(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Plough, the loom, and the anvil"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/ploughloomanvil71phil 



^^"^ 



d, fi 



.A-yib^^' 



i 






Vol. VII. JULY, 1854. No. 1. 



• BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF JOHN S. SKINNER. 

BY BEN. PERLET POOnE. 

John Stuart Skinner is one of those names which should not pass awav 
without some embalming token of grateful recollection. The pioneer of the 
American agricultural press — the champion of those who nobly toil at " the 
plough, the loom, and the anvil" — the faithful government officer — the spot- 
less citizen — the true friend and the kind relative, Col. Skinner's eminent talents 
and useful life merit a record, even though it must of necessity be brief. 
Imperfect as the following biographical sketch may be, it is dictated by the 
deepest conviction that it chronicles the labors of one to whom the republic 
remains deeply indebted. The materials, generally speaking, were obtained 
during a long acquaintance with Col. Skinner, and are now gladly contri- 
buted to a demonstration of respect to his memory, so blended with a tribute 
to the widowed partner of his unrewarded career, as to render the testimonial 
more than the customary oblation of cold, posthumous honor. Respected, 
esteemed, and loved during life, Col. Skinner's name has passed the stern 
ordeal of the grave with imperishable lustre, while his virtues "smell sweet, 
and blossom in the dust." 

Robert Skinner, an English country gentleman of considerable fortune, was 
one of the first settlers of Maryland, when that colony was founded, at the 
commencement of the seventeenth century, by the estimable Sir George Cal- 
vert, Lord Baltimore. The domain selected by the colonists is still owned 
by one of his descendants, and occupies a desirable position on the peninsula 
between the Pawtuxent River and Chesapeake Bay. It contains about six 
hundred acres of land, well adapted to the cultlire of tobacco. The adjoining 
plantation, belonging to the Johnson family, was the birth-place of Governor 
Johnson, (the ancestral relative of Mrs. John Quincy Adams,) and also of 
Mrs. Zachary Taylor. 

Frederick Skinner, (great-grandson of Robert, and father of John Stuart 
Skinner,) is described as a gentleman of strongly-marked character — equally 
noted for his prompt decision, his old-fashioned common-sense, his mechanical 
ingenuity, and his open-hearted benevolence. Early in the Revolution, he 
received a commission in the "Maryland Line," and he performed good ser- 
vice in the regiment of light troops known as the " flying-camp." After 
independence was secured, Mr. Skinner gave his undivided attention to agri- 
culture, cultivating his ancestral estate, aad also another tract of about seven 
l)undred acres of land, nearer the court-house of Calvert county. This was thi' 
marriage-portion of his wife, who was a daughter of Captain Stuart, an ardent 
Whig, whose ship-yard on West-River, Md., with vessels on the stocks, was 
burned b;^ the British during the revolution. One of her brothers, Stephen 
Stuart. E^q., was a merchant of distinction in the early days of Balti- 

VOL. VII. 1 



i^ 5906H 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 



inore's comineroial prosperity. Another, Jolin, or, (as he was called by his 
sukliers,) "Jack" Stuart, was a gallant, though somewhat reckless officer in 
the revolution, serving throughout the struggle with such courage and zeal 
as to win the commendation of his comrades, especially the heroic La Fayette. 
He was especially distinguished at the recapture of Stony-Point, where (by 
especial request of General Wayne) he commanded the volunteers who 
headed the left division of the storming party. Congress voted him a medal 
for his biavery in this action, which was afterward presented to his heirs by 
President Washington, One of the emblematical devices represented Colonel 
" Jack," barefooted, as he actually clambered up the parapet. 

John Stuart Skinner (named after his uncle) was born on the 22d day 
of February, lV88, and was reared upon his father's plantation. Often have 
we heard him relate, with particular yet mournful zest, his juvenile labors in 
picking cotton, or pulling blades, or journeying on a " tackey" with leather to 
the shoemaker, yarn to the weaver, or cloth to the tailor. Tobacco and corn 
were his father's staple crops, but it was the old gentleman's rule to raise every 
thing used on his plantation, with the exception of iron, sugar, and coffee. The 
lad thus became acquainted with the practical details of spinning, weaving, 
tanning, distilling, milhng, and blacksmithing, all of which were carried on 
at his home. This impressed his mind, at an early age, with the axiom 
that all industrial pursuits incline to cluster around the plough, and that 
agriculture prospers as other occupations yield to its attraction. Among 
other excellent works put into his hands by his father, was a pamphlet show- 
ing the exhausting tendency of shallow ploughing, written by a strong- 
minded Quaker, named Moore. It first led him to regard agriculture as an 
intellectual pursuit, replete with philosophy, and susceptible of being im- 
proved by the application of science. 

After acquiring the rudiments of education at the county-schools taught 
on his father's or some neighboring estate, young Skinner was sent as a pupil 
to Charlotte-Hall, St. Mary's county, one of the best classical academies in 
Maryland. At the age of eighteen, he was placed in the oiBce of the clerk 
of the county court, and while there, engaged in transcribing legal documents, 
was invited to read law at Annapolis, with Chancellor Johnson, father of the 
Hon. Pieverdy Johnson. A similar invitation from Judge Allen Duchet 
induced his father to send him to Annapolis, and soon after his arrival 
these eminent lawyers secured his appointment as reading-clerk to the Legis- 
lature. The next year, Gov. Wright appointed him Notary Public for the city 
of Annapolis, overcoming objections made by some of the councillors on the 
ground tliat he was yet? in his minority, and consequently ineligible. What 
others learned by experience, the young student appeared to see by intuition, 
and his father was soon frequently gratified to hear veteran members of the bar 
compliment the ability of his son. As was anticipated, he passed a triumph- 
ant examination, although his public duties had occupied much of his time, 
and at the age of twenty-one he commenced practice as a counsellor and 
attorney. 

On the 10th of March, 1812, Mr, Skinner married Miss Elizabeth G. 
Davies, a stepdaughter of Chancellor Bland, This he ever regarded as 
the happiest event of his life, retaining for the bride of his youth "that love 
which is peculiar to men of strong minds — men whose affection is not easily 
won or widely diffused," It was well merited, for while she adorned his 
domestic hearth by her virtues and her accomplishments, she steadily encou- 
raged him in his self-sacrificing literary career. More lucrative jjaths were 
frequently opened to him, and she saw his early professional associates accu- 



JOHN STUART SKINNER. 



mulate fortunes, but she never murmured ;is be toiled on unrewiirded in bis 
noble mission. Exbibiting tbat beroic virtue wbicb sacrifices private interests 
to tbe pubHc good, Mrs. Skinner raerits tbe substantial gratitude of tbose wbo 
walk in ber lamented busband's footsteps, and wbo profit by bis tbirty years' 
unrequited labor in laying a stable foundation for our national prosperity. 
During nearly forty years, Mr. and Mrs. Skinner furnisbed an interesting 
picture of conjugal felicity, united, not only in affections and interests, but in 
tastes and inclinations. To tbe associates of tbeir youtb tbeir married life was 
a pleasant remembrance; to their younger friends, (and few bad more,) it 
was a source of admiration. All sincerely mourned wben this ripened gar- 
land of hymeneal intercourse was snapped — wben the devoted wife was smit- 
ten with sudden gloom, like the visitation of au eclipse — when this happy 
social picture was dashed by an Almighty hand into a portrait of premature 
loneliness — for " one was taken and the other left." 

Soon after the declaration of war, tbe young lawyer was called into a new 
sphere of action. The intercourse by mail between Europe and the Uniied 
States was carried on by means of British mail-packets — gun-brigs, which 
plied monthly between New- York and Falmouth. Instead of stopping this 
channel of communication, the United States government required the packets 
to make Annapolis their American port, and Mr. Skinner was appointed 
agent to look after them. It was bis duty to receive and forward tbe mails, to 
furnish tbe vessels with necessary supplies, and to see that nothing transpired pre- 
judicial to tbe interests of tbe republic, or offensive to enemies thus admitted 
under tbe guardianship of a flag of truce. It was an altogether new, deli- 
cate, and responsible trust, for which President Madison himself framed a 
commission, and selected Mr. Skinner to execute it. 

A few weeks later, be was appointed agent for prisoners of war, upon the 
nomination of General John Mason, commissary-general of prisoners. The 
two offices were attached to tbe Department of State, with a salary of $1800 
per annum, and he gave great satisfaction to the government. Always alive 
to a sense of duty, be never faltered in nor shrunk from the performance of 
it. Even the British officers were captivated by bis generous nature, and 
with several of them official courtesies ripened into friendships which lasted 
through life. 

In tbe fall of 1813, Mr. Skinner was ordered to remove Iiis offices to Balti- 
more, and before be was fairly established there, be was offered a purser's 
commission by tbe Secretary of tbe Navy. This unexpected honor he at first 
declined, having no taste for a nautical life, and supposing that at any moment 
he would be liable to be ordered to sea. But be accepted, on being informed 
that the object of the government in appointing him was to secure his services 
at Baltimore, where two sloops-of-war and a flotilla of gun-boats were being 
fitted out. When the flotilla was equipped, tbe expenditures were very heavy, 
as Commodore Barney had upward of a thousand men under his command, 
but Mr. Skinner performed bis arduous duties to the end of the war, and for 
years afterward, to the entire satisfaction of tbe government, as well as its 
accounting officers. He was frequently detailed to act as judge advocate on 
courts-martial, and won the warm friendship of the gallant defenders of on;- 
flag in that hour of peril. 

At the approach of the British forces upon Washington, Mr. Skinner rode 
ninety miles in the night, and first announced to the government tlieir march, 
after having warned Commodore Barney previously of their hostile inten- 
tions. By way of retaliation, tbe "red-coats" burned tbe valuable buildings 
on bis St. Leonard's-creek estate, for wbicb he never sought any reimburse- 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 



rnent from Government, although compensation was granted for property 
destroyed on a neighboring plantation, at the same time, and by the same 
forces. 

A few weeks later, Mr. Skinner went down the bay on an official visit to 
Admiral Cockburn, to negotiate for the exchange of some gentlemen who 
had been captured from their plantations. He was accompanied by the 
accomplished Francis S. Key, Esq., and they of course sailed under a flag of 
truce. But on reaching the British squadron, they found the enemy on the 
point of sailing to attack Baltimore, and they were politely informed that 
they could not return " until the city was taken." Meanwhile, they would 
be welcome on board the flag-ship, or could remain on board the yacht in 
which they came, on " parole." Choosing the latter, the British commander 
took away their sails, and sent a guard of sailors on board of the yacht. 
Here Mr. Skinner and his friend remained during the bombardment of Fort 
McHenry, to the annoyance of their guard, who wished to desert, but were 
restrained by the " prisoners." The British not succeeding in their attempt, 
the gentlemen had their sails restored, and were permitted to return to Bal- 
timore, with apologies for their detention. Immediately on landing, they 
went to the old " Fountain Inn," on High street, where Mr. Key wrote that 
justly-admired song, the " Star-spangled Banner." It was a literal descrip- 
tion of their feelings during the night of the bombardment, when the rockets 
and the bombs betokened the assaults of the enemy, and of their patriotic joy 
when in the gray light of early dawn they saw the starry ensign waving in 
proud defiance. Mr. Skinner, ere the song was completed, saw its beauties, 
and obtaining Mr. Key's permission to have it published, took copies of it to 
the printing-offices of the morning papers. Ere long, it resounded through 
the republic like a recovered echo of Thermopylae — its stirring notes, (like 
those of the Marseillaise hymn in France) finding an accompaniment in the 
throbbings of every American heart. 

In isic, (being still and for years after purser on the station,) President 
Madison appointed Mr. Skinner postmaster of Baltimore, then the third city 
in the Union. This office, which was one of labor and of high responsibility, 
he held for twenty-three years, when he was removed by President Van 
Buren, in accordance with his " system." Meanwhile he declined a territo- 
rial judgeship from Mr. Madison, and the post of Secretary of State of 
Arkansas from his warm personal friend Mr. Munroe. Messrs. Adams and 
Jackson each honored him with the appointment of visitor of the West-Point 
Academy, and his re-nomination as postmaster of Baltimore by the latter, 
just before his term expired, was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. 

Agriculture, at this period, was at a low ebb in the Middle States. After 
the conflicting armies of Europe, wearied with the conflict, had turned their 
swords into plough-shares, the prices of American bread-stuffs naturally 
declined. The soil, too, was becoming gradually exhausted, especially in 
Maryland, whose tobacco crops had paid so many of the drafts for foreign 
supplies during the revolution. No other commonwealth in the world is so 
beneficially bounded and indented by navigable water — or so abounds in 
calcareous and other rich fertilizing substances — or is so capable of easy 
culture and recuperation. Yet in a few years after the silver-toned trumpet 
of peace echoed along her shores, Maryland fell into an agricultural paralysis. 
As her sons grew up, they moved away to " wear out" in its turn the fertile 
prairies of the West, and the old homestead mansions, often sadly out of 
repair, were swarming with old maiden daughters, many of them so beautiful 
and so excellent that no change could have improved them — save a change 
of name. 



JOHN STUAKT SKINNER. 



Au ardent lover of his native State, and sensibly alive to ber stagnant con- 
dition, Mr. Skinner bad the sagacity to foresee that a continuation of this 
position of things must be productive of consequences not only ruinous but 
destructive. An able series of papers signed " Avator," (from the pen of Coi. 
John Taylor, of Carolina,) led him to investigate the subject, and the avidity 
with which these essays were read, when re-published in book form, edition 
after edition, led him to conceive the idea of establishing an agricultural 
paper. Happy thought! Every political party, every religious sect, every 
prominent business locality used the mighty engine of civilization — but the 
farmers, that immense majority of citizens, had no " organ." In supplying 
this want, Mr. Skinner supplied the first germ of modern agriculture, which 
thenceforth began to soar up, phcenix-like, fi'om the ashes of a wrong popu- 
lar judgment. 

The American Farmer was pronounced by all an excellent title, and 
after long consultations with Mr. Joseph Robinson, the printer, nothing was 
wanting but a " motto,'' then considered an indispensable part of a news- 
paper heading. Just then, Mr. Skinner met at a hospitable dinner-table a 
clergyman from the Green Isle, who was well versed in classical lore. His 
aid was solicited, and he promptly replied : "Och sir, yes! you may give 
them from Virgil, ' O/bri^fwaios 7iimium sua si bona norint ar/i-icolas.'' '" 
The motto was approved, and has been retained to this day. 

Number one of the new paper appeared on Friday, the second day of 
April, 1819; the date having been changed from the Jirst, in i'ear that it might 
be ridiculed as an " Ajiril-fool " enterprise. It was a neatly printed quarto 
sheet of eight pages, each page measuring nine inches by eleven. It was illus- 
trated with an engraving of the ox " Columbus," and contained interesting 
articles on rural economy, amusements, etc., etc., with a "summary of intelli- 
gence," and a " price current." " The editor," says the conclu>ion of the 
introductory leading article, "is aware that 'to promise is most courtly and 
fashionable;' he will therefore only add that the American Farmer will be 
conducted on broad and liberal principles, containing nothing indecorous or 
personally oftensive to the feelings or character of any sect or individual. 
And further, that if at the end of the year, any subscriber should think he 
has not received his ' penny'orth,' he shall be at liberty to withdraw, and his 
subscription money shall be repaid to him on demand." 

The American Farmer at once gained a respectable list of subscribers at 
$4: per annum, and, as it was at first deemed hazardous to print more than 
five hundred copies, it was necessary to reprint a portion of the first volume 
three times, in order to answer the demands of new patrons, who wished 
complete sets. The editor devoted every leisure moment to its columns, and 
was soon ably seconded by a phalanx of the most enlightened agriculturists 
in the country. Among these were Col. Taylor, Thos. Jefi:erson, Timothy 
Pickering, Gen. Armstrong, Col. Lloyd, G. W. P. Custis, Caleb Kirk, and 
others of great ability. 

Cobbett, at this time, was farming on Long-Island, and Mr. Skinner pub- 
lished several able articles from his pen on Ruta Baga, seed of which " the 
Radical" sent to Baltimore by his man-servant, and sold in considerable 
quantities. The culture of rape, and the introduction of the Bactrian camel, 
were also among the first new ideas promulgated, and the volume was 
illustrated with engravings often costing 840 to 850. 

The editorial labors of Mr. Skinner were mostly performed in the evening, 
•for it would not have answered had he neglected his postal duties, nor did 
any out of his family know how diligently he toiled, late into the night. He 



6 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 

soon infori'.ied his readei-s that they " must not expect light ephemeral specu- 
lations and essays, cooked up to satisfy the ever-craving appetites of news- 
mongers and politicians; the science of agriculture is difficult; the very 
nature of it3 operations laborious and enduring through the whole year ; it 
is to be expected therefore that essays treating of the vegetation, growth, and 
management of a single object, will often be long and tedious." Evident v/as 
it, in every number, that the paper "was not undertaken with a view to 
private emolument, so much as with the wish to employ the editor's leisure 
hours in a way that would render real service to the most important class of 
his fellow-citizens." Earnestly did he utter novel thoughts upon matters pre- 
viously considered " worn out," Hke a thorough musician who strikes 
vigorous chords upon a piano which has been devoted to the namby-pamby 
performances of boarding-school misses. 

The second volume of the American Farmer was commenced under the 
most favorable auspices, and Mr. Skinner felt justly encouraged by the long 
list of subscribers who had honored his exertions. Unluckily he was unable 
lo give expression to his gratitude as he passed the first mile-stone of his 
chosen career, having been fairly worn down by anxious and embarrassing 
postal duties. The great northern mail had been robbed between Baltimore 
and Washington, and the driver killed, causing much excitement. A large 
portion of the male population thereabouts joined in a pursuit of the culprits 
— two in number — who were at last taken, and afterward punished. It was 
not only Mr. Skinner's duty to head this movement in aid of justice, but for 
weeks he was occupied in answering inquiries respecting missing letters, 
leaving no time for editorial labor except in the evening at the fireside, 
" most probably the very place," as he remarked, " where the farmer com- 
munes with the editor." 

A few weeks later, we find in the American Farmer a notable example 
of Mr. Skinner's purity of heart and unrelaxed sincerity of principle. He had 
selected for publication some extracts from an old pamphlet, but the composi- 
tor accidentally copied other paragraphs, containing indecorous expressions. 
The edition was printed, and the clerk had mailed many of the papers, when 
Mr. Skinner arrived at the office in breathless haste. He had just discovered 
the offensive remarks, and lost no time in ordering a duplicate edition, 
expunging the expressions " which would have sullied the whole volume." 
Most editors would have considered an expression of regret a sufficient atone- 
ment, but Mr. Skinner, at an expense of nearly eighty dollars, eflectually 
corrected the error. Every number of the objectionable edition was recalled 
and destroyed. 

The summer of 1820 was characterized by an uninterrupted continuation 
of hot weather, which, with steady official and editorial labor, prostrated Mr. 
Skinner's system. His physician prescribed a journey on horseback to the 
mountain springs of Virginia, and he passed the months of August and Sep- 
tember (1820) in that splendid farming region between the Blue Ridge and 
the Alleghanies, which is drained by the Shenandoah, embedded throughout 
with limestone, and shaded with groves of sugar-inaples. Thirty years after- 
ward he recalled with delight the impression made by the view in emerging 
from that picturesque pass at the confluence of the Shenandoah and the Poto- 
mac — with the yet deeper impressions luade on a heart then comparatively 
fresh by the warm welcome received at the hospitable mansions of the Turners, 
the Holmeses, the Slites, the Caldwells, the Minors, and other country- 
gentlemen of the Old Dominion. Returning by Rockfish Gap, Mr. Skinner 
visited tlie farm-shrine of Monticello, where Mr. Jefferson entertained him. 



JOHN STUAET SKINNER, 



Avith great kindness, enlisting among the contributors to the American 
Farmer. At dinner, however, the philosophical politician almost forced his 
guest to eat " millet," (then the ascendant in his constant si>ccession of 
hobbies,) and to drink mixed wines. The consequence was an internal com- 
motion, which ever rendered Mr. Skinner rather incredulous as to the dietary 
wisdom of the " Sage of Monticello." 

Returning to Baltimore with invigorated health, Mr. Skinner resumed his 
double labors, and commenced a correspondence of great interest with Sii- 
John Sinclair, the able exponent of British agriculture. It was to Mr. 
Skinner that the worthy baronet first communicated his valuable correspond- 
ence with General Washington, with a request that he would superintend its 
publication in America, the profits of which were to be applied to the 
erection of a monument to the illustrious "Farmer of Mount Vernon," at 
Caithness, in Scotland. Mr. Coke and Lord Erskine were also subscribers to 
the American Farmer and corresponded with its editor, who was highly 
complimented at one of the " Holkham sheep-shearings by the distinguished 
host." 

At the fall meeting of the " Maryland Agricultural Society," Mr. Skinner 
delivered an able address upon cultivated grasses, fruit trees, and the pro- 
fessional diffidence of farmers. "The attainment and dissemination of 
practical knowledge" he considered " the chief aim and end of an agricul- 
tural society." "Their value is to be measured, not by the number of people 
in attendance, nor yet by the number of things exhibited — but by the new 
facts and valuable additions they bring to the stock of agricultural knowledge." 

A " stock farm," for the systematic improvement of the breeds of domestic 
animals, next occupied Mr. Skinner's active mind, and at the commencement 
of the 5'ear 1821 he was enabled to establish one by the cooperation of R. 
Oliver, E-q., and Major Isaac McKim. The estate selected was known as 
the " Maryland Tavern," situated about four miles from Baltimore, on the 
Great Western Turnpike Road, and contained two hundred acres of good land, 
with excellent buildings. Here the semi-annual fairs and meetings of the 
Maryland Agricultural Society were to be held, aff"o-ding the best farmers of 
the neighboring States an opportunity to examine and purchase the stock, 
which was to be preserved in its original purity as imported. Sir John 
Sinclair, Sir Alexander Don, M.P., and other eminent British stock-raisers 
gave Mr. Skinner much v.-.luable inf._.rmation as to the best breeds for him 
to import, upon which he based his orders. His friend Purser Hambleton 
promised some stock from the Mediterranean; Gorham Parsons, Esq., senr, 
him some swine from his estate at Byfield, Mass.; and he obtained some of 
the best blooded animals in the Middle States. Among them were the high- 
bred horses "Clifton" and "Young Tom," the Maltese Jack " Sancho," 
with cattle of the Alderney, Teeswater, and Devon breeds. 

In May, 1821, several hundred extra sets of the American Farmer wei'e 
destroyed by fire when in the hands of the binder. This rendered it neces- 
sary to re-print the two first volumes and a portion of the third, in order t<> 
supply constant demands from new subscribers for the entire work. Many 
subscribers had sent their second volume to the same bindery, but their los- 
was supplied by Mr. Skinner from his new edition, gratuitously. This unos- 
tentatious liberality was one of the sterling traits in Mr. Skinner's character, 
which won him the respect of the community and the love of friends. In 
some hands the American Farmer would have been a mine of wealth to its 
proprietor, with its large list of subscribers paying four dollars per annum 
each. But Mr. Skinner's only object in receiving subscriptions appeared to 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 



be an acquisition of funds for increased expenditures. Rare agricultural 
xvfirks were imported, engravings were plentifully furnished, and many a copy 
was sent to that importunate horde of periodical cormorants, technically 
termed by publishers as " dead-heads." 

The cattle show of the Maryland Agricultural Society was held on the 7th 
and 8th of June, at the " stock farm," where a large collection of valuable 
;inimals was exhibited, to the gratification of a numerous assemblage. Mr. 
Skinner's private stock was much admired, especially " Columella," a fine 
animal of the Holderness breed, just received from Gorham Parsons, Esq., 
who had imported the stock into Massachusetts; and a pair of "Tunis 
mountain broad-tail sheep," presented by Commodore Jones and Captain 
Booth, U. S. N. Soon afterward the stock was further increased by a pair 
of those Tuscan cattle renowned since the days of Virgil, as admirably fitted 
for the yoke. They were brought from Tuscany by Purser S. Hambleton, 
and ceded, to Mr. Skinner at their original cost, as a contribution to the 
introduction of useful animals. 

Mr. Skinner ever i-egarded the officers of the navy, (with many of whom 
he had official relations,) as foremost among his friends and correspondents. 
Not only did they subscribe more liberally than any other class to the 
American Farmer^ but they l)rought home original commimications, agricul- 
tural works, stock, poultry, and seeds, as tokens of their regard for '' Purser 
Skinner." Among these useful allies were those 'gallant spirits, Hull, 
Chauncey, Bainbridge, Rogers, Jones, Porter, and Perry. The seeds which 
they brought, as well as those contributed from various parts of the Union, 
were liberally distributed under Mr. Skinner's frank as postmaster, a clerk 
being intrusted with the especial duty of preparing them for the mail. 

In 1822, with funds liberally supplied by Robert Oliver, Esq., Mr. Skinner 
imported "Champion," "White Rose," and "Shepherdess," three beautiful 
animals of the improved short-horned breed of cattle, reared by that noted 
herdsman, Mr. Charles Champion, of Nottinghamshire, England. When 
exhibited at the cattle show, on the last days of May, they excited unqualified 
admiration, and Governor Lloyd (then the largest if not the best practical 
farmer in IMaryland) was so delighted with the perfection of their symmetry, 
that, within twenty minutes after he first saw them, he had purchased thera 
for $11500. Tliis was about their first cost, and about the same time Mr. 
Skinner also sold, without profit, his Tuscan cattle to Mr. John Middleton, 
of S. C. 

This successful effort to improve the stock of the republic was recom- 
mended to the especial notice of the Maryland Agricultural Society by the 
committee on " neat cattle," and the applause with Avhich the recommenda- 
tion was received, evinced a general desire to show a public appreciation of 
the benefits thus conferred upon the whole farming community. Accord- 
ingly, upon motion of the well-known George Calvert, of Riversdale, the 
Society vote*! Mi'. Skinner three costly pieces of plate, as a compliment for the 
service he had rendered in exhibiting living and incontestable proof of the 
high point to which the art of breeding had been carried in mother England. 
This valuable testimonial was accordmgly procured and presented in behalf 
of the Society, by Gen. Ridgley, of Hampton, Henry Thompson, Esq., and 
Dr. Allen Thomas, a special committee chosen for the purpose. 

In 1823, Mr. Skinner took an active part in organizing monthly social 
meetings of the trustees of the Western Shore Branch of the Maryland Agri- 
cultural Society, and also a society for the improvement of breeds of horses. 
In order to test the highest qualities and (greatest power of this noble animal. 



JOHN STUART SKINNER. 9 



a race-course was established at Canton, near Baltimore, where fair trials of 
speed were liouorably cond acted, and every thing demoralizing was excluded. 
The first three days races commenced on the 22d October, the stakef- 
amounting to $1Y50, but then, and for some years afterward, competitors 
came from other States to win the purses, until it became necessary to exclude 
all horses not owned in Maryland, or the adjacent District of Columbia. 
Mr. Skinner was always delighted to witness these trials of speed, though it 
was his boast as late as 1850, that he " never had any pecuniary interest in a 
horse-race or a cock-fight, nor ever played at any game of chance, or wagered 
a dollar on any thing. But that," said he, " has not kept me from knowing, in 
horses and dogs, or men and fowls, the true from the sham — nor from pre- 
ferring the game to any other breed of fowls. With the latter as with the 
former, I believe the high-bred to be the best for every thing. It would be 
so in men, but there is not so much attainable certainty in or control over 
the blood ! With equal dominion, a breed of men might be reared, that 
would naturally loathe the union of wealth and avarice ; and intuitively or 
by nature despise equally and alike, ostentation and meanness," 

Such was the success of the American Farmer, that other agricultural 
journals were established. The Plough-Boy, at Albany, was edited by Solo- 
mon Southwick, Esq., and the New-England Farmer, at Boston, by Thomas 
Green Fessenden, Esq., a gentleman of rare abilities ; but they were neces- 
sarily local, and as a national agricultural journal, the American Farmer 
maintained its superiority. Mr. Skinner, who knew not what jealousy was, 
welcomed his co-laborers into the field which he had been the first to culti- 
vate. In a private letter to Mr. Fesseijden, he cordially expressed a desire 
" to strengthen his hand and to encourage his heart, in all efl'orts to extend 
the knowledge of discoveries in the science, and any improvements in the 
practice of agricultural and domestic economy," 

But while Mr. Skinner sought with unremitting energy to gather vital 
matter for his journal, his "outside" labors were of equal importance. At 
one time we find him procuring from the j\Iaryland Academy of Science, a 
report upon the fertilizing properties of marl — then the piirae mover in 
arrangements for a cattle-show — then establishing an agricultural library, 
(through the aid of R. Oliver, Esq.,) — and never neglecting his postal or his 
editorial duties. Surely, if the gratitude of a nation is due to those gallant 
men who uphold abroad the starry emblem of our republic, and if such men 
are considered, by virtue of such service, worthy of national honor and 
reward, how much more worthy was he of both, who uplifted the national 
agriculture in the hour of its abasement, and with clarion call rallied the first 
men around the tottering foundation of our country's prosperity ! From the 
State of Maryland, for which Mr. Skinner did so much, and whose resources 
he so largely aided in increasing, he received — the militia rank of Governor's 
Aid, with the title of colonel. 

In July, 1S24, Col. Skinner again sought in travel relaxation from severe 
labor, and visited the North, accompanied by his lady. [It was then a two- 
days' journey from Baltimore to New- York, costing ^■'10.50; from New- York 
to Providence by steamboat, and thence to Boston, the fare was $14.50; and 
from New-Yoik to Albany the fare was 84.] Col. Skinner understood the 
true philosophy of travelling, not rushing over the land like a telegraphic- 
message, but journeying leisurely along, and tarrying to examine the most 
interesting works of natui-e or of art. The Fairmount AVater- Works — the 
Navy-Yard and Parmentier's Garden at Brooklyn — the Military Academy 
and ruins at West-Point — the Falls on the side of Cattskill Muuntain — the 



10 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 

Erie Canal — and, to crown all, the glories of Niagara, were in turn examined 
by the truant from labor with enthusiastic delight. Returning by the way 
of Boston, he was, to use his own words, " presented by the honored Josiah 
Quincy to the celebrated ' Oakes' cow,' and to the venerable John Adams, 
the patriot who nominated George Washington as commander-in-chief of the 
revolutionary army." 

Gen. La Fayette, on revisiting America, lost no time in assuring Col. Skin- 
ner that he entertained a particular regard for hira, as the namesake of his 
old comrade. Col. Jack Stuart — a regard which soon ripened into a warm 
personal friendship. On the 7th of October, 1824, the "Nation's Guest" 
arrived at Baltimore, on his way to the great "Battle Celebiation" at York- 
town, Virginia. He was received at Fort Mdlenry by Gov. Stevens, of 
Maryland, who introduced the old hero to the Society of Cincinnati, assem- 
bled under the marquee in which he had so often shared the frugal meals 
and aided the counsels of Washington. "This tent-scene," said Col. Skinner, 
" was impressive beyond description — this meeting of a venerable remnant 
of patriot warriors, in the head-quarters of their ever-glorious leader, to 
welcome his beloved ally, was one of the finest moral spectacles ever wit- 
nessed." 

Among other tokens of public esteem received by Gen. La Fayette during 
a brief sojourn in Baltimore, was an address from a deputation of the Mary- 
land Agricultural Society, in which they invited him to attend their exhibi- 
tion. To meet his convenience the day was postponed, greatly to the satis- 
faction of the General, who declared that "of all the numerous gatherings to 
welcome him, none could be more congenial to his feelings than would be 
an assemblage of the farmers and the planters of the old Maryland line. As 
they took him by their hands, and exhibited the fruits of their agricultural 
and of their household industry, he could observe their semi-centennial pro- 
gress under the free institutions for which he, shoulder to shoulder, had fought 
and conquered with their Fathers of the Revolution." 

Great exertions were made to have a farmers' festival worthy of the occa- 
sion, and the display far exceeded any thing of the kind ever witnessed. Not 
less than fifty horses of superior quality, nearly one hundred, neat cattle, with 
great numbers of excellent sheep and swine, so filled the pens that it became 
necessary to erect many more after the exhibition commenced. On the 20th 
of November, (the third day of the show,) General La Fayette arrived on the 
ground, escorted by an array of dignitaries from the adjacent States, with 
" an honorable and numerous body-guard of substantial sun-burnt farmers." 
An address was delivered by Gen. Harper, followed by the reports of the 
various committees. The fortunate competitors were then called in turn. 
" Coming forward, they passed through a large circle formed by the mem- 
bers, to receive the trophies of their industry and skill from the hands of the 
gallant, the disinterested soldier of liberty — the veteran companion of Wash- 
ington, and the unvarying fiiend of America." 

After the delivery of the premiums, the farmers on the ground, at the invi- 
tation of Col. Skinner, formed themselves into two lines, between which Gen. 
La Fayette passed, shaking each hardy hand with hearty grasp. A dinner 
followed, with a long array of toasts; after which. Gen. La Fayette visited the 
theatre, to witness the performance of the favorite play of General Washing- 
ton — the " School ibr Scandal." When the point of the plot was developed, 
in the "screen scene," the illustrious visitoi-, with his suite, retired from ihe 
house, and went to the hospitable mansion of Col. Skinner. Here a gay and 
brilliant assemblage was congregated, and the host once told the writer that 



JOHN STUART SKINNER. 11 

he never felt more satisfaction than when filling his guest's tumbler from the 
premium pitcher, bearing a likeness of " Champion." 

General La Fayette was so mucli pleased witli Col. Skinner, that he selected 
him as agent to manage the 20,000 acre grant of land voted him by Congress, 
and located in Florida. This trust Col. Skinner retained through hfe, and per- 
formed with great fidelity, aided by his friend. Col. li. W. Williams, of Talla- 
hassee. F. G. Skinner, Esq., the Colonel's eldest son and subsequent partner, 
Avas at school in France for four years, under Gen. La Fayette's paternal care, 
passing the vacations fit La Grange. 

In the autumn of 1824, the "Memoirs of the Pennsylvania Agricultural 
Society" were published, in a handsome, large volume, under the editorial 
supervision of Col. Skinner, who was selected by the society, " in proof of their 
respect for his exemplary fairness, his indefatigable zeal, and his singular 
ability." The work was expensively printed, and illustrated with costly 
engravings, through the liberality of John Hare Powell, Esq., of Powelton, 
near Philadelphia. It contains numerous articles in praise of the short-horned 
Durham cattle, a breed \vhich Mr. Powell had imported and propagated, with 
some remarks showing the defects of the Norman, or Alderneys, the Devons, 
and the native breeds. This excited the ire of the venerable Timothy Picker- 
ing, at that time President of the Agricultural Society of Essex county, Mass., 
where he had a farm. He was no admirer of the Durham short-horns, and 
attacted Mr. Powell with such vehemence of invective as to call forth a 
scorching rejoinder. A regular paper war ensued, in which the champions 
of the various breeds entered the typographical arena, attacking each other 
in serried columns of — newspapers. 

In December of the same year. Col. Skinner commenced the distribution of 
two barrels of guano, (brought to him from the Peruvian islands, by Midship- 
man Bland, in the Franklin,) and endeavored to call public attention to its 
astonishing fertilizing properties. Dr. Duchatel, at his request, furnished a 
chemical analysis of it, and he also published in the American Farmer^ trans- 
lations from Don Antonio de UUoa, and Baron Humboldt, showing that it 
had fertilized the naturally sterile soil of Peru. But the planters either 
neglected the samples sent them, or used the precious fertilizer so injudiciously 
as to realize no good effects, leaving it for George Law, Esq., just twenty 
years afterward, to introduce it with triumphant success. 

Soon after the commencement of the seventh volume of the American 
Farmer^ the dispute on the relative excellence of various breeds of cattle was 
carried to such a length, that Col. Skinner found it necessary to close the con- 
troversy. Severe reflections and sarcastic personalities had been indulged in 
on both fides, and one gentleman from whom the journal had received many 
good olEces and communications, withdrew his name from the subscription- 
list. " We care not," wrote Col. Skinner, " a farthing for the loss of one name, 
or one dozen, or ten dozen names, in comparison with the mortification of our 
journal being the cause of exciting any ill blood, or wounding any gentleman's 
feelings. The AmericaU Farmer was not projected with any regard to the 
politic?, or merely to the number of patrons it might receive. We value the 
length of its subscription-list at a farthing rushlight, when put in competition 
with the sati-^faction and the honor of dispensing, by the light of its columns, 
solid and lasting benefit io the bent interests and to the most virtuous class 
of society.^'' 

" Internal Improvements" was a conspicuous portion of the sub-title of the 
American Farmer^ for Col. Skinner was early of opinion that cheap, and 
safe, and quick transportation, was indispensable to agricultural prosperity. 



12 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 

This department was profusely illustrated with engravings from English pub- 
lications, giving thousands their first ideas of railways, locomotive-engines, etc. 
So sensible was the Maryland Society for Internal Improvement of his valuable 
exertions, that in April, 1825, they invited him to edit and publish a quarterly 
journal, intended to promote the execution of public works. After some deli- 
beration he declined, fearing that the increase of literary labor would interfere 
with his duties as postmaster. " These," he said, " he has the satisfaction to 
believe are so executed as to give all possible security and satisfaction to the 
public ; and it is only wiien that end is accomplished, he can venture to 
indulge in what constitutes his chief pleasure — the devotion of his leisure 
time and humble talents to studies 'and employment of solid utility to the 
country." 

A few weeks later. Col. Skinner published a card, (which he lequested 
his brother editors to copy,) soliciting some wild turkeys for Gen. La Fayette, 
who wished to introduce them at La Grange, and also a pair of opossums 
for a French naturalist. As might have been expected, there was a generous 
response. Turkeys came by the score, and Col. Skinner was soon forced to 
publish a second card, announcing that he had " received opossums enough 
to stock all Europe. One was left in the office of the American Farmer, 
very securely confined in a box, with her nine young ones, as large as 
middle-sized rats. In the night, taking her family in her pounch, she ascend- 
ed the chimney of a three-story house, and made her escape !" 

Appointed one of the " West-Point Board of Visitors," Col. Skinner left 
Baltimore on the day after the cattle show, and passed most of the month of 
June in attending the examination of the cadets. This visit was to him one 
of great pleasure and high intellectual interest, and he became intimately 
acquainted with his colleagues, among them Gov. Hamilton, of South-Caro- 
lina, Col. Eustis of the army, and the Hon. George Bancroft, then principal 
of a boy's school at Northampton. The Hon. Edward Everett, at that time 
professor of Greek literature at Cambridge, and member elect from that 
congressional district, was also a member of the Board, and was chosen 
Secretary, His valedictory to the graduating cadets was pronounced by 
Col. Skinner a fine specimen of chaste elocution, although rather cold in its 
effects, conveying the idea that the speaker was rather qualified, by the 
happiest use of great learning, to enlighten a select body — not to animate a 
popular assemblage. The Military Academy found great favor with Cul. 
Skinner as a nursery for practical civil engineers, and he published his notes 
of the examinations on road-making, timber, and other useful matters, with 
expensive illustrations. While at West-Point, Col. Skinner was Chairman 
of the Committee on the Domestic Arrangements of the Institution, and 
conceived the idea of supplying the buildings with pure water from the 
adjacent mountain springs. After examining the localities, he made a report 
on the subject which his colleagues indorsed, and which induced Congress 
to make the requisite appropriations for the work. Col. Tliayer was heard 
to declare that Col. Skinner was thus entitled to be enrolled among the 
greatest benefactors of the institution. 

" Field sports " were now regularly spoken of in the American Farmer. 
"There is," wrote Col. Skinner, "a decided and growing taste for such 
amusements, and for discussions calculated to enhance the pleasures of those 
healthful diversions that necessarily conduct gentlemen from the bar-room 
and the gaming-table into the open air. It is, however, as we trust, well 
understood, that we would not inculcate a fondness for rural sports, to an 
extent that would involve the neglect of any man's cardinal duties. They 



JOHN STUART SKINXER. IS 

can not be too little estimated, who, -whatever may be their fortunes, can pass 
their lives in listless idleness ; doing nothing to benefit society, or to add to 
the stock of human comforts or human knowledge; lounging drones; nati 
consumere fruges. On the other hand, we hold that the greater the industry, 
and the more constant the application of our faculties to useful business, the 
greater the necessity for, and the benefit of, relaxation and amusement. That 
the best bow will lose its elasticity if never unstrung, every boy can under- 
stand ; and even Scripture tells us — there is a time for all things." 

Equally sound was Col. Skinner's argument, in refusing to publish a 
portion of a letter from the then Western States, criticising the religious 
principles of Mr. Owen. "It would be unfair," he wrote, "to admit an 
impeachment, and reject a defense ; and were Mr. Owen to demand, as he 
might justl}'^ do, the right of explaining his doctrines, we should find our 
journal employed as the medium of controversy on a subject not at all 
connected with the objects of the American Farmer. For remarks upon the 
general state of any portion of the country, its productions, natural and 
artificial — the [lublic works and private establishments connected with its 
agricultui-al interests, we are always obliged to our correspondents. But in 
religion or in politics, we never interfere in this place : let every man enjoy 
his opinions in the one and the other without 'let or hindrance.' Let him 
worship God in his own way, so he disturb not the peace of society, and at 
the polls vote his own ballot." 

General La Fayette, after his return to La Grange, lost no time in opening 
a correspondence with Col. Skinner. His first letter, dated January 20th, 
1826, commenced thus: "It is not an easy task for me to submit to the 
wide material separation which now exists between me and my American 
friends while my mind is constantly with them — and the regret for the loss 
of their society mingles with an ardent sympathy in their public and personal 
concerns. So prompt I have been in recovering pleasing habits, and so 
much attached I feel to my new as well as ray old connections in the United 
States, that it seems to me quite strange to think this winter will pass with- 
out meeting any of you, either at Baltimore or Washington. No letter from 
you, my dear sir — no number of the American Farmer has been received. 
I am eagerly waiting for the papers and letters from my friends, and beg 
when you write to remember that at a distance minute particulars are very 
welcome." 

The remainder of the letter chronicles the voyage and condition of the 
Devon stock presented by W. Patterson, Esq., the hogs presented by Col. 
Skinner, some wild turkeys, and other American gifts. A few months after 
its receipt. Col. Skinner forwarded to La Grange some desired wild turkeys, 
partridges or quails, terrapins and opossums, with a fine collection of the 
different varieties of Indian corn. In return, he received some valuable 
works on the culture of the mulberry and the rearing of silk-worms, in which 
he began to take a deep interest. 

On the 30th of January, 1827, the House of Delegates of Maryland elected 
Col. Skinner a Director, on the part of the State, in the Bank of Baltimore. 
At the same session, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company was incor- 
porated, and the American Farmer zealously seconded their exertions. It 
was a gigantic undertaking, for railroads were then in their infancy. Millions 
were expended (as we have been informed) for excavation and embankment 
between Baltimore and ElHcott's Mills, simply to make the points of elevation 
and depression a few feet less, from the impression that no railroad could be 
tenable that was not nearly level. No one then dreamed that locomotives 



14 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 

could be constructed of sufficient power to encounter grades of seventy-five, 
and even niuet}' feet rise to the mile, with an immense weight of cars and 
merchandise attached. 

In July, 1828, Col, Skinner visited New- York city, and inspected the 
principal gardens in the suburbs. He was especially deliglitecl with the 
establishment of Monsieur Andrew Parmentier, a Belgian horticulturist, who 
had converted twenty-four acres of rocky ^^asture-land into a landscape garden, 
with a vine-yard, nurseries, and green-houses. We can but pause to regret 
the untimely death of this gifted foreigner, who did so much for the cause vC 
horticulture while among us, and whose domestic virtues are yet enshrined 
in the hearts of those who enjoyed his society. 

On the '20th of September, Col. Skinner was one of a large party who 
assembled at the manor-house of Charles Carroll, (the last surviving signer of 
the Declaration of Independence,) to congratulate him on the arrival of his 
ninety-second birthday. " Under other circumstances," wrote Col. Skinner, 
"it might well be supposed that a company so numerous, with so many 
resources for conversation and amusement, would break into groups and 
small circles — some to saunter through the fields and others through the 
large old garden to gather its delicious fruits, or pluck the flowers whose 
splendjr and fragrance tempted on every side ; that the book- worm would 
steal from the gay circle to pore over some precious volume of ancient lore ; 
and yet more surely tbat grace and beauty would attract the regards of all 
who had an eye to admire and and a heart to feel. But on this occasion all 
other objects seemed to lose their power of attraction, and the ' old gentle- 
man' to fill all eyes and all hearts. Those who were not engaging him in 
conversation were remarking upon his healthful appearance, his activity, his 
cheerfulness, the purity of his conversation and morals, his early and con- 
stant patriotism, the pregnant events of his life, and the pleasure he must 
have in the power to draw upon such a boundless store of interesting recollec- 
tions. In short, so completely does he engross on his birth-day the admiration 
of his guests, that it seems as if each one had come with the p:dlet or the 
pen, to take his portrait, or to write the memorabiha of his early days, while 
yet and from him alone they may be had." 

On the loth of March, 1829, Col. Skinner published the last number of 
the tenth volume of the American Farmer, then in a flourishing condition, 
having received within the year just expired an accession of nearly "three 
hundred subscribers, coming from every State in the Union." Conceived in 
a laudable desire to do good — conducted with a view to the promotion of 
national prosperity — dedicated to the interests of a hitherto neglected 
majority of citizens, the periodical established as an experiment had become 
a " fixed fact," commanding universal admiration. The pioneer editor, by 
unflagging industry, had now reared ten monuments upon the broad area of 
industrial improvement, each volume bearing tokens of his ability, his energy, 
and his ])atriotism, as indelible as they were distinct. A score of oth<'r 
agricultural journals had sprung into existence, but the American Farmer 
retained its superiority, ever holding forth a beacon-light to imitators. Let it 
ever be remembered that Col. Skinner's was " the first voice that was heard 
claiming for agriculture its rights as a science. His light gleamed alone, but 
brightly and steadilj'^, amid the dark mists of ignorance and prejudice ; and 
even now — uow when the land is illuminated by a thousand — that same 
torch, in other hands, is burning and blazing with a pure and brilliant 
flame." 

At that time, there was scarcely an agricultural or horticultural society in 



JOHN STUART SKINNER, 15 

Christendom, of whicli Col. Skinner was not an honorarv member, and these 
indorsements of his labors were to him a source of self-gratulation. The 
London Horticultural Society had only conferred the same honor on two 
other Americans, De Witt Clinton and Judge Buel, and with the diploma of 
the South-Carolina Agricultuial Society came its large medal, made, by express 
vote, of native gold. But he soon transferred his labors to another field. 

"The want of a repository in this country, like the English Sporting 
Magazine,^'' (we give Col. Skinner's own words,) " to serve as an authentic 
record of the performances and pedigrees of the bred horse, was admitted by 
all, whether breeders, owners, or amateurs of that admirable animal. To 
supply this want a Turf Register was made the basis of a periodical work, 
giving the pedigrees and the performances of American thorough-bred horses. 
It was also designed as a Magazine of information on veterinary subjects 
generally, and of various rural sports, as racing, shooting, hunting, fishing, 
trotting matches, etc., together with original sketches of the natural history 
and habits of American game of all kinds." 

The first number of the American Turf Register and Sjiorting Magazine 
appeared in August, 1829. It was a neatly-printed pamphlet, containing 
fifty pages, and was embellished with an ornamental cover and engravings 
of game, designed by the ill-fated Rindisbacher. Like the American Farmer, 
it entered an untrodden path of periodical literature, without a single sub- 
scriber. But although the price was $5 per annum, it soon had a large list 
of patrons, and was deservedly popular. So great was the interest which it 
excited, that horses whose pedigrees it established rose in value from $100 
to $5000 and $10,000, and a committee of Turfmen presented the editor 
with a costly service of silver dinner-plate. 

Enthusiastically devoted to field sports. Col. Skinner was so much interested 
in the Turf Register that he was induced to dispose of the American Farmer 
for $20,000. It was purchased, (if we are not mistaken.) by Mr. Hitchcock, 
and was edited by Gideon B. Smith, Esq., but again changed hands before 
it came into the possession of Samuel Sands, Esq., who now conducts it 
with marked ability and industry. 

Col. Skinner maintained his devotion to agricultural and mechanical pro- 
gress, using his "franking privilege" for the purpose of disseminating plants 
and seeds. The " silk culture" received his especial attention, and his friend 
General La Fayette supplied him wath the latest French works upon this then 
exciting question. 

President Jackson, the " Farmer of the Hermitage," was a subscriber to, 
and constant reader of. Col. Skinner's periodicals, and was ever well pleased 
to see him at the " White House." As we have previously remarked, he 
re-nominated him as postmaster at Baltimore, and he also reappointed him 
one of the " West-Point Board of Visitors." 

The Turf Register continued to win golden opinions ; indeed. Col. Skin- 
ner's editorial career afforded proof that " independence" is the motto for a 
"sanctum ;" whoever speaks the truth out of a sound heart is sure to find an 
echo in public opinion. Neither did he mislead his readers by interested 
recommendations of new tools, seeds, or medicines, written by the vendors 
thereof, and at one time, he even refused to publish such matter among his 
advertisements. Subsequently, he sold the Turf Register for §10,000 to 
Mr. Pegram, of Petersburgh, Va., who afterwards sold it to Mr. Robert Gil- 
more, Jr., of Baltimore, and he to that "Tall Son of York,'' Mr. Porter. 
The last-named gentleman was a particular favorite with Ci>l. Skinner, who 
once "heartily wished that his success may equal his '■Spirit'' — may he 



16 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 

never be at a loss for the where and the wherewithal, to wet his line and his 
■ — whistle ; and may he never throw fly, without hooking a trout." So say 
we all of us. 

After having thus severed his editorial connections, Col. Skinner at differ- 
ent times prepared valuable foreign works for the press, enriching them with 
such notes as his experience suggested, to adapt them for American use. 
Prominent among these works are " Youatt on the Horse," " Mason's Farrier," 
"The Sportsman and the Dog," "Improved Cattle Doctor," (and in the 
Farmer's Library,) "Petzhold's Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry," "Von 
Thaer's Principles of Agriculture," and " Stephen's Book of the Farm." The 
English editions of the three last-named works cost -$42. Col. Skinner's 
annotated American editions were sold at $5, 

In 1837, Mr. Van Buren's administration commenced, and Col. Skinner, 
who had never been a politician, was summarily removed from the Baltimore 
post-office. Naturally wishing to increase the property upon which his 
family were dependent, he entered into an association with some gentlemen 
for the purchase of land on speculation, and visited the south-west to invest 
their joint funds. Business tact, however, was not among Col. Skinner's 
qualifications, and falling into the hands of shrewd land-dealers, he was sadly 
deceived in his purchases. Some investments in the silk culture were equally 
unprofitable, and the next year found him involved in a sweeping financial 
catastrophe. By no fault of his, unless over-confidence in others be a fault, 
he was deprived of the fruits of his long labors ; but the change of fortune 
called forth no lamentations, no bitterness of spirit. Nay, the thunder-stroke 
of poverty only called forth the true nobility of his soul — the true dignity of 
bis character. Others might have sunk, prostrated by the blow, but Col. 
Skinner went manfully to v/ork. Editing agricultural works for publication, 
writing articles for the American Fanner, and acting as agent for the sale of 
lands, he occupied, and that with profit, all of his time. 

There wa< another change of administration, and Gen. Harrison had not 
been in the White House a week, before Col. Skinner was appointed third 
assistant Postmaster-General, an important office. Entering upon its mani- 
fold duties with zealous application, he soon mastered every detail, nor was 
any one ever heard to complain that Col. Skinner had treated his case super- 
ficially, or with an imperfect intelligence of its merits. A simple perusal of 
the papers relating to any contract, enabled him to form the soundest judg- 
ment of its merits, and he curtailed the expenditure of his Bureau $200,000. 
So unremitting was his industry, that the close confinement brought on fits 
of giddiness in the head, which suddenly destroyed his hearing. Fortunately 
his other foculties remained entire ; there was not, on his recovery, the 
shghtest intimation of any diminished vigor of mind, and he was not only 
able to continue the discharge of his ofiicial duties, but to enjoy the society 
of his friends, and to solace himself with his ever-cherished agricultural 
literature. 

In March, 1845, Mr. Polk ascended the Presidential chair, and the first 
officer removed by Cave Johnson, Postmaster-General, was Col. Skinner. 
Not a whit daunted, he soon set out for New- York, in search of a new field 
of labor. " He found himself," to use his own words, " having passed from 
the green twig to the hard wood, and now, as he was entering into the ' seai- 
and yellow leaf of life, dependent more than ever upon the fruits of his 
daily labor for subsistence." 

He was not long idle. Messrs. Greeley and McElrath, the enterprising 
publishers of the Neiv-York Tribune, soon engaged him to project and edit 



JOHN" STUAET SKINNER. 



a periodical work to be called the Farmer'' s Library and Monthly Journal of 
Agriculture, for which they gave him carte blanche. It was accordingly 
commenced in July, 1845, in a beautiful typographical garb, with costlv 
engravings, and was in every way worthy of the art which it sustained. In 
the first half of each monthly number was a portion of some standard work, 
generally reprints of costly foreign publications ; the remaining fifty pages 
war edevoted to foreign and domestic agriculture, with accounts of experi- 
ments, improved processes, new inventions, etc., forming the amplest and the 
most comprehensive periodical ever devoted to the producing interests. 

In September, 1845, Col. Skinner visited Massachusetts, to attend a trial 
of sub-soil ploughs at "Indian Hill Farm," then the residence of the writer's 
father, who has since departed this life to join his old agricultural friend in 
another world. Among the guests was the Hon. Isaac Hill, also justly dis- 
tinguished as an agricultural journalist, with some three hundred others, as 
the invitations read, of " all occupations, politics, and religions." Surrounded 
by practical yeomen, the veteran "American farmer" was in his element, 
seasoning sound counsel with many a pleasant reminiscence, and " the 
sensible old editor with the queer ear-trumpet" is yet spoken of with admi- 
ration at the surrounding firesides. 

A visit to Canada, with his family, recruited Col. Skinner's drooping health 
in the summer of 1846, and both at Montreal and Quebec he found that his 
reputation bad preceded him, securing hospitable attention. With Niagara 
Falls he was delighted, and we regret that we can not copy his remarks to a 
friend on their sublime grandeur; "to describe them," he wrote, " would 
require the hand of Omnipotence itself, with a pen of light." The next 
winter, he visited his second son at New-Orleans, (who died shortly after- 
wards,) and was honored with a public dinner, as a national benefactor. 

In October, 1847, Col. Skinner visited Massachusetts, and was taken by 
Sam. Lawrence, Esq., to visit the new city bearing his name, on the banks of 
the Merrimac. What three years previous was a naked, sandy plain, had 
become a youthful Lowell, magically created by the power of New-Eugland 
industry, and the energy of New-England talent. Already the largest woolen 
factory in the world, two huge cotton-mills, a spacious machine-shop, and an 
iron foundry, were in active operation, and there Wcre churches, hotels, 
school-houses, gas-works, newspaper printing-offices, a bank, town-house, etc., 
besides private dwellings and stores well filled with goods. The population 
numbered upwards of 8000, and the rise in the value of farms, for miles 
.uound, bore ample testimony to Col. Skinner's favorite maxim: "The 
plough profits by the successes of the anvil and the loom." 

During Col. Skinner's visit to New-England, he was advised by his 
numerous friends there to carry into eflfect a suggestion originally made by 
Henry C. Carey, Esq., of Philadelphia, and establish a new periodical of 
his own. The Farmer''s Library, costing as it did $5 per annum to each 
subscriber, was too expensive, and probably of too elevated a character to 
become popular or profitable. When, therefore, his three years' agreement 
with its liberal publishers had expired, Col. Skinner purchased the good will 
of the establishment, and removed it to Philadelphia. To indicate its compre- 
hensive aims, he called his new publication The Plough, the Loom, and 
the Anvil, and offered it at a barely remunerative price. Launching this new 
barque of his hopes upon the uncertain sea of public patronage, he called to 
his aid a stanch crew, and pursued his course with rejuvenated vigor, guided 
by the pole-star of his thoughts, the prosperous cooperation of home indus- 
trial pursuits. 



18 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF 

The reappearance of Col. Skinnar as editor, was greeted with approving 
compliments by a large portion of the American pi ess. His services as con- 
ductor of the American Farmer were held in grateful remembrance, and a 
wide circulation had Iieen given to extensively-copied articles since furnished 
by him to the Neio-York Alhion and the Pluladelphia Courier. Especially 
were they delighted with the energy with which he "commenced business" 
at the age of three-score past, saying, with manly frankness, " Exposed again 
and again to trying difficulties, I have never allowed myself to despair, being 
always conscious of a luillingness to work — and you will sooner aid than cen- 
sure a man who, if he must fail, would have it in his power to say, that it 
was not for want of every honest effort to succeed." 

Such a man could, not "fail" — there was not (as Napoleon said of the word 
impossible) such an expression in his vocabulary. After a few numbers had 
been published, "subscribers began to come in daily at the rate of 600 a 
month," and the first men iu the land had lost no time in encouraging his 
efforts. Among these commendatory letters was one from the " Hero of 
Bueua-Vista," dated "Baton-Rouge, July 23d, 1848," in which he said: 
"The subject is one to which I have devoted much of my life, and in which 
I yet continue to take the deepest interest; and in reading the periodical from 
month to month, which I shall continue to do with great attention, I feel that 
I shall become largely your debtor for the pleasure and instruction which I 
shall derive from it. That your impoi'tant undertaking may meet with every 
success, is my earnest hope and desire." 

It may not be amiss here to state that when General Taylor became Presi- 
dent, he directed the appointment of Col. Skinner's eldest son and partner, as 
" Chief of tlie Agricultural Bureau" of tho Patent-Office. In collecting and 
arranging materials for the Annual Report, Mr. F. S. Skinner proved himself 
worthy and well qualified to " follow in the footsteps of his illustrious prede- 
cessor." One of his published works, a translation from the French of " The 
Elements of Agriculture," is pronounced by competent judges to be the best 
text-book in the English language for those who wish to commence the study 
of agriculture as a science. 

As the new periodical was published monthly, Col. Skinner was enabled to 
accept some of the many invitations sent him to attend agricultural festivals. 
Tiiat Ixdd by his old friends of the Maryland Agricultural Society in 1848, 
(when they turned over a new leaf,) was to him a source of great delight, and 
he was loud in his praises of Mr. President Calvert, as one "of whom it could 
not lie ^aid that he pointed the way, but did not go in it himself." From 
Baltimore, he made — to use his own words — "a long-intended flying visit U- 
the good oM Eastern Shore of Maryland — the land of good hominy, good 
ovsteis, good ducks, good mutton, good men, and what is more — gentle- 
men !" 

In Au£rust, 1849, Col. Skinner again visited New-England, accompanied 
by the Lidies of his family, and received many attentions from his numerous 
friends. R^iturning to Philadelphia in time to " get out" his September num- 
ber, he then attended the Montgomery County (Md.) Fair, and on the 6th of 
October delivered an address before the Bucks County (Pa.) Agricultural 
Society. It was an able elaboration of his favorite theme, urging the enact- 
ment of a policy that would draw the prosperous consumers employed in 
other industries, close around the plough and the h trrow. 

The next year. Col. Skinner was invited by the "Massachusetts Charitable 

Mechanics' Association," to deliver the address at their triennial exhibition 

- of domestic manufactures. On his way, he tarried at the New-\ork State 



JOHN STUART SKINNER, 19 



Fair, where he unexpectedly met a grandson of his «»Id friend, General 
La Fayette, who accom|>anied him to Boston. The address, wiiich was deli- 
vered before a crowded audience in the hall of the " Lowell Ljstitute " was 
sound and practical, as he intended it should be, judging from this introduc- 
tory sentence : "As the f)hilosi>phy, the beneficence, and the moral beautv 
of your admirable association, have been so well illustnted on firevious 
occasions, even by an Everett and other sons of Massachusetts, eminent for 
their learning, patriotism, and rhetoric — may I not hope that you will now 
listen with kind forbearance to a very plain discourse; in which it shall be 
ray endeavor, without disguise and without ornament, to show, that if all our 
great branches of industry be not in fact identical, they are yet so blended, 
and so necessary to each other, that whatever acts or policy shall pollute the 
fountain of the one, must necessarily impair the healthful action and flow of 
all the others. So truly may the Plough say of the Loom and the Ship, 
'This is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh,' so near is their relation- 
ship, that, in my judgment, it is impussible freely and fairly to advocate the 
prosperity of one, without pleading the cause of them all." 

Before leaving New-England, C(^l. Skinner was an honored guest at the 
Fair of the Norfolk County (Mass.) Agricultural Society at Dedham — at that 
of the Essex County Agricultural Society at Salem — and at several of those 
horticultural exhibitions which, to use his own langu ige, "at that season of 
the falling-leaf, cuntribute so much to bring out the ripe fruits and fair flowers 
in and around the goodly city of Boston." He was also induced to visit New- 
Bedford, CI mton, Lowell, Concord, and other towns, and everywhere received 
many tokens of respect. 

R:4urning to his editorial chair. Col. Skinner haileil the advent of the year 
1851 with uncommon gladness. From the good otiiccs of triends, and the 
gratuitous assistance of al>!e correspondents. The Plough, the Loom, and 
the Anvil was not only able "to walk along, but to move ahead in the 
strength of its own good purpose." During the year just past, he had added 
not less than one thousand names to his list of subscribers, and had in addi- 
tion received cheering assurance that the cherished ciealion of his ripened 
intellect would receive a still largnr accession of patronage in the year to 
come. Among others who took a warm interest in its success, were twenty 
meinbers of Congress, from d'fferent States and sections, who signed a circu- 
lar, recommending the periodical " to the patronage of all who desire to see 
American Industry fairly protected iu the development of our own resources, 
and tht- wnking up of our owu materials." 

In F^-bi nary, Col. Skinner took his wife to Washington, on a visit to their 
son, and, as tney returned to Philadelphia, they tarried at Baltimore, guests 
of her mother, the late Mrs. Davies. Surrounded by old friends, who had 
long esteemed him for his social qualities, his una--suming demeanor, and 
his generous impulses, the veteran was naturally in high S[»irits. Little 
thought he that "the silver cord was soon to be loosed," and oh I how sud- 
denly. 

On the morning of the 21st of March, 1851, Co!. Skiimer left his wife, 
saying as he went, " I am in t)etter health and feel more like myself than I 
have for vears." After making several calls, he stepped into the interior of 
the post-office, to get his letters and papers. On one side of the office there 
are two dours, side by side, one leading into North street, and the other into 
a cellar-way. When Col. Skinner first started to go out, he partially opened 
the door leading into the street — then, saying " I have forgotten some 
papers," he returned itito the postmaster's private room. Findujg what he 



20 JOHN" STUART SKINNER. 

souo-ht, and observing that his dinner liour was near at hand, he hnrried 
awav — unfortunately mistook the door — Ofierird the wrong one, to which 
there was not even a sill — and at the first step was precipitated to the bottom 
of the Cv'Uar, making a complete summerset as he fell, and fracturing his 
skull u|)on a large stone at the foot of the ladde?'. The clerks and carriers 
(one of whom saw him opi'U the wrong door, but had not time to warn him 
of the mistake before he fell) immediately ran to his assistance, and found 
him speechless. They carried him into the postmaster's room, and called in 
a number of physicians, among whom were Di-s. Butler, Riley, and McKenzie, 
who did every thing that the best medical science could suggest ; but his 
skull was found to be badly fractured at the base, and- his injuries of such 
a character as to leave no hope of his surviving. 

His affl cted wife found him who for so many years had been all in all to 
her, Iving upon the floor, with his life-blood pouring from his ears, aiid groan- 
ing in his insensible a:^ony. Placed upon a cot, he seemed easier, and 
alFhough he had lost the faculty of speech, he indicated by disjointed expres- 
sions, a consciousness of approaching dissolution, with a firm reliance in the 
niercv of God. At length, abimt seven o'clock, he clasped the hand of his 
faithful nurse, who was wiping away the blood flowing from his nostrils, and 
faintly exclaimed : " My God ! Trouble will soon be ever." Then, falling 
into a tranquil slumber, his spirit passed away without a struggle or a 
groan. 

And thus, in the full enjoyment of health, ripe in years and in honors, 
was snatched away this true-hearted citizen. Who that gazes on his portrait 
prefixed to this sketch, can avoid feeling the acutest regret at his sudden and 
sad death ? As we recall him to mind, he was a muscular, well-formed man, 
possessing the dignified manners of the old school, without its formal stiff- 
ness. There was a mingled kindness and penetration in his look, his eye was 
full and intelligent, and when engaged in conversation, his countenance would 
lighten up with the clear blaze of intellectual expression. Who that knev/ 
him will not echo, from the heart, this eulogium of Joseph Gales, E^q., the 
respected senior editor of the National Intelhgencer? " We have personally 
known Col. Skinner intimately, in prosperity and adversity, and in every 
relation of life, and are able to bear testimony to his integrity, his honor, 
his kindii ss of heart, his attachment to his friends, and his devotion to his 
family — in which relations, composing as a whole his character, we only 
exijres our conscientious belief when we say, that in all these essentials he 
was entitled to a place in the first rank of humanity." 

Our simple simple task is achieved. We have diligently endeavored to 
pay our tribute of gratitude to this great, good, and eminently useful citizen — 
whose woiks were an honor to him while he was living, and are his only 
monumi'iiL, until a votive tablet recording his services shall grace the national 
column now being erected in honor of the immortal Washington! The news 
of his untimely death created the most profound sorrow, but his victories had 
been those of peace, and there has been (until the present movement was 
started) no provision for the beloved comrade of his thirty years' campaign. 
Th'i.-, w,is wioiig ! The American people, so enriched by his long labnrs, owe 
her a generous mainte'iauce, and we hope that by )iecuniary oblati(m, as well 
as ijy monumental stone, his men ory will be substantially honored by all 
who are interested in the joint successes of "'the Plough, the Loom, and the 
Anvil." — [See also page 54.] 



FLAX — THE FALL RIVER COMPANY. 21 



ILLINOIS M AKBLE. 

The geological survey of this State, says the Prairie Farmer, under the 
charge of Dr. Norwood, has brought to light several sources of wealth and 
luxury not before known to exist. Araong others, are several deposits of 
marble of different colors, and suited to different uses. Among these, accord- 
ing to the Alton Courier, is a variegated variety, suitable for any desoription 
of in-door and ornHmental work, as mantels, table-tops, etc. It is from 
Southern Illinois, and will compare favorably with most of the iniported 
marbles used for such purposes. It resembles, most nearly, some varieties of 
Egyptian marble. 

Two pieces of black marble, which, for beauty, depth of color, and high 
polish, are not excelled by any specimens of the famous Irish black niarl)le 
that have come under our notice, and which is so much used for mantel-tops 
and similar purposes, are also from Southern Illinois. 

A light-colored, nearly white, marble, from the vicinity of Thebes, appears 
to be one among the bet rocks we have met with for almost every purpose 
of in and out-door work. It is very nearly pure carbonate of lime, sub-crys- 
talline, very compact, and admits of a fine polish. No Western rock equal to 
it, in every requisite for building purposes, has yet, so far as we know, been 
placed in any public or private structure in the West, except, perliaps, in a 
single building in Chicago. We understand the quarries are inexhaustible, 
and that they are contiguous to navigation. 

A beautiful oolitic marble, from Hardin County, receives a fine polish, and 
appears to be harder, and better able to stand the effects of the weather, than 
a similar rock from St. Genevieve, Missouri, which has been used to some 
extent in St, Louis. The structure of this rock is as curious as the wrought 
samples are beautiful. It can be w^orked with great ease into any desired 
form. 

A specimen of marble-conglomerate, from Pike County, is one of the most 
beautiful ornamental rocks we have met with in the West, It more nearly 
resembles the '' Potomac marble" used in the pillars of the Capitol at Wash- 
ington, than any other rock. It appears to be quite as durable and takes as 
tine a polish as the Potomac rock, but owing to the grave colors of the peb- 
bles of which it is made ujd, does not present so brilliant an appearance. It 
is very compact, and the cement appears to be very strong. 



FLAX,— THE FALL -RIVER COMPANT. 

A Linen Company, organized at Fall River, Mass., as a means of inducing 
farmers to engage in thetiax-culture, offer to buy the lint on certain specified 
conditions. Their wishes will be understood by an extract from their circu- 
lar. They say : "We propose, in order to give the grower an idea of our 
wants, to deposit with well-known parties in each State, adequate samples of 
the flax-fibre grown in our own and other countries, and imported by us 
within the past few months, and to affix to each sample the cash price we 
paid for those qualities when laid down in New-York, adding the charges 
for commissions, freight- duties, exchange, and other expenses. We will th*'" 



22 WATER-ROTTED HEMP. 

bind ourselves to pay for twelve months from this date, the same prices in 
cash for all t!ie flax-fibre, of equal qualities to ihi; samples so deposited, which 
maj' he prepared and forwarded to New- York by Western parties ; or to pay- 
such prices, less the freight and other charges to New-York, on all flax so 
delivered to our agents in Louisville, Cincinnati, or Chicago. 

By this means the Western farmer will secure to himself not only the 
profits which liave been found sufficient to remunerate the European cultiva- 
tor, but the many charges to which such articles are subject in the transit; 
and also may, with proper management, obtain a larger amount of flax-seed 
per acre than he now realizes. And we fully believe that after having been 
induced by the above extraordinary oflfer to try the experiment fairly for one 
year, he will find flax to be the most profitable crop that he can turn his 
attention to. 

We propose taking tlie flax at some rate, unless it should fall too far 
below the sample furnished, to be of any advantnge for us to manufacture. 
We wish all the flax either pulled or cut with a cradle so carefully as to pre- 
serve the stalk uninjured and the ends even ; the seed taken oft" by a rippling- 
comb, or by passing the heads of the stalk through rollers, so as to avoid the 
present eff'ects of threshing ; the flax to be water-rotted and scutched ; to be 
sent in bales and packages, so as to be all ready for heckling on reaching our 
mill." 

Waller Paine, at Fall River, is the agent of this company. 



WATER -ROTTED HEMP. 

The proper time for sowing the crop varies with the different seasons, but 
as a general remark, from the 25th April to the 15th May will be found 
best. Earlier than this the hemp is apt to be short; later, the quality of the- 
liut inferior. The earlier sowing should be upon strong land, the later upon 
that which is more reduced. It has for some years past been the practice 
among farmers to save large portions of their seed from hemp that was 
intended fir a crop of lint ; buf, failing to do this, the seed was permitted to 
ripen and preserved for sowing the next season. From this and other causes 
affecting most plants not natives of a country, I am of opinion that our hemp- 
seed has deteiiorated, and that we need not expect generally to make good 
crops cf good quality until our seed is renewed. Imperfect seed must neces- 
sarily produce unhealthy plants. You would confer a favor upon hemp- 
growers by procuring through the Navy Department, for distribution, some 
foreign seed, either Russian or Italian, the former to be preferred. 

I shall now proceed to the second division of the subject, the preparation 
of hemp for naval purposes. 

This portion of the subject must necessarily commence with the harvesting 
of the crop. I will here remark that he who would be successful in the pro- 
secution of this business, must be untiring in his attention to his laborers 
in every successive step ; every thing must be done well ; no carelessness, no 
slovenly handling of the hemp is admissible. A good article and a good 
yield is the object ; this can not be obtained but by unceasing attention. It 
all comes easy enough when laborers are taught and required to do their 
work well, nor does it retard, to any extent, the quantity of work to be done. 



» WATER-ROTTED HEMP. 23 

In cutting jthe crop, especial care must be paid to keeping the straw straight; 
no straw sfiould be allowed to be broken, doubled, or crossed in the bundle. 
The heinp has to be hackled, and all tangled fibres will necessarily be taken 
out by this process, nor will the loss stop at this; these fibres will entnntrle 
others, which will also be lost; some loss is unavoidable, but by care much 
may be prevented. It is equally important that each hand of hemp, as it is 
cut, shiiuld be carefully butted before it is spread down by the cutter; no 
laborer should ever, in any handling of the hemp, be permitted to pass a 
bundle out of his hands without first lightly tapping its butt on the ground. 

If this is not attended to, there will be unnecessary waste in heckling. As 
it is one of the reasons for my desire to impress the importance of keepuig the 
bundle square at the root, I will here state, that when a stack of hemp is held 
by its ro(jts' end, there is in the hand of the person the end of every fibre of 
lint that is upon it, and that the fibres successively run out from the first to 
the last pair of leaves. To exemplify : Take a hand of hemp and heckle it ; if 
the root-end of the fibres has been permitted to become uneven, as is almost 
universally found in dew-rotted hemp, it must be grasped near its middle, so 
as to have in the hands of the operator the end of all the fibres; throw the 
top end into the heckle and clear it of tow, and it will be found that, except 
the tangled fibres taken out, there is but little waste ; reverse the hand and 
heckle the other end, the result will be that near two thirds of the weight of 
the hand of hemp has been lost in this latter part of the operation. If the 
same hand of hemp had been perfectly handled in all the difterent operations 
through which it had to pass, the loss in tow would have been less than one 
half, probably not more than one third. You, sir, may think that I am too 
tedious in these apparently minor matters, but permit me to say that my obser- 
vation has shown them to be of paramount importance. I wish to impress 
the importance of doing this work well. But to return : the hemp when cut, 
should be spread evenly and as thinly over the ground as practicable, and so 
soon as sufficiently cured, put into stacks near the place where it is to be 
rotted. 

Rain and heavy dews will, after the hemp has commenced to cure, injure 
its color and quality. To obviate this, when the weather is unfavorable, it is 
a good plan to set up in shocks, without being bound up in bundles, all hemo 
of a suitable quality that has been exposed to the sun for twenty-four hours. 
It should be permitted to cure well in the shock before being bound into 
bundles and stacked. In this way it will cure bright and retain a greenisli 
appearance. If the outside of the shocks have become darkened by exposure 
to bad weather, the dark hemp may be stripped off" and secured for dew- 
rotting. I practised this plan when engaged in this business, and found it 
to be a good one, affording an excellent opportunity, when my hemp wa^ 
uneven, of selecting such as was suitable for water-rotting, the balance beii-io- 
left on the ground to cure for dew-rotting. The most suitable length of hemp 
for the purpose in view, is from six to eight feet; something longer will do if 
it is not too coarse ; and something shorter, if the crop stands well on the 
ground and is not grassy or weedy. The proper time for cutting hemp is at 
any time after the dust (pollen) of the blossom-hemp has commenced to blow 
off", until these stalks commence to die; if not cut by this time, the first rain 
will darken the dead straw and materially injure the quality of the crop. 

The best period for water-rotting hemp is from the 1st of September until 
Christmas; by this time, if practicable, the crop should be rotted. The 
process of rotting goes on slowly in the winter months. I have had hemp) 
put intj the vats the week before Christmas, which had to remain in the 



24 WATER-EOTTED HEMP. 



water until the latter part of February before it was in a condition to be 
taken out. The time required for the hemp to renaain in the vat varies 
with the temperature of the water ; in the month of September it will rot 
in from five to eight days ; in October from seven to ten ; in November from 
ten to fourteen ; in December from fourteen to twenty-one ; in January from 
four to seven weeks. This of course is but an approximation to the time 
required, the temperature of the weather governing it. This may be readily 
understood when we know that, in rotting hemp by this proce-s, putrefactive 
fermentation to a greater or less extent has to be set up, and this is readily 
accomplished at a temperature of from 60° to 100°, but is slow in being 
established between 32° and 60°. 

I am of the opinion that it is very sparingly sokible at a temperature 
between the freezing point, and that we must mainly rely upon the establish- 
ment of putrefactive fermentation. Whatever means, either artificial or 
natural, that will keep the water in which the hemp is immersed at a tempe- 
rature between 60° and 100° of Fahrenheit, is the best calculated to facilitate 
the rotting process, and my observation justifies me in saying that hemp 
rotted in the fall months is of better quality than that rotted in winter. 

In selecting a site for water-rotting hemp, some attention should I'C given 
to the supply and quality of water, the amount of head that can be obtained, 
and the facility of drainage of the vat. The quantity of water required will, 
of course, depend upon the size of the vat. The quality of the water refers 
only to its purity. The vat should be located as near a bold spring as prac- 
ticable, so as to insure a supply of clear water — muddy water is very destruc- 
tive to the quality of the hemp, rotting it unevenly, making it towy, and 
coloring it. Large branches that are subject to floods from heavy rains are 
not suitable, as the water for several days in succession at these periods will 
be muddy, and the vats liable to overflow. Before making a vat, the situa- 
tion should bft carefully examined with a level, for the purpose of ascertaining 
what head of water can be had and the facility for drainage. There should 
always be sufficient head of water to fill the vat when the hemp is in it, unless 
the fountain be a very bold one. There are periods when the vat is to be 
emptied of water, and, for the sake of comfort, the drainage, should be perfect. 
The location being selected, the size of the vat or vats will depend on the 
supply of water, quantity of work to be done, and the fancy of the owner. I 
will here give the size and manner of cons'ruction of my vat, and the quan- 
tity of work that can be done with it. Length 116 feet, widih 16, depth 4 
feet, excavated in the clay. For the purpose of keeping the heinp under 
water, I have 13 sills of 20 feet in length, 10 inches wide, and 6 inches thick, 
let into the bottom of the vat, across it, commencing with one near each end, 
and tlie others placed at equal distances apart. Two feet from each end of the 
sills, I have two upright pieces of timber, 3 inches thick, 6 wide, and 6-^ feet 
long, dove-tailed into the sides of the sills, and then pinned fast ; these up- 
rights should stand at right angles with the sills, and |)arallel with each other, 
and 4 to 5 inches apart, at tlie distance of 4 feet 8 inches from the top of the 
sill ; each upright has a mortice, cut 3 inches long and H inches wide, for 
the purpose of receiving a key or cross-piece, under which the lines are j^h^ced 
which are to hol<l the hemp under the water. The distance between the up- 
rights at each end of the sill is 16 feet; the keys through the uprights upon 
one side of the vat should be made fast, upon the other side left loose, so as 
to be put in over the lever when it is brought in place. Tie sills with their 
appendages being put in place, the vat should be built up with a heavy stone 



WATER-ROTTED HEMP. 25 

wall, which should corae out evon with the inner edge of the uprights ; the 
wall should be 4 feet high and flagged at the top. 

At the bottom of the wall upon the end of each sill should be placed a 
long, wide, and strong rock, and care be taken in building the wall to throw 
as much of its weight as possible on each end of each sill. Hemp is very- 
buoyant for two or three days after letting the water on it, and too much 
attention can not be given to making every thing secure. 

A place must be arranged at the bottom of the vat at the point of drainao-e, 
to carry oft' the water when desired; and another at the point of supply, to 
bring it in at the top of the vat; common wooden pipes answer for this | ur- 
pose very well. The drainage must be so arranged as to be capable of beni'T 
made water-tight; nearly every person will possess mechanical inirenuity 
sufficient for this. Thirteen levers, 18 feet long and a foot in diam«^ter, at 
their centre, of strong timber, with each end dressed a little over a foot, so as 
to pass in between the uprights for the purpose of holding down the hemp, 
complete the structure of the vat or pool, A vat of the dimensions ju^t given, 
will hold enough of hemp in the straw, at one filling, to make about two tons 
of h( mp from the. brake, and in one season to water from fifteen to twenty 
tons. 

Various modifications of the plan here given may be made ; the vat, for 
instance, may be only half the depth, or half the width, etc. Various modes 
also may be arranged to keep the hemp under water while rotting ; but what- 
ever plan may be adopted, be sure that every thing is strong. We are n^ >w pre- 
pared to commence the process of water-rotting. The best plan for arranging 
the hemp-straw for this operation, is to make up twenty-five or thirty bundles 
into a bale seven or eight feet long, and bind it round in three places with 
bands made with brake or other tow. These bales can be made very 
firm by having a frame of proper length, depth, and width jirovided for 
putting them up; when the box or frame is filled with the straw, a lever 
is ap])lied to press it solid, and the bale is tied with the bands. This is a 
very simple contrivance, and about as speedy as any other mode of getting 
the hemp into the pool. These bales should not be over two feet squar'^, and 
eight feet long ; the}' may be placed in the vat as fast as they are made. If 
the bottom of the vat is muddy, a few small rails should be placed in it to 
keep the hemp clean. The bales should be placed in the vats in two tiers, two 
bales deep from one end to the other ; two tiers of bales eight feet lono- wiil 
just fill across the vat. If they are shorter, press the end of the bales well 
up to the walls on each side, and any vacancy that may be, let it be down 
the middle of the vat. Hemp over eight feet in length should be reduced to 
this length by chopping off sufficient of the end. 

The hemp being in place in the vat, the arrangement for fastening it down 
comes next. Upon each tier of bales, from one end of the vat to tlie other, 
is laid a line of four strong rails, so placed that when the levers are jiut in 
place, each end of each rail should be firmly held down by them, and the rails 
so distributed along the length of the bale as to hold down all its parts equally. 
Now the levers are placed in their situation, the key put in over them, and the 
water let on. The water may be permitted to run into the vat in a full stream 
until it is three fourths full, then reduce the supply to such an extent as that 
the hemp may be completely immersed in from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. 
It will be well, in the time occupied in covering the hemp with water, to be 
sure that at night the supply is not too rapid. Plemp, when first put into 
the water, is very buoyant, and remains so until the water expels the air from 
the cavity of the straw, and unless some attention be paid to this, it will 



26 WATER-ROTTEIJ HEMP, 



severely test the strentyth of your arranofcments, and often cnu'^e much vexa- 
tion and trouble. After the pool is filled with water, the supply of it should 
be so regulated as only to have as much runuir.o; ia as will supply the leak- 
age — a rfdundance of water retards the process. Keep the hemp completely 
under water until it is ready for removal from the vat. 

It is very difficult to point out with suflicient clearness any test by which 
it may be known when the hemp is sufficiently watered; this only can be 
learned bv close observation. Make it a rule never to over-rot; hcriip over- 
done is unfit for naval purposes. If it is not sufficiently rotted for br'^akina^, 
it may be exposed to the weather, as in dew-rotting, until it is. After the 
coloring matter is extracted by the water, exposure to the weal her will not 
materially injure the color. When the hemj) has been covered witb water 
for about the shortest period noted for tlie different months, commence to 
examine it bv drawing out a few straws from some bale as deep under water 
as it can be got ; if sufficiently watered, its odor is unpleasant, the lint slimy 
and easily separated from the wood, the leaves in a state of decay, and the 
wood, in attempting to bend the strilk, will break off short. When too tough 
to snap off tolerably freely, it is not done. As a further test, dry as speedily 
as practicable a small quantity, and test as in dew-rotting. 

In applying this latter test, do not expect to find the wood break or the 
lint to separate as freely as in dew-rotted hemp. It is best always to bring 
the hemp as near as possible to the right state in water. Nearly any person, 
after a little experience, will be enab'ed readily to determinp. when it is fit for 
removal from the vat. This point being determined, a sufficiency of water is 
drawn off to loosen the level's, which are then removed, the rails on top of the 
hemp thrown off, and the pool again filled with water. A revolving crane, 
with a geared windlass attached, rigged with a stout rope, to the end of which 
strong iron arms are affixed, for the purpose of receiving the floating bales of 
hemp, is an admirable contrivance for removing the bales from the vat to the 
cart. The iron arms are sunk sufficiently in the water to receive a bale of 
hemp, two stout hands, by the windlass, hoist it high enough to be swung 
round over the cart, and loaded across the top of a strong frame-bed. Two 
of these bales are a sufficient load for a yoke of steers, and two carts will 
remove the hemp from a vat, such as described, in a little over one day's 
time, provided the place of drying be not far from the vat. There should be 
convenient to the place of operation, six or eight acres of sod-land, upon 
which to spread the hemp to dry, or to finish the rotting process when neces- 
sary. It is removed to this piece of ground by the carts ; the bales tilted 
therefrom, and allowed to drain for a few hours; the bands then removed, so 
the bales may fall apart, which, if not sufficient to allow the bundles to, drain 
well, they must be separated by hand. When the bundles are sufficiently 
drained to allow handling without breaking or tangling the straw, they 
shouhl be spread out to dry or to water more if necessary. Taking off" the 
bands and spreading the hemp are the only unpleasant processes .■ittending 
this plan of operation ; the spreading need not be so, unless the operator is 
in too great a hurry to spread it before it is sufficiently drained ; indeed, if 
the bundles are well selected, they may become nearly dry before being 
spread. 

In freezing weather, if thev become frozen before spreading, let them thus 
remain until either frozen dry or they thaw. The hemp-straw, when being 
removed from the vat, is exceedingly tender; and in all the ra?inipuiations 
attending this process, great care should be taken neither to brcMk nor tangle 
it. In passing the hemp through the brake, close attention must be given to 



WATER-ROTTED HEMP, 27 

having; it handed in small hands, say from one half to three quarters of a 
pound of lint; under no circunistane<-s to exceed the larger quantity. The 
butt of the straw should be kept perfectly square. After squaring the butt- 
end of the straw, before it is placed under the brake, a leather strap, bu.kled 
tightly around and within six inches of the roof-.'nd of the straw, will pr«wnt 
its beciiinmg uneven while under the brake. Break the top-end first, leaving, 
only sufiicient unbroken straw at the butt-end, by Avhich to hold the hand. 
The lint- should be perfectly clear at the break of tlie shives. When the pro- 
ce;>s of breaking water-rotted hemp has been properly performed, the root-end 
of the hand of lint should be as square as though it had been chopp*^d by an 
axe; it should be clear of all woody matter, have comparatively little tow in 
it, be free from tangled fibres, and have sufi'ered hut little loss in the way of 
brake-tow. This is one of the most important operations in the preparation 
of water-rotted hemp, and too much care can not be devoted to it. A hand 
of hemp, in which the straw was but six feet long, if allowed to become 
stretched to eight feet in breaking, will certainly result in great loss in hack- 
ling, and injuring its quality. The kind of brake must be left to the fancy of 
the operator. In hackling the hemp, the only instrument necessary is the 
conamon tapering heckle of bagging manufacturers; and the process is a sim- 
ple one, if jiroper attention has been paid to its previous preparation. 

The hand of hemp, not exceeding three fourths of a pound m weight, (half 
a pound is better,) is grasped firmly as near as practicable to the root end, not 
farther from this than will suffice to have the end of all the fibres composing 
the hand within the grasp. Then a few times drawing it through the heckle, 
from as near the hand as possible, will finish the operation with this end. 
Reverse the hand, grasping it just above the point reached by the heckle in 
the first instance, and clean the root-end of the tow. Any little switch which 
may be at each end must be cropped off and thrown with the tow, A small 
box of sufficient leng^i and other dimensions to receive from twelve to four- 
teen pounds of the heckled hemp in an extended state, mu^t be at hand, in 
which the hemp is placed by the heckler as it is i^repared. The hemp must 
be placed in the box at full length ; the root-end of the bundle n)ust be kept 
even, and when twelve to fourteen pounds are placed in it, it must be tied 
firmly around, and within some ten or twelve inches of the root-end. An- 
other small string passed around the bundle, at about two thirds the dis- 
tance to the top, and tied firmly, maj also be used. The hemp has now to 
be placed in well-pressed bales of four hundred and fifty to five hundred 
pounds in weight, Avell covered with bagging and well secured by cordage. 

This closes the manipulations through which lieinp has to pass in pre- 
paring it for naval purposes. 

The length of this article has precluded an examination of other plans. I 
have here given what I conceive to be the best mode of operating with cold 
water. The business is not an unpleasant one; with a steady market it is 
remunerative, and I can say from considerable experience, that there is nothing 
necessarily unhealthy in it. 



Bronchitis. — A receipt gives the following as a cure for the bronchitis: 
Take honey in the comb, squeeze it out and dilute in a little water, occa- 
sionally moistening the lips and mouth with it. It has never been known 
to fail, in cases even where children had throats so swollen as to be unable 
to swallow. * 



28 FOREST-TREES. 



FOREST-TREES. 

Herewith we publish an article from the Ohio Cultivator, on raisin o- 
forest- trees fiora seed. 

One of our subscribers requests us to furnish instructions for raising chest- 
nut, walnut, and locust-trees from seeds. This is a subject of much import- 
ance to settlers in prairie countries; and even in many parts of Ohio, it wouM 
be well if farmers would plant a few acres of their grounds with forest-trees 
for the prospective wants of their children, if not for their own benefit. In 
some parts of the Slate there is already quite a scarcity of timber for fencing 
and building purposes, as well as for fuel, and good woodland is worth more 
per acre than that under cultivation. 

J If' fir.-t thing demanded, on the part of those intending to plant forest- 
i, is to select such kinds of trees as are best adapted to their soil. Much 
labor has been wasted by neglecting this precaution ; and all the instructions 
we have seen in books and papers in regard to this business have been 
defective on this point. It has been stated, for instance, that chestnuts can 
be raised with the greatest ease from seed ; and many farmers have been 
induced to try the experiment, but have very generally failed because their 
soil was not of the right kind. 

A deep, sandy, and dry soil, is requisite for the successful growth of the 
chestnut ; and it is vain to attempt to make it thrive on soils of an opposite 
character, as we know from repeated experiments. The black walnut and 
butternut thrive best in a deep, rich, clayey, and gravelly loam, or what is 
commonly known as deep limestone soils. The same kind of soil is best 
suited for the sugar-maple, but this ti'ee will flourish on a greater variety of 
soils, and requires less depth than the walnut. « 

The hickory will bear a strong clay soil, better than most other trees except 
beech. Neither of these is well adapted to the rich, mucky or sandy soils of 
the prairies. The oak, in some of its varieties, will flourish on most good 
soils, not too wet or mucky, but is of too slow growth for our fast people. 
The locust, on account of its rapid growth, valuable timber, and adaptability 
to various soils, is perhaps the most useful of all — but unfortunately it is so 
liable to be destroyed by the borer that it can not be relied on in many parts , 
of our country. 

Saviny and Sowing Seed. — Chestnuts, walnuts, and similar kinds of tree- 
seeds, should never be sufl'ered to become perfectly dry before planting. If 
not convenient to plant them soon after their time of ripening, they should be 
put in a box of sand, and kept moist, (not wet,) and be allowed to freeze 
during the winter, then planted early in the spring, covering them about two 
inches in depth. They may be planted where the trees are to remain, taking 
care to keep the plants clear of weeds and grass while young; or they can be 
transplanted when two or three years old, taking them up carefully, without 
injuring the roots, and not exposing them to drying while out of the 
gr« und. 

Locust-seed may be kept drj', for a year or two, without destroying its 
vitality, but it must in all cases be thoroughly scalded before sowing, or it will 
lie a whole year in the ground without vegetating. For a quart of seed pour 
on four quarts of boiling waier, and let it stand for 12 or 24 hours, when 
most if not all of the seeds will be swollen to several times their former size. 
If a considerable portion are not swollen, they must be scalded again. Stir 



ROOT-CROPS. 29 



the seeds while ia the water, so as to agitate them briskly, and while in 
motion pour oif the water and swollen seeds, while the others being lieavy 
will remain at the bottom of the vessel; then scald, and let soak as before, 
and they will generally all swell. The seeds can then be sown where designed 
to remain, or in a nursery-bed, and the trees transplanted when one year 
old. 



ROOT -CROPS. 



The following remarks by Rev. J. Fletcher, at the American Farmers' 
Club, are to the point. He said that he first commenced by the cultivation 
of equal portions of ground with ruta-bagas, carrots, and beets, but he soon 
found that it was more labor to raise ruta-bagas than beets; they did Aot 
insure any larger crops, and in his estimation they were not worth, especmly 
for milch-cows, more than two thirds as much. Late years he had made 
beets and carrots his main crop ; when they failed, had filled up the rows 
with ruta-bagas. At first, he sowed after a hoed crop when the ground had 
been made very rich, and cultivated deep, but he found considerable difficulty 
in subduing the weeds in his root-crop by this method of culture. He 
afterward sowed on an enriched clover-lay, well pulverized with the cultivator 
and harrow, and found less difficulty with the weeds; seemed to have an 
equally good crop. This was on a light sandy loam. 

Since coming here, he had tried carrots and beets, both on green fallow 
and inverted green sward ; the soil a gravelly loam ; found that they were 
considerably the most productive on the former. The roots require a rich, 
deep soil, well broken, and pulverized by the plough and cultivator. It is 
better, however, to make the soil rich by previous application, than from the 
addition of manure at the time of sowing. Freshly-applied manure will not 
only produce forked and fibrous roots, but the evaporation ensuing from the 
fermentation of it is inhaled by the leaves, which are the lungs of the 
plant, and the free circulation of the absorbing powers is thereb}' checked, 
and the plant becomes diseased — first the leaves and then the bulb. It may 
be well to inquire whether, in part at least, this has not been the cause of the 
failure of the ruta-bnga crop in this vicinity the past year. 

He had found that the application of salt to the soil, at the rate of about 
six bushels per acre, had increased the yield of these roots. Had used pou- 
drette and guano, trenched in tlie rows, several days previous to sowing the 
seed, and with good success. The rows manured with the guano produced 
the greatest yield. Carrots and beets should be planted as early as Indian 
corn, in rows two feet apart. The beet-seed should be soaked two or three 
days in warm water previous to planting. Carrot-seed should be mixed, 
and well rubbed with coarse sand, to prevent their adhering to each 
other, and a few radish-seeds should be planted with them ; they will shoot 
up quick, and indicate the rows, so that they may be weeded out much ear- 
lier, and in the end save much labor. Of the carrots, the Altingham, oi 
White Belgium, were the best kinds for field culture. Of the beet, the 
Mangel- Wurzel, or White French beet. After the first weeding, they may 
be cultivated with the horse and plough. A soil that will produce fifty 
bushels of corn, will easily yield seven hundred bushels of these roots, without 
much more expense of cultivation. 

He regarded the carrot as the best food for the horse, and the beet for the 



30 STATISTICS OF CHICAGO. 

cow, as the latter contains about one third more saccharine matter than the 
carrot. According to Pay en, the white sugar-beet has about 10 per cent of 
sugar, carrots have from 5 to 7 per cent, and turnips but 2 per cent. The 
mucilage of the carrot renders it peculiarly adapted to the horse. After 
fifteen years' experience iu feeding carrots, and extensive observation on the 
subject, he believed it answered adn^irably as a part substitute for oats. 
Where a half bushel of oats is given per day, a peck may be taken away, and 
their place supplied with the same amount of carrots, and the health and 
condition of the horse improved by the exchange. Independent of its nutri- 
tive properties, one of its uses is to lubricate the vascular organs, and thereby 
promote a healthy action of the system 



STATISTICS OF CHICAGO. 

We find the following compilation of statistics in relation to the city of 
Chicago, in the New-Castle Courier : 

Chicago. — As Ave soon expect to be connected with this city by railroad, 
our readers are doubtless desirous of knowing something about its population, 
its business, and its prospects for the future. The Chicago Frees, in an arti- 
cle on this subject, says : 

In 1848, the ratio of the increase of the population of this city was, for 
eleven months, 19 per cent; iu 1852, the ratio for fourteen months was 22| 
per cent. These were considered wonderful, but dwindle into insignificance 
when placed beside the increase of the last year. In August, 1852, Chicago 
had 38,733 inhabitants. In December, 1853, it had increased to 60,652, 
being an increase in fifteen months of 57 per cent! In 1840, the population 
of Chicago Wiis only 4479. 

At this time cars are running to and from that city on ten roads ; thirty- 
seven trains arrive and depart daily. Most of these roads are being extended 
every day. During this year several of them will have reached the Missis- 
sippi ; the Great Central Road will be completed to Cairo. 

In 1840, the total value of real and personal property was $1,829,420 ; in 
1853, it is $16,841,831. In 1847, the business of Chicago amounted to 
$2,64), 852 in imports, and $2,296,299 in exports. In 1852, the imports 
increased to $8,328,639, and the exports to $10,709,333. These items are 
interesting, showing the rapid growth of a city destined to be the largest city 
in the West. Estimating the increase of the next fifteen months to be equal 
to that of the last, Chicago will have at the end of that time a population of 
upward of 83,000. 

The following table we copy from the same : 

Total population of Chicago, - - - - 60,662 
" dwellinirs, -....- 7,627 

" families^ 9,435 

" while native population, 29,134 ) " " «;r ^49 

•• foreign " 29,404 [ - - ^ '" 

" colored " .... 583 

" stores and business-places, . - - 1,184 

" schools, .-.-.-- 64 

" churches, -.---- 61 

" manufactories ------ 196 



GRAND NATIONAL CATTLE-SHOW. 31 



PRODUCTS OF THE FREJTCH COLONIES IN ALGIERS, AT PARIS. 

The European population of these colonies is 130,000, of whom 80,000 live 
in towns and 50,000 are devoted to agriculture; but they are unskilled in 
the art, and are not provided with the best implements. Among the pro- 
ducts exhibited at Paris from these colonies are the following: 

Cotton — The culture of which is encouraged by the French government. 
The first experiments were made in 1846. lu 1852, 1500 acres were planted 
for this crop, but it was much injured by the rains, and nearly destroyed. 
Georgia Sea-Island appears best suited to the soil and climate. The culture 
of this staple can only be maintained by the help of the government. 

Wool. — The samples were from the native African sheep, and the quality 
is desirable. 

Tobacco. — These samples were numerous and well grown, but of inferior 
flavor. There are now about 600 planters of tobacco, the cultivation having 
been commenced in 1844. 500 hectares, equivalent to about 1166 acres, 
are now grown, which produce some 500,000 lbs. of tobacco. 

Cereals. — Grains are produced to some extent. Rye is but little used, 
but produces well. The wheat is good. Barley is the most important ot 
these crops. The Arab and his horse live upon it. Mohammed said, "Every 
kernel of barley given to a horse is worth an indulgence in the other world." 
Barley is also used extensively in brewing. 

Minerals. — In this department, iron, copper, lead, antimony, carbonate of 
zinc, manganese, and mercury, were exhibited. Copper-mines are numerous, 
and many of them are worked by English companies. Fuel is too scarce to 
work them, and the ores are sent to England. No coal has been discovered; 
but plaster of Paris, alabaster, porcelain-clay, and soap-stone, are found. Fine 
varieties of marble occur. Some of these are equalled only in whiteness by 
th-e mai'ble of Carrara. 

The Coral-fisheries are extensive and profitable. About 1,500,000 francs' 
worth are annually taken from the sea. 



GRAND NATIONAL CATTLE -SHOW. 

A GRAND National Cattle-Show will be held on the 25th, 2Gth, and 27Lh 
days of October, under the direction of the United States Agricultural Society. 
in the city of Springfield, Clark County, Ohio. No less than six thousand 
DOLLARS will be distributed in premiums, tor the best stock of the various 
breeds of cattle there exhibited. We commend it to the attention of all who 
can be present. 

The following circular will give further information in relation to this grand 
national farmers' jubilee : 

The Executive Committee of the United States Agricultural Society have 
been careful to select a time that will not, so far as they are aware, contiict 
with any of the State Fairs or other meetings of general interest; and after 
due deliberation have selected this place as the must eligible fur holding the 
Cattle Fair. Springfield is centrally located as regards the cattle region ; it 
is most convenient of access by railroad from almost every point of the com- 



32 ASPARAGUS. 



pass. The means for accommodating, at very moderate charges, a large num' 
ber of persons, are ample. Private houses will be opened for the reception o* 
guests. There are also eighteen cities and towns within reach by an hour's 
ride on th(- railroads, on which extra trains will be placed to accommodate 
such as wish to go elsewhere for lodgings. 

About twenty acres of ground have been inclosed, and more than three 
hundred stalls will be prepared for the shelter of cattle during the Conven 
tion. 

It is expected that very liberal arrangements will be made by all the rail- 
road Companies, both for the transportation of cattle and the conveyance of 
passengeis to and from the Fair. 

We respectfully solicit your attendance on the occasion, and that you will 
furnish such aid as you may feel disposed in making known the objects, time, 
and p'acH of the Convention ; and if you have improved stock of cattle, of 
any description, we cordially invite you to enter them for competition. 

A list of premiums and a copy of regulations will shortly be published. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

J. T. Warder, 

C. M. Clark, )■ Local ^xec. Com. 

Chandler Robbins, 



ASPARAGUS. 

The editor of the London Gardener's Chronicle says that information on 
procuring a good supply of this excellent vegetable is much needed, if the 
article offered for sale is considered. The growers of this vegetable ought to 
recollect that the two points of excellence in growing it are succulence or 
size. It ought to be as thick as the thumb and as brittle as glass. To secure 
this result, two things are indispensable : it must be produced by very vigor- 
ous plants, and it must grow very rapidly. The weed-asparagus differs as 
much from the cultivated plant as the lean, half-starved, half-wild animal does 
from the large, full-fed one. Feeding makes all the difference either in plants 
or animals. Experience shows that its great strong roots take up any quan- 
tity of manure if applied at the right season; and that season is after it has 
begun to move in the spring. Manure applied at any other time is reiolved 
into a fat, oozy slime, that only aids to rot the roots of the plant. The exu- 
berance of growth of the steins and leaves ought to be cherished during the 
summer, and if any method can be adopted to prevent the growth or ri])ening 
of the berries that contain the seed, so much the better. Every one of the 
little thread-like leaves ought to be left to grow, as they add to the strength 
of the plant. Small as these leaves are, and slender as the branches are, 
they aid in giving vitality to the plant, just as much as the broad leaves of 
the largest forest-tree. If this treatment be followed out, there will great 
buds, as large as acorns, be seen in clusters on the crown of the roots at the 
next season, out of which will grow the gigantic shoots on the succeeding 
spring. But to have the asparagus plants vigorous enough to do this, no 
crop must be taken from them before they are of sufficient age to bear it. The 
older the plants before a crop is taken from them, the better. Indeed, to 
obtain real giant-as[)aragus, it is necessary to let the beds rest one year after 
a crop has been taken from it, and to cut it only biennially. 



BRECKINRIDGE CANNEL COAL. 



The asparagus being brouglit to the necessary state of vigor, the next 
question is, how to secure the necessary succulence, which it never b;is beyond 
two or three inches in the English markets, and seldom more than that any- 
where else. That succulence will depend upon temperature as much as upon 
other causes. The warmer the asparagus- bed is kept while the sprouts are 
rising, the more brittle they will be, provided the temperature does not rise 
above 85° Fahrenheit at the most. Under ordinary circumstances, every 
thing is done to keep the asparagus-bed cold ; buried twelve to thirteen inches 
below the surftice, the influence of the sun is but slowly and imperfectly felt. 
It is only when the roots are lightly covered by some rapidly-conducting 
material, that the sun can exercise his proper influence unassisted by artifi- 
cial contrivances. Hence one of the greatest faults the asparagus-grower can 
commit, is to bury his plants deep. The intelligent grower just covers his 
plants with soil resting upon a deep bed of nutritious matter. The earhest 
rays of the sun are felt in such a case, and as soon as the dormant energy of 
the plant is roused, it continues to be exercised without interruption. Aspa- 
ragus thus obtained is green, and so it should be ; but the evidence of the 
senses of those who try it will satisfy them that these suggestions contain the 
true principles of growing this plant, which is a source of profit to the market- 
gardener in the spring, and which is welcome on every table. — Mich. Far. 



BRECKINRIDGE CANNEL COAL. 

Professor B. Silliman, Jr., read before the American Scientific Conven- 
tion at Washington, last week, a paper on the Breckinridge Coal-field of Ken- 
tucky, of which the following is an ample summary : 

The great Illinois coal-field, it is well known, crosses the Ohio and extends 
over a considerable part of the northern or north-western and middle districts 
of Kentucky, covering some eight or ten counties in that State, including 
those of Breckinridge, Ilancock, and Grayson, where the speaker had seen it. 
The aggregate area thus covered by coal in Kentucky has been estimated at 
4500 square miles. Almost no efforts have been made to explore this valu- 
able coal-territory until a very recent period. The coal-openings are still very 
few, and confined chiefly to the banks of the Ohio and its navigable tributa- 
ries. 

The coals of this region, as well as those of Illinois, generally belong, with 
some remarkable exceptions, to the class of moderately fat bituminous coals. 
They have not hitherto been brought into general use, and although the coal- 
openings at Hawesville and Cannelton are only 120 miles below Louisville, 
their coals have never yet competed successfully with those of Pittsburgh, 
although the latter have been floated in flat-boats not less than 700 miles 
down the Ohio. 

Within a short time, however, more attention has been bestowed upon the 
Kentucky coals, and between the discovery of coals of a very superior quality 
and before unknown, and the introduction of the railway-system upon a scale 
of very considerable extent, these are likely soon to become of great industrial 
importance. Unfortunately, the actual consumption of bituminous coals in 
the West can be ascertained only in a very general way. It has been esti- 
mated by some persons to be equal in quantity to the anthracite and dry 

VOL. VII. 3 



34 BKECKINEIDGE CANCEL COAL. 

bituminous coals consumed in the Atlantic States. This seems, however, too 
high an estimate, and it is probable tliat the amount consumed in 1853 did 
not exceed 3,500,000 tons. All calculations, however, of the amount of coals 
consumed in the United States made to-day are comparatively unreliable to- 
morrow, such is the rapid progress of the development of this element of 
power. It is only by a comparison of several years that any data can be 
obtained for the future. In 1847, the whole coal product of all parts of the 
United States hardly exceeded, it is said, 4,000,000 tons. In 1854, the 
amount of anthracite coal brought to market did not exceed half a million 
of tons. In 1853, the amount is believed to have gone very considerr.bly 
beyond 5,000,000 of tons. It is pretty certain that an annual increasement 
of thirty per cent in the product of this important staple, is not too high a 
ratio for its probable increase. 

Breckinridge County Cannel Coal. — ^The coal-measures in this county 
reach an elevation of about 500 feet above mean high-water of the Ohio 
River at Cloverport. The strata lie with remarkable uniformity, and nearly 
horizontal, their dip being south-west, at the rate of about four inches in one 
hundred feet, or le?s than twenty feet in a mile. The surfiice of the country 
is deeply cut down by the wear and tear of the water-courses, and of atmo- 
spheric agencies. The bluii's on the Ohio, at Cloverport, as elsewhere in that 
region, are composed of a fine-grained, granular sand-stone, loosely aggre- 
gated, thickly bedded, of a light-gray color, nearly free from any thing but 
silica, and easily reduced to a sharp, clean, white sand. No traces of organic 
remains could be found in it ; but, from its position, it must be below the 
coal. The position and comparative thickness of this bed, and of the other 
strata observed at this place, may be seen by reference to the diagram on the 
black-board. It will be observed that three coal-seams are shown. The two 
lower are common bituminous coal, and need not be particularly mentioned 
m this connection, except to say that the lower bed, (from four to five feet in 
thickness,) is believed to be the same which is worked at Hawesville. The 
coal which now occupies our attention is the uppermost member of the series, 
occurring at an elevation of nearly three hundred feet above the level of the 
Ohio, and capped by a thick overlying mass of sand-stone and shales. This 
bed of cannel coal is about three feet in thickness, with a bituminous shrde of 
some ten feet in addition, on which it immediately rests. As a consequence 
of its position, it covers a less area of country than the lower beds, having 
been removed in many places by denuding causes. It is to be looked for in 
the regions where I have seen it — in the uplands and hill-tops, and only there, 
where the general level of the country reaches a certain elevation. 

The northern margin of the coal-beds in the place referred to, lies about 
nine miles from the Ohio River, to which point a railway has been built. 
Here a marked change in the topography of the country is visible. The hills 
become more sweeping, and the valleys less precipitous, while the contour 
lines wind in graceful and gentle curves around the base of the hills. The 
upper members of the series at this point furnish a soil of enduring strength, 
as is attested by the size and abundance of the forest-trees. Numerous small 
rivulets, the head-waters of Clover Creek, aSbrd ample drainage. 

The cannel coal of Breckinridge County is characterized by the following 
peculiarities, namely : 

1. Its densitiy, which is 1.14 to 1.16. Common bituminous coal varies 
from 1.27 to 1.35, and the anthracite from 1.50 to 1.85. The only coal 
lighter than this, so far as is known, is the so-called "Albert Coal," cf New- 



BKECKINRIDGE CANNEL COAL. 35 

Brunswick, whose density is 1.13. The cause of tbis low density will be 
sought, chiefly, in the very large amount of volatile matter. 

2. Its Tenacity and Elasticity. — Coals are usually brittle and inelastic. 
This is tough, and resists powerful and repeated Jj>lows, and rebounds the 
hammer like wood. The splints of this coal may be sensibly bent by pres- 
sure, and regain their original form again. A fissure in it may be sprung 
open by a wedge, and will close again on withdrawing it. The writer ha=; 
never seen any other coal with this peculiarity. 

3. Its Electrical Power. — The Breckinridge Coal becomes powerfully 
excited by friction, with resinous electricity. This peculiarity may be demon- 
strated very easily, and has never been before noticed in any other coal, si« 
far as the writer has been able to learn, except in the "Albert Coal" of New- 
Brunswick, before named. It is not easy to understand why other very highly 
bituminous coals should not have this property, but such is the fact with ;i, 
large number that have been tried. 

4. Its Chemical Constitution. — This has been determined in the usual 
way, by destructive distillation, with the following results, namely : In 100 
parts we have — 

Volatile at Redness, - - _ 
Fixed Carbon, .... 

Ash, 

Sulphur, . . - . . 



Coke, SD.'il 36.66 

A comparison of these analyses with those of other highly bituminous coals, 
will show that there are very few examples recorded of so high an amount 
of volatile matter. For example, we find among American coals that the 
" Albert Coal," of New-Brunswick, yields 61.Y4 ; the coal of Chippenville, 
Penn., 49.80 ; that of Kanawha, 41.85 ; that of Pittsburgh, 32.95 per cent. ; 
while the mean of the fat, caking coals of Liverpool is 37.60 per cent. The 
Lowmoor Scotch Cannel, and the Boghead, also a Scotch coal, are the only 
ones giving a higher proportion of volatile matter. la fact, the ordinary pro- 
portions of volatile and fixed ingredients in bituminous coals, are completely 
reversed in the Breckinridge Cannel. 

Notwithstanding the large proportion of bituminous matter which this coal 
contains, it yields nothing to the action of solvents ; while the Albert coal 
yields about 20 per cent to spirits of turpentine and benzole. 

As might be expected, this coal yields a very powerful and abundant flame, 
demanding a free access of air for its perfect combustion. In burning, this 
coal does not coke or cohere, nor does any fatty exudation distill out of it, as 
in the combustion of the fat, caking coals of Eastern Virginia and Pittsburgh. 
It appears fitted, above all others in the Valley of the Mississippi yet examined, 
for raising steam in the cylindrical boilers of the Western rivers, where an 
abundant and sustained flame is desired. For the same reasons it? adaptation 
for sugar-boiling, stationary steam-boilers, reverberatory furnace, and glass- 
works, is very obvious. For private use it possesses the advantage of great 
cleanliness, not producing any dust or powder of small coal, ^nd not even soil- 
ing a white glove in the handling. It does not clinker upon grate-bars, so far 
as experience has tested it. It is unfit for blacksmiths and iron-furnaces, as it 
produces so small a coke. 



I. 


II. 


60.27 


64.297 


31.05 


27.160 


8.66 


8.470 


a trace 


a trace 


99.93 


99.927 



36 BRECKINRIDGE CANNEL COAL. 

Another peculiarity of the Breckinridge Coal, due to its state of aggrega- 
tion, is its resistance to injury frona atmospheric and mechanical causes ; such 
is its strength and elasticity, that it loses practically nothing in the transporta- 
tion or handling. It may also be exposed for any length of time to the rains 
and frosts without the least injury. Those practically acquainted with coals 
will appreciate this peculiarity without comment. It is well known that not 
less than 10 per cent loss is occasioned by every handling of ordinary bitu- 
minous coals, owing to the breaking down of the lumps ; while under the 
influence of the rains and frosts, the common coals are soon slacked to dust, 
or set on fire by fermentation of their continued pyrites. In several places 
where the speaker first uncovered this coal on the hill-sides, its out-crop was 
found to be 'clean and sharp, the angles of the coal perfectly preserved, and 
no "coal-blossom," or dust of decomposed coal, visible in the surrounding 
soil. A slight rusty discoloration of the outer surface of the coal was all the 
change visible in it ; and half an inch within this surface the mass appeared 
as clear and bright as when taken one hundred yards from the surface. 
No better evidence can be obtained than this of the power of this coal to 
resist atmospheric influences. This character marks itself on the topography 
of the region. A slight terrace, or projecting ledge, " a bench," as the coal- 
viewers call it, may be seen marking on the hill-sides the situation of this 
coal-seam. 

