fallacy than to 
6up})ose tliat religion will better a man's 
condition hereafter otherwise than in 
proportion as it makes him a better man 
here. 



GENERAL AGRICULTURAL IN- 
TELLIGENCE. 
New- York, April 22, 1858. 

MOSTLY FROM THE N. V. TIMES. 

The Wholesale Produce Markets have 
fluctuated consideiably during the week. 



especially for Breadstuff's, which varied 
in price, as the available supplies fell 
short of or exceeded the requirements of 
buyers. On Tuesday, the European 
market news received by the Amgo, fa- 
vorably affected Flour and Corn, which 
were freely sought after at improved 
prices. Yesterday the advanced rates 
cbiimed checked the inquiry for export, 
and though a fair demand p»evailed for 
home use, the tendency of prices was in 
favor of bu\ ers. Rye and Barley ruled 
heavy, Oats opened briskly and buoy- 
antly, but they closed tamely and lan- 
guidly. 

Cotton has been in good demand and 
prici'S close with more firmness. The 
week's sales add up n,2fi0 bales. Our 
available supply is 02,710 bales, against 
81,532 bales, same period last year. 
The receipts at all the shipping ports, 
to latest dates this season, have been 2,- 
597,251 bales, against 2,70G,414 bales to 
the corresponding period of last season. 
The total export from the United States 
so far this .season have been l,7l4r,013 
bales, against 1,764,912 bales to the same 
(late last season. The total stock on 
hand and shipboard in all the shi])ping 
ports, at the latest dates, was 605,744 
bales, against 473,975 bales at the same 
time last year. The stock -.n the inte- 
rior towns at the latest dates was 98,139 
bales, against 50,180 bales at the corres- 
ponding date a year ago. 

Bale Hay has arrived freely, and been 
in good request at buoyant rates. Loose 
Hay has attracted less attention, and has 
favored buyers. Salt Hay was scarce 
and quiet. We quote : Bale Hay, ordi- 
nary to prime, at 50c. to 75c. ; Loose 
Hay, poor to very choice, at 60c. to $1, 
and Salt Hay at 40c. to 65c. per 100 lbs. 
Straw has been more sought after, and 
prices have been maintained. 

Rice has been moderately dealt in at 
unchanged prici-s. In Charleston, last 
week, the movements in Rice were as 
follows : Receipts 3,081 tcs. clean, and 
2i 1,01)0 busliels rough ; the sales include 
all the receipts of clean, at from $'■] to 
$3 50 per KiO lbs., and 12,000 bushels 
rough, at 82c. to 93c. per bushel ; ex- 
ports 3,989 tcs., including 2,998 tcs. to 
New-Yo>k, and 88 tcs. t<» Boston. Rc- 
mainitig on shipboard, not cleaved, April 
16, 3,904 tcs. P>cights — to New-York, 
75c. to 87ic. per tierce. 

The transactions in Tobacco have been 
restricted by the small supplies available. 



816 



MARKETS 



Prices have been well sustained. In 
Baltiaiore, during the week, Maryland 
was quiet. 350 hhds. Ohio changed 
hands, at $6 to $10. Kentucky was in- 
active. 1,051 hhds. of all kinds were in- 
spected. In Louisville, Ky., during the 
week ending April 14, 936 hhds. were 
sold at somewhat firmer prices. In Cin- 
cinnati, a lively inquiry prevailed for 
Leaf and Manufactured during the week 
ending April 14, at steady rates. In 
New-Orleans, during the week ending 
April 10, sales were made of 2,400 hhds., 
new crop, closing with Pbmter's lugs at 
7|c. to 7^0. ; inferior to common leaf, 
7ic. to 8c. ; fair, SJc. to He ; fine, 10c. 
to lO^c. ; choice selections, lie. to 12c. 
Week's receipts, 3,554 hhds. ; exports, 
661 hhds. 

Wool has been in rather better request 
at essentially unchanged prices. Sales 
have been reported of 125,000 lbs. do- 
mestic at 28c. to 40c. for common to full 
blood fleece, and 24c. to 32c. for super- 
fine and extra pulled; with 13,000 lbs. 
unwashed California at private bargains ; 
1,600 lbs. California at 18c. to 23c. ; and 
830 bales foreign, including some Cor- 
dova at 17c. per lb., the latter on six 
months' credit. In Providence, last 
week, sales were made of 19,000 lbs. 
fleece at 30c. to 45c., and 11,500 lbs. 
pulled at 25c. to 36c. per lb. 

Provisions have been quite freely pur- 
chased, (including Pork, for future de- 
livery,) at improved prices for the lead- 
ing articles. 

No very important movement can be 
noticed in other desciptions of Produce. 



NEW-YORK LIVE STOCK MARKET. 

Beeves are sold by the estimated dead 
weight of the four quarters ; the so-called 
" fifth quarter" (hide and tallow) is not 
reckoned in here as it is in Boston and 
some other cities. When cattle are 
weighed or estimated alive, the dead 
weight is reckoned at a certain number 
of pounds to the 100 lbs. of live weight, 
as agreed upon. The general rule in 
this market for medium cattle is 56 lbs. 
to the 100 ; 44 lbs. being allowed tor the 
" fifth quarter" and offal. 

The average prices to-day, as compar- 
ed with last week, are about Jc. lower. 

We quote : 

PRICES OF BEEP AT FORTT-FOURTH STREET. 

To-day. Last week. 

Premium Cattle 103€c.(5),llc. none. 

First quality 10c. @,Wyic. 10)^c.((?),llc. 

Medium quality 9Xc-@ S^c. 9>ic.@10c. 



Poor quality 8Kc.@. S}4c. 8>^c.@ 9c. 

Pnorest quality 8c. @ 8>^p. 8c. ® 8J^c. 

Gen'l selling prices.. 8%c.@t0c. 9c. ©lO^c. 

Average of all sales. — @. 9c. 9c. @, 9Xc. 

At Browning's, Chamberlin's and 
O'Brien's prices do not materially differ 
from those at Forty-fourth street. 
Browning reports beeves at 8c. to 10c. 
Chamberlin reports beeves at 9c. to lO^c. 
O'Brien reports beeves at 7ic. to 9ic. 

MILCH cows WITH CALVES. 

The prices vary somewhat with the 
supply and demand, and vary greatly, of 
course, upon the milking value. The 
particular fancy of the buyer has also 
considerable to do with the price. Not 
unfrequently a Cow is sold at $90 to 
$100, or even $120. The general price 
throughout the year for ordinary Cows 
is $30 to $40, or $50. Quite a number 
sell above $50, and more, perhaps, below 
$30. 

VEAL CALVES. 

Veal Calves are sold by live weight, 
each animal being weighed alive at the 
time of sale. "Bobs" — that is. Calves 
a few days old — are usually sold by the 
head at such prices as can be agreed up- 
on, sometimes for but little more than 
the skin is worth. The principal places 
of sale are Allerton's, Browning's, Cham- 
berlin's and O'Brien's. 

The markets have been more largely 
supplied than last week even, and sales 
are slow to-day, at 5c. to 5^c. for very 
fair Calves, while "bobs" sell for just 
what the purchaser offers for them, or 
all the way from 75c. to $2 each. Some 
of the stock of to-day has been on hand 
nearly a week, and the prospect is that 
all will not be sold at the present market. 

SHEEP. 

The receipts continue light, but prices 
remain about as last week, or a trifle 
lower. 



The receipts continue very fair, and 
the trade, shows an improvement over 
last week at a trifling advance in prices. 
We notice sales of the best lots at 5ic. 



WHOLESALE PRODUCE MARKET. 

Wednesday Evening, ) 

April 21, 1858. f 

The prices given in our report from 

week to week are the average « holesale 

prices obtained by producers, and not 

those at which produce is sold from the 



BUSINESS DIRECTOBY, TERMS, ETC. 



317 



market. The variations in prices refer 
chiefly to the qualities of the articles. 

Early vegetables are now coming; in 
quite freely from the South, Bermuda, 
and New-Jersey. These diminish the 
inquiry after the old. Potatoes and to- 
matoes are arriving from Bernuida. 
Green peas, rhubarb, radishes, lettuce, 
and strawberries, from Charleston, 
with plenty of "greens," asparagus, 
leeks, shallots, &c., from the surrounding 
country. 

Potatoes are essentially unchanged in 
price, except Nova Scoiias, which have 
fallen under free arrivals. They are 
now put out at 60c. to 80c per barrel. 
The West is sending in large quantities, 
even from Ohio and Indiana. Tbc heavy 
freights make them costly here, although 
purchased at low prices. The market 
may be put down as overstocked with 
potatoes, and sales dull. We notice the 
first arrival of Bermudas, consisting of 
190 bbls., which were put out at $6 50, 



and are retailing at $7 per bbl. Another 
cargo of 1,500 bbls. are daily expected. 

AVith these polatoes came 200 boxes 
of tomatoes, wliich were sold at $1 50 
per box— retailing at $1 75 to $2. 

Apples arc a little lirmer, though ar- 
rivals are fair. 

Green peas promise a good supply 
from the South. Sum.-. CO barrels came 
on by the steamer which arrived on Mon- 
day last. 

Butter is unchanged in price, with 
only a moderate home trade in new, 
white packagi-s. 

Eggs ai e as abundant and cheap as 
ever. Philadelphia sent on 300 bbls. 
yesterday, ar d 1,200 bbls. were received 
by the Erie Railroad, making 1,500 bbls., 
which is about an average number at 
the present time. As there are some 80 
dozen in a barrel, the receipts amount to 
some 120,000 dozen eggs daily. 

Poultry is quiet, with a limited 
amount in market. 



BUSINESS DIRECTORY, TERMS, ETC. 



THE AMERICAN FARMERS' MAGA- 
ZINE is the result of an earnest desire, on 
the part of its Editor, to furnish a journal 

of AGRICULTURE, AND OTHER BRANCHES OK RU- 
RAL ECONOMY, of an elevated character, na- 
tional in its spirit, entertaining, instructive, 
and reliable, at a price somewhat lower 
than the wealthy and liberal farmer would 
demand, and such as to bring it fairly 
■witliiu the means of all intelligent family 
circles. 

Its success hitherto confirms our belief 
that it is what the farmers of this country 
want, and encourages us to renewed cfJ'orts 
to e.vtond its circulation. The price is $2 
a yt'ar to single subscribers; S1.5()to clubs 
of tVoiii four to nine; $1.25 to clubs of 

from ten to twenty; AND $1 TO 
CLUBS OF TWENTY AND UP- 
WARDS. 

Clergymen, of all denominations, who 
cultivate a piece of land, and post-masters, 
who are also farmers, and desire the work 
for themselves, are invited to order this 
work at the lowest club price, fl, pay- 
ment as in all other cases to be in advance. 

Individuals so situated that tliey can not 
well chib with otliers, yet desiring to ccon- 
oiiiizo, shall receive the work seven months 



for $1 ; fifteen months for 2 ; and two 
years for $3. 

Any person is hereby authorized to be- 
come an agent for the work on the follow- 
ing conditions ; — he may receive subscrip- 
tions at the foregoing rates ; send us $1, 
current money, for each subscriber, with 
the name and post-oilice address plainly 
written, reserving the balance as compen- 
sation ; and on receipt of 1 he same, we will 
send the work one j'car, addressed to each 
subscriber. 

It will be seen bj' the above that we 
have put it in the power of nearly all who 
desire it, to get this work for $1 ; and yet 
those who are at all aware of the expense 
of publication, must perceive that it can 
not be afforded at that, but with a very 
large circulation, and hardly then. 

Able farmers, therefore, who appreciate 
our object, which they can not but regard 
as a generous one, will do us the favor to 
advance according to our programme of 
prices, and to favor the oireulation of tlie 
work in their neighborhood. 

Money may be sent at our risk if enclos- 
ed witli suitable precautions. 
Address J. A. W A S II, 

7 Beekman St.. N. Y. 



818 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



'Ailreiltsements. 




■ •''=»J\j3»-- 



P. MANNY'S PATENT ADJUSTABLE SELF-RAKING REAPER AND 
MOWER COMBINED. 

Manufactured by Manny & Co., Freeport, III.* 
Being three machines in one, simply adjusted and perfectly adapted to either pur- 
pose. These are important features not to be found in any other machine, and need 
only to be seen to be appreciated. 



THE VERY BEST 

Agricultural Paper in New-England- 

THE NEW-ENGLAND FARMER is now gener- 
ally acUniiwletlged lo be swpeiior to any ott'er pub- 
lication of it> class In the New-England States, and 
equal in iner t to any in the country. Its circula- 
tion is unequiilied by that of any other agricultural 
paper in New-England. 

It is published weel<]y, on fine psper, and ha? just 
been put up'ui new type tl rough'mt. !■ is ably ed- 
ited by Simon Brown, a thorough and practical 
farmer, and has 'he best corps of intelligent corre- 
spondents that can be found in New-England. 
Among these are Hon. Hfnrt F. French, of New- 
Hampshire, Hon. F. HoLBRiioK, of Vermont, Wilson 
Flagg, author of " Studies in the Field and Forest," 
&c., &c. 

Besides the agricultural mstlter, the Farmer con- 
tains a complete digest of the news of the day, a 
conden>ed leport of the markets, a large varie'y of 
Interesting and 'nslruetivc miscellaneous read ns, 
and everything that can malie it a welcome weekly 
visitant ;it the fireside of every farmer in the land. 
Also pulilished at the -ame office, 

NEW-ENGLAND FAKMER, MONTHLY. 

This is a jiaiiiphlet containing 48 pages in each 
number, printed on fine book paper, beautifully il- 
lustraiefi, and devoted entirely to subjects connect- 
ed with the fMrm. 

Terms. — New-England Farmer, Weekly, $2 a year. 
New-England Farmer, Monthly, $1 a year. 

No Club Prices, and no discount in any case, as 
our rule is to <erve all alike. Send for a ^peclraen 
copy, and judge of tlie merits of our publications 
for yourself. 

JOEL NOURSE, 

Publisher New England Farmer, 

Mar. 3t* No. 13 Commercial St., Boston. 



Fish Guano.— $35 Per Ton. 



The attention of Farmers and others is called to 
the FISH GUANO nianufacturen by the Long Is- 
land Fish Guano and '^il AVorks, at Southnid Long 
Island I' is compo ed of the Bom's and Flfxh of 
Fish, afier extracting the oil and w:iti r, and has 
been thoro.ghly tested m England and France, and 
from testimonials received, is found to be equ>d to 
Peruvian Guano and other manure*; is free from 
smell and not injurious to health. Price in bags, 
$3 ' per ton. Pamphlets contain'ng full particutara 
and testimonials niav be f'ad on applleaMon to 
BRUNDRED & ROGERS, 

Mar. ly. tJO Pine street, N. Y. 



Illustrated Book of Pears. 



JnsT publ'shed an-^ for sale bv A. O. MOORE, No, 
14(1 Fulton St.,N. Y., and STARR <fc CO., 4 Main St.- 
New London, Conn., 'he above valuable woik, con- 
tainlngplain, oractical directionsfor P anting. Bud, 
ding, Grafting, Pruning. Training, and Dwarfing the 
Peai-Tree ; als" in tructions relatirg to the Pi opa- 
gation of new varieties, Gahering, Preservlnjr, and 
Ripening the f>uit; together with valuable hints in 
regard to the Localitv, Soil, and Mat.ures required 
for, and best, arrangement of the Trees in an Or- 
charil, bot' on the Pear and Quince storks, and a 
List of the mo^t valuable varieties forDw-rf or 
Standard Cidture, accurately de.-cribed aid truth- 
fully delineated by numerous beautifully colored 
engravings. 

'I'tie above work, beautifully 1ilu--trated, should 
have a place in every family where a taste for good 
fruit prcails in all its choice varieties. 

Orders proi'v^ily executed. Dec. tf. 




AMEmcAN umtm' mamm. 



Vol. XII. 



JUNE. 1858. 



No. 6. 



1^ D r I ni ( t It r a 1 . 

HINTS FOR THE SEASON. 



June is a delightful, but for the farm- 
er, a working month. Who would not 
like to be out in the thickest of its works, 
whether of the Divine or of human 
workmanship, whether by the skill of 
the husbandman, elaborating all beauties 
and all utilities, or of the bird that 
builds its nest and rears its young, or 
the bee that " gathers honey all the day" 
and lays by plentiful comfort for winter. 

Nature now — and in no climate more 
than ours — hastes to her annual consum- 
mation ; and the farmer can hardly keep 
himself posted in her progress. Per- 
haps you say, June is a fine month to 
talk about, and we should like it better 
if it would be a little longer, and give 
us time to enjoy it ; but we are obliged 
to v,'ork the whole time. Yes, it is so. 
The fanner's work will never be done in 
June. It will not all be done any time 
in the year. "With one hundred acres 
and suitable buildings, there will always 
be enough to do ; and it is only by judi- 
cious management that the farmer can 
ever find time to visit his friends and 
perform the social duties of a good and 
useful citizen. 

You would say, you like to work, it is 
your happiness ; in nothing else do you 



VOL. XII. 



21 



find so much pleasure. TTell that is 
as every good man will natui-ally feel 
about his employment. But j'ou may 
think that after all, though it is your 
life and comfort, yet you would like not 
to be obliged to work quite so closely as 
this hurrying season demands. 

Obliged to work ! Why man, you 
are ohliged to love your wife, if you 
would bo a good husband, ohliged to love 
your children, if you would be a good 
father, and ohliged to love your neigh- 
bor if you would be a tolerable Chris- 
tian ; but do you love them with any 
the less pleasure because you are oblig- 
ed ? Not a bit, but the more. And so 
the work of the farm. It is the best 
work in the world. What if you had 
no way to get a living, but to be shaving 
notes, or peddling quack medicines, or 
praising goods that you want to sell but 
nobody wants to buy ! You would not 
respect yourself half as much as now, 
that you are doing God's appointed work 
for more than half the human famil}"^ ; 
you would not love your business half as 
well. You could not be more than half 
as good a man. So be contented and 
work on. You are nature's nobleman, 
if you did but know it. 



322 



AGRICULTURAL, 



fortunatos agricolas, 
Si norint — 

No matter that we have forgot the 
rest. It means that the farmers are the 
happiest and best men we have, if they 
could only be convinced of it. So said 
the Mantuan bard in our school-boy 
days ; and although we did not believe 
it then, we know it now. The working 
farmer is the best and happiest man; 
and his labors benefit himself and all 
the world beside. 

The Farmer's self. 

But what are they at this lime ? First 
of all take care of j^ourself. Read some- 
thing every morning to feed your 
thoughts and quicken your observations 
through the day. Work expeditiously 
while you are at it, and leave off before 
you are too wearied, to read more, and 
to enjoy your friends in the evening. 
We hardly need say to you, retire early 
and rise betimes, for you will do this 
almost of course. Nothing, like your 
calling is suited to the development of 
practical wisdom ; and sooner or later 
every profession is destined to be es- 
teemed or despised according to the prac- 
tical judgment and good common sense 
of those who follow it. We have our- 
selves sinned by working on in June, 
when the suns are long, after we had 
done a good day's work. Do a day's 
work, if you please, every day, but nev- 
er do two in one. We know men, who 
will not stop, when they have done as 
much as their conscience would allow 
them to exact of a man in their employ. 
If this fault " leans to virtue's side," it 
is a fault still, and should be carefully 
avoided. Take care of yourself. Strive 
at all times to be a clear thinker, a read- 
er to some extent, well informed, awake 
to all that concerns your own interest 
and the public good. So shall you hon- 
or your calling, and it shall honor you. 
His Family. 
What we have said to the farmer, and 
would not have him loose sight of, about 
self-culture, applies equally to his wife 



and to his grown-up sons and daughters. 
Let them strive to be as intelligent as 
the families of any other class at least. 
Let no day go by without storing in the 
mind something ; and they too will hon- 
or this calling, second to none, heaven- 
appointed and heaven-honored. Have 
the mothers and daughters been out 
among the beauties of nature any more 
since that philipic we let off at American 
women for breathing out-door air no 
more, last month ? If not, let them begin 
now. We do not mean to let another 
month go by without firing into the in- 
side of the farm-house, with the hopes of 
scattering the inmates into the garden, 
over the lawns, to the fields and beyond. 
Where is the boy to get the horse and 
put on the side saddle ? Run my good 
fellow, that your mother and sisters 
may have a good time, and come back 
laughing as heartily as would be safe, 
even with the present liberal modes of 
female dress. 

The School. 
In the next place, farmers, see to your 
schools. The minister, doctor, lawyer 
and teacher, will look after them ; and 
that is well; but see that they do it 
rightly. Make your influence felt in the 
district. You will thereby gain a con- 
sciousness of your standing and useful- 
ness in society, and it will do you good 
as well as others. Farm work presses 
this month as it did last, and will next, 
but those young children of yours are of 
more consequence than farm work even. 
See that justice is being done them at 
the school, and encourage them to be 
just to themselves. Take along your 
wife and visit the school occasionally. 
Nothing so encourages teachers and pu- 
pils as to see parents take an interest in 
the matter. You may have plenty of 
schools, but they will not go well alone. 
We suppose you have a good farm and 
in high cultivation, but how would it 
look five years hence, if you should 
leave it to go alone, or commit it to a 
hireling, and never go near it yourself? 



AGRICULTURAL. 



323 



So great interests as those of your chil- 
dren's education require j'our personal 
supervision. 

The Corn Crop. 
But turn we to what you will regard 
as more practical, the work of June. 
From Maine to Georgia and from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific, the corn crop is the 
most important. By the census report 
it was put down at 592,330,612 bushels 
in 1850. At GOcts. a bushel, this would 
amount to $355,402,907. It has often 
been estimated at the round sum of 
8350,000,000, and though we have no 
very implicit faith in these census re- 
turns, we could as readily believe that 
this sum falls below as that it rises above 
the real value. In our last we threw 
out various hints for the preparation of 
the ground, manuring and planting, not 
as law in the matter, with no excathedra 
spirit, but for the consideration of our 
readers. Our present remarks shall be 

on 

Its Cultivation. 

If your land is feasible the work may 
be done mostly by horse power. If it 
is not feasible by nature, we suppose 
you have made it so ; lor it can not be 
wise to plant ground j'car after year so 
covered with stones that you can not 
pass the cultivator within two inches of 
a hill, without danger of overwhelming 
it with an avalanche of bowlders. And 
now if your rows run both ways, as is 
well, in case your field is wide as well 
as long, but not otherwise, you can cul- 
tivate and cross-cultivate, so as to leave 
but -i inches each way, or 16 square 
inches for the hoe. Even this 16 inches 
need not to be touched, unless the 
ground is peculiarly hard. Haul an 
inch depth of soil over it, and the weeds 
will be sufficiently held in bay, till you 
hoe again, especially if you hoe again as 
soon as we advise. AVo believe in giv- 
ing corn land three dressings, in all or- 
dinary cases. Two may be enough in 
some cases ; in others four may be advi- 
sable. But three times over the ground, 
renewing every inch of surface is the 



rule for corn, where no special reason 
exists for a different course. 

But let the three dressing-; be near 
each other. We contend that qjl that is 
done in the cornfield, between planting 
and harvesting, should be done in this 
month, and we think we have good and 
practical reasons for this ; 1st the labor 
is diminished, and 2nd the crop is in- 
creased. From the first to the tenth of 
June let the ground be stirred as deeply 
as you can well cultivate, and every 
weed pulled up or covered ; covering is 
just as effectual if the second dressing is 
to follow soon. 

From the tenth to the twentieth, go 
over the ground again. Hill but slight- 
ly. Perfectly level culture takes more 
time and high hilling requires more el- 
bow grease and back-bone ; and there is 
no corresponding advantage in either, 
unless you mean to seed down to grass at 
the last hoeing, in which case the leveler 
the cultivation the better. Common 
sense — we mean that unswerved by 
tradition — decides that you should hoe a 
hill of corn just in that way in which 
the labor is lightest and soonest done — 
to haul a little soil about the hill, not 
more at the outside, than an inch at each 
dressing, not as much unless thei'e are 
weeds to cover. 

From the 20th to the 30th, hill the 
corn, as we used to say, but don't hill 
it, for that is a worse than useless labor. 
The Indians about Plymouth dug deep 
holes with clam shells, filled them with 
manure and fresh soil, and then piled 
the earth around the growing corn all 
summer. Some of the huge corn-hills 
made there by Indian squaws are visible 
to this day. We have imitated those 
Indian women, at a greater expense of 
labor than would foot the bills of a hun- 
dred Mormon wars, allowing they should 
not cost more than ten millions each, 
and we hardly think Brigham will fool 
Uncle Sam out of more than that at one 
heiit ; and now let us follow an Indian 
trail no longer, but exercise our own 



324 



AGRICULTURAL 



good sense, and raise more corn with 
less labor. 

If we hurry the corn dressings through 
in June, will not the weeds choke the 
corn in August ? No, not if you have 
done your duty from May to July. If 
the soil was turned up to the sun in 
April or early in May ; if it was harrow- 
ed before planting in case of a long time 
intervening between plowing and plant- 
ing, if you have killed the weeds, not 
twice but 'thrice in June, nothing more 
is to be feared. The seeds in the soil 
will have sprouted, you will have des- 
troj'ed the progeny, and then you may 
go on and do your haying and harvest- 
ing and not have more than two things 
to do at the same time. A few weeds, 
the seeds for which were two deep in the 
soil to be sprouted in June may spring 
up, but the corn will by this time be so 
strong, and drawing so powei'fuUy from 
the soil as to starve them. The fibrous 
roots of the corn will by this time per- 
meate every inch of soil, and if the weeds 
are not entirely rampant, it is best to 
let both the weeds and the corn roots 
alone. So we think, but we say let 
every farmer obseiwe, judge and act for 

himself. 

Potatoes. 
The potato crop, in our opinion, ex- 
cept in extr.aordinary cases, should be 
dressed but twice, once as soon as fairly 
up, with as nearly a level culture as can 
be attained, and again in ten or twelve 
days, with slight hilling. The once hill- 
ing of potatoes gives fewer tubers in 
number, but larger in size, and more 
uniform. If you want 10 or 12 good 
sized tubers in a hill, hill them once, and 
that early. If you would have one large 
tuber, fifty small ones, and one hundred 
apologies for tubers, keep hilling them 
from May to September. Here too it 
may be asked, will not the soil become 
intolerably weedy, if let alone after the 
first of June, or the 20th, or at latest, 
the first of July V Not if you have tak- 
en turf ground, nor unless you had been 
negligent in former cultivation. 



Pastures. 

How many of these have you? 
There is no benefit in having many and 
small pastures, which is half equal to 
the extra expense of fencing. Some say 
none at all, except in so far as it is co;.i- 
venient to have a small lot or two near 
the homestead, where a horse, or a yoke 
of cattle, can be lunched — bated we be- 
lieve is the word — near by. This hav- 
ing too many inside fences, either makes 
great expense or unruly cattle, both of 
which subtract from the profits ©f farm- 
ing. Cattle generally scour badly when 
removed to fresh feed. When well over 
this, they may do better for a short time ; 
but our observation has been, that for 
the whole season they thrive better to 
give them a pretty extensive run, and 
always the same ; and so say a majority 
of farmers with whom we have con- 
versed, though we have found others 
strenuous for small pastures and fre- 
quent changes. 

Let there always be salt in each pas- 
ture and in the barn-yard. Near the sea, 
and especially where the prevailing 
winds are from sea to land, cattle will 
hardly thank you for salt. In the inte- 
rior they need it. They are the best 
judges in all cases, whether they need it, 
and will thrive better in proportion to 
the forage consumed, if you will give 
them the choice. Their instinct, in 
other words their craving or their indif- 
ference towards it, is a sure guide to the 
quantiim svffieit. As we have often said 
there is no profit in wintering more 
stock than you can winter well, so there 
is none in overstocking pastures. Bet- 
ter get ten cattle ready for the butcher 
by the middle of July, than starve twen- 
ty till the snow falls. "We scarcely ever 
knew a farmer whose place attracted the 
drover in mid-summer, who was not do- 
ing well ; and we have seen those, who 
every year supplied the early beef mar- 
ket, thriving on farms which most of our 
readers would laugh to scorn as compar- 
ed with their own. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



r,25 



Try plaster this summer, it you have 
not before. On most old pastures, it 
will pay and leave a profit ; and you 
never can tell what it will do on yours 
till 3'ou try it ; 80 lbs. to the acre will do 
for a trial. We would recommend wood 
ashes on old pastures, if you could get 
them. But you can not. "VVe recol- 
lect seeing it recommended by Hon. A. 
B. Dickinson, of Chemung county, N. Y., 
to denude pastures of all shade trees, on 
the ground that cattle will do better 
without them, and we remember that 
his reasoning was ingenious and his ar- 
guments seemed cogent ; and if the facts 
he stated were really facts, we knew not 
how to get around or answer them ; but 
wc can not yield the point, nor feel willing 
to give up the old round topped and wide 
spread trees, looking so beautiful and 
comfortable ; and we would save them if 
we had them, and set them growing if 
we had none. 

The Orcliard— Caterpillars. 
You should look after your Apple 
trees at this time. Do not let the cater- 
pillars go to seed, and produce a double 
crop next year. Prevention is better 
and easier than cure. The same species 
of caterpillers that infest apple trees, are 
also found on the black cherry. If the 
harm they do cherry trees is not worth 
considering, and that done by them to 
the apple tree is not very severe, never- 
theless they give an unsightly appear- 
ance, and when seen in large, brown 
clusters, on limbs, denuded of their 
leaves, the indication is not what a thrif- 
ty ftirmer would wish — is hardly more 
promising of industry and thrift, than 
when you see rags and old hats in the 
window sash instead of glass. Twenty 
minutes a day, once or twice a week, 
through May and June, will sufDce to 
keep a large orchard clear of them. And 
then if there are a few choke cherry 
trees about, which you do not choose to 
root up, it is easier to clean them also, 
than to destroy the extra swarms that 
will infest your apple trees next year 



from their neglect. There are various 
ways recommended for destroying them, 
such as blowing off with a light charge 
of powder, (silly enough as it seems to 
us,) burning their nests with torches, 
(about as likely to injure the tree as 
the caterpillars would be if let alone), cut- 
ting off the limb and trampling it, nest 
and all, under your feet (a mode suitable 
for small branches only), and stripping 
the nest off and crushing the worms 
with a leather mitten, an (unpleasant way 
surelj', but as expeditious and as effec- 
tual at least as any other.) But choose 
your own way, only carry the war into 
(qyple treedom, and expel the enemy, or 
if thej^ are not made scarce, let it be 
your neighbor's fault rather than yours. 
Summer Trimming. 

