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Full text of "The Plough, the loom, and the anvil"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/ploughloomanvil72phil 



r 



.■tMm^^ VOL. VII. .^ 



1-/0 




N'tiW-YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY MYRON FINCH, No. 9 SPRUCE STREET, FOR THE PROPUIETOE. 

1855. 




JOHN A. GRAY, 

PRINTER, 

9-5 & 97 Cliff, cor. Frankfort St. 



INDEX TO VOLUME VII. 

From July, 1854, to June, 1855. 

The reader will please note the divisions pf the Index of this volume, as divided 
according to the arrangement of the articles under its general heads. The first is of 
treatises in the body of the work. The second includes what is treated of in the 
Miscellaneous, Editorial Jottings, and the Mechanical Record. The third is an index 
to American Patents, and the fourth to English Patents. Reference is made some- 
times to the same topic under several of these , divisions. If a pai'ticular title is not 
found in one it may be in another. 






^ 



«0 



Acids for the Mint, The Factory of, 740. 
Adulteration of Manures, 227. 
Agriculture of Japan, 141. 

" Practical, 732. 

" Science in, 385. 

" State Patronage of, 648. 
Agricultural Capacities of Texas, 586. 

" Education in Ohio, 340. 

" " in Tennessee, C04. 

" Societies in Massachusetts, 91. 

« " in N. Carolina, 333. 

" " in Tennessee, 004. 

" Statistics, 198. 
Agriculturists in Palestine, American, 745. 
Alloys, in Relation to their Chem. Comp., 235. 
American and English Iron, '.i97. 
" Gas Company, 361. 
" Industry, 7<i, 641. 
" Patents, 705. 
" Pomological Society, 423. 
" Solidified Milk, 501. 
Amoskeag Machine Shop, l(l9. 
Annual Fairs, Repi rts of, 286. 

" " The Policy of, 449, 532, 577, C49. 
Apples, Large, .508. 
Architecture, 331, 388. 
Armament of a Ship of War, 117. 
Artiflcial Manures, 401, 4S5. 
Asparagus, 32, 344. 
Atlantic Cotton Mills, 487. 
Baby Stiow in Springfield, O., 290. 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 460. 
Barbadoes Tar for Horses, 542. 
Bare-Footed Printer Boy, 602. 
Barn, A model, 215. 
Barn, The Sliaker, 38. 
Beams, The Strength of, 409, 560. 
Bee Hive, Or. Eddy's Protective, 356. 
Bees, The Transfer of, 540. 
Benefits of Fairs, 321, 649. 
Biography of .lohn Stewart Skinner, 1. 
" of Hon. M. P. Wilder, 472. 
" of E. B. Bieelow, 545. 
Birds, Their Utility, 230. 
Blacksmithing, Science in, 359. 
Bog Meadows Reclaimed, 607, 
Boots and Shoes, New Kind of, 98. 
Boyden's Place, Topsfield, Mass., 268. 
Bread, Good Corn, 605. 

" Corn, and Rye, and Indian, 8S6. 
Breckenrid^e Cannel Coal, 33. 
Brush, Machine for Chopping, 569. 
Building Materials, 193,269, 461. 
Butter Making, 679 
Caen Stone, 461. 
California, Stage Route to, 405. 
Candle Making, 618. 
Cane Field, Guano in the, 143. 
jQannoD, Breech-loading, 744. 



Car Ventilator, Lancaster's, 170. 
Gary's Rotary Pump, 44. 
Cashmere Goats, 496. 
Cast Iron flouses, 498. 
Cattle and the Prospect, 670. 
Cattle, Experiments in Fattening, 277. 
" Keep Iheni well Fed, 201, 
" Breeds of, 725. 
Charcoal a Disinfecting Agent, 404. 

" Properties of, 021. 
Cheap Candles, 211. 

Chemical E.xamination of the Cob of Maize, 481. 
" Effects of certain Fertilizers on the Po- 
tato, 590. 
Chalk, 611. 

Chicago, Statistics of, 30. 
Chloroform for Animals, 542. 
Church Architecture— Trinity Chapel, 743. 
Cinciimati Horticultural Society, 677. 
Cincinnati and Charleston Railway, 169. 
Climate, 657. 

Coal, How they dig Anthracite, 354. 
" Repeal of the Duty on, 470. 
" Fields of the World, 138. 
Coffee, Good, 490. 

" at Moch,a, 211. 
Colors of Hangings, Furniture, &c., 612. 
Combined Steam, 220. 
Commerce is King, 513. 
Composition for Roofs, &c., 558. 
Connecticut State Fair, 288. 
Copper Mines in South Africa, 623. 
Corn Cob, Chemical Examination of, 481. 
Corn, Fine Field of, 402. 
" forFodder, 212, 590. 
" in New-Hampshire, 478. 
" its culture, 595. 
" Bread, Good, 565. 
" and Rye and Indian Bread, 086. 
" the Staple of Ohio, 398. 
" Statistics in France, 482, 726. 
Cotton and its Culture, 661. 
•< Culture, Rotation in, 399. 
" Crop, Importance of, 347. 
« Gin, A new, 730. 
Cows, Diseases of Uddf r and Teats of, 347. 

" Succulent Food for MilcU, 345. 
Cranberries on High Ground, 235. 
Crescent Iron Works, 231. 
Crops in Viginia 390, 480. 
Cross' Patent Grape Frame, 293. 
Cryptomeria Japonica, 736. 
Crystal Palace, 49. 
Cultivation of Sandy Soils, 486. 

" What is it? 153. 

Culture of Flax at the West, 280. 
" of the Orange, 610. 
" of the Pelargonium, 673. 
" of the Potato, 594. 






590642 



ro 



IV. 



Index. 



Culture of the Rose, 535. 
" of the Tomato, 014. 
" of the Verbena, in Pots, 2S1. 
Curculio, Remedy lor the, 97. 
Cure for Garget and for Wounds, 119. 
Curiosities of British Census, 202. 
Curious, Something for the, 351. 
Cuttin? Met:ils, New iMachine for, 294. 
Cylindrical Steam Valve, 502. 
Cypress Vine, 872. 
Daisy, Chrysanthemums, 38. 
Dahlia, The, 89. 673. 

Decomposition of Water and Steam by Heat., 682. 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, Railroad, 73. 
D'uvvood, the Residence of John J. Smith, Esq., 

Germantown, Pa., 714. 
Detroit, 84. 

Dilatation of Cast Iron by successive Heat, 166. 
Dock Railway, Liver, lOo], 534. 
Drought in Hawkins County, Tenn., .340. 

" in Lamoille County, Vt., 177. 
Drying Fruit, 204, 2S3. 
Elastic Power Accumulators, 234. 
Electricity, Weaving by, 229. 
Electrotyptug, 175. v 

Envelopes, Manufacture of, 223. 

" " Stamped, 742. 

Esse,\ County, Mass., Agr. Reports of, 456. 
Experiments in Fattening Cattle, 277, 
Fairs and Humbugs, 632, 

" of 1654, List of State, 53. 

" their Benefits, &c., 321, 577, 649, 
Fall River Company, 21, 
Farmers' Sales and City Prices, 525. 
Farming, Wasteful, 533. 

" Another Specimen of, 282. 
" in E. Tennessee, 065, 
" Profits ol, 720. 
" on Tar River, 391. 
Fat Hogs, 479. 

Fattening Cattle, Experiments in, 277. 
Feed, Turnips as. 
Fence, A Good Wire, 417, 499, 
Fis, The, 88. 

Fires, Best Position of, 491. 
First Milk, is it poisonous? 142. 
Fisher's Steam Carriage, 116. 
Flax, Culture of, 151, 581. 

" at the West, Culture of, 280. 

" Manufacture, 584. 
Food, The Best Sort of, 351 
Forest Trees, 28, 200, 271. 
France, Wine Trade of, 523, - 
Franklin County Agr. Society, 37, 
Fruit, Take Care of your, 604. 

" Drying ot, 205,283. 

" Trees in 1854, Flowering of, 4S3. 

" " Mulching ol, 510. 

" " Preservation of, 226. 

" " Raising, 152. 

Galls on Horses, 408. 
Garden, Vegetable, 672, 

'' Flower, 672. 
Garget, Cure for, 119, 
Uas Stove, New, 497, 

'• in the N. A. States, 624, 
Gin, A new Cotton, 730. 
Glass, Manufacture of Plate, 494. 
Glue for Plants, 469. 
Golden or Basket Willow, S9. 
Grand National Cattle Shi.w, 31, 144. 
Granite and Sienite BuildingStones, 269. 
Grape, Culture of the, 293, 738. 

" " in Ohio, 34L 

Grapes in December, 617. 

'' in Kssex Couuiy, Mass., 400. 
Grease or Scratches, 146. 
Great Mechanical Feat, 106. 
Greatest Grain Port in the World, 605. 
Grouping of Koses, 537. 
GuaiiO in the Cane Field, 143, 731 

'' on Potatoes, 353. 
G Wynne's Pumps, 303. 
Harrow, Universal Flexion, 235. 



Hazel Rods, 2(58. 
Health, Robust, 651. 
Heaves or Broken Wind, 352. 
Hemp, Water Rotted, 22. 
Hereditary Spavin, 433. 

Hous, Peas & Sweet Potatoes for fattening, 731, 
Hoof-Bound, 544, 
Homography, 360. 
Honey, Improvement of, 724. 
Hops in Lamoille County, Vt., 345. 
Horn Ail. 541. 

Horse, The, 407, 408, 544, 592, 683, 
" How lo judge a, 726. 
" To stop a Runaway; 276, 
Horse shoeing, 592. 
Horses, Barbadoes Tar for, 542. 

" New Mode of Breaking, 407. 
Horticultural, 672, 734. 

" Society, Cincinnati, 677. ' 

How much Lime do Soils need? 471. 
How Railroads Increase Wealth, 335. 
Hydraulic Rams, Strode's, 418. 
Illinois Marble, 21. 
Illumination under Water, 405. 
Importance of Farm Registers and Accounts, 063. 
Improved Stereoscopes, 008, 

« Suffolk Swine, 140. 
Improvement in Rolling Railroad Bars, 221. 

" of Honey, 724. 

Indian Corn, Important Crop, 595, C43, 644, 
" " Culture of in New-Hampshire, 478. 
" " The Staple of Ohio, 398. 
Industry, Results of American, 70. 
Influence of Agricultural Societies, 136. 

" and Improvement of the Subsoil, 420, 
" of Taste in Rural Homes, 660. 
International Transportation and Travel, 059. 
Iron, English and American, 297, 
" Houses, 111, 498, 
" Manufacture, Renton Process, 366. 
" Smelting, Theory ot, 103, 
" Trade oi Sweden and Norway, 517, 
" Works, Crescent, 231. 
" and Zinc, Manulacture of Slags, 362. 
Italian Rye Grass, 484. 
Japan Cedar, 736. 
Kislichy, a Beverage, 713, 
Labor in the South, Respectability of, 133. 
Large Apples, 508. 
Largest Mill in the World, 309, 427, 
Laws of Health, 717. 
Lawton Blackberry, 210. 
Lime, its Uses, &c., 355, 471. 
Linen, 729. 

Lines of Railroads between the E. and W., 587, 
Lists of Patents, 62, 125, 189, 253, 319, 383, 447, 

511, 575, 039, 702, 759. 
London, How Smoke is made in, 62S. 
Long Island, Sandy Soils of, 4t-6. 529, 
Louisville, Mechanic Arts at, S37. 
Lowell Wire Fence, 499. 
Machine for Making Chain Links, 567. 
" for Chopping Brush, 569. 
" for Cutting Metals, 294. 
" Winnowing, 233. 
Management of Fairs, 321, 532, 577, 649. 
Manufacture of Envelopes, 228. 

" '' for Government, 742. 

of Flax, 5S4. 
" of Plate Glass, 494. 

Manufactures, Value of, 493. 
Manures, Artificial, 401, 485. 
" Adulteration of, 227. 
" Mineral, 93. 
" Nascent, 606. 
" their Use, 223. 
Marble, for Buildin.g, 193. 

« Illinois, 21, 
Maryland State Soc, Proposed Premiums, 214, 
Mechanics' Exhibition, Portland, 292. 
Mechanic Arts at Louisville, 337. 
Mechanics, Progress of, 40, 
Memphis, Enterprise, &c,, 836. 
Meteorological, 688. 



Index. 



Metropolitan Mechanics' Iiis=titute, 421 

Michigan, Population of, 489. 

Microscopic Plants, 461. 

Milch Cows, Succulent Food for, 315 

Milk in Bread, 528. 

Mineral Resources of Virginia and N. Care, 176, 

Minnesota, Condition and Prospects of, 493. 

Mines, Minerals, and Manufactures in East Ten- 
nessee, 219. 

Mississippi Planter, The, 203. 

" an Agricultural State, 145. 

Mulchin? Fruit Trees, Spent Tan and Sawdust 
for, 530. 

Music, New, 61, 251, 316, 574, 702. 

Musical, 441. 

Musquit Tree, The, 419. 

Musquitoes, Anatomy and Propagation of, 409. 

Nascent Manures, 660. 

National Cattle Show. 144. 

Natural Coke in Va., 90. 

Nemophila, The, 076. 

New Booksj^ei, 124, ISO, 254, 316, 381, 442,509, 

New-England Horse Show, 289. 

New Gas Stove, 497. 

New Music, 61, 254, 316, 574, 702. 

New Tree, 85. 

Nitrogen, Origin of, 433. 

Observations on the Drought in Lamoille County, 

Vt., 177. ' 

Ohio, Agricultural Education in, 340. 

" Corn the Staple of. 898. 

" Grape Culture and Wine Manu. in, 341. 
Orange, Culture of the, 610. 
Origin of Nitrogen, 433. 
Osage Orange, 673. 
Pacific Railroad, 65, 72, 131, 324, 393. 
Paints for Buildings, 236. 
Patents, Lists of, 6i, 125, 189, 255, 319, 333, 447, 

511,575.639,702,759. 
Paulownia Imperialis, 209. 
Peach Trees Killed by Cold, 676, 737, 740 

" Rot, 358. 
Pear Blight, 99. 
Peat on Potatoes, 353. 
Pelargonium, The Culture of, 673. 
Photography, 5Gi. 
Pie Plant, 39. 

Piggery, Description of a, 47. 
Pike County, Illinois, 37. 
Planting in iMississippi, 104. 
Plate Glass, Manufacture of, 494. 
Ploughs, their Construction, &e.,414. 
Ploughing, Amount of travel in, 071. 
Plum Trees, C78, 735. 
Plumbago Larpentre, The, 675. 
Policy of Annual Fairs, &c., 321, 449, 532. 
Pomological Congress, Third, 338. 
Post Oak Glade Land, 606. 
Potato Culture, The, 590, 594. 
Potomac, Waier Power of the, 559. 
Poudrette, Home Manufacture of, 403. 
Practical Science of Candle Making, 018. 
Preservation of Wheat in Tennessee, 103. 
Principles of Agriculture, 716. 
Principles of this Journal, 54. 
Printing, The Art of, 40. 
Products of French Colonics in Algiers, at Paris, 

Profits of Farming, 720. 

Pruning Trees at Transplanting, 273. 

Pumps, Gary's, 45. 

" Gwynnes, .363. 
Quick Lime in High Furnaces, Employment of. 

Rags,- A substitute for, 406. 

Railroad Bars, Improvement in Rolling, 221. 

" Fares in Virginia, 139. 

" Routes to the Pacific, 131, 324. 
Railroads, Inventor of, 110. 

*' How they Increase Wealth, 335. 

" Security on, 110. 

" Western, 464. 

Railways in Russia, 589. 



Railways to the Pacific, 393. 
Railway, Royal Danish, 465. 
Raising Fruit Trees, 152. 
Remedy for the Curculio, 97. 
Repeal of the Duty on Coal, 470. 
Results of American Industry, 70. 
Rose, Culture of the, 535. 
Roses, Grouping of, 537. 
Root Crops, How to Raise, 29. 
" Value of, 216, 531. 

Rotation in Cotton Culture, 399. 
Rumination, 342. 
Ruta Baga, 234. 
■Sal Ammoniac, Employment of in Steam Boilers, 

173. 
Sandy Soils, Cultivation of, 480, 529. 
Science and the People, 42. 
" in Agriculture, 385. 
" in Blacksmithing, 359. 
Sculpture and Sculptors, 50, 113. 
Security on Railroads, 110. 
Shaker Barn, The, .38. 
Sheep and "Wool, 389, 458, 603. 
Shoe Business, 112. 
Shrubbery, 357. 

Skinner, Biographical Notice of John S., 1. 
Social Position of the Farmer and Mechanic, 207. 
Solidified Milk, 285. 
Southern Crops, Why not more productive ? 652. 

" Progress, 213. 
Spice Orchard, A, 55. 
Spider, The, 601. 

Spiral Turning in a Common Lathe, 298. 
State Fairs for 1654, 119. 

" Patronage of Agriculture, 453, G48, 649. 
Statistics of Chicago, 30. 
" of Sonoma, 199. 
" of St. Louis, 129. 
" Valuable, 326, 543. 
Statues. IIow Made, 107. 
Steam Boilers, Use of Sal Ammoniac to prevent 

Incrustations in, 173. 
Steam Carriages and their Enemies, 156. 
" " Fisher's, 116. 

'' Valve, Bloomer's Cylindrical, 502. 
Stereoscopes, Mascher's, 6(18, 687. 
Stereotyping, The Art of, 41. 
Strength of Beams, 409, 500. 
Subsoil, Influence and improvement of the, 420. 
Substitute for Rags in Paper-making, 406. 
Suflolk Swine, Improved, 140. 
Suspenders, 723. 
Swine, 457. 

Taste in Rural Homes, 660. 
Telegraph round the World, 620. 

" Submarine, 622. 

Texas, Agricultural Capacities of, 586. 
Transplanting in Autumn, 277. 

" Pruning Trees at, 273. 

Transportation and Travel, International, 659. 
Trees and Shrubs, newer Deciduous, 80. 
Turnips, as Feed, 492. 
Turpentine Convention, 462. 
U. Stales Agricultural Society, 456, 567. 
Valuable Statistics, 826, 543. 
Vegetable Physiology, 257. 

" Garden, 672. 

Verbena, Pot Culture of, 281. 
Virginia, Crops in, 396, 480. 
Wasteful Farming, 533. 
Water Power on the Potomac, 559. 

" Rotted Hemp, 22. 
Weaving by Electricity, 229. 
Welch Anhydrous Cement, 558. 
Western Railroads, 464. 
Wheat, 150. 
Wheat in Tennessee, Preservation of, 103. 

" The Neplus Ultra, 421. 
White Golden Fhnt Wheat, 566. 
Willimantic, Ct., and its Factories, 82. 
Wine Trade of France, 523. 
AVinuowing Machine, 233. 
Wire Fence, New, 417, 499. 
Wool, What Food Will produce most, 728. 



VI. 



Index. 



mDEX TO MISCELLANY, EDITORS' JOTTINGS & MECHANICAL RECORD. 



Agriculture in France, 634. 

Algeria, Productions of, 432. 

Americaa Wire, 60. 

Anastatic Printing, 507. 

Anoesthetic Agent, A New, 635, 

Apples for Market, 429. 

Arkansas, Progress in, 636. 

Attaching Car Wheels to Axles, 57. 

Baby Shows, 182, 482. 

Bending Ship Timber, 634. 

Black-Knot, Remedy for, 428. 

Brass a Dull Black Color, To gire, 504. 

Breckenridge and Cannel Coal Co., 253. 

Breeding Ewes, Winter Feed foi-, 429. 

Brown or Red Sandstone, 433. 

Butter Sale, 245. 

Bridge, An immense, 57. 

Brilliant White -wash, 58. 

Camden and Amboy Railroad, ISO. 

Car Shops, 431. 

Cashmere Shawls, 59. 

Caulkins, John &., his Umbrellas, &c., 753, 

Clock Manufiictory, Jerome's, 246. 

Clothing Business in Boston, 123. 

Coal in Indiana, 309. 

" Mines in Tennessee, 571. 

" Trade, 506. 
Composition of Eggs, 430. 
Concord Grape. 253. 
Connecticut Wine, 253, 
Copper in Tennessee, 432, 
Corn Planters, 57. 
Cotton Manufactories at the South-West, 123. 

" Plaster and Guano for, 370. 
Creeping Things, 121. 
Crops in England and Ireland, 253. 
Curculio, Fencing out the, 56. 
Curious English Statistics, 252. 
Deformed Roots, 571. 
Dickens' Household Words, 372. 
Drawbridge Signal.'lSO. 
Durham Cattle, 570. 
Earthquakes and Electricity, 670. 
Eggs, Composition of, 430. 
Embossing Telegraph, 503. 
Employment for the Poor, 503. 
Engines of the French ship Brandon, 250. 
Engraving on Glas.s, 251. 
Enlarging Vegetables, 428. 
Ericsson's Trial Trip, The, 756, 
Fair in Providence, 251. 
Fairs, Management of, 430. 
Fall River Route to Boston, 170, 433. 
Pat Turkeys, 372. 
Fencing out the Curculio, 56. 
Fireflies, 633. 
Fish, Growing, 370. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 122, 
Flax Thread, 687. 

Flowers and Fruit, How to Keep, 252, 
Fruit Trees Injured by Cold, 635, 
Gas Coal, Preston, Va., 433. 
Gas Lime as a Manure, 569. 
Gas Tar in Horticulture, 369. 
Georgia Marble, 699. 
Gigantic Boring Machine, 57. 
Glass Globes Unsuitable for Fish, 250. 
Gold in S. Carolina, 120. 

" in Virginia, 571. 
Granaries, 429. 

Grease tor Carriage Wheels, 571. 
Great Bell of Vienna, 60. 
Great Harvesting Machine, 301. 
Greatest Steamer in the World, 249, 



Guano and Plaster for Cotton, 370, 

" for Sugar Cane, 369. 

" what our Country pays for, 1S4. 
Gutta Percha, New Treatment of, 507. 
Hair and Feathers, 121. 
Harlem Railroad, 180. 
Hurd's Hair Restorer, 099. 
Illinois, Minerals in, 570. 
Important Discovery,' 300. 
Improved Pianos, M. Alexander's, 181. 
Interesting Presentation, 59. 
Internal Improvement Convention at Norfolk, 249. 
Iron and Steel, Maufacture of, 248, 506, 570, 

" Trade, Yorkshire, 505. 
Ironing, New Contrivance for, 250, 253. 
Kaoleri, 253 

Lawrence, Pacific Mill at, 369. 
Lawton Blackberry, 087. 
Lewis House, Binghampton, 087. 
Light in Dyeing, 181. 
Lightning Conductors, 433. 

" Speed of, 60. , 

Lime Light bv Decompositson of Water, 503. 
Liquid Glue, 250. 
Live Stock Agency, Clement's 181. 
Locomotion by Vacuum and Compression, 504. 
Locomotives for High Grudes, 120. 
Machinery in Farming, 247. 
Marble, Silexian, 368. 

" Testing, 185. 

" Verd Antique, 308. 

" Vermont, 371. 
Mast, The, 301. 

Mathematician, A Wonderful, 252. 
ftleteorgraph, 61. 
Minerals in Illinois, 570. 

" in Tennessee, 181. 
Monument and Fund Movement, 56, 753. 
Mowing Machine, New, 185, 
Mule Trade of Bourbon Co., Ky,, 2.51. 
Musical Congress, Crystal Palace, 56. 

" Grisi and Mario, 245, 441. 
Musquitoes, 371. 
Natural Printing Process, 58. 
Needles, Manufacture of, 036. 
New-England Enterprise, Warren, Mass., 429, 
North Western Pomological Convention. 186. 
Oakford's Hats, Philadelphia, Charles, 123. 
Oblique Railroad Wheel", 183. 
Orange Water Melon, 569. 
Organ at Tremont Temple, Boston, 246. 
Ozier Willow, 699. 
Pacific Mill at Lawrence, 369, 427. 
Panam;i Railroad, Opening of, 635. 
Patent, A Wonderful, 252. 
Peach, Hampton's, 247. 
Peat for Fuel, 252. 
Pennsylvania Railroad Tunnel, 181. 
Perpetual Motion, 251. 
Photography, Wax-paper Process, 367. 
Piano Fortes, Hallet, Davis, & Co., ISO. 
"• M. Alexander, 181, 

" Premium, 635. 

*' Woodward & Brown, 185, 253, 

Pig, A Puzzled, 633. 
Pittsburgh, Iron Foundries at, 248. 
Plaster and Guano for Cotton, 370. 
Polished Shirt Bosoms, 504. 
Portable Screwing Tackle, 504. 
Preservation of Meat, Flowers, and Fruits, 252 

433, 508. 
Printing Press, Stephen Brown's, 370. 
Printing Press, Wilkinson's, 370. 
Protection to Bank Notes, 129. 



Index. 



vii- 



Protecting Hay Stacks, 122. 
Puddling Iron, Improvements in, 570. 
Purifying Gas, 251. 
Quilting Frame, A new, CO. 
Railroad Brake, 120. 

" Camden and Amboy, 180. 

" Harlem, 180. 

" New-York and Erie, 179, 

" Panama, 635. 

" Phil., Wil., and Bait., 180. 

" Reading, 59. 

" speed, '252. 
Rereads to Farmers, Benefits of, 634. 

" in Maine, 756. 

« in Ohio, 430. 
Reciprocity Treaty, 248. 
Remedy for the Black Knot, 428. 
Running Gear for Carriage Wheels, 56. 
School Furniture, 124. 
Science turned peevish, 250, 
Sea Monster, 300. 
Secret Dispatches, 122. 
Ship Building, 431. 
Silexian Marble, 368. 
Silk Worm, New Species, 430. 
Sizes of Shoes, 571. 

Skinner, J. S., Monument to, and Fund, 753. 
Slag for Fictile Purposes, 504. 
Sound of Bells, 123. 



Speed of Lightning, 60. 

Statistics of Trade, 248. 

Steam Gun in England, 570, 

Stove, Dining Room, 745. 

Strawberries, Culture of, 183. 

Strever's Double Acting Force Pumps, 179. 

Sugar Trade of U. S., 756. 

Telegraph Apparatus, 122. 

" Embossing, 503. 

Tennessee Copper, 432. 
TerreU, Dr. Wm., 253. 
Testing Marbles, 185. 
Thermotypy, Impression by Heat, 36^. 
Tomato Figs, 301 
Tubular Iron Bridge, 59. 596 , 
Vegetable Mechanics, 121. 
Verd Antique Marble, 368, 
Vermin, How to rid Plants and Animals of, 186. 
Vermont Machinery for England, 371. 

" Marble, .^71, 432, 
Victoria Bridge, 183. 
Ware, Mass., Industry of, 758. 
Warm Feed, 636. 
Warren, Mass., 429. 
Water in Blasting Operations, 249. 
Weights of Grain, 429. 
West Lincoln Agr. and Hort. See-, Maine, 60. 
Wisconsin Harvest, 123. 
Why do Teeth Decay, 699. 



Vlll. 



Index. 



INDEX TO AMERICAN PATENTS. 



Ames's Polygraph, or Duplicate Writing Machine, 

692. 
Brush for Washing Bottles, 241. 
Calcium Light, 374. 
Carts, Self-loading and dumping, 748. 
Cultivator, Rol)inson's Hand, 746. 
Cutting Wood Screws, 373. 
Fast VVood Screw Machine, 302. 
Gas Heating Apparatus, 374. 
Horse Shoes, Improvement in, 747. 
Improved Lathe, 243. 

" Process in treatment of Paint, 243. 

" Burfjlar's Alarm, 244. 

" Method of turning Casks from solid 

Pieces, 244. 
" Arrangement for Lathe Chuck, 627, 
« Bevelling Plane, 304. 
" Calipers, 308. 

" Carriage Axle, 308. 
" Douhle Acting Force Pump, 307. 
" Machine for Uniting Plates of Metal of 

unequal thickness, 623. 
" Printing Press, 373. 
" Sawing Machine,. 375, 690. 
" Bucket for Chain-Pumps, 689, 
" Tires for Carriage Wheels, 626. 
" mode of constructing Iron Build'gs, 750. 
" " of securing Hubs to Axles, 752. 

" arrangement of means for working and 
stopping Chain ('ahles, 752. 
ImprOTBinent in Combing Cotton or other Fibrous 
Material, 303, 624. 
" in C rdage Machinery, 304. 

" in Preparation of Collodion for Pho- 

tographic Pictures, 304, 
" in Ornamenting Metallic Buttons, 

304. 
" in Folding and Measuring Cloth,305. 

" in Padlocks, 306. 

" in Furnaces of Steam Boilers, 306. 

" in Gas and Liquid Regulators, 306. 

" in Bank Locks, 307. 

" in Gas Burners, 307. 

" inManufactureofVVooden Buttons, 

307. 
•' in Machines for Cutting Brads, 308. 

" in the Preparation of Archil, 308. 

" in Self-Acling Mules for Spinning, 

375. 
" in Machines for Pegging Boots and 

Shoes, 375. 
" in Fire Arms, 624, 628, 749. 



Improvement in Tubular Bridges. 625. 

" in Cotton Presses, 625. 

" in Manufacturing Pigments from 

Iron Ore, 625. 

" in Pvadiators, 626. 

" in Air Heating Stoves, 626. 

" in Compositions for Bleaching and 

Stuffing Leather, 627. 

« in Working Lime Vats in Tanneries, 

627. 

" in Sola Bedsteads, 628. 

" in Railroad Car Windows, 628. 

" in Steam Generators, 242. 

" in Feathering Paddle Wheels, 242, 

" in Seed Planters, 242, 

" in Carriages, 243. 

" in Harvesters, 243. 

" in Paint Composition, 243. 

" in Weaving Double Cloth, 243, 

" in Vehicles, 747. 

" in Horse Shoes, 747. 

" in Machine for sticking Card Teeth, 

748. 

" in Machines for Moulding Crackers, 

750. 

" in Lasting Instruments, 750. 

" in Machines for graduating Carpen- 

ters' Squares, 751. 

'•' in Polishing Wheels, 751, 

" in Warping and Dressing Yarn, 751. 

" in Buggies, 752. 

" in Machines for turning Irregular 

Forms, 752. 
Iron Buildings, Improved mode of constructing, 

750. 
Interesting to Bricklayers and Builders. 
Irresistible Horse-Bit, 627. 
Lubricating Material, 625. 

Machine for Cleaning and Watering Slreets,241, 
Mettiod of Coating Iron with Brass or Copper, 

626. 
Morris's Improved Buckets for Chain Pumps, 689, 
Oil Socket and Screw Plug, 695. 
Prince's Protean Fountain Pen, 695. 
Process of Engraving or Painting on G'ass, 808, 

372. 
Self-loading and dumping Carts, 748. 
Sewing Machine, Robinson's, 690. 
Vehicles, Improvement in, 747. 
Victoria Bridge, Montreal. 752. 
Water Pressure Engines, 754. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH PATENTS, 



Application of Gluten to Bread and other Articlcg 

of Food, 434. 
Bleaching and Scouring, 238. 
Boiling OiU in a Vacuum, 311. 
Castings of Malleable Iron, 313. 
Direct Action Oscillating Engines, 377. 
Dock Railway, Liverpool, 436. 
Double Acting Threshing Machine, 309, 
Effect of Light on the Compass, 437. 
Files, Rasps, and Edge Tools, 239. 
Fire Place, Dr. Arnott's, 309. 
Foundations nf Houses, 379. 
Grain Mills, 379. 
Imitation Leather, 311. 
Improved Steam Piston, Ramsbottom's,210. 

" Wheels and Axles, 237. 

Ingram's Cast Steel Rifle-barrels and Bullet- 
Moulds, 695. 
Irish Flax Production, 309. 
Journal Bearings, 435. 
Lappet Loom, 440. 
Life Size Sun Portraits, 311, 
Manufacture of Caoutchouc, 635. 

" of Iron and Steel, 239. 

«' of Ornamental Fabrics, 238, 240. 

Mining Engines and Machinery, 439. 



New Build of Steamer, 310. 
New Mordant in Dyeing, 436. 
Ornamental Fabrics, 238, 240. 
Ornamentation of Pottery and Glass, 623. 
Patent Hydrostatic Cranes, 438. 
Pendulum Test of the Earth's Mass, 632. 
Preparing Skins for Tanning, 311. 
Preservation of Iron by Stauno plumbatiug, 630. 
Printing Surfaces, 378. 
Pvailway Wheels, 313. 
' " and Alarm Signals, 379. 
Renewing the Teeth of Files, 813. 
Revolver Fire Arms, 573. 
Rocket Bullet, 753. 

Safety Apparatus for Steam Boilers, 237. 
Safely Floating Dress, 314. 
Self Air-Heating Blast Furnace, 376. 
Steam Boiler Apparatus, 441. 
Steam Engines and Boilers for Screw Propellers, 

376. 
Thermography, 311. 
Thistle Paper, 698. 
Twin Dredger of 30 Horse Power, 437. 
Ventilating Case for Mill-Stones, 240. 
Wood-VVookiug Machinery, Slater & Tails', 696 



^/00<f 



\ \\)t %u% anil ti)f Jlituil. 



Vol. VII. JANUARY, 1855. No. 7. 



SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE. • 

In our November number, we gave a full account of the arguments, on 
one side and the other, -which are derived solely from experiments, on the 
question, " Whence do plants derive their nitrogen ?" And v/e have repeatedly 
given it as our opinion that, if the ground is in a proper condition, every 
plant will find this element without difficulty. We can not doubt this, and 
would by no means therefore commend the heavy outlays of millions of 
dollars annually, in this country, to obtain what the atmosphere, and rains, 
and brooks contain in abundant quantities, and readily supply without cost. 
But this is by no means the only department of agricultural science on which 
there is a diversity of opinion. The number of unquestionable facts, touching 
the cultivation of the soil, is exceedingly limited. 

Thus, it is one of our "received" doctrines that the soil must contain what 
the plant requires, and yet if the nitrogen of the plant is furnished from the 
air and from water, this is, at least, one exception. Another element is, no 
doubt, supplied from other sources, to wit : the carbon. From the state- 
ments presently cited, as well as from other sources, we may conclusively 
draw the inference, that the soil itself can not furnish the am.ount of carbon 
contained in the growing plant. Hence the statement of this general principle 
should be modified so far as to say that of the inorganic elements, the soil is 
the only known reservoir. 

We ought perhaps to add, in this connection, for the sake of avoiding 
apparent inconsistencies between these statements, and those made by us 
elsewhere, that the conditions belonging to a " fertile soil" are, undoubleJIy, 
required for the most productive crops. The only question is, Why such con- 
ditions are required ? For it is also true that, while the most successful culti- 
vation peremptorily requires the presence of all these conditions, it still does 
not necessarily follow that the soil itself conveys, from its own substance into 
the plant, a single one of its elements. Such an inference would no more 
be logical than to infer from the fact that some persons can sleep best on a 
bed of down, that the down furnishes and cor. iiiiimicattis substantial elements 
from its own material, in the producti&c. cf sleep. Because any given phy- 
sical arrangements are of great utility, or even absolutely essential in furnish- 
ing facilities for certain operations, it does not necessarily follow that those 
arrangements are themselves immediately efficient in performing these opera- 
tions. They may be merely the staging, by the aid of which other materials 
are combined into an organized structure. 

But we do not purpose to extend this discussion here, but lay out the 
ground and partially illustrate the present condition of agricultural science, 
by the passages already referred to, from a very learned German writer. 

VOL. VIL 25 



386 SCIENCE IN AGRICULTUHE. 



^*'The goodness of the soil," he says, "depends upon its inorganic con- 
stituents — so far at least as they are soluble in water, or throuffhconliaued 
action of carbonic acid ; and the more abundant and various these solutions, 
the more fruitful is the ground." Arguing from this view, it is not richness 
of soil or humus that produces the multiplied varieties of alpine plants in 
Germany, or the absence of it that produces but few. " Soluble mineral con- 
stituents" are shown to be the characteristic of our cultivated field ; and "an 
agricultural plant" is defined as one "distinguished from wild individuals of 
the same species, by peculiar qualities, which constitute its fitness in culture, 
and which depend upon a modification of chemical action." The amazing 
jield of Indian corn in Mexico — from two hundred to six hundred fold — is 
something which, with all our skill, we can not accomplish, and is a fact in 
favor of the argument, "that in no case do the organic substances contained 
in tlje ground perform any direct part of the nutrition of plants." The annual 
destruction of organic matter all over the earth is estimated at 145 billions 
of pounds, equal to 2^ billions of cubic feet ; and if all vegetation depends on 
organic matter for nutrition to satisfy this consumption, " there must have 
been, five thousand years back, ten feet deep of pure organic substance on its 
surface." Another illustration is furnished by taking the number of cattle 
and other animals in France in a given year, (1844,) and observing the amount 
of food they consume. The process of nutrition would require '70,789,000,000 
pounds of organic matter — six times more than the whole number contribute 
of organic matter toward the reproduction; and in 100 years "the whole 
organic material of the country would be consumed !" 

^ Again, look at a farm. How much more is carried ofi:' from it than it 
gives back again ; generally the amount of its yield is three times greater 
than that of the organic matter it receives : while of the manure applied, the 
greater part is not taken up, but imperceptibly decomposed. Carbon is the 
most important of the constituents of plants. An acre of sugar plantation 
produces 7500 pounds of cane, of which 1200 pounds are carbon; and yet 
sugar plantations are rarely manured, and then only with the ashes of the 
burnt canes. With bananas, the result is still more striking; the yield is 
98,000 pounds of fruit in a year from a single acre; and of this 'l 7,000 
pounds, more than a fifth, is carbon ; and the same acre will give the same 
return, year after year, for twenty or thirty years ; and the ground at the 
end of that time will be richer than at the commencement, from nothing 
more than the decay of the leaves of the plant. Here in Europe, too, the 
•difference in weight and in carbon between the seed and the produce has 
often been noted: in wheat, 89 per cent; in red clovei; 158 per cent; in 
peas, 361 per cent. These facts afford evidence of a sujiply of carbon derived 
from other sources than those commonly supposed to exist ; and while we 
know that seeds will germinate and become vigorous plants in pure quartzose 
sand, or in cotton wool, or on a board, we seem to have proof that the chief 
source of supply is the atmosphere. This is an interesting point, which 
further research will verify. Schleiken shows the process to be eminently 
simple. He says in his work : According to Link, Schwartz, and others, an 
acre of water meadow contains 4400 pounds of hay; which, when dry, con- 
tains 4f per cent of carbon. The hay then yields 1000 pounds of carbon, 
to which 1000 pounds may be added in the portion of the year in which the 
grass is not cut, and the roots. To produce these 8000 pounds of carbon, 
10,980 pounds of carbonic acid are requisite, which may be raised to 12,000 
|)0unds to compensate for the uightly expiration. Now Scliubier has shown 



SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE. 387 



that an acre of so wretched a grass as Poa annua, exhaled in 120 days of 
active vegetatiou, 6,000,000 pounds of water. To supply the exie'encies 
of the plants, therefore, it is only necessary for the meadow to imbibe 3^, 
grains of carbonic acid with every pound of water. 

Mr. Lawes has found also, in a plant of any one of our ordinarj' crops, 
more than 200 grains of water mast pass through it for a single grain of 
solid substance to accumulate within it. He states that au evaporation from 
an acre of wheat during the period of its growth, to be 114,800 o-allons, or 
73,510,000 gallons per square mile. Wi'th clover it is rather more; with 
peas and barley less. When we apply these calculations to a county or a 
kingdom, we are lost in the magnitude of the processes by which nature 
works, but we see the more clearly that on such a scale the quantity of 
material supplied by the air, though minute to the individual, becomes vastiu 
the aggregate. We, see moreover, the necessity of understanding the rela- 
tions between the evaporation and rate of growth, and the laws and effects of 
absorption in soils. A thousand pounds of dry calcareous sand will gain two 
pounds in weight in twelve hours, when the air is moist, while pure agricul- 
tural clay will gain thirty-six pounds. 

The source of nitrogen comes next to be considered ; and this also is seen ic) 
be independent of manures. Hereupon it is observed, that " our domestic 
plants do not require a greater supply than in a state of nature. A water 
meadow which has never received any dung, yields from forty to fifty pounds 
of nitrogen, while the best ploughed land yields only about thirty-one pounds. 
The plants for Avhich must dung is used, as potatoes and turnips, are in fact 
proportionally the poorest in nitrogen." That there is a supply independent 
of the soil is further seen in the millions of hides furnished every year by the 
cattle of the Pampas, without any diminution of produce; and in the "great 
quantity of nitrogenous matters, hay, butter, and cheese, carried oft" from 
pasture land, far more than is returned by the animals fed thereon. Exoeri- 
ments with various kinds of plants, on various soils, have satisfactorily 
demonstrated that increase of nitrogen in the land and in the crop, does take 
place quite irrespective of supplies of manure. 

With respect to ammonia, " it appears that one thirteenth of a grain in 
every pound of water is sufficient for the exigencies of vegetation, and there 
is perhaps no spring water in the universe which contains so little." Then 
as to sul[)hur and phosphorus, which are also among the constituents of 
plants, the quantity needed in proportion to the time of vegetation is so 
small, that one 51-0,000th of a grain of sulphuretted hydrogen per cubic foot, 
diffused through the atmosphere to a height of 3000 feet is all that is 
required. The consideration that cereals would soon disappear from the 
north of Europe, if not cultivated, and perhaps from nearly the whole of this 
quarter of the globe, adds weight to the arguments in favor of enligiitencd 
attention to the inorganic constituents of plants. The point is to bnn,(»- the 
soil into harmony with the conditions by which growth may best be pro- 
moted. Much depends on the nature of the soil ; the darkest colored lands are 
generally the highest in temperature, hence the advantage of vegetable mould, 
while deep light sands and clay, which turn almost to stone in dry weather, 
weary and vex the cultivator by their unprofitableness. It is to be remembered^ 
however, that soils which have the highest temperatures of their own, may not 
be those most susceptible of receiving heat— that is, from the sun, because 
some lands are warmed by the springs that irrigate them. Here we have 
an explanation of the phenomena of certain soils, which are warm in winter 



ARCHITECTURE. 



and cool in summer. The application of humus evolves heat by the process 
of coiubu^tion, and sand, lime, clay, and humus are the combinations needed, 
the clay being in a proportion of forty to fifty per cent ; if less than ten per 
cent, the land will ba too light and poor. 