In some respects the Breckinridge Coal is like jet. Like that substance, it 
sustains perfectly well aU the mechanical operations of sawing, turning, and 
drilling, and may be made to assume a high poUsh. It is easily wrought into 
various delicate ornamental articles. 

The sandstone roof overlying this coal is firm and heavy. In it are seen 
stems of several species of coal-plants, but not very abundantly. There is no 
overshade, with abundant plants, as in many bituminous beds. The fire-clay 
beneath is very firm, and contains seams of flat, argillaceous wire-stems, which 
appear abundantly after the floor has been thrown out for some time, subject 
to the action of the frosts. No roots of stigmarial were seen in the floor or 
roof. This coal appears peculiar in having the stems and pouds of sigillariac 
imbedded only in the substance of the coal itself. A specimen illustrating 
this circumstance is on the table. Stems of this sort were seen six feet in 
length. The pouds are converted into a light-colored pyrites, contrasting very 
beautifully with the dark ground on which they-rest. When a considerable 
mass of this coal is burned without disturbance, cinders of some size may 
bo found in the ashes, which present, in a very remarkable manner, the reti- 
culated appearance of an endogenous stem, as seen in cross section. This cir- 
cumstance, together with the other peculiarities of this coal already dwelt on, 
led the writer to query whether this coal-seatn was not composed entirely of 
the compressed stems of large trees, brought together in the manner of ligu- 
rite, rather than that of ordinary bituminous coal, to which it has apparently 
no analogy. 

Po.trolium and Coal-tar hells. — At the foot of the bluffs of sand-stone, 
under i\ie coal in numerous places, coal-tar exudes, sometimes accompanied 
by sulphui -water, again by chalybeate-water — sometimes without either. It 
is the occurionce of these springs which has given origin to the "Tar and 
White Sulphur Springs," a well-known watering-place. Near these springs, 
but in a place wkere no exudation is now seen, was observed a heavy mass 
of elastic bitumen, % specimen of which is here shown. This substance is 
plainly the product of the exudation of petrolium. It is seen investmg the 
gand-rock and raising the roots of trees, but is now so firm as to require an 



FRANKLIN COUNTY AGEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 37 

axe to remove it. It would seem that this substance bears to the petrolium 
from which it is formed the same relation that resin and pitch bear to the 
turpentine as it exudes from the tree. It has, however, in its change, lost the 
power of fusion ; it burns with an abundant, smoky flame, but does not 
melt. 



PIKE COUNTY, ILL. 
The following is the assessment of this county for 1853 : 





No. 


Value. 


Av. Val. 


Horses, - - - . 


7,476 


$331,056 


$44 28 


Neat Cattle, 


17,445 


181,871 


10 42 


Mules and Asses, 


457 


21,610 


47 28 


Sheep, 


11,521 


11,117 


96 


Hogs, - . - . 


39,193 


87,897 


2 24 


Carriages and Wagons, - 


- 2,862 


100,111 


24 76 


Clocks and Watches, 


2,491 


15,357 


6 16 


Pianos, 


11 


877 


79 90 


Goods and Merchandise, 


- 


128,913 




Manufactured articles, - 


. 


32,989 




Moneys and Credits, - 


. 


455,621 




Bonds, Stocks, etc., 


. 


14,185 




Unenumerated property, 


- 


210,613 





Total, 01,592,115 



FRANKLIN" COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of this Society was held at the City Hall recently, and 
notwithstanding the unpleasant state of the weather, a large number of sub- 
stantial farmers were present. Mr. Brush, the President, delivered a very able 
and eloquent address, after which the following gentlemen were elected offi- 
cers for the ensuing year : 

William L. Minor, President. 
Benjamin Blake, Vice-President. 
J. Wm. Baldwin, Secretary. 
Thomas Moodie, Treasurer. 

Messrs. Seymour, Sly, Sullivan, Burr, and Clarke, Managers. 
J. M. Sullivant offered the following : 

Resolved, That it is with profound regret the members of the Society hear 
that their able and efficient President, Samuel Brush, Esq., peremptorily 
declines a reelection. 

Resolved, That this Society have a high appreciation of his valuable labors 
in their behalf, and hereby tender him their hearty thanks for the good he 
has accomplished for the cause of agriculture in Franklin County. 

Resolutions were also passed in relation to the arrangemente of the next 
Fair, and also to print the address of the President. 



38 HORTICULTURE. 



THE SHAKER BARN. 

At Enfield, N. H,, the society of Shakers have projected, and have in good 
profijress, a granite barn, two hundred and fifty feet in length, by fifty in 
width, (for the accommodation of fifty choice cows,) to be roofed with slate 
from Wales. Mr. Henry Elkins, the designer and architect, estimates the 
cost at $15,000, and gives the following description of it: 

The location and arrangements of this barn-edifice are in many respects 
peculiar, and in all respects admirable. Its outer walls are of stone and its roof 
of slate. It is located across a gentle ravine, opening from bank to bank ; and 
is so arranged that teams laden with hay or straw may enter at either gable, 
precipitate the load to the bay below, pass on, and make their egress at the 
other end. Such a situation has enabled them to extend a cellar its whole 
length for the reception of the manures both solid and hquid, which are kept 
irom filtration, or otherwise escaping downward, by a plank-floor laid upon 
a stratum of clay, wrought as a bed of mortar. The descent of the ground 
upon the back-side of the barn, renders ingress and egress to and from the cel- 
lar convenient and easy for carrying pond-mud and manure. The cows will be 
tethered all upon the south side of the barn, and in one continuous longitu- 
dinal stable, sixteen feet in width, with walls plastered inwardly with lime- 
mortar, and leaving a walk behind the gutters, of four feet in width, and a cor- 
ridor or passage between the cribs and mows on the north side, (which now 
preserves the warmth of the barn throughout,) sufficiently wide for a horse 
and cart to pass ; which is often convenient, when feeding with green food. 

The scaftulds above the cows are a best depository for litter, which is let 
down through a trap-door in the rear of the cows, and when partitioned into 
rooms serve as a place for meal, grain, and also for a herdsman's office. All 
these arrangements render it, perhaps, the most convenient as it is undoubted- 
ly the most expensive barn in America. Its height to the eaves upon the 
back-side is to be thirty-four feet ; stables, eight feet, (including timbers,) 
and scaflfolds, sixteen feet. Flooring for teams framed four feet below the 
eaves. 



HORTICULTURE. 



We present to the lovers of beautiful flowers the following instructions in 
reference to a very pretty family of flowers. We take them from a treatise 
in The Horticulturist. 

The Daisy Chrysanthemums. — If you would like to bloom them in the 
open ground, put them in a dry, warm border ; under your south windows 
would be a good place, if there are no trees in the way to hide them from 
the sun. Some of them bloomed earlier than others ; for instance, Sacra- 
mento, Autumna, La Gitana, Solfatare, Fotdidetto, etc., all pretty, and good 
bloomers, within doors or out. 

If you would like to bloom them in your parlor or green-house, in May 
take strong cuttings from those in the open ground, place them in the sun- 
niest spot in your garden, where they can remain until August or September, 
allowing them, of course, plenty of room. In such a place the plant will 
break freely, and have a fine, bushy top, without pinching at all ; and these 



THE PIE PLANT. 39 



plants will retain their lower leaves better on account of being in the open ground. 
Or, when your cutting begins to grow, you may cut it oft' within an inch of the 
ground, and it may betJome still more dwarf, and perhaps have a large num- 
ber of flowers. Pot them in August or early in September, in good, rich 
mold ; water once a week with manure-water, or a solution of sulphate of 
ammonia. If they mildew, syringe them with sulphur-water; or, if you have 
no syringe, just before a shower comes on, sprinkle them well with sulphur. 
Remove them to the house before there is danger of sharp frosts, but keep 
them out as long as you can, especially if they are intended for the parlor. 
After two or three hard frosts, perhaps, they might safely remain oat for one 
or two weeks. After this, a south window in the parlor is probably the best 
place for them. In December or January, after the bloom is over, you can 
put your plants in a cold, frosty room ; and if you want the pots, turn the 
plants out and place them close together, cutting off the tops, of course. Or, 
if you have the heart to do it, throw your plants away, and return to your 
garden in the following May for a fresh supply. In this way you have the 
plant in pot about three or four months, and that at the time when you think 
less of the trouble on account of the flourishing buds and beautiful blossoms. 

The Dahlia. — This plant should be started in the parlor or conservatory, 
very earl}^, and set in the open air about the first or middle of June, accord- 
ing to the season. It will not bear the frost. Give each root about four 
feet of space, and water the entire plant freely. Strong plants, raised from 
cuttings, are better, for a showof flowers, than old roots. Turn out of the pots 
without disturbing the roots, and guard them with a stake as it grows. The 
following list of varieties is recommended in The Horticulturiat. 

Agnes, (Edwards,) pure white. 

Aurora, orange-buff. 

Bob, (Drummond,) vivid orange-scarlet. 

Grand- Duke, (Turner,) bluish-lilac. 

George ViUien, (Union,) dark purple. 

Mfss Caroline, (Brittle,) white, slightly tipped with purple 

Mori ling -Star, (Turner,) orange-scarlet. 

Plantagenet, (Turner.) pur[)le, shaded with lilac. 

Sir John Franklin, (Turner,) bufl', with salmon at the base of the petals. 

Sir R. Wliittington, (Drummond,) ruby-crimson ; a large, perfectly-formed, 
superb flower. 

Fancy varieties, (so called,) striped and tipped. 

Beauty of the Grove, (Burgess,) salmon-buff, tipped with purple. 

Claudia, (Locbner,) violet-purple, tipped with white. 

Douglas Jerrold, (Keyne,) bufl" edged with scarlet. 

Duchess of Kent, (Knight,) pale-yellow, tipped with white. 

Queen Victoria, (Wheeler,) yellow, distinctly margined with red. 

Unanimity, (Edwards,) scarlet, and deep yellow in regular stripes. 



• Thh Pie-Plant. — A correspondent of the Indiana Farmer expresses the 
opinion, based upon experiment, that the use of ashes as the manure for the 
pie-plant, produces a more delicious plant than any other mode of culture ; 
not being as sour, but containing just enough acidity to make them pleasant. 
The reason given f jr this is, that the acid peculiar to the rhubarb is neu- 
tralized in part by the alkali of the ashes. 



40 PROGRESS OF MECHANICS. 



PROGRESS OF JIECHANICS. 

The Art of PRiNTiNG.^Printing from blocks is supposed to bave been 
invented in 1422. The earliest printing from any wood-block, of which we 
have the date, is in the collection of Earl Spencer. It is the representation of 
St. Christoi>her carrying the infant Saviour across the sea. It bears this date. 
It was discovered in a German convent. From cutting whole pages, of entire 
blocks, the step was easy to cut letters separately, upon wood, and the next, 
on metal, and this was followed by forming matrices or moulds for casting 
each letter separately. 

Conrad Saspach was the turner who made the first printing-press. This be 
did under the direction of John Guttenburg, a man of illustrious family, who, 
in the revolution of Metz, retired to Strasburg, where he made his first expe- 
riments in the art of printing. This press was constructed in 143G. 

At bis death, his machine, having fallen into the hands of some of his 
relatives, became the subject of a lawsuit. The trial was had in December, 
1439, and five witnesses testified that Guttenburg was the first person who 
practised printing by movable types. 

Guttenburg's first notions in printing are said to have been suggested by 
impressions made by the seal of his ring upon wax ; and his first ideas of a 
printing-press, by carefully observing the action of a wine-press. Shoeffer, in 
conjunction with Faust, was the first who invented metallic types. 

The precise position occupied by various persons connected with these 
inventions is by no means clearly ascertained. Several persons are, brought 
forward as worthy of more especial honor, but it is established beyond dis- 
pute that Guttenburg produced the first printed book, and hence he is uni- 
versally called the Father of Printing, and Peter Shoeffer, already men- 
tioned, the Father of Letter-forming, and John Faust the generous j?atron 
of the infant art. 

The Metz printers were sworn to secresy, and their secrets were kept invio- 
late till 14G2, when the city was sacked and plundered by Archbishop Adol- 
phus, and the workmen were scattered in all directions. Each then consi- 
dered himself independent, and freed from all the obligations previously 
assumed. Guttenburg died in 1468. 

The first printing-presses were of wood. The power was a screw, operated 
by a lever, as in modern hand-presses. 

Improved presses came into general use in IloUand several years before 
their introduction into England, and the first important change in their con- 
struction was wrought by an ingenious artist named Wra. Jansen Blaeu, 
of Amsterdam. These improved presses dift'ored very little, in their princi- 
ples, from those of modern times. The spindle and its connections have 
been the chief point of improvement. Two pulls were required, especially 
for large forms. 

Wooden presses were then superseded by those made of iron, the invention 
of Earl Stanhope. It had before been attempted to introduce a compound" 
power into the wooden press, but it was incompetent to bear so great a strain. 
The French had, however, constructed a press, worked by a long levei-, which 
proved to be of little value. 

Earl Stanhope's press was completed in 1800. The handle was attached 
to a rod which crossed the platten, and the rod was connected v,nth the spin- 



PEOGEESS OF MECHANICS. 41 

die by means of machinery. The carnage rested on wheels, whicli ran on a 
straight edge. He took out no patent, but left the whole field open to all who 
chose to enter it. 

This press was modified by the introduction of the Sector- press, in which 
the sector was substituted for the screw, and by having a large screw fixed in 
the head of the press, for regulating the power of the press. 

The next invention was Cogger's Press, erected by Cogger & Scott. This 
consisted of two upright pillars of wrought-iron, upon which the cast-iron 
head was screwed. It had sectors, and a screw in the head for the purpose 
of regulating the power, similar to the first patent. The platten was secured 
by two rods, passing through the head and till, and fastened to the platten 
by small pins. The platten was returned by the power of two spiral spilngs. 
The power was a compound-lever, like that of Earl Stanhope. 

The Ruthven press, the next claimant for public favor, was nearly square. 
The table was stationary, the platten drawn over by the hand, being supported 
by two iron springs, under which were four brass bevelled wheels, which ran 
on two pieces of bevelled steel. When the impression was taken, the springs 
yielded. The power was regulated by nuts upon screws on the top of the 
head. The works beneath were complicated. 

The Russel press, and the Albion press, invented by Mr. R. W. Cope, fol- 
lowed in order, and are still in use. The latter is in high repute, bat can not 
be properly explained without a diagram. It is claimed for this press that it 
has superiority over others in being better adapted for expedition, the bar 
being attached to the near cheek instead of the off one, as in the Columbian, 
and having about a fourth of a circle to traverse, and for its sim;olicity of 
construction, the ease of its pull, and the comparatively small weight of metal 
which it requires. 

Hydraulic presses were first introduced to the public about 1810 or 1812, 
by Mr. Bramah, of Piccadilly. Since the expiration of his patent, various 
improvements have been introduced, which render them of great value. 

Thus far we have referred only to English patents. 

One of the earliest inventions in this country, in this department, was that 
of Mr. George Clymer, of Philadelphia, called the Columbian press. In 1817 
he visited England, and an examination of his press led to the conviction 
that it was a valuable improvement upon those previously in use, and it 
was introduced at once into several of the large establishments in London, 
and of course they soon were scattered in many other places. It is said to 
be better for heavy work than for light jobs, and not so expeditious as are 
some others of a cotemporary period. This press was used in England, in 
preference to all others, for printing a most singularly splendid work in let- 
ters of gold, of the august ceremonial of the coronation of " his most gracious 
maj-sty, George the Fourth." 

Farther improvements and original inventions connected with the printing- 
press, by our own citizens, must be reserved till our next number. 

Stereotyping. — This art, in its infancy, is somewhat involved in mystery. 
In 1728, Wm. Ged, a goldsmith of Scotland, turned his attention to this sub- 
ject. He made a contract with two persons, named Fenner and James, who 
obtained the patent for the University of Cambridge, which was made out in 
the name of Fenner. On his death, the University refused to renew it to his 
widow. The new patentee was ordered to resort to the old process of printing, 
and the plates of the Bible and Common Prayer were melted down. Soon 
after, Ged died in poverty. Experiments were afterward made by others. 
About 1804, it was revived by Earl Stanhope, assisted by Mr. A. Wilson, a 



42 SCIENCE AND THE PEOPLE. 

printer. In the Monthhj Magazine of April, 180Y, it is stated that "Stereo- 
type bad not been adopted by the booksellers of London, and it does not 
appear that more than twenty or thirty works would warrant the expense of 
being cast in solid pages.''" 



SCIENCE AND THE PEOPLE. 

We fully agree to the practicability and utility of the plan proposed by one 
of our Southern exchanges, as given below. The people can learn a hundred 
tim?s more than they think they can. They can procure valuable stores of 
natural history, and collect the substantial memorials of the leading facts in 
science. We give the following without fee — only — if any of our readers will 
collect specimens and prepare them as here described. If they will forward 
to us, postage-paid, a single specimen of each, numbered, so as thereby to be 
identified, we will return to them the name, habits, etc. — [Eds. P., L., & A.] 

Work of the Million. — Every body ought to be engaged in some useful 
employment, and if an individual can not do this, he can do that, a'nd by his 
labors add something to the general stock of knowledge, and increase the com- 
fort of all. If a man can not maul rails, or pound the anvil, or penetrate the 
depths of philosophy, or theology, he can be useful in picking up bugs, 
and snails, in stuffing snakes, rabbits, and birds, or in collecting the fossil 
remains of by-gone ages. 

In this way any individual who has a leisure hour now and then, might 
collect, in a few years, a geological cabinet for himself, or do much to increase 
the store of geological specimens in the institutions of the land. 

But says one, " What could I do with bugs, snails, and birds, if I had them ? 
I know not how to prepare them so as to prevent them from smelling, or stop 
their decay." 

Well, we will furnish a few receipts, which, if any one will follow up, be 
may spend his leisure hours pleasantly and profitably. 

We have received from one of the most scientific men of this district, and 
probably of the State, a few receipts touching the preparation of specimens for 
geological cabinets, and as we do not know that a " copy-right" has been secured 
for these receipts, we publish them with the hope that by them some of our 
friends scattered over the South will prepare for Eiskine College a handsome 
collection of specimens, and send them or bring them on to the next meeting 
of synod. We are anxious to furnish the college with a splendid museum 
and a good library, as well as ^Yith an endowment-fund, and if the friends of 
the college, scattered over a wide field, will each lend a Httle help, a geologi- 
cal cabinet may be furnished, in a few years, not to be surpassed by any 
thing of the kind in the Southern States. Could not the Alumni of the col- 
lego each send up a collection of fossils, or recent specimens, rare and valuable, 
and thus increase the advantages of their alma-raater ? The students in 
attendance might do something to increase the geological cabinet. 

In order to preserve bugs with hard-wing cases, such as the "big-bug," or 
beetles that buzz about at night, and also the bugs with thin or nerved wings, 
(Neuroptera,) such as the Dragon-fiy, or " Devil's darning-needle," as vulgarly 
called, let them be placed for a short time in boiling water, to extract the oil 
out of them, then put them for ten days in the following solution, namely : 

1 quart alcohol, 2 oz. gum-camphor, 2 oz. arsenic, ^ oz. corrosive-subli- 
mate. 



SCIENCE AND THE PEOPLE. 43 

To prepare snakes, lizards, and the like : Skin them by making an incision 
lenfTthwise in the belly, and drawing the body or flesh through that incision. 
This will be apt to turn the skin inside out, but turn it back immediatehj^ior it 
may be difficult to do so if allowed to stand. Cut the body off at the head, 
leaving the head unskinned ; then place the skin in the above solution ten days, 
then stuff it with fine chopped cotton, dusting it inside with a little dry arsenic. 

All crustaceous animals, such as the craw or crayfish, are to be prepared in 
the same way, by placing them ten days in the above solution, without 
extracting the viscera or bowels. It should be remarked here, that themolus- 
cous or soft matter in a snail may be readily extracted after taking it out of 
the boiling water, and before placing it in the above solution, by crooking 
the point of a pin and hooking out the soft matter. The whole may be 
looked upon as a " pin-hook" business ; but no one would think so, if he could 
see the splendid collections that have been made by little and little, and 
the valuable information thus acquired. 

We do not understand that the crustaceous animals are to be placed in 
boiling water, but only in the solution, and then neatly fixed on boards or in 
small boxes, with a glass cover, by headless pins. So with the bugs. 

To prepare fishes for preservation : Skin them, dust them plentifully inside 
with dry ra-senic, or rather ruh it in, stuff with chopped cotton to the natural 
size, having measured them before skinning, wash outside with spirits of tur- 
pentine, varnish with tableau (?) varnish. Small fish may be put in the above 
solution, without skinning or extracting the viscera. 

To prepare quadrupeds, such as squirrels, minks, rabbits, and the like: 
Skin them by making an inf*ision in the belly lengthwise, take out the flesh and 
bones, leave the skull in, but skin it and place dry arsenic between the skull 
and the skin. 

Take the exact meiisure of the animal before skinning, so that when stuffed 
to the same size it may look natural. Make a wire-frame or body, running 
the -wire through the leg^ and feet so that it can be fastened to a board, 
dust the inside well with arsenic, stuff with tow if it can be had — it is better 
than cotton. In taking the tail-bone from the skin, be careful not to pull out 
the hair of the tail, as that will disfigure the animal. By entering a clamp 
or something at the root of the tail, the bone may be extracted. 

To prepare birds for a museum : Skin them, making an incision lengthwise, 
as in quadrupeds, take out the body, leave the boijes in the wings, dust 
well with arsenic, make a wire-frame, if you can, as in quadrupeds, stuff with 
low or cotton, take the measure of the bird before skinning, wash or dip 
the legs and feet in the above solution ; after stuffing, wrap the bird round 
with thread a number of times, and let it remain so for several days, so as 
to give the proper position to the feathers and wings. 

To prepare plants and flowers: Dip the plant, or sprinkle it with the 
above solution, put them between the leaves of paper that will soak up 
the moisture. Newspapers will answer. Press them by laying a weight on 
them, exchange them daily, from one file or book of newspapers to another, 
until they are dry, then lay them away between the leaves of a blank-book, 
and give them a name, or get a botanist to name them and arrange them. 

There will not be much difficulty, if any, in using the above solution, 
but the operator should be careful not to inhale too much of the dry arsenic ; 
though it is said to be wholesome, and will cure a man of the chills to 
])repare specimens with arsenic. It will hurt the fingers a litt'e if not care- 
fully used. Insects will destroy the preparations, unless arsenic or the above 
solution is used. All hands to work, then. H. 



44 







GARY'S PUMPS. 45 



CART'S PUMPS 

The visitors of the Crystal Palace, -who have only entered the Machine 
Arcade, can not have fiiiled to notice the system of pumps which are con- 
stantly throwing streams of water, under glass, through a variety of pipes 
attached to different parts of the machine. The engraving hereto annexed 
is a fair representation of this compound machine. A jet is thrown perpen- 
dicularly from the top, and a handsome cascade, which would be beautifully 
ornamental in any yard, beneath the upper oblong box, is constantly in 
action, while other jets are added at pleasure. The following is a simple 
description of this efficient contrivance. 

The peculiar points of this pump may be briefly stated as follows : 
It is perfectly simple. No part of it is complicated, or liable to get out of 
order. The general construction of its interior is seen at a glance, in a rough 
engraving in the margin of the advertising pages of this journal. 

The valve or piston is peculiar, and is shown in the margin. The letter C 

represents the packing in the end of the valve 
cut in the form of a T, and raised up out of 
its place ; like all the rest of the packing, 
the best and thickest of sole leather is used 
after being well hammered. A is a piece of 
the same kind of leather drawn tightly into 
the edge of the valve. B, the button on the 
back-side of the valve, is represented as 
being fitted into a recess with two legs fitted 
into holes in the same, and sprung out 
about an eighth of an inch by means of 
spiral springs. When a pump is new, and 
the valve in its place, the button B is 
pushed up' snug to the valve, and as the 
packing wears, the spring pushes the valve 
forward till the packing and edge of the valve at A is worn down to the 
edge in the recess at A. Ssome valves are made without this recess ; in that 
case, the packing will not wear as long, as nothing wears but the leather ; but 
of late an addition of metal has been added all the way on the back-side, 
and a part of the way on each end on the front side, to protect the leather 
and render it more durable; and therefore when it wears down, the metal on 
the back-side and two ends on the front edge as lov/ as the metal at the recess 
at A on the front side, it will want packing. 

The pump is powerful. A moderate application of force gives a liberal 
flow of water. We have seen a jet thrown some two hundred feet, through a 
discharging pipe of more than an inch in diameter. The stream was converted 
into spray, and fell upon the top of the palace like a shower of rain. 

There are different sizes and patterns. One is designed for a domestic 
fire-engine. It is used for all ordinary purposes, wells, cisterns, etc. By a 
very simple arrangement, a hose can be attached to the nozzle and used for 
extinguishing fire about the premises, or watering the garden. By having 
a supply of hose on hand in some convenient place, where it could be attached 
in a moment, with one man to turn and one to manage the hose, in nine cases 
out of ten a building might be saved, not only from destruction hj fire, but 
from being Jiooded with water by common fire-engines. A person having 




U 



46 



Gary's pumps. 



one of these pumps, with sufficient length of hose to reach the top of hi 
building, if his neighbor's buildings are on fire, can mount his own ant 
thereby save it from destruction. 

The manner of putting up the above pump is as follows : By just erectin; 
a standard, by mortising into the floor or platform a post (say 4 by 5 inchet;^ 
braced well at the bottom with iron braces. The holder is then screwed on, 
so that when the pump is set in, the shaft will be 2 feet 8 or 10 inches 

Another form is of bell-metal, for ships. It is extensively used in steam- 
boats, and is found to answer a very useful purpose. This form is well adapted 
to machine-shops, furnaces, and small factories. 

The following is one form of arrangement of this pump, showing the wheels 
for belts to drive the shaft or axle of the pump : 




These pumps are made with the discharge either from the top or the side ; 
that is, either perpendicular or horizontal ; and one form of it, at least, which 
is 14 inches in diameter and 8 inches in depth, is provided with a flange for 
bolting on iron pipe. 

One size is as follows : Inside diameter, 10 inches and 5-16ths; depth, 4^ 
inches. Another, 12 inches diameter and 1 inches deep. 

The following is an extract from the annual report of the ofBcers of the 
State Lunatic Asylum at Trenton, N. J., for 1853, in regard to the manner of 
furnishing water for the building : 

* * * A steam-engine of 12-horse power, constructed by Wm. Bur- 
den, of Brookl3'n, N.Y. ; a cylindrical boiler, with one 14-inch flue for gene- 
rating steam, furnished by the firm of Vancleve & IMcKean, of Trenton ; a 
forcing-pump, acting on the rotary principle of Gary's patent, Brockport, N.Y,, 
:md a cast-iron pipe six inches in diameter, through which the water is forced 
from the engine-house through the space of 1000 feet to the receiving-tanks, 
four in number, in the dome of the main building. It may also be mentioned 
that these tanks together, contain about eight thousand gallons. In addition 
to the foregoing, the ground about the spring from which the water is 
obtained, is situated seventy-two feet from the pump, and thirteen feet below 
it. *■ * * * * The apparatus is very efiicient, raising water at easy 



DESCRIPTIOiSr OF A PIG(3^ERY. 



working speed, through the distance mentioned, one tliousand and seventy- 
two feet, and with a perpendicular of one hundred and twenty feet, at the 
rate of ten thousand gallons per hour. The advantage of an apparatus capa- 
ble of supplying water thus rapidly, is found in the economy of time required 
for its attendance, and also for its great eiEciency in case of fire. In connec- 
tion with the last mentioned application of its power, it may be remarked, 
that it is designed, by means of outlets, for attaching hose in the main and 
in the branch pipes, placed a few yards distant from the building, to be able 
at all times, and with short notice, to apply the whole force of the engine and 
pump, in supplying water at any point of the building required. This we 
regard as the best possible security against destruction or damage by fire, and 
would be of itself a sufficient justification of the entire expense incurred in 
the completion of the work. 

The representation of the interior of this pump may be seen in the engrav- 
ing annexed to an advertisement in that department of our journal. 



DESCRIPTION OF A PIGGERY. 

The following is a description of the Piggery of Dr. Morton, of West- 
Needham, Mass.: 

Fig. 1 represents a front perspective view of the whole building and pig- 
yard. The building is 125 feet long by 14 wide, with open or outer pens 
in the rear, in the second story, opening into a yard. It is of two stories, 
with glass windows (protected with iron grates) to each pen, fronting the 
south, and is constructed on the south side of a hill, the lower story being 
built on an excavation made for that purpose, whereby the pens in that 
story (which are breeding-pens for winter or early-spring pigs) are pro- 
tected from the cold northerly winds, and a suitable temperature maintained 
in them for breeding in the winter when desired, without the use of artificial 
heat, by the rays of the sun shining through the glass of the windows. By 
this manner of construction, in ordinary winters, there will be found to be 
sufficient heat maintained for breeding ; but, if the winter should be unusu- 
ally severe, artificial heat may be employed. 

Fig. 2 is a plaa of the upper story of the building and yard behind. A 
are the inner pens, and L the outer yards, the latter are in the yard or inclo- 
sure Y. Lot Y has a large shed to protect the manure, and communicates 
with a stream of water. The pigs enter the outer yards from the rear, and 
from thence to the inner pens, and, if desired, can be secured there by sliding 
doors which are provided to each pen, though not represented in the drawings. 
The passage B is four feet wide, and extends the whole length of the build- 
ing. This intersects the entrance at the rear of the building, and serves as 
a convenient means of attending to the pigs feeding, cleaning the pens, etc. 
E is the swill-room, which is 16 feet long, in which is contained a furnace and 
boiler, a swill-tub, G, or reservoir, into which the boiled provender is placed, 
a series of bins, K, which are for holding different kinds of grain, and a place 
for firewood. Cut through the floor of the swill-room is a hatchway, M, 
which is for emptying the swill from the reservoir or boilers to another reser- 
voir in the lower story, where it will be convenient for feeding the breeding- 
sows below. S denotes stairway communicating with tlie upper and lower 
story. D, D, end-doors to enter passage B, B, B. 



48 



DESCRIPTION OF A PIGGERY. 




pT-n 



f.,i4i 





Fig. 3 is a plat view of the lower story, or breeding-peus. N are the pens 
which have no yard-pens. And the passage B, B, B, extends the whole 
length of the building, at the rear side, instead of at the front side, as in the 
upper story, so that the pigs get^ the full benefit of the rays of the sun through 
the windows. Those lower pens are entered at the doors A, A, from the front 
and through the passage B, B, at each end of the building ; the pigs entering 
through either of these doors, pass into the long passage, B, and enter the 
pens through doors at the rear. S represents the stairs below, aside nf which 
is the reservoir to receive food from the trap-door, M. 



CRYSTAL PALACE. 49 



Fig. 4, a vertical cross-section of the building. A are the upper pens, and 
L the outer yards. N, the lower or breeding-pens. The floors of both sto- 
ries slope so as to drain off the surplus liquid, and render the stalls or pens 
more easy to be cleansed. These slope in opposite directions : the lower one 
to the front, and the upper one to the rear of the building, as represented in 
Fig. 4. I is a reservoir located in front of the building, with suitable con- 
ducts leading from the building for draining the lower or breeding-pens. 
The upper pens are drained from the rear side. 



CRYSTAL PALACE. 

The Great Exhibition is still open, and invites the lover of the useful 
arts, and the lover of the fine arts, to pass a day or two in its well-filled 
courts. This, as we have said before, and say now, in reference to its present 
condition, is no sham affair. There is no humbug about it. Yes there is, 
too — and the humbug is this, that some of so exquisitely fine taste, and such 
lofty ideas of what constitutes a show worthy of their notice, are yet to be 
found in our comnounity, who never have and who never will see so fine 
productions, in various departments, as are exhibited to-day in the Crystal 
Palace. These people are themselves the victims of this humbug, this delu- 
sion, in imagining that they are acquiring a reputation for great knowledge 
of what is excellent and beautiful, while, in fact, their own neighbors do not 
know or care whether they have honored the palace with their presence or 
not. Others have no idea, at any rate, that a really cultivated taste keeps 
them away. 

'But is the Exhibition still worth seeing?" Certainly it is. We confess 
to our sad and gloomy reflections, when we saw those beautiful tables of our 
friend La Hoche deserted by hina, and deprived of his rich display, the like 
of which can be seen nowhere else in this country, and the superior of 
which can not be seen in any country. We were, we admit, positively 
sad, on our first visit after his departure. The Gobelins, too, were missed, 
and that head of St. John, (none of which, nor any thing to compare with 
either of these, those exquisites that did "not care to visit" the Crystal 
Palace, ever saw, or ever will see,) and all these being almost literally side 
by side of each other, and near the Sixth-avenue entrance — always our 
entrance — we felt that glory had indeed departed. The beautiful display of 
silver ware has also, much of it, been removed. Here is certainly a loss. 
But what remains ? Acres of the products of finished art ; acres of elegant 
display, of useful inventions, of the best productions of this and of other 
lands. The statuary is better than that of any gallery in this country. The 
paintings are superior to any gallery in this country. The ten thousands of 
things, from the flower composed essentially of diamonds to the "centre-piece" 
of solid silver; from the watch no larger than a half-dime to the huge steam- 
engine ; from the chair suited to a child's doll, to the best and gayest coach ; 
from the pocket-knife and pocket-pistol through all the gradations to the 
scythe and the field-piece; from the artificial singing-bird to the church 
organ ; these and others all are there, whether composed of silk, linen, cotton, 
wool, wood, iron, silver, or gold. All metals are there, and all minerals. 

We have referred to what has been removed. Let us now refer to what 

VOL. VIL 4 



50 SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS. 

has been added. " Four hundred and twenty-nine exhibitors" have contri- 
buted toward a new supply of goods. Among these are an extensive show 
from China, and another from ancient Egypt ; basso-relievos, medallions, etc., 
of Thorwaldsen and other eminent sculptors; elegant carvings in marble; 
work-boxes, dressing-cases, pencillings, etc., etc. There are also many ma- 
chines, of far more interest than those taken away, and paintings of far greater 
lerit than most of those removed. Peale's Coukt of Death used to fonn 
'!! exhibition of itself. It is now in this gallery. But few statues have been 
removed, though among these were those of the world-renowned Powers. 
Even here, however, we have a tolerable balance. Flora, by Crawford, is an 
exquisite piece of art, unlike all others in the Crystal Palace, and not inferior 
to any of them. Other specimens of statuary are also among the new entries. 
In the mass of miscellaneous articles, the additions are too numerous for spe- 
cial reference. 

The management is efficient. The arrangements in the building are im- 
proved. Refreshments are on sale in various parts of the building, so that 
no one has a monopoly. Soda-water, ice-creams, etc., may be had on all 
sides. Don't fail to visit the Crystal Palace. 



SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS. 

We now come to the fifteenth century, and find a more numerous list of 
names, which will live, with the few already spoken of, as long as art shall 
exist. In this century, sculpture and painting reached their highest stage of 
perfection. No brighter names have since eclipsed the glory of this century, 
nor do we believe such ever will appear. 

Antonio and Piero were two brothers born in humble life, difiering in age 
but a single year. The former was apprenticed to a goldsmith. He soon 
outstripped his companions and became the favorite of his master. To him 
was committed the execution of valuable works, and the setting of rare and 
precious stones. He also discovered wonderful art in making figures in silver 
and bronze. Some of the bronze sculpture on the doors of St. Peter's at 
Rome, was the work of his hand, and some portions of the celebrated door of 
San Giovanni at Florence, described in a former number. This was the 
door in reference to which Michael Angelo exclaimed, " This is worthy of 
being the gate of Paradise." Antonio afterward applied himself to the study 
and practice of painting, and he became an excellent painter. He and Piero 
worked jointly. 

Andrea del Verrechio was the master of Leonardo da Vinci, and he was 
commissioned to paint a picture of the Baptism of Christ by John, for the 
monks of Vallambrosa, having previously painted one for the nuns of San 
Domenico. "When near its completion he was taken sick, and being unable 
to finish it at the time specified, " I commission thee," said he to Leonardo, 
" to do thy best on this work, for I have promised it at a certain time, and I 
aee no prospect of being able to accomplish my promise." Accordingly 
Leonardo tremblingly seized the brush, but his hand grew steady as he 
painted. "It is for my beloved master I implore skill and power for this 
deed," said he, as he knelt before the crucifix. 

" The work is done, father," said Leonardo ; " it only waits for your cor- 
rection." Andrea, as soon as he was able, was conveyed hy his pupils to his 



SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS. 51 

studio. At first, he looked upon the picture in silence. He then threw his 
arms around Leonardo, as he knelt beside him, and burst into tear,'^. " My 
son, I paint no more. To thee I commit my pencil and pallet. Thou shalt 
increase, but I shall decrease;" and from this time he devoted himself to 
sculpture, united with architecture. 

The first great work of his, in this department, was a San Tommaso, in 
bronze. The incredulity of Thomas is perfectly depicted ; and also his desire 
to assure himself of the fact related to him, is expressed in his countenance. 
There is a mixture of tenderness and of veneration in the manner in which 
he lays his hand on the side of the Saviour. Soon after this, he was com- 
missioned to execute a v\rork which is still extant, in Rome. A noble lady 
had died suddenly, in giving birth to an infant, and Andrea was commis- 
sioned by her husband to execute a work worthy of the subject. He repre- 
sented the lady on the stone which covered her tomb, rising with her infant. 
There is the beauty of an ascending spirit in this figure, to which he added 
three angels, representing three virtues. This was in marble. He afterward 
accomplished many works. He was summoned to Venice to execute an 
equestrian statue, where he took a violent cold and died, at the age of fifty- 
six. 

Leonardo da Vinci was born at Venice in 1452. He was the natural son 
of Pietro da Vinci, and was brought up in his family. He was le^s known 
as a sculptor than as a painter and architect. He was the pride of Andrea 
del Verricchio, who, as already described, taught him the rudiments of paint- 
ing. He excelled also in music and in eloquence. He was called to Milan 
to paint the Visconti palace. His first important work, after his removal to 
that city, was the celebrated equestrian statue of Francisco Sforza the First, 
which he commenced 1483. About the year 1485 or 1486, he was selected 
by Ludovico il Moro, as the founder and director of the Academy of Art, 
established by that prince, and it was while he was in his service that he 
painted his celebrated " Last Supper." 

The i^dre^ Laca Paciolo, the friend and companion of Leonardo, playfully 
alludes to his name as indicative of his merits, in a phrase the meaning of 
which is, " Vinci, in sculpture, casts, and painting, verifies his name." 

It is generally supposed that Leonardo introduced the art of engraving on 
wood and on copper. He died in the arms of Francis the First, at the age of 
seventy-five, universally esteemed and regretted. 

Rafaello d'Urbino was born at Urbino, on Good Friday, May 28, 1483. 
His father, Giovanni Santi, a painter of some merit, died when he was but 
eleven years old. He was early apprenticed to Pietro Perugino, at Perugia, 
a painter of distinction, and his earliest works exhibited remarkable genius. 
Among these are the Coronation of Mary, now in the gallery of the Vatican, 
painted in 1502, and the Marriage of Mary and Joseph, called the Sposalozio, 
done in 1504, which is now the chief ornament of the gallery of the Brera at 
Milan. The latter is taken, with some alterations, from Perugino. 

Some admirable pieces of sculpture are ascribed to him, though it is as a 
painter that he stands unrivalled. Of this branch of art, as illustrated and 
dignified by his pencil, we shall take occasion to treat hereafter, when we 
exhibit, more in detail, Painters and Paintings, as we now purpose. 

It is not easy to write a single page that shall be a worthy tribute to this 
great man. A volume is required. We can now give but a very meagre 
sketch, which we shall amplify hereafter. 

In 1514, Raphael was appointed by Pope Leo X. as architect of St. Peter's, 
and shortly afterward intrusted to him the task of executing upon paper 



52 SCULPTURE AND SCULFTORS. 

a restoration of ancient Rome, after the existing remains of the city, and the 
manuscript accounts of ir, still extant. Ilis subsequent. history is full of inter- 
tint. Ilis plan for St. Peter's was abandoned at his death, and his drawings 
for the restoration of ancient Rome are lost. 

Michael Angelo Buonarroti was born at Arezzo, in Tuscany, Marcb 6, 
1474. His father, Lndovico di Leonardo Buonarroti Simoni, was the Gover- 
nor of Caprese and Chiusi. At the proper age, he was sent to a grammar- 
sthool at Florence, to receive the rudiments of his education. But instead of 
l)eing attached to books, he was fascinated by painting, and a pupil with 
whom he was acquainted, then receiving instruction in this department, lent 
him designs to copy, and encouraged and assisted him. A head was given 
him to copy, and so well was his task executed, that he took his own copy to 
the person from whom it was borrowed, and the difference was not, at first, 
perceived. 

In April, 1488, he was apprenticed to Domenico Ghirlandaio, and his bro- 
ther David, painters, for three years, at six florins for the first year, eight for 
the second, and ten for the third, an honorable attestation of his abilities. 
Usually premiums were not paid but were received by instructors. 

At about this period, a garden was established in Florence by Lorenzo de 
Medici, which he amply supplied with antique statues, basso-relievos, busts, 
etc., to which Michael Angelo had free access, and it became his favorite 
school. He made models first in clay, and afterward in marble. 

So great was the talent displayed by the youth, that Lorenzo furnished 
him with every facility for practice within his power. He sat at his table as 
his own son, and was introduced to men of rank and genius. The death of 
Lorenzo, in 1492, deprived him of his protector, and he returned to his 
father's house. 

But ere long, Piero, the son and successor of Lorenzo, though destitute of 
Ilis taste and talent, renewed the offer to Michael Angelo, and he again 
became a member of this family. Soon after, he left Florence, and spent a 
■short time in Bologna, where he executed two statues, in marble, for the 
church of St. Domenico; a St. Petronio, and an angel kneeling, holding a 
candelabrum. Each of these was three palms (about 26^ inches) in height. 
Thence he returned to his father's house, and made a statue of an infant 
St. John sleeping, and also a sleeping Cupid. This last was purchased by an 
acquaintance, who having buried it awhile in the earth, dug it up and sold 
it in Rome as an antique, (then much prized,) for 200 ducats. The decep- 
tion, however, was discovered, and the money reclaimed. When it was dis- 
covered that Michael Angelo was the sculptor, great commendation was 
bestowed on him, and he was advised to go to Rome. He did so, and there 
he made a statue of Cupid, now lost, and of Bacchus, which is in the gallery 
at Florence. He also executed a group of the Virgin and Dead Christ, or 
"La Piela," which was very much admired. This now forms the altar-piece 
in a chapel of St. Peter's. Several copies were made of it. 

' He also executed a colossal figure of David, made from a block of marble 
which had been provided for another purpose, but had been spoilt, as it was 
f;upposed, for any purpose of sculpture. This, in 1504, was placed in the 
Piazza, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, where it now stands. He after- 
wards executed another statue of David, in bronze, which was sent into France, 
and a group in bronze, of David vanquishing Goliah ; also a statue of St. 
Mailliew, for the cathedral at Florence. Soon after, he returned to Florence, 
but <.m the accession of Julius II. was invited back to Rome, and it was pro- 
posed by the new pope that he should build a mausoleum, worthy of himself 



LIST OF STATE FAIRS. 53 



and his nation. The difficulty of finding a place suited to so grand an affair, 
led finally to a determination to rebuild St. Peter's, then a very old church, 
and this is the origin of that edifice, which took one hundred and fifty years 
to complete, and is now the grandest display of architectural splendor in the 
world. 

The next work of importance in which he was engaged, was in drawing 
the cartoons for the paintings of the walls of the Sistine Chapel. The follow- 
ing incident is worthy of notice. The architect of St. Peter's was ordered to 
construct a scaffolding for this work, to be painted in fresco. When the 
scaffolding was finished, Michael Angelo found it extremely objectionable, par- 
ticularly from certain holes pierced in the ceiling for cords to pass through to 
suspend a part of the machinery. He asked the architect how the ceiling 
could be completed if they were suffered to remain. To which he answered, 
" It is impossible to avoid making them, and the remedy must be a subsequent 
consideration." This created a dispute, and Michael Angelo applied to the pope, 
who gave him permission to take it down and erect another in its stead. He 
then designed and constructed one so complete, that Bramante afterward 
adopted it in the building of St. Peter's, and it is most probably that simple 
and admirable piece of machinery which is now used in Rome whenever 
there is occasion for scaffolding to repair or construct the interior of public 
buildings. This invention Michael Angelo gave to the poor man whom he 
employed as his carpenter, and from the commissions he received for making 
others of the same construction, he realized a small fortune. 

The cartoon of the Last Judgment was completed in 1541. Persons came 
from the most distant parts of Italy to see it, and the public and the Court 
were rivals in admiration. 

Michael Angelo, though not the first architect of St. Peter's, was appointed 
to that place on the death of San Gallo, in 1546. He accepted the office 
against his will, and on the condition that be should receive no salary. He 
changed essentially the plans that had been made for that splendid structure, 
and his successors did not vary materially from those which he had prepared. 
He lived long enough to see the walls erected to the base of the dome. The 
lantern of that church was modelled from that devised by Brunnelleschi, 
for the church of St. Maria del Fiore, which we described in a former num- 
ber. 

Further incidents of great interest in the life of this wonderful man, must 
be reserved for a future opportunity. He died in 1564. 



LIST OF STATE FAIRS FOR 1854. 



Ohio, Newark, September 19 — 22. 

Michigan, Detroit, September 26 — 29. 

Illinois Springfield, September. . . . 12 — 15. 

Indiana, Madison, October 4 — 6. 

Iowa, Fairfield, October 25. 

Wisconsin, Watertown, October 4 — 7. 

Pennsylvania, September 27 — 29. 

Few-York, New-York City, October 3—6. 

Vermont, Brattleboro', September. . . .12 — 14. 

New-Hampshire, - October 3 — 6. 

Georgia, (So. Central,) Augusta, October 23 — 28. 



64 THE PRINCIPLES OF THIS JOURNAL. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF THIS JOURNAL. 

The following were araong the principles advocated by our learned pre- 
decessor, J, Stuart Skinner, the founder of this journal, as set forth in his 
prospectus ; and this policy has been its leading and favorite topic of discus- 
sion to the present day. 

" The immediate and ever-increasing tendency of a national policy which 
shall thus encourage American labor, generally, will be to raise up every- 
where thriving and prosperous consumers of the fruits of the soil, instead of 
dispersing far and wide those who cultivate the soil, until, in process of time, 
their lands in the far west shall be exhausted, and themselves ruined in the 
new States, as their fathers have been in the old, by loss of time and expense 
of transportation over the bad roads that always belong to sparse popula- 
tions,- leading to distant markets already overstocked. Until we can have 
such a policy thus widely spread, and thus deeply rooted, not in the epheme- 
ral success of a party, but in the mind and affections of the nation, it will be 
in vain for the friends of agriculture to go on recounting to farmers, how large 
crops may be made on small spots of land, and great masses of fat accumu- 
lated upon single bullocks. In vain will it be to tell, again and again, how to 
make the most fragrant butter; how to insure the most perfect fruit; how 
and when to sow and to reap ! In vain will societies go on exciting, at long 
intervals, a fitful and transient spirit of emulation by the award of silver cups, 
and paper diplomas, if all the time we fail to encourage, in proximity to the 
plough, the growth of thriving, industrious, and happy communities, to con- 
sume the products of the plough ; laboring men and women, in all the other 
great branches of industry, who, being able, will ever be ready to consume 
our cotton and sugar, our butter, fruit, corn, meat, vegetables, and all the 
various productions that the most improved agriculture and horticulture can 
supply. 

It is worse than idle to talk about the admitted value of more intelhgence 
for the landholder in the prosecution of his business ; what he first needs, 
for all that his land can be made to produce under the highest improvement 
of which it is susceptible, is to have stable and reasonably-remunerating mar- 
kets near at home, that he may save for the improvement of his land — his 
great machine of production — his manufactory — the time and the substance 
which are now wasted on the road and for ever lost, in the act of searching 
for customers to take his produce at whatever it will bring. Let the demand 
be created, and the supply of intelligence, as of all other things, will follow 
as a matter of course. With increase of reward, and with that only, will 
come discovery and a general increase of knowledge ; and with general and 
well-remunerated increase of intelligence, will come a general improvement of 
the soil, and with it wealth, population, education, power, civilization, and 
peace ; and hence arises, in our judgment, the duty to show, as far as we are 
capable, the natural and mutual dependence which everywhere subsists 
between the Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil — between the farmer who digs 
his corn and the ironmonger who digs his ore, and the miner who digs his 
cual out of the ground — to the end that all the industrial employments of 
our own country, being bound together by one common interest, may each 
one give its influence to the maintenance of a policy conservative of the com- 
mon welfare of all. To this end, then, friends and followers of the plough, 
will be directed the future labors of one, in whose writings, such as they have 
been for thirty years, in behalf of American agriculture, you have never seen, 
nor ever will see, a line written for narrow party purposes." 



EXHIBITION OF 1855 AT PARIS. 55 



A SPICE ORCHARD 

In one of his letters from the East, Bayard Taylor gives an account of a 
visit to a nutmeg-orchard on the island of Penang : 

" On our return to the ship, we visited a nutmeg plantation. The trees, 
which are from twenty to thirty feet in height, are planted in rows, at inter- 
vals of about 20 feet. The leaf is dark-green and glossy, resembling that of 
the laurel, and the fruit, at a little distance, might be taken for a small russet- 
colored apple. When ripe, the thick husks split in the centre, showing a 
scarlet net-work of mace, enveloping an inner nut, black as ebony, the kernel 
of which is the nutmeg of commerce. The clove-tree, not now in its bearing 
season, has some resemblance to the nutmeg, but the leaf is smaller, and the 
foliage more loose and spreading. As we drove through the orchard, the 
warm air of noon was heavy with spice. The rich odors exhaled from the 
trees penetrated the frame with a sensation of languid and voluptuous repose. 
Perfume became an appetite, and the senses were drugged with an over- 
powering feeling of luxury. Had I continued to indulge in it, I should ere 
long have realized the Sybarite's complaint of his crumpled rose-leaf." 



THE UNIVERSAL EXHIBITION OF 1855 AT PARIS. 

The Moniteur publishes at last the general regulations of the Universal 
Exhibition, which are very liberal. It will commence on the 1st of May and 
end on the 31st of October, 1855. 

Foreign governments are invited to appoint committees, to whom the arti- 
cles to be exhibited have to be submitted for examination. The French and 
foreign articles will be received at the Palais de I'Exposition from the 15th 
of January until the 15th of March, 1855. 

The foreign articles will be forwarded and returned at the expense of the 
state from and to the sea-ports of France, duty free. The prices of articles 
can be affixed. The articles of each nation are to be exhibited altogether. 
Inventions and designs are protected from piracy. 



Important Railroad Movement. — ^The adjourned meeting of the committee 
of the seven railroad companies connecting Boston with the two Canadas and 
the Lakes, (comprising Lowell, I^la8hua, Concord, Northern, Vermont, Central, 
Canada, and Ogdensburg,) was recently held in Boston, and after an harmonious 
and animated discussion, a committee was appointed, with full power to make 
arrangements for the purchase of 1000 additional freiglit-cars, on joint account, 
for the accommodation of the rapidly-increasing through business of the entire 
line, which it is believed can be doubled by this sensible and business-like 
arnuigenient. The movement will be calculated to improve both the intrinsic 
and market value of the bonds and stock of the Central and Ogdensburg roads, 
and enable the other five companies to pay larger dividends henceforth. — Gi'an. 
Farmer and Visitor. 



56 EDITORS' JOTTINGS, El'C. 



EDITORS' JOTTINGS AND MECHANICAL RECORD. 

THE MONUMENT AND THE FUND MOVEMENT. 

Our readers are apprized of this effort, as laid before them in the late num- 
V)ers of our journal. That effort is going forward as rapidly as possible, although 
there are more difficulties in prosecuting every project of this sort than is dreamed 
of in the philosophy of any who are inexperienced. Were these difficulties well 
appreciated, every subscriber in prosperous circumstances who has not yet 
responded to our call, as some have done, would sit down forthwith and remit 
us tlie ten, five, or two dollars, (or even one dollar, as a free donation,) to so great 
and noble an ohject. How many hundred of you will profit by this hint? 

But we took our pen for the purpose of saying that while we give tlie biogra- 
phical sketch, promised in a recent number, of the late John Stuart Skinner, we 
have found it utterly impracticable to have the portrait ready for this issue. 
We have a copy from which it is to be taken, perhaps with some amendments, 
so as to give a view that shall be quite life-like, and worthy of careful preserva- 
tion. As soon as these points can be gained, the picture will be issued. 

Musical Congress, Crystal Palace. — The past month has introduced a 
new feature, and a very delightful one, in this great Exhibition. A Musical 
Congress has been assembled for several successive evenings, filling those spa- 
cious courts with the harmony of music. On the first evening, June 15th, more 
than 29,000 tickets were sold. The vocal department was about 1800, and the 
orchestral about 380. Never was a more successful concert given. The great 
JuLLiEN was the chief conductor, and exhibited liimself the same genius, compe- 
tent to any style of performance, that he has been previously acknowledged to 
be in his own concerts in tliis and in other cities. 

The sacred choruses were grand beyond description, and the lighter ones well 
performed and duly appreciated. The solos, duets, etc., could be heard by only 
a few, comparatively, but were in good style. The series is not closed, while 
we write this hasty notice, (June I7th,) and hence we can not be so minute or so 
general as we can hereafter. We consider this attempt or experiment as per- 
fectly successful, and hope it may again be repeated in the fall and winter. We 
shall again refer to this great and successful enterprise. 

Running-Gear for Wheel-Carriages. — The Clinton Courant notices a very 
important improvement in the fashion of running-gear for wheel-carriages. Its 
advantages are thus set forth : 

" Firstly, the wagon to which it is attached can be turned, with perfect com- 
fort to the horse, within a circle of the diameter of four feet — a great desideratum 
with city travellers. Secondly, the horse is brought nearer to his work, and 
does it with greater ease. Tliirdly, it is much less liable to disarrangement, and 
safer than the ordinary gearing, beside doing aveay with the rattle and clatter 
of those now used. Fourthly, getting in and out of the vehicle is rendered much 
easier and more pleasant, as it can be done without touching a wheel. Fifthly, 
the springs are so arranged that one or four persons may ride without altering 
their bearing ; and in either case, the motion is more pleasant and regular than 
that of any other wheel-carriage in which we were ever before seated. To all 
these advantages is added the fact that there is no appreciable difference in tha 
cost between the new and old arrangement." 

Fencing out the Curculio. — W. Manice, of Long-Island, constructed many 
years ago, a tight board fence around his jdum-orcliard, about nine feet high, 
with tight board gates. The curculios did not fiy higli enough to enter, many 
striking the sides of the fence and falling outside. An acquaintance who visited 
tlie garden when in full fruit, informs us that all the trees within the inclosure 
were heavily loaded with plums; at the same time he observed a tree outside 
tliat had lost every specimen. 



editors' jottings, etc. 67 



Gigantic Boring-Machine. — It is almost within the memory of middle-aged 
men, when the most of the metal-boring in Scotland was wrought by hand- 
wrought drills, or by small turning-lathes. The many purposes to which iron is 
now applied, and the wonderful size to which all parts of machines, especially 
steam-engines, have grown, have put all such petty and primitive tools out of 
mind as well as out of sight. A mere boring tool, now-a-days, is a much larger 
machine than many steam-engines were not long ago; and the one which has 
led us to uv.ike the above remarks is much larger than many steam-engines bow 
in operation. This magnificent tool, which has been made for one of Mr. Kobert 
Napier's engine-shops, in Glasgow, Scotland, weighs no less than 30 tons, and 
stands 25 feet high. The height of the entablature of the frame is 15 feet, and 
the width is no less than 14 feet. The frame- work of this grand boring-machine 
is composed of two upright columns, surmounted by an elegant entablature, 
below which the wheels, which give power to the boring, are supported on a 
cross-beam of great size and strength. This tool, which can work at all speeds, 
from one revolution in two and a half minutes to sixteen revolutions in one 
minute, is capable of boring a hole in solid iron often inches, or a cylinder often 
feet diameter, and can take any feed, from one fortieth to one eighth of an inch 
per revolution of the spindle ; and it is capable of boring a hole seven feet eight 
inches in length. This tool is to be used for boring and facing malleable iron 
cranks, cross-heads, connecting-rods, cylinders, air-pumps, etc., for marine- 
engines. 

An Immense Bridge. — A correspondent of tbe Chicago Press thus describes 
the great bridge at Peru, 111., on the Illinois Central Railroad: 

"The great bridge of the Illinois Central Railroad, 3500 feet, or two thirds of a 
mile in length, is rapidly approaching completion; the cars, however, will not 
run over it before October. This, your readers are aware, is the greatest work of 
the kind in the West, and is one of the seventy-five truss-bridges now under con- 
tract by the enterprising fii m of Stone & Boomers, of Chicago. It reaches from 
bluff to bluff, is 75 feet in height, contains upward of 1,000,000 feet of timber, 
all worked up in Chicago, and how much iron and stone I know not. The mason 
"Work is not excelled, and is of the Joliet hydraulic-rock. The top is to be covered 
with tin and made water-tight ; the trains of cars are to run on top of all; 
beneatli them and between the frames pass the roads for wagons, and underneath 
all, pass the river and canal. An ornamental railing is to be placed each side of 
the track." 

AxTAcniNO Oah-Wheels to Axles. — T. G. Walker, of West-Farms, N".Y,, has 
taken measures to secure a patent for an improved mode of securing car-wheels 
to their axles — whereby the wheels may be adjusted upon the axles — moved so 
as to suit the broad or narrow gauges of the railroads without moving the 
axles from their boxes. The invention consists in having a screw-thread cut 
on eacli end of the axle — a right-hand thread on one end, and a left-hand 
thread on the opposite end of the axle. The centres of the wheels have 
circular apertures through them, with reversed threads of screws to those on 
the ends of the axles. The wheels are secured at the required distance apart by 
means of screw-keys, which fit in slots in the axle. By unscrewing the keys, 
the wheels can be readily adjusted to suit different widths of the track, such as 
where a narrow track locks with a broad gauge», and viae versa. 

Cokn-Planters. — Erastus Holt, of Wheaton, 111., has made an improvement 
in corn-planters, which consists in arranging a vertical sliding receptacle under 
the discharge of the hopper, and providing a receptacle with a vertical plunger 
or discharger, and operating the whole by the action of the propelling-wheels 
through a spring and cam. The receptacle is constructed and arranged so as to 
move with the plunger and serve as a cup for containing the seed, until its upper 
end arrives at the top of the second chamber of the hopper, when it remains sta- 
tionary, and allows the plunger to rise separately and force seed out of the same, 
and discliarge them into the drill-tube, to be deposited in the ground. Measures 
have been taken to secure the patent. 



58 editors' jottings, etc. 

Natural Printing Process, (Naturselbstdruck.) — Under this terra Louis 
Auer, of the Imperial Printing-office at Vienna, has patented a process invented 
by himselK, in conjunction with Mr. Andrew Worring, overseer of the same 
establish iiicuc, "for creating, by means of the original itself, in a swift and sim- 
ple manner, plates for printing copies of plants, materials, lace, embroideries, 
originals or copies, containing the most delicate profundities or elevatii)ns not to 
be detected by the human eye," etc. A pamphlet giving a description of this 
discovery, and a series of specimens, has reached us. The examples consist of 
an impression from a fossil-fish, from the agates, the leaves of trees, several 
plants, mosses, algas, and the wing of a bat. These are all printed in the natural 
colors of the objects they represent; and it is difficult to conceive any thing 
more real than these productions. The general character of the process is told 
in the following pithy manner by Louis Auer, in the introductory paragraphs of 
his pamphlet : 

" Query. — How can, in a few seconds, and almost without cost, a plate for printing be obtained from 
an oiiainal, bearing a striking resemblance to it in every particular, without the aid of an engraver, 
designer, etc.? 

Solution. — If the original be a plant, a flower, or an insect, a texture, or, in short, any lifeless object 
whatever, it is passed between a copper-plite and a lead-plate, through two rollers that are closely 
screwed together. The origins I, by means of the pressure, leaves its image impressed with all its pecu- 
liar delicacies — with its whole surface, as it were — on the lead-plate. If the colors are applied to this 
stamped lead-plate, as in printing a copper-plate, a copy in the most varyirg colors, bearing a striking 
resemblance to the original, is obtained by means of one single impression of each plate. If a great 
number of copies are required, which the lead-form, on account of its softnes-, is not capable of fur- 
nishing, it is stereotyped, in case of being printed at a typographical press; or galvanized, in case of 
being worked at a copptr-plate press, as many times as necessary ; and the impri'ssiong are tstUen Irom 
the stereotyped or galvanized plate instead of from the lead-plate. When a copy of a unique object 
which can not be subjected to pressure, is to be made, ihe original must be covered with dissolved gutta 
percha, which form of gutta percha, when removed from the original, is covered with a solution of silver, 
to render it available for a matrix fur galvanic multiplication." 

This process is also applicable to the purpose of obtaining impressions of 
fossils, or of the structure of an agate or other stone. In all the varieties of 
agate, the various layers have different degrees of hardness ; therefore, if wo 
take a section of an agate, and expose it to the action of fluoric-acid, scmie parts 
are corroded, and others not. If ink is at once applied, very beautiful impreg- 
sions can be at once obtained ; but, for printing any number, electrotype copies 
are obtained. These will have precisely the character of an etched plate, and 
are printed from in the ordinary manner. The silicious portions of fossil, and 
the stone in which they are imbedded, may in like manner be acted upon by 
acid; and from these either stereotyped or electrotyped copies are obtained for 
printing from. We learn that Mr. Bradbury, of the firm of Bradbury & Evans, 
has availed himself of this invention, and that he is now preparing a series of 
botanical specimens for publication ; so that, very shortly, the public will be in 
possession of examples of this beautiful process. It is not a little singular, that 
the workers in German silver and Britannia metal, at Birmingham, have for 
some time been in the habit of ornamenting the surfaces of these metals by 
placing a piece of lace, no matter how delicate, between two plates, and passing 
these between rollers. In this way every fibre is most faithfully impressed upon 
the metal. "We are not aware, however, that any attempts to print from these 
impressions have yet been made at Birmingham. 

Brilliant Whitewash. — Many have heard of the brilliant stucco whitewash 
on the east end of the President's House at Washington. The following is a 
receipt for making it, with some additional improvements learned by experi- 
ment : 

Take half a bushel of nice unslaked lime ; slake it with boiling water ; cover it 
daring the process to keep in the steam. Strain the liquid through a fine sieve 
or strainer, and add to it a peck of clean salt, previously well dissolved in warm 
water ; three pounds of ground ri< e, boiling to a thin paste, and stirred in boiling 
hot; half a pound of powdered Spanish whiting, and a pound of clean glue, 
which has been previously dissolved by first soaking it well, and then hanging it 
over a slow fire, in a small kettle, within a large one filled with water. Add five 
gallons of hot water to the whole mixture, stir it well, and let it stand a few 
days, covered from the dirt. It should be put on right hot; for this purpose, it 



editors' jottings, etc. 59 

can be kept in a kettle on portable furnace. It is said that about one pint of this 
mixture will cover a square yard, if properly applied with a brush as in painting. 
It answers as well as oil-paint for wood, brick, or stone, and is cheaper. It retains 
it brilliancy for many years. There is nothing of the kind thai will compare 
with it, either for inside or outside walls. Coloring matter may be put in, and 
made of any shade you like. 

Spanish-brown stirred in will make red or pink, more or less, according to the 
quantity. A delicate tinge of this is very pretty for inside walls. Finely pul- 
verized common clay, well mixed with Spanish-brown before it is stirred into 
the mixture, makes a lilac color. Lamp-black, in moderate quantities, makes a 
slate color, very suitable for the inside of buildings. Lamp-black and Spanish- 
brown, mixed together, produce a reddish stone color. Yellow ochre stirred in, 
makes yellow-wash, but chrome goes farther, and makes a color generally 
esteemed prettier. In all these cases the darkness of the shade will of course be 
determined by the quantity of coloring used. It is diflScult to make a rule, 
because tastes are very different; it would be best to try experiments on a 
shingle, and let it dry. "We have been told that green must not be mixed with 
lime. The lime destroys the color, and the color has an effect on the white- 
wash, which makes it crack and peel. If a larger quantity than five gallons is 
wanted, the same proportions should be observed. 

Interesting Presentation. — We are pleased to record that our esteemed old 
friend, Mrs. Partington, has been presented with a new corn-broom by her gro- 
cer, as a mark of esteem for the prompt manner in which she has paid her bills. 
The presentation was made in the front part of the shop, amid a crowd of 
orange-baskets and sugar-barrels, and the ceremony was marked by peculiar 
interest, as was the skirt of Mrs. Partington's bombazine dress with an estray 
puff of flour. The grocer, handing the broom at arm's-length over the counter, 
addressed her — his eyes filled with tears, and his mouth with half an orange — as 
follows : " Take the broom, mem, and with it the assurance of my distinguished 
consideration." Mrs. Partington took the broom in her fingers, and, with evi- 
dent emotion, said, at the same time looking at Ike, who was peering wistfully 
into the orange-basket, "I thank you for the broom, and I shall never fail to for- 
get the doughnut." She meant donor, and Ike said she did say so ; but the gro- 
cer, who was a gross man, thought differently. The broom, on one side of the 
handle, bears, on a small, square, yellow piece of paper, the inscription, " Half 
doz. corn-brooms, made and warranted by the Harvard Society, and for sale by 
grocers generally;" on the other — nothing at all. The gift was a beautiful tri- 
bute of groceries to worth, and the story which afterward " got round," that she 
had paid two York shillings for the broom, and that the presentation was all a 
sham, was an outrageous hbel, that had its origin in the meanest envy. — Post. 

The Reading Railroad. — ^This company are relaying a portion of their track 
with new rails. Some four miles between Reading and Birdsboro' have been 
laid Avith a newly-invented English rail which requires no wooden sills, but is 
placed upon a bed of broken stone, and secured by wrought-iron ties extending 
across the track at the joints of the rails, say about eight feet apart. The rails 
are made with very broad flanges at the base, thus spreading upon the ground, 
and intended to support themselves without the aid of sills. They have been 
laid as an txperiment, and the heavy tonnage of the road will doubtless put them 
to a fair test. If found to answer, their adoption will save a large item of cost, 
in the matter of wooden sills. 

Tubular Iron Bridge. — The construction of the great tubular iron bridge 
across the St. Lawrence, opposite Montreal, has commenced. One of the im- 
mense coffer-dams, made of timber, in which the piers are to be built, has been 
launched and towed to its place, and others are in progress. Some 1500 men 
will, it is said, be employed on the bridge during the summer. 

Cashmere Shawls. — To make one of the finest Cashmere shawls requires the 
work of a family for a lifetime. They sell in Cashmere itself fof five thousand 
dollars. 



60 editors' jottings, etc. 

A Nkw Quilting-Fkame. — The Michigan Farmer describes a new quilting- 
frarae, which economizes space, and if it works as well as is claimed for it, it 
must be practically admired by the ladies. It is compared to a table-frame two 
and a htilf feet wide by nine and a half long. Two or three inch scantling placed 
eight-square, or round, is used for the side-rails. On the ends of these is made a 
round tenon, one and a half inches in diameter, and one inch longer than the 
thickness of the end-rails at the shoulder of the rail; on one end of each a small 
wray-wheel, made of cast-iron, or thick sheet-iron, may be nailed to the end of 
the tenon. The wheel is about four inches in diameter. A small dog, made of 
nail-rod, should be attached to the end of the frame, so as to play on the wray- 
wheel. Along the side-rails a strip or list of cloth is nailed, to wh'ch the quilt 
is stifched. When the quilt is put together, sew one side to the listing of one 
rail, and roll it on so far that the other side of the quilt may be fastened to the 
other rail, and the work is ready. As fast as quilted, roll up the wray-wheel 
and dog, holding all in its place. The frame is light, portable, and takes up but 
little space compared to the old-fashioned, long-armed contrivances. 

West-Lincoln Agricultural and Horticiiltural SooiETT.^At the annual 
meeting of the West-Lincoln Agricultural and Horticultural Society, held at 
Lewiston, Maine, 8th inst., the following officers were elected : 

President — Elijah Barrell, Greene. 

Vice-Presidents — Wm. Neal, Lisbon; Daniel Pierce, Poland. 

Pecording Secretary — Wm. R. Wright, Lewiston. 

CorresponJing Secretary — Wm. R. Frye, Lewiston. 

2'reasurer — Mark Lowell, Lewiston. 

Agent — E. Ham, Lewiston. 

Librarian — Calvin Record, Danville. 

Trustees — John M. Frye, Lewiston; Augustus Sprague, Greene; Robert 
Martin, Danville; Francis F. Purrington, Topshara; J. Strout, Durham. 

American Wire.— In many branches of iron-manufacture, our country has 
advanced with rapid strides, and now maintains a distinguished position. This 
is especially the case with the manufacture of iron wire. There are some pack- 
ages of wire on exhibition at the Crystal Palace, which deserve more than a pass- 
ing glance from every visitor. They were manufactured at the Trenton Iron 
Works, Trenton, N. J. In quality they are unsurpassed, and in variety they 
show the perfection of machinery used in their manufacture, and the ductility of 
the metal employed. There are some specimens, we should judge, about half an 
inch in diameter, while there are others so fine and beautiful they resemble silver 
hair. In one package of two pounds there are six thousand yards ; and in ano- 
ther package of one pound twelve ounces, there are four thousand yards, or one 
hundred and forty-three and a half yards in a single ounce of iron. — Scientific 
American. 

Grease fob Carriage- Wheels. — ^This composition prevents friction to a 
great extent. Its cost is not comparatively greater than the materials often 
employed for the purpose ; it is not changed by heat, and hence does not liquify 
and flow away from its proper place : 

Black lead pulverized, - - - 50 parts by weight. 

Hog's lard, 50 " " 

White soap, 50 " " 

Quicksilver, 5 " " 

Amalgamate well the lard and mercury by rubbing them together for a long 
time in a mortar; then gradually add the black lead, and lastly the soap, mixing 
the whole as perfectly as possible. 

Si'EED OF Lightning. — A wheel made to revolve with such velocity as to ren- 
der its spokes invisible, is seen, when illuminated by a flash of lightning, for a 
moment, with every spoke distinct, as if at rest. The reason of this is, the flash 
has come and gone before the wheel had time to make a perceptible advance. 



NEW BOOKS. 61 



Meteorgraph. — Prof. Webster, of the Portsmouth, Va., Institute, has invented 
anicely-contrived, but simple instrument, which he calls a Mete()ri!;rai)h, or practi- 
cal clerk of the weather. It contains a barometer, pluviometer, hydrometer, and 
anemometer, and writes down or records with accuracy, the various phenomena 
of the weather, such as the pressure of the atmosphere, temperature, amount of 
rain and vapor, and the force and direction of the wind. This instrument will 
prove a valuable assistant to the extensive system of meteorological observations 
settled u[)on by the late scientitic conference at Brussels. 

Gkxeeal Agency. — The publisher of The Plough, the Loom, and the Anvilj 
believing- it in iiis power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to them that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purchase of books of any description; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, and experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and will execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

[|PW°Particular attention to business connected with the Patent-Office. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to. 

Collectors Wanted — In all the States south and west of Ohio and Pennsylva- 
nia. Those of experience preferred, and unquestionable references required. 
Address, post-paid, or in person, at this office. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Fern Leaves FROM Fanny's Poet Folio. Second Series. Auburn and Buffalo: Miller 
Osborn & Mulligan. London: Sampson Low, Son <fe Co. 1854. Pp. 400. 

" There's another of Miss Fiddlestick's articles ! She's getting too conceited, that 
young womaQ ! Just like all newly-fledged writers, mistakes a few newspaper puffs 
tor the voice of the crowd, and considers herself on the top of the literary ladder. 
It'll take me to take the wind out of her sails; I'll dissect her before I'm a day older, 
as sure as my name is Ezekiel Broadbrim." — So Fanny makes our drab-coated bro- 
ther to soliloquize about some body. But it can't be about Fanny herself, for the 
masses will read her, and the editors may say what they please; and the masses are 
right. They can not have a more amusing book to read half an hour after dinner. 
It is spicy, though, like spice, it has its peculiar flavor, and that flavor is ever the 
same ; lively, and piquant, whatevt-r else it is or is not. It is very amusing, and as 
destitute of positive faults as any book of mere amusement in our recollection. 



NEW MUSIC, BY HALL & SON. 



The following are among the admirable pieces recently published by this enter- 
prising house : 

Les Adleux, a favorite duet from Lucia di Lammermoor, by Donizetti, for piano- 
forte. By Fred. Beyer. 

Julie!. Romanza. Written by H. F. Chorley, and composed by Wm. Vincent Wal- 
lace. Excellent. 

Awatj wi'h the Past. Ballad. Words by Wm. Truesdell. Composed by Geo. Wash- 
bourn Morgan. Very good. 

T/ie Angler's Polka. Composed by Wm. Vincent Wallace. Very characteristic. 

(Euvres Favoris. By Wdhelm Kuhe. No. 3. TIte Jager. By Spohr. Elegant clas- 
sical music. 

My Home in Old. Kentuck. Song and Chorua Written and composed by Tucky 
Ho. A pleasant air, dedicated to Uncle Davy, Lexington, Ky. 



62 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



List of Patents Issued, 

FROM MAT 2 TO JUNE 6. 



Simeon Coon, of Ithaca, N. Y., for improvement 
in sewing-mHchines. 

E. L. Norfolk, of Salem, Mass., for imprOTement 
in machinery lor drawing flax. 

Clark Wheeler, of Little VaUey, N. Y., for im- 
provement in bee-hives. 

Heman Crosby, Jr., of Watertown, Conn., for 
improvement in sewing-machines. 

Christ'r Hoda;kins, of Boston, assignor to Nehe- 
miah Hunt, of same place, for improvement in 
sewing-machines. 

Otis Avery, of Homesdale, for improvement in 
sewing-machines. 

G. T. Enoch and Daniel Wissingee, of Spring- 
field, Ohio, for improvement in seed-planters. 

Wm J Cassplman, of Vernon, N. Y., for im- 
proved hub-borer. 

Wm. Damorel, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improved 
extension-bit guard-key for door-locks. 

Heman H. Dean, of Adrian, Mich., for Improved 
felloe-machine. 

Jacob Edson, of Boston, Mass., for improved 
pump.^ 

Chas. K. Farr, of Hinds county. Miss., for im- 
provement in in cultivators. 

Albert Fink, of Baltimore, Md., for Improvement 
in bridges. 

Charles R. Fox, of Chicago, 111., for improved 
journal-box for saw-mill carriage. 

Nelson Gavitt, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improve- 
ment io machinery for culling paper. 

Piatt C. Ingersoll, of Elmira, for improved ar- 
rangement of the pestle and mortar. 

William Loughridge, of Weverton, Md., for im- 
proved method of unloading canal-boats and other 
vessels. 

H. 6. Marchant, of Annipquam, Mass., for im- 
proved manure and sand-loader. 

J. & 0. "W. Pre«cott, of Boston, Mass., for machine 
for reducing wood to slivers. 

J. A. Roth and J. Lea, of Philadelphia county, 
Pa., for improvement in bleaching apparatus. 

J. Rogers, of Poultney, Vt., for improved ma- 
chine for marking out sash. 

Wm. S. Keinert, of Spring Garden, Pa., for ma- 
chine for weighing and printing butter. 

A. M. Sprague, of Mobile, Ala., for adjustable 
flue-bottom for steam-boilers. 

A. M. Sprague, of Mobile, Ala., for improvement 
in pistons for sleam-eni^inea. 

D. Talcot, of New- York, for improvement in the 
construciion of hatches. 

Enoch Woolman, of Damascoville, Ohio, for im- 
proved arrangement of frjction-roller in inclined- 
plane hinges. 

B. & T. VVinans, of Baltimore, Md., for improved 
locomotive flre-box. 

F. Davis, of Keene, N. H., assignor to J. M. 
Reed, of Swansey, N. H., for improvement in 
screw-jacks. 



Wm. Barker, of Utica, N. Y., for improved clap- 
board joint. 

C. Roberts, of Belleville, 111., for improvement in 
harvester-rakes. 

n. Frisbie, of Olmsted, Ohio, for improved bath- 
machine. 

Wm. Stoddard, of Lowell, Mass., for improved 
rotary shingle-machine. 

C. A. Read, of Waterloo, N. Y., for improvement 
in self-healing smoothing-irons. 

W. L. Buss, of Cambridgeporl, Mass., for im- 
provement in tables for ships' cabins. 

S. A. Skinner, of Brownington, Vt., for improve- 
ment in surgical-splints. 

I. M. Hopkins, of Pascoag, R.I.,for improvement 
in knitting-machines. 

J. Putnam, of Salem, Mass., for improvement in 
moulding clay-pipe couplings. 

T. J. Sloan, of New- York, for improvement in 
water-indications of steam-boilers. 

C. G. Sargeant, of Lowell, Mass., for improve- 
ment in machinery for combing wool. 

G. Rogers, of Enfield, Eng., for improvement in 
baths for coating metals with other metals. 

Henry Burt, of Newark, N. J., assignor to the 
" Newark Patent Hosiery Co.," of same place, for 
improvement in knitting-machines. 

A. Greenleaf, of Kingston, Pa., for improved 
water-wheel. 

L. Lackey, of Sutton, Mass , for improvement in 
machines for pegging boots and shoes. 

H. B. Hammon, of Btistolville, Ohio, for im- 
provement in ox-yokes. 

D. P. Baldwin, of San Francisco, Cal., for im- 
provement in shower-bath. 

L. Dederick, of Albany, N. Y^ for improved hay 
and cotton-presses. 

G. E. Higgins, of Syracuse, N. Y., for improved 
fastening for ear-rings. 

P. Baker, of Pepperell, Mass., for improved lathe 
for irregular forms, 

B. Hughes, of Rochester, N.T., for improvement 
in trip-hammers. 

C. M. DaboU, of New-London, Conn., assignor to 
himself and A. P. Daboll, of same place, for im- 
proved catch for holding the bit in brace-stocks. 

W. Eaton, of Carbondale, Pa., for improvement 
in machines for cutting glaziers' points. 

C. H. Dana, of West-Lebanon, N. H., for im- 
provement in potato-diggers. 

J. Hultz, of Berlin township, 0.,for improvement 
in gun-locks. 

N. W. Cilley, of Nottingham township, N. Y., for 
improved method of hanging gates, etc. 

Wm. II. Mitchell, of Brooklyn, N.Y., for improve 
ment in machinery for composing type. 

J. Peck, of New-Haven, Conn., for improvement 
in fire-arms. 

L. Scott, of St. Louis, Mo., for improved portable 
grinding-mill. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



63 



L. Stewart, of Washington, D. C, for improved 
saw. 

H. n. Taylor, of Springeeld, Mass., for improved 
machine for paging books. 

Wm. H. Towers, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in guitars. 

Wm. H. Street, of Nevr- York, for improved mode 
of attaching blankets to cylinders for priuting- 

nresses. 

M. Spear, of Baltimore, Md., for improvement in 

raitre-bux. 

I. W. Little, of Newbury, Mass., for improvement 

in (.'X-yokes. 

P. S. Howes, of Boston, Mass., for improvement 

in self-heating smoothing-irons. 

D. M. Smith, of Springfield, Vt., for improved 

bathe-bog. 

P. B. Tyle"-, of Springfield, Mass., for 'improved 
mode of nibbling saw-teeth. 

J. Edmondson, of Salford, England, and C. 
Haworth, of Marsden, England, executors of Thos. 
Edmondson, deceased, late of Salford, aforesaid, 
lor improved case for holding railway and other 
tickets. 

L. "W. Lee-ls and B. M. Smith, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., for improvement in pydraubic heaters. 

E. Brown, of Waterbury, Conn., assignor to the 
" ScoviUe Manufacturing Co.," of same place, (or 
improvements im machine for making hinges. 

E. H. Graham, now or late of Biddeford, BTe., 
assignor to himself and A. Wheeler, of Lowell, 
Mass., for improvement in magazine-guns. 

J. Burch, of Cragg Hall, near Macclesfield, Eng., 
for improvement iu constructing ships for safety 
and escape. 

Peter Teal and Chas. Tyler, of Philadelphia, as- 
signors to W. P. Cress'in and R. Patterson, of same 
place, for improvement iu lathes for turning the 
interior surface of hollow-ware. Patented in Eng- 
land, April 9, 1853. 

J. Edmondson, of S'lford, Eng., and C. Haworth, 
of Marsden, Kng., executors of T. Edmondson, ae- 
ceased, late of Silford, aforesaid, for improved ma- 
chine for printing railway and other tickets. Pa- 
tented in England, March 19, 1854. 

E. A. Lee, Roxbury, for improvement in piano- 
forte action. 

G. B, Turner, of Cuyahoga Falls, for improved 
smut-machine. 

A. N. Newton, of Richmond, Ind., for improved 
primer for fire-arms. 

L. A. Miles, of Hopkins ville, Ohio, for improved 
pump-valve. 

R. P. Adams, of Ciinton, HI., for improved exca- 
vator for fence-posts. 

H. T. Anthony and F. Phcebus, of New- York, for 
improved apparatus for the manufacture of da- 
guerreotype cates, etc. 

I. Babbitt, of Roxbury, for improvement in 
hones. Patented in England, March 30, 1S54. 

Hiram Baldwin, of Nashua, for improvement in 
ratchet-lever. 

.T, Beach, of De Ruyter, for improvement in 
cheese-hoops. 

A. T. Clark, of Lancaster, for improved mode of 
Ivjlancing wiudow-sashes. 

H. A. Chase, of Boston, Mass., for improvement 
in counterpoise to cast locomotive-wheels. 

J. Curtis, of Chicago, 111., for improved wind-mill 



E . Davis, of Chicago, III., for improved self-ficting 
power-press. 

L. Danforth, of Buffalo, N. Y., for improved ma" 
chine for making book-covers. 

J. P. Hayes, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improve- 
ment in hot-air furnaces. 

A. Jacobs, of Ithaca, N. Y., for improved appa- 
ratus for regulating the supply of feed-v^ater to 
steam-boilers. 

J. McMullen, of Baltimore, Md., for improved 
mechanical means for preventing incrustation in 

steam-boilers. 

J. Myers and R. G. Eunson, of New-York, for 
improved machine for sawing thin boards, etc. 

J. Pigot, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improvement in 
apparatus for making paillasses. 

T. S. Stesdman, of Murray, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in clover-harvesters. 

L. C. Suggett, of Lexington, Ky., for improve- 
ment in processes for treatii g hemp. 

J. C. Strode, of West-Chester, Pa., for improved 
hydraulic-ram. 

R. L. Wright, of Blue Rock, Pa., for improvement 
in tire-bending machines. 

E. & T. Winans, of Baltimore, Md., for improve- 
m' nt in locomotive-tenders. Ante-dated May 9, 

1854. 

T. W. Brown, of Boston, Mass., assignor to Wm. 
W. Mead, of same place, for improvement in 
button-hole cutters. 

J. Mansure, of Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to Farr 
&: Thompson, of Philadelphia county, Pa., for im- 
proved bracelet-clasp. 

Isaac M. Singer, of New- York, for improvement 
in sewing-machines. 

Christian B.Miller, of Wilmington, Del., for im- 
provement in processes for galvanizing metals. 

John Murphy, of New- York, for improvement in 
the process of treating gulta percha. 

Charles T. Appleton, of Roxbury, Mass., for im- 
provement in dveing processes. Patented in Eng- 
land, Aug. 30, 1853. 

Wm. Beal, of Lowell, Mass., for improvement in 
corn-crushers. 

J. H. Barsanter, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in knitting-machines. 

Charles H. Bigelow, of Lawrence, Mass., for im- 
proved mode of manufacturiug tarbine wheels. 

.Tohn Brown, of New- York, for improvement in 
hot-water apparatus. 

Abel Brearer, of Sangatuck, Conn., for improve- 
ment in fastening the discs and rims of car- 
wheels. 

J. H. Farchild, of Jericho, Vt., for improvement 
in hooks and eyes. 

Charles Gregg, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in vices or chucks for holding cylindrical 
bodies. 

J. Harraday, of New-York, for improved machine 
for cutting out cloth. Patented in England, Jan. 
20, 1834. 

Silas A. Holmes, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improve, 
ment in cameras for taking stereoscope or other 
daguerreotypes. 

Carmi Ilobson, of Hannibal, Mo., for improved 
stove-machine. 

Thomas J. Jarrett, of Horsham, Pa., for improve- 
ment in hay-elevators. 



64 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Geo. Neilson, of Boston, Mass.. for improvement 
inventilaliiig-window for railro.id car. 

J. R. Pierce, of Castile, N. Y., for improvement 
in neck-yokes. 

D. Pool, of Mt. Carmel, III., for improvement in 
quartz-crushers. 

E. M. Ray, of Providence, R.I., for improvement 
in knitting machines. 

M. VV. Bteve'is and E. G. Kinslpy, of Stoughton, 
Mass., for improvement la eewing-machines. 

Robert S.Thomas, of Wilmington, N. C, for im- 
proved typography. 

Benj. C. Vanduzen. of Cincinnati, 0., assignor to 
John Martin and Benj. C. Vunduzen, for improve- 
ment in furnace grate-bars. 

Wra. We'ey, of New-London, Conn., assignor to 
Jonathan Whipple, Jr., of Hi>pedale, Conn., for im- 
provement in self-acting ni(iper-block3. 

Brown S. Wood, of Bnriville, R. I., for improve- 
ment in knitting-machines. 

Robt. Waddell, of England, for improvement in 
balancing slidn-viilves of steam-engines. Patented 
in England, April 27, 1853. 

A. H. Raufch,ofBethlehem, Pa., for improvement 
in machines for washing bottles. 

Chas. F. Brown, of Warren, R.I., for improvement 
in instruments fir taking deep sea-soundings. 

Jos. de Palm, of New- York, for improvement in 
brick pottery-kilns. Patented in England, July 13, 
1852 ; in France, August 13, 1852 ; in Holland and 
Belgium, Sept. 15, 1852. 

Henry R. Campbell, of Lebanon, N. H., for im- 
provement in the combination of a railroad track 
and wheels. 

Samuel McCormick, of Dublin, Ireland, for im- 
provement in pressing the thread upon ecrew- 
blanks. Patented in England, March 2-', 1853. 

Donald Taylor, of East-Boston, Mass., for berth- 
kneel former. 

Henry Allen, of Norwich, Conn., for improved 
machine for dressing polygonal timber. 

Wm. Ballard, of New-York, for improvement in 
bent timbers tor ship-frames. 

Whitman Piice, of Goldsborough, N. C, for im- 
provement in cultivators. 

Jared Pratt, of Tauntnn, Mass., for improvement 
in making seamless metal-tubes. 

Wm. W. Hill, of Greenport, N. Y., for arrange- 
ment of dampers in rotary-stoves. 

Walter Westrnp, of Wapping, England, for im- 
provement in giain-mllls. Patented in England, 

Jan. 22, 1850. 

Mathias P. Coons, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for im- 
proved rivet-clamp for wire-fences. 

W. A. Flanders, of Sharon, Vt., for moth-killer. 

Ross Dugan, of New-York, for improved ma- 
chine for cleaning and watering btreels. 

Edward and James M. Clark, of Lancaster, Pa., 
for improvement in flouring-mills. 

Smith Beers, of NaugatncU Conn., for improved 
method of tur i' g liubs, etc. 

Timothy F. Taft, of Worcester, Mass., for im- 
ppived device for operating cutler-heads of planing 
machines. 

E<lward P. Day, of New-York, for improvement 
in machines to print gubscriberij' names, etc., on 
newspapers. 



Alfred Brady, of New- York, for improvement in 
vault-covers. 

Noah W. Speers, of Cincinnati, O., for improved 
hydrant-cap. 

Jas. A. Whipple, of Boston, Mass., for Improved 
mechanism for operating pumps. 

Samuel H. Dudley, of Milton, Conn., for improve- 
ment in road-scrapers. 

Francis M. English, of Hopkinsville, Ky., for im- 
provement in whiffletrees. 

Robt. M. Wade, of Wadesville, Va., for improved 
lubricator. 

Alex. B. Latta, of Cincinnati, 0., for improvement 
in steam-generators. 

Chas. F. Martine, of Boston, Mass., for improve- 
ment in sofa-bedsteads. 

Hymen L. Lipman, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
proved eyelet-machine. 

Elijah Phelps, of Hendersonville, HI., for im- 
provement in excavators. 

Wm. B. Johnson, of Staimton, Va., for improve- 
ment in seed-planters. 

Patrick Clark, of Rahway, N. Y., for improved 
water-level indicator for steam-boilers. 

Thomas and Samuel Champion, of Washington, 
1). C, for improvement in feathering paddle- 
wheels. 

Waitman Davis, of (near) Morgantown, Va., for 
improvement in seed-planters, 

John Sheffield, of Pultneyville, N. Y., for im- 
provement in apparatus for filing mill-saws. 

Riibt. H. Oollyer, of New- York, for improvement 
in gold-amalgamators. 

I-'aac R. Shank, of Buflfalo, Va., for improved 
lath-machine. 

David Russell, of Drewersburgh, Ind., for im- 
proved method of operating saw-mill blocks. 

Harrison C. Clark, of Worcestt^r, Mass., for im- 
proved lathe. 

Thomas Crossley, of Boston, Mass., for improve- 
ment in weaving cut-pile fabrics. 

Wm. Tann, of Black-Rock, N. Y., for cleaning 
bolts of flourii)g-mills. 

Edward TIarrison,of New-Haven, Conn., for im- 
provement in grinding-mills. 

Jerdon L. Mott, of New- York, for improvement in 
securing car-wheels upon axles. 

Edwin J. Green, of Cedaiville, for improvement 
in joint-bodied buggies. 

Levi Dederick, of Albany, N.Y., for improvement 
in hay-presses. 

James J. Johnson, of Alleghany, Pa., and James 
V. Cunningham, of Pit'sburgh, Pa., for improve- 
ment in moulding hollow-ware. 

John C. Reed, of Mount- Vernon, O., assignor to 
C. P. Buckingham and Henry P. Upton, of same 
place, for improvement in grinding-mills. 

Hervey Ely, of Rochester, N Y., assignor to 
Samuel B. Ely, of same place, lor improvement ia 
drying flour. 

Thomas Wallace and Henry Bachreister, (the 
latter now deceased,) of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
proved blowing-fan. 

Dennis Donnovan, for himself, and as adminis- 
trator of Witchell G. Hallman, deceased, now. and 
late of Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to 11. J. White, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in cookmg- 
range. 



Vol. VIL AUGUST, 1854. No. 2. 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



•xtt' 



COL. FREMONT S NARRATIVE OF THE EXPLORATION OF THE CENTRAL ROUTE. 

Among all improvements projected in this country, this is the most import- 
ant, whether viewed in connection with its effects nt either terminus of the 
road, or at sundry intermediate stations. 

Nor can the people of this country afford to neglect worts of improvement 
that are calculated to facilitate intercourse between its widely-separated ter- 
ritories. A unity that is merely nominal, or even political only, is compara- 
tively of little value. The business and the social sympathies of the different 
parts must be bound together, else it is, practically, little else than a combina- 
tion of different people and States, the value of which will be among the prac- 
tical questions that are worthy of exact computation, and can be determined 
by the summing up of columns of figures representing dollars and cents. 

If there is a territory anywhere within 'each of such a road, where the 
people are indifferent to the blessings sp' ired by the Union, let that territory 
be marked as one through which the Pacific railroad must run at any reason- 
able cost. There is quite enough of a feeling of " independence" in every sec- 
tion of our country. There is nothing easier, nothing more natural to an 
American than the conviction — honest to some extent — that, come what will, 
"he can take care of himself;" and so he can, in a certain sense. He can 
" defend himself" when attacked, courageously and enihusiastically, but he is 
not omnipotent after all. He can live under great embarrassments, but he 
can not always remove them. He can bear to be deprived of many things 
deemed very important, but he can not secure the contmuance of them when 
the fountain is dried up from which they flowed. 

An innocent man, or even a guilty one, may prove a match for a posse of 
civil ofiicers who come to arrest him on a criminal charge, or he may argue 
most eloquently and ingeniously on his trial before the court ; and if convicted, 
he may oppose (though vainly) every attempt to inflict the penalty, and acquire 
more laurels of this sort than could a Genghis Kahn or the renowned Tartar 
of old, and he can comfort himself, for a while at least, when under lock and 
key, with the reflection that he has won great renown by bis prowess ; but 
he is a prisoner after all, and he can neither eat nor drink but at the will of 
his keepers. 

He who undervalues, not the glory, not the world-wide renown, secured by 
our Union, but the domestic comfort and the sense of individual security thus 
guaranteed to him, knows not what he is doing. 

It is under such an aspect that we regard this project as of so great im- 
portance ; and we trust our readers will peruse with no little interest the 

VOL. VIL 5 



66 THE PACIFIC KAILROAD. 

report which follows, prepared by Col. Fremont. We give it entire, with 
the exception of two or three paragraphs, not essentially connected with the 
question which is chiefly concerned, namely, the best route to the Pacific : 

The country examined was, for about three fourths of the distance — from 
the Missouri frontier, at the mouth of the Kansas river, to the Valley of Pa- 
rowan, at the foot of the Wahsatch Mountains within the rim of the Great 
Basin, at its south-eastern bend — along and between the thirty-eighth and 
thirty-ninth parallels of latitude; and the whole line divides itself naturally 
into three sections, which may be conveniently followed in description. 

The first or eastern section consists of the great prairie slope, spreading 
from the base of the Sierra Blanca to the Missouri frontier, about 700 miles; 
the second, or middle section, comprehends the various Rocky Mountain 
ranges, and interlying valleys, between the termination of the great plains at 
the foot of the Sierra Blanca, and the Great Basin, at the Parowan Valley 
and Wahsatch Mountains, where the first Mormon settlement is found, about 
450 miles; the third or western section comprehends the mountainous pjlateau 
lying between the Wahsatch Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, a distance of 
about 400 miles. 

The country examined was upon a very direct line, the travelled route being 
about 1550 miles over an air-line distance of about 1300 miles. 

The First Section. — Four separate expeditions across this section, made 
before the present one, and which carried me over various lines at different 
seasons of the year, enable me to speak of it with the confidence of intimate 
knowledge. It is a plain of easy inclination, sweeping directly up to the foot 
of the mountains, which dominate it as the highlands do the ocean. Its charac- 
ter is open prairie, over which summer travelling is made in every direction. 

For a railway, or a winter travelling road, the route would be, in conside- 
ration of wood, coal, building-stone, water, and fertile land, about two hun- 
dred miles up the immediate valley of the Kansas, (which might be made one 
rich continuous corn-field,) and afterward along the immediate valley of the 
Upper Arkansas, of which about two hundred miles, as you approach the 
mountains, is continuously well adapted to settlements as well as roads. 
Numerous well-watered and fertile valleys — broad and level — open up among 
the mountains, which present themselves in detached blocks — out-liers — gra- 
dually closing in around the heads of the streams, but leaving open approaches 
to the central ridges. The whole of the inter-mountain region is abundant in 
grasses, wood, coal, and fertile soil. The Pueblos above Bent's Fort prove it 
to be well adapted to the grains and vegetables common to the latitude, 
including Indian corn, which ripens well, and to the support of healthy stock, 
which increases well, and takes care of itself summer and winter. 

The climate is mild and the winters short, the autumn usually having its 
full length of bright open weather, without snow, which in winter falls rarely 
and passes oft' quickly. In this belt of country lying along the mountains, 
the snow falls earlier and much more thinly than in the open plains to the 
eastward ; the storms congregate about the high mountains, and leave the 
valleys free. In the beginning of December we found yet no snow on the 
Huerfano river, and were informed by an old resident, then engaged in estab- 
lishing a farm at the mouth of this stream, that snow seldom or never fell 
there, and that cattle were left in the range all the winter through. 

This character of country continued to the foot of the dividing crest, and 
to this point our journey resulted in showing a very easy grade for a road, 
over a country unobstructed either by snow or other impediments, and hav- 
ing all the elements necessary to the prosperity of an agricultural population. 



THE PACIFIC EAILROAD. 67 

in fertility of soil, abundance of food for stock, wood and coal for fuel, and 
timber for necessary constructions. 

Our examinations around the southern head-waters of the Arkansas have 
made us acquainted with many passes, grouped together in a small space of 
country, conducting by short and practicable valleys from the waters of the 
Arkansas, just described, to the valleys of the Del Norte and East Colorado. 
The Sierra Blanca, through which these passes lie, is high and rugged, 
presenting a very broken appearance, but rises abruptly from the open coun- 
try on either side narrowed at the points through which the passes are cut, 
leaving them only six or eight miles in length from valley to valley, and 
entirely unobstructed by outlying ranges or broken country. To tlie best of 
these passes the ascent is, along the open valley of water-courses, uniform and 
very gradual in ascent. Standing immediately at the mouth of the Sand 
Hill Pass — one of the most practicable in the Sierra Blanca, and above those 
usually travelled — at one of the remotest head-springs of the Huerfano river, 
the eye of the traveller follows down without obstruction or abrupt descent 
along the gradual slope of the valley to the great plains which reacli the 
Missouri. 

The straight river and the open valley form, with the plains beyond, one 
great slope, without a hill to break the line of sight or obstruct the coui'se of 
the road. On either side of this hne, hills slope easily to the river, with lines 
of timber and yellow autumnal grass, and the water that flows smoothly 
between is not interrupted in its course to the ocean. Thfe surrounding coun- 
try is wooded with pines and covered with luxuriant grasses, up to the very 
crags of the central summits. On the Sth of December we found this whole 
country free of snow, and Daguerre views taken at the time show the grass 
entirely uncovered in the passes. 

Two tunnel-like passes pierce the mountains here, almost in juxtaposition 
connecting the plain country on either side by short passages five to eight 
miles long. The mountains which they perforate constitute the only obitruc- 
tion, and are the only break in the plain or valley line of road from the fron- 
tier of Missouri to the summit hills of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of 
about eight hundred and fifty miles, or more than half way to the San Joa- 
quin valley. 

At this place the line entered the middle section, and continued its western 
course over an open valley country, admirably adapted for settlement, across 
the San Luis valley, and up the flat bottom-lands of the Sah-watch to the 
heights of the central ridge of the Rocky Mountains. Across these wooded 
heights — wooded and grass-covered up to and over their .rounded summits — 
to the Coo-cha-to-ye pass, the line followed an open easy wagon way, such as is 
usual to a ruUing country. On the high summit lands were forests of coni- 
ferous trees, and the snow in the pass was four inches deep. This was on the 
14th of December. A day earlier our horses' feet would not have touched 
snow in the crossing. 

But the winter had now set in over all the mountain regions, and the 
country was so constantly enveloped and hidden with clouds which rested 
upon it, and the air so darkened by falling snow, that exploring became dif- 
ficult and dangerous, precisely where we felt most interested in making a 
thorough examination. We were moving in fogs and clouds throua;h a reo'ion 
wholly uidinown to us, and without guides ; and were, therefore, obliged to 
content ourselves with the examination of a single line, and the ascertainment 
of the winter condition of the country over which it passed, which was, in fact, 
the main object of our expedition. 



68 THE PACIFIC RAILROAD 

Our progress in this mountainous region was necessarily slow, and during 
ten days, which it occupied us to pass through about one hundred miles of 
the mountainous country bordering the eastern side of the Upper Colorado 
valley, the greatest depth of the snow was, among the pines and aspens on 
the ridges, about two and a half feet, and in the valleys about six inches. 
The atmosphere is too cold and dry for much snow, and the valleys, protected 
by the mountains, are comparatively free from it, and warm. We here found 
villages of Utah Indians in their wintering ground, in little valleys along tne 
foot of the higher mountains, and bordering the more open country of the 
Colorado valley. Snow was here (December 25) only a few inches deep — 
the grass generally appearing above it, and there being none under the trees 
or on the southern hill sides. 

The horses of the Utahs were living on the range, and notwithstanding 
that they were used in hunting, were in excellent condition. One which we 
had occasion to kill for food had on it about two inches of fat, being in as 
good order as any buffalo we had killed in November on the eastern plains. 
Over this valley country — about one hundred and fifty miles across — the 
Indians informed us that snow falls only a few inches in depth, such as we 
saw it at the time. The immediate valley of the Upper Colorado, for about 
one hundred miles in breadth, and from the 7th to the 22d of January, was 
entirely bare of snow, and the weather resembled that of autumn in this 
country. 

The Une here entered the body of mountains knov,^n as the Wah-satch and 
An-ter-ria ranges, which are practical at several places in this part of their 
course ; but the falling snow and destitute condition of my party again inter- 
fered to impede examinations. They lie between the Colorado valley and 
the Great Basin, and at their western base are established the Mormon settle- 
ments of Parowan and Cedar City. They are what are called fertile valleys, 
oflfeiing inducements to settlement and facilities for making a road. These 
mountains are a great store-house of materials — timber, iron, coal — -which 
would be of indispensable use in the construction and maintenance of the 
road, and are solid foundations to build up the future prosperity of the rapidly- 
increasing Utah State. 

Salt is abundant on the eastern border mountains, as the Sierra de Sal, 
being named from it. In the ranges lying behind the Mormon settlements, 
among the mountains through which the line passes, are accumulated a great 
•wealth of iron and coal, and extensive forests of heavy timber. These forests 
are the largest I am acquainted with in the Rocky Mountains, being in some 
places twenty miles in depth of continuous forest ; the general growth lofty 
and large, frequently over three feet in diameter, and sometimes reaching five 
feet, the red spruce and yellow pine predominating. At the actual southern 
extremity of the Mormon settlements, consisting of the two inclosed towns of 
Parowan and Cedar City, near to which our line passed, a coal-mine has been 
opened for about eighty yards, and iron-works already established. Iron 
here occurs in extraordinary masses, in some parts accumulated into moun- 
tains, which comb out in crests of solid iron, thirty feet thick and a hundred 
yards long. 

In passing through this bed of mountains, about fourteen days bad been 
occupied — from January 24 to February 1 — the deepest snow we here encoun- 
tered being about up to the saddle skirts, or four feet; this occurring only in 
occasional drifts in the passes on northern exposures, and in the small moun- 
tain flats hemmed in by woods and hills. In the valley it was sometimes a 
few inches deep, and as often none at all. On our arrival at the Mormon 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 69 

settlements, February 8th, we found it a few inches deep, and were there 
informed that the winter had been unusually long-continued and severe, the 
thermometer having been as low as seventeen degrees below zero, and more 
snow having fallen than in all the previous winters together since the establish- 
ment of this colony. 

At this season their farmers had usually been occupied with their ploughs, 
preparing the land for grain. , 

At this point, the line of exploration entered the third or western section, 
comprehending the mountainous 2Ji(('i^(t'ii between the Wah-satch mountains 
and the Sierra Nevada of California. Two routes here suggested themselves 
to me for examination — one directly across the plateau between the SYth 
and 38th parallels; the other keeping to the south of the mountains, and 
following for about two hundred miles down the valley of the Rio Virgen — 
Virgin nver — thence direct to the Trejon Pass, at the head of the San Joa- 
quin valley. 

This route down the Virgin river had been examined the year before, with 
a view to settlement this summer by a Mormon exploring party, under the 
command of Major Steele, of Parowan, who (and others of the party) informed 
me that they found fertile valleys inhabited by Indians who cultivated corn 
and melons, and the rich ground in many places matted over with grape- 
vines. The Trejon Passes are two, one of them, from the abundance of vines 
at its lower end, called Caxon de las Uvas. They were of long use, and were 
examined by me, and their practicability ascertained in my expedition of 
1848-49; and in 1851 I again passed through them both, bringing three 
thousand head of cattle through one of them. 

Knowing the practicability of these passes, and confiding in the report of 
Major Steele as to the intermediate country, I determined to take the other, 
(between the 37th and 38th parallels,) it recommending itself to me as being 
more direct toward San Francisco, and preferable, on that account, for a 
road, if suitable ground could be found ; and also as being unknown, the 
Mormons informing me that various attempts had been made to explore it, 
and all failed for want of water. Although biased in favor of the Virgin 
river route, I determined to examine this one in the interest of geography, 
and accordingly set out for this purpose from the settlement about the 20th 
of February, travelling directly westward from Cedar City, (eighteen miles 
west of Parowan.) We found the country a high table-land, bristling with 
mountains, often in short isolated blocks, and sometimes accumulated into 
considerable ranges, with numerous open and low passes. 

We are thus always in a valley, and always surrounded by mountains 
more or less closely, which apparently altered in shape and position as we 
advanced. The valleys are dry and naked, without water or wood ; but the 
mountains are generally covered with grass and well wooded with pines ; 
springs are very rare, and occasional small streams are at remote distances. 
Not a human being was encountered between the Santa Clara road, near the 
Mormon settlements, and the Sierra Nevada, over a distance of more than 
three hundred miles. The solitary character of this uninhabited region — the 
naked valleys without water-courses, among mountains with fertile soil and 
grass, and woods abundant, give it the appearance of an unfinished country. 

Commencing at the 38th, we struck the Sierra Nevada on or about the 
37th parallel, about the 15th of March. 

On our route across we had for the greater part of the time pleasant and 
rather warm weather ; the valley grounds and low ridges uncovered, but 
snow over the upper parts of the higher mountains. Between the 20th of 



70 RESULTS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 

Februaiy and 19th of March we had several snow-storms, sometimes accom- 
panied with hail and heavy thunder ; but the snow remained on the valley 
grounds only a few hours after the storm was over. It forms not the least 
impediment at any time of the winter. I was prepared to find the Sierra 
here broad, rugged, and bloched up with snow, and was not disappointed in 
ray expectation. The first range we attempted to cross carried us to an ele- 
vation of 8000 or 9000 feet, and into impassable snow, which was further 
increased on the 16th by a considerable fall. 

There was no object in forcing a passage, and I accordingly turned at once 
some sixty or eighty miles to the southward, making a wide sweep to strike 
the point of the California mountain where the Sierra Nevada suddenly breaks 
off and declines into a lower country. Information obtained years before 
from the Indians led me to believe that the low mountains were broken into 
manj'- passes, and at all events I had the certainty of an easy passage through 
either of Walker's passes. 

When the point was reached, I found the Indian information fully verified ; 
the mountain suddenly terminated and broke down into lower grounds barely 
above the level of the country, and making numerous openings into the val- 
ley of San Joaquin. I entered into the first which ofi:ered, (taking no time to 
search, as we were entirely out of provisions and living upon horses,) which 
led us by an open and almost level hollow thirteen miles long to an upland 
not steep enough to be called a hill, over into the valley of a small affluent 
to Kern river ; the hollow and the valley making together a way where a 
wagon would not find any obstruction for forty miles. 

The country around the passes in which the Sierra Nevada here terminates 
declines considerably below its more northern elevation. There was no snow 
to be seen at all on its eastern face, and none in the pass ; but we were in the 
midst of opening spring, flowers blooming in fields on both sides of the Sierra. 

Between the point of the mountains and the head of the valley at the Tre- 
jon the passes generally are free from snow throughout the year, and the 
descent from them to the ocean is distributed over a long slope of more than 
two hundred miles. The low dry country and the long slope, in contradis- 
tinction to the high country and short sudden descent and heavy snows of 
the passes behind the bay of San Francisco, are among the considerations 
which suggest themselves in favor of the route by the head of the San 
Joaquin. 



RESULTS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 

If any one wishes to see the vast good which comes, directly or indirectly, 
from the encouragement of the various arts and manufactures, let him visit 
the great State of Pennsylvania. The villages and cities, even, that have 
grown up under such an influence, are scattered over the length and breadth 
of that rich and growing commonwealth. We have presented, at some length, 
a view of the iron and coal of that region, and the immense wealth created 
by the manufacture and sale of these minerals. 

The largest and richest beds of limestone also are found here. The view 
here given represents the lime-kilns near Sprint Hill. They occur above 
Morristown, where the hills of the Mine Ridge, somewhat depressed, rise out 
of and cut off" the basin. They are met alternately "in subordinate ridges 
and valleys of denudation." At various points along the Schuylkill, especi- 
ally near Spring Uill, Conshokocken, and Port Kennedy, there are very 



RESULTS OF AMERICAN" INDUSTRY, 



71 



extensive quarries, -vvhere kilns have been erected for burning the stone. 
They are generally plfieed on the side of a hill, thereby furnishing peculiar 



/, me Kilns near fsjinng' Hill. 

facilities for throwing in the lime ut the tuji. The stones, as placed in the 
kiln, form an arch over the he;irth, with sufficient space between alternate 
layers to permit the heat to penetrate and decompose them. 

Spring Hill receives its 



??. 



«5| 








Anthracite Furnaces 



name from a superb boil- 
ing spring. A short dis- 
tance above Manayunk, is 
one of the most extensive 
anthracite furnaces in the 
State. It is on the east 
bank of the Schuylkill, and 
ivsents a spirited scene 
\vlien viewed from the 
Keadikg Railroad, especi- 
ally in the evening, when 
the flames issuing from the 
chimneys illumine the whole neighborhooa. 

The Reading railroad abounds, along its entire length, with views full of 
interest. The works of the road itself are peculiarly imposing, while the 
natural scenery of the territory through which it passes is exceedingly various, 
and much of it very beautiful. 

We also present 
a view of one of the 
sti uctures upon the 
I'hiladelphia and 
ColumbiaRailroad, 
namely, the Via- 
duct over the Cone- 
E inaugh. It con- 
"5 -^iNts of a single 
' -:^ arch of eighty feet, 
_^_^_ ~ and nearly seventy- 
""^^^ five feet above the 
water t>f the stream. 
^^ The engraving also 

lepridsents the na- 
_ _ ture of the rocky 

ridge around which 
The liitle stream is driven nearly a 




--..^K* SE3a£— 




Viaduct ocer the Conemau^/ 

the stream is forced to wind its bed. 



72 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD: MR. CHATFIELD. 



mile out of its course. The view here given is the western side of the ridge. 

Of this viaduct Mr. Smitli says : " While it can scarcely be surpassed in the 

neatness and symmetrical proportions of the design, it is as durable as the 

eternal foundation tipun wlMr-li it rp>ts.'" 

On the Reading Rail- 
road, a short distance 
above Phoenixville, is a 
tunnel more than 2000 
fut in length. It is cut 
tliiough solid dark-red 
« mdstone, and is proba- 
bly one of the heaviest 
sections of railroading 
in the United States. 
P'merging from the tun- 
nel, the road crosses h 
'Splendid and substantial 
stone arched bridge over 
the Schuylkill. 




J unnel and Brids-e above Pkamxville 



PACIFIC RAILROAD: MR. CHATFIELD. 