While killing the caterpillars, be sure 
to have a sharp knife with you, to nip 
in the bud any useless suckers, that are 
exhausting the sap, only to create a ne- 
cessit}^ of being cut away, with increased 
labor and greater injury to the tree at 
the some future time. And here let us 
say, with regard to a thousand things to 
be done on a farm, there is much gain- 
ed by doing them promptly, such as cut- 
ting a sucker from the root of a fruit 
tree before it has grown half as large as 
the tree itself; destroying a caterpillar's 
nest, while the occupants are so young 
and tender, that they will disappear if 
you create the least disturbance with 
their premises ; laying up a fallen rail, 
befoi'e the cattle break into the corn, 
putting a harrow, or a wagon under 
cover before the sun has checked the 
wood, and created inlets for water, &c., 
&c., &c. 

Very much is gained by looking over 
the premises, seeing what there is to be 
done here and what there, and doing it 
at once. None so often as the farmer has 
occasion to verify the old proverb about 
a stitch in time. 

Prepare for Harvest. 

Although June is a hunting month, 
July is more so. AVhile diiving there- 



326 



AGRICULTURAL. 



fore the work necessary to this month, 
do not fail to be ready for the next. Is the 
barn in readiness to receive and preserve 
the harvest ? If not, now is the time to 
put it in order. By the way, did you 
bring into your yard, after removing the 
manure, a quantity of peat, mold, loam, 
or something of the sort, to mingle with 
and preserve the manure to be dropped 
during the summer months ? If so, tin-n 
it over now and then with a plow ; and 
if you do this in a cloudy day, or just 
before a rain, so much the bettei*. In- 
stead of ten loads of manure, in a yard 
where a dozen cows are kept over night 
through the summer months, there should 
be from forty to a hundred loads of an 
excellent compost, the best possible for 
top-dressing meadow land, as also for 
corn or almost any other crop. 

ty* Implements. 

And how is it with the implements for 
harvesting ? Are they ready ? Unless 
your land is intolerably rough do not 
fail of havicig a horse rake. Four men 
at haying with a horse rake, are as good 
as five without. A good horse rake can 
be had for $5 ; a very good one for $10. 
It will last half a life-time if well used 
and taken care of. The whole cost and 
interest is less than a dollar a year. 
But a man's wages are as much or more 
per day. On a farm cutting seventy -five 
tons of hay we believe such a machine 
as R. L. Allen's mower, or Manny's com- 
bined reaper and mower, will paj^ for it- 
self in two years, and will last much 
longer. But whatever implements you 
employ, look out for those that are well 
made. A scythe snath or shovel handle 
that you would select for yourself, made 
of white ash grown in open land, with 
pretty coarse grain, is worth at least 
two made of spalt, fine grained ash. It 
is so with a rake, head and tail. We 
never look at a bunch of rakes without 
seeing at a glance that there is at least 
fifty per cent variation in their value, 
owing solely to the character of the 
wood. Mowers and reapers, unless 



made, as some are, wholly of iron, should 
be oiled and varnished, but not painted, 
that the buyer may see what he is buy- 
ing. If there is a fine grained spalt 
piece in them, let the manufacturer keep 
them. It will cost him less to keep them 
in repair than it will you, especially if 
he keeps them in his loft, where every 
mower, or reaper with a foot of defective 
timber in it, ought to be kept. — Ed. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE FARMERS' 
CLUB. 

At a meeting of this club, Monday, 
May 10, Robert" L. Pell, President of the 
Institute, in the chair ; Hon. Henry 
Meigs, Secretary, present. 

Mr. John G. Bergen, an intelligent 
farmer of Long Island, suggested that 
the Club should extend their inquiries 
upon the cultivation of wheat. I recol- 
lect, said he, that an experiment in France 
showed that mixing several kinds of 
wheat together increased the production ; 
and I am inclined to believe that mixing 
Indian corn seed will increase the yield. 
I recollect a crop incidentally tried in Or- 
ange County, of a mixed character, that 
went far to prove this theory. It is an 
experiment that is certainly worth trying. 
I have tried a similar experiment, and 
and think the yield was increased. In 
mixing wheat, I think the increase was 
ten bushels to the acre. 

Wm. Ldwton. — It is an important 
question what time to plant corn. I 
think that we generally plant too early 
in Westchester County and vicinity, 
where the land is rather stiff. About a 
dozen years ago it i-ained nearly all May, 
and I planted in the first week in June ; 
the result was an excellent crop of un- 
usually sound corn — 70 bushels per acre. 
No eftbrt was made to grow a large crop, 
and the later than usual time of planting 
made me fear that I should not make a 
good crop. The land was subsoiled. 

John G. Bergen. — I have said I favor- 
ed early planting, but that needs qualifi- 
cation. The time must be adapted to 
circumstances. Writers often differ up- 
on all subjects. I saw a field of early 
corn this morning on Long Island, up 
and growing, and good crops will be ob- 
tained, for the ground is early and warm, 
and well manured. For market crops of 
green corn we must plant early. On 
Long Island, we regard the season rather 



AGRICULTURAL 



32'7 



than dates. I have seen early planted 
corn that looked yellow and bad at first, 
but afterward recovered and made good 
crops ; and I think, as a general rule, 
our early planting is best ; we then avoid 
the fall drouth, which is sometimes so se- 
vei*e as to prevent the ears filling. 

The Preddent. — I plant my corn, 80 
miles up the Hudson, the first of June. 
My neighbors plant May 1 0, My crop 
is usually the best. 

A. Bergen. — My observation about 
soaking corn is that early planted corn 
if soaked, is apt to rot. The strife of 
neighbors trying to beat each other in 
planting corn has been injurious to the 
production. As a general rule, the ear- 
liest planted is not the best, and I am 
not quite satisfied about soaking corn 
before planting. 

3Ii'. Fuller^ horticulturist, Brooklyn. 
— I find that all well prepared soil is 
much earlier than soil that lies compact 
and hard. Manuring warms it, and 
brings forth the crop. 

A. Bergen, a Long Island farmer. — 
Prepare your land well, and you can de- 
pend upon a corn crop in all seasons. 
Farmers fail because the}^ do not plow, 
dress and prepare the soil well. 

John G. Bergen. — I can grow sixty 
bushels per acre, but I can grow other 
crops to greater profit, because I grow 
market garden vegetables. 

T. W. Field. — I believe that upon an 
average the Indian corn crop is the most 
profitable of any — even more so than car- 
rots. Every one can not grow carrots, 
but every one can grow corn. After all, 
it is adaption of crops to location. I be- 
lieve that everywhere Indian corn-grow- 
ing may be made profitable. Here the 
stalks are very valuable, while at the 
West nearly worthless. 

A. Bergen. — I find corn-stalks valuable 
for feeding horses ; they cured mine of 
heaves. 

Mr. Ambler of Harlem. — I came here 
to learn how to plant corn, as I have a 
little farm in Connecticut, where we 
think the fodder of an acre of corn worth 
as much as an acre of grass. By deep 
plowing I reclaimed a very badly culti- 
vated piece of land that had been for 
many j'cars planted in buckwheat or rye, 
without manure, and with but little rest 
and but little product. I planted a por- 
tion to corn, after i)lowing seven inches 
deep, which was considered very deep 
plowing in that locality. I applied no 
manure, and at first the corn looked mis- 



er.able, until about the 1st of July, when 
it began to grow, and it proved to be the 
best crop in the town of Bethel. Next 
year I sowed oats and got a good crop, 
and sowed clover and had an excellent 
crop of clover — the wliole attributable to 
deep plowing — that is, deeper than it had 
ever been plowed before. I am satisfied 
that we can make corn growing in Con- 
necticut more profitable than in Illinois, 
simply by increasing the depth of the 
soil with the plow. 

Mr. White of Staten Island. — I plowed 
an acre of land never before cultivated to 
corn, and used very little manure, but 
j)lowed deeper than it had been before, 
and got the best crop in the neighbor- 
hood. 

T. W. Field.— Some of the Long Is- 
land farmers say that they have grown 
128 to 130 bushels of corn per acre, 
planted 4 feet 8 inches apart. 

Mr. Fuller. — I have traveled Illinois 
pretty well and I have never seen 100 
bushels per acre. I have been told that 
a corn crop near St. Louis was wor.ii 
only fifteen cents a bushel, and fiftj^ 
bushels per acre is a full 3'ield. 

T. W. Field. — The largest corn crops 
have generally been grown in districts of 
poor soil. In Central New-York 70 bush- 
els is a full crop. In Connecticut, on 
the Thames River, I saw a crop of 14 
acres that measured over 1,400 bushels. 
It had formerly been manured with 
bones very largely, some twenty years 
previous. 

John G. Bergen. — In regard to large 
corn crops, I have heard much of them 
at the West, but I never saw better crops 
in Ohio than upon Long Island. I grew 
one acre that gave a little over 100 bush- 
els per acre. I try to plow as deep as I 
can, but deep plowing is not best for all 
lands mider all circumstances. In one 
place in Pennsylvania I noticed that the 
land for corn was plowed shallow, and 
that deep plowing did not produce the ' 
best crops. 

The President. — Lands differ, and 
sometimes deep plowing may reach grav- 
el and injure the soil. Although I iiave 
injured some soil by too deep plowing, 
say twenty-two inches deep, yet I have 
improved a hundred acres where I ever 
injured one acre. Roots penetrate just 
as deep as the soil is aerated. All cere- 
als require phosphate of lime, potash and 
soda. If these be removed b}' long crop- 
ping, the soil will not produce good crops. 
By deep plowing a new supply is obtain- 



328 



AGEICULTURAL 



ed, just as it was upon ground described 
by Mr. Ambler that only grew five-finger 
vines. Do not consider a soil worn out 
until you have proved it so, not only that 
the surflice is exhausted, but all below 
that is within reach of the plow. 

Hoio to Kill Worms. — A gentleman 
showed abput half a wine glass full of 
worms, of a reddish brown color, as large 
as the coarsest knitting-needle, and 
about three quarters of an inch long, and 
very hard, with many legs and a voraci- 
ous disposition to eat vegetables. They 
are so prevalent in some gai'dens in 
Brooklyn that a dozen or twenty are often 
found under one hill of corn. He said, 
" What shall I do ?" 

Solon BoMnson. — Salt them with a 
mixture of salt and lime. 

Upon this hint the Secretary sprinkled 
a little upon those exhibited, and in two 
minutes every one was dead. 

As we had not the pleasure of attend- 
ing the above meeting, we have copied 
so much of its proceedings, as we sup- 
pose of special interest to our readers, 
from other papers. 

Whether mixing different varieties of 
Indian corn will increase the crop we 
very much doubt. ur preference would 
be to plant one variety, and to space 
accoi'ding to the size, four feet each 
way for large varieties, 3| for smaller, 
and as low as 3 for the smallest, with four 
or five kernels in the hill. If others 
have found advantage from mixing the 
seeds of this crop we would like to hear 
from them, for we are always open to in- 
vestigation and facts. 

The reported cases of good crops by 
plowing worn land deep are important. 
They show that the surface soil may be 
exhausted, and yet the land not be ex- 
hausted, but capable of producing a large 
crop. But they do not prove that all 
worn lands may be made to produce 
well merely by ploughing deep. These 
examples are not a safe rule to follow. 
More generally the deeper you plow 
beyond the old level, the more manure 
may be applied to advantage. 

If, as Mr. Field states, the "largest corn 
crops have generally been grown in dis- 
tricts of poor soil," and if by poor soil 



he means a deep, strong soil, but very 
hard to cultivate, not that which a farm- 
er would choose for his corn crop but 
which he is obliged to use, or none, as hap- 
pens over large territories, then it is just 
as it should be. The largest crops ought 
to be grown, as we believe they are, on 
the granite soils of Massachusetts and 
New-Hampshire, on what would be call- 
ed poor corn land, because so difficult 
to work. 

The farmer of many a New-England 
town can not afford to grow much less 
than a hundi'ed bushels on an acre. The 
farmer in Illinois might make money by 
growing fifty. 

We invite attention to the fact that 
Mr. Pell, the President, has injured some 
acres by deep plowing, but has improved 
a hundred fold more by the same pro- 
cess. 

We advocate deep plowing, but not 
indiscriminately. Never was a more sen- 
sible remark than Mr. Bergen's, " Deep 
plowing is not best for all lands in all 
circumstances." — Ed. 



"OLD RED STOCK OF NEW- 
ENGLAND." 

Mb. Editor : — We are glad to see by 
your last paper that there is one man 
among us who stands up for the " old 
red stock of New-England." This is no 
new theory with Mr. P. ; we remember 
to have heard a like opinion from him 
several years ago, when he addressed 
the farmers of Hillsborough county, and 
you yourself were present. We have 
lately seen an elaborate article on this 
subject, in the American F-irmers' Mag- 
azine, a valuable paper published by Mr. 
Nash, at Nev\^-York. The truth is, tarm- 
ers are diffident in the expression of 
their real opinions of the value of natives 
because they are not quite so fashion- 
able. But if it is found that they can 
be fed at two-thirds the cost, and at the 
same time will yield quite as good pro- 
ducts, is it not clear beyond a doubt, 
that it is best economy to keep them. 

March 14, 1858. Gkanite Hills, 

in iV". £J. Fanner. 

Now we are not quite certain who 
this Mr. P. is, but if it should turn out 



AGRICULTURAL, 



829 



to be John W. Proctor, Esq., of Danvers, 
Mass., we should not think it strange, 
for it sounds very much like him, to be 
giving the old red cuttle of the country 
their due, and to t;ike it for granted 
that America can produce cattle that are 
" some potatoes" as well as England. 

"We are glad to see that the Granite 
Hills' man appreciates the articles we pub- 
lished in March and April, on the origin 
and value of our native cattle, by which 
we mean, those whose ancestors have 
been long in this country. That the 
common sense rules of breeding have 
been sadly neglected, that much of our 
stock has greatly depreciated since the 
first settlers in the country brought 
with them the very best cows and bulls 
that England then produced, and that 
the cattle of England have been wonder- 
fully improved since our early fathers 
left that country, we have no disposition 
to deny. 

There is no question that while we 
have been turning our best calves to the 
butcher, and otherwise neglecting whole- 
some laws of procedure, for the purpose 
of securing a constantly improving stock, 
English farmers — some of them at least, 
enough to gain magnificent results for 
their country — have been wiser. It is an 
often repeated assertion, and we suppose 
a truth, that the average weight of cat- 
tle slaughtered at the Smithfield market, 
London, has more than doulded, since 
England sent so many fat cattle to Bos- 
ton, with the hope of curing the scurvy 
among her soldiers, and contenting her 
officers, after the very costly victory 
they had achieved at Bunker Ilill. 

We certainly have no inclination to 
depreciate what England has done. Her 
improved Devons, Ayrshires, Hcrefords, 
Durhams, are a triumph of which any 
nation might be proud, and what is 
worthy of remark is that the improve- 
ments are not confined to the herds of 
the fanciers. Whoever visits Smithfield 
market will find that the improvements 
are widespread, pervading the stock of 



the whole country ; and so if he visits 
the farms of the various counties, he will 
be more surprised at the general excel- 
lence of the cattle, than he will at the 
superior condition of the few brought 
together at the national shows. 

Our friend, of the red cattle article?, 
says England brags of her cattle till we, 
more modest, learn to despise our own. 
Now that Englishmen know how to brag, 
is certain. Some think Americans do 
also, and we half believe it. But a west- 
ern man once told us that it was not 
faulty in the prairie folks to brag, for 
they had something to brag of If his 
rule was a good one, then England may 
brag of her cattle, for she has something 
to brag of. We think her farmers have 
made more in the improvement of their 
stock, than her armies did in fighting us 
eight years, or would in eight hun- 
dred. 

Still there is a drawback in English , 
cattle, as breeders for this country. 
They have yet to be acclimated; and 
some of them, by excessive feeding from 
generation to generation, have become 
diseased. A distinguished medical gen- 
tleman of that countiy has recently prov- 
ed by careful dissections, that in thope 
cattle which have been so much admired 
at the shows, the mucles have turned to 
fat, not that fat has insinuated itself 
among the muscles (marbled,) as it 
should, but that the muscles themselves 
have become fat, and that the very fibres 
of the heart have in some cases dissolved 
and disappeared, solid fat having taken 
their place,rendering that organ incapa- 
ble of dilating and contracting, and send- 
ing the blood purified and healthful 
through the system. 

That the mortality among the high-bred 
cattle in England is much greater than 
in this country is certain. A dairy farm- 
er in Berkshire, whose dairy consists of 
60 of the largest Durham cows, told us • 
in 1853, that while he took from that 
number ten each jear to ftitten, it was 
necessary to put in twelve two year old 



330 



AGRICULTURAL. 



heifers a year to keep the number good. 
This implied an annual mortality of two 
in sixty, or 3^ per cent. He added the 
opinion that this was but an average 
mortality of high'fcred cattle throughout 
the kingdom. 

There can be no reason for this — a 
mortality, three times as great, we be- 
lieve, as occurs on well conducted farms 
in this country — except such as throws a 
shade over the future of these high-bred 
cattle. It is certainly worth considering 
whether we are always to depend upon 
the importation of cattle, to breed from, 
whose vital and reproductive powers are 
on the wane, from long-continued and 
excessive pampering, or are to select for 
breeders the best of our own acclimated 
stock. We have long been of the opin- 
ion, that efforts in both directions should 
be made. We have said, and we say 
now, let those who have money enough 
and fancy enough, import to their heart's 
content. Let them give ^5,000 for a 
bull and a $1,000 for a cow, if they 
please. All the money they will send 
from the country is but a drop in the 
bucket compared with the millions we 
barter for gew-gaws, which we ought 
either to do without or manufacture 
ourselves. Bought wit is sometimes the 
best, if not purchased too dear. 

We believe that as good a bull for all 
practical purposes can be had of the En- 
glish farmer to-day for $500 as of the 
English fancier for $5000 ; and as good 
a cow for $200 as was ever brought to 
this country at the most fabulous price. 
We would advise those who are import- 
ing English stock as a means of improv- 
ing ours, to go among the yeomanry of 
England, and not to the paid agents, 
whether in that country or this, who 
are lying in wait for enormous commis- 
sions. It would be cheaper to give the 
English farmer $300 for his cow, than 
them to give him $500, and then pay $500 
more for the special benefit of a wily 
operator between the parties. Points 
and pedigrees, it is true, sometimes go 



together; but a good judge of cattle, 
knows very well that there are good 
points without pedigrees, and vo mis- 
take. As long as our money is paid 
more for pedigrees than for what every 
sound farmer knows to be good quali- 
ties, every step in our progress to a 
highly improved stock will cost more 
than it need. 

Nevertheless, let the importations go 
on as long as the importers shall list. 
This trade will regulate itself much soon- 
er than some other bi'anches, which are 
far more injurious to us, such as buying 
our iron, instead of using our own ore, 
smelting it with our own coal, paying 
American laborers for the work, and 
feeding the workmen with our own pro- 
duce. But while the importation of En- 
glish cattle is going on, and splendid 
herds of foreign blood are being estab- 
lished all over our country, we can not 
but wonder that so few American farm- 
ers are inaugurating the practice of 
breeding on correct principles from our 
own stock. We are by no means sure 
that better cattle than England has yet 
produced, or ever can, will not spring 
from the descendants of the very cattle 
brought over by the first settlers of this 
country. — Ed. 

SORGHO SUGAR. 
General Directions for Planting, Cultivat- 
ing, Cutting and Grinding Chinese or 
African Sugar Cane, and Making Syrup 
or Sugar therefrom. 

From a little work, on the Sorgho 
vSugar, recently published at Cincinnati, 
we extract the following directions, 
which seem to us to be reasonable, and 
to communicate much practical informa- 
tion. We shall examine the work more 
fully and notice it in another place. 

From all the information we have been 
able to gather, we deduce and would re- 
commend the following : 

I. If any doubts exist in regard to 
the ripeness of your seed, place a little 
dampened raw cotton over a tumbler of 
tepid water, in which place the seed. 
If good it will soon sprout. We have 



AGRICULTURAL 



331 



both Sorsjho and Imphee growing in our 
office, and offer no seed for sale which 
has not been thus tested. 

n. Select dr}^ warm soil, which has a 
southern exposure ; and as soon as the 
ground is warm to a sufficient depth, 
plant, in drills running north and south, 
about four feet apart, one seed to every 
eight inches, with shallow covering. 
Roll the land after planting. 

in. Cultivate the same as common 
corn, until the cane is about waist high ; 
then do not stir the soil deep, but mere- 
ly scrape out the weeds. 

IV. Allow all suckers to grow on the 
main crop; but for experiment, sucker 
a part, and take an account of the labor 
bestowed on each, as well as of the 
amount and quality of the forage, seed 
and juice. 

V. When the canes are considered 
ripe, strip them, and cut off two or three 
feet of the tops, so as to leave none but 
rich and juicy joints standing. This 
should be done several days before the 
canes arc cut up for the mill. They 
may then be cut and shocked, or housed 
in a convenient place, and kept until 
j-ou are ready to start your mill. Care 
should be taken in cutting and handling 
the canes, to keep their ends out of the 
dirt. This precaution, with cleanliness 
in all jKirts of the work, will do much 
toward securing good results. 

VI. Before commencing to grind, have 
all 3^our tubs, kettles, cisterns or vats, 
W'ell painted inside, and all ready ; also, 
a good supply of dry wood prepared for 
the whole run. Set j-our mill so that 
the juice from it will run through a fine 
sieve and a flannel strainer, into a tub 
or cistern near the clarifier. 

VII. Let the feed side of the mill be 
open about 1-8 of an inch, and the next 
or last two rollers closer. If tlic latter 
do not remove all the juice, set them 
closer, until they do so ; but never at- 
tempt to tighten while there is cane in 
the mill. 

VIII. In feeding our Vertical Mills, 
put in as much cane, all the time, as 
will pass through the feed regulator. In 
feeding horizontal mills, keep the rollers 
as evenly supplied as possible — about 
two canes deep. 

IX. If you adopt our plan for a boil- 
ing range, you may use one of the three 
kettles for a claririer, in small operations ; 
or add two clariliers, as shown on page 
67. In either case you can control tlie 
heat, which is absolutel}' indispensable, 



for the juice must not boil until thor- 
oughly clarified. Fill one of the clarifi- 
ers with juice, — say 100 gallons ; put 
about one quart of cream of lime (good 
whitewash,) into a bucket full of juice — 
stir it togethcj", and pour the whole into 
the clarifier, and mix thoroughly; make 
a brisk fire ; Match the charge closely, 
and as it approaches a scalding heat, 
check the fire with a little bagasse. A 
thick, heavy scum will rise — keep the 
fire up until the scum finally breaks, and 
shows white froth between the flakes ; 
then remove the scum and the fire, and 
let the juice rest until you have gone 
through the same operation with the 
other clarificrful, then draw off the first, 
through flannel l)ags, into the largest 
kettle of the boiling range, (the other 
kettles being partly filled with water, 
and a good fire started, but not turned 
under the first kettle.) Then whip up 
six eggs, or a pint of beef's blood, in a 
large bucketful of clear, cold juice, and 
turn the fire under it. Regulate the 
heat so that it docs not boil, until it has 
" thrown up," and has been skimmed 
as before. Then boil as rapidly as pos- 
sible until the thermometer indicates 
238'' in the syrup. In the same manner 
bring forward the second clarificrful ; 
treat it with blood, or egg-water, and 
pass it on ; finishing each chai ge in the 
kettle directly over the fire, and dis- 
charge it thence to your cooling-vats or 
boxes. Rapid boiling, after thorough 
clarification, produces the best results. 
The coolers should be large enough to 
hold a whole day's boiling each. Mix 
all together, as each batch is turned into 
the cooler, imless, by accident, a batch 
or charge gets speilcd, in which case it 
should be put by itself. 

Every bucket, tub, kettle, ladle or 
skimmer, as also the mill and troughs, 
should be rinsed clean as soon as out of 
use, and before they get dry. It may 
be advantageous to do this with strong 
lime-water. 

Svrup should be boiled to 38" or 40° 
B., "to keep well. Molasses barrels 
should be well made, with at least six- 
teen hoops, and a middle piece of pine 
in the heads. The price, at Cincinnati, 
is $1.40 each. 



Ckllaks arc fruitful sources of dis- 
ease if garbage and filth are allowed to 
accumulate for years. AVe trust, they 
were thoroughly cleaned and white- 
washed last month. 



332 



AGRICULTURAL. 



PLEA FOR THE ROBIN. 

BY WILSON FLAGG. 

Certain cultivators, annoyed by the 
depredations committed by the common 
robin upon their cherry trees, have lately 
discovered, as they suppose, that this 
bird is of no service to agriculture. They 
accuse him of living upon fruit and 
earth-worms alone, alleging that he de- 
stroys but very few of the insects which 
are injurious to vegetation. Herein they 
are led astray by a very egregious error, 
and one that might produce incalculable 
mischief were they to succeed in con- 
vincing the public that the robin is an 
enemy to the garden and the farm. 
Nothing can be further from the truth. 
It is in fact one of the most valuable of 
our birds, exceeded only by the small 
woodpecker and the chickadee in the 
service he performs by checking the 
multiplication of noxious insects. Let 
us make a few inquiries respecting his 
habits. 

The robin is not a searcher for small 
insects that live upon the bark and 
leaves of trees. He seeks his food like 
the other thrushes, mostly upon the 
ground ; and is often seen, after a rain, 
pulling out earth-worms from their holes. 
This circumstance has led many to sup- 
pose that he confines himself to these. 
It is true that he devours great quanti- 
ties of earth-worms, but they are only a 
small part of his diet. He also consumes 
large numbers of those grubs which oc- 
casionally appear on the surface of the 
soil. These are taken only by certain 
species of birds. Neither the wood- 
pecker, nor the chickadee, nor the wax- 
wing, nor any species of swallow, nor 
the king-bird, nor any of the fly-catch- 
ers, nor that excellent friend of the gar- 
den, the golden oriole, take their food 
from the ground. What provision then 
has nature made to rid the surface of the 
soil of its noxious insects ? Among the 
small birds the thrushes seem to be de- 
signed for this special purpose ; and of 
all the species of this tribe none is more 
beneficial than the common robin. 

"What constitutes the food of this bird 
during eight months of the year when 
there are no fruits in the garden or pas- 
ture ? It can not be said that he lives 
upon seeds, for he refuses seeds of all 
kinds unless they are crushed and made 
into a dough ; and if a young robin is 
fed chiefly on farinaceous food in a state 
of confinement, he will sicken and die. 



The plain inference is, that when he can 
not obtain fruit he lives upon worms and 
insects. If angle-worms are the princi- 
pal part of his diet, how does he continue 
to obtain them when the superficial soil 
is dry, and they are lodged in the sub- 
soil ? He can not get them at any time 
except when they are either wholly or 
partially above ground. He can not dig 
or scratch for them, and must consume 
other insects or he would starve. And 
when we consider the vast multitudes of 
robins in our land, and their voracious 
appetites, when we consider likewise 
that they live exclusively upon insects 
and worms, when fruit isiiiot to be ob- 
tained, we must admit that the quantity 
of crawling vermin consumed by these 
birds must be immense and altogether 
beyond calculation. There are no other 
birds that could supply their place, since 
the other thrushes are too shy to fre- 
quent our tilled grounds. The larks, the 
snipes and blackbirds are likewise all 
too shy to perform an equal amount of 
the same service. 

If the robins were to be exterminated 
the mischievous consequences that would 
ensue could never be repaired except by 
restoring them, certainly not within a 
period of twenty years. Let us enu- 
merate some of the insects that are kept 
in check by the labors of the robin. 
He destroys nearly all kinds of worms, 
grubs and caterpillars that live upbn the 
green sward and the cultivated soil ; and 
large quantities of crickets and grass- 
hoppers before they have become per- 
fect insects. The grubs of locusts, of 
harvest-flies and of beetles, which are 
turned up by the plow or the hoe, and 
the pupse of the same when emerging 
from the soil ; apple worms when they 
leave the fruit and crawl about in quest 
of a new shelter, and those subterranean 
caterpillars or cutworms, that come out 
of the earth to take their food ; all these 
and many others are eagerly devoured 
by the robin. The cutworms emerge 
from the soil during the night to seek 
their food, and the robin, which is one 
of the earliest birds to go abroad in the 
morning, is very dilligent at the dawn of 
day in hunting for these vermin before 
they have gone back into their retrent. 
The number of these destructive grubs 
is immense. 

" Whole cornfields," says Dr. Harris, 
" are sometimes laid waste by them. 
Cabbage-plants, till they are grown to a 



AGRICULTURAL, 



333 



considerable size, are very apt to be cut 
off and destroyed by them. Potato 
vines, beans, beets and various other 
culinary plants suiTur in the same way. 
The products of our flower-gardens are 
not spared ; a.sters, balsams, pinks and 
many other kinds of flowers are often 
shorn of their leaves and of their central 
buds, by these concealed spiders." — Se- 
port, j>age 34:3. The services of the 
robin in destroying these alone would 
more than pay for all the fruit they de- 
vour. Indeed, during the breeding sea- 
son, a robin is seldom seen without one 
of these caterpillars or some similar 
grub in his mouth, which he designs for 
his young ; and as the robin often raises 
three broods of young during the season, 
his species must destroy more of this 
class of noxious insects than almost all 
other birds together. 

It must be idle to dispute the fact that 
in certain places the robins are very mis- 
chievous in their depredations upon the 
cherry trees. There is one good remedy 
fur this evil, which was suggested some 
weeks since by a correspondent of the 
Farmer. This remedy is to plant a 
greater quantity of cherry trees ; for it 
will be found that wherever there is a 
great abundance of this fruit the robins 
do comparatively but little damage. 
One very important cause of their depre- 
dations is the destruction of the blue- 
berry pastures, which would supply 
them with large quantities of berries 
about cherry time. It is precisely in 
those sections of the country, as in Cam- 
bridge and the suburbs of Boston, where 
the blueberry bushes have been extir- 
pated from the wild lands, we hear the 
most complaint against the robin. Our 
farmers, when thc}^ clear a whortleberry 
pasture, should transplant all the blue- 
berry bushes to the sides of the walls 
and fences, to supply the frugiverous 
birds with berries, and thereby divert 
them from the gardens. There are 
thousands of miles of stone wall, within 
two hours walk from Boston, which 
ought to be bordered with blueberrj^ 
bushes and amclanchiers, (June berries,) 
where, without occupying any valuable 
space, they would feed the birds and 
produce tons of berries, to employ the 
diligent hands of women and children of 
poor families, who would gather them 
for the market. Let those horticultu- 
rists who have conceived a prejudice 
against the robin, instead of petitioning 
the Legislature to remove the legal pro- 



tection that now exists in favor of this 
bird, petition the authorities of the city 
of Boston to appropriate a few thousand 
dollars for the planting of blueberry 
bushes and amelanchiers by the sides of 
fences in all pasture lands within five 
miles of the city; and after the work is 
accomplished we shall hear no more 
complaints of the robin and the cedar- 
bird, — IT. E. Farmer. 