ARCHITECTURE. 

In a former number, in illustrating the social influence of architecture, we 
referred to the change of the hearthstone for the close stove, or the register, 
and the briglit and cheerful fire for the distant and invisil)le furnace. IIow 
great is that change ! It removes one of the elements which had an import- 
ant influence in binding families together, in past generations, and it brings 
in its stead — nothing. We can ill aftbrd to lose so important a check 
upon the wayward tendencies of youth. It makes home far less attractive. 

This is one point in whicb we have lost much. There are others in 
which we neglect our opportunity to gain much. We quote from Ruskin : 
" Have not these words, pinnacle, turret, belfry, spire, tower, a pleasant sound 
in all your ears ? I do not speak of your scenery, I do not ask you how 
much you feel that it owes to the gray battlements that frown through the 
woods of Craig Millar, to the pointed turrets that flank the front of Holy- 
rood, or to the massy keeps of your Ciichtoun and Bosthwick, and other 
border towers. But look merely through your poetry and your romances ; 
take away out of your ballads the word tower wherever it occurs, and the 
ideas connected with it, and what will become of the ballad? See how Sir 
Walter Scott can not even get through a description of Highland scenery 
without help from the idea : 

'Each purple peak, each flinty spire, 
Was bathed in floods of living fire." 

Take away from Scott's romances the word or idea turret, and see how much 
you would lose. Suppose, for instance, when young Osbaldistone is leaving 
Osbaldistone Hall, instead of saying ' The old clock struck two from a turret 
adjoining my bed-chamber,' he had said, ' The old clock struck two from the 
landing at the top of the stairs,' what would become of the passage ? and 
can you really suppose that what has so much power over, you in words has 
no power over you in reality ? Do you think there is any group of words 
which would thus interest you, when the things expressed by them are unin- 
teresting? For instance, you know that for an immense time back, all your 
public buildings have been built with a row of pillars supporting a triangu- 
lar thing called a pediment. You see this form every day in your banks, 
and club-houses, and. churches, and chapels; you are told it is the perfection 
of architectural beauty, and yet suppose Sir Walter Scott, instead of writing 
' Each purple peak, each flinty spire,' had written ' Each purple peak, each 
flinty pediment,' would you have thought the poem improved ? And if not, 
why would it be spoiled ? Simply because the idea is no longer of any value 
to you ; the thing spoken of is a nonentity. 

These pediments, or stylobates and architraves, never excited a single 
pleasurable feeling in you — never will to the end of time. They are ever- 
more dead, hfeloss, and useless, in art as in poetry, and though you built as 



ARCHITECTURE. 389 



many of them as there are slates on your house-roofs, you will never care for 
them." 

It may be said that all this is poetry. Granted, if you please, only acknow- 
ledge that it is reality. If it is poetry, it is something we can ill afford to 
lose. Our developments of cold, business, acquisitive, delving, debasing ten- 
dencies are monstrous. If we let go what little there is of poetical, imagi- 
native, devotional, in us, we shall be monsters indeed. 

What ends are to be gained by architectural structures ? Why build any 
houses or churches? The first answer is, for utihty and comfort; we need 
protection from the elements, whether by night or by day. But these 
objects will be equally well secured by much cheaper structures than are 
built even in our economical times. This end is not obtained by means of 
architraves or pediments, pilasters or porticoes. An open shed is even a better 
defense than a handsome balcony, and many a barn is a better protection 
against cold than some much more costly arrangements. We know of 
nothing more comfortable in a cold day — it is one of our boyish reminis- 
cences—than a nice, sweet " hay-mow." " Yes, but we also want the c^^ur- 
tesics and refinements of cultivated life." We admit it, and contend that 
few things have a more decided influence in this respect than tasteful archi- 
tecture. Why do you buy a mahijgany or rose-wood bedstead ? Would 
not pine do just as well? Polishing and painting can not secure a good 
night's sleep. No, but that gentleness, that kindness, that love of all things 
beantifal and true, which is prompted by tasteful designs, carved out and 
combined gracefully and truthfidly, are points of incalculable importance in 
the formation of the character of the young and also of the old. The man- 
ners of the roughest clown will be somewhat subdued as soon as he enters 
the threshold, erected and furnished by a refined taste. 

There are certain things very trivial in some respects, which show in bold 
relief the truth of the doctrine we infurce. We refer to those barbarous 
designs — designs barbarous in their origin, at any rate — which represent 
soTue little image of gold or bronze, which is so often seen holding up the 
bowl of a large lamp, or the branches of a candelabrum or of a gas-burner. 
What child has not remarked upon the fatigue which such a little baby-boy 
must inevitably suffer? How different the effect, if this same sculptured 
little boy were only climbing up after a branch of grapes, or some other 
delicious fruit ? We referred, some months since, to a very elegant church 
in this city, on the Fifth avenue, in which the entire weight of the ceiling rests 
on human heads. Was any thing ever more absurd? AVhat if the idea is 
copied from an old master of the fifteenth century ? It proves that, great as 
he was, he could blunder; — that the feat has not yet been witnessed, of an 
architect who has risen by his own genius, perfect in all his proportions, out 
of the depths of the dark ages. That he has exhibited so few such weak- 
nesses, is one of the greatest of wonders. And modern times show too often 
how much easier it is to copy errors than to copy truths. We remember 
another similar remnant of those same dark ages. In the beautiful chapel of 
the New-York University, you may see, high up on the walls, some chubby 
little fellov.'s, secured in their places by having their limbs below the knees, 
(the knees being bent at right angles,) set into the solid wall. As we have 
listened to some eloquent lecturer in the desk, and our eyes have strayed 
upward to those chiseled forms, we have felt sincere pity for them, and have 
wondered why they were doomed to so painful "a posture. Besides, if the 
strength of their knees should fail them, they would swing as on a hinge, and 
dash their breasts and faces against the wall below, to the ruin not onl\- of 



390 



AKCHITECTURE. 



tbis over- tasked joint, but of their whole persons. Scholars should be more 
humane. 

We are now prepared for a further reply to the question, "What ends are 
to be trained by architectural structures?" and we say, secondly, to open the 
■way for the grac^^s and amenities of re6aed society. Whoever admits this, 
will hold no controversy with us. If any one should be disposed to deny 
this, we are at a loss to know on what ground he would favor the customs 
universally prevalent, to a greater or less extent, in civilized communities. 
Such a man would be contented with a country where the groves and woods 
were formed in light lines and rectangles, after the fashion of a diagram 
given in a former number, and which we here repeat for his especial benefit. 




And can any one tell lis why living matter should always — always, exhibit 
some form of the pointed or arched style, any more than dead forms 1 Yes ; 
convenience. It would be inconvenient, sometimes, to carry out thoroughly 
this feature, so universal in God's arcliitecture ; and this is the only excep- 
tion that is admissible. It is not proper that utility should be sacrificed to 
appearances. Wherever the law of necessity docs not command a different 
course, let not the law of good taste be violated. In the whole universe of 
nature there can not be found a specimen of rectangular architecture. The 
sun, and moon, and stars, are bounded by arched walls. The constellations 
are grouped in various forms, so that when variously connected, at pleasure, 
they will present an indefinite variety of figpres; and yet, it would be diffi- 
cult to find any four prominent stars that, when grouped, would make a 
perfect rectangular figure. We do not allude to this as a fact of .very grave 
authority on ihe subject before us, but only to show that this style is pecu- 
liarly a device of our own invention, and therefore very likely to be inferior, 
in some essential particular, to the devices of Him who is of infinite wisdom 
and of perfect truth. 

Who would not as soon have devised square plates, and square and cubic 
forms for a tea service, as square windows ? But we need not dwell further 
on this point. There are greater evils to contend against. Our architecture 
is scarcely more than a bap-hazard mixture of many crudities and meannesses. 
We shall endeavor hereafter to bring some of them to the light, that they 



FARMING ON' TAR EIVER. 891 

may be destroyed. But we would endeavor to have some correct principle 
to stand upon, ere we undertake any important step in the progress of the 
science, that, if need be, we may safely retrace our steps and secure a right 
direction. 



FARMING- ON TAR RIYER. 

Mr. Editor : Facts are sometimes stubborn things, and some men are stub- 
born farmers, and cultivate stubborn soils, and complain of their Maker, 
because he does not send genial showers and favorable seasons, and make 
them good crops. 

Who is to blame, the soil or the farmers ? No one but those stubborn 
and self-conceited farmers, who will not read and learn, because, forsooth, 
no one can teach them any thing about their avocation ! 

Now, I have contended for years, that any planter tolerably well situated 
for the purpose, on the ordinary up-lands of the oldest settled portions of the 
South, can make more ma.nure and manure more land in a, year, than he 
can clear and take into cultivation from the forest, and the manured land will 
make more corn and cotton, one year with another, than the cleared land. 
There is no doubt about this, and 1 can produce many witnesses to prove it. 

But let one suffice, iu this instance, and speak for himself from Tar Eii/er. 

I quote an extraot from Mr. John S. Daucy's letter published in the Far- 
mers^ Journal, at Kaleigh, for July. 

He says, " I give you an account of our preparations for the crop of '54. 
In the first place, our laboring force on Panola consists of 34 horses, of 
various sizes, ages and qualifications ; 20 head of mules, and 3 yoke of oxen. 
During the year 1853, we had two wagons constantly employed in hauling 
up materials for manure making, besides taking advantage of every day, 
(when the condition of the growing crop would justify it,) to make compost 
with our entire force. The interval between laying by the crop, and the 
beginning of the fodder-pulling and cotton-picking season, (usually from two 
to three weeks,) was busily devoted to the making of compost and filling up 
our cattle and hog lots. 

After housing our crops of corn, cotton, and peas, which we last fall com- 
pleted by the 10th December, we again set to work, composting cottuu-seed, 
and ditch bank, stable manure and low-ground soil, and hauling again into 
the cattle and hog lots. This was kept up (with an occasional hindrance in 
packing cotton) by nearly all hands and teams, till we commenced plough- 
ing, about the middle of January, with six double teams, using the Maryland 
or Patuxent plough, procured from Sinclair & Co., Baltimore. 

After the ploughing season began, the remainder of our hands and teams 
continued to make manure in the difierent way-s I have mentioned, till the 
28th February, when we commenced the troublesome and laborious job of 
hauling out what we had collected during the twelve months past. We 
finished the work of hauling out on the 25th April, being near two months 
engaged at it, and according to our plan of manuring, one load for every 
twenty feet square, or 110 loads to the acre, we hauled out compost enough 
to put on 350 acres of land, or over 35,000 loads, (one-horse cart-loads, five 
bushels to the load.) 

Beside this, we applied twelve tons of Peruvian guano to cot'on, corn, 



392 FARMING ON TAR RIVER. 

and oats. Some of the compost previously mentioned, had two hundred 
pounds of guano mixed in each acre-heap, so that, altogether, we have 
manured over 400 acres of land for the crop of 1854, at the rate of 110 loads 
to the acre. 

Our crop consists of 220 acres of cotton, all manured; 225 in corn, 150 
of it manured ; 30 in oats, and 8 in sweet potatoes, manured. The cotton 
crop to date looks promising, (the weather at this time is, however, very 
unfavorable for the cotton plant, and a few days of it will alter the appear- 
ance of things.) The corn crop is backward and indifferent, and presents an 
irregular appearance, owing to the cold snaps the latter part of April, when 
much of it had to be ploughed up and replanted. 

Having detailed to you clearly, I hope, our pre2Mrations^ I will now tell 
you our calculations, and when the crops are gathered, I will give you and 
your readers the results, so that you may see how far I miss the mark. 
YoM must bear in mind that this is our third crop on Panola, and the process 
of making poor land fertile is the work of years, long years. The land we 
have now in cultivation, when we took charge of the farm in .January, 1852, 
would have made, in my opinion, without manure, not exceeding 400 pounds 
of seed-cotton, or two barrels of corn per acre. Our calculation this year is 
to make 900 or 1000 pounds to the acre of cotton, and four barrels of cor?7. 
if an average season prevails. 

I will try and recollect to prepare for your January number, the resuli-, 
of our operations for 1854." 

Here are four hundred acres of land manured in one year, and a ciop 
made beside. j!^ow, how long would it require to clear 400 acres of such 
land as he cultivates, and put it in the condition to make the crop he calcu- 
lates on ? 

2Iore than one year, and after it is brought to the highest state of cultiva- 
tion, the virgin soil would not produce exceeding 500 pounds of seed-cotton, 
and 20 bushels of corn, per acre. And after a few years of cropping, it 
would not produce near that amount, without manure. Here, then, is an 
illustration of the benefits of manuring that can not be disputed ; and I could 
name many men in Edgecomb, who have brought about similar results by 
manuring. 

I have seen a great many manure heaps, in my travels in the new and old 
world, but I never saw manure piles until I saw them in North-Carolina; 
and what did these piles do ? They made old barren pine-fields, turned out 
as worthless, produce 20 bushels of corn, and 1200 pounds of cotton per 
acre. When I first saw those fields, I could scarcely believe my senses, and 
recognize them. I looked at the land and then at the cotton. The land 
looked as poor as ever, but the cotton looked like our black lime-land cotton, 
branching from the ground, spreading far and wide, and as full of bolls as 
persimmon trees, that matured early and opened well. 

By the side of this cotton, now and then, 1 could recognize an old friend, 
a sap-wccd, growing like a pine tree, all body and no limbs, and but little 
fruif, and that little maturing late, and much of it killed by frost. How is 
this, I asked ? I was told the good cotton had manure in the drill, and the 
sorry cotton had none. Before the discovery of shell-marl there, a few years 
since, and the commencement of the manuring system, many of the Edge- 
comb lands were lying idle, and but a little cotton cultivated. Cotton cul- 
ture was abandoned in a manner, because the lands and climate were not 
considered adapted to its production ; but they have discovered that manure 
adapts both the land and climate to its culture, and Tar River and Pedee 



RAILWAY TO THE PACIFIC. 893 

are beating many of the cotton lands of Georgia and Alabama for making 
cotton. They have this advantage over lis — no boll-worms or caterpillers to 
destroy their cotton. 

A little manure, I venture to say, would change the production of many 
of our soils, and make our old fields here snowy with cotton. Try it, stub- 
born farmers f T. N. SORSBT. 

Forkland, Ala., 1854. 
— From Soil of the Soutli. 



RAILWAY TO THE PACIFIC. 

It is certain that such a road will be built — the only questions involving 
much uncertainty regarding tlie time and the route. It is in respect to the 
latter that we make a few suggestions. 

With a given and limited amount of business, length of route is an obstacle 
to an undertaking, of most imposing magnitude. But where the length of 
the road is onh' proportioned to the amount of business, length is not an evil 
but a help. A long road Avith large business, is better property than a short 
one with little business. Tbe expenses of conducting a road of fifty miles are 
much larger per mile, than those of a road of five hundred. 

Routes on the seaboard are comparativel}' expensive. All large streams 
are to be crossed, and the bridges must bo of an expensive kind. "Where 
the track is parallel with the streams of the territory, the cost is essentially 
diminished. 

Way business is one of the important elements which give value to a road. 

Applying these principles to the Pacitic Kailroad, we shall be forced to 
certain conclusions, in reference to the several proposed routes to the Pacific. 
Let us look at them for a moment. 

The most Southern route possible, necessarily contemplates the crossing of 
all the rivers in Texas, large and small, and where Spanish territory is entered 
upon, though the route is indefinite, there are, at the best, no advantages 
gained by pursuing the courses of rivers, for all run in the wrong direction ; 
and though the streams themselves are small, the physical formations, the val- 
leys, and the highlands, are all adverse. But how is it in the higher latitudes ? 
Starting from St, Louis, the physical formation of the surface is entirely 
favorable. The Kansas, the Platte, the upper portions of the Arkansas, and 
some smaller streams, if required, furnish a natural route to the very foot of 
the Rocky Mountains. On the western slope, the Colorado and other rivers 
may be used with equal advantage. But look at the second point. 

The extreme Southern route passes through a foreign state, not yet pos- 
sessed of the higher forms of civilization, where the arts do not flourish, and 
can not so long as the government is what it is, and where, of necessity, the 
population is very limited and trade nearly nominal. But how is it in more 
northern latitudes ? A westv?ard course from St. Louis towards the State of 
Missouri, the Kansas territory, and Utah, a territory sufficiently large for four 
or five extensive States, consisting of excellent soil, well watered, and with a 
fine climate, and capable, of course, of sustaining an immense population. 
Besides, the materials for the road may be chiefly obtained in the vicinity of 
the route, in which respect it has a decided advantage over the extreme 



S94 RAILWAY TO THE PACIFIC. 

Southern road. Ilence, also, a third requisite is secured — a large way 
business. 

la all routes, as stated in a previous article, the idea of profit must be 
regarded only in a somewhat distant future, but that future .is as certain as 
a mathematical demonstration. To doubt this, would be as absurd as to 
doubt whether one of our genuine progress-men would refuse a capital farm 
when offered him for nothing. 

But there is'another consideration of no small importance. A road " ultra- 
Southern," must ever remain comparatively unimportant to all the States 
lying in higher latitudes. San Francisco, the Arkansas, St. Louis, etc., are 
all in the neighborhood of the 38th parallel of latitude. For the sake of this 
■ultra-Southern connection, goods and passengers must be brought down some 
six hundred miles, or ten degrees of latitude, and then be transported back 
again, perhaps an equal distance, without an eastern progress of a single 
mile. There can be no roads branching towards the north, through New- 
Mexico, nor Texas, the direction of the streams and the necessary formation 
of the land utterly forbidding any such structures. The Mississippi is the first 
point from which any connections could be built uniting this with the more 
Northern roads. 

On the other hand, the line of the main track through Kansas, Missouri, 
lUinois, etc., would be, and is, in fact, already to some considerable extent, 
connected by branches with every State in the Union, and without any con- 
siderable waste of travel. Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, etc., are already 
connecting themselves with the States of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, while " 
way travel and freight will soon pay, if they do not already, all the expenses 
of the connecting roads. 

If this is so, the upper route is the only one that can be successfully carried 
throvigh. We would not, however, decide too hastily such important ques- 
tions, but we throw out hints that can not be overlooked by those who may 
have the management of this immense interest, or who may be called upon 
to lend their aid in behalf of so great an enterprise. 

Having thus expressed more fully the ideas suggested in our October num- 
l>er, we will lay before our readers a few statements, from an address by 
Thos. H. Benton, in reference to the character of the country crossed by the 
upper route, going to prove that the country near the latitude of 38° is 
*• remarkably adapted fur the construction of railroads, and that it is travers- 
able in all directions." If this is so, we should consider these facts decisive 
on this question. On this point he says : 

" I have some direct and positive testimony on this head, which the import- 
ance of the subject, and the value of the testimony itself, requires to be pro- 
duced. I speak of the last expedition of Colonel Fremont — his winter expe- 
dition of 1853-54 — and of the success which attended it, and of the value 
of the information which it afforded. He chose the dead of winter for his 
exploration, that he might see the worst — see the real difficulties, and deter- 
mine whether they could be vanquished. He believed in the practicability of 
the road, and that his miscarriage in 1848-49, was the fault of his guide, 
not of the country ; and he was determined to solve those questions by the 
test of actual experiment. 

With these views he set out, taking the winter for his time, the west for 
his course, a straight line his object, the mouth of the Kansas for his point of 
departure, St. Louis and San Francisco the points to be connected. The paral- 
lels of 38° and 39° covered his course, and between these he continued to 
move west until he reached the Little Sj It Lake — within three hundred miles 



RAILWAY TO THE PACIFIC. 895 

of the California line ; after that, upon a slight deflection to the south, 
between the parallels 37° and 38°, until he entered California. This may be 
called a straight line ; and so fulfills a primary condition of every kind of 
road, and especially of a railroad, where a speed of a hundred, miles an hour 
may be as easily attained and as safely run as the third of that velocity in a 
road of crooks and curvatures. 

Snow was the next consideration, and of that he found none on any part 
of the route to impede any kind of travelling. On the Kansas, the Upper 
Arkansas, and the Huerfano, he found none at all ; in the Sand Hill Pass of 
the Sierra Bianca, none ; in the Coochatope Pass, four inches ! and none if 
he had crossed the day before ; and that was the 14th day of December, cor- 
responding with the time, and almost in view of the place, where he had 
been buried in snow five years before. This solved the question of snow in 
the passes of the mountains, and showed his miscarriage had been the mis- 
take of the guide, and not the fault of the country. After that — after cross- 
ing the Eocky Mountains — the climate changes. A great amelioration takes 
place, which he knew before, and then fully experienced. The remainder of the 
route, as has been shown in the view of the country, may be said to have 
been found free from snow — a hundred miles at a time in one place without 
finding any ; and when found at all, both thin and transient. 

And that this was the common winter state of the pass, and not an occa- 
sional exception, has been shown by Mr. Antoine Leroux and others, and cor- 
responded with his own theory of snow in the passes. 

The Sierra Nevada was the last range of mountain; and there not a par- 
ticle of snow was found in the pass which he traversed, while the mountain 
itself was deeply covered. And this disposes of the objection of snow on. 
this route, so formidable in the view of those who have nothing but an imagin- 
ary view of it. Smoothness of surface, or freedom from abrupt inequalities 
in the ground, is the next consideration, and here the reality exceeded the 
expectation and even hopes, and challenges incredulity. 

Here is a section of the route, above seven hundred miles long, being 
more than half the distance to California, in which there is no elevation to 
arrest the vision — in which you might look down in the wide distance, (if the 
ej'-e-sigbt was long enough,) and see the frontier of Missouri from the mouth 
of the first pass in the first mountain — being more than half the length of the 
road. This would do for a start. It would satisfy the call for a fair surface 
at the commencement. This first pass is called the Sand Hill, or Robidoux, 
through which Fremont entered the valley of San Luis ; and the way so low 
and level as to be seen through. And through that valley, and its continu- 
ation, (the Sahwatah,) to the Coochatope, the ground is so smooth as so pre- 
sent no exception to its level but the natural curvature of the earth. 

More than forty loaded wagons went through it in the summer of 1853, 
twenty of them guided by Leroux for Captam Gunnison, the rest by emi- 
grant families, without guides. But more than that — the bufi:aloes have 
travelled it always. 

This is enough to show that the Rocky Mountains may be passed with- 
out crossing a hill — that loaded wagons may cross it at all seasons of the year. 
In a word, there is no difficulty about passes ; the only bother is to choose 
out of so many all so good, both in themselves and in their approaches. 
This is enough for the passes ; with respect to the whole mountain region, 
and the difficulty of going through it, and upon difierent lines, we have also 
the evidence of facts which dispense with speculation and assertion. That 



396 CROPS IN VIRGINIA. 

region was three times traversed, and on different routes, by Messrs. Beale 
and Heap, in the summer of 1853. 

It hajipened thus : When they had reach the east fork of the Great 
Colorado of the West, and were crossing it, they lost, by the accident of an 
overturned canoe, their supply of munitions, both for the gun aud the mouth, 
and were forced to send back to the nearest settlement for a further supply. 
That nearest settlement was Taos, in New-Mexico, distant three hundred and 
thirty miles ; and that distance to be made upon mules, finding their own 
food, which had already travelled, on the same condition, one thousand miles 
from the frontier of Missouri ; and these mules, (thus already travelled long 
and hard, without other food than the grass afforded,) now made the double 
distance at the rate of forty miles a day, still finding their own food, and on 
the return, bringing packs on their backs. This performance must stand for 
a proof that the whole mountain region between the Upper Colorado and 
the valley of the Upper Del Norte is well adapted to travelling ; and that in 
a state of nature; and also well supplied with nutritious grass; and this 
clears us of the Rocky Mountains, from which to the Little'Salt Lake it is 
all an open practicable way, not limited to a track, but traversable on any line. 
Loaded wagons travel it in a state of nature. The valley of the Colorado is 
either level or rolling ; the Wahsatch and Anterria ranges are perforated 
by incessant valleys; and from the Little Salt Lake to the Great Sierra 
Nevada, as explored by Fremont last winter, the way is nearly level — a suc- 
cession of valleys between the mountains — and terminated by a superb pass, 
debouching into the valley of San Joaquin, 

This completes all that is necessary to be shown in favor of the smooth- 
ness of the way — its equality of surface, throughout the whole line ; although 
it attains a great elevation, and lands you in California, in the rich and set- 
tled valley of San Joaquin, proximate to the southern end of the gold mines. 
Not a tunnel tu be made, a mountain to be climbed, a hill to be crossed, a 
swamp to be seen, or a desert or movable sand to be encountered in the 
whole distance." 

We shall be glad to publish any suggestions, on this subject, from any 
quarter. 



rOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ISVIL. 

CROPS IN VIRGINIA. 

Messrs. Editors : It is several months since I last addressed you. Bleak 
winter has driven me within doors, and now, with the mercury standing at 
16^ Farenheit, I seat myself, not to give you an essay on agriculture, but 
to write of things past, present, and in prospect, in our beautiful valley. 

This portion of our valley has not sutiered from drought so much as the 
counties below us. The crop of wheat in the upper part of our county was 
a full average, and of fine quality. The counties of Augusta, Rockingham, 
Shenandoah,Pfige, Jefferson, etc., if lam correctly informed, fell short one third 
to half crops. The corn crop was equally short, and taking the valley range, 
will not average half crops. Grass was also very short. Upon those crops 
the graziers are dependent, and as a necessary consequence, there will not be 
fed in the lower part of the valley over one half to two thirds of stock cattle 
usually wintered there. It is computed that last year some 40,000 head of 



CKOPS IN VIRGINIA. 397 

-• — — — — — 

stock cattle were driven clown the country. This year about 28,000 passed 
through our county, and several thousand of them were driven back for want 
of a market. It is fair, however, to presume, that the stock on hand this 
year in the lower part of the State is better than that of last year, with much 
less to feed them. For some weeks past, many lots of very tine beeves have 
been passing down to the Baltimore market from the counties of Botetourt, 
Roanoke, Wythe, Montgomery, Pulaski, etc., etc., which counties are famed 
for the finest cattle raised in Virginia. The Cloyd's, Kent's, Crocket's, with 
many other gentlemen in the south-western part of the State, are celebrated 
for their fine stock. Many of their beeves would average net 1000 lbs., 
finely fatted, and command the highest prices. There is also much fine 
beef driven from the counties of Rockbridge and Augusta, with the entire 
range of valley counties. Last year every description of cattle was high and 
in great demand. This year there is little incpiry, and prices for stock- 
cattle have fallen oti'froni one fourth to one third, and, notwithstanding every 
description of produce is high, there appears a pressure in money matters. 
Speculation has run too high. Time will bring things right. The price of 
bread-stuffs has ruled high all season, contrary to my expectations, and 
from present indications, will continue to do so till spring, and it may be till 
the coming harvest. Your canals are, I suppose, now closed with ice ; your 
supplies will bo cut off from the West. The surplus here is small, and 
owing to the continued dry weather, and now the freeze, the stock of flour 
on hand must run short ; and I am deceived if prices do not continue to go 
up. You may rely on it. The stock on hand here is inconsiderable. The 
high prices heretofore have induced farmers to push off their stock as fast as 
they could get it ground. I own a Merchant mill. My stock on hand will 
be out before Christmas, and I do not know where I can buy 1000 bushels 
of wheat. I hear that this is the case with the mills around me. Wheat 
commands in the interior $1.50 per bushel ; corn, 70 to 75 cents, and in some 
places $1 ; oats, 45 cents; rye, 75 cents; all scarce, and in demand. Pork worth 
$5 to |!6 as in quality. Should the winter prove severe, I fear there will be 
suffering before grass comes again. The stocks of cattle, horses, hogs, and 
sheep are about as usual, with less to feed them. There has been an 
unusual number of sheep driven down the valley the past season, from the 
western part of the State, from Tennessee, and the mountainous parts of 
North-Carolina. They were mostly a common article, bought at an average 
of II per head to $1.25, and sold at 11.75 to 13.50 ; 40,000 were supposed to 
have been driven through our county. It is a matter of surprise that the 
farmers of East-Tennessee, and the northern portions of North-Carolina do 
not pay more attention to stock raising. They send in hordes of things here — 
two, three, four, and five years old, remarkable only for stag-heads and horns, 
with bandy legs, of small bone — any thing but comely animals. Our good 
farmers don't like to buy them, and will not when they can do better. One 
of Kent's fine beeves at the same age, is worth two of them. They are driven 
mainly to Eastern Virginia, and generally at four years old fatten well, but 
grow but little. There may be exceptions, and no doubt are, but I speak of 
this as applying to most of the cattle driven from East-Tennessee, and the 
border of North-Carolina adjoining. 

I informed you some time since, that we were building a Branch Canal 
from the James River and Kanawha improvement, a distance of twenty 
miles. We have completed that work to within six and a half miles of Lex- 
ington. Owing to the pressure on the money market, our work is now pro- 
gressing slowly ; we are dependent for funds for the completion of the Canal 



CORN THE STAPLE CROP OF OHIO. 



on bonds guaranteed by the James River & Kanawha Co. The payment 
of those bonds is based upon the tolls over the entire hne on produce pass- 
ing over our Canal. First paying the James River Co. $5000 per annum. 
It is computed that the surplus tolls will pay principal and interest in thir- 
teen years from this date. From an experience of one year's business, we 
do not hesitate to say that an investment in those bonds is equal to Virginia 
State stocks. The interest will be paid semi-annuall}'^, and the redeemed 
within the next thirteen years. Last y<!ar the tolls amounted to near $1 G,000, 
and they will continue to increase as the canal is completed. We want 
capital here to occupy some of our fine sites for water power. Can you not 
send out some of your surplus funds, and energetic citizens, to build up our 
waste places? We want furnaces, forges, and factories. Much of the raw 
material is here. We lack capital to make it available. 

Your obedient servant, etc., H. B. Jones. 

Rochhridge Co., Va., near JBrownsburg, Bee. 5, 1854. 

P.S. — Mercury down to 10° ; at sunrise, 22^; at 4 P.Af., and at 5 P.M., 
19° ; wind high for two days. The night will be cold. Cih, mercury I'/o. 



CORN THE STAPLE CROP OF OHIO. 

Mr. Mansfield, in an address to the Highland County (0.) Agricultural 
Society, at its late Fair, thus speaks of their great staple, and the necessity for 
improvement in its culture : 

" In this State, and in the whole Valley of the Ohio, Indian corn is the most 
important staple. In the five States of Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, and 
Tennessee, are raised 280,000,000 bushels of corn — one half of the whole 
raised in the United States, and three times as much as are raised in the 
same States of wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes, together. Corn is, therefore, 
the great staple of the Ohio Valley ; and if we can improve its culture, we 
■ add more than in any other way to the products of agriculture. Is that 
impossible ? In examining the statistics of this State you will find some facts 
bearing strongly on this })oint, and quite startling to the curious inquirer. 

We find, _/i/-s/, that the average product per acre is 37 bushels, namely, 
1,604,429 acres, producing 61, 1*71,282 bushels; the highest being 50 per 
acre, in the counties of Butler, Warren, ifnd Fayette ; and the lowest 20 
bushels, in the counties of Huron, Wayne, and Williams. 

We next find, by turning to the proceedings of agricultural societies, that 
150 "bushels per acre have been repeatedly raised, and that 100 bushels is no 
uncommon crop. Thus we have two facts worth consideration, the sum of 
which is, that the average corn crop of Ohio is only one fourth ofiohat it ■might 
be under high cultivation, on the same breadth of land. Is this a state of 
things that ought to exist 2 But some one will ask in the popular language, 
Will this superior cultivation ;5ay.^ Will superior cultivation pay its costa? 
If it will not, your agricultural societies ought not to exist. No premiums 
should ever be offered, and you should contented to let dock, thistles, and 
iron weed grow where they will, and leave nature alone to raise your crops. 
Wh}^, gentlemen, it is only on the supposition that superior cultivation is valu- 
able, that you attempt any agricultural improvement. 

But it is not to be denied, that in the Pioneer State, in the period when 



EOTATIOlsr IN COTTON-CULTURE. 39^ 



lands were clearing up, it ?ms the doctrine, that nature should be left to dO' 
the work of growth ; for lands were cheap and labor dear. But Ohio ha& 
passed that period — at least as regards farms. Fanning land is worth ii?20 
per acre, on an average, and there is too much capital in land to He idle. The 
time has come for high cultivation, the time has come when it will pay ; when,, 
if rightly applied, culture put on land will pay better than any other Species 
of human labor." 



ROTATION IN COTTON-CULTTJRE. 

The richest soils, if not properly cultivated, will lose more or less of their 
fertility. Every one of the older States, north and south, is suffering from 
this depreciation in the value of their soils. At the same time, it is true 
that tliere is no necessity for suffering such a state of things to exist, and it is 
now in the power of the landholder, everywhere, to improve the condition of 
his lands, and that, too, without any immediate and excessive expenditure. 
The following is the substance of a system of rotation by which the impove- 
rishment of the soil is effectually prevented, which has stood the test of 
several years of practice. 

One hand is allowed to every twenty acres. The land is divided into 
four parts. Grade and ditch as circumstances may require. Next, allot 
five acres to each hand in cotton, ten acres in grain, and let five acres lie ia 
fallow. Plant cotton on the same land once in four years, and always on fal- 
low land, with a dressing of five hundred bushels of compost or stock-yard 
manure per acre, spread on the land broadcast, and incorporated with the 
soil uniformly in the process of bedding out the rows. The residue of the 
cotton-stalks, leaves, burs, blooms, and limbs, with the seed, except for plant- 
ing, are all returned back to the same land where they grew. Upon this 
land the next year plant corn, manuring it with cotton-seed. But to the 
corn crop, the most important on the plantation, add two acres of the land 
which was in corn last year, thus giving seven acres in corn to each hand. 
On the other three acres of that poition that was in corn last year, sow 
small grain, which upon land thus treated will furnish a sufficiency of oats, 
rye, and wheat, for the wants of the plantation. Then we have lying in 
fallow for the next year's cotton crop the three acres that were in small grain 
last year, and two acres that w^ere in corn. 

The following reasons for commending this course we give as set forth by 
Dr. Cloud in the American Farmer : 

"In the first place, it embraces all the conditions necessary to sustain the 
cotton-planting interest within itself, independent of external or foreign aid. 
To this feature I think there can not be too much importance attached. 
Again : the several crops succeed each other to better advantage, both as to 
their culture and healthy growth, than in any other way that we have seen 
or attempted. It may not be generally understood by planters from practice, 
because it is not a common practice ; indeed, it is of the rarest occurrence, 
how well cotton grows after one year's rest or fallow. I conceive it to be^ 
in its healthy, vigorous growth, and exemption from insects, more like grow- 
ing cotton on fresh land. Nor will this be difficult for any planter to com- 
prehend, when he recollects that on the fallow I spread five hundred bushels 
per acre of good stock-yard compost, or its equivalent. 



400 EOTATION IN COTTON-CULTUKE. 

I am sure I shall have no difficulty in persuading any planter that corn 
grows better, bears better, and is less trouble to cultivate after cotton than 
after any other crop. So well, indeed, does it do after a crop of cotton that 
has received a dressing of five hundred bushels per acre of manure, that it is 
yet a matter of uncertainty with me, after twelve years' experience, whether 
or not a good corn crop is not more certain without than with the seed ; and 
if we have drought it is certainly best not to use the seed on corn thus treated. 
Then we have the seed to add to our compost heap for our cotton. Then 
again, the effect of the corn and small grain crops on the land being about 
the same, I prefer placing the small grain after the corn, as it does better 
after com than corn does after it. After the small grain, the land lies one 
year in fallow. I have a theory about this four years' shift and one year in 
fallow, in regard to its curative influence upon the diseases of the cotton- 
plant. Of course I can not go into its explanation here, but I give it as my 
opinion that if the same land throughout the country was planted in cotton 
but once in four years, it would prevent the insect of rust ; I am sure it 
would of lice, and I think it altogether probable it would do much toward 
relieving it from the injury of the boll-worm. 

Under this treatment the plantation is every year improving. From the 
extent of pasturage which it affords, and the large amount of corn raised on 
the plantation, an average of two hundred and fifty bushels per hand, there 
will be no manner of difliculty in raising all the stock — hogs, mules, and 
cattle — that are needed on the plantation. It has been objected to this 
system, that in the extent of pasturage afforded, prairie and clay land would 
become too much trod by the stock, causing such land to run together and 
break n\> cloddy. I am confident the objection is unfounded, as the great 
object of the system is to accumulate on the land the largest possible amount 
of vegetable matter, which, while it keeps the land loose and friable, contri- 
butes so largely to the luxuriant and healthy growth of cotton. These objec- 
ctions, that fail to stand the theory and science of agriculture, fall to the ground 
as impotent and futile when we examine the same system (in principle) in suc- 
cessful practice in the States of Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, etc., on calcareous 
clay lands, raising by pasturage, etc., not only mules, horses, hogs, and cattle 
for home consumption, but for all our cotton planters. There is an incom- 
patibility here certainly. The only precaution necessary is to prevent stock 
running on the land while wet with rainwater standing on it. 

There is nothing more easy than to account for this false alarm among 
cotton-planters. See the sedulous care, if you please, with which they have 
drained the vegetable strata of their fields for the last forty yeai's ; each row 
is a perfect drain, not of water alone, but of vegetable mould, the Hfe's-blood 
of the land; the cotton and cornstalks generally burned ; thus denuded and 
leached, it is not surprising that the hoof of a hungry cow should poison it ! 
It is further objected, by those otherwise approving the system, that it will 
not make cotton enough ; that it does not lot sufiicient land to secure every 
year a full crop of cotton. To this objection we simply oppose at first this 
fact. No man in this country, on the same quality of land, has realized from 
1844 to 1853 inclusive, to the same proportion of hands which I have, not- 
withstanding I have been experimenting all the time. If I have not made 
as many bales of cotton, which is improbable, I have raised that which cotton 
had to supply necessarily. This is obvious in the substantial improvements 
on the land, and its increased value, at least five hundred per cent; not that 
I could simply sell it for that much over and above its cost twelve years ago, 



ARTIFICIAL MANURES. 401 



but it is its absolute annual production. Nor does it possess any artificial 
advantages of railroad or city value, as land in sight of it of the same quality, 
and just as valuable in 1843, under the " kiifand cripple policy" of the 
country, sold last year at less than $6.25 per acre." 



ARTIFICIAL MANURES. 

We have often alluded to the strong temptation to fraud in the manufac- 
ture of various fertilizers, and have advocated the policy of sworn exami- 
ners to mark every box and bag of it according to its merits. There is no 
force whatever in the pretense so shamefully urged by some of those who 
are interested, that self-interest will lead them to be honest. Such consider- 
ations are no more effective with the makers and sellers of phosphates than 
with makers and sellers of watches, or of any other article. Selfishness is 
the most miserable motive to be honest that a man could devise, while fraud 
can seldom if ever be detected by ordinary means. Those who rest their 
own character on such a plea, ought not to be trusted beyond the length of 
a halter. 

We are led to refer again to this subject, by noticing some very conclusive 
statements in reference to the subject in a recent Country Gentleman, and 
we heartily commend the advice which is given at the close of the extract by 
our learned and judicious brother : 

"From the Transactions of the Highland Agricultural Society of Scot- 
land, we learn that a Mr. G. W. Hay, of Roxburghshire, being desirous of 
trying experiments with various manures, put himself in communication with 
a dealer or dealers in ' agricultural manures.' Among the substances to be 
employed by Mr. Hay were super-phosphate of lime, nitrate of soda, phosphate 
of soda, sulphate of potash, phosphate of magnesia, sulphate of ammonia, 
and muriate of ammonia. When the parcels of chemicals furnished by the 
respectable peo[>le of whom they were bought, came to be examined, the 
nitrate of soda was found to contain only 56 lbs. of that substance in every 
100 lbs. ; the phosphate of soda only 6 lbs. in the 100 lbs. ; the sulphate of 
potash 60 lbs. ; the sulphate of ammonia not quite 9f lbs.; the nitrate of 
potash (saltpetre of commerce) about 11.} lbs.; the phosphate of magnesia 
2% lbs. (! !) ; and the muriate of ammonia 5i4 lbs. only. As to the super- 
phosphate of lime, as it was called, it contained only 4 per cent of soluble 
phosphate of lime ; the other 96 lbs. consisting of water, gypsum, siliceous 
matter, some kind of free acid, and insoluble phosphate of lime, a perfectly 
useless substance. 

When Mr. Hay ventured to complain of the fraud thus practised upon 
him, he was coolly informed by the dealers that they could not think of taking 
their rubbish back. They staled that what be had bought of themwas ' the 
usual quality for agricultural purposcs^^ and contained 'the quantities suit- 
able for plants.' That is to say, in the opinion of the dealers, the quantity 
which is suitable for 2'>lants is 2|- lbs. in every hundred of phosphate of mag- 
gnesia, 9f lbs. of sulphate of ammonia, 4 lbs. of super-phosphate of lime, and 
6 lbs. of phosphate of soda. This insolent answer is pretty good proof that 
some, perhaps most, dealers in ' agricultural manures ' take it for granted 



402 A FINE YIELD OF CORN. 



that the agricultural community are easily imposed upon, and may be 
cheated and fleeced to almost any extent. 

By every case of detection and exposure of such frauds, farmers will be 
more and more persuaded of the expediency of manufacturing their fertilizing 
substances, as much as possible, at home. They will turn their attention 
more and more to saving, and putting into available or usable forms, all the 
urine and excrements upon their premises ; to saving their barn-yard manure 
from the wasting influences of exposure to winds, and rains, and sun ; to 
composting ; and to the manufacture of chemical manures under their own 
eye. That this latter can be done to same extent is evident from the direc- 
tions given in the last volume of The Country Gentleman in regard to the 
composition and domestic manufacture of what is known in Great Britain by 
the name of 'Economical Manure.' By every case of exposure of such 
frauds, the number will be diminished of those who purchase annually various 
quantities of guana, super-phosphate of lime, poudrette, etc., while the guano 
of their own hens and all the animal excretions on the premises are allowed 
to go entirely to waste." 



A FINE YIELD OF CORN. 