This important suljj'^ct has been discussed in the meetings of the Ameri- 
can Geographical and Statistical Society of this city, and on a recent occasion 
the Society was addressed by Levi S. Chatfield. The following is an outline 
of his remarks : 

" The history of this project is characteristic of our people and country. It 
was spoken of as early as 1836 by several statesmen. The only question now 
is one of finance and route, for it certainly will be constructed. The things 
to be considered are, Where shall it be? what its length and what the cha- 
racter of the country it goes through ? I speak to-night of the Texas route, 
with reference to all these particulars. Colonel Benton has spoken of its 
being constructed and worked by the United States government free ; the 
terminus to be in St. Louis. This is not probable. Mr. Whitney has directed 
public attention to the propriety of the United States government making 
grants of land to companies or individuals. I do not think this plan the best, 
because the completion would be delayed. I believe the shortest and least 
expensive plan is one suggested by myself, namely, to construct the road by 
a legal corporation, to be aided as far as possible by the general government, 
to be adopted by the States through which the road runs, and aided by them 
as far as they choose. I suppose jthe balance of money would be realized 
by assessments on the stock, and by loans based on the available means of 
the company. This scheme I presented to many members of Congress, who 
recommended me to get a bill for it in the New- York Legislature. This I 
succeeded in having done after some opposition. The stock was subscribed 
to the amount of $100,000,000. I do not say it was taken by the best possi- 
ble names. Steps were taken to have the scheme put in operation. Co/n- 
missioners were appointed to go to Texas — I among them, where I remained 
two months. I travelled along the proposed line of road for 300 miles. The 
general law of Texas nearly confines it to the 32d degree of latitude. There 
are several other charters granted by Texas fur various routes, but they have 
not been acted on by that State, which shows that her capital is not equal to 



DELAWARE, LACKAWANJSTA, AND WESTERN R. K. CO. 78 

the work. Texas has passed a law that whatever company undertakes the 
33d degree road shall have 20 sections to the mile; that is, 1280 acres. I 
regard this as the most inagnificeut bonus ever offered any company. The 
800 miles give 10,240,000 acres, worth $5 per acre, within the time the 
company is bound to dispose of it; that is, $51,000,000. Sv-veral competent 
judges have pronounc^^d this country the first on the face of the globe, es~,pe- 
cially the north-eastern counties of Texas, through which one half of the road 
would pass, I estimate the cost at $32,000,000 ; good judges say only hair 
that; but the country is a rolling country, through which the cost of grading 
would be Considerable. West of the Trinity River the land is mostly prairie; . 
but east of it is most productive ; the staples would be wheat and cotton. . I 
think two bales to the acre could be raised. I am satisfied Governor 
Stephens's Northern Route is not nearly iis productive. From El Paso to 
Adair Bay the route through Mexico is practicable; the rest of the way to 
San Francisco is doubtful, but I believe it will be found practicable. But if 
the road ceased at Adair Bay all the purposes of commerce wuuld be sub- 
served. In this case, I put down the cost from El Paso at $50,000 a mile, 
that is, S25, 000,000. This would make the wliole cost only 60.000,000 over 
the value of the land granted. Beside, the company might take advantage 
of the other charters, and thus get in addition 16 sections to the mile. Con- 
necting lines are either made or projected all the way to New-York. This is 
the shortest of all the proposed roads between the oceans. I believe that 
Matagorda, would be the freight terminus. Either it or Galveston, though 
not very good harbors at present, could easily be made so. Texas has a 
full right to give away all the land she gives by those charters. Her course 
in this regard 1 consider eminently statesmanlike ; she should give every acre 
away to ojjen up her country to commerce. As it is, the inhabitants are so 
segregated that they have no motive to industry and commerce. Her cotton- 
lands are far superior to most of the Southern States. I think an investment 
in these lines would be the best that could be made." 

Mr. Disturnell proposed, at a future time, to make an exhibit of the north- 
ern and central route. 



THE DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA, AND WESTER^^ RAILROAD COMPANY- 

Our first thought, suggested by reading a report of this company, is the 
extensive influence of a single step in internal improvements. No one is dis- 
connected from others. On the location of the New-York and Erie Rail- 
road, it was proposed to open the great northern coal basin of Pennsylvania. 
A charter was obtained and a company organized in 1850, for that portion 
between the basin at Scranton and the New-York and Erie Railroad at Great 
Bend. This was called the Leggett's-Gap Railroad. The name of this com- 
pany was changed to that of the Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, in 1851. In 1849, the charter of the Delaware and Cobb's-Gup Rail- 
road Company was obtained, and the company was organized in 1850. In 
1853, thir-se two companies were consolidated. This line of railroad forms a 
part of the great line extending from Oswego, on Lake Ontario, to New-York. 
The several parts are as follows : 

Oswego and Syracuse Railroad,. - - - 35 miles. 

Syracuse and Binghamton Railroad, - - 80 " 

Binghampton to Scranton Coal-fields, - - 02 " 

Scranton to New- York, via New-Jersey Central, - 125 " 
or a total distance of 302 milts. 



74: THE DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA, 

This company has secured ?orae of the choicest laiids in the valley. From 
Mr. Needliaiii's report, it appears that the minable coal on the company's 
lands will exceed 50,000,000 tons. 

The mining lands of this company are situated in the Lacl^awanua Val- 
ley, south-west of Cobb's and Leggett's Gaps, and east, south, and south-west 
of the village of Hyde-Park; the town of Scranton being approximately in 
its centre. One portion of these lands lies outside or to the south-east of the 
natural boundary of the Lackawanna coal-field; the other and far more valu- 
able part of the estate embraces all the south-eastern side and central tracts 
of the coal-basin, extending up the valley, north-east, to within a mile or so 
of the villages of Dunmore and Providence, and in the opposite direction, 
south-west, with some interruptions, two miles and a half from Scranton ; its 
northern and north-western boundary being on the table-land north of the 
Lackawanna meadows. The amount of productive coal-lands thus situated, 
belonging to the two companies, is estimated at about 3000 acres. 

Reports have been made by Mr. Needham, and by Prof. H. D. Rogers, 
State Geologist, in reference to these lauds. The former represents the gene- 
ral outlines of the workable veins on that portion which is known as the 
" Griffin Lot," as follows : 

"The first in the descending order is the 'A' vein, 8 feet; the second, a 3 
feet vein ; then '15' 4 feet, where it has been worked; '■G^ 5 feet; 'D' 8 
feet, and 'E' 15 feet, making 43 feet in 6 veins, all belonging to the upper 
series of free-burning or steam coals. All these veins would be worked in 
Schuylkill, and can be worked here; but the smaller veins would cost more 
in proportion, per ton, for mining, than the larger ones. Of the entire thick- 
ness of this upper series, 21 feet may be classed with the superior coals for 
o-enerating steam, possessing great heating powers, a very active combustion, 
with rectangular fracture, suiting a condensed stowage, for oceanic naviga- 
tion ; containing little earthy matter, and leaving a residuum of about 7 per 
cent ashes. The lower series comprises five working veins, of a very disi>iini- 
lar coal. The first of this second series, the ' F' vein, varies from 6 feet to 8 
feet 4 inches pure coal, devoid of slate, of a semi-conchoidal fracture, and alto- 
gether one of the most splendid coals sent to market, excelled only by a small 
vein of the Lehigh, 3 feet thick, known as the ' clear vein,' the heaviest and 
purest known anthracite. This vein will be mined and sent to market, for the 
first time, this year (1854) from this coal-field. We hope to be ready in 
time to mine and send to market this year about forty thousand tons of this coal. 

The next in the series is the big vein of Wilkesbarre and Pittston, varying 
from 9 to 18 feet. This, the 'G' vein, with its usual slates, measures on 
the Griffin lot 18 feet 1 inch; is a good hard, firm coal; rectangular frac- 
ture, well known in your city as the Pennsylvania Coal Company's. Then 
comes the 'H' vein, a superior coal, very similar in hardness, fracture and 
quality to the 'F' vein above mentioned, and is 8 feet thick. These three 
veins alone will produce, of good merchantable coal, on the Griffin lot, 27 
feet in thickness, equal to 34,560 tons per acre, after deducting 20 per cent 
for mine-waste and supports. The coal of the three above veins, 'F,' 'G,' 
and ' H,' are all of the hard variety of anthracites ; excellent for foundry, 
furnace, and smithing purposes ; and with blowers, would answer well for 
steam purposes. I forgot to mention that the coals of the upper series are 
excellent steam-producing coals, ivithout the aid of blowers. 

Next, and last in order, are the veins ' I ' and ' K,' 6 and 4 feet respect- 
ively in thickness. They are worked at Dunmore, by the Pennsylvania Coal 
Company, but are inferior in quality to the veins of 'F,' ' G,' and 'H,' 
allhourch fair merchantable coab." 



AXD WESTERN KATLROAD COMPANY. 



iO 




Buff-colored sand-stone. 



The capacit}' of the " Dlainond-mine tract" is nearly as great, the product 
being estimated at 2-5,000,000 tons. 



76 THE DELAWAEE, LACKAWANNA, 

The following account is taken from the report of Professor Rogers : 

GENERAL TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES. 

Like the other Anthractic coal-fields of Pennsylvania, this large and rich 
basin of the Lackawanna and north branch of the Susquehanna is surrounded 
by a double belt of mountain summits ; but instead of that usually entire 
separation of the inner and the outer ridges which is so conspicuous in the 
Pottsville, the Shamokin, and other coal-valleys, the intervening deep narrow 
valley of red shale is here only a high sloping platform or bench on the side 
of the exterior mountain, and the interior crest but a subordinate ridge or 
shoulder between this bench and the main valley. 

The coal-field, or trough of the coal, containing strata, encompassed by this 
picturesque mountain rim, is a very elongated valley, some tifty miles in 
length, from Btech Grove to Carbondale, and not more than five miles wide 
in its broadest central portion, between Solomon's Gap and the entrance of 
the Susquehanna at Pittston. Its form is that of a very regular, symmetrical 
crescent, curving in its course as much as fifty degrees, the northern horn at 
Carbondale pointing nearly north twenty degrees east, while the western 
one at Beech Grove is directed only twenty degrees south of west. In its 
interior features this valley is extremely diversified, and it is full of landscapes 
of uncommon beauty. From Pittston to Nanticoke, or between the points 
where the Susquehanna enters and leaves the Basin, the northern half of the 
main bed of the valley is a wide, level, fertile plain, or low diluvial floor, 
watered by the tree-fringed river. A similar but narrower belt of low ground, 
underlaid in like manner with a deep depositof drift or gravel, winds through 
the whole length of the upper north-eastern portion of the valley, or that 
occupied by the Lackawanna. 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE STRATA. 

Taking a comprehensive glance at the several rocky strata which surround 
and are embraced within the Wyoming and Lackawanna Basin, they will be 
found to constitute four distinct groups, diftering in their positions, compo- 
sition, and the value of their imbedded deposits. 

1st. The first and lowest in the order of sti-atification is a thick series of 
gray sandstones, occasionally pebbly, and including beds of shale. This out- 
crops high on the inner slope and suminit of the outer broad mountain-ridge 
of each border of the Basin. The foimation is several hundred feet in thick- 
ness ; and is the lowest or oldest of our American carboniferous strata, but in 
this part of the mountain-chain of the country, contains no coal nor any 
notable amount of iron ore. It is called the vespertine series in the nomen- 
clature adopted by Professor Wm. B. Rogers and myself for the rocks of the 
Alleglianies. Some of the extreme south-eastern tracts of the Company's 
estate extend into this formation, where it forms the high mountain border- 
ing the upper reach of the valley of Stafford Meadow Brook. 

"2d. Next in succession, overlying the previous set, and outcropping to form 
the bench, or sometimes valley, which follows the inner slope of the outer or 
main mountain all round the Coal Basin, is a mixed group of strata, red 
shales in the inferior portion, gray sandstones and bufl'-colored slates in the 
middle, and a peculiar hone-like, very close-grained calcareous sandstone in 
tlie upper. Such is the character of this formation in the vicinity of Scran- 
ton, and elsewhere on the borders of the Lackawanna division of the Basin, 
where its total average thickness does not amount to 350 feet, and where the 



AND WESTERN RAILROAD COMPANY. 77 

red shale of the lower member of this mass is extremely thin, and in places 
altogether absent. But further south-westward, especially from Solomon's 
Gap to Beech Grove, the red shale assumes great relative bulk, and the 
middle and upper division-^, as at Nanticoke, are comparatively quite reduced, 
the whole f trmation being here from two to three times as thick as where it 
bounds the Lackawanna valley. It is among the layers of the lower or shale 
group of this formation that we encounter the interesting calcareous iron otr 
of the Siaffurd M<^adow Valley, now extensively mined there on the Lacka- 
wanna L'on and Coal Company's lands, and largely smelted in the furnaces 
at Scranton. The whole formation is theumbral series of mine and my bro- 
ther's classification, or the middle carboniferous formation. 

3d. Lnmediately over the fine-grained, hone-like sandstone of the top of 
the umbral series, rests the coarse, massive, white and gray conglomerate, 
which constitutes the base or supporting member of the productive coal mea- 
sures, or upper carboniferous series ; this is the serai conglomerate of our 
classification. All round the Wyoming and Lackawanna coal-field, this well- 
known and easily recognized rock is composed of two sets of strata — a lower 
group made up in large part of extremely coarse pebbles of nut size, of white 
quartz and gray sandstone, compactly cemented into thick and ponderous 
beds — and an upper set, of less massive layers of a smaller grained conglome- 
rate, and dark gray sandstones, the pebble seldom exceeding the size of a 
pea or small hazel-nut. The average thickness of the lower mass on the 
south-east side of the Basin is from seventy to eighty feet, whereas on the 
north-west side it seems nowhere to exceed forty feet ; that of the upper, fine- 
grained rock, varies from sixty to ninety feet, but shows no such marked 
reduct'on in passing from its south-eastern to its north-western out-crop. At 
Scranton, on Roaring Brook, the coarser rock is about eighty feet, and the 
finer grained, which is here quarried, and makes a valuable, strong building- 
stone, is about the same thickness, A comprehensive study of the lower coa' 
strata, and of the conglomerates interstratified among them, distinctly shows 
that even the main undermost, coarsest pudding-stone, or serai conglomerate, 
is itself properly but a member of the true coal measures, and in no sense an 
independent formation. There are districts in Pennsylvania where productive 
coal seams occur imbedded within this coarsest, lowest mass, and others, 
indeed, where such exist even beneath or outside of it. 

4th. The last and highest of the formations of the region in the order of 
stratification is the coal formation proper. In the Wyoming and Lackawanna 
basin, this consists, as is well known, of coarse and fine-grained gray micace- 
ous sandstones, pebbly in some of their beds ; and of argillaceous sandstones, 
shales, slates, and fire-clays ; some more siliceous and gritty ; some more 
aluminous and smooth ; and between all these are interstratified beds of 
anthracite of all dimensions, from a few inches to many yards in thickness. 
All the coal seams, with one or two very local exceptions, yield either white 
or gray ashes, and, as in the Pottsville and Shamokin basins, the coals of this 
character are overlaid by a group of beds, producing red and brownish ashes 
such as are not here met wiih, it is fair to infer that in this Wyoming valley 
we have the representatives of only the lower or white-ash series of the other 
great basins. Denuding action, which has been especially powerful here, 
may have swept off the once overlying and more exposed red-ash series, or 
these possibly may never have been formed in this northern district. 

It is im|)ossible to estimate with precision, until researches now in progress 
Hre completed, the total thickness of the coal measures in the deepest parts 
of the Wyoming and Lackawanna basin, nor to count with accuracy the 



78 



THE DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA, 



number of the available beds of coal in tliose localities. For my present pur- 
pose, that of a general sketch of the geology and vast mining resources of this 
valley, it will be sufficient to state here, that exact 
measurement has already disclosed, in the vicinity 
of Wilkesbarre, the widest and apparently the 
deepest portion of the coal-field, the existence of 
from 1000 to 1200 or more feet of coal-bearing 
strata, and the presence within these of sixteen or 
eighteen separate beds of coal ; two or three of 
them being compound seams of great size, and 
about ten or more of the whole series being per- 
manently of ample dimensions for profitable min- 
ing. This depth of the coal measures, and the 
number of the contained coal, seems to grow 
less, of course, from the centre of the basin 
towards its two margins, and also towards its 
two contractinof extremities. 



i 'lis 



\ii\l 



,!l 



Tratidvcrt,e i>cUum, 



GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE BASIX. 

In general configuration, the Wyoming basin 
is a wide and shallow trough, somewhat deeper 
in the middle than at the sides, yet deepening so 
gradually toward the centre as to be, if we disre- 
gard the subordinate undulations of its strata, ap- 
proximately flat. This prevailing levelness of its 
bed or floor, notwithstanding the considerable 
angles of dip — frequently more than thirty de- 
grees — is at once apparent when we compare tha 
great width of the valley — four or five miles in 
its middle district — within the very moderate 
depth of 1200 or 1500 feet, or perhaps 1800 
feet, which my sections seem to assign to it, in 
tliis its most capacious portion. Laburious ex- 
plorations and measurements have enabled me to 
bring to light, within the general basin the ex- 
istence of a great number of nearly parallel lesser 
troughs or basins, with intervening saddles or 
anticHnal waves in the coal strata, and to trace 
these individually, and to develop the law of their 
direction and their effects on the local distribu- 
tion of the beds of coal. These investigations 
have shown me that the same coal seams and 
other strata are repeated, within certain limits, 
from one wave to another, so as to maintain, de- 
spite the local steepnesses of dip, tliis average 
uniformity in the depth of the coal-field at any 
given cross section. This general levelness of 
the bottom is independently established by a 
comparison of the vertical thickness of the strata 
•with the breadth of the valley. 

The whole coal-valley may be likened to a flat- 
bottomed boat, tapering gradually from the mid- 
dle towards each extremity, and as gradually 



AND WESTERN RAILROAD COMPANY. 79 

sboaling up in those directions; but the boat is not a straight one, but 
curves constantly, crescent-like, toward one side, and the resemblance is 
further deficient in the bottom not being smooth, but ridged with the 
waves, above spoken of. 

THE COAL MEASURES. 

It has been already stated that the coal-containing strata of the vicinity of 
Scranton appertain to the lower group of the white-ash coal measures of the 
anthracite basins ; and it was also remarked that this group exhibits oreater 
fluctualions in the dimensions and quality of the coal-beds than any other 
subdivision of the whole coal formation. These fluctuations, it is appropriate 
to add, belong equally, or in a greater degree, to the rocks which fill the inter- 
vals between the coal-beds. It would seem as if the physical conditions under 
which these earliest coal strata were deposited were more inconstant than 
those which belonged to the later stages of the formation. The spaces over 
which the nearly perfect state of repose of the surface prevailed, necessary to 
the accumulation by slow growth of the vegetable peaty mass producino- each 
seam of coal, were evidently of a narrower geographical extent than after- 
ward ; and the currents and disturbances of the earth's crust, which buried 
these successive peat swamps under (he clayey, sandy, and even coarse, gra- 
velly strata that rest upon or between them, were obviously much more vio- 
lent than in the middte and final ages of the great coal period. 

Nowhere, perhaps, in the anthracite country, are the proofs of this insta- 
bility of the surface during the first stages of the coal formation more con- 
sjjicuousiy manifested than in the Wyoming and Lackawanna basin. Hero 
we find, in certain neighborhoods, in the same few hundred feet thickness of 
these lower coal strata, as many as ten or twelve separate beds of coal, while 
in other localities there exist not more than half, or even a third of this num- 
ber ; and what is more material, the very same individual bed which in one 
quarter possesses an ample, or indeed superabundant thickness, is in another 
but a dwindled seam, too thin or too impure for profitable mining. With- 
out attempting any close continuous tracing of the several coals, which can 
only be done as the consummation of an elaborate and protracted survey, I 
may exemplify the variability of these coal measures by appealing to the very 
different types which they assume in the three meridians of Solomon's Gap, 
south-west of Wilkesbarre ; Spring Brook, south-east of Pittston ; and the 
vicinity of Scranton. 

At Solomon's Gap, this group of lowest coal measures, extending from the 
foot of the mountain north-west across the basin to the edge of the diluvial 
flats of the Susquehanna, includes in a thickness of nine hundred or one 
thousand feet as many as thirteen beds of coal of various sizes, from one foot 
to nineteen feet, and the total thickness of coal, fit and unfit f jr rainino-, em- 
braced by this section, may be estimated at nearly eighty-four feet. But out 
of this aggregate quantity, the thickness susceptible of being profitably 
wrought, does not probably amount in all to more than forty-five or fifty feet. 
Traced eastward and westward, these coal-beds undergo, even in the space 
of two or three miles, some very remarkable variations. Thus the fifth in 
po-iition from the bottom, from a thickness of seventeen feet at Solomon's 
Gap, enlarges in that distance to the noble bulk of twenty-eight feet, oppo- 
site to Wilkesbarre, beyond which neighborhood it seems again to decline 
even more rapidly than toward the south-west. These fluctuations arise 
partly through the coalescing of two or more beds into one, or conversely 
through a splitting and diverging of the thicker seams into two or three 



80 THE DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA, 

tlainner ones, or partly, again, by the gradual alterations of size of the same 
coals, independently of such unions and subdivisions. 

If we turn now to the district of Spring Brook, we shall find all the fea- 
tures of the formation so altered as to present not one subdivision, neither 
coal-bed nor other stratum, which we can recognize or identify as a member 
of the series visible in the vicinity of Solomon's Gap. In a total thickness of 
several hundred feet of coal measures, embraced between the out-crop of the 
Main Pittston seam and the conglomerate of the mountain to the south-east, 
only six coals in all, according to the largest estimate, have ever been brought 
to light, after close and persevering researches there, and only two of these 
appear to have a size and purity adapting them for successful mining. There 
would seem to take place between the Solomon's Gap, or Wilkesbarre neigh- 
borhood, and this quarter, a progressive impoverishment of these lower strata 
in the number and size of their included coal-beds, and likewise a consider- 
able thinning down of the entire formation. As a result, this portion of the 
southern skirt of the valley maintains at this time no collieries of any mag- 
nitude. 

Another and opposite change, back to a very productive condition of the 
coal measures, is exhibited as we continue our progress along the same side 
of the basin north-eastward up the Lackawanna valley and approach the 
vicinity of Scranton. 

In the immediate neighborhood of Scranton, a portion of the coal basin 
where the coal measures are unusually well developed by natural features in the 
topography, and through the researches directed by the companies, the coal 
rocks, counting from the upper surface of the serai or lower conglomerate to 
the hin-hest sandstones of the plateau south-west of Hyde Park Village, dis- 
close, upon careful measurements, an aggregate thickness of about seven hun- 
dred feet; and in this depth of strata the whole number of coals, large and 
small, amounts to no less than twelve, not estimating as separate seams any 
layers which might be regarded as subdivisions of compound beds. The 
assembled thickness of these twelve plates of anthracite is not less than 
seventy-four feet, taking for some their mean, for others their minimum 
dimensions ; and the thickness available for market, under judicious mining, 
I would estimate at thirty-nine or forty feet. 

To bring out in a clearer light the remarkable productiveness of this por- 
tion of the lower coal measures as they present themselves near Scranton, I 
will assemble, in a tabular form, the actual least thicknesses of the several 
coals within this bulk of strata, their net thickness of good coal fit for market, 
and the computed yield of such coal per acre from each bed. 







TABLE. 




Coals. 


Least thicknesses. 


Good coaL 


Yield of good coal per acre. 


K, 


5 feet 


3 feet 


4,000 tons 


I, 


V " 


4i " 


7,000 " 


H, 


10 " 


Y i " 


12,000 » 


G, 


G " 


3 


5,000 " 


F, 


12 " 


9 


15,000 " 


D, 


8 " 


6 " 


10,000 " 


c, 


" 
54 feet 


■ 4i « 

3Y ^ feet 


7,000 " 




60,000 tons 



These totals hold good of coui-se, only for those portions of the coal-field 
which are underlaid by all the seven coals enumerated. If we wish to aggre- 



AND WESTERN RAILROAD COMPANY. 81 

gate tlie gross amount, the net amount, and the amount per acre, contained 
in the four middle beds, D, F, G, and H, which he within a thickness of 
strata of two hundred feet, and spread beneath every acre of the coal-field, 
excepting only a narrow belt along its southern border, we shall find, on 
summing up the columns of the table, that the least total thickness of these 
coals is thirty-six feet; their yield in thickness of good coal, upward of 
twenty-five feet ; and their productiveness per acre, the noble ratio of 42,000 
tons. 

CHARACTERS AND QUALITY OF THE SCRANTON COALS. 

As a group, these Scranton coals are to be classed with the free-burning, 
white-ash anthracite, a very valuable variety, uniting the strength, or great 
heating 2'^oiver for which the true anthracites are j^reerainent, with that rea- 
diness of kindling and activity of combustion which distinguish the firmer 
semi-anthracites, and which the densest and hardest coals do not possess. 
Both in structure and composition the more ignitible of these coals hold a 
station apparently intermediate between the most compact anthracites nearly 
destitute of inflammable gases, and those more fissured and lighter varieties 
containing a notable amount of the carburetted hydrogen gases, and which I 
have elsewhere denominated the semi-anthracites. While the dryest and 
densest anthracites include about three per cent of their weight of inflamma- 
ble gases, and the semi-anthracites, some seven or eight per cent, these Lacka- 
wanna coals, on the verge, as it were, of the class of anthracites or flameless 
coals, possess an average as much as five per cent of these free burning 
elements. 

In point of purity or freedom from earthy matter, these coals of the vici- 
nity of Scranton will compare favorably with the beds of the corresponding 
lower white-ash group of the Lackawanna and Wyoming basin generally, 
and, indeed, with the better class of anthracites anywhere throughout the 
coal region. Analysis shows that the portions which are mined for trans- 
portation contain not more than six or eight per cent of ashes, and this, it is 
v/ell known, is a low proportion for merchantable anthracite coals. The 
earthy residue of these coals, being of the kind called white ashes, consisting 
chiefly of silica and alumina, and containing but little alkali, lime, or oxide 
of iron, and being capable therefore of withstanding a high heat without 
melting, or more than softening into a spongy cinder, are exempt from the 
serious defect of producing the hard, stony clinker caused generally by the 
red ash, and often by the so-called gray-ash anthracites. 

The proportion of solid carbon — the amount of which in coals, from the best 
practical researches on fuel, must be accepted as very nearly the measure of 
their absolute heating strength — is, in the instance of these Scranton anthra- 
vites, about eighty -seven to eighty-eight per cent of the whole mass, a ratio only 
about two per cent less than distinguishes the dryest or least gaseous varie- 
ties in the Lehigh coal-fields, while the diflference is amply compensated for 
in the gain of this amount of ignitible, inflammable gases — hydrogen and 
carburetted hydrogen — which serve materially to increase the promptness of 
kindling and rapidity of burning, or the total amount of heat evolved in a 
given time. 

These Scranton coals, in their comparative purity or freedom from earthy 
matters, and large amount of carbon in their possession of a moderate density 
and some free inflammable gas, and in their square mode of fracture, com- 
bine in a high degree the three chief essential attributes of a superior fuel, 
jjaniely, great absolute heating strength, quick ignitibihty or activity of com- 

VOL. VII. 6 



82 WILLIMANTIC (CT.) AND ITS FACTORIES. 

biistion, fiRcl the power of packing closely. Other coals may surpass them 
in some one of these qualifications to a small extent, but I doubt if, on a fair 
experimental comparison of properties, any will be found to combine a larger 
total of efnciency in all these several ways. 

With a view to exhibit more distinctly the excellences of the class of free- 
rjurning white-ash anthracites, such as these I have above described, I will 
conclude this essay with a condensed survey of the principal qualities essen- 
•ial to a 

GOOD FUEL FOR PRODUCIXa STEAM, OR FOR DOMESTIC USES. 

1. It should possess great actual heating power. 

2. As far as consistent with the foregoing, it should kindle quickly, and 
burn fast, generating the largest amount of heat in the shortest time. 

3. Its earthy matter should be small in quantity, and difficult to fuse; it 
will thus make little clinker, demand but little raking of its fires, and undergo 
but htlle waste in consequence. 

4. It should contain but little sulphur. 

5. The volatile ingredients of the coal should be free inflammable gases, 
not bituminous matters forming smoke ; and they ought to be barely abun- 
dant enough to assist rapidity of combustion, as the larger the proportion of 
fixed carbon, the greater seems the heating power. 

6. They should not be too tender on the fire, nor yet too refractory : a 
certain tendency to fall to pieces spontaneously while burning, but not an 
over amount of this, is a great desideratum, as it confers activity and steadi- 
ness of combustion ; too much of it impedes combustion by increasing the 
friction of the air passing through the fire. 

1. The lower the temperature at which an anthracite will kindle and main- 
tain itself burning the more manageable, more active, and more economical 
Tvill it prove. 

8. The better a coal unites the tenacity necessaiy for economical transpor- 
tation, with this medium amount of frangibility on the fire, the larger the 
effective result of a given quantity, from the time it leaves the mine. 

9. And the greater the aggregate of positive heating power, rapidity of 
combustion, and compactne&s of stowage compatibly assembled in a coal, the 
nearer does it approach the ideal standard of a perfect fuel. 



WILLIMANTIC (CT.) AND ITS FACTORIES. 

The river which has given name to this village, rises, unless we mistake, in 
our own State, in quite a secluded region, and then, after tumbling over the 
water-wheels of one or two furnaces and as many cotton-factories, in the town 
of Stafford, passing near Stafford Springs, it forms the boundary between 
Willington and Tolland, Mansfield and Coventry. Then, it sweeps away to 
ihe cast, and in the bend, where its wattTs rush over immense beds of gneiss, 
(which rock, by the way, will split almust as freely as the native chestnut,) in 
ihe north-western section of the township of Windham, lies the village from 
which we now date. Thirty years ago, a dozen houses would have accom- 
modated the population then basking in the sunshine of these waters, where 
cow reposes a population of some two or three thousand, in the space of a 



WILLIMANTIC (CT.) AXD ITS FACTORIES. 83 

mile. At a place known for miles around as tJic Slate, for many years had been 
located a grist-mill and paper-mill. And here it was the writer, as he came 
from his father's farm with a couple of bags of wheat to be ground, learned to 
make paper in the old-fashioned way. Since, however, he has, in a like man- 
ner — namely, by looking on ! — learned to make paper by at least two kinds of 
machines. Between the years 1820 and 1830, four companies, or prominent 
individuals, commenced their operations. One of these commenced in mills 
known as the Carpenter establishment. The next above on the stream was 
the mill or mills built and owned by the Messrs. Jillson. These gentlemen, 
men of enterprise, did much for the village. They were originally from 
Massachusetts. Dea. Lee, a gentleman well known in the vicinity, com- 
menced the mill next above. The uppermost mill, or mills, were constructed 
by a company from Providence, whose agents were the Messrs. Tingley. At 
the time referred to, mill privileges were in demand. Agents of cotton-factory 
companies v/ere then threading their way up and down the rivers and brooks 
to find a good place for a factory site. Then the railroads had not opened an 
access to hundreds of such places back in the country. The water in this 
stream is now used five times in the space of a mile, including the old grist- 
mill and paper-mill. It is believed that one of- the best sites in the village 
remains still unoccupied, where the water can be used again to propel ma- 
chinery. Some of the cotton-mills are of the largest class, and once wer.' 
filled with the most delicate machinery, and turned out some of the linesi. 
fabrics in the country. In whose hands, and by whom occupied, are these 
large rock-built establishments at the present rime, the writer has not learned. 
One thing which renders AYillimantic desirable as a place for factory sites, 
is the building material, already referred to, found not only in the bed of the 
river, but jutting out from its banks, and underlying the gi'ound in various 
localities. This stone, by natural seams, splits very regularly into masses from 
six inches to a foot thick. Then the converging railroads are destined to make 
this beautiful, romantic, and rising village accessible from almost every point 
of the compass. The New-London and Palmer Road opens a communication 
with Norwich, fifteen miles distant, with New-London, New- York, and all the 
world ; also, on the north, with Massachusetts, Vermont, New-Hampshire, the 
Canadas, and, if you please, the North Pole. Then comes the Providence, 
Hartford, and Fishkill Road, completed from Hartford to Willimantic, and 
almost finished from Willimantic to Providence. These two roads, running 
for some distance side by side, cross each other at grade at the depot. Finally 
comes, or rather is coming, the Air-Line Road, uniting Boston and Middle- 
town, New-Haven and New-York ; all meeting here, give the village greatly 
the advantage over almost any other in the neighborhood or in New-England. 
Then another thing rendering the locality desirable, is the perpetuity of the 
waters of the river. These, in the very dryest season, rarely fail. And here 
I would observe, that about three or four miles above the village empties one 
of the choicest streams, and at the same time most useful, which flows on the 
face of the globe. It is a stream issuing from Coventry Pond, a large sheet 
of water, fed entirely by springs, and situated some two hundred feet above 
the bed of the Vvillimautic. On this stream, in the space of two miles, are 
situated eight or ten mills in succession, with room for more, all governed by 
the grist-mill as to the amount of water. And there flows that pure, limpid 
st<-eam, right from the bosom of the earth, in a perpetual flood, just so large, 
year in and year out, without any increase from the descending rain or the clis- 
solving snow, or any diminution from the parching drought. It is a perpetual 
fountain, a real god-send to the village of WiUimantic. 



84 DETROIT. 

The village at the present time contains, I should judge, about five hundred 
families. It contains three church edifices — a Congregational, a Baptist, and 
a Methodist. Business is here ever quite lively, yet I undei-staud complaints 
come from the merchants that the railroad facilities carry all their customers 
to Norwich and New-London, on the one hand, or to Hartford on the other. 
Their complaint may be founded in reason ; but what is their loss is the gain, 
not merely of the cities mentioned, but of the people in and around the borough 
of Willimantic. Ever would we have the sunshine of prosperity fall on this 
village, this monument of "Whig skill, foresight, and enterprise ; for every 
manufacturing village in New-England is a monument, more durable than 
brass, of the benevolence, the far-sightedness, the energy, and the true patriot- 
ism of Whiggism. Yours, truly, J. S. 



DETROIT. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Portland Transcript writes as follows : 
Unlike most other Western cities, Detroit is situated upon high land, 
which rises from the water-level to the height of thirty-five or forty feet. It 
is situated upon the west bank of the Detroit River, about four miles from its 
source and twenty-four from its mouth. 

The waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and St. Clair, that move 
eastward to the Atlantic, find an outlet only through this river. It rises in 
Lake St. Clair, pursues a southerly course, and discharges its pure water into 
the noble Erie. It is broad and deep. Opposite the city it is three quarters 
of a mile wide, and as deep as can be desired, being twenty feet deep at the 
docks, and not far from fifty feet deep in the middle of the river. 

The principal streets run nearly parallel with and at right angles to the river. 
They extend for miles in as straight a line as the needle can dictate ; they are 
all very wide, and shaded on either side with a double row of young thrifty 
trees. Jefterson avenue, the Broadway of Detroit, runs a little to the east of 
north ; it is four miles in length; the side-walks are each fifty feet wide, and 
the street proper is one hundred feet. This gives a spacious avenue of two 
hundred feet in width ! It, with other principal avenues, is paved with lime- 
stone. Let the traveller promenade the walks of this avenue, on some bright 
summer's day, and he will find himself shielded from the sun by the over- 
arching trees ; and as he passes on and notices the stately brick mansions, 
whose attractiveness is enhanced by tasty yards of shrubbery and flowers, 
observing the "city-fashions," and people'moving to and fro, afoot and in 
(ilegant vehicles, he must pronounce Detroit a city not wanting in beauty or 
interest. The dwelling-houses and stores are mostly built of brick and wood. 
No granite is to be found in this Western country. All the stone is com- 
posed of lime. 

The well-water of the West is unhealthy. But this source of ill is Here 
ubviated by using the water of the Detroit River. It is pronounced by che-^ 
mists as healthy as any water in the world. Water-pipes ramify all parts of 
the city, and the steam-engine, like the heart, sends the water coursing along 
through these deep-seated arteries, to give health and animation to 35,000 
human beings. 

And not only will the traveller find Detroit possessed of beauty and health, 
but he will find it a city of business. Her commerce is extensive, being in 



A NEW TREE. 85 



good communication with five inland seas, and all their tributaries and outlets. 
Her harbor is pronounced one of the safest on the lakes. Her docks extend 
over three miles. Two railroads terminate here, the Michigan Central and 
the Pontiac — the first at the south and the latter at the north end of the 
cit}'. The first is 282 miles in length, extending across the entire State of 
Michigan to Chicago, the " New-Orleans of the North." It adds much to 
the business and wealth of the city. Its earnings last month amounted to 
over $109,000, which, like the ocean-tide, must ebb and flow, replenishini: 
the poor man's pocket and adding to the rich man's " pile." The Pontiac 
road is but twenty-five miles long, but in one or two years it will be extended 
to Grand-Haven, 280 miles, a port on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, 
nearly opposite to Milwaukee. Detroit was settled by the French in loVO. 
Its population is made up of people from the New-England, I\Iiddle, and 
Western States ; and I doubt not but every state of Europe is here repre- 
sented. A Maine Boy. 



A NEW TREE 



A BEAUTIFUL tree, unknown to other parts of the Union, is thus described 
in the Oregon Times : 

Mr. Quincy A. Brooks has placed before us the branch of a tree or arboret, 
accompanied by the following communication : 

A strange and beautiful tree has been discovered in Washington territory, 
which is not known to exist in any other part of the habitable globe. The 
tree is destined, I think, to make some noise in the Avorld. It is remarkable, 
because its like is not to be found elsewhere, and on account of its great 
beauty and fragrance. The tree varies in height from one to seven feet ; the 
leaf resembles that of a pear, while the trunk and branches look like those 
of the orange tree. The upper side of the leaf is thinly coated with a gum 
having the appearance of oil, and of the consistence of honey. Handling- 
them causes the gum to adhere slightly to the fingers. 

The gum, as well as (he leaf and bark, is highly odorous. The fraorance, 
which is quite strong, resembles that of bergamot, or ripe fruit, and a few 
leaves are suificient to perfume a room. A leaf, fully wrapped up in paper, 
so as to be entirely concealed, was handed to several persons, with a request 
that they would tell by the smell what it was. All expressed themselves 
highly delighted with the fragrance, but gave difierent answers as to its 
character. Some said it smelled like ripe pears; some said that it was ber- 
gamot ; whilst others thought it smelled like ripe apples. The flower 
resembles that of the white jessamine. 

This will certainly make a very beautiful and desirable ornamental tree to 
grow in our gardens, around our dwellings, near the parlor window, or to 
form a choice bower. Its intrinsic value for these purposes is greatly en- 
hanced by the consideration that it is an evergreen. The specimen is brought 
from my fiirm, and is taken from a grove of about a quarter of an acre. The 
plant is very rare, even here. The oldest settlers of the country say they 
never saw it growing elsewhere. Still, I have no doubt it will be found in 
other places. It has been known to the priests of the Mission of St. Joseph, 
for some years, but has not attracted attention until recently. 



86 THE NEWER DECIDUOUS TREES AXD SHRUBS 

THE NEWER DECIDUOUS TREES AND SHRUBS. 

ET HENRY T/. SARGENT, WODENETHE, FISIIKILL LANDING, N. Y. 

The last No. of the Horticuliurist contains the following, under this title : 
it is written bj a skillfnl amateur, and is worthy of especial consideration. 
We conamend the suggestions and ojMinons as entitled to more than ordinary 
consideration. Most of our readers know that " deciduous" trees are those 
which lose their foliage in the fall : 

In addition to the more common and usually planted deciduous trees and 
shrul:)^:, there has been a great and very charming accession to our ornamental 
plantations, within the past five or six years. The searches of Dr. Hooker, 
Messrs. Fortune, Douglas, and the other collectors of the Royal Botanical 
Garden, at Kew, and of the Duke of Devonshire, have been attended with the 
greatest success ; in addition to which, our own active intercourse with Cali- 
fornia has very materially increased the variety, which is now becoming 
gradually acclimatized and adopted into the gardens and pleasure-grounds in 
this country. 

Among the many new and beautiful plants which seem to have proved 
perfectly hardy, even as far north as Albany, and perhaps further, the For- 
Si/thia viridissima and the Weigela rosea, are among the most attractive ; the 
former, one of our earliest and most profuse blooming spring shrubs ; and the 
latter, covered with its roseate flowers from the middle to the last of May, 
partaking somewhat (though much more beautiful) of the character of the 
Fly Honeysuckle. 

Among the newer Magnolias, the M.fuscaia, cordata, Frazeri, longifolia^ 
striata, and gracilis all prove quite as hardy as the conspicua, Soulangeana, 
tripetala, acuminata, macrophylla, glauca, etc., all of which, say twelve or 
more, are quite hardy here, and should be in all collections. 

To this portion of plantations, which all flower about the same time, should 
be added the Pawlonia imperialis ; the diSerent varieties of Hawthorn — the 
single white, red, and pink, [these three grafted on the same stock, have a 
pretty effect.] the double white, the double red, and the variegated leaf; and 
the Andromedas, [these are evergreens.] The English Azaleas, than which 
nothing can be more brilliant and gorgeous, and the newer Belgian varieties ; 
the TRUE Deiitzia gracilis and Deutsia scahra ; and the Ribes sa.nguinea, 
(double,) the Ribes Gordoni, and the Ribes speciosa are all beautiful and 
rare. The double-flowering Sloe, the double-flowering Plum, Peach, Cherry, 
and Apple, and the Sinrcea pr^inifolia, are all beautiful. To these add the 
double pink, white and yellow Horse-Chestnut, and the dwarf Horse-Chestnut, 
all blooming in quick succession. 

There is no end to the Spircea family, and they abound in beauty. The 
many are well known. Lindleyana, Douglasii, Reevesii, and 2'>runifoUa, are 
among the newest. 

The Chinese Wistaria, if trained to a pole eight or ten feet high, and kept 
well cut back for some years, will, in process of time, have all the beauty and 
appearance of a weeping tree, and what is even more valuable, bloom in suc- 
cession all summer. 

The French and African Tamarisks are pretty and hardy. 

Among the variegated trees and shrubs, the variegated Sycamore, Oak 
Elm, Beech, Chestnut, Maple, Horse-Chestnut, Syringa, Euonymous, Currant, 



THE NEWER DECIDUOUS TREES AND SHRUBS. 87 

and Thorn all do well upon this place, and are striking and interesting varie- 
ties. The variegated-leaf Dogwood is very rare and curious. 

The cut-leaved family is also very curious. The prettiest of these are the 
cut-leaf Beech, the cut-leaf Horse-Chestnut, and the cut-leaf Ash ; though 
the cut-leaf Linden, and cut-leaf Birch, are desirable in a collection. [The 
cut-leaved Birch is, to our taste, one of the most elegant trees recently intro- 
duced. — Ed.] 

The purple trees and shrubs are the copper and purple Beech, the purple 
Filbert, and the purple Berberry. A fevv of these intermingling with the 
fanciful, gay foliage of the variegated Sycamore, Syringa, Thorn, etc., 
have the prettiest effect, if not overdone, or too much or too glaringly 
exposed. 

The weeping trees are now generally so well known as hardly to require 
mention. The old and new Weeping Birch ; the lanceolate-leaved Weeping 
Birch ; the green and purple Weeping Beech ; the old green, the yellow, and 
the lanceolated Weeping Ash ; the Weeping Sophora ; the Weeping Iloree- 
Ghestnut, Oak, Elm, Poplar, Thorn, Laburnum, Cotoneaster, Peach, Cherry, 
(three varieties,) Euonymus ; beside half a dozen more of the smaller shrubs, 
grafted standard high, and allowed to weep down, such as the Caragana 
arenaria, Euonymus UnifoUa, Caragana frutescens, Cytisus lessifolia, etc. 

One of the most desirable and beautiful trees, at this season, is the Virgilia 
lutea — beautiful in its habit and foliage, and exquisite in its bloom. 

The purple and oak-leaf Laburnum are worth a place in any shrubbery. 
The oak-leaf Hydrangea is quite hardy and desirable. 

For hedging, the most beautiful are the Hemlock, the Knglish Yew, and 
the Beech ; the most serviceable, the Buckthorn, Washington Thorn, and 
Osage Orange. 

Among the Elms, the Ulmus glabra 'pendula^ the Scampston Weeping, 
and the Camperdown Weeping are very remarkable. 

There are a good many fine foreign Elms, not pendulous in their charac- 
ter, yet well worth planting, such as the Chichester, the Cornish, the Ex- 
mouth, the Huntington, the English Cork, the Dutch Cork, the Scotch and 
the English Upright — a most valuable tree, from its property of retaining its 
foliage green, long after the surrounding trees are stripped. 

Among the rarer Maples, are the silver-striped leaf; the Norway, (the 
finest, I think, of all Maples ;) the Acer Tataricum ; the English, with a very 
dense, round, habit of growth ; and the purple Maple, with leaves of a rich 
dark green externally, and of a chocolate brown underneath. 

Beside the Ashes above enumerated, are the Willow-leaved; the Aucuba- 
leaved, blotched with yellow, like the Aucuha Japonica ; the Myrtle-leaved ; 
and a new and pretty variety originated, I believe, with Messrs. EUwauger 
and Barry. 

The Turkey, the Overcup Oak, and the English Ptoyal, Lucomb, and Ful- 
ham, and our difFerent American varieties, are, of course, all desirable, w^here 
the size of the place will admit. 

I shall end this chapter with one more tree, which to my taste is, among 
deciduous trees, one of the most graceful and fairy-like of all of the large col- 
lection I have here, and that is the new Weeping Larch, grafted twelve feet 
from the ground, and certainly most charmingly graceful in its swaying, 
pendulous habit, as much so as the Weeping Willow. 



88 THE FIG. 



THE FIG 



The Fig^ (Fiscus Carica) should be generally cultivated tbrouuhout the 
Southern or planting States, on account of its healthy and magnificent des- 
sert fruit; and the best and most approved varieties imported by our intelli- 
gent and enterprising Southern nurserymen, from Italy, the shores of the 
Mediterranean, and the South of France and Spain, where new and extra rare 
and choice varieties are yearly springing up, and I trust ere long will be pro- 
duced in like manner in the South, particularly in that El Dorado of a climate. 
Southern tropical Florida. The few isolated varieties now in cultivation with 
Americanized names, induce me to furnish you with a correct description cf 
a few of the rarest and most approved varieties of the fig. It is by forming 
such a collection of names, and by a judicious comparison of the fruits, that 
we are to arrive at any degree of perfection in the naming or selecting of 
fruits. Apropos : the fig-tree delights in a ligM^ rich soil, which is supplied 
with water tvithin the reach of the roots. Its nature is to produce two crops 
in the year. The first crop,' which is produced on the points of the shoots of 
last year ; the second crop is produced on the shoots of the current year. 
Among the best varieties grown are the following : 

1. Brown IscMa. — Fruit globular, with a pretty large eye ; large; pinched 
in near the foot-stalk ; color brown or chestnut on the outside ; purple within ; 
flesh sweet and high flavored, containing large grains; ripens in July ; will 
produce two crops annually; originally from the island of Ischia. 

2. Black Genoa. — Fruit long, swelling pretty large at top, where it is 
obtuse ; the lower or part next the foot-stalk very slender ; color dark-purple, 
approaching to black, having a delicate bloom over it, like some sorts of grapes 
and plums, which is easily destroyed by handling; inside color bright red; 
flesh high flavored ; ripens early. 

3. Early White. — Fruit small, roundish, somewhat flattened at the crown ; 
foot-stalk very short; skin thin; color white; when fully ripe, of a whitish- 
yellow ; inside color also white ; flesh sweet, but not very high flavored ; 
ripens in June. Under favorable circumstances produces two crops annu- 
ally. 

4. Genoa Large White. — Fruit large, globular, somewhat lengthened 
toward the stalk; skin thin; flesh high flavored ; color yellowish when ripe; 
inside color red ; ripens about the end of July. Will, under favorable cir- 
cumstances, produce two crops annually. 

5. Black Ischia. — Fruit short, middle-sized, somewhat flattened at the 
crown; color black when ripe; inside color deep red; flesh very high fla- 
vored ; ripens in June ; an excellent bearer ; originally from the island of 
Ischia. 

6. Malta. — Fruit small, much compressed at the top ; much pinched 
toward the foot-stalk ; color brown, both outside and in ; flesh very sweet 
and well flavored ; ripens in June, but when left to shrivel on the tree becomes 
very delicious. 

7. Murray, or Broivn Naples. — Fruit rather largish, globular ; color light 
brown on the outside, with faint marks of a dirty white, the inside of nearly 
the same color ; flesh well flavored ; ripens about the beginning of August. 

8. Blue, or Purple. — Fruit pretty large, oblong ; color dark-blue or pur- 
ple; is a good bearer; ripens early and produces two crops annually. 

9. NajAcs, Large Black. — Fruit long, somewhat compressed at the end.s ; 



GOLDEN OR BASKET WILLOW. 89 

foot-stalks pretty long ; leaves more deeply divided than in most other varie- 
ties ; color dark-brown when fully ripe ; outside color inclining to red ; flesh 
high flavored. 

10. Italian, Brown Naioles, Brown Turkey, Broion Italian. — Fruit small, 
or middle-sized, obovate ; color, both outside and in, brown ; flesh rich and 
delicious ; is of slender habit, and well calculated to force when planted in 
pots or small boxes. 

11. Green Ischia. — Fruit oblong, almost globular at the crown; skin thin 
and delicate ; color green, but when ripe, the purple flesh shines through 
the thin skin, and gives it the appearance of being stained with purple ; the 
flesh high flavored. 

12. Brunstvick, Hanover, or Madonna. — Fruit long, pyramidal ; very large ; 
skin pale, green on the shaded side, next the sun of a brownish-red ; flesh 
pinkish, extremely rich, sweet, and high flavored; the leaves deeply and more 
beautifully divided than in any other variety. This is said to be one of the 
most useful of the hardy figs. It is, perhaps, the largest purple fig we have, 
and the most useful variety that can be selected for a small garden. 

13. Marseilles, White Marseilles. — Fruit small; the skin pale green; 
flesh white, dry, sweet, and rich ; is admirably calculated for the forcing-house. 

14. Gentile. — Fruit middle-sized ; color yellow when ripe ; flesh of nearly 
the same color ; ripens late, and is a bad bearer. 

15. Lee's Perpetual, originated by Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith-Nursery, is 
said to be one of the best bearing figs we have, and should be introduced 
nto all fig-collections. 

16. Ischia Small Brown. — Fruit pyramidal and small, with very short 
foot-stalks ; color brown ; flesh inclining to purple ; very high flavored ; and 
is an excellent bearer. 

17. Ischia Yellow, Cypress. — Fruit large, pyramidal ; color yellow wnen 
ripe ; flesh purple and well flavored ; leaves large and not much divided ; 
tree grows luxuriantly ; a shy bearer. 

18. Nerii. — Fruit rather less than the Marseilles, and more long in shape ; 
skin pale greenish-yellow ; pulp similar in color to that of a pomegranate ; 
much the richest fig known ; there is in its juice a slight degree of very deli- 
cate acid, which renders it peculiarly agreeable to most palates. 

19. Pregussata. — Fruit large; skin reddish-purple; pulp deep red; 
remarkably rich, sweet ; seed unusually small. 

20. Small Brown Ischia. — Fruit small ; skin brown ; pulp purple, of a 
very high flavor ; leaves less divided than most sorts. 



FOR THE PLOUOIt, THE LOOM, AMD THE ANTIL. 

GOLDEN OR BASKET-WILLOW. 

Messrs. Editors : I have the pure golden or basket-willow, and could fur- 
nish several thousand cuttings for planting to any person who wishes to raise 
it. It will make good cotton-baskets, or fruit or work-baskets. Should any 
person desire cuttings to plant, send me their address and number wanted, 
and (10) ten cents a- piece, I will box them up and forward as directed. 

Yours, very respectfully, G. W. Berford. 

College-Hill, Miss. 



90 KAICRAL COKE IN VIRGINIA. 



NATURAL COKE IN VIRGINIA. 

At a recent meeting of the Boston Society of Natural History, Prof. Wiu. 
B. Rogers communicated some observations recently made by him on the 
Natural Coke and the associated igneous and altered rocks of the oolite coal 
region in the vicinity of Richmond, Virginia. In the district on the north 
side of the James River, where the most valuable seam of coke has been 
explored, it is at present wrought by two vertical shafts. In that nearest the 
out-crop, the coke is reached at 112 feet from the surface, in the other at 207 
feet, the dip of the coal-measures being nearly west, and at a low angle. A 
third shaft, recently wrought, whicli lies nearer the margin of the basin than 
either of the preceding, cuts the stratum of coke at the depth of 90 feet. A 
bed of whinstone, or coarse, gray trap, is intercalated in the coal-measures of 
this part of the basin, intersecting the two first-mentioned shafts, but cropping 
out a little west of the third. This bed is met with in the deepest and most 
western of the shafts, at a distance of about 100 feet from the surface, and is 
more than 30 feet thick where it is cut through, but in the next shaft, it is at 
a depth of less than 30 feet, and has thinned down to about half the pre- 
ceding thickness. 

One of the most remarkable effects produced by this igneous bed is seen 
in the stratum of carbonaceous fire-clay which lies next beneath. This, which 
in the second shaft has a thickness of 11 feet, has been greatly indurated and 
made to assume a columnar structure, by which the whole mass is converted 
into a congeries of closely-packed five and six-sided prisms, often quite regu- 
lar, usually about half an inch in diameter, and always at right angles to the 
lower surface of the trap. 

A portion of this bed, originally occupied by impure coaly matter, presents 
the same columnar structure, but the material is a compact j^lnmbaginous 
coke, with much earthy matter intermixed. The general aspect of the gray 
part of this bed strongly resembles that of the coarser varieties of fire-brick 
after they have been long exposed to intense heat. This is what might be 
expected; for in the bed in question we have the very material of fire-brick, 
and in the overlying trap we have a source of igneous action, which, in the 
originally molten condition of this substance, could not fail to work great 
changes in the contiguous strata. This columnar indurated clay, or natural 
fire-brick, when recently broken, emits a most oflensive odor, partly that of 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and partly, perhaps, caused by a sulphuret of carbon. 

At the depth of about 70 feet below the bottom of the trap, occurs the bed 
of natural coke for the mining of which chiefly these openings have been 
made. This interval below the fire-clay is occupied by bluish and drab argil- 
laceous and sandy slates, with some coarse sand-stone, the former abounding 
in impressions of plants, among which may be noted Equisetum columnare, 
Zamites oblusifolius and Taeniopteris raagnifolia, forms which many years 
ago Prof. Rogers pointed out as marking the oolite age of these coal-bearing 
strata. The baking action of the trap is curiously shown in all these fossils. 
The coaly matter of the stems and fronds, when closely examined, is seen to 
be blebby or blistered. It is, in fact, coke, which, while it retains the outlines 
and stronger markings of the plant, has in its partial fusion obliterated all the 
finer characters of the organized surface. 

The coke, where it has been successfully mined, forms a bed about five feet 
thick, including but little slate, and presenting nearly a homogeneous mass of 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES OF MASSACHUSETTS. 91 

a bluish-black color, uniformly vesicular and light enough to float in water. 
It retains only a minute fraction of the volatile ingredient of the unaltered 
bituminous coal of this region, but it ignites readily and burns like the com- 
pacter kind of ordinary coke. Throughout the bed, but especially toward 
the top, it presents a partially columnar structure. Where this structure is 
marked, the coke is found to crepitate when heated. In some localities on 
the south side of the James River, where the whole mass of coal and adjoin- 
ing shale has been rendered completely columnar, the material, in the process 
of heating, breaks up with an explosion like the crack of a pistol, at the same 
time projecting its fragments to some distance from the grate. 

The gradually diminishing influence of the trap-bed, as we recede down- 
ward, is ilkistrated by the section in one of the shafts, which embraces a 
thickness of fifty feet of strata below the seam of coke above described. 
After passing through indurated fire-clay, lying immediately beneath the 
coke, we have a thickness of about twenty feet of slates, followed by a thin 
seam of semi-coke, or coky coal — more bituminous below than at top ; and 
after this, descending through some twenty feet more of slates and sand-stones, 
we come upon a bed of bituminous coal, which appears to have sustained no 
alteration beyond the development, throughout the mass, of a columnar 
structure. In the deepest of the three shafts, the seam, now wrought under 
the intelligent direction of Col. Worth, corresponds to the coky coal above 
described, the lower layer retaining mucji of its original bitumen. In all 
these workings the gradation of raetamorphic influence is beautifully marked 
within a distance of less than fifty feet of strata, from the greatly altered 
shale or fire-clay immediately beneath the trap, through the successive slates 
and coke-seams, to the unchanged bituminous coal at the bottom of the 
section. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND TUB ANVIL. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

My Dear Sirs: In an interesting article in the last number of The 
Plough, the Lnom, and the Anvil on government patronage, taken from De 
Bows'' Eevieiv, I notice that our little State of Massachusetts is credited to 
" twelve agricultural societies, and in many of these societies several counties 
together." Since reading that excellent article, it has occurred to me that 
some more facts, with regard to the agricultural progress of our " Ancient 
Commonwealth," may not be uninterestmg to your general readers, while at 
the same time they operate as a stimulant on some, to increase the number 
of similar institutions through the country. 

There are now in Massachusetts sixteen incorporated agricultural societies, 
all in successful operation. These societies hold, in the aggregate, property 
to the amount of $109,911.10, and have in permanent funds, 892,816.54. 
Three of them, Norfolk, Worcester, and Middlesex, hold real estate as follows : 
Norfolk to the value of 86129.95; Worcester, $5964; Middlesex, $2000. 
The disbursements of all these incorporated societies in 1853 were $21,014.89. 
The amount paid to them by the State, in that year, was $8782 ; receipts 
from new members and donations, $6376.50. Each of the societies, except 
Barnstable, receives from the State $600 a year, and this society has $362. 
The amount paid in premiums by the several societies the last year was 
$9004.73, which was divided among about two thirds of the towns of the 
commonwealth. 



92 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES OP MASSACHUSETTS. 

The fairs and exhibitions of these societies are held in September and 
October, and the most of them continue two days. 

The Massachusetts Society for the promotion of agriculture was established 
in 1*792, and in due time a list of premiums was offered, and an exhibition 
held at Brighton, the great mart for selling cattle and other animals for 
Boston market; and a ploughing match was instituted in connection with 
these cattle shows. The Society still exists, with a fund of $23,500, and an 
annual income from the State amounting to $600, but holds no annual 
exhibition. Their expenditures in 1853 were $600; for a course of lectures 
on the horse — of which we suppose the resident members had the benefit ; we 
are sure the people had not — $460.'74 ; for care and keep of the Society's 
Alderney stock, $250 ; paid in premiums at the Springfield national exhibi- 
tion of horses, and miscellaneous expenses, $45.62. 

Its principal benefits have heretofore arisen from its importation of valuable 
animals, of whose use kindred associations in the State have had the benefit 
by a gratuitous loan, so that in its former proceedings its influence has been 
more like that of an auxiliary than of a parent institution. 

The Kennebec Agricultural Society was instituted at Augusta, in the State, 
(then province of Maine, and associated with Massachusetts,) in 1800, and in- 
corporated in 1801. This Society, of course, ceased to be an appendage of 
Massachusetts on the separation of Maine, and its admission as a new State 
in 1820. 

An Association of Farmers was formed in Middlesex County in 1796, and 
incorporated in 1803, under the style of " The Western Society of Middlesex 
Husbandmen," a name which was afterward changed by the Legislature to 
" The Society of Middlesex Husbandmen and Manufacturers," and now known, 
we believe, as "The Middlesex Agricultural Society." 

The first agricultural exhibition in Berkshire was held in 1809, and con- 
sisted mainly of a pair of Merino sheep, introduced by the Hon. Elkanah 
Watson, who was a principal actor in the formation of the Berkshire Agri- 
cultural Society, which was instituted in 1810, and incorporated in February, 
1811. The utility of this Society is now manifest in all parts of our county. 
How far its salutary influence may have extended into other sections, we have 
no positive means of saying. The Hampshire, Haraden, and Franklin So- 
ciety, embracing the territory of the old county of Hampshire, and covering 
the beautiful and luxuriant valley of the Connecticut, from Connecticut to 
Vermont, with the summit of the Green Mountains for its western, and the hill 
of Worcester for its eastern boundary, was formed in 1818. The same year 
similar societies were formed in Worcester and Essex counties. 

The favor in which these elder associations have been held in their respect- 
ive districts, is shown by the fact that in Worcester county there are nov/ 
ihiee incorporated agricultural societies. In Hampshire, Hamden, and 
Franklin, there is an incorporated society in each county, which, with the 
parent society, makes four, besides at least three highly prosperous ones, which 
are at present unincorporated. 

In Berkshire, it was found, some years since, that in consequence of the 
extent of territory, the parent society did not fill the wants of the population, 
and a cooperator was planted in South-Berkshire, which, if it has not the 
age, has the beauty and strength of the county society. Although some 
jealousies existed in the early history of the new society, and doubts were 
tolerated as to what its eventual influence might be, yet time has fairly buried 
the jealousies beyond the chance of a resurrection, and the doubts which 
have hovered over its path have passed away like the morning vapor, which 



MINERAL MANURES. 9§ 



passes over the earth, to awaken new beauty in its flowers, and give freshness 
to its verdure, when the advancing sun lends his more potent rays to smile on 
the freshness that greets it in its pathway. The two societies have lono- 
worked in beautiful harmony, each happily advancing the prosperity of the 
other. 

In horticultural matters the advances of the State are well known. The 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society has a reputation too well known to need a 
comment. Nearly every county now sustains similar institutions, and the 
improvements they seek to promote are becoming frequent everywhere. 

A Board of Agriculture was established in 1852, which employs a secre- 
tary, paid by the State, and its benefits are becoming more and more appre- 
ciated, as they more fully develope themselves. 

But there is another wheel, humble as it may be, in this machinery of 
rural improvement, whose benefits can not be over-estimated. This is the 
Farmers' Club, several of which have been in existence long enough to test 
their value and render them favorites wherever they have been sustained. 
Several of them, which may yet be more fully noticed, exist in the western 
]iart of the State, while within the last year their number has been beautifully 
augmented in the eastern counties. 

Yours truly, W. H. 



Elmwood, June 13, 1854. 



MINERAL MANURES— COM. THOS. AP CATESBY JONES. 

We find that this eminent gentleman is engaged con spirito in the science 
and practice of agriculture, and thus expresses himself in relation to some 
very important topics : 

Of all the concentrated natural and chemical manures, now in general use 
by farmers and gardeners, Peruvian guano is decidedly the favorite. It may 
not always be so. It ought not now to be the case. That upon extremely 
poor lands, incapable of vegetable production without the use of powerful 
stimulants, 200 pounds of guano per acre will produce an astounding crop of 
wheat, etc., can not be denied ; and a clover-seed be sown with the fall crop, 
or on it, in early spring, a fair crop of clover may follow next year, if the sea- 
son be favorable ; and if this clover be well plastered and ploughed down in 
June, and again ploughed and seeded with rye or wheat in August or Sep- 
tember, there will be an improved base to work on, by a regular rotation, such 
as I have already laid down, which must be pursued, or the benefits of the 
guano will be lost, and the land will be in a worse condition than ever. But 
guano should not be applied the second time to the same land, unless in com- 
bination with other fine manures ; nor should it ever be applied in its crude 
state to land that is in good heart, that is, land that will bring thirty bushels 
of Indian corn or fifteen bushels of wheat per acre, without it. Not but that 
guano on some such land might increase the product of both wheat and corn 
enough to pay for itself, but if it should, the soil will be robbed of its fertility, 
and will be h ft in a far worse condition than when the guano was first 
applied ; at least, such have been my own results in its use, and such is the 
universal character of guano in Peru, as I have learned, upon personal inquiry, 
from the mouths of all persons (with whom I conversed) engaged in garden- 
ing and agricultural products around the city of Lima, the capital of Peru, 



94 MINERAL MANURES. 



from whence we obtain the best guano. I have frequently been in Peru, first 
in 1835, again in 1842-3, and more recently in 1848, and on each and 
every occasion, I took the greatest pains to obtain all possible informa- 
tion as to the value of guano as a manure, and the mode of aj^plying it to 
iield and garden culture, as well as to its effects upon the land ; and with one 
accord, and without a solitary exception, I was told that land stimulated by 
the use of guano soon became utterly worthless, unless the stimulus was kept 
up by repeated applications. This was the reason assigned for so little use 
made of guano, where the cost of the article is merely nominal, not exceeding 
more than half what we willingly pay for leached ashes in the District of 
Columbia. Of all the concentrated manures for sale in our sea-board cities, 
crushed bone or bone-dust is undoubtedly the best ; its effect upon the soil is 
both prompt and permanent ; at least, a single application made by me fifteen 
years ago, is still quite visible, although the ground has been heavily cropped 
ever since. I found that one bushel of crushed bone was equivalent to one 
double horse-cart load of good farm-yard manure. Forty such loads is the 
least that will enrich an acre of worn-out land sufficiently for a good crop of 
corn ; hence, at the present price of bone-dust, that manure is beyond the 
means of most farmers for the renovation of poor lands. 

Poudrette, of the Lodi (N. J.) Works, is an excellent manure for forcing 
vegetables to an early maturity ; hence its great value to market-gardeners in 
the vicinity of cities ; but, like guano, it imj)arts little or no abiding fertility to 
the soil. 

Chappell's Fertilizer has opponents as well as friends. Its effect docs not 
appear to have been uniform in the hands of ditlerent persons, nor even when 
applied by the same person at different times. Such discrepancy is not very 
marvellous, since we know of no human agency that can by any possibility 
produce precisely the same results in the product of the soil, every year, for a 
series of years. If this be true, and no practical farmer can gainsay it, ought 
the Fertilizer, any more than guano or other manures, all variable in their 
effects, be condemned and thrown out of use ? 

The cost of the Fertilizer ($1 per 100 pounds) is too high for farmers in 
general, COO pounds per acre being necessary to bring very poor land up to 
i\ productive state. I am now in my third year's free use of this chemical 
preparation, with highly satisfactory results in evoy instance, the cost being 
iLe only objection so far with me. But even this is much reduced when the 
[>rolonged beneficial effect of this renovator is duly considered and compared 
w ith that of guano. The first two years I used the Fertilizer, (Chappell's,) I put 
two barrels or GOO pounds to the acre, without admixture ; but, on account of 
expense, about a year ago I commenced a more economical use of it, by 
admixture with cheaper substances, obtained without money, such as rich 
earth, or fine manures sufHciently pulverized to be conveniently sowed by 
hand. For proportions see appendix. 

Of the phosphates of lime, to be purchased in most of the largo cities on 
the sea-board, I have only used Chappell's bi-phosphate of lime, 100 pounds 
of which, in common with other more bulky substances, to be sowed broad- 
cast by hand, and harrowed in with small grain, or sovved in the drill, and 
dropped in the hill for corn and all sorts of roots, makes one of the best ma- 
nures I have ever tried. See appendix. 

PFaster of Paris, slaked lime, wood-ashes, and common salt, combined in 
due proportions, may, after all, at the same or less cost, be more profitable to 
the farmer than any manure yet known. 

Considering lime as the only sure foundation to any good system of farm- 



MINERAL MANURES. 95 



Jn<T which may be adopted for the renovation of lands exhausted by injudi- 
cious culture, I will devote a few lines to that particular subject, by stating 
what I would do if I had my work to do over again, and which, of course, I 
recommend to all other beginners in their efforts to improve worn-out lands. 

First, then, when your land has been well broken up for com in the spring 
of the year, spread on it from thirty to sixty bushels of dry, slaked lime. If 
you are near enough to kilns to get the fine Hme fresh drawn, and can get it 
on the land before it slakes, thirty bushels of that sort will be still better than 
the larger quantity slaked, but be very careful not to let your lime get wet 
before it is spread and harrowed in. If you are so remote from lime-kilns as 
to be able to haul only one load a day, it will be better to buy the fresh-burned 
and best lump-lime, because in that state it is much lighter, and Avhen water- 
slaked, will increase from three to four-fold. Such lime ought to be put 
under cover, and slaked immediately with strong brine. Lime of the quality 
described, and treated accordingly, acts very promptly, mechanically as well 
as chemically ; mechanically, in reducing stiff, rigid clay to a loose, friable tex- 
ture ; and chemically, by neutralizing acids unfriendly to vegetable production, 
and by combining with loose and light soils, they are rendered more adhe- 
sive and retentive of moisture ; in other words, lime judiciously applied to 
stiff land renders it light, while it gives to lands too light a firmer or more 
compact texture. This dogma, paradoxical as it may appear to many, is fully 
established by every brick chimney or stone dwelling in the land. All who 
build such houses know that lime and sand, (the latter largely predominating 
in all light soils,) with water, are materials used by masons for the formation 
of mortar, which in a short time becomes as hard, if not harder, than the bricks. 
It is also well known that if stiff clay or rich mould were to be used with lime 
for mortar instead of sand, that when dry, it would moulder away and become 
impalpable dust. Now, with these plain truths before us, it is only necessary 
to apply smaller portions of lime to our lands, according to their texture, and 
we can have stiff or light land, as we may choose or will it. 

Most writers on lime applied to agriculture, and many practical liming 
farmers, too, recommend doses of 50 or 100 per cent on the previous dressing, 
until you get up to 120 bushels per acre, at the end of the eighth year. I have 
not done so, nor do I consider it absolutely necessary or always expedient at 
such short intervals. Better extend the time, according to my cycle of six 
shifts, applying the lime to your corn-land in any convenient quantity, not 
less, however, than you commenced with, say 30, 40, up to GO bushels per 
acre. Finally and emphatically, be it remembered that if your land is natu- 
rally deficient in lime, that deficiency must, in some way or other, be supplied, 
or you never can reap the full benefit of manuring your crops; particularly 
wheat will be uncertain in quality, as well as in quantity, without hme, how- 
ever rich your land may be, and in time of drought your crops of all descrip- 
tions may fail entirel}^ ; whereas, on judiciously limed land, similar crops, 
under like circumstances, will escape almost unscathed. 

APPENDIX. 

Combination of concentrated manures to be applied by hand: 

No. 1. 
Soap-boilers' ashes, 2 bushels, ] To be sown per acre on all meadows, or 
Plaster of Paris, 1 " > other grass-lands, in late autumn or early 
Common salt, 1 " ) spring. 

The proportion of ashes may be increased to any available quantity, as high 
as ten or twelve bushels, which is as much as can be conveniently sowed by hand. 



96 MINERAL MANURES. 



"When ten bushels of ashes are used, this is a fine dressing to be harrowed i^^ 
^viuh any fall or spring crop, or as a top-dressing for winter-grain ; and by 
reducing the salt to one fourth of a bushel, and adding one bushel of lime, 
if your land had been previously limed, and allowing the mass, after being tho- 
roughly incoi^^orated, to remain one or more weeks in the heap, you will have 
a fine compost for corn-hills ; a small handful to be dropped with corn, pota- 
toes, and the like. 

No. 2. 
Super or bi-phosphate of lime, - . . 100 lbs. 

Plaster of Paris, 60 " 

Common salt, - - - - - - 15" 

Thoroughly incorporated with two, three, four, or five times their bulk of any 
light, rich earth, or scrapings of the lanes and farm-yard after the rough 
manure has been removed, forms another excellent dressing to be harrowed in 
with any kind of grain. A small handful dropped in corn or potato-hills, and 
for early spring dressing of meadows, broadcast, will be found in many cases 
equal to 200 pounds of Peruvian guano.'" 

No. 3. 
Chappell's Fertilizer, COO pounds per acre, sowed broad-cast, and harrowed 
or shovelled in, I have found equal for the first, and far better in succeeding 
crops, than 300 pounds of Peruvian guano.f 

No. 4. 

/-(u in •c J.-1- oAr. n ) Better than 600 pounds Peruvian guano, 
Chappell's Fertilizer, 300 lbs. ( , i i i ^ i, n i • i ,^ 

-r, '■^- ^r> i. -inrw u r tt> bc harrowcd or shovelled m, but never 

Peruvian guano, 50 to 100 I i i !• i 

^ ' ) ploughed m deep. 

Composts to be spread from the cart : 

No. 5. 
Wood-ashes, - - - - - - 100 bushels. 

Plaster of Paris, 10 " 

Fresh slaked lime, 10 " 

Common salt, - - - - - -10" 

From five to twenty-five bushels per acre. But never to be ploughed in, 
and, except on grass-laud, not less than ten bushels per acre ought to be 
used. 

No. 6. 
Rough compost is readily made on a large scale, by strewing the valleys in 
your wood-land, where is generally a large deposit of leaves and other vege- 
table matter, with lime at any season of the year, and at all convenient times 
after one good rain has fallen. Scrape into winrows, and when you are ready 
lor forming compost, heap alternate layers of this vegetable mould with the 
rough gatherings about the farm-yard, and with a moderate sprinkling of 
each layer or so with common salt, or strong brine, and a bushel of gypsum 
for each acre to which the compost is to be applied. This makes a good and 
durable dressing to be harrowed in with small grain, or to be sown on wheat 
(luring the winter, and immediately after clover-seed has been sown. 

"■ Up to 1830 I hjid depended almost entirely upon the resources of the farm for 
manuring. With the exce]ition of lime and plaster, my nse of foreign or purchased 
manures had been confined to experiments upon the smallest scale. 

f For two years I have used Chappell's Fertilizer without admixture — generally 
two barrels or 600 lbs. per acre. Last autumn I sowed the poorest part of a fresli 
field with one barrel or 800 lbs. per acre, shovelled in with wheat. Tlie product 
was equal to 23 bushels per acre, and much the best where the Fertilizer was used. 
The weight per bushel, to say nothing of the increased quantity, was G4 against 61. 



HEM ED V i!'Oll TUE CUKCULIO. 97 

* FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AKD THE ANVIL. 

REMEDY FOR THE CURCULIO. 

Messrs. Editors: How this pleasant announcement always gladden- 
the heart of the genuine lover of good fruit ! No matter how often old 
remedies have played hira false, if the new one appears plausible, new hopes 
are inspired, and he sees, or seems to see, delicious ripe plums, apricots, nec- 
tarines, etc., bending down the thousands and tens of thousands of branches 
heretofore doomed to barrenness by this universal bore, curculio. He sees, 
too, the mouths of rich and poor, great and small, abundantly supplied with 
the rare luxuries of horticulture, instead of the vile sweetmeats and confec- 
tions which ruin so many pearly teeth and robust constitutions ; and his own 
mouth fairly waters, as he joyously contemplates this better time a-coming. 
So, the new remedy is applied with unabated confidence of success. But, 
alas ! for " the best-laid schemes of mice and men." The season passes, and 
his golden hopes with it. His trees again cast their untimely fruit, and sugar- 
plums are still the predominating luxury. There was " a screw loose some- 
where" this time also, but where neither he nor the great remedian ever dis- 
covers, nor ever will, so long as their experiments are based on the erroneous 
suppositions that the curculio hibernates in the earth beneath the trees, itine- 
rates but little, and crawls from the earth to the fruit in the spring to deposit 
its eggs. As to its powers of locomotion, no bird or house-fly is much more 
active than the curculio when its wings are once unfurled ; and that it is borne 
by autumnal winds to a southern climate, and returned by the southern breezes 
of spring, appears less inconsistent to me than the prevailing notion that it 
spends some eight or ten months soaking and drying, freezing and thawing, 
in our northern earth, and then comes out bright in the spring. It was once 
as seriously believed that swallows dive into the beds of rivers at the approach 
of winter, and hibernate in the mod. 

If curculio arise from a state of hibernation in the earth every spring, it 
might seem an easy thing, by spreading broad coverings, or other means, to 
detect some of them in doing so. I have tried it, and will give half my peach- 
crop, at least this year, to any one who will prove the catching of a curculio 
under these circumstances. 

It is now June 17, and eggs which were deposited in plums the last of 
May are grown to grubs about one sixth of an inch in length. These larvae 
having absorbed the life of the plum, it falls to the ground, where they enter 
some two or three inches, or less, change in about three weeks to curculio, 
and return to upper air — whether to deposit eggs the present season, or how 
to dispose of themselves the many months between now and winter, and espe- 
cially then, is the question. Does this second generation lay eggs in other 
substance than fruit, which endure the winter and hatch out in the ensuing 
soring ? 

Place a dozen plums, more or less, as they fall from the tree, on a spot of 
light soil, and keep them covered securely some three weeks; you will find 
as many curculio, with a delicacy of structure hardly fitted for the hardships of 
an earthy hibernation. If you now continue the experiment, and cover them 
with dirt as solid as that through which they are supposed to work their way 
up in the spring, they die; or if you feed them with fruit, tliey will eat and 
do well till about October or November, and then die without reentering 

VOL. VII. 7 



98 NEW KIND OF BOOTS AND SHOES. 

the ground. Whoever will put an inch or two of moist sand into a tumblei 
or gliss vase, and fill it with fruit containing the larvae of these insects, may 
observe them through the whole of their wonderful process of transformation, • 
and gain new ideas, more satisfactory and grateful to the taste of the true- 
lover of nature, than even the most delicious " golden drops." 

We err, most of all, in jumping at conclusions. Mr. Todd, for instance, 
covered the ground beneath one of his trees with hard-trodden dirt, which he 
thinks " delayed the resurrection of the curculio," and saved his plums. He 
therefore concludes " that the curculio itinerates but little, that it hibernates 
in the soil, under the branches of the trees on which it has flourished the pre- 
ceding summer," etc. Now it unluckily happens that fruit-trees are as nume- 
rously visited by curculio the first year of their bearing, as they are any sub- 
sequent year, to say nothing of the fact that this insect can endure but a very 
short existence in the earth. I came to a similar conclusion as Mr. T. nearly 
ten years ago, by seeing the parts of a tree which leaned over a stream of 
water, weighed down with ripe plums, while every other branch was entirely 
barren. Subsequent observation and experiment have proved to my satisfac- 
tion, that these insects are guided by instinct to deposit their eggs where their 
larvcB may, by the laws of gravitation, reach such quality of earth as will favor 
their transformation. Hence it is, that intervening obstacles, as boards, pave- 
ments, hard-trodden earth, hogs, hens, chickens, etc., do a partial, temporary 
service ; the curculio, seeing them beneath the tree, shuns it for one of clearer 
prospect. 

There seems to be of late a fearful increase of insects noxious to the great 
interests of agriculture, caused by the wicked, wanton destruction of those 
natural guardians, insectivorous birds, which is so strangely, blindly allowed 
to exist almost everywhere about us. These truest friends of the farmer 
would fill his forests, fields, orchards, and gardens, and sport familiarly about 
his doors and windows, and afford ample protection to the productions of his 
soil, but for the reckless idlers who, in shape of worthless dogs, cats, and self- 
styled sportsmen, seem incapable of bearing the sight or sound of a quiet, 
harreiless bird. 

Crovi^s, hawks, owls, black-birds, foxes, skunks, and weasels, naturally 
destroy a vast amount of noxious vermin-life, by nipping it iu the bud, by 
seizing upon it at the starting-point, in early spring, as it comes out from a 
state of hibernation, and should be protected. Skunks, owls, etc., are especially 
valuable for clearing the farmer's grounds of those nocturnal insects which 
(Cut off his choicest productions while he regains his strength in sleep. It is a 
penny-wise and pound-fooliih policy which weighs the occasional loss of an 
eggi chicken, or hill of corn, against the great amount of good which these 
natural guardians are ever doing. E. Sanborn. 

4-ndover, Mass., June lY, 1854. 



New Kind of Boots and Shoes. — Measures have been taken to secure a 
patent for a new kind of boots and shoes, invented by Albert L. Murdock, of 
Boston. The soles, and the lower portions of boots and shoes, are made of India 
rubber, or gutta percha, while the upper portion are formed of some textile 
fabric, such as woollen, cotton, etc. The lower portions of the boots and shoes 
protect the bottoms and sides of the feet from wet or moisture, while the ui)pcr 
portions form an elastic covering for the upper part of the feet or legs, and keep 
the lower portions properly adjusted to the feet, and at the same time allow the 
free perspiratiou to pass off 



THE PEAR BLIGHT. 99 



THE PEAR BLIGHT. 
BY A. H. ERNST, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

The following paper was communicated by Mr. Ernst to the Cincinnati 
Horticultural Society, and subsequently appeared in the Horticultural 
Review : 

The cultivation of the pear tree is very simple ; it readily adapts itself to 
any soil or location, so that it be not a swamp or marsh, A deep, rich, 
clayey loam, with a porous subsoil, and a full exposure to light and air, is the 
best for its full development. The tendency of the tree is to throw down 
strong tap-roots ; it is, therefore, important to know something of the nourish- 
ment'it will find to feed on there. This tendency is overcome by growing it 
on the quince, the natural disposition of which is to spread its roots, and lux- 
uriate on the suiface soil ; though the tree is dwarfed, and the duration of its 
life shortened, still it is better for shallow soils, and gardens where not much 
room can be afforded. The fine sorts, with few exceptions, succeed well, and 
produce abundantly on the quince. These are usually trained in pyramid 
form, branching from the ground up, making a very handsome and attractive 
object in the border. When grafted or budded on their own stocks, they require 
more room, and are usually longer coming into bearing. 

The cultivation of the tree has, however, its drawbacks. It is not hardy; 
or, if you do not like the term, it is subject to be cut off and destroyed by 
'death at any time, when seeming in full vigor of health and growth. On the 
cause, there has been much speculation, without seeming to come to any 
satisfactory conclusion. 

Long experience, observation, and much reflection, have established in my 
own mind the cause. I do not know that I can make this clear or satisfac- 
tory to you, and other minds, but I may open a door to a new, or rather an 
unexplored field for thought and reflection, both to the practical and the 
scientific investigator. Perhaps there is no spot in this, or any other country, 
where a greater opportunity has been afforded for an observance of the dis- 
eases to which the pear tree is subject — especially that form which we under- 
stand as Jire blight — than here. 

Scientific gentlemen, with some exceptions, have generally follow^ed each 
other in attributing it mainly to insects, and some to an exhaustion^ or 
absorptio7i of those ^rariic/es from the soil, which are essential to the health 
and life of the tree, and the perfect development of its, fruit, admitting, at the 
same time, the existence of other extraordinary causes for its disease and 
death. 

Without denying that insects are sometimes injurious to the pear tree, even 
to its destruction, I must be permitted to question the general correctness of 
the theory, and also that of an exhausted soil. To my mind, facts do not 
warrant such conclusions as applicable to our region. To make out the latter 
theory, it should not be left to rest on doubtful speculation, but it should be 
shown to harmonize with matters of practical fact, as they continually occur. 
The ingenuous mind never should allow itself to lose sight of these. 

Though, unquestionably, the working, or grafting on bad stocks, such as 
suckers, and planting in bad soil, will facilitate the destruction of the pear 
tree — as the same cause would any other — they are only local, and laT/ not 
at the root of the evil. To suppose the adventitious existence of some sub- 



100 THE PEAR BLIGHT. 



Stance in the soil, to remove difficulties out oftke way of a favorite theory, is 
not satisfactory. 

It has been advanced that the cracking of the White Doyenne is oveing to 
an exhaustion from the soil of those particles necessary to its perfect develop- 
ment ; tliat the tree would resume its former habit of the production of per- 
fect fruit, if these substances were supplied to the roots. Among many rea- 
sons for dissenting from this position, let me say, that for eight or ten years. 
I have hardly had a perfect fruit on trees of this variety, many of which for 
inerly bore fine fruit until last summer, w^hen, on all of them, it was as fine s.> 
I ever saw it anywhere; and this without any application whatever to their 
roots. The trees are scattered over my grounds ; some in grass, the sod of 
which has not been distuibed for years. I attributed this remarkable effect to 
atmospheric influences, with which the composition of the soil had nothing 
to do. It was, during the growth of the fruit, unusually dry for our 
climate. 

Let us now examine the analysis of the pear ti-ee, as a correct and reliable 
basis to overcome the malady to which the tree is subject. Loudon, and 
other eminent writers on the subject, would have us to understand that there 
is a strong analogy in the life principle of plants and animals. It is, there- 
fore, fairly inferable that, as animals of the same species do not wholly depend 
on one class of food for life and health, but that, to a certain extent, choice is 
left to select from, producing the same results, thai this is equally applicable 
to plants. When we, therefore, have the analysis of Prof. Emmons before us, 
showing that the ash of the sap-wood of the pear tree contains more than 
twenty-seven per cent of phosphate of lime, twenty-two of potash, and a 
number of other inorganic elements, though perfectly correct, are we sure thac 
a tree grown in a different soil will not produce difierent results ? I shall 
show that this is the case in other species of trees, and therefore infer it is so 
with the pear. It is very certain that the color of fruits is afi'ected by sub- 
stances in the soil and taken up by the roots, not essential or detrimental 
to the health of the tree. 

Liebig, in speaking of the inorganic constituents of plants, says : " Many 
of the inorganic constituents vary according to the soil in which the plant 
grows," etc. Again : '• Most plants — perhaps all of them — contain organic 
acids of very different composition and properties, all of which are in combi- 
nation with bases, such as potash, soda, lime, or magnesia," etc. ; and after 
proceeding to show that certain acids are always, of necessity, present in 
plants, he proceeds : " It is equally certain that some alkaline base is also 
indispensable in order to enter into combination with the acids." And, while 
he seems to make it clear that the hfe and health of the plant depend inva- 
riably on certain acids, ho says : " It will be necessary to bear in mind that 
any one of the alkaline bases may be substituted for another, the action of 
all being the same." His object is, if I understand him, to prove that certain 
acids are, in the first place, essential to the existence of the plant, and that 
this always attracts a given quantity of alkaline ; that these alkalines are not 
necessarily the same, but similar in action ; that the plant will take them up 
as they are found in the soil. To prove this, he says : " It has been distinctly 
shown, by the analysis of De Saussure and Berthier, that the nature of a 
.-.oil exercises a decided influence on the quantity of the different metallic 
oxydes contained in the plants which grew on it ; that magnesia, for example, 
was contained in the ash of a pine tree grown at Mont Brever, while it 
was absent from the ash of a tree of the same species from Mont La Salle ; 
and that the croportious of lime and potash were also very difleicrit." Again 



THE PEAR BLIGHT. 101 



he adds : "Let us now compare Berthier's analysis of the ash of two fir 
trees, one of which grew in Norway, and the other in Allerard, (departemen 
de I'Isere.) One contained fifty, the other twenty-five per cent, of sohiWe 
salts. A greater difference in the proportion of the alkaline bases could 
scarcely exist between two totally different plants." 

Though it seems in all cases the oxygen was found nearly in the sam',' 
quantities in each species, proving concUisively that while certain properties, 
such as some of the acids and oxygen, are always present in nearly uniform 
proportions, that it is not so with other substances ; that they not only vary 
largely in quantity, but in some instances are altogether absent ; that a tree, 
like an animal, has some latitude of choice in its food ; and that the elements 
of the air are essential to the existence of both. This is perfectly in harmony 
with every day's experience of the different and diverse soils we find the tree 
to grow and flourish in. It may be questioned, if a tree, which finds the 
proper constituent particles in a soil for its healthy growth, can ever exhaust 
any part of it to such an extent as to produce death, if the natural sources of 
growth continue to yield their supply from the atraosphei-e. A forest does 
not wear out the soil and die ; on the contrary, we are indebted to its agency 
for the virgin soil we find under its boughs. It is the opinion of writers of 
high authority, that among our modern forest trees, there are some which 
have attained the great age of four thousand years ; and it is said that " in- 
vestigation of coal and lignite strata has proved the existence of trees of the 
same order as those now existing." If this be true, it proves positively that 
trees do not draw on the soil, so as to destroy themselves, or to impair the 
perfect development of their seed and fruit. But it may be said this is appli- 
cable to a state of nature. Well, this is just what I am endeavoring to show ; 
that we have run contrary to this ; and, from that cause, have produced an 
enfeebled race, which we are exposing to an uncongenial climate, and charg- 
ing it (improperly, as I think) to the soil. 

The reason why soils are worn out, is because of injudicious cultivation, a 
continued removal of its products without a proper restoration of the proper- 
ties thus removed. This is not applicable to trees, only so far as the removal 
of fruit is concerned, and the obstruction of the natural supply from decayed 
leaves, branches, etc. This may be larger or smaller, and of course it is wise 
to see that the soil is Avell supplied with all the particles thus drawn from it. 
You may, however, feed the pear tree as much as you please, and still it will 
die in the midst of a luxuriant growth ; and it is, therefore, to other causes 
that we must look for its destruction, not to the want of proper food. 

Ttie advocates of the insect theory have not been very successful in proving 
its truth. They are bound to show something more plausible for its support 
than the simple fact that insects are found in connection with the diseased 
parts. They are bound to show that these insects are really the cause, and 
not there as a resvilt of the blight. And, moreover, to show some reason why 
it is that they discriminate, pass by certain unmolested pear trees, and do not 
make a clean sweep of all within their reach ; and also, why it is that their 
destructive influence is sometimes suspended for years together. 

Prof. Harris' description of the Scolytns ivjri, in his invaluable work on 
Insects, which is mainly relied on as the support of this theory, fully defines 
its regular periods of change and operations. I am very sure that it will not 
apply to our blight, all the res:sons for which I can not here enumerate. Suf- 
fice it to say, that the injury of that insect '■'■ends with the death of the hranch 
down to a certain j^oint, but does not extend below the seat of attack, and 
does not affect the health of other parts of the tree." (Second edition Har- 



102 THE PEAR BLIGHT. 



ris'' Treatise on Insects.) A comparatively harmless insect, whose effects all 
cultivators in this region will have observed on their trees. 

I will here very briefly give what I deem the cause and the reason for the 
blight, which are not materially different from those given elsewhere. Long 
observation has confirmed my judgment that the disease is chargeable mainly 
to atmospheric influences. The Great Creator has in his wisdom so ordered 
it, that the vegetation, soil, and climate of every part of the globe act in per- 
fect harmony for the best development of the former. A departure from this 
state of nature is at the hazard of the health and longevity of the plant or 
tree, though this result does not invariably follow. The pear tree, as before 
observed, is not a native of this continent, but of a diflferent hemisphere, where 
it grows to large size and great age, as other forest trees do. All intelligent 
writers, so far as I know, are agreed that the improvement of the fruit has 
generally been at the expense of the hardiness and durability of the tree, (not 
a necessary consequence.) However, we find it so. We have imported an 
enfeebled race, and are exposing it to a new climate, the vicissitudes of which 
it is not fully capable of resisting. I care not for terms : whether you call it 
frozen sap blight^ or sun hlight ; whether the effect is produced by sudden 
and rapid changes of winter temperature, or an excessive summer sun. In 
either case, it is the destruction of the natural functions of the tree, producing 
disease and death. The former is often tardy in its work, but the latter 
generally rapid and instantaneous. In the one case, it is brought to bear on 
the tree in a state of rest, when the sap-vessels are contracted, when their 
juices have been expended to form wood, which is immaturely ripened. In 
the other case, when the sap-vessels are extended to their utmost capacity, to 
supply the demands of a rapid and luxuriant growth ; when this growth is in 
its most tender and delicate condition, the scorching mid-day sun does the 
mischief; the sap, by its rays, is scalded and vitiated, a chemical process of 
decomposition takes place, its poison is soon carried to and mixed with other 
portions of the tree, and the whole is often irretrievably lost in a few hours. 
The only remedy is, the moment that it is discovered on the limb, where 
this form of blight always makes its appearance, to lop off until you come to 
the sound and healthy wood, and thus prevent its spreading. Do not stop to 
hunt insects until you have performed this work, when you can do so 
leisurely. 

Sim hlight, ovfire blight, is alwaj's most prevalent in a wet and hot sum- 
mer. There has been but little the last three years, and we shall certainly 
have no frozen sap blight to complain of next summer. This is to be attri- 
buted to rather unusual dry summers during this period ; the wood having 
ripened well before winter set in, and the growth not so luxuriant as in wet 
seasons. 

As a remedy, or rather a preventive to the frozen sap blight, I would sug- 
gest the &horteniug-in application, in September or October, to check the 
growth, and induce the maturing of the wood. This system is, perhaps, only 
applicable to dwarfs, as standards can not well be reached. What is under- 
stood by shortening-in, is to cut back the present year's new shoots to the 
firm wood, say one third, or one half of it, as the case may require, so that 
the sap remaining shall be expended in perfecting the wood which is left, and 
not to be stimulated by the leaves on the ends of the shoots to continuL' 
growth. This system is also practised to force the tree into forming fruit- 
hpurs, and thus ficilitate the production of fruit. Care must be observed in 
the time of performing this operation. It must not be so early in the season 
as to cause the bursting of the lateral buds, and thereby cause a more inju- 



• PRESERVATION OF WHEAT IN TENNESSEE. 103 

rious growth than it is attempted to cheek. There need be very little risk in 
this ; we must be governed by the state of the season. It is better a little 
late than too early ; when the majority of the leaves on the shoot are rigid 
and hard, is a suitable indication of the proper time. 

Having said so much about the want of hardiness of the tree, it may be 
asked, how I account for the trees that are to be found lip and down our 
land, which have withstood the winter's storms and summer's heat from one 
to two hundi'ed years ? Before I answer the question, allow me to offer them 
as standing monuments against the exhaustion and insect theories. We have 
had some specimens in this vicinity — until the spirit of city improvements 
required their room, when the rude hand of the woodman brought them low 
— whose existence was coequal with the first impress of civilization ; they 
remained sound, healthy, and fruitful to the last. Such specimens, it will be 
found, have all originated from seed, and always from a hardier stock than 
the varieties of more modern introduction. A friend has just given me the 
history of one in Guilford, Conn., which he says is over two hundred years 
old, measuring fifteen feet in circumference at five or six feet from the ground. 
It is now beginning to decay, but yields a considerable quantity of fruit. He 
says the fruit does not compare with the best now in cultivation, but when he 
was a boy, more than fifty years ago, it was considered very superior. 

It is to these hardy remains of ancient days we must look for constitutions 
to hybridize with our finer sorts, say, if you please, the SeckeJ, which is as 
hardy as any of them, for a class of trees producing superior fruit, and, at the 
same time, such as we can trust out of doors. 

I fear the above remarks may seem lengthy to some, but the subject is 
of too much interest to be passed over lightly, or with mere assertions. As 
it is investigated, the more fully it^ importance is brought to view. I have 
endeavored to avoid all improper allusions, unnecessary repetitions, and aim 
at display, simply confining myself to a plain statement of theories and opin- 
ions of others, their comparisons and plausibilities. Much might be added 
to sustain the views I have presented as the real cause of destruction of our 
pear trees. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

PRESERVATION OF WHEAT IN TENNESSEE. 

Messrs. Editors : I am aware that very many of my farming friends in 
Tennessee are the readers of your valuable publication, and are heavy wheat- 
growers, and now that recent railroad conveyance, with the foreign demand, 
has permanently settled upon this valuable grain a feir price here, it is not 
at all unlikely that much more attention will be paid to the growino- of 
wheat in future. A few otherwise systematic and economical farmers in 
Tennessee raise a pretty fair crop of wheat, and have no barns to house it in. 
This is a very great desideratum to a wheat-grower, and the want of good 
barns, with some other proximate causes of mismanagement, sometimes results 
in material damage to the wheat of these farmers before it reaches the 
miller's hopper. Therefore, through you, to my farming friends in Ten 
nessee, let me, without ostentation, give my experience in harvestino- and 
saving a wheat crop, referring, at the same time, to my acquaintances for the 
character of my wheat crops : 



104 PLANTING IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Whenever the straw of the wheat becomes of a golden yellow, for about 
two inches below the ear or head, disregarding any other feature in the straw 
or grain, I cut it down, bind it right up after the scythe, in small binds, shock 
likewise in small shocks. I let it stand thus in the field till it cures and drie? 
perfectly, so that the grain would grind, and no lonr/er. I haul to the barn 
thresh out when convenient, unless I notice a sign of weevil breeding in tin 
wheat, when I thresh at once; and having a large bin for the purpose in thf 
barn, I crib it up in the chaff till it is needed. In this way I have saved anJ 
do save one thousand bushels of wheat clear from mould, heat, or must 
The bran is always thin and tough, the flour white and sweet, preserving its 
native fermenting qualities to the satisfaction of the most fastidious epicure in 
any clime. This process is easy, simple, and safe, and it may be that most of 
my brother farmers knew before what I have here told them was my way, 
and the proper way ; but do they, to the letter, pursue it ? That is the 
question ; but the whole science of philosophy, according to Epictetus (a 
fair.ous stoic philosopher, highly esteemed in his day,) consists in two words, 
hear a\\<\ forbear ; to the latter your humble correspondent now will adhere. 

As ever yours, A. L. B. 

Mill Bend, Tenn., June, 1854. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AKD THE ANVIL. 

PLANTING IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Messrs. Editors : Having sowed our oats, our attention is called to clear- 
ing land if necessary, or our branches, if they have been neglected in the sum- 
mer, which is the right time for this work. When this work is done while 
the growth is not in foliage, there is much less difficulty in burning off. 
Beside, a great many more stumps die. Willows, which are a great nuisance 
in creeks, in most cases, after being cut down, will put out. The most suc- 
cessful plan which I have tried, in securing their destruction, is, whenever 
they shoot out suckers, to break them out immediately, which can be easily 
done when taken in time. But, if allowed to grow five or six months, 
they have to be broken out by the pole of an axe, and not cut down. By 
repeating this process a couple of years, I can destroy most of them. The 
old logs on land that has been idle two or three years, are about this time cut 
up, turned by oxen, rolled and burnt, if the weather admits. We bed up this 
kind of land in January, expecting to have some freezes that will mellow it. 
Having finished clearing new ground and branches, we have all our logs to 
dispose of as soon as we can, using the small branches, etc., to assist in con- 
suming them. Our cotton-stalks, if small, we beat down ; if large, we pull 
up and burn. Having made ready a considerable portion of our land 
intended for cotton, if we have suitable weather we now burn ofi" new ground 
or branches. But when this work has been done in the winter, we delay as 
long as possible, that the wood may in some degree season. By the 1st of 
February, we endeavor to get to steady ploughing. Our fallow-land calls on 
us for double ploughs, and land that is bedded out must be cut to pieces by a 
sword-harrow just before planting. Our other cotton-land is two-furrowed 
by a single horse-plough, except we wish to change our rows, then it is three- 
furrowed. When there arc two furrows, they are made to meet in the water- 
furrow. 



PLANTING IN MISSISSIPPI. 105 

Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the advantages of a centre- 
farrow for cotton. It is maintained, that by a centre-furrow the tap-root is 
enabled to penetrate deeper — that by it, in a dry year, the plant can resist 
drought better, and that by exposing the soil beneath, where the cotton is to 
grow, the atmosphere can act on it, producing very important changes. On 
the other hand, it is contended that the tap-root must reach the hard ground 
before the plant will do much toward maturity, that the deep furrow delays 
this period, and that, in a wet season, it invites too much moisture beneath 
the plant. Good planters advocate both systems, appearing to succeed equally 
in making good crops by either plan. My practice is, to avail myself of both, 
as it may suit my convenience. I think agricultural writers are two indis- 
criminate in advocating deep ploughing. The depth of the ploughing should 
be governed by the condition of the soil. Ploughing eight or ten inches in a 
soil ten inches deep, would of course be attended with great advantage ; whilst 
the same ploughing in one of four inches might prove an absolute disadvan- 
tage. The reason is obvious. In the latter, we are mixing four inches or 
more of clay with the same amount of soil, which, in the given space, pre- 
sents only half of the fertilizing elements, and of course forces the fibrous roots 
to travel twice the distance for the same amount of nourishment. But if we 
turn up four inches, and sub-soil six, then we are offering materials in their con- 
centrated form, at the same time we are placing our corn over a mellow mass, 
to absorb moisture when in excess, and to give it out to the plant in a dry 
time. To preserve our lands in good condition, we are compelled to level or 
circle them, and to further protect them by hill-side ditches. Those wishing 
information on this subject would do well to give an article, by a Planter, in 
the April number of The Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil, of the present 
year, an attentive perusal. The system described there is excellent for land 
which has few stumps and washes. But I would advise bringing them as 
near a level as possible, having the ditches determined by the ground. Hav- 
ing two-furrowed our cotton-land, our attention is next called to our corn. 
Here there is considerable difference in the mode of preparation. Some run 
a deep centre-furrow with a bull-tongue plough, to be bedded on by a two- 
horse plough. The objection to this course is, there is great danger of placing 
the corn too high for the last working. Others tap two furrows, as for cotton, 
break out, and when ready to plant, throw back four furrows. This obviates 
the objection to the first mode, but it has a difficulty. In planting, the land 
is brought too near a level, and should we have some of those washing rains, 
that in the spring are frequent, the water sweeps across the rows, bearing off 
the soil, and filling up the hill-side ditches, unless they have great descent. 
The plan I have adopted appears the least objectionable. I use a large 14-inch 
scooter or bull-tongue, attach two horses to it, and run three farrows as deep 
as I can in the water-furrow of the old row. A week before planting, I com- 
mence throwing out the balance of the row, which is a species of sub-soiling. 
My corn is not placed too high, and I have fresh land to plant with. 

I must close, for fear you will think I am appropriating too much of your 
journal to my use. Yours, etc., H. W. Stackhouse. 

Hinds Co., Miss., July 1, 1854. 



Spoxge-fishing is said to liave become a very profitable business in the neigli- 
borhood of Key-West. One hundred thousand pounds are reported to have 
been gathered during last year, and tlie sales amounted to $25,000. The article 
is mostly procured by natives of the Bahamas. 



106 GREAT MECHANICAL FEAT. 



GREAT MECHANICAL FEAT 

We received an invitation a few days since, to attend a collation, to be 
served up in a gigantic iron-casting at the establishment of Messrs. Mott & 
Ayres, on the North River, foot of Twenty-sixth street. 

We accordingly took stage, and on arriving at the office of the gentlemanly 
artists, found quite a number of the craft assembled, and at the time appointed 
we were taken through the work-shops, and, by I'equest, descended a ladder 
into a huge cast-iron gas-metre ! The metre, one half of it, was standing 
on its end, inclosing us, of course, on all sides, by a circular iron wall. A 
table was appropriately spread with plates and viands for forty people. About 
thirty were present, at the first table, though the whole number (40) were 
afterward accommodated at a second dinner. 

The dimensions of this, "the largest casting ever made," are as follows: 
Internal diameter, ----- 15 feet. 

Depth, - - - - - - - 6 ft. 3 in. 

Average weight of each casting, - - - 16,000 lbs. 
Thickness of casting, only ONE INCH. 

Four such cylinders were cast in succession, without the loss of a single 
heat; and these four castings, when united together, form a complete metre. 

This is said to be the largest casting ever made in any country. But the 
chief wonder is that castings of that large size, so very thin, could be made, 
without loss of one or more trials. Had the thickness been several inches, 
imperfections might exist and still be invisible, being covered. But with so 
thin a plate, any unequal cooling of the metal (would most certainly spoil the 
work. 

This casting is designed for a stationary metre for the Manhattan Gas- Light 
Company, and is to be placed near Fourteenth street, on the East River. It 
is designed for the purpose of measuring the gas which passes out of the 
gasometer. The quantity manufactured may thus be compared with the 
quantities indicated by the totals of the several metres where the gas is 
delivered, and losses by leakage or otherwise may be determined. These 
losses, we understand, are believed to amount to 20 or 25 per cent. 

This is not the first feat of this kind accon:plished by this enterprising 
firm. In 1851, at the order of the same Gas Company, they cast twelve pil- 
lars, each 50 feet 8 inches in length, 3 feet diameter at base, and 2^ feet 
diameter at top, with an average weight of 27,250 lbs. each, and the whole 
work was accotnplished without the loss of a single casting. 

These pillars, it is stated, are 10 feet 8 inches longer than any piHars ever 
cast in Europe. They are to be seen around the huge gasometer of the Gas 
Company, on the Tenth avenue. 

Girders of open-work, twelve in number, and each 40 feet long, and weigh- 
ing 10,000 lbs. each, were also cast at the same lime, as supports or bands to 
hold the pillars and other frame-work in their places. 

The guests were exceedingly gratified at this proof of skill in the opera- 
tives, and of enterprise and efficiency in the gentlemen of the firm. 

It will not be inappropriate to annex to this statement a paragraph which 
we find " in the papers," as follows : 

" A Novel Dining-Room. — The Neio-Yorh Commercial gives an account 
of a dinner-party given by Messrs. Stillman & Allen, I-oti- Workers, New- 



HOW STATUES ARE MADE. 107 

York, in the cylinder recently cast for tlie '' Metropolis," the new steamer ia 
process of building for the Fall-River line. Twenty-two persons sat down to 
dinner in the tube, and after dinner the guests Avere amused with a drive in a 
buggy through their dining-room. It was found that more than one hundred 
persons could stand in the cylinder. It is nearly nine feet in diameter, and 
has twelve feet stroke of piston. It is the largest, by more than one third, 
ever cast in this country ; and it is sa,id that its immense size will give great 
power with steam of low pressure, thereby promoting the safety and durabi- 
lity of the engine and boilers, and economy in producing an equal amount of 
power wim less consumption of coal." 

It should be noticed, in justice to all parties, that in the casting at the 
Novelty Works, the guests were seated lengthwise of the cylinder. In that 
which we have first described, the cylinder stood endwise. 

Each one of these firms is an honor to the country. What they can not 
accomplish, may perhaps be set down as an actual and essential impossi- 
bility. 



HOW STATUES ARE MADE. 

The following letter, in the Literary World, from George H. Calvert, 
describes the 2Jrocess of sculpture, and contains information that will undoubt- 
edly be highly interesting to a large portion of our readers. It contains also 
some most admirable remarks upon the " Greek Slave,^'' by Powers, which 
still further commend it to notice ; 

" Process of Sculpture. — The Greeh Slave. — This statue having, on its 
first presentation to the American public, excited unbounded admiration and 
enthusiasm, a brief account of it will be interesting to its author's fellow- 
countrymen. 

The Greek Slave is the second ideal work of the American sculptor, Hiram 
Powers — the Eve being his first. The clay model was begun and finished in 
the summer and autumn of 1842. American sculptors having been hitherto 
obliged to work abroad, but few of our citizens have had opportunities of wit- 
nessing the labors of the studio ; acceptable, therefore, will be some explana- 
tion of the several processes through which a work in sculpture must pass, ere 
the artist can present his conception smoothly embodied in marble. The 
visitors to the ' Slave * will thus be made acquainted with the bodily birth 
and growth of the wonderful creation that stands before them in dazzling 
beauty. 

The conception being matured in the artist's mind, the first step in the 
process of giving form to it, is to erect, on a firm pedestal, a skeleton of iron, 
whose height, breadth, and limbs are determined by the size and shape of the 
proposed statue. In this case it would be above five feet high, with branches, 
first at the shoulders, running down forward for the arms, then at the hips, 
to support the large mass of clay in the trunk, and thence divided in two for 
the legs. About this strong simple frame is now roughly built, with wet clav, 
'he pre-determined image. Rapidly is this moulded into an approximation to 
ilie human form ; and when the trunlc, head, and limbs have been definitelv. 
shaped, then begins the close labor of the mind. The living models are sum- 
moned, and by their aid the surface is wrought to its last stage of finish. I 
say models, for to achieve adequately a high ideal, several are needed. Na- 



108 HOW STATUES ARE MADE, 

ture rarely centres in one individual all lier gifts of corporeal beauty. For 
the Eve, Powers had more than a score of models. The modern Christian 
artist can not be favored as was the painter Zeuxis of old, to whom a Grecian 
city that had ordered from him a picture of Helen, sent a number of its 
choicest maidens, that out of their various graces and beauties he might, 
as it were, extract one matcliless form. For the 'Slave,' the character Powers 
had established in Florence for purity and uprightness, obtained fur him one 
model (who is not a professional sitter) of such perfection of form as to furnish 
all he could derive from a model. With this breathing figure before him, 
and through his precise knovpledge of the form and expression of every part 
of the human body, obtained from the study of nature and his own deep 
artistic intuitions, the clay under his hand gradually grew into life, as it 
assumed the elastic, vital look, which no mere anatomical knowledge or craft 
can give, by which is imparted, by the genial sympathy with nature's living 
forms in alliance with a warm sensibility to the beautiful, qualities which 
crown and render effectual the other less elevated endowments for art. 
Thus, by the most minute manual labor, directed by those high and refined 
mental gifts, the clay model of the ' Slave ' was wrought out ; and. here the 
artist's work ended ; the creation was complete. The processes whereby it 
was now to be transferred to marble, though of a delicate, difficult kind, and 
requiring labor and time, are purely mechanical, and are performed, under 
the artist's direction, by uninspired hands. 

In order that the soft clay image be transformed into a harder substance 
without suffering the slightest change in its surface, a mould is a])plied to it, 
in the same way and with the same material as when a cast is taken of the 
living face or head, by means of semi-liquid plaster of Paris. The clay figure 
is entirely covered with this substance from one to two or more inches thick, 
provision being made for taking off the arms and for splitting the trunk after 
the plaster shall have hardened. The clay is then all taken out, the hollow 
mould is cleaned, and then refilled with semi-liquid plaster of Paris, When 
this, which now occupies entirely and minutely the place of the clay, has in its 
turn become hardened, the outside crust of plaster is broken from it, and then 
is laid bare an exact fac simile of the original clay figure in hard, smooth plas- 
ter of Paris, capable of bearing the usage of the studio, and of receiving the 
many marks that are to guide the marble-cutters, whose work now begins. 

First comes the blocker- out, with his heavy mallet and coarse chisel, 
under whose rough blows the white block soon begins to grow into a rude 
likeness of humanity. Then a finer workman, who loosens more of the folds 
that overlay the beaming image that the artist is bent on disclosing from the 
centre of the marble. And, finally, the artist himself, or, as in this case, a 
refined worker, schooled under the eye of Powers, gives the finishing touches, 
reproducing, with unsurpassed accuracy, in the transparent, pure marble, 
every swell and indentation, and minutest curve, all the countless delicacies 
of detail, the which, combined with and forming grand sweeping lines, cha- 
racterize the original as moulded in clay by the hand of Powers. 

And now, in the midst of us, here is the marvellous work, drawing from 
(lur hearts a flood of vivifying, purifying emotion; a revelation made by its 
author to his countrymen of the power and majesty of art. They who have 
looked in silent delight on the Venus of the tribune in Florence, no longer 
enjoy a unique privilege. On our native shore, sprung from the warm 
bosom of native strength, a fresh emanation from the exhaustless soul of 
beauty, stands a work as resplendent with the impress of genius as the 
famed Grecian goddess, as sublimely simple, as viviily graceful, and more 



AMOSKEAG MACHINE-SHOP. 109 



touching in its moral appeal. The stronger the genius the simpler the ele- 
ments wherewith it delights to work. How simple, how common are those 
by which such overpowering efforts are wrought : a young maiden in a con- 
dition of painful constraint. But the two great sources of human interest — the 
human body, and, shining through it, the human soul — are here. The artist 
had the creative vigor to reproduce, in its indescribable symmetry, its match- 
less grace, its infinite beauty, that chief marble of the earth, the human 
l)ody, making transparent through tbese attributes deep inward power and 
emotion ; and it is because he has had this inspired mastery, that, standing 
before his work, the beholder is not only spell-bound with beauty, but awed 
by a solemn, ineffiible feeling, and mysteriously drawn closer into the chas- 
tening presence of God." 



AMOSKEAG MACHINE-SHOP. 

The machine-shop of the Araoskeag Company, unpretending in appear- 
ance, and entirely out of sight of all passers-by, has ever been an establishment 
of importance, using immense quantities of raw material, turning oft' a great 
amount of machinery, and giving employment to a large number of workmen : 
and now, under the judicious management of 0. W. Bailey, Esq., its agent, it 
lias not only become a most important part of the Araoskeag Company's estab- 
lishment, but has gained a world-wide reputation for the excellence of its 
raacliinery. 

The first machine-shop, known as the Old Machine-Shop, was built in 1840, 
upon a section of the lower canal, which canal, since completed, is a continua- 
tion of the famous Blodget Canal, into wdiich the water of the upper canal 
passes, and from which the water is discharged into the Merrimac, through 
a weir, of permanent stone-masonry, below Granite street, a distance of 7250 
feet, from wdience the water enters the canal from the basin. This shop is 
2G0 feet in length, 30 feet in width, and three stories high. In 1842, the 
company erected an extensive foundry, before this having obtained their 
castino-s at Chelmsford. This shop answered all the purposes of the com- 
pany until 1848, when they built another machine-shop and foundry, now 
known as the New Machine-Shop and New Foundry. This machine-shop 
is 260 feet in length, 40 feet in width, and three stories in height; 
and the foundry is 120 feet in length, SO feet in width, and one story in 
height. At this time, the company commenced the manufacture of locomo- 
tives, and the experiment succeeding beyond expectation, they have from time 
to time extended their works; adding a boiler-shop in 1852, 200 feet in 
length and 40 feet in width ; a tank-shop, 200 feet in length and 25 feet in 
width; a forge-shop, 200 feet in length and 36 feet in width; a paint-shop, 
84 feet in length and 40 feet in width — all one story in height ; a fire-proof 
pattern-house, 100 feet in length, 30 feet in width, and three stories in height ; 
and a store-house and setting-up-shop, 250 feet in length, 40 feet in width, a 
part two stories in height, and a part one story in height. 

The first locomotive, tlie Etna, was built in 1849, for the Northern Road, 
since which time the business has so increased, that they now build sixty a 
vear, turning out more than one a week. 



110 SECURITY ON RAILROADS. 



THE INVENTOR OF RAILROADS. 

We hear the question asked, who was the inventor of the railway ? and 
have never heard it satisfactorily answered ; and we believe there are very 
few persons in this country who know any thing on the subject. Some few 
years ago, Howitt, of the People's Journal, g^\Q a somewhat lengthy sketch 
of the alleged inventor, who, up to May, 1836, had been neglected in England. 
While thousands had been enriched by his brilliant scheme, he had remained 
forgotten — forced by poverty to sell glass on commission for a living. How 
many of the railway projectors, agitators, stockholders, etc., have heard of 
the subject of these remarks ? 