AMERICAN CATTLE. 

TUE DEVONS. 

What the turf horse, and its ancient 
progenitor, the Arabian, is among 
horses, the Devon is among cattle. 
They are claimed in England as an abo- 
riginal race, and to have existed in the 
island previous to its conquest by the 
Romans. Yet, from all accounts, the 
Devon has, from the earliest times, been 
confined chiefly to the county which 
bears its name, and the immediate con- 
fines of those adjoining, in the south- 
west of England. Nor does exti'aordi- 
nary attention appear to have been given 
to the improvement of the breed until 
the latter part of tlic last century, when 
the high prices, and great consumption 
of native beef in Great Britain, to feed 
her armies, having fearfully drained her 
cattle districts, awakened the attention 
of the few breeders of Devonshire, who 
still held their cattle in their original 
purity of blood, to their extraordinary 
value. The northern part of that county 
appears to have been their favored home. 
Tlie soil and climate eminently suited 
them, and with the care and attention 
bestowed upon them by their breeders, 
for the past sixty or seventy years, they 
have improved in quality, appearance, 
and blood-like style, until they can be 
mistaken for no others with which they 
have any relation. The wild deer of 
our forests have no stronger marks of 
original descent than the well-bred 
Devons of the present day ; and in uni- 
formity of appearance, and identity of 
blood, they are scarcely more homoge- 
neous. 

An idea has prevailed to a consider- 
able extent, that the red cattle of New- 
England are essentially Devons, from 
the fact that the first settlers of Ply- 
mouth came from Devonshire. There 
is no sort of proof in that, for no cattle 
were imported into New-England until 
four years after the arrival of the May- 
flower, and ucat cattle were imported 



334 



AGRICULTURAL, 



from all parts of the coast of England 
to the new colonies when an active com- 
munication had become established be- 
tween the two countries. At all events, 
the New-England red cattle are exceed- 
ingly unlike the well-bred Devons of the 
present time, and only resemble them so 
far as their approach to the same color, 
sprightliness of action, and an upturned 
horn are an indication. An occasional 
well-bred Devon may have been import- 
ed into New-England during the last 
century, and left an infusion of its blood 
in certain neighborhoods ; but nothing 
like an established herd of the kind has 
been known there until within the last 
thirty years. The first animals — six 
heifers and a bull — of pure North Devon 
stock, in the United States, of which 
particular note has been taken, were im- 
ported by Mr. Robert Patterson, into 
Baltimore, Maryland, in the year 1817. 
A few more were impoi'ted into Ne^- 
York, by the late distinguished states- 
man, Rufus King, of Jamaica, Loiig Is- 
land, about the year 1819 — both from 
the line herd of the late Earl of Leices- 
ter, then Mr. Coke, of Holkam, in the 
county of Norfolk, England. A few 
years afterwards, some of Mr. Patter- 
son's stock were taken into Connecticut, 
and successfully bred. In 1835, the re- 
mainder of the Patterson stock went 
into the hands of Mr. George Patterson, 
of SykesviUe, Maryland, who has skill- 
fully bred them, with occasional impor- 
tations of a fresh bull, up to the present 
time. Mr. King bred his stock, occa- 
sionally parting with an odd animal,nin- 
til his death many years ago, when his 
herd was broken up and dispersed. 
These were ail well-bred cattle, origi- 
nally procured in Devonshire by Mr. 
Coke, who considered them admirably 
adapted to the light soil of his extensive 
estates in Norfolk. From the herd of 
Mr. Patterson, many animals were dis- 
tributed into various parts of the coun- 
try. About ten years ago, and since, at 
various times, several enterprising cattle 
breeders made selections from the best 
herds in Devonshire, and brought them 
into Massachusetts, New- York, Georgia, 
and the Canadas. They have been emi- 
nently successful here, and now several 
herds exist, of purity in blood, and high 
quality — not excelled even in England. 
The Devons have thus become an estab- 
lished breed of cattle in the United 
States and in Canada. 



DESCRIPTION. 

The pure North Devon is medium in 
size, and less than the short-horn, or 
Hereford. They are red in color — ori- 
ginally, a deep blood red, but laterly, 
they have in England bred them of a 
lighter shade, but still red — a fancy 
shade, merely, the other characteristics 
remaining the same. The head is short, 
broad, and remarkably fine, with a 
quick, lively, prominent eye — encircled 
with an orange-colored ring ; and a slen- 
der, branching, upturned horn. The 
neck is fine, with little tendency to dew- 
lap ; the chest full, with a slanting 
shoulder, more open of late than for- 
merly ; a straight back, with full round 
ribs, well thrown towards the hips, and 
a projecting brisket. The loin and hips 
are broad and level ; the rumps in good 
proportion, and the tail well set, round, 
and tapering like a drumstick into a tuft 
of mixed white hairs at the end. The 
flanks are deep and level ; the thighs 
somewhat rounding above, and running 
into a graceful taper at the hock, with a 
leg below of surpassing fineness and 
strength. The fore-arm is large above 
the knee, but below, the leg is exceed- 
ingly fine and muscular. A patch of 
white is occasionally found at the udder, 
and in rare instances extending forward 
to the navel, but in a majority of cases, 
perhaps, the white does not occur. 
Taken altogether, no animal of the cattle 
race exists, which in conformity of color, 
style, symmetry, and blood-like appear- 
ance, exceeds the Devon. 

AS A BEEF PRODUCING ANIMAL, 

no creature of the race this side of the 
Atlantic equals it in fineness of grain, 
delicacy of flavor, and economy in con- 
sumption. Its fineness of bone and 
freedom from offiil make it a favorite 
with the butchers, and a choice to the 
consumer. In England it is preferred to 
any other beef excepting only the Gallo- 
way and Highland Scot, and bears, ex- 
cepting those, the highest price in her 
markets. He matures early — hardly so 
early, perhaps, as a short-horn — but at 
four years old is fully ripe for the sham- 
bles, and at three, good. He is a kind 
and quick feeder, with finely marbled, 
and juicy flesh, and no bullock makes 
better proof at the shambles. 

AS A WORKING OX, 

he excels, according to weight and size, 
any other known. Even in size, the ox 



AGRICULTURAL 



335 



is full medium, his solidity of carcase 
and muscular strength amply compen- 
sating for his (ipparent deficiency in 
bulk. For activity, intelligence and do- 
cility, he has no e(|ual, and long expe- 
rience has proved that where working 
oxen are in demand, an infusion of 
Devon blood adds largely to their value, 
both in price and performance of labor. 
They match readily, both in color and 
shape, the deeply concentrated blood of 
the l)ull imparting his color uniformly 
to his progeny. Their movements arc 
quick and agile. They walk almost 
with the rapidity of the horse, possess- 
ing both wind and bottom. In short, 
the Devon is the heau ideal of a working 
ox, and as such, will always hold a pre- 
eminence. 

AS A DAIRY cow, 

she is full medium, when milk is made 
an object with her. For breeding pur- 
poses solely, as with the short-horn, her 
milking capacity has been too often 
sacrificed for the benefit of her appear- 
ance. Naturally the Devon is a good 
milker. "We have often seen Devon 
cows yielding twenty-four quarts of rich 
milk a day for weeks together on grass 
only, and making a corresponding weight 
of butter. They are kind and gentle in 
temper, and with the milking quality 
properly cultivated, they are, according 
to their weight and consumption of food, 
equal to any othei's. They have so 
proved in England — we know it to be so 
in America ; and coupled with the mani- 
fold excellencies of her stock, no cow 
can be more profitably kept as an econo- 
mical animal, either in the farm dairy or 
the village paddock. 

•WUERE SHALL THE DEVON BE KEPT ? 

There has been much controversy 
among cattle breeders on this point. 
Our AVestern breeders and gi-aziers, al- 
though they admire their beauty and 
symmetry, contend that the Devon is too 
small for their rich lands and huge corn 
cribs — the short-horn is better. We 
will not dispute that conclusion, well 
knowing the partiality of good stock 
feeders for large size, and corresponding 
consumption of food. But for the me- 
dium, and lighter soils of the country — 
and the richest also — in all its variety of 
climate, no beast is better calculated to 
win its way to success and favor. From 
Maine to Georgia ; from the Atlantic 
shore to far beyond the Mississippi, the 



Devon thrives, and is a favorite with its 
keepers. On hills, or in valley, with 
scanty herbage, or a luxuriant growtli, 
with anything like Christian treatment 
it will thrive, and do its duty. — Ameri- 
can Agriculturint. 



WORMS AMONG CORN. 

SwAKD land, plowed in the spring for 
corn, is often found filled with worms, 
which are sure to make great havoc with 
the seed unless they are exterminated. 
The following is an excellent remedy : 
After turning under the sod, sow broad- 
cast a bushel and a half of fine salt to 
the acre, and harrow it in, following 
with the roller. Soak the seed in tepid 
water about eighteen hours. Dissolve 
two ounces of sal ammoniac and add to 
the water. This amount will answer 
for a bushel of seed. Plant corn soon 
after sowing the salt. The seed will 
germinate quickly and the plants will 
come forward at once. Between the salt 
and the ammoniac, the corn will suffer 
little from the worms. — Ex. 

It seems hardly possible that so small 
an allowance of salt should much disturb 
the worms. That it would benefit the 
ci'op, on all lands away from the sea- 
shore, to an extent greater than its cost, 
we should have no doubt, and it might 
retard the operations of the worms, 
while the sal ammoniac would tend to 
hasten the early growth of the young 
plaiits, thereby getting sooner out of the 
way of the worms. This is one of those 
prescriptions, which it would be no loss 
to try. 

Perhaps one reason that worms work 
among corn planted on turf land worse 
than on stubble, is, that the ground 
being cold, the corn remauis small and 
subject to their bite longer. If so, this 
aflbrds another motive, in addition to 
the many we have suggested, for plant- 
ing corn only when the ground has be- 
come warm, and for applying some 
stimulating manure, to secure a vigor- 
ous outset. — FiD. 



MANAGEMENT OF HEDGES. 

We copy some valuable hints on this 
subject from a letter of William Laer, 



336 



AGRICULTURAL 



of Garden Grove, Iowa, the results of 
his own successful experience : " I have 
raised, so far, beautiful two years (Osage) 
hedges, which have already overcome 
the doubts of many a skeptic neighbor. 
I sprout all my plants before setting — 
thin them out in the roAv, throwing away 
all that show no swelling buds, or which 
make only a feeble eifort, and I never 
have a missing plant. My greatest ene- 
my is the cut worm ; I defeat him by 
fall plowing — by setting the plants three 
inches deeper than they stood in the 
nursery, so that the new sprouts will 
come up from the buds below the sur- 
tace. This deep setting will also insure 
a new growth in case the tops should 
winter-kill. But the root alone will not 
sprout. The first fall I bank up three 
to five inches high, three to four fur- 
rows on each side of the hedge. I set 
seven inches apart, but believe that 
twelve would be better. — Country Gen- 
tleman. 



AN AMERICAN HERD. 

The following which we cut from an 
exchange gives rise to some curious re- 
flections. That Mr. Thorne has a magni- 
ficent herd, the best probably in the 
country and perhaps in the world, we 
have no doubt. 

But if the sovereigns of Europe, and 
the SOVEREIGNS of America had not bid 
against each other and England made 
fools of them both, bulls would not have 
sold for $6,000 nor cows for $3,500. 

But despite the recklessness, as we 
must think it, of paying such prices to 
English sharpers, (English farmers get 
no such prices), we thank Mr. Thorne 
and others who are doing like him, for 
their zealous and successful efforts for 
the improvement of the stock of this 
country. 

Many English breeders told us in 1853, 
that they anticipated a time not very far 
distant, when they would be reimporting 
fi'om this country. If Mr. Thorne and 
others can hasten the fulfilment of that 
prediction, we should certainly be glad 
to see the change. — Ed. 

Samuel Thorne, of Thornedale, "Wash- 
ington Hollow, Dutchess co., N. Y., has a 



herd of only some 70 cattle, but their cash 
valuation is over $80,000. For one bull 
$6,000 was paid in England ; for another 
$5,000 ; and another is almost equally 
valued. One of his cows " Duchess 
66th," cost $3,500 at an auction sale in 
England, and her calf brought at the 
same sale $2,000. Despite the strin- 
gency in commercial affairs, Mr. Thorne 
has found no difficulty in disposing, at 
high prices, of all his surplus stock. Ju- 
dicious selection, and an ample fortune, 
have conspired to make the American 
herd at Thornedale superior in its indi- 
viduals to any other in the world. If 
we may judge from our past success, we 
are warranted in the belief that America 
will shortly be able to supply the mother 
country with short-horn cattle and 
Southdown sheep, as it already has with 
reapers and pleasure yachts. 



POTATOES. 
A New-Hampshire farmer, who has 
been greatly successful with this crop, 
ascribes his success to the following 
causes ; — 

1. Change of seed. Seed all procured 
from a distance. 

2. Planting on light instead of heavy, 
wet soil. 

3. Light manuring and seeding. 

4. Early planting and late digging. 

5. Manner of keeping. 



THE ROBINS VINDICATED. 

TuE question of the relation of the rob- 
in to horticulture was discussed at the 
January meeting of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society. It was the opin- 
ion of many fruit growers that the robin 
is a perfect nuisance to the horticultu- 
rist, and that the law preventing their 
destruction should be repealed. There 
were some, however, who gallantly took 
the part of the sweet birds, and at their 
suggestion a committee was appointed to 
ascertain their habits, and especially the 
kinds of food eaten by them during each 
month of the year. The chairman of the 
committee, J. W. P. Jenks, ofMiddleboro', 
has made his report for the first three 
months of the year, and it is entirely fa- 
vorable to the robins. It is proved that 
the robins subsist chiefly upon the worst 
enemies of the fruit trees, the curculios. 
Mr. Jenks found beetles, grasshoppers, 
spiders and curculios in the crops of the 



AGRICULTURAL 



337 



robins he dissected, but ninc-teiitlis of the 
contents of the crops were curculios. 
He has frequently t-aken a hunch-ed from 
a single crop, and in one instance 162. 
He has not found the first particle of veg- 
etable matter in the crop of a single bird. 
This settles the question in favor of the 
robins, and he who kills one of these 
birds gives permission to live and des- 
troy our fruit to some thousands of cur- 
culios and other enemies of the horticul- 
turist. 



DIPROVING LAND BY GREEN MA- 
NURES. 

It is believed by some, that the best 
kind of vegetable growth for turning in, 
in the form of green manures, is Indian 
corn sown broadcast. If it be intended 
to apply lime to the land, it would be 
well to do so the fall before. Then as 
early in the spring as circumstances will 
permit sow corn broadcast, say three or 
four bushels to the acre, and as soon as 
it has grown as high as it can be conven- 
iently turned under with a deep working 
plow, turn it under, and immediately 
sow another crop in the same way, turn- 
ing it under as before, but with a me- 
dium plow run crosswise of the pre- 
ious furrow. In the Middle and South- 
ern States, three crops can thus be turn- 
ed under in one season. It is believed 
that no system of manuring or renova- 
tion, except the heaviest application of 
stable manure, can compare with this 
plan in its results. If the land be very 
poor the first crop will be very light, 
but light as it may be it will yet add a 
considerable portion of the elements of 
vegetable nutrition to the soil ; and thus 
the second crop will be greatly improved, 
and the third will be all that can be de- 
sired. It is believed that in this way 
four times as much improvement will be 
effected in one season, as can be by 
means of clover in three or four years. 
For this purpose farmers in the north 
should use the tall kinds of southern corn, 
as being of more rapid growth and fur- 
nishing vastly more matter for the soil. 



VALUE OF OPIUM. 
Robert Pell, Esq., Pros, of the Amer- 
ican Institute Farmers' Club, stated at a 
late meeting, that in the British East In- 
dies, 100,000 acres of land are put to the 
production of opium ; that the ta.x on this 
22 



production amounts to $5,000,000 ; com- 
mercial value, $32,000,000 ; paid by 
China the last fifty years, $400,000,000. 
These amounts are large, but when the 
extent of the evil is considered, the Brit- 
ish Government, one would think, must 
reflect, in its sober moments, if it has 
such, that it does not pay. We should 
not think an enlightened people could 
afford to do such a business. 



GROWING POTATOES UNDER 
STRAW. 

" Having seen in the agricultural 
journals more than twenty years ago, 
reports of extraordinary success in 
raising potatoes by covering them with 
straw, I was induced to try a small ex- 
periment, which I will relate for the 
benefit of some of j^our readers. 

" A plot in my garden, about fifty feet 
square, of well-manured, clayey loam, 
was nicely spaded up and made fine and 
smooth. It was then marked out in 
shallow drills, two feet and a half apart, 
and potatoes (of the pinkeye variety) 
planted whole, two feet apart in the 
drills, and barely covered with earth. 
The whole patch was then covered with 
light, dry wheat straw — which had been 
very much broken by its passage through 
a threshing machine — and the same 
spread lightly and evenly with a pitch- 
fork to the depth of about two feet. 
Several showers occurred soon after the 
potatoes were planted, which settled the 
straw very considerably, and in due time 
the vines came up through the straw, 
and soon covered the entire surface with 
the rankest vegetation. 

" Nothing now was done to the patch 
till the vines were killed by frost in au- 
tumn. Not a weed appeared among 
them. At the usual time of digging po- 
tatoes, the dead vines were all pulled 
and removed ; then, with a potato fork, 
the layer of straw — which was pretty 
well rotted and not more than four or 
five inches then in thickness — was care- 
fully removed. To my great surprise, 
there lay the potatoes on the suriacc, 
literall}' covering the ground, and almost 
as clean as if they had been washed. 
They were jiicked up and measured, but 
the quant it}' I do not remember. 

" This much, however, I well recol- 
lect, that I never raised so good a crop 
by any other mode of culture. They 



338 



AGRICULTURAL. 



were of very uriiforiu size, and of good 
quality." 

Undoubtedly the above method of 
growing potatoes, which we cut from an 
old number of the Ohio Farmer, is wor- 
thy of further trial. We have raised 
patches of potatoes in just this waj^, 
laying one seed potato to the square 
foot, on turf land, covering them with 
straw four inches deep, and leaving them 
alone till harvest time. The straw com- 
pletely kills the grass. Its roots decay 
and afford pabulum to the potato ; and 
the straw acting as a mulch, is sure to 
keep the ground moist and of even tem- 
perature, so as to completely avert the 
danger of rot. We have had yields, we 
should think, of equal to five bushels to 
the rod, of uncommonly dry, mealy po- 
tatoes. But it would require an im- 
mense amount of straw to cover a large 
field ; and we are not prepared to recom- 
mend the course otherwise than for ex- 
periment. 

There are Nova Scotia farmers, who 
have tried it many years, who would 
tell you it is the best way in the world 
to raise potatoes. — ^Ed. 



From the Patent Office Report, 1S56. 

THE USE OP BURNED LIME AS AN 
APPLICATION TO THE SOIL. 

The application of burned lime to the 
soil is of high antiquity, and its utility 
is such as has been recognized in almost 
every country in which agriculture has 
obtained much eminence ; and certainly 
it has been more largely and extensively 
used as a fertilizer from a very remote 
period than any other mineral substance 
that has ever been made available in 
practical husbandry. Cato describes 
with much minuteness the best means 
of preparing it ; and Pliny attests the 
use of slaked lime by the Roman culti- 
vators as a dressing for the soil in which 
fruit-trees were grown. It was also ap- 
plied by the Arabs with equal success 
in Spain. Hence it may be inferred 
that what has been good in ages pt^st is 
good at the present time. 

When lime is applied to the soil, it is 
believed by some that it acts in two 
ways — one,s.s &sti)niila)it that promotes 



vegetation by causing the soil with 
which it is mixed to exert itself, and the 
other, in promoting the growth of trees 
and plants by enriching the land as a 
manure, and adding to the quantity of 
vegetable food. By others, it is looked 
upon in a chemical and medicinal point 
of view, acting as an alterative, a cor- 
rector, a dissolver, or a decomposer — a 
disengager of certain parts of the ani- 
mal, vegetable and mineral substances 
contained in the soil, and as a retainer 
and combiner with others, but not as a 
substance, like dung or decayed organic 
matter, fit for the immediate use and 
nourishment of plants, except in small 
proportions. It also produces a me- 
chanical altei'ation in the soil, which is 
simply and easily understood, and is the 
cause of a series of chemical changes 
that are really obscure, and are as yet 
susceptible of only partial explanation. 
In the finely-divided state of quicklime, 
or slaked lime, or of soft and crumbling- 
chalk, it stiffens very loose soils and 
opens the stiffer clays ; while in the 
form of limestone gravel or of shell- 
sand, it may be employed either for 
opening a clayey soil or giving body and 
firmness to boggy land. Thus, it proves 
very useful in tenacious, heavy, clayey 
soils, while it may be dispensed with in 
light ones, as scarcely, if at all, affecting 
them. 

The purposes served by lime as a 
chemical constituent of the soil are at 
least of four distinct kinds, namely : 
First, it supplies a kind of inorganic 
food which appears to be necessary to 
the healthy growth of all cultivated 
plants. Secondly, it neutraHzes acid 
substances, which are naturally formed 
in the soil, and decomposes or renders 
harmless other noxious compounds, that 
are not unfrequently within reach of the 
roots of plants. Thirdly, it changes 
the inert vegetable matter in tlie soil so 
as gradually to render it useful to vege- 
tation. Fourthly, it causes, facihtates, 
or enables other useful compounds, both 
organic and inorganic, to be produced 
in the soil, or so promoteS'the decompo- 
sition of existing compounds as to pre- 
pare them more speedily for entering 
into the circulation of plants. 

Burned or quicklime is of an all-aline 
or lasic nature, like potash and soda. 
Bodies of this kind form the chemical 
opposites to those of an acid nature ; 
that is, they deprive them of their sour 



AGRICULTURAL 



839 



taste, and their acid properties and ac- 
tions in general, wlion they combine 
with them, while on tlieir own side they 
give up their basic properties. For in- 
stance, from the most corrosive hydro- 
chloric acid, and the most caustic soap- 
boiler's lye arises a compound which no 
lon;j;er tastes sharp or caustic, but only 
mildly saline, namely, common table 
salt. Their mutual resignation and de- 
livering up of their characteristic pro- 
perties, which occurs in all cases where 
an alkaline base meets with an acid, is 
called neutralization, and a new pro- 
duct arising from the two is termed a 
salt. 

A good soil, in a state of readiness for 
culture, must not possess any acid pro- 
perties. All the cultivated plants grow 
less I'reely and less vigorously in soils 
containing acids, than in such as are 
weakly basic, or even neutral, and their 
growth becomes inferior in proportion 
as the quantity of acid in the soil in- 
creases. The production of acids takes 
place in every soil ; for the humus, 
which originates both from the remains 
of plants and refuse remaining in the 
ground, and from stable manure, is of 
an acid nature ; the soil, however, usu- 
ally contains in its mineral constituents 
so many bases, (lime, magnesia, potash, 
and soda,) while the nitrogen of the 
stable-dung produces another, (ammo- 
nia,) that these suffice to neutralize the 
acids formed, and to convert the acid 
into tempered or neutralized humus. 
Combined with bases, the humus under- 
goes a far more rapid and extensive de- 
composition into food for vegetation ; 
that is, into solu1>le substances applica- 
ble to the growth of plants, while the 
acid hunms, whether produced by want 
of moisture, or by a superabundance of 
peaty substances, undergoes further de- 
cay, but slowly and with difficulty. 

Lime is not merely a hase, but a very 
strong base, and can therefore even ex- 
tract from the weaker bases occurring in 
the soil the acids with which they are 
already combined. Hence it acts with 
advantage in those cases where weaker 
bases are such as become soluble by 
combination with acids, and are in this 
condition capable of interfering with the 
growth of plants. Of this kind espe- 
cially are the bases which originate from 
the ferruginous particles present in all 
soils covered with water, such as are 
situated in low-lands excluded from the 
access of atmospheric air by a tenacious 



covering. Humic and carbonic acids 
produced in such places render the par- 
ticles of prot-oxyd of iron soluble, and 
these again cause the soil to become 
sterile or less fertile, just like the water 
which we see in ferruginous springs 
flowing from deposits of lignite or peat. 
On this account, fresh, black mud from 
ponds or lakes always acts injuiiously 
upon fields and meadows the first year ; 
hence the dead subsoil, when mixed at 
once with the surface soil, so often 
causes a diminution of fertility for one 
or more years. In like manner, in a 
soil which contains much pyrites, the 
oxygenation or weathering of the ground 
may readily produce so much soluble 
salt of iron (green vitriol, or sulphate of 
iron,) as to disturb the growth of plants. 
In all these cases, lime is an excellent 
means of rendering the iron insoluble, 
and, at the same time, of giving it a ten- 
dency to absorb 0X3'gen from the air 
more rapidly and abundantlj^ whereby 
the black prot-ox3'd of iron is changed 
into brown per-oxyd, (iron-rust,) which 
no longer acts injuriously upon vegeta- 
tion. 

Caustic or quicklime, as its name in- 
dicates, attacks the skin of the hand and 
dissolves it in washing, in the same way 
as potash or soda lye, and has a similar 
action upon other animal and vegetable 
substances, as many farmers, perhaps, 
have noticed on the sacks in which they 
have kept lime, which soon became rot- 
ten and soft. When lime is mixed with 
the soil, it acts in this decomposing and 
dissolving manner upon the roots, leaves, 
straw, and other parts of vegetables, as 
also upon organic constituents of the 
soil, wliich are already partially convert- 
ed into humus. It hastens the decom- 
position of those substances which are 
often very slow and disinclined to fer- 
mentation in heavy soils, not freely ad- 
mitting atmospheric air to a greater ac- 
tivity ; that is, to a more rapid fermen- 
tation, putrefaction, and decay, whereby 
they are decomposed into carbonic acid 
and ammonia, which arc then absorbed 
by the roots of the living plants as the 
most important of all their food. The 
action which lime exerts in this way 
clearly agrees in appearance with that 
])roduced by direct fertilizers, such as 
stable manui-e, guano, etc. But there is 
tliis great dillerence between the two. 
The lime does not work with its own 
material, but at the expense of otlier 
matter, namel}', at that of the land or of 



340 



AGRICULTURAL, 



its strength, while the direct manures 
act with their own power. It is, there- 
fore, self-evident that the latter enrich 
the soil, while lime renders it poorer. 
The universal effects of this independent^ 
unmixed liming or marling of land, 
which has been established by practice 
in Europe, as well as in many parts of 
this country, is obvious not only by the 
well-known German saying, " Rich fa- 
ther, poor children," but also by the still 
more precisely expressed maxim, 

" Much lime and no manure, 
Make both farm and farmer poor." 

Besides, on heavy, inactive soils, lime 
may be expected to produce good effects 
by its decomposing and dissolving power 
in all cases where the soil is rich in or- 
ganic remains, especially when the air 
lias not had free access to it ; conse- 
quently, on new ground, reclaimed from 
forest, broken-up meadows, and pasture- 
land, reclaimed peat-bogs, salt-marshes, 
and low-lying lands after they have been 
well drained. But even burned lime fre- 
quently does not develop its effects until 
the second or third year. 

Quicklime can also act as a decomposer 
and solvent of mineral substances. It 
causes, for instance, an unlocking of the 
mineral constituents of the soil, the pro- 
ducts of which (silica, potash, etc.,) can 
then be consumed as food by the plants 
"•rowing upon it. The experience that 
liming pre-eminently favors the forma- 
tion of haulm, and gives the straw of the 
cereals great stiffness, is explained by 
this in the most simple manner : It is 
not the lime which produces this, but 
the mineral substances rendered soluble 
and therefore assimilable by the lime 
above all the silica. The results of these 
experiments at the same time confirm 
ihe correctness of the opinion that the 
farmer need not pay any attention to 
silica, in manuring, since it exists almost 
everywhere in sufficient quantity in the 
soil, but that he need only take care that 
there shall not be a deficiency of its sol- 
rents, and of the conditions which favor 
its solution. Thus, lime is a powerful 
means of assisting the oxygenation, or 
weathering, of stony and earthy consti- 
tuents of the soil ; it, therefore, forms 
an aid to those bodies, and forces such 
as air, water, carbonic acid, (humus,) 
heat, etc., which carry on this process of 
decomposition everywhere in acting in- 
dependently of human interference. In 
a heavy soil, this natural weathering 



can, of course, only proceed slowly, be- 
cause the tenacity obstructs the access 
of air and the production of carbonic 
acid from humus. When, therefore, ex- 
perience says that lime proves far more 
favorable in heavy than in light soils, it 
might certainly be deduced from the pre- 
ceding statement, that its chemical ac- 
tion, now under consideration, may claim 
an essential share in the beneficial effects 
in the first case. 

Lime forms a necessary constituent of 
all plants ; if not present in sufficient 
quantity in the soil, the growth of vege- 
tation is poor ; therefore, lime may act 
favorably in certain cases by supplying 
this deficiency. By far the majority of 
soils contain lime abundantly sufficient 
for the requirements of the nutrition and 
development of plants ; and, if manuring 
is performed regularly and properly, 
there can still be a want of such kind, 
since stable manure, alone, conveys into 
the soil more lime than is removed from 
it, even in very abundant crops ; culti- 
vated soils rather grow continually rich- 
er in lime, and plants, which consume 
very much lime in their development, 
especially if grown in frequent succes- 
sion in the same field, will naturally lead 
much sooner to an exhaustion of the 
lime of the soil, than those plants which 
take up lime moderately. 

Carbonate of lime is far less coherent 
in textm-e, and is of looser nature than 
clay or loam, so that it has the power of 
improving tenacious soils mechanically 
by rendering them less tough and solid ; 
and hence, more porous and open. 
Quicklime changes into carbonate of lime 
by degrees in the soil, and will then con- 
sequently act in the same way. When 
mixed with sand, on the contrary, it 
renders this more coherent and close. 

Lime also imparts to mixtures of 
earths, as is shown by saltpetre beds, 
the power of converting nitrogen, of pu- 
trefying and decaying vegetable and an- 
imal substances into nitric acid which 
enters into combination with the lime to 
form nitrate of lime. According to some 
experiments made in England, lime is 
supposed to increase the power of earths 
to absorb ammonia from the atmosphere, 
and to contribute indirectly, by the de- 
composition of ammoniacal salts in the 
soil, to a fixation of ammonia by the 
clay and silica. Quicklime absorbs car- 
bonic acid gas from the atmosphere and 
from the soil, passing in the operation 



AGRICULTURAL 



341 



into the mild condition of carbonate of 
lime. Possibly, this also may afford as- 
sistance to the growth of plants. 