Mr. John Q. Hewlett, who has a farm about four miles from this city, 
on the Frederick road, has just measured the corn gathered from three acres 
of a field of eighteen acres. The corn was heaped and shaken twice, in 
accordance with the old rule ; twice before and once after Christmas. The 
product of the three acres was 46 barrels, or 15^ barrels, or '76| bushels, per 
acre. 

The field had heretofore been improved by a liberal dressing of animal 
manure^, the ploughing in of a green crop, and the application of one hun- 
dred bushels of oyster-shell lime, and had been set in timothy. Last year, 
owing to the lowness of the ground, and the thorough manuring which it 
had previously received, a heavy second growth, or after-math of timothy, 
grew up, fell down, and, by the force of its smother, destroyed the timothy, 
which was followed by a luxuriant crop of blue grass. Last fall the blue 
grass was ploughed in some eight or ten inches in depth, and the inverted 
soil left exposed to the meliorating influence of the winter's frosts. This 
spring the field was rolled, harrowed until a perfectly fine tilth was obtained, 
and then planted with corn, ivithout any manure. The result of the pro- 
duct of three of the eighteen acres we have already detailed, and we will add 
tbat it is estimated that the remaining fifteen acres will yield ten barrels on 
an average to the acre. 

Now, what think you enabled this field to yield so luxuriant a crop of 
corn during the past season of drought ? Why, the thorough system of 
improvement to which it had been subjected some years since ; to the appli- 
cation of concentrated organic manures; to turning in green crops ; to liming 
and to deep ploughing, thorough pulverization and judicious culture of the 
corn. 

The crop of timothy cut in 1853 yielded more than two tons to the acre; 
its produce of corn in 1854 we Jiave already stated, and jet this field in 1849, 
when the farm came into its present owner's possession, would not have 
brought more than four barrels of corn to the acre ! 

Can any one, after this plain statement of facts, doubt the policy of 



HOME MANUFACTUEE OF POUDRETTE. 403 

thorougbly improving land ? Can they doubt that true economy is thereby 
conserved ? Can they doubt that inouey thus laid out will not came back — 
not only the principal, but with a heavy interest ? We think that no one 
who is capable of forming a correct oi)inion can entertain 'the slightest doubt 
upon the subject. We know that every dollar judiciously laid out in the 
improvement of land will pay, and pay well. — A7nerican {Baltimore) Farmer. 



■HOME MANUFACTUEE OP POUDRETTE. 

The contents of privies, commonly known under the name of night-soils, 
furnish exceedingly powerful manure when properly manufactured ; and under 
right management, the process will destroy all the effluvia arising from those 
deposits, and render the closet entirely inoffensive. 

When a reservoir or small stream of water is at command, so that a cur- 
rent may be made to sweep through several times a day and carry off the 
contents into the manure-yard, or into a covered bed of peat, or a compost 
heap, this forms perhaps the most perfect mode of removal. An essential 
requisite, however, is freedom from the influence of frost, and the closet 
should therefore be connected with the dwelling where the reservoir of water 
may be kept from freezing, and fioni which there should be an underground 
channel of considerable size and slope. We have known all this to be per- 
fectly accomplished by means of a lead cistern in the upper story, which was 
kept supplied with rain-water at all times from the broad roof of the house, 
and which was sufficient beside for baths, washing, and all other domestic 
purposes. 

AVhen a current of water can not be used, the next best contrivance is to 
form a tight box, of matched pine plank, and give it two or three coats of 
coal-tar, so as to render it durable, and proof against moisture and warping. 
It is to be placed on two runners like that of a sled, made of plank or scant- 
ling, to the forward end of which a chain and iron hook are attached, so that 
it may readily be drawn off by a horse. This box must be pf such a size as 
to fit a cavity made on purpose under the building. 

The next thing is to provide a supply of some efficient deodorizing sub- 
stance. Dry saw-dust or thoroughly dried peat does tolerably well, with the 
occasional addition of ashes and powdered charcoal. Charcoal dust alone is 
much better, and if daily applied in small quantities, will nearly destroy all 
smell; but it is absolutely essential to success that a full supply of this 
material be kept near at hand in a large box or hogshead in a shed or out- 
house, where it shall be always dry and in a condition to apply every day, 
summer and winter. Animal charcoal is still more efficient than common 
charcoal, and may be made to form a portion of a material made as follows : 
Make a pile of peat, turf, old straw and brush, mix with tanner's shavings and 
broken bones ; let the pile become dry enough to burn, and then cover it 
with sods and set it on fire. It should be suffered to burn with a slow, 
smothered combustion, so as to char without consuming the materials. When 
the process is completed, the whole heap, including the turf covering, should" 
be well mixed together and broken fine, and then placed in a large box under 
shelter, for daily use. Any portion of clay introduced by means of the turf, 
and well dried, forms a poweiful absorbent of fetid matter. As often as may 



404 CHARCOAL A DISINFECTING AGENT. 



be convenient, a horse is hitched to the hook and chain, and the whole is 
drawn off into the barn-yard, where it is quickly discharged by turning the 
box upside down ; and after covering the bottom and sides with the prepared 
material already described, it is replaced as before. The strong manure thus 
obtained, will, if well mixed, possess but little odor and may be used directly, 
or may be mixed with common manure in the compost heap. Durable 
plank should be placed under the runners, to prevent their sinking into the 
earth, and enable the horse to start the box easily. It is said that those who 
are employed to obtain the materials for the whole^^ale manufacture of pou- 
drette, throw in, before commencing operations, a few quarts of a strong solu- 
tion of copperas, which immediately neutralizes effluvia, and adds to the value 
of the manure. 

Since the above was written, we have received the fallowing : 
"The different modes of saving as well as making manure, very properly 
engage the attention of agriculturists to a great extent. There is one mode 
of saving manure, however, which is very much overlooked. The farmers 
generally, in building a 'palace' for the accommodation of the household, 
either dig a pit to a great depth, or a shallow one with a movable building, 
to be removed as often as the pit becomes filled. In the former case, there 
is^ fitted up a complete nuisance (after a year's existence) and a trap to 
frighten mothers and nurses. The latter is a nuisance from the beginning, 
and a subject of complaint almost everywhere. The plan I have adopted is 
simple and cheap — leaving the ' palace' as sweet as any chamber in the 
house, and productive yearly of a tank of manure worth tvventy-fivc dollars — 
a species of poudrette, I venture to say, more fertilizing than any that can be 
purchased. 

^ I have sunk a tank or pit, ten feet square and four feet deep, and lined 
■with plank ; stone or brick walls would perhaps be better. Upon transverse 
beams is built the ' palace,' five feet square. From the kitchen and wash- 
house, I have underground sewers emptying into this tank, through which 
all the slops of every description pass. The seat is fixed on hinges so that 
the whole top may be opened up, and at this opening is deposited all the dirt 
accruing about the house including the ashes from two fires. The dirt and 
ashes absorb all the slops and moisture, and prevent the slight(*fet unpleasant 
smell. This tank may be filled once or twice a year, and each filling would 
be worth to the garden the sum before mentioned. It is astonishing that 
this is so much neglected by persons even who know the value of manures, 
and can appreciate cleanliness and convenience. — Country Gentleman. 



CHARCOAL A DISINFECTING AGENT. 

We have often made suggestions on the use of charcoal in stables, closets, 
etc., and copy some experiments below, made by an English gentleman, and 
reported in the London Journal of the Society of Arts. The account is as 
follows : 

"My attention was particularly drawn to the impoitance of charcoal as a 
disinfecting agent by my friend John Turnbull, Esq., of Glasgow, Scotland, 
the well-known extensive chemical manufacturer. Mr. Turnbull, about nine 
months ago, placed the bodies of two dogs in a wooden box, on a layer of 
charcoal powder a few inches in depth, and covered them over with a quan- 



ILLUMINATION UNDER WATER. 405 

tity of the same material. Though the box was quite open, and kept in his 
laboratory, no effluvium was ever perceptible ; and on examining the bodies 
of the animals at the end of six months, scarcely any thing remained of them 
except the bones. Mr. Turnbull sent me a portion of the charcoal-powder 
which had been most closely in contact with the bodies of the dogs. I sub- 
mitted it for examination to one of my pupils, Mr. Turner, who found it 
contained comparatively little ammonia, not a trace of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, but very appreciable quantities of nitric sulphuric acids, with acid phos- 
phate of lime. 

Mr. Turner subsequently, about three months ago, buried two rats in 
about two inches of charcoal-powder, and a few days afterward the body of 
a full-grown cat was similarly treated. Though the bodies of these animals 
are now in a highly putrid state, not the slightest odor is perceptible in the 
laboratory. 

From this short statement of facts, the utility of charcoal-powder, as a 
means of preventing noxious effluvia from churchyards, and from dead 
bodies in other situations, such as on board a ship, is sufficiently evident. 
Covering a churchyard to the depth of from two to three inches with coarsely 
powdered charcoal, would prevent any putrid exhalations ever finding their 
way into the atmosphere. Charcoal-powder also greatly favors the rapid 
decomposition of the dead bodies with which it is in contact, so that in the 
course of six or eight months little is left except the bones. 

In all the modern systems of chemistry, such, for instance, as the last 
edition of Turner's ' Elements,' charc*)al is clescribed as possessing anti-septic 
properties, while the very reverse is the fact. Common salt, nitre, corrosive 
sublimate, arsenious acid, alcohol, camphor, creosote, and most essential oils, 
are certainly anti-septic substances, and therefore retard the decay of animal 
and vegetable matters. Charcoal, on the contrary, as we have just seen, 
greatly facilitates the decomposition of any organic substances with which it 
is in contact. It is, therefore, the very opposite of an anti-septic." 



ILLUMINATION UNDER WATER. 

That science is progressive is apparent on all sides. Among other sub- 
jects of great interest, this has received its share of attention. The November- 
number of the American Journal of Science and the Arts contains interesting 
statements on this subject. We are informed that at the Lake D'Enghien, 
M. Duboscq, the successor of Soleil, performed an experiment of this kind 
before many competent observers. Ihe electrodes of carbon were placed in 
a glass globe, being connected with one of Duboscq's regulators, which com- 
municated with the battery by a copper wire covered with gutta-percha. 
The globe, submerged to the depth of sixteen and one half feet, spread light 
over a circle of sixty-six feet diameter, and it remained constant for two 
hours, after which the carbon required replacing. 

The idea of this process was suggested by an agent of a company that 
had been engaged in exploring the bottom of the Mediterranean wheie the 
battle of Navarino took place. The diver usually remained beneath the 
water three quarters of an hour, after which he came up to breathe and rest; 
his hght was an oil lamp placed on the head of the diver, and fed with air 
proceeding from his respiration, whence it was in a variable current, and was 



40G SUBSTITUTE FOR RAGS IN PAPER-MAKING. 

often extiDo;uis}ied, requiring him to go up and relight. Duboscq's arrange- 
ment was devised to avoid these inconveniences. It is made light, so that 
the diver may carry it in his hand; and at the same time it is strong, and 
well secured hermetically, to resist a pressure of one hundred and eighty 
feet of sea-water. It consists of a cylinder of strong glass secured to a brass 
foot, and surrounded with a gutta-percha sack. The light pai?ses out through 
Ji large plano-convex lens, the convexity being inward, the focus being so 
arranged that the rays escape nearly parallel. As the lamp is movable, the 
diver walks about with it, and places it where he wishes to make a search ; 
and as it is only necessary to bring the electrodes near one another to light 
it, the diver need only to turn a small screw to continue the light for two 
hours, which is more than twice as long as he can remain at the bottom. 

This beautiful invention supplies a want which has always been felt by 
persons engaged in operations wnth the diving-bell. A vast quantity of 
property now lying on the bottom of our large rivers, bays, and lakes, may 
be recovered by the use of submarine armor and these electric lamps. In 
seeking for nuggets of gold in the deep pools of streams in California, these 
lamps may also be advantageously employed. They will likewise materially 
aid the engineer in arranging the foundation of works that are to be erected 
in deep water. In recovering the body of a person who has been drowned, 
they will be eminently useful ; in short, the introduction into use of this sub- 
marine lamp is another of the beautiful contributions that science is constantly 
oftering to man for the promotion of his happiness and prosperity. 



SUBSTITUTE FOR RAGS IN" PAPER-MAKING. 

Our exchanges from the Atlantic States contain favorable notices of the newly- 
discovered paper plant which grows spontaneously and abundantly in Canada. 
We do not entertain a doubt that this plant, which appears to have as many 
aliases as a pickpocket, will supply the material for the manufacture of paper 
that will surpass in quality and economy that now made from rags. In 
Canada, the name commonly given to the plant is " Cudweed," another is 
" Life-everlasting." In the notice we now give, which is taken from a Savan- 
nah paper, the botanical name is said to be " Gnaphaluno." The writer of 
this notice, as will be seen, speaks very favorably of this plant as a substitute 
for rags in paper-making :. 

" It is said that the experiment to make paper out of an American plant 
called 'white top,' or 'immortelle,' has been successful. The botanical name 
is Gnaphaluno, and the paper is therefore called 'gnaphahc paper.' The 
plant is very abundant in Canada. The paper is glossy, smootb, and thin, 
and evidently much stronger than that kind in the manufacture of which 
cotton is so largely used. The stalk as well as the flower of the plant may 
be employed, but from the white silky flowers alone a finer and whiter article 
can of course be produced. The manufacturers assert that, without taking 
into consideration the difl'erence of the cost of materials, paper may be made 
from this plant at 12^ per cent less expense than rags. The adhesive quali- 
ties of the plant are such that in the manufacture of the paper no animal 
matter need be used, and a good surface is obtained without sizing." 

We find the foregoing in the Louisville Journal. We do not know about 



NEW PLAN OF BREAKING-IN" HORSES. 407 

the aliases spoken of, except so far as some compositor or proof-reader is 
responsible. The true name is Gnapiialium, and it grows " everywhere." 
The lu7io must have been contrived by some moon-stiiick typo. The com- 
mon, or English names of plants are never reliable. Every locality has its 
own nomenclature. The " Ladies' Slipper " of one region, is " The Toad 
Flax" of another, and so on. 

We have not the confidence of our learned brother at Louisville, in the 
matter of substituting any thing for Jlax in the manufacture of paper, but 
quere whether an economical process may not perhaps be devised for making 
paper from the vegetable itself, without a previous operation for converting 
it into Jlax, or still more into a web. Perhaps, too, something maybe accom- 
plished by mixing raw cotton and prepared flax together. 



NEW PLAN OF BREAKING -IN HORSES. 

A NEW system of breaking-in horses, by means of a very few lessons, and 
so as to preserve all their precious qualities, has come into use, and what is 
singular is that the author of it is a lady, named Isabelle. Having a great 
liking for horses, Madame Isabelle some yeai-s ago began studying the differ- 
ent systems employed in breaking-in horses, and came to the conclusion 
that they were all more or less defective. She then sought for a plan of her 
own, which should render the horse more tractable, by developing its intelli- 
gence ; and she succeeded in discovering one so perfect that the most restive 
horse is reduced to obedience in a very short time, and without the slightest 
ill-treatment. Her plan, as is almost always the case Avith things really use- 
ful, is very simple. She begins by making the horse carry his head high, 
and perpendicularly, whereby she prevents the weakness caused by the con- 
staut binding of the neck, gives free play to the muscles in the neck, and 
allows full action to be exercised over the mouth. Then she places on the 
horse a surcingle, surmounted by an iron rod about fifteen inches long, which 
is bent about four inches forward at the summit. On each side of the rod 
are placed four rings, destined to receive the rtins according to the height 
that may be desired. The horse soon gets accustomed to this check, and it 
exercises a great moral effect on him. He places his head in such a manner 
as not to sufter from the bit in the mouth, and thereby soon gets accustomed 
to being held in hand by his rider or driver. The surcingle also promptly 
accustoms him to adopt the best movements, and to advance when desired 
without offering any resistance. The breaker-in remains at the left of the 
horse, and is armed with a whip with a spur in it. After forming her sys- 
tem, Madame Isabelle went into Germany, and practised it with marked suc- 
cess on horses belonging to Prince de Lichtenstein, at Vienna. From Vienna 
she went to Russia, and there stopped two years. In the course of that time 
she rendered completely docile all the most restive horses of model cavalry 
regiment at St. Petersburg, as well as those of the Emperor Nicholas. Re- 
cently she returned to France, and, having explained her plan and stated its 
results to the Minister of War, she was, by the special direction of the Em- 
peror, who was consulted, authorized to practise it on a number of young 
horses of the regiment of guides, and with an equal number of recruits who 
had recently joined the regiment. The lessons were given under her direc- 



408 GALLS OlSr HORSES. 



tion at the riding-scbool of the Ecole Imperiale d'Application d'Etat Major- 
After the fifteenth lesson the horses manoeuvred with the tranquillity and 
precision of old troop horses. A few days ago, Colonel Fleury, who com- 
mands the regiment, manoeuvred the horses and recruits, and every one of 
the usual cavalry movements was admirably executed. — Mark-Lane Express. 



GALLS ON HORSES. 

Some horses are more predisposed to galls than others, but even the most 
liable to injury in this respect may by care be kept perfectly sound. Bad 
harness is the great cause of galls. In order to save a few shillings in re-stuff- 
ing an old collar, getting camel's-hair pads, or, perhaps, a new collar, many 
a valuable horse has been materially injured, and ever afterwards particularly 
liable to sore shoulders. The collar should be frequently examined, inasmuch 
as it is very likely to become hard and lumpy. A little pounding will gene- 
rally remove the difficulty, and render the collar soft. If the horse is known 
to be predisposed to sore shoulders, camel's-hair pads should always be used. 
Heavy and unsteady work is also a frequent cause of galls. A man unused 
to labor can easily blister or gall his hands, while he who labors habitually 
suffers no inconvenience. So it is with horses; they have, perhaps, done 
little or nothing during the winter, and, when the busy season comes on, 
they are put to " breaking up," or other heavy work, and, as a natural con- 
sequence, their shoulders are galled. Could any other result be expected ? 
Light work, till their shoulders are hardened, would be a more humane and 
profitable course. 

Bathing with salt and water is a good thing to harden the shoulders. 
Some prefer to bathe the shoulders in the morning, previous to going to 
work ; but we think it is better to do it at night, and wash it off with cold 
spring water in the morning. Otherwise the particles of salt are apt to 
adhere to the collar or to the hair, and act somewhat as would fine sand in 
a person's boot. Of course, the poor horse is allowed to rest his weary limbs 
on the Sabbath ; for, as experience has fully demonstrated, neither man nor 
beast can labor seven days in the week with impunity. On Saturday night, 
therefore, the shoulders should be thoroughly bathed with a saturated solu- 
tion of salt and water, washing it off on Monday morning before commencing 
work. These precautions are particularly necessary where the skin exhibits 
tenderness, or becomes knotty or thickened. A few minutes' labor, night 
and morning, is all that is required, and it can not be better applied. 

In case of actual sores, or where the skin is broken, it is desirable that the 
horse be allowed to rest a few days ; but if this is impossible, the collar must 
be so padded as not to touch the sore. It would seem essential that the 
sore be covered in some way, so as to keep out the dust and prevent flies 
from troubling it. We never found any thing answer the purpose in this 
particular. If any of our readers have been more fortunate, we should like 
to hear from them. A solution of alum is good to bathe the sore with, but 
we prefer white vitriol, (sulphate of zinc.) "We know of nothing so cooling 
and healing, A tea-spoonful should be dissolved in a pint of water, and the 
sore be kept constantly moist with it. For this purpose, it will be necessary 
to take a bottle of it into the field with you, and to keep a moistened rag 
on the sore all the time. Act on these hints, and your teams shall praise 
you. — Rural New-Yorker. 



THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 409 



ANATOMY AND PROPAGATION OF MOSQUITOES. 

At a recent meeting of the Society of Natural Histor}^ in Boston, Dr. 
Durkee, of that city, exhibited under the microscope the rostrum or sting of 
the common Mosquito, {Culex pipiens.) The Doctor remarked that one of 
the most remarkable features in the anatomy of the mosquito is that the 
parts which constitute the mouth are elongated, so as to form a bealc extend- 
ing horizontally, Hke that of some birds. The beak or sting is about half 
the length of the body, and to the unassisted eye appears to be very simple 
in its structure. When examined with the microscope, however, it is found 
to be composed of seven different parts, which are comparatively stout on 
one edge. These parts vary in length, and can be separated from each other 
without much difficulty. They are broad at the upper part, where they are 
united to the head, and they gradually taper to a point. One of the parts 
is a tu'jular canal or groove, in which the others are lodged when the pro- 
boscis is not in use. "Dr. D. stated that he had not been able to find any 
appearance of teeth, except on the two longest pieces ; in these he had found 
them near the tip. The two longest pieces, also, are marked by transverse 
lines, extending from one edge to the other, throughout their whole length. 

Cuvier and others state that the male mosquito does not suck blood. 
From repeated examinations, Dr. D. has satisfied himself that the male has 
no sting, and consequently can not draw blood. The female alone is en- 
dowed with this organ. The male lives upon the juices of flowers and plants. 

Mosquitoes are propagated only where there is water. The eggs, deposited 
in water, go through the larva and pupa state, small collections of shallow 
water being most favorable for their development. Most of them die in the 
fall of the year, but some hybernate in cellars and other warm retreats, sup- 
ported by the oil which they have accumulated during the summer, and 
with which they are distended in the fall of the year. 



FOR TUE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND TUB ANVIL. 

THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 

"When the ordinary mechanic looks into those books which are professedly 
written for his own especial benefit, and sees there the armies of x\Igebra and 
the Calculus drawn up in battle array, presenting at him their bristling 
weapons of squares, and abscissas, and integrals, he starts back dismayed. 
There, he knows, is hidden the treasure which he seeks ; but his heart sinks 
within him as he thinks of the tremendous and to him almost hopeless eflbrt 
required to break down the guard that surrounds it. It is a mistake to suppose 
that such treatises are immediately useful to the mechanic. They are suitable 
only for those who, in early fife, have enjoyed better advantages than he ; 
who have had more time and opportunities for study than he can generally 
command. He is a plain hard-working man, with brain quick enough 
to comprehend and at once realize any thing that is practical and ordinary, 
but who turns hopelessly from a complicated series of misty mathematical 
reasonings. The results of these reasonings must be popularized for him. 
The technicalities of the mathematicians must be removed, and their formuhe 
translated into his own tongue. It is in the hope of so doing, to a certain 



410 THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 



extent, that this is written, and if any one herefrom gets a clearer idea of the 
very important subject discussed, the writer will feel abundantly repaid. 

THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF THE CALCULATION OF THE STRENGTH OF 

BEAMS. 

To simplify the reasoning, we will suppose for the present that the beam 
itself weighs nothing, and consider only the effect upon it of the imposed load. 

There are three strains to which a beam may be exposed. 1st. Of exten- 
sion, as when a weight is suspended from the end of a perpendicular beam. 
The ties of a bridge-truss sutler a strain of extension. 2d. Of compression, 
as when a weight rests upon the top of a beam. The braces of a bridge-truss, 
or ordinary columns are instances of this strain ; and 3d, a transverse strain 
— that sustained for instance by the chords of a bridge-truss. The first two 
act in the direction of the fibres of the wood, and the third at right angles to 
them. It is evident that the first depends directly upon the number of fibres 
composing the beam, without regard to its length, and therefore the tensile 
strength of beams are as the areas of their cross-sections ; that is, if one beam 
of a certain area will sustain 100 lbs,, another beam of twice that area will 
sustain 200 lbs. The second also depends directly upon the number of fibres; 
but here enters another element. It is evident that if the beam can be pre- 
vented from flexure, and retained in such a position that the weight shall 
always act in the direction of the fibres, the length is immaterial. But after 
the beam is elongated beyond a certain point, (which practically is about 
seven times the diameter of its base,) it is found difficult to retain it in such a 
position, and this difficulty increases with its length ; therefore the strength of 
beams, to resist a compressive force, varies directly as the areas of their cross- 
sections and inversely as their length. Resistance to a legitimate crushing 
force depends upon the lateral adhesion of the fibres, which may be re- 
sembled to a bundle of rods, which would not fail if bound firmly together. 
Thus, for a brace or post, straight-grained is better than cross-grained timber. 
A fir post will carry three times as much as one of oak ; although to resist a 
strain by extension, oak is much the stronger. _ 

The third, or transverse strain, is in a measure a combination of the first 
two. 

It is easy to find by experiment the strength of a single beam, but 
in the experiment, the beam is generally destroyed, and besides, a series of 
experiments can not be entered upon to ascertain the strength of every 
portion of each one of the myriad structures which the ever-increasing wants 
of a restless industrial progress demand. A way must be devised by which, 
from an experiment on one beam, we can determine at all times and readily 
the value of any similar beam. And this is the province of the mathema- 
tician. Into his formuUe enter always and chief the results of the practical 
experiment, and the constant must be known thoroughly and truly, or the 
formula is useless. Let us endeavor to see how the two are connected. 

If a beam is supported at each end and loaded in the middle, the conse- 
quence is a deflection more or less from the horizontal. In this deflection 
different parts of the beam sustain different strains. Of a vertical section 
taken transversely through the middle, those fibres at the top of the beam 
■will suffer a strain of compression, while those at the bottom will suffer a 
strain of extension. It is similar to the case of a bended bow, the string of 
which is stretched taut while the fibres of the bow itself are crushed into each 
other longitudinally. If we examine the section of fracture of a beam broken 
across, we shall find the fibres at the bottom literally torn asunder, while 



THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 411 

those at the top are forced into each other. It is evident that as these 
diverse strains approach, they gradually neutralize each other, until finally 
meeting they harmonize in a line within the beam, in which there is neither 
compression nor extension. This is called the Neutral Axis, and in regularly 
shaped beams is generally at or near the centre. It is important in esti- 
mating the power of a beam, to ascertain as nearly as may be its exact 
position; for the strength of the beam is limited ta that of its weakest part. 
For instance : if the resistance to compression is represented by 100, while 
that to extension is but 50, then the strength of the beam is but 50. Thus, 
the ultimate tensile strength, that is, the power of the cohesive attraction of 
the particles, which must be overcome in tearing them asunder, of cast-iron 
is about 6.5 tons per square inch, while its compressive strength is about 48 
tons per square inch. To construct, therefore, a cast-iron bar in the strongest 
possible form, the quantity of material in the bottom must exceed that in the 
top, in the ratio of 48 to 6.5 ; that is, the neutral axis must be located nearly 
eight times as far from the bottom as from the top. 

This, however,'for the most part depends upon the material composing the 
beam, and as such, does not properly.come within the limits of this paper. 

We will take the case of a beam, the neutral axis of which is in the middle^ 
and the re«istance of which to compression is equal to its resistance to exten- 
sion. This is a perfectly balanced beam, and in the strongest possible form. 
A beam may be varied in either or all of its three dimenbions, length, 
breadth, and thickness. 

It is evident that the longer a beam is, the other dimensions remaining 
constant, the weaker it is, and this in direct proportion to its length ; that is, 
if the length be doubled, the strength is halved. Therefore the strength is 
said to be inversely as the length. Suppose a beam, fastened at each end in 
a wall, and loaded in the middle. The pressure from the weight is communi- 
cated by the particles composing the beam to each other, and so is trans- 
mitted to the abutments, or end-supports. It is manifest that the pressure 
and the resistance to it are equal on each side of the weight and at each end 
of the beam. Therefore if we calculate the effect of half the weight on half 
the beam, it will be as though we had calculated the effect of the whole 
weight on the whole beam, and will be much more simple and comprehensible. 

Suppose then the 
beam A D, loaded at 
the centre E with 
the weight 2 W, be 
divided through the 
point E, and the part 
E D with half the 
weight be removed. 
What will be the 
effect of the remain- 
ing weight W upon the part B E? {-^'i'/- !•) 

B E may be considered as a lever, of which W is the powtr, and A B 
the fulcrum. And, therefore, the strain at A B is equal to the product of 
the length of the lever into the power == W Z in which l = B E. But W is 
constant, therefore the strain varies with the length, and hence, as above, the 
strength is inversely as the length. 

Now, to resist this strain we have the inherent strength of the section at 
A B. At A, as we have seen above, is the greatest strain of extensiun, and 
at B the greatest of compression, while at / the neutral axis is no strain 




412 



THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 





whatever. Suppose the beam to Le cut by a number of parallel horizontal 

planes through the points 
a h cf d e g, and that each 
of these planes represents a 
layer of the fibres of the 
beam. Then the strain sus- 
fa'ned by the extreme out- 
side fibres at F G, will con- 
tinually diminish until it be- 
comes nothing at the neu- 
'^'' ' tral axis /, and the strain 

upon any intermediate layer of fibres depends upon its distance from /. 
Therefore, if the strain upon the outside be represented by the line F G, 
the strain upon the Avhole section of extension will be equal to the triangle 
F / G ; and correspondingly that upon the section of compression by tlie 
trinngle H/L Now, the entire sum of the forces of these triangles may be 
considered as accumulated at their respective centres of gravity x and y. 
Let us at present consider that part of the beam affected by extension alone : 

/is the point at which there is no 
strain ; E the end of the beam to 
which is attached the weight W, 
and X is the focus of the triangle 
of extension : a; / E may then be 
considered as a bent lever, of which 
/ is the fulcrum. The effect of the 
„. weight W is to turn the point x 

'"' ' around the point /. This is coun- 

teracted by the power P, representing the resistance to extension of the beam. 
Suppose that the arm / E of the lever is four times as long as that of/ x, 
then P=E W ; for by the principles of the lever the products of the arms 
into their respective weights must equal each other — that is, /E x W=xf 
.V P, which is the equation of equilibrium. If a; /be doubled, P must be 
halved, in order to maintain the integrity of equation. The same is true of 
the triangle of compression. Where / E and AV remain constant, the P 
varies as/.-r ; or the power of resistance is as the line/rr, or the distance of 
the neutral axis from the centre of gravity of the resisting triangle. This 
distance, which is the leverage with which the resistance acts, depends, of 
course, upon the depth of the beam. If the depth is doubled this leverage 
is doubled, and thus the resistance doubled. But by doubling the depth of 
the beam, the entire number of fibres is doubled, and this also doubles the 
resistance. Hence, by doubling the depth of the beam the strength is qua- 
drupled — that is, the strength of beams varies directly as the squares of their 
depths. 

If the breadth of the beam be doubled, the leverage of resistance, as above 
explained, will not, as is readily perceived, be effected. But the number of 
fibres Avill be doubled, and with them the strength, which, therefore, will 
vary directly as the breadth. 

We have seen the results of changes and modifications in all the dimen- 
sions of a beam — its length, depth, and breadth. Combining them all, and 
representing the length by I, the depth by d, and the breadth by b, we see 
that the strength of beams varies as ^-y^ ; which may be taken for the ex- 
pression of the strength. Now, let us find the weight that will break this 
beam. 



THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 413 



Suppose that we have made experiments on a beam of certain dimensions 
— for instance, one each side of which is a square inch — and" have found that 
a certain weight C will just bieak it.. This is its ultimate strength. From 
the result of this experiment, we wish to estimate the strength of other 
beams, of various dimensions and of similar material. By using the breaking- 
weight C of this beam, as a unit of comparison with any other whose brcak- 
ing-weiglit W we wish to tind, we see that the strength of the beam experi- 
mented upon is to the strength of the given beam as the breaking-weight 
known is to the breaking weight sought ; or, 



bd - 
I 




: ( 


w 


= 


i 



W — whence 



C. 



Rule. — That is, to ascertain the breaking weight of any rectangular piece of 
timber, fastened at one end and loaded at the other, multiply the product of 
the breadth and the square of the depth in inches, by the weight necessary to 
break a piece of similar timber, whose length, breadth, and depth are each 
one inch, and divide this by the length in inches. 

In cylindrical beams the strength is as the cube of the diameter, and in 
square beams, as the cube of the depth or breath — for it is evident that in 
both these cases 6=c?. 

From a great variety of experiments the value of C has been deduced, and 
tables are given by authors shov/ing the experimental strength of diii'erent 
timbers when exposed to a transverse strain. The following is compiled from 
Cresy's Encyclopedia of Engineering. The numbers set opposite each kind 
of material is the breaking weight of a stick one inch in each of its dimen- 
sions, or the value of C as above explained : 



Alder, ... - 1590 lbs. 


Oak, - - - - le'ze lbs 


Ash, - - - - 2355 " 


" (Canadian,) - - llGQ " 


Beach, .... 1556 " 


Pine, (pitch,) - - - 1632 " 


Elm, - - - - 1620 " 


" (red,)- - - 1341 " 


Fir, (Norway,) - - 2576 " 


Poplar, - - - - 981 " 


« (N. England,) - 1102 " 


Sycamore, - - - 1008 " 


" (Spruce^,) - - - 1395 " 




By this table, what is the breaking-weight of a beam of oak, the breadth 


of which is 10 inches, the depth 12 in 


ches, and the length 14 feet ? 



W = V^' X 1072 = 14,331 lbs. 

This is its ultimate strength. In practice it should never be subjected to 
more than one fourth of its breaking weight. 

The above formula is applicable to a beam subjected to the aforesaid con- 
ditions alone — that is, to a beam fastened at one end and loaded at the other ; 
or what is the same thing, to a beam fastened at each end and loaded in the 
middle. A departure from these limitations necessitates a change in the 
formula. It is true, however, that this position of the load subjects the beam 
to the severest strain to which it can ever be liable ; and, therefore, if it be 
strong enough to resist this, it may be safely trusted to bear the same load 
in any other position in which it may be placed. 

By a reference to fig. 1, it will be seen that the principal transverse 
strain sustained by the beam A D, loaded by the weight 2 W, is in the 
middle E, because there the leverage is the greatest. From here it continu- 



414 ploughs: their construction, etc. 



ally dirninishes toward the abutments. The philopophy and extent of this 
diminution, the effects of a change in the position of the load — of a uniformly 
distributed load — of a movable or variable load, and other such important 
matters, will be considered hereafter. C. E. 



PLOUGHS: THEIR CONSTRUCTION, ETC. 

'" We have taken up our pen, with the purpose of preparing an article that 
shall be of practical value, in respect to this important implement. But it is 
exceedingly difScult to do justice to our own ideas upon this subject, for the 
want of means, geometrical diagrams but iraperf^^ctly representing some of 
the principles involved. The most that we shall assume to. undertake, just 
now, is to open the subject for future elucidation, and we shall be " right 
glad" if our readers will give us the benefit of their thoughts in relation to it. 
Ploughmakers have a direct interest in the subject. 

At almost every annual fair, we used to find that premiums were given for 
the " best plough." Now, all are fully persuaded that no one plough is 
"the best," for all uses, in the same soil, nor for the same service in diflerent 
soils. It is equally obvious that different services are required of the plough 
in the same field, at different states of the seasons and of the crop. 

What are these services ? 

1. The sward, or matter consisting of matted roots and soil, variously mingled, 
are to be turned up. The roots are not to be torn asunder, nor the soil pul- 
verized, but the whole object of the farmer is gained simply by turning a few 
inches of the soil bottom upwards. If old grass lands are ploughed in the 
fall and are to remain untouched till spring, the fanner's desire is fully realized 
by this one process, and all power applied beyond this is labor lost. 

2. It may be that the same kind of surface is to be prepared by a single 
ploughing, in spring, for the reception of the seed. Then a certain degree 
of pulverization is desired. But how much ? 

If the soil is san\ly and dry, too much pulverization will prove fatal to the 
germination of the seed. All the moisture is evaporated. In such cases, a 
plough is wanted that will turn the furrow without entirely destroying the 
slight adhesion that exists among the sandy particles. 

But other soils are more adhesive, and more moist. In such, the plough 
should be so constructed as more completely to separate the particles of soil ; 
or in other words, to pulverize the soil more effectually. 

A difference of great importance also regards the depth of furrow. One 
shape is best for a shallow furrow, and another for a deeper; or rather a 
plough that operates well in a shallow furrow, does not of necessity w^ork as 
welPwhen it turns a deeper furrow. A plough may be built to turn equally 
well a furrow of any desired depth. 

Then, there is the cutting of the soil, preparatory to turning it, and the 
direction of the draught. 

All these points are of practical importance. Not one can be overlooked 
withoiit loss. And we might, perhaps, add one more at least, for extra deep 
ploughing, to wit, the pulverization of the soil without regard to any change 
in its position. The object then is merely to stir up, to loosen, without bring- 
ing lower strata to the surface, or burying the surface soil beneath the lower 



ploughs: their construction, etc. 415 



strata. After all these, must be considered the best mode of adapting the 
handles of the plough, to secure the most perfect control of it. 

The mere act of cutting calls for the exercise of science. Go into a book- 
binder's shop and see the hands at \vork rapidly cutting up the sheets, per- 
haps with a piece of bone or horn that is so far from having a sharp " edge," 
that an insect might crawl on any part of it, and yet the sheets are not torn. 
If you attempt to use the same tool, you spoil half the paper. Many of our 
readers have had experience of this sort, in attempts to cut the leaves of books 
and pamphlets. Some of our readers complain of us that we do not " cut 
open the leaves." It would be convenient for them, perhaps, but if they w\\{ 
apply a little science, as we intend by and by to explain it, they will not find 
it a very severe nor hazardous task. 

After the soil is properly cut, in two directions, then the process of turning 
the furrow commences. The wedge is to be driven, the furrow is to be lifted, 
simultaneously or successively. Shall these two processes be carried on at 
the same instant, or one at a time ? The latter, of course, requires less power 
at any one moment, than if the double service were required. Propelling the 
plough forward one foot involves several distinct actions — that of a wedge 
in aljorizontal direction, lifting it perpendicularly, and also a proper amount 
of pulverization. The inventor of a plough has regard for each of these 
results, and must adapt his tool to all the different kinds of soil. For what 
-will thoroughly pulverize sand, will scarcely break a clod of other soil. 

To accomplish these various results in different soils, and to_ any given 
extent, different mechanical contrivances are requisite. For turning furrow- 
slices unbroken, in loose soils, certain gentle curves are requisite. For a 
thorough breaking up and separation of the masses of earth, bolder curves and 
shorter mould-boards are required. 

So far as the resistances to be overcome are concerned, all may be 
resolved into two terms, adhesion and friction, while on most soils the latter 
consumes a large portion of the power demanded in this work. Ilence, 
other things being equal, that plough which accomplishes the service required 
with the least friction, is the best plough ; and this friction is determined by 
mathematical calculation. Here is one of the most important questions for 
the investigations of the man of science. Experiment must test his correct- 
ness, for perhaps in his calculations, which are right as far as the}' go, he 
has overlooked some one factor or requisite, which will render all his calcu- 
lations worthless. 

First, the requisites of a good cutter. A thin cutting edge, of course, can 
be driven through soil with less force than would be required to tear it open. 
But, besides this, the position of the blade is also important. Apply a thin 
ivory blade, or a table-knife, to the fold of a newspaper, at right angles to it, 
and exert a little force, and you tear the paper anywhere else rather than at 
the point to which it is applied, and if the paper should be separated in the 
right place, it will present very rough torn edges. Hold the blade obliquely 
and apply force, and the roughness of the edges will be sensibly diminished. 
If the handle is further from yuu than the point of the blade, and the motion 
is longitudinal, so that the cutting point constantly moves from the handle to 
the other end of the blade, while you push from you, there is still improve- 
ment in the condition of the cut edge. But if the handle is much nearer to 
you than the blade, say at 45° with the fold of the paper which is to be cut, 
and the knife is drawn towards you, while it is also forced against the paper, 
you will make a smooth edge when you cut. One who shaves himself 



416 PLOUGHS: THEIR CONSTRUCTION', ETC. 

may experiment upon these modes of operation, and will scarcely doubt 
their importance. 

In a plough, there is no opportunity for the sliding motion — that is, none 
has ever been devised. But regard is had to the position of the knife. It 
should not be perpendicular to the surface, but cut obliquely. It should also 
cut to the bottom of the furrow. The horizontal blade, or that which severs 
the bottom of the furrow-slice from the stratum below it, is governed, of 
course, by the same rules. There is, however, one point of uitierence. If 
the furrow-slice is to be turned unbroken and retain its place on the field, 
without lapping over the next furrow-slice in one place, and leaving a gap in 
another, it is desirable to leave a short space uncut, that it may act as a 
hinge on which the furrow-shce may 'turn with due regularity. This is not 
obviously to gain power, but rather at a slight loss of it, for the sake of 
another good. 

The turning of the furrow-slice. If the width of the plough is too great 
in proportion to its length, making the wedge too blunt, the furrow will be 
broken into pieces and be laid irregularly. If the wedge is too long, the 
plough will not be so easily managed, and the furrow-slice will not probably be 
well laid. The furrow-slice should notjeave the mould-board till it has been 
carefully turned considerably beyond a perpendicular, so that it may drop 
regularly into its place. If the plough is too short, the extreme pressuio 
of the soil against the mould-board will drive the plough to the land-slide, 
and produce irregularities in the line of its direction and in the position of 
the slice. 

The great question then comes up. What should be the shape of a plough- 
share in order to secure all these points? Some are concave through nearly 
their whole extent, thereby increasing friction unnece.-sarily ; some are 
decidedly convex, breaking the fmTOw by lifting it too suddenly ; some others 
are concave in one direction, and straight in another. 

This seems to us the best form for general work, while each of the others 
may have their merits for some special service. The boldly convex will pul- 
verize the soil most eifectually, while it requires most strength of team. But 
as suggested in the beginning, no two states of the same soil are best suited 
by thie same plough. General principles only can be inculcated. 

If A B and A C are the 
mould-boards of two ploughs 
of the same vvidth, the resist- 
ance which each encounters is 
in proportion to the perpen- 
diculars B 6 and G c. Hence, 

the smaller the angle formed 

by the mould-board with the ^g^a^Mfc 

line of the furrow, the less will 1 i ' istance. 

But this is only one view of the subject. We regard the mouhl-board as 
a flat surface, in the above proportion, while in all ploughs, we have more or 
less of curved lines in this part of the implement. The amount of curve, its 
direction, and the shape of the board, are all questions of great practical 
importance. The eifects of these different shapes, we propose to consider 
hereafter. 

So also the form and length of the beam, or, in other words, the connec- 
tion of the plough with the driving power, and the length, connection, and 
adaptation of the handles, are essential items in considering this question. 