"About half a century ago — the exact year is not known — there was born 
in Leeds, Eng., a man named Thomas Gray. Scarcely any thing is known 
of his early history. He was, we believe, a poor collier ; and being very 
ingenious, he conceived the idea of facilitating the transportation of coal from 
the middle-town colliery of Leeds, a distance of three miles, by means of a 
sort of railway which he constructed of wood. Upon this his cars moved at 
the rate of three and a half miles an hour, to the great merriment of a wise 
and discriminating public, who laughed at the idea of a railway as something 
very visionary, and as the mere suggestion of laziness. Poor Gray thought 
otherwise. Magnificent visions of future railways, such as are now stupen- 
dous realities, loomed up before him, and he began to talk in public of a 
general system of iron railroads. He was, of course, laughed at, and declared 
a visionary, moon-struck fool. But the more Gray contemplated his little 
railway for coal, the more firmly did he believe in the practicability and 
immense usefulness of his scheme. He saw in it all that is now realized, 
and he resolved, in spite of the ridicule, the sneers, and rebuff's that were 
heaped upon him, to prosecute his undertaking. He petitioned the British 
Parliament, and sought interviews with all the great men of the kingdom ; 
but all this had no effect except to bring down upon him, wherever he went, 
the loud sneers and ridicule of all classes. Still he persevered, and at length 
engaged the attention of men of intelligence and influence, who finally 
embraced his views, urged his plans, and the result is now before the world. 
Thomas Gray, the inventor of railroads, who, no longer ago than 1820, was 
laughed at for ever mentioning the idea, still lives in Exeter, England, in the 
full realization of his grand and noble railroad schemes, for which he was 
declared insane. How much has the world been benefited by his insanity .'" 



FOR THE PLOCr.U, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

SECURITY ON RAILROADS. 

Messrs. Editors : In the June number of The Plough, the Loom, and 
the Anvil, I noticed a brief statement of an invention for the purpose ot 
guarding against accidents to railroad trains. It is in some respects similar 
to one which I discovered some months since, except that I do not use the 
battery or electricity in any way. My invention is arranged and operated 
by the locomotive upon mechanical principles. Having applied for a patent 
on the same, I will send you a brief statement thereof: 



IKON-HOUSES 111 



A medium of fine twisted wire, or any other suitable material, is placed 
along the track, under ground, having a toothed-wheel attached, which is 
divided into two to four sections. The road is to be divided into sections 
or stations of ten to twenty miles, which may be in their turn subdivided into 
sections of one mile. At each station a sentinel-post is set, containing a rod 
with a large pointer working up and down in front of a scale on the outside 
of the posts. These posts may be made to present four such scales, two of 
which will be in a position lengthwise, and two in a crosswise to the road. 
A brilliant light may likewise be used at night, instead of the pointer, which 
can be seen at a great distance. The section-wheel is provided with teeth 
like those of a saw, and are set off to correspond in number to the marks 
upon the scale, being cut so as to only allow the section-wheel to revolve one 
way ; and as one specified portion of the road is travelled by the train, it 
instantly re-sets itself for another. 

A strong semi-circular lever is likewise fastened to the track, at a little dis- 
tance from these posts, having one end connected to the medium, and which 
is gradually pressed down by means of an arm and pully extending from the 
side of the engine-car, by means of which the mediums are drawn either way, 
both behind and before the train, moving the whole connection of devices, 
and thus showing the position and motion of the cars by day or by night ; 
so that any engine-driver or conductor, before starting for a depot, can always 
know whether another train is on the section before him ; and hence acci- 
dents by collision will be only the result of the most stupid carelessness. 

The agent or superintendent of the road may also have a small wire 
extending from the road to his office, affixed to a dial or index scale, showing 
[.here the operations of the train from day to day. Persons at draw-bridges, 
i;ross-roads, or any other point of extreme danger, can tell whether the train 
s near or not, thereby preventing, in many instances, the great destruction of 
life and property which has become so frequent and alarming upon the best 
conducted railroads. 

Any further information respecting the above invention can be had by 
addressing the inventor, H. B. Lawton. 

Eagle-Mill, Rensselaer County, N. Y, 



IRON HOUSES, 

We attended last evening, an informal meeting of business men, at the 
auction rooms of M. N. Croii, Court street, Brooklyn, at which Mr. Sexton, 
the inventor of a new plan of ron buildings, explained his system. He con- 
structs the frame-work of his buildings entirely of cast-iron, in sections, which 
are made to interlock by very close-fitting and ingenious joints, secured by 
keys. This method of building avoids the labor of drilling and bolting, which 
has been a great inconvenience of iron buildings. It also allows the house to 
be taken down in sections, and removed at very little expense. The frame- 
work he covers on the outside with plates of iron, by a system of interlocking, 
without any bolts or other fastenings, the joints being packed with gutta 
percha, so as to exclude water under hydraulic pressure. To finish the dove- 
tailing of the joints, he has invented a machine that can perform the work of 
forty men. The walls are made hollow, and the inclosed space is filled in 
with a non-conducting composition of beach-sand and other substances, su 



112 SHOE-BUSINESS. 



that, as Mr. S. observed, his house, when finished, becomes throughout a per- 
fect fire-proof safe. The rcuis and floors are made of cast-iron frames, resem- 
bling heavy window-sashes, the interstices being occupied, as in the case of win- 
dows, with plates of glass, of any required thickness and transparency. The 
glass used is not our common glass, but it is itself a new invention, being 
called malleable glass, from its wonderful property of toughness, allowing it 
to bend freely without breaking. It can be drawn out into threads of any 
fineness, and so strong and flexible that they are said to be commencing the 
manufacture of piano and violin strings from this material, Mr. S. handed 
round a piece of tiiis glass-string for inspection. It was as small as the E- 
string of the violin, and could be bent around the finger, or tied in a knot, 
apparently like catgut. 

Plates of this glass being let into the frame-work of the floors, the whole 
is then covered over with a peculiar transparent cement of Mr. S.'s invention, 
which makes the whole floor look like one sohd plate of glass. The cost of 
roofing with this material is 75 cents per square foot. The walls inside can 
be covered with plaster, or finished with iron or glass, at the option of the 
builder. All the interior ornamentation may be oi" malleable glass. 

The advantages claimed for this style of building are, first, its great cheap- 
ness, and the rapidity which it allows in construction. It eff"ects a saving of 
one third in cost, and three fourths in labor, over every other method. Mr. S. 
stated that he could complete an ordinary dwelling-house in forty days. 
Second, the variety of style and finish that can be obtained at small cost by 
different combinations of the same pattern.'. The inventor remarked that in 
the construction of the whole Crystal I'alace but six different patterns of cast- 
ings were required. Third, the facility with which such a building can be 
taken down and removed. Fourth, its security from damage by fire or light- 
ning — thus saving all the expenses of insurance. Other incidental advantages 
are its durability, freedom from vermin, etc. 

It is proposed to form a company for the manufacture of these houses, with 
a capital of $150,000.— i\r. F. Leader. 



SHOE BUSINESS 

The following statements illustrate the benefit of a variety of pursuits, and 
especially of mechanic tradi^s : 

A Busy and Guowing Place. — The population of Milford, Mass., at pre- 
sent exceeds YOOO. The number of building-s erected last year was 78, valued 
at $173,200. The number of boot-manufactories is 40, which turn out 
1,450,198 pairs. Their value in 1853 was $2,594,340. Number of firms 
engaged in mercantile business last year, 4G, the amount of whose business 
was $1,050,800. Amount of woollen manufoctures, etc., $285,000. Total 
business, $4,103,340. 

The Legislature has just passed a bill to establish a police-court in Milford, 
and the Judge's salary is to be $300 — not a very tempting inducement; yet 
it is said there are several anxious competitors for the appointment. 

The SnoE-BusiNESS in IIaverhill, Mass. — The Haverhill Banner says 
there are more than two hundred different kinds of shoes manufactured m 
that town, fioin the brogan to the finest kinds of ladies' shoes, the sales some 



&0 1.1 j-oii-jii AND SCULPTORS. 113 

days amounting to from seventy to eighty tbousand dollars. It is estimated 
that there are at least five million pairs manufactured annually, the shoe- 
business of the place being only second to that of Lynn, the great shoe-mart 
of the country. 

It is stated, also, that Massachusetts manufactures annually two pair of 
shoes for every man woman, and child in the United States. 



SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS. 

The age in v?hich lived the great men we have already described was won- 
derfully fruitful of those whose renown in this great art has come down to our 
times, and whose works confirm the truth of their biographers. 

PiERO DA Vinci was the nephew of Leonardo, and from early boyhood 
gave proof of remarkable genius. He commenced with painting, but after- 
ward abandoned that beautiful art for what he regarded as better suited to 
his genius, and he was placed under the care of Nicolo, who was surnamed 
II Tribolo. Piero began immediately to design, and soon outstripped his 
companions. A block of marble being given to him to carve from it a boy, 
as an ornament for a fountain, he proved himself equal to the higher styles of 
the art. All his works, even then, discovered wonderful lightness and grace. 
Among others which excited astonishment, was a Christ fastened to the cross, 
which was executed before he had attained his eighteenth year. 

After this, he went to Rome, for the purpose of studying the works of 
Michael Angelo. But he died ere he had entered his twenty-third year. 

Antonio Canova may be regarded as the restorer of sculpture in Italy. 
Since the time of Michael Angelo, there had been no one who was equal to 
him. He was born at Passagno, a town at the foot of the Venetian Alps, 
near Treviso, in 175*7. His father, Pietro, and his grandfather, Pasiuo, were 
sculptors of some repute. At three years of age, by ihe death of his father, 
he became an orphan, and his mother being married shortly after, he was 
left in the care of a paternal aunt, Caterina Ceccato. For the rudiments of the 
art of sculpture he was indebted to his grandfather. Some of his boyish 
amusements in the vfay of forming models, being shown to Falieri, a patrician 
of Venice, he was placed under the instruction of Toretto. On the death of 
Toretto, he was placed under the care of Geo. Ferrari, nephew of Toretto, 
and worked with him on the statues that embellish the gardens of the Casa 
Tiepolo, at Carbonara. He also studied at the Academy of the Fine Arts, at 
Venice, where he won several prizes. Two baskets of fruit, executed by him 
in marble, when only fourteen years of age, which attest his proficiency, are 
to be seen on the first landing-place of the Farsetti Palace, now the Hotel 
della gran Brettagna, at Venice. In his sixteenth year, he executed h.is 
Orpheus and Eurydice. Dedalus and Icarus were executed soon after. In 
1780, he went to Rome, and in the course of a year he obtained a pension 
from the Venetian government. 

Pope Pius afterward appointed him Inspector-General of the Fine Arts in 
the Roman States. In 1810, he was invited to Paris, by Napoleon, when 
First Consul, which invitation he accepted. While at that court, he executed a 
colossal statue of the Consul in marble, and afterward one in bronze, and ano- 
ther of Maria Theresa, as Concordia. This is now in the palace at Parma. 
He received there the highest honors. 

VOL. VIL 8 



114 SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS. 

The imperial court of Vienna greatly desired to possess his works, and 
induced him to send a copy of his Theseus overcoming the Minotaur. The 
Emperor Francis ordered a temple to be erected in the imperial gardens for 
its reception. But the death of the sculptor prevented the execution of this 
design. He died at Venice in October, 1822. 

liis Cupid and Psyche, his Venice and Adonis, the Dancers, the Graces, 
Paris, Mars and Venus, and his Repentant IMagdalen, abundantly establish 
his reputation as a great sculptor. These, with the devotional figure of Cle- 
ment XIIL, the Blind Man in his Monument of the Arch-duchess Christina, 
the Pugilists, Ilebe, Poljmnia, and the group of the Piety, of many of which 
no known models are furnished by antiquity, place him among sculptors of 
the highest rank. 

A monument to the memory of Vittoria Alfieri, was perhaps his most ela- 
borate work. It was executed at the request of the beautiful but unfortunate 
wife of the Pretender, Charles James Edward Stuart, grandson of James II. 

A copy of his beautiful Hebe, executed by Tomraaso Lazzerini, will be 
remembered by the visitors at the Crystal Palace. It stood, till recently, 
in the south nave. 

Alfred Thorwaldsen was born at Copenhagen in 1770. When eleven 
years of ao-e, he was placed by his father, a rough carver in wood, in the dock- 
yards of that city, in the Academy of Copenhagen. Here he obtained the 
highest marks of approbation. In 1Y87, he obtained a prize. In 1797, he 
went to Rome. lu 1803, his " Jason '' excited the admiration of connoiseurs, 
as it did of the multitude. It seemed a revival of the epoch of Phidias and 
Praxiteles. Mr. Thomas Hope, an English gentleman drawn by accident to 
his studio, so much admired it that he ordered a copy in marble, paying a 
very handsome price. This was the commencement of a series of brilliant 
successes terminating only with his life. From this time his reputation greatly 
and rapidly increased, and very soon he acquired both fame and wealth. 

His most renowned work was executed in 1812, for the pontifical palace on 
Mount-Cavallo, which was to receive the Emperor Napoleon. Wishing to 
make an ingenious allusion to a great conqueror who was about to enter the 
capital of the world, he modelled with inconoeivable rapiility the " Triumph 
of Alexander." This bas-relief was placed in the palace in July, 1812, and 
excited universal admiration. It even procured for him the title of "Father 
of bas-relief." 

Among his famous works at this period, were Day, Night, Priam and 
Achilles, and Achilles and Briseis. 

In 1819, he visited his native country, and was received with great public 
demonstrations of joy. It was during this visit that he conceived the idea of 
those decorations of the Church of Notre-Dame, at Copenhagen, which have 
made it one of the most interesting ia Europe. On his return to Rome, he 
was received with marked honor by all the sovereigns and princes whom he 
met, and he soon became one of the most poptilar artists in Italy. Students 
and young artists flocked to him for instruction. Orders were sent to him 
from every quarter, and he also received other distinguished tokens of regard. 
As he passed along the streets, all bowed to him. 

In 1828, he commenced his arrangements for carrying out a plan, long 
entertained, of leaving to his native country and city a legacy of his own pro- 
ductions, and of other works of art that should be alike honorable to all. In 
1837, was commenced the erection of a building, designed by himself, to 
contain these works, and in the following year a royal frigate was sent to con- 
vey the rich gift to Copenhagen. In August, he himself embarked for his 



SCULPTUEE AND SCULPTORS. 115 

native country. Never was king received more joyfully by his loving sub- 
jects, never a hero had so brilliant and triumphant an entry. In 1842, ano- 
ther frigate, the Thetis, took from Rome eighty cases more of these works of 
art, he having previously returned to that city. 

In his last visit to Denmark, he executed two bas-reliefs, "Christmas Joy 
in Heaven," and the " Genius of Poetry." 

His last work was the statue of Hercules, which now^ adorns the fii^ade of 
the palace of Christiansburgh, at Copenhagen. 

He died in the theatre in Copenhagen, March 24, 1844. The King of 
Denmark, and all the people of the city, followed his funeral-car, while the 
news of his death plunged the whole country into profound grief. 

His works are very numerous, for he was constantly employed, even when 
surrounded by his friends, who were engaged in conversation. 

The visitor at the Crystal Palace has not overlooked the group (very badly 
arranged) of the Saviour and his Apostles. In the church for which they 
v,-ere executed, the apostles stand in two aisles, along the length of the church, 
while the Saviour is placed behind the altar, surrounded by drapery, and at a 
considerable distance from the beholder. The statues of the apostles aie 
executed in connection with certain symbols, which are not without meaning. 
Thus : 

Paul bears a sword, the symbol of this glorious martyr. 

St. Peter carries the keys. His right hand is raised to heaven, as if he 
could see that which he revealed, the God unknown to the sages of Greece. 

St. John^ with an eagle at his feet, the symbol of the penetration of his 
spirit. He has the posture of a man in ecstasy, as if he heard the sound of 
the angel's trump, while he is at the point of writing upon the tablet which he 
holds, the thoughts which occupy his mind. 

Mattheiv, the Evangelist, is represented as about to write. He is medi- 
tating, as if seeking for true words. Aa angel by his side seems to dictate to 
the apostle the gospel which he indites. 

Thaddeus is represented in a devotional mood. His hand is raised, as if 
in prayer, and his countenance and whole aspect as if absorbed in the con- 
templation of God. 

St. Andrew bears a cross, the instrument of his own martyrdom. 

St. Simon holds a saw, the glorious trophy by which he became a 
martyr. 

Bartliolomew holds a knife, to indicate the manner of his death. 

St. Thomas holds a caipenter's square, to denote his former calling. 

St. James, the Less, holds a club, with which he was beaten to death. 

St. James, the Greater, holds a staff as a pilgrim, and as one who would 
continue his route ; his hat being suspended from his shoulders. 

Tlie Angel of Baptism, in the centre of this group, is also very celebrated. 
The original, we are informed by a good critic, who has seen it, is very beau- 
tiful. This copy in plaster fails to give the remarkable expression to be seen 
in the countenance of the originah 

This group, (with the bas-reliefs mentioned below,) is on sale. The pro- 
prietor hopes to sell it to some church. His price is about $3000. 

Mercury, by Thorwaldsen, is also in the Palace, and is very fine. He appears 
to be engaged in playing the " flute," (pipes,) in which he so excelled, that 
by his enchanting music he opened the hundred eyes of Argus, when 
sleeping. It is at this moment of his triumph, that the artist has presented 
him, at rest, and viewing these wonderful effects of his own skill. 

Ganymede and the Eagle, and The Graces, exquisite works of Thor- 
waldsen, are also in the Crystal Palace 



116 FISHERS STEAM-CARKIAGE. 

Hope^ a copy in bronze, also stands iu the South Nave. 

The following beautiful bas-reliefs are also now to be seen in the Palace, 
all the work of this great sculptor : 

Bacchus and Cupid ; Love and Psyche, (he is awaking her from sleep ;) 
The Vintage ; The Guardian- Angel ; The Gathering of Apples, (with Cupid 
upon a Swan ;) The Course of Human Life ; The Holy Virgin, Christ and 
St. John; Pan an^l a young Satyr; Pan and a Hunting Nymph; Day; 
Night; and The Angel of the Last Judgment. 



FISHER'S STEAM-CARRIAGE 

Having tried his experimental carriage sufficiently to prove that, even if 
no greater economy can be attained than is actually attained in this first 
experiment, steam-carriages may be worked at less than two thirds the daily 
expense of horses, Mr. Fisher is now endeavoring to obtain capital to build 
a draff, (or carriage to draw others,) of about two tons weight ; which is 
about" the maximum weight that can be borne without injury by weak roads, 
Hud which will test its economy on all kinds of roads. 

In answer to inquiries as to why he does not run his carriage where it can 
be seen by those who wish to be interested, he informs us that it is not suffi- 
ciently finished to run for hire ; and he can not spare the time and money to 
run it gratuitously : but he is ready to run it for the information of those 
who agree to invest money as soon as he demonstrates what he states. And 
this course he deems but a just precaution against certain men who possess 
capital, and intend to engage in running steam-carriages as soon as they are 
convinced that they will pay. If these men will come to him, and agree to 
t'urnish capital when he has shown that it will pay, he will show them ; but 
while he believes that they intend to set his labors aside, and go to the pro- 
fessional machinists, and thus rob him of the reward due to his eflforts and 
outlay in reviving this invention, he will not give them any evidence beyond 
his simple statement ; and would not give them even this, if he could accom- 
plish his ends without some degree of publicity. 

The success of steam-carriages does not now depend upon improvements- 
in the invention, for which protection may be obtained by patents, so much 
as upon improvements in the proportions and details, for which no protection 
whatever can be obtained. As an example of the change of proportion 
required to adapt steam to different uses, we may mention that the old rule 
is, to give one square foot of grate surface, and nine square feet of boiler sur- 
face, to vaporize one cubic foot of water per hour ; but, after twenty-six years 
of expensive practice, the proportions now recommended, in Clark's work on 
Locomotives, are one foot of grate and a hundred feet of boiler surface, to 
vaporize twenty-two feet of water per hour. And it is probable that pro- 
portions as different from the locomotive as those are from the marine boiler, 
will be required for the perfection of steam-carriages ; and for these improve- 
ments in proportion no protection can be obtained ; but every covetous jockey 
can adopt them, as soon as they are found, at the expense of others. 

There is, however, considerable improvement possible in the invention, 
which may be patented. And it is the opinion of two able engineers, who 
built steam-carriages in England, that Mr. Fisher has made such improve- 
ments; and that bis arrangement of machinery is much better than any they 



ARlVtAMENT OF A SHIP-OF-WAR. 117 

have ever seen before. These engineers are Mr. James Stone, who built 
Gurney's carriages ; and Mr. M. Baragwanath, who built Hancock's car- 
riages. If these improvements turn out as well as the opinions of these 
experienced engineers warrant our expecting, a profitable monopoly may 
be maintained against those who stand ready to help themselves, not only to 
all the old inventions, but to all the improvements in proportion and execu- 
tion which men of genius and liberality may make, at great sacrifice of their 
talents, time, and money. 

We think it fairly probable, then, that those who accept the invitation that 
Mr. Fisher has given to capitalist", inventors, and machinists, to join him in 
his enterprise, will find it profitable. If a small capital, for a few experimental 
carriages, is managed by good trustees, and the mechanical arrangements 
are successful, then the capital may be increased to a large amount, enough 
to resist the opposition of those who can not be restrained except by the arm 
of civil law. But if the improvements of Mr. Fisher be of great value, so 
much the more sure of profit. 

We have seen occasion to contradict assertions that this invention failed 
in England, simply because it is impossible to run steam-carriages with profit 
on common roads. If these assertions were but the usual assurance of ignor- 
ance, that disbelieves and denies all that it has not seen, we might let them 
rest; but they are reiterations of an atrocious lie, for which the British 
House of Lords is responsible. We have examined the evidence upon thi? 
subject, published by order of the House of Commons, and are fully convinced 
that steam- carriages were mechanically successful, and would have become 
profitable, had they not been denied legislative protection against prohibitory 
tolls, obstructions upon the roads, and violent opposition of all kinds thai 
could be made ; and finally denied licenses, and driven off" the roads by 
magistrates, for no fault but because they were likely to supersede horses, 
and thus diminish the demand for the produce of land. Such a system of 
oppression would be incredible, did we not know that for thirty years the 
landed interest kept up corn-laws, which made food nearly twice as dear in 
England it was in the rest of Europe. 



ARMAMENT OF A SHIP - OF - WAR— THE MONTEBELLO. 

The journal, France Maritime, has treated with much ability all the scien- 
tific as well as practical questions connected with the fitting of ships of wai 
for sea, and furnished very instructive articles for those interested in ship 
building and naval warfare. Lately it gave a full account of the armament 
of the Montebello, a 120-gun ship, which we give in translation : 

" The armament of a man-of-war is one of the most difiicult tasks. The 
naval ofilcer has not only to j)]an how to store away in the most convenient 
manner the various objects of armament and the provisions, but he has also 
to distribute them in such a manner that their weight will correspond properly 
with the displacement of the water, without injury to the speed-management 
of the ship, and to provide for sufficient room to work the guns. To obtain 
these desirable results many changes have been introduced in the arrange- 
ment of the Montebello. The iron ballast has been diminished, in order that 
the centre of gravity may not fall too low. The guns of the upper and quar- 
ter-decks are no longer fore and aft as formerly, whereby the bow and stern 



118 ARMAMENT OF A SHIP-OF-WAR. 

were overloaded. They are also removed from between the shrouds, where 
they could not be worked j^roperly. The guns are placed now mid-ships. 
Before the year 1815, such ships had 132 guns ; this number is now reduced 
to 120, and nevertheless the actual force of the ship is not diminished. The 
whole arrangement is better, gives more room for communicating with one 
part of the ship from another; the crew, consisting of 1089 men, are able to 
come on deck much easier when required for manceuvering and boarding. 
The hospital has been placed and arranged with quite philanthropic care ; 
the sick have their own kitchen and dispensary near by. The stowage in the 
hold has been rendered more simple and regular by the introduction of sheet- 
iron chests, and by the adoption of chain cables instead of hempen ones. All 
the store-rooms are placed in the hold. The storage of such a quantity of 
divers articles in that narrow space called the general magazine, is truly a 
masterpiece of order and skill. The hold contains provisions for six months, 
with a reserve-supply for another six months; water for 135 days. Battle 
being the purpose of the armament of a man-of-war, all that belongs to it 
must be disposed in such a manner that no impediment and interruption 
will occur during the engagement. The passages between the powder- 
magazines must be so arranged that no interruption or disorder in the 
distribution of munitions to the different batteries can occur ; neither must 
the removal of the wounded from the decks down the hold meet with any 
delay. The Montebello is 196 feet long, and but 50 feet beam. She carries 
120 guns, of which 32 are of the calibre of thirty-six, 34 of twenty-four, 34 
of eighteen, and 20 carronades of thirty-six. She can pour out at once 3300 
lbs. of iron. The crew is composed of 1089 men. The supply of provisions 
for six months for the crew consist in : 158,122 pounds of biscuit; 61,060 
pounds of flour ; 49,484 pounds of salt meat; 61,120 pounds of dried vege- 
tables, rice, cheese, etc.; 134,052 quarts of wine; 4390 of brandy; 6*7,722 
])Ounds of coal ; 140 cords of wood ; and 36*7,000 quarts of water, at the rate 
of 25 quarts per day for each man ; 9840 cannon-balls and 100 packages of 
grape-shot of different calibre; 61,500 pounds of powder, etc. The whole 
contents of the Montebello amount to 2*730 tons, and yet there is every- 
where space, air, and light ; 1089 men live, move, and manage 120 guns as 
easily as on the Champ de Mars. The surface of the sails oflered to the wind 
is 5601 square yards. The following dimensions and materials are employed 
in the construction of a three-decker: The length of the keel is 180 feet; 
the whole construction requires 113,000 cubic feet of wood, at francs the 
loot. The width is about 52 feet, the depth 25. The three batteries ai-e 
armed with guns of difierent calibre, as in the Montebello. The main-mast i.-. 
120 feet high, and measures 9 or 10 feet in circumference ; it weighs 40,000 
to 42,000 pounds. The main-top-mast that rises above the main-mast is 72 
feet high, and, with the gallant-mast, the main-mast measures 250 feet. (The 
towers of Notre Dame are only 200 feet high.) The main-yard has 115 feet. 
The vessel must have a crew of 1000 to 1200 men, and may carry, beside, 
500 or 600 soldiers. 

The construction of such a ship requires 140,000 pounds of iron of all kinds ; 
o6,000 pounds of copper in bars and nails; 2000 sheets of copper for the 
sheathing, weighing 31,000 pounds nails ; and cojiper, also for sheathing, 5000 
pounds; whole .-imount of copper, 90,000 pounds ; iron nails, 1000 pounds; 
rolled lead, 6500 ; tow, 49,000 ; pitch, 15,000 ; tar, 9000. The sails require 
31,500 yards of canvas, and the vessel having commonly two sets of sails, 
that amount is doubled. The great flag requires 270 yards of stuff ; the ship 
requires 7000 tons of iron for ballast ; and under sail and perfectly equipped, 
weighs over one thousand million pounds." 



STATE AND COUNTY FAIRS FOR 1854. 119 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

CURE FOR GARGET AND FOR WOUNDS. 

Messrs. Editors : In a number of the above-named work, there was a 
recipe, not long since, recommending the Iodide of Potassium as a remedy 
for gargety cows. 

A gentleman in the town in which I reside, informed me he had a valua- 
ble cow atflicted Avith that disease ; thought he should lose her, or be com- 
pelled to stall-feed her for beef. I gave bim some of the iodide, with direc- 
tions how to use it ; the cow mended, (as averred by the owner,) in three 
days, and yet rerriains well, this being in the month of March. 

Another in the neighborhood has lately been cured by the same medicine. 

My object in making this public is, that our farmers may be assured the 
recipe is no hoax, but an invaluable remedy. 

Kecipe for healing wounds in domestic animals : 

Take of sulphate of iron (copperas) 3 i., one ounce. 

Sulphate zinc, 3 ••, one drachm, (white vitriol.) 
Water, one quart. Mix. 

Keep a cloth or cotton-batting on the wound, wet with the liquid. It will 
heal readily. 

Our farmers here make great account of this wash. Any one may make 
a trial with little expense. Yours, truly, Ariel Huntox. 

Ily de-Park. June 21, 1854. 



STATE AND COUNTY FAIRS FOR 185-4. 

STATE FAIRS. 

Michigan, at Detroit, Sept. 26 to 29. 

Ohio, at Newark, " 19, 20, 21, 22. 

Vermont, at Brattleborouc;li " 13, 14, 15. 

Illinois, at Springtiekl, ...: " J 2, 13, 14, 15. 

Pennsylvania, " 27, 28, 29. 

New-York, at New-York, Oct. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Connecticut, at New-Haven, •' 10, 11, 12, 13. 

Indiana, at Madi!^on, " 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Io\s a, at Fairfield, " 25. 

AYisconsin, at Watertown, " 4, 5, G, 7. 

New-Hampliire, " 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Maryland, at Baltimore, " 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Georgia, at Augusta, " 23 to 28. 

Springfield Cattle-Show, Ohio, ' " 25, 26, 27. 

Missouri, at Boonville, " 2 to 6. 

Lower Canada, at Quebec, Sept. 12, 13, 14, 15. 

Upper Canada, at London, •' 2G, 27, 28, 29. 

N. Y. COUNTY FAIRS. 

Putnam, at Carmel, Sept. 26, 2T. 

Washington, at North White Creek, " 21, 22. 

Franklin, at iMalone, " 20, 21. 

JetTorson, at Watertown, " 21, 22. 

Albany, " 26, 27, 28. 

Ducliess, at Wasliington-IL.lk.w, " 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Oneida, at Rome,. .^ " 19, 20, 21. 

Columbia, at Chatiiam Fuur-Corutrs, " 29, 30. 

Delaware, at Delhi, " 20, 21. 

Rensselaer, at Lansingburg " 1 9, 20, 21. 

Farmers' Society, at Morris, " 20. 21, 



120 editors' JorriNGS, etc. 



EDITORS' JOTTINGS AND MECHANICAL RECORD 

Locomotives tor High Grades. — The high prizes offered by the Austrian 
government for the locomotive best constructed to overcome the bigli grades of 
the Soinmering Mountain, have created quite an emulation among inventors ; but 
all the improvements have tended more or less to increasing the size of the loco- 
motive. M. Andraud seems to be the only one who has left the old beaten 
track, and invented a locomotive which promises to answer the purpose fully. 
He only changes the driving-wheels ; all the other parts of the locomotive remain 
tlie same as are in use at present. TJiis machine has sis wheels. The drivers 
are placed in the centre. The rims of tlie drivers are very broad, much more so 
than those commonly in use. The part of the rim which projects considerably 
beyond the ordinary rail is striated. This is all the change he makes in the loco- 
motive. Where there is a considerable grade, which requires a much greater 
power to overcome it, he employs a wooden rail, which he places on the outside 
and contiguous to the rails, of about five or six inches in width, rising a little 
above the surface of the iron rail, so that the striated portion of the drivers must 
inapinge upon it. The "striated part of the driving-wheels, and the wooden 
rails, are the only mechanical means with which M. Andraud proposes to 
overcome even much higher grades than have been hitherto attempted. The 
wheels are only put into action when their assistance is required. On straight 
lines the wooden rails would be placed on both sides of the iron rails; in curves 
of small radius, on the outside of the inner rail of the curve. The practicability 
of M. Andraud's invention is generally admitted, and he no doubt will obtain 
permission to experiment on some government road with higher grades. 

A New Railroad-Beake. — M. Andraud has invented a new railroad-brake, 
which consists in a strong metallic reservoir, holding about 150 to 180 quarts. 
This reservoir is filled with compressed air, of eight or ten atmospheres, by nieans 
of proper pumps, which are worked by the locomotive. The reservoir is pro- 
vided with a manometer, safety-valve, and a proper stop-cock, and so arranged 
and situated that the engineer can easily manage and observe any part of it. 
When a special person is employed to superintend the apparatus, it can be placed 
upon the tender. Every car is to be provided with a tube of an inch or more in 
diameter, each tube having on both ends elastic tubes, by means of which the 
tubes of each car can be connected witli those of the other cars, so as to form a 
continuous communication with the air-reservoir. Each car is furnished with 
two cylinders of five inches diameter, which are placed below and on each side 
of the car-body. Each cylinder has a piston, to the ends of which the brakes 
are attached ; the cylinders are connected with the long conducting-tubes, and 
when the air is let into the cylinders, their pistons are pushed out and force the 
brake against the wheels. "When the air is stopped off, a spring or some elastic 
fixture withdraws again the brake from the wheels. The chief brakemun at the 
reservoir, who manages the apparatus, can by a single turn of the stop-cock aci 
at once upon all the brakes at any moment's warning, whicli may be given by 
means of an electro-magnetic signal from any car in the train. The brakeman 
has only to keep his reservoir always properly charged, as the manometer indi- 
cates. !M. Andraud calculates the expenses thus ; The reservoir and air-pump, 
placed on the locomotive or tender, §1000 ; the apparatus, including the brakes 
attached to each car, $140. 

The use of steam has been proposed for the same purpose and in a similar man- 
ner, but tlie unavoidable condensation of the steam, the filling up of the cylinder^; 
with condensed water, and the liability of bursting the tube in cold weather, are 
sufficient inconveniences to prevent its use. Condensed air is no doubt much 
preferable. 

Gold i.v South-Carolina. — A vein of gold has been discovered upon the lands 
of James Lay, in Cheohee, S. C, which promises to prove extremely rich. The 
gold is encased in hard quartz, and is visible to the eye in large quantities. 



editors' jottings, etc. 121 

Creeping Things. — Let me put a spider into any lady's hand. She starts 
back aghast. She shrieks, " the nasty ugly thing!" Madam, the spider is per- 
haps shocked at your Brussels laces, and, although you may be the most exqui- 
site painter living, the spider lias a right to laugh at your coarse daubs as she 
runs over them. Just show her your crochet-work when you shriek at her. 
" Have you spent half your days upon these clumsy anti-macassars and these 
ottoman covers? My dear lady, is that your web? If I were big enough, I 
might with reason dro]) you and cry out at you. Let me spend a day with you 
and bring my work. I have four little bags of thread — such little bags ! In 
every bag there are more than 1000 holes — such tiny, tiny holes ! Out of each 
hole a thread runs, and all these threads — more than 4000 threads — I spin toge- 
ther as they run, and when they are all spun they make but one thread of the 
web I weave. I have a member of my family who is herself no bigger than a 
grain of sand. Imagine what a slender web she makes, and of that, too, each 
thread is made of 4000 or 5000 threads that have passed out of her four bags 
through 4000 or 5000 little holes. Would you drop her, too, crying out about 
your delicacy ? A pretty thing, indeed, for you to plume yourself on your deh- 
cacy, and scream at us." 

Having made such a speech, we may suppose that the indignant creature 
fastens a rope around one of the rough points of the lady's hdnd, and lets herself 
down lightly to the floor. Coming down stairs is noisy, clumsy work, compared 
with sucli a way of locomotion. The things we scorn are miracles of beauty. 
Thej are more delicate than any ormolu clock or any lady's watch, made, for 
pleasure's sake, no bigger than a shilling. 

Lyonet counted 4041 muscles in a single caterpillar, and these are all a small 
part only of its works. Hook found 14,000 mirrors in the eye of a blue-bottle, 
and there are 13,300 separate bits that go to provide for nothing but the act of 
breathing in a carp. — Dichens' Household Words. 

Vegetable Mechanics. — There is a remarkable tree on the farm of the late 
Hon. Olney Ballou, of Cumberland, R. L, which is an emblem of himself in his 
struggles against the obstacles of life. An old elm standing near a mass of rocks 
died. A young elm then appeared in a fissure of this rock, casting down its 
slender roots, and in twenty or thirty years it has become a foot and a half in 
diameter. Its roots have penetrated into and under the rock, and have lifted 
and thrown oif about seven tons of it, and have loosened and partly lifted ten tons 
more, which in a few years will be separated from the mass. The roots, to bear 
the immense pressure upon them, have become changed from the ordinary appear- 
ance, and have a tough casing which may be compared to the skin of an alliga- 
tor. The provisions thus made by nature for the growth of the tree under such 
difficult circumstances, furnish a striking specimen of what might be called vege- 
ble mechanics. 

Haib and Feathers. — The business which is carried on in these familiar and 
seemingly insignificant substances, of which our beds and cushions are mostly 
made, is a great branch of trade. The Journal of Commerce says that the local 
trade of New-York, in these two articles, is about $3,000,000. The firm which 
is most largely engaged in it consume annually $700,000 worth of hair and 
Si, 000,000 worth of feathers. The feathers are purchased in the markets of 
ILussia and South-America, and the hair, or at least a large portion of it, once 
floated gracefully to the breeze in the shape of the manes or tails of the wild 
liorses of the South-American pampas. Immense numbers of these horses are 
killed annually for their hair, hides, and fat. TJie latter substance, upon its arri- 
val in New-York, is transmuted into soap, and is doubtless often admired for its 
aroma and variegated colors. Tlie Journal of Commerce says the process of 
preparing the hair is as follows : From tlie bales it is thrown into a " picker," 
inaking 800 revolutions per minute. After being thoroughly picked, it is twisted 
into ropes by machinery. This is done for the purpose of making it curl. It is 
next put into vats and boiled, for the purpose of cleansing it, after which it is 
thoroughly dried in an oven. The ropes of hair are then picked to pieces, and 
the hair is ready for use 



122 editors' jottings, etc. 



Secret Dispatches. — A Paris letter to the Hew- YorJc Courier ^ays that the 
Olympic Academy of Vicenza, Italy, having carefully examined the discovery 
made by their fellow-citizen, Tremeschini, of electric telegraph by secret trans- 
mission, lias publicly declared it to be a perfectly successful invention. The 
commission appointed to test its efficacy was composed of the Councillor Dele- 
gate of thePodesta, the Superior Commissary, and the Academic Council. The 
first experiment consisted in sending and receiving a dispatch in the common 
way, witliout secresy. In the second experiment, a dispatch was sent secretly, 
and the answer received in the same manner, by the aid of the new apparatus. 
In the third, a dispatch was sent openly, and the answer received secretly, to 
show tliat the secret apparatus might be used or suspended at will. The results 
of the inquiry show : I. That the apparatus of Tremeschini may be applied to 
Morse's telegraph ; 2. That when the dispatch is sent secretly, it can only be 
received so, any fraud in that respect being subject to immediate detection; 
3. That secresy may be suspended or applied at pleasure. The report of the 
commission is highly eulogistic of the invention. 

PnoTECTiox TO Bank-Notes. — A new plan to prevent alteration of bank- 
notes, has just been invented by a young gentleman of this city. The great 
inducement for rogues to alter bills is the large portion of the genuine engraving 
"which will remain on the note after the alteration is made, it being necessary for 
them to supply l;ut a small amount of spurious -work in place of that which they 
remove. This plan annuls tliat inducement, as from bills protected by it almost 
every particle of genuine engraving, and both signatures, must be erased before 
the counterfeit work can be added. No one will attempt to alter a bill, if they 
are first obliged to engrave a counterfeit plate. The inventor is Mr. Lloyd GloTer, 
agent for the Bank-Note Engraving House of Danforth, "Wright & Co., of New- 
York and Boston. This plan is now in the hands of the artist?, and will soon 
be ready. Models may be seen at the Boston office. — Boston Atlas. 

Protecting Cloveb Hay-stacks. — Josiah Lackey writes to the Iowa Farmer, 
that he has tried to preserve clover-hay from the effects of the weather in the 
following manner, and found that it answered as well as if the hay had been 
put in a barn. Clover-hay put up in the ordinary mode, like Timothy, is apt to 
get musty and unpalatable, but put up in the mode recommended, it comes out 
good and sweet. He says : " When the stack, which is commenced the usual way, 
is raised to about one half its destined height, the ends of long wheat or rye straw 
are placed just on the edge of the stack, so that when the next layer of hay 
is placed upon it, the principal length of the straw will droop over the sides of 
the stack. Following this plan until the stack is finished, a complete and im- 
pervious covering is furnislied to the hay, that will keep it nearly as well as the 
best barn. I think that the long cane-grass that grows in the sloughs of this 
country will answer a much better purpose, the straw being longer, and will 
turn quite as well." 

Telegraph Apparatus. — Messrs. Brunner & Hipp, directors of the telegraphs 
of Switzerland, have invented a portable apparatus by means of which they can 
make connection with the wire at any point of the line, and communicate with 
the principal stations. The trial has been made at some jioint about five milea 
from Berne, where there exists no telegraphic station. The apparatus was con- 
nected with the wire, which communicates with Zurich, Basle, Geneva, and La 
Chaux du Fonds; messages were transmitted, and the answer immediately 
received. IIow much this apparatus ditlers from similar ones employed in the 
United States, I am unable to say ; but, as far as I know, the thing has been 
.already accomplished. 

Fitchburg, Mass. — This town has now $2,904,082 of taxable property, being 
an increase of some $G00,000 since last year. The number of polls is 1754 ; th j 
per cent of tax on property, .009. There are 283 persons paying a tax of more 
than $25, the highest on the list being Alvah Crocker, who pays $476.09. Tho 
total amount of property in the town, including the town-farm and church, is 
considerably more than three millions of dollars. 



editors' jottings, etc. 123 

Chaele3 Oae;ford''s Hats. — We published quite recently, a full statement of 
the past and present condition of this establisment, so well known in Philadel- 
phia, and to many from abroad, who have become its patrons. "We are most 
sensiblyremindedof the excellence of his manufacture, by the remarkable degree 
of comfort experienced in the wear of one from his establishment during this 
excessively hot weather. "We think we never wore so comfortable a hat. Go 
or send at once to Chestnut street, Philadelphia, and get one, if not already well 
supplied. 

Cotton Manufactory in the South and "West. — The Louisville papers state 
that the success of the extensive cotton-manufacturing establishment of H. D. 
Newcomb & Brother, of Louisville, at Cannelton, Ky., during the last year, has 
been unprecedented in the history of modern manufactures. Their mammoth 
mill now in operation at that place, turns off a daily production of goods, such 
as the very best domestic fabrics in market, equal to 15,225 yards. 

The Columbus (Geo.) Inquirer, in noticing the first shipment of cotton-yarn to 
New- York, by the "Southern Rights' Manufacturing Company," of Monticello, 
says : 

" Some of our Columbus factories have been in the habit of sending pretty 
large orders to New- York and Philadelphia, for more than twelve months past, 
which goes to prove that we are no ways behind the rest of the world, either in 
the facility for furnishing goods of superior quality, or at rates as favorable to the 
large purchaser as those at which he can buy the same goods nearer his own 
door. And the cream of the circumstance does not stop here, judging from a single 
transaction that occurred during the summer of 1853. A bale of goods manu- 
fiictnred in this city was sent to Philadelphia and sold. The next steamer fron; 
that city brought back the identical bale, which had been purchased by a mei-- 
chant from the interior of Georgia, and who, on being told the cloth was made 
in Columbus, remarked, he thought it was the cheapest and best piece of goods 
of the kind that he had purchased for many years." 

tip to the 1st September last, there had been shipped from "Wakulla, Florida, 
301 bales of cotton yarn,- valued at $9050, all of which was manufactured at the 
Madison Factory, owned by Captain N. P. "Willard. Since then there has been 
shipped 53-1 bales, valued at $16,020. Of these, 456 bales were manufactured at 
the Madison Factory, and 78 bales at the Monticello Factory. A small lot, manu- 
factured at Madison, has been shipped from Cedar-Keys. The yarns from these 
mills are now sold in most of the stores of Middle-Florida, and the adjoining 
counties of Georgia. 

The Monticello Factory (says the Wahulla Times) has been for some weeks 
manufacturing cotton cloth of a good quality. 

Sound of Bells. — The nearer bells are hung to the surface of the earth, other 
things being equal, the farther they can be heard. Franklin has remarked that 
many years ago the inhabitants of Philadelphia had a bell imported from Eng- 
land. In order to judge of the sound, it was elevated on a triangle, in the great 
street of that city, and struck, as it happened, on a market-day, when the people 
coming to market were surprised on hearing the sound of a bell at a greater di^- 
tance from the city than they ever heard any bell before. This circumstance 
excited the attention of the curious, and it was discovered that the sound of n 
bell struck in the street reached nearly double the distance it did when raised 
in the air. la the air, sound travelled at the rate of from 1130 to 1140 feet pei' 
second. In water, 4708 per second. Sounds are distinct at twice the distance 
on the water that they are on land. 

Wisconsin. — The farmers of "Wisconsin have commenced cutting their wheat. 
Tt is said that the crop will be a large one. The recent storm has done it no 
damage. The weather is now most favorable. 

The Boston Atlas states that the clothing business of Boston amounts to 
S12,000,000 or $15,000,000 annually. There are four houses which give employ- 
ment, directly or indirectly, to about five thousand persons, each scattered 
throughout the New-England States, in most of which they have agencies. 



124 NEW BOOKS. 



School-Furniture. — Whoever remembers the uncomfortable bench and ill- 
constructed desk of the old school-house, will rejoice to see the improvements of 
the present day. The inanufacture of school-turnitiire by Mr. R. Patten, 24 
Grove street, of this city, is a regular business, carried on by the aid of steam- 
power. He now employs from thirty to fifty hands in this business, and is able 
in a day to furnish desks and chairs or seats, graduated to the various ages of pupils, 
sufHcient to supply an ordinary school-room. Tables, book-cases, draft-boards, 
etc., are among the numerous articles always on hand. Desks for counting- 
rooms, etc., are also made to order. 

It is worthy of note that the school-chair or seat is so constructed and secured 
to the floor by an iron pedestal, that it offers no impediment to sweeping or 
cleaning — a great consideration. 



NEW BOOKS. 



The Practical Mechanic's Journal. Vol. 7. London and Glasgow : W. & J. H. 
Johnson. New- York : Stringer & Townsend. 

This journal is printed and published in England, and is sold by our enterprising 
neighbors as above, who are the agents for this country. Three numbers of this 
volume have been received from the American agents. It is issued in monthly num- 
bers, in quarto form, about 25 pages in each. It is ably written, and fully illustrated 
by engravings that are well executed. One chapter in each number is devoted to 
American patents, and is written by one of our own citizens. It is the best work of 
this description that we are acquainted with. Price, $3 a year. Single numbers, 25 
cents. 



Oltlixes of History, Illustrated by numerous Geographical and Historical Notes, 
Maps, etc. By Marcus Willson. New-York: Ivison ct Phinney, No. 178 Fulton 
street. 

Tuis excellent manual appears in two "editions;" the Univeisity and the School 
edition. The latter has been laid on our table. It includes both ancient and modern 
history, is abundantly full of matter, well arranged and well expressed, and is hand- 
somely executed. Teachers and committees should examine \K 



A Child's History or England. By Charles Dickens. Vol. 2. Harper & Brothers : 

1854 . 

The first volume of this little work was noticed some months since. The second 
volume has been laid on our table. It brings the narrative down to 1837. It is a 
valuable book. 



Harpecs' Gazetteer op the World. Nos. I. and II. 

The first two of the ten numbers which are to compose this woi-k are on our table. 
They are beautifully executed, large octavo size, and each is accompanied by an exten- 
sive map, to wit, of the World, and of Central and Southern Europe. Tliey occupy 
858 pages of letter-press. The smaller places, rivers, etc., are of course but little 
more than named, while the larger and more important ones are treated at length, 
and apparently with great care. It occupies ground covered by no recent publica- 
tion, and will be required, as it richly deserves a place for its own merits, m every 
library. 

National Magazine, etc Abel Stephens, Editor. 

This popular monthly, now in its fifth volume, is a capital work— well written, 
well illustrated, and well executed. Its last recent numbers rank among the very- 
best in our country. 



LTST OF PATENTS. 125 



The Farmer's Land-Measurer, or Pocket-Companiox. By James Pedder, Editor of the 
Boston CnlHvator. 14-1 pp. small 12mo. New-York: C. M. Saxton. 185-i. 

This book shows how to msasure land, and contains numerous tables showing the 
requisite length or width for an acre, when one only of these lines is known ; also the 
number of furrows, hills, etc., at given distances on a given area; and various mea- 
surements the farmer has occasion to make. 



Citemical Fjeld-Lectures for Agriculturists. By Dr. Julius Adolpuus Stockhardt. 
Translated from the German, and edited, with notes, by James E. Teschemacher. 
242 pp. 12mo. New- York: C, M. Saxton. 

The name of Mr. Teschemacher is enough to give substantial indorsement to any 
book on agriculture. AVe should require no other. Nor does this sort of evidence fail 
us in this little work. It is a capital exhibition of the subject discussed, inferior to 
none we have seen. It tells the whole story which has been so often attempted, and 
with various success, in much larger volumes. It is very handsomely printed. 



Mimsterixg Children, a Tale dedicated to Children. By the author of " Sunday 
Afternoons in the Nursery," " The Light of Life," " Tlie Female Visitor to the Poor," 
etc. 415 pp. 12mo. New-York: Riker.Thorne <fe Co. 1854. 

Tnis is an adooirable work, full of interest to persons of all ages. In the moral and 
religious influence it is calculated to exert, it is not surpassed by any similar publica- 
tion we have ever seen. While it is full of incident, it is everywhere true to nature. 
We heartily commend it to Sabbath-schools and for private families. 



Fashion and Famine. By Mrs. Ann S. STEPnENs. New-York : Bunce & Brothers, 
1854. 

This volume, if not entirely new, is at least new in its present gocdly features. Mrs. 
Stephens is well known as one of our most popular writers, and she deserves all the 
reputation she has earned. In giving this well-executed volume to the public, she 
has done it an essential favor, and deserves ample patronage. We hope she and her 
publishers will receive it. The story is remarkably entertaining, and, like the volume 
just mentioned, it has a most excellent moral 



List of Patents Issued, 

FROM JUNK 6 TO JDLT 4. 

Dominique^ Emile Coutaret, of Roxbury, Mass., | Thomas Ashcroft, of Dorchester, Mass., for im- 
.. ■_ i,. , .... provement in operating cut-ofif valves for steam- 

eugines. 



for improvement in the manufacture of sulphuric 
.•loid. Patented in England, Dec. 16, 1853. 

U'm. R. Palmer, of Elizabeth City, N. C, for 

improvement in threshers. 



Samuel Childs, of New- York, for improvement in 
stills for distilliug fatty bodies, 

Joseph Her and "Wm. Fitzpatriclj, of Troy, for I Silas Constant, of Brooklyn, for lens-lamp chim- 
improvement in nail-plate feeders. ney. 

Tyler Howe, of Cambridgeport, Mass., for im- | Nathaniel Dodge, of Orford, N. 11., for improve- 
provement in bed-bottoms. ment iu the construction of tanning apparatus. 



David Prew, of Taunton, JIass., for improve- 
ment in cast-iron car-wheels. 

Casimir Abos, of New-Brunswick, N. .J., for im- 
provement in spark-arresters. 

John M. Bachelder, of Cambridge, Mass., for im- 
provement in iasulating telegraph wires. 



Anthony Faas, of Philadelphia, for improvements 
in the construction of accordeons. 

Eli H. Green, of Baltimore, Md., for improved 
carriage-axle. 

Geo. P. Gordon, of New-York, for improvement 
ia tail-boards. 



126 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



F. M. Harris, of Carroll, Ohio, for improvement in 
ail-boards of wagons. 

R. M. Ilandley, of Lynchburg, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in bed-bottoms. 

Bernard Hughes, of Rochester, N. Y., for im- 
provement in vices. 

Wm. E. Jones, of U. S. Army, for improvement 
:n saddle-tree-?. 

Joseph Keech and Stephen Stillwell, of Waterloo, 
fir improvements in winnowlng-machines. 

William Montgomery, of Roxbm-y, Mass., for im- 
i.rovements in machine card-teeth. 

J. Vaughan Merriolc, of Philadelphia, for im- 
provement in exhaust fans. 

Andrew Overend, of Philadelphia, for improve- 
ment in printers' friskets. 

Chas. A. Wilson, of Newport, Ky., for improve- 
ment in operating valves for steam-pumps. 

Martin Newman, (2d,) and N. C. Whitcomb, of 
Lanesboro', Pa., anil G. C Cole, of Hartford, Conn., 
fur improvement in coupling. 

David L. Lafourette, of St. Louis, for improve- 
ment in mills. 

Bronson Murray, of Farm-Ridse, 111., assignor, 
(ihrouijh T. Rush Spencer, of Geneva, N. Y.,) to 
John S. Wright, of Chic2go, 111., for improvement 
iu harvester-cutters. 

David N. Kownover, of Danville, Pa., assignor to 
Richard L. Kownover, of Milton, Pa., for improved 
mode of clos:ing wickets iu canal-gates. 

Lyman Clark, of Royalston, Mass., assignor to 
r.yman Clark and Jos. S.iwyer, for instrument for 
trimming welts of boots, shoes, etc. 

Charles Perley, of New-Yort, for improvement in 
atijustable rails for replacing cars on the track. 

Charles Perley, of New-Y'ork, for improvement in 
chain-cable stoppers. 

Samuel Perkes, of London, England, for iraprove- 
mi-nts in crushing and grindinit q'lartz and mine- 
rals. Patented iu England, Oct. 12, 1S52. 

?vlerritt F. Putter, of Cliarlemont, Mass., for ira- 
provemeut in railroad odometers. 

Ebeuezor N. Price, of Salem, Mass., for improve- 
ment in bridle-bits. 

Isaac Starks, of Genoa, N. Y"., and Lyman Perri- 
pi, of CrotoD, N. Y., for improved device for holding 
jiieces in spoke-machines. 

James L. Rowley, of Steuben county, Indiana, for 
improvement in carriages. 

Ira Reynolds, of Republic, Oliio, for iraprove- 
ni'mt in harvesters. 

Charles Pchinz, of Camden, N. J., for improve- 
ment in processes for hardening tallow. 

John Stowell, of Charleslown, Mass., for improved 
steering apparatus. 

Peter Sweeney, of Buffalo, for improvement in 
steam-boilers. 

Wm. Shove, of Eliznbethport,N. J., for improve- 
ment in buckles. 

E. 11. Sprague, of Zancsvillc, for improvement in 
locking up printers' forms. 

Thos.Silver, of Philadelphia, for improvement in 
tighteiung v/indows. 

David J. Slagg, of Iloboken, for improvement in 
operating bolls and locks for controlling series of 
doors. 



G. B. Simonds, of New-Haven, Conn., and Abel 
Brewer, of Saugatuck, Conn., for improvement in 

spark-arresters. 

Henry C. Sergeant, of Cincinnati, for improve- 
ment in feed-water apparatus to steam-boilers. 

Thomas, Earl of Dundonald, of London, Eng., for 
improvement in compositions for coating telegraph- 
ic wires, and f r other purposes. Patented in Eng- 
land, Oct. 6, 1852. 

J. C. Taylor, of Camden, N. J., for improvement 
in soap-compounds. Patented in England, Sept. 
17, 1853. 

J. C. Taylor, of Camden, N. J., for improvement 
in soap-manufacturing processes. Patented in Eng- 
land, r^ept. 17, 1853. 

Anthony Vitally and Carl Kold, of Newark, N.J., 
for improvement in securing tools to their han- 
dles. 

Geo. Yates and Eli Clayton, of Lancaster, Pa., fo'^ 
improvement in looms. 

John Reyan, of Jersey City, for railroad car-ven- 
tilator. 

James Wightman, of Pittsburg, for improvement 
in steam-boilers. 

Geo. W. Wood and Lucius G. Webster, of Utica, 
for improved canal-lock gates. 

Geo. Westinghouse, of Central-Bridge, N.Y., for 
endless chain borse-power. 

James Weight, of Lawrence, Mass., for improve 
ment in machinery for napping cloth. 

Edmond Victory, of VVatertown, N. J., assignor 
to D. M. Linsley and Geo. Goulding, of same place, 
for improvement in machinery for spinning wool. 

Edwin Allen, of South-Windhara, Conn., for im- 
proved veneer-polisher. 

John Allender, of New-London, for improvements 
in metallic grommets. 

D. C. Ambler, of New-York, for improvement in 
quartz-crushers. 

D. C. Ambler, of New-Yuik, for improvement in 
the setting of steam-boilers. 

Gabriel Blondin, of New-York, for improvement 
in processes lor treating paint. 

Gabriel Hlondin, of New- York, for improvement 
in paiut-compositioiis. .^ 

Frederick M. Bartholomew,of New- York, for me- 
thod of governing the action of valve-cocks. 

Thos. H. Barlow, of Lexington, Ky., for improve- 
ments in cut-nail machines. 

Mark S. Bassett, of Wilmington, Del., for flour- 
sifter and renovator. 

Jos. Bone, of Warrenton, Ohio, for improvement 
in grain-winnowers. 

Benj. Cr.awford, of Pittsburg, for improvement on 
high-pressure steam-engines. 

Thus. Crossley, of Boston, for improved machine 
fir printing woollen and other goods. Patented in 
England, April 5, 1854. 

B. Franklin Day, of Philadelphia, for improve- 
ment in steam-engines. 

Samuel Fay, of Lowell, for improvement in weav- 
ing double cloth. 

F. A. Gleason, of Rome, for improvement in the 
couslructioa of reed musical instruments. 

Geo. W. Griswold, of Carbondale, for improved 
tool-handle. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



127 



Charles J. Harris, of Holyoke, Mas?., for improve- 
ment in producing continuous circular from recipro- 
cating rectilinear motion. 

.lohn Henry, of Lynchburg, Va., for improvement 
in cast-iron car-wheels. 

Fre ierica Howes, of Yarmouth, Mass, for extra 
yard to topsail. 

Solm. T. Huntington, of Syracuse, for improve- 
ment in carriage-lops. 

Nathan Johnson, of Noblesville, Ind., for im- 
provement in the mode of moulding bricks. 

Chas. C. Lloyd,ofWest-PhiIadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in gas-metres and regulators. 

John ?. Martin, of Boston, for improvement in 
painters' brushes. 

Thomas G. McLaughlin, of Philadelphia, for im- 
provement in radial arms for car-brakes. 

Duncan E. McDougall, of Springfield, Mass., for 
improved burglars' alarm. 

Anson Merriraan, of Middletown, Conn., for im- 
provement in steam-engine regulators. 

Nathan F. Malthewson, of Providence, R. I., for 
improved watch-chain swivel. 

Edmund Morris, of Burlington, N. J., for im- 
proved slate-frame. 

Orwell H. Needham, of New- York, for improve- 
mcnt in breast-pump. 

James F. Osborn, of Staunton, N. .J., for improved 
method of turning casks, etc., from solid pieces. 

Charles Parker, of Metiden, Conn., for improve- 
ment in cast-iron vices. 

Benj.F.Reimer, of Philadelphia, for improvement 
in railroad car-brakes. 

Jesse Reed, of Marshfield, Ma?s., for improved 
arrangement of ship's capstan and windlass. 

S. Brockway Robinson, of Oswego, for machine 
for drying grain. 

Warren Shaw and Perley G. Green, of Wales, for 
improvement in tentcring cloth. 

Adrian R. Terry, of Detroit, for improvement in 
coating gas-retorts. 

Chas. E. John and Samuel Wethered, of Balti- 
n'ore, for application of ordinary and super-heated 
steam, combined for heating purposes. 

Joseph B. Winchester, of Medina, N. Y., for im- 
proved mode of raising and letting fall carriage- 
tops. 

Wm. C. Wright, of Boston, for improvement in 
folding and measuring cloth. 

Seneca V. ToUins, of Charlestown, Mass., as- 
signor to William 0. Hickok, of Harrisburgh, Pa., 
for mode of setting and holding pens for paper- 
ruling. 

Luther Hill, of Stoneham, Mass., assignor to 
himself and Lorenzo Stratton, of Feltonville, aiass., 
for improvement iu machines for cutting out boot- 
sales. 

Levi W. Mallory, of Philadelphia, assignor to 
Wm. Morris, of same place, for improvement in om- 
nibus registers. 

Stephen White, of Newark, assignor to Henry 0. 
Jones, of same place, for improvement in pad- 
locks. 

Jonathan Amory and William P. Parrot, of Bos- 
ton, for improvement in the furnace of steam- 
boilers. 

Jesse Rauraan, of Sliopherdstown, Pa., for im- 
provement in cider-mills. 



Chas. H. Beatty, of Wheeling, for improvement 
in coffee-mills. 

S. Oscar Cross, of Kingsbury, N. Y., for improved 
grape-frame. 

Thos. H. Dodge, of Nashua, N. H., for improve- 
ment m gas and liquid regulators. 

.0. E-terly, of Heart-Prairie, Wis., for improve- 
uiciit in grass-harvesters. 

Joe A. H. Ellis and Alex. Gordon, of Rochester, 
for improvement in reversible capstans. 

J. Durell Green, of Cambridge, for improvement 
in breech-loading fire-arms. Patented in England. 
May 12, 1854. 

Wm. Hall, of Boston, for improvement in bank- 

loiks. 

Daniel Hill, of Bartonia, Ind. , for improved seed- 
planter. 

Julius Hotchkiss, of Waterbury, Conn,, for im- 
provement in manufacturing suspender-ends. 

Walter Hunt, of New- York, for improvement in 
sewing-machines. 

H. M. Johnson, of Carlisle, Pa., for improved ro- 
tary cultivator. 

D. W. Kennedy, of StauntoU; Va., for improve- 
ment in drying cloth. 

Geo. W. La Baw, of Jersey City, for improved 
mitre-machine. 

Ale.x. B. Latta, of Cincinnati, for improved hy- 
dro-pneumatic force-pump. 

John McF. Lyeth, of Baltimore, for improvement 
in coffins. 

Wm. Mallerd,of Brooklyn, for improved regula- 
tor of gas-burners. 

Wm. Mallerd, of Brooklyn, for improvement in 

I gas-burners. 

John H. McGowan, Jr., of Cincinnati, for im- 
proved double-acting force-pump. 

John Melendy, of Southbridge, Mass., for im- 
proved fruit-picker. 

Daniel Minthorn, of New-York, for improvement 
in iuhaling-tube. 

Wm. J. Miller, of Cold-Spring, for improvement 
in machines for cutting brads. 

Thomas Penrose, of Ellington, HI., for improved 
road-scraper and spreader. 

T. H. Peavey, of South-Moutville, Me., for im- 
proved charger for fire-arms. 

Oliver Pier, of H.armony, N.Y., for improved trap 
for animals. 

L. L. & A.L.Piatt, of Newtown, Conn., for im- 
provement in the manufacture of wooden but- 
tons. 

Hiram and Simon H. Plumb, of Honesdale, for 
improved mortising-machine. 

B. D. Sanders, of Holliday's Cove, Va., for im- 
provement in winnowers of grain. 

Wm. H. Sanders, of Hastings, N. Y., for improved 
carriage-axle. 

Pearly Seaver, of Oxford, for improved cali- 
pers. 

Isaac .Strub, of Cincinnati, for improvement in 
grinding-miUs. 

Thds. Sumner, of Paterson, for improvement in 
steam-hammers. 

Hartwcll L. Turner, of Strykersvillc, N. Y. for 
improved head-gate for water-wheels 



128 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Enoch Thorn, of Philadelphia, for improvement 
in ventilating sewers. 

Philo Washhurn, H. G. 0. White, and George A. 
Copeland, of Taunton, lilass., for improvement in 
coffins. 

Uenry 'Weed, of Philadelphia, for improved mode 
of constructing >^ire bonnet-frames. 

VVm. E. Woodbridge, of Perth-Amboy, assignor 
10 Charles Humphrey, of same place, for improve- 
ment in whistling-topa. 

\Vm. F. Collier, of Worcester, Mass., assignor to 
himself and Joseph Boyden, of same place, for 
improved machine for feeding paper to printing- 
presses. 

Milton D. and Lyman W. Whipple, of Somer- 
ville, Mass.. assignors to Lyman W. Whipple and 
Robert B. Fitts, of same place, for process of en- 
ij'raving or printing upon glass. 

F. C. Goffin, of New- York, assignor to Alfred B. 
Ely, of Boston, for powder-channel to doors ol 
safes and bank-vaults. 

David Brown, of Baltimore, assignor to John F. 
Clark, of Washington, D. C, and David Brown, 
aforesaid, for improvement in machines for mould 
ing for metal castings. 

Ira Carter, of Charaplain, for improved pump. 

Avis. F. Dalson, of New-York, for improvement 
in milk and other evaporators. 

James Lberhardt, of Philadelphia, for improve 
ment in the preparation of archil. 

Henry 15. James, of Trenton, N. J., for improve- 
ment in smut-nifichine. 

Alfred D. Kelley, of Rochester, N. H., for im- 
provement in heel-cutters. Ante-dated March 20, 
1854. 

Edward Lindner, of New- York, for improved 
magazine repeating and needle-gun. 

Abner N. Newton, of Richmond, Ind.. for im- 
provement in breech and loading fire-arms. 

James Noble, of Leeds, England, for improve- 
ment in combining cotton and other fibrous mate- 
rials. 

Thomas Pearsally, of Smithboro', N. Y., for ven- 
tilated flour-barrel. 

Jacob Bevercorab, of Potetourt Springs, Va., for 
improvement in ploughs. 

Philos B. Tyler, of Springfield, Mass., for improve- 
ment in cordage machinery. 

Abraham Ciesler, of Williamsburg, assignortothe 
" Asphalte Mining and Kerosctne Gas Company," 
of New- York, for improvement in Keroscene burn- 
ing fluids. 

Galusha J. Bundy, of Lyndon, Vf., for improve- 
ment in potato-diggers. 

Henry G. Bulkley, of Kalamazoo, for improve- 
ment in the construction of salt evaporators. 

Aury G. Goes, of Worcester, for improvement in 
Ecrew-wrenche?. 

Thos. Cox, of Lancaster, Pa., for improved ma- 
chine for bending felloes. 

A. S. T. Copeland, of Pittsburg, for improved me 
chanism for operuling saw-mill carri.iges. 

Archibald II. Crosier, of Oswego, for improved 
machine for creasing and leveling barrels. 

Thos. W. Currier, of Lawrence, Mass., for im 
provement in sofas, crib-bedstimds, etc. 

James A. Cutting, of Boston, for improvement 
in preiwration of collodion for photographic pic 
turee. 



Dexter Dennis, of Barre, Mas?., for improvement 
in firiishifig palm-leaf hats. Ante-dated January 4, 
1854. 

0. II. Eisenbriindt, of Baltimore, for improved 
valve for wind musical instruments. 

William Fii.kle, of Cole-Creek, Ind., for mill- 
stone dress. 

Robt. H. Forbes, of Boston, for improvement in 
lightning-rods for vessels. 

Joseph Frey and D. B. Burnham, of Battle-Creek, 
Mich., for submarine battery. 

Ileraan Gardiner, of New- York, for improvement 
in quartz-crushers, 

Thos. Green, of Philadelphia, for improvement in 
steam-boilers. 

Joel Gleason, of Geneva, for improvement in 
milk-strainers. 

John R. Hague, of Pittsburg, for improvement in 
machinery for punching rivet-holes in hose. 

AVm. C. Hibbard, of Boston, for improvement for 
regulating the motion of steam-boilers. 

Enoch Hiddon, of New- York, for improvement in 
reading and writing-stands. 

Fcnton Humphrey, of Boontan, N. J., for improve- 
ment in spike-macliines. 

Samuel Ide, of East-Shelby, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in seed-planters. 

Joshua K. Iiigalls, of ■Williamsburg, N.Y., for im- 
proved cutch for vault-covers. 

Philip H. Keck, of Morgantown, Va., for improve, 
ment In wash-boards. 

Jos. F. Laird, of Philadelphia, for improvement in 
ore-stamping machines. 

Jos. Leeds, of Philadelphia, for improvement in 
controlling drr.ught in brick and lime-kilns. 

Wm. Henry Muntz, of Norton, Mass., for improve- 
ment in paddle-wheels. 

John A. Pitts, of Buffalo, for improvement in 
horse-powers. 

Ben. Severson, of Philadelphia, for improvement 
in cast-iron car- wheels. 

John S. Speights, of Baltimore, for improvement 
in brick-kilns. 

M. J. Wheeler, 6. W. Rogers, IT. W. Pierce, nnd 
M. B. Tidey, of Duodee, N. Y., for improved level- 
ing-plane. 

Jerome B. Young, of Harper's Feri^r, for improved 
mode in hanging bells. 

Wra. II. Poindexter, of Fayette county, Tenn., 
administrator (?e7ion is 7lon of John R. Remington, 
deceased, late of Macn county, Ala., for improve- 
ment in cement compounds. 

Henry Burt, of Newark, N. J., assignor to the 
Newark Patent Hosiery Company, of the same place, 
for improvement in knitting-machines. 

Thomas Drayton, of Brooklyn, assignor to G. W. 
McOeaily, Jr., of New-York, for improvement in 
puril'jing oils. 

Wm. Butterfield, of Boston, assignor to himself 
and Edgar M. Stevens, of saire place, for improve- 
ment in sewing-machines. 

S.il. W. Rug!,'les, of Filchbur^, Mass., assignor 
to himself, .Nrtemas R.Smith, and Joseph 0. Austin, 
of same place, for improvement in self-ucling 
Gheese-[preH.ses. 

John Tligg.irt, of Roxbury, assignor to himself 
and Richaiii Pitis, of Dorchester, Mass., for im- 
, proved maehine for excavating earth. 



C()e poMg!), tl)f faom, anb tl)e Jlnnil. 



Vol. VTI. SEPTEMBER, 1854. No. 3. 



STATISTICS OF ST. LOUIS. 

This city stands on the west bank of the Mississippi river, 18 miles below 
the mouth of the Missouri, and 1101 miles, by the course of the river, from 
New-Orleans. It was first settled in 1V64. Its population in 1810 was 1600 ; 
in 1820, 4598 ; in 1840, 16,469 ; and in 1850, 82,'774. It is the commer- 
cial metropolis of Missouri, and was formerly its seat of government. Its 
situation is excellent. It is elevated above the river, the ascent being rather 
abrupt to the first plane, about twenty feet above the highest v/ater, and 
rises thence more gradually to a second plane, forty feet above the first. The 
higher plane extends toward the west as far as the eye can reach. 

As a commercial place the situation is unsurpassed on that river. It is of 
ready access to the boats of the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Illinois rivers, 
and will, no doubt, become one of the great centres of trade in this country. 
Its trade now exceeds that of any other city on the river, except New-Orleans. 
It is also a point of departure for the American fur trade, for the lead mines 
of Upper Mississippi, and for the hunters, trappers, miners, adventurers, emi- 
grants, etc., of all nations. 

The following is an abstract of its trade, taken fi-om a variety of authors, 
and shows a wonderful progress. This progress, however, is not more indica- 
tive of its own prosperity than it is of that of the Great West, which furnishes 
for it so extensive a commerce. 

The follov/ing table (official) exhibits the amount of foreign goods imported 
and entered for consumption at St. Louis in 1852 : 

Sugar and molasses, foreign cost, - - - $413,172 

Hardwaie, cutlery, etc., - - - - 118,276 

Railroad iron, ----- 132,894 

Earthen and glass ware, - - - . 80,729 

Tin plate, tin, iron, copper, etc., - - - 59,826 

Dry goods and fancy goods, - - - - 110,814 

Brandies, wines, etc., - . - - 32,985 

Burr stones, ... - - 420 

Drugs and medicines, - - - - 756 

Cigars, --..-- 5,773 



$954,946 



The amount of duties on imports was $293,298 74. 

The principal products of the country, received at St. Louis for two years, 
as compiled by the Secretary of the Exchange, are given in the following 
able : 

VOL. YII. 9 



130 STATISTICS OF ST. LOUIS. 







1851. 


1852. 


Tobacco, 


hhds, 


10,371 


14,053 


u 


boxes. 


8,380 


12,388 


(1 


bales. 




300 


Herap, 


u 


65,366 


49,122 


Lead, 


pigs, 


503.571 


409,314 


Flour, 


bl!s., 


193,892 


131,333 


Wheat, 


bush., 


1,700,708 


1,591,886 


Corn, 


sacks, 


1,840,900 


S44;720 


Oats, 


li 


794,421 


323,081 


Barley and malt, 


u 


101,674 


47,264 


Beef, 


bbls., 


8,872 


11,165 


a 


tierces. 


5,640 


6,546 


Pork, 


bbls.. 


103,013 


66,306 


(( 


tierces, 


15,793 


2,704 


Lard, 


bbls. and tierces. 


52,208 


42,515 


a 


kegs, 


14,450 


11,815 


Bacon, 


casks and hhds,, 


16,791 


11,285 


u 


bbls. and boxes. 


1,564 


1,790 


(1 


pieces, 


6,629 


18,809 


AVhiskey, 


bbls.. 


47,991 


46,446 


Hides, 




■ 99,730 


97,148 


Bagging, 


pieces. 


2,746 


3,650 


Bale rope, 


coils, 


34,088 


42,121 


Sugar, 


hhds., 


29,276 


35,283 


a 


bbls. and boxes, 


36,687 


27,672 


It 


bags, 




37,745 


CotTee, 


sacks. 


101,904 


96,245 


Molasses, 


hhds. and bbls., 


40,251 


54,935 


Salt, 


bbls.. 


46,250 


42,281 


•( 


sacks, 


216,933 


266,616 


Nails, 


kegs. 


57,862 


42,201 



Lead. — The product of the upper mines, received at the port of St. Louis 

is as follows : 

1850, 507,496 pigs, 39,724,720 lbs. Value, $1,766,750 

1851, 540,000 " 37,800,000 " " 1,577,600 

There has been a constant decline in the product of these mines for several 
years. In 1847 they produced 778,469 pigs of 70 lbs. This decrease, it is 
said, is the result of several causes. Among these, emigration of the miners 
to California, want of sufficient economical machinery to drain the wet 
grounds, and want of sufficient capital, are the most conspicuous. 

Groceries. — The annual imports at St. Louis, previous to 1845, were 
estimated at about two and a half millions, and the sales to three and a half 
millions of dollars. Since 1845, the grocery trade has about doubled. The 
total sales of the jobbing grocers for 1851 approximate $10,000,000, while 
the retail trade of the city approximates two and a half millions. 

Dry Goods. — The imports during the year 1851 were about $6,000,000, 
and the sales to the country the same year about $7,000,000, exclusive of the 
retail trade. Their importations were about three millions, and their sales 
nearly four millions, giving total imports about nine millions, and sales nearly 
eleven millions of dollars. 



RAILROAD ROUTES TO THE PACIFIC. ISl 

Iron will no doubt become, ere long, the heaviest manufacturing business 
of this city. Her iron ore is inexhaustible, and her coal is close at ker door. 
FiouR. — The amount received for two years in the city, is as follows : 

1851. 1852. 

Manufactured by the city mills, - - 408,000 393,184 

Eeceipts per river, .... 184,446 131,333 

" per wagons, ... - 45,000 89,461 

The decrease of 1852 is imputed to the want of water in the rivers and the 
scarcity of wheat. The St. Louis brands stand high in the market. The 
mills are capable of turning out 3000 barrels a day. 

Wheat. — In 1850, the receipts at this port were 1,808,81'? bushels; in 
1851, 1,665,34'7, and 1852, 1,591,886 bushels. 

[The grain market of St. Louis is rather decreasing in importance.] 

Cork. — Large quantities of this crop are consumed in the production of 
pork, and a gieater amount was probably thus consumed in 1852 than in 
1851. Beside, much of the corn is shipped from a point on the Illinois 
river to Chicago as cheaply and expeditiously as to St. Louis. 



RAILROAD ROUTES TO THE PACIFIC 

The journals of the day inform us that gentlemen of well-known ability 
have taken the initiatory steps for securing the very liberal offer of ll:e 
government of Texas in aid of a railroad to the Pacific. It is said tljat the 
bonus offered will, with certain other grants already made, that can be appro- 
priated to the same object, amount to a hundred million of dollars, while 
the road will not cost over twenty millions. Here, then, is " a chance '* for 
capitalists, seldom equalled in importance. 

We find in a recent Boston Traveller newspaper a communication on the 
same general subject, which we present to our readers. The writer, alluding 
to a former article, says : 

"By the route which you describe there remain to be finished, between 
Boston and the Mississippi, less than 200 mih^f, and between Boston and the 
Missouri, opposite the Platte Valley, about 500 miles of railroad to complete 
the fine of communication : namely, 150 miles from Indianapolis to Decatur, 
40 miles from Naples to the Mississippi opposite Hannibal, 200 miles from 
Hannibal to St. Joseph, and 150 miles from St. Joseph to the Valley of the 
Platte. Thus two thirds of the distance from Boston to the Platte Valley 
have, by this route, been already overcome. 

You are doubtless correct in your opinion that the Valley of the Platte 
must furnish one of the groat railroad routes from the Missouri to the Pacific. 
But allow me to correct your statement that 'this route passes through the 
centre of the new territory of Kansas^ You intended to have written 
Nebraska, and not Kansas. Both forks of the Platte, running far north of 
Kansas territory, avoid altogether ' the Great American Desert,' through 
whose arid wastes flow the head-waters of the Kansas, Arkansas, and Cana- 
dian rivers. 

You are also, doubtless, correct in the belief that within a very short ]:>eriod 
there must and will be an uninterrupted railroad communication firom Boston 
to some point on the Missouri opposite the Valley of the Platte. 



132 EAILROAD EOUTES TO THE PACIFIC. 

Indeed, I beg leave to remind you that already that communication is 
fully established to the Mississippi, by a route singularly direct, and lying, 
for almost every mile of its course, in the exact latitude of the Massachusetts 
Bay. 

As far as Cleveland, Ohio, this route corresponds with the one described 
i.-y yon. At Cleveland, instead of leaving the lak:-", like the route ■which you 
liave ti'aced, and deviating veiy much to the south, it continues Avest nearly 
parallel with the line of Lake Erie to Toledo; thence through Southern 
Michigan and Northern Indiana to Michigan City on Lake Michigan ; thence 
by the lake to Chicago in Illinois ; thence over the Chicago and Rock-Island 
Railroad across Illinois to Rock-Island on the Mississippi, opposite to Daven- 
port in Iowa. To this point there is now an unbroken line of railroad, and 
this point is only 300 miles from the Valley of the Platte. The Mississippi 
and Missouri Railroad Company, of which Gen. Dix is President, is now 
rapidly building its railroad bridge across the Mississippi, and its road across 
Iowa from the Mississipi to the Missouri at Council Bluffs, opposite the Platte 
Valley. Fifty-five miles of that road, namely, from the Mississippi to Iowa City, 
the capital of Iowa, will be in operation next December, leaving less than 250 
miles of an easy, rolling prairie to be overcome in order to perfect the 
unbroken line of railroad travel from Boston to that old Buffalo trail up the 
Platte Valley, which has for ages led the countless herds of bison, and which 
for ages to come will lead the innumerable caravans of trade and emigra- 
tion, from the great valley over the great prairie, through the South Pass to 
the Pacific. 

Less than two years will probably send the scream of the locomotive across 
the yellow tide of the Missouri. The completion of the railroad from 
Chicago to Rock-Island ' has demonstrated that a railway may be con- 
siructed through a countr}'- of prairie, on the line of immigration, and yield 
a profit as soon as it is opened.' That road ' was opened by sections, and 
it yielded, from the moment the first section was set in operation, a profitable 
return,' ' The third month after its completion, it yielded S109,000, on an 
expenditure of less than four milhons and a half.' When it ' v/as commenced 
in 1851, a considerable portion of the line was run through the public lands 
then unsold and unoccupied. There is now not an acre on the line of tne 
road that has not been purchased, and that is not held at prices varying from 
SlO to 'S30. The construction of the road, by opening a market, has not 
only added 50 per cent to the prices of agricultural products in the district 
of country through which it ]:)asses, but it has stimulated production so 
enormously as to task the ability of the company severely to furnish the 
Ui'cessarv transportation.' When it is remembered that in the prairie the 
settler has no timber to cut down and clear away, and no stumps to gurb out, 
that he can at once plough the sod and plant the seed, and that it is a con- 
stant — not a rare — occurrence for the settler who has paid the government 
price of $1.25 per acre for his land, to raise t<20 or $30 per acre in corn 
within twelve months after the surface is broken, there is no difficulty in 
understanding how and why it is that the Chicago and Rock-Island Railroad 
has been thus profitable from the start. 

The Mississippi and Missouri Railroad is a continuation of this productive 
route. It crosses a rolling prairie of vast fertility, in the direct line of immi- 
gration — across Iowa, a State whose population doubles in less than every five 
years, and which now numbers more than 300,000 inhabitants. The road 
■will be opened by sections ; first, from the Mississippi to Iowa City, then to 
Des Moines, and afterward to Council Blufls. Already for more than 175 



RESPECTABILITY OF LABOR IN THE SOUTH. 183 

miles along its route tLe public lands are sold ; and it is certain that the 
agricultural produce of the country and the merchandise for which it is 
exchanged will sustain the road as soon and as fast as it is constructed. 

Beyond the Missouri, up the fertile Valley of the Platte, in the great 
stream of settlement and immigration, a railroad will soon become an inevi- 
table fact, an unavoidable necessity," t 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ASVIL. 

RESPECTABILITY OF LABOR IN THE SOUTH.— FREE AND SLAVE 

LABOR. 

Messrs. Editors : Your Journal being appropriated to the advancement of 
labor, I think it legitimate to your columns that the position and relations of 
all labor, North, South, East, and West, should be undei-stood. Not pre- 
tending to be very familiar with more than one portion, the Southern, I shall 
endeavor to avail myself of your pages to set before your readers some facts 
and opinions in relation to labor and the laboring man in the South : and 
also to show that good free labor can compete successfully with slave. I 
wish it expressly understood, that in these remarks ray intention is not to 
wound the feelings of any of my American brethren. My desire is to cast 
in my mite toward allaying that asperity of feeling that I fear exists too 
extensively for the welfare of our Union. This feeling has principally been 
the work of the demagogue, a class who have ever been a curse to good 
governments. Unfortunately for us, they, like the father of evil in the 
garden, have insinuated their slimy folds into our national councils, and then 
have used for their own selfish ends the confidence of their constituents. 
These political vampires, though sectional in their views, are not so in their 
existence, being found everywhere. I am not attempting the part of the 
champion of slavery, nor do I expect to make my Northern brethren believe 
that the institution is a blessing. I am only anxious to disabuse their minds 
of error. I am willing to concede in the outset that the institution admits of 
abuse. Please show me the human institution that is free from that objec- 
tion. Even our model government, especially in that part that gives it, in 
our eyes, the most favor, can, in its workings, exhibit a glaring defect. I 
refer to the doctrine that the majority should govern. Is it not here that 
much of this strife betvreen the North, and South has originated — the fear 
that the rights of the minority will be disregarded ? Is there not an appre- 
hension on the part of the South, that without additional slave territory their 
rights will be set at nauglit ? Just here, I difier from a large majority of 
my Southern brethren. I question whether it is the true policy of us for a 
long time to come, to desire more territory for our peculiar institution. My 
reasons I will briefly state. We have millions of acres that are fertile, and 
in their virgin state. We need to concentrate, instead of scattering our popu- 
lation. Nine tenths of our emigrants would be native Americans, those that 
experience has proved to be the best materials to constitute republics out of. 
Emigration has the tendency to make large landholders, proving prejudicial 
to a proper system of education. Emigration diminishes our property, which 
makes the taxes heavier in sustaining our state governments, and interferes 
with the developing the resources of our country by internal improvements. 



184 RESPECTABILITY OF LABOR IN THE SOUTH. 

Having set myself right on this point, I will to my subject by asking the 
question, Is an employment within itself degrading, or is it made so by the 
individual engaged in it ? Certainly the first question must be answered 
affirmatively. To illustrate. A man is looked on as degraded, who per- 
forms duties of common hangman, or one' who acts as a spy for the police. 
I care not how elevated the situation of the individual may have been pre- 
vious to his embarking in these employments, he will be looked on as 
degraded when he does. But reverse it: cause either of these individuals to 
whom we have referred to be engaged as an agriculturist, a mechanic, or 
merchant, and his former reproach will begin to leave him, and finally, if his 
course is unexceptionable, it will entirely disappear. 

The next question that presents itself is this. If it is the calling that 
casts the stigma on the man's character, how^ is it that the negro, as my pro- 
perty, can degrade the employment that assisted to confer honor on the 
noble Roman who left his plough to save his country 1 It can not be, and 
this I shall endeavor to prove. A state of labor is a state of necessity grow- 
ing out of man's disobedience to his Maker. The penalty attached to that 
disobedience was, that " in the sweat of his face he should eat his bread." 
To make the punishment greater, he inherited a disposition preferring rest to 
labor. Man labors not from choice, but necessity. Necessity then is his 
master, though frequently rewarding him in this our happy country most 
bountifully, if he is industrious and faithful in his work. But if he proves the 
contrary, the pinching hand of want punishes him, involving, unfortunately, 
his fnraily with him. But in some countries where labor is abundant, he is 
rewarded scantily, being ever a stranger to those comforts that gladden the 
journey of life. It is sometimes the case that this master (necessity) forces 
him, in every land, into the employment of some tyrannical master, and 
because his physical powers are not beyond mortal man, he is sent adrift, 
probably with the reputation of being lazy and unworthy of employment, 
which character too often sticks to him like the coat of Nessus. Should he 
have a wife and little ones, they have to share in his suffering. 

Most of the above applies to our blacks, but in an altered form. Circum- 
stances have made the black man our property ; necessity forces him to labor 
for us, for which he receives a good supply of clothing and food, while in 
sickness and old age he is cared for. Thus, if from no other cause, from 
pecuniary interest he is taken care of by his master. His master may unfor- 
tunately be unreasonable and cruel, but we have here a powerful tribunal, 
public opinion, that most generally forces him to respect the rights of 
humanity. But is our labor degraded because we have what might be con- 
sidered complete authority over the laborer ? If so, how do you look on the 
occupation of the gallant tar? He is completely in the power of his com- 
mander; but to him we are indebted not only for the comforts but luxuries 
of life, and by his dauntless spirit in maintaining our rights, we are respected 
everywhere. If this objection be well taken, and this the efiect produced 
by this state of things, what think you of those who, at Lundy's Lane and 
Cerro Gordo, under the stars and stripes reaped a harvest of glory? Did 
not ninety-nine one hundredths have to acknowledge the unlimited authority 
of their superiors ? The objection may be, that because the slave is forced 
to engage in labor he does not prefer, therefore labor is degraded. If that 
be so, Avhat will you do with the thousands of white operatives that are 
forced into labor equally as toilsome, and often more prolonged, and more 
unhealthy 1 

The rule is thought to apply, that as a man is judged by the company he 



RESPECTABILITY OF LABOR IjST THE SOUTH. 135 

is found in, that to labor with a slave is degrading. Let us see whether this 
is a general rule. Is it not where our associates are from choice, and not 
necessity, that this rule holds good, as in the pursuit of pleasure ? As that 
of labor is one of necessity, can it apply ? A man has to travel through a 
dangerous country, and unless he avails himself of the company of a black- 
leg, he would have to go in great peril. Is he degraded because he seeks 
self-preservation ? Again : our country beats to arms. Is the respectable 
man who volunteers degraded because he is found in the same ranks with 
a man that makes swindling a profession ? Can he not with reputation, side 
by side with him maintain the honor of his country ? Do you in society 
place him on a level when it becomes necessary that they should both be 
found in the same ditch, spade and pick-axe in hand, making a fortification 
for their mutual safety ? I think not. 

^ The presumption is, that a parent's desire is to elevate and not degrade 
his child. How happens it, then, that a majority in Mississippi teach their 
children how to work, and that with their negroes ? Many of them, even 
after becoming proficients, continue to do so until they attain maturity, 
except whilst they are at school. This is one principal source of supply oi 
good managers. Leaving home at twenty-one, they seek employment as 
such, at small wages, agreeing at the same time to work witli the hands, 
when the number is small. Very few persons owning under ten field-opera- 
tives, but who labor at the plough and other plantation work. But when 
the force is above that, they find full employment, by superintending the 
labor of others, with other matters pertaining to the concei'n. When there 
are fifteen hands or more, it is usual to employ a manager. Still, if the 
owner does his duty, it is impossible for him to live a life of idleness. In 
some cases, an overseer is dispensed with, where a trusty intelligent negro 
superintends the work of others. Where labor is performed, and carried out 
in this way, can it be degraded ? It is impossible, and those who say it is, 
betray their ignorance, or are giiilty of asserting a falsehood. As corroborat- 
ive of my position that our labor is not degraded, permit me to offer a case 
in point. A young man owning ten or twelve hands, of little experience in 
planting, settled on a place adjoining one of our most respectable and wealthy 
citizens. He being a person of large experience, the young man called on 
him for advice, which of course he gave. Circumstances transpiring 
adversely, the young man found himself in the grass and weeds. He went 
to his experienced friend to know what he should do. Do you suppose he 
advised hira to stand still, and not degrade himself by work? Very far from 
it. He asked him if he had an idle horse. If he had, to take off" his coat, 
and lay hold of the plough-handles. In relating the case, the old planter 
concluded by saying that had he not taken this part of his advice, he could 
never have received any more from him. 

This course of remark shows also that the belief that slavery creates an 
aristocracy that looks with contempt on the man that labors with his hands, 
is without foundation. As a class, we have nothing of an aristocracy, though 
there may be a few that are foolish enough to make such assumptions. 
When they do, the common sense of our community convinces them very 
soon of their mistake, I do say it without the fear of contradiction, that in 
Mississippi, where I have spent nearly forty years of my life, and that in dif- 
ferent portions, the industrious honest man that toils for his daily bread is as 
much respected as he is anywhere north of Mason's and Dixon's line. How 
can it be otherwise, where a large majority have been the fashioner of their 
own fortunes ? By doing so, they would be reflecting on their parents, and 



136 INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



on their own former situation in life. One thing we have reason to be proud 
of, and that is, we have very few that can be recognized as truly poor. 
Many have to hibor, yet they feel themselves independent of the rich man, 
and are not objects of charity. 

It is urged, that free can not compete with slave labor. As the price of 
labor is in a great measure influenced by the value of the commodity pro- 
duced by that labor, and as that is ever fluctuating, it is difhcult to be any 
thing like precise. But being informed as to the value of one great staple, 
which with us has a controlling influence, I can speak with assurance in 
respect to mj own neighborhootl. I shall then give what it is worth with 
us, leaving it to others to determine for other places. 

A good field hand is worth, per annum, 8200 

To feed, clothe, and pay the taxes, 30 

The time he may lose by sickness and bad weather, - - - 20 

Doctor's bill, ._-.-.-.- 5 

His j)ortion of cost of overseer, .-__-- 15 



8270 



We have very few that hire themselves as laborers, except as overseers or 
mechanics. The reasons are, that most frequently our young men marry 
before leaving their parents, or soon after. Land being cheap, they secure a 
home of their own, which to a man with a f;xmily is far preferable to an 
unsettled life. The few that engage as managers receive for their services 
8-300 to $600 for the year, with their board and horse found. On the Mis- 
sissippi river, even more is given by many. Mechanics get $2 per diem, and 
more, with their board. 



INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 
BOOKS FOR PREMIUMS. 

We have had occasion in former issues to commend the talents and per- 
sonal influence of Mr. Brush, late President of the Franklin County Agricul- 
tural Society of Ohio. lie has done much for the cause in his own State, 
and indeed over the country. We are happy to republish the following sen- 
sible remarks, first presented in his farewell address, on resigning his oflice of 
President, on the 29th of April last: 

"The object of our Society being improvement, its eflbrts should be 
directed to disseminating light and knowledge. ' God said, let there be light 
and there was light,' where all before was chaos and darkness. 

That our lands are not cultivated as they should be, we all know too well ; 
and that the only way to remedy this great evil is to instruct our farmers in 
the right way, is too clear for argument. How is that instruction to be dif- 
fused through our country, and how is a correct agricultural education to be 
furnished to our farmers ? Our Society has got upon the right track. That 
track is the awarding of agricultural papers as premiums. Hundreds and 
thousands will obtain knowledge in this way who would otherwise live and 
die in ignorance. Our Society should persevere in this, and increase the 
number of awards of this character. Those who desire to make money out 



INFLUENCE OF AGEICULTUEAL SOCIETIES. 137 

of the Society "vvill object, but heed not their complaints, and they will soon 
cease, and what cause is there for complaints ? 

I have ali-eady shown that no man has any right to be paid for being 
better off, more lucky, or having better articles than others. And none can 
complain that receive such premiums as we ofier. If we in our awards 
comply with our offers, we have fulfilled our contract. But tliere is one 
branch of improvement in an agricultural education to which I particularly 
invite your attention and the direction of your efforts. This is the instruction 
the Society can give to the formers of Franklin county in the proper cultiva- 
tion of the soil. It is the most important and at the same time most difficult 
of all the duties we have to perform, and, without performing this duty, we 
sball fail in the great object of our Association. This is a vast subject, 
embracing, when thoroughly understood, a perfect acquaintance with all the 
natural sciences and all the laws of nature. 

The knowledge of geology and chemistry must be acquired before any 
claim can be made to the title of a farmer. Geology teaches us what are the 
elements of which this earth is composed, and chemistry how to analyze and 
discover them. 

' Geology is indeed a magnificent science. What excites more tbe imagi- 
nation ? What exercises more the mind ? Can we conceive any thing more 
sublime than the gigantic shadows and the grim wreck of an antediluvian 
world ? Can we devise any plan which will more brace our powers, and 
develop our mental energies, than the formation of a perfect chain of inductive 
reasoning to account for these phenomena? What is the boasted com- 
munion which the vain poet holds with nature compared with the conversa- 
tion which the geologist perpetually carries on with the elemental world ? 
Gazing on the strata of the earth, he reads the tate of his species. In the 
undulations of the mountains is revealed to him the history of the past, and 
in the strength of rivers and powders of the air he discovers the fortunes of 
the future. To him, indeed, that future, as well as the past and the present, 
are alike matter for meditation ; for the geologist is the most satisfactory of 
antiquarians, the most interesting of philosopher, and the most inspired of 
prophets ; demonstrating that which has past by discovery, that which is 
occurring by observation, and that which is to come by induction. I am 
already an antediluvian, and instead of the horse bounding over the plain, 1 
witness the moving mass of a mammoth. I live in other worlds, which I 
have at the same time the advantage of comparing with the present.' 

Language would fail me, gentlemen, were I to attempt a description of the 
kindred science of chemistry, such as is contained in the above quotation of 
geology, and yet the science of agriculture includes both, as well as the other 
natural sciences. 

Our Society can not teach these sciences to our farmers, but we can 

1st. Induce them to educate'their children, by convincing them that agri- 
culture is a science, and not an art; that it is not to be learned by practice 
alone; that, in order to make thorough firmers of their children, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to educate them ; and that the most profitable investment 
they can make with their money, and the best fortune they can give to their 
children, is a good education. 

2cl. We can give light and knowledge to the people by distributing 
amongst them agricultural papers of the first class, in which they will find the 
practical results of scientific forming, and can be improved very much in the 
management of their farms, and awakened to a necessity of having a higher 
degree of knowledge imparted to their children. 



138 THE COAL-FIELDS OF THE WOULD. 

3d. By awards of premiums on farm crops, we can excite emulation and 
also inquiry into the best method of so cultivating the soil as to produce the 
greatest amount of crops with the least labor, and at the same time keep up 
the fertility of the soil. 

4th. By the introduction of the best farm implements, we accomplish one 
point, to wit, the increase of crops to some extent, and the saving of labor. 

But the greatest difficulty yet remains to be solved. Our farmers must 
learn that where there is abstraction there must be restitution. That practice 
alone, and being brought up to the plough from infancy, will not make a 
farmer. And that we are fast wearing out our lands, and instead of living on 
our incomes, we are spending the principal of our fortunes." 



THE COAL-FIELDS OF THE WORLD. 

From an interesting selected article, published in i\\Q. Practical Mechanics'' 
Journal, we condense a brief account of the coal-fields of the world. Great 
Britain occupies the first rank, both in the quantity and quality of her coal- 
production. The amount which she yearly produces is 32,000,000 tons. 
Belgium comes next, with 5,000,000 tons ; the United States produces nearly 
the same quantity; France, 4,200,000; Prussia, 3,500,000, and Austria 
about 700,000. 

Belgium, the second coal-producing country on the globe, is traversed in an 
east north-east direction by a large zone of bituminous coal formation, from 
which she derives her supply. This zone occupies an extent of 331,392 
acres, or about one twenty-second part of her whole area. France procures 
coal from fifty-six of her eighty-six departments. This yield is divided among 
eighty-eight coal-basins, and comprises both the bituminous and non-bitu- 
minous varieties. Her production, which is now 4,200,000 tons, was at the 
commencement of the French revolution but 240,000 tons, the greater part 
of which came from two coal-fields. The greater quantity of her coal is infe- 
rior to that of the British. Coal is daily getting into greater favor with the 
French, and it may reasonably be expected that with increased demand and 
the growing facilities of railway transport, it will be reduced so much in price 
that it may be employed in gas establishments without the necessity of reeeiv- 
ino- aid from abroad. The national steam-marine of France even now dei'ives 
its coal from Great Britain. 

Many of the provinces of Prussia are rich in coal-basins similar to those in 
England. Peat, however, is in extensive use in Piussia, Bavaria, and Wir- 
temberg. At Berlin and its environs it is employed in almost all the work- 
shops, and, on account of its application to the production of gas, its con- 
sumption is regularly increasing. Austria possesses exteu:^ive coal-beds, but 
the working of them has not yet been carried on to any great extent, there 
being a plentiful supply of wood, and at low prices. 

The Uniti'd States yields bituminous and anthracite coal in abundance. She 
is young and vigorous. Slie possesses railways and ships to aid in develop- 
ing her rainei-al resources, and doubtless in a few years more her coal-produc- 
tioii will be only exceeded by that of England. The following is a list of her 
principal coal-fields : 



RAILROAD FARES IN VIRGINIA. 139 



Area of States. Coal Areas. 

States. Sq. Miles. Sq. Miles. Proportion of Coal. 

1. AlaLaina, 50,87o 3,400 l-14th. 

2. Georuia, 58,200 150 l-386tli. 

3. Teniu'>s.e, 44,720 4,300 1-lOth. 

4. Ken tuck V, 39,015 13,500 l-3d. 

5. Vii-o-inia," 64,000 21,195 l-Sd. 

C. Marvland 10,829 550 l-20tb. 

Y.Ohio, 38,850 11,900 l-3d. 

8. Indiana, 34,800 7,700 l-5th. 

9. Illinois 59,130 44,000 3-4ths. 

10. Pennsylvania, 43,960 15,437 l-3d. 

11. Michigan, 60,820 5,000 l-20th. 

12. Missouri, 60,384 6,000 1-lOth. 

The above table gives an aggregate area in 12 States of 565,283 square 
miles, of which 133,132 miles, or nearly one fourth, is composed of coal- 
beds. After making all due allowances for such coal-beds as would never be 
reached by the miner, we have left an enormous yielding area. 

Canada contains no workable beds of coal, but Nova-Scotia, New-Bruns- 
wick, and Newfoundland are said to be rich in, the article. 

Most of the minor countries in Europe yield coal. In Russia, on the 
northern shore of the Black Sea, bituminous coal (brown) has been found in 
abundance. The richest Russian coal-field is on the shores of the Sea of Azof, 
between the Dnieper and Donotz rivers ; it is said to be equal in quality to 
the best English, and may be delivered at a port on the Dnieper or the Don 
rivers for about 4s. or 5s. per ton. Little is known of the carboniferous sys- 
tem of Northern Russia. St. Petersburg is lighted with gas produced from 
English coal. 

Coal-beds are found in Egypt and various parts of Africa and Asia. 

China will doubtless become, ere long, a coal-producing country. 



RAILROAD FARES IN VIRGINIA 

The Savannah Georgian says : ''Virginia has for years borne the reproach 
of charging more exorbitant rates of fare on her railroads than the States 
either north or south of her. The traveller passing through Georgia pays 
not more than three cents per mile ; in North and South-Carolina about the 
same. Reaching the Old Dominion, he encounters ,,a tariff of four or five 
cents. Beyond that State he again finds himself where three cents or less 
per mile will pay his passage. But it seems, high as has been the charge on 
the Virginia roads hiiherto, the public are to be called upon to suffer a still 
further imposition in travelling through that State. From the Richmond 
Enquirer we learn that the fare on the Richmond and Petersburg road, 
hitherto five cents per mile, is hereafter to be six — ^just double the rate at 
which our Georgia roads are declaring their handsome dividends. Those of our 
readers who know something about railroad management, will not be surprised 
to learn that the road above-named pays poorly. If its sapient president 
and directors would press the figures a little further, and carry up their charge 
to ten cents, it would probably pay nothing. True policy, both as regards 
the interests of the public and of these corporations themselves, suggests that 
they should rather do a large business at moderate charges, than do little at 
exorbitant rates." 



140 



IMPROVED SUFFOLK SWINE. 




IMPROVED SUFFOLK SWINE. 

The boar represented in the engraving carries with him his own recom- 
mendation. The improved Suffolk?, as our readers well know, have an 
established reputation above all others. They can bo kept at less cost, and 
fatten faster than any other breed ; while the pork is more delicate and 
sweeter. They also mature early. At twelve to eighteen months old they 
weigh from two hundred to four hundred and fiCty, or even five hundred 
pounds. Mr. Wm. Stickney first imported the Suffolks, and now Dr. 
Morton appears to be one of the most successful in breeding the improved 
varieties. He sells at prices from $20, 825, $30, etc, to $C0 for sows ; 
and his Prince Albert Boar he holds (if not sold) at $150. 



THE AGRICULTURE OF JAPAN. 141 



THE AGRICULTURE OF JAPAN. 

The islands comprising Japan proper and inaproper, are something over 
three thousand in nuicber. The four principal ones have been compared to 
England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, with a similar size and climate. The 
soil is not naturally so good, but it has been rendered very rich and pro- 
ductive by the cultivation that has been pursued. Japan has about the lati- 
tude-of Southern Europe, though the climate is colder. In portions of the 
empire deep snows lie for weeks and months in the winter. 

One feature of the cultivation in Japan is that there is no waste land. So 
valuable is the soil that every inch of it is cultivated. The ploughing on 
the hill-sides is performed by men, while on the plains oxen and horses are 
used,. 

The soil of Japan is volcanic in its nature, and the farmers as well as other 
classes are interrupted in their business by frequent earthquakes. At times 
the destruction of life and property is immense. 

The Japanese farmer is not independent, but a person of a low class, who 
hires instead of owning his farm, and allows his wealthy landlord six tenths 
of all he produces. Among the fruits of the earth in Japan may be men- 
tioned wheat, barley, Indian-corn, rice. To these may be added beans and 
most of the vegetables common with us. Rice is one important crop, upon 
which the natives principally subsist. They scarcely ever partake of meat. 
The Japanese do not regard epicurean food as the greatest luxury, but a large 
number of devoted servants. 

Most of the wild and tame animals found with us abound in Japan, though 
not, perhapg, in so large numbers. The cow is there, though the people know 
nothing of the use of butter and cheese. Horses they have in moderate 
quantities, and of different sizes and value. 

It often rains in Japan for the most of the year. June arid July are called 
the rainy months, as rain falls continually. By the falling of so much rain 
the streams are usually quite high and not easily fordable. 

The mode of raising rice in Japan, and of wheat and barle)% which is simi- 
lar, may be thus described : The soil lies under water until the beginning of 
April. The farmers then turn it over with crooked hoes, or sometimes by 
oxen or cows. They sow the lice in small beds, about the breadth of a foot, 
separated by furrows of the same width. The furrows become drains. When 
about a foot high, the rice or barley is transplanted by women. 

Other crops that are freely raised in Japan, are tobacco, cotton, tea, sugar, 
and, indeed, about every thing raised in the United States, and some few 
things besides. Fruits of almost every description, such as oranges, lemons, 
figs, pears, Avalnuts,.chestnut?:, are very abundant, as are vegetables, upon 
wliich last the natives much subsist. Among other things, the natives con- 
sume large numbers of turnips, raw as well as cooked. 

Almost every house in Japan has a garden, and it is usually so constructed 
that the dining-room looks out upon it. The people take much pains that 
their gardens appear in the best condition and contain every thing '' pleasant 
to the sight as well as good for food." 

One strict regulation in Japan is, that he who omits to till his soil for one 
year, shall sacrifice it and be compelled to yield the premises to a more worthy 
farmer. It is by such rigid laws that there is no unimproved land in the 
whole empire. Various kinds of fowls abound in Japan, though the religion 



142 IS THE FIRST MILK POISONOUS? 

of the country not allowing the people to eat meat, very little use is made of 
them. We read of the common barn-fowl, of geese, ducks, turkeys, etc. 

The swine of Japan mostly run wild. Other wild animals abound, such 
as deer, bears, buffi\loes, monkeys, foxes, hares, etc. 

The farmers, so valuable is their land for cultivation, have cut down their 
forests principally. Coal is their chief article of fuel. The trees that stand 
are mostly of the greatest value, such as cedar, camphor, fir, cypress, mulberry, 
paper, and varnish trees. 

The famous Japan ware, that used to be so fashionable with us, was 
varnished with a substance procured from the varnish-tree of that wonderful 
land. 

Japan is a most interesting farming country in this respect, that all its 
produce finds a home market, so populous is the land. Not a dollar's worth 
of any thing is shipped to foreign lands, but all is sold in some part of the 
empire. 

Altogether Japan is a most interesting country to the fiu-mer. 



"IS THE FIRST MILK POISONOUS?" 

The first secretions from the udder contain colostrum, the properties of 
which are not fully known. It is supposed to be a cathartic, provided by 
nature, and well adapted to the wants of the offspring, removing the viscid 
contents of the intestinal canal. 

Diarrhcea, convulsions, and death have been produced in young children, 
by the too copious and lung continued secretion of colostrum in the mammal 
Secretions of their mothers. 

Colostrum is not a secretion peculiar to cows, neither is it poisonous to 
swine alone.— 0. C Gibbs, M.D., Perry, Ohio. 

On this subji^ct, William Garbutt, an old experienced farmer of Monroe 
county, communicates the following to the Wool Grower : 

"All rich food, when taken in too large quantities, produces injurious effects. 
Let a hungry ox eat too many raw potatoes, and they will kill him ; let a 
horse have too many oats, or too much cold water when he is warm and 
thirsty, and it will founder him. Give a new-calved cow a pailful of rich 
itiilkfeed slop, and it will probably kill her; and it will have the same effect 
on a sow just pigged ; too much raw whey will kill a pig, so will dry buck- 
wheat when too much of it is eaten. But that is not evidence that all those 
nutritious and valuable foods are poison ; it only proves the want of know- 
ledge or lack of prudence in the feeder. 

Give a cow after calving half a pailful of her first milk, and it will be very 
beneficial to her, by loosening her bowels and promoting her cleansing. 
Cows' first milk is rich and very loosening, and such food is injurious to sows 
heavy with ])ig. Instead of giving the sow the first milk clear, had they put 
it into the swiU-barrel and mixed it with the other swill, it would have been 
very valuable to the sow. 

The success of a breeder depends much on his prudence in feeding, to 
adapt the quantity and quality of the food to the wants of the animal. T^ 
produce the desired efiect, at the least expense, requires much judgment an 
skill in feeding, and it has to be acquired by experience." 



10 



GUANO IN THE CANE-FIELD. 148 

GUANO IN THE CANE-FIELD. 

We take the following from a late number of the Neiu-Orleans Delta : 

estate of edmukd j. forestall, parish of st. james. victor j. fore- 

stall's diary. 

March 31, 1853. — Sugar-Cane Plant. — Opened a furrow between two 
rows of canes, put in a tract of guano, and covered the same bj plough ; 
prepared in tlie same manner tweutj-five arpents, using about two hundred 
and twenty pounds of guano to each arpent. 

Opened a furrow close to each row of canes, each side, applied the guano 
in the same manner, and putting in the same quantity as above on twenty- 
five arpent«. 

Note. — The above two pieces of land are selected for an experiment, 
because of their requiring renovation, and being used this season not to lose 
extra plant-canes remaining. 

April 6, 1853. — Coryi. — Applied to each hole one handful of guano, 
covering the same ; sowed five arpents of corn. 

Ax»ril 6, 1853. — Orchard. — Prepared a circular ditch, one foot deep, of 
the diameter of each tree, put in a tract of guano, and filled up the ditch with 
earth. 

March, 1854. — Result. — The above fifty arpents of guano canes turned 
out the largest and heaviest canes in the field, and produced first and second 
clarified su-ars, two thousand five hundred pounds per arpent. On the same 
ground I had never before obtained more than one thousand pounds per 
arpent, and the canes were always small compared to other parts of the field ; 
this season it was the reverse for both stand and size, and the ratoons pro- 
mise unusually well. With guano, I feel convinced, no rotation of crop is 
required to produce the finest and heaviest canes in Louisiana. The canes 
with guano near each row were comparatively the best, and ripened earlier. 

My corn-field produced on an average twenty barrels to the arpent; the 
five arpents of guano corn, accurately measured, produced forty-five barrels 
to the arpent. The orchard had never produced but very poor fruit, and 
always gummy, with abundance of worms ; with the guano it produced an 
unusually large crop of delicious peaches, free from gums and worms ; and 
some very old pear-trees, which had never produced before, a few very fine 
pears. 

estate of brown brothers and CO., PARISH ST. JAMES. — FRANK LAPIEe's 

diary. 

April 21, 1853. — Guano on Plant Cane. — Selected my worst cow-lands, 
in four different parts of the field, on which I never had been able to obtain 
a large cane and a good stand ; opened furrows close to each row, six feet 
apart, put in a tract of guano, say one hundred and fifty pounds per arpent, 
covering the same by plough, in twenty-five arpents ; had a good shower 
immediately after. 

Ju7ie 3, 1853, — On this day nodiflference perceivable; added one hundred 
and fifty pounds of guano per arpent. 

June IG, 1853. — Difference between the guano canes and the other plants 
in the field quite apparent, being of a deep green, and fully one foot higher 
than all other canes. 



144 GRAND NATIONAL CATTLE-SHOW. 

August 1, 1853. — Never saw a heavier stand and higher canes in this 
State than the guano canes on this day. 

October 26, 1853. — Guano canes all laid down flat by their heaviness, and 
rains. 

December 15, 1853. — Ground five arpents of the above canes, which 
weighed ten beaume, whilst other canes in the field only weighed eight and a 
half. These produced two thousand pounds to the arpent of refined sugars. 
Bad weather, and the twisted condition of the canes laid down, prevented 
my ascertaining accurately the yield of tlie balance of the twenty-five 
arpents. 

June IG, 1853. — Ratoons. — Applied, as an experiment, two hundred 
pounds guano to two arpents of inferior ratoons ; rain came on immediately 
after. 

JSTote. — These ratoons soon afterward shot out rapidly, and produced 
double the quantity of canes of other ratoons in the same piece, and double 
the size. 

March IG, 1854. — The guano ratoons have already a full stand, and are 
comparatively the finest in the field, so much so that I am preparing to apply 
some guano to as large a portion of the ratoons as I may be permitted to do. 



GRAND NATIONAL CATTLE SHOW. 

In our July issue we published a circular, calling the attention of the 
country to this great and important meeting, signed by the gentlemen of the 
"Local Executive Committeee." We have since received another from Hon. 
M. P. Wilder, President of the National Society, with a note inviting us to give 
it publicity. We do this, of course, with great pleasure, and by thus repeating 
the announcement, which, in both instances, though varied, is still official, 
we may perhaps induce a more general attention to the call. We have no 
doubt it will be such an assemblage as has rarely been witnessed in this 
country. ^ 

UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the United States Agri- 
cultur'al Society, held in the City of Washington in February last, it was 
resolved that the Society would hold no exhibition in any State having a State 
Agricultural Society without the assent of the oflicers, or of the Executive 
Committee of such Society. 

The citizens of Springfield, Ohio, having requested this Society to hold an 
Exhibition at that place during the current year, and generously subscribed 
about ten thousand dollars to defray all the expenses of the same, and to 
guarantee the Society against loss, and the Executive Committee of the Ohio 
Agricultural Society uniting in the request, the Executive Committee of this 
Society have concluded to hold a National Snow of Cattle, open to 
general competition, without sectional limit, on the 25th, 26th, and 27th days 
of October next, at Springfield, in the S^tate of Ohio. 

The friends of agriculture in all the States of the American Union, and in 
the neighboring provinces of Canada, are invited to cooperate with us, so that 
this exhibition may be the more extensively useful, and alike creditable to the 
generous citizens of Springfield, with whom it originated, to the contributors 



MISSISSIPPI AN AGRICULTURAL STATE. 145 



and visitors who sustain it, and to the United States Agricultural Society, 
who are so deeply interested in its success. 