Tjastly, it has been observed that the 
devolopuicnt of plants proceeds some- 
what more rapidly in soils mannred with 
lime, so that they run more qnickly 
through the period from germination to 
maturity on unlimcd land. Such an ac- 
tion upon the duration of vegetation 
would be a recommendation of lime for 
agriculture in northern, elevated and ex- 
posed districts. • 



ENCOURAGEMENT TO AGRICUL- 
TURAL EDUCATION. 

The bill reported by Mr. Merril, which 
sometime since passed the House of Rep- 
resentatives, grants six millions, three 
hundred and forty thousand acres of 
land,* to be apportioned to all the States 
— equal to 20,000 acres, for each Sena- 
tor and Representative in Congress to 
which the States are now respectively 
entitled. The proceeds of the sale of 
the lands to be invested in stocks of the 
United States, or of the States, or some 
other safe stocks, the money so invested 
to constitute a perpetual fund, the inter- 
est of which shall be inviolablj' appro- 
propriated by each State to the endow- 
ment, support and maintenance of at 
least one college, where the leading ob- 
ject shall be, without excluding other 
scientific or classical studies, to teach 
such brunches of learning as are related 
to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in 
such manner as the Legislatures of the 
States may prescribe, in order to pro- 
mote the liberal and practical education 
of the industrial classes in the several 
pursuits and professions of life. 

We sincerely hope that this bill will 
receive the attention of the Senate, and 
be enacted into a law this very session. 
It is certain that no better or more ap- 
propriate use can be made of the public 
lands than to endow institutions to teach 
such sciences as throw light on the 
business of soil-culture. 

HUNGARIAN GRASS— MILLET. 

Much has been said of late in the agri- 
cultural journals of a grass termed the 
"//«/i{/a/'/rtH," and application has been 
made to us to procure some of the seed. 
The matter has not escaped our attention 



but we had some misgivings whether it 
was not one of our old established grass- 
es under a new name. The editor of 
the Farmer and Planter, at Pendleton, 
S. C, says it is nothing more nor less 
than the Millet — to the great value of 
which we have for years past been ur- 
gently directing the attention of the 
readers of the American Farmer who 
have not meadows whereon to grow hay. 
In this month (May) up to the beginning 
of June, though earlier the better, the 
seed should be sown in our own lati- 
tude ; if the ground is well plowed, 
say 8 inches deep, and well harrowed, 
and 2 pecks per acre of seed sown, with 
say 300 lbs. Peruvian, or perhaps 150 
lbs. of that guano, and an c(iual quantity 
of Nevassa guano, 8 tons of excellent 
hay can be made, which will be relished 
by all kinds of stock, horses particular- 
ly. Upwards of 4 tons have been raised 
from an acre. It stands the drouth pro- 
bable equal to any of the grass family — 
and is easily cured. After cutting, 
which should be when the heads begin 
to turn yellow, let it lay in the swaths 
a day, — turn it over the next day after 
the dew is off, and when the lower side 
is dry throw it into cocks, increasing 
their size, and when sufficiently cured 
have it stowed away in your barracks 
or barn. — American Farmer. 



TO ASCERTAIN THE WEIGHT OF 
LIVE CATTLE. 

It is easy to see that the following can 
not be very exact, and yet it may be of 
some use ; — 

" Experienced drovers and butchers are 
in the habit of buying cattle, estimating 
their weight on foot. From long obser- 
vation and practice they are enabled to 
come very nearly to the actual weight of 
an animal ; but many of them would bo 
most apt to err, if at all, on the right 
side ; while the less experienced farmer 
always stands the greatest chance to get 
the worst of the bargain. To such we 
would reconnnend the following rule to 
ascertain the weight of cattle, which is 
said to approach very nearly the truth, 
in most cases. The proof oV this to the 
satisfaction of any farmer, is easily de- 
termined at most of the annual fairs, 
where scales are erected, and at numer- 
ous other points in the country. 

"Rule.— Take a string, put it around 
the breast, stand square just behind the 



342 



AGRICULTURAL. 



shoulder blade, measure on a rule the feet 
and inches theanimalisinch'cumference; 
this is called the girth ; then, with the 
string, measure from the bone of the tail 
which plumbs the line with the hinder 
part of the buttock ; direct the line along 
the back to the fore part of the shoulder 
blade ; take the dimension on the foot 
rule as before, which is the length ; and 
work the figures in the following manner : 
Girth of the animal, say 6 feet 4 inches, 
length 5 feet 3 inches, which multiplied 
together makes 31 square superficial feet, 
and that multiplied by 23 (the number 
of pounds allowed to each superficial foot 
of cattle measuring less than seven and 
more than five feet in girth,) makes 713 
pounds. When the animal measures 
less than nine and more than seven feet 
in girth, 31 is the number of pounds to 
each superficial foot. Again, suppose a 
pig or any small beast should measure 
2 feet in girth, and 2 along the back, 
which feet in girth and 2 along the back 
multiplied together, makes 4 square feet, 
that multiplied by eleven, the number 
of pounds allowed to each square foot, of 
cattle measuring less than three feet in 
girth, makes 44 pounds. Again, sup- 
pose a calf, a sheep, &c., should measure 
4 feet 6 inches in girth, and 3 feet 9 inch- 
es in length, which multiplied together 
make 15 1-4 square feet ; that multiplied 
by 1 6, the number of pounds allowed to 
cattle measuring less than 5 feet and 
more than three in girth, makes 265 lbs. 
The dimensions of girth and length of 
horned cattle, sheep, calves and hogs, 
may be exactly taken in this way, as it 
is all that is necessary for any computa- 
tion, or any valuation of stock, and will 
answer exactly to the four quarters, sink- 
ing ofFal. The rule is so simple that any 
man wdth a bit of chalk can work it out. 
Much is often lost to farmers by mere 
guess-work in the weight of their stock, 
and this plain rule is well worth their at- 
tention. — Valley Farmer. 



STICK TO THE FARM— BETTER 
CULTIVATION. 

Eds. Northwestern Farmer : — While 
the great political question of freedom 
and freesoil is agitating our Nation to its 
center, and other powers of the earth 
are watching with intense interest the 
developments in favor of the rights of 
man, there is another question, although 
not of like moral import, yet all are 
more or less interested therein, which 



is being discussed and felt by multitudes 
— especially here is the West, were it 
has become a theme of much magnitude 
to the minds and purposes of those en- 
gaged in Agriculture. It is the question 
or fact of hard times and the low price 
of produce. How often is it remarked, 
" that it won't pay to raise wheat at the 
present prices." Well, what will the 
farmers do ? It surely will not pay to 
leave the farm for any other business, 
for all are hard up, and the farmer is 
better off than they, unless by foolish 
extravagance he has brought the sheriff 
to his door. Therefore he ponders, 
waiting for some new development to 
aid him out of his difficulty. But let us 
see if it won't pay to stick to the farm 
and raise wheat, even for fifty cents a 
bushel. It is a fact which can be easily 
demonstrated that land, unless some that 
is new, can be made to yield double with 
one quarter more labor, than it does 
now, and constantly be growing better, 
instead, as at present decreasing at the 
rate of ten cents per acre on an average, 
as they now are. The average of wheat 
per acre in England, is nearer forty, 
than thirty bushels ; while in the United 
States, it does not average over ten bush- 
els per acre. Why is this difierence ? 
It is not in the native richness of the 
soil, nor in the climate ; for in both, 
ours exceeds theirs. It is in the difier- 
ent modes of culture. First, the nature 
and capability of their soils are known 
and crops are sown accordingly^ Se- 
cond, they cultivate more thoroughly — 
plowing deep, pulverizing the soil 
finely, draining, and by a judicious 
rotation of crops, and the application 
of manures, both mineral and animal, 
supply the land with the elements of 
fertility which are being constantly re- 
moved ; while here, in too many in- 
stances, the direct reverse is the rule, and 
that the exception. How often do we 
see one man and a team trying to culti- 
vate eighty or one hundred acres, plow- 
ing in the mud three or four inches deep 
where the land requires draining, want- 
ing manure, half seeding and badly put 
in, thinking that the number of acres 
sown and not the amount per acre raised 
will be the ratio of profits. Harvest 
comes and with it the expense of going 
over four acres to get the legitimate pro- 
duce of one, and when the bills are all 
paid it is found that it does not paj^ to 
raise wheat at such prices. If they had 
understood, or followed the laws of 



AGRICULTURAL 



343 



gi'owth and suppl\', the results would 
have been far different. 

The first reason for these thins^s is 
found in the avaricious desire for all the 
land which joins, or in other words, farm- 
ers trjr to cultivate too much land, and 
consequently neglect the whole. Se- 
cond, they do not keep stock enough to 
make manure to supply the farm, and 
too often wasting what little they do 
have. Third, ignorant of the principles 
which govern the growth of vegetation 
or of the adaptation of different soils, or 
of the nccessit}^ of manure. If farmers 
would inform themselves upon these 
things and act upon that information, 
farming could be made to pay even at 
fifty cents per bushel for wheat. A 
knowledge of these things is absolutely 
necessary to save our land from actual 
starvation in the years which are to 
come. Farmers should hail with delight, 
every avenue which opens a way that it 
may be obtained, both for themselves 
and their children, and should labor to 
bring to completion and to encourage 
every enterprise which has this object 
in view. They should aid and push on 
the effort to establish Agricultural Col- 
leges, that by their influence light may 
be thrown upon their path which will 
help them to occupy their true position 
among the callings of life. 

H. C. Coon, 
ill iV^. W. Farmer. 

The writer of the above does not quite 
go to the bottom of things. We lack a 
due proportion of mechanics, as com- 
pared with the agriculturists. Let us 
supply our own iron, instead of buying 
it ; let us clothe ourselves, instead of 
getting Europe to clothe us ; in short let 
us produce, as fast as the condition of a 
new country with too much land, will 
permit, whatever we want to eat, drink 
and wear ; to stay at home with and 
to go abroad with ; to sleep on and to 
sleep under ; to live and die and be 
buried with; and then there will be no 
need to exhort the farmer to stick to his 
business. He will stick to it with its 
good prices, because he can find no 
other so remunerating business. That 
abominable doctrine that it is cheaper 
to buy than to produce, is what puts 
prices below a living, thriving business 



for the l^irmer. If we will manufacture 
half our irons and woolens, wheat will 
never be down to fifty cents a bushel 
again. Throw you politics overboard, 
and look at this subject as reasonable 
men. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

THE SUGAR CANE. 

THE CHIN'ESK SUGAR CANE. 

I SHALL endeavor to treat of the .sugar 
cane in various aspects as far as the 
means within my reach will permit. 

I will first examine its history, and 
incidentally its nativity or the countries 
in which it was indigenous. 

2d. I will examine its botanical struc- 
ture and classification. 

3d. I will treat of its habits, its con- 
stitution and acclimatization. 

4th. I will examine its uses, pro- 
ducts, and the processes of their manu- 
facture. 

The history of the sugar cane dates 
back to an early period. Some writers 
suppose it was known to the Jews at an 
early period of their history, and that 
the Hebrew word sometimes rendered 
calamus, and sometimes sweet cane, did 
in fact mean the sugar cane. It was 
first made known to the Greeks, accord- 
ing to Strabo, by the military expedi- 
tions of Alexander the Great, 325 years 
before Christ. His fleet of 2000 ships 
sailed down the eastern branch of the 
Indus, and thence along the coast to the 
Persian Gulf, and up the Euphrates to 
Babylon. It was during this voyage 
that Nearchus, the commander of the 
fleet, found the sugar cane, cultivated 
by the inhabitants of the country, pro- 
bably about the mouths of the Indus. 
Alexander himself did not make the 
voyage, but returned with a part of his 
army from the forks of the Indus to 
Babylon by land, so that we are indebt- 
ed to the report of his voyage, made by 
Nearchus to the king, for the record of 
the discovery. It would seem that 
Alexander himself, who sailed down the 



344 



AGRICULTURAL 



Indus to its western mouth in N, L. 24°, 
did not meet with it there, or anywhere 
personally during his expeditions. This 
would seem to indicate that it was not 
indigenous in any of the countries 
traversed by him in person, although it 
is not conclusive. It may be that the 
cultivation only had not extended. It 
is spoken of by Varro, Dioscorides and 
Lucan as a large reed produced in Ara- 
bia and India, which yielded a kind of 
honey called saccharon. They describe 
it as a kind of salt, or having the ap- 
pearance of salt, and as brittle when 
chewed, and dissolving in water. The 
art of crystalizing it must then have 
been known. These writers refer to 
the century immediately preceding the 
Christian era. Lucan says also that 
certain Asiatic nations in alliance with 
Pompey used the juice of the cane as a 
common drink. 

Arrian, who wrote in the second cen- 
tury of our era, speaks of sugar by the 
name of sachar, as an article of com- 
merce from India to the Red Sea in his 
time. TertuUian, in the same century, 
speaks of a species of honey procured 
from canes. It would appear from these 
that its use in both the forms of sugar 
and molasses, and perhaps some others, 
was then known to the Romans. 

Some writers have supposed that the 
crusades brought the western nations of 
Europe acquainted with the sugar cane 
and its products, but I can find no allu- 
sion to it in the meagre chronicles of 
any of their writers. It is a remarkable 
proof of the decline and loss of know- 
ledge, and of the cessation of intercourse 
between the inhabitants of different 
countries once connected by commercial 
relations, that the next notice we have 
of the sugar cane and its products is in 
the travels of Marco Polo between the 
years 1270 and 1295. He speaks of 
sugar as an abundant product of the 
southern parts of China, or Mansi, as 
he terms it, and of Bangala, or Ben- 
gal in modern nomenclature, from which 



the Tartar government of Kublai Khan 
derived a large revenue. Next, Varco 
de Garna, in 1497, found a considerable 
commerce in sugar carried on in the 
Kingdom of Calicret, then a small king- 
dom lying on the east coast of the Ara- 
bian vSea, between the modern Bombay 
and Cape Comorin, in about 12" N. L. 
It was found in Nubia by John Lioni in 
1500, and a considerable commerce in 
sugar was then carried on in that coun- 
try. It was abundant at Thebes, on the 
Nile, and in the northern parts of Africa 
at the same period. 

Bruce found it in upper Egypt in 1768. 
In the countries discovered by Colum- 
bus, the sugar cane is shown to have 
been known in Hispaniolia during 
Columbus' second voyage. It was un- 
doubtedly indigenous in the West India 
Islands and on the north coast of South 
America, and in Southern Africa, where 
several varieties are now said to exist 
in a wild state. It was not proba- 
bly indigenous in any country beyond 
25° on each side of the equator, and only 
in low and warm situations within most 
of those limits. 

2d. In its botanical classification it is 
a genus of the Digynia order, belonging 
to the Triandria class of plants ; and in 
the natural method ranking under the 
fourth order Gramina. It has no calyx, 
but a long down, and the corolla is 
bivalved. The root is fibrous, and di- 
vided into many radicles. The stem or 
stalk is a jointed reed rising fi'om six to 
fifteen feet. The joints vary in number, 
according to the variety, from ten to 
sixty. In some varieties the joints are 
naked, without leaves or blades, only 
showing a small germ or bud at each 
joint, in others a sheath arising from 
each encases the stalk half way to the 
next joint, when a leaf or blade, lanceo- 
late and deeply serrated on the edges, 
resembling the blade of the common 
corn, springs out. The varieties whose 
joints are naked have a tuft of lanceo- 
late, serrated leaves rising from the top 



AGRICULTURAL 



346 



of the main stalk, from the center of 
which a small arrow rises from three to 
five feet, bearing the reeds in the form 
of a panicle at its summit. The form 
of the seed vessel is, so far as I can 
learn, the same in all the varieties. 
When ripe, the stalk or stem is a fine 
straw color, approaching to yellow. 
Several stalks often, but not unformly, 
rise from one root. 

3d. Its habits vary with soil and cli- 
mate, and exhibit unequivocal proof of 
its tropical nativity. In regions where 
frost is unknown, the root is perennial 
in its native state, with an annual stalk. 
Where cultivated in the same districts, 
annual cutting in three years so for ex- 
hausts the root that replanting becomes 
necessary. This is sometimes, but rare- 
ly, done with the seed. The usual 
method is to lay down the stalk. For 
this purpose a trench is dug with the 
plow or the hoe, five or six inches deep, 
and fifteen inches wide at bottom by 
two and a half feet at top. Five or six 
joints from the tops of the stalks are 
then cut off and laid lengthwise in the 
bottom, and covered two inches deep 
with the earth taken out of the trench. 
AVhcn the plants have risen a few inches, 
the weeds are removed, and they are 
hilled up a little with a part of the earth 
taken from the trench, which is called a 
bank. This process is repeated until 
the bank is exhausted. They must be 
kept clean of weeds, and all lateral 
shoots should be removed which spring 
up after the cane begins to joint. The 
rows are 8 J or 4 feet apart. In some 
rich spots on the island of St. Christo- 
pher, an acre has produced 8000 lbs. of 
Muscovado sugar in a year. Two hog.s- 
heads of 1,600 lbs. each, per acre, is 
about an average yield on that and other 
West India islands. As we recede from 
the tropics, the plant becomes less luxu- 
riant, and its habits and constiution seem 
to undergo a change. In Louisiana, be- 
tween 2t)° and 33" N. L., it becomes an 
annual plant, and the variety usually 



cultivated is lial)le to be so injured by 
frost, that the st:ilks can not be used for 
propagation. It is evident that it accli- 
mates slowly. Some varieties are either 
naturally more hardy than others, or 
they have been earlier pushed beyond 
their native limits. 

A variety distinguished as the Chinese 
sugar cane, to which the botanical name 
of sorghum saccharum has been given, 
has been introduced into the United 
States through the Patent OfBcc within 
the last three years. A botanical writer 
in England, in 1816, gave to the sugar 
cane the botanical name of sacharum 
officinarium, and stated that there was 
but one species. He described the cane 
of the West India Islands. Earlier 
botanists named it arundo saccharifera. 
Instead of a variety, it seems to me to 
be entitled to be classed as a distinct 
species. It is possible, however, that 
all the distinctive features may have 
been caused by the process of acclimati- 
zation. 

Mr. Wray, an intelligent traveler, in 
1851 found no less than sixteen varieties 
of sugar-bearing cane in Caffraria, and 
easily made sugar from them. Mr. 
Wray names the plant the Imphee. 
Such confusions of names arc very 
common amongst botanists, as might 
reasonably be expected, where more 
than 200,000 varieties of the vegetable 
kingdom, all having more or less in 
common, are to be classified and ar- 
ranged. Some of the varieties, no doubt 
diflferent ones, are now cultivated more 
or less in England, France, Spain, Portu- 
gal, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Turkey, 
Mauritius, Australia, Ceylon, Africa, 
Eastern Asia, the West Indies, Mexico, 
Brazil, Canada and the United States. 

The variety recently introduced into 
the United States under the various 
names of sorghum saccharum, sorgho 
Sucre, and Chinese sugar cane, was in- 
troduced by the seed directly from 
France through the Patent Office, and 
indircctl}'^ from the north part of China, 



346 



AGRICULTURAL 



whence its name. It is supposed to be 
a different variety from any of the six- 
teen varieties found by Mr. "Wray in the 
south of Africa. 

If it has been, as stated, brought to 
France from the north of China, its cul- 
vation has been extended since the time 
of Marco Polo, the close of the thirteenth 
century, from the southern to the north- 
ern parts of China, or through probably 
about twelve degrees of latitude. This 
will account for some of the reports re- 
specting its properties and habitudes 
which have accompanied its introduction 
into this country. The temperature of 
N. E. China, in latitude 40°, is about 
equivalent to N. S. 45°, in the interior 
of the North American continent. As 
it is well known, therefore, that a proper 
ripeness of the cane is indisiiensable to 
the crystalization of the juices, it is no 
matter of surprise that the cultivators in 
that district of country should be unable 
to make sugar from it, although in the 
south of China and Bengal immense 
quantities of sugar were manufactured 
from it six hundred years since. "We 
know also, in countries situated in the 
same great division of the earth, sugar 
was known and in use more than two 
thousand years since, and we have no 
account of any more than one variety 
of the cane in Asia. It has been plant- 
ed in various parts of the United States 
in 1855, '56 and '57, in only a few lo- 
calities in 1855 and '56. It 1857 it has 
been planted to a greater or less extent 
in every State in the Union, and a very 
general interest has been excited re- 
specting it. The season has been an un- 
propitious one ; corn, grapes, and some 
other articles of common cultivation 
not having matured by any means as 
usual. 

Nevertheless, much has been gained. 
The habits and capabilities of the plant 
have been ascertained, and its success 
as an article of cultivation and manufac- 
ture rendered certain. The average 
temperature of the great Mississippi val- 



ley, from the foot of the Laurel Hill 
west at least to the border of Kansas 
and Nebraska, is as high, if not higher, 
in 40° N. L., as that of China in 35°. 
May we not then reasonably presume, 
from the experience of the past, that in 
ordinary seasons, with proper cultiva- 
tion, it may be thoroughly ripened in 
the wide extent of country between the 
Alleghany Mountains and the elevated 
country approaching the Rocky Moun- 
tains, as far North as 41° N. L. ? Many 
experiments have been made the present 
year to determine the amount and 
quality of its products, the uses to 
which the different parts of the plant 
may be applied, as well as the best mode 
of treating it during its growth, and the 
best mode of extracting and manufac- 
turing the juice. It can not be expect- 
ed that the experience of one year, that 
an unfavorable one, will have matiu'ed 
any definite system upon any of these 
important and interesting questions. 

For example, some have pruned out 
all offshoots, and restricted the canes to 
five or six in a hill, planting the hills 
four feet each way. Others permit all 
offshoots to grow, increasing the canes 
to ten or twelve in a hill, in a strong 
soil. Some pull out the panicles as soon 
as they ris^ above the upper leaf; some 
cut them off when in bloom, and some 
suffer them to ripen ; and no opportu- 
nity has yet been afforded of comparing 
results and ascertaining which has been 
most successful. Various and widely 
different estimates, ranging from 100 to 
400 gallons per acre, have been made as 
to the quantity of syrup it would pro- 
duce. A few small samples of sugar 
have been produced. The machinery 
for expressing the juice has been hastily 
constructed and imperfect. Most of it 
has not extracted more than three-fifths, 
and some not more than one half the 
juice, and this, with the differences in 
the growth of the crop and the various 
stages of ripeness and modes of treat- 
ment, will readily account for the differ- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



847 



ent estimates of quantity as well as any 
discrepancies in quality. Some exper- 
iments seem to indicate that most of the 
extraneous elements to be separated 
from the juice are obtained from the 
hard shell of the canes and the sheaths 
of the leaves, the juice of the ripe pith 
being found to be nearly colorless, and 
to be pure water and sugar. The juice 
of the ripe cane has a specific gravity of 
1.085. Extracted in the progress of the 
plant towards maturity, it increases in 
density from 1.025 to 1.050, 1.075 to 
1.085 when fully ripe. The proportion 
of sugar increases in the same ratio, and 
rcadilj^ accounts for the fact that where 
one has made one gallon of syrup from 
ten gallons of juice, another has made a 
gallon of equal density from five gallons 
of juice. I need only remind your in- 
telligent readers that the difference be- 
tween the specific gravity of water and 
the juice of the sugar cane is caused by 
the presence in solution in the latter of 
sugar. The specific gravity of pure 
white sugar is 1.6065 according to some, 
and only 1.4045 according to other chem- 
ists. 

The percentage of sugar, therefore, in- 
creases in the rates in which the cane 
approaches maturity. The proportion 
of sugar contained in the juice ranges 
from ten to sixteen per cent. In the 
process of manufacturing, various modes 
have been tiied. Some add a very small 
quantity of quicklime to the juice when 
put over the fire. Some prefer and use 
chloride of lime. Some use nothing at 
that stage. All agree in heating the 
juice slowly to about 180°, and keeping 
it so for some time, from one to two 
hours, taking care that it does not boil. 
The object is to bring as much as possi- 
ble of the extraneous and ferulciit mat- 
ter to the surface, whence it is removed 
by skimming. Lime is used to neutral- 
ize the excess of oxygen in the juice, 
whicli prevents the formation of sugar. 
Those who reject the use of lime, in phice 
of it, when the juice is about two-thirds 
evaporated, add a small portion of sweet 



milk or well beaten whites of eggs, which 
produce effects similar to the lime. 
Many experiments yet remain to be 
made before the proper mode of treat- 
ment shall be discovered and become 
generally established. "Wherever the 
saccharine principles exist in sufficient 
quantities, there is no doubt that by 
proper processes thej'' can be concen- 
trated and crystalized. The processes 
adapted to the particular combinations 
are to be sought out and applied. That 
the skill, science and energy of this 
country will prove unable to accomplish 
it, is an imputation not for a moment to 
be tolerated. Sugar, sjrup, or molasses 
and alcohol, will soon be produced from 
it in Ohio in abundance. No part of the 
plant is useless. The young stalks and 
blades are a rich and palatable food for 
stock of all kinds, and by cutting it 
above the lower joint in July two crops 
a year can be cut for fodder. The seed, 
of which it produces from twenty to 
fifty bushels per acre, is heavier and a 
more nutritious food for horses, cattle, 
sheep, poultry, and hogs than oats. The 
fable of their being poisonous to horses 
is simply absurd. Some imprudent man 
has no doubt foundered a horse to his 
death on it, as manj^ a one before has 
done on wheat, rye, corn, and oats, with- 
out ever sagely inferring that those 
grains were poisonous. 

From the stalks, after the juice was 
expressed, a fine, close, strong quality 
of paper has already been manufactured 
in this city in sufficient quantity to af- 
ford a certain test, and there is no lon- 
ger a doubt that it will become one of 
the most valuable raw materials for the 
manufacture of some of the most abun- 
dant and useful qualities of paper. 

RoswELL Marsh. 



LUCK. 

TiiEKE are believers, even among gar- 
deners, in luck. "Oh!" says one, "he 
had a good chance ;" another declares 
his successful friend was " a lucky fel- 
low." The "luck'' which has made the 



348 



AGRICULTURAL. 



fortune of the best gardeners is no luck 
at all. It is knowledge acquired by- 
hard study and hard labor ; by reading, 
and avoiding the dram bottle ; by keep- 
ing a steady eye on the results of exper- 
iments aided by the knowledge of writ- 
ten materials. What " luck" can a gar- 
dener have who prefers idleness to bot- 
any ; what hope can he ever entertain of 
rising to independence, if he can not dis- 
tinguish one .species of plants from 
another ? He must always be at fault, 
unless he knows something more than 
routine cultivation, and can adapt his 
tactics to new circumstances, or give 
himself a reason for his acts. " Luck is 
a term to be expunged from every voca- 
bulary except that of the gaming-table 
or the turf. In the Language of Dr. 
Lindley : " Our personal expei'ience in 
this matter now extends over the best 
part of a half a century, during which 
time circumstances have brought within 
our knowledge the private history of 
most of the successes and failures which 
in that period have deserved notice 
among gardeners, and we feel entirely 
justified in saying that those who have 
risen have had to thank their own su- 
perior knowledge, the fruit of superior 
industry ; while those who have feUen 
can only blame themselves for that want 
of knowledge and determination to suc- 
ceed, which, in this world, are indispen- 
sable in all classes where mental power 
is necessary, and from which political 
influence is withheld." 

Were any proof of the justice of this 
opinion needed, it would be found in the 
skill of those eminent men in the horti- 
cultural world who, by diligent study, 
have privately, and in spite of difficul- 
ties, acquired what, in the absence of 
such energy, would have been denied to 
them. — Horticulturist. 

This is equally true of the farmer. 
Industry and enei'gy are essential, and 
yet these are not enough. They are lia- 
ble to be misapplied. It is necessary that 
they be directed b}^ intelligence — an in- 
telligence higher than ordinarily comes 
unsought— that which is the result of 
inquiry, reading, investigation, thought, 
application of the laws of nature to soil 
culture, stock growing, trade, domestic 
economy, and whatever adorns and ele- 
vates and renders independent. Such 
intelligence, not without mother wit, 



but with it, is and ever will be the mea- 
sure of success. The boy and the young 
man now looking forward to the farm 
for a living, indifferent to knowledge, 
thinking they know quite enough to be 
farmers, will certainly fail in the race, 
as compared with their fellows, who at 
the same age, and then onward in life, as 
opportunity offers, are delving after a 
knowledge of nature and her laws, with 
a view to apply these laws to their busi- 
ness. — Ed. 



FEEDING FARM HORSES. 

C. W. Knight who received apremiuni 
from the Virginia State Agricultural So- 
ciety, for an essay on this subject, says 
that he has found his horses kept in good 
condition under hard work, with eight 
quarts of meal, composed of one-third In- 
dian corn and two-thirds good oats, by 
measure, mixed with cut straw or corn 
husks, and fed in three meals per day. 
The straw and husks were wet with 
water, in which salt had been dissolved. 
He continued this course for a year — the 
horses being kept exclusively on the 
straw and husks and meal — and esti- 
mates the saving over the usual mode of 
feeding with hay and whole grain, at 1\\ 
cents per day, or $42.36 cents per year. 
He says it is best to have the meal rather 
coarsely ground, as fine meal sticks to the 
roof of the horse's mouth and annoys 
him.. — Ex. 

CURIOSITIES IN THE WAY OF 
CATTLE. 

A LARGE crowd surrounded a lot of cat- 
tle, in the Fifth street market, all Friday 
afternoon. They consisted of a cow of 
Chinese species, five years old, which 
measured only 36 inches in hight, a calf 
by her side, four months old, 25 inches 
in hight, and a bull of the same species, 
measuring 48 inches. There were also 
three calves of the same breed, all of the 
same liiliputian dimensions. The cow 
generally gives from ten to fifteen quarts 
of milk per day. Full grown cattle of 
this species weigh about 400 pounds. 
The group in market were curiosities in 
a small way. — Cin. Gazette. 

The best way to strengthen a good res- 
olution is to act as you resolve. If you 
resolve to repair an old fence, it strength- 
ens the resolution and fence too to com- 
mence at once. , 



AGRICULTURA L 



349 



WHAT FARMERS SHOULD LIVE 
FOR. 

A OEM this, from the Souther?! yEgis. 
How we wish all farmers would heed it, 
their education is the best in the world, 
their life is the highest life. Why can't 
they find it out ? 