What ploughs, in fact, possess the requisite proportions in the greatest 




A NEW AND GOOD MODE OF WIRE-FENCE. 417 

degree, with the best line of draught, etc., is a separate brancli of inquiry, 
which we have not the means to pursue. If any of the difFareut manufac- 
turers, or their friends, will furnish statements or descriptions il ustraling this 
subject, we will cheerfully give them jilace. 



A NEW AND GOOD MODE OF WIRE-FENCE. 

The agriculturists of the United States have been looking long and anxi- 
ously for some better mode of fence than auy now in vogue. Our forests 
are steadily retiring before the advancing wavie of civilization ; and wood, 
the most common material for fencing, is daily becoming more scarce and 
expensive. Many of our States have no stone^ so that we can find little 
relief from the growing scarcity of wood in wall-fences. Nor can hedges or 
live-fences avail us ; our soil, climate, and physical geography being inimical 
to them. One of the most eminent agricultural writers in the country 
recently stated, that in all his travels east, west, north, and south, he had 
found but one good live farm fence ; " and that," sai.l he, " was supported 
on one side by a board-fence, and on the other by a rail-fence." 

So expensive, indeed, have all our present modes of fencing been found, 
that Burnap, a well-known agricultural writer, has demonstrated that " the 
fences of this country cost more than twenty times the amount of all the 
specie that is in it. In some States — for instance, Texas, where rough cypress 
boards are sold for seventy dollars per thousand feet — the expense of fencing 
a farm is two or three times greater than the first cost of the farm itself. 

These long-established facts long since led many of our leading agricul- 
tural and mechanical journals, lecturers, writers, and associations, and espe- 
cially the New-York Society of Agricultural Debates, to the conclusion that 
iron or loire would eventually be adopted as the staple material for fences. 
But the difliculty heretofore has been found in the want of a machine for 
the manufacture of wire or other iron into fencing. That machine has now 
been invented, patented, started, and the netting made by it successfully and 
extensively tried for fencing. The inventor was John Nesmith, Esq., of 
Lowell, Mass. ; and the Lowell Wire-Fence Company are the manufacturers 
of this fencing, which they claim to be, and perhaps correctly, the cheapest, 
considering its strength, closeness, durability, and beauty, in the world. 
Thus has the great necessity of American agriculture been supplied, by an 
invention which will, without doubt, produce, at least in some sections of 
country, a considerable revolution in our system of fencing. 

By different machines, constructed, however, on the same general princi- 
ples, all kinds of this netting have been produced, adapted equally as a fence 
for cattle, sheep, pigs, fowls, roads, lawns, gardens, ornamental fences, vine- 
trelisses, netting in lieu of bed-cords in bedsteads^ window-netting, bird- 
cages, hen-coops, etc. The netting is furnished in neat and portable rolls, 
at from seventy-five cents to two dollars per rod ; some being varnished 
black with asphaltum varnish, some painted of whatever color, and some 
galvanized, in order to beautify and preserve it from rust ; the width or 
height of this netting, the size of the wire of which it is composed, and the 
meshes or spaces between the wires, all vary to suit the tastes of purchasers. 
Some of the netting is two feet, some three feet, and some four feet in height. 

VOL. VII. 26 



418 stroDe's hydraulic ram. 



The sizes of the wire are from No. 20 to No. 10 ; and the meshes are from 
one to six inches. Any farmer has skill enough to apply it to his own uses. 

The fencing is ftistcned to posts, set from ten to fifteen feet apart, by nails, 
brads, or iron or wire-staples ; the upper edge of the netting being kept on 
a level from one terminus to another ; and no rails are necessary, though 
some farmers use a top-rail occasionally. 

This fence is particularly adapted to those districts which are periodically 
subjected to hurricanes and floods^ offering no resistance to wind or water. 
While other fences cover from one to four feet of the soil throughout their 
length, this occupies no space at all, and shuts out none of the genial rays 
of the sun. While other iron-fences are seriously iujui-ed by the alternate 
expansion and contraction, occasioned by the changes incident to the tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere, this, by the novel and ingenious manner in which 
its wires are knit or woven together, is enabled to undergo these changes of 
temperature, and the expansion and contraction occasioned thereby, without 
the slightest deterioration or injiuy. It requires little and unfrequent repair, 
and is calculated to last a century or more. The farmer who has not a 
surplus of wood or stone on his farm, can find no fence so admirably adapted 
to his wants, by cheapness, strength, portability, durableness, beauty, and 
economy, as this. By an outlay of less than a dollar and a half per rod, 
•with a little personal labor, and a few posts, he can erect a substantial farm- 
fence, impassable to cattle, sheep, or pigs, which will survive when he is no 
more, to his children and his children's children. 

We propose, in a future article, to present suitable drawings of this re- 
markable mode of fence, with additional descriptions of the same. Mean- 
while, we will be happy to answer inquiries, and can send printed specimens 
of the different patterns or styles, if so requested. 



STRODE'S HYDRAULIC RAM. 

Mr. Strode, of Philadelphia, has been engaged several years in the manu- 
facture and erection of water-rams, in which he has made several valuable 
improvements, secured by various patents. He has received premiums at the 
Pennsylvania State Fair, 1854, and at the Franklin Institute, 1854. 

His first improvement consists in laying the driving-pipe, which conveys 
the water from the head to the ram, in the brachysto-chroue curve, which is 
the curve in which a body will descend from one point to another point in 
the shortest time, and therefore with the greatest mean velocity. By this 
property of the above curve, a greater quantity of water can be raised by a 
machine of a given size, than can be raised with the driving-pipe laid in any 
other directioa; and in consequence of the increased reaction of the water 
thus produced, the discharge- valve is opened with more rapidity and cer- 
tainty. A second improvement consists in the carrying of a pipe from the 
upper valve-seat of the puppet-valve to the bottom of the air-chamber, 
'for the purpose of transferring the shock produced by the rising of the puppet- 
valve to the air-chamber; and also in placing a series of short vertical lubes, 
extending from the upper valve-seat of the puppet-valve to the external air. 
By these improvements, the puppet-valves of hydraulic rams can be made 



THE MUSQUIT TREE. 419 



to slide in perfect contact with the top of the chamber, without producing a 
destructive shock on the metallic parts of the chamber, and without the pup- 
pet-valves sticking to the upper seat, by reason of a partial vacuum there. 
He has also made a further improvement in the arrangement of these valves, ' 
whereby as the puppet-valve rises, the water inclosed between the top of the 
puppet-valve and the valve-seat, is made to escape at the side of the puppet- 
valve down into the valve-chamber, by which arrangement the shock of the 
valve and its sticking are entirely obviated, without any additional tubes or 
complication of apparatus. By means of these improvements, he can construct 
rams which will be free from lability to derangement; and rams of the largest 
size can be constructed, which shall be equally durable, efficient, and simple 
in construction, as rams of the smallest size. 



THE MUSQUIT TREE. 

A Texas paper contains the following interesting account of the tree con- 
cerning which so much has been said as alfording a gum which it is thought 
will prove an excellent substitute for gum arable, and the getting of which 
it believed, will, ere long, prove a profitable employment for the Indians of 
the West : 

" This is a very abundant timber in many portions of Western Texas, pos- 
sessing some remarkable and valuable properties. It deserves attention. Al- 
though a very compact and heavy wood, and generally free from rot, yet the 
centre portion is generally shivered in circles often as near as two or three inches 
to the surface. It splits with remarkable accuracy through the centre, and, 
although a scrubby low growth, its great durability renders it valuable for 
jjosts and fencing material. A considerable amount of timber may be procured 
from it, and for furniture there is scarcely any wood superior to it. It takes a 
beautiful smooth polish, never shrinks, although put together green. The 
color is at first a bright brown, and with age assumes a deeper bright brown. 
Perhaps no wood yields greater heat than this when seasoned. The sap 
portion is very thin, often not more than one fourth of an inch thick. If the 
tree is hacked in the months of June or July, a gum issues in considerable 
quantities, and hardens from the action of the sun, having all the properties 
of gum arable. The decayed wood by being burnt under cover yields a 
large amount of benzoic acid. The burning of this wood in stoves is very 
destructive to them; the grating and sides are rapidly corroded both by the 
heat of the grate and acid vapor of the burning fuel. To the soap-maker 
it furnishes a material of importance. The ashes, instead of containing pot- 
ash, as most hard woods do, are carbonic acid and soda combined ; and by 
putting say a peck — and half a bushel would. do no damage — of fresh-burnt 
quick lime to the barrel of ashes, it will yield caustic soda-lye that will make 
the very best soap. Cattle are very fond of the ashes, as they lick them up 
whenever a tree is burnt upon the prairies. Another use, it is probable, 
could be made of the ashes; which is to scatter say half a bushel through 
each load of corn as it is housed, to destroy the weavil. It would certainly 
do no mischief, and would improve the shucks. As a fertilizer there is no 
doubt it would give valuable results upon worn-out soils; but it is not probable 
that the application will be made for many yeai-s, for the soil upon which the 
musquit grows is invariably fertile and of great depth. This tree belongs to 
the family of acacias." 



420 INFLUENCE AND IMPROVEMENT OF SUB-SOIL. 



INFLUENCE AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE SUB-SOIL. 

The influence of the sub-soil is of great importance. It may entirely 
control the fertility or barrenness of a given tract. Hence its actual and 
relative conditions should be carefully studied, For example : Let us first 
suppose a sandy surface with a clay sub-soil. The hard clay is impervious 
to the rains, and the sand above it has but little power to retain them. 
Hence, if the surface-soil is shallow, aud if the waters falling upon it are not 
retained by the natural formation of the surface around, in a dry season it 
must be dry and comparatively unproductive. But let this sub-soil be 
thoroughly brohen up, and rendered so porous as to absorb the rains which 
fall upon it. Clav having the power to retain moisture in an eminent degree 
a reservoir is here provided for a season of drought, which may secure good 
crops, which would otherwise be a comparative failure. For this clay, being 
well furnished with moisture, as the surface becomes dry and hot, will gra- 
dually yield up this valuable deposit, in the form of water or of vapor, ac- 
cording to circumstances. If the season is wet, large quantities of rain fall- 
ing upon it, which are not absorbed, m\l themselves dissolve the more solu- 
ble parts, and running off to waste, greatly impoverish the land. If the 
season is wet, a part at least of the excess of moisture is absorbed by the 
prepared sub-soil, and the surface is proportionally benefited. 

If the land in question is inclosed on all sides by higher surfaces, so as 
to prevent the escape of the rains descending upon it, of course it will be 
cold and wet, and comparatively worthless. Under such circumstances, a 
thorough breaking up of the clay beneath would open a way of escape for 
the excess of water, the clay retaining a considerable portion of it, which 
would, as before, become available in time of need. 

If both soil and sub-soil are porous, the tendency will be to render the 
whole too dry in ordinary seasons. Under such circumstances, deep plough- 
ing is not desirable. 

If the soil is clay for a considerable depth, including what is usually 
termed soil and sub-soil, shallow ploughing will only produce a cold and wet 
surface, unless there are ample facilities for draining. And if these latter 
conditions exist, then the soil may be well moistened by the rains, but it 
speedily becomes hard and dry, the roots can not penetrate into it, and the 
plant dwindles and is comparatively worthless. If this clay were thoroughly 
pulverized to a great depth, the excess of water would speedily disappear, 
and the soil might still remain in a fixvorable condition for the growth of 
plants. 

A gravelly sub-soil exerts a similar and favorable effect on a clay soil. If 
the latter is well cultivated, the sub-soil, retaining a bountiful supply of water, 
though less than if it were clay, yields it up as it is required, and tends to 
secure a good growth on the surface. 

A sandy sub-soil, being incapable of retaining any thing, acts as a leach 
in depriving the soil, not only of its moisture, but of every thing that may 
be held in solution, which as readily escapes to still lower depths, or is other- 
wise eft'ectually cut off from contact with the roots of the crop. Hence, to 
benefit such soils, the first step must be to render not only the soil but the 
sub-soil retentive of moisture. To this end, lime, gypsum, charcoal, and 
other substances of the same character should be freely used, and thoroughly 
mixed with the soil to as great a depth as is practicable. 



METROPOLITAN MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 421 

While this process is going on, it should also, as indeed in all cases, be 
remembered that one great point in all cultivation is to produce a soil of fine 
minute grains or particles. The particles of soils differ in this respect as 
essentially as do the fibres of wool in fineness, or of hair. As a frequent 
and continued application of the comb and brush will make the most stub- 
born head of hair to become soft and pliable, so will proper cultivation im- 
prove, in these respects, the character of our soils. 

The ploughing in of green crops, or of vegetable matter but partially 
decomposed, tends very strongly to recover a soil that is too hard and dry. 
For a clay soil, compost, well mixed, in which sand is a predominant ele- 
ment, will also be found very useful. So horse-dung is an efficient applica- 
tion for such lands, not acting as a proper manure, so much as an amend- 
ment, its effect being physical rather than chemical. 



THE "NE PLUS ULTRA" WHEAT. 

For several seasons past, much interest has been excited in this neighbor- 
hood, in the result of experiments made by Mr. Harradine, of Needingworth, 
near St. Ives, Huntingdonshire, in the growth of a new description of wheat, 
and which, if " it giveth forth its increase" at the rate of multiplication that 
has attended it hitherto, bids fair to create a revolution in the agricultural 
world. One ear of it was sown in 1849, on the land of Mr. Harradine, and 
the produce of this again in 1850 and 1851, when it yielded at the extraordi- 
nary rate (especially for those years) of 19 combs, 1 bushel, and 1 peck per 
acre, (77;^ bushels.) It has been sown on almost every available description 
of soil, and introduced in every imaginable change of crops. It was sown 
after Tartarian oats, clover, seeds, peas, and tares, on soil of various composi- 
tions, fen and highland ; in all cases the quantity of seed was restricted to 
four pecks per acre ; but the result was the same, the yield reaching that 
previously realized by Mr. Harradine. It has been sown after wheat, clover, 
barley, beans, oats, and fallow, and sustained its reputation through these 
trials : it has been sown in winter and in spring, drill, broadcast, and dibbled, 
with the same results, some put in in February showing no diminution in the 
yield. The preparation of the land may be the same as for ordinary wheat, 
and the same rate of increase in the yield over ordinary sorts may be ex- 
pected. 

[The above is from the Cambridge (Eng.) Chronicle, and if reliable, is 
certainly worth the attention of agriculturists. 



METROPOLITAN MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 

The Second Exhibition of the Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute, for the 
promotion of Manufactures, Commerce, and the Mechanic and Useful Art-^, 
will be opened in the city of Washington, on Thursday, February 8, 1855, 
in the new and splendid hall of the Smithsonian Institute. The rules adopted 
by the Committee are as follows : 

RULES. 

1st. The hall will be opened for the reception of goods on Monday, the 
29th day of January ; and on the evening of Thursday, the 8th of February, 



422 METROPOLITAN MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 

at 1 o'clock, the exliibition will be formally opened for tlae reception of visit" 
ors, and continue open about four weeks. 

2d. No article deposited after Saturday night, 3d of February, can be 
entered upon the Judges' lists for competition or premium, except such as 
the Committee sliall be satisfied were dispatched from a distance in time to 
have reached the hall by that day, but failed to arrive from unavoidable 
detention. 

3d. Articles designed Jbr exhibition only will be received, //-ee of charge, 
until Tuesday night, 6th of February, at 10 o'clock, after which time de- 
2)Ositors ivill be nubject to a charge of from 50 cents to $1, for each article 
deposited. 

4th. Apprentices and minors who contribute articles of their own make 
or invention shall specify their age, and the time they may have served at 
their business. 

5th. All articles deposited for competition and premium must be of Ame- 
rican manufacture, conspicuously labeled with appropriate names ; the name 
of the maker and inventor, if known, and the name of the depositor ; a copy 
of which label must be furnished the Clerk at the time of bringing the 
goods for entry on the record. Prices may be affixed, or not, at the option 
of the exhibitor. 

6th. Depositors, at the time of entiy, will receive a ticket of title to their 
goods, which ticket will also admit them to the Exhibition at all times, when 
open to the public. 

'7th. This ticket or check shall only be used by the depositor, and when 
found in the hands of another person, will be stopped at the door, and the 
depositor deprived of its use. 

8th. No article can be removed from the Exhibition until its close, without 
permission of the Committee. 

9th. The Machinery Department will be under the care of a special 
Superintendent, and the Committee ofter every facility of steam-power, fix- 
tures, labor, etc., free of expense, hoping that this portion of the display will 
be unusually varied and attractive. 

10th. The time of delivery of the Opening and Annual Addresses will be 
announced hereafter. The Closing Address will be delivered, and the Pre- 
miums announced on the closing day, by the President of tbe Institute. 

11th. The Judges will be appointed about the time of the opening of the 
Exhibition, and the hours before 10 o'clock, each morning, will be appro- 
priated, exclusively to them to examine the articles. Before 10 o'clock, there- 
fore, no owner, agent, depositor, or visitor loill be admitted to the hall, unless 
the Judges require some explanation, in which case all the competitors in the 
same class shall be duly notified to attend. 

12th. Where objections are raised, proof of origin may be required by 
the Judges or Committee on Awards. 

13th. All articles will be at the risk of the owner or depositor, who is 
expected to be present during the hours of exhibition. In the intervening 
time, and at all times, the Committee will use every efibrt for their preserva- 
tion. 

14th. Proper order will at all times be preserved by an efficient police, 
who will be present to prevent offenses against contributors and visitors. 

15th. Season tickets to the Exhibition will admit the owner and a lady or 
two children at all exhibition hours. A season ticket will make its holder a 
member of the Institute, and will be received, at the close of the Exhibition, 
in payment for his initiation fee and one years subscription. 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 423 

Members or junior members who transfer tlie use of their tickets, shall 
be deprived of the privileges of the Exhibition. 

N. B. — Goods should be addressed as follows : "JSxhibition of the Metro- 
poUtan Mechanics'' Instihcte, Washington City^'' and should have the nature 
of the articles, and the name of the party sending them, distinctly marked 
on the package. They should also be accompanied by a detailed invoice. 

Any further information will be given by applying, post-paid, to the Super- 
intendent, to whom all communications on the business of the Exhibition 
should be addressed. Thomas C. CosTNOLLy, Superintendent. 

The following is the list of officers : 

President^ 
Joseph Henry. 
Vice- 1^ residents, 
JoHK W. Maury,-* C. F. Wood, 

W. B. Todd, F. MohuxX.* 

J. C. Brent, . . . Corresponding Secreianj. 

P. M. Pearson,* . . . Recording Secretary^ 
W. H. Ward, . . . Financial Secretary. 
Joseph Bryan,* . . . Treasurer. 
HoLLis Amidon,* . . . Librarian. 
Directors, 
Geo. H. Plant,* Jas. A. Tail,* Wm. H. Baldwin,* 

Z. M. P. King,* Jos. H. Bradley,* Thos. B. Entwisle,* 

Thos. Greaser,* F. Mattingly,* Martin Buell,* 

Jas. O'Neill,* H. Polkinhorn,* • W. F. Bayly, 

F. Y. Naylor,* W. D. Brackenridge,* Chas. Edmonston, 

W. Ashdown,* David Hepburn,* Almon Baldwin, 

Wm. Dougherty,* John Sessford, Sr.,* John Clarke. 



H. N. Easby,-^ 



* 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

third session and fifth MEETINa. BOSTON, SEPT. 13, 14, 15, 1854. 

Br the courtesy of Hon. M. P. Wilder, the President, we have received a 
copy of the proceedings of this Society. It forms a pamphlet of 258 pages 
of 8vo size, and is executed in very handsome style, worthy of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, by whom and at whose expense it was published. 
AVe gave in our last number a short extract from one or two of the addresses, 
as brought to our notice in some newspaper report, and we now give, as we 
purpose to do hereafter, further extracts. 

Mr. Wilder, the President, in his admirable address, spoke as follows in 
relation to 

THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS. 

My next suggestion relates to the production from seed of neio varieties of 
fruits adapted to particulax localities, or to general cultivation. 

The immense loss to American cultivators, from the importation of foreign 
varieties, in many instances not well adapted to the countries from which 

* Those marked with an asterisk compose the Exhibition Committee. 



424 AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



they come, and often still less adapted to our soil and climate, suggests the 
importance of raising from seed, native sorts which, in most instances, possess 
peculiar advantages. It is now generally conceded that the trees and plants 
of a given country, like its aboriginal inhabitants, will flourish better at home 
than in most foreign localities. 

We rejoice that public attention has been turned to this subject by some 
of our horticultural journalists, and that many cultivators and amateurs are 
engaged in this interesting and promising department. The success which 
has crowned their exertions aff'ords great encouragement to perseverance. 
Witness, for instance, thirty or more varieties of the cherry, by Dr.' Kirtland, 
of Ohio, which appear adapted to our eastern climate, and some of them of 
superior excellence. Witness the numerous varieties of the raspberry, by 
Dr. Brinckle, Ex-President of this Society, of which some have endured, 
without covering, the severities of the last winter in the New-England States, 
and which also promise to be valuable contributions to American pomology. 
In addition to these, how many new varieties of the apple, the pear, the 
plum, and the grape have recently been added to the list of American fruits ! 
How many new and excellent varieties of the strawberry have appeared since 
the introduction of Mr. Hovey's Seedlings ! 

These are sure indications of the success which will reward future efforts 
to obtain valuable and native varieties of fruit; and they point to the fulfill- 
ment of the prediction of the celebrated Van Mons, " that the time will come 
when our best fruits will be derived from seedlings." He gives the following 
sage counsel to his correspondents to whom he had sent trees : "aSom; your 
seed and jjersevere luithout interruption, and you will obtain even better fruit 
than miney 

Among pioneers in this department I am happy to notice a gentleman 
(now residing among us) the pupil and friend of Van Mons, one who has 
adopted our country as his future home, and who has already transplanted 
to our soil many thousands choice seedlings of the pear, which have come 
into his possession from the collections of that gentleman and the celebrated 
Esperen. 

As to the best method of producing fine varieties from seed, the opinions 
of distinguished pomologists are not uniform. 

Duhamel, among the French, from causes which seem to us irreconcilable 
with nature and experience, entertained serious doubts of the practicability 
of any method for obtaining new and valuable varieties from seed, especially 
of the pear, because he had tried various experiments without success for 
fifty years. 

Dr. Van Mons, of Belgium, instead of saving the seed of the finest varie- 
ties, selected those of inferior sorts, upon the principle that a kind having 
arrived at the highest state of perfection must deteriorate, while an inferior 
one would improve by successive reproductions. He also held that hybrid- 
izcition tended to degeneracy and imperfection. Thus he assumes the doc- 
trine that a perfect variety necessarily deteriorates, and also overlooks the 
fact, observed by other distinguished men, that the improvement or deterio- 
ration of which he speaks may result from natural impregnation by the 
pollen of other varieties, conveyed by the air or insects, and therefore that 
tbe seed of a good variety may produce either a better or a worse, and that 
of a bad either a worse or a better. 

Mr. Knight's system of obtaining new and improved varieties depended 
entirely on hybridization, or artificial impregnation, so lightly esteemed by 
Dr. Van Mons. This is somewhat difficult to practise, on account of natural 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 425 



fertilization by insects and the wind ; but it has the merit of depending on 
a truly philosophical principle, and with very particular attention may yet 
prove as available for the improvement of our fruits as it has for the produc- 
tion of fine varieties in the vegetable and floral kingdom, or as the corre- 
sponding principle has in the crossing of the breeds of domestic animals. 

The results of Mr. Knight's experience disprove the tendency to degene- 
racy, inasmuch as many of his fruits, obtained by hybridization, are among 
the most durable and hardy varieties, as the Eyewood and Dunmore Pears ; 
the Black Eagle, and other Cherries. 

Many cultivators, as Esperen, Bivort, Berckmans, and others, both in this and 
foreign countries, have sown seeds in vaiiety, and have obtained some valuable 
sorts. But I am confirmed in the opinion that the best means of producing 
new and excellent varieties, suited either to general cultivation or to particu- 
lar localities, is to plant the most mature and perfect seed, of the most hardy^ 
vigorous, and vaduable sorts ; on the general pathological principle that like 
produces like, and upon the conviction that immature seed, although the 
embryo may be siifiiciently formed to vegetate, yet, not having all its ele- 
ments in perfection, it will not produce a vigorous and healthy off':?pring. 
Dr. Lindley, commenting upon this practice, justly remarks : "All experience 
shows that in every kind of created thing, be it man, or beast, or bird, the 
mysterious principle called life remains during the whole period of existence 
what it was at first. If vitality is feeble in the beginning, so it remains. Weak 
parents produce weak children, and their children's children are weaker still, 
as imperial dynasties have sadly shown." With him, we believe this theory 
as applicable to the vegetable as to the animal kingdom. May not a disre- 
gard for this doctrine account for the great number of feeble, sickly, early- 
defoliated trees often found in our grounds by the side of those that are 
vigorous, healthful, and persistent in foliage ? Is not the theory we advocate 
as important in the production of fruit-trees as in the raising of cereal grains ? 
The skillful agriculturist saves the best seed of his various crop?, and selects 
the best animals from his flocks and herds for breeders. Why should not 
this law of reproduction regulate the practice of the pomologist as well as of 
the farmer ? Has the All-wise and Infinite enacted several laws where one 
would subserve the purpose ? 

To the doctrine of Van Mons, and other distinguished writers, respecting 
deterioration by age, and after a variety has reached its perfection, there 
seem to be some exceptions. From the accounts of Oriental travellers, may 
we not believe that the grapes of Eschol are as perfect now as when the chiefs 
of Israel plucked their rich clusters three thousand years ago ; and that the 
same variety of the fig, the olive, and the pomegranate are as perfect in 
Syria to-day as in the period of David and Solomon ? It is worthy of inquiry 
whether the native grapes on the banks of our rivers have deteriorated since 
the day when the red men of the forest refreshed themselves with the fruit 
from those vines, and whether the orange, the lemon, the bananna, and the 
fruits of southern latitudes, evince any more signs of decay than they did 
centuries ago ; in a word, whether this doctrine of deterioration is as applica- 
ble to the native as to the foreign fruit of a country ? 

Why may we not expect to obtain natural varieties of the apple and other 
fruit as durable and far more valuable than those which have passed their 
second centennial, as the Endicott and Stuyvesant Pears ? From meteorolo- 
gical, or other causes which we do not at present understand, particular 
varieties may deteriorate in a given locahty for a season, and afterward 
revive ; or they may show signs of decay in one locality, and flourish well 



426 AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



in others not very remote, as the White Doyenne, -which has been considered, 
for many years, by some in this vicinity on the decline, while it is perfect in 
several places in Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, and other States. Fruit- 
bearing may exhaust the vital energy of the tree, and hasten decay, but still 
the variety may remain. We have among fruit-trees no example of longevity 
equal to that of the new Taxodium, found in California, supposed to be three 
thousand years old. Our object is not to controvert the opinions of those 
who believe in the running-out of varieties, whether their duration be limited 
to one hundred or one thousand years, but to enforce the importance of 
raising new varieties from seed, especially adapted to our own location. 

^ At this meeting a Report was made by Dr. Harris, the eminent entomolo- 
gist of " the Diseases and Insects affecting Fruit-trees and Vines." This we 
intend to publish as soon as we can obtain engravings of these insects, of a 
reliable character. We have already taken measures to secure them. 

A large portion of the pamphlet before us is taken up with the discussion 
on the lists of fruits worthy of general cultivation, of those that promise well, 
and those that are rejected from the lists. . 

The following is the corrected hst of 

FRUITS WORTHY OF GENERAL CULTIVATION. 

Apples. — American Summer Pearmain, Baldwin, Bullock's Pippin, Dan- 
ver's Winter Sweet, Early Harvest, Early Strawberry, Fall Pippin, Fameuse, 
Gravenstein, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Lady Apple, Ladies' Sweet, Large 
Yellow Bough, Melon, Minister, Porter, Red Astrachan, Rhode-Island Green- 
ing, Roxbury Russet, Summer Rose, Swaar, Vandervere, White Seek-no- 
Further, William's Favorite, (except for light soils,) Wine Apple or Hays, 
Winesap. 

Pears. — Ananas d'Ete, Andrews, Belle Lucrative or Fondante d'Automne, 
Beurre d'Anjou, Beurre d'Aremburg, Beurre Die], Beurre Bosc, Bloodgood, 
Buffum, Dearborn's Seedling, Doyenne d'Ete, Flemish Beauty, Fulton, Golden 
Beurre of Bilboa, Lawrence, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Madeline, Manning's 
Ehzabeth, Paradise d'Automne, Rostiezer, Seckel, Tyson, Urbaniste, Uve- 
dale's St. Germain, (for baking,) Vicar of Winkfield, William's Bon Chretien 
or Bartlett, Winter Nelis. 

for cultivation on quince STOCKS. 

Pears. — Belle Lucrative, Beurre d'Amalis, Beurre d'Anjou, Beurre 
d'Aremberg, Beurre Diel, Catillac, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Easter Beurre, 
Figue d'Alengon, Glout Morceau, Long Green of Cox, Louise Bonne de Jer- 
sey, Napoleon, Nouveaii Poiteau, Rostiezer, Beurre Langelier, Soldat Labo- 
reur, St. Michael Archange, Triomphe de Jododigne, Urbaniste, XJvedale's 
St. Germain or Belle Angevine,(for baking,) Vicar of Winkfield, White Do- 
yenne. 

Plums. — ^Bleecker's Gage, Coe's Golden Drop, Frost Gage, Green Gage, 
Jefferson, Lawrence's Favorite, McLaughlin, Purple Gage, Purple Favorite, 
Eeine Claude de Bavay, Smith's Orleans, Washington. 

Cherries. — Belle Magnifique, Black Eagle, Black Tartarian, Downer's 
Late, Downton, Elton, Early Richmond, (for cooking,) Grafficfn or Bigarreau, 
Knight's Early Black, May Duke. 

Apricots. — Breda, Large Early, Moorpark. 

Nectarines. — Downton, Early Violet, Elruge. 



■THE LARGEST. MILL IN THE WORLD." 427 



Peaches. — Bergen's Yellow, Cooledge's Favorite, Crawford's Late, Early 
York, (serrated,) Early York, (large,) George IV., Grosse Mio'uonne, Morris 
White, Old Mixon Free. 

Grapes, (under ffhss.)— Black Hamburg, Black Frontignan, Black Prince? 
Chasselas de Fontainebleau, Grizzly Frontignan, White Frontignan, White 
Muscat of Alexandria. (02)en culture.) — Catawba, Diana, Isabella. 

Raspberries. — Fastolf, Franconia, Knevet's Giant, Red Antwerp, Yellow 
Antwerp. 

Strawberries. — Boston Pine, Hovey's Seedling, Large Early Scarlet. 

Currants. — Black Naples, May's Victoria, Red Dutch, White Dutch, 
White Grape. 

Gooseberries. — Crown Bob, Early Sulphur, Green Gage, Green Walnut, 
Houghton's Seedling, Iron-Monger, Laurel, Red Champagne, Warrington, 
Woodward's White Smith. 

Blackberries. — Lawson's New-Rochelle. 



"THE LARGEST illLL IN THE WORLD." 

Perhaps we ought to' have been more careful than to have extended the 
circulation of a mistake of the nature, of that referred to below. Had we 
gone into any " calculation," we should have discovered the error. But find- 
ing it with a responsible indorser, and that it was an item of general inter- 
est, we used the scissors at once, scarcely reading it through, and thought no 
more about it. We thank our correspondent for his favor, which we insert 
below, and should like to receive statistical or other information from him at 
all seasons. Though it comes anonymously — so that. we owe no body for it — 
the handwriting is quite familiar to us. — Eds. P., L., & A. 

FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THH ANVIL. 

Messrs. Editors : On page 369, No. 6, of your useful periodical, you 
have copied from the LoiueU Courier, and as your journal goes broadcast 
over the land, you have given extensive publicity to a very considerable 
blunder. You say that at the " Pacific Mills," in Lawrence, the largest in 
the world^ (not yet, they may be one of these days,) Mr. Clapp, the pay- 
master, pays out to the operatives, 2000 in number, $500,000 for wages 
every month. Now, $.500,000 per month are equal to $0,000,000 per 
annum, and $6,000,000 per annum, divided among 2000 operatives, give 
$3000 per annum to each. Only think of that — each Yankee boy and 
girl, and each Irish boy and girl — of these " largest mills in the loorld" earn- 
ing $3000 a piece per annum. Come hither, ye poor desolate men and women 
of_ all trades, and grades, and professions ; come, ye pulpitless ministers, ye 
brietless lawyers, ye patientless doctors, ye starving needlewomen, needless is 
it for you to go any longei- without money and without price ; hasten to the 
♦'largest mills in the world," and sell your services at the glorious price of 
"$3000 a piece per annum." And here it may be asked, if the operatives 
get that, what does the treasurer get, what the agent, what the book-keepers, 



428 MISCELLANEOUS. 



and paymaster ? Why, they must pile it up so thick, that the stockholders 
will run the chance of getting precious thin pickings. 

The fact is, your friend of the Lowell Courier put on just one cipher too 
much to his $500,000 per month. It should have read $50,000, and would 
not be right then, for their monthly pay-roll has never yet exceeded 
$35,000. Perhaps it will be $50,000 as soon as they get to be "the largest 
mill in the world." At $50,000, the average pay per annum of the opera- 
tives would drop down to $300, and out of this they must pay their board. 

Again, it is stated, as something remarkable, that Mr. Clapp appropriates 
" to each the exact amount she has earned." Of course he does, and so 
does every paymaster in every mill in the whole world. He would neither 
pay more or less. Is there any thing wonderful in paying a person just 
what he or she earns ? There are time-tables, and clerks, and pay-rolls in all 
mills, and this monthly exact payment is the commonest thing in the world. 

The Pacific Mills are very fine and very large, and are spending a good 
deal of money. The time for the first dividend is not yet fixed by the Direc- 
tors, but it may come ofi" in due season. 

As to their being the largest in the world now, it is not true, since the 
Atlantic Cotton Mills are 70 feet longer in the main mill, and the Bay State 
Mills undoubtedly cover more space. It is expected that the Pacific Mills, 
when finished, will be the largest in the world. At present the main mill 
is but 500 feet long ; they are intended to be, one of these fine days, 800 
feet long. Yours truly, 

Lawrence, Bee. 16, 1854. Old Millwright. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Enlarging Vegetables. — Upon an average, only one half the size is attained 
for all vegetables grown which might easily be had by an improved mode of 
culture. If every thing was doubled in size, without saying any thing about 
the increase otherwise in the amount of crops, what a vast gain it would be 
to the farmer. Every body is struck with the improved value given to grain, 
as well as roots and esculents, by increased size. Then why don't eveiy body 
try to increase their own ? Take, for example, the common garden pea, and 
try the following experiment : 

Plant it in very rich ground; allow it 'to bear tlie first year say half-a- 
dozen pods only ; save the largest the foKowing year, and retain of the pro- 
duce three pods only ; sow the largest the following year, and retain one 
pod ; again select the largest, and the next year the sort will have trebled its 
size and weight. Ever afterward sow the largest seed, and by these means 
you will get peas, or any thing else, of a bulk of which we at present have 
no conception. 

Select wheat in the same way, and after three years you will be astonished 
at the result. 

Remedy /for the Black-Knot. — A correspondent of the Cultivator says 
that he has never found any thing that will compare in efficacy for preventing 
black excrescences on the plum-tree to a strong solution of chloride of lime, 
applied to the wounds made by their removal. He has tried this remedy 
for two years, and in no instance has it failed to prevent the fungus from 
bursting out again from the wound. A trial was made this year on about 



MISCELLANEOUS. 429 



fifty young trees, from a portion of whicli the knots were cut off early in 
summer, and no application made to the wound ; to a second portion strong 
lime was applied, and to a third chloride of lime. In numerous instances 
the excrescence burst out again in the first two cases ; in the latter none. 
Salt has been strongly recommended, but the superiority of the chloride was 
very decided. 

Weights of Grain, etc. — We are indebted to our friend Col. Buckner 
for the following weights, regulated by the laws of Kentucky, of grain, etc., 
per bushel: Wheat, 60 pounds; corn, shelled, 56 pounds; rye, 56 pounds; 
potatoes, 60 pounds; beans, 60 pounds; clover seed, 60 pounds; oats, 33^ 
pounds ; corn-meal, 50 pounds ; bran, 20 pounds ; barley, 48 pounds ; onions, 
5*7 pounds; buckwheat, 52 pounds; salt, 50 pounds; flax seed, 56 pounds; 
hemp seed, 44 pounds ; timothy seed, 45 pounds. The above is taken from 
the revised statute laws of Kentucky. 

Apples for Market. — We see it stated that Mr, James Upton, of Monroe 
county, N.Y., has shipped twenty thousand barrels of apples to New-York, 
by canal, this season, and has now several boats loading with the same fruit. 
He purchases apples at all points accessible to the canal. The crop this 
year is an excellent one, better than those of several previous years, and the 
demand for the fruit abroad makes it a profitable one. 

New-England Enterprise. — We have often alluded to the prosperity of 
the towns and villages of these States. We find the following statement in 
reference to the industry of one of these small communities. The whole 
township, by the last census, has a population of only 1776 inhabitants. 

Warren. — Among the many towns which furnish the Boston market with, 
the necessaries of life, AA'arren holds a prominent rank. The people are 
intelligent, enterprising, and active. The farms are well adapted to grazing, 
and are almost exclusively devoted to that purpose. Since the first of May 
last, there have been sent from Warren to Boston 218,004 pounds of cheese, 
and 589,994 gallons of milk; and during the month of November, the 
same city received 73,128 pounds of pork from Warren and vicinity. Efforts 
are making to secure a course of lectures during the winter, and, though late, 
it is hoped the endeavors will succeed. The Warren Cotton Mills Co. are 
completing a large brick factory over one hundred feet long, and four stories 
high. 

Granaries for the Storing of Corn. — The Messrs. Huart, the great 
millers of Cambrai, have patented a peculiar kind of granary which they 
have in use for the storing of their corn. In this arrangement the corn fills 
completely the space in which it is to be preserved, and is kept in constant 
motion by means of a steam-engine. The grain is lifted up and siirred round 
by means of a helix, and from thence falls upon an apparatus where, by means 
of a fan, the chatf, dust, and other foreign substances are removed, and the 
insects and their larvai destroyed. The corn is then carried back to the same 
inclosed space again, and the operation from time to time repeated. These 
granaries are considered to be adapted not only for the preservation of corn 
in good condition, but for that which is already damaged. — Le Genie Indus- 
triel, France. 

Winter Feed of Breeding Ewes. — Until two or three weeks preceding 
lambing, it is only necessary that breeding ewes, like other store sheep, be 
kept in good plump ordinary condition. Nor are any separate arrangements 
necessary for them, after that period, in a chmate where they obtain succu- 



430 MISCELLANEOUS. 



lent food to provide for proper secretion of milk. In backward seasons in the 
north, where the grass does not start prior to the lambing time, careful flock- 
masters feed tbeirewes with chopped roots, or roots mixed with oat or pea-meal. 
This, in my judgment, is excellent economy. For the efiect of the various 
esculents on the quantity and quality of the milk, see Liebig's Animal 
Chemistry. — Sheep Husbandry. 

Kailroads IX Ohio. — This enterprising State contains 2181 miles of 
railroad completed, and 1576 miles in progress. It is said that of these, 
300 miles will be completed in 1855. There are four great trunks across 
the State from north to south, and four from east to west. These eight lines 
pass through forty county seats. 

Management of Fairs. — We have on our table a communication from 
our old friend and contributor, Durant, whom we welcome back again to our 
pages, on the Management of Fairs, called forth by views which we have 
recently given on that subject; but it came too late for this number. We 
shall give it a place in our next. We mentio^i this fact, contrary to our 
general usage, because we wish to keep the subject on the minds of our 
readers, and again to invite further discussion. We are just beginning, in 
our opinion, to take correct observation of our true place on this subject, and 
it is second in importance to very few. 

Composition of Eggs. — The investigation has been made of late by 
several distinguished anatomists, and a part of the results is given in the 
present number of the American Journal of Arts, and Sciences. From this 
Tve gather the following facts : 

An examination of the eggs of numerous animals proves that these bodies 
are as varied as the animals which they produce. They differ in the ele- 
ments present, in their organisms, and in their structure. Some of them do 
not harden by exposure in boiling water. In the eggs of some birds, the 
white is almost fluid ; in others, it is gelatinous. The color of the white of 
a hen's egg, after boiling, is pure, opaque, white, and solid. That of the 
lapwing, after cooking, becomes transparent, opaline, greenish, and so hard 
that it may be cut into little stones, used in some parts of Germany for 
common jewelry. The chemical constitution of the eggs of various birds 
differs very materially. 

Turning to the eggs of fishes, it is found that the new-laid egg of the ray 
is covered with a shell of a bronzed-green, whose tissue is made up' of short, 
felty fibres ; its general form is rectangular, more or less elongated and 
curved on both sides. The internal organism is also peculiar, and among 
other differences it is found that the yellow is not separated from the white 
by any membrane. The white also differs from the white of a bird's Qgg in 
its chemical properties. 

The eggs of a bounce shark are rectangular, much longer but much nar- 
rower than those of the ray. Its shell is hard, resisting, yellowish, horny. 
The vitellus or yolk occupies the greater part of it, and the white is more 
viscous than that of the ray. 

These and other differences are pointed out, somewhat extensively, in the 
treatise before us, but the subject is not one of sufficient general interest to 
■warrant us in occupying much space with these details. 

A New Species of Silk-Worm. — Experiments have been made in France 
to acclimate the Bomhyx cynthia, a silk-worm of India, which, according to 
Koxbuigh, furnishes a silk so firm that clothes made of it will last a hfe- 
time. These experiments, thus far, are very favorable. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 481 



C, C. & C, AND C. & E. Car-Shops, under the Superintendence of 
N. H, March. — Last Friday we visited the large car-shop under the superin- 
tendence of N. H. March, on the Lake Shore Road, and spent an hour or 
more in examining it. 

The building is a large one. It is some two hundred and ten feet long 
and about sixty wide. Near by is Geo. W. Sizer's foundry. There are 
employed in the car-shop, or connected with it, 117 men, (a large majority of 
whom are married,) and 20 in the foundry. 