In consequence of the holding of this Show of Cattle, the contemplated 
Exhibition of Horses at Springfield, Mass., and the Show of Sheep in Ver- 
mont, will be omitted. 

The Journal of the Society, which the Executive Committee have con- 
cluded to issue once in each year — four numbers in one — will appear in 
January next ; and will contain the Transactions of the Society at its last 
annual meeting, the lectures and addresses delivered at that time, a full and 
faithful account of the Springfield Show, with other valuable papers, by 
eminent members. This volume will be forwarded to all members who have 
paid their annual assessments for the year 1854. 

Marshall P. Wilder, President. 

William S. King, Secretary. 
Boston, August 1, 1854. 



MISSISSIPPI AN AGRICULTURAL STATE 
« 

Mr. Lieber, late geologist in Mississippi, believes that Mississippi must 
always be " essentially an agricultural State." In this he is no doubt correct. 
But at the same time we see no reason why a variety of mechanical employ- 
ments may not be introduced, giving labor to thousands who would settle 
among them, and eat those grains and wear the wool, and consume many 
others of the productions of the State, and bear their proportion of the burdens 
of taxes, while they manufactured the shoes, etc., which all the people 
demand. Show us the community that can be said to flourish, in the hi<>'hest 
sense of that term, without such a variety of interest. But we allow Mr. 
Lieber to speak for himself in the following extract from his report : 

" Mississippi will never be essentially other than an agricultural State, and 
as such it takes precedence over most other States of the Union, and produces 
in various places a greater amount of cotton than can ever be made in older 
States. The richest soil is undoubtedly the alluvium. But of it we have two 
varieties, as already mentioned, an older and a newer one. The former is of 
a more bluish color, while the latter is of a deep chocolate brown, and for 
agricultural purposes the best. This, as a rule, is found nearer the river than 
the former. Next in value, as arable land, we have some of the superficial 
deposits above the tertiary — as near Vicksburg ; but the surface consists of 
small but very abrupt hills, so that the soil soon washes away. The original 
growth is cane, pecan, and ash. At one time this region was#ery popular 
for planting cotton, but now the swamp is naturally preferred. The creta- 
ceous formation ranks next as a fine soil-giving rock. The prairies are dis- 
tinguished by two appellations, relating- to their character of soil and native 
vegetation — the bald and the post-oak prairies. The former very frequently 
contain too much lime to aflbrd the best growth for cotton or corn. The 
latter is always good for these purposes. The quercus ohtusiloha is almost 
the only tree found upon these lands. The greater portion of the soils which 
owe their origin to the tertiary deposits,- wiih the exception of those in the 
neighborhood of Vicksburg, can only claim mediocrity, as the soil is very 
thin, and, though very fair in itself, is soon transferred from its original posi- 
tion, if not worn out while still remaining there, and is then carried away to 
the river-bottoms and hammock-lands. The latter result has been materially 

VOL. VII. 10 



146 GREASE, OR SCRATCHES, 

hastened by injudicious tillage. A great portion of the tertiary — almost the 
whole south-eastern part, as well as that in the north-east — consists of heavy 
beds of sand, which can produce but little, and can scarcely be said to enjoy 
any cultivation at all; for the facility of acquiring more valuable lands is still 
sufficiently great to enable those who can at all afford to move to leave these 
barren pine lands. In the counties of Tishamingo and Itawamba — except 
where the cretaceous rocks appear — we meet with perhaps the poorest land 
that can be found in the State, as may be inferred from the fact, that United 
States land may still be bought there for 12^ cents per acre." 



GREASE, OR SCRATCHES. 

Grease, or what is more generally known in the United States as scratches, 
which we look upon as a mild form of grease, is a disease of frequent occur- 
rence. It probably originates, like many other cutaneous affections, in a foul 
habit of body — a retention of morbific materials in the system, or, more pro- 
perly speaking, in the extreme vessels. The disease is most prevalent in the 
cold months, for then the function of the skin is more or less interrupted ; 
the insensible perspiration, being neither so regular nor profuse as in the warm 
months, naturally leads to an accumulation of excremenfcitious agents. The 
heels of a horse, like the axilla (armpit) of man, are furnished with a large 
number of cutaneous exhalants, or secreting glands ; and when the animal is 
in a state of health, the moisture, if it may be so termed, keeps the parts soft 
and pliant, lubricates the surface, and protects it from irritation. But when 
this humor of transpiration is not evaporated, in consequence of an accumula- 
tion of filth about the parts, or from the influence of cold, it appears at the 
surface of the skin in layers or incrustations. Now these incrustations may 
be the effect of a too copious discharge of excretory matter, which is per- 
ceptible in the inverse ratio to that of the kidneys and lungs. Variations in 
temperature check the cutaneous exhalation ; and the reason why the heels 
are so often attacked with scratches is, because they are exposed to currents of 
cold air, are often covered with filth and wet, and chilled by a slow process of 
evaporation. 

Mr. Percivall says, in his Lectures, " The etiology of grease throws consi- 
derable light upon its veritable nature. Horses who are at pasture or in straw- 
yards — in situations, in fact, where heat and cold are not naturally, and can 
not be made artificially, suddenly operative on the heels — rarely have grease. 
Those that have grease, in stables, are mostly coach and cart-horses, with 
thick, fleshy heels, and white legs, who are subject to get their heels wet, and 
do not commonly have such pains bestowed upon them to dry their legs as 
hackneys, hunters, and racers have; indeed, among the latter, grease is a very 
uncommon disease. Such horses also stand in stables hot and filthy from 
dung and urine, the very exhalations from the litter of which proves an addi- 
tional excitement. Grease formerly made great ravages in the English 
cavalry and ordnance service; whereas at the present day the disease is 
scarcely known. This change for the better is ascribed to three causes — to 
the proper ventilation of the stables, the greater attention paid to grooming, 
and to the presence of a veterinary surgeon, who checks at the onset such 
casual occurrence. 

Sainbel, who wrote An Essay on Grease, for which he was presented with 



GREASE, OR SCRATCHES. 147 

a prize by the Royal Society of Medicine in France, thus commences his 
paper : ' The gi'ease is in general a cutaneous chronic affection, sometimes 
inflammatory, sometimes infectious ; and I have known it contagious ; it 
invades the legs of horses, asses, and mules, but seldom attacks those of the 
ruminating species.' We are told that cow-pock had its origin in the transfer 
of the matter of grease from the heel of the horse to the teat of the cow ; 
and that the disease may be communicated to the human subject by inocula- 
tion with this matter, the same as with that taken from the ulcerated teat of 
the cow : some have gone further than this, and said that glanders and farcy 
could be generated in this way. The accounts of these strange transactions, 
however, have made but little impression, for we hear nothing of them now-a- 
days, and this is not a very bad criterion of their want of truth and foundation 
altogether. I have heard Professor Coleman say that there never was a well- 
authenticated case of cow-pock being produced from grease ; and I verily 
believe myself — though I do not know that the fact has been satisfactorily 
experimented on — that there is no truth of its being communicable among 
horses. In certain seasons and situations, the disease is certainly sporadic, 
(affecting a few at any time or season ;) but, then, the causes are too mani- 
festly operative among horses under the same circumstances to refer its pro- 
duction to infection or contagion. 

The symptoms of grease, in its simplest form, are, an exudation of a greasy, 
offensive matter from the skin covering and surrounding the heel, attended 
■with preternatural heat, redness, tenderness, and occasionally general tumor 
of the heel and fetlock. Soreness or lameness on first leaving the stable is 
commonly perceptible, though it is seldom in sufficient degree to call atten- 
tion to the disorder. And here I may remark, that the presence of grease is 
a pretty infallible test of negligent grooming ; for, as may be inferred from 
this exposition of its nature and causes, a horse whose heels are kept dry and 
clean, and never suffered to grow dry of themselves, after having become wet, 
will be in little danger of contracting grease. Should the diseased action not 
be corrected, the inflammation extends up the leg, which, in consequence, 
swells, grows warm, and tender on pressure ; so great, indeed, is the morbid 
sensibility of the heel, often, in this stage, that, if the part but be touched, the 
animal instantly catches his foot off the ground, evincing considerable pain. 
The greasy issue, by this time augmented in quantity, stands in large drops 
among the hairs, which show an inclination around the front of the heel to 
become bristly. No affection causes more pain or soreness on motion than 
grease; the heel itself being so very movable and sensitive a part. When 
both hind-legs are violently affected, the animal is often so lame that, when 
at first taken out, he can but with great awkwardness — evidently from 
excessive soreness felt, particularly in extending the heel — even walk at all : 
after he has walked for some time, however, this soreness diminishes greatly, 
or entirely leaves him, and he will trot with apparent freedom : this accounts 
for the many greasy horees we see in constant use. 

. . . Pustules arise in various places, mostly around the upper and bn.ck 
part of the heel ; these burst, and expose a raw surface, from which granula- 
tions arise in clusters, resembling (as Sainbel happily expresses it) ' the out- 
ward coat of a pine-apple :' these pustular excrescences are called by our 
farriers grapes^'' 

Mr. Percivall continues to trace the disease to its more inveterate termina- 
tion, and finally comes to the most important part, its treatment, which, he 
observes, " will be very simple or complicated, according to the duration, 
stage, and virulence of the disease. 



148 GREASE, OR SCRATCHES. 



f T i.J.X K/\J C4»ll tJ-LCtU iO A^VJUXJ^tU* 

[• equal parts. 



. . . Should the case be a mild one, augmented issue be the only ailment, 
some simple astringent application will be all that is required. 
Powdered alum, 
Bole Armenian,* 
Or this: 

Powdered charcoal, ) 
^ Calamine,! \ , '^"^^ P"'^' 

A powder is generally employed, after whicb I myself prefer the form of 
ointment,J and for this reason — that, as the astringent powder has a ten- 
dency to suppress the secretion, the discharge will, sooner or later, become 
arrested altogether ; at which time, the heels being dry, the skin grows 
hard and contracted, and disposes to crack ; all which, I conceive, is in a 
great measure prevented by the ointment, artificially smeared over the surface. 
Though I ordinarily use the powder, therefore, in the first instance, I sub- 
stitute some mild astringent ointment so soon as the discharge has become 
suppressed. Should the legs swell, walking-exercise, twice a day, in a dry 
and clean place, will be beneficial, and a diuretic ball may be administered 
every other night. 

But, in every case in which the heels are hot, tumefied, and tender — in 
other words, in which inflammation is very active — I have no hesitation in 
saying that we ought to mitigate it, in the first instance, by assuasive means 
before we think of employing astringents. Some recommend fomentations ; 
but they are inconvenient applications, and possess no advantage over a 
common poultice. And, of all poultices, the bran poultice, from an absorbed 
property it possesses, is one of the best. Where there is much fetid dis- 
charge, however, and a degree of malignancy about the case, a poultice of 
charcoal is to be preferred. At the same time, purgation should be put in 
practice, low diet, and even in some cases the abstraction of a little blood 
from the thigh [of the doctor perhaps !] will be advisable. As soon as the 
inflammation has subsided, astringents may be employed ; they will require, 
however, to be stronger than those used for slight cases,§ and they ought 
not merely to be smeared over the heels, but spread upon pledgets of tow, 
and kept applied, by means of bandages, for two, three, and even four days 
together, without taking the horse out of the stable ; during which time it is 
a part of my practice to give a strong dose of purgative medicine; at all 
events, the bowels should be kept moved." 

* "Bole Armenian — bole Armenic; a pale but bright-red colored earth, which is 
occasioaally mixed with honey, and applied to children's mouths when affected with 
aphthae. It forms, like all argillaceous earths, a good tooth-powder when mixed with 
some aromatic." — Hooper. 

f Carbonate of zinc ; a mineral containing oxide of zinc and carbonic acid, united 
with a portion, and sometimes other substances. It abounds in claj'ey soils. The 
calamine of England ia, by the best judges, allowed to be superior in quality to that 
of most other countries. 

X Powdered alum, - - . 2 drachms. 

Simple ointment, - - - 1 ounce. 

CMn.ointo..l,^ . . . ,,„., p„„ 

§ Sulphate of copper, (blue vitriol,) 2 drachms. 

Alum, .... 4 drachms. 

Bole Armenian, - • - 1 ounce. 

Reduce them to a fine powder, then add 

Common oil, ... 3 ounces. 



GREASE, OE SCRATCHES. 149 

If a very strong astringent is desirable, we should use bayberry-bark — a 
remedy that can be obtained at small cost in any part of the United States. 
We (and probably Mr. Percivall) might think that alum, one hundred parts of 
which contain thirty-four of sulphuric acid, and which Dr. Hooper defines 
as a powerful astringent, is also an eflScient escharotic for the most malig- 
nant cases, without resorting to that which destroys the hving principle. 
Verdigris, one of the ingredients of the Green Mountain salve, sulphate, and 
other preparations of copper, act as virulent poisons, when introduced in 
very small quantities into the stomachs of animals. A few grains are suffi- 
cient for this effect. Death is commonly preceded by very decided nervous 
disorders, such as convulsive movements, tetanus, general insensibihty, or a 
palsy of the extremities. 

In Hooper's Dictionary we are informed that "the poison of copper is 
absorbed, and, through the circulation, acts on the brain and nerves of man. 
The preparations of copper are no doubt very acrid, and if death do not 
follow their immediate impression on the sentient system, they will certainly 
inflame the intestinal canal. The symptoms produced by a dangerous dose 
of copper are exactly similar to those which are enumerated under arsenic, 
only the taste of copper is strongly felt." 

Some of our readers may desire to know how copper, and indeed other 
poisons, are diflfused through the system when applied to sores. We answer, 
by absorption ; which takes place with great facility on the surface of the 
sores ; so that a portion of copper, received into the system in this way, 
will produce the same results as when introduced by the stomach. 

Let us, then, reject the preparations of copper, and resort to less dangerous 
articles. 

Mr. Percivall proceeds to recommend attention to diet and ventilation, and 
relates an inveterate case of chronic malignant grease ; but as we seldom 
have such cases in the United States, this portion has been omitted. We 
can not, however, but admire the man who, in that early period of the his- 
tory of our art, should recommend such a simple and, comparatively speak- 
ing, sanative system of medication. For let it be remembered that in those 
times the most inhuman atrocities were perpetrated on the bodies of uncom- 
plaining brutes, and the most destructive poisons were called into requisition, 
to fill up the measure of their woes ; for the law of humanity was then a 
dead letter, and every man did as he pleased. Contrast the treatment recom- 
mended by this distinguished surgeon with that of others whose chief agents 
for the cure of grease are corrosive sublimate, muriatic acid, antimony, lead, 
and we are led to exclaim, that a humane surgeon is more to be admired 
than the hero of a hundred battles. 

In conclusion, we remark that scratches, which we have just defined as 
a mild form of grease, have been unusually prevalent in the New-England 
States during the past year. We have been called upon to prescribe for 
and treat a greater proportion of cases than in any previous year during 
our residence in Boston ; the subjects of which disease, in a great majority 
of cases, were in a plethoric state. In short, there was an evident dispropor- 
tion between the daily allowance of food and the amount of labor exacted. 
As regards the result of our treatment, some of the cases yielded readiy 
to local application alone, while others were more protracted, and required 
active general treatment — a purification of the fluids and a restoration of 
the healthy secrelions. 

The application which gave the greatest satisfaction was, 



150 WHEAT, 

Pyroligneous acid, - - - 1 pint. 

Linseed oil, - - - ' ^ piot. 

Sulphur, . - - . 1 ounce. 

Bayberry-bark, powdered, - - - 1 ounce. 

This was applied, by means of a sponge, every morning ; at night the parts 
were washed with soft soap and warm water, then wiped dry, and the applica- 
tion again repeated. — Dr. Dadd's Veter. Jour. 



WHEAT 

To THE Editor of the Plymouth (Eng.) Herald: 

Sir : Having had an opportunity the summer before last of visiting some 
of the best-cultivated farms in this country, (probably in the world,) there 
was one, that of the Rev. Mr. Huxtable, near Shaftesbury, that had a remark- 
able feature — great heaps of dung lying about, which the respected proprietor 
said he hardly knew what to do with, as the land had already become so rich 
that the wheat fell down in wet weather. Yet this farm grows wheat every 
other year ; that is to say, it is nearly one half in wheat, yielding about five 
quarters an acre ; equal to two and a half quarters, or ten bags, per acre per 
annum. Now compare this with our Devonshire produce, which, I think, 
will average very little above ten bags of wheat per acre once in five years. 
If so, Mr. Huxtable's farm produces five times as much wheat as our average ; 
and yet has increased in richness so much that he has actually a superfluity 
of manure. It must be interesting to our farmers to know how this was 
effected. 

EXTRAORDINARY AND RAPID INCREASE OF PRODUCE. 

The farm is about ninety-five acres ; when he took it, a dairy farm, with 
only ten acres arable; carrying 14 dairy cows, growing 48 bushels of wheat 
and 40 bushels of beans, and employing three to four hands. It now pro- 
duces 1600 bushels of wheat yearly; fattens 40 head of cattle, (including 
calves;) 100 sheep and 80 pigs; and keeps twelve laborers at work the year 
round. And this change was quickly made. Five years since, when many 
husbandmen were out of work, he ploughed up the land for the purpose of 
giving them employment ; drained it, levelled the hedges, (all but the bound- 
ary,) and pared and burned the surface, and then tried how much stock he 
could keep, to raise the land to the highest fertility. After many contriv- 
ances, he found that by flooring his cattle and sheep-houses with boards, set 
a little apart to let the liquid drain between, (into a tank,) they needed no 
litter ; and being thus independent of straw, except for the stables, he might 
keep as many cattle and sheep as he could feed ; in fact, the straw saved 
from litter helped to make out the food. And beside the green crops and 
straw, he bought linseed cake, which, while it quickened the fattening of his 
cattle, improved the quality of his dung. And by this means he brought his 
farm in three years into the high condition above-stated. The liquid manure 
drained into the tank is pumped up to water the rye-grass, and enable it to 
be cut four or five times a year ; yielding altogether about fifty tons per acre, 
weighed green ; equal to ten or twelve tons of hay ! 



FLAX CULTURE. 151 



MANAGEMENT OF MANURE. 

But there is an ingenious peculiarity in his management of the dung. Dur- 
ing the summer he turns up a good deal of the clay subsoil, and burns it in 
heaps slowly, so as to be just charred, quite crumbly, and as light as possi- 
ble. This he spreads out, when extinguished, under long rough sheds, (run 
up by his own laborers,) and upon it a layer of the drained dung, (free from 
straw, as before said ;) then a second layer of burnt-clay, and another of 
dung, and so on alternately. As there are several of these sheds, there is 
time for the burnt-clay to absorb the rich drainings of the dung, and for the 
mere moisture to evaporate, before the next year comes on ; so that, with 
proper turning over, it gradually becomes quite crumbly, and fit to spread out 
broadcast, and turn under like lime and ashes ; and thus to mix so thoroughly 
with the soil as in fact to become a part of it ; and its eft'ect is proportionately 
quick and productive.' And the estate now produces, as above-said, more 
manure than it consumes. 

This is not mere scientific speculation. Here we have the actual produce 
of ninety-five acres, raided in three years from 48 bushels of wheat and 40 
ditto of beans, to 1600 bushels of wheat ; and from 14 dairy-cows with their 
calves, cheese, and butter, to 40 head of fat cattle, 100 fat sheep, and 80 fat 
pigs ; so that, if even one quarter of our tillage-land was brought to this 
condition, our wheat produce would be doubled ; we should be exporters 
instead of importers, and all our husbandmen would be in full employ. 

But it will be objected that such a result requires not only skill and exer- 
tion, but a large capital and heavy expense of labor. This is true ; but not 
really an objection. There is, in fact, no more objectionable practice than 
the too common one of taking more land than we have capital for. If the 
soil is half-starved and half-tilled, it will return only half-crops, and the farmer 
who entered worth little, will come out worth nothing — as hundreds can 
testify And on the article of lahor^ Mr. Huxtable's object was not to see 
how much labor he could save^ but how much he could use to advantage ; 
that is, not only how much produce he could draw per acre, but how many 
hands his ninety-five acres would profitably employ ; and gratefully do those 
acres repay his attention, while he is still better rewarded by the prosperity of 
the laborers in his parish. 

The increase of his produce, and the management of his dung, are well 
worth our farmers' consideration. If they would be content to take no more 
land than they can afford to work properly, they would have less anxiety and 
more comfort ; and the land and the country would advance in produce and 
prosperity. Yours, sir, etc., . 



FLAX CULTURE. 

We give a portion of another very valuable essay on the preparation of 
hemp for naval purposes. That portion only is selected which treats of its 
cultivation : 

"All sod-land designed for hemp should be ploughed in the fall. Land 
that has been in hemp the previous year should be broken the first spell of 
weather in the spring when the ground is dry enough to crumple up well. 
It should be made a maxim, in working land, never to plough or otherwise 
stir it, when too wet to pulverize well. 



152 RAISING FRUIT-TREES. 



Timothy-seed, unless ploughed early in the fall, can but rarely be relied 
upon for a good crop of hemp ; even then less reliable than clover-seed, and 
still less so than blue-grass sod. It is a good plan, the first year after 
breaking Timothy or clover sod, to cultivate it in corn ; this, if done neatly, 
will always, of a fair season, insure a good crop of hemp the next year, and 
possibly three or four successive crops, depending much upon the quality of 
the soil and neatness of cultivation. 

In dry weather, previous to the season of planting the crop, the land 
should be harrowed well ; sod-land, until the sod is well torn to pieces ; other 
than sod-land, well levelled, and, if not perfectly clear of clods, this is the 
time for a heavy roller. Plongh, harrow, and roll until the ground is per- 
fectly pulverized. Prepare the ground before the seed is sown ; do this work 
well, if it is expected that the land will yield good crops and continue pro- 
ductive. 

Immediately before sowing, the ground should again be well stirred by the 
plough ; not permitting it to cut too much land, but, in farming parlance, 
plough close and deep ; level with the harrow and use the roller again at 
this time, if the soil is not well pulverized. After this, except upon loose sod- 
land, the roller should be laid aside. Sow the seed upon this levelled surface 
at the rate of a bushel to a bushel and a peck to the acre, the larger quantity 
upon rich, fresh land, the smaller upon the less lively. I have sown nearly 
all quantities from three pecks to three bushels per acre, and believe the 
quantity above given to be best adapted to the purposes in view. 

After the seed is sown, the harrow should be passed over the land both 
ways, that is, harrow and cross-harrow; and if the previous work has been 
well done, the land, unless it is sod that is not well rotted, is now level enough 
for all purposes, and much less likely to run together from heavy rains than 
when the roller is made to finish the work. This closing the work with the 
roller has always appeared to me to be an attempt to put a finish to the sur- 
face to hide imperfections that exist beneath. There is, in my estimation, a 
vital objection to finishing the planting of this crop with the roller. If it is to 
grow vigorously, it is essential that atmospheric air should penetrate the 
ground freely; this the roller certainly obstructs to a material extent. Unrolled 
sod-land is not subject to this objection. I fear that most farmers are not 
suflSciently impressed with the importance of so preparing their land for crops 
that there may be a free circulation of air in the soil, to the greatest possible 
depth." * * * * 



RAISING FRUIT-TREES, 



This is one of the most important of the farmer's duties, and one in the 
execution of which he can rely but little on the experience of the generations 
which, in this country, have been before him. 

As to the value of fruit-trees, as a source of profitable income, all doubt has 
long since vanished. Fruit in great varieties may be profitably raised for 
home consumption, nnd the market is always open and seldom refuses a pay- 
ing profit. A single orchard may fail — or a single variety of fruit — but this 
luxury the people will have, let it cost what it may. Apples, pears, ouinces, 
plums, gooseberries, peaches, blackberries, cherries, grapes, and even walnuts, 
always find a market. 

We know that orchards deteriorate, but still apple-trees live quite as long 



CULTIVATION — ^WHAT IS IT? 153 

as their owner. Fruits deteriorate. But this process is very slow, and new 
varieties take the place of those run out. The Newtown pippin has been a 
standard fruit for one hundred and fifty years, and is now as good as ever. 
The Baldwin apple has stood among the first varieties for more than one 
hundred years. If we are not mistaken, some of the earlier trees of these 
kinds are still in bearing. One pear-tree, at least, is known, which is over 
two hundred years old — the Endicott pear-tree, in Massachusetts ; and we 
are told by Mr. Proctor, that another, eighty years old, has recently made 
twelve or eighteen inches of wood in a season. The golden pippin was com- 
mended as early as 1660, and has ever since retained its high rank. 

Surely this is sufficiently " permanent " for a generation found to extend 
only to thirty years. 

But beside well-known fruits, new varieties may be produced of equal 
value, and this department need be limited among scientific fruit-growers no 
more than the care of an old orchard Indeed, the latter needs more science 
than the originating of new fruit. There is no magic known only to a few, 
which will ever tend, in these experiments, to insure peculiar success. 

Plant your nurseries, grow your trees, and try your chance among the 
rest. One new valuable fruit will pay for fifty failures. 



CULTIVATION— WHAT IS IT? 
SCRAPING, PRUNINa, MOWING, PLOUGHING, ETC. 

This is a great question. On its successful investigation depends all the 
farmer's success, and yet no question has received, perhaps, more various 
replies. Theories are piled on theories, till the plain working farmer is 
bewildered, and surrenders often all his confidence in any man's wisdom, 
whenever it goes beyond what his own eyes have seen and even his own sturdy 
muscles have actually wrought out. And after all the science expended on this 
subject, this doubting man is a prudent man. The probability is that the 
learned professor is mistaken — for a large majority of what has been written 
in the name of science was false, and is, sooner or later, almost universally 
discarded. We do not mean that the facts stated were fictitious, that the 
"wonderful crop" was not raised, and raised in the manner described. But 
the whole story was not told, and the theory founded on it and tlie instrnctions 
given in consequence of these supposed discoveries, were all fiction — mere 
idle dreaming. Important truths were entirely overlooked, perhaps unknown, 
and the influence of known facts quite erroneously estimated. The grand 
cause of failure or success is not understood. 

Sometimes these mistakes in theories are harmless, or nearly so. For 
example : The question, " Whence do plants obtain their nitrogen ?" discussed 
so learnedly by very learned men, and sometimes very acrimoniously by very 
ardent men, who ever solved this question so as to leave him unconcerned 
whether the soil was rich or sterile? If all the ammonia comes from the 
air, it is still true that the soil must convey much of it to the plant, and the 
requisites for this comprise all that is included in a fertile soil. Such cases, 
however, are very rare, and error should never be assumed as harmless. The 
rule is, error is dangerous. 



154 CULTIVATION — WHAT IS IT? 

Just instruct your agricultural community in all the fundamental truths of 
germination, nourishment, and growth, etc., they will be as good farmers as 
they can afford to be ; or as our venerable friend Col. Skinner used to say, 
show a farmer where, without any uncertainty, he can always sell a well-fatted 
hog at a handsome profit, and he will soon find out the most economical 
way of doing it. And this, by the way, is the key to our theory, (and his,) 
that the way to improve agriculture is to encourage all forms of American 
industry, and thus create a market always sure and always at hand. 

We love to recur to first principles. We are perhaps peculiar for our 
jealousy of every thing that, in practice, seems to violate these principles. 
Now let us test some recommendations of learned men and truly practical 
men, by this method. 

1. The order of nature is the best, and usually the only sure and perma- 
nent one, for accomplishing any one of nature's achievements ; at any rate, 
you can not improve it. Now go into the forests. Trees grow and decay. 
Plants spring up, and bear flowers and fruit, and die. What these organ- 
isms secure from the earth and air, gives permanent fertility to the soil. 
Eventually, if not from the beginning, under ordinary circumstances, the 
plant will be found in its best condition, though there may be exceptions. 
Its rule of the natural growth is to adapt and harmonize all its conditions. 
The exceptions are accidents. 

Now what does nature do in this great laboratory ? She furnishes decayed 
vegetable matter — her own flesh and blood and bones. She lops oflf dead 
branches and those too ponderable to be sustained, even at some peril to its 
own permanence ; it adapts its dimensions, horizontal or upward, to its rela- 
tive circumstances ; it finally drops its seed, that sprouts again, or its fruit, not 
always or often on the surface of a dry dusty soil, but in the rich mass of 
decaying vegetation, or of that green growth which at once shelters and by 
and "by nourishes it. We need not extend tiiis summary. The reader may 
do so as occasion requires it. 

Now test by these simple facts, any given operation in agriculture. 

Moderate pruning (not a promiscuous cutting and slashing) has found its 
precedent in the workings of One wiser than man. Mulching and manur- 
ing are seen to be "by authority." Scattering seed broadcast upon certain 
soils is the true, the actual security for unbroken successions of seed-time 
and harvest. The dying animal is sheltered under green branches, and 
repays the service by furnishing to the plant the elements of its increase in 
their most active forms. 

But who scrapes the trees of the wilderness and the grove ? Who goes 
about tearing off the skin or the clothing of any vegetable thing, except as 
a destroyer? Who changes the whole aspect of this beautiful world by 
daubing it with white-washes, or yellow washes, or washes of any other 
artificial hue? 

It seems to us that the Creator was but partially instructed in the science 
of agriculture, or else failed to finish what was so well begun, or else some of 
our teachers are utterly and fundamentally in error. 

Are we asked. Where is the propriety of ploughing taught in this book 
of yours? We reply, in the mellow soil beneath every vigorous natural 
growth. The whole world is not a garden without culture, and never will 
be. Had it been so, how much value would have been destroyed by the 
myriads of men who have dug out the solid walls of temples, and castles, and 
pyramids, and the vastly greater supplies requisite for our own and our father's 
homes! What waste it would have been to have made a garden which must 



CULTIVATION — WHAT IS IT? 155 



be turned into a mine before a single permanent habitation could be built ! 
But we will not go in chase of cavils ; nor tax ingenuity for exceptions. The 
general truth must be as we have stated. Much of the barrenness and unyield- 
ing condition of our soil is man's own work. He creates his own necessities. 

In some issue of the last year, we expressed views very concisely, kindred 
to those above given, and continued reflection and observation confirm us in 
our position. We were, therefore, well pleased to see, some time since, 
sundry resolutions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, which, if it 
does not embody " all the talents," its catalogue contains the names of gentle- 
men practically and theoretically wiser, more learned, and more successful 
in this department, than any other Society we have ever known, and its board 
of directors, when it gives an unbiased vote, is worthy of more confidence 
than that of any other within our knowledge. These resolutions indirectly 
and partially inculcate the doctrine we have here advocated. For example : 
They say that lichens or mosses are not the causes but the consequences of 
disease and decay, and that the habit of scraping the tree, thus conditioned, 
is positively injurious ; that if insects which are injurious to the tree, are 
known to exist on a given surface, they should be removed by gentle rubbing 
with a stiff" brush, by washing, etc., and that " alkaline washes" are injurious. 
We say amen to all this. 

It is curious to note the differences between the notions that prevail in 
vegetable and animal physiology. In the latter, it is frequent washing in 
pure water, the utter disuse of all cosmetics, and even of soaps, which is so 
urgently taught. Nor are these views new. They have long been known 
and practised. On the other hand those who use washes and powders soon 
reduce their skins to a condition in which it does not in fact look fit to be 
presented in company, and the evil is, it is constantly growing worse, and 
they will be too ugly, if they live to be old, for even paint to save them. 

Why should not the analogy hold good between these diff"erent organisms, 
the animal and vegetable ? Why do violence to the skin of the tree ? Why 
fill its pores with any foreign substance ? 

Of course we do not allude to remedial operations. Our topic is culture 
and not cure. When diseased, plants and animals may, in extreme cases, 
require a thorough coating of poison, for aught we know, though we are not 
now aware of any such case. We do not see vs^hy an active plant should be 
treated as if diseased because here and there abnormal symptoms are dis- 
covered. 

Most of the enemies of fruit are insects, and these modes of practice form 
a very inefiicient protective against a good pair of wings. 

Certain practices are resorted to by florists and others for producing elegant 
flowers, which are artificial in every sense of the term. They are efficient, 
and for aught we know very proper. But the reason is that the gardener 
wishes to produce something that nature never attempted. If one has a 
desire for new hybrids, or " monstrous" developments of petals,^ etc., as the 
botanists would correctly describe them, the course of practice is plain for 
him. This is easily accomplished. But all such operations are abnormal, 
and most of them are attended with more or less danger to the permanence 
of the plant. Florists generally secure elegant flowers at the certain costof 
the premature decay of the plant itself, and their whole course of practice 
consists very much in devising expedients for frequent succession as a substi- 
tute for permanent growth. Plants purchased of " scientific gardeners," 
seldom do well under ordinary cultivation. An apple may be grown much 
larger than the natural size, by nipping off a good portion of fruit-buds on 



156 STEAM-CARRIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 

the same growth, but we do not believe that more fruit is actually secured 
by any such process. A tree may put forth its buds under unnatural, excess- 
ive excitement, and become unable, afterward, to mature what was thus 
forced in its early developments, and then nipping the buds may be desir- 
able. For even inanimate nature sometimes does her most under unnatural 
excitement. But this is a remedial process, and should not be confounded 
with those general principles of culture and those every-day requisitions of a 
healthy growth. 

Weeding is necessary for securing a good crop, on the same principle one 
■would nip off half the buds of his apple-tree. The farmer would concentrate 
all the energies of his land on a given growth. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

STEAM-CARRIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES 

BY J. K. FISHER. 

I HAVE been told, by engineers and others whose judgment I esteem, that 
although the mechanical difficulties of steam-carriages are such as can be 
entirely overcome, there are others which can not so easily be dealt with. 
Among these are the adverse interests and prejudices of men, especially men 
who are grossly ignorant : they begin by scoffing at theory, as unworthy of 
the le^st respect, and end by putting forth their own crude notions, and 
claiming for them implicit belief. And beside these opponents, there will 
for a time be the difficulties arising from that roughness in roads which is 
deemed necessary to fit them for the traction of horses. 

Chief among the worst opponents are those whose interests, prejudices, and 
conceit blind them in all directions, and whose subsistence is drawn from the 
payments made by inventors fur their supposed influence in the Patent-Office 
and in the estimation of the public. These pretenders will praise all inven- 
tions, however bad, whose authors employ them as their agents, or pay them 
for puffing and advertising; and they will condemn, without the slightest 
regard to truth, all they dare to condemn, whose authors do not pay them 
black mail. 

But these discouragements, I have replied, should not deter one from 
attempting what he knows to be feasible, and is sure to be useful when once 
established. It is moral cowardice to shrink from dangers not yet present, and 
from which one could not shrink without disgrace if they were present. If 
the vulgar leeches who can not bleed you will certainly avenge their disap- 
pointment by slandering you, must you therefore shrink from your task, and 
thus be in a measure their slave ? 

The sense of interest is often falsely alarmed, and assumes a hostile atti- 
tude, v/hen, if enlightened, it would be friendly. It was a fsdse alarm that 
made some of the English road-trustees hostile to steam-carriages. But this 
alarm was not without a foundation in " incontrovertible facts," which I shall 
here state and explain, as a matter of prudence ; for the false notions that 
arose from them yet prevail. 

Hence, while it is a part of manliness to advance, in defiance of obstacles, 
it is but jjrudent to deprive them of their power, if that may be done, by 
showing the causes of former ill success. I therefore avail myself of your 



STEAM-CAERIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 157 

invitation to review what has been done on this subject — to find where we 
already stand, as a ground from which to view what is yet before us. 

In 1804, Richard Trevithick built a steam-carriage, which, while it worked 
so efiiciently as to demonstrate the power of steam to work effectively on 
roads, was accounted impracticable, in consequence of a slipping of the 
wheels ; and the general conclusion of the engineers and the public was, that, 
in difficult situations, the wheels would turn round without movino- the car- 
riage forward. Even Trevithick himself did not discover the means at his 
hand to obviate this difficulty ; and he confirmed the opinion by proposing, 
in his specification, to put spurs into his tires, to prevent slipping. 

As a means of overcoming this difficulty, Brunton invented an imitation of 
horses' legs and feet ; and after him, in 1824-5, David Gordon and Gurney 
invented improved legs and feet. Gordon's feet resembled scrubbing-brushes, 
bristled with spikes. Gurney's were not much better, as to their effect upon 
the road. Both' were tried, and the trustees saw that they tore up the road 
far more than horses' feet did. 

It is singular that men of talent did not at a glance see that one of these 
feet, which was pressed down with a comparatively small force, would be 
more likely to slip than the wheel, which is pressed down with the whole 
weight upon it, in addition to its own weight. These feet did slip, and 
scratch and tear up the surface ; and beside this, there was a mechanical 
difficulty in working them. 

Here, then, was this dilemma : "the wheels can not be made to propel the 
carriage ; and the legs won't do, because they destroy the road : steam-car- 
riages therefore won't do, anyhow." This view once established, it was a 
work of time to correct it. And before it was corrected, the road-trustees suc- 
ceeded in getting upward of fifty toll-bills passed, for roads on which it was 
supposed steam-carriages would run, all of them imposing tolls that were 
prohibitory, or nearly so. There was a universal panic among road-trustees, 
about 1830, when these dreaded steam-carriages were declared to have 
become so perfect as to be able to run with profit ; and large capitals were 
being subscribed to work them. A liberal man, of some wealth, Sir Charles 
Dance, purchased of Gurney three carriages, and placed them on the road 
between Gloucester and Cheltenham. All the jockeys and bigots, from the 
first, opposed them in every possible way. The trustees got a toll-bill 
passed, and put upon the road such heaps of broken stones, that horse- 
coaches were stopped by them ; and a steam-carriage, though it ran over 
them several times, had its axle broken. It did not avail that the legs had 
been thrown away, and that the wheels did not slip : the invention had got 
a bad name, and time was required for it to establish a good one. 

It is instructive to observe the origin and growth of this erroneous notion 
that wheels will not impel carriages. Trevithick did not foresee the least dif- 
ficulty of the kind, and built his carriage with one engine instead of two, 
each of half power. And he did not see that letting on steam suddenly 
would cause more slipping than if it were let on through a throttled opening, 
or wire-drawn. His steam was got up to a full pressure, and let on through a 
wide opening ; and the wheels sHpped round, without getting the carriage 
out of the soft place in which it happened to stand. The spectators, among 
whom was Gurney, then a boy, went away with a new idea in their heads, 
which they held for twenty-three years. 

You may now often see a locomotive draw eighty times its own weight 
behind it, and not slip its wheels. Yet you may see the same locomotive, 
mQx nothing but its tender, slip its wheels at starting, when managed by 



158 STEAM-CARRIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 

an inexpert pei-son. You often see the wheels slip and whirl round when a 
locomotive is starting a heavy train ; and you then observe streams of sand 
running from pipes to the rails, and men pushing the train. In a minute 
all is right. Now if an ignorant person, who had never before seen a loco- 
motive, nor heard of its " practicability," were to attempt to start such a train, 
he would probably work until he was hungry, and then give it up, and for 
the rest of his life declaim against all who should propose to use locomotives 
without legs, toothed rails, or gearing all the wheels together, or in some 
way providing against the "incontrovertible fact" that wheels will slip. 

Gurney, after much trouble with his legs, happened to ask himself whether 
the wheels would not help to impel, nay, perhaps, do all the work on gentle 
descents, or even on a level ; and he recollected that Trevithick's carriage 
was said to have run — perhaps without spurs. So he contrived a combina- 
tion. He made a cranked axle, and made his engines turn his wheels, as is 
now done ; and, in order to be secure against slipping, he put small legs 
upon the rims of his wheels, all around. Great was his delight when "this 
carriage went up Highgate Hill, in 1826, and to Edgeware, also to Stanmore, 
and went up Stanmore Hill, and Brockley Hill, near Stanmore ; and against 
all those hills the wheels never slipped, and the legs never came into action. 
After these experiments, the legs or propellers were entirely removed ; and 
from further experiment it was found, by a peculiar application of the steam, 
(namely, by wire-drawing,) that the bite of one of the hind-wheels was suffi- 
cient for all common purposes. If the steam was let on suddenly, the 
wheel would turn round, and the carriage not go forward ; but when wire- 
drawn, one wheel was found sufficient." 

By this experiment of Gurney's, we see that Trevithick, although he had 
one large cylinder, which is more likely, in the proportion of ten to seven, 
than two of half size, to slip the wheels, wanted only a delicate throttle-valve, 
and the knowledge of its use, to make his carriage run without slipping, if 
both wheels were fixed or clutched upon the axle. Thus the want of know- 
ledge respecting a slight matter of detail, and the ignorance of a remedy for 
an evil ihat now exists, and is often troublesome to the ignorant, begot a 
prejudice that still pervades the minds of that great proportion of men whose 
habit is to doubt whatever they do not know, and to deny whatever they doubt. 
I am pestered with conceited bigots, who every day see locomotives draw 
fifty times their weight, and who yet gravely assure me that the wheels of 
a carriage will slip so that it can not get its own weight up a hill. In vain I 
point to the locomotive. "That," they reply, "is a difterent thing. If 
you can make a steam-carriage as heavy, you will then get adhesion, and 
you can go up-hill. But how can you get up with a light carriage ? Non- 
sense ! You see you are in this dilemma : If you are light, you slip ; if you 
are heavy, you crush a common road ; and you must therefore have rails." 

Of course it is not to be expected that minds of the second order, much 
less those far below, will know by any means but sight of the solid reality 
and the actual fact. They can no more know by a process of reasoning, from 
facts already established, than they can see round a corner. And they rest as 
confidently upon their mere ignorance as a philosopher rests upon the con- 
clusions he has logically drawn from established laws ; and sneer at his 
" theories," while they are sometimes filled with dislike, and even hatred, for 
those who do not promptly believe the dictates of their blind egotism. 

It may seem tedious to dwell upon this point; but in science, as in morality, 
people " perish for lack of knowledge ;" and millions are wasted, and schemes 
fail that are within two dollars of success because men rest assured in their 



STEAM-CAKEIAGES AOT) THEIR ENEMIES. 159 

ignorance, and do not ask if a remedy exists for the difficulty they encounter, 
nor measure and weigh the difficulty at all. The engineer who carefully looks 
at the drawing of Trevithick's steam-carriage, will say that, defective as it 
was, it would have run well if it had been provided with a good throttle- 
valve ; and he will not doubt that the skill of that able engineer would have 
improved the invention, had he been furnished with means to introduce a 
number of carriages; and that the united talent of the country would in less 
than five years have made steam-carriages profitable. 

These lions are now out of the path. What now hinders ? More lions : 
always more lions ; sometimes one at a time, sometimes several at a time — 
never less than one. Your ordinary man, when life is in peril, feels the im- 
pulse of honor and the dread of shame, and will march up to a battery of 
cannon ; but when his gingerbread is in peril, the sense of honor and the 
dread of shame forsake him, and he says : " What if we should meet several 
lions ? What if the omnibus men should run us down ? What if a corrupt 
council should stop us, unless we pay them forty thousand dollars ? What 
if a corrupt editor should demand black mail ? My dear sir, you don't know 
the men you have to deal with ! If we make money, we must share it 
with them. If we don't make money, they will hold us up to ridicule. No, 
no, my dear sir. I fear we shall be run down or used up some how by these 
leeches 1 We must wait for the good time coming." Such, in a concen- 
trated form, without caricature or exaggeration, is what I hear from hun- 
dreds, who, when their higher sentiments are appealed to, would peril their 
lives, and give largely from their wealth. And such are the feeble yet 
victorious enemies who for fifty years have resisted the progress of an inven- 
tion which the best engineers in the world have indorsed ; and which, when 
introduced, will change the rough and dirty stone pavement to a smooth and 
clean iron floor. 

It will be amusing, perhaps instructive, to read a description of one or 
two of the complex inventions to overcome this difficulty of slipping. It is 
probably to such contrivances, and their signal failures, and mischievous 
efiects, and ludicrous and clumsy imitations of the perfect work of nature 
in the locomotive apparatus of animals, that we owe the rooted prejudice 
against steam-carriages. The name brings up a vague idea of complexity, 
expense, and a strange mechanical animal, afflicted with St. Vitus's dance, 
that may run over you, or run away with you. 

Alexander Gordon (see "Treatise on Elemental Locomotion," p. 47) thus 
describes the inventions of David Gordon, his father. The first, patented in 
1822, consisting of " a high-pressure engine, made after the pattern of Mr. 
Trevithick's, and having the wheels made with teeth, worked into a rack in 
the interior of a large rolling-drum, about nine feet in diameter, and five 
from end to end. The steam-engine climbed up the interior of the drum, 
like a turnspit dog or squirrel, and the large drum, rolling onward, drew a 
carriage." Two years ago, this invention, or one much like it, was actually 
built in Bridgeport, Conn, It does not appear that Gordon ever built it. 

The next, patented in 1824, was "an arrangement by which an action 
similar to a horse's feet would be obtained. This was effected by six hollow 
iron legs, at the lower extremity of which there were feet to push upon the 
ground. These legs were connected by brasses, straps, and keys to the 
journals of an eight-throw crank, which was turned by a pair of steam-engines 
on the same shaft. This crank pushed out the legs backward, and the car- 
riage ran forward. The legs were thus projected in succession, 2 following 1, 
and 3 following 2 ; then 4, 5, and 6 following in the same course, each 



160 STEAM-CARRIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 

pushing the ground. By following this motion of the feet, it will be seen 
that they trotted round m an oval figure, which a line drawn through the 
figures would describe ; this oval being formed of two diameters, one of the 
large crank, and the other of the small crank. The little crank lifted the feet 
off the ground as they finished their work. The crank-shafts were connected 
by a spindle, having on each end a mitre-wheel, to gear into a mitre-wheel 
on its respective shaft, so that the large and small crank-shafts revolved 
simultaneously, and parallel to each other. To prevent the feet bounding oS 
the road, without taking hold and pushing the carriage forward, it was found 
necessary to use lifting-rods, which were hollow, each having a small solid 
rod in its interior, which was pressed out by a spiral spring in the hollow rod, 
so that these lifting-rods were lengthened when the feet got into a hollow, 
and shortened if the feet got on a stone or eminence." 

The drawing of this carriage exhibits the larger shaft with ten cranks : 
two double cranks for the engines, six double cranks for the legs, and two 
single cranks for rods to connect it with the smaller shaft, which had two 
single cranks for the connecting-rods, and six double cranks for the lifting- 
rods ; making fourteen double and four single cranks ; and the mitre-wheels 
and spindle are left out — a variation which probably escaped the notice of 
the author. 

This carriage is spoken of as if it were actually built. Alexander says : 
" I had found that the propelling feet do more injury to the roads than the 
propelling wheels." The editor of the Scientijic American, who was a boy 
at the time, says that two carriages, "Gordon's improvement on that of Gur- 
ney's," ran in 1833, and that he rode upon one of them, and that they were 
well built, and had fair play ; and yet failed to make as good time as two- 
horse stages. I find no account of such carriages in Alexander Gordon's 
work, published in 1834, nor is there the least notice of them in the London 
Mechanics' Magazine of that time, nor in HeherCs Encylopcedia, published 
still later, nor in any other work I have seen. As his account of the failure 
tended to deter those who read it from investing in my enterprise, I called 
upon him, and asked him to show me the work in which I could find a full 
description of it. I also particularly asked him which Gordon planned the 
carriages. He told me, Alexander. This led me to accuse him of inventing 
a false account, to punish me for declining to pay the usual fee for having my 
invention described and advocated in that journal. But in his paper of 
August 5th, he charges me with a false statement, in saying that " Gordon 
never built a carriage." If he had recollected that he told me it was Alex- 
ander, or if he had observed that I said, " Having read Gordon's * History 
of Locomotion,' published a year after the alleged fiiilure of his carriages, and 
found no allusion to them in that," he would have seen my mistake, and been 
a little more gentle in his reproof. He is the only author I know who ever 
mentioned the event ; and he himself misled me by his mistake in the name 
— Alexander for David. He should therefore not have been angry because 
I believed that he made up the account. If he deemed that I ought to have 
seen him before making the statement publicly, it might mitigate the blame; 
but I went several times to his employers, and asked to see him, and was 
refused, on the ground that my complaint was trifling, and his time was theirs. 

Having made this apology for questioning the veracity and the motives of 
this arbiter of inventions, I must take the liberty to question his judgment, 
and dissent from his general conclusion, that because two carriages built on 
this plan failed to make as good time as two-horse stages, and failed to pay, 
no steam-carriages can be made to beat horses or to pay. As a boy, at the 



steajvi-carriages and their enemies. 161 

time, he might have felt a patriotic admiration for the superiority of Gordon's 
carriage-legs over the legs that Gurney had given up six years before; and 
having made up his mind, it is not to be expected that he will ever change 
it, or trouble himself to read the evidence that proves, clearly enough, that 
carriages -without legs have run at from twenty to thirty-five miles an hour, 
and worked at half the cost of horses, and would have been profitable had 
they not been subjected to outrageous tolls, and other opposition. His con- 
fidence that the genius of his countrymen could not fixil where success was 
possible, is characteristic ; but surely a Yankee, on the same ground, may be 
allowed to flatter Ms national vanity, by hoping that, if he " hangs on like a 
bull-dog to a hare bone" — if he does not let go in the day of small thino^s— 
he may, after a while, get ahead of the great genius of Scotland, whose car- 
riage-legs " trotted round in an oval figure," and adapted their length to the 
inequalities of the road. 

Seriously, could I have supposed it possible that the Scientific American 
intended to say that such a totally unnecessary, however ingenious, apparatus 
as this system of legs, and a carriage propelled by them, was a fair criterion 
of the capabilities of steam-carriages ? I never dreamed of his being such an 
egregious mechanical quack, until his own declaration that David Gordon was 
the Gordon. Even now I can scarcely credit it ; but when forced to choose 
between the two horns of an unpleasant dilemma, I, if possible, prefer that 
which I would have others prefer if it were my case. A very good man 
might think highly of Gordon's carriage, and fancy that neither Gurney's, 
nor any other, could ever beat it; but to be suspected of being a mere tool 
for the collection of such taxes, would be to lose the esteem of every one 
who entertained the suspicion. 

If the reader supposes that I am joking, I beg him to recollect what I just 
stated, that the other contrivance of David Gordon was actually built, 
within two years, in Bridgeport. Beside, about three years ago, a gentle- 
man called on me, and told me he had just seen, in Paris, a steam-cab, which 
ran with legs; and the general ignorance on this subject is such, that it 
would be easier to get stock subscribed for such a carriage, than for one 
that might be deemed the ne 2)lus ultra by engineers. I really do not deem 
it incredible that this editor is sincere. 

The second plan of Gordon is not more absurd than the first; and it seems 
that France has furnished the crooked ingenuity to get up one similar to it; 
and I know many who are of opinion that hills can not be ascended by wheels 
alone. Such is the state of gross ignorance and obstinacy, and such the un- 
belief of testimony, that it is not believed, by many who daily see locomotives 
draw heavy trains, that light steam-carriages can go up-hill alone ; and this 
is one of the reasons why the project is looked upon as impracticable. And 
this need not be wondered at in persons who do not pretend to have studied 
engineering, when we see the editor of a paper of such lofty pretensions as 
the Scientific American calling this carriage of David Gordon's an " improve- 
ment on those of Gurney," and considering its failure as a proof that steam- 
curriages never can pay. Thus it happens that the early and imperfect car- 
riages are among the worst enemies of the invention, not because a single 
man of good sen?e would infer from the failure of early efforts that success 
can never be attained, but because impudent quacks, who attempt to teach 
the public, have not; sense enough to study a subject before they write upon 
it. Well, this "improvement" is about equal to the plan of two ships hitched 
together, with endless chains going under their decks and over their masts, 

VOL. VIL 11 



162 STEAM-CARKIAGES AND THEIR EXEMTES. 

and ai'oun<;l their sbafcs, to turn their paddle-wheels by the power derived 
from the motion of the sea, which causes one vessel to go up while the other 
c;oes down, and the chain to trot round in an oval, or parabolic, or diabolic 
iii^ure, and thus to give motion without the aid of steam. This plan the 
Scientific American has laid before the public, as something worthy of the 
celebrity its columns can confer. And this is the critic of inventions who 
calls my steam-carriage rickety. 

In 1811, Blenkinsop, imagining that light locomotives would slip on rails, 
tiiok out a patent for a rack to run beside the rails, in which a toothed wheel 
of the locomotive worked. Chapman, in 1812, patented a locomotive with 
eight wheels, all connected by gearing; and Stephenson, in 1815, built one 
with wheels connected by gearing chains. So not only the steam-carriage 
men, but also the railway men, have some queer fancies to answer for. 

It may appear frivolous to notice these rattling complications ; but the 
improvement of the steam-carriage has consisted chiefly in the removal of them. 
A few more remain to be noticed : these I have removed or omitted ; and I 
find them as unnecessary as the legs. Gurney, Hancock, and others, deemed it 
necessary to leave the wheels loose upon the axle, and hold them by clutches, 
so that, in turning, one wheel would be unclutched. Without this arrange- 
ment, they found the steering-wheels would slip laterally, and the carriage 
could not be turned. It appeared to me that by putting the drivers near 
together, and the steering wheels forward, and by putting the weight well 
forward, the carriage could be made sure of turning, although both wheels 
are keyed upon the axle. I find that this is correct. I have not been 
troubled with the slipping of the steering-wheels, except when overloaded 
behind. For a drag, to draw other vehicles, this is the best arrangement; 
for a single carriage, which is required to turn short and frequently, it is 
sufiicient to key one wheel. The clutches, and the trouble of using them, 
are therefore got rid of. 

Beside the opposition that arose from the monstrous notions engendered 
by these monstrous contrivances, there were some that arose from the rivalry 
of the inventors and theii' partisans. The London Mechanics' Magazine was 
violent against Macerone, and ho was excessive in his ridicule of Ogle. Gur- 
ney was opjjosed, at last, by the Magazine, because some of his friends wished 
to do for him more than they would do for other inventors. It is not 
unlikely that if all these inventors had been united in one company, they 
might have prevailed on the Lords to pass the bill which the Commons had 
passed, to repeal the prohibitory tolls ; and it is probable that their united 
talents would have produced a belter carriage than any separately could 
produce. On this point Gordon remarks : " That so many attempts should 
liave proved abortive, and that so few should have been successful, is no 
wonder, when it is remembered that almost every patentee or projector 
endeavored to work independently of his contemporaries in the same field. 
If one has had an improvement in the boiler, he has refused to look at 
another's experience in the general arrangement. If this inventor has improved 
the mode of propulsion, he lightly esteems the advantage of that one who has 
arranged a regular draft for the fire. A disposition to work independently 
has been -the ruia of numerous projectors, and the sickener of those whose 
funds were for a time at their disposal. ■* * * There are distinguished 
mechanics, acknowledged philosophers, and eminent engineers, all falling 
short of Gurney, Hancock, and Macerone. Many of them exhibited beauty 
of arrangement in, minor details, but nothing more; and the public mind 
being slways impressed by the majority, the labors of such men have 



STE Ail- CARRIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 163 

encouraged tlie belief that there are insurmountable physical difiiculties 
which still remain. * * * That successful builders will detail their 
process for doing so, we can not expect. Building may be their business here- 
after ; and their hard apprenticeship will but little dispose them to publish 
the secrets of their craft." 

The vulgar saying, that opposition is the life of business, was never mora 
forcibly refuted than in this case. All the force of the friends of this enter- 
prise was required to defend it against the landed interest, the bigoted road- 
trustees, the jockeys, and the egotists who wish to put down all that can 
detract from their own importance ; and for years after the invention is 
revived, it will Be desirable that all the talent and all the capital should 
be combined in one company, which company should not be committed 
to any one invention, but should liberally aid all inventions, and adopt all 
that is best. 

One would hardly think that the railroad should be forced into the ranks 
of the enemies of steam-carriages. While the railroad lasts, flat roads must 
be used ; for a railroad can not go to every door. The common road is the 
raih-oad's feeder ; and the question is, can we make it more efficient by 
putting upon it a power that has made the railroad successful? Where 
great speed is allowable, the railroad may be the best; but where six or 
eight miles an hour is all that is allowable, and stops must be frequent, 
a flat and smooth surface, of iron or stone, is better, because it will accom- 
modate all kinds of traffic, permit frequent stops, and go to every door 
without the trouble of transhipment. In a city and its suburbs it is expe- 
dient to devote all the money to one system — to j)ut into the pavement all 
that is now expended for pavement and rails. We should then have a 
traction easier than that of the grooved rail, with the dirt in it ; and we 
should have cleanliness, which can never come with stone pavements and 
horse-power ; and all this for a purpose to which the rail is but imperfectly 
applicable. But, in spite of all this, thei-e are men who, because rails are 
the best on long lines, jump to the conclusion that they are best in all 
cases, and say that steam without rails is not advantageous. 

In conclusion : the enemies and lukewarm friends of steam-carriages are 
unwilling to rely on " theory," or the deductions of reason, for proof as to 
their economy. Why, then, do they make adverse assertions, which tend 
to prevent experiments from being tried ? But fiicts, well attested, prove 
that steam-carriages can work with profit. Even the fact that the trustees 
of roads piled them with broken stone, for the purpose of breaking down 
steam-carriages, proves that they did not deem them likely to die a natural 
death, as they soon would have done, if they could not be made profitable. 

Since the foregoing was in type, the Scientific American has published 
"a brief history, wiih some reflections," occupying two columns and a third, 
of steam-carriage experiments. In the course of this "history" it reiterates 
its statement that the carriages which ran between Glasgow and Paisley 
failed, and attempts to show that there is no truth in the statement that the 
road was encumbered with broken stone. Its argument is as follows ; " By 
another law no stones could be placed on the road by the trustees of more 
than one cubic inch in size. * * * And had the steam work been broken 
down, as has been asserted, those who placed the obstructions would have 
been hanged or sent to a penal colony." Moreover, it savs : " We have been 
informed by one that these coaches were ' Gordon's,' by another that they 
were made by Robert Napier, while a third says they were built by that excel- 



164: STEAM-CARRIAG-ES AISTD THEIR ENEMIES 

lent engineer, Scott Russell. It makes no matter who was the builder, nor 
wtsther they run in '33 or '34 ; the name and date are of very little con- 
sequence ; the fact is the main point, and that is not denied." 

The fact is, indeed, the main point, which I have been trying these two 
years to get at. But while this paper withheld the name and date I could 
not identify it. I now take this as an admission that I was right in supposing 
that they were Russell's carriages, and ran in '34. AVhether the name and 
date are of consequence, may be seen by the following extracts. But first I 
will remark that the law limiting the size of broken stones to one inch is no 
proof as to the number of cart-loads that were laid down. 

The following extracts are from the London Mechanics' Magazine, 1834, 
Vol. 21, pp. 270, 288, 304, 352 : 

MR, Russell's steam-carriages. 

" Through the medium of a letter from Glasgow, we are happy to record the 
great and increasing success of these carriages. Our friend writes, that hav- 
ing recommenced their regular business career on Wednesday morning, they 
ran throughout the day with the utmost punctuality. The speed may be 
judged from the following statement sent us : 

4th carriage, No. 3, 46 minutes. 



1st carriage. 


No. 4, 


30 minutes. 


2d " 


No. 4, 


34 " 


3d « 


No. 3, 


45 " 



5th " No. 1, 25 " 
Gth " No. 1, 25 " 

The distance here taken is from Tradeston, Glasgow, to the Tontine Inn, 
Paisley ; for although the carriages start from George's Square, they are not 
put to their speed until they get clear of the crowded streets ; but as this 
distance is at least seven miles, the rate attained by the last vehicle, which, 
we understand, contains the latest improvements, is not much less than 17 
miles per hour. Another circumstance we are glad to hear was, that, so 
highly have the public already begun to appreciate this new mode of con- 
veyance, the carriages were overloaded with passengers the whole day. 
We observe, however, that the trustees of the Glasgow and Paisley road are 
by no means favorable to the undertaking, and have been for this week past 
busying themselves in laying down immense heaps of stones on all the 
ascents and best portions of the road, for the apparent purpose of obstructing 
the progress of the carriages, though hitherto without elfect. This conduct, 
as might have been expected, is meeting with the general indignation of the 
people in that quarter." — Edinburgh Obsei-ver. 

" We have much pleasure in noticing the last two days' most successful 
performance of the steam-carriages. On Wednesday they made six trips, 
and yesterday au equal number. They were crowded with passengers ; and 
so great was the anxiety to obtain seats, that although there is accommoda- 
tion for 26, it was impossible to prevent ujiward of 30 from taking seats upon 
them. The average velocity is 12 miles an hour ; and the only impediment 
to a high rate lies in the extraordinary state of the road, which should at 
this moment be in the best condition, but has just been deeply bedded with 
broken stone, laid on in large masses, for the purpose of injuring the car- 
riages. This is a line of illiberal policy which it is hoped the trustees will 
not persevere in, as it can not affect the success of the carriages, which will 
assuredly be carried through with advantage, while the road is thereby ren- 
dered unfit for general traffic, at a great expense to a public trust. At the 
sixth trip on Wednesday last, as the steamer was coming up to the new 



STEAM-CARRIAGES AND THEIR ENEMIES, 165 

metal, it was found that enormous Leaps of stones had just been laid down ; 
and the tremendous power requisite to pass to it smashed one of the wheels, 
and detained the carriage till it was replaced." — Glasgow Courier, July 1. 

" Oa Friday evening last, a highly interesting experiment was made to 
ascertain the comparative merits of two of the company's steam-carriages, 
upon different constructions. A little after six, they left George's Square, 
with a supply of fuel and water for eight miles. They proceeded together 
through the crowded streets, as rapidly as safety would admit, and along the 
Paisley road, to a point a little beyond the Two-Mile House, where they turned 
and started together. After keeping exactly together for a quarter of a mile, 
the one on the improved construction began to show a manifest superiority, 
and rapidly distanced the other, and on arriving at the Gorbals had gained 
half a mile, having done the whole distance in 1^ minutes, while the latter 
required ten minutes." — Glasgow Herald. 

" On Wednesday, the steam-carriages commenced running every hour 
with passengers and luggage; and they have since been plying with most 
triumphant success. They start from George's Square a httle before the 
hour ; and, proceeding down Queen street, take up passengers at the foot 
of it ; and, starting from the head of Maxwell street, they pass through 
Tradeston, where they again take up passengers. This occupies twelve or 
fifteen minutes ; and the seven miles to Paisley are done in 30 or 35 
minutes. A few minutes are thus left to take in fuel and water, with the 
passengers, at Paisley ; and at the succeeding hour the carriage returns to 
Glasgow. 

We noticed on Tuesday the kindness with which the road-trustees at the 
Glasgow end had accommodated Mr. Russell's carriages, at their own 
expense, (or that of the public,) with a sufficient quantity of new metal to 
try their powers ; but we have since discovered that this kindly disjiosition 
has been carried a little too far, and that, having found the carriages more 
than competent to the task of ploughing through the stratum of broken 
stones, previously laid down, they employed a large number of men on the 
following day to lay down another stratum of equal thickness, on the top 
of the former, rendering the road scarcely passable to any heavy load. 
Finding this expedient also ineffectual, we learned yesterday that horses 
and carts and a number of men had been enofa<yed during^ the whole of 
the night in laying down loads of broken stones to such a depth that they 
were obliged to cut away the bottom of the toll-gate to allow it to close over 
the mass." — Glasgow Courier of July 4. 

"Air. Russell's carriages have continued to perform their trips with increas- 
ing success. The following is the running of the last three days, from the 
Tontine, in Paisley, to Tradeston, Glasgow : 

To Paisley. To Glasgow. 

Thursday, July 17. — 10 o'clock, 40 minutes. 11 o'clock, 48 minutes. 

12 " 58 " 1 " 38 

2 " 56 " 3 " 59 " 

Friday, July 18th, the times were: 44, 45, 35, 39, 45, 43 minutes. 

Saturday, July 19th, the times were : 34, 33, 32, 35, 55, 44 minutes. 

We have only further to remark, that on the last two trips the anxiety to 
get places was so great that the carriage took out 28 passengers and returned 
with 39." — Glasqow Herald, July 21. 



166 DILATATION OF CAST-IRON BY SUCCESSIVE HEATINGS. 

"Three more Days' Running of Russell's Steam-Carriages. — Mon- 
day, July 21.— Times: 50, 35, 41, 33, 46, 59 minutes, Tuesday, 22d.— 
Times: 50, 40, 49, 52, 39, 36 minutes. Wednesday, 23d.— Times : 35, 
34, 37, 36, 59, 37 minutes. 

The carriage that left Glasgow yesterday at twelve, did the distance from 
the Half-way House to Paisley, fully three and a half miles, in ten minutes, 
being at the rate of 21 miles an hour!" — Glasyoio Courier, July 24. 

" One of Mr. Russell's steam-carriages between Glasgow and Paisley havino; 
been over-set by the breaking of a wheel, the boiler burst, and five pei-sous 
were killed. The Court of Sessions has, in consequence of this, interdicted 
the whole set of carriages from running, for the present at least. A fine 
specimen this of Caledonian wisdom ! Why do they not clear the Clyde of 
all its steamers, since certain it is that steamboats have met with accidents 
as well as steam-carriages, and are as likely to meet with them again ? It 
is impossible so absurd an interdict can stand." — London Mechanics^ Maga- 
zine, Aur/ust 3. 

[We make no apology for occupying so much space with this subject, for 
we consider it one of the practical questions of the day. Steam-carriages are 
to be running on our common roads, ere long, we firmly believe. If steam is 
cheaper than horse-power, and so much cheaper as to warrant the immense 
outlay for railroads, why will it not pay without this expense ? The only dif- 
ficulty appears to be in arranging the machinery so as to have it perfectly 
under control. In fact, the steam-carriages would now be in operation in 
England, in our judgment, had not a combination of hostile influences driven 
them oif the ground. — Eds. P., L., and A.] 



DILATATION OF CAST-IRON BY SUCCESSIVE HEATINGS. 

TRANSLATED FROM LE TECHNOLOGISTE, MAY, 1854. 

The Memoirs of the Societe Industrielle de Hanovre contain on this sub- 
ject a short note, which we here present to our readers : 

" The remarkable phenomenon that cast-iron presents after being heated, 
of not returning, on cooling, to its original dimensions, but of presenting 
constantly an increase of this volume, and, by consecutive heatings and cool- 
ings, of acquiring a permanent volume, larger and larger, was first observed 
by Prinsep, in 1829. This chemist found that a retort of cast-iron, of which 
the capacity had been measured with care by the weight of mercury it con- 
tained, gave the following results. Before ever being heated, the retort con- 
tained 9.13 cubic inches of mercury ; after the first heating and cooling, the 
contents was increased to 9.64 cubic inches; and after three successive heat- 
ings to the fusing point of silver, the contents was 10,16 cubic inches. The 
cubic dilatation produced then was 11.28 per cent, or a lineal dilatation of 
nearly 3.73 per 100, Since this, there has been occasion to observe more 
frequently, and to investigate this property of cast-iron. It has been remarked, 
in efiect, that all grate-bars which sustained a high heat became curved, little 
by little, that they elongated more and more, until finally they would push 
out the bars that sustained them. 

M. P. W. Brix, in a work he has recently published, entitled Researches on 
the Calorific Power of the Principal Combustibles found in Prussia, has made 
known some experiments on this subject. By the aidof numerous measurements. 



EMPLOYMENT OF QUICK-LIME IN HIGH FURNACES. 167 

he lias found that its permanent length augments after a heating, but that this 
augmentation was so much the less as the bar had been heated more often, 
and finally ceased. Thus, a grate-bar of 3.5 feet in length, after three days 
of a moderate fire, had taken a permanent elongation of 3-16 of an inch, 
(equal to 0.446 per cent;) at the end of lY days, this elongation was 7-16 
of an inch, (1.042 percent,) and at the end of 30 days had reached 13-16 of 
an inch, (nearly 2 per cent,) and did not yet appear to have attained its 
maximum. Another bar of the same kind, after a long service, had preserved 
a permanent elongation of 1.25 inches, or nearly 3 per cent. The bars, while 
in the fire, experience another elongation, which is tempoiary, and contract 
as the heat is diminished ; and it may hence be concluded with M. Brix, 
that it is proper to give to each new bar a play, longitudinally, of about 1-25 
of an inch, or 4 per cent, to allow for this permanent and terapoi-nry elonga- 
tion. In all cases, it is necessary to make it long enough, that when cold it 
may not fall between the supports, but in general it seems that not sufficient 
play is given to bars supported in this manner." 

Note by Translator. — This is a matter very important to be thought of 
in all cases where cast-iron is submitted to the action of high heat, as fur- 
naces, retorts, boilers, etc., and especially in cases where cast-iron may be 
riveted or fastened to boiler-iron or other metals. In such cases, the cast- 
iron, in expanding permanently more than the other metal, will give the sur- 
face a curved form, and tend to break the rivets, or other parts of the con- 
struction, and in certain circumstances might be productive of very inconvenient 
results. This is very plain to any practical man. 

Where the cast-iron part of an engine is riveted to the boiler, as is often 
the case, the attachments should be made, as far as possible, at places not sub- 
mitted to great changes of temperature ; but if this condition can not be ful- 
filled, make the attachments in a manner to obviate, as far as possible, the 
evil referred to. This remark is made, not only with regard to th« permanent 
elongation the cast-iron undergoes, but also with regard to the different 
degrees of expansion experienced by cast and wrought-iron or other metals, 
by the same increase of temperature. The effects of this are soon noticed in 
the loosening uf joints, warping of surfaces, etc. The intelligent builder, with 
a knowledge of these facts and their extent, can, by the simple laws of com- 
mon-sense, arrange his work properly. 

These etfects may be noticed in almost every place where cast-iron is sub- 
mitted to high heats, in retorts, furnaces, etc. : the shoving out of bricks, the 
pushing aside of supports, and neighboring parts, etc. 



EMPLOYMENT OF QUICK-LIME IN HIGH FURNACES INSTEAD OF 
LIME-STONE. 

BY C. MONTEFIOR LEVI AND DR. EMIL SCHMIDT. 

From experiments made at the iron-works of Ougree, near Liege, these 
gentlemen found that to produce 100 kilogrammes (220 pounds) of pig-iron, 
the average consumption of coke for six months of 28 days, when lime-stone 
was used, was 160^ kilos., (353 pounds.) while with burned lime the con- 
sumption was only 1464- kilos. (322 pounds,) being a saving of 8.88 per 
cent. The average production for 28 days, with Time-stone, was 461,000 



"^GS THEORY OF IRON SMELTING. 

kilos., and with burned lime, T35,000 kilos., or an increase of 24.3 per cent. 
Corresponding results were obtained with another furnace worked three 
months with lime-stone and three with burned lime. The average coke con- 
sumed per 100 kilos, with the former being 1G2, and with the latter 147^ 
kilos. The production of iron per month being on an average 469,000 with 
lime-stone, and 563,000 with lime. The furnaces at Ongree have now been 
working 34- years with lime, with the same result, the saving per year, not- 
withstanding the cost of first having to burn the lime, being 30,000 francs 
per furnace. The same process has been successfully tried in some parts of 
Wales and in England. — Edinburgh Fhil. Journal. 



THEORY OF IRON SMELTING. 

A BLAST furnace consists of two cohimns, one of air, ascending from below 
upward, and the other of solids, thrown in from above and descending. At 
the top, the amount of watery vapor is 9 to 14 per cent. But the vapor in 
the gases rapidly diminishes. At the top the gases are, nitrogen, ST'YO : 
carbonic oxide, 23*51; carbonic acid, 12-88; hydrogen, 5*82. At between 
eight and seventeen feet from the top, the carbonic acid and hydrogen 
diminish, and the water completely disappears. The oxygen of the air is 
first changed into carbonic acid, and then, by the coal, into carbonic oxide. 
The hydrogen is produced by the vapor of the water, which is decomposed 
by carbon into hydrogen and carbonic oxide. As the column of gas ascends, 
the carbonic oxide diminishes, and the carbonic acid increases — a change 
produced by the action of carbonic oxide upon sesquioxide of iron, which 
yields carbonic acid and metallic iron. It seems remarkable that hydrogen 
should exist in contact with sesquioxide of iron, at a red heat, without deox- 
idizing it ; but it has been shown that an electric spark, passed through car- 
bonic oxide, oxygen, and hydrogen, produces carbonic acid, while hydrogen 
remains. Between the neck of the furnace and the boshes the minerals lose 
their moisture, and the oxide of iron |f of its oxygen to the deoxidizing power 
of carbonic oxide, while the /j remaining are removed between the boshes 
and tweens by the carbon of the coal. At a foot above the tweens, the tem- 
perature diminishes, and to this the line of fusion is limited, and here the 
change of carbonic acid into carbonic oxide is complete. 

COMPOSmOX OF TOE GASES IN IRON FURNACES. 

Depth from the top in feet 5 8 11 14 17 23 24 34 

Nitrogen 65-35 54-77 52-57 50-95 55-49 58-28 50-75 58 08 

Carbouic acid 7-77 9-42 9-41 9-10 12-43 8-19 1008 — 

Carbonic oxide 25 97 20-24 23-16 19-32 18-77 29-97 25-19 37-43 

Carbonic hydrogen 3-75 8-23 4-57 6-64 4-31 1-64 2-33 -— 

Hydrogen ". 6-73 6-49 9-33 12-42 7-02 4-92 5-65 3-18 

defiant gas 0-43 0-85 0-95 1-57 1-38 — — — 

Cyanogen — — — — — trace, trace. 1-34 

The occurrence of cyanogen is interesting, although its formation had been 
long ago pointed out. When an iron tube was introduced through a hole 
two feet nine inches above the hearth, a gas passed out, burning with a yellow 
flame, similar to that occurring during the preparation of potassium. The 
tube was soon obstructed by cyanide of potassium. The cyanogen is produced 
by the nitrogen of the air or coal, while the potassium is derived from the 



Cr^rCJINNATI AND CHARLESTON RAILWAY. 169 

potasli of the coal, (.07 per cent,) and from the iron ore, {.1o per cent,) 
amounting to 270 lbs. in twenty-four hours. The cyanide of potassium is 
volatilized, and is decomposed by the air into carbonate of potash and cyanide, 
which is gradually decomj^osed as it ascends. That the cyanogen is not 
altogether decomposed is, however, proved by the results obtained at Coltness 
iron works, where, in saving the waste gases for the purpose of calcining the 
ore, a considerable quantity of alkali, containing cyanide of potassium and 
carbonate of potash, is sublimed in the common furnace at the summit. The 
amount of alkaline salts sublimed may be about two and a half tons per 
furnace during the year. — Ji^x. 



CINCINNATI AND CHARLESTON RAILWAY. 

The Kentucky Legislature has granted a liberal charter to the Kentucky 
Union Railway Company, whose object it is to make the last link in the rail- 
way line from Cincinnati to Charleston. The distance by the route adopted 
will be as follows : 

Cincinnali to Danville, . _ . 132 miles. 

Danville to Knoxville, - - - - 130 " 

Knoxville to Charleston, via Blue Ridge Railroad, 370 " 



Aggregate, - - - - 632 miles. 

""VYe doubt," says the Cincinnati Railroad Record, " whether any railway 
in America will ever be of such vast importance as one which shall connect 
the Valley of the Ohio with the Southern Atlantic on the most direct route. 
The productions of the different sections are totally difl'erent ; the habits and 
usages of the people are different. The interior country, reached from either 
end, is full of the most valuable mineral resources, and thus all the exchanges 
would be beneficial, both in a commercial and moral aspect. It is now 
nearly twenty years since this subject engaged the profound attention of the 
people of Cincinnati, Charleston, and all the intermediate country. We have 
before us the pamphlets and letters published and written at that time. They 
exhibit the proceedings of various public bodies, and the records of many 
distinguished men, now commemorated by history. Among them were Gen. 
Harrison and Dr. Drake of this city, and Gen. Hayne and Col. Blanding of 
Charleston. 

Time has only proved what was then said of the great importance of this 
work, and rendered its necessity to the country more apparent. 

The completion of this grand route, from Charleston to Cincinnati is now 
entirely Avithin reach. From Cincinnati to Danville is nearly completed. 
From Charleston to Anderson, South-Carohna, is finished. The Blue Ridge 
Railroad from Anderson to Knoxville, via the Rabun Gap, is secured by the 
ample aid South-Carolina and Tennessee have given to the work. From 
Knoxville to the Kentucky State line is secured by the State aid and county 
subscriptions. The line covered by the Kentuck}^ Union Railway charter 
is, therefore, the only one wanting. By its connection with other roads, and 
the immense through-traffic which must inevitably take place, the stock of 
the road will undoubtedly be good, notwithstanding the sparseness of the 
country through which it passes. 

There is no enterprise in which the merchants and capitalists of Cincinnati 
have a deeper interest than in this, and we trust it will meet with the encou- 
ragement which it so eminently deserves." 



VENTILATION OP CAES 




VENTILATION OF CARS. 



171 



«. CD 




172 VENTILATION OF CARS. 

In the construction of new cars, compactness and economy may be gained 
pj locating the main channels between the inner and outer casings of the 
cars, in which case a valve-slat, or shutter in the casing of the window recess, 
governs the admission of air, instead of inner windows. 

From the foregoing description, illustrated by the figures in the cut, it is 
beheved the process of ventilation by this plan will be fully understood. The 
earnest and careful attention of railway managers, car manufacturers, and men 
of science, is respectfully invited to the philosophical principles involved, in 
the exclusion of dust from cars, and the practicability of the proposed method 
of putting them in operation. The subject has long engrossed the attention 
of the inventor, who believes the plan here presented combines the provisions 
necessary to exclude the dust, smoke, and cinders, a profusion of pure air, 
economy of expense, and those self-adjusting features which will render any 
attention from those in charge of the train superfluous. 

It will be observed that the theory adopted is, that the rapid displacement 
of the air caused by the passage of the train through it at a high rate of 
speed raises the dust, and the friction and eddy resulting cause it, by the suc- 
tion toward the centre of the eddy, to envelop the rear of the train ; and 
there being no corresponding pressure of the air from within the cars, outioard^ 
but owing to the waste through the roof a decided suction inward, the 
dust, smote, and cinders which happen to be within the influence of this 
eddying current, are drawn through all the apertures or crevices into the 
interior of the cars. To prevent this intrusion, it is only necessary to oppose 
an equal pressure of the air from inside the cars outiuard. But as this air, 
in order to remove the difficulty, must be free from objectionable matter, it 
is necessary to take it from the head of the train. The correctness of this 
theory it is believed few will deny. Some of the features of this arrangement 
must be decided by experiment ; such as the size of the channel which may 
be necessary to convey a suflicient qiumtity of air to exclude the dust eft'ect- 
ually from the longest trains. The largest required size once ascertained, all 
may be uniformly constructed, as, in case of a too powerful current, each 2>as- 
senger has his own remedy at hand in the closing of his window, or decreas- 
ing the size of the aperture through which the air is received. 

"The efficiency of the ventilation may be thus demonstrated. Suppose the 
entrance of the channel to have an area of 10 square feet, which will give us 
90 divisions of area', each 4 iuches square. This will pass air at the rate of 
32 miles per hour — the assumed speed of the train — if an unobstructed pas- 
sao-e is formed through the interior of the cars to the open air above. As the 
channel becomes enlarged in its interior formation, the speed of the current 
will be diminished, and at the windows, where the effect of the passing air is 
required for coolness, the channel will consist of the spaces opened by the 
raised windows of the train. The size of the channel so formed, at and by 
the windows, will govern the speed of the current there. Doubling the 
capacity of the channel inwardly, and consequently its area, will therefore 
wive us 180 divisions of area, each 4 inches square, Avhile at the same time it 
will take from the velocity one half, reducing it to 10 miles per hour. 
Doubling again the capacity of the channel, gives 360 divisions of area, 4 
inches square, leaving the speed of the current but 8 miles per hour. This 
would give to 360 windows 16 inches of air-current each, at S miles per 
Lour, or 32 inches at 4 miles per hour; a breeze as strong as would be 
agreeable, if constant, in a warm day. With an elevation of roof allowing 
an entrance of 20 feet area, we should have double this effect, or G4 inches 
each window. The air after entering the cars must, of course, be led outward 



INCRUSTATIONS IN STEAM-BOILERS. 173 

tbrough a sufBcient number of ventilating cbimneys of the usual construction, 
unless better modes shall be prepared for its escape. 

The inventor is aware that so many methods of ridding the travelling pub- 
lic of the insufterable nuisance of dust have been proposed, most or all of 
■^^'hich have failed to answer the desired purpose, that the attempt to form 
such a combination as will steer clear of all objections and provide a healthy 
and pure atmosphere to breathe, without adding the least inconvenience to 
the present mode of travel, may be deemed a bold if not a rash undertaking — ■ 
an improbable if not impossible achievement. Having full faith, however, 
in the correctness of the views which have guided him from the conception to 
the maturity of his plan, he places it before the public with the utmost con- 
fidence that practical experiments will establish the complete success of this 
mode of ventilation. Experience teaches us that many things which were 
long considered impossible or even visionary, have been lately accomplished 
by human invention, and it may not, perhaps, be too great a tax upon the 
credulity of some to believe in the success of this. 

The practicability of the invention having been decided upon, the next 
question presenting itself is one of expense. Most people would say this 
latter is of no consequence at all, where health and comfort are so directly 
concerned. And there is little doubt that the increase of travel which would 
result from the extinction of this annoyance from dust, would refund the cost 
many fold. It will be seen that the chief expense of applying this mode of 
ventilation to new cars will consist in the cost of the movable extension-pieces 
which make the channel continuous ; while the application of it to cars 
already constructed would only involve a secondary roof and outer walls, 
extending down so as to include the windows. The expense attending either 
of ihese modes of application is comparatively trifling. 

The inventor, Mr. Cyrus Lancaster, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has secured his 
right to this improvement by application to the Commissioner for Letters 
Patent. As the adoption of this plan of ventilation, immediately its success 
i.> demonstrated upon all the great routes of travel, especially where com- 
petition exists, is deemed almost certain as a means of retaining a share of 
the public patronage, it is submitted that manufacturers of cars would do 
well to give it their consideration, with a view of obtaining a right to incor- 
porate it in cars of their construction at the earliest practicable moment 



ON THE EMPLOY OF SAL AIMMONIAC TO PREVENT INCRUSTATIONS IN 

STEAM - BOILERS. 

TRANSLATED FROM LE TECIINOLOGISTE, MAT, 1854. 

The Memoirs of the Societc Royale dcs Ingenieurs Hollandais contain 
two reports on this subject, wliich we have caused to be translated into 
French, on account of the interest the question presents at present. 

Rej)ort of M. de Bries Robhe. — The employ of sal ammoniac to prevent 
incrustations in steam-boilers, or to make them disappear, has been proposed 
by M. H. Ritterbrandt, and since has drawn the attention of M. Conrad, 
Director of the Corps of Engineers in Ilolland. It is to him that are due 
the experiments in question : " The experiments which have been tried on 
locomotives on the railways in Holland, have demonstrated that it is an 



174 IN-CRUSTATIONS IN STEAM-BOILEES. 

excellent means to detach aod dissolve the calcareous incrustations of boilers, 
and dispose of them so far that the boilers may be completely rid of them. 
To prove this, there was introduced 60 grammes (a French gramme is the 
1-1 000 th part of a kilogramme, or 2.2 pounds) of sal ammoniac in powder 
into a boiler, immediately after being filled with water. This was left until 
the evening of the next day, after the locomotive had done its service. The 
boiler being found not dirty, it was run still another day, at the end of which it 
was emptied, and the boiler appeared perfectly clean. The water taken out was 
generally, in proportion to the calcareous matters contained in the boiler, a 
solution more or less saturated witn sal ammoniac and lime, which amounted 
to 1-800 the weight of the solution. Later, there were formed paillettes of 
lime, which easily passed off by the discharge-cocks. After the boiler had 
thus been, during fifteen days or a month, purged of incrustations, it sufficed 
to introduce once or twice per week 60 grammes of the salt, to keep it entirely 
clean. A more attentive examination showed that the water, after one or 
two days of service, did not give a single trace of iron or copper in solution. 

" It is certain, then, that the quantity of salt indicated can not in the least 
shorten the duration of the boiler, (the writer here refers to the eflect on the 
boiler and tubes which might be suspected to take place by the decomposi- 
tion of the sal ammoniac, sulphate of ammonia,) and consequent disengage- 
ment of free sulphuric acid, but, on the contrary, may augment that of the 
fire-box and tubes, by preventing destructive incrustations; and it also 
decreases the quantity of combustion, as the incrustations are very bad con- 
ductors of heat. Again, the decreased quantity of fuel used tends, of course 
to make the boiler last longer. It is probable that the sal ammoniac, in 
combining with the lime, forms chlorhydrate of lime, and that by this com- 
bination the ammonia is set free ; at least this is what is conjectured by the 
odor of the steam. The sal ammoniac, in powder, costs about 3 francs per 
kilogramme." 

Eejyort of M. C. Scheffer. — "At the commencement of the year 1847, 
experiments were undertaken on the steam-boiler at the royal saw-manu- 
tactory of Rotterdam, with sal ammoniac, to ascertain to what point they 
could succeed by this means to prevent the injurious effects of incrustations 
on the sides of this boiler. This boiler is low-pressure, the tension of the 
steam being scarcely 1-lOth of an atmosphere above the ordinary atmospheric 
pressure, and puts in movement a machine of 16-horse power, of ]\Iandslay's. 
The water employed is that of the Meuse, which, according to the analysis of 
M. MuUer, contains much calcareous matter. From the 26th March there 
were introduced, three times a week, 100 grammes of sal ammoniac into this 
boiler, after having been cleaned of all previous incrustations. Four months 
afterward, I submitted to an examination the sides of this boiler, and I found 
a tolerably regular accumulation of incrustations on the vertical sides, while 
above the furnace this crust was much less. Its thickness was evidently less 
everywhere than usual, and nevertheless, during all this period, it had been 
heated on the average 14 hours per day. The boiler was cleaned anew, and 
about 45 pounds of incrustations removed. I at once commenced a new 
trial, and as I did not know exactly the proportion of salt necessary to com- 
pletely prevent the evil, I resolved to double the former trial, and to use 200 
grammes, which was thrown twice a week into the boiler. After more than 
five months of work, there were still some incrustations, and principally, is 
in the first trial, on the vertical sides; but the experiments go to show tha'-, 
l)y the use of this salt, incrustations may be very much diminished, and per- 
haps totally prevented, and it is of great importance to pursue these experi- 
ments further." 



ELECTROTYPING. 175 



ELECT ROTTPING. 

The following is the process for covering a piece of metal with the sub- 
stances named. The directions are as given by Dr. Gore : 

To Coat Articles of Copper, Brass, or German Silver with Altjmi- 
xiUM.— Take equal measures of sulphuric acid and water, or take one measure 
each of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid and two measures of water; add to 
the water a small quantity of pipe-clay, in the proportion of five or ten (grains 
by weight to every ounce by measure of water, (| or ^ oz. to the pint,) rub 
the clay with the water until the two are perfectly mixed, then add the acid 
to the clay solution and boil the mixture in a covered glass vessel one hour 
Allow the hrpud to settle, take the clear supernatant sotution, while hot, and 
immerse in it an earthen porous cell, containing a mixture of one measure of 
sulphuric acid and ten measures of water, together with a rod or plate of amal- 
gamated zinc; take a small Smee's battery of three or four pairs of plates 
connected together, intensity fashion, and connect its positive pole by a wire 
with the piece of zinc in the porous cell. Having perfectly cleaned the sur- 
face of the article to be coated, connect it by a wire with the negative pole of 
the battery and immerse it in the hot clay solution ; immediately abundance 
ot gas will be evolved from the whole of the immersed surface of the article 
and m a few minutes, if the size of the article is adapted to the quantitv of 
the current of electricity passing through it, a fine white deposit of alumi- 
nium will appear all over its surface. It may then be taken out, washed 
quickly in clean water, and wiped dry and polished; but if a thicker coatincr 
IS required, it must be taken out when the deposit becomes dull in appeal- 
ance, washed, dried, polished, and reimraersed; and this must be repeated 
at intervals as often as it becomes dull, until the required thickness is 
obtained. _ With small articles it is not absolutely necessary, either in this or 
the following process, that a separate battery be employed, as the article to 
be coated may be connected by a wire with the piece of zinc in the porous cell 
and immersed m the outer liquid, when it will receive a deposit, but more 
slowly than when a battery is employed. 

To Coat Articles with Silicium.— Take the following preparations : three 
quarters of an ounce, by measure, of hydrofluoric acid, a quarter of an ounce 
ot hydrochloric acid, and 40 or 50 grains, either of precipitated silica or of fine 
white sand— the former dissolves more purely— and boil the whole to^rether 
a tew minutes until no more silica is dissolved. Use this solution exactly in the 
sa_me manner as the olay solution, and a fine white deposit of metallic silicium 
will be obtained, provided the size of the article is adapted to the quantity of 
ttie electric current; common red sand, or indeed any kind of silicious stone 
Unely powdered, may be used in place of the white sand, and with equal 
success, if it be previously boiled in hydrochloric acid, to remove the red oxide 
otiron or other impurities. Both in depositing aluminium and silicium 
It IS necessary to well saturate the acid with the solid ingredients by boilincr' 
otherwise very little deposit of metal will be obtained. 



The Largest CriuRon in Europe is at St. Petersburg. Ife was beffun in 1771 

and m twenty ye^rs two thonsand men had not finished the walls. It is of 

pohshed marble, both outside and in; the pillars are of one piece, fifty feet high, 

he base and capitals of sohd silver ; bat the greatest curiosity of all i^ a wooden 

box. constructed to cover it from the.weather. wuuaen 



176 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF VIRGINIA, ETC. 



THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF VIRGINIA AND NORTH-CAROLINA. 

The followiug is tlie work of Samuel M. Dewey, a public-spirited citizen 

of Virgiuia : 

List of valuable and interesting Minerals, including some of the principal 
ranges of Rocks, tcnoion to abound in the counties of Hinry, Patrick, 
Carroll, and Floyd, in Virginia ; and in Rockingham, Stokes, Forsyth, 
Surrey, and Yadkin, in North- Carolina : a Section of the Piedmont 
Country, embracing the Northern Head-waters of the Great Yadkin, and 
all the Tributaries of Dan River. 

1. Irox Ore of every desirable species or kind, apparently boundless in 
quantity ; beds or veins of one or more valuable varieties existing in each o 
the above-named counties, all of which, except Carroll, Henry, and Forsyth, 
having yielded ores that have been successfully converted into iron of the 
best quahty. 

2. Coal. — Anthracite, or Stone Coal, in Roctingham and Stokes, approach- 
ing nearly or quite to the line of Henry county, if it does not pass to that 
section of Virginia ; the Fossil Coal is of excellent quality, and to all appear- 
ance is exhaustless as regards quantity. 

3. Limestone. — Primitive, Granular Limestone, or the finest quality of 
White, Gray, Mottled, and other colored Marble ; there being seven quarries 
in Stokes, three in Forsyth, two in Yadkin ; beside an extensive range of 
impure Linestone in the counties of Stokes and Forsyth ; a single range or 
bed of the same in Patrick ; and several quarries of secondary Limestone 
in Eockingliam, some of the latter being Hydraulic Limestone, while 
others are of the most beautiful and valuable qualities of Granular, Black, 
Variegated Marble, superior to any other known to be found in the United 
States. 

4. Lead Ore — In Carroll, Floyd, Stokes, and Surrey. 

5. Copper Ore — In Patrick, Carroll, Floyd, Forsyth, and Surrey. 

6. Gold. — There have been recently discovered three auriferous deposits 
in Patrick, one in Carroll, three in Stokes, four in Forsyth, three in Surrey, 
and four in Yadkin; making eighteen gold deposit mines, each of them 
being believed to be traceable to veins that have not been sufficiently pene- 
trated or tested to be pronounced workable, or rich enough to justify their 
being worked. 

7. Manganese. — Three beds in Patrick, one in Carroll, one in Henry, two 
in Forsyth, and one in Surrey. 

8. Plumbago, or Black Lead, occurs repeatedly in Patrick, Stokes, 
Forsyth, Surrey, Yadkin, and Ptockingham. 

9. Native Alum exists in several parts of Patrick and Stokes. 

10. SaLTPETRE exists in Patrick, Ilenr}', Floyd, Stokes, and Surrey. 

11. FiRE-l^RicK Clay — In Patrick, Stokes, Surrey, and Rockingham. 

12. Porcelain Clay — In Stokes and Surrey. 

13. Potters' Clay — In Forsyth, and throughout the other counties. 

14. Pure White Talc, or Crude French Chalk — In Surrey — there 
being an extensive range of impure Talc in Patrick, and also one in Carroll. 

15. Itacolumite, or perfectly fire-proof Elastic Sandstone, in Stokes. 

16. Bronze-colored, Satin-lustred Serpentine — In Stokes and For- 
syth, 

17. Variegated and other Valuable Kinds of Stealtte or Soap 
stone, in Patrick, Carroll, Floyd, Stokes, Forsyth, Surrey, and Yadkin. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DROUTH IN LAMOILLE CO. 177 

18. Primitive Sandstones, suitable for a variety of purposes, sucli as 
grindstones aod whetstones, in Patrick, Carroll, Stokes, and Surrey. 

19. Secondary Sandstones, suitable for grindstones and whetstones, in 
Henry, Rockingham, and Stokes. 

20. Mill-Stone Grit, in Patrick, Henry, Stokes, and Rockingham. 

21. Burr-Stone, in Floyd, Stokes, Surrey, and Forsyth. 

22. Jasper, of many varieties, including the Opal, Striped, Yellow, 
Red, Brown, and other hues — some of them being drusy, or incrusted with 
minute Quartz Crystals — also Botryoidal and Mammillated concretions, in four 
parts of Stokes. 

23. Calcedony, of all tints and colors, embracing the Wax-lustred, the 
Milky or White Cornelian, Rose-coiored, Blue, Pink, Honey, Yellow, Sard, 
etc., with Mammillated and Botryoidal concretions, also the Druse, in nine 
sections of Stokes and one of Forsyth. 

24. Agates. — Mossy, Yellow, Scarlet, Green, and Gold-colored, with wav 
ing lines, etc., in two parts of Stokes. 

25. Garnets, in Carroll, Patrick, Stokes, and Forsyth. 

26. Black Schist, or Tourmaline, in Henry, Patrick, Carroll, Stokes, 
Forsyth, and Surrey. 

27. Yellow Tourmaline, in Yadkin. 

28. Stalactitic Quartz, with Jasper base, in Stokes. 

29. HoRNSTONE, of Houcy, Yellow, Claret, and other colors, in Stokes. 

30. Amethystic Quartz, Crystals, in Henry and Forsyth. 

31. Limpid, Corrugated, Yellow, and Pink-colored, Auricular, Pyra- 
MiDicAL, and Prismatic-shaped Quartz Crystals, in Henry, Forsyth, 
Patrick, Carroll, Floyd, Rockingham, Stokes, Surrey, and Yadkin. 

32. Actinolite, or Cotton-Stone, in Floyd, Stokes, Surrey, Yadkin, and 
Forsyth. 

33. Tabular Druse Quartz, in Forsyth and Yadkin. 

34. SiLicious Petrifactions, in Stokes and Rockingham, constituting a 
vast range of jjetrified trees, or parts of trees, some of them measuring nine 
feet in circumference, and some that were evidently more or less decayed, pre- 
vious to undergoing the process of petrifaction, contain clusters of Quartz 
Crystals. This remarkable body of fossil curiosities extends from German- 
town, in Stokes, to Leaksville, in Rockingham, a distance of about twenty-five 
miles, and fully merits the name of Petrified Forest. 



FOB THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE DROUTH IN LAMOILLE COUNTY. 

Messrs. Editors : In Lamoille County we have a large portion of alluvial, 
sandy plain, which in dry seasons does not produce well, especially gras?, 
which is a very essential crop in this high latitude. The earth has not 
been saturated with water since May. The 8th June we had several fine 
showers ; since that time we have had four showers that wet down about one 
inch ; none to exceed two ; several sprinklers, to the amount of a heavy dew. 

The corn-leaves began to roll the Gth July ; the 16th the grass in our pas- 
tures would crumple under our feet, and was as dead as in April. Not more 
than one third of our corn-stalks is furnished with ears, the lower leaves are 

VOL. VII. 12 



178 OBSERVATIONS ON THE DROUTH IN LAMOILLE CO. 

dead, and many are now cutting it up and feeding it to their cattle. Pota- 
toes, not one third of a crop, selling for 75 cents the bushel ; hay is selling 
at $10 the ton, never before, at this season of the year, over $6, and fre- 
quently at $4. I have resided in this town fifty-six years ; it never has been 
as dry before since my living here. In describing this extreme dryness, I 
confine my remarks to our sandy plains ; the crops are better on the back, 
moist lands, but the?/ suflier very much. Three vreeks since, the hop-growers had 
despaired of a crop, on which is placed great dependence, the bottom leaves 
being dead up the poles quite a distance ; within that time two showers 
have fallen, that wet down about an inch each, and the hop has matured 
wonderfully. The wells and small streams are many of them dry, and 
springs iail that never were known to before. It is not unfrequeut for peo- 
ple to fetch their water for culinary purposes half a mile, and drive their ani- 
mals thus far for water. 

The shade-trees planted by the way-side, or before dwellings, one year 
since, and leafed out luxuriantly last spring, many of them are now dead ; 
the maple-trees before my house, ten inches in diameter, planted thirty years 
ago, the leaves are falling, and many of those on the trees look as if scorched 
by fire. 

A high cranberry in my garden has been planted more than twenty years, 
and its berries are shrivelled and dry ; the apples and plums are falling from 
the trees in abundance ; even raspberries and blackberries have failed. The 
heat has been very oppressive, the thermometer, ranging, from 12 to 2 o'clock, 
at from 80° to 98°, many days in succession. The temperature of the nights 
has been unsteady, very warm, and cool, ranging at sunrise from 68° to 40°, 
and this morning, Aug. 18th, 36°, the coolest since May. The barometer, 
for some ten weeks, has stood much of the time at 29.40, no time lower than 
29.20. 

That great pest in dry seasons, the grasshopper, is destroying every green 
thing. The leaves of the potato-vine, in many places, are all eaten off, and the 
silk of the corn is eaten to the cob, to the great detriment of the little expected 
from that indispensable crop ; the wheat and oats are suffering from the 
depredations of this little unwelcome parasite. 

Food for cattle is so short, as soon as the hay is taken off the stock is turned 
into the raow-fields, and they are pressing their claims for food and drink, 
and breaking into the inclosures on every hand. 

Were the whole country in our predicament, a famine would be the 
result; wheat is not to be bought; flour, 8ll the barrel; oats, 62 i cents 
per bushel ; corn, $1.25 per bushel ; potatoes, 75 cents per bushel ; butter, 
20 cents per pound, and othtr articles in proportion. 

In addition to all our other woes, this morning, Aug. 18th, I discovered 
the rust, or rot, had attacked the potato-vines. 

The drouth is very extensive, but not as severe usually elsewhere as in our 
-county. Signs of rain are abundant, but the clouds will break and disperse 
without rain; the wind, f r more than eight weeks has been, a great share 
of the time, in the south A.M., at M., and until 2 o'clock, Avest, at night 
north-west. 

Your Plough cuts a wide furrow. I have received letters in relation to 
the cultivation of hops from Georgia and from Alabama, the writers of 
which had noticed my address in your journal. Ariel Hunton. 

Hyde-Park, August 18, 1854. 



editors' jottings, etc. 



179 




EDITORS' JOTTINGS AND MECHANICAL RECORD. 

StSEVER's DoUBLE-ACTINa FOECE- 

PuMPS. — This pump draws and dis- 
charges an equal stream of water, 
and is well adapted for all situa- 
tions requiring large or small quanti- 
ties of water, namely : mines, brew- 
eries, railroad water-stations, tan- 
works, paper-mills, steam-engines, 
plantations, steam-boats, ships, irri- 
gating land, dwelling-houses, wells of 
any depth, etc., etc. There are five 
different sizes, capable of discharging 
from 25 to 300 gallons per minute, 
and can be worked by hand, horse, 
water, or steam-power, and being 
compact, require but little space, 
and not liable to get out of order. 
They are said to give great satisfaction for mining purposes. 

Beside pumps of all sizes, Mr. S. has on hand, and furnishes to order, at liis 
warehouse, 170 Broadway, all sizes of wrought and cast-iron, lead, copper, block- 
tin, and gutta-percha pipes, leather and India-rubber hose, couplings, branch- 
pipes, and every article requisite for hydraulic purposes. 

Fall-Rfver Route to Boston. — We have again had most substantial evi- 
dence of the merits of this favorite route. The " Bay State," Capt. Brown ; Mr. 
Stickney, clerk, and that important personage, the cook, and all hands, are just 
what they should be, to do justice to owners and passengers; and the " Empire 
State," its commander, Captain Brayton, and Mr. Symons, clerk, suffer^ nothing 
by comparison, and the table of the latter, among all boats we have sailed in. is 
equalled only by that of the former. The state-rooms in both are convenient, 
the beds good and clean, and the servants throughout attentive. This route 
gives you but fifty miles in the cars, and an entire night's rest. Mr. Borden, 70 
West street, is the agent. 

"Weong Location: Clothing-Store. — In speaking of Lippincott & Co.'s 
extensive clothing-store in Philadelphia, recently, we located it on the wrong 
corner. It is on the south-west corner of Fourth and Market streets, and may 
be easily distinguished as being the only red store in the neighborhood. Lippin- 
cott & Co. are now laying in their'fall and winter stock of ready-made garments, 
manufiictured in their usual good and durable style, and we would again call the. 
attention of purchasers to their excellent assortment. 

New-Yoek & Erie Raheoad. — It is a long time — more than a year — since we 
Iiave had the pleasure of passing over this road. Then our old friend, Charles 
Minot, Esq., occupied the place which is now filled by D. C McCullam, Esq., 
the present superintendent. We hear the " administration" of this latter gen- 
tleman spoken of favorably. Common fame says that the trains run with great 
regularity, and that the Ireeze which recently sprung up between the superio- 
tendcntand the engineers has really purified the atmosphere, and redounds to the 
credit of Mr. McCullam. The N. Y. & Erie Railroad is a great work, and no 
man can pass over it without being deejily impressed with a sense of the enter- 
prise and perseverance of those who projected and completed it. Who has not 
heard of the powerful locomotives, the wide cars, and the broad gauge of the 
Erie Railroad ? A thousand, yea a million tongues, proclaim its importance to 
the travelling public, and trumpet its fame over the civilized world. Long may 
It merit the glorious things which are now spoken of it! 



180 . EDITOES' JOTTINGS, ETC. 

Camden & Awbot Railroad. — This company is coustantly making improve- 
ments having reference to the comfort and convenience of the travelling public. 
Eecentlj several hundred feet of depot-bnildings Lave been erected at Amboy, 
and a large shed at the foot of Walnut street, Philadelphia, appropriately divided 
into passage-ways for the passengers and baggage-crates. Curves in the road 
are being straightened, and other improvements taking place, greatly promoting 
the facilities and comforts of travelling. As seven trains a day are now ran, 
varying in fares from one dollar and fifty cents to three dollars, aud in time froui 
three and a half to six hours, the wishes of the passenger are met. botb as regards 
time and means. Tlic enterprising agents, Messrs. Bliss and Gatzmer, the former 
of New- York, and the latter of Philadelphia, are entitled to the many compli- 
ments paid them by the travelling community, for the excellent management 
which characterizes the road. 

PiANO-FoETES. — "We have had in cm- family for some time past, a piano manu- 
factured by Hallett, Davis & Co., Boston. The instrument is excellent in tone 
and workmanship, aud those of our readers who may wish an article that can be 
relied upon, can not do better than give a call on the house in question. The 
firm are gentlemanly, upright men, who will endeavor to merit a second call. 

Railroad EEGULATioys. — The President and Superintendent of th • Philadel- 
phia, "Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad, have recently published a volume of 
rules and regulations for the government of those connected with the road. It 
is especially worthy of notice from two considerations : First, from the care 
manifested throughout to secure regularity and safety as well as speed. Secondly, 
it is the first work of the kind we recollect to have seen in looTcform. It is 
handsomely printed on good paper, in large type, neatly bound, and properly 
classified and arranged. A copy is to be presented to each employee in the ser- 
vice of the company, and the manner in which it is got up will cause it to be 
preserved and read. We were much pleased to see in it a rule prohibiting the 
use of intoxicating drinks by those in the company's employ. There is no doubt 
that nearly all the "accidents," so called, are traceable to this worst foe of man. 
The road in question has always been free from those catastrophes so common on 
some roads, and it is evidently the purpose of its able oflicers, Mr. Felton, presi- 
dent, and Mr. Spafford, superintendent, to keep it so. A strict observance of 
these rules will accomplish so desirable an end. 

Harlem Railroad. — John D. Elliot, Esq., has succeeded Mr. Sloat as super- 
intendent of this road. It has always been one of the best managed in the 
country, and has more trains pass over the southern part of it than any other 
road in the world. Accidents are very rare, and have always been traceable to 
the imprudence of the victims themselves. The company is now running two 
trains a day between New-York and Albany, leaving New-York at 7.39 xV.M. 
and 2.45 P.M., and Albany at 5 A.M. and 3.45 P.M. It passes through the 
rich agricultural counties of "Westchester, Putnam, Duchess, Columbia, and 
Rensselaer, affording the passenger a view of the most pleasing and interesting 
objects, over its entire length. The cars are convenient and handsome, the con- 
ductors gentlemanly and courteous, and the speed such as to meet the wishes of 
any reasonable man. Should the reader be passing between these two cities, 
let him by all means give the Harlem Railroad a trial. 

New Drawbridge Signal. — "We were recently shown a drawbridge signal, 
invented by Simeon L. Spafibrd, Esq., Superintendent of the Philadelphia, "Wil- 
mington, &L Baltimore Railroad. It was the model which we inspected, 
although the signal itself is in use at every bridge on the above road. Its merits 
consist in its always showing the proper colors on four sides, and on being so con- 
structed that it can not be easily misplaced. It is above the draw, in the centre, 
and exhibits four sides, or a lantern which can be seen at a great distance. Its 
operation is simple yet effectual, and we sliall not be surprised to see it come into 
universal use. Mr. Spaftord has taken the necessary steps for obtaining a patent 
for it, and will be glad to communicate with parties wishing to adopt it. His 
post-office address is Philadelphia. 



editors' jottings, etc. 181 



An Improved Piano. — I have hardly spcice left to allude to a new and remark- 
able invention. It is a contrivance for giving to the piano the only quality it 
■wanted — a prolonged sound. For ten years it has been sought for in vain. It 
was impossible to make the piano SI^'G, by obtaining from it a sustained note, 
like the human voice or the violin. Thalberg's great merit, beside his unrivalled 
execution, was his manner of at least approaching, upon the piano, the " soste- 
nuto," indispensable in many kinds of music. The invention is very simple, and 
it is efficient and infallible. The inventor is M. Alexander, the manufacturer of 
the organ-melodeon, and the first specimen of it is intended for Liszt. — Pans 
Letter to the N. Y. Times. 

Light in Dyeing. — An English artisan proposes to employ the chemical 
agency of light in dyeing or staining textile fabrics; the cloth, whether wool, 
silk, flax, or cotton, being first steeped in a suitable solution, then dried in the 
dark, and subsequently exposed to the action of light, those parts which are to 
form the pattern being protected by pieces of darkened paper, or some other 
suitable material, fastened to a piece of glass. When the desired efifect is pro- 
duced, the time for which varies from two to twenty minutes, the fabric has to 
be removed, in order to undergo a fixing operation, while a fresh portioD of it 
is exposed to light. 

PEMfSYLVANiA Railroad Tunnel." — The tunnel which has just been com- 
pleted on the line of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad passes through the sum- 
mit of the Alleghany Idoun tains at a point knoAvn as Sugar-Run Gap. It lies in 
the counties of Blair and Cambria — the summit being the dividing line. It is 
3612 feet long, 2685 feet of which is arched, containing 7700 perches of cut 
stone and G400 perches of brick masonry, and 927 feet is cut through the solid 
rock where arching is unnecessary. Eight feet of the arch on each side is built 
of cut stone 2ii inches thick, resting on abutments of rock-range work of the 
same thickness, and the crown consists of five courses of hard-burnt brick — the 
whole laid with hydraulic cenient. At grade, the width of the tunnel in the 
clear is 21 feet — ten feet above the grade, 24 feet. The height above the grade 
is 23 feet. The greatest elevation above tide is at the west end of the tunnel, 
where the height is 2161 feet. The grades ascending the eastern slope com- 
mence at Altona, and in a distance of 12 miles, where the west end of the tunnei 
commences, the height overcome is 993 feet, or 82f to the mile. 

The Minerals of Tennessee. — East-Tennessee, as we learn from the Knox- 
ville Whig, is three hundred miles in length by one hundred in width, and 
embraces within its limits thirty counties. From Marion county to the county 
of Anderson, and beyond that for the distance of two hundred miles, stone coal, 
iron ore, lead, and other valuable minerals abound in profusion. This region is 
watered by the Tennessee and Clinch rivers, which are navigable for steam- 
boats during nine montlis of the year. In Anderson, Campbell, Claiborne, and 
Hawkins counties, salt, coal, and iron exist in abundance. On the south side ot 
the Holstein river, discoveries are made daily of iron, lead, silver, copper, and 
coal. In Polk county twelve copper-mines are in operation, most of which pro- 
duce ore (so says our contemporary) of a quality richer than the mines of Lake 
Superior. For this ore Sl70 per ton is realized. The cost of transportation to 
New- York is $21.50. The copper business is the most pi'ofitable in that section. 
During the month of April four of these mines shipped six hundred tons of ore, 
equivalent in value to $102,000. 

Kew Manufactory of Agricultural Implements. — David Landreth, of the 
farm and garden seed store, 23 South Sixth street, Philadelphia, has commenced 
the manufacture of agricultural implements by steam, at Bristol, Pa. His ware- 
house is in Philadelphia, at his seed-store. 

Clement's Live-Stock Agency. — Aaron Clement, who conducts a live-stock 
agency in South street, Philadelphia, has recently sold a number of cattle, sheep, 
poultry, etc., etc., to Hon. John Wentworth, of Illinois, better known as "Long 
John." Mr. "Wentworth has purchased a large tract of land near Chicago, which 
he is stocking in the best manner from Mr, Clement's agencj. 



l82 EDITOES' JOTTINGS, ETC. 

Sublimely Ridiculous: Georgia and Ohio l>ABY-Sno"ws. — If any are dis- 
posed to bring annual agricultural fairs into utter contempt, no better or mare 
rapid process can be devised, in our opinion, than by the baby-shows of some of 
onr friends in Georgia and Ohio. If they can not excite an interest in their fairs 
by any better means, they had better renounce them altogether. 

If they really profess to be in earnest on this subject, tbey had better go into 
it business-fashion, and detail all the peculiar conditions of both parents, in ei 
ah initio^ and the peculiar habits of each, ■which may be supposed to aid in the 
happy result; and as it is supposed that surrounding scenes and persons viewed 
by the mother during certain periods have an effect on the quality of her off- 
spring, we ought to know whether the scenery viewed by the candidate was 
beautiful or not, and whether her associates were handsome or lively, or grace- 
ful, etc., etc. Go into these matters physiologically and psychologically, or leave 
them for other professions. Whether the mother wore stays or not, would be 
quite an interesting question to — some. "Whether she ate meat or saw-dust ; 
whether she habitually took exercise, etc., etc. We will furnish a list of inqui- 
ries for investigation whenever requested by the proper authorities. 

In addition to the criticisms copied below, we would respectfully beg leave to 
inquire whether the weight of the fether, or mother, or both, should not be 
taken into the account. Is not the one hundred-pound mother who produces 
a ten-pound baby as meritorious as a hundred and fifty-pound mother who groics 
one of twelve pounds ? But we forbear. The subject grows on our hands. 
I>row for the extracts : 

But we are moved to these remarks by noticing the following, from the 
American Agriculturist^ which is also commented Vi^on in the paragraphs 
appended thereto in the Louisville Journal, 

"A Geeat Baby-Show: Wliat constitutes the Prettiest Baby ? — The Stark 
County (Ohio) Agricultural Society are offering premiums for the finest speci- 
mens of Young Americans. Here is the list : 

For prettiest baby, $5 and diploma to mother ; for 2d prettiest baby, $3 and 
diploma to mother ; for 3d prettiest baby, $2 and diploma to mother; for largest 
and heaviest child, under twelve months old, age to be considered, $5 and diplo- 
ma to mother; for 2d largest and heaviest child, under twelve months old, age 
to be considered, $3 and diploma to mother; for third largest and heaviest child, 
under twelve months old, ago to be considered, §2 and diploma to mother. 