" There is something worth living for 
besides money. This is very good but 
it is not all. "With the rest let us raisj 
a crop of good ideas. While you are 
farmers, remember also that you are 
men, with duties and responsibilities. 
Live down the old brutal notion that a 
former must be uncouth, uneducated 
and unthinking — a mere ploddrapps. 

" Move towards a better life. Do not 
keep your boys cornshelling all the long 
winter evenings. Make your farm a 
place your sons and daughters can not 
help loving. Cultivate the trees — they 
are God's messengers. 

" Care much for books and pictures. 
Don't keep a solemn parlor into which 
you go but once a month with the par- 
son, or the gossips of the sewing society. 
Hang around your walls pictures which 
shall tell stories of mercy, hope, courage, 
foith and charity. Make your living 
room the largest and most cheerful in 
the house. Let the place be such that 
when your boy has gone to distant 
lands, or even when, perhaps, he clings 
to a single plank in lonely waters of the 
wide ocean, the thought of the old home- 
stead shall come across the waters of dis- 
solution, bringing alwaj's light, hope and 
love. 

" Have no dungeons about your house 
— no rooms you never open — no blinds 
that are always shut. Don't teach your 
daughters French before they can weed 
a flower bed, or cling to a side saddle : 
and daughters, do not be ashamed of the 
trowel or the pruning knife ; bring to 
to your doors the richest flowers from 
the woods ; cultivate the friendship of 
birds — study botany, learn to love 
nature, and a higher cultivation than the 
fashionable world can give you." 



STETSON'S NEW PATENT MOWER. 

Mr. Cuas. Stetson, of Amherst, has 
just completed his new patent mower. 
After three years patient labor and great 
expense, he believes he has now produced 
a machine equal if not superior to any 
in use. — Amherst {Mass.) Express. 



THE VALUE OF MILLET. 

A GENTLEMAN in SundcTsaud, Mass., 
furnishes the following testimony as to 
the value of Egyptian millet : 

" Two years since I fed what grew on 
ten rods to five cows for a period of six 
weeks. It increased their milk sensibl3^ 
AVe estimated the increase of butter 
in consequence at §10, or one dollar a rod. 
I can recommend it to all such as keep 
up any stock during svunmer, or have 
any short pastures, as it comes just in 
the time the dry weather usually begins, 
and feed is short. The past season I 
fed the millet to a yearling bull, which 
was kept up all sunmier, and in about 
four months gained 320 pounds, or two 
and one-thiid pounds daily. It grows 
from eight to ten feet high, and when 
from two and a half to three feet high, 
should be cut and fed. It immediately 
springs up from the old roots. Three 
crops can be obtained in a season. Can 
commence to cut the last of July or the 
first of August. Horses, pigs, and all 
kinds of stock eat it with the greatest 
relish. I obtained the seed while travel- 
ing at the South, and was informed by 
those who were acquainted with it, that 
ten rods sown with millet would keep a 
cow." 



For the Am. Farmers' Magazine. 

REASONS FOR NOT LIKING AG- 
RICULTURAL JOURNALS. 

BY L. S. SPENCER. 

Permit me through the columns of the 
American Farmers^ Magazine to give 
some of the excuses that are offered for 
not subsAnbing for agricultural periodi- 
cals. Neighbor A. says : " I am no hc- 
liever in book farming. Those fellows 
in the cities of Boston, New-York, and 
Philadelphia want to obtain a living 
without work. What do they know 
about farming? Perhaps they never 
did a day's work upon the farm in their 
lives. The good old way is good enough 
for me. My father was a farmer, and 
got well off in the world, and so can I ; 
for this reason I do not feel disposed to 
pay money for such works." 

Neighbor B. says : " The work is a 
very good one for that portion of coun- 
try where it is published ; but it is good 



350 



AGRICULTURAL. 



for nothing in this portion of the West, 
for it knows nothing how the prairie 
land should be worked, for I do not be- 
lieve the writer ever saw a prairie. 
"What does he know about Western 
farming ? He is in New- York city. 
His theory may be good among the hills 
of Massachusetts, or Connecticut, or the 
sands and clays of New-Jersey ; but I 
think that I know as much about West- 
ern farming as any of the Eastern folks." 

Friend C. says : " Spencer, I should 
be very glad to subscribe, for I consider 
it as good a work for the farmer as I 
have seen for some time. The writer is 
a heen, shrewd fellow, and knows what 
he is after. But you know that I am 
not able these hard times ; it is as much 
as I can do to support my family with- 
out taking the journal. I should rather 
take a weekly than a monthly paper. I 
intend to take a paper before long." 

D.'s excuse is, "that it has too much 
to say about machinery and mechanics, 
and of flower-garders, etc." 

These are only four excuses out of the 
hundreds that are made. Some think a 
work offered is too high in price. They 
can not afford to pay so much for so un- 
necessary a thing as an agricultural pa- 
per, for it is of no account except for the 
women to read. 

These excuses are often made by per- 
sons who think that " they are somebody 
in the world." 

Neighbor A. thinks that he knows all, 
and scorns the idea of learning anything 
new — in this age of progression. He 
prefers to follow the footprints of his 
great-grandfather, and use the old "bull 
plow" that was in use long before you 
and I were born, or to use the old fash- 
ion hoe that was heavy enough for four 
of the hoes that are in use at the pre- 
sent day. He is " Old Fogy" enough to 
still hang to that breed of the hog that 
bears about the same relation to the hog, 
as the orang-outang does to civilized 
man — whose nose is so long that " it can 
root up the third row of potatoes through 



the fence." His father got along well 
enough ; So can he in his own opinion. 
But if he would take some agricultural 
work he might get along much better, 
be much happier, and much better in- 
formed. 

B.'s excuse — of what account is it? 
Really, I do not believe that you or 
any other editor east of the Merrimac 
River will refuse to publish an article 
written upon prairie farming, or any 
other farming, if the Western farmers 
will only pen an article for you to pub- 
lish ; nor do I believe that you will re- 
fuse to correct mistakes — as this is the 
general excuse for their not writing. 
Then who is to blame for their not get- 
ting such information as they desire on 
prairie farming ? They themselves ; be- 
cause they do not write, and the reason 
they do not write is, because they do 
not and will not inform themselves ; be- 
cause their fathers got along and so can 
they. A New-York agricultural paper 
is^just as good for prairie forming as 
any other, if the prairie former will con- 
tribute to it and help make it so. It 
would be good for nothing to " New- 
England" farmers but for their contribu- 
tions to it. " Book farming" is nothing 
more nor less than the experience of 
men that have tried and accomplished 
what they have written about. 

C.'s excuse is "hard times" and a 
"big family" growing up around him, 
without a sign of a paper in the house. 
He "likes" the paper, and thinks the 
editor "a keen, shrewd fellow ;" but he 
likes the dollar or the two dollars better. 
He takes no paper, but " is going to take 
one before long." That " before long" 
may be too late for his improvement. 
He knows nothing of the markets — no- 
thing of the news of the day until weeks 
after they transpire. His family knows 
nothing of what is going on in the world, 
and they can not prosper in the world 
like those that " take the papers." 

How many men that might be styled 
" Old Fogies" are there who feel that the 



AGRICULTURAL 



861 



dollar is of more value to them and their 
families than a good "newspaper." 
Talk with them on any subject, and 
they have nothing to say, because they 
know of nothin"; about it. 



CREAM OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
PRESS. 

Caterpillars. — Pluck down these 
nests everywhere while tho worms are 
small and the nests tender and easily 
broken. On high trees a pole with Pick- 
ering's brush attached to it — a conical 
brush, costing 25 cents is a good imple- 
ment — the young worms in their new- 
made nests are easily routed, and though 
they may not all be destroyed on going 
the first round, the}' may be on a second 
visit, which will not be neglected by any 
good fiirmer. 

By clearing all your trees this year, 
including the wild cherries and oaks on 
the roadside, you will not need to spend 
a fourth part as much time next season 
to clear your orchards from these pests. 
(All who have a patch of land, remem- 
ber tliat— Ed.) 

We liope that many of our farmers 
will hold to the practice of making hills 
for potatoes, since among other advan- 
tages the labor of tilling is not so great 
when a little earth is drawn up to the 
stems to kill the weeds as when an at- 
tempt is made to pull the weeds out of 
the hill. (We agree with this writer ex- 
actly, if that is all he means by hilling — 
just make the work as expeditious as 
consists with thoroughly killing the 
weeds. — Ed.) — Mass. PloujJiinan. 

To Destroy the Potato Ecu. — Last 
summer, as I walked through my potato 
patch, I discovered that something had 
been eating off the tops of the vines ; but 
I saw nothing that could have done it, 
until, after tracing up the rows that 
were injured, (about three or four in 
number,) I overtook the depredators — a 
swarm of potato bugs. I found them 
confined to only four or five hills ; yet 
they had cleaned the rows, over which 
they evidently had passed, for about the 
distance of three rods. The ground was 
quite dry at the time. I at once dis- 
covered that the deprecators were alarm- 
ed at my approach, and in a hurried 
manner hid themselves beneath the 
leaves and among the clods about the 
roots or bottom of the stems. 



I immediately cast in my mind how 
to get possession of the whole swarm. 
I called to my three little boys, who 
were at work at a short distance. AVe 
took our hoes, and, without molesting 
the insects, commenced forming a trench 
and embankment at a distance of about 
a foot. The dry earth being pulverized 
in the ditch and sides of the little em- 
bankment, made the whole so loose and 
dusty that the littks creatures could not 
ascend or escape ; and thus we were 
enabled to trample them under foot and 
destroy them in toto. I found that, if 
they were deeply buried, they could not 
extricate themselves ; so we destroj-ed 
all ; and not another potato bug was 
seen on the form during the season. 
(We set this down as cieam, because it 
comes from a practical farmer, and is an 
ingenious mode of warfare. But whe- 
ther it is a kind of cream that would 
make butter, or, in other words, could 
be imitated with advantage, is more than 
we know. — Ed.) 

Heavy or Light Seeding of Pota- 
toes. — I have planted six to eighteen 
bushels per aci*e ; can discover no ad- 
vantage in heavy seeding, and think six 
to ten bushels enough, depending on 
whether the potatoes are large or small. 
— Ohio Far. 

Best Course for Preventing the Po- 
tato Disease. — Select hardy varieties 
which are calculated to withstand the 
effects of the blight — which is the fore- 
runner of the rot — plant them early, tak- 
ing care not to allow them to sprout be- 
fore the}' are planted, except in cases of 
forcing, such as will be described in an- 
other place. In order that the plants 
may not be retarded in their growth by 
any means, the soil should be well and 
deeply tilled, and when manure is neces- 
sary to increase its fertility, well-rotted 
dung will be found much superior to 
long, badly prepared manure, as the 
former will at once yield nutriment to 
the young plants, and give them a vigor- 
ous start. The ground should be kei)t 
perfectly free from weeds, and the plants 
moulded in proper time, in order to 
strengthen them and promote their 
growth, for the best mode of preventing 
rot, is to hare the crop ripe or nearly so, 
before the blight makes its appearance. — 
Dundee Courier. 

Moss ox Tubes. — Moss is a vegetable 
which springs from seeds which Hoat in 



352 



HOETICULTURAL 



the air and attach themselves to the bark 
of trees. The bark is the soil for moss 
to grow in. Two things are necessary 
for the growth of this species, viz. : a 
shady situation and a soft condition of 
the bark. Frequent washing of the trees 
with carbonate of soda, (sal soda of the 
shops,) which ought to be bought for 
two or three cents per pound, will check 
the growth of moss by its alkaline pro- 
perties, and the cleansing of the bark. 
One pound of the soda to two gallons of 
water will be enough. — Exchange. 

No Man can Borrow Himself out of 
Debt. — If you wish for relief you must 
work for it — economize for it ; you must 
make more and spend less than you did 
when you were running in debt ; you 
must wear homespun instead of broad- 
cloth ; drink water instead of champagne, 
and rise at four instead of seven. In- 



dustry, frugality, economy — these are 
the handmaids of wealth, and the sure 
sources of relief A dollar earned is 
worth ten borrowed, and a dollar saved 
is better than forty times its amount in 
useless gew^-gaws. Try our scheme, and 
see if it is not worth a thousand banks 
and valuation laws. — Rural New- Yorker. 

Spirit of Improvement. — One word in 
conclusion. Let us resolve to enter up- 
on the labors of our farms this spring, 
with a better understanding of our ob- 
jects, and a determination to be more 
thorough in our methods than ever be- 
fore. Should each one thus, with a 
deeper sense of the nobleness of his call- 
ing, engage in the great work of im- 
provement, what an aggregate of power 
would be exerted ? How memorable the 
epoch which should inaugurate such a 
spirit among us. — Country Gent. 



■^>-« > • - < Ba»- 



lortiniltimil 



CALENDAR FOR JUNE 



Many plants from the greenhouse 
and frames may now be planted out in 
the borders, unless done last month, and 
a further saving of annuals for succes- 
sion may be made. 

The principal stock of Verlenas may 
now be planted out. Dahlias also to- 
wards the middle of the month. 

Box-edgings should be trimmed and 
cut very evenly on the top. 

Weeds must be kept down by the 
hoe, and neatness kept in view at all 
times in the flower-gardens. 

German Asters should be sown, to 
transplant some weeks hence into the 
beds, to succeed some of the early an- 
nuals. 

Pansey seed may be sown in an east- 
ern border to give plants for autumn 
bloom. 

Lawns must be mown, swept and roll- 
ed every ten or fourteen days, if it is 
wished to have them look well. 

Chrysanthemums should be stopped by 
pinching out their points to make them 



bushey, and should be watered abun- 
dantly in dry weather. 

Gladiolus and all autumn bulbs should 
be immediately planted. 

The Greenhouse. — Water must be 
liberally supplied, and attention given to 
keeping down insects by fumigating 
with tobacco smoke, and if red spider 
shows itself on camellias or other ever- 
greens by dusting their leaves with sul- 
phur. 

Whenever warm weather is fully es- 
tablished, the Greenhouse plants may 
be put out of doors in a northern or 
eastern aspect, 

KITCHEN GARDEN. 

Full crops of Beans of all kinds should 
be got in this month. 

All crops for succession that are want- 
ed should be also sown, depending as to 
kinds and quantity upon individual taste, 
and having regard to those already in 
the ground. 

Special attention must be given this 
month to keeping weeds down, -which is 
an easy thing if the hoe is applied early 



HORTICULTURAL 



353 



enough, but not if the weeds are allowed 
to get ahead in growth. 

Tomatoes, egg plants, cucumbers, 
okra, squash, melons, and all tender 
crops, that were put in last month, 
should be looked to, and in case any 
have failed, they should be replaced 
without delay. 

Fruit Trees making young growth, 
especially pears, should be gone over 
this month, and all shoots not wanted to 
form branches, should be pinched in 
when from three to four inches long. 

Mulching of straw, grass or litter may, 
with great advantage, be placed over the 
roots of trees and shrubs that were 
planted this spring, to protect them from 
the eft'ects of drouth. 

Budding fruit trees may be com- 
menced towards the end of the month. 

The ground around all fruit trees 
should be kept loose with the hoe, in 
hot weather especially. It tends most 
naturally to keep the roots moist, and 
lessens the chances of injury from 
drouth very considerably. 



WHAT WE WANT, AND HOW TO 
GET IT FIRST. 

BY ANDREW S. FCLLEB, nOKTICl'LTCRIST, 
BROOKLYN, L. I. 

We want strawberries that ripen ear- 
lier and later than those we now have. 
The only way I know of getting them is 
to sow the seeds of our earliest and 
latest varieties. If we should not suc- 
ceed the first time, try again, and we 
shall surely triumph. As some may 
think it very difficult to grow strawber- 
ries from seed, we will give our modus 
operandi. 

Wc never fail of getting good plants 
and plenty of them. Select the largest 
and best flavored berries ; those that are 
fully ripe; put them in fine drj- sand, 
then with tlic hands crush and rub them 
thoroughly until the seeds are evenly 
distributed through the mass. Prepare 
a bed in some half shady place, (under 
a tree will do if vou have no better 
23 



place) ; the soil should be a light sandy 
loam thoroughly pulverized to prevent 
its becoming hard and cracking after 
heavy rains. Sow on your sand con- 
taining the seeds evenly as possible, and 
then with a fine sieve, sift on soil; 
enough to cover the seeds an eighth of an 
inch deep. 

In about two weeks the plants will 
begin to come up, and will continue to 
do so until winter, then the bed should 
be covered with some straw or leaves, 
to the depth of two or three inches ; rake 
off in the spring, and transplant into 
beds eighteen inches apart. 

We want a large gooseberry perfectly 
free from mildew, in any locality, of 
good flavor, which will produce abun- 
dant and regular crops. To get it we 
must sow seeds. Select your largest 
berries and wash out the seeds clean ; 
then put them in a cool place, for goose- 
berry and currant seeds germinate at a 
very low temperature, and if allowed to 
start in the fall they will not grow to 
sufficient size to stand the winter. Keep 
the seeds as directed until very late in 
the fall ; sow in beds prepared the same 
as for strawberries, cover the seeds three 
eights of an inch deep, and transplant 
when one year old. 

We want a currant of twice the size 
of the noted cherry currant, and one 
that is sweet enough to eat without 
sugar, and we must have it. To get a 
larger one sow seeds of the cherry cur- 
rant, and to get a sweet one, sow seeds 
of Knight's sweet or some other mild 
variety. Save and sow the same as goos- 
berries. 

We want a better raspberry. One that 
is perfectly hardy, in this climate ; one 
of good size and flavor, that will bear 
through the entire autumn months. 
We have nearly accomplished this, for 
we have several varieties that ripen their 
fruit in October, but they arc not per- 
fectly hardy, and are too small and not 
of as good flavor as they should bo. 
We want better earlier and later va- 



354 



HORTICULTURAL 



rieties of blackberries, and better fruit 
of all kinds, and the way to get them is 
to persevere in sowing seeds and raising 
new varieties, and discarding the old as 
soon as they are superseded. We have 
accomplished much in the last twenty 
years, but we can accomplish more in 
the next twenty, for we have more ex- 
perience, more science, more varieties ; 
in fact we are many steps up the ladder, 
the top of which we are trying to gain. 
Let every one try to make an advance 
step, not wait for his neighbor or send 
his money to Europe and pay for their 
experiments. 

We have paid millions to foreign 
countries for fruit trees M^hich we might 
have produced ourselves. It is not for 
fruit trees only that we are sending away 
our money, but for ornamental trees and 
plants. Many, very many, are natives of 
our own country. I have seen in the 
last few weeks hundreds of plants, im- 
ported from France at a great cost, that 
can be found growing wild within one 
mile of the importer's residence. They 
either think they are better if imported, 
or in their ignorance they do not know 
that they are indigenous. 



ON THE DEODAR CEDAR. 

BY A FEIEND. 

Much interest has recently attached 
to the introduction of the Deodar into 
this country, as well as in Europe. 

In England it has proved a hardy 
tree, and it was hoped that it would 
prove hardy likewise in the Middle States 
here, if not in the Northern. The expe- 
rience of the last three winters has ma- 
terially modified this expectation, for al- 
though it has succeeded in some locali- 
ties, and been either entirely killed or 
nearly cut to the ground in others, the 
relative vicinity of which would have 
precluded the likelihood of such results, 
the balance of the experiments that have 
been made around, and north of the 
city of New- York, lead to the inference 
that it will prove unequal to the average 



of the winters here ; except in situations 
that are well sheltered and protected 
from the extremes of winter tempera- 
ture. 

In connection with this subject the 
question arises whether by any means a 
more hardy character can be given to 
the plant in question. The Deodar was 
at first regarded as a distinct species of 
the family to which it belongs, but the 
opinion is now prevalent amongst bo- 
tanists that it is only a variety of the 
species that embraces the Cedar of Le- 
banon. If this opinion be correct itmay 
be quite possible from seed, to obtain a 
variety which may differ but little from 
the Deodar in habit and appearance, and 
yet may possess the more hardy consti- 
tution of the Lebanon Cedar. 

We have extracted below some ob- 
servations from Dr. I. D. Hooker's Him- 
alayan Journals, (to which we have be- 
fore referred in recent numbers) upon 
the distribution of the ConifercB in Sik- 
kim, that contain remarks vipon this sub- 
ject which deserve attention, and will be 
found interesting to those who take 
pleasure in the improvements of their 
ornamental grounds. We should be 
glad to know that the experiment we 
above allude to was made on an exten- 
sive scale ; and there is little doubt that, 
if successful, it would prove renumera- 
tive in no small degree. 

" The distribution of the Himalayan 
pines is very remarkable. The Deodar 
has not been seen east of Nepal, nor the 
Pinus gerardiana^ cujn-essus toralosa, 
or Juniperns communis. On the other 
hand, Podocarpiis is confined to the east 
of Katmandos. Abies Brunoneana does 
not occur west of the Gogra, nor the 
Larch west of the Cosi, nor cupressus 
funebris (iin introduced plant, however,) 
west of the Teesva in Sikkim. Of the 
twelve following, (namely, three Juni- 
pers^ Yew, Abies Webbiana, Brunon- 
iana, and Smitheana, Larch, Pinus ex- 
celsa, and LongifoUa, and Podocarpus 



II R T I C U L T F II A L 



355 



neriifoUa,) Sikkim and Bhotan conifera, 
including Yew, Junipers, and Podocar- 
pus, eight are common to the North- 
west Himalaya west of Nepal, and four, 
namely, Larch, Gapre^sus funerelis, Po- 
(looarpiis nerii/olld, and Abies Brunon- 
iana are not. Of the thirteen natives 
of the north-west provinces, again, only 
five, aJanii^er, (the European co»i;«m««) 
Deodtr, (possibly only a variety of the 
cedar of Lebanon and of Mount Atlas,) 
JPinus Gerardiana, P. excelsa, and 
cupressus torulosa, are not found in Sik- 
kim ; and I have given their names be- 
low, because they show how European 
the absent ones are, cither specifically 
or in affinit}'. I have stated that the 
Deodar is possibly a variety of the Cedar 
of Lebanon. This is now a prevalent 
opinion, which is strengthened by the 
fact that so many more Himalayan 
plants are now ascertained to be Euro- 
pean, that had been supposed before 
they were compared with European 
specimens ; such are the Yeio, Juniperus 
communis, Berieris vulgar i% Quercus 
ballota, Populus alba, and E'lphratica, 
&c. The cones of the Deodar arc iden- 
tical with those of the Cedar of Lebanon ; 
the Deodar has, generally longer and 
more pale bluish leaves and weeping 
branches. Since writing the above, I 
have seen in the magnificent pinetum at 
Dropmore, noble cedars, with the length 
and hue of leaf, and the pensile branches 
of the Deodar, and far more beautiful 
than that i.s, and as unlike the common 
Cedar of Lebanon as possible. "\\"hcn 
it is considered from how very few wild 
trees, (and these said to be exactly alike,) 
the many dissimilar varieties, of the C. 
Libani, have been derived, the probabil- 
ity of this, the cedar of Algiers, and of 
the Himalayas (Deodar) being all forms 
of one species, is greatly increased. 
We can not presume to judge from the 
few cedars which still remain, what the 
habit and appearance of the tree might 
have been, when it covered the slopes 
of Libanus, and seeing how very varia- 



ble conifera) are in habit, we may assume 
that its surviving specimens give us no 
information on this head. Should all 
three prove one, it will material!}^ en- 
large our ideas of the distribution and 
variation of species. The botanist will 
insist that the typical form of cedar is 
that which retains its characters best 
over the greatest area, namely, the Deo- 
dar; in which case the prejudice of the 
ignorant, and the preconceived ideas of 
the naturalist, must yield to the fact that 
the old familiar Cedar of Lebanon is an 
unusual variety of the Himalayan Deo 
dar. But these characters seem to be 
unusually developed in our gardens ; for 
several gt;ntlemen, well acquainted with 
the Deodar at Simla, when^ asked to 
point it out at Kew (Jardens, have indi- 
cated the Cedar of Lebanon, and when 
shown the Deodar, declare that they 
never saw that plant in the Himalaya." 



A WORD UPON SEEDLINGS. 

BV MAKSII.\LL P. WILDER. 

A FALSE doctrine prevails among some, 
although founded on the theory of Van 
Mons, " that scions taken from seed- 
lings, and grafted into stocks, hov.-ever 
strong and healthy, will not yield fruit 
earlier than it may be obtained from the 
mother plant." Adopting this theory 
as true, many cultivators have been 
discouraged on account of the length 
of the process. Whatever may have 
been the experience which called forth 
this theory from its learned author, in 
the localities where it originated, or 
where it has been advocated, my read- 
ing and personal observation constrain 
me to question its truthfulness; certainly 
its api)lication to our own country. For 
instance, the foct is familiar to j'ou all, 
that ^cions of the pear come into bear- 
ing, when grafted on the (juince, earlier 
than on the pear stock. This is believ- 
ed to result from the early maturity of 
the quince, which, while it does not 
change the variety of the pear, imp arts 
its own precocity thereto. AVe realize a 



856 



HORTICULTURAL. 



corresponding hastening to maturity 
when the scion is grafted into h pear 
tree which has also arrived at maturity ; 
especially is this to be expected when 
the stock is in itself one of a precocious 
character. If any facts seem to oppose 
this doctrine, they may be regarded 
either as exceptions to the general law, 
or as the result of locality and cultiva- 
tion. 

The physiological principle of the 
vegetable kmgdom under which this 
doctrine obtains is, that the bud contains 
the embryo tree, and that the strong or 
precocious stock constrains it to elaborate 
more material into wood and foliage, and 
thus promotes both growth and fruitful- 
ness. 

Common sense as well as common 
observation, confirms this statement. 
Witness the pear, which we have known 
to fruit the fourth year from seed, when 
grafted on the quince. "We know a 
seedling from the Seckel pear grafted on 
the Bartlett, which bore the present sea- 
son, and is only four years from the seed. 
The Catherine Gardette, raised by Dr. 
Erinkle, was brought into bearing by 
grafting on the quince in five years, 
while the original seedlings, in all those 
instances, are only three to five feet in 
height, and will require several addition- 
al years to bring them into bearing. Is 
it reasonable to suppose that a seedling 
pear, which, in two years, in a given lo- 
cation, attains the height of one or two 
feet, with but few branches, will fruit 
as early as a scion from the same seed- 
ling when grafted on a strong tree, which 
elaborates and assimilates through its 
abundant branches and luxuriant foli- 
age, ten times the amount of all the ele- 
ments constituting growth and matur- 
ity? 

In reliance upon natural fertilization, 
I would still encourage the continual 
planting of the seeds of choice varieties 
of all kinds of fruit, in the belief that 
new and valuable varieties may thus be 
be obtained Ey these various process- 



es, we shall have continual accessions to 
our collections of such fruits as the 
Beurre Clairgeau, Beurre d»Anjou, and 
Doyenne Boussock pears. Let nothing 
discourage you in this most hopeful de- 
partment of pomology. Go on. Perse- 
vere. 

These are triumphs worthy of the 
highest ambition. Conquests which 
lea.ve no wound on the heart of memory, 
no stain on the wing of time. He who 
only adds one really valuable variety 
to our list of fruits is a valuable benefac- 
tor. I had rather be the man who plant- 
ed that umbrageous tree, from whose 
bending branches futiu-e generations 
shall pluck the luscious fruit, when I am 
sleeping beneath the clods of the valley, 
than he who has conquered armies. I 
would prefer the honor of introducing 
the Baldwin Apple, the Seckel Pear, 
Hovey's Seedling Strawberry, aye, or 
the Black Tartarian Cherry, from the 
Crimea, to the proudest victory which has 
been won upon that blood-stained soil. — 
Mceha7ige. 



PEAR CULTURE. 
The question so earnestly discussed of 
late, whether pears can be grown with 
paying results to the cultivator, is thus 
treated by the Horticulturist ; — 

" The question of profit in the cultiva- 
tion of any article whether it be grain or 
fruit, is the one to which interest mostly 
attaches. In the present number, our 
friend, Lewis F. Allen, in his peculiarly 
forcible way, and with an array of strong 
arguments, attempts the solution of the 
pear problem in a mode which will be 
received by some as truth, by others 
with grains of allowance. If pear culture 
on a large scale, as a dependable crop 
for the support of 'a family, is not to be 
recommended, this fruit is too popular 
and too excellent to be allowedio be ne- 
glected ; it is a very good and sometimes 
a very profitable addition to market farm- 
ing. A few trees, in situations where 
they are in the way of nothing else, will 
often give clever returns in money. 
They ought to be of good looTcing kinds, 
and the fruit should be exhibited in its 
best state to the purchaser at the mc- 



nORTICULTURAL. 



357 



ment almost it is fit for consumption. 
In gardens even of small extent room can 
be found for a few pear trees, which may 
be sa planted as to cast little shade on 
vegetable bed?, or in corners where they 
can receive proper attention. No garden 
is complete without them ; no family in 
the country or a village should be con- 
tented unless they can have a share of 
this fine fruit, just as everybodj- has a 
grape vine. In situations where the 
raiser can retail his product, we can be- 
lieve in any amount of profit which has 
been received by successful cultivators 
around Boston, in which latitude Mr. 
Allen admits with perfect candor that 
large profits, the result of great success, 
have been realized. 

" We think that one or two elements 
in this controverted matter have been 
too little taken into the account, and 
may be referred to as points that are j-et 
to be more fully understood. In the 
Eepori of the Massachusetts Horticultu- 
ral Society, which we abridged in Feb- 
ruary, page 89, it is stated that a grow- 
er has ready sale for those pears having 
a russety skin, while those of green skin 
could not be disposed of; to tliis end he 
has to prepare them for the customer's 
eye by a sweating process there describ- 
ed ; " while Mr. Gordon's Bartletts were 
yielding him ten dollars a bvishel, other 
wagons, by the side of his, had pears of 
the same variety, equally as large, but, 
in consequence of retaining a green skin, 
were offered at three t/oZ^ars a bushel." 
Here is testimony that is sufficient to 
account for all the differences of opinion 
as to profit. If one man can get ten 
dollars a bushel, and his neighbor only 
three, while the difference of the cost is 
so small as in this sweating process, the 
whole question of profit turns upon one 
circumstance. Testimony delivered be- 
fore a jury, as it would be given by one 
vender, would create a verdict of jirojl- 
table, while the whole would be overset 
by the sworn to words of the next neigh- 
bor which the very same fruit, and the 
jury might say unprofitable. Our read- 
ers must take these things into consider- 
ation ; pear culture is advancing ; better 
kinds, better understood trimming, keep- 
ing, and noiD by sweating, will give to 
many new cause for perseverance, not- 
withstanding the discouragments of oth- 
ers, whose opinions, recorded in our 
columns, it is equally the duty of an im- 
partial journal to promulgate with the 
results obtained by others more favora- 



bly situated. Colonel Wilder a.«surcs 
us that in his neighborhood nine hun- 
dred, dollars have been received from the 
produce of an acre and a quarter of 
pears. This extraordinary result it 
should be the duty, the pleasure, and the 
amusement of others to emulate. The 
secret, if there were any, is as well 
known, thanks to our pomologists, as 
the best mode of cultivating any other 
fruit ; trees in millions have been set out 
in eveiy direction, but we hear of no 
similar profits except near Boston. 
Have the Bostonians been educated to 
love pears better than any other citizens, 
so that they will give higher prices than 
are to be had in other places ? Is it 
the sweating? It would appear that 
this is the matter, for the difference iji 
Boston between a bushel of sweated 
pears and a bushel of green skinned fel- 
lows, is so great as to be quite amazing. 
We can see, in imagination, the torture 
of the owner of the green-skinned Bart- 
letts as he counted his three dollars 
against his neighbor's ten, the name of 
the latter Mr. John Gordon, of Brighton ; 
that of the owner of the unsweated arti- 
cle not given. 