These buildings are devoted to the construction of cars of every descrip- 
tion, and the repairing of them. 

The lower room iu the " large brick" of the shop is taken up with the iron 
and wood work, and adjoining is a complete blacksmith's establishment. We 
noticed all the improved machinery for manufacturing cars. The whole was 
driven by an engine of sixty-horse power. The upper room is devoted to 
cabinet-work, finishing, upholstering, etc., etc. ; and connected with the main, 
building is a large paint-shop under the charge of Charles Reipleir, a master 
in ornamental painting. In this department all are Germans. Opposite is a 
lumber-yard, and a large building for storing lumber. 

We found on the track, just turned out, six new cars and a baggage-car, 
by all odds the most perfect we have seen. They are ten inches wider, giving 
three inches more on each seat and four inches in the aisle. Their bodies are 
thrown on to steel and India-rubber springs, which it is believed, will make 
them easier every way. The trucks are far stouter than heretofore. One 
improvement we were glad to notice. The breaks are very much improved, 
both in power and in speed of application — for, as arranged in these cars, one 
man may break upon two sets of cars. In the baggage-car we observed 
also another improvement. The doors were constructed to fold round into a 
recess so as to prevent accident to the men inside, or to lessen the chances of 
injury to them in case of accident. — Cleveland Weekly Leader. 

Snip-BuiLDiNa. — The Boston Journal published recently a detailed 
account of the ship-building in lioston and its vicinity during the year 1854. 
The Journal of Commerce^ on Tuesday, published a similar account of ship- 
building in New- York and vicinity. From these statistics it appears, that 
for the first time, the amount of tonnage built in the District of Boston, dur- 
ing the year 1854, was greater than in the District of New-York. But in 
both districts the business is now nearly at a stand-still, thouoh it has been 
unusually large. In New-York, it is said that not more than 1000 hands are 
now employed in the ship-yards, against 3500 or 4000 employed in pros- 
perous seasons. And that though the year has been one of unusual activity 
in the ship-yards, it has yet been an unfortunate one to builders, owing to 
the advance in building materials and labor ; and several builders of long 
standing and acknowledged ability have been compelled to succumb to the 
pressure of the times, and stop business. In New- York, there have been 
launched during the year 88 vessels of all descriptions, representing 80,130 
tons, (of which 26 were full rigged ships, and 4 were steamships,) which have 
cost, at the estimate of $65 a ton, not less than $5,200,000. While the 
number of ships built this year exceeds the number in 1853 by eiglit, the 
number of steamships built this year is six less than it was last year. About 
"70 steamships in all have been built in New- York, mostly of large size, at an 
estimated cost of about $14,000,000. 

In Boston and vicinity, during the year, there have been built 57 vessels, 
of which 45 were ships, S were barques, 3 were steamers of from 150 to 350 



432 MISCELLANEOUS. 



tons, and 1 was a schooner. The aggregate tonnage of these vessels was 
68,282, and the estimated cost of the "whole, at $65 a ton, was $4,483,430. 

Rutland County Makble and Slate. — At the late Agricultural Meet- 
ing at Rutland, Vt., Charles Sheldon, Esq., of West-Rutland, said that in 
1850, there was quarried at West-Rutland, $190,000 worth of marble; in 
1853, $360,000 worth; in 1854, probably $400,000 worth. From other 
towns in the county, he thought that $200,000 worth of marble would be 
exported this year. The value of the marble sold is twice as great as the 
wool clip of the county in 1850. It exceeds the value of the wool and dairy 
products of the county. At the West-Rutland quarry, there are consumed 
annually 150 tons of hay, 6000 bushels of potatoes, 6 tons of butter, and 
6000 bushels of corn. Of the value of the marble exported, three fourths is 
added to the wealth of the county. 

The demand has always exceeded the supply. There is no fear of a de- 
crease of the demand. To increase the supply, more capital should be 
invested in quarrying and sawing marble. Rutland can furnish, annually, 
marble to the amount of $1,500,000. He said that the quality of the slate 
in this county was equal to that of any part of the world. It was inexhaust- 
ible in quantity, and the demand for it was far greater than the supply. He 
thought that, this year, not less than $300,000 worth of slate would be quar- 
ried in Rutland count}". 

Tennessee Copper. — The Knoxvillc Register states that recent discoveries 
afford proof of the existence of one continuous vein of rich copper ore be- 
tween the Polk-county mine in East-Tennessee, and the mine recently dis- 
covered in Carroll county, Virginia, In the Tennessee vein, the miners have 
reached the yellow sulphuret of copper, which is considered an infallible 
indication of the great extent and richness of the mines in which it abounds. 
The discoverv of this metal has infused a new impetus into mining operations, 
and several weeks since there were sales of three quarter sections of raining 
land, at about $1,250,000. The Register states that some five thousand tons 
of rich copper ore are taken from the mines monthly, netting at least half a 
million of dullars. The amount will doubtless be increased when the shafts 
which are being sunk penetrate the rich sulphuret. 

Moral of the Baby Show, — We, at our cattle shows, give prizes to the 
man who produces the best food for the people's eating. The Americans give 
prizes for the mouths best adapted to eat the food which is so bountifully 
prepared for them on their vast continent. The two nations typify their 
differences in this manner. Our great desire is to find ample food for our 
population. The Americans are only desirous of a large population to con- 
sume their food, — London Times. 

Productions of Algeria, — This colony promises to take a prominent 
rank among countries which derive their principal wealth from the produc- 
tion of silk. The success of the cochineal insect at Algiers is no longer 
doubtful. The madder of Algiers is more highly esteemed than that of 
Cyprus. The cotton of that colony took eleven prizes at the London Exhi- 
bition. The olive-tree grows there to the height of our largest forest-trees. 
Certain countiies are covered with it. Species of cork-oak constitute a large 
part of the forests. There are also forests of cedar, pine, juniper, arbor vitre, 
black walnut, etc. These statements are contained in an official report to 
the French orovernment. 



MISCELLANEOUS, 433 



The Fall-River Route. — This Company still retain their unrivalled re- 
putation. Their new boat will be ready with the return of the next seasont 
and will be in advance of any thing yet seen in our waters. The workmen 
are busily engaged in iSnishing the interior apartments, which will so unie, 
elegance and comfort as to satisfy the most extravagant demands of the travel- 
ler. We have recently been shown over every part of it, and must say that 
we have. never seen any steamboat that was so completely furnished with 
every thing that comfort, luxury, or taste could conceive. The following de- 
tails show not only her mammoth size but thorough provision for all suppos- 
able necessities : 

Her length is 345 feet, (or more than — of a mile.) 

Beam, 47 feet. 

Width from guard to guard, 80 feet 11 inches. 

Hold, depth, 16 feet 11 inches. 

Tons measurement, 2300. 

Height of ceiling in cabin, 11 feet 6 inches. 

Steering-wheel, 1 feet diameter, 3 rims. 

Water-wheels, 43 " " 14 feet length of buckets. 
She has 108 inches cylinder. 

She has 95 state-rooms, of which 18 have each four berths, etc., and 18 of 
them have berths of extra width. There are also 400 open berths, furnishing 
comfortable accommodations for YoO persons. 

She is also provided, on a level with the upper saloon, with an apartment 
for ladies, in which they may arrange their toilets, etc. Water-closets are 
provided on both decks. Her name is The Metropolis, and she will be 
commanded by Captain Brown, now of the ' Bay State.' 

Building Stones : Brown or Red Sandstone. — We have not forgotten 
our promise to give our readers some information on this subject, in continu- 
ation of what we have written of marble and granite. We shall probably 
do so in the next number. 

Origin of Nitrogen. — M. Boussingault has published the details of 
other experiments upon the vegetation of several plants, confirming his 
views as recently presented in this journal. He also promises another me- 
moir on the same subject. 

Lightning Conductors. — Mr. Nasmyth has described, before the British 
Association, an improved arrangement for a lightning conductor for chim- 
neys. Instead of fixing it outside by metal hold-fasts, he would suspend it 
in the middle of the chimney by branching supports fixed on the top. "x\n 
experience of eighteen years has tested the superiority of the plan." In the 
discussion. Professor Faraday recommended that the lightning conductors 
should bo placed inside instead of outside of all buildings. He considered 
the shape of the conductor, whether flat or round, as immaterial. 

Preservation of Meat. — Carbonic acid is very efficient in retarding 
putrefaction. Beef in contact with carbonic oxide for the space of three 
weeks was found perfectly fresh, and of a fine red color. 

Gas Coal. — The coal near Preston, Va., is found to be of great value for 
the production of gas, superior to any other coal in this country. It lies 
adjacent to the Ohio & Baltimore Railroad. So says the Cumberland 
Journal. 



484 NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 
APPLICATION OF GLUTEN TO BREAD AND OTHER ARTICLES OF FOOD. 

J, H, Johnson, 47 Lincoln's Inn Fields, and Glasgow. — This British patent 
has been taken out on behalf of M. Durand of Toulouse, who has occupied 
himself for several years back with expei'iments as to the best modes of treat- 
ing gluten so as to obtain a palatable bread from it. . Gluten is obtainable 
from various vegetables, being their essential nutritive component ; but it is 
to that obtained from wheat that M. Durand's improvements more particu- 
larly refer. The invention consists, in the first place, in preparing gluten 
bread by baking it in moulds fitted with loose lids which rest upon the gluten, 
and rise with the gluten as it expands by the action of the heat. The bread 
formed from gluten possesses great nutritive quality, and will keep for a long 
period of time without injury. This substance may be employed in various 
proportions with farinaceous substances of all kinds, and is also found advan- 
tageous in the manufacture of chocolate and vermicelli. In making gluten- 
chocolate, a small quantity of muriatic acid may be added. In baking 
gluten-bread, the inventor employs moulds of a square section and slightly 
conical, that is to say, slightly contracted at the base, in order to facilitate the 
removal of the bread after it is baked. When the paste is introduced into 
the mould, it is covered with a movable lid, which rests upon it, in order 
that its development may be progressive. The weight of this lid should be 
proportioned to the degree of purity of the gluten. Two rods of iron fitted 
at each extremity serve to prevent the lid or cover from falling off, and to 
limit the rising of the paste ; this being most essential, as the heat having a 
great influence over the gluten, the rising or development of this matter 
would become too great, and deteriorate the bread if not forcibly restrained. 
For the same reason, the baking should be accomplished in a moderately- 
heated oven, and for the preparation of wheat-gluten no leaven need be 
employed. The kneading ought to be eflfected by manual labor, and as 
actively as possible. To proceed with that operation it is necessary to choose 
a favorable moment, which will be known by the degree of moisture of the 
substance, this luoisture always agreeing with the amount of flour to be mixed 
with the gluten. Bread thus made presents the appearance of bread well 
worked ; it is exceedingly light, and of an agreeable flavor. It is rather 
elastic when it is first made, but hardens in a few hours. It may be heated 
after being cut into slices when required for consumption ; it then becomes 
more brittle, and is more easily masticated. It may be also kept for a long 
period without any deterioration whatever. The following are the proportions 
which are employed in the mixture of gluten with other alimentary sub- 
stances, and from which the best results have been obtained : 

1. Bread composed of pure wheat-gluten, with the addition of one per 
cent of salt. 

2. Bread composed of ninety per cent of moist gluten, ten per cent of 
wheat-flour, and one per cent of salt. 

3. Bread composed of eighty per cent of moist gluten, twenty per cent of 
wheat-flour, and one per cent of salt. 

4. Bread composed of seventy per cent of moist gluten, thirty per cent of 
corn-flour, and one per cent of salt. 

6. Bread composed of sixty per cent of moist gluten, forty per cent of corn- 
flour, and one per cent of salt. 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 435 



6. The same kinds of bread, with the addition of three per cent, five per 
cent, ei2;ht per cent, or ten per cent of fresh butter. 
For chocolate, the following proportions are employed : 

1. Gluten-chocolate made in the ordinary manner, and composed of about 
two parts of cocoa, and one part of gluten-bread reduced to an impalpable 
powder. 

2. Gluten chocolate made in the same manner, and composed of two parts 
of cocoa, two parts of sugar, and one part of gluten-bread reduced to a fine 

powder. /• i • j 

3. Four parts of cocoa, five parts of sugar, and one part of pulverized 

gluten-bread. 

4. Gluten-chocolate composed of two parts of cocoa, two parts of sugar, 
and one part of pure gluten-flour, also reduced to an impalpable powder. 
Each of the parts composing this chocolate should be well and carefully tritu- 
rated and operated upon separately. 

5. Gluten-chocolate, in which the fresh gluten is rendered less adhesive 
by the addition of one half of its weight in water with 0-002 of pure muriatic 
acid, and dried at a stove, the proportions being two parts of cocoa, two parts 
of sugar, and one part of moist gluten. The chocolate may be also prepared 
without any admixture with the acid. 

Vermicelli may be prepared by means of any of the various breads already 
described. To manufacture it dry bread is used, and it is only after it has 
been submitted to the action of heat that it can be pulverized. 

For gluten-bread made of Indian-corn flour, the same treatment must be 
adopted as for gluten-bread from wheat, with the addition of a leaven com- 
posed of two thirds of wheat- flour and one third of pure water. 

Manufacture of Caoutchouc. J. H. Johnson, London and Glasgow. 
— This French invention, which has been patented in England on behalf of 
MM. Guibal & Cumenge, relates to the recovery and utihzation of the volatile 
ingredients used in dissolving caoutchouc in the process of manufacturing it, 
instead of allowing these ingredients to be lost by evaporation. This great 
saving is efi"ected by placing the soft caoutchouc upon traversing cloths iu 
closed chambers, provided at the top with a means of condensing the vapors, 
and carrying off the products, the material being heated by suitable apparatus 
beneath the traversing cloth. The caoutchouc, as it leaves the spreading 
rollers, is traversed over a horizontal table, consisting of upper and lower cast- 
iron plates, with an intervening place for the introduction of steam, hot water, 
or heated air. This table is covered in by a roofing of metal plates, set at 
convenient angles, the chamber being closed in at each end by_ triangular 
metal plates, placed vertically. The roof is covered with felt, which iskept 
constantly saturated with cold water, supplied by a duct above, and which is 
again collected by gutters running along the lower edges of the roof-plates. 
The vapor rising from the material is condensed upon the under sides of the 
roof-plates, and° trickling down, is collected in suitable gutters ; these gutters 
being carried completely round the chamber, and across the end-plates, so as 
to prevent any of the products of condensation from falling upon the caout- 
chouc beneath. The gutters communicate with suitable receptacles, into 
which the condensed matter passes ; and this matter can be used over again 
repeatedly in the manufacture of the caoutchuc, thereby considerably reduc- 
ing the cost. 

Journal Bearings. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock.— With a view of econo- 
mizing the oil used in lubricating the journal bearings of horizontal shafts, 



436 NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 



by enabling it to be repeatedly reused, Mr. Barclay has designed the improve- 
ments forming the subject of the present patent, and which, by preventing 
the too rapid escape of the lubricating oil from between the rubbing surfaces, 
also renders the lubrication of the shaft much more efficient. In carryiuo- out 
this invention, according to one modification, the shaft is formed with a project- 
ing collar upon it, of the length of the intended bearing, and the brasses are 
formed to suit this modification. Each brass extends considerably past each 
edge of the collar, and is slightly turned out or recessed, so that the angles of 
the collar shall be slightly overlapped by the brass. Beyond this overlap on 
each side, the extension of the brass is hollowed out internally, to form an 
annular cup for the reception of oil, and these edge-cup pieces are well 
overhung, and brought close to the plain part of the shaft to prevent the 
entry of dirt. The inner face of the upper brass is inclined upwards from 
each side towards the centre, instead of being square across as usual ; and 
the result is, that the oil supplied from the top, in the usual way, is well 
spread over the frictional surfaces, and, flowing down, it is caught by the 
annular cups of the brasses, and retained therein for continued use ; or the 
same effect may be obtained by beveling the inner edge or edges of the 
inner brass alone, the upper brass being made square across, as usual. The 
continued use of the oil is effected by the action of the bearing collar on the 
shaft, for, as this revolves, its edges gather films of oil from the annular cups, 
and bring up the oil so collected to the top brass. Here the revolving collar 
edges apply the oil to the corresponding edges of the upper brass, and, owing 
to the duplex interior incline thereon, the oil is thence conveyed towards the 
centre of the bearing, whence it is well distributed over the whole rubbing 
surfaces. Instead of a plain collar projection, other forms of journals may be 
employed with the same result, or a couple of rings may be set fast on the 
shaft, so as to carry up the oil in a similar manner. 

New Mordant in Dyeing. — A Swede named Rydin, has published a 
method of obtaining a fine blue, of excellent tint, for cotton, by employing as 
a mordant the oxide of chromium, dissolved in an acid ; in place of this 
oxide, a double salt may be used, such as the double sulphate of chromium 
and potash. This salt is obtained by mixing one part of a solution of bichro- 
mate of potash, and one part and a half, or two parts, of sulphuric acid. 
Alcohol, sugar, or any other substance capable of converting the chronic acid 
into an oxide of chromium, may be added. The oxide is added to a decoc- 
tion of logwood, and the dyeing may be effected in one operation, by putting 
together the salt, the decoction, and the cotton, and heating the whole. Or 
the cotton can be treated with the salt, hot or cold, and may then be placed 
in the decoction until the desired color is obtained. By varying the propor- 
tions of the salt to the decoction, very delicate shades of gray and lilac may 
be obtained. 

Dock Railway, Liverpool. — At the last meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, there was exhibited a large model of a high level railway, which it is 
proposed to carry along the east side of the whole line of docks at Liverpool. 
The construction will consist of iron frame-work supporting two platforms. 
The lower will be about 52 feet wide and 20 feet above the present quays, 
designed entirely for goods traffic, having four lines of railway — the two 
nearest the docks to be used as sidings for trucks while loading and unload- 
ing, and the other two as up and down lines for trucks in motion. The upper 
platform is to be about 23 feet wide, and to have two lines of railway, 
intended for passengers only. The lower platforin will be provided with 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 437 

hydraulic cranes, whicli will transfer goods either from or to the vessels or 
the trucks, as well as work through the hatchways in the platform to the 
quays. The scheme embraces the construction of deposit and transit- sheds, 
a connection with existing or future railways, and with private warehouses, 
and the erection of passenger-stations. The great thoroughfares will be 
crossed by bridges, and the line will be equally applicable for horses or loco- 
motive power. The cost is estimated at less than £250,000 a mile. This 
includes hydraulic cranes and platforms, with stationary steam power to work 
them. On the other hand, it is calculated that the value of the quay space 
gained by the platforms of the railway, at the low^ rate of £5 a yard, will 
yield a return of about £210,000 a mile, not much below the estimated 
expenditure. 

Effect of Light upon the Compass. — Attention was called, by Sir 
John Eoss, at Liverpool, to the omission of any notice in the Admiralty 
Manual of Scientific Inquiry, of the effect which light exerted upon the mag- 
netic needle. The Swedish philosopher, Wrede, totally excluded light from his 
magnetic observatory, with the exception of a subdued light at a considerable 
elevation vertical to the horizontal needle, while the arc was read oft" by a tele- 
scope, at a distance of several yards from the instrument. Means, with the same 
end in view, ought to be adopted in every magnetic observatory ; otherwise, no 
reliance could be placed on the observations. It was evident that the more 
deliberately the magnetic needle was suspended, the more obnoxious it would 
be to the efiect of artificial light in the operation of reading off the instru- 
ment. In proof of the effect of every description of light on the magnet, Sir 
John mentioned that, during his last voyage in the J^elix, when frozen in. 
about TOO miles north of the magnetic pole, he concentrated the rays of the 
full moon on the magnetic needle, when he found it was five degrees attracted 
by it. 

Twin-Dredger of Thirty Horse Power. By J. W. Hoby & Co., En- 
gineers, Renfrew. — This powerful dredging machine was constructed for the 
Commissioners of Leith Harbor, the designs furnished by the makers being 
approved of by Mr. Rendel, the engineer. It has been a very successful 
machine, its performances being at the rate of 1840 tons discharged per day 
of ten hours. A deviation from the ordinary system of construction was 
adopted in it, on account of certain peculiarities of the locality for which the 
dredger was destined. 

The hull is of plate-iron, and is ninety feet long, thirty feet wide, and eight 
feet six inches deep. A large well is formed in the centre of the vessel for 
the passage of the two endless chains of buckets, and for the introduction of 
the ladders upon which the buckets are supported. These ladders are upheld 
at one end by the main shafts, by means of which the buckets are driven, the 
other extremities of the ladders being slung to a hoisting apparatus at the 
other end of the vessel, so that they may be elevated or lowered to suit the 
level of the bottom to be deepened. The machinery is driven by a pair of 
oscillating cyhnders, each twenty-five inches in diameter, and placed imme- 
diately below the main driving shaft, which is at the upper end of the 
bucket-ladders. These cylinders are supplied with steam from two boilers 
near the longitudinal centre of the vessel, and j)laced one on each side of the 
central well. The motion is first communicated to a transverse horizontal 
shaft immediately over the steam-cylinders. This shaft carries two very 
heavy fly-wheels, and has bevel-pinions upon its overhanging ends, and con- 
nected to it by frictional couplings, so as to yield to any inordinate strain. 



438 KEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

These bevel-pinions gear with bevel-wheels keyed upon vertical shafts, which 
carry bevel-pinions upon their upper ends in gear with large bevel-wheels on 
the main driving-shafts. The bevel-pinions on the upper ends of the vertical 
shafts can be engaged with, or disengaged from, their shafts by means of 
adjustable clutch-boxes. Connections are likewise provided to enable the 
engines to drive the several winches for lifting the lower ends of the bucket- 
ladders, for warping the vessel into a new position, and for other purposes. 

The sand or mud raised by the buckets is discharged into a shoot or duct 
of plate-iron, which conveys it into the pontoon-hopper, or lighter, placed 
across the end of the vessel to receive it. 

Patent HrDROSTATic Cranes. By J. Robertson, Engineer, Ardrossan* 
— These hydrostatic machines will be found useful in the operations of the 
civil engineer, and in engineering work-shops, in all cases in which heavy 
bodies have to be lifted or moved, and particularly where, from the nature 
of the ground or the position of the object to be lifted, it is difficult to apply 
ordinary winch or crane power. One of these cranes can be attached as 
easily as the ordinary block-tackle, whilst it has the advantage of being 
worked so as to exert its full power directly in the line of the centres of 
attachment, the machine simply acting as a contracting connecting link in 
the lifting-chain with no lateral strain whatever, such as is occasioned by 
the drawing end of the rope in block-tackles. 

In common with all machines of this class, great power is obtained in a 
very small compass, and the working of it can be easily changed to suit the 
load, a quick speed being employed for a light body, and a slow speed with 
great power for a heavy one. 

The essential feature of the apparatus is the use of a working cylinder, of 
the pendulous kind, fitted with a piston to be actuated by water pressure. 
For example, in a warehouse or vork-shop, the working-cylinder may be 
slung or suspended, in an inverted position, from any convenient over-head 
beam, by a rope, link, or joint attached at its closed end. In this way the 
piston-rod works through a stuffing-box at the lower end of the cylinder, and 
the projecting end of the rod carries a hook, or other connection, for attach- 
ment to the actual hauling-chain. The actuating fluid is conveyed into the 
cylinder by a flexible pipe, so that the vibration of the cylinder can not afiect 
the pressure flow. By attaching a suitable valve to the workiog-cylinder, the 
pressure fluid may be directed to either side of the piston, so that the upper 
end of the cylinder answers as a convenient reserroir for the fluid. The fluid 
pressure may be obtained from various sources, as from natural head-columns, 
or from pumping apparatus ; and in using pumps, these details may be 
either at a distance from, or attached to, the side of the working-cylinder. 
Where long strokes or lifts are required, this may either be efiected by 
suitable pulley or lever arrangements in connection with the working piston- 
rod, or by the adoption of a telescopic arrangement of the working-cylinder, 
one cylinder being placed inside the other, the traversing-cylinder inside the 
external one being formed to work as a piston ; this internal cylinder again 
having a piston within it, so that a long stroke is obtainable from this duplex 
action ; and, instead of using one cylinder only as the lifting movement, two 
or more may be suspended side by side. Travelling cranes may also be con- 
structed on this principle, the working-cylinder in such case being disposed 
horizontally upon the cross-beam of the crane-framing, and being imme- 
diately supported by a traversing carriage, so that the lifting apparatus can 
be run back or forward at will, to suit the requirements of the time, whilst 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 439 

the travelling frame itself further adds to this power of removal ; such a car- 
riage may also have upoa it the actuating pump. In such hoisting apparatus, 
the stop-valve of the lifting-cylinder, by holding the fluid-column, acts as a 
certain holder of any weight which may be upon the crane. Such cranes 
are made to indicate the weight upon them, by attaching to the main work- 
ing-cylinder a smaller cyhnder bored to two slightly diflerent diameters. A 
single piston-rod has upon it two pistons, one for each of these two diameters, 
and the working fluid from the main cylinder has access to the space included 
between these two pistons. The difference in the area of the pistons being 
extremely slight, the larger piston is caused to traverse, in proportion to its 
greater area, against the resistance of a spring fastened to the piston-rod. 
This rod carries an index bearing upon a graduated scale, and the suspended 
weight is thus at once pointed out. 

Mining Engines and Machinery. A Barclat, Kilmarnock. Patent 
dated March 2, 1854. — A portion of the improvements comprehended in 
this patent relate to the so arranging the winding engines of coal and other 
mines, that they may be more safely managed than at present, whilst all 
chance of "over-winding" and injury to the mining mechanism may be 
avoided. These improvements are effected by adapting the ordinary and 
well-known " link motion" to the hand-gear of the engine, so that the attend- 
ant can easily stop and reverse his engine at the exact moment re*quired in 
the action of winding. To do this, the engine-man has only to work a hand- 
lever up or down ; and this lever being suitably connected with the " link- 
motion," correspondingly afiects the portion of such motion, and thereby 
either stops or reverses the engine, as is at present done in locomotive and 
marine engines. By such a system of gearing, the motion is entirely 
unbroken, and the attendant has always a safe and perfect command over his 
engine ; and to add still further to the safe working of the system, a self-act- 
ing movement is contrived to come into play at the precise moment required, 
for the purpose of stopping or reversing the engine, in case the engine-man 
should be careless or absent at the proper time. For this purpose a tumbler 
is so connnected with the engine or winding mechanism, that it shall be 
slowly wound up, or elevated to its falling centre, at the time that the motion 
of the engine is to be changed. Thus, as this tumbler falls over, it acts 
through suitable connections upon the reversing or stopping-link, and effects 
the intended movement. Various means may be adopted for securing the 
self-acting effect, disengaging pins or stoj^s being so set as to actuate the. link- 
movement at the proper time. 

As adapted to direct-acting horizontal cylinder winding and pumping 
engines, for instance a small shaft passes away back from the main-shaft to 
the steam-cylinder, at which end this small shaft carries a worm in gear with 
a vsrorm-wheel set on a horizontal stud. This wheel has a ring-groove in its 
side to receive adjustable stud-pins, which are set at the proper distances in 
the wheel, so as to act upon the adjusting lever of the valve-link motion. 
Provision is also made, by a separate adjusting slide or bolt, for allowing the 
engine-man to set the engine to go constantly in one direction, as when used 
for pumping. When so set the adjustable-pins of the worm wheel no longer 
aftect the engine, so as to set the valves for back or forward actions, or the 
up and down winding. Shoidd the engine accidently run slightly beyond 
the intended point, an eccentric piece on the stud-spindle carrying the worm- 
wheel acts upon a sliding piece carried round by the wheel, and this move- 
ment, acting upon the under side of the valve-link lever, sets this lever to its 



440 NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 



central position, so as to prevent the return of the engine. These gearintr 
details are obviously capable of being modified in various -svavs, and the 
arrangements are suitable for beam or other kinds of engines. " To prevent 
accidents from the main gearing getting disengaged, a fnction-brake appa- 
ratus is provided, to stop the engine's movement. Thus, should the wheels 
fly out of gear — owing, for instance, to the attendant's leaving out the fast- 
ening-key when changing from pumping to winding — this friction-stra]) will 
be brought into play to prevent the engine from running away. The brake- 
pulley is set upon the shaft, which is liable to slip back, and being loosely 
encircled by a friction-stiap, the lateral traverse, owing to the disengage- 
ment, makes the pulley press itself hard against the interior of the strap. 
This strap encircles three fourths of the wheel, and is workable as well from 
both its ends. These two opposite ends are each connected to one of the two 
opposite cages, that is, the ascending and descending cages. For instance, 
when one of the cages arrives at its proper stopping point, it acts upon a pin or 
stop in connection with one end of the friction-strap, and draws the strap tight 
around the pulley in the direction of the revolution of the pulley at the time 
being. Hence, whichever way the engine is running, the friction-strap has a 
tendency to be forced down into frictional contact by the pully movement 
when once started. The engine-man can also work such friction-brake by a 
separate hand or foot-gear movement. 

Lappet Loom. J. Smith, Glasgow. Patent dated February 21, 1854. 
— This invention relates to the manufacture of goods of the " lappet " 
class, a portion of the improvements being in substitution of the ordi- 
nary pattern ratchet-wheel, whilst the nsual "whip" rolls are superseded 
by another branch of the invention. Instead of the pattern-wheel, a small 
cylinder or barrel is used, carrying an endless chain, composed of small slips 
of wood, gutta percha, or other "material capable of being shaped to the 
required foi-ra of link, and hard enough to withstand the working action. Or, 
instead of this contrivance, a framework, or combination of plates, or slips of 
iron, wood, or other material, may be used, such pieces being acted upon by 
a cylinder with perforated cards, so as to produce the required pattern, by 
acting upon the usual figuring mechanism of the loom. This movement is 
on the principle of the jacquard. In the endless chain arrangement, the 
links of the chain are formed and arranged to suit the intended pattern to be 
woven. The pattern, or figure, is engraved or formed, either in intaglio or 
in relievo, w^ovi the external face of the chain, as many lines of pattern, or 
figure, being used as there are needle-frames. These pattern-lines extend 
continuously over the chain, and a pike, or catch, from each needle-slide, is 
connected with, or enters into, each of such pattern-lines. The endless chain 
is made to traverse to suit the loom action, and the needle-frames, govern- 
ing the figuring movements, are thus made to traverse for the figuring action. 
In addition to this movement, the endless chain carries a secondary figure 
actuating a set of cranked pieces, which communicate with the lines of 
needles, so as to throw in or out such sets of needles as the pattern may 
require. 

In dispensing with the " whip" rolls, the cops, or bobbins of whip material, 
are applied directly to the loom. This whip-yarn is used, either twisted, or 
in its natural untwined condition, and as many ends or lines of yarn are 
passed up in combination from the cops, as may be necessary for the produc- 
tion of the required figuring-thread. These lines of yarn, in passing from 
the cops, are kept at a regular even tension, by being passed between fric- 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 441 

tional spring-holdei-s, or elastic clips, so as to dispense with any other 
mechanism, the yarn being guided uniformly to the fabric as the weavino- 
goes on. The improved processes considerably extend the capabilities of the 
lappet loom, affording a greater horizontal range for the needle-rods, so that 
an increased number may be used with convenience. Thus a greater width 
or greater complexity of design, is easily attainable, whilst any length is 
secured by adding to the chain or to the perforated cards. 

Steam Boiler Apparatus. J. IIousTOff, Glasgow. — These improvements 
consist in regulating the supply of steam-boilers by the aid of a float, actino- 
by means of suitable connections, passing through the boiler-case upon the 
stop-cock of the water-supply pipe. In marine boilers, this float is made to 
work in a chamber or casing communicating with the main boiler space by 
a small aperture, so that any motion of the mass of the water in the boiler 
may only affect the float very slightly. Another branch of the improvements 
relate to the adjustment of the flue-damper of a steam-boiler furnace, by 
means of a piston acted upon by the steam pressure, and arranged to open 
or shut a water-supply cock in connection with the damper movement. 



Musical. — Grisi and Mario, New- York Philadelphia, and Boston. Those 
who have not heard these renowned artists, know not what they have lost. 
Mario, as a tenor, certainly has no superior, among all whose fame has 
reached us, and no equal has appeared in this community. But Grisi 
stands far above competition. As a vocalist, she has few equals ; as a tragic 
actress, she has at least ho superior. Certainly, the union of so great power 
in these two departments, gives her a prominent place among the most emi- 
nent artists in the history of the stage. She honors her profession never 

descends to clap-trap and trick. She has fewer ornaments than many of 
our own vocalists, and therein she proves her greatness. Like Sontao- she 
dares to sing a simple melody as it is written. Every time she is listened 
to in tragic opera, she gains in her power over you. We shall never pro- 
bably be favored with such an opportunity again. As we write this these 
artists are announced as soon to appear in Philadelphia and in Boston. We 
charge every one of our readers who can appreciate the music of the opera 
in the very highest style the world has known, to take the earliest opportunity 
to hear them. 

The Orange Water-Melon. — Mr. Peabody, editor of the Soil of the 
South, Columbus, Ga., has lately introduced a new kind of water-melon, 
and_ which, from its singular properties, he calls the orange water-melon. By 
cutting the rind, as you peel an orange, the entire skin may be taken off, 
leaving the pulp unbroken, which, with a little care, may be divided as you 
would an orange. The flavor is said to be very fine, and it has proved 
itself perfectly hardy in this State. Mr. P. will, on receipt of a dollar, for- 
ward pre-paid packages of the seed. 



442 NEW BOOKS. 



Gexekal Agency. — The publisher of The Plough, the Loom^ and the Anvily 
believing it in his power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to theui that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purcliase of books of any description ; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, and experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and will execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

J^^Farticular attention to business connected with the Patent-Office. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to. 

ScHOOL-TEAcnERS. — Having had occasion to furnish teachers for some 
of our Southern friends, we have been fortunate enough to learn of several 
young ladies who are admirably well qualified for fiimilies or schools, and if any 
are in need of such, a letter addressed to us will receive immediate answer. "We 
shall not fear to guarantee that any reasonable expectations will be fully met. 
Some of them are desirous of going South. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Literary Recreations and MiscELLANrES. By Joim G. Whittier. Boston: Ticknor 
& Fields. 1854. 431 pages. 

Mb,. Whittihb's numerous friends ■will be highly gratified with this collection of prose 
and poetry, by this gifted author. Most of the pieces have already appeared in various 
journals, but being selected from a large number of his writings, pubJi?hed at different 
and distant times, they raay be regarded as possessing, iff the writer's view, pecuUar 
merits compared with others that were passed by, and as especially illustrative of his 
peculiar but highly cultivated mind. The volume is handsomely executed, and does 
honor to the enterprising publishers, 

MEMORABtE Women, the Story of their Lives. By Mrs. Newton Crossland. With 
eight illustrations by Blrket Foster. Boston: Ticknor <fc Fields. 1854. 355 pages. 

This book will be read with great interest. It describes women, several of whom 
were very prominent in their day, and whose characters and social position secure for 
them universal regard. Among them are Lady Rachel Russell, Mrs. Thrale, Fanny 
Burney, etc. Their biographies introduce us to the most learned and most celebrated 
circles of those times, and give an insight into the private life and manners of some of 
the most cultivated minds in England. 

Home Stories. 

John P. Jewett & Co., Boston, have recently published a series of four small volumes, 
for children, written by Phcebe Harris Phelps, which are handsomely printed and neatly 
bound, as follows : 

Henry Day Learning to Obey Bible Commands. 

Henry Day'ss Story-Book. 

Mary Day Forming Good Habits. 

Mary Day's Story-Book. 

These stories are well-written and short, and each inculcates very clearly some import- 
ant moral or religious truth. The plan is excellent, and is very well executed. With 
juvenile libraries consisting of books like these, and the little work below, in all our 
schools, we might anticipate no small improvement in the conduct of our cliildren. 



NEW BOOKS. 443 



Rose and Lillib Stanhope ; or, the Power of Conscience. By M. J, McIntosh. New- 
York: D. Appleton & Co. 1854. 

This little book is a gem. Not a line of it needs mending ; not a paragraph could be 
spared. The story is well devised for illustrating the necessiiy of conscience, and its tre- 
mendous power, when properly enlightened, over the conduct of children. Pai'ents and 
teachers might read this story with great profit. No juvenile or Sabbath-school library 
should be without it. 

Sabbath Morning Readings in the Old Te'stament. By Rev. John CtrainNG, D.D., 
F.R.S.E., Minister of the Scottish National Church, Crown-Ci)urt, Covent Garden, Lon- 
don. Book of Genesis and book of Exodus. Boston: John P. Jewett & Co. 1854. 
pp, 385 and 871. 

These volumes contain the substance of the exposition of the Scripture lesson of the 
morning service, to his own people. His object is not so much learned criticism as the 
solution of diiBculties, and to impress the truth of the passage on the heart and mind and 
conscience. We need not say that the plan is ably carried out. In fact, these volumes 
are exactly what the inielligent reader of the Bible needs, and the want of which has 
been seriously felt. It is not a dry, doctrinal skeleton, but living Scripture truth, ably 
set forth, and will secure the attention of every intelligent reader. For sale by Jew- 
ett, Proctor & Worthiugton, Cleveland, Ohio ; and Sheldon, Lamport, &, Blakeman, New- 
York. 

Amabel; a Family History. By Mart Elizabeth Wormlet. New- York: Buncq tt 

Brother. 

This is a remarkable book. In every part of it, the story excites the deepest sympa- 
thies of the reader. The character of Amabel is drawn with great skill, and is well sus- 
tained from beginning to end. The plot is quite complicate, but the progress of events 
seems ptrfectly natural, and the story has an air of truth and reality quite unusual in this 
kind of literature. Some of the scenes exhibit great power, especially near the close of 
the book. The account of the storm and wreck it would be difficult to match from any 
female writer. The story is rather a sad one ; but there are generally palliating circum- 
stances, or, at least, there is a bright light in the distant future, relieving the darkness of 
the past. The final scenes are very adroitly conceived, and equally surprise and delight 
the reader. 

We may certainly be proud of some of our female writers. 

Investigation of the Alleged Official Misconduct of the Late Sdpkrintendfnt 

OF the Philadelphia, Wjlmington & Baltimore Railroad Co. Vol. I. Pho- 

nographically reported by Arthur Cannon. Philadelphia. 1854. 

This ponderous volume of more than a thousand octavo pages, besides seventy-two 

pages of appendix, contains the evidence adduced by both parties to this contioversy, 

before a committee appointed by the Board of Directors of this Company to make such 

investigation. At the close of the text, we find, "The testimony being concluded, the 

Committee went into private session." When they report their proceedings, probably 

the second volume will be issued. 

Te.\nsactions of the New-York State Agricultural Society; with an Abstract of 
the Proceedings of the County Agricultural Societies. Vol. XIII., 1853. Albany. 
1854. 783 pages, 8vo. 

We tender our thanks to Mr. Johnson, the Cor. Secretary of this Society, for this valu- 
able book. We shall avail ourselves of its highly useful information in our future 
numbers. 

The Biography of Self-T aught Men; with au Introductory Essay. Boston: Perkins 

& Whipple. 1850 and 1852. 

Two small, volumes have been publislfed at different times. One volume was pre- 
pared ahnoat entirely by that accomplished scholar, the late B. B. Edwards. In this, 
twenty-seven distinguished characters are given, and eighteen in the second volume. 
We need not say that they are well written, nor that they are worthy of notice. We 
commend them to general attention, and especially to young men, for whom these ex- 
amples are peculiarly profitable. Fine likenesses of Nathl Bowditch and of Roger 
Sherman form the frontispiece. The successors of these publishers are the firm of S. 
K. Whipple & Co., 100 Washington street. 



444 NEW BOOKS. 



Romanism in Ameeica. By Rev. Rufus W. Clark. Boston: S. K. Whipple <t Co- 

1855. 271 pages. 

The title describes the character of this volume. Tlie origin and progress of Roman- 
ism, its principles, etc., as contrasted with Protestantism, are described in Mr. Clark's 
pleasing style. It discusses also, at length, the propriety of the claims of this denomina- 
tion in reference to school-books and kindred matters. So far as we have examined it, 
it is free from the use of opprobrious language, and shows a candid, kindly spirit. These 
subjects deserve investigation, and indeed demand not only consideration, but decisive 
actioD. 

The Science and Art of Et.ocdtion and Okatoey ; containing Specimen? of the Elo- 
quence of the Pulpit, the Bar, the Stage, the Legislative Hall, and the Battle-Field. 
By Worthy Putnam, Professor of the Science of Elocution, and Practical Instructor 
in the Art. Auburn and Buffiilo : Miller, Orton & Mulligan. 

This is a good selection from the best of authors, from Mrs. Sigourney to Daniel Web- 
ster. It is in three parts. Part 1st, theoretic and scientific, contains rules and princi- 
ples, illustrating thejorgans of speech, the elementary sounds of the language, inflections, 
attitudes, etc., occupying about fifty pages. The 2d part is rhetorical, classical, and 
poetical, one hundred and fifty pages; and the 3d part, comical and musical, another 
hundred pages. The volume is well printed and bound in cloth. For sale by Appleton 
<feCo. 

The Complete Manual for the Cultivation of the Strawberry; with a Descrip- 
tion of the Best Varieties. Also, Notices of the Raspberry, Blackberry, Cui-rant, 
Gooseberry, and Grape, with directions for their cultivation and the selection of the 
best varieties. By R. G. Pardee. With a valuable Appendix containing the observa- 
tions and experience of the most successful cultivators of these fruits in our country. 
New- York : C. M. Saxton. 1854. 144 pages. 

This long title tells its own story. It is the result of actual experiments, long and 
carefully tried both in Northern and Southern climates, and deserves the attention not 
only of the amateur, but of the professional gardener. Price, 50 cents. 

Practical Mechanic?' Journal. Glasgow. 

The recent numbers of this journal have been received, and they commend themselves 
to the attention of all mechanics. The chapters devoted to American patents are full 
and scientific. Stringer & Townsend, Agents. 

Harper's Gazetteer of the World. 