The above is not a fair list ; all the rewards go to the mother — no encourage- 
ment tc fathers. 

Before this exhibition comes off, the above Society ought to define what con- 
stitutes the ' prettiest baby ;' otherwise exhibitors wiU be altogether in the dark 
as to what they are to show for ; whether fat, or lean, or fair condition ; black, 
blue, or gray eyes ; black, brown, flaxen, red, or auburn hair ; pale or rosy 
cheeks; small or large feet and hands; long or short in the neck and body; 
thick or thin through the chest ; round or square shoulders, etc. 

All the above matters should be laid down in a ' Scale of Points,' on the same 
principle as established by the New-York State Agricultural Society, in judging 
of improved stock at their annual exhibition. It would be well also to have this 
'Scale of Points' accompanied by a 'model baby,' chiseled in marble for the 
form, and with a painted ditto for color, etc. ; then the committee would have 
some basis on which to found their judgments, and we might look forward to 
some improvement in the breed of the genus homo quite as sauguinely as we do 
now for that of the lower grades of animals; and Heaven knows that there is 
need enough of that in this wicked world, degenerate a;3 it is, morally and men- 
tally as well as physically. 

If a satisfactory 'Scale of Points' and 'models' could be adopted by the agri- 
cultural societies in these matters, the conducting editors of this journal might 
be tempted to make an entry for premiums, as each has been blessed the past 
month with wliat they consider a pair of ' models ' of the first order. 

"We copy the above from iha American Agriculturist. We fully concur in 
the editor's suggestions. 

We most heartily congratulate our friends of the American uoon those cheer- 



editors' jottings, etc. 183 

ing events of the past month, particularly the senior. To he thus blessed at this 
period of his days is a blessing indeed, and cme which inspires us with hope, 
hope even in our declining years. 

We believe to Springfield, Mass., belongs the honor of first introducing baby- 
show-s ; but the Southern Central Agricultural Association of Georgia entirely 
eclipse our Ohio neighbors in their scale of premiums. The following are among 
the premiums to be awarded at their next fair the coming fall : 

1st Premium. — Silver pitcher, $50, for the handsomest and finest babe two 
years old. 

2d Premium. — Silver pitcher, $25, for the handsomest and finest babe one 
year old. 

3d Premium. — Silver goblet, 10, for the handsomest and finest babe six 
months old. 

The children to be clothed in domestic fabrics ; the premiums to be awarded 
under the direction of the executive committee, 

Georgia ! yes, Georgia — it's a great country, and the Georgians are a great 
people. We have a friend who was born in Georgia, and who is a day's journey 
around the middle and three feet around the leg — he's married, too, but alas*! 
has no babies. No doubt if he had, his would come in ahead for the first prize. 

Wc hope these shows of young live-stock of the gemts homo will prosper, 
nntil finally we shall have a grand National Kaby Fair ; then let all creation 
stand back for Old Kentuck. We have the authority of a friend for sayinii; that 
Bourbon County, for a union of fat and beauty, can beat all the world and the rest 
of mankind. We expect, in view of this interesting show, a great matrimonial 
stampede. It is not expected that the exhibition will come off for a couple of 
years yet, and candidates need not le in a Imrry — tlierc tvill le x>lcnty of time 
to prepare.'''' 

Oblique Railroad Wheels. — The Paris correspondent of the Few-Yoric 
Daily Times says : 

" One of the most interesting sights in Paris, and one that no American ever 
thinks of visiting, as he probably never heard of it, is the railroad from the Bar- 
rier d'Enfer to Sceaux. It is but seven miles long, and was built as an experi- 
ment upon a new system of wheels. The engine, tender, and hindermost car of 
the train are furnished with oblique wheels, under the ordinary upright ones. 
Where the track is straight, these do not touch the rails ; but at the curves 
they come into play, rattling along the inner edge of the rails, and preventing 
the train from running off the track. The road was therefore made pur"^ 
posely tortuous, and the most sudden and seemingly dangerous bends were intro- 
duced at frequent intervals. The two stations are circular, and the train, as it 
receives its passengers, is doubled up into a ring of 50 feet radius. The smallest 
curve upon the road is 68 feet radius, and over this the train goes at full speed. 
The corners of the cars are cut off, so that the vehicles, in following the curves, 
do not infringe upon each other. Sceaux is upon an eminence, which the road 
ascends spirally, with something like a mile of track— it only going, in advance, 
a hundred feet. The invention— which, by the way, is ten years old— has 
proved practically very successful; but it has never been applied to any 
extent." ^ 

[We do not see why an invention, which is exhibited in the English depart- 
ment of the Crystal Palace, is not identical with that here described. It may be 
that the two inventions differ as to the extent of contact with the rail; but we 
still think them the same. If they are the same, we fully indorse for them. 
That exhibited at the Palace we consider a capital contrivance. But it costs 
something, and that is objectionable, while so many roads are constructed on 
paper securities. — Eds. P., L., and A.] 

The Culture of Strawberries.— The New- York Horticultural Society, at a 
recent conversational meeting, arrived at the following conclusions in regard to 
the best method of cultivating strawberries: 

" The best soil for the strawberry was stated to be a gravelly loam. The land 
should be well drained, and to every acre applied twenty bushels of unbleached 



184 editors' jottings, etc, 

aslies, ten bushels of lime, anfl two or three pounds of salt. The ground should 
be well broken up ; animal manures should be eschewed ; leaf-mould is the best, 
and this should be carefully spaded in. About the first of July is the best time 
to set out the plants. In doing this, pains should be taken to havse them firmly 
rooted. The rows should be eighteen inches apart, and the plants a foot apart. 
Sometimes it will be well to allow greater interval, in which case the interstices 
can be filled up from the growth of the runners. After setting out the plants, 
throw on a covering of tan-bark an inch or an inch and a half in depth, then 
water them plentifully, and the moisture will be retained a long time. After 
cold weather comes on, cover the strawberry-beds and the walks with clean 
straw, throwing over a little brush, or something to keep the straw in its place. 
In the spring remove the straw and make use of some fertihzing agent to give the 
plants vigor, as sulphate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, or nitrate of potash. 
Keep the roots out, see that the plants are bountifully watered, and let nothing 
intervene to disturb or retard their growth till you gather the fruit. The beds 
should be made over as often as every three years." 

Victoria Bridge. — The work, now fairly commenced, is without exception the 
grandest work of its kind on this continent. When Stephenson first projected 
a tubular bridge across the Menai Straits, people shook their heads, and doubted 
the possibility of accomplishing such a work. When the Britannia bridge was 
completed, poople came from all parts of Europe to inspect the wonderful struc- 
ture. Ste;ui,b)at excursionists via London and Chester were equally loud in 
praise of this wonderful work. Up to this very moment, it constitutes, with the 
Menai Suspension Bridge, one of the great attractions of the district, and the 
traffic in excursionists alone is immense. 

The Victoria Bridge over the St. Lawrence will form a still more gi-and and 
important object of attraction, because of its being a far more surprising work of 
art. Thus the Britannia bridge, thrown from cliff to cliff, has natural ramparts 
on which to rest. The low shore of the St. Lawrence does not present the 
same advantages to the engineer which are to be found where the bold cliff of 
the Island of Anglesea is separated from the equally bold cliff of the Welsh main, 
by this arm of the sea. To those who have not seen the Britannia bridge, but 
who have seen the Suspension bridge at Niagara Falls, we may say, that the 
cliffs at Niagara are not unlike in formation those that border the Menai Straits, 
so that the tubes rest upon buttresses of solid rock. In the one case, nature has 
prepared the place to the hand of the engineer; in the other, every thing has to 
be done by the art and science of the engineer ; and yet, in spite of these natural 
difficulties, the engineer proposes to throw a tubular bridge, two miles long, 
over this noble river, with a centre arch, one hundred feet high, over the only 
navigable channel of the river. A more stupendous and noble work could 
hardly be conceived ; and we should be dull observers, if we did not believe 
that it will, when completed, take its place, and be ranked beside the Tunnel 
under the River Thames, the Menai Suspension bridge, the Britannia bridge, and 
other monuments of human ingenuity which are visited by pilgrims from dis- 
tant lands, as abiding trophies of human genius and labor, and which administer 
more largely to the prosperity of the localities in which they are placed than 
those who take a narrovr view of the subject could possibly imagine. A few 
years hence, this very bridge may be one of the greatest attractions to bring the 
tourist and visitor to Montreal.' — Montreal Herald, 

What our Country pays for Guano. — The Genesee Farmer says : The quan- 
tity of guano which will be brought to the United States this year will be about 
200,000 tons. 

Two hundred thousand tons of guano pui'chased at fifty-five dollars a ton (the 
pj'csent pi'ice in New York) will take out of the country eleven million dollars 
for imported manure. For a comparatively new country, this is a startling fact 
All the corn and corn-meal exported in the last fiscal year amounted to less than 
two and a half million dollars. When will our people see the foll}^ of wasting so 
much of the elements of crops in almost every rural district, and then sending 
to the west coast of South-America, for ten million dollars' worth of manure 1" 



editors' jottings, etc, 185 

Musical Instruments. — i\.mid the various manufactures that within a few 
years have sprung into being in this country and become a permanent branch of 
American Industry, may be classed the manufacture of instruments of music, 
especially the Piano-Forte, of which there are now made in the cities of New 
York and Boston, annually, about 12,000, varying in price from $200 to $1000 
each. This gives employment to thousands of industrious mechanics, as well 
as to thousands of waiting capital, good proof of the increased culture of the art 
and science of music. At the rate of our present progress, may we not judge 
that the time v/ill come when poetry will be but half finished without its corre- 
sponding musical expression to give utterance to its life and soul ? But we 
commenced this paragraph simply to mention a fact. Having seen by the report 
of the last Great Fair of the Mechanics' Association in Boston, that the first Pre- 
mium for the best Square Piano-Forte was awarded to Messrs. Woodward and 
Brown, of that city, and that the Committee at the last Fair of the Worcester 
County Society, at Worcester, had awarded the same makers the first premium 
over all others, we were induced to improve a few leisure moments while in that 
city a while since, by visiting their establishment. It is one of the best organ- 
ized and most neatly arranged for easy management that we have ever seen. 
Messrs. W. and B. are both practical working men, of long experience in all 
branches of their business, and employ from seventy-five to one hundred hands 
in connection with the most approved machinery. A toning machine, and a 
machine for winding their strings, were particularly neat and compact. Their 
arrangement for stowing cases on rollers, one above the other, to save room, 
and also their mode of making racks for the piano tops, is worthy of imitation 
by makers doing even a small business. 

When all manufiicturers of these and other instruments shall make similar 
efforts to produce the highest mechanical and acoustic results, we shall get rid 
of thousands of jarring and unharmonious wire boxes which are not only a waste 
of lumber but a positive nuisance in many a town and village. 

A New Mowing Machine. — Mr, Fisk Russel, of Boston, a practical mechanic 
of large experience, has invented a mowing machine which differs in several par- 
ticulars, both in principle and construction, from those now in successful opera- 
tion, and decided advantages are claimed for it. The driving-wheel is the same 
as in Ketchum's ; but the vibratory motion is obtained from a wheel consisting 
of a series of cams, by the undulating rim of which a lever is made to move the 
knives. The knives are each separate, and play upon a steel pivot, acting as 
they vibrate like a pair of shears. The frame of the machine is supported by a 
secoad wheel of the same size and attached to the driving wheel, which renders 
the movement of the machine more steady, and obviates, in a great measure, the 
side draught. 

The machine was tried last week on the farm of B. B. Kirtland, of Greenbush, 
and did its work admirably. There was no clogging, and apparently less power 
was required to operate it than other machines. It is simple in its construction, 
and works with very little friction. Mr. Russel intends to devote the remainder 
of the hay season to experiment with perfecting his machine, and it will not be 
offered for sale till another year. Any judgment as to the superiority of the 
machine would be premature until further trial has been made, but it certainly 
promises to be a valuable labor-saving implement. — Boston Cidthator. 

Testing Marbles. — A Washington letter-writer states that in the basement of 
t,he Smithsonian Institute there is a room where marbles are scientifically tested. 
Specimens from all parts of the world may be seen there, cut into squares and 
cubes. To prove their strength they are tested in a crushing machine. That 
whioh is brought from Lee, Mass., is said to be the strongest and best in the 
country for building purposes. But the marble is not tested by pressure alone. 
They try it also by acids, by water, by drying, etc. They have scales to weigh 
the crystals in, which are so delicate that ten thousand of its smallest weights 
are required to make an ounce. The index-tablet, for telling the weight is so 
tine that its movement has to be examined by a very powerful microscope, to 
discover the variations. 



186 NEW BOOKS. 



Ho'sv TO Clean Animals and Plants of Vermin. — The Agj-iculture publishes 
a letter from M. Raspail, giving an account of a plan for destroying vermin on 
animal?, and also on trees and plants. The process he recommends is to make 
a solution of aloes, (one gramme of that gum to a litre of water.) and by means 
of a long brush to wash over the trunks and branches of trees with this solution, 
which will speedily, he says, destroy all the vermin on them, and effectually 
prevent others from approaching. In order to clean sheep, or animals with long 
hair, they must either be bathed with this solution, or be well washed with it. 
The writer mentions several trials which he made of the solution with the most 
complete success, and very strongly recommends it to general use. — London 
Advertise)'. 

North- Western Pomological Convention. — The nest annual meeting of 
this Association will be held at Burlington, Iowa, commencing on the last Tues- 
day (the 2Gth) of September, at 10 o'clock A.M., and continuing four days. 
Communications on any or all branches of horticulture are solicited, which, 
together with any boxes of specimens, may be directed to the " N. W. Pomolo- 
gical Convention, care of Messrs. Avery, Burlington, Iowa." 

By order. F. K. Phcenix, Cor. Sec. 

New Printing Press. — Mr. Stephen Brown, of Syracuse, has invented an 
ingenious press for prmting four different colors simultaneously. The Syracuse 
Journal says of it: " The inking apparatus, and the principles of the machine, 
are so arranged that four different colors can be printed at one impression, at the 
rate of about five hundred impressions an hour. And not only can different 
lines and letters be printed in various hues, but so perfect is the invention, that 
one letter may be printed in two, three, or four colors, or be printed in one color 
and shaded by another, all with the same impression." 

General Agency. — The publisher of The Plougli, the Loom^ and the Amil, 
believing it in his power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to them that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purchase of books of any description ; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, and experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and will execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

2^^Particular attention to business connected with the Patent-Office. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to, 



NEW BOOKS. 

Fifty Tears in Both Hemispheres ; or, Reminiscences of the Life of a Former Mer- 
chant. By ViNX'EXT XoLTE, late of New-Orleans. Translated from the French. 
New- York: Redfield. 1854. 

This is a remarkable volume. It gives the details of the life of one engaged in some 
o-f the greatest financial operations of the French government in the early part of the 
present century, including the period of the First Consul, and carried on in France, 
Germany, England, Spain, and the United States. The largest bankers were agents in 
these immense transactions. Incidental to these matters, many anecdotes are given 
of prominent persons in both hemispheres. Whether the author is entirely accurate 
in his statements we can not say, bat his I'epresentations do not always agree with 
those given in more formal history. But whether every statement of fact or of opin- 
ion is correct or not, the book has peculiar attractions for all interested in the poli- 
tical and great financial operations, especially at the French court, of the last " lifty 
years." 



NEW BOOKS. 187 



History ok California, from its Discovery to tlie Present Time, -u-ith a K'ew Map of 
the Country. By E. S. Caprox. Boston : John P. Jewett & Co. Cleveland, Ohio : 
Je-wett, Proctor & Worthington. 356 pp. 12mo. 1854. 

This handsome volume is a valuable addition to the -works on this sul ject. It 
describes the climate, surface, soil, agriculture, commerce, mines, and mining, with 
an account of its animals, birds, and fishes. The new map is also valuable, and is 
very handsomely executed. It is by Colton. The description of the voyage from 
IS^ew-York, and the return, •will possess interest to some readers. 



Gan-Eden; or, Pictures of Cuba. Boston: John P. Jewett <fe Co. 12mo, 23-1 pp. 
1854. 

Tms, too, is a remarkable specimen of mechanical skill. Few works are so well 
executed. It is not a history, but a sort of off-hand sketch of the sights and sounds 
which attract the attention of a traveller in that luxurious island. The style is per- 
haps a little stately, but the reader will be interested in every chapter, and the 
knowledge communicated will be quite extensive. 



HiSTORT OF Cuba ; or, Notes of a Traveller in the Tropics, etc. By Maturin M. Bal- 
Lou. Illustrated. Boston : Phillips, Sampson <fc Co. 12mo, 230 pp. 

The first three chapters of this volume contain a short sketch of the political his- 
tory of Cuba. The remainder consists of " the fresh memories" of one who had, for a 
time, a residence upon the island. The details are somewhat more numerous 
than those of " Gan-Eden," but, like all original accounts of the same thing, they are 
alike in many of the incidents, and unlike in the general form of nai*rative. They 
nowhere contradict each other on matters of fact, though they differ in opinion as to 
the practicability of effecting a revolution from without. The monteros, or humbler 
farmers, seem to be the most contented class. 



Lectures ox Romanism. By Rev. Jonx Cumming, D.D. Boston : John P. Jewett & 
Co. 12mo, 728 pp. 

These Lectures were first delivered at the Hanover Rooms, in 1850. They have 
since been "re-cast," "strengthened," and some of them "re-written" by their author, 
and they now exhibit, most decidedly, the coolest and acutest logic, and the most 
careful and thorough investigation, in reference to the doctrines of the Catholics 
and Tractarians, that we have ever seen. He who overthrows the argument of this 
book, will have no occasion to look for further antagonists on the points here dis- 
cussed. 



TuouGHTs AND Thing? AT HoME AND Aeroad. By Elihu Burritt, with a Memoir by 
Mart Howttt. Boston : John P. Jewett & Co. l2mo, 364 pp. 

This volume consists of a re-print of many of those admirable "thoughts and 
things" written by Mr. Burritt, and published in various journals in this country 
and in England. Among these are " Thought-tracks; or. Why I left the Anvil," in 
which Ezekiel says such capital things. The topics discussed, of course, are various, 
and seme of the author's reforms do not commend themselves to the minds of every 
:body. Bub every body will here find enough which they will approve, to cover 
many times the price of the book, and some of the balance may do them no harm. 



A, E. Muller's Piaxo Method. Revised by Julius Kxorr. Translated from the Ger- 
man, by G. A. Scn.MiTT. Boston : Oliver Ditson. 

We find in this volume the most satisfactory system of piano instruction we have 
ever seen. Every step is clear, and progress seems inevitable. Long popular in 
Europe, this work needs but to be known to become equally so in this country. 
We advise teachers and scholars to examine Miiller's Method, confident that such an 
exa miration will lead to its adoption. 



188 NEW BOOKS. 



Substance and Shapows ; or, Phases of Every-Day Life. By Emma Welmoxt, author 
of " Uncle Sam's Palace," etc., etc. Boston: John P. Jewett & Co. 1854. 

Tms volume consists of a series of stories, entirely disconnecteci, of various degrees 
of .merit, but none without interest. Together, they form a very entertaining book, 
well worth the notice of the reader. 



StWNY Memories of Foreign Lands. By Mrs. Haeeiet Beecher Stowe. Boston 
Phillips, Sampson & Co. 2 vols. 1854. 

This book is now too well known to need description. The writer gives the picture 
of her own bright thoughts and imaginings in her own style, and what that style is the 
readers of LTncle Tom need not be told. These volumes can not fail to be read with 
great interest. 



This, That, and the Other. By Ellen Louise Chandler. "With Illustrations by 
Rowse. Boston: Phillip?, Sampson <fe Co. 412 pages, 12mo. 1854. 

The copy before us is the seventh thousand. The verdict of the public is therefore 
pronounced .already, and with good style and good sentiments throughout, such a verdict 
is next to infallible. The fair author says her " Flowers are the violets of spring, 
rather than the splendor of summer or the mellow ripeness of autumn." At any rate, 
they form a very pretty bouquet. 

PHOTOGRArHIC ViEWS OF EgYPT, PaST AND PRESENT. By JoSEPH P. THOMPSON. 

Boston: John P. Jewett & Co, 1854. 12mo, 358 pages. 

This volume is partly descriptive and partly historical. The style is smooth, though 
a little tumid. The whole is no doubt the result of careful reading and judicious observ- 
ation, and presents a clearer view of that wonderful country than can elsewhere be 
found in so condensed a form, / 

An Art-Student in Munich. By Anna Mart Howitt. Boston: Tickuor, Reed <fe 
Fields. 12mo, 4*70 pages, 1854. 

This book is peculiarly entertaining. The author was occupied in the study of art, iu 
the city of Munich, and here relates with entire freedom her '' beautiful and happy 
experiences." It is admirably done, and while these pages witness a true joy in the 
heart of the writer, the reader of t;i- tc can not fail to be a partaker in that joy. We 
would emphasize our words, when we say we most cordially commend this book. 



The American Text Book of Practical and Scfentific Agriculture, intended for the 
use of Colleges, Schools, and Private Students, as well as for the Practical Farmer, 
including Analyses by the most Eminent Chemists. By Charles Fox, Editor, etc. 
Detroit : Elwood <fe Co, 1854. 12mo, 352 pages. 

We have not for a long time examined a book on agriculture with so much pleasure 
as this. Its plan is new, in a good measure, and is just what we have long felt was 
wanted, while the statements of matters of fact or of science are carefully expressed. 

Each crop, whether grain or fruit, is treated by itself. The proper soil, mode of 
culture, etc., are stated wiih due care and detail, while the uses of the different growths, 
straw, root, etc., are also described, and the enemies to be encountered by each. 

Every farmer should own a copy. It is for sale by D. Appleton & Co., of this city. 



Fexhts and Farinacea, the Proper Food for Man, etc. By John Smith. With notes 
and illustrations by II. T. Trail, M.D. From 2d Lrndon Edition. New- York: 
Fowler, Wells, & Co. 12mo, 308 pages. 1854, 

We are no Grahamite, but in belief and practice have always been opposed to the 
doctrines here enforced. But we must confess ourself more impressed with the argu- 
ment of this book than with that of all others we have ever read. The author's opin- 
ions are presented with remarkable conciseness, the facts and the entire logic of the 
book are stated with great fairness, and it is often much easier to deny than to disprove 
bis conclusions. Those who agree with the opinions here set forth can not have a better 
magazine from which to draw then: weapons of attack or defense. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



189 



List of Patents Issued 

FROil JULY 3 TO AUGUST 8. 



Geo. B. Hartson, of New- York, for improvement 
in -making wroiight-iroa cav-wheels. 

Charles M. Guild, Brooklyn, for gas-heating ap- 
paratus. 

lilisha French, Braintree, Mass., for coal-sifter. 

Martin V. B. Darling, Providence, for improved 
slide-valve motion of steam-engiues. 

C. "W. Crozier, Knoxville, Tenu., for improve- 
ment in camphor wash mixtures. 

Collins B. Brown, Upper Alton, 111., for improve- 
ment in harvester-rake5. 

C. F. Brown, Warren, E. I., for" improved im- 
plement for blasting rocks. 

John B. Wickershara, New- York, for improve- 
ment in foundation for pavements. 

.John M. Thompson, Taunton, for improvement 
in parallel motion for beam-engines. 

J. B. Smith, Milwaukee, for machine for mortis- 
ing sash-stiles. 

Gustavus Runge, Philadelphia, for improvement 
in trap-doors. 

David Rankin, Augusta county, Va., for method 
of applying v,-ater to compound buckets of flutter- 
wheels. 

Robert G. Pine, Newark, for improvement in 
plating metals. 

Charles F. Packard, Greenwich, Conn., for im- 
proved sawing-raachine. 

Wm. McCord, of Sing Sing, for improvement in 
horse-powers. 

A. Mayer, Philadelphia, for improvement in gaa- 
stoves. 

If. L. Lipman, Philadelphia, for improvement in 
eyeiet-raachines. 

A. Lyon, Worcester, for improvement in light- 
ning-rods. 

S. Hunt, Baltimore, for improvement in appara- 
tus for detaching harness from horses. 

Hiram W. Hayden, Waterbury, Conn., for im- 
provement in ornamenting metallic buttons. 

Jonathan Ball, New-York, for improved mode of 
connecting water-pipes. 

H. Crosby and Seth E. Crosby, Gustavus, Ohio, 
for improved mode of arranging arch-boards for 
cistern-arches. 

James A. Cutting, Boston, for improvement in 
photographic pictures on glass. 

General F. Foote, Buffalo, for improvement in 
ventilating railroad cars. 

H. P. Gengember, Alleghany City, for improved 
cement of boiled coal-tar and earths. 

Robert T. Fry, Spring-Garden, Pa., for improve- 
ment in the construction of inkstands. 

Rufas Porter, Washington, for chair-cane. 

J. Rabbeth, East-Hartford, for improvement in 
diaper-pins. 

Thos. B. Smith, Truine, Tenn., for improvement 
in cow-catchers, 

Franklin G. Smith, Columbia, Tenn., for im- 
provement in condensers for steam-engines. 

Josiah M. Smith, New-York, for improvement in 
machines for planing stone and metals. 

Willett Thompson, New-Haven, Conn., for ship- 
ventilator. 

Wm. H. Fullerton, Louisville, for improvement 
ia machines for hackling corn-husks. 

George Wright, New-England Village, Mass., for 
improvement in self-actiug mules for spinning. 

Peter Sweeney, Buffalo, for hot-air furnaces. 



Washington Spangler, Harper's Ferry, assignor 
to himself, Edmund H. Chambers, and Wm. F. 
Wilson, of same place, for improvement in augers, 
gimlets, etc. 

Thomas W. Gillett, New-Haven, assignor to J. 
Mathews, of New-York, for improvement in appa- 
ratus for corking bottles. 

John W. Brewer, Cincinnati, for improved ar- 
rangement for mooring and managing bnlloons. 

Ann G. V. McKinstry, Washington, administra- 
trix and executrix of Wm. McKinstry, deceased, 
late of same place, for improved adjustable bear- 
ings for circular saws. 

Eden A. Baldwin, second, administrator of the 
estate of Eden Baldwin, dece.-ised, late of Temple- 
ton, Mass., for improvement in fire-arms. 

Geo. A. Leighton, Boston, assignor to Nehemiih 
Hunt, of same place, for improvement in sewing- 
machines. 

Thos. Clegg, Andover, assignor to himself and 
Nathaniel Stevens, of same place, for improvement 
in machines for making wire heddle-eyes. 

Wm. J. Cai'selman, Vernon Village, New- York, 
assignor to Elias A. Swan, of New-York, for im- 
provement in macliines for carving marble, stonf, 
etc. 

A. G. Gallahue, New- York, for improvement in 
machines for pegging boots and shoes. 

Russell D. Bartlett, Bangor, for machine for 
making the heads of shovel-handles. 

Andrew Lanergan, Boston, Mass., for improve- 
ment in lanterns. 

Chas. Mettam, New- York, for improvement in 
construction of iron houses. 

Joseph J. Martin, New- York, for improved grap- 
ple for raising sunken vessels. 

Henry Outcalt, Wilmington, Ohio, for improved 
raode of constructing metallic-roofing. 

Wm. Loughridge, Weverton, Md., for improved 
arrangement of means for freeing canal-boats from 
water. 

Wm. Lowe, Hartford, for improvement in ope- 
rating cut-off valves of steam-engines. 

James C. Kennedy, Albany, for elevated oven. 

Abel Greenleaf, Kingston, Pa., for improved 
impact water-wheel. 

Joe! Green, Cinciimati, for improvement iu ap- 
paratus for sealing cans. 

Robert W. Genung, Blooming-Grove, N. Y., for 
improvement in lifting-jacks. 

Wm. P. Chadwick, Edgartown, for improvement 
in oil or blubber -presses. 

Stillroan A. Clemens, Springfield, Mass., for 
improved valvular arrangements for diaphragm 
pumps. 

Alfred Bnrwell, Rochester, for improvement in 
machines for stretching shoes, etc. 

Adolph BiOwn and Felix Brown, New- York, for 
improvement in hat-shapers. 

F. B. Smith, Craigsville, N. Y., for improvement 
in lifting-jacks. 

Albert S. Southworth and Josiah J. Hawes, Bos- 
ton, for improvement in taking daguerreotypes for 
stereoscopes. 

B. H. St. John, Columbus, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in bedstead-fastenings. 

Willis Straw, Daltan, N. H., for improved chain- 
hook. 

George B. Snow, BuSTulo, for unproved mode of 
ringing bells by steam. 



190 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Jabez C. Berry, Springfield, Mass., for improve- 
ment in screw-wrenches. 

Thomas B. Woodward, Kensington, Pa., for im- 
provement iu mills for grinding. 

Moses D.Wells, Morgantown, Va., for improve- 
ment iu brakes for light vehicles. 

Wm. E. Ward, Port Chester, for improved mode 
of manufacturing slats for window-blinds. 

John Stouffer, Peter Brough, and John W. Barr, 
of Charabersburg, for improvement in flouring and 
lx)lting. 

Orrin W. Fiske, Dedham, for improvement in 

machinery for making pasteboard. 

Jacob J. Hatcher, Philadelphia, for improved 
pen and pencil-case. 

Matthew Walker, Sr., Philadelphia, assignor to 
M. Walker A Sons, of the same place, for improved 
iron picket-fence. 

William E. Bird, of Cahawba, Ala., for improved 
steam-boiler. 

Israel T. Brown, Columbus, Ga., for improve- 
ment in cotton-gin ribs. 

Leander W. Boyfon, South- Coventry, Conn., 
for improvement in machines for preparing blocks 
for felting. 

Hugh Burgess, Kentish-Town, Eng., for method 
of coating iron with brass or copper. 

Lewis R. Concord, Philadelphia, for improve- 
ment in block slide-valves for steam-engines. 

Thos. Crossley, Boston, for improved method of 
making printing-blocks. 

Samuel Champion and Thos. Cliampion, Wash- 
iagtoii, for improvement in bridge. 

Joel A. H. Ellis and Alexander Gordon, Roches- 
ter, for improved mode of operating excavating 
machines. 

Jacob Erdl.-, West-BIoomfield, N. Y., for im- 
proved wind-mill. 

Eoswell Eaos, Woodstock, HL, for improvement 
in tanning. 

Geo. W. Griswall, Carbondale, Pa., for process 
of separating impalpable powder for paints. 

F. Huston, New-Orleans, for improved mode of 
raising vessels. 

Wm. R. Palmer, Elizabeth City, N. C, for im- 
provement in liorse-powers. 

J. A. Rose and J. Lee, Philadelphia, for improve- 
ment in machines for scouring piece-goods. Pa- 
tented in England, Feb. 17, 1854. 

E. Mardock, Albany, for improvement in cutting 
tobacco. 

Wm. G. W. Jaeger, Baltimore, for manufacture 
of lamp-black. 

James Spratt, Cincinnati, for improvement in 
hermetical sealing. 

Thos. Siubblcfield, Columbus, Ga , for improve- 
ment in steam-gauges. 

H. C. Stevens, Georgetown, Ky., for improve- 
ment in washing-machines. 

Jacob SennefT, Philadelpliia, for improvement in 
sheaver's heddles. 

Wm. W. Smith, Marshall, Mich., for improve- 
ment in buckles. 

A. Snyder, Flawley, Pa., for improvement in rail- 
road car-trucks. 

Geo. II. Smith, M.D., Rochester, for improved 
process for making steel direct from the ore. 



Peter Spilman, Richmond, Va., for improvement 
in apparatus for laying off the scye in cutting gar- 
ments. 

J. F. Snyder, Culpepper, for improvement in me- 
tallic fire-places. 

S. Tonelison, Pleasant Valley. N.Y., for machines 
for holding docks of horses. 

P. B. Tyler, SpringSeld, Alass., for improvement 
in winding rope, cord, or yam. 

Chas. Watt, London, and Hush Burgess, of the 
city of London, England, for improvement in the 
manufacture of paper fi-om wood. Patented in 
England, Aug. 19, 1853. 

Geo. F. Wilson, Providence, and Jas. M. Whit- 
ney, North-Providence, N. I. ,for improvement in 
machines for threading screws. Patented in Eng- 
land, July IS, l&5i. 

Mary Burns, of New-York, administratrix of 
P^obert Burns, Jr., deceased, late of New-York 
aforesaid, for improved carriage-springs for lighJ 
vehicles. Patented in England, June 7, 1853. 

G. J. WardwcU, Andover, Maine, assignor to 
himself and Elmer Townsend, of Boston, Mass., 
for improvement in machines for pegging boots and 
shoes. 

Albert H. Tingley, Providence, R. I., assignor to 
himself, Edmund VV., and Harvey F. Tingley, of 
Providence, aforesaid, for improvement in ma- 
chines for sawing stone and marble. 

Charles R. Fox, Chicago, for impi'Oved sawing- 
machine. Patent dated May 9, 1854. 

Samuel Eccles and James Eccles, of Philadel- 
phia, for improvement in looms for weaving figured 
fabrics. Additional to original letter patent, Na. 
9108, dated Aug. 3, 1852. 

R. D. Bartlett, Bangor, Me., new mode of manu- 
facturing bricks. 

W. S. Babcock, Stonington, Conn., for improve- 
ment in dumping-wagons. 

E. A. Baldwin, Elmira, N.Y., for new tubular 

bridge. 

William Bonny, New-York City, imitation mar- 
ble. 

N. A. Boynton, New-York, new arrangement for 
air-heating stoves. 

J. W. Brovv'n, Wcst-Springfleld, Mass., improve- 
ment in revolving flre-arms. 

Wm. S. Chapman, Cincinnati, Ohio, India-rubber 
blocks to prevent wear and noise in running car- 
riages. 

Nathan Chapman, Mystic River, Conn,, improved 
cotton-press. 

Daniel Clare, Hammonsville, Pa., sawing and 
planing-machine. 

Silas Constant, Brooklyn, N. Y., rosin-oil lamps. 

Lewis Cutting, Lowell, Mass., stop-motion for 
speeders. 

I. H. Davis, Morristown, N. J., process for mak- 
ing pigments from iron ore. 

Joseph C. bay, Hackettstown, N. J., improve- 
ment in fire-arms. 

G. C. Fisk, Dansvillc, N. Y., new method of 
tonguing and grooving boards. 

0. N. Frary, Ansonia, Conu., improvement in 
mclodcons. 

J. G. Fulton, Middleport, Ohio, salt-packing ma- 
chine. 

John Gcmmil, Mercer, Pa, radiators- 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



191 



^Josee Johnsori, Fort Smith, Ark., improyed brick- 
press. 

Daniel Knight, Salem, Ind., new form of lock for 
fire-arms. 

\Vm. H. Merriwether, New-Braunfels, Texas, 
improved spring for bed-bottoms. 

Joshua Merrill and George Patten, Boston, Mass., 
improved refrigerator for marine-engines. 

J. S. McClelland. Jefferson, Ind., new method of 

arranging buggy-springs. 

John McMurtry, Lexington, Ky., improved mode 
of making brick. 

Stanislaus Millctt, New-Vork City, improved 
sofa-bedstead. 

N. Millington and D. S. George, Shaftsbury, Vt., 
new method of graduating carpenters' squares. 

Alex. Moffit, Erowusville, Pa., spring-body car, 
riage. 

Samuel Nicholson, Boston, Mass., new mode of 
setting and preserving wooden pavement. 

J. Porter, New-York city, stone dressing ma- 
diine. 

Christian Reif, Hartleton, Pa., clover-separator. 

Cheeney Peed and Brooks K. Mould, Chicago, 
111., improved method of vontilating railroad-cars. 

Luther and Potter G. Ross, Worcester, Mass., ma- 
chine for cutting boot and shoe-soles. 

Horace Smith and B. B. Wesson, Norwich, Conn., 
improved cartridges. 

Ira Smith and John Stonesifer, Boonesboro', 

Md., improvement in lard-lamps. 

T. B. Stout, Keyport, N. J., improved car-conp- 

ling. 

A. G. Safford, Boston, Mass., sash-spring. 

John Thompson, Marblehead, Mass., machine for 
cutting boot and shoe-soles. 

Edward Turner, Baltimore, Md., new hame-fas- 
tener. 

Philos B. Tyler and Benj. Lathrop, Springfield, 
Mass., furniture-castor:?. 

Wm. Wickersham, Boston, Mass., self-heafing 
smoothing iron. 

Henry E. Woodbury, Washington, D. C, docu- 
ment-file or holder. 

Peter Midgett, Hoosiek, N. Y., shuttle-guard for 
power-looms. 

Leroy S. White, Chicopee, Mass., improved roller 
for furniture-castors. 

Alfred Swingle, assignor of Elmer Townsend, 
Boston, Mass., sewing-machine. 

John Norton, Cork, Ii-eland, improved blasting- 
fuse. 

Amos J. Saxton, Brooklyn, N. Y., improved me- 
thod of constructing iron buildings. 

Weatherell Taylor, Camptown, N. J., bushing- 
sheaves for ship-blocks. 

Solomon W. Ruggles assignor of himself and A. 
R. Smith, Fitchburg, Mass., fan-blower. 

Jas. A. Bazin, Canton, Mass., assignor of Alfred 
E. Ely, Boston, new braiding-machine. 

Wm. Ball, Chicopee, iMass., gold-amalgamator. 

Solomon Andrews, Perth Amboy, N. J., mail-bag 

laJjels. 

T. R. and George Bailey, Lockport, N. Y., cutting 
rtiind-tcnoris. 



■ H. N. and J. C. Bill, Willimantic, Conn., securing 
helves in axes, etc. 

Wm. Bradley, Lynn, Mass., nutmeg-graters. 

E. W. Brown, Fall River, looms. 

Henry T. Brown, Brooklyn, N. Y., bottles. 

L. B. Carpenter, Buffalo, N. Y., lamp-fasten- 
ings. 

L. S. Chichester, Brooklyn, N. Y., cotton-gins. 

T. F. Chapin, Walpole, N. H., ploughs. 

Wm. Clark, New-York, bottles. 

John Clark, North-Hadley, Mass., spring and 
spring-catch for closing doors. 

G. A. Colehamer, Reading, Pa., lubricating com- 
pound. 

Thomas Coles, New-York, omnibus-step protec- 
tor. 

Charles H. Dana, West-Lebanon, N. H., cultiva- 
tors. 

George Deuble, Canton, Ohio, striking part of 
steeple-clocks. 

C. W. Dickinson, Newark, N. J., finishing dies in 
machine for making rings from sheet-metal. 

L. A. Dole, Salem, Ohio, lathe-chuck. 

James and John Fishwick, Lexington, Ky., driv- 
ing and straining saws. 

Charles Folsom, Cambridge, Mass., reading-ta- 
bles. 

Alanson Gale, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., mowing- 
machine. 

Samuel Gardiner, New-York, crushing and pul- 
verizing ores, etc. 

A. J. Gibson, Clinton, Mass., vehicles. 
Ezekiel Gore, Bennington, Vt., butter-worKers. 
G. W. Griswold, Carbondale, Pa., grates. 

E. P. Gaines, Melrose, Texas, mill-stone dress. 

B. T. Hall Seneca Falls, N. Y, water-wheeL 

A. C. Harig and D. C. Stoy, Louisville, Ky., 
bank-locks, 

M. A. Heath, Providence, R. I., windows. 

Walter Hunt, New- York, shirt-collars. 

Henry Jackson, Elizabeth, Ohio, steam-boilers. 

W. G. Laners, New-York, securing ends of wires 
in fence-posts. 

Griffith Lichteuthalcr, Limestoneville, Pa., culti- 
vator. 

H. L. Lipman, Philadelphia, eyelet-machines. 

N. B. Livingston, Portland, Ind., coupling for 
carriages. 

John Lyon, Harrisburg, Iowa, ditching-ploughs. 

Jordan L. Mott, Mott-Haven, N.Y., securing sta- 
ples to walls. 

J. R. Nichols, Haverhillj Mass., soda-water foun- 
tain. 

Alphonse Quantin, Philadelphia, Pa., stoppering 
mineral-water bottles. 

Washburne Race, (assignor to IL C. Sileby and 
Washburne Race,) Seneca Falls, N. Y., stove-regu- 
lators. 

EUhu Ring, Mecklenburgh, N. Y., butter-work- 
ers. 

Elnathan Sampson, W'indsor, Vt., platform- 
scales. 



192 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



J. W. Smith, Poultney, Vt., sheet-metal candle- 
stick. 

Isaac Straub, Cincinnati, Ohio, corn-cob cutter. 

David Stouder, New-Burlington, lud., ditching- 
spade. 

William H. Towers, PhiladeljAia, Pa., horse- 
ehoes. 

John E. Vansant, Louisville, Ky., indicating- 
tubes for ascertaining draught of and for trimming 
vessels. 

Abr.iham Van Antwerp, Albany, N. T., paddle- 
wheels. 

Charles A. Wakefield, Plainfleld, Mass., seed- 
planters. 

Eenjamiu Webb, Unadilla Forks, N.Y., polishing 
wheels. 

Charles Williams, Fallsburg, Va., fitting heads in 
boxes. 

Simon WOlard, Cincinnati, Ohio, portable bed- 
steads. 

Daniel Willis, New- York, apparatus for cooking 
and warming. 

Leonard Woods, Quincy, HL, hedge-trimmer. 

Daniel Zeigler, Lewistown, Pa., cider-mills. 

Daniel Wilson, assignor, etc., Milford, N. H., 
thimbles for stove-pipes. 

Eirdsiil Holly, Seneca Falls, N. Y., mortising- 
machine. 

Thomas Brown, London, Eng., working and stop- 
pering chain-icables. 

Elkan Adler, New- York, making matches. 

Wm. Little, England, a lubricating material. 

C. F. Bauersfitld, Cincinnati, Ohio, bits for carv- 
ing-machines. 

C. B. Baker, Troy, N, Y., brick-press. 

R. C. Bristol, China, Mich., improvement in 
steam-boiler tubes. 

G. W. Cherry, New- York, stone-saws. 

E. and J. R. Cushman, Amherst, Unss^ drying 
hick paper. 

Wm. Cayce, Franklin, Tenn., doer-locks. 

Jer. Carhart, New- York, uniting plates of metal 
of unequal thickness. 

John Carton and Jos. Briggs, Utica, N. Y., hot- 
air furnaces. 

Ari Davis, New- York, magneto-electric ma- 
chines. 

II. C. Deputy, Michigan City, draughting and 
modelling vessels. 

John J. Efferenn, Springfield, Mass., sawing fire 
wood. 

Pliinoas Emmons, New-York, moulding crack- 
ers. 

Josiah Eflls, Pittsburg, Pa., revolving-breech 
fire-arms. 

Jolm E. Earle, Leicester, Mass., compasses and 
callipers. 

W. K. Glover, Glascow, Ky., metallic pens, 

Isaac Gregg, Pittsburg, Pa., brick-presses. 

B. F. Gold, New-Haven, Conn., lathing build- 
ings. 

A. J. Gibson, Clinton, Mass., attaching thills and 
poles and whiffle-lrees to vehicles. 



Joseph Hyde, New-York, washboards 

J. M. Hathaway, New- York, shot-pou:he3. 

D. A. Hopkins, Elmira, N. Y., railroad-car coup- 
lings. 

Wm. F. Ketchum, Buffalo, N. Y., submerged 
paddle-wheels. 

Wm. Henry Morrison and .M. W. E. Dorane, In- 

dianopolis, Mich., mortising-machine. 

Willis Mansfield, New-Haven, Conn., switch- 
fenders. 

William Watson, New-York, stone and mai'ble- 
saws. 

Benj. F. Bee, feed-water apparatus for steam- 
boilers. 

G. W. Coats and J. Russel, Springfield, Ohio, 
machines for striking card-teelh. 

Ilalvor Harrison and Horace Barnes, Boston, 
Mass., measuring cloth on looms. 

S. T. Thomas and Eliza Ann Everett, (adm,,) 
Lawrence, Mass., warping and dressing yarns, 

Charles Mou^n and W. N. Booth, Buffalo, N.Y., 
fastening lanterns. 

Wm. S. McLean, Pittsburg, Pa., car-wheels. 

W. M. Pahner, Palmyra, Me., threshing-ma- 
chine. 

B. S. & C. M. Pierce, New-Bedford, Mass., 
moulds for cement or earthen vessels. 

A. H. Petsch, Charleston, S. C, dumping-car. 

Sanford Stone, Kirkersviile. Ohio, dumping- 
cart. 

S. Shearman, Goshen, Ind., cleaning and feed- 
ing in grain to the mill-stones. 

John Stull, Philadelphia, Pa., saw-mills. 

Louis Schwingrouber, New- York, shoe-horns. 

George Souther, Sonth-BMton, Mass., tires for 

carriage-wheels, 

Eli Whitney, Whitneyville, Conn., fire-arms. 

Horace Woodman. Biddeford, Me., cleaning 
top-cards of cardiug-maclunes. 

Simeon Willard, Cincinnati, Ohio, bedsteads. 

Albin Warth, New- York, fu'e-engines. 

W. B. Walker, Bennington, Vt., manufacture c-f 
brooms. 

Wm. Anderson, Ulysses, N. Y., harrows. 

Tliomas Daugberty, Erie, Pa., lasting instru- 
ments. 

C. K. Farr, Auburn, Miss., cultivator. 

Robert Grant, New- York, hydraulic-press. 

J. S. Hall, Manchester, Pa., ploughs. 

Abr'm Jackson, New-York, horse-power hoist- 
ing machinery. 

11. N. Black, Philadelphia, cleaning and drying 
grain. 

M. H. Mansfield, Ashland, Ohio, screens for hull* 
ing clover-seed and cleaning grain. 

D. W. Shanes, Hamdcn, Conn., cultivator. 

J. W. Sikes, Plymouth, N. C, cap or withe for 

masts. 

J. W. Whittal and W. W. Pendleton, Green- 
wich, Conu., felt-hats. 

D. F. Mellen, Wentwortb, N. H., planing me- 
tals. 



f l)e il0«j)!)j ^¥ fwitt, anil tlje ^iwil. 



Vol. VTI. OCTOBER, 1854. No. 4. 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 

Among the richest and most valuable of the lands of this or any other 
country, those which contain iron and coal have been found to excel all 
others. Though their surfaces are a mere " barren rock," and the possibility 
of cultivation not a question even for consideration, they are worth more per 
acre than any other description of property. 

But next, perhaps, to estate of this description, lands which contain build- 
ing material may be classed, provided they are in the vicinity of a market, or 
if their products can be transported to market at reasonable cost. We pro- 
pose to describe some of these products of our own country, and state their 
peculiar merits. The most valuable of all these rocks is 

Marble, 

Marble is the carbonate of lime, or lime-stone, though often mingled with 
foreign matter. But all carbonates of lime are not marble. The distinction 
is this : Lime-stone that Avill take a polish is marble. The coarsest lime- 
stones make a good building material, and may be even unsurpassed in an 
economical aspect, but they are suited only to those structures which can dis- 
pense with the finer kinds of ornament. Like granite, to be described here- 
after, it is suited to every kind of structure in which the gigantic, the strong. 
or the durable is involved, rather than the elegant and the beautiful. All 
that is properly called lime-stone may be converted into quick-lime, under 
the heat of a moderate furnace, and will effervesce when acids are poured 
upon them. A single drop of any strong acid is a test that will never fail. 

Lime-stones run into marls at one extreme, and at the other terminate in the 
purest marble. The " older " lime-stones contain some of the oxides of iron, 
the sulphuret of lead, or of zinc, manganese, etc. The " more recent," often 
contain fossils of various kinds. 

Of marbles there are many varieties. One obvious distinction is into white, 
dark, and mottled. Of the mottled marble, different colors are produced by 
different mixtures of foreign substances with it, and the purest marbles are 
those which are perfectly white. 

The V£\rious tints of marble are generally produced by the presence of cer- 
tain oxides of iron. The blue and the green are the efi'ect, sometimes, of 
the presence of hornblende. The black is produced by charcoal. Sometimes 
sulphur and bitumen are mixed with the marble, but their presence is readily 
detected by its odor. 

The verd antique of the ancients is a kind of breccia or conglomerate, the 
paste of which consists of a mixture of talc and lime-stone, while the green 
fragments, held together by the paste, are serpentine. In the verd antique 

VOL. VII. 18 



194 BUILDING MATERIALS. 

found in England, rlie white is lime-stone, and the green, serpentine and 
asbestos. 

Fragmentary marbles are divided into two kinds. When the frao-ments 
are angular, the specimen is called Breccia marble ; when they are rounded, 
it is called Pudding-stone marble. Shells are often found in marble. Such 
specimens are called Shell-marble. The Lumachella marble is composed 
entirely of shells. Animal remains are sometimes seen in marble, which is 
then called Madriporic. 

Marbles have been imported into this country in very great quantities, and 
have brought very high prices. The opinion used to prevail extensively, per- 
haps universally, that the native marble was almost worthless. It certainly 
sold in the markets for a mere fraction of the cost of the imported. 
Nor was this because no handsome marbles were quarried. The follov\nng 
anecdote was related to us, a few years ago, by a large owner of marble quar- 
ries. He had given his attention chiefly to the white variety, but determined 
to try a specimen of the variegated. A single slab was finished and sent to 
his Boston dealer, who placed it among his other native specimens. No pur- 
chaser was found for it. After a while he directed that this should be placed 
among his Italian slabs. A customer called and was shown into the foreign 
department. After surveying the assortment, he selected the Vermont slab, 
as an Italian marble. 

Surface marble, which of course is the only marble to be furnished from 
most new quarries, is apt to be imperfect, abounding in seams, or natural 
divisions, and also may have been broken by violence. The earlier workmen 
used to blast with powder, and this was enough, perhaps, to ruin all the mar- 
ble in intimate connection with the blast. The presence of iron is also inji*- 
rious. By the action of the air it is made soluble, and the rains dissolve it. 
It is then seen on the surffice, highly disfiguring its beauty. 

We would here insert an extract from a recent paper on this important 
subject, by Mr. Stephen P. Leeds, a professed geologist, residing in Brook- 
lyn : 

"Having had occasion, during the past year, to visit many of the marble 
districts of New- York and of the New-England States, I would beg leave to 
call your attention to that portion of the mineral wealth of our country com- 
prised in this valuable material for building and ornamental purposes ; and I 
do so the more cheerfully at this particular time, for the marbles of this 
country are destined, at no distant day, to form a highly important feature 
in its vast resources ; for among the many mining interests that are now 
manifesting themselves, that of marble can not fliil to hold a high rank, not 
only on account of its real, practical utility, but because judicious investments 
in this branch of operative labor are certain to produce large returns for the 
capital employed. 

A violent prejudice has long been held by dealers and workers in marble 
against the marbles of America, and that, too, without stopping to examine 
into the reasons upon which these prejudices existed, to see if they really 
were possessed of a moderately fair foundation. They have maintained thart 
American 'marbles were not sufficiently solid — they were full of flaws and 
shakes — the texture was not uniform, being sometimes in the same block full 
of soft spots, intermixed with nodules of almost flint-like hardness — that the 
color was not equal throughout the same mass, and that the general quantity 
was not Eusceptiblo of a high lustrous polish, or possessed of that compact 
composition which would allow IL to be worked well under the tools of the 
manufacturer — evils which it was asserted did not appertain to the imported 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 195 

article. And they were right, but only so far as their observation extended. 
All marbles of American quarrying have been, as yet, but surface specimens. 
Throughout all the quarries that I have visited, I have not seen any where 
the excavation exceeded seventy-five to one hundred feet in depth ; and it is 
from samples usually taken from the immediate surface that their examina- 
tions have been conducted and their inductions drawn ; from samples where 
the action of atmos{)heric and other influences tending to decomposition, 
have for long ages been in full operation, acting to the deterioration of the 
stone, while the finer marbles that are imported from Europe are taken from 
quarrie? that have been worked for many years, and are taken from a great 
depth below the surface. 

The extensive operations that are now taking place in the lime-stone dis- 
tricts of our country, are destined soon to show that these objections to 
American marbles are to be fully removed ; instead of surface specimens, we 
shall have blocks from several hundred feet below the surface, compact, clear, 
and susceptible of the most exquisite and elaborate finish, and embracing 
every variety of style, from the plain block and unclouded white, to the 
delicately-veined and richly-shaded tint, so profuse of beauty, and so fully 
adapted to adorn the halls of luxury and elegance. Then the rare beauty 
of the marbles of Italy, Spain, and Portugal, hitherto unequalled, will meet 
in this country with a successful rival in the products of the great basin 
lying between the bold and nigged Adirondack Mountains on the west, and 
the high sweep of the Green Mountains of Vermont on the east, crossing 
that rich and fertile valley in which Lake Champlain reposes ; extending 
north to the confines of Canada, and south, with some interruptions, through 
the western part of Massachusetts and Connecticut, and the eastern part of 
New-York, to the sliores of Long-Island Sound. 

Here, in this widely-extended tract, a new source of national wealth, here- 
tofore inert and dormant, will ere long be called into active existence ; for 
men of capital aad enterprise, with that far-seeing faculty which characterizes 
the shrewd and successful operator, have investigated the whole of the lime- 
bearing district, and have secured, as the field of their future operations, the 
most choice and desirable points situated within its limits, thus adding not 
only to the prosperity of the country, but creating a new demand for labor. 

The Vermont quarries are worked to the extent of between two and three 
millions of dollars per annum ; the New- York quarries afford nearly two mil- 
lions of dollars a year ; and the Massachusetts and Connecticut quarries toge- 
ther yield nearly the latter amount, forming an aggregate of seven millions of 
dollars per annum for the four States, and this, too, under circumstances far 
from propitious fur the full development of the marble sections to the utmost 
of their capacity ; and such is the demand for marble for building and other 
purposes, that were the yield four times the above amount, it would not over- 
stock the market, in fact the demand is almost unlimited. 

Nor is the marble the only source of profit from these quarries, the chips 
of rr.arble broken from the masses in quarrying and trimming the block-^, are 
used for burning into lime, and the quality of the lime thus formed is unsur- 
passed. To afford some idea of the quantity of chips thus used, " the lime 
made in this manner in Duchess county in this State amounts to over two 
millicns of bushels per annum." — Mather's Geology of New-York, p. 411. 

The value of a lime-stone deposit may be better shown in figures, and I 
would quote again fiom 'Pjot Mather : '' Each cubic yard of rock will make 
four barrels of lime, including the necessary waste. This would give about 
135,000 barrels to the acre. * * * * If we allow a profit of only 25 



196 EUILDING MATERIALS. 



cents per barrel, an acre of this lime-stone, 21 feet thick, is capaLle of yield- 
ing a clear profit of 833,880." 

As a building material, marble has ever been considered the first in dura- 
bility and elegance ; poets have ^sung its praises, and orators have descanted 
upon its charms ; it has been used in the erection of national buildings, and 
worked into monuments to perpetuate the fame of heroes, statesmen, and men 
of eminence. Temples, consecrated to the holiest sensations of the human 
mind, and dedicated to the highest attributes of art ; embodiments of the 
true proportions of the faultless, pictures of beauty and loveliness, wrought in 
solid and massive masonry — these have arisen from the marble quarries of 
ancient and modern times ; and with the wide field before us still to be 
explored, promising, as it does, such rich and. ample returns for investigation, 
we can not doubt that the time is near at hand when the marbles of this 
country shall claim and maintain their proud preeminence over those of 
all other portions of the world." 

I\Iarble occurs in almost all parts of this country, and many quarries have 
been opened. We have already seen to what extent some of them are 
wrought. 

In Maine, a quarry has been wrought for many years, in connection with 
the Thomaston lime-stone. 

In Western Massachusetts, they have been opened for many years. In West- 
Stockbridge most of the marble is white. Of this, in 1839, two hundred 
thousand dollars worth was sold. In North- Adams it occurs " of snowy 
whiteness," and free from magnesia. The Sheffield quarries produced the 
marble from which the pillars of Girard College were wrought. Great Bar- 
rington furnishes a very beautiful clouded marble, but it contains 40 per 
cent of magnesia. Lee produces handsome marble. 

In Vermont, white marbles are found through almost the entire range of 
mountains from Bennington to Vergennes, and it is found also and quarried 
in various places through the entire northern section of the State. The finest 
grained marbles we have ever seen, we selected from a quarry in Middlebury. 
Mr. Crawford has pronounced these marbles equal to the finest Carrara. 
More recently we learn that some very fine grained marbles are found in 
West-Rutland. At Plymouth, Windsor county, is a very elegant fawn- 
colored marble, and also mottled varieties, which are perfectly beautiful. But 
they are very hard and brittle, and therefore wrought with difficulty, and 
hence they have been neglected for the white, which is more profitable. 
Rutland has for many years sent immense quantities of white marbles to 
mai-ket. A quarry in Danby produces a flexible white marble, of most 
excellent quality. A slab freshly quarried, of the ordinary size for grave- 
stones, when supported by its tnds, will bend at its centre to the extent of 
an inch or two. It soon loses thii feature on exposure to the air. 

There is also a rock which has been quarried in Cavendish, near Proctors- 
ville, Vt., and which is found also in Lowell and in Troy, Orleans county, 
and also in some parts of Orange county, Vt., which goes by the name of 
VERD ANTIQUE MARBLE. Tliis is a misuomer. It is not properlv marble, but is 
quite a different thing. It is serpentine, miugled, perhaps, with some lime- 
stone and with certam metallic oxides, which give it a veined or mottled appear- 
ance, unlike the true green of the pure or " precious" serpentine. Our own 
city fathers, we believe, are discussing its merits as a marble, and a specimen on 
exhibition is described by its owners as " destitute of some of the imperfec- 
tions of ordinary marbles." It is a beautiful rock, well adapted for handsome 
fire-frames, tables, etc. It receives a high polish, and has an unctuous touch. 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 197 



It is also a beautiful material for pillars and pilasters, and all inside orna- 
ments. It is quite as competent to endure violence as most marbles. Bat 
we should as soon think of covering our houses with landscape paintings, as 
to use this material for the walls of a building. 

Serpentine is a magnesian rock. Common serpentine, according to Corn- 
stock, is composed as follows: Magnesia 44, silex 44, alumina 2, oxide of iron 
7.3. The presence of magnesia in any rock is not favorable to its durability, 
particularly where it is exposed to the changes of weather. No difBculty is 
found, however, in the use of such rocks inside of buildings. We know of 
fire-places built entirely of this " verd antique," which have stood many years, 
and are still as good as new. 

Isle la Motte, in Lake Champlain, contains a very extensive quarry of black 
marble ; very fine white marble also occurs. The lime-stones of this island 
abound in fossils, in which the ammonite, and a species of bivalve, are most 
common. 

New- York is abundantly supplied with marble. In Westchester county, 
it is so abundant that it is used for walls. A few miles from Lake Champlain, 
in Chazy, is a quarry called " Stoughton's Quarry," the marble of which 
abounds in fossil encrinites and corals, and other sea-shells. It is a " grayish 
mosaic," mottled with the red of the coral. A specimen of this on exhibition 
at the Crystal Palace, obtained the silver medal. The Onondaga lime-stone 
forms an elegant marble, abounding in organic remains. A large part of the 
rock is frequently made up of fragments of crinoidea and corals. 

In Pennsylvania is a marble of a reddish color, beautifully variegated. It 
is in Somerset county, near the Youghigheny River, and is on the line of the 
Collinsville Railroad. The vein is from 22 to 32 feet thick, and covers some 
950 acres. 

Indiana produces good marble, which is referred, geologically, to the Silu- 
rian period. It occurs above the blue lime-stone formation. The Marble- 
Hill quarry is one of these. Many feet below the place here indicated, is 
found a shell-marble bed, 20 feet in thickness, and of rare fineness. 

Illinois. — The geological survey, under charge of Dr. Norwood, brought 
to light several sources of wealth and luxury not before known to exist; 
among others, several deposits of marble of diiferent colors, and suited to 
different uses. Among these is a variegated variety, suitable for any descrip- 
tion of in-door and ornamental work, as mantels, table-tops, etc. It is from 
Southern Illinois, and will compare favorably with most of the imported 
marbles used for such purposes. It resembles most nearly some varieties of 
Egyptian marble. Handsome black marble is also found in Southern Illi- 
nois. A light-colored marble, nearly white, is dug from the vicinity of 
Thebes. A single building in Chicago is of stone from this quarry. An 
oolitic marble is also found in Hardin county. Another quarry is found near 
St. Genevieve. Polk county produces a conglomerate marble, said to be very 
beautiful. It resembles the Potomac marble. 

Wisconsin produces marble of great excellence. The prevailing color is 
light pink, traversed by veins of deep red ; also blue and dove-colored, beau- 
tifully veined. Fragments of pure white marble have been found on the sur- 
face, but their place in beds has not been discovered. This occurs near the 
line of Michigan, and near the Minominee River. 

The region around Lake Superior produces marbles in abundance. The 
"Lake Superior marble" is a pinkish-hlac, on dark and light strata, with 
dark and IT^t-colored flakes, occasioned by fossil-shells. It also exhibits 
dark purple veins, forming delicate but distinct lines. 



198 INTERESTING AGRICULTURAI* STATISTICS. 

The quarries of Messrs. Burt & Ely, four miles from Marquette, contain a 
marble veined with all shades, but generally a rich rose-color, said to equal 
the best Egyptian, 

On the Galena River, at Tuttle & McLeer's Mills, occurs a blue fossiliferous 
lime-stone. 

The elegant Potomac marble is widely known as beautifully variegated. 

Marble also occurs in the States of South-Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. 
But we have no information of particular localities. 

We do not, of course, profess to give a catalogue of all or even all the 
most valuable quarries, though we should be happy to receive and publish 
descriptions of such, wherever they occur. We wish to draw attention to 
the subject, and excite the owners of quarries to give them more publicity, 
and perhaps to induce others to open these mines of wealth, and at least 
ascertain whether the business of quarrying them might not be found pro- 
fitable. 



INTERESTING AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun gives the following 
interesting statistics : 

The Agricultural Bureau of the Patent Office, of which T). Jay Browne, 
iEsq., is the chief, received this morning from the hands of the binder, a few 
copies of the " Letter of the Commissioner of Patents, communicating the 
agricultural portion of the report of that office for the year 1853." Pub- 
lished in a condensed and convenient form, here is brought to view the 
results of various experiments by many of our most scientific and practical 
tillers of the soil from every part of our wide-spread country. 

These papers treat of domestic animals, fertilizers, improvement of land, 
bread crops, textile and forage crops, miscellaneous crops, fruits, wine, etc., 
and climatology. They embrace numa^ous important tables, exhibiting the 
quantities, valuations, etc. ; beside which, the work is embellished with several 
beautiful and truthful plates of the strawberry, corn, etc., and other products. 
Time will only permit me to say now that this work, which has involved an 
immense amount of care and labor for several months, is thus produced in a 
manner which must command not only the approval but the admiration of a 
large portion of our countrymen. 

This work says that, according to the census returns of 1840, there were in 
the United States 4,335,669 horses and mules; of 1850, there were 4.336,Y19 
horses and 559,331 asses and mules, (in the aggregate, 4,806,050.) The 
present number, including those of cities, may be safely estimated at 
5,000,000, which, at $60 each, would be worth $300,000,000. Then, on 
the subject of bread-crops, the census of 1840 gives the wheat-crop of the 
United States at 84,823,272 bushels; in 1850, at 100,485,944; showing an 
increase of 15,602,672 bushels. The entire crop of 1853 may be safely esti- 
mated at 110,000,000 bushels, and valued at $100,000,000. 

Next the cotton. The census returns of 1840 state the amount of tliis 
article cultivated in the Union to have been 790,479,295 pounds ; of 1850, 
987,637,200 pounds, an increase of 197,157,925 pounds. Th^ amount of 
the cotton-crop of 1853 is estimated at 1,000,000,000 ])oun#; which, at 7 
cents, would be worth $70,000,000. 



STATISTICS OF SONOMA. 19& 

The article on hops says that the price of hops during forty-eight years 
has never gone below 5 cents per pound — the actual cost of growing. Of 
•what other agricultural product can the same be said that is grown in New- 
England ? .Then, this very year, and at the time of writing this report, hops 
readily bring 45 cents per pound, giving the enormous profit of $450 per 
acre. 

Of the apple, the writer is not only interesting, but furnishes many amusing 
reminiscences. Amongst others, he says "a codling-tree, sent from England 
about a century ago by Charlep, Lord Baltimore to his son, Benedict Calvert, 
is now standing in full vigor at Mount-Airey, Prince George's county, Md." 
In 1820-21, the number of barrels exported "was 68,643, valued at $39,966. 
In 1852-'53, 45,075— value $107,283, and in vinegar $20,445. Every 
description of fruit is noticed in order, and with eminent ability. 

Tobacco is also fully noticed. The census of 1840 gives the amount raised 
at 219,163,319 pounds. Of 1850, 199,752,655, showing a decrease of 
19,410,664 pounds. The crop of 1853 may be'set down at 199,000,000 
pounds, which, at 10 cents per pound, would be worth -$1,990,000. With 
these few extracts I must leave the work for the present. 



STATISTICS OF SONOMA. 

From the returns made for 1854, by the county assessor, we glean tlie 
following interesting statement of the amount of stock, grain, etc., in this 
county : 

Sonoma Township. — 302 oxen, 1565 cows, 883 calves, 436 horses, 165 
colts, 1262 hogs, 3095 pigs, 2570 sheep, 1053 lambs, 43 beeves, 3100 
acres wheat, 1381 do. barley, 73 do. oats, 190 do. corn, 5 do. rye, 62 do. 
potatoes, 355 tons grapes. Militia, 209. 

Vallejo Townshij:). — 248 oxen, 415 cows, 355 calves, 144 horses, 16 colts, 
750 hogs, 2000 pigs, 18 sheep and lambs, 213 beeves, 540 acres wheat, 156 
do. barley, 31 do. oats, 13 do. corn, 112 do. potatoes. Militia, 77. 

Petaluma Toionship. — 455 oxen, 571 cows, 255 calves, 390 horses and 
75 colts, 659 hogs and 1394 pigs, — sheep, 24 beeves, 879 acres wheat, 555 
do. barley, 174 do. oats, 107 do. corn, 652 do. potatoes. Militia, 162. 

Santa Rosa Towmhip. — 755 oxen, 1444 cows and 786 calves, 659 horses 
and 176 colts, 3415 hogs and 4514 pigs, 48 sheep and 20 lambs, 189 beeves, 
2072 acres wheat, 547 do. barley, 114 do. oats, 86 do. corn, 43 do. potatoes. 
Militia, 157. 

Russian River Township. — 125 oxen, 528 cows and 222 calves, 202 horses 
and 108 colts, 1255 hogs and 1449 pigs, 30 sheep and 23 lambs, 4 beeves, 
1120 acres wheat, 287 do. barley, 14 do. oats, 238 do, corn. Militia, 94. 

Bode/ja Township. — 511 cows and 460 calves, 81 oxen, 95 horses and 55 
colts, 513 hogs and 745 pigs, 150 sheep and 110 lambs, 148 acres wheat, 130 
do. barley, 160 do. oats, 7 do. corn, 735 do. potatoes. Militia, 55. 

Annally Totvnshiji. — 1069 cows and 449 calves, 448 oxen, 442 horses 
and 54 4^ts, 2006 h%g& and 1480 pigs, 200 sheep, 1182 acres wheat, 532 
do. b.irl^|||i97 do oa¥, 136 do. corn, 10 do. rye, 1001 do. potatoes. Mili- 
tia, 109. 

^1 



200 FOEEST-TREES. 




RECAPITULATION. 




Oxen, 


2,412 


Cows and calves, 

Horses, mares, and colts, .... 


9,804 
3,017 


Hogs and pigs, 


25,137 


Sheep, 

Beeves, 


922 
- 493 


Acres of wheat, .-:-.- 


9,041 


" barley, 

" oats, 


3,558 
1,063 


" corn, 


- 777 


" rye, 


15 


" potatoes, 

Grapes, tons, 


2,605 
355 


Militia, number of, 


- 1,023 



The following are the statistics for Mendocino township, (Mendocino 
county — yet unorganized, and attached to Sonoma county for judicial pur- 
poses :) 

274 cows and 75 calves, 210 oxen, 241 horses and 67 colts, 2052 bogs 
and 1128 pigs, 146 sbeep, 751 acres wheat, 46 do. barley, 87 do. oats, 381 
do. corn, 40 do. potatoes. Militia, 80. — Sonoma Bulletin. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

FOREST-TREES : SPECIMENS OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Messrs. Editors : In an article from the Ohio Cultivator, on raising 
forest-trees from seed, the writer states that a deep, sandy soil is requisite for 
the successful growth of the chestnut, and it is vain to attempt to make it 
thrive on soils of an opposite character, as we know from repeated experi- 
ments. 

Thus writes the Ohio correspondent. Chestnut thrives here, in Nichols, 
N. Y., and vicinity, on a soil of rather a loamy and clay and very stony, a 
large amount being on very high hills, where the soil is a kind of loam, with 
hard -spar, frequently with two feet and some places one foot; frequently on 
high hills the timber is over three feet in diameter ; also the rock on the 
high hills is often found within six feet of the top of the ground. The 
rock in this vicinity is the Ithaca and Chemung group, and underlies the 
southern tier of counties of New- York, and a large part of Pennsylvania, 
with a considerable portion of Ohio and of other States. The chestnut thrives 
well here on the low river-flats, where the soil is alluvial. In relation to the 
butternut and walnut, they do well in this region, on a low, gravelly, sandy 
soil, and frequently on stony and clay loam, generally found here along the 
banks of rivers and creeks. There is but little lime in the soil here. From 
two specimens that were analyzed from Chemung county, by Prof. Emmons, 
the soil yielded from one and a half to one and three fourths per cent of 
lime. In the diluvial portion of this vicinity are often found ^jjGmber of 
lime-pebbles and holders from the northern lime formations. 



KEEP YOUR CATTLE WELL FED. 201 

The sugar-maple is found here growing on the highest and lowest land in 
this vicinity, and frequently on the high hills of large size with hemlock. 
The different species of hickory and white-oak, chestnut-oak, or rock-oak, 
black-oak, and red-oak, all grow here on hill and valley, in great abundance, 
and of a large size. 

In relation to planting seeds of forest-trees, I have no doubt but that it can 
be done often with much advantage. In this vicinity, and most probably in 
many others, a large amount of young trees of various kinds can be got for 
transplanting. 

In relation to the article in the July number of The Plough^ the Loom, 
and the Anvil, I agree with the writer, that every person should make more 
or less collections in natural history. It is singular to notice how little 
this science is understood by the mass of the people. This ought not so 
to be. People should understand, or try to understand, the works of nature 
that are constantly before them. I have within a few years, while engaged in 
my farming and lumbering operations, made quite a large collection of mine- 
rals and fossils, and am now-a-days making a collection of fish and reptiles 
for the Smithsonian Institute, and also another collection of fish for Professor 
Agassiz's great work on the fish of the Union. It can all be done without a 
great amount of trouble. Robert Howell. 

Nichols, Tioga County, N. Y. 



KEEP TOUR CATTLE WELL FED. 

The feed in our pastures is worth now, comparatively, but very little. 
Hence those animals that rely on this source for their food must sufter incon- 
venience. 

It is important not to compel our stock to use up the rich deposits of fat 
or flesh, etc., during this season of short supply. The effect of such a course 
will last through the winter. 

It is well known that if a sheep is half starved for only a few days, the 
growth of wool during that time will be of diminished value. The fibre will 
be of inferior qaaUty. So that there is loss both of quantity and quality. 
"We have no doubt that similar results follow the negligent treatment of cat- 
tle. When a man is sick, and thus prevented from eating, how rapidly 
sometimes does he waste away. It is very certain that other species of ani- 
mals are alike affected by only a temporary want of food. Wild animals 
we know accumulate, during the warm months, that which supports them in 
their confined quarters during the frosts of winter. Let us not fail to profit 
by these hints. Winter is a severe season, in our northern climate, both for 
man and beast. 

Fat-producing food is more important in winter than in summer, for the 
reason already suggested. Hence the oil-cakes, so much used in England, 
and there considered indispensable, or some convenient substitute, should be 
fed to our cattle during the cold season. Potatoes are a substitute, but the 
crop is too small to admit of such use. Different sections of the country 
have their own crops, which are adapted to the use of cattle. Cotton-seed, 
even after the ^1 has been expressed, in a good degree, is a fair substitute 
for the oil-cake. 



202 CURIOSITIES OP THE BRITISH CENSUS. 



CURIOSITIES OF THE BRITISH CENSUS. 

We find in the New-York Times an abstract of the British census, wLicli 
is well worth the notice of our readers. The following paragrapiis contain 
its substantial parts : 

When the first regular census of Great Britain was taken, in 1801, the 
resident population of England and Wales was not quite nine millions ; at the 
last reckoning, in 1851, it was almost eighteen millions — that is, the numbers 
had doubled in half a century. 

In Scotland, half a century since, the resident population was 1,608,000; 
in 1851, it was 2,883,000. In Ireland, on the contrary, the population is 
less now than it was in 1821, in 1831, and in 1841 ; in 1,hat last year it was 
8,175,124; in 1851, it was only 6, 553, 1*78, and has much decreased since 
then by emigration and eviction. 

The population may thus be generalized, as taken in March, 1851 : 

England and Wales, - . . . 1'7,92'7,609 

Scotland, 2,888,743 

Islands in Britisli Seas, ... - 143,126 

Ireland, - 6,553,178 



Total, - - - - 27,712,656 

The British census return for 1851 shows some curious data as to the 
occupatiiins of the people of Great Britain. There are 524 authors, 1320 
editors, 207 reporters and short-hand writers, 8433 booksellers, (also described 
as publi^'hers,) 11,029 bookbinders, and 26,024 printers. There is no dis- 
tinctive mention of compositors. There are only 10,255 merchants. Of 
shoe-blacks there are only 5. Commercial travellers, 9409, being less than 
in 1841. Of actors and actresses, 2041, and 82 equestrians; advocates, bar- 
risters, special pleaders, conveyancers, 3111 ; but of attorneys there are 
13,256. On the other hand there are 17,621 clergymen of the Established 
Church, 1556 Baptist ministers, 1972 Independent, 2725 Presbyterian, 14 
Unitarian, (this evidently is too small a number,) 1798 Wesleyan, 1580 of 
other Protestant denominations, 1093 Roman Catholic, and 73 Jewish priests, 
and 973 Scripture readers, missionaries, and itinerant preachers. 

Against the law and divinity, there are 2328 physicians, 15,163 surgeons 
and apothecaries; 15,643 druggists and chemists, 146 drug-merchants and 
brokers, and 88 leech-bleeders, breeders, and dealers. There are, among 
artists, 5444 painters and 6C6 sculptors. Of the juveniles, 55 020 were 
under tuition at home, and 2,697,717 at school. There were 65,376 school- 
masters and mistresses, which includes ushers; 176 drawing-masters and 
teachers. There were 13,865 pastry-cooks and confectioners. As many as 
20,242 are returned as " dependent on relatives." There were 46,661 publi- 
cans and beer-venders, 40,241 soldiers, 4516 officers, 1735 half-|>ay officers, 
89,206 merchant-seamen, and 6763 in the Royal Navy, with 23,907 Chelsea 
and 7976 Greenwich pensioners. 

It is impossible, they are scattered under so many heads, to arrive at the 
numerical strength of the manufacturing interest. ' The agricultural is plainly 
put thus: Farmers, 303,720; graziers, 3,047; son, da^dittr, grandson, 
grand-daughter, brother, sister, nephew, niece of farmers or graziers, 275,170 ; 



THE MISSISSIPPI PLANTER. 203 

farmers' and graziers' wives, 201,736 ; indoor farm-servants, 364,194; farni- 
bailifFs, 12,805 ; out-door agricultural laborers, 1,077,627. The total of per- 
sons directly engaged in agriculture, with the addition of 34,627 landed 
proprietors, would be 2,272,826, or about a ninth of the whole population 
of Great Britain. The Parliamentary orations of the Protectionists have 
strongly declared that it was a much greater proportion ; but the figures of 
arithmetic play the mischief with figures of rhetoric. 

The increase of population in London since 1801 has been curiously rapid. 
In that year it was 958,863 : the return for 1851 shows it as 2,362,236. 
From 110, (half a century ago,) Birkenhead (the Brooklyn of Liverpool) has 
sprang up to 24,000; Liverpool itself from 82,295 to 375,955 ; and Man- 
chester from 94,876 to 401,321. Even Bristol, which has only recently 
awakened from a heavy commercial lethargy, has double the population she 
possessed half a century ago. The greatest increase in any place has been 
at Glasgow— from 77,000 in 1801 to 329,000 in 1851. 

Two other points remain to be mentioned as curious: First, the continued 
excess of females over males, as shown by each of the five census-takers of 
the last half-century — while, on the other hand, there are born more male 
than female children. Secondly, the remarkable fact that while in Eng- 
land, Wales, Scotland, and the Islands in the British seas, the population of 
towns was 10,556,288, the population of villages and detached dwellings of 
the country was 10,403,189. The dift'erence in numbers is so small that the 
return may be taken as giving what is called " six of one, and half a dozen 
of the other." 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVII* 

THE MISSISSIPPI PLANTER. 

Messrs. Editors : I shall in this letter endeavor to give you a sketch, 
though an imperfect one, of the Mississippi Planter, and may allude to 
another profession. 

The notion is held and even encouraged by many between this and the 
Canada line, that our planter, nabob-like, either spends his time braced up 
in his arm-chair, in utter listlessness, having his wants attended to by a nod 
from the hands of some obsequious slave, or in visiting his neighbor to chat 
over the gossip of the day. Or, if possibly he may have some under-range 
of thought, he is trying to figure in politics. As for agricultural interests, 
they are too burdensome for his imbecile nature. All these matters are left 
to an overseer ; and so long as he can make the cotton-bales count at the 
expiration of the year, it is immaterial how much suiferiug man and beast 
have endured. 

Fancy now a character the reverse of this, and you will then much nearer 
approximate toward the truth. One who greets with pleasure the sharp 
north-wester, with its bracing influence, that is to give him additional energy 
for his business ; who, forsaking his pillow at an early hour, witnesses the 
" ruby tint of morn," that heralds the approach of the god of day whose 
warming rays in spring and early summer he delights to bask in ; for then 
he knows that the same cause that will bathe his brow in sweat, will give 
increased vigor to his growing crop. It is immaterial whether he has an 



204 THE MISSISSIPPI PLANTER. 

overseer or not. He feels tliat his planting affairs have a claim on him, and 
in responding to them by his personal attention, he is acting within the 
sphere of one of his greatest pleasures. To carry out his plans he has to 
hold daily counsel with himself or manager, in determining the time for cer- 
tain kinds of work, and L:ie best way of doing it. Neither is he regardless 
of his stock, for well does he know that on his oxen, but especially his mules 
and horses, depend much of his future success. Not only does he assist in 
planning, but is cognizant of those plans being carried out, by witnessing 
their application. 

The agriculturist of this region that does not exercise his powers of mind 
and body, and does not bring his plans into a well-digested form, will find 
himself behind the majority of his neighbors. He needs to have an esti- 
mate of his work at least a month ahead. And, to be safe so that all ends 
shall be well dove-tailed together, when the cultivation of his crop comes on, 
he has to make a calculation of the time, in the commencement of the sea- 
son, it will require to do his indispensable work — such as preparing his land 
for the plough, ploughing, fencing, etc. This should be done by the 1st of 
April, allowing 20 per cent for time that the plough should not be run on 
account of the wetness of the ground, and 10 per cent for bad weather. 
The balance then can be directed to clearing land, ditching, and other 
improvements. When seed-time arrives, his time and mind are occupied by 
the inquiry. How he shall plant to the best advantage, to insure a good stand 
and not crowd one portion in the way of another, that when it may be ready 
for tillage he may be prepared to give it ? Should he neglect either of the 
above, in all probability, and especially if he has fifteen or twenty acres to the 
hand, he will find himself, to his sorrow, in a condition by the middle of June, 
that may tell woefully when harvest-time comes. Does he expect when the 
seed is in the ground that his holiday has commenced ? Far from it. From 
the great amount of tillage, in connection with the rapid growth of weeds 
and grass, he has little time for idleness, especially if May j^roves wet. The 
cotton-plant in its infancy is one of the most delicate, showing hardly any 
progress before the 1st of June, while the grass is striding onward, like 
Jacky's bean, to overwhelm it. If we had only our cotton to protect and 
foster at this time, we might feel ourselves more our own masters ; but our 
corn equally, if not more so, demands our help. One false step, or little 
neglect, may make us, let us do what we may hereafter, corn-buyers, which 
is never a feather in the planter's cap. We recognize in it, if the season has 
not been too wet, an evidence either of bad management or slothfulness, if 
we are found much in the grass. We have an innate pride, independent of 
the pecuniary advantage, in having a good crop, and of course are pleased if 
we secure something better than our neighbors ; and this satisfaction is fur- 
ther enhanced if we can demonstrate that it has been accomplished with less 
work than theirs, for this would furnish very strong proof of superior hus- 
bandry. Then, beside our interests involved, there is a spirit of rivalry set 
up, of mind af^ainst mind, and physical force against physical force. Can 
such a state of things exist without the development of mental and physical 
energy ? It is impossible. No two consecutive years will admit of the same 
kind of management. As the seasons are variable, so have we to vary the 
application of our work. Many think that the agriculturist's life is like that 
of a horse in a bark-mill, round and round, with very " little variation or 
shadow of turning." What a mistake! Every step must be guided by 
thought. Should he estabhsh a system, and say. By this I will be guided, 
what in all probability would be the consequence ? In a few years he would 



1)RYI^'G FRUIT. 205 



find himself behind the value of his capital. As the physician and political 
economist have to be governed by circurastahces, so has the planter. I think 
one of the principal causes of the jarring among political economists, is that 
they establish systems independent of transpiring events. Whatever would 
be the true policy of a prosperous nation at one time, the opposite would be 
requisite at another. 

Few of us have had an opportunity of acquiring that kind of knowledge 
from books that constitutes the scientific agriculturist. But from liavino- the 
book of nature constantly before us, and reflecting that light we call experi- 
ence, we are thus enabled, although ignorant of the causation of things, to 
apply our efforts to that way that will secure profitable crops in return for 
our labor. We all plead guilty to that pernicious system, established in all 
new countries, of exhausting our soils, and, when shorn of their riches, of 
submitting other portions to the same process. The force of habit is fre- 
quently more dominant than nature, and the power of the multitude in con- 
straining our judgment is equally strong. Can it then be expected that we 
can immediately divest ourselves of these baneful influences ? I think not. 
Experience yearly tells us we should change this policy. And this we are 
doing, though slowly; but to counteract this course, we have a great abund- 
ance of fertile and cheap land, that is still a stranger to the dominion of the 
plough. Yours, etc., H. Yi. Stackhouse. 

Hinds Co., Miss., August, 1854. 



DRYING FRUIT. 

It has been observed that the amount of peaches consumed in a single 
week in the city of New- York, exceeds the total consumption of fruit in Great 
Britain throughout the entire year. The sales of perishable fruits are rapidly 
increasing throughout the country ; but there is one serious drawback to their 
extensive cultivation; that is, the necessity of crowding them into market at 
the critical period of their maturity, so that twenty-four hours' delay shall not 
witness their destruction by decay and fermentation, and result in their total 
loss. Hence the immense superiority, in this particular, of long-keeping sorts, 
which may be deliberately secured and held in market for many months, till 
the best time shall be selected for their disposal. 

But there is another important avenue to market for the perishable fruits 
that is at present almost unknown in its perfected form. We allude to pre- 
servation by drying. Every farmer thinks he has seen dried apples and 
peaches, hut not one in a tliousand has seen them — properly so called. That 
which usually appears under this name, consists, in the first place, of a selec- 
tion of such inferior, poor-flavored fruit, as can be used for nothing else ; this 
is imperfectly pared, leaving a due proportion of skin and core remaining, and 
is then variously subjected to partial decay, smoking, drying, etc., forming 
when completed a singular medley of all colors from brown to nearly black, 
and with nearly as various an intermixture of flavors. Those who wish to see 
dried fruit in perfection, must remember that a poor-flavored sort before 
drying, can never by any ingenious process become finely flavored after- 
ward. The very finest varieties must therefore be first chosen. The process 
of drying must then be so rapid that no decay nor even discoloration shall 
take place until the operation is completed. Our climate is too precarious to 



206 DRYIN"G FRUIT. 



think of drying fruit properly in the open air, even for the earliest varieties. 
Some artificial arrangement for the purpose must therefore be devised. 

The great leading defect of all the j^lans we have seen fur drying by fire- 
heat, is a want of circulation in the heated air — a deficiency in rapid ventila- 
tion. A high temperature is given by means of stoves to a close apartment, 
the air of which in a few minutes is heavily charged with moisture frorr the 
fresh fruit, and a sort of steaming, stewing, half-baking process then com- 
mences, producing, after a long delay, an article far different from that of a 
perfectly dried, finely-flavored fruit. A free circulation of air, kf^pt dry by a 
continued fresh supply, would accomplish the work in far le?s time, and at a 
much lower temperature ; and consequently retain, in an incomparably more 
perfect manner, the original characteristics and color of the fruit. 

In order to make a beginning in this matter, and to assist in the erection of 
good, cheap, rapidly-operating, and perfect fruit-drying establishments, we 
present to our readers a description of an apparatus for this purpose, which, 
although never patented, we believe to be far more valuable than many ma- 
chines not thus thrown open to the public. Its peculiar advantages will be 
obvious as soon as the description is examined. 

It consists of a tall upright shaft, through which passes an endless chain, 
made of a number of strong frames, securely hinged together at their cor- 
ners. This chain should be strong enough to bear several hundred pounds 
without breaking. At every joint it is furnished with a braced shelf, each 
consisting simply of a square frame furnished with coarse twine-netting, like 
a sieve. This endless chain, with its series of sieves, runs over an angular 
wheel above and another below, precisely like those of a common chain-pump, 
but wide enough to receive the full breadth of the chain. Its motion is quite 
slow, descending on one side, and rising on the other, and is accurately regu- 
lated by means of a pendulum connected to the notched wheel by means of an 
escapement like that of a common clock, but made very strong. A strong 
and broad India-rubber band connects the axle of this wheel to the drum 
on which the chain runs. As the chain is loaded with the drying fruit, 
and is therefore quite heavy, it must not, and indeed can not be subjected to 
the successive vibrations of the clock-work — these vibrations being broken 
and destroyed by the India-rubber band. 

The whole apparatus being ready for operation, heated air from a stove 
and drums is made to pass up through the shaft, being let in at the sides, 
and confined to this shaft by the drum being made light, and fitting closely 
without touching in its revolutions. A person with the freshly-cut and 
pared fruit, as each successive shift or sieve slowly descends, spreads a single 
layer over them. They operate like the weight of a clock in keeping up 
the motion of the pendulum; and the velocity of their descent is accurately 
regulated by means of the relative sizes of the wheels placed on the axles, 
and also, if necessary, by using different lengths for the pendulum-rod. 

The great advantage of this contrivance is the following : The dry and, 
freshly-heated air first enters the bottom of the shaft, and strikes the fruit 
when the drying process is nearly finished, and completes it; as this air rises, 
it receives additional portions of moisture from each successive shelf, until 
finally it passes off at the top, the driest portions being needed at the bottom 
to complete the )>rocess, and those most chargefl with vapor only coming \a 
contact with the freshest fruit at the top, where only it ctiuld be useful. 

The velocity must be so regulated, by experiment, (accoi-ding to the height 
of the sliaft, heat of the air, and time required for drying,) that the drying 
process shall be just completed by the tiuie the fruit reaches the bottom. 



SOCIAL POSITION OF THE FAKMER OR MECHANIC. 207 



where it drops off from the revolving shelves into baskets or boxes placed 
there for this purpose. 

This apj)aratus may be placed in a tall narrow building erected for the pnr- 
pos^e, and built cheaply by vertical boarding on a wooden frame, to the whole 
of which a handsome architectural exterior may be imparted by giving it the 
a'jptict of a square Italian tower or campanile. 

An apparatus of this sort will dry fruit with great rapidity, certainly, and 
ludependentiy of the most unfavorable changes in the weather ; and it will 
L'ume out white, clean, and perfectly dried, retaining all the peculiar flavor of 
the fresh fruit, and prove incomparably superior to the common liair-decayed, 
smoked, imperfect article. When known, such dried fruit must command 
almost any price in market. Drying estaVjlishments, well managed, would 
give a great impetus to peach-planting in this country ; and we unhesitatingly 
predict a large trade in the finest dried peaches in European markets, to which 
they can be so cheaply and safely conveyed, and where, as fresh peaches can 
not be easily obtained, they can not feil to be very highly appreciated. — Coun- 
try Gentleman. 

[We should be glad to give the representation of this piece of machinery, 
and may be able to do so hereafter. — Eds. P., L., and A.] 



SOCIAL POSITION OF THE FARMER OR MECHANIC. 

Large quantities of paper have been wasted by more than one class of the 
community, in trying to convince the public that they were very badly used. 
We could refer to repeated efforts made by those who, in reality, had nothing 
to complain of, to show that the respect which was in fact paid them, was 
less than they had a right to demand. We can even point out a large body 
of clergymen, who, a few years since, were foolish enough to assume such an 
attitude. School-teachers have done it repeatedly, and one of our own hum- 
ble efforts, years ago, in a discourse before an association of teachers, was 
party directed to this subject. We endeavored to show the folly of such 
conduct. Parents look to teachers as necessary helps. They rely on them 
exclusively for giving to their children a certain position in society, which, 
without education, they can not retain. Hence they must regard them with 
(Special favor. But it is not strange that they should be cautious and watch- 
ful of the individual to whom they intrust such important matters. Hence, 
while they honor teachers as a class, they are (or ought to be) strict in the 
examination of the candidate for the office of teacher, and until he has earned 
fur himself a reputation for unsuUied integrity in his professional duties, he 
ought to be watchexi narrowly. 

We can not believe it possible that the people, in mass, can entertain a 
prpjudict against any useful calling. Whence could such a feehng arise? 
What state of things can be imagined in v/hich such feelings, if once excited 
by some casual occurrence, should grow into a settled habit? 

Executioners, we know, are everywhere despised, aud perhaps abhorred — 
but even this does not bring into disrepute the office of sherid" and marshal, 
although upon these officers are sometimes imposed the duty of hanging a 
man. 



:208 SOCIAL POSITION OF THE FARMER OR MECHANIC. 

We have before taken occasion to show that the position of every class is 

detenniued by the average cultivation of the class, or by the degree of 
culture, mental and moral, ordinarily exhibited by it, or required for success 
in it. 

Farmers and mechanics are not exceptions to this rule. They have had, 
and must have had, in the main, their proper place, as certainly as water 
attains its proper level. Nor is it true that other professions or pursuits of 
similar culture, stand higher than they do. We can refer to a case in illus- 
tration. We are acquainted with a town where, twenty years ago, the finest 
houses were occupied by merchants, lawyers, and educated men of leisure, 
who were always looked up to as at the top of the social ladder. They em- 
ployed mechanics of various sorts, who, by prudent management, obtained a 
prosperous business, and acquired considerable estates. The lawyers and 
merchants died or otherwise disappeared, and by-and-by it came to pass that 
these same mechanics, artisans, etc, purchased an doccupiedthose same fine 
houses. What was the result ? Those who knew them at an earlier period, 
and accurately measured their real worth,' allowed them just the same degree 
of respect when they came to occupy a finer house. But with their increase 
of property, they were able and were disposed to give a good education to 
their children, far better than they themselves had, and while they continue 
to maintain the same reputation, the society of their children is valued and 
cultivated as were the children of the former occupants of those houses. We 
are confident that this is not a solitary instance. Many of our readers can, 
no doubt, point out just such a community, and more than one may imagine 
that he knows the original of this very description. 

Let our readers of various callings practise according to these sugges- 
tions, and thus test their propriety. We know that individuals, from some 
accidental occurrence, or some physical imperfection, or otherwise, may 
be subject to unjust prejudice, among a small circle of associates, and some- 
times injustice on a wider scale is witnessed. But these cases are exceptions, 
and can not occur in relation to masses. 

A host of facts bear us out in these opinions. Who is more honored than 
the mechanical inventors of the last generation? Whose fame is greater or 
wider than that of Arkwright, Fulton, Watt, etc. ? Who is more widely 
known and more highly honored than Mr. Bigelow, the inventor of the 
Power-Loom, and of other useful machinery ? Who receives more notice 
abroad than he is now receiving ? On the other hand, who are more insig- 
insignificant than a swarm of the pettifogging lawyers which abound in every 
large city ? Some of these are perhaps unjustly doomed, for they are often 
looked upon as little better than the criminals which people our jails. 

Inert matter illustrates this subject. AVhat is there more coveted than a 
splendid farm ? Even the hired men of such an establishment are gazed upon 
as among those who are especially favored. But who covets a wild, unculti- 
vated, barren swamp or sand-bank ? An elegant carriage — asplendid steam- 
engine — or even a beautiful toy, will arrest the attention of a crowd. But 
who cares to look at a piece of bungling workmanship ? And yet even 
this attracts notice, if it exhibits some new principle, or new application. 

It is so with men. We may require their aid, but unless they show a 
degree of mental culture which deserves respect, and draws forth sympathy, 
they can not ailbrd pleasure or give dignity to a society of educated men. 



HORTICULTUKAL. 209 



HORTICULTURAL. 

The Paulownia Imperialis, — The Imperial Paulownia is one of the 
plants lately brought to Europe from Japan, by Dr. Von Sieboldt, the Bel- 
gian botanical traveller. In its native country its local name is Kirri ; and 
the Chinese call it Too-Hak-Too. It forma a tree, in Japan, about thirty or 
forty feet high, with a trunk two or three feet in diameter. The bark is 
smooth and light-colored. The branches are rather few in number, spread- 
ing horizontally and forming a large head. 

The striking peculiarity of the Paulownia, however, is its showy foliage. 
The leaves are of the shape of those of the Catalpa, but of darker green, per- 
haps resembling more closely those of a large sun-flower — being broad and 
heart-shaped. In rich soil the growth of the tree is extremely rapid, young 
plants making shoots of eight or ten feet in a season, and on such we have 
measured leaves a foot and a half in diameter. But on older trees they are 
usually about half that size. 

The flowers are produced in April in panicles, at the ends of the branches. 
They resemble in general appearance those of the Catalpa, but the color is a 
pale, bluish-violet. The seeds are borne in an oval capsule as large as a 
pigeon's egg. 

When the Paulownia was first introduced into the Garden of Plants at 
Paris, it was treated as a delicate green-house plant. It was soon found, 
however, that it was perfectly hardy on the Continent and in England. In 
this country it appears equally so. The trees in this latitude have stood the 
jjast two winters, even in exposed situations, without covering, and have not 
lost an inch of the previous season's growth. We therefore consider it a 
hardier tree than the Catalpa, which often suffers badly from the cold of this 
latitude. Nothing is easier than the propagation of this tree. Single buds 
will grow, like those of the mulberry and the vine, taken off early in the 
spring and covered about an inch deep in the soil of a fresh hot-bed. The 
cuttings of the young shoots, planted under a hand-glass in a shady border, 
strike root readily. But by far the easiest and most rapid mode is that of 
planting pieces of the roots. 

Every little piece of the root of the Paulownia will, under certain condi- 
tions, produce a plant. It is only necessary to make a common hot-bed early 
in the spring, reduce the roots of the parent- tree, (and it will bear a very 
severe reduction,) and plant every piece that will make a cutting not smaller 
than a goose-quill, and a couple of inches long. Plant these bits of roots 
about an inch and a half deep in the rich, light soil of the hot-bed. In a 
fortnight's time every bit will throw up a bud, make new roots, and become 
a distinct plant. When the plants are about three inches high, they may be 
transplanted into rows, beds, borders, or, in short, wherever they are finally 
to grow. If the season is favorable, they will grow to the height of from 
three to six feet before the close of the autumn. Next year, if the soil is 
deep, they will make shoots eight or ten feet long. — Downing. 



Railroad Consolidation. — The Cincinnati and Chicago, and the Cincinnati, 
Logansport, and Chicago Railroad Companies, have consolidated under the 
name of Cincinnati and Chicago Railroad Company, and C. P. Smith has been 
elected President. 

VOL. VII. 14 



210 



LAWTON BLACKBERRY. 




L A "W T O N BLACKBERRY. 

The reputation of this new luxury of the fruit-garden being now fully 
established, we present to our readers a representation of the fruit and leaf 
of medium size, taken from nature ; it is the " standing or upright variety," 
and the first decided improvement ever discovered, and is no doubt an original 
seedling. The fruit, in size and shape, strongly resembles the Hovey seed- 
ling strawberry, and when fully ripe is perfectly delicious. We extract from 
the September number of the Horticulturist the following testimony in its 
favor, from Charles Downing, Esq., and no better need be furnished : 

■' Having heard a good deal about the Lawton or New-Rochelle blacfc- 
beriy for the past year or two, and knowing that many new fruits were over- 
praised, I made a special visit to Mr. Lawton's a few days since to see for 
myself, and can assure you I was well paid for my trouble. There is no 
humbug about it ; and the only wonder is that it has not been more gene- 
rally introduced and propagated before. The fruit is large and sweet. It is 
an enormous bearer ; indeed, the quantity (considering the large size of the 
fruit) surprised me, and the berries were perfect. Mr. Lawton informed me 
they continue in bearing five or six weeks, and in favorable seasons much 
lono-er. Ue has some two or three acres, and will have plants to dispose of 
in the fall and spring ; the latter, however, is the most preferable time for 
transplanting. Plant as early as the ground is in good working order." 

Mr. Lawton's farm, (Wm. Lawton, Esq.,) is in the village of New-Rochelle, 



COFFEE AT MOCHA. 211 



and his garden and residence are within five minutes' walk of the depot. 
Visitors are at all times permitted access to his grounds, to inspect his plants. 
He is cultivating the fruit extensively for market, where it readily commands 
thirty-seven and a half cents a quart; and, in extending his plantation^ all 
his plants are carefully examined at the fruiting season, to guard against the 
accidental introduction of any of the common varieties, or the deterioration 
whichis sure to take place under careless cultivation. Plants sent to purchasers 
will be those only raised upon his own grounds, fine, vigorous offshoots from 
bearing plants. 

We find, by the directory, that Mr. Lawton has an office at No. 54 AVall 
street. 



CHEAP CANDLES. 



We find in an exchange the following recipe for making candles : To twelve 
pounds of lard use of alum and salt-petre each one pound ; dissolve the alum 
and saltpetre in a small quantity of water, then pour into the melted lard, 
and boil the whole until the water evaporates. The mixture requires constant 
stirring to prevent settling in the bottom of the vessel. Candles made of this 
composition are equal to the best tallow, and last some time longer. 



COFFEE AT MOCHA. 



The coffee-plant grows sixteen or eighteen feet high, with an upright stem 
covered with a light-brown bark. Its branches grow horizontally and oppo- 
site, crossing each other, and form a pyramidical appearance. The leaves 
grow on the opposite side of the branches, to the length of four or five inches, 
and to half that width in the middle. The flowers growing in bunches at 
the junction of the leaves are white, maturing first into green, then red berries 
resembling bunches of cherries, each of which contains two kernels. But one 
crop is annually produced, which is gathered in the months of January and 
February. For the purpose of being dried in the sun, the gathered coffee is 
spread on the house-tops, or cleared spaces of ground, where it is frequently 
watered to open the koke, or shell, which is always separated by grinding 
before packing. The coffee raised at Annas and Sana, which is held in the 
best estimation, is generally dried upon temporary floors, covered with a 
compost of clay and cow ordure, which 'protects the coffee from vermin, and 
also gives it a p)ermanent yellowish color. How percej^tibly such a compost 
may affect the taste of the coffee, would doubtless be a matter of inquiry 
with the tidy, cow-loving Hindu housewife, who uses a solution of it to 
purify her parlors, ornament her walls and doorways, and for numerous other 
purposes. 

Large quantities of coffee arrive at Mocha, from March to the latter part of 
July, from the coffee districts within twenty days' journey. Camels are em- 
ployed in its transportation, each of which carries about six hundred pounds, 
contained^ in two sacks. They are driven in long trains of fifty or more, 
arranged one behind another, the head of each being tied to the tail of the 



212 RAISING CORN FOR FODDER. 

camel immediately before him. Thus arranged, but few drivers are neces- 
sary. 

All coffee from the country is first taken to the custom-house, a large 
building one hundred and fifty feet square, near the sea-gate, where it is 
stored to be inspected by the Governor, who visits the custom-house daily. 
Here also the duties are fixed, at the rate of seven per cent on English and 
three per cent on American imports. A double duty is imposed on smug- 
gled goods. From the custom-house the coffee is taken to the gow-downs, 
or warehouses of the merchants, several of which are attached to the walls uf 
the custom-house and rented by the Government. There it undergoes the 
process of being cleared from pebbles and dirt by means of sieves. Those 
who do this tedious work of garbling, though expert in their calling, earn 
but the value of five or six cents daily, a portion of which earnings is paid 
to one of their number who acts as their overseer, and to whom the pur- 
chaser must complain, if he has any fault to find. An active man may gar^- 
ble two or three bales a day, and a smart woman half as much. Having 
been cleaned, the coffee is packed in bags for exportation, and, if good, 
should be free from white and black kernels and have an aromatic smell. 

But few Arabs, and those the wealthier class, indulge, as a general habit, 
in the luxury of coffee. It has often been disputed whether coffee does not 
come under the prohibition of the Koran, which forbids the use of strong and 
inebriating liquor, as it is a well-known fact that the fumes of coffee have 
some effect on the imagination. Its use is, however, generally tolerated, and 
many Arabs say " a dish of coffee and a pipe of tobacco are a complete enter- 
tainment." They drink it without either milk or sugar, after it has been 
pounded fine in a mortar and then steeped. All classes use a very pala- 
table beverage made from the koke, or coffee-shell, which goes by the name 
of kawha. It can be obtained at the numerous and much- frequented coffee- 
shops, where 

"Well-seasoned bowls the gossips' spirits raise," 

for half a cent a quart. — Notes on Majung and Zanzibar. 



RAISING CORN FOR FODDER. 

DiFFERKNT methods of cultivation have their several advocates. Every 
crop is treated by different methods by different farmers, and perhaps with 
equal success. Corn for fodder is sometimes sown in drills, and sometimes 
broadcast. We doubt whether either way has very decided advantages, 
though the former gives better opportunity for weeding. But the following 
method, which is new to us, commends itself as specially worthy of attention. 
The reference at the commencement of the extract refers to a late number of 
the Cultivator: 

Messrs. Editors : I read your article on " Sowing Corn for Fodder,'' in 
the July Cultivator^ with considerable interest, but I have a mode of raising 
it differing slightly from yours. It is this : Sow in drills one and a half feet 
apart, at the rate of about four bushels to the acre, and when just up sow on 
the rows plenty of plaster, (say three or four bushels to the acre.^ When 
six or eight inches high, run through it with a small corn-plough or cultiva- 



vSOUTHERN" PEOGRESS. 213 



tor, made very narrow. Commence cutting to feed green, every alternatB 
row, when about two or three feet high, and get over the field by the time 
the corn is four feet high, if possible ; then turn and cut out rows two feet 
wide crosswise. 

The advantage of this method is that, if the soil is rich, we will have left 
on the ground all that can stand up, and will have all that is cut up clear 
gain, which is several tons. I think an acre will produce nearly twice as 
much in this way as to have the rows three feet apart in the first place. 

I wish some of your correspondents would weigh the product of an acre, 
and communicate the result to the public through the Cultivator. I believe 
it would astonish all who have not tried the experiment. I sowed mine this 
year on the lYth of May, and, from some experiments in cutting and weigh- 
ing, I believe I have places in my field that would, if weighed now, (July 10th,) 
green, amount to near 60 tons to the acre. W. 

Oswego, July 10, 1854. 



SOUTHERN PROGRESS. 

We are happy to learn that the farmers and planters of the border coun- 
ties of Virginia and North-Carolina have associated themselves for the pro- 
motion of their common interests, and have established "The Union Agri- 
cultural Society of Virginia and North-Carolina." On the 4th of August 
last, an address was delivered at Petersburg by the President of the Society, 
James C. Bruce, Esq., of Halifax county, Va, Among many judicious things 
contained in extracts of his address, which we have met with, were the fol- 
lowing, in which he gives the same views which we have given on that sub- 
ject: 

"The respectability of every profession is graduated by the amount of 
intellect which is made to bear on it. Agriculture is the calling of the 
masses, and to elevate it we must elevate the masses. General educationj 
and a wide-spread popular enlightenment, is as much the basis of a prosper- 
ous agriculture as it is of a rational liberty ; and, to improve the cultivation 
of our States the light of knowledge must first fall on the minds of their 
citizens. The principles of a scientific agriculture, or even of a wise practical 
tillage, can not be instilled into the minds of the ignorant. It may be safely 
said, then, that the reason why the agriculturist is a laggard in the race of 
improvement is, that his competitors have always had the advantage of more 
intellectual culture. There is abundant cause for this. The cultivators of 
the soil are scattered over a large surface ; their employments are inde- 
pendent and solitary; they want the attrition of social intercourse, by which 
the mind is polished and sharpened and the intellect lighted up. The 
votaries of other trades and professions live in cities, are brought into daily 
contact, and have their colleges, their guilds, their trades-unions and associa- 
tions. Union not only gives light and knowledge, but energy, confidence, 
and boldness." 

We give also another paragraph, in which, as elsewhere, he shows himself 
fully competent to address a society of farmers : 

" I am happy to see, from the published proceedings of our Society, that 
it is contemplated to hold a Fair in October next, for the exhibition of spe- 



214 PROPOSED PREMIUMS — MARYLAND SOCIETY. 

cimens of the production of our fields, our herds, and our flocks. Let it be 
remembered that our Society will derive neither honor nor shame from this 
exhibition, for it is too young to have incurred any responsibility. We can 
not in a moment call, by our fiat, order out of chaos or light out of darkness- 
All that we promise is, to show the condition of our agriculture at the com- 
mencement of our labors ; to see what we have and what we have not. In order 
that this may be done, let every member bring up a specimen of his land. 
Let him present his firstlings ; his sacrifice will be accepted. Let no one 
come up here in October empty-handed. Let him who pleads his poverty 
shov/ a specimen of his poverty. If we show nothing else, let us show our 
wants. This is what our Society ought to know, it is what our Society ought 
to relieve, and for this purpose it was called into being. It is not a vain 
show that we desire to make ; we want to see what we are now, that we 
may hereafter make comparisons, in order to know if our Society is doing 
good, and whether the country is i^rospering under its auspices. This is the 
object of the Society in holding its fair, and all must acknowledge that it is 
a good object and a useful one. While, gentlemen, our exhibition should be 
on a liberal scale, we should exercise at the same time a judicious economy 
of our means. We have, in my judgment, other objects, less striking, per- 
haps, but fully as important, which appeal to our liberality. I Vi'ish to see 
our Society take a wider range than any other which has preceded us. I 
want to see our experimental farm in operation ; and I dream, too, of an 
agricultural school attached to it under the direction and management of our 
Society. Why not ? There are schools of divinity, of law, and of medicine, 
and why should not a body of agriculturists like us have our school of agri- 
culture ? What is our organization worth if it does not bring forth some 
splendid effort of enterprise ? An experimental farm, with an agricultural 
school attached to it, would leave us nothing more to ask for or to wish. 
We are now engaged in the task of laying the corner-stone of agriculture. 
Let its foundation be broad and deep. Let not our work be ephemeral, and 
let us not content ourselves with the exhibition of an amusing pageant. Let 
us not be servile copyists, but let us lead, let us boldly lay down a course for 
our Society that is useful, that will benefit ourselves, that will benefit our 
States, that will benefit the world." 



PROPOSED PREMIUMS— MARYLAND SOCIETY. 

The Trustees of the Maryland Agricultural Society for the Eastern Shore, 
very liberally ofier premiums for sundry experiments, as follows ; 

" Whereas, it is of primary importance to the producers of wheat and corn 
to ascertain definitively, if possible, the relative products of wheat when pro- 
pagated in the various modes now in use ; and also the relative eSect of a 
ridged and level surface, as left by the wheat-crop upon the succeeding crojis 
of grass and corn ; and whereas, to accomplish this object fully and satisfac- 
torily, it is deemed expedient to ofier such premiums as will probably induce 
many to incur the trouble and cost of the necessary experiments ; it is there- 
fore 

Resolved, That this Society will unite with the Maryland State Agricul- 
tural Society, and such County Societies as may be in existence in this State, 



A MODEL BARN. 215 



in offering a premium of $150, to be awarded in the autumn of 1855, for 
tte best conducted experiments that shall exhibit the comparative results of 
propagating wheat — by drilling on a level surface — by drilling on a ridged 
surface, lengthwise the ridges — by sowing broadcast upon a level surface — and 
by sowing broadcast in ridges or narrow lands. 

jResolved, That this Society will unite with the aforesaid societies in offer- 
ing a premium of $150, to be awarded in December, 1857, for such continu- 
ation of observations as will most conclusively prove the effects of the said 
modes of culture for wheat (that is, the effect of a flat and ridged surface) 
upon the crops of grass and corn which may follow. 

Resolved, That this Society will contribute the sum of 826, provided the 
aforesaid societies will contribute the balance required for the above-named 
premiums. The said experiments to embrace not less than five acres of each 
mode of culture. 

Note 1. In the grass-crop the apparent difference, if any, is all that need 
be noted and reported. It will be required that the relative cost of the dif- 
ferent modes of culture shall be reported with at least proximate accuracy ; 
also the description of soil, quantity of seed-wheat per acre, date of drilling 
and sowing, distance between the drill-lines, and observations of the appear- 
ance or condition of the crops at various stages of their growth. 

It is suggested that the width of the narrow lands or ridges to be drilled, 
shall equal the width of the drill, which is generally, probably uniformly, 
five feet ; because on such ridges the drilling can be executed with accuracy ; 
whereas if the ridges shall be narrower, or wider than the drill, the team will 
have to be altered in its position on the ridges at each through, and therefore 
can not be driven accurately ; and drills will also be made at frequent inter- 
vals in the bottoms or middles of the furrows. Ridges of five feet can also 
be reaped with accuracy and facility by reaping-machines, because the latter 
ai'e generally of the same width. If the land is in sod, ridges of five feet in 
width can be more deeply and thoroughly ploughed into ridges again, for 
corn, than those of the ordinary width of four feet, and the width proposed 
is probably as well suited in all respects for the production of corn as any 
other width of what are termed narrow lands. 

It is also suggested that where surface- drains or water-furrows are necessary 
in land to be drilled, such furrows should be made previously to the driUing, 
and should be again cleared subsequently to the drilling." 

This offer is issued by Mr. M. Tilghman Goldsborough, the efficient Presi- 
<Ient of the Society. Mr. G. resides at Ellenborough, near Easton. 



A MODEL BARN. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Farm Journal, one of the best of our exchanges, 
gives the following account of a model barn, on the farm of George Wilson, 
Esq., near Bellville, Mifflin county. Pa. : 

It is a hundred and seventeen feet long by sixty-five wide ; there is stabling 
under the whole, except a wagon-shed at the one end, the whole width of 
which is twenty -two feet, and is as long as the barn is wide — made to drive 
through ; an arched cellar of thirty feet in length, and eight or ten wide, takes 
up a part of the wagon-shed. Above the stabling are the hay-mows; then 



216 THE VALUE OF KOOT-CROPS. 

seven or eight feet above is the main floor, running the whole length of the 
barn, the entrance being at the end ; under this is another floor, forty by 
eighteen feet, running across the barn — used for cleaning grain ; under tlie 
main floor are the granaries ; corn-cribs are over the wagon-shed on either 
side of the upper floor ; a threshing-machine is arranged, with horse-power, in 
the main floor, at one side, so as not to be at all in the way, and the horses work 
u the wagon-shed beneath, an upright post passing through the floor, and con- 
necting with the main wheel. Horses and driver are always in the dry — pro- 
tected from a hot sun in warm weather, and from the chilling blasts of the 
cold, inclement season. The straw and other things for the manure-yard 
pass out in front over a scaffold level with the upper floor, which is at least 
twenty feet high, making it very easy to put out a large amount of straw. 
The hay all descends seven or eight feet below the upper floor before it 
reaches the bottom of the mow, so that it is no trouble to unload it ; but, 
without a more minute description, I must say that this is the most cort- 
venient barn that I have ever seen. It is not the " double-decker" barn, of 
which there are many in some parts, but this one was planned by the owner, 
projected bv him alone, his carpenters working by his directions. The whole 
cost was about $3000. It is on a fine farm of near two hundred acres of 
tillable land. 