" Time enough has elapsed, trees 
enough have been planted, exhibitions 
enough have been made, and oiir 'parish 
is yet as a whole unpeared. The ama- 
teur and small gardener can generally 
enjoj' this fruit in moderation, but for 
profitable culture, in our own neighbor- 
hood at least, we have yet to see it. In 
Dr. Warder's book he asserts that the 
Osage Orange does not sucker ; here it 
does ; in Ohio it docs not exhaust the 
neighboring land ; here it does ; perhaps 
in Ohio the soil is so deep that the roots 
go downwards, while here they seek 
pasture near the surface, Sucli differ- 
ences may and do exist ; let us therefore 
cultivate in each climate what that cli- 
mate is adapted to, and above all, let 
Boston send this way some of her fine 
pears. Philadelphians, as a people, have 
yet to know how a good pear tastes. 
They will be contented with the three 
dollar Bartletts, as ten dollars is high, 
and the freight is to be added." 



A GERMAN PRACTICE. 

There is a practice among the Swiss 
and Germans of boring into the ground 
among the roots of fruit trees, (with an 
instrument made for the purpose,) and 
pouring in liquid manure to force the 



858 



HORTICULTURAL 



tree forward, and also enable it to resist 
the drouth in dry weather. I have prac- 
ticed this for four years with some fine 
Seckel pears, in dry land, with good suc- 
cess. Avoid this after September first, 
as it will induce a second growth late in 
the fall, which will be quite irregular and 
very liable to be winter-killed. The in- 
strument I use is the common iron bar, 
which can be driven in among the roots 
without injur}^ Take for a wash, (as I 
buy no " special" manures,) to three- 
fourths of a barrel of water, four quarts 
of ashes, two quarts of lime, two shovel- 
fuls of night soil — stir up well, and pour 
into holes made as above, what the tree 
requires. Soap suds are capital for this 
purpose. — Bural New- YorTcer. 

The above is unquestionably a good 
practice, where unfortunately a proper 
preparation of the soil has been neglect- 
ed, and it might do well for old trees in 
grass land, as by top dressing the manure 
goes rather to feed the grass than the 
tree. — ^Ed. 



A PERFECT PLAN TO WATER 
TREES. 

Every artificial yjlan to irrigate lands, 
trees, or plants, should, as far as possi- 
ble, be in imitation of nature. It is a 
well-known fact that the very best means 
of watering, in dry countries, are those 
that feed the root from below, rather 
than from the surface of the ground ; 
the system of subsoiling, trench-spading, 
deep plowing, and like operations, giving 
life, health and vigor, and by the capil- 
lary attraction the water is drawn up 
from the earth below by reason of the 
heat above. 

The recent plan of boring tubes of 
two inches in diameter, and inserting 
lead pipes, and then attaching them to 
the rotary pump — thus giving a pump 
at small cost, as practiced in Stockton 
with great success, has called attention 
to facts which can be made of great 
service in all parts of our State, where- 
ever there is this hard adobe land. In 
QYQYj county that has this black soil, or 
even red soil, such as is used for making 
brick, and on our broad, da-j prairies, it 
is well known that water can be found 
at depths varying from twelve to thirty 
feet ; and in all such places we now ask 
particular attention to the following valu- 
able facts, which can easily be verified 
by any person at a trifling cost. 



One plan is simply this: procure a 
two-inch auger, and have it prepared (as 
used for boring wells) with joints of 
square iron rod, and with a handle that 
can be slid up and down (made fast with 
but screws) as the work progresses. 
Then bore into this mold of earth until 
you reach water ; then fill up this tube 
with coarse sand. At all times after- 
wards, by capillary action, the water 
will be drawn to the surface of the earth 
in sufficient quantities for all that grows 
above it. 

Let any one try the following experi- 
ment : dig a hole two feet deep, and 
three in diameter ; in the center of this 
hole bore as described, for water ; fill 
up the tube with sancl ; then plant a 
tree in that hole, and forever after you 
have, by capillary power, a fountain 
ever flowing to the roots of that tree. 
This will be natural to the tree, and it 
will only flow as the tree needs it, and it 
will also be perceived that the roots of 
the tree (the tree will form special tap 
roots) will go down this tube, and feed 
upon the living water below. This 
same plan may be adopted through an 
entire orchard. It can be used in 
trenches, and beneath hedges, but re- 
member, in holes or trenches, they must 
be filled up again after the tube is bored, 
and filled with sand, else they will not 
operate well. 

We commend this to all who wish to 
learn a natural way of irrigation. The 
cost of boring, in usual places, 12, 15, 
and 20 feet, will be only twenty -five to 
fifty cents per tube. — Cal. Far. 



THE APPLE TREE BORER. 

At this season, or as soon as the wea- 
ther becomes a little warmer, the borer 
hatches out into a small striped beetle, 
which, during the month of June espe- 
cially, though often earlier, and always 
more or less for some months subse- 
quentl}'-, may be seen busy upon the 
trunks of trees. It deposits its eggs up- 
on the bark, and may be kept off entire- 
ly if the trees are kept washed with a 
strong alkaline soap. 

Add a pound of potash to the gallon 
of soft soap, and with this, thoroughly 
mixed, wash the trees, leaving it, adher- 
ing considerably, in the axils of the 
lower limbs, or wherever the rain will 
not wash it all away at once. 

The jack-knife should be kept at work 
about the stems of infested trees, and 



LITERARY. 



359 



the borers found in their hiding places 
and destroyed. — Homestead. 

The above advice for watching the 
trees is good. Success in gardening and 
fruit-growing is the reward of vigilance. 
But the wash recommended, according 



to our experience, is too strong for the 
safety of the trees. Tt would be almost 
I certain to injure them, unless there 
j should be copious rains immediately af- 
\ ter its application. We would reduce it 
I by the addition of at least two gallons of 
soft water. — Ed. 



'ITitcranK 



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A GOLD 
RING. 

AX OKIGIMAL TALE FOUNDED OX FACT. 

[Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 
1S52, by .T. A. Nash, in the Cleric's office of the 
District Court of the United States, for the South- 
ern District of Now-York.] 

[advertisement.] 

[I\ a certain family in New-England, a 
gold ring, said to have been the founda- 
tion of its meritorious prosperity, has been 
handed down from age to age as an heir- 
loom. It is preserved with special care 
in an old box, which being also now an 
object of interest, is kept wrapped up in 
paper the better to preserve it from the 
ravages of time. As it is every now and 
then brought forth from its repositorj', the 
paper wrappers are occasionally changed 
and replaced by others. It chanced some 
time ago tliat a quantity of old dingy 
paper fell into the hands of the author, 
(who, be it known, is, or fancies himself 
to be, learned in antiquarian lore,) and in 
turning it over he thought he perceived 
scratdies and lines emerging to light from 
the surface of the paper as he held it in 
his hand. Supposing tliis to result from 
some cliemical action, he watched the pro- 
cess, and, to his great astonishment, the 
following manuscript graduallj^ developed 
itself, something in tlic same way as our 
practical natural philosophers present to 
us the successive pictures in that beautiful 
optical experiment known under the title 
of Dissolving Views. Fortunately for the 
reader, this manuscript was not so transito- 
rj' as those elegant pictures, yet it appeared 
^ partake somewliat of the same character; 
for after commencing the perusal of the 
magic page, we found it growing fainter 
and fainter, and we at once therefore set 
about to transcribe it. It was lucky we 
did so ; for scarcely was our task finished, 
when, in the well known words of our fa- 
vorite poet, it "vanished like the baseless 
fabric of a vision," and left not a linebehinS. 
Finding on perusal that the manuscript 
appears to have been composed with the 
praiseworthy object of benefitting the 
world, we have not doubted that tlie wor- 



thy family alludeil to, if still in being, 
would commend our diligence in preserv- 
ing it and giving it to the public] 

It may appear strange to this degene- 
rate age that a piece of gold should have 
the power to take cognizance of things 
external to itself; and more so still, that 
it should have the means of communi- 
cating its history to the world. 

My experience since I have had my 
present form enables me to throw some 
light on this, and other subjects ; and in 
fulfilment of a power incident to my 
present condition, I shall record my his- 
tory. This may or may not become 
known to the world by my means, inas- 
much as I have no power to make mj- 
manuscript, when written, visible to man, 
except it should chance to fall into the 
hands of some antiquarian philosopher, 
who has prosecuted his studies far 
enough to enable his mind to emit those 
properties of gaseous matter upon my 
writings, which will disclose to his eyes. 
That depends solely on his industry and 
diligence ; I have only the power to lay 
wisdom in his way ; it is for him to seek 
out and find it. Should he do so, the 
following history of my existence to the 
present hour will gi'atify, and if he uses 
it right, will instruct him. Beyond the 
present hour my future, like his own in 
this world, is hid from me. 

At my first consciousness of existence, 
I found myself lying on the working- 
bench of a goldsmith in the good city 
of London, in Europe, some two hundred 
years ago. I learned that I had been 
purchased from a merchant by my mas- 
ter in the form of gold-dust, and that in 



360 



LITERARY 



that condition my constituent particles 
had been collected together on the west 
coast of Africa. My power of consci- 
ousness I found had been imparted to 
me by virtue of certain alloys that had 
been added to the purer part of my 
body, although accidentally, for this was 
done in the vain attempt of my master 
to convert those baser metals into my 
pure substance, an attempt at which 
alchymists have been working from un- 
known time, with an enthusiastic per- 
severance equal to that with which cer- 
tain other wiseacres have wrought at the 
problem of perpetual motion. As both 
are equal simple impossibilities, the 
study of them has been, and will con- 
tinue to be persevered in by half-witted 
people for some ages yet to come, with 
precisely the same degree of success. 

I soon ascertained that so long as I 
remained in a perfectly pure state and 
without alloy, the power of conscious- 
ness was denied me, as it is also to all 
my race when converted by coinage into 
money. For in those states my quali- 
ties are too dangerous on the one hand, 
and too valuable on the other, to permit 
of my agency for good or for evil par- 
taking of anything beyond a passive 
character. Did gold in such conditions 
possess the power I now have, man's 
free agency must cease, for it would 
never then submit to be made the in- 
strument of wrong, of crime, and of op- 
pression. It would cry out against the 
greediness of usury, the villainy of the 
bribe, the sordid avarice of the miser. 
It would urge the conscience of the 
covetous to become liberal, the con- 
science of the prosperous to stretch 
forth the hand of plenty to the unfortu- 
nate, the thoughtlessness of luxurious in- 
dolence to seek out and relieve the misery 
of meek but suffering virtue ! 

Therefore is it that I blush with shame 
when I see my unconscious relatives 
made to take part in scenes from which 
the purity of their nature, if conscious, 
would recoil, and the character of which 



but for the criminality of man, it might 
alter from scenes of vice and wretched- 
ness to those of virtue and happiness. 

It is not that all alloys can give my 
purity the propex'ty of consciousness. 
When the next amalgamation is chanced 
to be hit upon, no knowledge of the fact 
is given to man ; and my master, when 
he had thus communicated to myself this 
wondrous quality, supposed me still a 
mere bauble without thought. But 
though now thus endowed, tlie fact re- 
mains unknown, yet my reflections en- 
gender kindred passions ; and was I 
coin, and those who owned me sought 
to serve their baser natures by my means, 
my kindled passion would impart red 
heat to my substance and I should burn 
his flesh and thus protest against free 
agency in man. Superior Wisdom, then, 
has drawn that line, which time must 
cease before it can be known. 

The passive state, then, of my kin, 
whilst pure, or coined for barter, leaves 
man to wreak upon his fellow-man the 
baneful wickedness which greedy ava- 
rice prompts, unchecked by aught save 
his own wayward will. 

It is true, that sometimes in my con- 
scious state my natural charms might be 
made use of to bribe astray the waver- 
ing rectitud^ of female innocence ; for 
jewels ever bear sad temptation to the 
youthful maid. It has not fallen to my 
happy lot thus unwillingly to give cause 
for grief Had it been otherwise, I 
would have restrained my inward rage, 
and rested lightly on my victim's hand, 
for her poor spirit would have needed 
every aid, to solace anguish such as she 
alone could feel; and if my brilliant 
luster gave pleasure to her eye, gladly 
would I have lent my useless charms, 
to cheer the achings of a broken heart, 
and cast a ray of pleasure through a 
soul that memory soon again must sink 
in shame ! 

My time, however, has been better 
spent, and though my lot has not been 
one of choice to me, yet it is the one 



LITERARY. 



S61 



my consciousness, if able, would have 
chosen. 

I tarried but a short time on my mas- 
ter's bench, He was a worthy man and 
true, and loved his wife with fervor and 
esteem. Her natal day was near when 
I was formed, and soon I graced her 
gentle hand. 

Through many a day of weal and woe 
I rested there. I with her joyed, and 
with her mom-ned, for they had many 
little ones, and cares and troubles of all 
married life, gave her the average share. 
Sickness would come unasked to make 
a brief abode, and bring anxiety atten- 
dant in her train. The midnight lamp 
would glimmer in my face, as my kind 
mistress watched her darling babe. But 
whether joy or sorrow sped her steps, 
serenity and peace adorned her walk. 
Thankful for blessings she deemed unde- 
served, she bent submissive to affliction's 
rod. And whilst she strove to check 
the trickling tear, her swelling heart 
sent up a prayer above. So went she 
on along her patient way, which led her 
safely to eternal peace. 

I mourned my lost place on mj dear 
mistress' hand, but knowing she was 
gone to endless bliss, I quickly stayed 
the current of my grief. From her I 
passed to her young son, who wore me 
for his mother's sake through several 
years. There did I see the trials, the 
deeds of youth. Oft have I joined the 
merry dance, and smiled my happiness 
with all around. At times I saw the 
fall of him I loved (for I did love him as 
his mother's son,) into the trammels of 
designing knaves. Then would my pas- 
sion warm my substance up, until his 
finger tingled with the pain. Repeating 
this, I found the means to check his er- 
rors ; for this made him think, and su- 
perstition stepping to my aid, made me 
his talisman and constant guide. 

At length misfortune seized my kindly 
friend, and he resolved to seek in other 
lands the chance of fortune that his own 
withheld. 



Soon were we plowing before the 
rising gale, the billows' sweUing but 
quickly yielding crest. Across the At- 
lantic speedily were we borne, and reach- 
ed unharmed our wished-for haven's 
rest. But as my master stepped to gain 
the shore, caught by a rope passed 
swiftly through his hand, I left his finger 
and fell down on deck. 

A Scotchman who chanced to spy me, 
finding no owner for me in the ship, 
took me himself Though poor himself, 
he was an honest man, who came to 
seek his fortune like my lost friend. 
He placed me carefully in his small 
trunk that held, in modest space, his 
wordly goods, and thus I found myself 
installed in a new home. 

We landed at Boston, and my new 
master looked around him to see how he 
best should commence his new career. 
His stock of cash was small, and was 
consumed before he could make up his 
mind upon the course he would adopt. 
In the bottom of his empty purse he 
found the solution of his difficulty ; for 
thei'e he saw as plainly as though writ- 
ten in words of fire, the word Want. 
Necessity was then, as now, the mother 
of invention ; and he resolved that I 
should be the founder of his fortune. 
Always ready to advance the good of 
my human friends, I willingly yielded 
to his suggestions; and by the aid of 
oiie of those philanthropists who are 
ever ready to assist others, assuming 
that whilst so doing they can likewise 
assist themselves, I was transferred for 
a time to the safe keeping of a gruff- 
looking iron safe, whose features albeit 
were no bad photograph of its master's ; 
and whose constituent parts in dure- 
ability were an exact counterpart of the 
sympathies of his breast for the neccssi- 
sitios of suffering poverty. 

I by no means admired my new domi- 
cile, for being always anxious to be ac- 
tive and doing, and esteeming it un- 
generous and disgraceful to pass one's 
existence in indolence, like a drone in 



362 



LITERARY 



the busy hive of industry, my spirit re- 
belled against being thus shut up like a 
hermit in his cell, useless to himself and 
all around. The chafingg of my wound- 
ed feelings warmed my metal so much, 
that had I not checked them, on reflect- 
ing that, though my present custodian 
was a hard man, I had no charge to 
make against his honesty in his transac- 
tions with my master, had I not thus 
checked my feelings, I say, they would 
most assuredly have heated my tem- 
perament to such a pitch that, by sim- 
ple contact, I should have set fire to and 
burnt up a- quantity of bonds, bills, and 
documents of value, that I perceived were 
my fellow-prisoners in this iron dun- 
geon. I stifled my rage, therefore, con- 
soling myself with the two-fold reflection 
that, on the one hand, my imprisonment 
might be working good to my active 
master, and on the other, that in case I 
found he should be ill-used by the 
money-lender, I was, for the reasons al- 
luded to in the preceding sentence, just 
in the right place to work a fearful ven- 
geance upon him for so doing. 

With these feelings, I resigned myself 
with as much patience as I could to my 
fate, and waited with great anticipations 
of pleasure the hour for my release. 

I can not say how long I was thus 
confined, for I fancy after the fkst ebul- 
litions of my feelings had past away, I 
drowsedoff into a state of semi-conscious- 
ness, and was not well aware how time 
passed. 

One day the old money-lender, how- 
ever, took me out, and carrying me 
down to his sanctum, where all his 
monetary affairs were transacted, I found 
my master there, and I soon perceived 
that he was come to redeem me from 
my bondage. I was glad to see that he 
looked in excellent health, and was 
dressed in a good and neat suit of 
clothes, that contrasted favorably with 
those he wore when first I made his ac- 
quaintance. His countenance smiled 
when he saw me, and I heard him re- 



mark to the miser that I had been a 
good friend to him, for that he had in- 
vested the money he had borrowed in 
divers small " notions" that he had ped- 
dled round, and that he had now saved 
up a hundred dollars with which to be- 
gin the world on a larger scale. 

Taking me and placing me on his 
finger, he eyed me a moment with evi- 
dent pleasure, and exclaimed in his 
Scotch tone, " Cam along my little mon ; 
ye're a gude chiel, an' I trow it'll be a 
hard day that parts ye agin frae me." 

Mortals can not tell the thrill of de- 
light that these words, and my master's 
beaming eye, whilst he uttered them, 
darted through my fabric, for judging 
from my poor observation of human 
affjiirs, it seems to me that if men could 
once appreciate and know that ineffiible 
pleasure that a sensitive being derives 
from the feeling that he has made others 
happy, there would cease to be misery 
on earth. It is not like that sterile ani- 
mal satisfaction that attends the sensa- 
tions of self-indulgence or gratification ; 
but an ever-growing and expanding prin- 
ciple, which, emanating from loftier feel- 
ings, sheds a radiance of peaceful joy 
throughout the circle that it binds to- 
gether, and softening discordant life- 
threads into harmony, unites in one 
common band the heavenward aspira- 
tions of the uplifted soul ! This glo- 
rious stream of heaven-born love, once 
started from its celestial source, sweeps 
smoothly over the crooks in life's rough 
course, and finds its issue in a sea of 
bliss, whose peaceful waters spread their 
wide expanse through boundless space, 
and — all eternity ! 

Within a short time after my emanci- 
pation from durance vile, I ascertained 
that my master had made up his mind 
to get some land, and settle down to a 
more quiet mode of life, than the roving 
one that he had engaged in during my 
absence. Ilis arrangements were speed- 
ily made, and we started together for 
our woodland retreat. We traveled on- 



LITERARY 



363 



Avaid through forest -^vilds, that knew 
not before the tread of white man's foot. 
The red men gazed upon our savage 
garb, for such to them our aspect ap- 
peared. At length we pitched upon a 
woodbind range in Connecticut, where 
nature seemed to spread around uncount- 
ed beauties. 

In the immediate vicinity of this 
charming spot ni}' master had resolved 
to take up his abode, and he set to work 
forthwith to make the conunencemcnt of 
his plantation. 

Here he remained and prospered. His 
example was followed by others, and the 
goodly town of Killingly arose to mark 
man's kindredship in the forest wilds. As 
fortune smiled upon mj'- master's labors, 
domestic ties sprung up around his 
board. Happy and content he led his 
peaceful life, and clo.sed at last his fully 
numbered days, revered by some — 
sincerely mourned by all. 

Before his gentle spirit passed away, 
he took from his hand my much valued 
form, and placed me on the finger of his 
eldest boy, just rising then to man- 
hood. 

" My boy," said he, " I give you now 
my ring. "When landing here, down- 
hearted and forlorn, I found it lying, un- 
sought, at my feet. Despair and grief 
at my unfriended state, had then nigh 
bowed my heart below reaction's 
strength. This ring seemed to my fancy 
a token of relief. I pledged it for the 
means to make my first poor worldly 
traffic, and from that hour prosperity 
has smiled upon my toils. Preserve this 
ring my son, and hand it down to yours, 
that as the varying tide of time rolls on, 
its sight may stimulate when lowering 
clouds prevail. A talisman for good 
the sign will always be ; and serve to 
rouse the energy that lags and so gives 
courage to unchristian fears. Thus will 
you learn to combat worldly trials, and 
gain reliance on your stern resolve. 
When man puts forth his hand in duty's 
cause, his God forgets not that he needs 
his aid." 



The old man's life-thread was run out ; 
but I was cherished, and as each succeed- 
ing generation of his stem, has taken 
for its time the peddlers place on earth, 
I have been guarded with religious care 
a faithful talisman of future good to all 
who act like him. 



For the Am. Farmers' Magazine. 

LIFE OF ROGER WILLIAMS AND 
OTHER PILGRIMS. 

BY A SON OP A PILGRIM. 

This Pilgrim father was a clergyman, 
born in Wales, about the year A.D. 
1599. He first took orders in the 
Church of England, but being a non- 
conformist, or Puritan, he was induced 
to seek religious liberty in the new 
world, and came to Salem, Massachu- 
setts, at an early period of its settle- 
ment. He was one of the regularly or- 
dained clergymen of that town. His 
motto was, " In God we h.ope^'' which is 
now inscribed upon the Arms of Rhode 
Island, together with the anchor (listen- 
ed upon the rocks. 

He insisted upon liberty of conscience, 
and manifested a free toleration of reli- 
gious opinions amongst all denomina- 
tions of Christians. Free and religious 
toleration has ever existed in the State 
of Rhode Island. Mr. Williams was 
expelled from the Massachusetts Colony 
for avowing himself a friend of religious 
freedom, and he left Massachusetts in 
the middle of January, A. D. 1036, soli- 
tary and alone ; and for fourteen weeks 
was exposed in the forests and among 
the Indians, not knowing what " tread 
or 'bed did mean." For his means of 
subsistence he depended upon the In- 
dians. The earth was covered with 
snow. He first stopped at a spot in 
Scckonk ; he afterwards in a short time 
removed to Providence, to which he 
gave a name in remembrance of " God^s 
merciful Frotidencc" to him in distress. 
He first landed at Providence in com- 
pany with five men who had joined him 
at Scekonk, whose names were William 



364 



LITERARY. 



Harris, John Smith, Thomas Angel, 
Francis Wykes and Joshua Verrin. 
His wife and children he left in Salem, 
but in the following summer Mrs. Wil- 
liams and her two children came from 
Salem through the woods to Providence, 
in company with several persons who 
wished to join their exiled pastor. The 
family of Mr. Williams were now de- 
pendant on his daily labor for their sup- 
port ; no supplies could be derived fi'om 
Massachusetts, and the native Indians 
could not afford much aid. He says that 
he planted with his own hands at his 
first coming two Indian fields, which he 
purchased of the natives, and by day 
and by night, at home and abroad, and 
on land and water, and at the hoe, and 
at the oar, he labored with his own 
hands for bread. He erected a small 
house at Providence for his family. 
Here the wanderer found a home for 
more than forty years ; here he died in 
1683, and here his ashes are deposited 
near the site of his dwelling. 

Mr. WiUiams made his Colony a re- 
fuge for all persons who might choose 
to reside there, without regard to their 
religious opinions. His Constitution of 
Government was a simple instrument, 
and combined the principles of a pure 
democracy with unrestricted religious 
liberty, and it was the germ of those 
free institutions which have governed 
and flourished in Rhode Island to the 
present^^day. His Constitution of Gov- 
ernment was one covenant, and in the 
following words : 

" We, whose names are here under- 
written, being desirous to inhabit in the 
town of Providence, do promise to sub- 
mit ourselves in active or passive obe- 
dience, to all such orders or agreements 
as shall be made for public good of the 
body, in an orderly way, by the major 
consent of the present inhabitants, mas- 
ters of families incorporated together 
into a township, and such others whom 
they shall admit into the same, only in 
civil things." 



Mr. Williams in all things was care- 
ful to maintain public order and peace. 
In 1043, the colony of Rhode Island 
being destitute of a charter or any legal 
authority, Mr. Williams went to England 
as the agent of his people, and obtained 
from the government of the mother 
country a free and absolute charter of 
civil incorporation by the name of 
" Providence Plantations in Narragan- 
sett Bayy This charter lasted until 
A. D. 1GG3, when Mr. Williams and the 
people of Rhode Island received a char- 
ter from the King of England, by which 
the colony was styled " The English 
Colony of Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations in New-England" 

This charter remained the foundation 
of their government until within the 
last twenty years. The people of Rhode 
Island were, many of them, from AVales. 
We find the names of Robert Williams, 
William Reynolds, John Warner, Thomas 
Harris, Joshua Wynsor, Thomas Hop- 
kins, AYilliam Wyckenden, William 
Field, Benedict Arnold, Mr. Wescott, 
Mr. Alney, Mr. Throckmorton, Mr. Cod- 
ington, and many other descendants of 
Welshmen, located in Rhode Island. 
Most of the Pilgrim Fathers were prac- 
tical agricultui ists. Mr. Wyllis, Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut in 1642, left a fine 
estate in the county of Warwick, Eng- 
land, and encountered the hardships of 
the wilderness in America. 

Mr. Bradford, the second Governor 
of Plymouth Colony, was born in Ans- 
terfield, in the north of England, in the 
year 1588 ; he was educated as an agri- 
culturist. Governor Bradford wrote a 
history of Plymouth Colony and its 
people, beginning with the first forma- 
tion of its church in 1602, and ending in 
1646. 

Governor Carver, the first Governor 
of Plymouth Colony, came over in 1620. 
He had a good estate in England, which 
he spent in emigration to Holland and 
America ; he was one of the emigrants 
to Lyden while the Pilgrim fathers re- 



SIISCELLANEOUS 



365 



sided there. He died April 5th, 1621, 
at Plymouth ; and v,-hile engaged in la- 
boring with his own bands in the field, 
clearing up his plantation, he was taken 
sick and died in a few daj's afterwards. 
John Winthrop was Governor of 
Say brook, in Connecticut, in 1657, 
and continued Governor until 5th of 
April, 1076, when he died. He was 
possessed of a fine genius, improved by 
a liberal education in the Universities 
of Dublin, and also of Cambridge in 
England, and by travel on the continent 
of Europe. He possessed a great va- 
riety of knowledge, was skilled as a 
philosopher, also in chemistry and phy- 
sic. In IGOl he went to England, pro- 
cured a charter incorporating the Con- 
necticut and New-IIaven into one gov- 
ernment, which thence became the 
Colony of Connecticut ; while ]Mr. Hig- 
ginson, who was a clergyman at Salem, 



Massachusetts, in 1629 brought over 
from England 115 head of neat cattle, 
being the longhorns of Leicester, to- 
gether with horses, sheep, goats, and six 
cannon, with stores suitable for a forti- 
fication. Mr. Iligginson stated that in 
his colony there were 300 planters ; 200 
of them settled at Salem, and 100 at 
Charlesto\\Ti, and that those at Salem 
were making haste to build houses, so 
that in a short time we shall have a fair 
town. He stated also that we have 
great ordnance, (meaning cannon,) where- 
bj'- they should be able to fortify them- 
selves and to keep out any potent adver- 
sary, "but that which is our greatest 
comfort and means of defence above all 
others is that we have here in Salem the 
true religion and the holy laws and or- 
dinances of God taught amongst us." 
Such were the men that first settled 
New-England. 



iBtellaiuaH 



" OLD SANDS OF LIFE." 

Dk. Hall, of the Journal of Ilenlth,, 
who has investigated the matter and an- 
alyzed the drugs finds that the mixture 
for which "Old Sands of Life" charges 
two dollars, when made from the very 
purest and most expensive materials 
used, costs exactly sixteen cents, bottle 
and all ! And he furthei'more charges, 
as do many others, that it is a deleter- 
ious article at best. The following from 
the Gleaner, is a very severe rap : 

"Messrs. Editors. — Permit me, thro' 
your columns, to bear testimony to a 
valuable medicine. My great aunt has 
been striving to reach heaven for the 
last twenty years. Having a cough, she 
finally fell into the hands of the ' retired 
clergyman' whose 'sands of life have 
nearly run out.' She purchased a bot- 
tle of his Cannahas Indica, from which 
she gained strength, judging from the 
violence of her cough. On taking the 
second bottle her strength so increased 
that she was able to cough all day and 
night without interruption. The third 
bottle landed her in heaven. Thu^^, in 
a brief space of time, the fond hopes and 



anticipations of a quarter of century 
are realized for the sum of seven dollars 
twelve and a half cents. To those per- 
sons who are desirous of changing 
worlds, or changing husbands and wives, 
and all who are anxious to visit t'other 
side of Jordan, this medicine is confident- 
ly recommended," — Kv. 