We have already commended the earlier numbers of this able work to the attention 
of our readers. The first six have been laid on our table. They are admirably exe- 
cuted. The matter is well digested. The statistics are so condensed as to comprise 
much information in a small compass. Ten numbers are to complete the set. Price, 50 
cents each number, 

Ruth Hall ; a Domestic Tale of the Present Time. By Fanny Fern. New- York ; 

Mason Brotheri, 400 pages. 

This volume is peculiarly a family story. The heroine, her parents and brothf^r, her 
husband and his parents are the chief characters. They are skillfully drawn, and some 
of them are decidedly rich. But the book is peculiar. The author appears to have 
seated herself to this tale, with the single view of exhibiting every one of these relatives 
in the most odious light possible, while the heroine is lauded to the skies. Unlike other 
writers of fiction, who are content to allow actions to speak for themselves, she interrupts 
her narrative to introduce accumulative testimony to the meanness and cold-heartednees 
of these persons. She acts the part of a state's attorney in a criminal court, who endea- 
vors to array all the witnesses he can find, to make out his prisoner as bad as be can. 
This peculiarity and certain well-known resemblances have led some to suppose that 
Fanny is the heroine of her own story. Nothing but ])ersonal antipathies, it is supposed, 
and not without reason, would lead one, in ordinary cases, to conceive such a plot, or to 
dishonor so holy relations, or to bring into ridicule religious professions, as does the con- 
ception which brought into being this story. We think she has erred also in her cxcc^s- 
ive commendations of the heroine, who, if a rational woman, must revolt at such gross 
flatteries. No friend was ever guilty of such fulsome stuff. But it may be that the 
whole is a work of fancy. If so, she certainly has a peculiar taste, peculiar ideas of 
filial afifection, or, at least, peculiar modes of showing and inculcating it, as well as a 



NEW BOOKS. 445 



peculiarly unchristianized, not to say uncivilized, style of imagination. But in this ag® 
of morbid appetite for family scandal, whether real or imaginary, however they may 
affect her reputation as a woman, these very peculiarities will cause her book to be read, 
and will increase not only her own, but also the profits of the publishers. 

Ladies' Guide or Skillful Housewife ; or Complete Guide to Domestic Cookery, 
Taste, Comfort, and Economy ; embracing 650 receipts. By Mrs. L. G. Abell Thirty- 
Fifth Thousand. 1855. C. M. Saxton, New-York, 

This little work contains almost every thing connected with the duties of a house- 
keeper, including directions for preparing meats, breads, cakes, puddings, pies, etc., for 
curing the diseases and dressing the wounds to which families are particiJarly exposed, 
and many other things that every body ought to know. All for 25 cents. Send for it. ' 

Annual Illustrated Register, C, M. Saxton. 

A vert pretty annual, well worth the 25 cents at which it is sold. 

Among the many elegant and valuable Books for Holiday Gifts, published by Messrs. 
R. Carter & Brothers, 285 Broadway, may be found the following: 
The Auto-Biographt and Reminiscences of the Rev. William Jay, 2 vol"? l^mo 
$2.50. In 1 vol., full gilt, ?3 ; half-calf, $3 ; full calf, $4.50. "' " ' 

"Few names are so extensively known in the Christian communities of Great Britain 
and the United States as that of William Jay. His Morniug and Evening Exercises is 
in the great niajority of Christian families, the Auto-biography is written in a style of 
great simplicity and pleasantness. The reminiscences, by Mr. Jay, of prominent indi- 
viduals with whom he was well acquainted— as John Newton, Richard Cecil, Robert 
Hall, Wilham Wilberforce, and others, are graphic and entertaining, and replete with 
anecdote," ^ 

Evening Hours with mt Children ; or. Conversations on the Gospel Story, Illus- 
trated with twelve large Illustrations, (quarto size,) colored and plain, 

Kitto's Dailt Bible Illustrations. 8 vols., 12mo. Cloth, $8; in half-calf, $12, 

j-^'^^^ ^^f^^ °^ ^^'^ ^"^^"^ '^ *° ^^'^® "P°° passages of Scripture that are obscure, or 
ditticult to be understood, particularly from their allusions to ancient places or customs 
or persons or thmgs, and throw upon them the light of history. Beginning in the first 
volume, with the Antediluvians and Patriarchs, the reader is led on, day by day through 
the historic records of Moses and the Judges, Saul and David, Solomon and the Kings 
Job and the poetical writers, Isaiah and the Prophets, and thence to the New-Testament 
characters and times, everywhere gathering new facts, and discovering the breadth and 
beauty of new truths." 

Scotia's Bards ; comprising the choicest productions of Scottish Poets, illustrated with 
more than fifty elegant engravings in the highest style of the art, with Frontispiece 
and Vignette by Ritchie. 8vo. Cloth, $3 ; full gilt, |4; Turkey Morocco, $6.50. 
" Scotland, rich in the treasures of Theology, History, and Philosophy, here stands 
before us with her long array of Poets, such as any country might be proud to acknow- 
ledge as its own," ^ o r 

Palet's Evidences of Christianity. With Notes and Additions by Charles Murray 
Nairne, M.A, 

This is one of the best popular treatises upon the external evidences of Christian Faith. 

The Land of the Forum and the Vatican; or, Thoughts and Sketches during an 

Eastern Pilgrimage. By Newman Hall, B.A, 

This is a truthful record of the author's impressions and opinions formed by a careful 
study of scenes and places that he visited, and in his best style of composition, 

Fritz Harold; or, The Temptation, By Sarah A. Myers. 

Jeanie Morrison ; or, the Discipline of Life. By the Author of « The Pastor's Family.' 

Words to Win Souls. Twelve Sermons preached in 1620 and 1650. By Eminent 
Divines of the Church of England. Revised and abridged by the Rev. Thomas S. 
Mellington. 



446 2irEW BOOKS. 



The Millineks' and Dress-Makers' Guide. 

This work 13 issued on the first of every other month, at $" per annum, by Samuel T. 
Taylor, 407 Broadway. Mr. Taylor enables the subiscriber to cut and make dresses 
from diagrams sent with the work. It is richly embellished with four large colored 
fashion plates in each number, obtained directly from Paris. The Maryland Institute 
and the Crystal Palace have awarded Mr. Taylor Prize Medals for the excellency of his 
system of cutting, as taught in the Guide. We commend the Guide to all housekeepers 
and others having families, as one of the most useful and practical publications of the 
day. 

Peteeson's Ladies' National Magazine. 

Mrs. Stephens, the editress of this popular monthly, is a lady of great talent, and the 
writer of several very valuable books, which are eagerly sought for by the reading pub- 
lic. Her magazine, which is produced with much taste, is filled with choice reading, at 
a reduced rate of subscription, only f 2 per annum. Should the reader desire other lite- 
rary works of a popular character, he will find a supply rarely surpassed in richness and 
variety, at Peterson's, 102 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, the publication office of the La- 
dies' National. 

Arthur's Home Magazine. 

The idea conceived by Mr. Arthur a few years ago, of imposing the reading matter of 
his Gazette in the form of a monthly, seems to have taken well with the public. This 
magazine is among our most popular periodicals, and we take pleasure in commending 
it to our readers. It is riclily embellished, and furnished at $2 a year. 

The Life of Horace Greeley, Editor of the New- York Tribune. By J. Parton. 
New- York : Mason Brothers. 1855. 442 pages. 

There are many things in the framework of this book which we should regard as of 
doubtful expediency, and there are opinions defended, incidentally, for which we have 
no sympathy. But, on the whole, the plan adopted gives a more thorough view of the 
man than any other. It is not a eulogy, but a plain narrative. The history of Mr. 
Greeley necessarily includes a history of the daily press in this city, and throws much 
light on the history of political parties during a period of many years. Much of the 
volume would be very entertaining to all parties, and no one can read the whole with- 
out the conviction that, however erroneous his views may be regarded, he is at least 
honest, thoroughly honest ; and a life more persevering, untiring, and unyielding, even in 
the face of formidable obstacles, without the aid of friends or patronage, is seldom the 
subject of any biography. A true friend of the working classes, which is, in. fact, syno- 
nymous with being the friend of the whole community, he certainly is ; and if his advice 
is not always the best, we but have in this fact, the evidence that he is not infallible. 
His boyhood and youth may be a useful example to others in that period of life, and is 
a severe commentary on the utter failure of thousands who have utterly failed with 
vastly greater facilities for winning the prize. • 

Godey's Ladj's Book. 

The January number of this journal, received in advance of its date, furnishes abund- 
ant evidence of the determination of the publisher to deserve the reputation whirh he 
has already secured, and the extensive patronage he has long received. His illustra- 
tions are abundant. Terms, $3 a year. 

The Land of the Saracens; or. Pictures of Palestine. Asia Minor, Sicily, and Spain. 

By Bayard Taylor. New- York : G. P. Putnam & Co. 1855. 

Mr. Taylor's extensive travels in the most remarkable countries on the globe furnish 
him an iutxiiaustible supply of material for interesting narrative. This volume is the 
second portion of a series of travels, of which the "Journey to Central Africa," already 
noticed, is the first part. No portion of his travel is more fruitful of interesting topics 
than this. A few titles of his chapters furnish proof of this. For example: 2. The Coast 
of Palestine ; 3. From Jaffa to Jerusalem ; 4. The Dead Sea and the River Jordan ; 9. 
Pictures of Damascus; 10. The Visions of Hasheesh; 31. The Eruption of Mount Etna, 
etc., etc. We need not say Mr. T.'s pecuUar gift in description especially qualifies him 
for such work, and guarantees fresh interest even where numerous travellers have pre- 
ceded him. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



447 



Me. Rutherford's Children. 2d vol, New- York : G. P. Putnam. 1855. 

This volume ia intended for "Ellen Montgomery's Book-Shelf," and is by the author 
of " The Wide, Wide World," " Dollars and Cents," etc. The first volume was published 
isome years ago. It is very handsomely printed, and is done up in very neat binding, 
for a gift-book. The contents are sprightly and entertaining. 

The Shaksperean Oracle. Edited by John Crcger Mills. Jfew-York: Bunce & 
Brother. 1855. 

This is a very neatly executed little volume of 147 pages, more especially designed 
for young ladies and young gentlemen. Thirteen questions, of veri/ interesthir/ nature, 
in certain conditions of things, are each answered by a reference to any chosen one of 
fifty answers, all gathered from Shakspeare. 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM NOV, 14 TO DEC. 5. 



Edwin Allen, of South-Windham, Ct., improve- 
ment in machinery for carving stone. 

Levi B. Ball, Putnam, Ohio, improvement in 
smut-machines. 

Wm. Brancroft, of Whiteford, Ohio, improve- 
ment in cultivators. 

Henry Bates, New-London,improvement in slide- 
valves tor the exhaust steam. 

William Beebe, New- York, improvement in dou- 
ble cylinder boilers for hot-water apparatus. 

Martin Bell, of Sabbath Rest, and Edward B. 
Isett, of Cold Spring Forge, Tyrone city. Pa., im- 
provement in furnaces for making iron direct fiom 
the ore. 

Wm. Bell, Boston, improved lamp-caps. 

Job Brown, Lawn Eidge, III., improvement in 
cultivators. 

Thos. M. Chapman, Oldtown, Me., improved de- 
vice for adjusting mill-saws. 

Matthias P. Coons, Brooklyn, multigrade iron 
lence. 

Horace J. Crandall, East-Boston, improved me- 
thod of adjusting vessels upon the keel-blocks of 
dry sectional or railway dock. 

George Crampton, Worcester, improvement in 
looms for weaving figured fabrics. 

Daniel Harris, Boston, assignor to John P. Bow- 
ker, Jr., of same place, improvement in sewing ma- 
chmes. 

Jonathan Hibbs, Tullytown, Pa., improvement 
J a ploughs. 

Geo. Hodgkinson, Cincinnati, improved pegging- 
raachines. i oo & 

George T. Leach, Boston, improvement in the 
method of engaging and disengaging self-acting car- 
brakes. 

Fras. Maton, New-York, improvement in breach 
loading fire-arm. 

Wm. Morris, Philadelphia, improvement in om- 
nibus registers. 

Joseph Miller, Olean, N. Y., improvement in rail- 
road car coupling. 

Wm. Moore, Belleville, Ohio, improvement in 
grain-winnowera. 

Alpheus Myers, Logansport, for tape-worm trap. 

Alpheus Myers, Logansport, for tape-worm ope- 
ration. ^ 

C. B. Normand, Havre, France, mode of controll- 
ing and guiding logs in saw-mills, without a car- 
nage. Patented in England, 27th Oct., 1S52 Pa- 
tented in France, Nov. 5, 1S52. 

C. B. Normand, Havre, France, for improved 
method of hanging saws for mills. 

C. B. Normand, Havre, Prance, for improved 
method of controlling the log for curved and bevel 



sawing. Patented in Francej Nov. 5, 1852 • Eng- 
lish patent, Oct. 27, 1852. ° 
Julius A. Peas, New-York, improvement in India- 
rubber over-shoes. 

Charles A. Robbing, Iowa City, Improved excava- 
tor and ditching plough. 

Geo. D. Stillbon, Rochester, improved excavating 
machine. 
Wm. Stoddard, Lowell, for shingle-machine. 
Jacob Swartz, Buffalo, improvement in grain and 
grass harvesters. 

Benj. James Tarman, Philadelphia, improvement 
in machinery for stretching and drying cloth. 
Orson Westgate, Riceville, Pa., for saw-gauge. 
Leon Jarosson, Jersey City, improved method 
of constructing printing blocks. 

George Bruce, New-York, improvement in cast- 
ing types. 

John A. Robling, Trenton, N. J., improvement 
in steam-boilers. 

Michael Shimer, Union Township, Pa., improve- 
ment in railroad car-brakes. 

James E, i^impson, East-Boston, for improve- 
ment in dry docks. 

Thomas J. Sloan, New- York, improvement in 
casting metal window-sashes. 

David G. Smith, Carbondale, improvement in 
running gear of railroad cars. 

Mathew Stev.'art, Philadelphia, improvement in 
the manufacture of brushes. 

Amasa St.wie, Philadelphia county, for method 
of extinguishing tire in accessible places. 

Thomas T. Tasker, Philadelphia, for mode of 
regulating the furnace of hot water apparatus. 

James Taylor, Newark, N. J., improvement in 
covering cotton thread with wool. 

Wm. D. Titus, Brooklyn, for improvement in lan- 
terns. 
Ellis Webb, Parkersville, Pa., for hydraulic ram. 
Elbridge AVebber, Gardiner, Me., improvement 
in churns. 

Cyrenus Whee'er, Jr., Poplar Ridge, N. J., im- 
provement in grain and grass harvesters; 

Franklin Darracott, Boston, assignor to Geo. 
Darracot, same place, improvements in dry gas 
meters. 

John Pepper, Jr., Portsmouth, N. H., assignor to 
the Franklin Mills, i'>auklin, N. H., improvement 
in knittiug-machifies. 

Joshua Register, Baltimore, assignor to Ellas 
Clampitt and Joshua Register, of same place, im- 
proved lubricating apparatus. 

John AV. Cochran, New- York, improved quartz- 
crusher. Patented in England, Nov. 21, 1853. 
George Thompson and Menell A. Furbush, of 



us 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Worcester,iraprovemeut in rollers for pattern chairs 
for looms. 

Jonathan W. CaUlweU, Rochester, improved ar- 
rangement of lever and catch for tow-lines of canal 
boats. 

Jno. Absteidam, Boston, Mass., improvement in 
lubricatini? the cylinders of steam-engine". 

Clark Alvord, Syracuse, N. Y., for hand brick- 
moulds. 

H. F. Baker, Centreville, Ind., improvement in 
paperinfT walls. 

H. F. David, Ipava, 111., improvement in sauce- 
pans. 

Chas. O. Everitt, Brooklyn, N. Y., improvement 
in machines fur closina; sheet-metal boxes. 

Jas. Freeland, Allegheny, Pa., improvement in 
valve gear for locomotive engines. 

Samuel Greene, VVoousocket, R. I., cleaning 
cards of carding-engiues. 

Adoniram Kendall, Cleveland, Ohio, improve- 
ments in shingle-machine. 

.Terome B. King, New-York, kettle for calcining 
piaster of Paris. 

G. W. Lee, Ercildown, Pa., improvement in seed- 
planters. 

D. B. Martin, Washington, N. J., improvement 
in packing slide-valves in steam-engines. 

R. I. Nelson, Ocala, Florida, improvement in at- 
taching life-preservers to vests. 

Mighill Nutting, Portland, Me., for arrangement 
of pencils for drawing-machine. 

Chas. Parham, Philadelphia, Pa., improvement in 
sewing-machines. 

Wni. Perry, Graniteville, S. C, improvement in 
spinning-frames. 

J. A. Roebling, Trenton, N. J., improvement in 
manufacturing wire rope. 

Elliott Savage, Berlin, Ct., improvement in ma- 
chines for threading screw-blanks. 

J. I/. Stevens, Kensington, England, improve- 
ment in furnaces. Patented in England, Oct. 1, 
1852. 

S. H. T. Tilghman, Snow Hill, Md., improvement 
in inhaling apparatus. 

W. H. Towers, Philadelphia, Pa., for clothes- 
clamp. 

T. \V. Trussell, Winchester, Va., for improvement 
in dressing mill-stones. • 

Isaac Van Bensehoten, New-York, improvement 
in lamps. 

Milan Waterbury, Cuba, N. Y., improvement in 
aeed-planters. 

William Watt, Glasgow, North-Britain, improve- 
ment in hemp-rotting processes. Patented in Eng- 
land, May 23, 1S32. 

Mary Ann Loomis, executrix of Josh. G. Loomis, 
deceased, late of Philadelphia, Pa., (assignor to W. 
A. Gardiner, of Philadelphia,) for improvement in 
aurgical furceps. 

T. C. Ball, Shelburne Falls, Mass., (assignor to 
Nath'l Lamson,) for improved scythe fastening. 

Harvey Snow, Dubuijue, Iowa, (assignor to Jas. 
A. Woodbury (Winchester, Mass.,) improved presser 
bar for pla ing-machines. 

Stephen Woodward, Sutton, N. H., (assignor to 
himself, J. P. Nelson, and A. C. Carroll,) improved 
apparatus for drying clothes. 

Sylvanus Miller, Urbana, Ohio, improved rake 
harvestii:g-machine. 

Alden Adam, Jerseyvillc, Illinois, improvement 
in hay and cotton presses. 

Gottlieb I'ackstein, Philadelphia, improved ar- 
rangement of devices for applying power to fire-en- 
gines. 

Jno. Cram, Bostorj, improvement in the towel- 
stand, or clothes-horse. 

A. B. Crawford, Wooster, Ohio, improvement in 
clov.cr-hullcrs. 

Augustus Eliaers, Boston, improvement in seats 
for public buildings. 

Fletcher Felter, Perth Amboy, improvement in 
feathering paddle-wheels. 

C. B. Gallagher, San Francisco, improvement in 
converting reciprocating into rotary motion. 



Elias A. Hibbard, Winchester, Va., rotary cook- 
ing stove. 

Jos. IloUen, White Township, Pa., improvement 
in knitting-machines. 

Whitteu E. Kidd, New- York, improvement in 
moulds lor pressing bonnet fronts. 

Daniel B. Martin, Washington, N. J., improve- 
ment in steam-boilers. 

Angus W. McDonald, New Creek Depot, Va., 
improvements in tanks and cisterns for supplying 
locomotives. 

Jordan L. Mott, Mott Haven, N. Y., improvement 
in stoves. 

James Newman, Birmingham, England, imi)rove- 
ment in making mclal rods and tubes. Dated No- 
vember 28, 186i. Patented in England, March 23, 
1854. 

A. D. Perry, Newark, improvement in breech- 
loading fire-arms. 

E. K. Root, Hartford, improved machine for bor- 
ing chambers in the cylinders of fire-arms. 

Daniel II. Shirley, of Boston, impruved piano- 
forte action. 

Nathaniel Spence, New-York, improvement in 
moulds tor pressing bonnet frames. Dated Novem- 
ber 28, 1S54. Ante-dated Nov. 10, 1S54. 

Wm. Talbot, Sandford, Me., improvements in 
looms for weaving bags. 

Wm. Tinsley, Glenn's Falls, improved mitre-box. 

Edward H. Tracy, New- York, inclined sliding- 
valve?. 

George Tugnot, New-York, improved rotary 
lathe. 

Daniel Van Fleet, Sandusky iCity, planing-ma- 
chine. 

Wm. Wakely, Homer, improvement in metal 
drills. 

Theodore E. Weed, Williamsburgh, improve- 
ment in sewing-machines. 

Wm. Wheeler, Acton, Mass., improvement in 
washing-machines. 

Henry Richards and Charles F. Winsor, Boston, 
improvement in windlasses. 

Osgood G. Boynton, Haverhill, assignor to Nehe- 
miah Hunt, of same place — improvemeiit in bind- 
ing guiiles for sewing-machines. Dated November 
2S, 1854 ; ante-dated June 1, 1854. 

Thomas J. W. Robertson, New-York, assignor to 
himself and Alfred E. Beach, of same place — im- 
provement in sewing-machines. 

Arad Woodworth, 3d, Boston, and Geo. Chara- 
berlin, Olean — improvement in machinery for mak- 
ing rope and cordage. 

Aaron H. Allen, Boston, for improvement in seats 
for public buildings. 

Gardner S. Blodgett and Paul T. Sweet, Eurhng- 
ton, N. J., improved oven for baking. 

P. Clark, Eahway, N. J., for improvement in 
steam-boiler alarms. 

Horace J. Craiidall, East-Boston, improved ar- 
rangements for re fing top-sails. 

Joseph D. Crowed, Boston, improvement in steer- 
ing apparatus. 

Joshua Gray, Boston, for rotary pump. 

John T. Haramltt, Philadelphia, improvement in 
railroad switches. 

Samuel B. Kittle, Buffalo, improvement in rail- 
road switches. 

John Lilley, Birkenhead. England, impiwement 
in machinery for separating the fibre from the 
woody portion of tropical plants. Patented in Eng- 
land, July 21, 1S53. 

Leonard F. Markham, Cambridgeport, improved 
machine for rounding the back of books. 

Obadiah Marland, Boston, improvement in pa- 
per-making nachines. Patented in England, Sep- 
tember 28, 1854. 

Wm. H. Miller, Brandenburgh, Ky., improve- 
ment in wash-stands. 

Henry R. Miller, Louisville, improved mill for 
shelling and grinding corn. 

Wm. H. Plumb, New-York, improved machine 
for crushing ores. 



Clje |l0ttgl)^ tl)e f 00111, anJi tl)e Ml 



Vol. VII. FEBRUARY, 1855, No. 8. 



ANNUAL FAIRS— THE POLICY OF, ETC. 

Two months since, we gave our views, somewhat concisely, on tlie policy 
of these institutions. We have received one reply, which will be found in 
connection with these remarks, and which, we think, brings out distinctly the 
essential facts and principles which belong to the discussion of this subject. 

FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AKD THE ASVIL, 

Messrs. Editors : The benefits of agricultural fairs have become so well 
known among all classes, that a repetition of their valuable results among all 
classes, hardly need be made at present. Yet the manner in which they are 
conducted appears to claim more of the attention of the public now than the 
principle on which they are sustained. That fairs, both agricultural and me- 
chanical, should always be held in connection with each other, all must see 
and admit at once. But their management in detail is another consideration, 
which we all are or should be interested in. Now, the question is, how to 
obtain from these annual " fairs" the greatest amount of good. During the 
last twelve or fifteen years, in connection with the "New-Haven County So- 
ciety," we (with others that we could name) have had some experience in the 
management of " fairs," and the interest taken in them by the people. Our 
out-door exhibition was always held in such a way that it was "free" for all 
to look on and learn as much from the exhibition as they might feel disposed 
to. But that was not the end of it. When we came to foot up the expenses, 
and pay the " premiums," we always found ourselves " short" of means, and 
an empty treasury to begin the next year. By the in-door exhibition, which 
was held usually in connection with the " Horticultural Society," we obtained 
some six cents a menaber — a mere nominal sum. But as the out-door exhi- 
bition was " free" for all, it was a mere matter of fancy whether farmers be- 
came members or not; as in case they became members of the Society, they 
paid their " dollar ;" if not, of course they paid nothing. Of course, all we 
had to depend on to pay our " premiums" were the amounts received from 
farmers who paid their dollar, except a small sum we received from the State 
on condition we raised the same sum in the county. If all, or even a major- 
ity of the farmers in the county would pay their annual dollar tax, we should 
then have means enough to pay the " premiums," and have a snug sum left 
to begin the next year. But as it was optional with farmers whether they 
became regular members or not, there was no dependence to be placed on . 
the amount of means . to be obtained in that way. Many farmers will pay 
their dollar if there is a chance of getting it back in a " premium," with 
two or three times as much. These ideas have led us to see that there 
must be some other plan adopted to raise means in order to make these 

VOL. VII. 28 



450 ANNUAL FAIRS, 



annual exhibitions permanently successful. The plan that has been adopted 
by some societies, of buying or hiring a piece of land of sufficient size and 
extent for the annual exhibition, is a good one. This plan, of course, "will 
make the county exhibition a permanent fixture in one place, then the 
inclosing of the grounds with a substantial board fence, and erecting such 
buildings as are wanted for the present and future exhibitions. This plan, of 
course, secures an " entrance-fee" at the gates, which is right and just, as we 
understand it ; and in this way a handsome sum can be raised to pay the 
" premiums," leaving, perhaps, a balance in the treasury to begin another 
year. When a State or county fair is holding its first exhibition, perhaps a 
twenty-five cent charge at the gates might not be out of place ; but after this 
we think a twelve-and-a-half cent charge after the plan of the New- York 
State Fair, would eventually leave more money in the treasury than a higher 
charge. Of course, this plan of a permanent exhibition can not apply to a 
State society, as they must change the place of these exhibitions each season, 
according to circumstances. But as to free fairs for every body to look on 
without any expense, we have but little confidence in them. Of course, every 
reasonable man should understand that a "fair" can not be got up and sus- 
tained without much labor and a great deal of expense. And, further, they 
should understand that if a fair is worth any thing at all, it is worth paying 
for, and that this " tax" to support and sustain the fair should not come out 
of the pockets of the few, but from the hands of the many. Our experience 
has shown us that, when farmers have become interested enough in the 
" fair" to become permanent members, that then they would, in reality, begin 
to learn something from the exhibition. But as long as they stood as mere 
lookers-on, as " outsiders," it was a matter of indifl:erence whether they gained 
any profit or not. And this rule, we believe, will hold good with the masses ; 
that the extra " shilling" that is paid at the gate is, in reality, of no particu- 
lar consequence; that if they go to the "fair" for the object of getting 
instruction and learning something, they can do so always. 

It should be ever borne in mind that, to carry out these annual fairs 
requires a great deal of labor and much money. Hence the idea of carrying 
the " fair" into the " rural districts," among a sparse population, we think 
could only be thought of by having beforehand an overflowing " treasury" to 
start with. Because, when you get through with the exhibition, the "mo- 
ney" has got to be raised to pay off. If, after you have got through with the 
exhibition, you find that you have only means enough to pay the premiums, 
to say nothing of the current expenses, where are you ? Echo will answer, 
" where ?" Of course, it would be a very fine idea for every section through- 
out the State, if they could, once in a series of years, have the fair in their 
own locahty ; but then, as we said before, who is going to pay for it ? It is 
very evident that, if these fairs are sustained at all, it must be done by the 
people at large. Then, if this be the case, it is very evident that the fair 
must go where the people are, or where they would be likely to come. Then 
again, it must be held at some point where the multitude can be accommo- 
dated for two or four days, or during the exhibition. 

So it will be seen that all these ideas must be taken into consideration in 
locating the " fair" from year to year, in order to insure success. These ideas 
have been thrown out by seeing some remarks on the " Benefit of Fairs," in 
the December number of The Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil. As we 
have said before, the idea of the spectator paying a small fee to see the exhi- 
bition, we consider of no consequence whatever, so far as the " looker-on" is 
concerned, although in the receipts of the treasury it might make a vast dif- 



ANNUAL FAIRS. 451 



ference. We have found, in our experience, that farmers were even more 
indifferent toward becoming members of the society, where they could have 
the whole out-door exhibition open to every body, than when managed^ on 
the present plan. In regard to the general benefits of fairs, it is impossible 
to enumerate them ; their name is legion, and it would require many sheets 
of paper to name them all. That there can be great improvements made in 
their management hereafter, no one can doubt. Still, in whatever way or 
shape these exhibitions are managed or held, all will depend on the people 
themselves, whether they learn any thing from the exhibition or not. They 
can spend their time to good advantage, or spend it in a listless, careless way, 
as they see fit. Yours, etc., 

Derhv, Ct, December, 1854. L. DuRAND. 

We propose now to give these questions of policy a more careful consider- 
ation, and inquire — 

1. Are fairs designed for the especial benefit of those who receive the pre- 
miums ? Decidedly not. The premiums themselves are awarded, or rather 
are offered, to induce competition. But competition among whom ? Among 
two or three of the best farmers in the country ? By no means. This com- 
petition is for all, for the purpose of raising the entire mass of farmers, of 
emancipating farm-labor from the bondage of inefficiency, ignorance, misap- 
prehension, and miscalculation, that the laborer may work wisely and effi- 
ciently on sound theories and correct principles, and become the man he 
ought to be. 

Hence the premium is merely one of the moving agencies which are to 
give efficiency to the fair, and may he comparatively unimportant. It is one 
of the inducements held out to cultivators of the soil to improve their own 
husbandry. It has an effect ; but to what extent ? 

Suppose no articles brought to the notice of the committees on premiums 
were to be seen by any body at the show. The animals are all confined in 
stables, and the specimens of crops grown are shut up in private apartments. 
None are allowed to look at any thing, except at the few choice specimens 
for which a premium has been awarded, while all these are arrayed in a very 
conspicuous place. How many tickets of admission could be sold ? Scarcely 
one to a thousand. Nay, how many competitors for those premiums would 
there be ? Not one where there are now a hundred. 

Where were the crowds at our own State fair, last fall ? Gazing at the 
few things which obtained the premium ? No. Pressing to see the scores 
of roadsters in swift pace in the ring — perhaps fifty competitors to a prize ; 
or listening to the explanations of the owner of some new machine, which 
was on exhibition ; or thronging the tent filled with flowers and fruits, very 
few specimens out of hundreds obtaining any premium. 

Nay, more than this. If every article to which a premium is awarded 
were removed from view — burnt up or destroyed — how much would our 
fairs suffer? Very often, the loss would scarcely be noticed. There would 
be still, in almost every such collection, a good show left ; and a show of ^ as 
good things, or very nearly as good — so good that the two rivals must lie side 
by side ere the superiority of either can be appreciated. We ask again, then, 
for whose benefit are fairs instituted ? 

2. Are they ^designed for the especial benefit of those who, in fact, exhibit ? 
We admit that such do, very often, receive great benefit from fairs. It is 
the very best way, in many cases, of getting the attention of the public to the 
article in their possession. We recently invited one whom we found exhibit- 



452 ANNUAL FAIRS. 



ing an ingenious invention to advertise in our journal. " No, sir," said he ; 
" this is the only way we advertise." He was wrong. After seeing the thing 
on the grounds, under the excitement of the scene, and after looking at scores 
of other things equally new, and perhaps more curious, the mind of the spec- 
tator is bewildered, and while the exhibitor may think that all leave him sen- 
sibly impressed with the wonders of his invention, the fact is, the next ma- 
chine they look at drives out all others, and this will presently be made to 
give place to another. But when they come to sit down coolly at home, and 
read a description of the same thing, and perhaps an editorial commendation, 
they are far more open to receive abiding impressions — far more so than if 
thev had not made a personal examination at the fair. 

While inventors and producers thus gain much by an exhibition of the 
articles they may have on sale, the impression is made on the mind <rf the 
spectator. The change is only on him. The exhibitor is a gainer thereby, 
because his object is to impress the people with a conviction that he furnishes 
a better article than any other. 

This is more completely and entirely the case in exhibitions of machinery 
or implements, but is essentially true of field-crops and animals. Why does 
A or B exhibit his basket of corn ? To show that he has done better than 
others, has pursued methods and plans that were more successful ; and to 
those who see that corn, the evidence of the senses outweighs all others. To 
those who do not see, the award of a premium is evidence, and this award is 
good for nothing else, except as it was required as a means of procuring that 
corn for the committee's tables. The offer of a premium, then, is only a 
means of securing, not so much better crops, but the evidence that better 
crops may be grown than are usually obtained ; and that many, not one or 
two, but many, do, in fact, secure such crops, and find it to their advantage 
so to do. 

If every body would raise crops as good as those which obtain the first 
premium, it miffht be that no premium would be expedient. JESTo premium 
would be expedient unless something still better, not yet attained, was to be 
looked for. 

We are brought back, therefore, to the fact that the ultimate aim of all 
shows is, to effect, through the senses, the mass of the people. We say 
through the senses, though not necessarily or exclusively at the fair. The 
fair is the first only of a series of more private exhibitions and conversations 
and discussions. If mere reading an account of such and such productions 
was all that is required, all fairs might be dispensed with. Then a few itin- 
erant committees, appointed and paid by the State, might be the very best 
thing ; and we shall, indeed, have something to say on that matter before we 
are through with this subject. 

We come, then, to the inquiry, whether, in itself considered, it is best to 
tax this same public with such an assessment as will hinder them from seeing 
that show. The answer is perfectly obvious. Such a plan is suicidal and 
without excuse. Whether a demand of six, twelve, or twenty cents will have 
this eff'ect, we do not now stop to inquire. 

But money must be had, premiums must be paid, various expenses must 
be incurred, and the fair is indispensable to rapid improvement in agricul- 
ture. Men are so free from selfishness, that they will not look after their own 
interest, unless the effort is accompanied with some Dodworth's band — some-^ 
thing, at least, to make some kind of a noise. Hence noise has become of 
very great consideration in civilized communities. It not only keeps Louis 
Napoleon on his throne, but is of very great importance in rearing calves 



ANNUAL FAIRS. 453 



and raising potatoes. The only question is, What is the best method of 
making the noise, or who shall pay for the powder ? Let us examine this 
question. 

The first inquiry, as it occurs to us, is whether these institutions are among 
the " benevolent," so called, or the self or mutual-improving. We should 
place them among the latter, the mutual-improvement class, which, by the 
way, is a very numerous one. If we are right in this, oiu- investigation will 
be very short. For among all these, it is proper and usual for them to pay 
in common their own expenses. A parish library is to be bought for the 
mutual benefit of all. Then the parish must pay for it, by tax or contribu- 
tion. The former plan is always just, the latter sometimes expedient. A 
mutual insurance company is to be carried on. Who foots the bills ? Each 
member, pro rata. Illustrations are needless, the theory is so plain. Those 
who choose to go into the enterprise must stand in their lot. But many will 
not do so. They " can't aftord it." Then the ordinary modes of proceeding 
must be abandoned, and the next best means attempted, or the plan must be 
dropped. Voluntary subscription is next in order. 

Now, why should A and B and C, each give more than his share? Be- 
cause he has it to give, and feels the importance of the subject. At whose 
cost is the temperance reform sustained ? At the cost of those who totally 
abstain, and who do not need the reform. Who sustain all the isms of the 
day ? Those who are sufficiently persuaded of their importance to open their 
purse-strings in their behalf. The agricultural reform being one of this class, 
those who feel its importance, and they alone, can be relied upon to sustain 
it. But suppose this reliance fails you, what then ? Take the third best 
means ? It may be so, or it may not be so. Perhaps it "svould be better to 
wait awhile, and bring up the people to a better state of feeling on the sub- 
ject. But the trouble then would be, that the fair is one of the most efficient 
means for giving vitality and power to the truth on this very subject. This 
fact, then, should be allowed its proper influence on the minds of those who 
have hitherto refused to subscribe for this object. 

We have been somewhat celebrated in our day for our advocacy of the 
doctrine of Protection to American Industry. Our views of principles have 
not changed one iota, though our hopes and expectations are essentially 
modified. But we venture here a 

Novel Form of Industrial Protection. 

If the State is benefited by the progress of American industrj^, as it surely 
is ; if it is the State which is reformed in all such progress as that now solicit- 
ing our attention, as it certainly is, then the State is, in fact, the community 
which should tax itself, and the people have no cause of complaint for any 
such assessment. It is equally true that all outsiders have nothing to do 
with the thing; and if they "come in" at all, it must be on our own terms. 
Now, suppose we should agree that any may come in, provided a certain 
amount or per centage of the articles thus brought in and sold shall be put 
into our own treasury, to form a Fund to be expended for our own improve- 
ment, to enable us to produce the very best specimens of the article in ques- 
tion in the very best manner. It is unquestionably better that each unit, 
whether individual or social, should be independent of all others, so far, at 
least, as these necessary products of labor are concerned. It is desirable that 
no " neighbor" should be obliged to ask favors of another, to enable him to 
carry on successfully his own legitimate, regular, and desirable and even indis- 



454: ANNUAL FAIRS. 



pensable calling, whether this necessity involve one or one hundred items. 
Tills seems clear. 

These outsiders would like to sell us lots of linen goods, iron in various 
forms, etc., etc. We have agreed to sufter them to do so at certain rates. 
Now, let the committee of arrangements at Washington, who say that things 
must remain as they are, so arrange the matter that all or a certain share of 
the profits of these sales of the property of outsiders, shall be given to our 
State societies, (there, perhaps, to be further subdivided,) to be expended in 
instructing us how to produce the highest and best specimens of the same 
kind among ourselves. In other words, our Society will admit outsiders to 
sell on our own grounds and in our warehouses, provided they will pay us 
what we consider a fair price for this right, in competition with our own pro- 
ducts. While we are unwilling to tax ourselves for self-improvement, this 
plan would work out magnificent results. Minute calculations and apportion- 
ments would be too tedious, of course ; but we might make a general appor- 
tionment. The essential point of the thing is, that the management at Wash- 
ington shall secure to the State societies, as trustees, an amount for agricul- 
tural and mechanical improvement at home, which shall be a fair equivalent 
for any loss by the competition of outsiders, which may be permitted on our 
own soil. If we shall prove ourselves incompetent to the work of producing 
the very best qualities, and in indefinite amounts, after a fair trial, then let all 
the gates of our inclosure be thrown down, and all our fairs, through all our 
States and territories, be turned into commons. • Would not any farmer justly 
complain if he was obliged to furnish the necessary facilities in his own build- 
ings, for a rival from a distance to sell the very same articles he produces, and 
in which competition is hazardous to himself? 

But the form in which we have presented this may be thought " too poli- 
tical." In fact, we think it entirely politic, and we will be content if, in any 
form, our political governments — who do almost every thing because it is 
politic or policy, and not because it is just — will carry out a plan of this sort ; 
and we do strenuously contend that our national and State governments 
ought to furnish liberal provision for expenditures of this description. It 
might reasonably be required, that all kinds of useful industry should be alike 
encouraged by premiums and otherwise ; and then we can see no reason why 
the measure should be deemed undesirable or impracticable. All that is 
necessary is, that the farming and manufacturing industry of the country 
should demand this for themselves, and the thing is done. One million of 
dollars apportioned among the States, would give an average of more than 
$30,000 to each State, and even much more than this might be given. Our 
national treasury is running over, but no one dreams of distributing of its 
profusion among the farmers and mechanics, for the improvement of their 
several crafts, though these are the very men who sustain the institutions of 
the country. 

We have said that premiums are or may be comparatively unimportant 
among the instrumentalities used for this object. Perhaps it would be better 
to say that they should be regarded chiefly as the indirect means of good, 
rather than as having any value of their own. Thus, when premiums and 
other means of power over men's curiosity, selfishness, love of gain, etc., have 
done their work, of securing the attention of the public in one or several 
places of convocation, then let us have the benefit of carefully-drawn state- 
ments of the processes adopted, all the circumstances involved, with the errors 
of previous years ; the details of experiments, whether successful or unsuc- 
cessful ; oroDositions for future experiments ; suggestions in regard to new 



ANNUAL FAIRS. 455 



macbinery and new applications; specimens of very high styles of products 
of any kind, as of printing, weaving, paper-making, etc., etc. Thus all may 
be alike encouraged to emulate these higher specimens of skill, and a general 
attention, at the same time, be secured at these annual or semi-annual convo- 
cations, which might continue for several successive days. Were no other 
expenditures demanded in such cases, this amount of time and labor would 
be cheerfully given, and, no doubt, prove very profitable. 

The actual view of fine products of the farm, or shop, or mill, we think, oi 
vastly higher value than the most eloquent harangue on theories or on facts. 
The premium is only valuable as it leads to this other and greater good. 
Hence the influence of the latter should be as widely extended as possible. 
The boy, in his teens, may be essentially afiected for a whole life as a farmer 
by such an exhibition. Many a fruit-grower or raiser of cattle would then be 
stimulated to adopt practices of vital importance in the improvement of our 
stock. Many a dairy-maid might there be inspired with a sort of esprit de 
corps, which would exert a controlling influence upon these products of the 
farm. This kind of training might awaken a ^jri't/e of production in every 
department of farm work, which would deserve the name of revolution, when 
contrasted with the general indiflerence now prevalent among a large major- 
ity of our citizens. 

We have often said that our farmers need not information half so much as 
means, to place them all among our men of progress. One form in which 
capital might be used to very great advantage, through the agency of agri- 
cultural societies, is by loaning money, with or without interest, for a term of 
two or three years, to enable farmers of small means to cultivate their lands. 
Increased products would furnish the means of repayment and leave them in 
possession of fertile acres in place of barren, worn-out wastes. The loan might 
be repaid by a certain amount of each year's crop, or by the excess of all 
over so much per acre, when expended under direction, and thus more be 
received than was given, while the farmer also has more, beside his improved 
lands. We are by no means sure that the money now paid as premium?, if 
laid out as interest for money hired, even from the banks, for such uses, 
would not accomplish more good than it does now. Certainly it is true thai 
a Capital of a hundred thousand dollars of State stocks, might be created, 
costing no man a farthing, but the whole manufactured out of a quire of 
paper, and at the only possible cost of the State's name. We can see no 
objection whatever to such an operation, to any reasonable amount. It is not 
fictitious issue for currency, but a State loan for a specific purpose. AH that 
the State could be liable for could be most abundantly secured in various 
ways, so that no loss, in any event, would be anticipated. But on the other 
hand, a fund of actual value to an indefinite extent might, in due time, be 
acquired by the payments of instalments, from time to time, by those who 
have had the benefit of the loans. Then the whole operation would be, not 
more safe, but become a solid and substantial fund, the very erection of 
which has already renovated, perhaps half the farms of the State, and its 
future operations secure constant ancl important progress in every branch of 
home industry, whether on the farm or in the shop. 