THE VALUE OF ROOT-CROPS. 

It is reported as a remark of Mr. Webster, that if the turnip-ciop of Eng- 
land were to fail for two years in succession, that country would be ruined. 
This, of course, is a figurative speech, but there is much truth in it. A 
chemical analysis of turnips, however, would lead us to draw inferences the 
reverse of this. A root or fruit of which water forms 90 to 95 parts in every 
100, can scarcely be thought very nutritive ; and if the doctrine so very cup- 
rent, and which we have urged, that food containing nitrogen can alone be 
made useful to produce muscle, is true, then turnips can not mnk very high- 
among such kinds of food. But we are beginning to inquire, at least, whe- 
ther we and others are not in error here. Whether the great quantities of 
nitrogen in the atmosphere were not made for some other reason than because 
the Great Architect of all made oxygen rather too strong for common pur- 
poses. While so much oxygen is consumed by all forms of life, what 
service does the nitrogen peiform ? " It feeds plants." True, and may it not 
also feed animals ? If not, why not ? We do not attach so much force to 
the logic used on this subject as we have done, and facts and experiments cer- 
tainly compel us to no such result. Potatoes yield but very little nitrogen, 
about 1-^ parts in 100. Whence, then, comes the constant supply of muscle for 
the poor Irishmen in their native hovels ? A very large proportion of the 
food of thousands of them, and almost the whole of many, consists of tbe 
potato only. Do they grow thin and weak ? Neither. The carbon of the 
potato forbids the former, but what furnishes the muscle and imparts strength ? 
Either we eat a wonderful excess of this muscle-forming food, or there is some 
mistake in our logic on these matters. But look, again, at the Esquimaux. 
Whence come the muscles of that race of oil-feeders ? Who labors harder 
than the ox, who feeds, often exclusively, on grass? The horses of hundreds 
of farmers, and especially those of twenty or thirty years ago, were kept 
without any allowance of grains. Whence comes the daily supply of nitBo- 



THE VALUE OF ROOT-CROPS. 217 

gen in the milk of the cow ? She is fed, in many districts, with the same 
kind of feed. 

Do you reply that all these substances contain nitrogen ? We admit it 
But we also claim that more nitrogen is voided in the excrements of these 
animals than is furnished in these kinds of feed. By Liebig's analysis, 100 
parts of dry hay give 1.5 nitrogen, while by Bousingault, dried cow-dung 
gives 2.3 nitrogen. But this is aside from our main object. We recur to 
the subject of roots. 

Turnips are found to be of great benefit to cattle, and why ? We are 
inclined to explain it on the principle that concentrated nutriment is not so 
wholesome as that which is more diluted. The more diluted our food, pro- 
vided we do not overtask the energies of the intestinal canal, in the convey- 
ance of it to its destination, the better for the health of the animal. May 
not this be the rule ? In such cases, the absorbents have more time and a 
better opportunity to possess themselves of what they need, without suffering 
fsij thing to escape them. We do not assert this. We only suggest where 
no one appears ready to establish any thing. The fact is universally admitted, 
that concentrated nutriment does not, of itself, form healthy food as an exclur 
«ive diet. 

Again, the ingredients of turnips, etc., may be very favorably proportioned 
and combined to produce a physical effect peculiarly favorable upon the 
membranes with which they come in contact, and thus tend to secure a 
healthy condition in them. Is there any more satisfactory explanation of the 
how so vapid an article as a turnip is proved to be, should be so efficient ? 

But all roots usually cultivated, and all fruits resembling them, are pecu- 
liarly desirable as feed for cattle. Beets, carrots, jDumpkins, etc., have proved 
of great value for such purposes. Indeed, we can hardly doubt that tke 
green stalks of corn, when fed to animals, pay better than the grain. Scores 
have given the results of their experiments, and among them all there is a 
marked agreement. The exceptions are few, if any. And it is obvious that 
in the green stalk the elements are in a condition more resembling roots, 
than is the grain, which is a more concentrated form of feed. 

The following, according to Boussingault, are the constituent elements of 
stxndry crops : 

Carbon. Oxygen. Hydrogen. Nitrogen, Inorganic matter- 
Dry Turnip, - 429 423 55 17 76 
Dry Beet, - 428 434 68 17 63 
Clover, - - 474 378 80 21 77 
Oats, (the grain,) 503 372 63 22 40 
Wheat, " 461 434 58 23 24 
%e, " 463 442 54 l7 24 
Potato, dry, - 440 447 58 15 40 
In these results there is a very great uniformity. But there is another 
matter to be taken into account. In the composition of 1000 parts of 
Wheat, (the grain,) - - - 117 are water. 
Barley, .... 150 « 
Oats, - - - ■ 100 " 
Rye, - - - - 100 « 
Maize, - - - - 130 " 
Rice, .... 140 " 
Turnips, .... 800 « 
Red Mangel-Wurzel, - - • - 901 " 
White Siigar-Beet, - - 869 " 
Parsnip, - - - - 793 " 



218 THE VALUE OP ROOT-CROPS. 

la the proportion of water there is a marked clifFerence between roots and 
grains. How important this may be, what differences result from the com- 
bination of water in the root and water taken fi-om the brook, we are unable 
to state. But is it not natural to suppose that the solid j^arts of the root, 
being to a greater or less degree in a state of solution or semi-solution, the 
food is in a better condition to be acted upon by the fluids of the stomach, 
and with more facility converted into chyle ? And does not this tend to 
show the propriety of soaking grains, so far as it may be done conveniently, 
before feeding them ? 

Of the fact that soaking grains, and especially corn, for horses before feed- 
ing them, improves them, our own experience convinced us years ago. Who- 
ever adopts this course will find fewer grains among the excrements of the 
stable, unchanged, than when the corn is fed in a dry state. 

As to the comparative value of crops of grains and of roots, we offer the 
following as a tolerably fair approximation. Precision is, of course, impossi- 
ble, where the conditions are so variable. The value of land, of labor, of 
manure, and of crops, is too various for the predication of any thing very 
definite. Various reports in the Hampden County (Mass.) Agricultural 
Society, bring the following as the cost of certain crops per bushel : 

Wheat, - - - - 58 5-6 cents. 

Corn, - - - - - 54 2-10 " 

Rye, - - ... 48 " 

Carrots, - - - - - 13 2-10 " 

Turnips, - - - - 4 2-3" 

Making an estimate from various other reports of the Massachusetts Socie- 
ties, (though at a lower rate than the premium crops,) and from other 
sources in our possession, we come to the following results, the quantity of 
land taken being one acre : 

Carrots. — Produce, COO to VOO bushels of 50 lbs. each, worth ^ a cent a 
pound, or $150 to $175. Cost of cultivation, say 875. Profits, say $75 to 
$100 per acre. 

Sugar-Beets. — Produce, 320 bushels of 50 lbs. each, at 18 cents a bushel, 
its value is $57.60. Cost of crop, say $35. Profits, $22.60. 

Ruta-Bagas. — Produce, 800 bushels of 50 lbs. each, at 25 cents a bushel, 
is $200. Cost, $100. Profit, say $100. 

Turnijys, (common.) — Produce, COO bushels, at 12-^ cents a bushel, is $75, 
Cost of crop, $40. Profits, $35. 

Wheat. — Assuming 30 bushels as a feir crop, at $1.25 per bushel, the 
produce will be $37,50. Cost, $20 ; profit, $17.50. Or, by Hampden county 
estimate, the profit will be, say $17.65. 

Corn. — Produce, 75 bushels, at $1, is $75. Cost of crop, $30. Profit, 
$45. 

Reducing these I'esults to a tabular form, we find the profits of an acre of 

Carrots, say .... $75 OO 

Sugar-Beets, - - - - - 22 60 

Ruta-Bagas, - - - - 100 00 

Turnips, - - - - - 30 00 

Wheat, ..... 17 50 

Corn, - - - - - - 46 00 

We do not pretend to accuracy. The cost of crops varies fifty per cent in 
different sections of country. Labor has no fixed price. The value of land, 



MINES AND MINERALS IN EAST-TENNESSEE. 219 

and the interest on land, is as unsettled as any thing can be ; and the value 
of crops of all kinds depends upon the state of the markets, and the facihty 
for transporting the crop to the market. Still we have made out a rough 
model, which every one disposed to do so can correct, as the almanacs say, 
for his own latitude. We doubt not that he will find one thing true, to 
wit : that root-crops are among the most valuable of all the products of the 
farm. 

It does not follow, we would add, ere we close, that roots are not excellent 
feed, even though they are of less profit as a crop for market. It is worth 
while to produce many things for our own use, which would not pay if car- 
ried off from the farm. 



MINES AND MINERAIS AND IIANTIFACTUEING IN EAST - TENNESSEE. 

We take the following from the Knoxville Register of the 12th, from 
which it will be readily perceived that the present course of the Legislature 
of the State of Tennessee, in granting aid to railroads, will tend to the early 
development of these latent resources, and make that State one of the 
wealthiest and most prosperous of the Union. 

Much has been said of the copper-mines of Polk county, and from what 
we hear as daily occurring in that region, we are constrained to believe that 
their value has not been as yet half developed. But recently, we are told, 
the miners have reached the yellow sulphuret of copper, which we under- 
stand is an infallible indication of the inexhaustible extent of the mines, and 
also their incomparable richness. The fever which has hitherto prevailed in 
that quarter of East-Tennessee, seems not yet to have attained its highest 
pitch, as new discoveries are being made, new mines opened, and large trans- 
actions transpiring. But last week, we are informed, there were sales of 
two or three quarter sections of land, at about $1,250,000. 

About five thousand tons of ore are now being taken from the mines 
monthly, and this of such richness as to be worth net one hundred dollars 
per ton, thus making the products of the mines even now half a million of 
dollars per month. What it will be when the shafts that are being sunk all 
penetrate the rich sulphuret, no one can conjecture, and what discoveries are 
yet to be made in the intervening spaces between the Polk county mines 
and those recently discovered in Carroll county, Virginia, " no man ean 
know." That the two developments are but the out-cropping of the same 
continuous vein, which extends along our eastern border, we think there cau 
not be the shadow of a doubt, as the Virginia and Polk county veins have 
the same direction, north-east and south-west, have the same dip, the same 
surface-indications, and are in the same chain of mountains. Beside this, the 
formation of the intervening country indicates as certainly the presence of 
copper beneath the surface, as do the masses of once molten matter which 
are to be seen where the copper has been found. 

But these copper developments are not the one tenth part of the indica- 
tions of the unprecedented value which is some day, and that now not very 
far distant, to be attached to mineral lands in East-Tennessee. To say 
nothing of our zinc, lead, marble, etc., etc., and the immense amount of capi- 
tal which we have no doubt will be some day employed in bringing these 



220 COMBINED STEAM. 



treasures out of the earth, we can point to our mountains of iron and coal as 
beitig of more value, ultimately, than all the copper-mines of the world, no 
matter how productive they may be. 

It is strange, indeed, that all the capital which is now being invested in the 
mineral lands in East-Tennessee, should be controlled by this copper mania- 
There are immense fields of coal, unsurpassed in their extent, or in the quality 
of the coal, by any that has ever been discovered, in immediate proximity to 
the best iron-ore in the world, and that, too, so abundant, that we verily 
believe, with the fuel so near, and other facilities which may be had, together 
with the modern improvements in the art of making iron, the pig-iron may 
be made at a cost of little more than five dollars per ton. And yet thousands 
of acres of land in East-Tennessee, where this coal and iron so much abound, 
might now be purchased for less than fifty cents per acre ; and that, too, in 
view of the fact that there are so soon to be radiating from Knoxville railways 
to the North, South, East, and West, over which the iron may be transported 
with profit to any market in the United States. 

To Charleston, for instance, the time will soon be when it may be trans- 
ported for eight dollars per ton, thence to New- York for two and a half dol- 
lars ; to Cincinnati and Louisville for from four to five dollars, making the 
actual cost of the iron in New-York less than 820 per ton, in Charleston less 
than $15, and in Cincinnati less than $10 ! To our distant readers, who are 
familiar with the prices for pig-iron, ranging from $20 to $50, these sugges- 
tions may seem to be visionary, but they will not so think when we tell them 
that iron is now made in East-Tennessee after the fashion in which " our 
fathers" made it, and that, too, with charcoal, at $10 per ton, and that the 
iron men of East-Tennessee have always realized good profits in the Ohio 
River markets, though their only access to them heretofore has been by a 
transportation of near three thousand miles, {via the Tennessee and Ohio 
Rivers.) Here, then, is the place to " put money" — in the coal and iron 
lands ; not that there are not large profits to be realized from a more com- 
plete development of our marble quarries, zinc and lead-mines ; but iron has 
ever been, and must continue to be, an article absolutely indispensable, in 
some form or other, to every family in this and every other land. 



COMBINED STEAM. 

Reference has frequently been made to improvements in the machinery 
of the steamship "Arctic ;" but no particular statement of the nature of the 
improvements has been made, that we are aware of. The New- York Courier 
des Etats- Unis supplies the desired information in the following paragraphs, 
which we translate from that paper : 

The Important modifications which are being made in the " Arctic's " 
machinery are designed to accelerate speed without increasing the expense of 
fuel, but ratlier diminishing it. The value of the improvement is about to be 
put to the pioof, the alterations in the machinery being nearly completed, 
The improvement consists in the application of a new process of applying 
steam, known as the " Patent Wethered Process." The principle is very 
eimplo. It is, properly speaking, an augmentation of the propelling power 
of Uie steam, by combining it with another current of steam which has pre- 



i:MrROVEMENT IN ROLLING KAIL-ROAD BARS. 221 

viously traversed the highly-heated atmosphere of the boilers, and thus rais- 
ing it to a higher temperature. 

To arrive at this result the steam, as it escapes from the boiler, is concen- 
trated in the conducting-pipe, whence it is taken by tvfo other pipes, which, 
dividing it into two portions, lead it off in different directions — one directly 
into the steam-chest, and the other, by an interior chimney, through the 
boilers, and in its turn into the steam-chest, after becoming super-heated. 
When the two portions reunite, the combined steam is at a very high tempe- 
rature — some 400 degrees higher than usual. The movement is given to 
the engine in the ordinary way, but with a vastly-increased force. 

A series of experiments, made under the direction of Mr. Collins, is said to 
have established the economy of this process, in respect to fuel, the saving in 
which is said to be about 70 per cent. By burning 666 pounds of coal an 
hour, the simple steam gives 19 and 3-lOths double strokes of the piston per 
minute ; whereas the combined steam gives 20 and 1-lOth, with 440 pounds 
of coal only. 



IMPROVEMENT IN ROLLING RAILROAD BARS. 

Mr. William Harris, late of the Rolling-Mill firm of Harris, Burnish & 
Company, of Pottsville, Pa., has just completed an invention for the manu- 
facture of railroad iron, which, in the opinion of our ablest mechanics, is 
likely to give a fresh impetus to the iron manufacture, and to effect corre- 
sponding changes through the entire trade. It consists in a new method of 
arranging the rolls, and can not fail, wherever understood, to entirely supplant 
the old process. 

By the old (present) plan, each pair of rolls has nine separate grooves, 
through which the heated mass from the furnace is successively passed, until 
it is delivered from the last in the shape of a railroad bar. Much manual 
labor is required ; and even with the most skillful and expeditious workmen, 
the metal has time to cool very considerably before it is finished, thereby 
becoming less malleable, and causing a dangerous strain upon the machinery. 
The breaking of a roll in such a mill, it is well known, is but a common occur- 
rence. 

Now, instead of the one set of rolls, containing the nine grooves, by the new 
process there are nine separate pairs of rolls, each having but one groove, 
arranged in one continuous line, with close ducts or boxes between ; so that 
the " pile " (the hot ball of metal) is fed in at one end, and comes out at the 
other a railroad bar ! The principal advantages claimed, are, economy of time 
and saving of manual labor — highly important considerations, as all iron 
manufacturers well know. 

Let us compare, (and our data throughout, it may be proper to remarlc, 
are not mere guesses, but have been ascertained by accurate calcula- 
tions :) By the old process, a bar of 21 feet, the usual length, is manufac- 
tured in 2|- minutes ; by the new, in the same time, one of a hundred feet 
could be run out, if the "pile" could be prepared ; or, with the speed pro- 
posed for the new machinery, a bar 30 feet long may be finished from the 
"pile" in 30 seconds ! 

By the old plan, ten men and boys are ordinarily employed in the rolling 
process alone ; by the new, but one, and his business would be solely that 



222 IMrKOVEMENT IN ROLLING- KAIL-EOAD BAES. 

of superintendence — there would be no manual labor for him. For instance, 
the heater brings his " pile," it is put in at one end of the continuous line 
of rolls, and requires no further manipulation till it is delivered, a railroad 
bar, at the other. 

Another prime advantage claimed for the new process, is the manufacture 
of the "red-short" iron into railroad bars. This species of iron, it is well 
known to manufacturers, possesses a peculiar brittleness when hot, that 
renders it difficult, if not impossible, to work by the old process, though 
remarkably tough when cold, having a long fibre and making the best of 
raUroad iron. On the new plan, the time occupied in the manufacture of a 
bar is so short, that the metal can easily be retained at a workable tempera- 
ture during the entire process. This will undoubtedly tend greatly to improve 
the general character of railroad iron ; as the " cold-short," now mostly em- 
ployed for that purpose, (because it is most easily worked,) becomes exceed- 
ingly brittle when cold, being in very many cases not much better in that 
respect than common pig-metal. 

The new machinery used is of the simplest mechanical construction, and 
not at all likely to break or get out of order. It consists mainly of a hori- 
zontal shaft, to which are attached, by plain bevel-gearing, the several rolls, 
some revolving vertically and others laterally, (in order to compress the metal 
on all sides.) The rolls are set apart at distances corresponding with the 
successively increased lengths of the " pile," in its passage through them — the 
first four or five being comparatively close together. Hence the entire length 
of the line of rolls, for manufacturing bars, say 21 to 30 feet long, would not 
exceed 100 feet. No more power is required than in the old process, as the 
metal is acted upon but by one roll at a time ; and not near so much toward 
the finishing, as in the old process the metal has by that time cooled very 
much, and of course is less malleable; while by the new, the whole opera- 
tion is performed so speedily that the temperature of the metal is very little 
reduced. 

As to the cost of a mill constructed with the new rolling machinery, a 
liberal estimate places it at about 15 to 20 per cent more than the present 
expenditure ; but the new rolling apparatus alone will not cost more than 10 
per cent over the price of the present rolls. The other increased expense 
results from the additional number or improved capacity of the furnaces 
necessary to supply the new rolling machinery, and of course is to be consi- 
dered in connection with tiie proportional increase of manufacture. This 
will become plain by a simple calculation : A mill constructed on the old plan 
can work up about 10 tons of metal in 24 hours ; that is, in the largest estab- 
lishments, with the best machinery and the most experienced workmen. But, 
with the new rolling gear, 120 tons can be manufactured in 12 hours; or, 
nearly four times as much — the yield in both cases being limited by the 
rolling power. The principal diflerence, therefore, so far as cost is concerned, 
after the new rolling appai'atus is introduced, is in the additional number of 
furnaces required to keep it going. 

There are other incidental advantages connected with this invention, that 
we have not attempted to enumerate ; we may have occasion to allude to it 
hereafter. The model has been examined by a great many persons, and the 
actual process of manufacture performed with small bars of cold lead. The 
general opinion expressed is admiration and implicit confidence in its suc- 
cess. — Pottsville Miners' Journal. 



ON MANURES. — THEIR USE. 223 



ON MANURES— THEIR USE. 

POUDRETTE, GUANO, COPOSTS, GYPSUM, LIME, MARL, ASHES. 

Manuring is the first, second, and third requisite for good farming. We 
have often treated on these topics, but again present a short and practical 
view. 

PouDRETTE, Well prepared, in our opinion, is the best of prepared manures, 
although some reasons exist why it is not so extensively used as it might be. 
Its odor sometimes is unpleasant, and where this objection does not exist 
the absence of odor is the result of improper treatment, by which its ammo- 
nia is dissipated. It is, however, so prepared as to free it from both objeo- 
tions. 

Poudrette should be sown in a dry state, like ashes or plaster, and covered 
by the plough or harrow. It should never be left exposed on the surfaca 
It is useful on all soils, and for all crops. For grass-lands, no application is 
better. For turnips it is unsurpassed, perhaps unequalled. For strawberries 
it is remarkably successful. For corn it should be scattered in the hill, not in 
a heap, a small gill in each, being about eight or ten bushels per acre. On 
potatoes twice that amount, or more, may be used profitably. For peas, beans, 
etc, sow the poudrette in the drill or hill. For grape-vines, fruit and orna- 
mental trees, scatter freely among the roots after and before using the spade, 
etc. Grain-crops require that it should be spread broadcast, quite freely, and 
covered lightly with the seed. If masses of poudrette are left in contact 
with plants, it destroys them by excess of heat, like Peruvian guano. For 
melons, cucumbers, etc., mix freely and thoroughly with the soil in the hUl, 
before planting. For asparagus it may be applied in a similar way, either in 
the fall or spring. 

The presence or absence of ammonia may be attested by mixing a small 
quantity of it with unslacked lime, well pulverized, in a tight bottle, and 
keeping it close for half an hour. On removing the cork, the smell of am- 
monia should be quite powerful. 

Guano stands among the very best fertilizers. But what guano ? It has 
been considered that the Peruvian guano was far superior to any other- 
But we are not ready to assent to this doctrine, without qualification. If 
nitrogen is the element wanted, then guano can have no competitor. But is 
this so ? AVe think not. We believe that the phosphates are of far more 
value in most cases than ammonia. And why ? Ammonia acts on the 
instant, and its virtue is not so permanent. It secures the present growth 
of the crop, but is not efficient in making a good permanent soil. Beside, 
an excess of Peruvian guano will destroy the crop. Like alcohol on the 
human system, a small quantity may give present energy, but too much burns 
up the crop it is designed to help. 

We give the first place to the phosphates. As we have lately remarked, 
it is from the want of these that so many wheat-fields have become bar*- 
ren, and the supply of the phosphates to those fields has prepared them for 
greatly increased crops without the addition of any thing else. Oar readecs 
are familj^r with the remarkable results which attended the use of the phos- 
phates on certain lands of Judge Buel. Some of the South-American an,d 
Mexican guanos are richer than the Peruvian, in these elements, and hence 
we should prefer them at the same price. But they are also cheaper, per 
ton, although we have just learned that the price of the Peruvian is here- 



224 ON MANURES. — THEIR USE. 

after to be diminished some twenty per cent, a circular being issued to this 
effect. 

It is also true that wheat-lands, as well as others, are deficient in am- 
monia. But our belief is, that if the soil is otherwise properly prepared, 
the plant will find nitrogen somewhere, perhaps in the air, perhaps elsewhere ; 
or, in other words, furnish every thing else, and by this very process, in fact, 
(but not of necessity, in theor}', of course,) every thing will be found that the 
plant requires. We have never heard of a soil deficient in nothing but nitro- 

gea- 

Guano is an excellent application for worn-out wheat-lands, for clover, 
and, on many soils, for grasses. It is also useful when applied in connection 
with seed, at the time of sowing, the seed being steeped in it. It is also 
advantageously applied to grape-vines, and to fruit-trees. The ground should 
be forked about their roots, away from the body of the tree, the guano spread 
on the ground, and then liberally watered. 

At the South, on cotton-lands, Peruvian guano is found to be very pro- 
ductive. Near Charleston, S. C, it has been used on what was originally 
" fine and productive cotton-lands, abounding in decomposed granite, and 
resting upon a good clay sub-soil." It had been exhausted by injudicious crop- 
pings, like most of the soils in the older States. The application of guano 
and of plaster succeeded admirably, both with cotton and corn crops. Those 
portions where the guano and plaster were applied, produced some five times 
the amount of seed-cotton that was produced on the same lands where no- 
thing was applied. On the corn-lands there was little difference between 
the portions manured by guano and by cotton-seed. The guano was applied 
to the cotton at the rale of 80 lbs. to the acre, mixed with 100 lbs. of plaster, 
and sown in the drill. On rich alluvial land, producing forty or fifty 
bushels of corn per acre, guano was found of material benefit. The African 
guano did not piove to be eflicient. 

Peruvian guano, when used in vegetable gardens, should be thoroughly 
mixed with the soil before sowing the seed, or better still, should be 
thoroughly mixed in compost before it is used. Any loamy soil answers well 
for the compost, and the soil should be three or four times the bulk of the 
guano. 

Phosphates, Composts. — Next to guano, for general application, we 
should specify various prepared manures, of domestic production — ^prepared 
bones, mineral phosphates, like that found at Crown-Point, N. Y., and in one 
or two other localities in this country. Preparations, honestly made, of the 
"^ phosjihafes,'" " super-'phosphates,^'' and ^'improved sup)er-phosphates,^'' may be 
even superior to many of the guanos. But there is here so great a tempta- 
tion to swindle, as in the milk-trade, that no purchaser is quite safe without 
an inspection of every bag. AVe would have State inspectors in every city, 
who should place his seal on every package, and would make it penal to 
sell without. The manufacturer can afiord this expense. He can make 
large quantities so much cheaper than the farmer can prepare his little, that 
the addition uf this tax would leave him a good profit, and yet furnish an 
article well worth its cost to the consumer. In this class of manures should 
also be ranked those from fish, and animal offal of all kinds. 

There are no lauds, in our belief, where these preparations would not be 
serviceable. They, especially those first named, are excellent when applied 
to a crop of wheat, and all other products of the same general^ character. 
Grass-lands are much improved by them, and corn when the soil is partially 
exhausted. 



ON MA]S[UKES. — THEIR USE. 225 

For potatoes, "English farmers use a compost of 30 lbs. of wood-ashes, 15 
of burnt bones, 10 of plaster, 20 of salt, 30 of air-slacked lime, and 7 of salt- 
petre." A compost of a portion only of these would be highly serviceable, 
and prepared bones, and ashes, or either alone, on many soils, would greatly 
increase the crop. 

Lime, in a variety of forms, is beneficially applied. Various marls, in 
which the carbonate of lime predominates, are extensively employed in many 
sections of the country. Pure lime acts on the soil both physically and 
chemically, or, in other words, it is useful in making clay soils lighter, light 
soils more consistent, and in absorbing moisture and gases. It also counter- 
acts the acids in the soil, and in that way prevents the growth of certain 
weeds, while it positively improves the condition of the soil. It also acts by 
causing the insoluble silicates, etc., to become soluble. Lime is also a stimu- 
lant, promoting an increased action in all the elements of the soil, producing 
a more rapid growth. As a general rule, perhaps eight or ten bushels of 
quick-lime should be allowed to an acre, and on some soils, if of the mild 
forms, carbonate, marls, etc., an indefinite amount up to ten times that quan- 
tity. Different soils should be treated according to their condition. 

Ashes are chiefly useful on account of the alkali they contain, and their 
action is similar to that of lime. Leached ashes, having lost much of the 
alkali, must be used in much larger quantities to produce the same eflect 
This is suited to root-crops, grass-lands, wheat-land, rye, potatoes, clover, and 
almost all crops. Quick-lime should not be used in connection with animal 
manures, as it sets free their ammonia. Mild lime, marls, etc., may be used 
in connection with such manures with good effect. 

Lime in all its forms, whether as gypsum, as pure lime, in marls, or ashes, 
has a permanent effect upon the condition of the soil. Whenever, in 
ploughing, the sub-soil is turned up freely, there should be a liberal applica- 
tion of lime in some form. Perhaps ashes, used very freely, will be found 
most economical. 

For some soils, gypsum, or sulphate of lime, proves an admirable amend- 
ment, but it is not quite certain, before trial, whether it will be good for a 
given soil. 

Gypsum probably acts in different ways. It absorbs moisture, and valua- 
ble gases, perhaps "attracts" ammonia from the air, and it yields also its 
sulphur and its lime. Such, at least, is most probably the fact, although we 
have no means of proving, to a demonstration, what its operation is. Its 
action, according to Johnston, is much increased, when used for a crop of 
clover, or peas, etc., if mixed with common salt. Probably a double decom- 
position is thus effected, of which the growing crop derives the benefit. 

As to the comparative economy of the various fertilizers, we doubt whether 
any general rule can be given. Their action, and of course their value, 
depends on circumstances. 

We have mentioned salt among our fertilizers. We doubt its especial 
value on the sea-board, but believe it useful in sections remote from the 
influences felt near the sea. 



Guano is in very general use, especially at the South. Eighty tons were 
recently sent from Norfolk to the interior in a single day. The demand from 
the interior of North-Carolina is very large. 
VOL. VII. 15 



226 PRESERVATION OF FRUITS, ETC 



PRESERVATION OF FRUITS, AS APPLES, PEARS, TOMATOES, ETC.— EX- 
POSURE OF POTATOES TO THE SUN. 

Air and warmth are essential to the decomposition of matter. Could a 
convenient process be devised for the complete removal of one or both these 
essentials, housewives might hold a jubilee. Different processes for accom- 
plishing this, to a greater or less extent successful, have been devised. Among 
these are the following : 

The use of an ice-house is sometimes resorted to, and while the intense 
cold of the interior would but hasten their destruction by freezing them, a 
compromise is made, and a kind of vestibule or ante-chamber is constructed, 
which has a uniform cold temperature, but yet above freezing. This answers 
a very good purpose. We have known pears, peaches, and plums preserved 
in that way a long time. But every one has not these facilities, and the 
success of those who have them is but partial. Small quantities only can be 
thus provided for. 

Tomatoes we have eaten the year round, as good as when fresh, by the 
following process : 

Let the tomatoes be ripe and fresh ; remove the skins ; pack the tomatoes 
into tin boxes of about a quart capacity ; season them as if for immediate 
use, (avoid cayenne) ; solder on the covers of the boxes, leavang a pin-hole 
in each cover ; boil the boxes half an hour ; any number of boxes may be 
boiled at once. Immediately upon taking the boxes from the boiling water, 
stop the pin-holes with solder or sealing-wax. If at any time before the 
boxes are cold, you detect the slightest sound which indicates the escape of 
air from an aperture in the box, the hole must be found and closed. If 
sealing-wax is used for closing the pin-holes, care should be taken lest it be 
broken off in moving the boxes. 

A new fact in domestic economy has been communicated to us (says the 
Boston Cultivator) by Mrs. B. Shurtleff, of Chelsea. At the usual time of 
gathering quinces, they were put into barrels filled with water, and placed in 
a cellar. A few days since they were opened, and the quinces found per- 
fectly sound — not one had decayed in the least. We are indebted to Mrs. 
Shurtleff for a specimen of the fruit which has thus been kept through the 
winter, and had just been prepared with sugar in the usual way. It has the 
aroma, peculiar flavor, and all the qualities of the fresh quince. 

We have been inclined to try experiments by the use of freezing mixtures. 
We have queried whether some of these might not be so diluted or mingled 
with inert substances, as sawdust, so as to liquefy very slowly, and thus, when 
kept at rest, be made to act moderately, and for a long time. We know, in 
practice, that a very trifling matter, in appearance, will have sometimes a 
:5reat effect. Thus, wrapping each apple or pear, or peach, etc., in a separate 
paper, and carefully packing them in a coo!, dry place, tends to delay their 
decay very materially. Covering them with dry sand has the same effect. 

It has also been the practice of extensive fruit-growers to keep their apples 
carefully packed in barrels, as long as possible under the trees, in the open 
air. Why this is done we can not tell, but it will be hard to pereuade some 
whom we know to have been accustomed to this practice for scores of yeai-s, 
to abandon it. There may be something in it. And we are more inclined 
to favor this opinion, from the fact that it has ever been the custom of many 
English gardeners to expose their potatoes, especially the early ones, to the 



ADULTERATION OF MANURES. 227 

sun and air for two or three days ere they are housed, under the conviction 
that they are thereby improved in flavor, and will keep better beside. They 
become changed to a green color, more or less, by this exposure. A writer 
in a recent number of the Eepublican Journal, copied into the Working 
Farmer, assures us that by such exposure they become actually poisonoits. 
He does not inform us what the poison is, and it is strange if it be so. One 
©f our assistants has eaten no others than those thus discolored and made 
" poisonous " for weeks together, and he thinks the poison must be very slow 
in its operation, and is certain that its flavor is very fine. Some are in the 
practice of placing quick-lime in the barrel or pit, so as to absorb the mois- 
ture, and they are inclined to believe it may exert some other inftuence in 
preserving the potatoes from decay. The potatoes are separated from the 
lime by any convenient process, as a layer of straw and the like. 

As moisture and warmth (60°) are necessary in the process of fermenta- 
tion, any arrangement which avoids these conditions will have a favorable 
effect upon the permanence of what may otherwise be subject to speed}' decay. 
Nor can we always give a very satisfactory account of the reason of the thing. 
Who would imagine, without experiment, that a pint of white mustard-seed 
would thoroughly arrest the process of fermentation in a barrel of cider, fixing 
it permanently in the condition then existing ? Yet such is the fact, and, 
after it is discovered, very philosophical reasons are assigned in explanation. 
There is some danger of being too " scientific," and thereby neglecting valu- 
able discoveries. We must " live and learn." 



ADULTERATION OF MANURES. 

Judging from a late article in the Eagllsh Gardener^'' rroronicle, as well 
as other advices, it appears that the English farmers ^"^ having their own 
troubles with the manufacturers and venders of sup'^'P^o^P^^ites and other 
fertilizers. All the honesty at least does not a'P^^i* ^ be centred on the 
other side of the water. The editor of the Chrr'^^^ says, '' there was a time 
when cheating a Scotchman was about as di^p^'^ ^s cheating a Greek," but 
that they have sadly degenerated in this /articular. In the transactions of 
the Highland Society, a Mr. G. Willi?-^ Hay, a distinguished agriculturist, 
gives a kind of autobiography of '^"^ ^^ ^'^"^^ victimized, which, for the 
benefit of our readers, we copy. -^ ^?'"^ ^^ the wise is sufficient. 

It appears that being desiro'^ ^^ drying experiments with various manures 
in the cultivation of turnips ^® P^^ himself in communication with a dealer 
in agricultural manures, -_^iiong the substances he wished to employ were 
super-phosphate of liroi i^itrate of soda, phosphate of soda, sulphate of pot- 
ash, sulphate of amH^^^> nitrate of potash, phosphate of magnesia, sulphate 
of mao'nesia and muriate of ammonia. When the parcels came to be che- 
mically examin'^) ^^^ nitrate of soda was found to contain only 56 pounds 
of that subst"'^® ^^ every 100 pounds. The phosphate of soda just 6 pounds 
in the lOf^po^^'^s? the sulphate of potash 60 pounds; the sulphate of fiin- 
monia -^ot quite 9f pounds ; the nitrate of potash about 11|- pounds; the 
pho^i^hate of magnesia 2f pounds; and the muriate of ammonia 54 pounds 
only. The super-phosphate of lime (so called) contained only 4 per cent of solu- 
ble phosphate of lime, the other 96 pounds consisted of water, gypsum, eiliceoug 



228 MANUFACTURE OF ENVELOPES, 

matter, some kind of free acid, and insoluble phosphate of linae, a perfectly- 
useless substance. On complaint being made, the only satisfaction he got 
was, that they could not think of taking the rubbish back, as it was the usual 
quantity for agricultural purposes. 

Mr. Hay also informs the public that in Scotland animal charcoal is not 
what it ought to be, and that London night-soil consists of the scrapings of 
the streets, with a little limestone and soil, and that gypsum contains 40 per 
cent of sulphate of baryta. — Pennsylvania Farm Journal. 



MANUFACTURE OF ENVELOPES. 

The manufacture of envelopes has become an immense business, and 
though we are not familiar with the processes employed in this country, in 
this branch of industry, we have been gratified by reading the description of 
a machine, invented by Mons. Remond, for a long time resident at Birming- 
ham. "We find it in the Puhlication Industrielle, and translate it for the 
' benefit of our readers. 

After being cut, the envelopes are laid in a pile upon a platform, movable 
by a counterpoise, or better by elastic springs, so contrived as to rise gradu- 
ally as the number or thickness of the pile of envelopes is diminished. At 
the centre of the machine is a vertical shaft, armed at the upper extremity 
by % cross-bar or beam, or horizontal porte-pistons. At the ex tremity of this, 
metallic gluers are fastened, each of which consists of a small iron cap, capa- 
ble of c'c^ngiug its position, in any direction, corresponding to the different 
forms of eLrrgiopgs, These caps pass simultaneously over a gummed roller, 
and thus cove, their lower surfaces with a coating of gum, or paste, which 
they carry on to '}je envelope which they have just taken from the pile. 
Thus the bar turns tii jt meets a vertical stop, which limits its motion. It 
then descends, in contac ^jth this forked stop, so as to rest upon the pile of 
envelopes by the caps aloii. ^g it j-jgeg^ the upper envelope is sufficiently 
coated to adhere to the caps, >Q(i follows the ascending motion of the bar, 
which, as it clears the upright s^^p^ again receives a lateral or rotary motion 
through half a revolution. _ Durin^^^ig j-otary movement, it receives another 
downward movement, which allows \q ^aps at the other end of the bar to 
dip themselves in their turn into the gu^ g^ ^s to repeat the process already 
described. 

It is obvious that this machine, thus contivgd, has a double action ; that 
is, each arm of the bar accomplishes at the sb-^^g time a distinct operation, 
either to glue, or fold, or take up the sheets. 

The forked stop which we have mentioned, is desig^i^i to arrest the motion 
of the bar at the proper time and place, namely, wheu^t finds itself in the 
*xis of the folder. The envelope which adheres to it ivgj, descends with 
the bar, and falls into a rectangular folder, and by this actioii+jie four corners 
are forced to detach themselves and to rest against the perpei^icular sides 
of the box. That part of the envelope which is designed to c-mtain the 
address, occupies the bottom of the folder, and the four corners th^ sides. 
Four cavities serve for a protection to the sheet, and the arrangement prevents 
the envelope from becoming misplaced when the piston retires. The piston 
aloue enters the interior of the box, and the caps descend on the exterior, 



WEAVING BY ELECTfllCITY. 229 

leaving, in succession, the sides coated with gum. During this descending 
movement the second piston has also descended to draw up another envelope, 
and so on. Lastly, by this descending movement the movable see-saw which 
serves as a bottom to the folder, and as an inclined plane to the envelopes to 
conduct them outside the machine, raises itself during the pressure of the 
piston, to fall back by its own weight when it is left to itself; that is to say, 
when the folding is finished, as just described. 

When the piston rises again, one side of the envelope, which is folded 
underneath, closeis itself. At'the same time the two gummed sides, and then 
the fourth side, which finishes the folding process. These four sides accomplish 
their double movement ; that is, descending and ascending, or closing and open- 
ing, while the bar makes a half revolution. It is then that they disengage 
the fulcrum of the see-saw, which assumes an oblique position, and conducts 
the envelopes into a vertical box, where they pile themselves one upon 
another. The top of this box is widened, like a tunnel, for facility and regu- 
larity of movement ; and lastly, a piston or rammer descends and com- 
presses each separately, to prevent them from bursting open at the folds. 

The envelopes are then taken by a counter, the purpose of which is to 
separate them into parcels of twenty-five each, leaving a small bit of board, 
as a weight, upon each parcel. 



WEAVING BY ELECTRICITY. 

While other nations are preparing their various novelties for the Paris 
Exhibition of 1S55, we are assured (says a correspondent of the London 
Times) that Sardinia will not be behindhand in the scientific machinery 
department, by a recent experiment made here of the invention of Cavaliere 
Bonelli, for the application of electricity to weaving, which is more simple, 
less embarrassing, and, what is of far greater importance, more economical 
than the invention of Jacquard, which, amidst the general progress of the 
age in mechanical and technical matters, has undergone but slight modifica- 
tions in the material construction, and no one has dared to make a change in 
its principle. 

By the present invention, instead of the numberless and expensive cartoons, 
either full or hollow, you see small iron bars magnetized only when invested 
with the voltaic current, so that while at every passage of the shuttle it was 
necessary to change a cartoon, it now suflSces to vary the ways which give 
passage to the electric fluid, and the lodestones change their action every 
moment, according as the teeth of the comb under which the design passes, 
and with which they correspond, rest upon the conducting or insulating sub- 
stance. As the point of the pantograph reproduces a design diminished or 
enlarged, and as the point of Bain's telegraph exactly copies a signature at 
the distance of hundreds of miles, so the loom of Bonelli reproduces woven 
the designs which pass under the comb, and all this without rendering neces- 
sary a change in the thousands of Jacquard looms now existing, which, if 
desired, may be worked alternately with electricity and with cartoons. 

Turin first, then Genoa, Lyons, and Paris, saw in operation this prodigious 
innovation, and unanimously admired the simplicity and reliability of the 
means with which it is carried into effect. In these cities a loom on a small 
scale has been shown, but tba inventor intends shortly to exhibit in Paris 
and London a loom <jn a scale worthy of the places and the invention. After 



230 BIRDS : THEIR UTILITY. 

having socuied the property in his discovery throughout Europe, he has just 
sold his patents to three eminent banking houses, two of them in Turin and 
one ia Lyons, and very soon several looms, which are now being constructed, 
wiil be sent abroad to serve as models for the system of electric weaving in 
most of the manufacturing countries of Europe, and for its introduction into 
the United States of America an agent is now on the point of starting. It 
is diiBcult to foresee the changes which may spring from the application of 
this new agent to the business of weaving, as not only the economy conse- 
quent on it must induce a decline of prices, but the new means afforded by 
this invention will render easily attainable results such as are now only 
reached with difficulty or •with great expense, as Gobelin tapestry, etc., and 
others utterly unattainable by any means hitherto known. Even in the 
present age, so rich in useful and important inventions, no doubt this will 
rank among the first. 



BIRDS: THEIR UTILITY. 

We do not always know our best friends. But experience sometimes 
teaches us, working out for us conclusions very unlike those we had previously 
entertained. In the history of birds, similar examples are not wanting. A 
writer of note says, " After some States had paid three-pence a dozen for the 
destructionof blackbirds, the consequence was a total loss, in the year 1*749, of 
all the grass and grain, by means of insects, which had flourished under the 
protection of that law." Another ornithologist, Wilson, computes that each 
red-winged blackbird devours, on an average, fifty grubs daily during the 
summer season. Most birds live entirely on worms and insects, and though 
some are destructive to our cherries and other fruits, the numbers of such are 
small, and these propensities are to be ofiset by numerous and valuable ser- 
vices which no other agencies can perform. 

The following descriptions may throw light upon the treatment these birds 
have a right to claim at our hands : 

The Baltimore Oriole^ a beautiful and well-known bird, called sometimes 
Gold-robin, Hang-bird, etc. It feeds chiefly on insects, and its services are 
of great value. They visit our gardens for grubs only, and thus protect our 
pea-vines and other plants from a destructive enemy. 

The Red-winged Blackbird often arrives at the North ere the snow has 
disappeared. It feeds on grubs, worms, and caterpillars, without inliicting 
any injury upon the farmer. Hence it does him a very important service. 

The Cow Blackbird is less numerous than the species just described. They 
follow our cattle, and catch and devour the insects that molest them. From 
this fiict tliey derive tVir name. 

The Rice-Bunting^ or 13ob-o-link, is constantly employed in catching 
grasshoppers, spiders, crickets, etc., and thus does good service. It is, how- 
ever, said to do some injury to grain, especially at the South, and particularly 
when they collect their young in flocks preparatory to a flight toward their 
winter quarters. 

The Croiu Blackbird is one of our early visitors. While it devours ira- 
raensG numbers of grubs, etc., it is also clearly proved that it pulls up the 
corn. Southern farmers attempt to diminish the amount of such depreda- 
ntions, by soaking their corn in Glauber's salts, making it unpalatable to the 
birds. 



CRESCENT IRON-WORKS. 231 

The American Crow devours every thing eatable, without much apparent 
choice, whether fruits, seeds, vegetables, reptiles, insects, dead animals, etc. 

The Cedar-bird gathers caterpillars, worms, etc., which it devours with an 
insatiable appetite. Our cherries and other fruits are not spared, but are 
devoured, in their season, as rapidly as are the canker-worms, and other ene- 
mies of the trees, in their season. But whatever injury they may thus inflict 
seems irremediable, as their numbers can scarcely be diminished by any 
agency in our control. 

The King-bird lives wholly on insects and worms, without any mischiev- 
ous propensity, unless it be occasionally to devour honey-bees. That he has 
a taste for such food is pretty well established, though some deny it. 

The Cat-bird is constantly employed in devouring wasps, worms, etc., but 
does not always spare our fruits. They devour of the latter, however, much 
less than would the insects they destroy. 

The Wood-thrush lives on worms, beetles, etc., and never commits depre- 
dations of any kind. Their residence is much more constant in the extreme 
South than further north. 

The Blue-bird confines himself to the destruction of beetles, spiders, grubs, 
wire-worms, etc., and though they attack the sumac and wild-cherry, and 
other wild berries, they do no injury to the fruits or vegetables of the gar- 
den. 

The Qolden-ioivged Woodpecker is reputed as a fruit-stealer, but, " with all 
its faults," it is of great use to the horticulturist. 

The Red-headed Woodpecker^ like the former, helps itself to fruits of all 
kinds, carrying off apples even in its bill ; but this useful laborer is also wor- 
thy of his hire ; it does much more good than evil. 

The Downy Woodpecker, and perhaps some other species, come under the 
same category as those species already described. 



CRESCENT IRON-WORKS. 

These works, located at Wheeling, in Virginia, belong to a Company incor- 
porated by the Legislature of Virginia, who are now enlarging their capital 
for the purpose of carrying on a more extensive business. The following par- 
ticulars relate to the property of the Company and their preparations for the 
manufacture of iron for useful purposes : 

The Company owns and places as part of the stock under the charter, 
large tracts of ore-land in Monongalia and Marion counties, Virginia, within 
seventy miles of Wheeling, and near the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and 
the Monongahela River. This land abounds in ore of the best quality, and 
of sufficient quantity to last for centuries to come. It yields forty-five per 
centage of iron, is a four-feet vein, and is in the same hills and together with 
a bituminous coal-vein of seven feet thickness, and plenty of lime and sand- 
stone, together with an abundance of timber and wood. They have now 
one furnace in operation that will yield some eight or ten tons per day, 
and they desire to erect with the additional stock two or three addi- 
tional furnaces. The iron from these furnaces is brought to Wheeling at a 
cost of less than two dollars per ton, including wagoning, loading, railroad 
expenses, etc. 

We will not state the cost of the manufacture of pig-iron at these works, 



232 UKESGENT IRON-WORKS. 

for persons manufacturing and quantities made may vary the cost materially. 
We will only state a few facts. The ore is delivered at the furnace at fifty 
cents a ton cost; labor is cheap, for the country is alike healthy and productive ; 
and land and produce as cheap as in any other part of the country. There 
is every thing here combined to produce as cheap labor as at any place in 
the country. In addition to these advantages, the following facts show that 
ill the simple item of cost of coal there is money to be made in this stock, as 
compared with eastern works. It requires six tons of coal to make, from the 
ore, a ton, say, of rails. This coal costs in the most favored localities east, 

four dollars per ton, $24 

Coal at these furnaces, and at the Crescent-Mills in Wheeling, costs 

less than one dollar per ton, _---.. q 



Saved, $18 

This is the saving made here in the item of coal alone for the manufacture 
of one ton of rails from the ore. Then for the supply of all western roads 
there is a saving in freight of five dollars per ton, giving these works, in these 
two items, a saving, all else being equal, of twenty-three dollars per ton. The 
iron from the works has been in use and is thoroughly tested, and found the 
best of iron, and the coal to be free from sulphur. 

These works are peculiarly situated for economy and facility of operation, 
and we will describe them for the benefit of those who have not seen them. 
Wheeling Creek passes into the river through the heart of the city, and 
through the gorge in the hills that line the margin of the Ohio, and cause 
that picturesque beauty that gave the river its title of La Belle. The 
Crescent-Mills are situated on the south side of this creek, about six hundred 
yards from its mouth, where what is called Chapline's-Hill originally came 
down almost to the creek, and the road around it has been formed by 
taking out the rock for the building and the dirt and stone from the stripping 
the quarry. The works are so situated in the city that the dwellings of the 
hands are hard by ; they are on a hard and level street, to the river but six 
hundred yards distant ; they are on the bank of the creek, so that the 
sewers, which are large, and of stone, take ofi" the ashes and refuse without 
expense or labor ; the refuse of mill adds daily to the ground, instead of 
involving cost to carry it away ; the creek aftbrds the means of transit of ore 
and iron by barges from and to the railroad and steamboats, in the cbeapest 
manner po.'^sible. The Baltimore & Ohio and Hempfield Railroad depots 
are within the six hundred yards distance, while the mouth of the coal- 
bank in our best coal-vein of six and a half feet of bituminous coal is not 
more than fifty feet from the works, and about thirty feet above the level 
of the ground. 

The building for the works is one hundred feet wide and four hundred feet 
long, and from the eastern end, elevated to a level with the coal-bank, is 
extended a railroad track, on which coal is run in cars, and let down, without 
handling, by the side of each furnace. There are thirty-six puddling and 
fourteen heating furnaces at work. Three trains of muck-rolls, two of Bur- 
den's patent coffee-mill squeezers, one train of sheet-rolls, of boiler-iron 
rolls, one of bottom and top-rolls, and one full train of rail-rolls, with saws, 
punches, and all the necessary fixtures to make the mill complete for making 
rails in the most approved manner, the proprietors having availed them- 
selves of all the improvements in other mills, and their works will compare 
favorably with the best mills in this or any other country. The machinery 
is driven by two engines of great power, and will turn out 15,000 tons of 
the best iron per year. 



^^NNOWING MACHINE. 



23J 



WINNOWING MACHINE. 

This •winnower involves a most complete departure from the principles 
hitherto followed in machines of its class. In it the separating action is 
produced by a rotary -wire cylinder, into which the crude grain is fed at one 
end, whilst air is forced in at the other, to aid in driving ofl' the chaff and 
foreian matter. A patent was secured for this machine in England, in Octo- 
ber, 1853. 

Our engraving represents the machine in side elevation, with a portion of 
the external case broken away, to reveal the disposition of the internal details. 
The grain to be dressed is supplied to the usual hopper in the upper part 
of the case, a, whence it runs regularly out, with the aid of a rotatory pego-ed 
or plated cylinder, driven by the gearing shown outside the case. On leav- 




ing the hopper, the grain first of all falls upon a horizontal vibrating screen 
of the common kind. This gives a partial cleansing action before reaching 
the main screen, b. The latter is driven by an endless belt, c, from a pulley 
on the first motion winch-shaft, this belt being passed over a pulley, d, driving 
the inclined screw-spindle by a bevel-pinion arrangement, e. The grain falls 
from its primary flat screen into a trough, whence it is conducted by the dis- 
charge-passage, F, into the upper end of the inclined screen. The first 
" tailings," separated by the primary riddle, pass off" by the inclined trough, 
J. The next tailings are sifted through the upper part, g, of the rotary 
screen, and they fall away by the inclined trough, h. This upper portion of 
the^ screen is made finer in its mesh than the lower portion, and hence the 
tailings are correspondingly different. The last and best tailings pass off 
through the lower compartment of the screen, b, and the dressed grain 
falls out of the lower end of the screen, along the incline, i. 

The screening air-blast is derived from the usual fan, the air passing from 
its air-chamber through the passage, k, as indicated by the arrows, and enter- 
ing the open lower end of the screen, b. To keep the serpen clean and free, 



234 ELASTIC rOWER-ACCUMULATOES. 

a brush, m, is fitted, s-o as to bear upon the wirework in its revolution. This 
brush is the same length as the screen, and it has liberty to move on hinges 
or joints, so that it may have a slight yielding action. 

When applied in combination with a threshing-machine, the threshed grain 
is at once cleansed in this way, without any intermediate operation. In such 
a case the wire of the screen is finest in the mesh at the upper end, then a 
little coarser at the middle, and coarser again at the lower end ; so tliat the 
first and second tailings pass through the two upper sections, and the grain 
through the lowest one. Stones, or large foreign bodies, all pass out at thtj 
mouth of the screen. 



ELASTIC POWER-ACCUMULATORS. 

Among the curious inventions of the day, few are more attractive, (we did 
not intend a pun,) than those included in our title. India-rubber shoes, 
clothes, combs, etc., are familiar to us all, and here we have another applica- 
tion of this wonderful substance. A small rubber string can be stretched by 
any child. Now, suppose he has ten, twenty, forty of these, all fastened at 
one end to the same spot. If he begins, one by one, stretching eacb to the 
utmost, and attaches them to a movable object, what will he witness ? No- 
thing, perhaps, at first, but as he continues the process, by and by the accu- 
mulating power of these cords will overcome the inertia of the object, the 
cords will contract, and the object to which they are fastened will be drawn 
away from its position. 

This process may be managed systematically, and the elastic cords com- 
bined at one end, or all connected with a ring, or hook, or staple, while the 
free end is adapted to such modes of fastening as one may choose. 

A pound of vulcanized India-rubber, a foot long, if stretched to six feet, 
will support four hundred pounds. It follows, that by a little union of forces 
immense power may be obtained. 

A modification of a boy's bow and arrow is one of the simplest adaptations 
of this power. If a smooth tube of suitable dimensions be furnished at one 
9nd with a looped cord, fastened to it on opposite sides, with any additional 
provisions for convenience in handling it with facility and accuracy, we get 
an engine perhaps as powerful as an air-gun. The tube furnishes an accu- 
rate guide for the arrow, and the arrow being drawn back, while locked into 
the elastic cord, by a notch, as into the string of the bow, it will escape, when 
liberated, with a force corresponding to the tension of the loop. 

Harpoon- projectors are contrived on this plan, and in fact there seems no 
end to the modified forms in which this remarkable substance may be made 
useful. In the harpoon-projector several cords are applied, each of which is 
extended singly, and when all are properly arranged, the hai-poon is set free 
hy a trigger-movement. 

A patent has been taken out in England, for the application of this " power' 
to different purposes, and we are informed by an English journal that this 
has been substituted, as a motive-power, for steam, and that a small screw- 
vessel is now in progress with the same sort of a "prime-mover." IIow this 
substitution can bo made effective is beyond our conjecture, as we do not 
comprehend what power is to operate the ehistic force. 



ON ALLOYS.— THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. 235 



UNIVERSAL FLEXION HARROW. 

Among tlie useful [inventions exhibited at the Crystal Palace, in the 
agricultural department, is the harrow described in our caption. Its pecu- 
liarity is indicated by its name, and it promises to be of considerable ser- 
vice, allowing every part to do its full duty, however irregular the surface 
of the ground may be. One of its chief practical merits consists in the 

simple but efficient nature of its hinges. Ma- 
chinery may be generalized into two classes, 
—that which meets and that which does not 
meet with careful attention. The thorough- 
bred mechanic, to whom bad work is a most 
disgusting eyesore, is inclined to devote all his 
energies to perfection and improvement in the 
first of these classes ; so that the number of 
^^\ ^^.^^^ those who can make self-acting mules to go in 

the cotton-mill, is possibly greater than of 
those who can properly construct a weather- 
cock for its top. In the case before us, any delicate hinge would be quite 
misplaced, and all the difficulties, whatever they may be, have been overcome 
by the adoption of a "hook of double curvature," or a hook with its shank 
bent nearly at a right angle; so that, although readily connected by the 
most unskillful farmer, and perfectly free to turn in every direction required 
by the flexible nature of this triple harrow, it can not be disconnected, except 
by doubling the parts into an angle never assumed in the ordinary work of 
the field. This simple harrow is the invention of Mr. George M. Ramsay, 
and was patented on the 2d of May, having been previously patented in 
Enffland. 




ON ALLOYS, CONSIDERED IN RELATION TO THEIR CHEMICAL 
COMPOSITION. 

BY M. A. LKVOL. 

Translated from the Annales des Mines. 

M. Levol seeks in his memoir to throw light on an important question. 
Are the alloys of metals definite combinations, mixed with an excess of one 
of the metals employed, of which a too rapid cooling does not permit the 
separalion ; or can metals combine with each other in all proportions ? M. 
Levol considers especially the alloys of silver and copper. Even to the mid- 
dle of the last century the alloys of copper and silver were believed perfectly 
homogeneous. Crammer and Jars (1774) were the first who announced the 
heterogeneity of poor alloys, and indicated the "j'mse d''essai a la goutte"" in 
the melted alloy, as the only means of obtaining exactly the richness of the 
whole mass. Toward 1825, the heterogeneity of iTCh alloys was well proved 
by numerous experiments, made under the direction of M. Darcet, during 
1824 and 1825. 

M. Darcet arrived at this conclusion : that the alloys are always hetero- 
geneous; that the poor alloys are less rich at the centre, and that the rich 
allovs are more rich at the centre. M. Levol has studied a certain uum- 



236 PAINT FOR BUILDINGS. 

ber of alloys of copper and silver, of determinate atomic compositions, cast 
into little spherical moulds of cast-iron, with an attached arm sufficiently 
long that the sphere may cool slowly. He has determined for each alloy 
the richness of its different parts. He found that the alloy Ag.^ + Cu.*, 
v-'hose degree of fineness is '718.32, is very homogeneous after cooling slowly. 
This homogeneity has been proved, not only with little trial-spheres, but also 
on an ingot weighing 48 pounds, made on purpose. Its density was 9.9045, 
and in calculating it after the proportions of the two metals, the number 
would be 9.998. Homogeneity allows us to conclude that the alloy is a 
definite combination of the two metals. 

For the other proportions tried, the spherical ingots have always presented 
a notable heterogeneity, which proves that they are mixtures of one of the 
metals in excess with the definite combination. 

For alloys less rich than the combination Ag.^ + Cu.", the centre of the 
spheres is always less rich than the exterior parts. The inverse takes place 
for alloys more rich. 



PAINT FOR BUILDINGS. 

Tins is the season of the year which many farmers prefer, and wisely, too, 
for painting their houses or out buildings. After the intense heats of summer, 
in which the wood absorbs a very large proportion of the oil of tlie paint, 
leaving the mineral portion quite too dry to be durable, and before the heavy 
fall rains commence, it is probably the best time to perform such labors. 

And what color will you have ? There are but few colors between which 
we should hesitate. These are white, and diflferent shades of brown or stone- 
color. We are pleased with the effect of a clear white in the country, 
among the green leaves of the yard. For this, white-lead has been regarded 
as the best, and, in the end, the cheapest paint. It remains permanent 
longer than almost any other, if properly done, the oil and lead combining 
to form a very hard and durable coating. White-lead, however, has a pow- 
erful competitor in the white oxide of zinc. This paint holds its color remark- 
ably well, and is claimed to be superior to white lead. It certainly appears 
well Avhen newly applied. As to its comparative durability, we have heard 
very favorable accounts. It certainly presents, when new, a very handsome 
and very hard surface. 

For dark colors there is more room for choice. There are dark zinc paints, 
but we have no personal knowledge of them. Blake's paint, also, which has 
been advertised in our journal, is a very good paint, and is thoroughly fire- 
proof. It is of a dark chocolate. Another variety is black, or nearly so. 

A brown paint, which has come .somewhat extensively under our notice, 
is a composition in which yellow ochre, verdigris, ivory-black, umber, and 
white lead, are the ingredients. Their propoitions may be varied accord- 
ing to tiie taste of the landlord, but the result will necessarily be a dark 
color, running through all the shades of brown and chocolate. The ochre 
is of course the principal ingredient, and the other paints will be required 
more or less sparingly, as one may wish, lo depart from the color of the base. 
These colors are seen very frequently in the. suburbs of Boston, so famous 
for elegant summer residences. 

For fences and some out-buildings, coal-tar, which is much cheaper than 
the proper paints, serves a very good purpose, and if it does not add beauty 
to the substance to which it is applied, it certainlv does promote its dura- 
bility. 



RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS. 237 



RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS. 

Among the patents receotly granted in England, and whicli can be under- 
stood without engravings, we select the following from our English journals : 

Wheels and Axles. — T. W. Dodds, Rotherham. — In making his im- 
proved wheels, Mr. Dodds primarily rolls the malleable iron, or the raw 
material for the tyres, into long strips or bars, and these bars are then coiled 
up into a helix, or volute, and the folds or contact surfaces are rolled or ham- 
mered together at a welding heat, for the thorough incorporation of the 
metallic layers ; so that in this way the thickness or transverse section of the 
tyre is welded into a homogeneous mass throughout, instead of having merely 
a single weld at one point of the circle. And in combining the details of the 
improved wheels, the tyres are rolled with longitudinal side flanges on the 
inner surface, for the reception and holding up of the outer ends of the spokes 
or wheel arms. The boss of the wheel is of a conical shape, and the inner 
ends of the spokes are correspondingly bevilled, so that, when the latter are 
laid round the nave, the cone is drawn up laterally by means of a plate on 
the wheel face, fitted with adjusting bolts, and the cone action then forces 
out all the arms or wheel spokes in a radial direction, bringing their outer 
ends to bear hard up against the interior surface of the tyre, and binding the 
wheel into a solid mass. The spokes may either be of iron or wood, or other 
materia], and they may be arranged to produce a wheel either solid, or nearly 
so, or open-spoked. When wood is adopted for the spokes, the pieces are 
first suspended over boiling tar, or bitumen, and so as to be subjected to the 
eftect of the ascending vapor, which acts as an excellent preservative against 
d<icay from chemical causes ; or, instead of this system of treatment, the wood 
mav be boiled in a composition of red lead and bitumen. 

In faggoting up the improved axles, the separate pieces, out of which the 
required solid axle is to be produced, are individually rolled or shaped with a 
species ^>f duplex or other incline of a like character ; so that when the pieces 
are laid 'ogether, they dovetail or combine with each other, in such manner, 
that, whei rolled or laid under the hammer, the rolling or hammer action 
forcibly combines all the contiguous or contact surfaces together, and effects 
a good meta'Jic binding down to the centre of the incorporated mass. This 
is the system cf cons'iruction to be followed in the manufacture of solid axles ; 
but hollow axles are m'lde in the same manner, modified only as regards the 
leaving a tubular «entrein the mass.. 

Safety AppakatU's; fok Steam Boilers. — E. Walmsley, Heaton JVorris. 
— This invention has in \iev the prevention of steam-boiler accidents, caused 
Vy a scarcity of water. This object is effected by causing the water in the 
boiler to issue out upon, and ertinguish the fire when the level falls below 
the proper point. A pipe convtys the water frcoi the interior of the boiler 
to a spout or rose in front of or above the fire, and a valve fitted on the 
inner end of this pipe is worked b)- a lever connected to a float, so that, as 
the water-level falls, the float falls wth it and opens the valve. At first the 
valve will open to a slight extent, alnwing but little water to issue. This 
will serve to attract the notice of the attendant ; and to aid this, a small 
opening should be made in the bend of the pipe outside the boiler, so that 
the water may be seen to issue. If attention is paid to this signal, and a 
supply of feed-water be admitted into the boiler, the valve will speedily 



238 RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS. 

be closed, owing to the ascent of the float as the water-level rise3 ; but 
should no notice be taken of the indication of danger, the further fall of 
the water-level will cause the valve to open still further, until a powerful jet 
of water is, by the steam pressure, ejected over the fire, rapidly extinguishing 
it, and preventing any serious results. 

Ornamental Fabrics. — J. Lyle, Glasgotc. — This invention relates to the 
manufacture of figured or ornamental fabrics, for carpeting, tapestry, and 
other goods, as well as chenille, whereby all the necessary colors to be used 
in weaving a given fabric are applied by means of a single shuttle, instead of 
using a reduplication of that apparatus, as hitherto employed in manufactures 
of this nature. 

In manufacturing ornamental fabrics according to this general process, the 
weaver, having his pattern or device drawn out on paper in the usual way, 
reads off each color as it appears in the length of the piece, and then assigns 
to each portion so much of the figuring weft as will produce that particular 
extent of color in the woven piece. For example, if he starts with three lines 
of blue, he measures, by a predetermined standard, so much of his blue figure 
weft as will weave up into these three lines in the piece. This length of blue 
weft is then wound upon a reel or other holder ; and if the succeeding color 
is a red, as much of a red-colored weft is taken as will weave into the number 
of red lines at that part of the figure, and this red length is then tied or 
attached to the preceding blue length. This process is continued throughout 
the entire series of colors in the length of the figure, until the necessary parti- 
colored chain of weft is made up. The shuttle is then supplied with this 
weft, by means of pirns wound up from the chain. This reduces the orna- 
mental weaving to the simplicity of plain weaving, as only one shuttle is used 
in weaving a piece of cloth, whatever number of colors there may ba in the 
pattern or ornamental figure, each link or length of colored weft in ihe chain 
being brought into use at the proper time, by the simple process of unwind- 
ing from the pirn of the shuttle, just as it would be by means of ihe coniplex 
" drop-box" and an entire change of shuttle. The fabrics so woveJ may 
either be used simply as carpets or tapestry of the ordinary kind, or ihey may 
be cut up for the purpose of making chenille. 

Bleaching and Scouring. — J. Higgin, Manchester. — Mr. Hi^gin's inven- 
tion consists in the use of a new compound or mixture, to bf used^ in the 
operation technically known as bowking and kiering, instead of, or in con- 
nection with, the ordinary process of boiling in a soh?cion a soda-ash, or a 
solution of resin in soda-ash. The cloth or yarn to he ble-iched or scoured, 
to the amount of 3500 lbs. weight, for example, after being' singed and washed 
in the ordinary manner, is folded into a kier, during whch operation milk of 
lime is thrown over it ; or the cloth or yarn prior to entering the kier, may be 
padded by or passed through the lime, so as to aHorb it equally. A suffi- 
cient quantity of water is then added, and fr*m one to two gallons of a solu- 
tion of chloride of lime. Steam is then aimed on, and the liquor is kept 
boiling about fourteen hours, after which tie cloth or yarn is removed, washed 
in water, and steeped in or passed through dilute sulphuric or muriatic acid. 
On leaving this solution, the material's washed in water and folded into a 
kier, into which has previously been pnt the following mixture :— In an iron 
or other vessel are put 30 gallons ef water, 120 lbs. soda-ash, and 80 lbs. 
American resin, gum-thus, or any other cheap and efficient resin. This com- 
pound is boiled for eight horns by means of injected steam, and 25 lbs. 
lime, previously slacked to a pasty consistency, are then added to it. This 



RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS. 239 

mixture is boiled six hours, and theu transferred to the kier into which the 
cloth or yarn is folded; sufficient water is then added, and the whole boiled 
for about fourteen hours. In some cases it is preferable to boil the mixture 
of resin and soda-ash in water for fourteen hours, then to put it in the kier, 
and after adding the slacked lime, boil it for about twenty minutes, after 
which the cloth or yarn is introduced and boiled. When sufficiently boiled, 
the cloth must be removed and washed with water, after which it must be 
steeped in or passed through a dilute solution of chloride of lime. It may 
now remain wet for a few hours, or it may be immediately passed through 
dilute sulphuric or muriatic acid, after which it must be washed and dried. 
In some cases it may be convenient to give the goods a second boil in a kier, 
with the aforesaid mixture of resin, soda, and lime, but in smaller quantities, 
or in a solution of resin in soda-ash, or in a solution of soda-ash alone, but for 
most purposes, the aforesaid process will be found sufficiently effective. 

Manufacturk of Iron and Steel. — ^T. W. Dodds, Botherham. — ^This 
invention relates to the primary treatment and manufecture of iron and steel 
from the raw material or metal, and to the application of such manufactured 
metals, or the steeling or case-hardening process thereof, to special articles of 
metal manufacture. In making a mass of steel by this process, the operator 
places the raw unmanufactured material, or wrought-iron, in a chamber or 
furnace containing a mixture of any suitable carbonaceous matter, as char- 
coal, by preference, potash, pearl-ash, or other alkaline matter, and carbo- 
nate or bicarbonate of lime, as marble chippings, gypsum, oyster-shells, or 
other matter containing lime. The common kind of furnace may be used 
for this process, but it is preferred to adopt a plan of furnace wherein a range 
of retorts is so built and contrived, that the working heat may be kept up 
uniformly or nearly so, whilst the charging and discharging operations are 
going on, each retort being drawn in succession, and the treated metal plunged 
into a wet or dry carbonaceous bath or bed to cool. By the adoption of this 
system, the furnace is prevented from sustaining injury from rapid heating 
and cooling, whilst the cost of the process of manufacture is considerably 
reduced. For the production of a non-oxydisable metal or steel for various 
uses, a quantity of nickel is incorporated in the metal in any convenient man- 
ner. And in the annealing of wrought-iron articles, or articles partially 
steeled or case-hardened, a bath or compound mass of carbonate of lime and 
soda, pearl-ash, or potash, is used. This treatment produces a fine soft fibrous 
metal, and the process is especially valuable for softening the inner non- 
abrading portions of railway wheel tyres. 

Files, Rasps, and Edge-tools. — T. W. Dodds, Botherham. — This inven- 
tion relates to the manufacture of files, rasps, saws, augers, rose-bits, and 
other edge or cutting and abrading tools, from the crude or ordinary raw 
metal, as wrought-iron, or partially converted steel ; the articles so shaped 
being subsequently hardened for use, by placing them in a chamber contain- 
ing a mixture of carbonaceous matter, as charcoal, by preference, and potash, 
pearl-ash, soda, or soda-ash, or other alkaline matter ; limestone, and carbon- 
ate or bicarbonate of lime, as marble chippings, gypsum, oyster-shells, or 
other matter containing lime, and any material which, being burned, forms 
animal charcoal. In carrying out this invention, it is proposed to use fur- 
naces of a similar construction to those shown and described in the specifica- 
tion and accompanying drawings of letters patent, granted to Mr. Dodds 
on the 1th. April, 1853 ; a notice of which will be found in the present 
Journal. 



240 EECENT ENGLISH PATENTS. 



The essential object of this invention is the case-hardening, or converting 
of files and other tools in a partially manufactured state, from bars partially 
converted by the use of the process and materials described, or by the use of 
any other carbonaceous material. By this invention the tools may be made 
of very high quality, and at a cheaper rate than usual, whilst special varieties 
of difficult construction are easily formed in this way. 

Ornamental Fabrics. — J. & W. Hood, Glasgow. — This invention relates 
to that part of the manufacture of fabrics of the lappet class, wherein the loose 
surface threads produced in forming the device are cut from the piece to 
bring it to the fioished~"state. Any ornamental fabrics may be treated by 
this process, provided the device, being of the lappet, leaf, or harness class, is 
made up of spots or regularly-disposed isolated portions of interwoven weft. 
To accomplish this process, a duplex cutting scissors is used. Such scissors 
are in each case composed of a central stationary blade, with a cutting edge on 
each side, and two other side blades, with a single cutting edge on the inside 
of each blade, to work in contact with the two edges of the central blade. A 
number of such scissors are fixed in a frame in positions corresponding to the 
pattern to be operated upon, and the fabric is traversed beneath the series, 
and directed so that the scissors shall cut each end of the loose surface or 
waste threads, leaving the spots or devices standing in their finished condition. 
Instead of three blades in the scissors, the same effect may be produced with 
two blades cutting vertically, each blade having two cutting edges, so as to 
sever each side at the same time. Such system of treatment or manufacture 
does away entirely with the necessity for hand-cutting with scissors, and 
effects great economy in the production of the finished fabrics. 

VENTiLATiNa Case FOR MiLLSTONES. — Charles Lowe, Atkerstone. — The 
object of Mr. Lowe's contrivance is the removal of the vapor and moisture 
generated in the grinding action of millstones. In ordinary arrangements, 
the vapor, which the heat of grinding brings out, does not readily descend 
through the spouts, and owing to the centrifugal force given to it by the runner, 
it cannot escape over the back of the stone. Hence it condenses and forms 
a paste in the case and spouts. Mr. Lowe obviates the evil by using a skele- 
ton or ventilating case, covered with bolting cloth, that will retain the flour 
and allow the heated air and moisture to escape. The effect of this modifi- 
cation is further assisted by covering the spouts in a similar manner. 

Ramsbottom's Improved Steam Piston. — Mr. John Ramsbottom, of Man- 
chester, has lately introduced a novel form of piston and packing, which has 
been successfully tried in several locomotive-engines. Our engraving, fig. 1, 
„.^ J is a section of the new piston, and 

fig. 2 is a section of one of the pack- 
p ing rings drawn full size. The piston 
consists of a single casting, A, with- 
[: out cover, bolts, or nuts, and is fixed 
upon a conical part of the piston-rod 
by a nut. Three separate grooves, 
each ^ in. wide, ^ in. apart, and 5-16 
deep, are turned in the drcumference, 
and these grooves are fitted with elastic packing rings, b. These rings, which 
may be made of brass, steel, or iron, are drawn of a suitable section to fit the 
grooves in the piston, and are bent in rollers to the proper curvature, the 
diameter of the circle to which they are bent being about one tenth larger 





RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. 241 

than the cylinder. They are placed in the grooves in a compressed state, 
j,.^ 2 ^"*^^) along with the body of the piston, are thus put into the 

cylinder, care being taken to block the steam-port, so as to pre- 
vent the rings from getting into it. The rings are forced out- 
ward by their own elasticity, which is found quite sufficient to 
keep them steam-tight. The joints of the rings are placed in 
some part of the lower half of the cylinder, so as to break joint. 
The body of the piston, resting as it does upon the bottom of 
the cylinder, prevents the steam getting at them ; should it, however, by any 
chance pass the joint of the first ring, it is all but impossible for the solid part 
of the piston to be so far out of contact as to allow access to the secot)d, and, 
of course, still more so to the third joint. It is now sixteen months since the 
first pair of these pistons were put to work, and others have since been made 
to the number of thirty pairs, the whole of which are realizing all that could 
be desired. One piston has been at work fifteen months, and has run a dis- 
tance of 19,650 miles. A set of rings will run from 3000 to 4000 miles, 
and cost, when new, about 2s. 6d. ; so that, in examining and cleaning a pis- 
ton, the renewal of the packing is of little more consideration, so far as cost 
is concerned, than if the piston were hemp-packed. A careful average of the 
consumption of the fifteen engines which were first fitted with these pistons, 
and which have since run intervals of time varying from four to sixteen months, 
and an aggregate distance of 269,800 miles, shows a reduction, when com- 
pared with the duty of the same engines for four years previous to these 
pistons being put in, of 5*7 lbs. per mile ; a result which has been carefully 
arrived at, and which goes to show that this piston, either from greater ave- 
rage tightness, or reduced friction, or both combined, is greatly superior to 
those which it has superseded. 



RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. 

Brush for Washing Bottles. — This invention consists in a rectangular- 
shaped folding-brush, having three sides formed of solid strips and set with 
brushes, by which the top, sides, and bottoms of bottles, etc., are cleansed by 
a single operation. By A. H. Ranch, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Machine for Cleaning- and Watering Streets. — The nature of this 
invention consists in deposing the dirt thrown up by the movement of a 
rotary-sweeper in a chamber in the rear portion of the machine, by means of 
a draught created by a revolving fan or blower, the sweeper and fan being 
operated through suitable gearing by the forward movement of the rear 
wheels of the machine, and also in using, in connection with the fan and 
sweeper, an apparatus for distributing water, forming by the combination a 
machine that etfectually cleans and waters the streets, and removes the dust, 
without annoyance to the neighboring residents and passers-by. The service 
is perfornied by means of a rotary-sweeper beneath the machine, combined 
with a fan revolving at high speed in an external chamber, which is connected 
by passages with the chamber which first receives the dust and the chamber 
of deposit, by which arrangement the dust is driven within the action of the 
fan by the sweeper, and is by suction drawn to the fan-chamber, where it is 
driven to the chamber, and there deposited ; the air in passing out under 

VOL. VII. 16 



242 RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. 

sti'oiis; pressure tlirough the finer reticulations, in the cover of said chamber. 
By Koss Deegan, of New- York. 

Improvement in Steam-Generators. — This boiler is composed of a con- 
tinuous pipe, which is surrounded by a fire-box which answers to form the 
furnace, and contains water similar to the fire-box of a locomotive-boiler. 
This pipe commences at the bottom with one pipe being connected by turns 
alternately at the ends, thus forming a continuous pipe for some distance up, 
then it divides into two pipes, then ascending some distance, as before, it 
divides into four pipes, and thus it can be carried to any extent by any num- 
ber of divisions. The object of this improvement is to shorten the length of 
the pipes through which the steam is generated, and at the same time increase 
the capacity of the pipe at every division, for the purpose of allowing the 
steam-room to expand as it is generated. The difiiculty in using coils of this 
kind heretofore has been the great length and the numerous turns it has to 
make, and this is obviated by this improvement. By A. B. Latta, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

Improvements in Feathering Paddle-Wheels. — The nature of this 
invention consists in the bowing or arching of the shanks within the inte- 
rior of the hub, or so many of them as may be necessary, so as to secure the 
many advantages of the solid or connected shanks through the hub, with 
double blades standing at right angles with each other, and at the same 
time allow them to turn to feather the blades, in connection with the com- 
pactness and utility of having the paddles all arranged in the same transverse 
line in the hub or socket flanges, and also in a guide for reversing the feather- 
ing of the paddles, whenever the motion of the wheel is reversed, by a very 
small movement in the direction of the axis or shaft, instead of, as has been 
done, by turning the frame of the guides around the wheel beyond the extre- 
mities of the blades. 

The object of arching the shanks of the paddles, it will be seen, is to enable 
them to be passed entirely through the hub, and in the same transverse 
line, thereby greatly reducing the amount of turning and friction in feather- 
ing the blades ; for v?hen two blades are connected to the opposite extremity 
of the same shank at right angles, the motion and amount of friction is 
one half less than when the paddles are arranged and connected to separate 
shanks, which do not pass through the hub, and consequently not permanen 
at right angles. By Thomas Champion and Samuel Champion, of Washing 
ton, D. C. 

Improvement in Seed-Planters. — This invention relates to that class of 
machines which are operated without the use of horses, and which are carried, 
instead of being trundled over the ground, and consists in vibrating the 
seeding-bar, by the motion of the leg of the operator in the act of walking, 
by means of a rod attached to the leg, and a bell-crank lever, attached thereto 
and to the seeding-bar, or other equivalent means. By Waitman Davis, 
Morgantown, Va. 

Improved Lathe. — This improvement consists of two systems of cutters 
or knives acting in different directions at one and the same time ; one form- 
ing a perfect cylinder, and the other leading it out or forming any desired 
firrure or moulding thereon, according to a pattern designed, and these act- 
ing in combination with certain rests adapted by differently-sized bushings 
to suit the various diameters required. By Harrison 0. Clark, Worcester, 
Mass. 



KECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. 243 

Improvkment in Carriages. — ^This improvement is principally adapted 
to light vehicles — such as four-wheeled buggies. Instead of making the reach 
of the carriage of wood or iron, without spring, the entire reach is made of a 
spring, and this spring is so connected with the front axle as to form a swivel- 
joint, by which a number of parts, bolts, screws, nuts, etc., are dispensed with, 
and the cost very materially reduced. By James L. Rohvey, Steuben Co., 
Ind. 

Improvement in Harvesters. — The double-edged shear-blades or cutters, 
operated by the driviug-wlioel, which communicates a reciprocating motion 
to the bars to which the blades are pivoted, cut the grain, which then falls 
upon the platform ; the reciprocating rake advancing, with its teeth elevated, 
clears the platform of the cut grain, and deposits it in bundles on the 
ground, at the side of the machine, ready for the binder, and then returns, 
with the teeth depressed, to repeat the operation. By Ira Reynolds, Repub- 
lic, Ohio. 

Improved Process in Treatment of Paint. — The pigments employed 
for this purpose are such as are ordinarily found in market in the diy state, 
and they are finely mixed. The albumen employed is incoagulated, and 
such as is usually found in commerce in a dried state ; it is also pulverized 
finely. The dry pigment and albumen are mixed in due proportions, and 
put up in papers, kegs, or any other suitable manner, and may be kept for 
years if preserved from moisture. At any time that the paint is required, it 
is only necessary to mix the composition of pigment and albumen in a suit- 
able quantity of soft water, which should stand long enough for the albumen 
to be dissolved ; the whole should be then thoroughly stirred up, when it is 
ready to be spread by a brush over the surface to be coated with it. After 
the paint is applied and has time to dry, it should be treated by some sub- 
stance which will neither decompose nor bleach the pigment, nor stain either 
the pigment or albumen, but which will coagulate the latter. A jet of steam 
is very effective for this purpose, but washing the surface with alcohol will 
accomplish the object very satisfactorily. After the albumen has been in any 
manner coagulated, it must be suffered to become dry and hard before it is 
again disturbed. The surface presented by paint thus treated is Jlat, but it 
may, if desired, be varnished to give it a gloss. The proportions of albumen 
required for different kinds of pigments vary very much. By Gabriel BIou- 
din, New- York. 

Improvement in Paint-Composition. — This is claimed to be a security 
against the action of water or alkaline solutions usually employed in cleaning 
painted surfaces. The inventor says : " To effect this result, I mix the 
pigments with albumen, which is, in its primitive state, soluble in water, but 
becomes insoluble when coagulated. The proportion of albumen will vary 
with different coloring substances ; as, for instance, those of which the form 
of the particle is crystalline, are more readily fixed than those of a globular 
form, and less albumen would be required." By Gabriel Bloudin, New- 
York. 

Improvement in WsAviNa Double Cloth. — This relates to a class of 
fabrics which are suitable to be printed upon one side, such as carpets, etc., in 
which only one side is exposed to view when in use. Any ordinary loom can 
be used for weaving this fabric if it has four harnesses, and is capable of using 
two shuttles and two warp-beams. In one of the shuttles, filling-thread of 
cotton or linen is used, and in the other a thread of woollen. Into two of 



244 RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS, 

the harnesses cotton or linen warps are drawn, and into the other two, woollen 
warps. Numbers one and two contain woollen or worsted warps ; numbers 
three and four, cotton or hnen warps. 

First. Raise the first and third harness, depress the second and fourth, then 
throw in cotton or linen filling. 

Second. Rai^^e the first and depress the second, third, and fourth, then 
throw in wool-tilling. 

Third. Raise the second and fourth, depress the first and third, then throw 
cotton or Hnen filling. 

Fourth. Raise the second, depress the first, third, and fourth, then throw 
woollen filling. 

This operation produces a fabric which has a surface of wool upon one side, 
and of cotton or linen upon the other side, which surfaces are interwoven into 
each other in the middle. By Samuel Fay, Lowell, Mass. 

Improved Burglars' Alarm. — This invention consists in attach mg to a 
door or window a fastener of peculiar construction, and a hammer-dog and 
spring, so arranged that the hammer will be liberated and thrown down 
upon a percussion-cap by the action of the spring when the door or window 
is tried, or an attempt is made to open it. By Duncan £. McDonald, 
Springfield, Mass. 

Improved Method of Turning Casks, etc., from Solid Pieces. — This 
improvement consists in cutting the bodies of barrels out of blocks of wood 
without injuring the cores, by means of longitudinal knives, connected with 
cross-heads, and fed by screws. By this improvement the bodies of barrels 
are turned in one piece from the solid blocks, whereby they can be produced 
in a superior manner than made from staves and put together. There is 
no wasting of material, since by putting on a sufficient number of tool- 
bearers and cutters, can be produced several barrels, or tubs, one within 
another, each of a smaller size, at one operation. After the bodies of the 
barrels are thus turned, and the chines cut, the heads are fitted in the usual 
manner. By James P. Osborn, Staunton, N. J. 



Poisonous Colored Confectionery. — The Lancet commissioners, in report- 
ing the result of their investigations respecting colored confectionery, express 
their surprise at the extent to which deadly and virulent poisons are daily made 
use of by tlie manufacturers of those articles. One hundred and one samples 
were analyzed; and of the yellows, seventy contained chromate of lead and 
colored gamboge ; seventy-nine of the reds contained cochineal, red lead, and 
bi-sul|)haret of mercury ; eight of the browns contained ferruginous earths, 
either vandyke-brown, umber, or sienna ; two of the purples contained Prussian- 
bUie and cochineal ; thirty-eight of the blues contjuned indigo, Prussian-blue, 
Antwerp-blue, and a sulphuret of sodium or aluminum; nineteen of the greens 
contained Brunswick-greens, consisting of a mixture of chromate of lead and 
Prussian-blue, vcrditcr or carbonate of copper, Scheele's green or arsenite of 
copper. The above colors were variously combined in diiferent cases, three and 
even four poisons occurring in the same parcel of confectionery. In four of the 
samples the colors were painted on with white lead or carbonate of lead ; thirteen 
of the samples were adulterated with hydrated sulphate of lime; seventeen sam- 
ples were adulterated with wheat flour, three with potato flour, and one with 
ari'cwroot. 



editors' jottings, etc. 245 



EDITORS' JOTTINGS AND MECHANICAL RECORD. 

Musical — Geisi and Mario. — "The Queen of Song!" this h'as been long 
applied to the great artiste whose name we have here recorded, by the 
most competent judges in the world. Who shall gainsay it? By the same 
decree, Mario has been pronounced her most fit associate. They have now 
come into oar community, and our wiseacres can see in them a host of imper- 
fections, which, if they exist as represented, reduce them at least to second-rate 
performers. If they do not mean this, why do they expend so much learn- 
ing in describing defects? It is admitted that they must have been great 
once, but they are now nearly forty years old ! "Well, reader, are you about 
forty years old, and do you begin to experience the tremors of age, and the 
"weaknesses and infirmities of threescore and ten years ? We have always heard 
that this wa-s just the period of a man's maturity. But let this pass. Some men 
do begin to fade quite early. Probably these artistes have not the youthful elas- 
ticity and freshness of their earlier life, and probably this is all they have lost. 

We have heard them in Norma, said to be Grisi's greatest character. Cer- 
tainly she is a great actress. For queenly dignity, for deep, hearty passion, for 
intense emotion, most naturally represented, we have never listened to any scene 
to compare with several in this remarkable performance. Grisi is by far the 
best tragic actress we have ever seen. 

But her music? Ask her world-wide reputation — her reputation of the pre- 
sent and the recent past ; and if the question is repeated, we should be inclined to 
inquire, What do you think of the poetic merits of Homer's Iliad or Paradise 
Lost? The merits of these may as well be questioned as of the other. But 
■wherein does her merit consist? This is a fair question, but not always easy to 
answer. We answer, partially, as follows : Sometimes it consists in a peculiar 
combination, rather than in any given particular. But she has a voice of great 
compass, remarkable cultivation, and more than ordinary power. She occasion- 
ally exhibits tar more of this last quality than she does in her current style. Her 
trill is faultless, her soft notes are clear and distinct as tliose of a flute. We 
have heard, perhaps from more than one artiste, a note more perfect in itself 
than hers. Perhaps, as was said of Jenny Lind, the first few notes may disap- 
point you. But for efficiency — taking the singing and the acting in high tragedy, 
as one of our dailies has it, " she is incomparable." We have had nothing like 
it in this country. 

Mario is quite competent to be her associate. His voice possesses wonderful 
compass, is under perfect cultivation, of excellent tone, with remarkable power, 
in occasional passages, and withal, he is a fair actor. 

In person both are above the usual height, both well formed, of good features 
and expression, and very graceful in manner. Nothing like stiffness or formality 
appears in either. 

During the performance of Norma, the audience were more completely under 
the control of the stage than we have ever before witnessed. We do not remem- 
ber the occasion when four or five thousand persons were held so long in such 
perfect stillness, as during those three and a half hours. ' 

The minor parts are well sustained. Susini, the base, is a capital voice, and 
discourses capital music. Miss Donovan, (Adalgisa,) is quite an accomplished 
performer. Tiie chorus is good, better than we have often heard. The orches- 
tra, led by Arditi, is very creditable. 

It should be borne in mind that Castle Garden is a horrible place for musical 
effect. Its huge dimensions, numerous recesses, deep gallery, and perhaps the 
nature of its wulls, combine to test the voice and instruments to the greatest 
extent. Their powers are now (in October) to be tested in the new Opera House, 
in Fourteenth street. 

BuTTEE FOE Salk. — In one week, ending Sept. 15th, there arrived in Boston 
by railroads, 356 tons of butter. 



24:6 editors' jottings, etc. 

The New Organ at tue Teeaiont Temple. — All good works of art deserve a 
careful notice, and heuce we give place to the following from the Boston Tra- 
veller : 

" The new organ in the Treraont Temple was exhibited last evening, to the 
evident satisfaction of a large audience. It is from the manufactory of Messrs. 
E. & G. Gr. Hook, of this city, and is much the largest and most comprehensive 
organ ever built in this country, being, we believe, nearly as large as the cele- 
brated organ at Birmingham. It consists of four complete manuals, extending 
from CC to A in alt., and an inde])endent pedal organ^ from CCC to D. It fills 
a space at one end of the hall, 50 feet in height and 50 feet in width, being con- 
cealed from view by an open-work screen. There are 15 stops in the great 
organ, 15 in the swell, 10 in the choir, 16 in the pedal, 6 in the solo, and 14 
couplers, making, in all, 70 registers, 56 of which are sounding sto^^s. This, we 
believe, is 12 more than are in any other organ in America. As far as we are 
enabled to judge from last evening's observation, the voicing of the pipes and 
reeds throughout the instrument is remarkably good, and the stops seem to 
l)lend very finely, no single one being too prominent. The sicell organ is exceed- 
ingly effective ; we rarely have heard such crescendos and diminuendos. The 
distinguishing features of this organ may be mentioned in a few words, as fol- 
lows: 1. Its unusual size. 2. Its indej^endent pedal organ, which is decidedly 
the largest and most complete in America, and is probably surpassed by few, if 
any, in Europe. 3. Its solo-manual, -which is very rare in any country. 4. The 
very large and unusual number of couplers. We think this instrument will, in 
some respects, compare favorably with the large organs of England and the 
Continent. The mixed and reed stops throughout are very brilliant; but, as is 
the case in most American organs, the diapasons, which are by far the most im- 
portant stops of an organ, and which form the foundation^ as it were, of the 
whole instrument, are thin, and will bear no comparison to the deep-toned dia- 
pasons of European organs. We imagine that this general inferiority of Ameri- 
can diapasons comes from the inferior metal used. People will not pay enough 
to enable builders to use the proper kind. All things considered, we think the 
Messrs. Hook may justly congratulate themselves on having produced an organ 
that will compare loell with any in the country. Many distinguished organists 
from this and neighboring cities performed upon the organ last evening, but as 
their object was principally to sliow the organ, and not themselves, we will not 
attempt to criticise them individually. We can not help remarking, however, 
en 2)assant, that one can not be too severely censured for perverting this most 
noble of all musical instruments with such melodies as ' My lodging is on the 
cold ground,' and others which were introduced last evening. Mr. Zundel, of 
New-York, can always be relied upon. He gave us some variations by Rink, 
and a fugue by Bach, in true organ style. Mr. Wilcox is perfectly at home in 
showing offa,n organ, and he never did it better than last evening." 

Olock Mantjfactores. — The New-Yorlc Tribune, in speaking of the latest 
Yankee clock ingenuity, says that it has seen one just manufactured, that mea- 
sures time as the hours are counted in Japan, the hands making a diurnal revo- 
lution in twelve Chinese hours. From it we gather, also, the following interest- 
ing statistics: 

Mayor Jerome, of New-Haven, has been successful in securing a ten per cent 
reduction of duty on American clocks shipped to England. 

The superior beauty and cheapness of the American clocks has almost annihi- 
lated the German clock trade witli England. Tlie town of Bristol, in this State, 
has 14 clock factories, employs 440 hands, using $334,000 in capital, producing 
201,000 finished clocks. 

Plymouth, too, lias three factories, employs 175 hands, using $150,000 in 
capital, producing 70,000 clocks. 

Litchfield, also, employs CO hands ; capital, $50,000 ; produce, 3000 clocks. 

Ansonia has two factories, employs 140 hands, using $132,000 capital, pro- 
ducing 102,000 clocks. 

Southington has two factories, employs 45 hands, using $42,000 capital, pro- 
ducing 14,000 clocks. 



editors' jottings, etc. 247 

"Winsted has one factory, employs 40 Lands, using $36,000, producing 30,000 
clocks. 

New-Haven has three factories, employs 405 hands, using $258,000, producing 
874,000 clocks. 

Total number of hands employed in clock-making in the State, 1279. Total 
capital, .^1,002,000. Total number of clocks, 794,000 per year. 

New-York city furnishes about one fourth as many clocks in a year as Con- 
necticut does, and their annual value is $1,500,000. 

Mach'very in Farming : Its Necessity. — It is not enough that farmers avail 
themselves of all the advantages which chemistry affords in its application to 
their art; it is not enough that they learn how to save as much as possible of 
the manures made on their premises, and the best methods of applying these 
and also purchased specific manures ; it is not enough that they know at what 
seasons and to what depths their soils should be cultivated. They must perform 
as many of the operations of farming by machinery as machinery can be made 
to perform to advantage. 

There is no other way in which agriculture can keep pace in respectability, 
pleasure, and profit with the other arts. Without this expedient it will be out- 
stripped by them, and sink steadily in comparative rank. 

By machineiy, as we use the word here, we mean all mechanical contrivances 
which can be substituted for manual labor, and combined with manual labor, so 
as greatly to increase its productiveness. 

And the policy which we recommend includes also animal labor as a substi- 
tute for human labor, and as a more powerful cooperator with it. 

So far as a horse or an ox can be made to do the work of five men, the horse 
or the ox earns the net product of five men's labor for the employer. If one 
man cultivates as much corn, and cultivates it as well with one horse, attached 
to a cultivator, and one man, as his neighbor cultivates with ten hoes in the 
hands often men, it is easy to see which of the two is travelling the faster on 
the road to wealth. 

So in cutting grass, in planting and harvesting corn, and in various other 
operations of the farm, machines can do the work for a small per centage of the 
cost of manual labor. 

We do not mean that every machine which is invented and offered to the 
farmers for sale should be purchased by them. Not every attempt to substitute 
mechanical labor for manual is successful. The large majority of inventions are 
in some way defective. But in every case where it has been clearly ascertained 
that the thing is actually done, that a machine has been made, which, at a much 
smaller cost, will do the work which you are now doing with human hands, buy 
the machine if you can ; and if you have not the.means, get them as soon as pos- 
sible. 

It is not a matter of option with farmers whether they will do this or not. To 
succeed, they have got to do it otherwise it is impossible for them to compete 
with those who do employ machinery. It is like a man contending single- 
handed against a thousand, and every one his equal. — Peopled Journal. 

Hampton's Peach. — This new peach was produced in Hardin county, Ohio, 
from a stone of the Morris-white Eareripe, purchased in New-York city sixteen 
years ago. The stone did not germinate until the second year, when the pro- 
duce was a tree of uncommon vigor. It was several years in coming into bear- 
ing, hut has not disappointed expectations since that period. The fruit is of a 
very large size. Some specimens have measured eleven and three quarter inches 
in circumference. It parts freely from its drab stone. In quality it is of the 
very finest, being very sweet and rich. The time of maturity is the first of Sep- 
tember, and ripens gradually for two weeks. Tlie tree is of great vigor, and 
before it suffered severely (a few years since) from a sleet-storm, tlie extent of 
its branches exceeded 29 feet in diameter, the circumference of its body 30 inches, 
and some of the annual rings exposed by this injury were near an incii in width. 
It stands in an uncultivated soil. The blossoms of this fruit are small and pale, 
the leaves finely serrated. 



248 editors' jottings, etc. 

Reciprocity Treaty. — The Wa=ihington Union contains the PresiVlent's 
proclamation announcing the ratification of the Canadian Keciprocity Treaty, 
under wiiich the following articles are admitted from the British Provinces 
free of all duty : 

Grain, flour, and breadstuffs, of all kinds. 

Animals of all kinds. 

Fresh-smoked, and salted meats. 

Cotton-wool, seeds, and vegetables. 

Undried fruits, dried fruits. 

Fish of all kinds. 

Products of fish, and of all other creatures living in the water. 

Poultry, eggs. 

Hides, furs, skins, or tails undressed. 

Stone or marble in its crude or unwrought state 

Slate. 

Butter, cheese, tallow. 

Lard, horns, manures. 

Ores of metal, of all kinds. . 

Coal. 

Pitch, tar, turpentine, ashes. 

Timber and lumber, of all kinds, round, hewed, and sawed^ unmanufactured 
in whole or in part. 

Firewood. 

Plants, shrubs, and trees. 

Pelts, wool. 

Fish-oil. 

Rice, broom-corn, and bark. 

Gypsum, ground or unground. 

Hewn, or wrought, or unwrought burr or grindstones. 

Dyestufi's. 

Flax, hemp, and tow, unmanufactured. 

Unmanufactured tobacco. 

Rags. 

Statistics of Trade. — AVhat will our political financiers say of the following 
facta, which are stated in the journals of the day? 

The supply of gold received from California has been inadequate to supply the 
drain made by the demands of our foreign trade. The shipment of specie from 
the United States to foreign countries, from the 1st of January to the 2d of Sep- 
tember of this year, has been about $36,000,000. 

While this drain of specie is going ou with such drastic force, the oflScial 
statements show that the foreign imports at the port of New-York for the 
month of August of this year exceed the imports for the same month of last year 
about $3,000,000. 

The quantities of goods thrown upon the New- York market during the 
month of August of the past four years were as follows : 

1851, $6,783,216 

1852, 9,684,591 

1853, 11,668,731 

1854, 14,194,646 

It must be manifest to every rational mind, that the increasing population 
and wants, wealth, and ability of the country, do not require any such rapid 
increase in the supply of foreign goods. 

iKOisr Foundries of Pittsburg. — There are now in Pittsburg thirty-eight 
iron foundries, of wliich nine are almost exclusively employed in the manu- 
facture of steam-engines, and twenty-nine in the manufacture of various kinds of 
hollow-ware, machinery, etc. The foundries which are employed in the manu- 
facture of steam-engines consume yearly 3200 tons of wrought-iron, 9200 of 
pig-iron, employ 640 mun, and produce 120 steam-engines every year, Their 
net capital is $540,000. 



editors' jottings, etc. 249 

Greatest Steamer in the World. — Tlie immense screw and paddle steamer, 
building by Scott Russell, at Millwall, England, for the Eastern Steam Naviga- 
tion Company, is to be completed in twelve months. Her keel has been laid 
down, and several of her bulkheads, or compartments, are raised, and the works 
are proceeding with energy and expedition. A railroad has been laid down the 
entire length of )ier way, to facilitate- the conveyance of the materials from the 
factory to the different parts of the vessel. The exact dimensions of the ship 
are as follows: Tonnage, builder's measurement, 22,000 tons; tonnage burthen, 
10,000 tons; extreme length, 680 feet; extreme breadtli, 83 feet; extreme 
depth, 58 feet ; power of engines, (screw and paddle,) 2600 horse. Her engines 
are in the course of construction, and will be fitted in the vessel before she is 
floated off. The hull will be entirely of iron, and of more than usual strength, 
the magnitude of her size enabling Mr. Brunell, the architect, to introduce many 
precautionary measures conducive to support and security. From her keel up 
to six feet above the water-line is double, of a cellular construction. The upper 
deck will also be strengthened on the same principle, and -will form a complete 
beam, similar to the tube of the Britannia Bridge, so that any external injury will 
not affect the tightness or the safety of the ship. She is divided into ten separate 
■water-tight compartments, each being sixty feet in length, enabling her to take 
out sufficient fuel for a voyage to Australia and back to England without stopping. 

Internal Improvement Convention at ISTokfolk. — "We are glad to be able 
to remind our Virginia readers of the great Internal Improvement Convention to 
be held in Norfolk, on Wednesday, the 8th of November next. The objects of 
that Convention are set forth in a series of resolutions adopted by a public meet- 
ing of the citizens of Norfolk in May last. The first resolution declares tliat the 
"cause of internal improvement in this State will be advanced by conference 
among its friends previous to the meeting of the next General Assembly, and 
that a full understanding of the course that should be pursued is necessary, to 
secure to the citizens of Virginia the trade within and beyond our borders, to 
which they are justly entitled." The second affirms, that "without concert of 
action and unanimity of purpose on our part, in regulating further appropriations 
to these works, we can not counteract the efforts that will be made to divert our 
trade to cities located in other States." The third resolution invites the " coope- 
ration of all sections and parties interested in completing, with ihe least cost, 
and in the shortest time, our great lines of railway to the West, in such manner 
and direction as will inure to the benefit of the State, and to that of our own 
cities." In suggesting the holding of this Convention, the citizens of Norfolk 
take occasit)n to disclaim having any purposes to subserve that are not 
"common" to the other cities and towns of Virginia — having solely in view the 
establishment of a system that will be essentially " State" in its character and 
objects. 

Water in Filllng up Deep Boee-Holes in Blasting Operations. — In work- 
ing the great deposit of magnetic iron ore which occurs under peculiar circum- 
stances in the granite at Moravitza, in theBanat, it has been found necessary, in 
consequence of the hardness of the rock and ore, to use bore-holes from 2 to 2i 
inches in diameter, and 36 to 40 inches deep. The packing of such holes with 
clay being a very tedious operation, Mr. A. Koszt endeavored to substiiute water 
for the clay, with considerable success. One of Bickford's safety-fuses, which 
burns in water perfectly, is attached to the cartridge and fastened with thread ; 
this cartridge is let down to the bottom of the whole, and about li to 2 inches 
of clay firmly packed over it, the remainder of the bore, nearly to the top, being 
filled with water. In the case ot very oblique bores, where the pressure of the 
water upon the bottom was small, he plugged up tlie orifice of the bore with a 
plug of wood, driven with considerable force into it, through a slit in which the 
fuse passed. More recently still he had used instead of a small quantity of clay 
first introduced, to keep the cartridge from becoming wet, a mixture of tar and 
pitch, which most effectually preserves the powder from damp. Great numbers 
of trials have convinced him that the blasts fired with this arrangement lose 
nothing in force, Avhile there is a great saving of time and consequently of 
expense. 



250 editors' jottings, etc. 

New Contrivance in Ironing. — The heating of irons, as we are led to snppose, 
is often attended with great inconvenience. Sometimes they are too h(.)t, some- 
times too cold, sometimes they crock the muslins, etc., etc. A patent has been 
taken, in England, for heating them by steam. An elastic tube, of requisite 
length, is connected at one end with a steam-boiler, and at the other end, the 
iron being hollow, with the interior of the iron. Two tubes may be provided, 
so as to keep up a constant current of steam through the iron. Much time, now 
consumed in changing the irons, will be saved by this plan, and there may be 
also economy in the heating. A very small boiler, in summer, may be substituted 
for the kitchen grate, and in all cases an ordinary fire will be quite sufficient for 
keeping the irons hot. 

Another advantnge is obvious. To prevent an inconvenient degree of heat 
upon the hand, a double plate, with an air-chamber between, may be arranged 
above the steam-chamber, and, by the use of a non-conducting handle, all danger 
of this sort may be entirely obviated. 

Engines of the French Steamship Brandon. — An iron screw-ship has 
recently arrived at this port from Havre. Her engines are peculiarly con- 
structed. She has two engines, with two steam cylinders for each. She has 
two tubular boilers of very small dimensions. One engine, a small high-pressure, 
communicates its steam to the second, which is twice as large. The crank-shaft 
of each engine acts directly, by gearing, upon the propeller-shaft. The wheels 
of the two engines are geared to the same pinion, and of course revolve in oppo- 
site directions. Both engines weigh but sixty tons, and consume but fifteen and 
a half tons of fuel per day. She made the passage in sixteen days. She was 
built on the Clyde. 

Science tttrned Peevish. — " An experiment has just been successfully made 
in France, of employing swallows to carry letters, as pigeons were used some 
years back." — Exchange. 

" Foolish operation in these days of the lightning telegraph." — Scientific Ame- 
rican. 

Now, this remark of our neighbor seems to us the most foolish and unscien- 
tific that he could have made on the subject. Are not messages to be sent any 
where except where telegraphs will pay ? This is only equalled by that other 
remark of his, that steam-carriages on common roads are not wanted in this day 
of railroads. According to this learned editor, all our business, financial and 
social, is to be done on railroads and by electric telegraphs. He is quite behind 
or outside the times. 

Glass Globes unsuitable for Fish. — In the first place, the fish require 
abundance of air. Now, scarcely any other shape than a globular one contains 
so much water with so little exposure to the air. Fish, too, require shade, not 
when we choose to give it to them, but when they feel the want of it; and it 
need scarcely be observed that all day long a glass globe is in a blaze of light. 
Still more, the water in the globe must be daily changed, consequently the fish 
must be lifted out either by hand or a small net ; and it is utterly impossible, 
however careful we may be, to handle or net these delicate little struggling crea- 
tures without injuring them, at one time or another. 

Liquid Glue. — Take 1 kilogramme (or 2 lbs. 8 ozs. 3 dwts. 2 grs. Troy) of 
Cologne glue, and dissolve it in 1 quart of water in a glazed pot, over a gentle 
fire, or, better, in the sand-bath, stii-ring from time to time. AVhen it is all 
melted, 200 grammes, (6i ozs. Troy,) of nitric acid, at 3G°, are added, by small 
quantities at a time. Efiervescence takes place, from the disengagement of 
hyponitric acid. When all the acid has been poured in, the vessel is removed 
from the fire, and allowed to cool. Glue thus prepared has been kept for upward 
of two years, in an uncorked bottle, without suflering any change. Liquid glue 
is very convenient in various chemical operations. Pieces of linen covered with 
it may be used as a luting for preserving certain cases. It is likewise very use- 
ful to cabinet-makers, carpenters, pastei3oard-makers, and toy-makers, since it 
does not require healing. 



editors' jottijStgs, etc 251 

Mule Trade of Boukbon Countt, Ky. — -The Paris (Ky.) Citisen gives some 
statistics of the mule trade of Bourbon county, which show a steady increase 
both in the demand for and value of these animals. In 1843, according to the 
assessor's books, there were in the county 1932 mules, valued at $11,043, or an 
average of $21.31 per head ; in 1854, 7436, valued at $502,800, or $7570 per 
head. The principal markets are the Southern States, where they are used on 
cotton and sugar plantations. In Virginia they are used on the farm and the 
road. Baltimore furnishes a large market for the smaller animals, where they 
are shipped to the West-Indies, to pack coffee from the mountain-plantations. 
One dealer in Baltimore purchases annually 1000; and another in Richmond, 
Va., about double that number, one farmer in Bourbon county selling him every 
year between 500 and 800. 

ENGRATiNa OS Glass. — 'Slv. I. W. Whipple has just patented in several conn- 
tries, a new mode of engraving or printing on glass, which reproduces rapidly 
and cheaply upon the surface of glass vessels of any usual form, or even upon 
ordinary M^ndow-glass, any device, motto, landscape, or portrait which may be 
desired. Measures are in progress to establish a manufactory for the production 
of glassware thus ornamented. Ordinary glass goblets, whether cylindrical, 
conical, or hemispherical, are "printed" with equal facility, a goblet being 
finished complete in from tliree to ten minutes. It is estimated that one girl 
will be able to attend to four machines, thus engraving from two to seven dozen 
per hour. 

The Fair in Providen^ce. — The exercises of the annual Agricultural Fair 
commenced in Providence on Wednesday, Sept. 20, and, as we learn from the 
Providence Journal, attracted an immense concourse of people from the sur- 
rounding towns. Every thing went off" well, and the agricultural part of the 
exhibition was never finer or more interesting. The chief attractions were a 
ploughing match, a drawing match, the cattle-show, and the parade of ox-teams. 
The horticultural department of the exhibition was large and beautiful, notwith- 
standing the efl:ects of the drought were visible in the diminutive size of the 
fruit. The exhibition of woollen goods and cloths was more interesting than 
that of last year, and embraced many rich and elegant specimens of goods. 

Perpetual MoTioif. — Mr. James G. Hendrickson, of Freehold, Monmouth 
county, N. J., after forty-nine years of patient " whittling," has made a machine 
that will not only " go of itself," but will compel divers other bodies to which it 
is attached to go likewise ; in short, it has power ! " The success is in the direc- 
tion in whicli so many have so long labored in vain, namely, by the use of arras 
and balls attached to a cylinder so as to keep the extra weight always on one side, 
and therefore to give the cylinder a constant inclination to turn round. The 
machine requires no starting ; take away the blocks, and it goes off ' like a thing 
of life.' The model was in our office yesterday, and attached to some clock- 
work, which it turned without once stopping to breathe. We see no reason 
why it would not go until worn out." — Journal of Commerce. 

Purifying Gas. — The Rev.'W. R. Boudich, of "Wakefield, England, has obtained 
a patent for purifying gas, by employing clayey earths, either alone or in combi- 
nation with lime. The earths so employed are afterward used by farmers for 
manure. It is well known that aluminous earths possess the quality of absorbing 
and retaining ammonia; they therefore absorb the ammonia which is set free in 
the distillation of the coal of which the gas is made, and as ammonia is an excel- 
lent fertilizing agent, the products of the gas-works thus become serviceable fur 
raising wheat and corn. 

What a Mowixg-Machine can do. — The Springjield Hejmilican states that 
Captain Samuel Parsons, of Northampton, cut, made, and put into his barns, 
sixty-two loads of hay during the first week of July, commencing on the 3d, 
beside mowing for otliers to the amount of $40 in the same time. The whole 
was accomplished with what would be equivalent to the labor of one man for 
thirty-eight days. He mowed in one day, and in less thau nine hours, eleven 
:\cres, producing from two to two and a half tons per acre. 



252 EDITORS' JOTTINGS, ETC. 

Railroad Speed. — The Great Western Express to Exeter, Enfcl-'ind, is made 
to go at the rate of sixty miles an hour, inchiding stoppages. Supposing the 
locomotive which draws such a train to have driving-wheels seven feet in diame- 
ter, those wheels will revolve five times in a second ; the valve moves and the 
steam escapes ten times in a second ; but as there are two cylinders which act 
alternately, there are really twenty puffs or escapes of steam in a second. Such 
a locomotive speed is equal to nearly one fourth of that of a cannon-ball, and the 
momentum of a whole train, moving at such a speed, would be nearly equivalent 
to the aggregate force of a numbei- of cannon-balls equal to one fourth the weight 
of the train. — Banner of Industry. 

Peat for Fuel. — The Waterhury American says that two beds of peat have 
recently been discovered about two miles from that city, and that two joint- 
stock companies have been formed, with abundant capital, for the purpose of 
snpplying it as a fuel for market. 

If the American gives this information as a sign of enterprise, we fear he i3 
behind the times. Where we were brought up, men of very small capital do 
this very thing. Almost every family supplies at least their own wants, and 
many are ready to supply their neighbors. 

Keeping Flowers and Fruit in aFkesh State. — A new process has been 
discovered for keeping flowers and fruit from decay. This is the process : 

Dissolve gum arable in soft water to the exact point of saturation, and then 
take a full-blown rose and dip it into the water, and, as soon as the gum is dry, 
dip again and again, stem and all, and then put it away nnder glass, or where it 
will not be touched, and the flowers will remain perfect for a long time. 

Fruit treated in the same way will not decay soon, because it is shut up from 
the atmosphere. 

It is a most needless to say that this is a very good way to prepare eggs for 
long keeping. 

Grafts dijjped in the gum solution may be carried to California safely. 

Curious English Statistics. — It appears by the returns, that there are in 
England 3,.391,271 integral families, and 1,178,559 which have prematurely lost 
the husband or wife. The number of widows is 795,590, of widowers only 
3S2.9G9. Between the ages of 2,5-30, two per cent of the women are widows; 
30-35, four per cent ; 35-40. seven per cent ; 40-45, ten per cent. At G5, the 
numl)er of widows exceeds the number of wives. At the age of 80 and u|)ward, 
of 100 women, 75 are widows, 13 are unmarried, and 12 wives. Of every 100 
men of 20 years or upward, 31 .are bachelors; and of every 100 women of 20 
years or upwai'd, 29 are spinsters. Not more than 20 in 100 families are child- 
less. 

Another Wonderful Mathematician. — -A girl between eight and nine years 
of age, living at Ayrshire, and attending the Hastings school, is a perfect won- 
der. She has studied arithmetic but a year, but can tell in a few moments, by 
mental calculation, the number of seconds in any number of years, 60, SO, or 
100, etc., multiply or divide by two numbers, as 32, 68, etc., by short divisipn. 
She multiplied 123456789 by 987654321, and gave the correct answer in less 
than a minute. She is the daughter of a shoemaker in Darvel. 