There is something in the above run- 
ning too near the profane, and we do not 
like it. But what language can too 
strongly depict the indignation, the ut- 
ter contempt, the heart-loathing which 
all should feel for Old Sands of Life and 
his imitators. They arc generally young 
men, sometimes middle-aged, and rarely 
old, are capable of achieving an honest 
livelihood, of living and letting live ; but 
they deliberately choose to lurk about our 
cities and their suburbs; not in idleness, 
for they are the most industrious men 
living ; not in the neglect of those intel- 
lectual powers which would ally man 
with the Deity, but in their abuse of 
them to the vilest of all purposes; not to 



366 



MISCELLANEOUS 



do any one the least good, but to prey 
upon the unfoi'tunate, to take the last 
dollar from the sick and dying. They 
will not steal from the well-to-do, who 
could better afford to loose. They pass 
by the robust and the strong, who might 
possibly support themselves and one city 
scoundrel besides. The dollars seem to 
be sweet to them about in proportion 
to the distress, misery and hopelessness 
from which they are wrung. Appealing 
to that principle of our nature, "All 
that a man hath will he give for his life," 
they batten on the last pulse and the 
last cent of their dying victims. Why 
will invalids send to the city for cures ? 
There is more medical skill in the coun- 
try, twice-told, than in the city ; better 
air, wholesomer food ; and the advice of 
the first elderly woman that you meet — 
she will prescribe for you gratis — is ten 
times safer, more effectual, more likely 
to cure, than the nostrums of city quacks. 
These fellows advertise to the amount 
of millions every year. The invalids, 
generally among the poor, pay the bills, 
pay the cost of the medicine, pay an 
enormous profit on the whole. Why, in 
heaven's name, if they want to be killed 
don't they seek a cheaper way. The 
rascals, who impose upon them, with 
few exceptions, have no name, no place 
of business — would not dare have. If 
you come here, you can not find them. 
The " returned missionary," for instance 
is nobody — a mere fiction — nothing but 
an impersonation of benevolence, ama- 
zingly anxious to do everybody that has 
a dollar good, but non-existent. Go to 
his place of sale, and what do you find? 
An irresponsible person, perhaps a smart 
boy of ten years, selling his medicine. 
Ask him where is Mr. Returned Mission- 
ary ? He will tell you, gone to Boston. 
Have you seen him ? No. Who brings 
you the medicine ? His agent. Where 
is he ? Don't know. Does he bring the 
medicine himself? Yes, and takes the 
money. How often? About once a 
week. Where does the agent live? 
Don't know. Does he pay you for sell- 



ing his medicine ? Yes, he pays me 
well. That is it. It is all for pay. It 
pays well — pays for puffing, pays for ad- 
vertising, pays for selling, pays for rob- 
bing, pays for killing ; but it does not 
pay the undertaker, and it does not raise 
the victim to life, nor feed or clothe his 
bereaved family. How long shall such 
heartless fraud be tolerated ? Tell your 
neighbors and friends not to encourage 
it ; and if there is an editor in your vi- 
cinity, ask him, whether it is, or is not a 
gross immorality, to advertise the wares 
of such soulless villains as Old Sands 
of Life. These editors know a great 
deal. They can answer you that ques- 
tion, if they will. — Ed. 



WHAT IS SCIENCE, AND AYHAT 
CAN IT DO? 

At the late anniversary of the New- 
YorTc Ladiea^ Home Missionary Society^ 
a society which has penetrated the 
abodes of wretchedness more beneficent- 
ly, and done more real, substantial, unsec- 
tarian good, than perhaps any other 
with an equal amount of means, in the 
Hall of the Cooper Institute, Peter 
Cooper, Esq., was called to preside. It 
should be recollected that this gentleman 
has alone erected that building, large, 
elegant, substantial — built, as would 
seem, for all future time — at an expense, 
we believe, of more than half a million, 
and is about to dedicate it to the cause 
of science and human improvement. 
On taking the chair, Mr. Cooper made 
the following remarks. Whether they 
ascribe more than is just to merely in- 
tellectual attainment, is not ours to in- 
quire, but vre are quite sure that the 
noble, soulful yearnings they express in 
behalf of science and of humanity, ren- 
der them worthy of a record more dura- 
ble than brass — in the hearts of this and 
coming generations. 

"For this honor, gentlemen and la- 
dies, please accept my thanks. This 
first meeting in this hall — a hall that 
is to be known hereafter as the Hall of 
' Union' — is an event that I, with many 



MISCELLANEOUS 



367 



others in this community, have antici- 
pated with more than ordinary interest. 
It is an event by which the second 
apartment in this building is now broufiht 
into i)ractical operation. It is intended 
that this building, witli all its rents and 
revenues of every name and nature, will, 
in the course of the coming fall, be dedi- 
cated to the advancement of science in 
its application to the various useful pur- 
posi^s of life. It is, my friends, to the 
application of science to the laws of life 
that we must look for all future improve- 
ment in the condition of mankind. 
Science, my friends, is a development of 
the laws and methods of Deity — laws so 
wise and good as never to require to be 
altered, amended or revoked. They, 
like their Author, will remain the same, 
without variableness or shadow of turn- 
ing. It is the power to know and un- 
derstand these laws that elevates man 
above the level of the brute. 

" It is, my friends, upon a right and 
wise a})plication of these laws that we 
nuist rely for a present salvation from 
all the possible evils to which infinite 
wisdom has seen it best to subject us, in 
order to perfect a nature capable of an 
endless expansion in knowledge and 
power over the material universe. To 
accomplish this, infinite goodness has 
seen it best to let us feel a sensation of 
hunger and thirst in order that we may 
enjoy the pleasures of eating and drink- 
in, thus making every enjoyment of life 
grow out of want, \\'here ample means 
are provided for the gratification of 
those wants. Science, my friends, is 
the key to unlock the mysteries and 
treasures of nature, to unvail its Ijcauties 
and its bles.sings, and thus to vindicate 
the waj's of (jod and to reconcile man 
to his Maker by showing a great and 
glorious purpose shining through all the 
wonders of almighty power. It is tlie 
proper business of science to deal with 
and demonstrate facts, and especially 
the great fact that the righteous or right- 
doers are recompensed in the earth, and 
much more the wicked and the sinner. 
Tliis, my friends, is the greatest and 
most important application of science 
that ever has been or ever can be made 
for the elevation of man. It is the most 
important because it tjikes hold of our 
moral and physical nature, oftering to 
l)oth encouragement and warning.— 
Science, my friends, science will teach 
our children that tlie path of the just 
grows brighter and brighter to the per- 



fect day ; that wisdom's ways are ways 
of pleasantness, and that all her paths 
are peace. 

" This siccncc, when properly cultivat- 
ed and taught to our children, can not fail 
to let them know that th(;y are placed 
by their Maker in the great garden of 
the world to keep it, to sidjdue it, and 
to work out a great and glorious destiny. 
This science will teach our children that 
our Heavenly Father has given to each 
a talent, or portion of an inheritance, 
that each may bury in the earth, or 
squander his portion with rioting and 
di-unkemicss, and like the prodigal of 
old bring himself to want tor the very 
husks that the swine feed upon. 

" This very wretchedness, growing 
out of violated laws and wasted bles-s- 
ings, was designed to awaken the slum- 
bering and degraded facilities of man to 
a realizing sense of his true nature and 
condition ; to show him that he is not 
afliicted willingly, but of necessity for 
his profit, to fill him with his own waj's, 
to make him sick of his sins, and willing 
to return to his Father, where there is 
bread enough, and to spare, where giving 
will not impoverish nor withholding en- 
rich. Every child within the sound of 
my voice will agree with me, that there 
is in reality more true pleasure to be 
found by being kind, loving and affec- 
tionate to his parents and playmates, 
than can be found in quarreling, fighting 
and tormenting each other. The poet 
spoke to the best feelings of our nature 
when he said : 

" Know, then, (his truth — enough for man to know — 
Virtue alone is happiness below ; 
The only point wliere human bliss stands stil, 
And taste the good without a fall to ill ; 
\\ here only virtue sure rew»r<l receives. 
Alike in what it takes and what it gives." 

Science, my friend.s, will show our chil- 
dren that the way to obtain pleasure and 
prosperity tlu'ough life, is the way of in- 
dustry, the way of lionesty, the way of 
economy, and especially of temperance 
in all things. AVhen science shall have 
rent the vail of our ignorance, so as to 
let us know the truth and be made free 
by it — free to look into the perfect law, 
where all the elements and essences of a 
universe are working in harmony and 
accordance with an Almighty will, to 
organize, individualize and immortalize 
i minds formed to receive a knowledge of 
a univei'se into eacli, without diminish- 
ing the store for every other individual. 

"Thu.s, when the science of correct 
morals, which is the rule or science of 



S68 



JiIISCELLANEOUS. 



Christianity, shcall have brought life and 
immortality to liglit in the intellectual 
heart of mankind, then we shall begin 
to know and understand something of 
the true dignity and responsibility of 
being a man. Then we shall know of a 
truth that 'man is but little lower than 
an angel.' If, my friends, this building 
shall in any way contribute to spread 
the knowledge of the truth, and lighten 
the load of human sorrows, then will I 
be amply compensated for all the toil 
and labor that I have expended to bring 
it to its present condition." 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

OUR PEDESTRIAN CORRESPON- 
DENT. 

KG. I. 

After traveling some thousands of 
miles through our country by the fastest 
mode of steam conveyance we concluded 
to halt awhile on the gate city of Iowa, 
more frequently called the great city of 
Keokuk. Now you may think those 
two words " great city" rather superflu- 
ous when applied to a place west of the 
Mississippi and north of St Louis, but 
were you to spend a few days in viewing 
the handsome residences of her retired 
merchants and bankers, or the large and 
well arranged wholesale houses where 
the country merchants for hundreds of 
miles around buy their semi-annual sup- 
plies of goods, an,d last but not least her 
magnificent hotels, and then remember 
that five years ago the ground on which 
they stand was covered with primitive 
oak, untouched by the rude hand of civ- 
ilization, we think you wiU be willing 
to award to her enterprising citizens the 
honor of living in a great city. Keokuk 
was not all a forest five years ago, but 
the oak, that original squatter sovereign, 
did at that time occupy the place where 
now many of her handsome edifices 
stand. But the cause of dating back 
five years as the commencement of her 
prosperity is that about that time her 
disputed titles of land upon which she 
located were settled, which had previous- 
ly been the great cause of her lingering 
in the ranks of small cities. Her posi- 



tion, at the foot of the rapids and the 
great Desmoines valley, etc., etc., emin- 
nently qualify her for future eminence, 
but as we have no corner lots for sale 
here we will leave her praise to those 
who have, and are consequently better 
qualified to do justice to her many mer- 
its. So let us go back to an old arm- 
chair in one corner of the gentleman's 
parlor of our hotel, where we sat rumin- 
ating on what we had seen in passing 
over the thousands of miles of railroad 
track between this place and Yankee- 
dom, from which we started. Our ideas 
of matters and things were jumbled up 
and running together, like an extension 
table after dinner, excepting where we 
had stopped and taken views afoot, in all 
of which cases we were prepared with 
the statistics as well as poetry of their 
advantages and disadvantages. Conse- 
quently we arrived at the conclusion 
that to see and understand the real and 
practical merits of our country we must 
adopt the original mode of traveling, by 
which we gain the double advantage of 
escaping explosions, boiler burstings, 
races, and I had like to have said getting 
off the track, for that is a source of great 
annoyance in some sections of this coun- 
try; as the old farmers (who act as switch 
tenders) seem very much to enjoy the 
joke of having put you on the wrong 
track, but they don't make much off of 
this Yankee, for they can't send him 
back on the road he has traveled, and so 
long as he is going through, what to him 
is a new country, he is all right. We 
started up the valley of the Desmoines 
river, which, by the way, is just now 
very high, and navigable for pretty large 
steamboats, they are making good use of 
the opportunity, for it does not last long. 
The farmers and country merchants, are 
sending down their produce and ex- 
changing it for goods, which they hope 
to sell during the coming year; but 
money is just a little bit scarcer in this 
country than ever I saw it anywhere else, 
consequently the majority of sales must 



MISCELLANEOUS 



869 



be effected through some other medium 
than gold or even greasy bank notes. 
Large quantities of pork go down this 
river, as well as thousands of bushels of 
Hungarian grass seed , which, by-the-by, 
is making as much stir here this spring 
as the Shanghae fever did in the east a 
few years since. 

This is a kind of grass recently intro- 
duced into this country, and one which 
we have no recollection of seeing in the 
east. It is said to be very productive of 
both hay and seed. The latter is only 
used for sowing, and brings at this time 
from seventy-live cents to five dollars 
per bushel, according to the demand and 
convenience of market. The seed is 
said to make good flour. One farmer 
*aid he took eighty bushels of seed and 
eleven tons of hay from two acres of 
ground ; and they all say that horses will 
eat the hay in preference to timothy or 
clover, even after the seed has been tak- 
en out. We think it woiild be well for 
some of our eastern farmers to give it a 
trial at least, if they have not already 
done so. 

The Desmoines river runs through a 
beautiful valley of fine fertile land and 
its banks are lined with a sufficient 
amount of timber for building, fencing, 
and all tlie necessary purposes of living, 
which is a desideratum on the beautiful 
level prairies of Illinois. "We concluded 
to leave the river and strike across into 
Missouri, among the border ruffians 
and old farmers, for the purpose of talk- 
ing with them about matters and" things, 
as also with the wives and daughters, to 
see what they thought of the country ; 
and let me tell you we had some rare 
times ; and found some splendid forms. 
But my sheet is full and I must stop, 
with the prospect of giving j'ou some 
more, which you may rely upon as facts, 
if signed, Boots at the Bottom. 



putting his hay in the barn, by some 
means he covered a hen up with the hay, 
where she remained until tlie ITth of 
March, WHEN HE TOOK HER OUT 
ALIVE ! ! ! The hen had lived, it would 
seem, upon the hay seed, but without a 
possibility of getting a drop of water. 
She had beaten a path along by the side 
of the barn, so that she had about twelve 
feet travel, receiving no light except 
what was admitted through the open- 
ings between the boards. The hen was 
very feeble when taken out. Did we 
not know our friend to be a man of 
truth, we should most assuredly con- 
sider this a tremendous stretch of imagi- 
nation. But as it comes from an au- 
thentic source, we must believe and 
wonder that a thing of flesh could possi-^ 
bly have lived thus pent up for about 
eight months without the common nour- 
ishments necessary to sustain life, and 
yet come out alive. — Dryden News. 

Is it not possible that said hen walked 
under the girt at a later date than that 
of the putting in of the hay, and then 
was preventing egress by the falling of 
the hay over the entrance ? — Ed. 



STRANGE TENACITY OF LIFE. 

Mr. Tkum.vn Rhodes, of Etna, informs 
•s that about the middle of July last, in 
24 



SPRING FRUITS. 

The recent hard frost seems to have 
been severe only in low localities. In 
such places, almost every description of 
fruit is killed, while on lands of higher 
range, the injury is comparativel}' little 
or nothing. There is yet an abundance- 
of fruit, etc., in the country, while we 
are pleased to learn that the wheat crc^. 
is uninjured. 

Strawberries have made their appear- 
ance in our market. Some of the promi- 
nent horticulturists in this vicinity have 
had them ripe for more than a week. 
Among them is our friend Truett, a no- 
tice of whose nursery and fruit gardens 
we shall soon publish. 

The finest bimch of asparagus we re- 
collect to have seen in this city, wa.'; 
shown us recently. It was grown by 
AVm. Petway, of this county. — Southern 
Homestead for May Vith. 

StrawbeiTies and asparagus are now 
ollercd in the New-York markets. May 
22d, but are not yet plenty. — Ed. 



ff^^g" To err sometimes is nature ; to 
rectify error is always glory. 



:no 



MISCELLANEOUS, 



FOR THE AMEBICAN FARMERS* MAGAZIKE. 



THE WEATHER. 



Appearance of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N". Y., in April, 1858. 

By R. HoweU. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about iO feet above tlie 

Susquehanna River, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the Neiv- York and Erie Railroad. 



Mar. 


TA.M. 


2 P.M. 


9 P.M. 






1 


33 


60 


46 


S. E. 


Fair. 


2 


40 


62 


41 


" 


" 


3 


37 


68 


42 


S.&N. 


Clear. 


4 


40 


71 


53 


S. E. 


Cloudy. 


5 


45 


62 


50 


South. 


" 


6 


34 


40 


32 


N. W. 


" 


7 


27 


43 


25 


" 


Clear. 


8 


30 


42 


41 


S. E. 


Cloudy. 


9 


46 


67 


52 


" 


" 


10 


48 


63 


40 


N. W. 


Fair. 


11 


37 


42 


36 


" 


Cloudy. 


12 


39 


39 


39 


S. E. 


" 


.13 


40 


48 


44 


" 


" 


14 


44 


60 


45 


N. W. 


'' 


15 


43 


51 


35 


c. 


" 


16 


42 


60 


37 


" 


Fair. 


17 


36 


58 


38 


" 


" 


18 


33 


62 


41 


" 


Cloudy. 


19 


39 


47 


41 


S. E. 


" 


•20 


42 


44 


41 


" 


" 


-21 


49 


52 


36 


N. W. 


" 


22 


42 


68 


57 


S. E. 


Fair. 


23 


62 


52 


40 


N. W. 


Clqudy. 


24 


36 


40 


30 


" 


" 


25 


31 


42 


27 


" 


" 


26 


26 


40 


26 


" 


" 


27 


26 


46 


28 


" 


" 


28 


38 


52 


34 


" 


Fair. 


.29 


34 


67 


52 


N.&S. 


Fair. 


30 


60 


64 


61 


N. W. 


Cloudy. 



Remarks. 

Red-winged blackbird, also brown, first seen. 

Light rain between 1 and 2 in A.M and P.M. 
First hyholder and mouse hawk seen. 



A large, beautiful aurora at 9 P.M. 

Light hail and rain before daylight, and A. M. 

and evening. 
Light rain in A.M., hard rain in P.M. [day. 

Very hard rain before light, and at intervals all 
Light shower between 5 and 6 A.M. ; lesser frogs 

first heard. 
Light sprinkle. 
First wren heard. 



First whippowil heard. 

First kingfisher seen. 

Drizzling rain, beautiful aurora at 9 P.M. 

Halo around the sun at 12 noon. 

Light rain in A.M. 

Light snow squalls. 

Light snow before daylight. 

A few flakes of snow. 

Myrtle began to bloom. 

Light rain in the evening. 
Light showers during the da\'. 



BRIBERY DISCOVERED. 

"Wm. Chappell, a member of the Wis- 
consin State Senate, was expelled on the 
5th Inst, for having sold his vote and in- 
fluence to the Lacrosse and Milwaukie 
Railroad, wliile a member of the Assem- 
bly of 1650, and for having attempted 
•to bribe a witness before the recent Land 
Grant Investigating Committee." 

Why! the man is behind the times. 
Didn't our exchange know that the Gov- 
ernor of that same State took a sweet- 
ener of $50,000, and a majority of both 
Houses a comforter each of from $5,000 
to $25,000 when that famous bill was 



log-rolled through V He must have been 
asleep about those times. Even the un- 
derstrappers, down towards the boys 
that wait on tlie members, made a good 
job of it. But if nobody had been 
bled except the New- York bankers, we 
should'nt cry about it. — Ed. 



Education. — Seek for your children, 
in order — first, moral excellence ; sec- 
ond, intellectual improvement; third, 
physical well being ; last of all, worldly 
thrift and prosperity ; and you may at- 
tain the blessing promised to Christian 
I nui'ture. — Everts, 



MISCELLANEOUS 



STl 



SEWING MACHINES. 
The want of accurate information up- 
on the subject of sewing machines, now 
exciting so mucli interest, is supplied by 
a new edition of " Appleton's Diction- 
.•iry of Mechanics," in which this subject 
is discussed and iUustrated. Several 
machines are mentioned therein, and 
prominence is given them according to 
their respective merits. The single 
thread "hand stitch," "running stitch," 
and the single and double threaded 
•' tambour" or "chain" stitches, are sev- 
erally treated. Machines making the 
"running" and tho''hand" stitches are not 
l)efore the public. The single and the 
double threaded " tambour" stitches do 
not make seams of desirable firmness 
and beaut J'. The latter involves a great 
expenditure of thread ; and the former, 
made by the lower priced machines, is 
especially defective for the general pur- 
poses of sewing on account of the facili- 
ty with which it may be raveled. 

The " lock stitch" is the one best suit- 
ed for sewing. It is formed with two 
threads, one above and the other below 
tlie fabric sewed, interlocked with each 
other in the center of it, as in the follow- 
in"; illustration. 



Each surface of the scam presents the 
same appearance : a single line of thread 
extending from stitch to stitch. It can 
not be ripped nor raveled, and forms a 
seam sufficiently substantial for all ordi- 
nary purposes. About two and one-half 
yards of thread arc required for one yard 
of seam made with this stitch. The sin- 
gle thread " tambour" stitch requires 
about four and oric-half yards, and the 
" double threaded tambour s^titch" six 
and one-half yards for a yard of seam. 

The inventor of the " lock stitch" used 
a reciprocating shuttle in making it. 
This required heavy machinery, involved 
a waste of power, and was inadaptablc to 
fine work. No attempt was made to in- 
troduce it into families. "In 1851 Mr. 



A. B. "Wilson patented his celebrated 
"lock stitch" machine, which, with the co- 
operation of Mr. N. Wheeler, was soon 
successfully introduced. The merit of 
Mr. AVilson's invention consists in his 
' rough-surface feed,' by which the cloth 
is moved forward and the length of stitch 
regulated, and the 'rotating hook' by 
which the two threads are interlocked, 
and the point of interlocking drawn into 
the fabric." The superiority of this ma- 
chine over the shuttle machine, arises 
from substituting the rotary movement 
of the hook for the reciprocating motion 
of the shuttle. Power is economized, 
noisy and cumbersome gearing avoided, 
and the machine is adapted to the finest 
work. 

" Its mechanism is the fruit of the 
highest inventive genius, combined with 
practical talent of the first order. Its 
principles have been elaborated with 
great care, and it involves all the essen- 
tials required in a family sewing ma- 
chine. It is simple and thorough in con- 
struction, elegant in model and finish, 
facile in management, easy, rapid and 
quiet in operation, and reflects additional 
credit upon American mechanical sldll. 
Thousands are used by housekeepers, 
seamstresses, dressmakers, tailors, man- 
ufacturers of shirts, cloaks, mantillas, 
clothing, hats, caps, corsets, ladies' gai- 
ters, umbrellas, parasols, silk and linen 
goods with conif)lete success." 

"Various appliances are furnished for 
regulating the width of hems, etc. The 
' hemmer ' is another appendage, by 
which the edge of the cloth is turned 
down in passing through, as in ordinary 
hemming, and beautifully stitched. The 
bearings and friction surfaces are so 
slight tliat the propelling power is mere- 
ly nominal. The various parts of tlic 
machine at all subject to wear arc made 
of finely tempered steel, and the other 
parts are tastefully ornamented or heav- 
ily silver plated." 

" Tliere is no limit to the number of 
stitches that nniy be made in any given 
time. One thousand per minute are 
readily made. The ainount of sewing 
that an operator may perform, depends 
much upon the kind of sewing and her 
experience. Fifty dozens of shirt col- 
lars, or six dozens of shirt bosoms, are 
a day's work. Upon straight seams, an 
operator with one machine will perfonn 
the work of twenty by hand ; on an 
average one probably performs the work 
of ten seamstresses."- 



372 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



RAISING INDIAN CORN. 

You have probably read the article in 
the N. Y. Tribune^ of May 8th, on the 
raising of Indian corn, in which the 
writer gives a recipe, deduced from ob- 
servations on premium crops, for greatly 
increasing the average yield of the most 
important product of the United States. 
It runs as follows: "Take a rich, strong 
loam, with a heavy turf, the older the 
better. Plow not less than eight inches 
deep, and deeper if it does not bring up 
more than one inch of the subsoil. Put 
on at least forty loads of manure to the 
acre, and more if you have it, reserving 
a part for the hill, unless you use some 
concentrated fertilizer." 

If you were not reminded of the fol- 
lowing story by this wise advice, I am 
sure that it was only for the reason that, 
unlike editors generally, you are not 
omniscient, and never chanced to peruse 
it. 

A caravan was once bewildered in the 
desolate waste of an immense desert, and 
after long wandering, was reduced to a 
famishing condition. While in their 
worst extremity, a vulture came flying 
one day in their neighborhood, and 
poising in the air over their heads, as- 
tonished them greatly by his miraculous 
power of human speech. 

"Why do you famish?" asked the 
vulture. " If you will take fine flour, 
and mix it with goat's milk, and flavor 
it with the delicate spices of the East, 
you may produce cakes worthy to set 
before the Caliph. If you take the round 
haunch of a fat gazelle, and roast it be- 
fore the fire, and eat therefrom, it will 
make your eyes stand out with fixtness. 
If you take water from a cool spring, and 
squeeze into it the ripe juice of an orange, 
you may cool your parched tongue with 
refreshing sherbet. Why will you fam- 
ish, and thirst, and sorrow, oh, poor 
wretches ! Why will you not eat and 
drink, and be merry?" And the " poor 
wretches" looked up to the vulture and 
asked him vainly where they might get 
the flour and the spices, the fat gazelle 
and the cool spring water, and the ruddy 
oranges. 

So, the Tribune croaks to the farmers 
in the land and says, " Poor farmers, if 
you wish to grow great crops of corn, 
and pay your debts, and live comfort- 
able, you have nothing to do but plow 
under an old turf and put forty loads of 
manure on the acre and till it well, and 



your granaries will run over, and your 
pockets will stand out with money." 
But if you please, Friend Tribune, do 
tell the farmers how, consistent with 
good and systematic rotations, they can 
always obtain the old turf to plow under, 
and then, perhaps, they will trust your 
wisdom to inform them how and where 
they can profitably obtain the forty loads 
of manure per acre. 

It is quite easy to tell farmers how to 
raise large crops. They hardly require 
the teachings of the Tribune, or any 
other journal, to inform them that an 
old turf plowed under, and forty loads 
of manure applied to each acre, and the 
land afterwards subjected to thorough 
tillage, will (if the wire-worm and the 
grub let it alone) produce a large crop. 
But if the forty loads of manure and the 
old turf cost more than the crop is worth, 
they will be losers. They would honor 
him as a wise man and national benefac- 
tor, who informs them how to raise these 
" great crops" profitably. 

Single premium crops give us but few 
practical hints that are valuable. They 
are always raised on land in an unusually 
favorable condition, which can not be 
attained on the majority of farms, for 
the whole of every crop, without incur- 
j-ing unreasonable expense. But if suf- 
ficiently inducing premiums were offered 
for the most successful and profitable 
method of raising Indian corn, in con- 
nection with other crops, duiing a period 
of ten years, the results might place us 
in jjossession of valuable information. 

COKNPLANTER, 

in Bural New- Yorlcer. 



THE DOOM OP THE WORLD. 

WuAT this change is to be we dare 
not even conjecture, but we see in the 
heavens themselves some traces of de- 
structive elements, and some indications 
of their power. The fragments of bro- 
ken planets, the descent of meteoric 
stones upon our globe, the wheeling com- 
ets, welding their loose materials at the 
solar furnace, the volcanic eruptions in 
our own satellite, the appearance of new 
stars, and the disappearance of others, 
are all foreshadows of that impending 
convulsion to which the system' of the 
world is doomed. Thus placed on a 
planet which is to be burned up, and un- 
der heavens that are to pass away — thus 
treading, as it were, on the cemetries, 
and dwelling upon the mausoleums of for- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



373 



luer worlds, let us learn the lesson of hu- 
mility and wisdom if we have not already 
been taught in the school of revelation. 
— North British Review. 



ALMOST TO GOOD TO HOPE FOR. 

On ! if men would onlj'- quit their jar- 
goning about the undeniable abstrac- 
tions of theological speculation; and their 
contentions about the impositions of sec- 
tarian authorities ; and their justlings in 
the pursuit of personal and partisan in- 
terests ; and could be persuaded to attend 
only to the supreme and indisjjutable 
facts of nature and Revelation — seeking 
the enjoyment and promotion of a free, 
full, present, and everlasting salvation, 
the attainment for the proper character 
and destiny of every man, and of all men 
— what a glorious change would be wit- 
nessed in every department of society ! 



TRACTION ENGINES. 

Messrs. Tuxfokd & Sons of England, 
are exporting quite a number of their 
traction engines to Cuba. Thoj'" are in- 
tended to draw the sugar from the mill 
to the railway, to plow, and to be made 
generally useful, Senor Placide Gener 
is the enterprising importer. 



ARTIFICLA.L PROPAGATION OF 
FISH. 
The Ijondion Athenenm says the exper- 
i men t made by the Emperor of the French 
to stock the waters of St. Cloud with 
trout hatched artificially, has met with 
complete success. Trout twelve months 
old are eight inches long, and weigh from 
two and a-half to three and a-half ounces. 
Their value in the Paris market would 
be from twenty to twenty-five cents. 
The trout thirty-three months old are 
from nineteen to twenty inches long, 
and weigh from twenty-four to forty-one 
ounces, and would sell at from sixty 
cents to a dollar and twenty cents. It 
is further stated that the waters at St. 
Cloud were never before inhabited by 
any species of salinynnim. The trout 
are extremely numerous, and promise to 
yield highly productive leturns, in a com- 
mercial point of view. The principal ob- 
ject of the Emperor is to ascertain wheth- 
er the production of fish by artificial 
means is more profitable than the culti- 
vation of the land, talking the same su- 
perficial area in both cases. 



MACHINE FOR BENDING WOOD. 

Thomas Blanchakd of Boston, Mass., 
has invented certain improvements relat- 
ing to a device by which wood is bent in 
the desired form without having its fil>re 
distended longitudinall}', so that the 
strength of the wood will not be impair- 
ed in consequence of being bent. 

INSECTS. 
The number of distinct species of in- 
sects already known aTul dcscril)ed can- 
not be estimated at less than two hun- 
dred thousand — there being nearly twen- 
ty thousand different beetles alone, 
known at the present time — and every 
day is adding to the catalogue. 

BRILLIANT STUCCO WHITEWASH. 

Many have heard of the brilliant stuc- 
co whitev/ash on the east end of the Pres- 
ident's house at Washington. The fol- 
lowing is a recipe for it as gleaned from 
the National Intelligencer^ with some 
additional improvements learned by ex- 
periments : 

" Take half a bushel of nice unslackcd 
lime, slack it with boiling water, cover 
it during the process to keep in the steam. 
Strain the liquid through a fine sieve or 
strainer, and add to it a peck of salt, pre- 
'viously well dissolved in water; three 
pounds of ground rice, boiled to a thin 
paste, and stirred in boiling hot ; half a 
pound of powdered Spanish whiting, and 
a pound of clean glue, which has been 
previously dissolved by soaking it well ; 
and then hanging it over a slow fire, in 
a small kettle with a large one filled with 
water. Add five gallons of hot water to 
the mixture, stir it well, and let it stand 
a few days covered from the dirt. 