There is another form of service, which, we think, our agricultural societies 
might render at a trifling cost. When we had the honor of presiding over a 
school, we did much by honorary marks. Not only each boy might earn 
them, but a series of benches — that is, the occupants of them — was also enti- 
tled to them. Thus the more orderly, or more gentlemanly half, as the east- 
ern a«id western, received, each week, some valued distinction. So our com- 



456 UNITED STATES AGRIOULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

mittees might do with towns or districts. Some men have a measure of tOAvn 
pride, who have no love of self-reform. They like to belong to a handsome 
company, military or any thing else ; though they have no love for tactics or 
strict discipline. When the best town team is honored with a premium, as it 
is in many counties in Massachusetts, a farmer may buy a yoke of good oxen, 
from this sort of pride, when he would not do so from any love of good cat- 
tle. So the general condition of the several districts or towns in each and 
all the several points of good husbandry might, at least, be given in a care- 
fully-drawn report, the facts being determined by actual observation. Thus 
we have work for a traveUing committee, named in the former part of this 
paper, on whom also the weekly or monthly supervision of all farms entered 
for premium as the " best-managed farms" would naturally devolve. The 
same committee might also inspect, with little additional trouble, all experi- 
ments going on under the auspices of the society. In fact, the difficulty 
would consist in making the selection of those services which should seem 
most urgent, rather than in finding out how to occupy such a committee to 
advantage. This labor would now seem premature in some communities. 
When we have advanced far enough to employ such committees, many ques- 
tions will naturally present themselves as to the duties to be required of them. 
It is only just, however, to suggest that several societies in New-England, and 
perhaps elsewhere, have had such committees for several years. 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Third Annual Meeting of the United States Agricultural Society will 
be held at Washington, D. C, on Wednesday, February 28, 1855. Business 
of importance will come before the meeting. A new election of officers is 
to be made, in which it is desirable that every State and territory should 
be represented. Lectures and interesting discussions are expected on sub- 
jects pertaining to the objects of the Association, by distinguished scientific 
and practical agriculturists. The various Agricultural Societies of the coun- 
try are respectfully requested to send delegates to this meeting ; and all gen- 
tlemen who are interested in the welfare of American agriculture, who would 
promote a more cordial spirit of intercourse between the different sections of 
our land, and who would elevate this most important pursuit to a position of 
greater usefulness and honor, are also invited to be present on this occasion. 

W. S. King, Secretary. Marshall P. Wilder, PresH. 



REPORT OF ESSEX COUNTY (MASS.) AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

By the courtesy of Hon. J. W. Proctor, we have recei-ved a copy of the 
Transactions of the Essex County (Mass.) Agricultural Society. This county, 
the home of Pickering and his compeers, is not famous in its political renown 
alone; it raises men. And though not remarkable, generally, for the quality 
of its soil, it can show a list of farms, and farmers, and farm products, that 
would honor any county in New-England. But we took up our pen to com- 
mend and make extracts from some of these reports ; and first from that on 



ESSEX COUNTY AGEICULTU'RAL SOCIETY. 457 

SWINE. 

"' It may be, and may remain a general truth, that, in the language of the 
Ohairman of the Hampshire County Committee of last year, ' No one breed 
is best adapted to all locations and circumstances.' It can hardly be credited, 
however, for a moment, that the answers to inquiries of the United States 
Commissioner of Patents, some two years ago, making a different and dis- 
tinct breed necessary for almost every State, are to be taken as literally true. 
May it not be fairly questioned whether there are really as many distinct 
breeds of swine as there appear to be ? 

And might not a better knowledge of animal physiology aid us in account- 
ing for the fact that different breeds of swine are so often recommended for 
the same or a neighboring locality ? Or to be more explicit, has it not often 
been found true, that of the same litter of pigs some die and some live — and 
of those that live, a part shall do well and the rest shall not ? And what 
butcher of swine is not familiar with the fact, that the 2^ost mortem examina- 
tion often reveals the diseased liver, with its large or small ulcers, or worms 
in the intestines requiring a considerable part of the food taken by the ani- 
mal for their support ; or other diseased organs, not easily detected, even 
when the animal is slaughtered, and almost always unsuspected till then ? In 
short, may not adventitious circumstances have often, most undeservedly, 
given complexion to our ideas of the value of our breeds of swine ?" 

"The following from the Agriculture of Massachusetts, for 1853, compiled 
by our indefatigable Secretary, Mr. Flint, page 364, will show how little reli- 
ance can be placed upon opinions often formed and expressed upon this sub- 
ject. The question put to gentlemen in different parts of the country, con- 
tained in the United States Commissioner's circular, was, ' What is the best 
breed of hogs V and says the writer, New-Hampshire answers ' The Suffolk ;' 
Connecticut, ' A mixture of the old-fashioned hog with Berkshire and the 
China breed does very well ;' New- York, by three of her citizens, separately, 
says, ' Berkshires and Leicesters ;' New-Jersey answers, ' A cross with the 
Berkshire ;' Pennsylvania says, ' A cross of the Berkshires and Chester Coun- 
ty;' Virginia says, 'Irish Grazier and mixed Berkshire are our common 
stock;' Georgia answers, 'The best breeds for the climate are the Woburn 
and Grazier ;' Mississippi says, ' The best hogs I have tried are the Berk- 
shires;' Texas, 'Irish Grazier;' Tennessee says, 'The common old Grazier 
mixed with the Hindoo breed.' And without following the language too 
literally, it may be added, that while Kentucky is satisfied with the ' Wo- 
burn' only, her more voracious neighbor, Ohio, must have the 'Leicester,' 
' Bedford,' ' Chinese,' and the ' Calcutta ;' and while Missouri takes a cross of 
the ' black Berkshire' and the ' white Irish,' Florida says that ' for the range, 
or shift-for-yourself system, the long-nosed Pike stands A No. 1.' 

And when it appears as it does from the same source, that a hundred 
pounds of corn yield in some cases ' but eight pounds of pork,' and in others 
' forty pounds,' it would seem that there must be something moie than the 
peculiarities of breed to be taken into the account in explaining these results. 
Not indeed, let it be distinctly understood, that the accidents of diseased 
organs, etc., referred to, would account for all this variety of opinion ; and 
least of all would we intimate that gentlemen answer the Commissioner with- 
out suitable reflection. But great as is the confusion and apparent nnmbei* 
of breeds, and the mixing up of breeds, there might be found to be less of 
both, we think, if the ' accidents' were fewer, or if we were better able to 
detect them. 



458 ESSEX COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It is a fair question, and an important one to begin with, What and how 
many breeds of hogs are there really distinct ? Some are so, clearly — but 
the question is not easily determined, and no discussion of it is proposed in 
this report. The generally received opinion is, that the Suffolk is a distinct, 
original breed. Let it be so considered. Now, is it the best breed for getie- 
ral use in the county of Essex ? It is not, even though it is true that the 
pork of this breed is much esteemed, and generally commands from one to 
two cents a pound extra in Boston market. The reason is obvious ; they 
come to maturity at a very early age, and never, or rarely weigh more than 
250 to 300 pounds. There is a real difficulty in keeping them from taking 
on fat, it is said, in order to their getting any considerable growth at all. Dr. 
J. Kittredge informed the Committee, while examining his pure Suffolk boars, 
that he could with difficulty keep them low enough in flesh to answer for 
breeders or to bring to the show. Their keeping had been one quart of meal 
a day, with the house slops, and raw apples, both sweet and sour ; and upon 
this keeping they were fat, notwithstanding the large one had served for forty- 
two sows, and the small one for twenty to thirty, since last spring. It seems 
therefore now clear, that the Suffolks, being easy to fat, (indeed, being always 
fat, it is said, after being a month old,) are a suitable breed to cross with. 

The only remaining difficulty is, to know and obtain the best breed for 
crossing with them. And first, it should not be the Chinese, because they 
incline to fatten too much on the belly and too little on the back, and besides, 
according to Youatt, they are too oily, and do not make good bacon. Nei- 
ther should they cross with either the Berkshire or Byfiekl, because both are 
too small and snug-boned, to make a large hog. But probably, to put a case 
within the reach of all, almost any of the large kind, the 'old-fashioned 
kind,' would make a good crossing with the Suffolk." 

" As the ' Agriculture of Massachusetts' by Mr. Flint, referred to in the 
early part of this Report, is not likely to be seen by all who may see our 
County Society's Transactions, it may not be amiss to draw upon the Report 
of the Norfolk County Society's Committee on Swine, for last year, in rela- 
tion to one point. It is a report prepared with great care, and contains, 
moreover, a treatise upon swine, by Sanford Howard, of unusual value. 

The point about to be mentioned, taken from the report, referred to, is 
discussed by another writer. This writer starts the idea, and refers to ' Giles, 
in Philosophical Transactions for 1821,' as an authority for the theory, thai 
the male, hy whom the female is destined to receive her first progeny, stamps 
a character upon every subsequent produce, even hy other males ! As no facts 
are cited in support of this theory, it will be doubted by many, of course. If, 
hovrever, it should have the effect of inducing those having valuable sows, to 
be careful in selecting the boar to which the young sow shall go for the first 
time, the hint will not be lost. And to apply the rule in our county, it 
would seem a clear case, that, if those having large-framed sows of any breed, 
and living within a reasonable distance of a pure-blooded Suffolk, would take 
the pains to carry them to such boars, they would be well compensated by 
the extra price they would obtain for their pigs, or by the quantity and qual- 
ity of the pork if they should keep them, or sell them at market." 

Another admirable report, by Thos. E. Payson, Esq., deserves careful 
attention, especially from the farmers of New-England. We refer to that on 



In discussing the question whether sheep are profitable there, and what is 
the best breed of sheep, he proceeds as follows : 



ESSEX COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. . 459 

"But why speculate upon a matter which is capable of proof; and that, 
too, by the best evidence possible — the testimony of experience ? This testi- 
mony is all one way, so far as the information of your committee extends, 
and that is, that sheep are very profitable animals in Essex county, to the 
general farmer. Not only has this been the case since the demand for lamb 
and mutton has increased — and the prices of wool have sometimes ranged 
high — but taking all things into the account, it has always been true. A 
member of our Board of Trustees, lately deceased, whose opinions always 
received, as they deserved, great consideration, and were seldom found to be 
wrong, used to say that a pasture which would carry twenty head of full- 
grown cattle, and for which that number was sufficient, would carry twenty 
^heep besides, without detriment to the cattle, and with positive benefit to the 
pasture. However this may be, it is conceded on all hands that a small flock 
of sheep are as profitable as any stock a farmer can keep. Admit this to be 
so, and it is easy to make them far more profitable. 

We have had, heretofore, with very few exceptions, what are termed the 
old-fashioned breed of sheep, v.'hich is no breed at all, or rather a mongrel 
intermingling of several breeds ; some with long wool, more with short wool, 
others between long and short — 'but all of them deficient in what is most anil 
permanently profitable, to wit, weight of carcase. The raising of sheep for 
their loool mainly, or exclusively, must be left to districts of country where 
pasturage abounds, and which are remote from markets. With us the car- 
case is to be looked to, rather than the fleece. This deficiency of carcase can 
be entirely remedied with very little trouble or expense. Sheep of improved 
breeds — introduced from England by men of ample means and enlarged 
views, have become so numerous that any farmer can improve his flock 
almost without money — certainly at a very moderate price. The Leicesters 
and South-Downs, or grade animals largely impregnated with their respective 
blood, can be obtained anywhere — and any of them would give increased 
value to the progeny of our ordinary sheep. The Leicesters have long 
headed the list of English sheep, but recently either some of the less aristo- 
cratic families have stolen a march upon them or the taste of John Bull has 
changed ; for the mutton of the black-faced breeds is worth in Smithfield mar- 
ket half pence per pound more than the Leicesters. We take it that tlie 
Enghsh are the best judges; and, following them, South-Downs are to be 
recommended as more valuable to us here than Leicesters. They certainly 
are to be so recommended, if the fashion of feeding or more properly starv- 
ing sheep, hitherto often practised, is to be continued, for they have ' a pa- 
tience of occasional short keep, and an endurance of hard stocking equal to 
any other sheep.' 

But the best sheep, (in the opinion of those of your committee who have 
seen them,) which have yet been introduced to the United States, are those 
lately imported by Mr. Fay, of Lynn — a gentleman to whom our Society, for 
his pecuniary liberality, is under many obligations ; for the benefit of his 
suggestions and examples far more. After very particular and extensive ob- 
servation of different breeds and different flocks of the same breed, Mr. Fay 
selected these, as in his opinion, the best English sheep to send to his farm 
in Essex county, both for profit and improvement. These sheep have been 
by him named ' Oxfordshire Downs.' They are cross-bred between the Cots- 
wold and pure South-Down, inheriting from the former a carcase exceeding 
in weight that of the South-Down from one fifth to one quarter — a fleece, the 
fibre of which is somewhat coarser and stronger, it is true — but weightier 
than the South-Down by one third to one half; from the latter, the rotund- 



460 . ESSEX COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ity of form and fullness of muscle in the more valuable parts, witli the brown 
face and legs, so that they may not be very inaptly termed, South-Downs, 
enlarged and improved. We should suppose that the live weight of either 
of Mr. Fay's imported bucks would exceed two hundred pounds. The owes 
are larger than pure South-Down ewes, in like proportion. We recommend 
to those farmers of the county who are interested in sheep-breeding, to look 
at these sheep. The sight will well repay the expense of a visit from any 
part of the Commonwealth. 

With these various and abundant materials for improvement within our 
reach, and with the certainty that the raising of sheep, even unimproved, is 
profitable, we must be blind to our interests not to take advantage of the 
opportunities within our reach. Hundreds of acres of pasture-land in the 
county, partially worn out, and full of shrubs which the cattle reject, may be 
improved by stocking with sheep. At the same time the animals themselves 
will probably pay a better profit than any other farm stock." 

" Every farm is not adapted to sheep-breeding. Those best adapted to the 
purpose ai6 whcic there is an extent of elevated pasture, such as we see in 
all parts of the county, being over-run with moss and worthless bushes. The 
improvement of such would add much to the agricultural value of the county. 
In the opinion of your committee, the stocking of sheep would bring about 
this result. 

In short, your committee recommend to every farmer, whose land is 
adapted to them, to make trial of a few sheep. Give them a fair chance in 
summer — bestow upon them moderate care at all seasons — but at yeaning 
time give them your undivided attention — feed well afterwards, particularly 
if the lambs are dropped early in the year, and we think they will amply 
repay the pains and expense which may be bestowed upon them." 

GRAPES. 

We learn from the report on this subject, that Mr. Blood, of NcAvburyport, 
presented grapes for premium, which were produced from the seeds of Ma- 
laga raisins. They are cultivated in the open air, and ripen by the last of 
August. The vines have been in bearing nine years, and have never failed 
to produce a good crop in the natural soil, without any nursing, such as 
bone-manures, guano, etc. Slips from them have proved as productive in 
Vermont and New-Hampshire, and ripen as early as in Essex county. The 
committee say that the fruit was "juicy, sweet, and pleasant, but lacked 
sprightliness and flavor." But they do not consider the fruit so " superior" 
to others as to deserve a premium under the rules of the Society. 

Other reports will receive attention in another issue, our space being lim- 
ited. One on Poultry, by H. K. Oliver, Esq., is wonderfully full of classic 
quotations from Euglish and Latin poetry, the former ranging from Mother 
Goose's Melodies to Milton, and all alike overflowing with fun and wit. No 
man but a good scholar could write it, and no man who is injured by a real 
abdominal laugh should dare to read it. We commend it to all who are 
dyspeptic. But let no devoted lover of Shanghais read it. He would at 
once call " coffee and pistols for two." 

A Report on Farm Implements, by J. W. Proctor, Esq., urges the import- 
ance of what we have so strenuously advocated — the more liberal use of 
implements on the farm. We wish our excellent friend would give us his 
views more in defail in these pages, and in a practical foi'm. Will he please 
consider himself notified accordingly? 



BUILDING MATERIAIiS. 461 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 

Caen Stone. — We present, in this number, but a single one of the 
important building stones not already described, and that a new stone in this 
country, and not very well understood. It is from Caen, in Normandy, and • 
is extensively used across the Atlantic. Its more noticeable properties are as 
follows : 

It is a species' of yellow limestone, a mingling of yellow or cream color 
and white. It yields with great facility to the mallet and chisel ; and when 
the surface is fresh, it may even be cut with a knife. As it is longer exposed 
to the air, it becomes harder. From its appearance, there might be some 
doubt as to its durability. Its grain is less compact than our marbles ; and 
if it should be found so porous as to absorb moisture too freely, it might 
receive damage from our severe frosts. Still we have, at least, the experience 
of the present winter, and find, as yet, no such result. The Nassau Bank, 
the whole surface of which is of this stone, exhibits no sign of disintegration 
that we can discover. Several buildings in this city, recently erected, are con- 
structed with this material. Some dwelling-houses in Ninth street and ia 
Sixteenth street, have fronts of the Caen stone. A new building on the Fifth 
avenue, opposite Madison Square, is now going up, of the same material. 
The Unitarian church, still unfinished, corner of Fourth avenue and Twenti- 
eth street, partly of this material, is of peculiar construction. The outer sur- 
face on all sides consists of alternate layers of Caen stone, yellow of course, 
and of brick, of the usual red. What the origin of this idea is, we can not 
say. The stripes of the zebra, etc., run the other way, or perpendicularly, 
while these are horizontal. Some caviller has uncourteously hinted at a bar- 
ber's pole. It is an immediate copy, we understand, of " an elegant church 
on the Continent ;" and this, to many minds, is explanation and recommend- 
ation quite sufficient. But we purpose simply to describe, without any 
attempt at defense. These Caen stones are some twelve inches deep, and 
these are succeeded by an equal height of bricks ; and thus these two, the 
bricks and the stone, alternate from foundation to the coving. The entire 
style of architecture of this church is novel in this country, and will deserve 
special mention, no doubt, when it is completed. But our present business 
only relates to the material employed. 

In the new Trinity Chapel, which, by the way, is a very large church, yet 
unfinished, near Fifth Avenue, and on Twenty-fifth street, we believe, the 
Caen stone is used for the interior lining. We should think it admirably 
adapted for this purpose. It is light and pleasant to the eye, which can not 
be said of the brown sandstone so much in use both for exterior and interior 
walls, and it is also comparatively cheap. It is brought here as ballast, at a 
trifling expense, and being very easily worked, it may be made to present any 
■shapes that the fancy of the architect may prefer, whether in the forms of 
mouldings or more labored and more fanciful chisellings. 



Microscopic Plants. — It is stated that a French gardener has reversed 
the order of things, and instead of producing colossal vegetables, has suc- 
ceeded in growing microscopic specimens, which are said to contain as much 
®.f the nutritious principle as vegetables several times their size. 



462 TUKPENTINE CONVENTION. 



TURPENTINE CONVENTION. 

A Convention of gentlemen interested in the jiroduction of turpentine has 
recently been held in Mobile, Ala. Col. J. S. Deas was President, and A. C. 
Blount, Esq., Secretary. Able committees were appointed on different 
branches of the subject. Col. R. D. James presented the following as to the 

BEST MODE OF MAKING AND PREPARING TURPENTINE. 

The committee to whom was referred the resolution of Col. James, upon 
the subject of the cultivation of turpentine, etc., beg leave to make the follow- 
ing report : That the character of the soil best adapted to the production of 
the turpentine pine should be of light and porous nature, with a subsoil of 
clay, capable of retaining moisture. The pine should be of an extended low- 
growing top, with thick bark and sap-wood — the trees not to stand so thickly 
upon the land as to be too much shaded by the overgrowing foliage. The 
number of boxes to be cut in a tree should be governed by the size of the 
same. As a general rule for cutting boxes, the committee recommend the 
following standard : the box to be thirteen inches in horizontal width, three 
and a half inches in horizontal depth, and seven inches in perpendiculsur 
depth ; this will produce a box of the capacity of one and a quarter quarto, 
which, after a few years' use, will be reduced to a box capable of containing 
a full quart only ; which, from experience, your committee believe to be the 
most profitable size. Taking a tree capable of sustaining two boxes, they 
would recommend that the boxes be cut side by side, with a life-streak of 
bark of foUr inches intervening between them, in preference to cutting them 
opposite to each other, and that one third or more of the bark should be left 
for the support of the tree, the boxes to be cut just at the bulge of the tree 
near the root of the same. The corners of the boxes should be cut out with 
the inclination of the face of the box, and to extend in a line perpendicular 
to the outer corners of the same, so as to show a line horizontal and the top 
of the box — the object of chipping being to expose a new surface of the pores 
for the exudation of the turpentine. The cut of the hacker should extend a 
half inch in depth into the tree, and one fourth in altitude, and the chipping 
should be renewed once a week. The best instrument for the purpose is the 
hacker with a small bowl, to be kept exceedingly sharp, and the best instru- 
ment for sharpening the same is the stone known as the Siam hone or slip. 
Your committee have nothing new to suggest or recommend as to the best 
mode of dipping, or the best instrument for that purpose ; but, in reference 
to the scrape or hard turpentine, they would advise the use of cloths instead 
of the old-fashioned box for receiving the same. The committee would 
recommend the light iron axle two-horse wagon, as the most expeditious and 
econorliical for hauling turpentine. The frame for the barrels should be 
made of 4 x 6-inch scantling, with segments of circles cut therein, one half 
across the upper face of the same to receive the ends of the barrels, with two 
interior parallel rails, so that when either end of a barrel is removed from the 
concave which it occupies, it can be rolled from the wagon on a smooth sur- 
face. The committee would recommend that when the distiller can avail 
himself of a hill-side, the simplest plan to elevate turpentine to the still, is to 
extend a railway frotai the top of the hill to the platform. If upon a level 
plain, the use of the machine employed by flour-mills to elevate their sacks 
and barrels to the upper stories of the mill, the said machine being a plat- 
form, with four upright posts, with a roller in the head of each, two ropes 



TURPENTINE CONTENTION. 463 



from the roof of the still-house, passing beneath said rollers, (one on each 
side,) thence through sheave-blocks and around a cylinder, turned by a 
crank from below. In regard to preparing the turpentine for distillation, we 
refer you to the explanation aiade by a member of this committee, as to the 
style best adapted to making the best article of rosin. The experience of 
your committee would lead them to decide in favor of a small-size still, or 
with a flat and greatly extended surface. The committee would recommend 
that, in distilling, the still should be charged to only two thirds its capacity, 
to allow for the expansion of the material during ebullition. The amount of 
water to be supplied should be equivalent to the amount condensed m the 
still-worm, and kept in the same ratio so long as the spirit comes over ; and 
should the still have a tendency to boil over, an increased amount of fuel is 
to be supplied until the excessive ebullition ceases; the heat is then to be 
diminished, and the still run regularly as before. Your committee deem it 
unnecessary to enlarge on this point, as they presume that in all cases of new 
beo-inners, a practical distiller will be employed. Your committee recom- 
mend that in addition to the usual mode of glueing the spirit-casks, that the 
casks being partially drained after each glueing, be placed upon a horizontal 
plane, each head alternately placed upon said plane, and would further 
recommend the use of the Scotch glue, in all cases in which the distiller is 
unable to manufacture his own glue from good sound bides. The commit- 
tee would recommend that, in making barrels and casks, the staves and head- 
ing should be fully dressed, ready for the truss-hoop, and be permitted to 
remain some time, previous to being made into barrels, for the purpose of 
allowing the staves, etc., to shrink. By adopting this course, the barrels are 
less liable to leakage. The staves for turpentine barrels should be thirty-two 
inches in length, the head to be worked in a twenty-inch truss-hoop. The 
spirit-cask should contain forty-five gallons, and in case oak heading can not 
be obtained, we would recommend the substitution of poplar instead. 

From statements made during the discussions of the Convention, it ap- 
pears that more than a million of acres of land are in partial cultivation in 
turpentin(i, and that from the commencement, this business has more than 
doubled itself annually. 

The average product of a laborer is said to be much greater than in the 
culture of cotton. The following statement was embodied in one of the 
reports: 

The average product of the laborers in making cotton may be said to be 
at a maximum of four bales ; upon which the receivers in Mobile would real- 
ize $10. The same laborers engaged in turpentine will produce IVO barrels 
of rosin and 30 casks of spirits, the handling of which in the city will produce, 
ilnder the varioi^ charges of wharfage, drayage, storage, insurance, cooper- 
age, and commissions, $8Y.60— $45 on the spirits, and $42.50 on the rosin. 
And we would further suggest that the laborer in turpentine will consume of 
the merchandise of Mobile to an amount equivalent to five hands engaged in 
cotton, from the fact that his occupation precludes the possibility of his pro- 
ducing any of the necessaries of life. The amount used in painting the four 
millions of dwelling-houses in the United States, or the exceeding great 
amount of this, together with other naval stores, used in painting and pre- 
serving our vast shipping and steamboat marine, your committee have no 
means of correctly stating. The amount of spirits used in the printing busi- 
ness (there being 2800 presses in this country at a pint per day each) at a 
low estimate is 2600 casks, containing 112,000 gallons. The manufacture of 



464 WESTERN RAILROADS. 



India-rubber (but yet in its infancy) consumes 4650 casks, containing 187,000 
gallons ; this business, it is estimated by those conversant with the subject, 
will, in the course of five years, increase to the amount of $;1 5,000,000 ; in 
importation of the raw material of caoutchouc, reaching now the sum of 
$5,000,000, The extent of its use in gas, caraphene, burning-fluid, and for 
chemical and medical purposes in this country, and the exact amount ex- 
ported for foreign consumption in these and various other branches of manu- 
facture, your committee have no correct data upon which to base an estimate. 
Your committee are advised and are aware that an immense amount of rosin 
is used in the manufacture of rosin oil, the amount of 36,000 barrels being 
converted into this article in one factory alone in the city of New- York. A 
similar amoimt, nearly (say 24,000 barrels) being converted into this oil in 
the State of North-Carolina, besides a large amount at Norfolk and various 
other factories in the United States; the exact quantity used by these is not 
definitely known. The consumption of rosin in the lighting of cities and 
private residences, also affords an outlet for a very considerable amount ; the - 
Capitol of the United States, and some of our best hotels, being lighted exclu- 
sively with gas made from it. The extent of the soap-making business in 
which rosin enters in the ratio of about fifty per cent, is an interest of nO' 
insignificant magnitude, and is a source of the greatest consumption, and yet 
the largest portion of this article consumed seems, from the shipments abroad,, 
to enter into the manufactures of foreign countries. And, in conclusion, we 
would remark that under no circumstances can the price of spirits fall below 
thirty cents per gallon ; for in that event it will be used to an unlimited extent 
in the production of gas ; and it is produced in no other country to any great 
extent, except the United States. 



WESTERN RAILROADS. 

The following continuous routes are in progress, and are regarded as cet^ 
tain of an early completion : 

Memphis to Hopkinsville, ----- 203 miles. 

Hopkinsville to Henderson, - - - - - 72 " 

. Henderson to Evansville, - - - - - 12" 

Evans ville to the Ohio & Mississippi road, - - 55 " 

Point of junction to Cincinnati, - - - - 155" 

Total — Memphis to Cincinnati, _ . . 49Y 

On this subject, the Louisville Journal says : " The most rapid communi- 
cation we now have with the South and South-west is by steamboats, which, 
on an average, occupy three days in a run from Memphis to Louisville. 
When the line of road I have described shall have been completed, a speed 
of but twenty-five miles per hour will make the travelling time from Memphis 
to Cincinnati, twenty hours. 

Thus the opportunity will be presented at Memphis, to business men wish- 
ing to make purchases in Louisville or Cincinnati, to reach the latter city by 
railroad -in twenty hours, remain there thirty-two hours, and return to Mem 
phis — all during the three days that would be necessary simply to convey- 



A STAGE ROUTE TO CALIFORNIA. 465 



them by steamboat to Louisville. If we will contribute our aid toward the 
construction of a liundred and sixty-nine miles of railroad on the air-line 
route to Memphis, we can save our city in spite of all competitors. Such an 
improvement will place us within fourteen hours' run of Memphis, and will 
even fix for ever, as the shortest route from that city to Cincinnati, the one 
throuffh our own borders." 



A STAGE ROUTE TO CALIFORNIA. 

Gentlemen of St. Louis and elsewhere are endeavoring to establish a daily 
or "weekly line of stages between Missouri and California. They wish to 
organize a company, with capital to sustain the line a year. The means being 
made sure of, the Company would obtain a force of men, stages, and horses, 
adopt a line across the plains and through the mountains, and locate stations 
iifteen, twenty, or thirty miles apart, as the character of the country might 
admit, and improve the same by permanent tenements, stables, and inclo- 
sures, with men at each station to guard the property and take care of the 
stock, and sufficient horses or mules for changes and relays. Ten through- 
passengers daily, at llOO each, would produce $730,000. The way-business 
would add to this, according to the statement of Mr. Mitchell, and an im- 
mense amount of gold would pass over the line at a heavy freight. The 
mails, they say, could be carried in twelve days from Kansas to Sacramento, 
and of course the line would be employed to carry the mails. These views 
were detailed with minuteness. F. P. Blair followed in a clear and con- 
vincing review of the great merits of the enterprise. Col. Mitchell, an expe- 
rienced " mountain man," approved of the project, and said that his experi- 
ence satisfied him that the stage in the mountains would not more materially 
be obstructed by snows in winter than the stage lines in New- York and Mas- 
sachusetts. Col. Campbell confirmed this statement. He had spent three 
winters near the mouth of the Yellow Stone, and there was no snow to hin- 
der any kind of travel. Col. Campbell said that the grass of the mountains 
did not rot in the fall, but dried and became hay, and could be used by stock. 
K. M'Kenzie, another " mountain man," confirmed these statements. 

Mr. Holiday, of California, who had driven stock over the route, believed 
in the entire practicability of the project, and said the " Californians would 
meet Missouri half-way." Finally, resolutions were adopted for making 
application to the Legislature for charter for this great project; and we are 
encouraged to believe, says the Illinois Weekly Journal, which gives this 
account, that those persons have taken hold of the measure who will be likely 
to carry it through. 



Royal Danish Railway — The important section of this railway, connect- 
ing the Baltic and the North Sea, has been announced. The entire line, 
including the Rendsburg Branch, forming the junction with the Kiel, Altona, 
and other lines, will be open early this month, and the undertaking will thus 
be finished before the stipulated period. Messrs. Peto, Brassey, and Betts, 
the contractors, have obtained a lease of the line for fourteen years, at a mini- 
mum dividend of six per cent on the capital, £540,000, with an equal divi- 
sion of all surplus profits. The Company, however, has power to put an end 
to the agreement in five or ten years. 



466 BALTIMOEE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 



BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 

This Road is a great work. Its importance as a means of travel between 
New-York and Cincinnati, and other points at the West and South- West, is 
beginning to be appreciated, especially since the opening of the Ohio Cen- 
tral Road. 

At an election for President, held in December, Wm. G. Harrison, Esq., 
who has so long and so satisfactorily served the Company in that capacity, 
was reelected over two powerful competitors for the office. 

We append a few statistical tables, and some other items of information 
gleaned from the Report just published, prepared by John H. Done, Esq., 
the acting Superintendent of the road. 

REVENUE FOR NOVEMBER. 

The revenue for the month of November has been as follows : 

Main stem. Wash. Br. Totals. 

For passengers, . . $52,600 15 $23,&5l 82 $'76,258 51 

For freight, . . . 264,170 11 7,443 59 271,613 70 



$316,770 86 $31,101 41 $347,872 27 

There was an increase of nearly $9000 for passengers on the Main Stem, 
as compared with November of last year, which shows the advantage already 
resulting to the road from the opening of the Ohio Central Railroad. 

A summary of the receipts of both the Main Stem and the Washington 
Branch roads during the fiscal year ending on the 30th of September, 1854, 
presents the following : 

From From .p^j^j 

Passengers. Tonnage. 

Main Stem, . . $569,091 51 $3,076,517 92 $3,645,609 43 

Washington Branch, 278,302 11 94,927 50 369,229 61 



$846,393 62 $3,167,445 42 $4,014,839 04 

PASSENGER BUSINESS. 

Mr Done, in alluding to the foregoing statement, calls attention to the fact 
that "of the entire revenue for the year — amounting to $3,645,609.43, only 
$569,091.51, or 15.6 per cent, has been derived from passengers — a result 
so different from the expectations which were formed before the opening of 
the road, as to surprise even the best-informed upon the subject." 

The continued and unprecedented low water in the Ohio, has rendered the 
magnificent line of steamers constructed by the enterprise of the citizens of 
Wheeling, of little or no avail, as to the increase of the number of passengers, 
they having been able to run but a few months continuously since the open- 
ing of the road to the Ohio. 

The condition of the Ohio River at various periods, very seriously aff"ects the 
revenue of the road, as regards both freight and passengers. The navigation 
is obstructed by ice or low water for more than one half of the year. The 
report indulges in some just remarks as to future prospects from the opening 
of the Ohio Central Road, and also the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Road from 
Wellsville to Wheeling. 

OF THE TRADE IN LIVE STOCK. 

This important branch of trade has been quite active, and appears to be 
steadily on the increase, especially from Moundsville, Cameron, and other 
stations on the western division of the Road. The following statement will 



BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 



467 



show the extent of this trade, giving the quantities of each description of 
stock transported during the year ending the 30th of September, 1854 : 

119,699 Hogs, Weighing 10,201.1.3.5 

31,631 Sheep, 

3,522 Horses and Mules, 

10,017 Horned Cattle, 



1,800,10.0.0 

1,762.0.0.0 

5,013.0.0.15 



164869 



Tons, 18,776,11.3.20 



OF THE FLOUR TRADE. 



The great importance of the Baltimore & Ohio Raih-oad is seen in the 
following table, which shows the amount of flour brought to Baltimore during 
the yea^ with the number of barrels from the principal points of shipment : 



Wheel- 
ing. 
10,440 
23,592 
28,559 
20,746 
35,680 
12,352 
12,266 
8,267 
11,369 
4,341 
1,060 
1,435 



Mounds- 

viUe. 

1,812 

570 

6,815 

358 

1,501 

1,680 

601 

90 



Cumber- 
land. 
95 

577 

852 
1,319 
2,377 

503 

110 



Months 

October, . 

November, 

December, 

JaBuary, . 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

Jane, 

July, 

August, . . . 1,060 203 

September, . . 1,435 2,257 

Total, . . . 170,147 15,887 5,833 27,406i 229,966 

Total from the above point? • 529,160* 

« " all other points on the Main Stem .... 180,334^ 

709,495 
42,754 



Martins- 
burg. 
4,128 
3,614 
2,847 
3,274 
2,379 
1,777 
2,391 
546 
437 
1,290 
3,090^ 
2,633 



Harper's 

Ferry. 

28,905 

28,288 

26,185 

21,197 

21,951 

20,498 

13,798 

10,680 

9,235 

4,699 

22,964 

21,556 



Freder- 
ick. 
5,902 
10,765 
8,284 
12,602 
12,080 
10,106 
4,746 
2,948 
2,518 
1,804 
3,609 
4,460 

79,921 
bbls. 



From the Washington Branch Road, . 



Total number, 



FREIGHT FROM WHEELING. 



752,249 



The whole report of Mr. Done abounds in important and well-arranged 
statistical statements, the latter of which we regret are too voluminous for 
our limits. There is one statement, however, showing the description and 
amount of commodities transported from Wheeling to Baltimore from the 1st 
of March to the 30th of September, 1853, and from the 1st of October 1853, 
to the 30th of September, 1854, a period of nineteen months, which we con- 
dense, showing the following results : 



Flour, barrels, 






202,545 


Cotton, bales, . . . . 


3,612 


Grain, bag?, 


, . 




15,735 


Hemp, bales, 


18,686 


Seed, barrels, 




, 


6,849 


Wool, bale,s. 


6,086 


Butter, barrels. 






1,986 


Tallow, barrels, . 


2,286 


kegs, 






5,099 


Feathers, bags, . . 


4,393 


Lard, tierces, 






11,530 


Tobacco, hhds. 


22,754 


" barrels, 






. 37,801 


Hides, .... 


10,843 


" kegs, . 






. 43,317 


Leather, rolls. 


9,527 


Oil, barrels, . 






. 11,125 


Soap and Candles, boxes, 


11,883 


Pork, barrels. 






58,621 


Cheese, boxes, 


5,264 


Bacon, casks. 






39,030 


Apples, barrels, . 


7,825 


" boxes, 






. 28,935 


Dried Fruit, bags, 


9,192 


Hams, tierces. 






19,693 


Horses, 


510 


Beef, barrels, 






7,000 


Miscellaneous packages, 


64,920 


Whiskey, barrels, 






. 26,536 







468 BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 



The total number of pounds, in all the above articles from Wheeling alone^ 
is stated at 222,703,675. 

This table is interesting as showing " the amount and description of the 
Western produce which has passed over the road from Wheeling to Baltimore, 
since the commencement of through-transportation, say 1st March, 1853. It 
is interesting as showing the character of the trade, as well as its amount and 
value to the city of Baltimore. Its irregularity also, comparing one month 
with another, illustrates fully the disadvantage we have labored under from 
the fluctuations in the river, and the frequent and long interruptions of navi- 
gation." 

THE COAL TRADE. 

The following statement will show the quantities of Coal transported during 
the year ending 30th September, 1854, from Cumberland, Piedmont, and 
Fairmont, the three points at -svhich this trade originates, and showing the 
respective quantities delivered at Locust Point, in the city, and at way-sta- 
tions : 



Point of 


Delivered at 


Delivered in Delivered at 


For Com- 


Total from 


departure. 


Locust Point. 


the city. Way-Stations. 


pany's Use. 


each Region. 


Cumberland, . 


274,273 06 


24,134 18 5,262 08 


9,112 17 


312,783 09 


Piedmont, 


99,903 02 


14,530 01 13,176 10 


46,614 12 


174,224 05 


Fairmont, 


21,149 17 


10,825 16 157 05 


5,294 13 
61,022 02 


37,437 11 


Total, . 


395 326 05 


49,490 15 18,606 OS 


524,445 05 


The statement show* the quantity which paid freight to have been 


463,423 tons. 


During the prev 


ious year the amount was 


... 


308,890 " 


Increase, 


154,533 " 


or 50 per cent. 











The revenue from coal during the year amounts to $1,134,628.46. The 
coal trade was almost entirely confined to nine months of the fiscal year. 

During the mouths of January^ February^ and March^ the operations of 
nearly all the mines were stopped^ by reason of a strike of the miners ; and 
whilst it continued there was almost a total suspension of the trade. Had 
this not been the case, the amount transported during the year would probably 
have reached 550,000 tons. 

The demands of the trade at the present time are very urgent ; almost 
every ojieratcr in the coal region is pressing for larger accommodations, and 
new and important mines are about commendng business, with the capacity 
to mine and send down large quantities of coal. Full employment could be 
found for at least 60 per cent more machinery in that trade than is now or 
can be, with the present equipment of the road, appropriated to it. From 
these facts it will be seen that the advance in freight of 50 cents per ton from 
Cumberland, and 56 cents from Piedmont, made on the 1st November, 1853, 
has not operated to check or limit the business. 

The road department of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, is not 
less worthily administered than is its transportation affairs. This branch of 
the service though less before the public eye, from the nature of its opera- 
tions, is of vital concern. The skill, experience, energy, and sound judgment 
of its head, Wendel Bollman, the inventor of the much approved Railroad 
bridge, insure the best results to the Company. His annual report, con- 
taining much valuable information, is also just published, and may be found 
in the pamphlet containing the report of the President of the Road, and heads 
of its several departments. 



BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 469 

During the past year twenty -one miles of the second track liave been 
added, and various new sidings put in. Fifty miles of old string-timber track 
have been removed from the east end of the line, and substituted by new and 
heavy T rail on cross-ties. Several new bridges, depot buildings, etc., etc., 
have also been added. m 

Dr. T. C. Atkinson and Mr. John L. Wilson, are Mr. Bollraan's eflBcient 
chief assistants. 

The machinery departmeut is of deep importance also to the successful 
working of a great road like this, and, upon its careful and energetic admin- 
istration much depends. The report of Mr. S. J. Hayes, the worthy master 
of machinery, shows that the Company owns 208 locomotives, of all kinds, 
which are mostly in a good state of repair. A number of superior ten-wheeled 
monster engines have been built by the Company during the last two years, 
after patterns furnished by Mr. Hayes, and are working most satisfactorily on 
the Mountain Division, between Piedmont and Newburg. A number of old 
locomotives have been rebuilt in the same time for passenger uses, and every 
thing scfcms to cvldanco a judicious supsrvioioi;. IL: Hi.ycs is said to have 
arisen from an humble apprentice in the Company's shops, to its chief ma- 
chinist, and as such is now in command of some twelve or fifteen hundred 
workmen in various capacities. Mr. D. P. Rennie is the Company's assistant 
master of machinery. 

This subject is one of general interest, affecting almost every locality in 
the Union. No one can glance at the tables presented by Mr. Done in 
his able report, and not feel that in the agricultural products and the coal, 
passing over this great road, every consumer of these articles is deeply in- 
terested. Baltimore must soon become one of the largest coal marts in the 
country, from the transportation facilities afibrded by this road. The ready 
means for shipment at that point are quite equal to those of Philadelphia, 
and can not fail to be of much importance in keeping the country at large 
supplied with this necessary article of fuel. 

It has been our pleasure to pass over this road several times during the 
past year. We shall only reiterate what is the testimony of every one at all 
informed on the subject, when we say that every thing connected with the 
road is under the very best management. Two passenger-trains are now 
running daily between Baltimore and Wheeling, passing over the whole dis- 
tance, 380 miles, in a little more than sixteen hours. The opening of the 
Ohio Central Road furnishes a complete hne to Cincinnati and points further 
west, and is fast commanding a heavy travel. We take pleasure in com- 
mending this route to the 'travelling public, as one in which speed, comfort, 
and romantic scenery are combined in a remarkable degree. It must become 
at no distant day the route to Cincinnati and the great West. 