Wonderful Patent. — The Scientific American details seriously, as if in appro- 
val, of a "machine for sawing cord-wood," Avhich consists of quite a system of 
mechanic contrivances, and fly-wheels, etc., all of which, having no power, are 
to be put in motion by the wood-sawyer, beside sawing the wood. The saw \% 
a common wood-saw, sometimes called a bow or frame-saw. What does all this 
mean ? Perhaps he was the patent-agent, and knows all about it. We should 
like to know what possible benefit it can be. 

Clothing Business. — The clothing business of Boston amounts to twelve or 
fifteen million dollars annually. There are four houses which give employment, 
directly or indirectly, to about five thousand persons each, scattered throughout 
the New-England States, in most of which they have agencies. 



EDITORS JOTTINGS, ETC. 



Novel Smoothing-Ikons. — Mr. John Kiugsland, ot Alleghany City, Pa., has 
patents for two smoothing-irons. One is self-heating, and has been already 
described in this journal. It is hollow, with a draft, for the purpose of burning 
charcoal. The other is also hollow, and is furnished with a piece of iron fitted 
to it, to be heated in tlie grate or elsewhere, and then inserted in its place. 
This heater is open at the centre, forming also a draft; so that placing it on a 
fire does not tend to put it out, but rather to increase its intensity, by forming 
a short chimney for the passage of its hot current. Both are well worth atten- 
tion. 

Breokenridge and Oannel Coal Company. — We learn that this company are 
progressing with their enterprise with extraordinary energy. Four hundred men 
are at work. The company have all the means on hand to complete the works, 
and it is confidently anticipated that they will be enabled to deliver coal by the 
first of December. The superiority of this coal, says an exchange, will bring it 
into general use at once. 

The Chops in England and Ireland. — The late English papers all speak of 
fine weather and abundant harvests throughout the whole of that country. The 
corn and wheat especially are represented as unusually fine, and in many places 
the latter was being cut. Oats and hay, too, would yield largely, and the only 
complaint is of the potato-rot, but this is far from general or very serious. 

Connecticut Wine. — Mr. Ansel Martin, of Norwich, Conn., has about five 
hundred gallons of wine, made from the native grape. He carries on the manu- 
facture quite extensively, his presses and other apparatus being all of his own 
invention. He says tliere is no more need of importing wine than there is of 
importing cider, and that there might be an abundance of a splendid home arti- 
cle, if the farmers would only give some attention to the subject. 

The Concord Grape. — E. W. Ball, Esq., of Concord, Mass., has originated, it 
is said, within a year or two, a new seedling-grape, which is highly spoken of. 
"We have not seen it, and therefore can not judge of its merits. We should like 
to know more of it. 

Kaolin. — A bed of this valuable clay was discovered in New-Jersey, at 
"West-Milford, some time since, but its qualities were then unknown. It has 
recently been tested, and is tbund a valuable kaolin. It is of various colors, 
white, red, chocolate, etc. 

Dr. William Terrill, of Sparta, has given to the Georgia State University 
at Athens, the munificent sum of $20,000, to endow a professorship of Agricul- 
ture. In pursuance of the donor's wishes, the Professor of Agriculture is to give 
a free course of lectures each year. 

Erratum. — In our notice of Messrs. Woodward & Brown's manufactory of 
piano-fortes, we were made to say "a toning-machine," instead of "a boring- 
machine," as we intended. 

Collectors Wanted — In all the States south and west of Ohio and Pennsylva- 
nia. Tliose of experience preferred, and unquestionable references required. 
Address, post-paid, or in person, at this office. 

General Agency. — The publisher of The Plough, the Loom^ and the Anvils 
believing it in his power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to them that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purchase of books of any description; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, And experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and will execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

{[^'"Particular attention to business connected with the Patent-Office. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to. 



254 NEW BOOKS. 



Is^EW BOOKS. 

TriE Peactical Mechanic's Journal. 

Nos. 4 and 5 of Vol. 7 are received, and fully sustain us in the commendation 
we gave two months since of the work, in a notice of the previous numbers. It is a 
capital work, superior to any thing we know of in this country. To this we are 
indebted for our account of "recent English patents," in the preceding pages. It is 
published monthly in Glasgow. The American agents are Stringer & Townsend, 
222 Broadway. Price $3 a year. 



The Tent and the Altau ; or, Sketches from Patriarchal Life. By Rev. John Ccm- 
MiNG, D.D., F.R.S.E., etc. Boston: John P. Jewett & Co. 1854. 

In this excellent volume twenty-two topics are presented, in separate chapters, 
illustrating the different phases of religion in the time of the patriarchs. The scenes, 
each of them, is portrayed with a very powerful pen. " Each patriarch lived foi* 
us. Ills voice is borne on the winds and waves of time to us." This book is one of 
the prominent instrumentalities by which this is accomplished. Few writers have 
done more to impart a thrilling interest to these lessons than Dr. Gumming. 



Voices of tue Day, By Rev. John Gumming, D.D., etc. Boston : John P. Jewett & 
Go. 1854. 

This is intended as a companion of " The Voices of the Night," (which we have not 
seen,) and relates to the future, "the 'night' being far spent and the 'day' at 
hand." The first chapter is " The dawn of day," and the last, the 16th, "The com- 
ing of Elijah." The wonderful power of the writer is exhibited in this as in the 
volumes we have previously noticed. He is, beyond dispute, the religious author, in 
this department of literature, of the present day. 



Akithmeticvl Analysis; or, Higher Mental Arithmetic for Advanced Glasses. By 
James B. Thompson, LL.D. New- York: Ivison & Phinney. 1854. 

Dr. Thompson is the author of several school books of a high order, but we doubt 
whether any man can do a more useful service, in this sphere, than to prepare a good 
mental arithmetic. Exercises of this kind do more to direct the mind and bring out 
principles even than geometry as it was taught in our colleges twenty or thirty 
years ago. This service he has done ia this little book. The plan is well arranged, 
well explained and illustrated, and the whole forms a foundation for further deve- 
lopments and higher processes which is invaluable. 



Grecian and Roman Mythology. By M. A. Dwight. 2d abridged edition. New- 
York : A. S. Barnes & Go. 1854. 12mo, 314 pp. 

This work fills a blank space which has proved very inconvenient, especially to 
readers of the classics. It contains 34 engraved illustrations. The author has done 
his work in a very able manner. The introduction is also valuable, containing an 
account of the origin of niyth(jlogy, and its progress onward toward the true historic 
period. For schools and families this work will be of especial value. No other, 
within our knowledge, supplies its place. 



"\Vm. IIat.i, tfe Son. — Reader, can you "perform" Old ITimdred? Are you very 
sure? Please trj' a copy, arranged by W. V. Wallace, and "ten to one" you will 
find your match. But it is perfectly beautiful, and therefore will pay for tiie labor 
bestowed on it. 

La Belle Brnne/te Polka, hrillante, by John Puidiiam ; Youth is life's time of Majf, 
a romance, by Henry (\ Watson ; and Our Wild Woodland Home, vocal duett, 
written iiyllAKC'Ur.T Uusskll, composed by Louis Si-our, and veiy bea'itifal; all 
are well worth your attention. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



255 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM AUGUST 8 TO SEPT. 5 . 



Eobevt Arthur, Washington, improvement in 
closing the mouths of bottles, etc., air-tight. 

John A. Brartshnw, Lowell, improvement in ma- 
chine for pegging boots and shoes. 

VVm. Brooke, Jersey City, improvement in gas- 
moulds. 

John H. Cahill, Philadelphia, improvement in 
hot-air ranges and side-ovens. 

Mathias P. Coons, Brooklyn, improvement in 
railroad car brakes. 

Aaron D. Crane, Newark, N. J., improvement in 
machines for turning irregular forms. 

D. M. Cummiugs, Enfield, N. H., improvement 
in rakes. 

B. Franklin Day, Philadelphia, improved hand- 
press. 

Cook Darling, Utica, improved mode of securing 
hubs to axles. « 

Aaron L. Dennison, Roxbury, improvement in 
punches and dies for punching watch-hands. 

Joshua Gibbs, Canton, Ohio, improvement in 
ploughs. 

Joseph Harris, Jr., Boston, Mass., improvement 
in lamps. 

Albert H. Judd, St. Louis, improved safety appa- 
ratus for steam-boilers. 

J. L. Lord, Chester, Conn., improved grindstone- 
frame. 

Thos. Gr. McLaughlin, Philadelphia, improvement 
in railroad car brakes. 

Jacob Myers, Powhattan Point, Ohio, improve- 
ment in harrows. 

Robert Neish, New- York, improvement in lime- 
kilns. 

Andrew Patrick, Alleghany County, Md., im- 
proved mode of unloading coal and other cars. 

Sylvester IL Roper, Worcester, improvement in 
eewiug-muchities. 

Jacob C. Robie, Binghamton, improvement in 
turn-tables. 

O. S. Reynolds, Dover, N. H., improvement in 
machines for cutting irregular forms. 

Chas. G. Sargent, Lowell, improvement in ma- 
chines for combing wool. 

Geo. Spencer, Utica, improvement in railroad 
car windows. 

VVm. A. Sweet, Pompey, N. Y., improvement in 
fire-arms. 

J. S. White and L. P. Wait, Waterloo, S. C, im- 
provement in seed-planter. 

Moses D. Wells, Morgantown, Va., improvement 
in horse-rakes. 

Timothy W. Webb, Jersey City, improvement in 
insulators for lightning-rods. 

W. A. White, Roxbury, improved process of 
printing lot:g-napped fabrics. 

A. S. Wright, San Francisco, Cal., improvement 
in gold-amalgamator. 

Wra. Kidder, Newburyport, assignor to "Wm. Kid- 
der ai'd Neheraiah Hujit, Boston, improvement in 
machines for pegging boots and shoes. 

Henry H. Beach, Chicago, improvement in win- 
nowers. 

Wm. D. Andrews, New- York, improved centri- 
fogal pump. 

Nathmiel A. Boynton, New- York, improvement 
in, hot-air furnaces. 

Richard C. Bristol, China, Mich., improvement 
in rotary-eijgines. 

Benj. Bridenilolph, Clearspring, Md., improve- 
ment in homioy-niill.'!. 

Absalom H. liarle, Franklin, N.Y., improvement 
in straw-cutters. 

Wra. M. Ellis, Washington, D. C, improred ar- 
rangement of the steam-engine. 



Wm. Z. Hatcher, Philadelphia, improved stop 
and waste-cocks. 

Levi Haywood, Joseph L. Ross, and Jas. K. Otis, 
Boston, improvement in por'able bureaus. 

J. Burrows Hyde, New- York, improvement in 
apparatus for coating telegraph-wires. 

Bernard Hughes, Rochester, improvement in 
actuating engines by bi-sulphate of carbon. 

Geo. Jackson, Cohoes, improvement in knitting- 
machines. 

Abel P. Lewis, Shopiere, Wis., improvement in 
floating-drags, or anchors. 

Robert Marquis, Xenia, Ohio, apparatus for ba- 
lancing and hoisting sashes. 

Elbridge Marshall, Blinton, N. J., improvement 
in manure-spreaders. 

Henry Mellish, Walpole, N. H., improvement in 
grain-mills. 

Julius A. Pease, New- York, improved diaphragm 
pump. 

Wm. D. Porter, New- York, improvements in 
wood gas generators. 

Henry Kichardson, Sheldon Morris, Jr., and Ben- 
net C. Peroy, Litchfield, Ct., improvement in fold- 
ing umbrellas. 

Artemus Rogers, Painsville, Ohio, improved in- 
strument for miinufacturing door-knobs. 

Charles M. Alburgi^r, Philadelphia, improved 
pavement-washer, hose-hydrant, and hitching- 
post. 

Thomas Crossly, Boston, improvement in manu- 
facturing two ply carpets. 

.los. Hill, Skaneateles, improved daguerreotype 
plate holder. 

Jo". C. Jenkins, Bealsville, Ohio, improvement in 
tuning forks. 

Abner White Jones, New- York, improved means 
of preventing the explosion of boilers. 

Dustin P. Mellin, Wentworth, N. H., machine for 
sawing clapboards, etc. 

Wm. 0. Rust, Great Falls, N. H., improved saw- 
set. 

Hugh Sangster, Buffalo, improvement in securing 
glasses in lanterns. 

Edmund Shaw, East-Abington, Mass., improve- 
ment in sewing-machines. 

Halcyon Skinner and Wm. Greenhaigh, West- 
Farms, N. Y., improved carpenters' guatre. 

Robert Spencer, Southport, Ct., improvement in 
harness saddle-trees. 

Alfred A. Stara, New- York, catamenialsupport- 
ers. 

David Swartz and Samuel Swartz, Tomsbrook, 
Va., improvement in fastening ploughs. 

Robert Spencer, New-York, improvement in 
harness-saddles. 

Paul Stillman, New- York, improvement in count- 
ing-machines, 

Francis C. Tread well, New- York, improvemen* 
in ovens. 

Abner Whitely, Springfield, Ohio, improvement 
in track-clearers to grass-harvesters. 

Philander Wilbar, Milan, Ohio, improvement in 
cheese-presses. 

Melvin Shaw, East-Abington, Mass., assignor to 
Melvin Shaw and Daniel Gage Wheeler, of East- 
Abington aforesaid, improvement in clamps lor 
sewing-machines, 

Solomon S. Gray, South-Boston, assignor to S, 
8. Gray and S. A. Woods, of South-Boston afore- 
said, for improved machine for planing lumber 
"out of wind." 

Daniel Tread well, Cambridge, assignor to Her- 
bert H. and Frederick H. Slimpson, of Boston, im- 
provement in operating furnaces. 



256 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Thomas VV. Harvey, deeensed, late of New- York, 
adminislrator and assignor to the Harvey Steel 
and Iron Cnm|iaiiy,'for improvement in furnace 
for manufactu'ing wrought-iron directly from the 
ore. 

James A. Brazier, Canton, Mass., assignor to 
Alfred B. Ely, of Boston, improvement in cog- 
gearing. 

M. H. Aferriara, Chelsea, Mass., and William W. 
Nichols, Boston, assignors to W. W. Nichols & Co., 
of Boston aforesaid, for improved tool-rest for turn- 
ing-lathes. 

Kenj. F. Graves, of Boston, assignor to C. Knowl- 
ton, of Boston iif.iresaid, improved tool for boring 
recesses for castors, etc. 

Sidney S. Turner, Westhorough, Mass., assignor 
to Elmer Townsend, of Boston, improvement in 
sewing-machines. 

Jacob ^ennelf, Philadelphia, improvement in 
machines for rolling shfpulders on axles. 

Wm. Vati Arden, Poughkeepsie, improvement in 
machines for rolling shoulders on axles. 

Robert Ross, Philadelphia, improved steam- 
valves. 

Robert M. Abbe, Thompsonville, Ct., improve- 
ment in hog-pens. 

Wm T. Hazemnre, Bibb County, Ga., improve- 
ment in cultivator,'. 

Wra. Biddle, Lafayette, Ind., improvement in 
washing-machines. 

Gardiner A. Bruce, Mechaniesburg, 111., improve- 
ment in maize-harvesters. 

Lebbeus Brooks, Great Falls, N. II., improvement 
in spirit-levels. 

E. W. Billiard, Hardwick, Mass., improved win- 
dow-blind holder. 

Julius n. Dickey, Sandv Hill, N. Y., improvement 
in fastening skirts to saddletrees. 
Isaac B. Dudrey, Athens, Ohio, stave-machine. 
Isaac B. Dudrey, Athens, Ohio, improved stave- 
machine. 

0. G. Ewings, Heart Prairie, Wis., improvement 
in ploughs. 

Jos. W. Fawkes, Christiana, Pa., improvement in 
manure and lime-spreade-s. 

Richard Fanning, Clarksfield, Ohio, improved 
method of guiiling cross-cut saws 

Joseph F. Flanders and Jeremiah A. Marden, 
Newburyport, Mass., improvements in leather- 
splitting machines. 

J. T. Forbes, Coburg, Canada West, improve- 
ment in bedsteads for invalids. Patented in Cana- 
da, Feb. 2, 1854. 

Nelson Gates, Cincinnati, Ohio, improvement in 
cast-hinges. 

John Gleason, Northfield, Vt., improvement in 
slide-valvfs for steam-engines. 

Daniel llayward. Providence, R. I., improve- 
ment in manufdclure of India-rubber. 

Sam'l M. Hackman, Toursbrook, Va., improve- 
ment in seed-planters. 

Abraham R. flurst, Ilarrisburg, Pa., improve- 
ment in manure-excavators. 

John H. King, Jr., Georgetovni, D. C, improve- 
ment in seed-planters. 

C. R. Landman, New-York, improvement in 
lamp-fillers. 

Ezra Hommedieu, Chester, Ct., improvement 
in dies for miking augers. 

John n. McOauh-y, Stonebridge, Va., improve- 
ment in harrows. 

John B. Nichols, Ljnn, Mass., improvement in 
binding f'ldcr. 

A^Tiitman Price, Goldsborough, N. C, improve- 
ment in ploughs f'.r planting potatoes. 

Wm. Redick, Uiiiontown, Pa., improvement in 
seed-planters. 

Titus H. Rus<'pll, Taftsvillo, Vt., improved saw- 
mill dogs. 

R. L. SibhPt, Shippensburg, Pa., improved me- 
thod of tennoning spokes. 

Andrew J. Smith, Piqua, Ohio, improvement in 
corn-fhpllcrs. 

Jos. C. Strode, 'Westchester, Pa., puppet-valves 
for bydraulic-rains. 



Joshui Stevens, Chicopee Falls, Mass., improve* 
ment in chairs for exercising. 

Elisha Waters, Troy, N. Y., improvement in 
breast-cups. 

Noah VVarlick, Lafayette, Ala., improved horse- 
shoeing apparatus. 

Chas. P. S. VVardwell, Lakfl Village, N. II., im- 
proved machine for cutting tennons. 

Joseph D. West, New-York, improved hydraulic 
ram. 

Jesse Whitehead, Manchester, Va., improvement 
in counter twist-speeders. 

John Woolton, Boonton, N. J., improvement in 
nail-machines. 

Dan'l Halllday, Ellington, Ct., improved governor 
for windmills. 

Thos. C. Vice, Rochester, N. Y., method of furl- 
ing and unfurling windmill sails. 

Sidney S. Turner, Westhorough, Mass., assignor 
to Elmer Townsend, Boston, iuiprovement in sew- 
ing-machines. • 
Philemon A. Morley, Brooklyn, N. Y., assign r 
to James Bright, of Brooklyn aforesaid, improve- 
ment in glass lanterns. 

Dexter H. Chamberlain, Boston, Mass., assignor 
to Wm. H. Meshural, New-Haven, Ct., improve- 
ment in lard-lamps. 

James E. Crowell, Salem, Mass., assignor to 
himself, Edmund Smith, and Charles T. Siickney, 
of Salem aforesaid, machine for dressing ship-tim- 
bers. 

Thomas Worrall, Mount Holly, N Y., assignor 
to Mifllin Paul, of Mount Holly aforesaid, multi- 
form moulding-plane. 

Wilson Ager, Rohrsburg, Pa., improved mill- 
stone dress for cleaning grain. 

Wm. B. Akins, Ithaca, improvement in flour- 
bolt. 

Benj. Bray, Salem, Mass., improvement in spring- 
rollers for window-curtains, etc. 

Chas. Clareni, New-York, improvement in at- 
taoJiing pulleys to shafts. 

John Clark, Washington, D. C, improvement in 
chimney-caps. 

Oha^. II. Dana, West-Lebanon, N. H., improve- 
ment in seed-planters. 

Louis Daser, Washington, D.C., improvement in 
seed-planters. 

Augustus M. Eastman, New- York, improvement 
in making ribbon of striiis of cloth. 

Wm. n.' Foslt r, Portsmouth, N. H.. improved ar- 
rangement for reefing and furling top-sails from the 
deck of the vessel. 

Jonathan G. Ginn, South-Thoraaston, Me , im- 
provement in machinery for worming rigging. 

Geo. W. Griswold, Caibondale, improved porta- 
ble door-fastener. 

John Hinrle, Schenectady, improvement in ma- 
chine for breaking flax and hemp. 

Moses G. Hubbard, New-York, improved method 
of hanging plane-stocks. 

Adouiram Kendall, Cleveland, improved riving- 
macliine. 

Josej)!! Morss, Washington, D. C, improved 
driving-wheels of locomotive for ascending inclined 
planes. 

Thos. M. Powell, Baltimore, improvement in ice- 
cream freezers. 

Chas. Rowland, Belleville, III., improvement in 
tables. 

Bradford A. Rugg and Ezra H. Benjamin, Oak 
Hill, N. Y., improved machine for feeding paper to 
printing-pi'csses. 

Daniel Warner, Jr., South-Hadley, Mass., im- 
provement in machim ry for dressing flax. 

George L. Wild, Baltimore, improvement in 
stringed musical instruments. 

Henry L. Clark, La Porte, Ind., improvement in 
doors for baggage-cars. 

Lerov S. White, Chicopee, assignor to himself, 
Lewis 'White, ot Hartford. Lvman White, of Spring- 
field, and Augustus G. Stevens, of Manchester, N. 
11., imiu-ovement in railway-lamps. 

Alex. II. Brown, Georgetown, D. C, improve- 
ment in brick-presses. 



tl)c |l0iij)l); tl)e f 0om, ttttli tl)e Jlttuil. 



VOL.VU. NOVEMBER, 1854. No, 5. 

VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

SOURCE OF THE NITROGEN ABSORBED BY PLANTS. 

In our last number we alluded incidentally to the question which has been 
discussed so earnestly, Whence do plants obtain their nitrogen ? Does the 
atmosphere yield its nitrogen to plants, or do they obtain it by the decompo- 
sition of ammonia ? 

This question has excited much attention in France, and has been the occa- 
sion not only of most laborious experiments, but also of very learned discus- 
sions. Among those who have especially devoted themselves to the consi- 
deration of this subject are Messrs. BoussingauJt and Ville, who arranged 
themselves on opposite sides of the question. At a session of the Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, in March last, M. Boussingault presented a memoir, 
containing the full details of numerous experiments, very carefully conducted, 
and which led him to conclude that the atmosphere does not furnish nitrogen 
to plants. This memoir we should be very glad to present to our readers, 
but while it occupies 26 pages, of quarto form, in ^the Comptes Rendus of 
the Society already named, it consists almost exclusively of the practical 
details of the experiments. But we have translated such portions of the 
memoir as are necessary for a full understanding of the essay, and the con- 
clusions he reached, omitting only the description of the details of the several 
experiments. The learned writer begins and proceeds as follows : 

" The question whether vegetables fix in their organism the azote which is 
found in the atmosphere, in a gaseous state, is not only interesting in a physio- 
logical view, but its solution would throw light upon the theory of the fer- 
tihty of soils. In /act, if gaseous azote is not assimilable, if its influence 
is only to temper, in some sort, the action of oxygen gas with which it is 
mixed, we discover the value of organic matters in manures, which, by their 
spontaneous decomposition, furnish to plants the elements of azotised matters 
which they elaborate. If, on the contrary, azote is fixed during the process 
of vegetation, if they thus become an integrant part of the vegetable, we are 
naturally led to this inference, that the greater part of the fertilizing properties 
of manures resides in their mineral substances, in the phosphates, the carbo- 
nate, earthy, and alkaline matters, which they always contain in notable 
quantities, for the azotic element would be certainly furnished by the atmo- 
spheric air. 

It is true, that in former times, when reliance was placed upon eudiometric 
methods, (apparatus for testing the purity of the air,) it was supposed that a 
manifest absorption of azote could be discovered during the development of a 

VOL. VIL 17 



258 VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

plant ; but more recently, Theodore de Saussure, who employed more exact 
methods, did not succeed in verifying such absorption ; but, on the contrary, 
the researches of this eminent observer tended to convince him that there was 
a faint exhalation of this gas, and if there remains any doubt in respect to 
this phenomenon, it is because the manoraetric processes (apparatus test- 
ing the density, etc., of the air) adopted by Saussure, do not give well-deter- 
mined results, as a change quite considerable may occur, either in the volume 
or in the composition of the atmosphere in which the plant has remained. 
These processes amply establish the fact, for example, of the decomposition of 
carbonic acid by the green parts of vegetables, because the action of the solar 
rays is made immediately obvious by the appearance of oxygen gas. The 
manometric method is very often unsatisfactory when the point is to decide 
whether some cubic centimetres of gas have been absorbed or exhaled by a 
plant confined in certain litres of air. But, when after the lapse of several 
years, after having reexamined the facts favorable or contrary to the idea that 
vegetables appropriate azote from the atmosphere, I find that the question 
may be considered as unsettled, I deem it proper to pursue this inquiry, in 
the hope of resolving it in a manner entirely different from that in which it 
has heretofore been treated. I compare the composition of seeds with the 
composition of crops obtained independently of every thing but the sun and 
the air. The plant develops itself in a soil thoroughly calcined, to destroy 
the least trace of organic matter, and watered with distilled water. It then 
appears that the vegetable has acquired a portion of carbon, of hydrogen, of 
oxygen, and of azote, during the course of its development. See, under the 
report of the azote, the results obtained in 1836 and 1837 : 

Plants Duration of Weight of Weight of Azote in Azote in Gain or loss 
cultivated. culture. the grain. tJie crop. grain. €rop. of azote. 

Clover, 2 months, 1-516 grs. 3-220 grs. 0-110 grs. 0-120 grs. +0-010 

Clover, 3 " 1-632 6-288 0-114 0-156 +0-042 

"Wheat, 2 " 1-526 2-300 0-044 0-040 —0-003 

Wheat, 3 " 2-018 4-260 0-057 0-060 +0-003 

Peas, 3 " 1-211 4-990 0-047 O'lOO +0-053 

This shows, 1st, that in a soil absolutely deprived of manure of organic origin, 
and under the influence of the sun and water onlj'^, the clover and the peas 
acquired, independently of carbon, of hydrogen, and of oxygen, a quantity of 
azote appreciable by analysis. 2, That the wheat, cultivated under the same 
conditions, took from the air and the water carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but 
that the analysis could not discover a gain or loss of azote, without which one 
might, however, definitively conclude that the wheat has not the power to fix a 
certain quantity of azote.* As to the origin of azote assimilated under these 
circumstances, the analysis was powerless to determine, since this element 
might enter directly into the organism of plants, or else, as Theodore de 
Saussure thought, it might be derived from the ammoniaeal vapors of which 
the atmosphere is never entirely deprived, although it contains them only in 
very minute quantities. So, in 1838, the result of the experiments which I 
made reduced the question to this : Does the azote, assimilated by a plant 
cultivated in the open air, in a soil deprived of organic matter, come from the 
nitrogen gas, (of the air,) or from the ammonia? I add, that more recently, 
the experiments that have been tried have led to contradictory conclusions. 

If it is considered how feeble is the proportion of azotised substances elabor- 
ated by a plant placed in a sterile soil, although the culture of the vegetable 



* Anrvxles de Chimie et de Physique, 2d series, tome 77, p. 52. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 259 

is protracted through several months, one is httle disposed to believe in the 
intervention of the azote of the air ; for if this gas intervenes, we can not see 
' "why the assimilation should be so limited, while it predominates in the com- 
position of the atmosphere ; on the contrary, the small portion of azote assi- 
milated is readily understood, on the hypothesis of the intervention of am- 
moniacal vapors only ; because since the atmosphere does not contain, so to 
speak, more than traces of the carbonate of ammonia, it could not furnish 
more than a very limited quantity of azotised elements to vegetation, carried 
on only under the influence of the air and of water. 

The first idea which presents itself to the mind, in determining the ques- 
tion whether the azote appropriated comes from that which the atmosphere 
contains in a gaseous state, is to arrange an apparatus in which the plant will 
grow in air deprived of ammonia, and which is constantly renewed, suitable 
provision being made for the supply of carbonic acid, as a source of carbon. 
Still, on reflection, there is danger that such an arrangement does not furnish 
all desirable guarantees ; for if the air passes through the apparatus very 
rapidly, and it will not fail to be so in case the carbonic-acid gas is not added, 
there will be no certainty of retaining all the ammoniacal vapor, all the 
organic corpuscles in the system for purification consisting naturally in a 
series of tubes of sulphuric powder. Still further : suppose, also, that the 
purification of the air has been complete, and also that azote has been fixed, 
during the process of vegetation, all that we are strictly authorized to con- 
clude is, that this azote could not have come from the ammonia ; for, to 
admit that it had made a part of the air ia a gaseous state, it would be also 
necessary to prove that, independently of volatile ammoniacal compounds, 
and of particles of organic origin, the atmosphere does not contain, in pro- 
portion sufficiently feeble to escape the ordinary process of analysis, other 
elements capable of concurring in the formation of azotised substances in the 
vegetables. Hence it Avill be only in the case where the experiment shall 
determine that there has been no assimilation of it, that this method can be 
considered satisfactory. 

From these considerations, in the researches which I have undertaken, I 
have preferred to make use, in the cultivation of the plant, of an atmosphere 
that was not renewed. My experiments commenced in 1851, and were con- 
tinued to 1853. 

It is with an apparatus in circumstances like that which I have described, 
that the experiments were made in 1851 and 1852. Grains were sown in 
pumice-stone reduced to the condition of small fragments, which were sepa- 
rated from the too small pieces by the sieve, then washed, "calcined, and 
left to cool, taking all the cautions previously indicated. I have always 
introduced into the soil dust, after calcination, from ashes obtained from 
farm-yard manure, by a process of incineration obtained at a compara- 
tively low temperature. The manure was first cut up, well mingled, dried, 
and then burned. Since it is well established that manure is suited to all 
kinds of cultivation, its ashes naturally contain all the mineral substances 
necessary for the plant. The quantity was varied with the amount of the 
soil, and generally the ash was obtained from grains like those on which the 
experiment was to be made. 

The dust, being well moistened with water free from ammonia, it was allowed 
to remain twenty-four hours under a bell before the seed was sown, * * * 

The fundamental principle of the method consists, as I have said, to deter- 
mine the quantity of azote contained in a grain ; then, afterward, the quantity 
of azote contained in the plant, the issue from a grain equal to that upon 



260 VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

which the former determination had been made, vegetation being always 
accomplished in such conditions that all organic azotised matters should be 
thoroughly dispelled. In fact, it was designed, by means of analyses, to 
ascertain if there was, in the crop, a quantity of azote equal or superior to 
that which the seed contained. * * * * 

At the time of harvest, azote is found in the plant, in the soil, and even in 
the crucible, the matter of which, by reason of its porosity, absorbs and retains 
a portion of water charged with organic substances. 

The plant, after drying in a furnace kept at a moderate heat, is cut, by 
scissors, into very small fragments. When it is thus divided, and all the 
parts are intimately mixed, a portion is taken to be submitted to analysis, 
and from this the amount of azote in the whole is computed. This is the 
ordinary course, and it is thus that I have sometimes proceeded. But now I 
believe I ought to criticise this practice. The plant, though well divided and 
mingled, is not so homogeneous that one can be sure, when the question is 
of very delicate appreciation, that the fraction on which he experiments, per- 
fectly represents the whole. It is preferable, as I have always done in these 
more recent experiments, to operate with the whole of the crop, employing 
for its combustion tubes of a large size, and executing all the operations with 
care. The error of which the result is then aifected, is that which is inherent 
to such processes, and which, whatever may be its importance, is not multi- 
plied by 3, 4, 10, or 100, as a third, fourth, tenth, or hundredth part only of 
the plant was analyzed. It is especially when the point is to ascertain the 
quantity of azote in the organic debris scattered in the soil where the roots 
habited, that it is important to operate upon large quantities of matter. I 
have been able, by means of large tubes of Bohemian glass, to analyze either 
all the soil, or large portions of it, in such a manner that in the most unfavor- 
able cases the whole error of the product was at most to be tripled. In pro- 
ceeding otherwise, and not taking, for example, more than one gramme for 
analysis, and making two or three ojDerations, most erroneous results may be 
obtained, since the dried soil coming from one experiment sometimes weighs 
near a kilogramme. The error made, and no analysis is exempt from it, will 
then, according to its kind, be multiplied by 333 or by 500, and if supposed 
to be only a demi-millegramme, that which one would commit upon a quan- 
tity of azote contained in the soil, might reach to 0'15 grs. or 0'25 grs. It 
would certainly be better not to take account of the azotised matters retained 
by the soil or by the crucibles. For in cases where the plant has not wilted, 
where there has been no fall of leaves, and where the debris of the roots has 
been carefully raised, the organic substance mingled with the soil is of very 
small moment, and the quantity of azote which enters into its constitution 
is not of a nature to change the results obtained from a comparative analysis 
of the seed or of the crop. 

The determination of the azote was made by the process of M. Warrentrap, 
modified by M. Pelijot. The normal acid was prepared with very great care. 
Nevertheless, as the chief point is to j^rove differences, I have as much as 
possible employed the same acid to determine the azote in the seed and in 
the crop. When one is to operate upon a large quantity of soil, containing only 
a small proportion of the debris of a plant, he should pass 20 or 30 grammes 
of matter into a large tube, after having well mixed it with a very little lime, 
and receive, in a single small tube of normal acid, the ammonia resulting 
from repeated combustions, in order to lessen the error peculiar to the deter- 
mination of a standard. By leaving the tube of Bohemian glass in which 
the matter was burned, to cool slowly, the constant breaking of it may be 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 261 

avoided. I have been able, by means of this precaution, to make the same 
tube serve eight or ten determinations of earthy matters. 

I have paid especial attention to cleansing, (balayage^ which is requisite 
at the end of each analysis, by the decomposition of oxalic acid placed in the 
bottom of the tube. It is known that the aim of this operation is to draw 
away in the acid liquor, with the hydrogen, and the aqueous vapor produced 
under these operations, the last traces of ammonia, formed under the influence 
of the alkaline hydrate. When this manipulation is not properly executed, 
it very sensibly afiects the result. The loss of azote, occasioned by an insuf- 
ficient cleansing, is the more important, as the substance examined is the 
more azotised ; or else, for equal quantities of azote, or the substance which 
contains them, contains less organic matter capable of furnishing hydrogen 
gas or vapor during combustion. It is thus, for example, that for the same 
quantity of azote, a very moist substance will give, perhaps, all the ammonia 
produced before the oxalic acid is decomposed, while, if it had been dried 
beforehand, all the ammonia would not disappear without the aid of a well- 
sustained current of gas or of aqueous vapor. The reason is very plain. It 
is because, in the first case, the ammonia will be carried away by the vapor 
which will be developed through the whole of the operation. After numerous 
attempts, I am forced to believe that one gramme of oxalic acid, undergoing 
decomposition, is not always sufiicient completely to expel the ammonia 
when a substance is analyzed containing three or four per cent of azote. So 
I have employed at least two grammes of this acid, in the determinations 
executed during the course of these investigations. 

If, in a soil destitute of organic matters, containing the ash of manure, and 
well moistened with water free from ammonia, some grain of good quality is 
thickly sown, and if seed is then sown in a confined atmosphere, and provided 
with a proper proportion of carbonic-acid gas, note what ordinarily takes 
place. AH the seeds germinate. At a certain time, the color of the leaves, 
the size and the rigidity of the stalks, in one word, the vigor of the vegeta- 
tion, is similar to that of a culture carried on in a fertile soil. But if, from 
this prosperous state, and before harvest, one is disposed to conclude that the 
plants have found in the confined air, and in the water which the soil has 
imbibed, all the elements which have assisted in their -development, he will 
expose himself to a mistake which analysis will speedily reveal. In fact, if 
the plants have acquired great vigor, it is because they have not vegetated 
in a sterile soil. Counting the grains will show that their number is less 
than the number of grains sown. There was not place for all, and those 
which did not germinate served to fertilize those which did. In this case, 
experience, though interesting, becomes complex, as I shall show in this 
memoir. The soil naturally is charged with a considerable proportion of 
organic substances ; in fine, one is no more competent to judge how a vege- 
table supports itself, which, except the matter of its own organism, has nothing 
by which to develop itself but atmospheric air, carbonic-acid gas, water, and 
mineral substances. 

In my researches, I have constantly obtained a number of plants equal to 
the number, which was very limited, of seeds sown ; and thus I have found 
this advantage, that the earth contained but very little of organic debris, 
because, not producing more than one or two plants, I arrest the vegetation 
when I see the vigor of the plant begins to diminish before the leaves begin 
to fall. The crops, dried all at once, have also a weight which permits the 
whole to be analyzed in one or two operations, a condition which I consider 
as very favorable to accuracy of result. 



262 VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

[Then follows the account of three courses of experiments, in all their mi- 
nute details, which occupies too much space for us to transfer to our pages. 
The learned writer then concludes as follows :] 

The result of all these experiments is that the azote of the air is not assi- 
milated during the growth of kidney-beans, oats, cresses, and lupins. 

At a meeting early in April (1854) M. Ville renewed the discussion, as 
follows : 

*' Last year I had the honor, on two different occasions, to submit to the 
judgment of the Academy the results of my experiments upon vegetation. 
These researches have principally for their object to throw light upon the 
origin of the azote which plants take from the atmosphere, and to determine 
the form under which this azote is absorbed. An uninterrupted series of 
experiments, which commenced in 1849 and terminated in 1852, led me to 
decide that the ammonia of the air does not furnish any of the azote which 
plants borrow from the atmosphere. If one cultivate a plant in calcined 
sand, which is inclosed in a bell of which the air is renewed many times a 
day, although this air is deprived of all floating particles and of all ammonia, 
it will be found that this plant fixes an important quantity of azote ; from 
■which I have drawn the conclusion that the azote of the air could serve for 
the nutrition of plants. 

In the session of 29th March, the Academy received a communication, the 
conclusions of which are in opposition to mine. This communication ema- 
nates from a distinguished man, whose opinion has great authority. On the 
other hand, I nevertheless maintain all my conclusions. I see nothing in the 
facts which are cited which can invalidate them. Thus, on the one hand, it 
is admitted that the azote of the air is absorbed by plants, and, on the other, 
il is denied that this absorption takes place. The question is then brought 
into very narrow limits, too narrow not to insure that the truth shall be 
elicited from the discussion of proofs which each invokes for the support of 
his opinion. But that this discussion may be profitable in its results, we 
should be careful to recall the phases which the question has assumed, at dif- 
ferent times, since Saussure, and to bring to light the efforts, often dissimilar, 
but always persevering, which have been made for two years, to place the 
theory, which asserts that plants derive azote from the ammonia of the air, 
in harmony with the facts in good husbandry which falsify it. 

The first efforts which inculcate the absorption of azote by plants are 
traceable from Saussure. In the experiments of Saussure, he never had an 
absorption of azote. But we know, notwithstanding, that the results attained 
by this learned man show the insuflaciency of the method which he pursued. 
In fact, if clover and peas are cultivated in calcined sand, although they are • 
watered with pure water, and although they are warmed in the interior of a 
glazed pavilion, to shelter them from the particles what float in the air, it is 
found that these plants absorb notable quantities of azote. Such experi- 
ments have been made through two years in succession, by M. Boussingault, 
and always with the same result. On the other hand, I have myself verified 
the reality of this absorption. Thus all agree that plants take part of their 
azote from the air ; but some attribute the origin of this azote from the am- 
monia of the air, and others from the azote itself. This last opinion is that 
which I sustain. 

The learned men who give preference to the contrary opinion, the learned 
men who attempt to trace the origin of the azote of vegetables from the am- 
monia of the air, accord to the rain an important influence in this phenome- 
non. They admit that the rain condenses, under a feeble volume, the traces 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 263 

of ammonia -which are dispersed in the air, and draws to the plant, in a 
reduced form, the azote which it requires. Thus the rain is the vehicle of 
the ammonia. But if this opinion is true, we have a simple way to find it 
out. In fact, it would be required, of necessity, that the rain-water which 
falls upon one hectare of ground, in the course of a year, should have suflS- 
cient ammonia to account for the azote which certain crops require, beyond 
the azote of the manure which served to produce it. 

Under this aspect, facts are contrary to the theory. In Alsace, the crop 
which one hectare of land produced, cultivated with artichokes, contained 
43 kilogrammes of azote more than the manure which had been applied to 
the land. On the other hand, the rain which fell upon the surface of one 
hectare did not contain more than 3-54 kilogrammes of ammonia, or 2-92 
kils. of azote. Evidently, the 43 kils. of azote absorbed by the plants could 
not come from 2'92 kils. brought down by the rain. 

To this it is answ'ered that in rain-water there are nitrates, and that nitrates 
are as useful to vegetation as ammonia. Admit that it is so ; admit beside, 
which is very improbable, that in one cubic metre of rain-water falling upon 
the field there are 14-98 grs. of anhydrous nitric acid, which is the quantity 
found by M. Barral in rain-water at Paris ; and admitting, finally, that all of 
the nitric acid and ammonia is appropriated by the plants, it is found that 
one hectare of land received at Strasbourg, under the form of ammonia and 
of nitric acid, 29-35 kils. of azote, which is very far from 43 kils. absorbed 
by the artichokes. 

To this it is again replied, rain-water contains much more ammonia at the 
beginning than at the end of a shower ; the water which descends in fogs and 
dews abounds in ammonia ; plants receive ammonia not only from the rain, 
but also from dew and from fogs. Every reduction of temperature, condens- 
ing the water which is in a state of vapor in the air, becomes to the plants a 
source of ammonia. Finally, beside all these sources, particles which float in 
the air add to this supply. 

To all these reasonings I shall offer but a single objection. I shall demand 
whence comes the azote which the clover and the peas have absorbed, in the 
first experiments of M. Boussingault ? Vegetation was carried on in the 
interior of a pavilion. The plants were consequently deprived of rain and 
deprived of the fogs. They received no nitrates, and by the acknowledgment 
of M. Boussingault, particles floating in the air had no influence upon the 
vegetation. 

I reserve to another time an inquiry into the question, what the water did 
or did not contain, and whether it is as rich in nitrates as we have admitted 
it to be. But it seems to me that if these principles (elements) play so im- 
portant a part in the production of plants as is claimed, a hectare of land 
watered by distilled water should produce a smaller crop than the same extent 
of surface watered by rain-water. But what is true of a hectare should 
be equally true of a fraction of a hectare. For the purpose of assuring myself, 
I made the two following experiments : Two boxes, of zinc, and varnished in 
the interior, were taken, each of which measured one metre on a side, and 30 
centimetres in depth. In each box was a layer of pebbles, carefully washed, 
then a second layer of 100 kilogrammes of earth. The two boxes were buried 
in the soil, at a depth of 25 centimetres, and surrounded with a pavilion, 
with glazed windows, which opened on all sides like the doors of an apart- 
ment. The top of the pavilion was covered also with a glazed sash, which 
was an inclined plane, to afford an escape for the rain, A hudometer, having 
a surface equal to that of one of the boxes, was by the side of the box. After 



264 VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

every rain, the water was collected and poured upon one of the boxes. Upon 
the other, an equal volume of distilled water was poured. The experiment 
was commenced on the 15th of March and was terminated on the 15th of 
July. The result was not favorable to the theory that the azote of plants is 
derived from the azotised matters of rain-water. 

The difference between the two crops consisted in the order (ordre) of deve- 
lopment which was observed under the same circumstances. In fact, the sur- 
face watered by rain produced 425*22 grs. of crop, in which were 3'9 grs. of 
azote. The surface watered with distilled water produced 469'4 grs. of crop, 
in wbicli were 4"1 grs. azote. 

To this experiment it may be objected, it is true, that rain furnishes to 
plants only a part of the azotised matters which they receive from the 
atmosphere, while the greatest part comes from the fog or the dew, and, 
above all, from the particles floating in the air. This opinion can not be 
supported, for the same grain as that cultivated in the boxes, cultivated in 
the same soil, though inclosed in a bell, the air of which was renewed many 
times a day, after being deprived of all the particles which it held in suspen- 
sion, produced as much grain as that cultivated in the open air, and double 
the amount of straw. Beside, facts of another class seem to me to leave no 
doubt as to the secondary part which the azotised matters of rain play in the 
nutrition of plants. We have admitted that a hectare of earth, cultivated 
with artichokes, takes from the air 43 kils. of azote, because the crop con- 
tained 43 kils of azote more than the manure. 

In assuming this number of 43 kilogrammes as the expression of the 
quantity of azote furnished by the atmosphere, we have supposed that the 
whole of the azote of the manure had been appropriated by the crop. If, con- 
trary to this hypothesis, it can be demonstrated that a part of the azote of the 
manure is lost during the progress of the growth, that it is dissipated in the 
air, in the form of ammonia, it results from this, that the surface under cul- 
ture will in fact have absorbed more azote than has been claimed ; and if 
the ammonia brought by the rain is only a fraction of what the soil has lost, 
it is evident that, in either case, the azote absorbed by the growth could not 
come from the ammonia of the rain. But this loss of a part of the azote of 
the manure is placed beyond doubt by an experiment of M. Boussingault. 
This learned man has found, in fact, that a bed of snow which had remained 
during thirty-six hours upon the soil of a garden, contained 0"085 grs. of 
ammonia per litre of water, more than the water from the same snow, col- 
lected immediately after its fall. As to the origin of this excess of ammonia, 
M. Boussingault adds that, to his mind, there is the highest evidence that it 
came from vapors emitted from the soil. 

But if we admit that the bed of snow had one centimetre of depth, it 
will follow that each square metre of surface corresponds to 10 litres of water, 
which shows, consequeotly, the certain loss of ammonia to be 0"856 grs., on 
one square metre, in thirty-six hours, and, consequently, the certain loss to be 
856 grammes per hectare in the same time. If we admit, finally, that each 
day of the year the loss has been the same as in that upon which the snow 
fell, we arrive at this result, that one hectare of garden-soil, upon land on 
which the snow has remained for thirty-six hours, dissipates, in the course of 
one year, 208 kilogrammes of ammonia, or 172 kilogrammes of azote. I 
would not attach to these numbers more importance than belongs to them, 
but present them only to establish the principle ; for it is evident that if the 
azote which the earth receives from the rain is but a fraction of the azote 
of the manure lost by the earth, then the excess of azote on the crop can not 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 265 

come from the ammonia of tlie rain, from fogs, nor from dews. But this is 
the only point which I wish to make prominent. Thus, while the most recent 
analyses apportion to the rain and to the air, more and more minute (faible) 
quantities of ammonia, on the other side, on the contrary, a more profound 
study of the production of plants establishes beyond doubt, that the air 
furnishes to plants much more azote than has been supposed. I have 
thought that it would not be without profit to bring to the light these two 
facts, before I occupy myself with the last memoir of M. Boussingault. My 
answer to this memoir will form the subject of the second part of my com- 
munication. 

[During the next session the discussion was resumed by Mons. Ville, and 
the following report is made of his remarks, in the printed journal :] 

"I come to the memoir which forms the subject of our disagreement. This 
memoir comprises three points : 1 . A critique of the method I have pursued. 

2. An exposition of a different method which the author considers preferable. 

3. The general conclusion that the azote of the air is not absorbed by plants. 
I proceed to treat of each separately. 

In his researches, M. Boussingault has never obtained more than a few 
grammes of growth. The weight of this growth is scarcely three or four 
times that of the seed. Thus, to cite only two examples : In 1852, a bean, 
weighing O'oS grs., after two months' cultivation, produced 0'90 grs. of crop; 
in 1853, two of the lupin, weighing 0-82 grs., produced l-'72 grs. of crop. 
All the results were analogous. On the contrary, in my experiments in 1850, 
3'4 grs. of seed produced 64*20 grs. of growth, (dried to 120 degrees.) In 
1851, 0-35 grs. of seed produced C8'80 grains of growth, (dried as before.) 
In 1852, 8-00 grs. of seed produced 229'61 of growth, (dried as before.) 
Thus, in 1851, for example, the weight of the growth is 186 times that of 
the seed. 

In the experiments of M. Boussingault, the quantity of azote lost during 
this period of culture, varied from 0'019 grs. to 0-124. In my experiments, 
the only quantities of azote absorbed were : 



In 1849, . . . 0-103 grs. 
In 1850, . . . 1-180 " 



In 1851, . . . 0-481 grs. 
In 1852, . . . 1-624 " 



So, under the double report of the quantity of growth obtained, and of 
quantities of azote absorbed, there is a very marked difference between the 
researches of M. Boussingault and myself. 

On the other side, if we inform ourselves of what is passing in natural 
vegetation, we shall find that plants develop themselves much more than in 
my experiments! We shall agree that they contain much more azote, and 
that they reproduce their seed every year. In my'experiments, the wheat has 
produced grains of perfect organism, and the sun has produced rudimentary 
grains. In the experiments of M. Boussingault, there is never a vestige of 
fructification. So, in a general manner, I have more nearly imitated the con- 
ditions of nature than M. Boussingault. This result is independent of all 
numeric calculations. 

2. In my experiments, the quantity of azote absorbed is considerable. One 
contends that this azote comes from the azote of the air ; another, that its 
origin is from the ammonia, of which the air contains faint traces. I hasten 
to examine what this claim has for a foundation. I will limit the discussion 
to the experiments of 1850. 

In 1850, in a bell, into which 65-154 htres of air had been passed, some 
plants which were sown in calcined sand absorbed 1-180 grs. of azote. To 
account for this absorption, it would require that the air should contain 17 



266 VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, 

kilogrammes of ammonia in a million kilogrammes. But we know of a cer- 
tainty that it contains less than 133 grammes. (Graham.) 

It is again objected that the azote absorbed by the plants comes from the 
particles (poussieres) which the air holds in suspension. Admitting that these 
particles contain 10 per cent of azote, for which this supposition would furnish 
some foua(.!.iLion, it would require that 11-180 grs. of particles should pass 
into the bell, that is to say, nearly a million times more than M. Boussin- 
gault has ever obtained in a direct examination. (3 milligrammes to 15,000 
litres of air.) 

In 1851 and 1852, the experiments of 1850 were repeated, but under 
other conditions. Before entering into the bell, the air passed under coal- 
dust impregnated with sulphuric acid, and then into a solution of bi-carbonate 
of soda. Hence, from that instant, the particles of ammonia could not affect 
the result. But, the plants having absorbed as much azote as in the first 
case, I draw the general conclusion, that the objections which have been urged 
against me do not at all weaken my conclusions. 

The recent experiments of M. Boussingault have invariably consisted in 
sowing a few grains in a confined atmosphere, and the experiment has been 
left to take care of itself. Since 1851, 1 have been convinced that under these 
conditions vegetation could not be supported. Indeed, if any one will make 
two experiments, simultaneously, upon the same plant, upon a cereal, for 
example, in one of which the air of the bell shall be renewed, and in the 
other shall not be renewed, in the first the plant will develop a good stalk 
and produce grain, in the second the same plant will form a very lean stalk 
and produce no grain. Hence, the renewal of the air is an essential condition 
to the success of the experiment. But one can not invalidate the results of 
experiments conducted with a renewal of air, by other experiments conducted 
in confined air. It may be said, it is true, that I attribute too much effect 
to a change of air — that plants prosper equally well in the two cases. In 
order to meet this objection, I have thought it proper to report the following 
experiment, which was repeated from that of 1837, and for which science is 
indebted to M. Boussingault : 

"The 1st of Sej^tember, 1837, some clover was sown in a porcelain pot, 
filled with calcined sand after the pot was inclosed in a bell. Each day 500 
or 600 litres of air were passed into the bell; and to intercept particles, 
it was washed in a tube and bowl of Liebig's, half full of water. But in these 
new conditions, the clover absorbed 0'008 grs. of azote in a month, and still 
no account was taken of the azotised matters with which the sand of the pot 
remained impregnated. Thus, although the recent experiments of M. Bous- 
singault charge a loss of azote, the only one which he had made in which 
he placed himself at all in the conditions in which I have since experimented, 
he finds a gain. It is true, that one may still demand why, under these con- 
ditions, M. Boussingault obtained so feeble an absorption of azote, and why 
I succeeded in obtaining one so large. The difference results in a great mea- 
sure from the nature of the pots used by M. Boussingault. In fact, this learned 
man has always used pots of porcelain. But in these pots vegetation never 
flourishes. The sand consolidates itself at the bottom of the pots, the roots 
penetrate it with difiiculty, the gases which surround these do not renew 
them, vegetation sufters ; and the best proof one can have of this is, that M. 
Boussingault has never obtained a growth more than three or four times the 
weight of the seed. 

When one experiments upon living plants, the first condition is, thai they 
should always be able to fulfill their functions. If a plant is confined, so 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 267 

that the roots can not extend themselves, if their spongioles can not find a sup- 
ply of gases and the oxygen which is necessary for them ; in fine, if the eva- 
poration of the water which flows into the leaves be obstructed, that plant 
finds itself in an abnormal condition, and will not succeed. But now, because 
vegetation is languishing, and plants do not develop themselves, is one author- 
ized to conclude that plants do not find in the air all the materials which their 
nourishment requires ? and, because the surrounding azote is not absorbed, 
that it is not absorbable in its natural condition ? So far from tins, in reality, 
it shows that this result is but the eflect of a defective experiment. And, in 
fact, if we inquire why a plant which is confined in a sphere does not prosper, 
although it is furnished with more oxygen and carbon and azote than it 
could absorb under circumstances in which it might prosper, it is because in 
these special conditions the plants could not relieve themselves of the excess 
of water which the use of sap caused to flow into their leaves, and the evapo- 
ration of which is an essential condition by means of which the circulation of 
this fluid is secured. And how, in fact, could any evaporation take place ? 
The plant is confined in an atmosphere which is saturated with moisture. 
Evaporation is not possible until the temperature of the interior air assumes 
an ascending motion, and during this the elastic force of the vapor of the 
water augments at the same time with the power of saturation of the air as 
to moisture. And again, as to this particular case, the plant loses a part of 
the benefit which this elevation of temperature creates for it, since the water 
which collects upon the interior walls of the sphere contributes more than 
the evaporation of the sand to saturate the air with moisture. 

On the contrary, in a bell in which the air is renewed, the air which enters 
is of a temperature inferior to that of the bell. In proportion as the tem- 
perature is elevated, it is charged with a new quantity of vapor. Each litre 
of air which arrives may be considered as a void space which the evaporation 
of the sand should contribute to fill, especially if one is careful, by an arrange- 
ment which I always adopt, to make the air descend from the top of the bell, 
and to come in contact with the plant before leaving it. 

If we strip the discussion of this incidental question, the disagreement is 
confined to very narrow limits. On one side, it is said that the azote of the 
atmosphere does not promote the nutrition of plants ; and on the other, on 
the contrary, that it is absorbed by them. To justify the former opinion, 
one cites experiments carried on in a confined atmosphere ; to demonstrate 
the second, that which ascribes a positive and direct agency to the azote 
of the air, in the phenomena of vegetation, reliance is had upon experiments 
made in a renewed atmosphere. The whole question is then reduced to 
this — to discover whether plants act in the same manner in the two cases. 
But since, in operating incidentally, in a renewed atmosphere, M. Boussin- 
gault has discovered a feeble absorption of azote, the disagreement becomes 
still more limited, and is finally reduced to the ascertaining whether it is in 
the nature of the phenomena that it remains feeble, or if, in adopting the 
conditions which I secured, it can be made stronger. This question can not 
be solved without a new experiment, under the control of the commission. 
For myself, I desire to facilitate the execution of this experimentation, and I 
have constructed two sets of apparatus, which I place at the disposition of 
the commission," etc. 

Note. — A millegramme is -0154 grains ; a centigramme, •1543 grains; a decegramme, 
1'5434 grains; a gramme, 16'4340 grains; a decagramme, 154'3402 grains or 5'64 
drachms averdupois, 10 decagrammes = a hectogramme ; 10 hectogrammes = a kilo- 
gramme. 



268 MR. boyden's place. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AKD THE ANTIL. 

MR. BOYDEN'S PLACE, TOPSFIELD, MASS. 

USE OF HAZEL-RODS BZ MR. WILLARD. 

Messrs. Editors : Having just returned from a visit to my friend, Fred'k 
Boyden, of Topsfield, you -will please accept some crayon-sketches of his free- 
hold, and some of his animals. It is the old Crowninshield Farm and man- 
sion, including some two hundred acres, capable of yielding as many tons of 
English hay, beside all that is needed for pasture, tillage, and a spacious gar- 
den, with a great and choice variety of fruit-trees, shrubbery, and vines 
accessible by walks which have been sown with salt, so that not a weed or 
spire of grass impedes the pleasant rambles. It is one large swell of land. 
The buildings are on the eastern slope, near the greatest elevation, surrounded 
by many kinds of ornamental trees, among which the fir and maple are con- 
spicuous on the avenues ; apple-trees by the walls inclosing and dividing this 
extensive and princely domain, which were built at an expense of some 
thousands. The land is generally ricb and productive, having suffered little 
from the drought, so extensively and long prevalent. 

It was to designate a spot where to dig for a spring of living water, that 
I was requested to visit his premises, that might, if possible, be brought to 
his barns in pipes, where his large stock is now supplied by a chain-pump 
from a well 40 feet deep, requiring the labor of one man a great part of his 
time. In this I succeeded by the use of mineral-rods : finding a vein of 
■water 25 feet deep, running toward the barn, from the height of land, till 
within 12 feet of the surface. From this point it may be conveyed, with a 
strong pressure, to his stables, and after accommodating his large herd of 
swine in the barn-cellar imder them, waste into a reservoir. I might add, 
several gentlemen were present during the examination, from different towns, 
who witnessed the operation of the rods, and the highly satisfactory results. 
After which, I examined the grounds of another gentleman, who had thought 
he would spare no expense for an aqueduct, if he could bring water into his 
chambers. After long and carefully traversing his premises, we succeeded in 
finding a spring sufficiently elevated for his purpose. This took most of the 
day, and demonstrated to the most skeptical the merits of this immense labor- 
saving operation, as a reliable way of ascertaining these subterranean channels, 
or springs of living water. In some cases, we could trace a vein by the per- 
pendicular attraction of the rods, occasionally setting stakes, and ascertain its 
depth ''by stations on each side, where the attraction would be horizontally 
according to the distance from the stakes over the vein. In one case we 
found the attraction toward a single point, from any station within fifty feet ; 
hence we concluded there was a boiling spring. 

I was highly gratified by inspecting some fifty of Mr. Boyden's pigs, and 
by learning their pedigree to be unquestionable. They are pure Suffolk, from 
the Stickney importation. The best plates I have ever seen are a fair da- 
guerreotype of some of his boars. He has one, three years old, as nearly per- 
fect as could be desired. Most of his pigs are from this beautiful sire. I 
could not leave till I had selected a pair from a favorite sow, which I expect 
soon to receive by the cars,and feed with pleasure. He has sold some to go 
to Iowa ! We must esteem him a " benefactor," who furnishes the sire and 



BUILDING MATEEIALS. 269 



dam of a breed gaining two pounds of fat per day, with the same feed that 
would, in any other breed, gain but one, no less than he who does the same 
in grass. 

When we had taken tea, I feared we should miss the cars, as the railroad 
station of Beaver-Brook was three miles distant. He said, " No"— harnessed 
his stallion, 19 years old— looking at his watch, said, " Time enough." True; 
we were there in twelve minutes, under a check rein. He showed me his 
young stud, " Tri-color." The next day was Cattle-Show at Lawrence, and I 
notice since, in the Massachusetts Ploughman, "The first premium of $20, 
for best stallion, ' Tri-color,' was awarded to Frederick Boyden, of Topsfield." 
I saw some of the stock of both his old and young horse, two-year old colts, 
that he said could not be bought for $200 each! ''His swine were exhibited 
last year, and are known and appreciated. I doubt not the publisher, the 
writer, and the subject of this article, would participate in the pleasure of aid- 
ing in the wider circulation of this choice breed of swine, if twenty farmers, 
in as many counties this side of Iowa, should each send for a pair, or a boar 
only, to cross with the best sows of other breeds ; thus giving them service in 
supplanting some of the wretched animals I will not describe. 

Yours, truly, Bekjamin Willard. 

Lancaster, Mass., Oct. i, 1854. 



BUILDING MATEEIALS. 

Granite and Syenite. — Granite occurs very extensively through this 
country, but it generally occupies a small extent of surface. It is protruded 
in the form of veins and irregular beds. What is denominated granite is not 
always properly so called. The true granite often passes into syenite. The 
difference is this : Granite is composed of quartz, feldspar, and mica. Syenite, 
of quartz, feldspar, and hornblende, with very little mica, or none at all. The 
far-famed " Quincy Granite " is a true syenite. 

These rocks occur extensively in Canada, and on through New-England, 
being separated from those of Canada only by a narrow strip of more recent 
rocks in the valley of the St. Lawrence. From New-England they extend 
south-westerly, parallel to the coast, in a belt, somewhat limited in width, 
nearly to the Mississippi. On the west side of the continent, granite and its 
associates constitute the base of the Rocky Mountains. 

The prevailing rocks in the mountainous region of Essex county, N. Y., are 
hypersthene, which is a variety of syenite. Granite and syenite form the 
most durable building material, and can be wrought into very handsome 
forms. We have seen wreaths, oak-leaves, and other fanciful patterns, cut 
in very bold style from this rock, on the caps of pillars, pilasters, etc., with 
very good effect. Still, in beauty it must yield to marble, which has beauty 
in itself as well as in the designs sculptured out of it. 

When very large buildings are to be erected, admitting architectural 
designs suggestive of grandeur rather than lightness and grace, the granite 
is a very suitable material. We know of but one objection to it, and that is 
its inability to bear the experience of a fire. It endures heat without injury, 
and in this may be and probably is superior to marble, or the brown sand- 
stone, (which we are yet to describe ;) but if water is thrown upon it when 



270 BUILDING- MATERIALS, 



thoroughly heated, chips fly from it in great quantities, and the finish of the 
surface is utterly ruined. It may be even that the whole block, thus exposed 
to sudden change of temperature, will split in pieces. We have seen window- 
caps, and other small blocks, thus broken in more than one instance. But 
those who have seen the Tremont House, in Boston, or some of the large 
warehouses on the wharves and water streets of that city, or have noticed 
Trinity Church, in Summer street, and the two beautiful blocks of stores by 
the side of and opposite to that church, to say nothing of some others in 
Milk and Pearl streets, in that "Granite City," will no doubt agree with us, 
that it is a ver}^ admirable material for such uses as we have described. 

The most widely-known quarries of " granite " in this section of country, 
(Eastern Massachusetts,) occur at Cape Ann, Qiiincy, and near Chelmsford, 
all in Massachusetts. A ledge of this rock extends from Cohasset to Quincy, 
and another from Cape Ann to Salem. Valuable localities are also found in 
Danvers and Lynnfield. On Cape Ann, at Squam, blocks have been cut out 
60 feet length, and at Pidgeon's Cove, 100 feet long and 4 feet thick. Most of 
the granite of Eastern Massachusetts is good as a building stone, while nearly 
all in the western counties is coarse and quite unsuited to such iises. 

The famous Chelmsford granite is quarried, not in Chelmsford, but in the 
adjoining towns of Westford and Tyngsboro'. At Pelham, N. H., 4 miles 
from Lowell, and at Fitchburg, granite of similar character is found. The 
latter constitutes the mass of a hill 300 feet high. At these localities it has 
been quarried to some extent. Granite suitable for building is also found in 
Western Massachusetts, in Northampton, Whately, and Williamsburg, and a 
good syenite in Belchertown. The westerly'part of Worcester county, Hamp- 
shire, Hampden, and Franklin counties, also produce a gneiss which forms a 
good building stone. 

In Rhode-Island, gneiss is the predominant rock, through the southern and 
western parts of the State, and some valuable quarries are wrought. 

The cost of these blocks is small compared with almost any other kind of 
rock suited for such uses. Those of the Bunker-Hill Monument, in a rough 
state, delivered at Charlestown, was 13 cents and 3 mills a foot. The cost of 
hammering and fine dressing granite, in Boston, on the style of the Tremont 
House, is 30 cents a square foot. The columns of the Hospital cost one dol- 
lar a foot. 

As already suggested, granite extends over nearly the whole length of the 
States. But the number of quarries, at least those known beyond their own 
neighborhood, is comparatively limited. The survey of South-Carolina has 
made known to the public several very fine quarries within that State. In 
Lexington and Newberry districts fine granite for building purposes is abun- 
dant. It extends for many miles, and being near the banks of a navigable 
river, is of convenient access. It is described as resembling a coarse gray 
marble. The granite of Kershaw is remarkable for its ciystalline struc- 
ture. There is also a porphyritic granite near Camden, which is said to be 
very handsome. Syenite occurs in Abbeville, Fairfield, and Lexington dis- 
tricts, which is described as resembling the "Quincy Granite." Gneiss also 
occurs in the same State, some of the varieties of which are equally substan- 
tial and desirable as syenite, although the proportions of the minerals of 
which gneiss is composed differ very much in diff"erent localities. Gneiss 
underlies most of the marbles of South-Carolina, and when these are opened 
other treasures, equally valuable, may thus be made productive. 

We regret our inability to point out many more of these sources of wealth, 
existing almost without limit in numerous sections of our country. If our 



RAISING FOREST-TREES. 271 

readers will give us information on this subject, each in his own locality, and 
through as much wider extent as his information will permit, we shall cheer- 
fully give room for it in these pages. Our object is to draw out these hidden 
treasures from the comparative ignorance which prevails everywhere, almost, 
out of New-England, in reference to them, and by making them known, open 
new sources of wealth and of beauty and of convenience. They are far more 
valuable to a community than those of silver and gold, and each section of 
country, as far as possible, should rely on their own resources for these very 
important productions. 

The sand-stones, etc., will occupy our attention in our next issue. 



RAISING FOREST-TREES. 

Why will our land-owners fail to do " themselves and the state " good 
service, in giving their practical attention to this sort of culture ? 'No crop 
is surer nor so sure, and many crops that cost much labor will not pay half 
as well. Wood must be in great demand in this country for all kinds of use. 
As fuel, it can not be entirely dispensed with. For a building material, for 
many sorts of structures, there can be no substitute, and for a thousand mis- 
cellaneous purposes it is indispensable. We can do as well without grass as 
without the product of the forest. 

We have recently described the proper culture of the locust, a tree of pre- 
eminent value. Other trees are as essential in their way. And some will 
pay a compound interest. For example : a sugar-maple grows and flourishes 
with a vigor scarcely diminished, though forced to yield to the sugar-maker 
many gallons of sap every spring. Probably a little more careful cultivation 
would restore all the loss it might otherwise sustain. Hence it furnishes a 
very profitable crop, always commanding cash in the market, while it also 
produces as pleasant a fuel as can be found. We know of nothing, unless it 
be hickory, which is more desirable for such use. For charcoal it is one of 
the best of trees — while its timber is useful for many purposes. Beside all 
this, it possesses uncommon attractions as a shade-tree. 

Birch-trees can be sown or transplanted with very little cost or trouble. 
The chestnut is also a desirable tree. It flourishes where many crops would 
starve. A dry sandy loam, enriched only by its own product, is its natural soil. 
Hence it would prove successful on land where little else would grow, and 
where nothing else would render a very liberal return. The most important 
elements required by deciduous trees are alkahne. Nearly one tenth part of 
the ash of such, and even of most trees, is of this character. Hence, when pines 
and other evergreens have been cut off", and the land has been burned, we find 
a second growth of deciduous trees. The land is changed in its character, so 
that what had before but a scanty supply of these elements, is now better 
furnished with them, and under these improved circumstances the seeds of 
the deciduous trees, dispersed everywhere, by winds, snows, water-streams, 
birds, animals, etc., germinate and grow, to the exclusion of those for which 
the soil and other conditions are not now so well adapted. Trees of the fir 
tribe, we are told by Liebig, grow upon the sand-stone and lime-stone of the 
Carpathian Mountains, and the Jura. The finest forests of deciduous trees 



272 RAISING FOREST-TREES. 

cover the soils " of gneiss, mica, slate, and granite, in Bavaria ; of clinkstone 
on the Rhone, of basalt in Vogelsburge, and of clay-slate on the Rhine and 
Eifel, while they can not be produced on the sandy or calcareous soils on 
which pines thrive." 

The black-walnut and the butternut (quite worthy of culture for its capital 
nuts) need a deep gravelly loam, or a rich clay. A calcareous soil is best 
adapted to these. The hickory, oak, beech-tree, etc., will not succeed so well 
in sand, but either of these trees will grow in any good primitive soil. Oak 
grows well on any variety of good soil, if it be not too wet. 

The various nut-trees should be sown before the nut is thoroughly dried. 
Follow nature. Those with a hard shell require the action of the frost, and 
should not be buried too deep. If not quite fresh when planted, all seeds 
should be soaked in water before they are sown, and with many, if gypsum 
or other fertilizer is partially dissolved in the water, and suffered to adhere to 
the seed, so much the better. Seeds, properly matured, are nature's only 
reliance, and hence, if we are wise in copying her ways, we can not fail to 
obtain the reward of our labor. The cedar grows in any soil, from dry sand, 
and gravel to rich loam. 

But something more than this general information is desirable ; for in fact 
this is no more than any observing man would be likely to discover for himself, 
and therefore we present, in a concise manner, the principles adopted in 
countries where such culture is systematically entered upon. In some parts 
of Europe, the growth of forests is as scientifically conducted as crops of 
wheat. The following method, which combines the culture of trees and of 
ordinaiy crops, is perhaps as judicious and as practicable, in this country, as 
any other plan, though by no means the only one by which a growth of 
trees may secure substantial benefit both to the land and to its owner. 

For new countries, where the original forest is still in existence, the first 
suggestion may be important, but it would not of course be applicable to the 
older sections of our country ; such farmers are interested only in the subse- 
quent suggestions, but all these are worthy of note everywhere. We proceed 
to set forth our method : 

1. Choose a forest the circumstances of which are appropriate to such a 
treatment, and divide it into a certain number of sections or cuttings^ having 
regard to the condition and qualities of the soil, climate, and the kind of tree 
desired. 

2. Each year one of these sections is cut down and cleared, and the soil 
is devoted to cereals, as an ordinary field. 

3. A kind of tree adapted to the wants of the place is selected, and these 
are planted in rows, at a distance of 50 feet or upward, as one has a desire to 
increase the growth of wood, or of grass, or of grain. The stems of the trees 
forming these rows should be from 2|- to 4 feet distant. 

4. Between the rows of trees grain or some other crop may be cultivated, 
so long as the trees will not injure them. 

5. "When the trees grow to such a size as to injure each other, part of them 
should be cut down. 

6. The land should not be cultivated when the trees shall produce a shade 
injurious to the crop. Other trees should be cut from time to time, until a 
suitable number is left, regard being had to the use to which the trees are to 
be applied, whether for fuel, timber of large or small size, etc. 

7. When the trees have reached a suitable age they should be cut down, 
the stumps removed, and other trees planted. But the trees should now be 



PRUNING TREES AT TIME OF TRANSPLANTING, 273 

planted where the crops were cultivated before, and the crops sown where 
the former row of trees was grown. 

8. The rows of trees should range north and south. 

Fruit-trees or forest-trees might be treated by this method with great 
benefit. 

On the selection of the place, regard should be had to the exposure, and 
position, as well as to the soil. 

Grounds that are to be treated in this manner should be well prepared and 
cultivated. To plant trees when the soil is not in a suitable condition, would 
be a waste of labor. 

Numerous comparisons have shown that a growth of sixty years, thus con- 
ducted, fully equals that of one hundred and twenty years in the native forest. 
More abundant crops are obtained by the alternate culture of different kinds 
of plants. If a soil, exhausted by successive crops, is planted with trees, and 
it remains forty years in this state, cereals will afterward grow upon it with 
much more vigor than before, and even for some years, without manure. 
But fruit-trees and vines can not succeed each other on the same ground 
with advantage. 

In India, when the soil is exhausted by crops of indigo, trees are planted 
for the purpose of restoring its fruitfulness. In default of trees, the ground 
is covered with branches, or brushwood, which are useful in restoring fresh- 
ness and vigor to the soil. Every thing which covers the ground promotes 
its fertility. A heap of stones at the foot of a tree promotes its growth. 

Among the advantages of this system, one important consideration is that 
by it no ground is wasted. The space required by the trees, in different 
stages of their growth, is furnished, while the cultivation of other crops is not 
interfered with by the growth of the trees. When cereals can not be profit- 
ably raised, crops of grass may be obtained until the growth of the trees is 
such as to interfere with any other crop. When the trees have reached a 
certain growth, they will not be liable to injury if cattle are turned in to feed 
upon the grass, while trees that are planted in pasture-lands are often 
destroyed. 



ON PRUNING TREES AT THE TIME OF TRANSPLANTING. 

How should trees be pruned at the time of transplanting ? or should they 
be pruned at all ? are yet open questions among planters. As the subject 
will at this season of the year be one of the most general interest, we propose 
to offer a few remarks on it. 

The objects in view in pruning a tree at the time of transplanting are three- 
fold. First, the removal of all bruised and broken roots and branches. The 
necessity of this is obvious and indisputable : bruised and broken roots when 
planted without being dressed, must decay and interpose very serious obstacles 
to the formation of new roots ; they should therefore always be pruned oft 
closely to the sound wood, and with a sharp knife that will make a smooth, 
clean cut, the sloping surface of which should invariably be on the under and 
not on the upper sides of the roots. la making the cut, the knife should be 
laid to the under side of the root, and drawn upward, i The young roots 
which subsequently spring from the cut end of the root, as from the end of 
a cutting, strike downward at once, as is natural. The reasons for pruning 
off broken or bruised branches are equally obvious. A broken branch left 

VOL. VII. 18 



274 PRUNING TREES AT TIME OF TRANSPLANTING. 

on a tree will produce an unsightly and in some cases a dangerous scar; 
but if it be pruned off close to tbe body of the tree, or to a sound bud, the 
wound will soon heal over or a new shoot will be produced. It is very 
common, in pruning hastily, to leave small portions of branches without 
eyes. These, instead of producing new shoots, die off, and the new wood 
growing in around them produces unsoundness that in many cases brings 
the tree to an untimely end. 

The second object in pruning is, to mould the tree to the desired form. 
Trees coming from the nurseries are seldom in the exact shape that tbe 
planter wishes. They have too many side branches, their heads are too low 
or too high, or they have some other defect which the knife must remedy. 
Now the question comes uj). How far is it judicious to attempt the formation 
of the tree at the moment of transplanting ? Several points must be con- 
sidered. If the trees are standards for the orchard, and they happen to be 
somewhat slender in proportion to their height, it would be unwise to prune 
off closely any side-branches they might have, because this would direct the 
future growth to the top, and urge the tree still further out of balance and 
proportion. In such cases, the aim should be to increase the growth of the 
stem ; and this can only be done by retaining two or three good eyes or buds 
of every side -shoot, or of a sufficient number of the strongest and best, and 
by reducing the attracting power of the branches at the top. The influence 
of this is seen in the case of forest- trees planted in the street, where the 
entire head is sawed off at planting, and nothing but a bare pole or pollard 
left ; the growth is thrown into the trunk, which soon becomes covered with 
new shoots, and increases its diameter rapidly. If the tree has been pruned 
up too high in the nursery, making the head higher than desired, a new head 
must be formed lower down by cutting back the tree ; but whether it is better 
to attempt this at the moment of transplanting, or wait until the tree has 
taken root, and is caj>able of making a vigorous growth, is a question. This 
is a point of some importance. We know that newly-planted trees push but 
feebly at best, in comparison with those well rooted, and that the shoots pro- 
duced the first season make a very indifferent frame-work for the tree. We 
have considerable experience on this very point, and we have come to the 
conclusion that it is much better to defer the pruning which is to produce the 
final and permanent form of the tree, until the second year, or until the tree 
shows unmistakable signs of being well rooted, and in a condition to make 
vigorous growth. But care must be taken to preserve and encourage, as far 
as possible, young shoots with active buds on the parts where we intend to 
produce the new head; because old wood, in which the buds have become 
in a measure dormant, does not throw out branches with desirable rapidity 
and vigor. 

If, on the other hand, the head be too loio, the first impulse would naturally 
be to prune it up. But this demands some caution. Where branches of con- 
siderable size are pruned off, when the tree is transplanted, and consequently 
unfit to make much growth, the fresh surface of the wounds dry up, and do 
not heal over quickly, as when the tree is in an active and vigorous condi- 
tion. Beside, buds are essential to growth ; and if too great a proportion of 
them be removed at once, the power of the cells or sap-vessels is impaired, 
and they can not transmit the nutritive fluids from the roots upward. The 
roots, too, lose their activity, and general stagnation and debility follow. 
The better way is to reduce the head by thinning out some branches and 
shortening others, especially the lower ones ; and in the season following, or 
when the tree has fairly recovered from removal, the large branches may be 



PRUNING TREES AT TIME OF TRANSPLANTING. 275 

removed and the stem formed higher up ; the upper shoots allowed to remain 
having sufficient power to maintain the functions of the different parts of the 
tree in full force and vigor. 

The third object in pruning at the time of transplanting is, to restore the 
balance or proportion between the roots and branches, which has been dis- 
turbed in the process of removal. A transplanted tree, no matter how care- 
fully or skillfully it may have been operated upon, has its system materially 
deranged. The roots may neither be bruised or broken, nor the fibres dried 
or injured by exposure ; and yet the ordinary functions of the various parts, 
and their reciprocal action and influence upon each other, can not but be in 
a measure arrested for a time. The roots can not abstract nutriment from 
the soil, and convey it through the trunk and branches, to supply the demand 
of the leaves, until they have taken to their new position and emitted new 
rootlets or feeders. Until this takes place, the demand of the leaves must 
be supplied from the stock of nutriment previously laid up in the cells, just 
as we see young shoots subsisting for a time on trees that have been cut down 
or torn up by the roots. As long as any sap remains in the cells, and can 
find a passage to the leaves, the latter continue green and healthy ; but as 
soon as the sap is expended, and the cells dried up, the leaves wither, and 
vitality terminates. Transplanted trees are, until re-rooted, in the same situa- 
tion, nearly, as trees cut down or rooted up and left on the surface of the 
ground — that is, they must rely mainly on the sap existing in the cells before 
removal. Now it is plain that the more of buds and leaves there are on a 
tree, the greater will be the demand upon its stock of sap or nutrition, and 
vice versa. Hence the reason for recommending to reduce the tops of trees 
at the time of transplanting. For this reason we can not transplant decidu- 
ous trees safely while in full foliage. Even strawberry plants root better by 
having a portion of their leaves removed ; and hence the use of bell-glasses 
and other contrivances to prevent evaporation from the leaves of newly- 
inserted cuttings. A tree transplanted with a small number of roots, or 
damaged roots, and a branchy top, will suffer from the evaporation of the 
leaves, just as a cutting of leaves would if it were freely exposed to the air, 
though perhaps not to the same extent Some trees will bear planting with 
smaller roots and larger tops than others — such, for instance, as the poplar 
and willow, and all those that root easily and rapidly, and have large sap- 
vessels through wliich nutriment absorbed by the roots can pass quickly to 
the leaves. 

But we must remember, too, that leaves are 'necessary to the growth of 
roots. It is true that new roots are formed in the absence of leaves. We 
can see this illustrated in the case of early autumn-planted trees or cuttings : 
yet these roots would not attain any considerable development, nor survive 
long without the action of the leaves ; for these may be likened to the animal 
stomach, in which the indispensable process of digestion takes place. No 
matter how abundant or healthy may be the roots, or how liberal the supplies 
of nutriment presented to them, if the leaves be not present to draw it 
upward and assimilate or digest it, growth can not continue — the roots will 
cease to lengthen, and ultimately perish. This is forcibly demonstrated in 
the case of trees that have been stripped of their foliage by insects, or some 
accident ; the roots cease to grow ; but as soon as new leaves begin to appear, 
new roots are formed simultaneously : and if one side of a tree be stripped ' 
of its foliage, the roots more directly in connection with that side will cease 
to grow until new leaves appear. In propagating plants from cuttings, it is 
necessary, in many cases, and indeed in almost all cases where young wood 



276 prunijStg teees at time of transplanting. 

is used, to leave a certain number of leaves. Cuttings that root without 
leaves are those of a soft nature, having large cells or sap-vessels full of 
organized matter or tissue capable of developing roots and sustaining them 
until the leaf-action commences. 

From all this v?e see how important are the leaves, and how easy it would 
be by excessive pruning to hinder rather than promote the formation of 
roots. There is a medium which should be aimed at in pruning, to induce 
growth after removal. If the roots are much injured, or naturally meagre 
or defective, a very small number of active buds should be retained, just suf- 
ficient to stimulate and sustain circulation of the fluids. In such cases it may 
be necessary to cut back every young shoot to one or two eyes. Where the 
roots are abundant and sound, it will sufiicetocut out the weak inside-shoots, 
and shorten the stronger ones about one half. In doing this, a large number 
of buds are removed, and whatever force there is in the tree is thrown into 
the remaining shoots, and young wood will be formed where we should have 
had nothing but leaves if the tree had not been pruned. The growth of 
young wood always favors the formation of roots. If we examine trees now 
that were transplanted last spring, we shall find that the roots are in propor- 
tion to the number and strength of the young shoots. 

The great object in pruning to promote growth is to direct the sap into a 
smaller number of channels^ and thus increase its force. If a tree, for exam- 
ple, has 500 leaf-buds to draw upon its sap, and we cut away 400 of them, 
the remaining 100 will of course receive a far greater proportion than they 
would have done, and will consequently be enabled to make new wood ; and 
experience teaches us that young shoots with their large cells, luxuriant leaves, 
and great vital activity, act far more powerfully on the roots than the small, 
lean foliage of trees merely living but not growing. "We know how cutting 
back acts upon stunted trees. A three or four years old apple or pear-tree, for 
example, if cut down nearly to the ground, will, in one season, make a growth 
equal to that of two or three seasons under ordinary circumstances ; and this 
is simply because its whole vital force is concentrated in one point. The sap 
rushes there, and large cells are formed immediately, in which a rapid and 
powerful circulation takes place. 

All operations upon trees should be performed cautiously, because whatever 
produces a sudden or violent change in their condition, can not fail to be 
attended with a derangement of their wisely and beautifully-adjusted organ- 
ization, and this derangement must be more or less injurious to their healthy 
existence. Every man who takes his knife in hand to mutilate a tree, should 
bear this in mind, and weigh carefully the consequences of every cut. We 
intended to have referred to the opinions of experienced and skillful arbori- 
culturists on this subject, but we can not at present devote more space to it. 
What we have said will, we trust, induce reflection and observation on the 
part of some who have heretofore been too indiflferent. 



STOPrrsG A Rri^AWAT Horse. — Around the horse's neck, near the neck-strap, 
is placed a running knot. To this slip-noose is attached a pair of reins — on gen- 
tlemen's horses it may be a silk cord, about the size of a pipe-stem — which may 
always lie thrown over the dash-board, ready to be seized at once. When a horse 
starts and becomes unruly, the gentleman takes up this cord and tightens the 
horse's throat so that he can not breathe. The most furious horse stops almost 
instantly, but he will not fall or kick. 



EXPEEIMENTS IN FATTENING CATTLE. 277 



TRANSPLANTING TREES IN THE AUTUMN. 

"Do you approve of fall-planting ?" is a question asked us every day. Our 
answer is, Yes^ under these circumstances : 

1st. When the ground is of such nature and in such condition that water 
will not lodge around the roots of trees during winter. To plant trees in 
holes sunk in stiff, tenacious soils, is a certain method of killing them. 

2d. The trees should be perfectly hardy. All delicate or half-hardy trees 
should invariably be planted in the spring. If it be necessary to take them 
up in the fall, they had better be laid in by the roots in a dry soil, sheltered 
from the cold, cutting winds, and, if necessary, protected with boughs of 
evergreen, or something of that nature. 

3d. We do not approve of planting evergreen trees in the fall, unless the 
very hardiest sorts, and that quite early, say in September or first of October, 
in time for the trees to re-root, partially, before hard frosts ; and they should 
be sheltered from the sun and wind by a thick screen of evergreen-boughs, 
well secured around them. 

4th. Plant trees early — as soon as circumstances, will permit after the 
wood is ripe. Don't wait till the leaves fall, but cut them oft', being careful 
not to injure the buds. Late planting, however, if well done, may be equally 
successful. We transplant any time most convenient, between the first of 
October and first of May. Last winter, in December, we planted several 
hundred of specimen trees, from one to six years old, and lost not over 
two or three in the whole. Many of the bearing trees, notwithstanding the 
drought, have borne and ripened fine specimens of fruit. 

5th. Secure all trees from being blown about by the winds, and mulch 
with half-rotten manure or leaves three or four inches deep. 

Asparagus, rhubarb, gooseberries, and currants should all be planted in 
the fall, and as early as possible. Also, hardy bulbs, such as hyacinths, tulips, 
narcissus, crocus, crown-imperials, and lilies. It is also the best season to 
top-dress and renovate neglected trees of all sorts, to make new walks and 
repair old ones, to lay down turf, and perform such operations as grading, 
draining, trenching, etc., incident to the formation of new gardens, lawns, etc. 
Our springs are short, and hot summer weather very often comes too soon. 
It is therefore well to make a good use of every hour between this time and 
the freezing of the ground. — Horticulturist. 



EXPERIMENTS IN FATTENING CATTLE. 

We would be cautious in saying or doing any thing to diminish the num- 
ber of well-contrived experiments in any of the numerous departments of 
agricultural economy. Bu^ we would do all we can to secure the essential 
characteristics of carefulness and precision in the management of the experi- 
ment, and in the statements"of facts, and carefully' estimate the practical value 
of the inferences that may be drawn from those facts. It has become, it 
would seem, a current usage, of late, to adopt certain modes of conducting 
experiments against which we feel bound to enter our protest, and to invite 
all who would fairly investigate the questions at issue to think well before 
they attempt to found any theory upon results thus attained. 



278 EXPERIMENTS IN FATTENING CATTLE. 

In the feeding of cattle there are such things as laws of life — certain prin- 
ciples of physiology, which are and ever must be in constant action, the over- 
looking of which must lead to conclusions utterly deceptive. Brute animals 
are subject to these laws as much as our own species. A few illustrations, 
from what a large proportion of our readers have experienced in themselves, 
or observed in others, will fully explain our meaning. 

Who has not seen peculiar effects follow from an occasional indulgence in 
the use of coffee or strong tea ? Yet, when habituated to them, by daily use, 
no such effects are apparent. Or, feed freely a child, accustomed only to milk, 
with roast-beef, and who does not know that the services of the family physi- 
cian will very soon be put in requisition ? And still again, who has not seen 
even alarming symptoms produced by the use of warm cakes, just from the 
oven, when eaten by those unused to such food ? And yet most people eat 
either and all these things with apparent impunity. And why this difference ? 
Why does our right-hand neighbor at the table indulge very freely in fat 
meats, without evil consequences, while we, should we indulge in them to one 
tenth the extent he does, should be helpless in our bed within twenty-four 
hours ? Yet such is not a supposition merely, but a matter of fact. The 
answer is obvious. One has become accustomed to these articles of diet, and 
the other has not. The system of the one is not in the same condition as 
that of the other. The digestive organs of one have learned to manage this or 
that kind of food, while to those of another they are not familiar, but are 
nauseating or otherwise positively offensive. 

Or, recur to the very animals for whose benefit we write. Who has not 
learned that when a friend from the country visits you, whose horse has been 
fed only on hay, or with the addition of potatoes and the hke, it is unsafe to 
give that horse a full allowance of well-dried corn ? And yet it is not true 
that horses can not safely feed on corn. It does follow, however, that many 
kinds of food are not so beneficial to animals not accustomed to them, as to 
those which are. 

But again, feed a cow entirely on hay, and she will grow fat upon it. But 
accustom this same cow to one of the richer kinds of feed, till she has acquired 
the habit of expecting it, and the system is used to it, and then deprive her 
of it, but still give a liberal allowance of hay, as before, and for a time she 
will not take kindly this change of diet. For the benefit of those who are 
uninformed upon this subject, we add, that these are all matters of our own 
experience or our personal observation. 

And what is the lesson they teach ? Obviously it is this, that when fre- 
quent changes are made in the daily feed of animals, we have not a fair test 
of what is the legitimate effect of the constant use of those kinds of feed. 
We do not think a month is long enough to furnish conclusive evidence as to 
the effect of many kinds of feed now recommended for common use. Such 
experiments as those which we criticise, are not useless ; but they do not show, 
or rather we do not know that they show, what would be the precise effect 
of the constant use of such feed, and are therefore unable to say whether this 
or some other is the more desirable. In a forme*- volume, we published the 
experiments of a gentleman of Worcester, Mass., whom we personally know 
to be abundantly qualified to judge of any given facts ; but he fed his cows 
only for one week upon the different kinds of feed, the value of which he 
wished to test. And what was the result ? One cow actually lost flesh upon 
the same feed on Avhich another by her side grew fat rapidly. And this is 
just what we should anticipate, provided the animals were previously unac- 
customed to eating the feed which was made the subject of the experiment. 



EXPERIMENTS IN FATTENING CATTLE. 279 

Had that feed been continued for three months, the result might have been 
ahke favorable with all the animals, or perhaps appearances would have fur- 
nished less satisfactory evidence of the value of the article fed to them, than 
their effect for a short time on some of the animals would lead us to antici- 
pate. 

We are well aware of the difficulties arising from a change in this respect. 
It would involve the necessity of forming a judgment as to the comparative 
value of two or more kinds of feed, by the effects produced by them on dif- 
ferent animals. But we see not how this is to be avoided, nor scarcely do we 
desire to avoid it. It would only involve the necessity of trying the experi- 
ment on a much greater number of animals. And this is just what ought 
to be done. The great difficulty in almost all such questions is, that we draw 
a general conclusion from a very limited number of facts — like foreign 
tourists who attribute to the citizens of a state or nation the peculiarities 
which they see in a few with whom they come in contact. We know of a score 
of foolish persons who believe Friday to be an unlucky day, because they 
actually know of a dozen mishaps that have occurred on that day. They 
are not mistaken in their facts, but in their conclusions. So, too, that long 
list of believers in Mesmerism, Spiritualism, et id omne genus, they are not 
mistaken in what they have seen or heard, but in the theory which they 
build upon them. 

Who has not known, in his own experience, that the temporary use of 
certain articles of diet are efficient, chiefly in preparing the system to make 
the most of what is afterward taken as food? Some kinds of food are 
" loosening ;" others tend to costiveness. Some are anti-febrile, others are 
stimulating ; and that diet which corrects any of these abnormal conditions, 
just prepares the way for a peculiarly favorable action for other forms of food. 
The system is thus qualified to make the most of them. 

So, too, it may be important to note the season of the year when certain 
practices are adopted. The feed of an animal is necessary, not only to pro- 
duce muscle and vital fluids, but also to excite animal heat, and that which is 
best in a cold atmosphere may not be equally favorable in the heat of sum- 
mer. We imagine that even green grass, if it were used in the depth of 
winter, would not prove to be exactly the same thing, in its effects, that it 
appears to be in the heat of summer. And surely a more carbonaceous food 
is desirable at one season than at another. 

Now suppose " four cows,'^ fed upon ruta-bagas, or turnips, or oil-cakes, or 
any thing else, did accumulate more fat, or give more milk, while eating them 
for the space of one week — what then ? 

1. These cows might have been in a condition to be pecuharly affected by 
the given kind of feed before beginning this experiment ; or, 2d, they might 
be more easily acted upon, favorably or unfavorably, by their feed, than other 
animals, just as a spoonful of castor-oil will have four times the effect on 
some persons that it has on others ; or 3d, the organs of some of them might 
be in such a state, or so to speak, the animal might be of that temperament, 
that the benefit of a given course of treatment might not be fully developed 
within the few days in which that treatment was pursued ; or 4th, the allow- 
ance made for a given animal might be too little or too much, and thus the 
effect of a suitable quantity be still undiscovered. Would the effect of a 
quart, of a peck, and of two bushels of apples, at one feeding, be the same 
even in kind ? Or 5th, these animals might have a peculiar fondness or dis- 
like for a certain kind of feed, growing out of some past habit or incident — 



280 FLAX CULTURE AT THE WEST. 

just as certain accidents have produced a permanent disgust in some persons 
for a particular dish. 

We may be thought to be making prominent some very trivial matters, 
but wisdom discovered long ago that little matters are the very things that 
demand attention. It is the " little foxes that spoil the vines," and very often 
little things only determine the preference to be given to one of two or more 
good things. 

But all these are not little matters. If there is demonstration or anything 
hke it in these short experiments and isolated cases, then we can prove that 
fats are a very wholesome diet, that coffee and tea produce hysterics, and 
that a quart of new rum can be drunk at once with impunity. We can point to 
the persons whose experience, in one or more instances, bears us out in each 
one of these statements. 

And what then ? Why, just this. If you would test the value of any 
production as feed for cattle, you must give that production, 

1. A trial for such a length of time as fully to test the effects of an habitual 
use. 

2. You must wisely plan your experiment, properly proportioning the dry 
and the wet, the solid and the liquid, the concentrated and the diffused. It 
does not follow that oil-cake is not the very best thing that an animal can 
eat, because it can not live on that alone. Nor that it is the best, because 
it can live and thrive a week without any thing else. With proper feed 
in connection with it, it may be the most efBcient of any one thing, though 
the animal would die even if fed on it exclusively. And its effects for a few 
days may prove to be as favorable as a gill of spirits to persons in a condition 
that requires such medicine. 

3. You must test these effects by feeding a large number of animals. 

4. You must have regard to the point to be reached. This may be either 
the production of muscle, of fat, of milk, of activity, spirit, etc., etc. 



FLAX CULTURE AT THE WEST. 

One of the most important and modern establishments for the interest of 
the W^estern farmer is that of the " Dayton Flax Company," the object of 
which is to dress flax upon an extensive scale by the Buchanan process. 
The works are situated about one mile east of the centre of the city, and are 
now rapidly approaching completion. Messrs. Thos. Kimber, Jr., and Chas. 
Hartshorne, of Philadelphia, are the managers or proprietors of the patent 
for the United States. J. A. Grosvenor, Esq., is a proprietor and the mana- 
ger of the Dayton establishment. Mr. G. is a very intelligent, thorough- 
going, practical gentleman, who has had much experience in the growing of 
flax and manufacture of oil. In securing his services I think the company 
were extremely fortunate. I was not a little surprised at seeing the accumu- 
lation of such mountains of flax-straw. The yards and buildings now con- 
tain upward of 2000 tons, and yet this is hardly half of what is to come in 
the present season. The straw is neatly put up in stacks or ricks. Four 
of these ricks are now completed, each of which is 200 feet long, 40 feet 
high, and 30 feet wide at the bottom. This flax is mostly the produce of 



POT-CULTURE OF THE VEEBENA. 281 

three of the adjoining counties. The company pay |10 per ton for all the 
flax-straw that comes to them straight and bound, and $5 per ton for the 
broken. 

Mr. Grosvenor informed me that he would probably raise steam and com- 
mence operations in the course of the next month, when he has promised me 
he will send you some account of his success. 

There is now cultivated and grown in Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and other 
Western States, tens of thousands of tons of flax, for the seed alone, while the 
fibre is now suffered to go to waste, which, if dressed, would find a ready 
market at remunerating prices in our own country, and England would 
gladly buy from us as much more. 

I hope the success of this enterprise may encourage the capitalists of Ken- 
tucky and Indiana to erect similar establishments in their respective States. 



POT-CULTURE OF THE VERBENA. 

As the verbena merits a place, and most justly, among popular florists' 
flowers, perhaps a few hints on its cultivation in pots may be acceptable to 
those who have not hitherto adopted that mode of culture. I know of no 
plant more useful or ornamental, as a pot-plant, for decorating the green- 
house during the summer season, when the proper inmates of that structure 
are enjoying the open air. I do not know if my system of propagating this 
favorite be new ; but as it is simple, certain, and expeditious, it may be as 
well to state how I proceed from the commencement. I fill shallow pans 
(such as are used for placing under flower-pots) to within a quarter of an 
inch of the top with silver-sand, and pour in water sufficient just to cover the 
sand. I then make the cuttings in the usual way, and push them into the 
wet sand ; put the labels to them, and place them in a hot-bed frame where 
the heat ranges from 65° to 70°, always keeping the sand wet. The advan- 
tages to be realized by propagating the verbena in this way are, that the cut- 
tings never require to be shaded in the brightest sunshine, consequently the 
young plants are not drawn up long and lanky; the cuttings never stop 
growing from the time they are put in until they are ready to pot-off, which 
is in about six or seven days, when they may be drawn out of the wet sand, 
with a bunch of roots, without injuring a single fibre. The best time to com- 
mence operations for growing specimen verbenas in pots is February, or as 
soon as vegetation commences for the season. It is desirable to pot a few of 
the best autumn-struck plants for the sake of early bloom ; but they never 
make such handsome specimens, nor continue so long in good health,' as 
plants raised from cuttings in spring. As soon as the cuttings are well rooted, 
they should be potted into three-inch pots, and placed in a gentle heat for a few 
days, until they are established in the pots ; then top them, and harden them 
by degrees ; never allow them to remain long in heat after they begin to grow, 
or they will form long naked stems. As soon as the pots are filled with roots, 
shift into six-inch ones, and from these into eleven -inch pots. During 
the growth of the plant, all shoots must be stopped, in order to cause the 
plants to grow bushy ; and never allow them to flower until the plant is pro- 
perly formed, and has as many leading shoots as are wanted. The com- 
post in which I grow the verbena is, equal parts of turfy loam, leaf-mould, 
and peat, with a little silver-sand added, to keep the soil open. I water twice 



282 A]!TOTHER SPECIMEN OF FARMING, 

a week with liquid manure, and occasionally syringe over head with clean 
water to cleanse the foliage. If the saving of the seed is no object, all flow- 
ers ought to be cut off as soon as they begin to decay. I need scarcely add, 
that the grand secret in the successful culture of this, as well as of all 
plants, is efficient drainage ; without this, no plant will continue long in good 
health. If gieen-fly should attack your plants, fumigate with tobacco ; for 
if the fly once gets ahead, the plants will never recover suSiciently to give 
satisfaction. Mildew is another enemy which must be looked after. As 
soon as it is perceived, dust the plants with a little sulphur, which will stop it 
from doing much mischief. — Gardeners' Chronicle. 



ANOTHER SPECIMEN OF FARMING. 

A WRITER in the New-England Farmer says : " I bought my farm of 100 
acres in Sterling, Mass., about ten years ago, for a little more than |2000 ; 
it is now worth $2500. The stock and tools may be worth $500, making 
the present investment about $3000. I keep one man in the summer, and a 
little boy in haying. I can do but little work on the farm myself, say thirty 
or forty half-days in a summer. I pay in wages, exclusive of board, about 
$150 a season. I generally keep seven or eight cows, mostly pretty good, 
but one or two heifers are farrow, so that the lot is no more than an average 
one. One yoke of oxen and a cheap horse serve for a team. I cut about 16 
tons of hay (or 29 in a good season) from 25 acres of mowing, and this, with 
my corn-stover, straw, etc., keeps my stock. 

From the above description, you can conceive that my profits can not be 
immense ; yet, on summing them up, I see no reason to complain : and my 
inference is that farming must be a good business when well conducted, since 
I am able to live by it with rather poor management. Recollect, the invest- 
ment is about $3000, the interest of which is $180. 

From my 1 cows I sell 700 lbs., at 23 cts., (in firkins,) - $161 
I can raise 200 bushels of corn, and from that, and the dairy, 

etc., can sell pigs and pork, - - - - - 150 
I sell about $40 worth of apples, . - - - 40 

Potatoes, .-.-.... 50 

Beef, 30 

Poultry and eggs, *J5 



Total, $505 

Wages, taxes, and insurance, - - - - - 170 



Profit, $336 

Beside this, should be reckoned the support of my family from the farm, 
for we buy little except clothing and groceries, and we live more comfortably 
than we could in a village for $500, or in a city for $1000. I put the wear 
of tools and buildings, and my own labor, against the improvement of the 
farm, by trees and otherwise, which is not less than $50 annually. So that 
I can not make the profit of the farm (all expenses paid) less than $336 
annually, beside our living, which is doing pretty well for $3000 investment, 
and poorly managed at that. 

I have no doubt that a skillful man, with a little extra capital, might make 



DRYING FRUIT, AND DRY-HOUSES. 283 

the farm pay at least double the above profit ; but it -will help a man to judge 
of what a good farmer can do, to know what is done by a poor or middling 
one. 

We contrive to raise a couple of heifer-calves a year on skim-milk, and 
though hay here is worth $16 a ton, I find it is the cheapest way of keeping 
up my stock of cows. Also, notwithstanding the present high prices, I can 
not afford to ' sell off most of my hay and stock,' for my butter, at present 
prices, makes it profitable to keep them. My farm is more than fifty miles 
from IBoston by the railroad, and yet is near enough." 



FOR THS PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE AIITIL. 

DRYING FRUIT, AND DRY-HOUSES. 

Messrs. Editors : My attention has recently been called to an article in 
your Magazine, copied from the Country Gentleman, with reference to dry- 
ing fruit by a new machine. As is intimated in that article, fruit-drying is 
becoming a very important branch of domestic economy. The ordinary pro- 
cess of drying apples and peaches is not very profitable ; neither is the fruit 
very good after it is dried ; for when dried on scafiblds, etc, it is subject to 
the visitations [of flies and other things, and is also exposed to the weather 
and rain. For the want of proper dry-houses, many thousands of bushels of 
apples are lost annually. They, and peaches also, rot upon the ground and 
on the trees. Now, if we can get up a dry-house which will dry apples and 
peaches thoroughly and quickly, it is just the thing we want. Can we do it ? 
Yes. And how ? First, build a cheap and durable building, and inside of 
that building place a brick arch, or foundation ; upon which place a stove, 
and around the stove build a large square box, which should run up to the 
chamber-floor of your building. This box, which surrounds the stove, is the 
channel through which the heat passes up into the chamber, where is situated 
another much larger box, (say twelve feet square and nine feet high,) which 
is the drying-box. In and around this large box are placed the drawers, with 
twine-sieves for their bottoms, and the meshes of the sieves as large as they 
can be made without the prepared apples falling through them. These 
drawers are taken out and put in from the outside of the large box, of course. 
Draw them out, fill them with your prepared apples, shove them in again, 
and your drying process goes on nicely, and without your being apprehensive 
of your apples getting wet with rain, or getting besmeared with flies, etc. 
The apples dried in this cheap and simple apparatus are clean and white, 
and will keep a great while, while they will command a great price in the 
market. They are also high-flavored, and free from defects. In the top of 
the drying-box should be placed ventilators, through which the surplus heat 
will escape. To regulate the heat in the box, you only have to close or open 
the ventilators, and your work is done. 

You can build this kind of a dry-house in almost any old building with a 
chamber to it, so that you can go up stairs to pull out the drawers, etc. 
With the improved paring-machines and coring apparatuses, which are 
becoming quite common in the country, persons having many apples to work 
up can get along rapidly with the business, and have a profitable kind of 
work for rainy days, beside. Three bushels of good apples will make one 
bushel of dried fruit, which generally commands in New- York city, if a 



284 WILL RUTA-BAGA PAY TO FEED? 

good article, not far from $2 per bushel, in tlie winter season. And as to 
dried peaches, they always will command a high price in almost any market. 
They usually sell at from twelve to eighteen cents per pound, which is a very 
fair price for them, since, in fact, they can be raised and dried much cheaper 
than raisins and other fruit of a like nature. In this vicinity, (Central New- 
York,) we can raise peaches with comparatively little trouble ; and why 
would it not be a- good business, Messrs. Editors, to dry them and send them 
to your mammoth market ? 

I know of a gentleman who is now engaged in drying apples for your 
market with the kind of drying-house which I have described. His apples 
are nice, and he says he finds no difficulty in disposing of them at living rates 
at any time. 

I neglected to mention that the drawers should be about twenty inches 
wide and three feet long, or longer if thought to be necessary. 

Now, Messrs. Editors, I hope that some of your numerous readers will try 
this dry-house this winter, for there is much fruit in the country in the winter 
season which might be profitably treated in this manner. 

This season, I have sold a great many peaches at four shillings per bushel, 
while many have rotted. Now, if these peaches could have been dried, they 
would have undoubtedly paid for the labor. So we may say of apples, and 
other fruit. 

The fruit-raising business is becoming more and more common every year, 
and it is to be hoped that people will pay a respectful amount of attention to 
it, as vegetable matter is more wholesome than animal flesh. There are 
numerous avenues in almost all parts of the Union for the sale of fruit, whe- 
ther green or dried, though the latter is the safest to deal in: Then let 
people dry more fruit than they have been in the habit of doing, and thus 
supply a want which has beeen growing for a long time. 

Very respectfully, W. Tappan. 

Baldwinsville, K Y., Oct. 20, 1854. 



Will Ruta-Baga Pat to Feed ? — Having occasion a few days since, to 
feed a pair of large oxen, and having a lot of ruta-bagas on hand, I tried the 
following experiment. I commenced in December, when the oxen weighed 
3800 lbs. I fed them one week with hay and three bushels corn-meal at 
15 cents, '1i^2.25 ; increase, 25 lbs. The second week, I fed them one and a 
half bushels meal and nine bushels ruta-bagas ; with this they ate very little 
hay; increase, 50 lbs. The third week, fed the same as the first; increase 
the same, 25 lbs. The results stand thus: 

1. 3 bu. meal, $2.25— gain 25 lbs., at 6 cts., $1 50 

2. li do. do. $1.12 [ . . ,, at 6 ct^ - - v - 3 00 
9 do. ruta-baga, at 21 cts. [ ^am oU lbs. at b cts., d UU 

3. The same result as the first. 

I continued to feed according to second experiment, and never saw oxen 
take on flesh faster, and become sooner fit for the butcher. Be careful always 
to feed clear meal two or three weeks before slaughter, as otherwise the beef 
may have the flavor of the bagas. My"bagas cost me to raise about six cents 
a bushel. Cattle never cloy on bagas, and I conceive them to be the only 
root that will pay for raising to feed. All stock like them ; I think them 
worth more than potatoes by the bushel, as they never scour as potatoes do, 
while four bushels of bagas are as easily raised as one of potatoes. — Country 
Oentleman. Gr. W. P. 



SOLIDIFIED MILK. 285 



SOLIDIFIED MILK. 

We find in the Medical Monthly for October, a description of the process 
for producing this substance : 

"To 112 lbs. of milk, 28 lbs. of Stuart's white sugar were added, and a 
trivial portion of bi-carbonate of soda, a teaspoonful, merely enough to insure 
the neutralizing of any acidity, which in the summer season is exhibited even 
a few minutes after milking, although inappreciable to the organs of taste. 
The sweet milk was poured into evaporating pans of enameled iron, imbedded 
in warm water heated by steam. A thermometer was immersed in each of 
these water-baths ; that, by frequent inspection, the temperature might not 
rise above the point which years of experience have shown advisable. To 
facilitate the evaporation, by means of blowers and other ingenious appara- 
tus, a current of air is established between the covers of the pans and the soli- 
difying milk. Connected with the steam-engine is an arrangement of stirrers, 
for agitating the milk slightly while evaporating, and so gently as not to 
churn it. In about three hours, the milk and sugar assumed a pasty 
consistency, and dehghted the palates of all present. By constant manipu- 
lation and warming, it was reduced to a rich, creamy-looking powder, then 
exposed to the air to cool, weighed into parcels of a pound each, and by 
a press, with the force of a ton or two, made to assume the compact form of 
a tablet, (the size of a small brick,) in which shape, covered with tin foil, it 
is presented to the public. 

Some of the] solidified milk which had been grated and dissolved in 
water the previous evening, was found covered with a rich cream ; this, 
skimmed off, was soon converted into excellent butter. Another solution was 
speedily converted into wine-whey, by a treatment j^recisely similar to that 
employed in using ordinary milk. It fully equalled the expectations of all ; 
so that solidified milk will hereafter rank among the necessary appendages of 
the sick-room. In fine, this article makes paps, [custards, puddings, and 
cakes, equal to the best milk ; and one may be sure it is an unadulterated 
article, obtained from well-pastured cattle, and not the produce of distillery 
slops ; neither can it be loatered. For our steamships, our packets, for those 
travelling by land or by sea, for hotel purposes or use in private families, for 
young or old, we recommend it cordially as a substitute for fresh milk." 

The committee of the Academy is to make its report at an early meeting. 
The milk, being prepared with sugar, is a little too sweet for those who prefer 
to take no sugar in their table drinks. 



Cranberries on High Land. — Mr. Elias Needham, of West-Dan vers, 
has shown us some cranberries grown on high land, which are of good size, 
and which, he says, he produces with good success, having raised some one 
or two hundred bushels a year, and selling them for $3 and $4 a bushel. 
We have heard his experiments favorably spoken of by his neighbors, and 
can have no doubt that he finds an ample reward in the crops for all cost 
and labor. Here, then, is the example ; why can not others copy it, and 
produce this wholesome and palatable food, so that it shall become common 
on every table ? — N. E. Farmer. 



286 ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL FAIRS. 



ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL FAIRS. 

Many of these very useful appointments have already taken place, and 
the results are before us. A few yet remain in the future. We have been 
accustomed to give a detailed account of some of these heretofore, though of 
late we have omitted to do so. We have our reasons. So far as the mere 
recital of the premiura-hst is concerned, or the publication of meritorious 
articles exhibited, the labor is almost useless. It gratifies some friends, and 
others who are interested in these proceedings. And so far as it is an adver- 
tisement of a good article, good may result. And though every man should 
be willing to pay for advertisements, whatever their form may be, we are 
willing to do the jmblic such service, and even the parties in interest, if it 
does not cost us too much. But were the reports of our committees what 
they ought to he, we should have abundant material for all our periodicals, 
without recurrence to useless catalogues, or mere lists of premiums. Most 
of the New-England Societies require statements of the processes employed 
by the competitors for premiums ; and -when these are properly condensed, 
and the merits of each are discussed as they should be, then it would be pro- 
per that every journal in the land, even the political and religious, should aid 
in promoting their general circulation. But, unfortunately, in many cases 
these reports are confined to the fact that A's butter is better than B's, and 
C's cows better than D's. And what do the public care for all this, except 
so hx as, in some cases, they thereby are informed where good stock or good 
machines, etc., may be bought. So far, a general publication is expedient. 

We have prepared a short abstract of what we deem most interesting to the 
public in general, from the reports of various Fairs, or from our own obser- 
vation. So far as the latter means of information are concerned, we can speak 
only of three State Fairs — those of New-York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. 
But we shall not make these more prominent on that account, but shall 
govern ourselves by the policy just indicated. 

As a general remark, we should doubt whether these exhibitions have quite 
reached the average standard of merit, or of general interest. This fact is 
no doubt attributable, in some degree, to the effect of drought during the 
summer, and still more to unfavorable weather at the opening of the show. 

The New-York State Fair was not remarkable for any thing except for 
Bulls. The show of these was very fine. Horses were very numerous, and 
a few of them were noble animals. Blood stallions, mares, and foals were 
exhibited. Among these were Mr. Morris's imported English stallion. 
Monarch, now aged twenty years ; Mr. De Mott's Trustee, chestnut, also im- 
ported from England, and now aged twenty-five ; and Mr. Burnham's chest- 
nut mare, Molly Stark, with some of her numerous progeny, consisting of a 
chestnut colt, aged 4 years, by Tornado — a beautiful animal ; a two-year old, 
and a yearling foal. 

Of the younger stallions, from other States, and Canada, was Young Liver- 
pool, a beautiful four-year old bay, bred by Truman Derrick, of Canada. 
This appeared to be " a worthy scion of a noble stock," the sire being Leo- 
pard, got by Liverpool out of Sneaker by Camel, (the sire of Touchstone in 
1834, and Launcelot in 1840, both winners of the great St. Leger stakes at 
Doncaster, England.) Queen, the dam of Young Liverpool, was also thorough- 
bred, being sired by Monmouth Eclipse out of dam by Durock. Mr. Derrick 
had also two first-rate trotting stallions on exhibition — Young Norman, four 



ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL FAIRS. 287 

years old, and Young Bashaw, three years old, each combining the points 
requisite for speed, strength, and endurance. 

A fine gray stallion was exhibited by Mr. Harrington, of Bennington, Vt., 
■which was sired by Hamiltonian, a celebrated Vermont horse, dam sired by 
Comet, Comet by Bishop Hamiltonian, Bishop Hamiltonian by imported 
Messenger — making Mr. Harrington's horse two crosses from Hamiltonian 
and only three from Messenger, and half-brother to Hero, Mountain Maid, 
and other Eastern-bred trotters of celebrity. 

A team of three splendid dray-horses, of dark-bay color, and of enormous 
size, belonging to Adams & Co.'s Express, and brought here from Boston, 
were much noticed for their gigantic and symmetrical