It should be put on right hot ; for this 
purpose it can be kept in a kettle on a 
portable furnace. It is said that about 
a pint of this mixture will cover a square 
yard upon the outside of a house if prop- 
erly applied. Brushes more or less small 
may l)e used according to the neatness of 
the job re([uired. It answers as well as 
oil paint for wood, brick or stone, and is 
cheaper. It retains its brilliancy for 
many years. There is nothing of the 
kind that will compare with it, cither for 
inside or outside walls. 

Coloring matter may be put in and 
made of any shade you like. Spanish 
brown stirred in will make red pink, 
more or less deep according to the quan- 
tity. A delicate tinge of this is very 



Hi 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



pretty for inside walls. Finely pulveriz- 
ed common clay, well mixed Spanish 
brown makes reddish stone color. Yel- 
low-ochre stirred in malves yellow wash, 
but chrome goes further and makes a 
color generally esteemed prettier. In 
all these cases the darkness of the shades 
of course is determined by the quantity 
of coloring used. It is difficult to make 
rules because tastes are different ; it 
would be best to try experiments on a 
shingle and let it drj^ We have been 
told that green must not be mixed with 
lime. The lime destroys the color, and 
the color has an effect on the whitewash, 
which makes it crack and peel. 

When walls have been badly smoked 
and you wish to have them a clean white, 
it is well to squeeze indigo plentifully 
through a bag into the water j ou use, 
before it is stirred in the whole mixture. 
If a larger quantity than five gallons be 
wanted, the same proportions should be 
observed. — BerhnMre Galturist. 



CO-OPERiTION OF THE WIFE. 

There is much good sense and truth 
in the remark of a modern author, that 
no man ever prospered in the world 
without the co-operation of his wife. If 
she unites in mutual endeavors, or re- 
wards his labors with an endearing smile^ 
with what confidence will he resort to 
his merchandise or his fiirm, fly over 
lands, sail over seas, meet difficulty and 
encounter danger — if he only knows that 
he is not spending his strength in vain, 
but that his labor will be rewarded by 
the sweets of home? Solitude and dis- 
appointment enter the history of every 
man's life, and he has not half provided 
for his voyage, who finds but an asso- 
ciate for happy hours, while for months 
of darkness and distress no sympathizing 
partner is prepared. — Berlcsliire Cultu- 
rist. 



ACCOUNTS ABOUT CROPS. . 

SELECTED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. 

Wheat. — We have traveled through 
most of the counties of this large Judi- 
cial Circuit, and of those in contiguous 
circuits, and may safely saj^ that never 
before have we witnessed such an abun- 
dant harvest. It is true the rust or 
some other disaster may blast this bright 
prospect yet ; but if nothing of this sort 
shall occur, there will be wheat enough 
"for all the world and the rest of man- 
kind." — AtJiens Watchman. 



Pleasant Ridge, Hamilton Co., 0., 
May 10.— Our wheat, barley and grass 
never looked better. Our fruit badly 
hurt with frost. II. B. 

Cherry Valley, Ashtabula Co., 0., 
May 8. — Wheat looks very fine. Grass 
promises an extraordinary crop. Ap- 
ples are making a good show of blos- 
soms. 

Lagore, Indiana, May 10. — The old 
settlers saj^ they never saw so much 
water on the ground as there is this 
spring. No corn yet planted, and but 
little oats sown. A. D. C. 

Sullivan, Ashland Cd., 0., ^Lay 11. — 
Fail and spring wheat looks first-rate. 
Early sown oats looks well. No corn 
planted yet. Gi'ass looks middling. 
Apple and cherry trees in blossom ; also 
peach trees that are alive. The forest 
trees begins to show their leaves consid- 
erably. Cold enough this morning for 
snow. Very wet of late. 

Reports from various parts of thi: 
country, brought by our exchanges, are 
favorable, particularly concerning the 
wheat crop. — Ed. 



KEEPING THE TEETH CLEAN. 

MICKOSCOPI0.4.L examinations have 
been made of the matter deposited on 
the teeth and gums of more than forty 
individuals, selected from all classes of 
society, in every variety of bodily con- 
dition, and in nearly every case animal 
and vegetable parasites in great numbers 
have been discovered. Of the animal 
parasites there were three or four spe- 
cies, and of the vegetable one or two. 
In fact the only persons whose mouths 
were found to be completely free from 
them, cleansed their . teeth four times 
daily, using soap once. One or two of 
these individuals also passed a threa<l 
between the teeth to cleanse them more 
effectually. In all cases the number of 
the parasites was smaller in j^foportion 
to the cleanliness. The effect of the 
application of various agents was also 
noticed. Tobacco juice and .smoke did 
not injure their vitality in the least. 
The same was true of the chlorine tooth 
wash, of pulverized bark, of soda, am- 
monia, and various other popular deter- 
gents. The application of soap, how- 
ever, appeared to destroy them instantly. 
We may hence infer that this is the best 
and most proper specific for cleansing 



MISCELLANEOUS 



375 



the teeth. In all cases where it has 
heen tried it receives unqualified com- 
mendation. It may also be proper to 
add that none but the purest white 
soa]), free from discoloration, should be 
used. 



IMAGIXATION. 

Thomas Fuller relates a curious inci- 
dent, which is truly characteristic, and 
shows how fancy will put life into young 
limbs. " A gentleman," he says, " hav- 
ing led a company of children beyond 
their usual journey, they began to be 
weary, and jointly cried to be carried ; 
which, l)ecause of their multitude, he 
could not do, but he told them he would 
provide them horses to ride on. Then 
cutting little wands out of the hedges as 
nags for them, and a large one for him- 
self, they mounted, and those who could 
scaice stand before, now full of miith, 
bounded cheerfully home." 



^^ The N. Y. Times says that the 
dwellers in the rural districts ought to 
feel themselves under great obligations 
to Mayor Tiemann for his vigorous on- 
slaught upon all the organized schemes 
which have been so prolific in New-York 
for the express purpose of swindling 
simple-minded country people out of 
their money. lie has exposed and 
broken up several of these organizations, 
but there are a good manj' still in exist- 
ence which his power can not touch. 
There is but one safe rule for all, and 
that is, to refuse to have any business 
transactions with people whom they 
don't know, or who have not an estab- 
lished reputation. ]}ut, above all others, 
they should turn a deaf car to everybody 
who otters to give them something for 
nothing, or who proposes to make them 
a present of fifty dollars wortli of jew- 
elry as an inducement for them to pur- 
chase fifty cents wortli of books. It 
miglit be supposed this kind of bait 
there were no gudgeons greedy enough 
to bite at, but recent developments have 
proved that in the rural districts there 
arc plenty of such. 



OUTRAGEOUS. 
TuF, people of Cambridge are becom- 
ing indignant, and justly so, on account 
of tlic frequent dispen.sation of intoxicat- 
ing drinks by the li(|uor sellers, to the 
children of the primary schools. Little 
boys of some live or six years old, have 



repeatedly gone into school in a state of 
intoxication. They are furnished at tito 
cents a drink. Tlie people of that city 
intend to make short work with those 
wretches under the nuisance law. 



HOOSIER CONVERSATION. 
" Hullo, stranger, you appear to be 

traveling." 

" Yes, I always travel when on a jour- 
ney." 

"I think I've seen you somewhere." 

" Very likely ; I have often been 
there." 

"And pray, what might be your 
name, sir?" 

" It might be Sam Patch ; but it isn't, 
by a long slide." 

" Have you been lone: in these parts ?" 

" Never any longer than at present — 
five feet nine." • 

" Do you get anything new ?" 

" Yes, I bought a new whetstone this 
morning." 

"I thought so; you're the sharpest 
blade I've seen on this road." 



THE RABBIT TRADE IN BELGIUM. 
It is almost incredible to what a de- 
gree of importance this branch of trade 
has attained in Flanders within the last 
six or seven years. There are fifty thou- 
sand skinned carcases of these animals ex- 
ported weekly to England — more than 
two and a half millions annually — where 
they find a ready market as articles of 
food, while it is difticult to sell them in 
Flandeis at twenty-five cents apiece^ 
The preparation and coloring of the skins 
gives employment, in Ghent alone, to 
more than two thousand workmen. — 
Boston C'vlt. 



SKETCH OF WASHINGTON. 

Gex. Washincton is now in the forty- 
seventh year of his ago ; he is a tall, well- 
made man, rather large-boned, and has 
a tolerable genteel address ; his features 
are manly and l)old ; his eyes of a blue- 
ish cast, and very lively ; has hair a deep 
brown ; his face rather long, ami mark- 
ed with the .small-i)ox; his complexion 
sunburnt and without nnich color, and 
countenance sensible, coinposed and 
thoughtful. Tiiere is a remarkable air 
of dignity about him, with a striking de- 
gree of gracefulness ; he has an excel- 
lent understanding, without much quick- 
ness ; is strikingly just, vigilant and gen- 
erous ; an affectionate husband, a fUith- 



376 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



ful friend, a father to the deserving sol- 
dier ; gentle in his manners, in temper 
rather reserved ; a total stranger to re- 
ligious prejudices, which have so often 
excited Christians of one denomination 
to cut the throats of those of another ; 
in his morals he is irreproachable, and 
was never known to exceed the bounds 
of the most rigid temperance ; in a word 
all his friends and acquaintances univer- 
sally allow that no man ever united in 
his own person a perfect alliance of the 
virtues of a philosopher, with the talents 
of a general ; candor, sincerity, affabil- 
ity and simplicity, seem to be the strik- 
ing features of his character, till an oc- 
casion offers of displaying the most de- 
termined bravery and independence of 
spirit. — [London Chronicle, July 22, 
1780. 



BLACKBERRY JAM. 

Gather the fruit in dry weather ; 
allow half a pound of good brown sugar 
to every pound of fruit ; boil the whole 
together gently for an hour or till the 
blackberries are soft, stirring and smash- 
ing them well. Preserve it like any 
other jam, and it will be found very use- 
ful in families, particularly for children ; 
regulating their bowels, and enabling 
you to dispense with cathartics. It may 
be spread on bread, or on puddings, in- 
stead of butter ; and even when the 
blackberries are bought it is cheaper 
than butter. 



|W° Wm. B. Astor has in the process 
of erection an addition to the Astor Li- 
brary, equal in size to that of the origi- 
nal one. It is built on the north side of 
the old building, and is a fac - sim- 
ile of that in all respects. In his own 
lifetime he intends to see the work com- 
pleted. The new edifice will cost $100,- 
000, exclusive of the land, and, when it 
is done, Mr. Astor will furnish it com- 
plete and dedicate the whole — ^land, edi- 
fice and books — to the city of New- York. 



1^^ Salt Lake is about three hun- 
ilred miles in circumference, and has two 
large mountains in its center. It is Salt- 
er than even "the salt, salt sea," for two 
i|uarts of its water will yield a pint of 
salt. One may go into the excavations 
in the immense hills there and cut out, 
as if it were ice, large lumps of fine white 
salt! 



il^^ The white of an egg has been 
proved the most eflBcacious remedy for 
burns. Seven or eight successive appli- 
cations of this substance soothes the 
pain, and effectually excludes the burnt 
parts from the air. This simple remedy 
seems to us far preferable to collodion or 
cotton. 

1^^ Wide - mouthed bottles, partly 
filled with molasses and water, and hung 
up in a garden, make excellent traps for 
the moths, which are the parents of many 
destructive vermin. 

j ^W° If you wish to be truly polite, 
exhibit real kindness in the kindest man- 
ner — do this and you will pass at par in 
any society without studying the rules 
of etiquette. 

^W° Birds are among the best friends 
of the gardener, and should by no means 
be destroyed, although some of them 
may eat a few raspberries or cherries. 

[J^^ A BRIGHT fire of resinous pine, 
tar, shavings, or any other combustible, 
kindled in the garden at ntght, on a 
platform erected for the purpose, will at- 
tract and destroy millions of insects. 

An old soldier recently died at Kings- 
ton, Canada, who had carried a bullet 
embedded in his lungs for more that for- 
ty years ! When taken out after death 
the bullet had lost nearly one-third of 
its weight by corrosion. 

^^° Much rain has fallen during last 
and this week, greatly to the hinderance 
of corn planting by farmers. There is 
some planted, but much remains yet to 
plant. Vegetation is putting forth rap- 
idly — the Wheat crop is reviving beyond 
expectation a fortnight ago. A prospect 
for a favorable crop can now be reason- 
ably anticipated. The husbandman for 
this season, has just cause to rejoice in 
his prospect. — Shirleysburgli (Pa) Her- 
ald, May 20th. 

^^T" The Maryland State Agricultu- 
ral College has been located in Prince 
George county, three miles northwest of 
Bladensburg, and about nine miles from 
Washington City, on the " Rossburg 
Farm," embracing 428 acres. 

1^^ Shut up your neighbor's pigs if 
they trespass, and feed them well, but 
do not storm and threaten. Deal kindly, 
be manly and neighborly with him, and 
the coals will burn his head, sm-e. 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



377 



ANOTHER GREAT TELEGRAPH 
ENTERPRISE. 

The London Ohscrver states that a 
new oonipnny has been formed in that 
city for the purpose of layina; a subma- 
rine cable through the Atlantic, between 
Europe and America, with an interme- 
diate mid-way stjition at the Azore is- 
lands. This is a very plausil^lc project, 
but we trust this new company, before 
contracting for its submarine cable, will 
wait until the old company makes its 
second grand effort next month. — Scien- 
tific American. 



il|@=° The aggregate wealth of the Uni- 



ted States amounts to $12,000,000,000, 
and the population is 24,000,000. 

If these figures were accurate there 
would be just $500 to each person, $2,- 
500 to a fomily of five, ani'SS.OdO to 
one often persons. But the population 
is more than 24,000,000. Consequently, 
if the valuation is correct, the property 
per head is somewhat less than $500. 

" Life is real, life is earnest. 

And the grave is not its goal ; 
Dust thou art, to dust returncst. 
Was not si'Oken, of the SOUL.'" 
[^Lovfjfelloic. 



(Kditor« fable. 



BOOK NOTICES, ETC., ETC. 

Recollections of the Last Days op 
Shelly and Bvkon, by"E. J. Trelawney. 
Ticknor and Fields. 1858. 

This is an exceedingly interesting 
book, got up in Ticknor &, Field's best 
style, and containing 304 pages of the 
most readable matter. It gives us an 
off-hand, unstudied view of these great 
poets as seen in their ordinary inter- 
course with men. All who like to com- 
mune witli genius undisguised, undis- 
sembling, acting out its nature freely, 
will be delighted with Trelawney's re- 
collections. For sale bj^ Sheldon, Blake- 
man & Co., 115 Nassau street, N. Y. 

SpEcnrENs OF Douglas Jebrold's "Wit ; 
together with Selections, chiefly from his 
Contributions to Journals, intended to 
illustrate his opinions. Arranged by his 
son, Blanchard Jerrold. Ticknor & 
Fields, Boston, 1S58. 

Doubtless Douglas Jerrold's wit was 
better appreciated by Englishmen, than 
it possibly could bo by Americans, so 
interwoven was it with the peculiar in- 
stitutions, manners, customs, habits of 
thought, and political institutions of that 
country. Punch grew out of English 
soil, was indigenous to it, at home in 
Old England, but would have made a 
shabby appearance in New. Whatever 



attempts have been made at imitation, in 
this country, have proved miserable fail- 
ures, and probably will for years per- 
haps to come. Wc can not have 
a Punch in this country. If Doug- 
las Jerrold were to live his life over 
again, he could not make one that would 
go down the necks of Americans with as 
broad a laugh as his did down those of 
Englishmen. 

Nevertheless, his wit was refined, 
without being squeamish, keen without 
excessive vulgarity, capable of transpor- 
tation without entirely spoiling. His 
son has selected some of the best speci- 
mens, and we advise all who have some 
wit and would cultivate more, and all 
who believe it would do them good to 
laugh right hcartil)', to buy and read 
this book. It contains 243 pages, and is 
for sale by Sheldon, Blakeman Ik, Co., 
115 Nassau street, N. Y. 

Sonnno Sugar; or Experiments with 
Chinese Cane; Including full Directions 
for making sugar. By Hedges, Free & 
Co., Manufacturers of Sugar Mills, Sugar 
Kettles, Corn-Crushers, etc.. No. 78 
^\'est Third street, Cincinnati. 

This is a little book of directions for 
growing sorgho, manufacturing sugar, 
etc. ; and is valuaVjle for such as wish to 
engage in this business. 



378 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



We have received the Transactions for 
I80Y of the Franliiin {Mass.) Ag. Soc, 
a valuable document of 117 pages, mark- 
ing a manifest jarogress in the agricul- 
ture of that region, and of great value to 
the farmers of that and adjoining coun- 
ties. 

D. D. — P. M. has sent us the Trans- 
actions of the Munroe County Agricul- 
tural Society for 1857. This we have 
long known to be a spirited and ener- 
getic society. Their transactions indi- 
cate no falling off". 

The Southern Homestead, published 
at Nashville, Tenn., is one of the bright- 
est, most readable, and, for its region, 
one of the most useful papers which we 
find among our exchanges. Let the 
farmers of Tennessee take care to sup- 
port it. 

The Horticulturist. — This good old 
monthly we see has come into the hands 
of our old friend, C. M. Saxton, hereafter 
to be its publisher. May he make a 
good thing of it, both for himself and his 
readers. 



We invite attention to W. W. Dingee 
& Co.'s advertisement of Threshing 
Machines, Sugar Mills and Grain Fans. 
Whoever will apply to them for a circu- 
lar, will find that the guaranty they give 
for the sti-ength and good working quali- 
ties of their machines, is such as none 
but honest men, who mean to deal 
fairly by their customers, would be 
likely to bind themselves by. 



For some months past we have given 
the Meteorological Precalculations of 
Dr. L. L. Chapman, based upon the dis- 
covery of hitherto overlooked natural 
laws, of practical as well as scientific 
importance, but finding the subject too 
new to receive the attention it deserves, 



and as Dr. Chapman is publishing his 
precalculations in an independent serial 
document, " The Monthly Rainbow," 
we shall discontinue them for the pres- 
ent. Any of our patrons who wish, can 
obtain the " Monthly Rainbow" direct 
from the author, by addressing him Box 
651, P. 0., Philadelphia, Pa. His terms 
are fifty cents per annum in advance. — 
Ed. 



CITY COMMERCIAL REPORT. 

Monday, May 24—0 P.M. 

Ashes. — The sale embraced about 5i) 
bbls., pots and pearls, at 6c. 

Breadstuffs. — Flour — The market 
was steady at Saturday's quotations, and 
sales were chiefly confined to the local 
and Eastern trade, with some purchases 
for export. The sales embraced about 
7,000 to 8,000 bbls., chiefly within the 
range of the following quotations : — 

Superfine state $4 85@$3 95 

Extra State 4 00®, 4 15 

Western and Ohio superfine 3 85@, 3 C5 

Extra Ohio and Western 8 40®, 4 85 

Canadian superfine and extra 4 50® 5 25 

Baltimore, Alexandria & Georgetown 4 40® 4 75 

Southern fancy and extra 4 80® 6 00 

Choice ex. family &■ bakers' brands.. 6 00® 7 00 

Rye flour „ 3 00® 3 40 

Corn meal 3 50® 3 87>^ 

Canadian brands were heavy, with 
sales of 300 to 400 bbls. at quotations. 
Southern flour Avas without change of 
moment in prices, while sales embraced 
700 to 800 bbls. Rye flour was without 
change, and the demand light. Corn 
meal was in better demand, with sales 
reported of 700 bbls., including Jersey 
and .350 Baltimore, at $3 68, and Bran- 
dywine at $3 87;i, afloat. Wheat was 
heavy, while the sales of the day footed 
up about 45,000 to 50,000 bushels. In- 
cluded in the sales were 30,000 bushels 
Iflinois spring, at 78c. to 82c., and 6,800 
do. Milwaukie club at 85c. ; and a cargo 
of white Indiana and Michigan, at $1 00 
to $1 05 to $1 07. Corn was firmer 
and in good demand, with sales of about 
40,000 bushels, including white South- 
ern, at 721c. to 73i^c., and good to prime 
5^ellow at "77c. to 77+c. to 78c., and old 
Western mixed from store at 75c. Rye 
was steady, with sales of about 1,700 
bushels at"68c. to 70c. Barley was quiet 
at 261c. to 61c. Oats were in good de- 
mand, with sales of State and Western 
at 40c. to 41c. 

Coffee. — The market was steady and 



ai A R K E T S . 



879 



sales confined to 300 bags Rio at 10c. to 
lO.Vc. About 3,000 Rio, ex brig Watson, 
were sold for export on piivatc terms, 
and 70 bags Java at IGc. 

CoTTOx. — Tiie sales footed up about 
3,100 bales, chiedy in transitu, closing 
ratlier heavy without quotable cliange in 
prices. 

Fkiuouts. — Rates were firm, while en- 
gasienients were light. To Liverpool 
about 30,000 bushels of grain were en- 
gaged at 'Jd. to (t.Ul., wliile flour was at 
2s. 3d. to 2s. 6d. asked, and cotton at 
3-lCd. to 7-32d., and 5Ui' boxes cheese 
at 30s. To Glasgow 8,000 bushels grain 
were taken at about Did., in bags, and 
ab^nit 6ui» bbls. flour at 2s. Cd. There 
was notliing new to London or to the 
Continent. 

Hay.— Sales of 800 to 900 bales were 
made of good to prime shipping (qualities 
at -io to 50c. 

Ikox. — The market was quiet for 
Scotch Pig, while small sales were 
making at 25 to 2t)c., G mo?. 

liiMK was in moderate request at about 
7oc. for common, and at 90c. for lump 
Rockland. 

MoLAssKS. — The sales embraced about 
23 hhds., 32 tcs. and l-l bbls. sour clayed 
Cuba at 20c. 

NAVAFi Stokes. — The sales embraced 
about 300 bbls. spirits turpentine at 45c., 
and 1,000 bbls. common rosin at $1 -13 
afloat, and crude was quiet at $3 G2.V 
asked, with a light stock. Tar was quiet 
at $2 to $2 12 for Wilmington, while 
North county was at $1 75. 

Oii.s. — Small Sides of linseed were re- 
ported at C)ic. to (')5c. Crude whale was 
more firmly held, with sales at the east- 
ward at 55c. Sperm was at $1 35, and 
other kinds were unchanged. 

PitovisioNs. — Pork — The market was 
steady, with sales of about 800 to 1,000 
bbls., including 547 Mess at p. t, and 
400 to 500 do. at $17 75 to $17 85, and 
in .small lots sales were afterwards re- 
ported at $18. Prime sold at $14 25 to 
$14 40. Reef was steady, with sales of 
about 200 bbls., including country prime 
at $8 to .$8 50, and country mess at 
$10 50 to $11 50; repacked Western 
Mess at $J 1 75 to $13 50, and extra do. 
at $14 to $14 25. Prime Me.ss was at 
$18 to $21, and beef hams stead}' at 
$17 50 to $18. Hacon was firm at 9c. 
to It'c. ; cut meats were also firm and in 
good demand, with sales of about 2nu 
hhds., including .shoulders at 6Jc. to 
GJc, and hams at S^c. to 9^0. Lard 



was firmer, with sales of about 300 to 
350 bbls. and tierces at llr^c. to ll^c. . 
Butter and cheese were in good supply, 
and the market dull at Saturday's quo- 
tations. 

Rice was dull and .sales limited. 

SucAKS. — The market was less active, 
while prices were unchanged. 'J'he sales 
eml>raced about 400 to 500 hhds., in- 
cluding Cuba and Porto Rico, within the 
range of 5J,c. to 7.1c., and 300 hhds. 
New-Orleans cisteni wei'e sold for re- 
fining at 3c. 

Markets by Telegraph. 
BiFFALO, May 25—0 P. M. 

Floik steady; interior demand un- 
changed. Sales 1,400 bbls. at $3 70 to 
$3 87 for good Superfine and extra 
Upper Lake ; $3 75 to $4 do. Indiana 
and Michigan. Wheat closes with an 
active demand. Sales 50,000 bush, at 
OS^c, 69c. to 70c., for Chicago Spring as 
in quality ; at 80c. for red Ohio and Indi- 
ana ; at 85,Vc. to 94c. for White Canada. 
Corn quiet ; prime scarce and very firm ; 
no sales of sound. Oats unchanged. 
Sales 14,000 bushels at 32c. to 32Jc. 
AVhisky is held at 20c. Freights- 
Boats scarce. Wheat 13c. to New- York. 
Lalce Imports for the 24 hours endinij 
noonto-cliy—'d,OQO\Mii. Flour; 31,000 
bushels Wheat; G,000 bushels Oats; 
10,000 bushels Barley. Canal Exports 
—3,000 bbls. Flour; 65,000 bushels 
Wheat; 22,000 bushels Corn; 5,000 
bushels Oats. Wind northeast, rain- 
ing. 

Albany, May 25—6 P. M. 

Flour quiet and declining; inquiry 
limited ; buyers waiting for lower prices. 
Sales of the day about 2,00U bbls. Wheat 
very quiet. Sales of G,ii(ii) bushels White 
Indiana on private terms ; no other sales 
were transferred. Coin steady and mar- 
ket less active. Sales 3,000 bushels 
mo.stly Western mixed at G8c. Sales of 
Barley at GOc. for four-rowed State. 
Oats active and in good supply ; the sales 
foot up 100,000 bushels mostly at 39c., 
weight, for,good State, Canada and West- 
ern. The shipments of wheat for three 
days past to New-York are 375,000 
bushels. 

OswKco, May 25—6 P. M. 
Flour dull. Wheat inactive. Corn 
quiet. Sales 33,000 bushels Illinois 
River, at G2c. Lnl-e imports — llnira- 
portant, Canal Exports — 1,300 bbls. 
Flour; 43,000 bushels Wheat; 7,300 



X 



380 



MARKET S 



bushels Corn ; 4,000 bushels Barley ; 
2,000 bushels Rye ; 1,200 bushel Oats. 
Baltimore, May 25. 

Flour dull and unchanged. Wheat 
dull and nominal ; Red, $1 to $1 06 ; 
VYhite, $1 15 to |1 30. Corn a shade 
lower ; Yellow, 66c. to 68c. ; White, un- 
changed. Provisions dull and unchang- 
ed. 

Charleston, May 24. 

The sales of Cotton to-day were 1,300 
bales, at prices ranging from 10|c. to 
12|^c. The City of Washington's news 
had no effect. 

Savannah, May 24. 

There is a better feeling in our Cotton 
market. 

Philadelphia, May 25. 

Flour very depressed. Wheat dull, 
with a declining tendency. Corn buo}^- 
ant. Sales 10,000 bush. Yellow at 'r2c. 
Whisky firm at 21c. to 22c. 

From the New-Yort Times of Wednesday, May 28, 
1S58. 

The general markets, yesterday, w«re 
heavy for Cotton, which declined a 
shade. Flour and Wheat were in better 
request at firm prices for desirable lots. 
Corn was in fair demand at about pre- 
vious figures. Groceries were moder- 
ately inquired for and ruled steady. 
Pork was depressed and loAver. Other 
kinds of Provisions were dull and lan- 
guid. Naval Stores were in demand, 
and Spirits Turpentine closed somewhat 
higher, with less offering. Tobacco was 
less active, yet firm. The Freight en- 
gagements were to moderate extent at 
unaltered rates. 



NEW-YORK LIVE STOCK MARKET. 

Wednesday Evening, May 26, 1858. 

The total receipts of the week (2,892) 
fall 267 below last week, and 251 below 
the average of last year. The impres- 
sion prevailed yesterday that the falling 
off wovild be still greater, and considera- 
ble sales were then made at an advance 
of about ic. above last v/eek's rates. 
The operations opened this morning at 
this advance, but did not long continue 
thus. Not only the weather affected the 
market, but butchers complained of an 
unusually dull demand for the week 
past, and they were not eager buyers to- 
day, and their purchases were below the 
usual amount. Prices gradually fell off, 
so that before 3 P. M. last week's cur- 
rent rates were with difficulty obtained, 
and the closing figures were still lower, 



though the transactions of the entire day 
may be set down as averaging nearly ^c. 
higher than last Wednesday. The tone 
of the market, however, may be best es- 
timated by a comparison of the closing 
operations of the two market days, and 
these were, to say the least, no better 
to-day than last Wednesday. The yards 
were barely cleared out at sundown. 
Except the bad look of the cattle, the 
estimated weights scarcely favored either 
party. The quality of the stock was 
somewhat imiform, there being few of 
superior grade, and not many scalawags 
— always excepting the still-fed, or 
" stump tails," as they are called,, and 
this not figuratively, since the effects of 
" still-slops" upon the caudal extremi- 
ties is scarcely less marked upon milch 
cows than upon fotted bullocks. There 
were several lots of this class offered 
and purchased to-day. They were too 
plainly marhed not to be known by the 
merest tyro, though some would have 
the greener ones believe that they had 
purposely cut off the tails " stub-short" 
merely as a matter of convenience. 
1l\\qj may "tell that story to the ma- 
rines." A pretty large business was 
done at Albany this week. Troy buyers 
took about 150 head, and about 1,350 
went East to Brighton, Providence, Wor- 
cester and Springfield. 

PUICES OF BEEF AT FORTY-FOURTH STREET. 

To-day. Last Week. 

Premium Cattle none none 

Firstquality lOe. @— ^Mc.@,Wc. 

Medium quality 9>4C.@. 9J^c. 9o. @ 'ij^c. 

Poor quality 8J^o.@, !)c. 8}4c.@- 9c. 

Poorest quality Sc. ® S^^c. So. @ 834'c. 

Geu'al selling prices 81^0. @lUc. 8c. @ Inc. 

Average of all sales. 9c. @, — 8Kc@ — 

The average prices to-day, as com- 
pared with last week, are near Jc. 
higher. 

MILCH cows WITH CALVES. 

The number of fresh cows now sent 
in is comparatively small, the receipts 
for the past week being about 200 head 
less than for the corresponding week 
last year, while sales are now made with 
for more difiiculty, at much less prices. 
Even the present receipts are more than 
can be disposed of while the anti-swill 
panic rages as at present. 

VEAL CALVES. 

The markets have been fully supplied 
during the past week, and prices do not 
vary materially from our last quotations. 
Sales are made with more difBculty, 
however, and prices may now be quoted 






'■J 









f\JNI\"-..'iS»TY 
?E»if^&YLVA^{5^