Glue for Plants. — Here is a fact for our horticultural readers. It has 
been discovered in France, that, for the generality of flowers, and more espe- 
cially for pelargoniums, and the most delicate specimens of the lily tribe, com- 
mon glue, diluted with a sufficient portion of water, forms a richer manure 
than guano, or any other yet discovered ; plants placed in sand, or the worst 
soils, displaying more beauty and vigor, when watered with this composition, 
than those grown in the richest mould, and only sprinkled with water. 



470 REPiiAL OF THE DUTY ON COAL. 



REPEAL OF THE DUTY ON" COAL. 

This is truly a progressive age, but the progress is not all in one way. 
We deny to-day what we urge as indispensable,||io-morrow, and the next day's 
behef will depend upon circumstances. We are by no means disposed to 
deny the sincerity of those who dare to revise their opinions ; but we do wish 
sometimes that men would be sure that what they advocate is the clear voice 
of reason, and not the dictate of prejudice or of social instincts merely, and 
then a change of circumstances might not overturn all their theories. It used 
to be called a sound doctrine with those with whom we were associated, that 
those measures were alone safe and reliable, which made us independent of 
the aid of others. This, to us, has always seemed reasonable. It never 
occurred to us that time and effort, even a considerable outlay reckoned in 
dollars and cents, expended in teaching a child to walk, was an absolute Igiss, 
not even if those engaged in various pursuits were called upon for their pro- 
portional contributions in this behalf. And what if the pupil became refrac- 
tory, and kicked his patient and benevolent instructors ? Why, he must be 
punished, but not by being suffered to grow up unable to help himself. 
Others are nearly as much interested as he in his acquiring this art. 

Now, you may call this refractory child what you please, Carlos or Oar- 
bon; names are nothing. We would have all our juveniles fully instructed 
and confirmed in this indispensable tuition. But what do we mean by this 
figurative allusion ? 

Immense quantities of ink have been expended in urging the necessity of 
fostering our native productions, that is, of teaching our juveniles to go alone. 
And we have thought, on all hands, that among all our possibilities the coal 
interest was one of the most valuable. The successful operation of this 
reaches all classes and conditions among the people. The rich and the poor 
are aifected alike, and no one of any craft or trade or pursuit has not in it a 
direct personal interest. 

But the question is gravely agitated whether it is not best to allow the 
importation of coal, duty free. We are not surprised that this project should 
find advocates in certain quarters, but we are surprised at finding certain 
advocates on that side of the question. 

The project may succeed. The duties may be repealed. If so, what will 
be the consequence ? We hazard little in uttering the words of prophecy. 
We shall witness, in substance, the following state of things. 

The first result is, a large importation of foreign coal, with constantly 
descending prices. Very soon, one after another of our own mining compa- 
nies will be obliged to abandon their work. The entire supply falls then, 
essentially, into the hands of foreigners of large capital, able to endure tem- 
porary losses. Then the price will rise. Coals will be higher than we have 
known for years. But if our own mining companies shall venture to reopen 
their abandoned shafts, these foreign capitalists will again fall in their prices 
and ruin those who engage in the enterprise. This is just what has been 
done, over and over again, within the memory of many not among the oldest 
inhabitants. 

What is required by any enterprise which demands such immense outlays 
in advance, ere they can secure the confidence of the money market ? Not 
immense profits. Our cotton manufacturers taught us this, years ago. Their 
large profits were almost their ruin. No, not their ruin, but the ruin of 
scores who engaged in that business, and who, in the rusli of competition, 



REPEAL OP THE DUTY ON" COAL. 



-^1 



were victims of extravagant promises. What is required, and what is surest, 
safest, and, on all hands, most desirable, is, moderate but certain profit ; a 
market that can be measured, and valued, and relied upon beforehand, a 
market that is essentially controlled by a regular, healthful, and compara- 
tively constant demand. Fancy stocks, rising and falling with the success or 
failure of a few stock-jobbers, who create, or who fail to do so, a fictitious 
value to-day that will be essentially changed to-morrow, this will never estab- 
lish an enterprise of this description. Read the brief history of the Pennsyl- 
vania iron furnaces, and the importance of a steady, sound, healthful condi- 
tion of the market is perfectly obvious. 

Our coal mines have not yet paid high dividends. The older and better 
established, if convenient to market, have promised well. They are and have 
been doing well. With increased facilities of transportation, many others 
will do well, and those facilities are constantly increasing. Some of those 
recently commenced are in a very favorable condition. Let the duty on coal 
be repealed, and many of these companies will be "repealed," too. They 
may bear a moderate and gradual reduction in the price of coal, even from 
the last year's prices, when they are fairly under way, with cheap convey- 
ances to seaboard, but they must understand the market. They must know 
what they can reasonably anticipate, and then make their arrangements 
accordingly. 

" But they have conspired together to raise the price of coal, and the peo- 
ple sufter severely." Well, so have flour-dealers; what will you do with 
them ? So have drovers. What will you do with them ? So have three 
fourths, and almost four fourths of all our craftsmen, and men of all avoca- 
tions, from money-lenders to hotel-keepers. What is the penalty ? " But 
they were obliged to do so." Is this excuse satisfactory ? If so, before you 
condemn colliers, see whether they were not in the same category. 

But this is all volunteer defense. The fact is denied by the parties con- 
cerned, and the fault is thrown back upon the operatives, who struck for 
higher wages. It is a hard lesson to learn, to bear unusual prosperity. How 
often have we seen very marked success in business turn a Uberal man into a 
miser, at least so far as to lead him to crave more and more earnestly with 
every increase of the past and present. 

If any craft, or any members of any craft, do conspire to over-reach or fore- 
stall the market, the law is open. The offense is indictable, and if the com- 
mon law does not furnish the means for getting at some modern forms of 
this offense, call in the aid of legislatures. We can have it our own way. 
But Itt us not punish ourselves in trying to punish our oppressors. 



How Much Lime do Soils Ne^ed ?— Professor Emmons, in his Report on 
the Geological Survey of North-Carolina, says : " If we may appeal to obser- 
vation and experiment, it is established that a small per centage of lime only 
is necessary to the highest degree of fertility; and yet this small per centage 
is necessary. If there is present one half of one per cent, it seems to be suf- 
ficient ; for it is rare to find a larger quantity in productive soils." Prof. E. 
is a chemist and geologist of long experience, and was one of the first — per- 
haps the first — to ascertain that some of the most productive soils for wheat 
in Western New-York contain comparatively little lime. 



4:1% BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 

Some months ago, we announced to our readers our intention to place upon 
our pages biographical notices of gentlemen eminent as agriculturists, or as 
mechanics, and this purpose we have delayed longer than we then intended. 
We begin the discharge of this assumed obligation in the following pages, 
being assisted in this service by an interesting portion of a sketch in the last 
number of Hunt''s Merchants' Magazine^ which is also accompanied with a 
well-executed portrait. Whether we regard Mr. Wilder's public position in 
agricultural, horticultural, and pomological societies, or his private character, 
and the general estimation in which he is held by a very large circle of 
friends, we certainly could not commence with a more suitable subject. We 
are therefore very happy to be able to commence our series with a sketch of 
the life of 

Hosi. ITIarsSiall Pinckuey H^ilder, 

DORCHESTER, MASS. 

Mr. Wilder was born in Rindge, a rbugh and rocky town in Cheshire Co., 
New-Hampshire. His father was Samuel L. Wilder, a highly respectable 
farmer and merchant of that place. His grandfather was a member of the 
Massachusetts Convention of 1*787, which voted to adopt the Constitution of 
the United States. The family were held in very great respect, and filled 
many important offices. When nearly prepared for admission to college, the 
subject of our sketch was allowed to follow his own inclinations in a free 
choice between a learned profession, and the mercantile and agricultural 
duties of his father. He preferred the latter, and labored on his father's farm, 
and also assisted in his fiither's store, commencing as the youngest apprentice — 
a candidate for future promotion, as his abilities and opportunity might per- 
mit. Here he had a training which was of fundamental importance in pre- 
paring him for a constantly successful and healthful progress in after-years. 
At twenty-one years of age, he became a partner with his father. In 1825, 
he commenced business in Boston, in the firm of Wilder & Payson, and 
afterward was engaged as a partner in the firm of Wilder & Smith, and still 
later of Parker, Blanchard & Wilder, and Parker, Wilder & Parker, and 
now under the name of Parker, Wilder &; Co., one of the most distinguished 
and extensive commission-houses in Boston, engaged exclusively in the sale 
of domestic manufactures, their goods being wrought in mills, of which they 
are either owners or agents. 

It Avould be to us a very grateful task to follow Mr. Wilder into his own 
dwelling, surrounded by his affectionate, accomplished, and well-instructed 
children, where every thing betokens both refinement and efiiciency, and pre- 
sents a fine model for imitation. But, however pleasant this might be for us, 
it would require much space, and compel us to be more brief in that depart- 
ment in which our readers are more particularly interested. We therefore 
leave this track to our own delightful personal recollections, and to the grate- 
ful remembrances of all his acquaintances and occasional visitors. It is 
chiefly in the marvellous products of the earth, its flowers and its fruits, nur- 
tured under his skillful supervision, that we are to present him to our read- 
ers. It is in connection with his gardens, his vines, his nurseries, and his 
orchards, that we must draw our picture. 

It was in 1832 that Mr. W. established himself in his present residence, 
and here he has brought into being one of those little kingdoms of Flora, so 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 



frequently occurring in the suburbs of Boston. In this departnient he is olie 
of the inost distinguished and successful. He was among the first who intro- 
duced the new camellias from Europe, and for some species he paid immense 
sums. - Five "or six guineas for each was the price of several, having only 
as many leaves. He entered upon the practice of hybridization of these 
splendid plants upon the principles laid down by Herbert, and has produced 
some very remarkable varieties. Among these maybe named C.-Wilderi, 
Mrs. Abby ^yilder, Maria Louisa, Glory, and others. He now has in his 
possession the mother plant of C. Floyi, raised some thirty years ago, by 
Mr. Floy, of this city, and for which he paid the price of two hundred and 
fifty dollars. 

But this is not especially his forte. Others, in that beautiful neighbor- 
hood, can, perhaps, make in this department as fine a display as he. Flora 
is not sole queen on that soil ; Pomona has a still higher throne. And two 
such realms on the same territory, both triumphantly rejoicing in constant 
and successive victory, without defeat, it may be diflncult to discover. 

Pears are Mr. Wilder's hobby. He has been styled the Pear King. For 
many years, by importations and other means, he has secured whatever has 
been produced that was worth possessing. His collection embraces from six 
to eight hundred varieties. He has had on exhibition, at one time, three 
hundred and sixty-seven varieties of this fruit. Several of the most valuable 
now grown in this country, were imported by him. For this he had peculiar 
facilities, being in constant correspondence with the leading amateurs and 
nurserymen of Europe, who have orders to send him every thing new and 
desirable as soon as promulgated. He is also an honorary or corresponding- 
member of the principal horticultural societies in Europe. Hence he has the 
means of obtaining the earliest information on this subject. He has recently 
been appointed Commissioner of the Belgian Royal Poraological Society for 
the United States. These facts show also the estimation in which he is held 
abroad. Indeed, his name is known in Europe almost as extensively as in 
this country. 

This correspondence, to which we have alluded, and the copious notes, 
memoranda, etc., etc., naturally accumulating from" his constant study and 
numerous experiments, and successful culture, have produced a mass of manu- 
script, from which he might prepare a work of great value on this subject, 
and we hope we may, ere long, be favored by its publication. 

We have, more than once, heard farmers complain that they did not 
receive that degree of general respect which was their right. That they were 
passed by unnoticed, while professional men were placed in important, honor- 
able, and lucrative posts. On this complaint the subject of this sketch is a 
complete commentary, and also a thorough refutation of it. For while Mr. 
W. is both merchant and farmer, it is not to his eminence in the mercantile 
line that he owes most of his reputation. Though he deservedly stands high 
in that capacity, there are scores about him whom he regards as his equals, 
accomplished, educated, efficient, all competitors for this same prize, and not 
a few of them are worthy rivals of the greatest and best. Of that class, in 
the city of Boston, it is emphatically true that "there are giants in the land." 
Nor is it, we admit, from the mere fact that he is a farmer, that he is honored, 
but because, when appearing as such, he exhibits the qualities and powers of 
a MAN — an edittated, efficient, determined, upright, honorable, honest man. 
He has within him, and everywhere and always exhibits, the urbanity and 
kindness and liberality which adorn man. It was on the resolution hereaf- 
ter cited, offered and passed unanimously at a magnificent pomological 



474 BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 

levee, given by Mr. W. at the Revere House, that Mr, Lines, of Connecticut, 
said: 

" It was due to the gentleman who has presided over the discussions of the 
Society with so much dignity and ability. He considered that Che position in 
pomology which the president had reached, conferred more honor upon him 
than the Presidency of the United States could do. A gentleman who con- 
fers such -immense benefits upon the whole country — he might say the world 
— as Hon. Mr. Wilder does, is entitled to distinguished honors. He hoped 
this resolution would be passed by a standing vote." Several other gentlemen 
offered remarks in the highest degree complimentary. 

On the formation of the Norfolk County Agricultural Societ}^, in 1849, we 
think, Mr. W. was chosen President, and, in the year following, gave the first 
annual address, full of valuable thoughts, on the subject of agricultural edu- 
cation. It was at the dinner, after the close of that address, that we enjoyed 
a greater intellectual treat than often falls to the lot of one in any country, 
or under any circumstances. We heard, at this one table, addresses from Mr. 
Wilder, who presided ; Levi Lincoln, Horace Mann, George Briggs, Josiah 
Quincy, Josiah Quincy, Jr., Robert C. Winthrop, Edward Everett, and Dan- 
iel Webster ! Mr. W. has been President of the Norfolk County Society for 
six years. 

Nor does the preeminence freely acceded to Mr. Wilder result from the fact 
that he is in the midst of small men in the department of agricultural reform. 
It is precisely the reverse. Anywhere else, almost, many of his associates 
would be head and shoulders above all competitors. Among his near neigh- 
bors, and in the same small county of Norfolk, are Messrs. Samuel Walker, 
known and acknowledged as a host in himself, anywhere and everywhere ; 
Benjamin V. French, the great Apple King, and one of the best and most 
intelligent farmers in the State; Thomas Motley, Jr., not more distinguished 
for his splendid cows and other imported animals, than for his equally sj^len- 
did cultivation, and others deservedly distinguished ; and these, with a more 
numerous list of associates, in different sections of the State, form a body of 
men, who, for personal worth and personal influence, are not exceeded by 
those of any other profession. 

Let our farmers, as a body, be, and show themselves to be, men — yes, 
MEN — able to sustain the interests they represent, and then let them demand 
the concurrence of the State or national legislatures in those measures which 
are deemed of especial importance, and we shall no longer hear such mean- 
ings and lamentations from a forgotten or unthought-of and " dumb" portion 
of the community. 

In 1851, on the formation of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, Mr. 
Wilder was elected its first presiding ofBcer. At the formation of the 
United States Agricultural Society, at Washington, in 1852, Mr. Wilder 
was made President, and still holds that office. He also held, for eight 
years, the office of President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and 
is still one of its directors. This Society holds weekly exhibitions of fruits and 
flowers, the year round, at Horticultural Hall, in School street, opposite the 
City Hal), and often collects a large concourse of people to admire the rich 
display. He is now President of the American Pomological Society. He 
has also held the office of President of the Massachusetts Senate, and has 
been a member of the Governor's Council. He has often pfesided over large 
deliberative assemblies, and always with remarkable success.* Who would 

* We cut from a Boston paper the following paragraph : 

" United States Senatoeship. — "We regret to learn that the Hon. Marshall P. Wil- 
der, whose name has been prominently before the public for this office, desires not to be 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 475 

not covet such distinctions rather than the noisy honors of a mere politician ? 
The most popular achievements of the latter are often of little permanent 
value, sometimes positively harmful, and seldom last beyond a brief term. 
Such honors as we have depicted are incorporated in the very soil, bloom in 
the flowers, and bear fruit year by year. Even the child who enjoys these 
luxuries, which are often appropriated as a daily lunch, has occasion, day by 
day, to give honor to such men. They have their reward. They will not 
soon be forgotten. His virtues have a practical existence, benefiting and en- 
noblino- the whole community, and his name will fill a page in history that 
will suflfer no detriment by the lapse of years, and which will have its inter- 
preter on every hill-side, and in every valley where rural taste and refinement 
are found. 

Perhaps we can not better occupy the space devoted to this subject, than 
by presenting the following extract from the well-written and truthful sketch 
referred to on a preceding page. After giving a very commendatory account 
of Mr. W., but more especially as a merchant, the writer proceeds thus : 

" You pass through Roxbury to his place, which is the first house in Dor- 
chester, on the road to Milton and Quincy. It is called Hawthorne Grove, 
and is one of the most delightful suburban residences in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton. 

Here he conducts you to the plants which you are curious to examine, and 
speaks to you of their history and habits. He guides you through his con- 
servatories, deservedly ranked among the best furnished in the country ; and 
with the plants therein he appears as familiar as Cyrus was with the soldiers 
in his vast army, calling them by name, and giving at pleasure their locality 
and family connections. We will suppose that you pass on through these 
conservatories into his garden, tastefully laid out and adorned, and thence 
into his nurseries, which cover about ten acres in the highest state of culti- 
vation, and which contain many thousands of young fruit trees, particularly 
the pear. For the last species of fruit his grounds are as distinguished as his 
green-houses are for the best varieties and the most extensive collection of 
camelias. Of the pear, he has exhibited, at one time, three hundred and 
seventy-five varieties. 

When you have accomplished the object of your mission and taken your 
departure, reflection suggests the inquiry how a gentleman engaged in a mer- 
cantile business so extensive, can have acquired a fund of information so 
varied and extensive, a knowledge so profound of the sciences of horticulture, 
agriculture, and kindred arts. A word of caution is needful before we answer 
this question. It may not be wise nor safe for every merchant to prosecute 
so many and such varied subordinate pursuits. Singleness of purpose and 
concentration of energy are the general rules of success. All have not the 
same versatility of genius, the same adherence to system, the same inclina- 
tion, taste, and indomitable perseverance. Each must study himself, and 
thus ascertain what he can attempt with safety, and with a reasonable pros- 
pect of prosperity and happiness. So much variety in the objects of pursuit, 
while it would probably distract or perplex most persons, would utterly dis- 
qualify some for business, and insure their loss of health, fortune, and life. 

A more familiar acqua)intance with Mr. Wilder's natural endowments and 

considered a candidate. In common with his numerous friends, we sympathize tenderly 
with him in the repeated domestic bereavements with which he has been visited the last 
year ; and especially in the recent aflfliction under which he now mourns the recent death 
,if a son. His decision is one which our readers, many of our merchants, and the farmers 
throughout the country, will deeply regret." 



476 BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 

private habits, discloses the manner in whicb he has been enabled to make so 
extensive attainments, and to pursue objects so various. Blessed by nature 
with quick perceptive faculties, and unusual versatility of mind, he acquires 
with ease and rapidity, and readily applies his acquisitions to his numerous 
and varied employments. Besides, he is a rigid economist of time, a close 
adherent to system. Every hour has its appropriate business, which is 
attended to in its appointed season. In the evening, and at early dawn, he 
is in his well- selected and valuable library, either investigating subjects which 
the labors and scenes of the past day have suggested, or planning the busi- 
ness of the approaching day. 

When his gardeners, nurserymen, and others employed on his place pre- 
sent themselves at however early an hour in the morning, his rule is to meet 
them, and assign to each company its appropriate business, under its respect- 
ive foreman, who receives the requisite instruction and orders. Away they 
go to their work, and he returns to breakfast with his family, and with them 
to acknowledge the Giver of all their mercies. 

Next he goes forth to see that each man is at his post, performing his duty 
in the best manner, to drop a word of encouragement to the industrious and 
faithful, and by his own example to encourage and instruct them, now train- 
ing a vine or giving a finishing touch to a bouquet, then wielding the spade 
or the pruning-knife, hybridizing a cameha, planting a tree, inserting a bud, 
sketching a flower, or gathering the first fruit of a new variety of pear for 
subsequent study, delineation, and description. At ten o'clock, or thereabout, 
he doffs his garden robes, and is attired — in his carriage — and on his way to 
Boston, where the rest of the day is devoted to his mercantile business. This 
system he has steadily pursued for a long course of years ; and in his strict 
adherence to it lies the secret of his success, and of his elevation to the dis- 
tinguished position which he holds as a merchant, a horticulturist, and an 
agriculturist. 

Hitherto we have spoken of him principally in the first of these capacities. 
But we must also notice his progress in the others, related to the former in 
his multifarious business, as the planets to the central orb around which they 
revolve. 

When Mr. Wilder moved from Boston to his present residence, he was 
associated with gentlemen of taste in the Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety, with such men as Dearborn, Phinney, Fessenden, Lowell, Manning, 
Story, Everett, and AVebster, and with others of fair fame who still live. 
The object of this organization was the promotion of horticulture ; and as a 
means to that end, it contemplated the publication of its transactions, a 
library, exhibitions of fruits and flowers, an experimental garden, and a rural 
cemetery. The two latter of these it sought to realize by the purchase of 
Mount Auburn. But many of the proprietors in this Pere la Chaise of Amer- 
ica felt little interest in the legitimate object of the Association. At length it 
was deemed expedient to give exclusive control of the Cemetery, while the 
original organization should confine its efforts to horticulture. 

But a large sum had been invested in this purchase, and a considerable 
annual income was accruing from the sale of lots. On the motion of Mr. 
Wilder, the terms for the separation of the cemetery interest from the Horti- 
cultural Society were referred to a joint committee, and after much delibera- 
tion were agreed upon. By these, the Horticultural Association received one 
fourth part of the income of the Mount Auburn Cemetery from the sale of 
lots, an arrangement that has proved in the highest degree beneficial to both 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 477 



bodies, and for which the Horticultural Society are much indebted to Mr. 
Wilder and his associate, Hon. Elijah Vose. 

In 1840, he was elected President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety, an office which he filled with honor to himself and to that Association for 
eight years. During his administration, it greatly increased in the number 
of its members, in its resources, usefulness, and respectability. It erected its 
beautiful hall in School street, at the laying of thetcorner-stone and the dedi- 
cation of which he delivered appropriate speeches.* It held two triennial 
festivals in Faueuil Hall, occasions which congregated the elite of city and 
country, and which will long be remembered for their luxurious entertain- 
ments, and for their soul-stirring speeches from Webster, Everett, and other 
chief masters of eloquence. When he retired from the office, the Society 
accompanied its resolutions of thanks with a silver service, as a substantial 
testimonial of its gratitude for his valuable labors. 

Both before and since that period, he has contributed largely for the ad- 
vancement of pomology by the annual importation of fruit trees from the 
chief European cultivators ; by the encouragement of nurserymen ; by the cul- 
tivation of trees and plants in variety in his own grounds ; by his extensive 
correspondence with fruit-growers ; and by his addresses and communications 
devoted to this interest. Hence, upon the organization of the American 
Pomological Society, a national institution, embracing the various States and 
territories of our Union, he was elected President of that body, an ofiice to 
which he has been elected for the third time. 

At its session in Philadelphia, September, 1852, he delivered, by appoint- 
ment, a most eloquent eulogy on the life, labors, and death of his intimate 
friend, Andrew Jackson Downing, the great rural architect and landscape 
gardener of America, who perished in the conflagration of the steamer Henry 
Clay, on the twenty-eighth of the preceding July ; a gentleman who was an 
honor to his country, and was honored by her, and was distinguished on 
both sides of the Atlantic for his numerous publications and valuable ser- 
vices. 

The closing paragraph of that production we will quote as an illustration 
of the force of Mr. Wilder's diction, the beauty of his style, and the range of 
his thoughts : 

' Downing is dead ! Yet how little of such men can perish ! The clayey 
tenement may indeed fall and crumble ; but to him who dwelt in it, a place 
is assigned in the firmament of American genius, far above the storms and 
convulsions of earth, in that clear upper sky, where he shall shine for ever to 
illumine the path of intelligence, enterprise, and virtue, and henceforth to 
enkindle in the human mind a love of order, taste, and beauty. We rank 
him with those who start improvements which advance ages after they are 
dead, and who are justly entitled to the consideration and gratitude of man- 
kind. Washington and his illustrious associates are dead ; but the liberty 
which they achieved still lives and marches in triumph and glory through 
the earth. Franklin is dead; but the spark which his miraculous wand 
'drew from heaven speaks with tongues of fire and electrifies the globe. Ful- 
ton is dead ; but he awoke the spirit of invention which turns the machinery 
of man — aye, he awoke also the genius of navigation — 

'And heaven-inspired 
To love of useful glory, roused mankind, 
And in unbounded commerce mixed the world.' 

* See its Transactions for 1845. 



478 CORX IN NEW-HAMPSHIRE. 



Downing also is dead ; but the principles of artistic propriety and ornament, 
of rural economy and domestic comfort, wliich he revealed, await a more full 
and perfect development ; and as they advance toward their glorious con- 
summation, grateful millions will honor and cherish his name. His memory 
shall live for ever.'* 

At the recent meeting of the Pomological Association in Boston, Mr. Wil- 
der was reelected its president, and delivered an able address on the arts of 
cultivation, and other topics, embodying the results of his long and valuable 
experience. 

In conclusion, he exhorted the members to diligence and perseverance, and 
said : " Gentlemen, go on. Prosecute the work you have so honorably com- 
menced. Sow the seeds of your best fruits, raise new varieties, ply the arts 
of judicious cultivation, study the laws of nature, and extend your researches 
and labors, till our beloved land shall be adorned with orchards, vineyards, 
and gardens, and man shall realize the poet's idea of Paradise Regained."! 

During the sessions, which lasted three days, Mr. Wilder gave a magnifi- 
cent Pomological Levee, at which about two hundred gentlemen were pre- 
sent, including his Excellency the Governor of the Commonwealth, and other 
distinguished guests. The editors of the Horticulturist^ in their description 
of the occasion, say : ' The table was the richest and most tasteful we have 
ever seen ;' and this was the expression of many who have attended the most 
brilliant affairs of this kind ever given in Boston. The occasion was free from 
formalities. Sentiments were given by the host, and responded to in brief 
speeches. At the close of the session, Hon. Mr. Benson, M. C. from Maine, 
proposed the following resolution : 

^Resolved, That the thanks of the Society are most cordially presented to 
the President, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, for the prompt, able, and impartial 
manner in which he has presided over its deliberations ; and we hereby 
assure him that the members will long cherish a lively recollection of the 
pleasure enjoyed at his bountiful and brilliant festive entertainment with 
which he comphmented the Society.' " 

We do not prepare this paper so much for the purpose of doing justice to 
the subject of it — the testimony is not shut up in our pages — but partly 
because it is a most pleasing task, and still more because we would add our 
little word of encouragement to those who, with strong powers, and perhaps 
not unfavorable circumstances, have it in their power, with the blessing of 
Heaven, to exercise an influence on their associates and successors that shall 
one day work out an earthly paradise. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THB LOOM, AKD THE ANVIL. 

CORN IN NEW-HAMPSHIRE, 

Messrs. Editors : The cultivation of Indian corn does not receive the atten- 
tion that it deserves from the farmers of the North. It might rank next to 
the grass crop, which is undoubtedly the first in the Northern States. It is 
not an uncommon thing to hear sensible farmers talk about its costing one 
dollar per bushel to produce this grain, but this talk is all moonshine. No 
one that has kept debt and credit will make such a statement. Large crops 

* ProceediBgs at American Pomological Congress, 1852. f Transactions for 1854. 



CORN IN NEW-HAMPSHIRE. 479 



of this grain can be produced among the rugged hills of.jSTew-Hampshire, by 
judicious cultivation, and with less injury to the soil than is occasioned by 
most other white crops, while it furnishes the largest amount of feed for- stock, 
which can be returned back again to the soil in manure. 

The unprecedented drought of the past season reduced our crop of corn, 
perhaps one third from that of the previous year, which was uncommonly 
laro-e, ranging from thirty to over one hundred bushels per acre in our vici- 
nity, on well-cultivated land. 

Since my remembrance, our vicinity furnished corn for market. Now they 
buy largely, while the soil is equal to any in the county of Rockingham, for 
producing this grain. We might and ought to produce our own bread, if 
we would but come up to the work. What has been done can be done 
again. Good soil is a good thing, but good cultivation is better. 

Our opinion is, that manuring for a series of crops for the raising of this 
grain is the best system, all things considered. Corn is a great feeder, and is 
seldom injured by high manuring, as some other crops are. Our system is, 
spread on the sod, and plough in late in the fall. On land that is liable to 
wash, and of a dryish order, the furrow should run across the slope to pre- 
vent it from washing. On moist land, plough in the fall; in the spring, 
cart on and spread a good coat of fine manure, and give it thorough harrow- 
ing. About the 20th of May, plant and keep clean through the season. 
Allow no weeds to seed. The next year, sow to wheat and clover, then three 
or four years in grass, then plough and manure again, and plant to corn. The 
advantage of this system is this : The corn takes off the heat of the manure ; 
the manure assists in readily decomposing the vegetable fibre in the soil, and 
hastens on the crop to maturity, so that it escapes the early frosts, while a 
crop sparingly manured will be a week or two later, and may be caught by 
the frost. 

The second year the land is in fine condition for a crop of wheat, nor will 
it be so hkely to mildew as newly-manured land will. If it would not be out 
of place, we would state the cost of growing a patch of corn the past season, 
by estimation one acre : 

66 bushels of corn, U1 20 

Top stalks, etc., 25 00 

Whole value of crop, S92 20 

Whole cost of cultivation, interest on land, taxes, etc., - 32 50 

Net income, $59 70 

By the unprecedented drought, this crop was injured at least one third 
from what it would have been, if we had had rain in the proper time. The 
stalks were topped the last week in August, and harvested the third week in 
September. The manure on a part of the piece proved an injury, owing to 
the drought. We do not say that this is a great crop ; but, under all the 
unfavorable circumstances, it is a paying one. The land is, at least, worth 
twenty per cent more for the four next succeeding crops, than it was before 
it was ploughed. D. L. Harvey. 

Epping, N. H., January, 1855. 



Fat Hogs. — David Robinson, of Russel, Geauga Co., sold in our market 
the other day three hogs weighing 421, 480 and 680, respectively. The last 
was a huge animal. 



480 CROPS IN VIRGINIA. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

CROPS IN VIRGINIA.— SOUTHERN PLOUGHS, ETC. 

Messrs. Editors : Since my communication of the 6tli ult., we have had 
an open winter, with httle or no snow. The first two weeks of December 
were cold, giving a good supply of ice, and the ice-houses were generally 
filled. The last forty days have been unusually pleasant for winter months, 
and have been very favorable to our stock. Sheep, up to this date, have 
scarcely been fed at all. My flock has not been fed a handful of any thing, 
and have given me no trouble, further than salting once a week. My cattle 
have not consumed half the usual quantity of feed ; and should the close of 
the winter months continue favorable, we will be enabled to get through win- 
ter full as well as in years past, when plentiful crops were made. 

The farming community have availed themselves of the open winter, and 
much ground has been ploughed for the corn crop. The Virginia State 
Agricultural Society is to have a good influence on the farming community. 
We are getting to plough better than formerly, and more attention is paid to 
a regular rotation of crops ; and there is more attention paid to good stock. 
Horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs are better attended to than formerly. The 
three-horse plough is in more general use ; most of our best farmers use it. 
The ground is deeper and better ploughed, which saves our rolling lands from 
being as badly washed as under the old practice. Our lands also stand a 
drought much better from being deeply cultivated. The subsoil plough is 
but little used as yet. We have no good plough of this description amongst 
us, so far as my knowledge extends. We have two kinds of hill-side ploughs : 
one invented by. Bradley, and one introduced by Messrs. Leyburno, and now 
manufactured by Messrs. Taylor & McDowell, all of our county, which do 
pretty good work. The best plough we have is one introduced some fifteen 
years since, of various numbers, from 1 to 4, by S. Bradley & Co., and called 
the Livingston Plough. It is simple in its construction, and can be kept in 
order by any ordinary ploughman. They are also cheap, ranging from $4 to 
$8.50, cash, for one, two, and three horses. They have been put in competi- 
tion with many of the best ploughs from the North ; and our real practical 
men say, taking all things into account, they are equal, if not superior to and 
plough ever introduced here. The cutters and land-sides, when worn out, are 
easily replaced, and with a wooden pin that any one can make, are firmly 
fitted and as good as new, till the mould-board is worn out. They are en 
tirely of cast-iron, except the beam and handles, with two or three pins. This 
plough is not easily broken, but may be butted up against fixed rock without 
danger. More ploughs are broken by inexperienced ploughmen, by trying to 
slide over rocks, than in any other way. A good ploughman, with a steady, 
firm hold on his plough-handles, buts up against a rock or stump, then 
draws back, and starting slow, with a steady team, ploughs all his. ground, 
and rarely breaks a plough. But if you hop from rock to rock, to save the 
plough, you often split the mould-board, lose half a day in going to the 
foundry for a new one, and paying $1 to |2 to repair damages. There are 
many other good ploughs in our valley, and I have examined samples manu- 
factured in Richmond, Baltimore, the States of Massachusetts and New- 
York — ploughs that cost more money, and withal more complicated — yet I 
have seen none that I consider superior to the Livingston County plough. 
The left-hand plough is generally in use with us. This plough took a pre- 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE COB OF MAIZE. 



481 



December 1, 28o 


u 


2, 32 


u 


3, 33 


u 


4, 26 


u 


5, 16 


u 


6, 17 


(( 


V, 32 


<( 


8, 14 


(( 


9, 15 


« 


10, 26 


(( 


11, 38 


(( 


12, 34 


(( 


13, 38 


(( 


14, 35 


u 


15, 32 


« 


16, 32 


<( 


17, 38 


a 


18, 36 



January 



2, 30 

3, 36 

4, 44 

5, 44 



Your obedient servant, etc., 
22i cTiwwary, 1865. 



January 6, 38° 
" 7, 54 



mium at the cattle show and fair, held at Syracuse, September 29th and 

30th, 1841. , • , . 

We have had quite a gale since 2 P.M. yesterday, 21st; heavy rain, last 
night, with thunder and lightning. The mercury is falling. From noon yes- 
terday till noon to-day the mercury has fallen 26°, and still going down. 
Annexed, I send you the state of the mercury at daylight, since 1st Decem- 
ber, 1854: 

December 19, 26® 

" 20, 12 

" 21, 30 

« 22, 20 

« 23, 26 

" 24, 34 

" 25, 44 

" 26, 60 

" 27, 50 

" 28, 48 

" 29, 38 

" 30, 16 

" 31, 34 
1, 31 



« 8, 36 

" 9, 35 

« 10, 36 

« 11, 32 

« 12, 42 

" 13, 50 

« 14, 22 

" 15, 24 

« 16, 32 

" 17, 33 

" 18, 40 

»' 19, 25 

" 20, 34 

" 21, 40 

« 22, 27 

" 23, 16 

Henry B, Jones. 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE COB OF MAIZE. 

BT J. H. SALISBURY, M.D. 

It is well known that the manure of an animal varies in quality with the 
food which it eats ; and that, generally, manure is richer in nitrogen bodies, 
and less rich in non-nitrogenized matter than the food consumed. Probably 
a greater proportion (though I do not know as this has actually been demon- 
strated) of 100 lbs. of nitrogen bodies would be assimilated by the system, if 
it were mixed with 500 lbs. of non-nitrogenized matter ; and still more, if 
mixed with 1000 lbs., than if taken into the system undiluted or alone. It 
should be borne in mind that it is as essential for food to contain bodies des- 
titute of nitrogen, (such as starch, sugar, oil, etc.,) or those that go to sup- 
port animal heat and respiration in the body, as it is to have nitrogen com- 
pounds to nourish or supply the waste of the living tissues. Hence, food 
suited best to sustain animal life, is that which is made up of these two 
classes of bodies mixed in the proper proportion. And a deficiency in the 
one is equally as deleterious to the healthy existence of the animal, as a defi- 
ciency of the other ; therefore we can hardly say that one of these classes is 
in reality more essential to the maintenance of life than the other. They both 
seem to perform equally important offices. If this view be taken, the cob 
can not be regarded as deficient in those bodies which contribute to respira- 
tion and nutrition. The following table shows about the amount of the seve- 
29 



482 



CORN STATISTICS IN FRANCE. 



ral T^ro: ' p-'''^ oror^r.'" bodi"'? thrown amy in roV'-'^^inr ^h'? -• '■ ' u.^ated 
from the analysis ot the small wliite Hint variety; 1000 ids. of eaia contain 
Hot far from 200 lbs. of cob and 800 lbs. of grain. These contain the follow- 
ing bodies in the following proportions, expressed in pounds and decimals of 
a pound : 

Sugar and extract, - - - - 

Starch, ---... 

Fibre, - - - - 

Oil, 

Zein, 

Matter separated by potash from fibre, 

Albumen, - - . . . 

Casein, ------ 

Dextrine, or gum, - - - . 

Resin, ------ 

Glutinous matter, - - - 

200 lbs. 800 lbs. 1000 lbs. 
In the above table, the inorganic matter is not separately considered, it 
being distributed among the several organic bodies. By rejecting the cobs 
of 1000 lbs. of dry ears, about 200 lbs. of organic matter is lost, which con- 
sists of 13 J lbs. of sugar, and extract 12*71- lbs. of fibre, 45-|- lbs. of matter, 
separated from fibre by a weak solution of potash, 1|- lbs. of albumen, .288 
of a pound of casein, 2.31 of gum or dextrine, 1.8 lbs. of resin, and 7.4 lbs. 
of glutinous matter. Hence the cob, though not rich in nutritive matter, 
can by no means be said to be destitute of those proximate principles which 
go to support respiration and sustain animal heat, and those which are capa- 
ble of being transformed into nerve, muscle, etc , and the phosphates which 
contribute so largely to the formation of bone. 



200 lbs. cob. 


800 lbs. grain. 


1000 lbs. ears. 


13.582 


115.320 


128.902 


.003 


487.384 


487.387 


127.68V 


7.712 


135.399 


.... 


39.824 


39.824 


.... 


31.856 


31.856 


45.404 


61.856 


97.260 


1.518 


37.136 


38.654 


.288 


.688 


.976 


2.310 


28.224 


30.534 


1.806 


. • • • 


1.806 


7.402 




7.402 



CORN STATISTICS IN FRANCE. 

The Siede says : " According to the latest statistical returns, the crop 
of every kind of corn in an average year in France now amounts to about 
180,000,000 of hectolitres. In wheat, our country produces 60,000,000 
of hectolitres; rye, 26,000,000; barley, 19,000,000; Metiel, (a mixture of 
wheat and rye,) 1,500,000 ; oats, 40,000,000 ; buckwheat, 8,000,000 ; 
maize and millet, 7,000,000 ; small grain, pulse, etc., 2,500,000. The 
crop of wheat is, therefore, in the proportion of 60 to 180; that of oats, 
50 to 180; and that of rye, 23 to 180; that is to say, these three de- 
scriptions of corn compared with all the others, are in the proportion of 
103 to 77 only. This quantity of 180,000,000 of hectolitres of corn is not 
all consumed; deducting 25,700,000 hectolitres, for seed, there remains 
154,300,000 for the general consumption. As, however, oats, the net pro- 
duction of which is 39,250,000 hectolitres, can not be reckoned as human 
food, we find that the quantity remaining for the food of the people is 
115,050,000 hectoHtres. If we now take the difierent crops by weight, which 
is the best manner of estimating the nutritive value of each, it may be said 
that the average weight of wheat is 75 kilogrammes per hectolitre, that of 
rye 65 kilogrammes, barley 60 kilogrammes, Metiel 70 kilogiainmes, buck- 
wheat GO kilogrammes, maize 78 kilogrammes, and dry pulse 80 kilo- 
grammes. It follows, therefore, from these bases that with 51,500,000 hec- 



HEREDITARY SPAVIN. 483 

tolitres of wheat, weighing 3 millards of kilogrammes, and the oiher quantities 
of corn in proportion, we have a total weight of 8,046,800,000 kilogrammes 
of corn fit for consumption of man. It has been calculated that on an aver- 
age including women, children, and old people, it requires 220 kilogrammes 
of corn per year for the food of one person. This would, therefore, be 
for France, where the population is reckoned at 36,000,000, a total of 
7,920,000,000 kilogrammes. If, therefore, from 8,046,800,000 kilogrammes 
calculated, as above stated, for human consumption, there be deducted the 
7,920,000,000, which suffice for the consumption of France, the following 
result which must be satisfactory to every one, is come to — namely, that 
France, in an average year, has a crop of 127,000,000 kilogrammes of corn 
beyond the wants of the people, and that she could still feed 600,000 inhab- 
itants more than the present number of her population." 



FLOWERING OF FRUIT TREES IN 1854. 

We copy the following interesting table from the American Almanac for 
1855. The work is replete with useful information. See our Notices of 
New Books. 



PLACES. 

Cambridge, Mas?., 


PL0M. 

April 30 


PEAR. 

April 30 


PEACH. 

May 3 


CHERRY. 

May 5 


APPLE. 

May 10 


"Woodstock, Vt.,. . . 


May 10 






May 15 


May 22 


New-Haven, Ct., . . 






April 25 




May 6 


Lambertville, N. J., . 






April 24 


April 24 


May 1 


Perth Amboy, K J., . 


April 30 


.... 


April 25 


April 27 


May 23 


King George Co., Va. 


* 


April 8 


Mar. 17-22 


April 5 


Ap'l 15 


Savannab, G3.,f . 


Feb. 15 




Feb 15 


«... 


Mar. 1 


Muscatiae, Iowa, . . 


May 3 


:May 6 


May 3 


May 1 


May S 



* The fruit was generally killed by the excessive cold weather in April, after a very mild March. 
Snow and ice, April 15 ; frost, Mny 1. 
+ Frost, early in April, killed the early fruit. 



HEREDITARY SPAVIN— CAUSE, ETC. 

The following article on " Hereditary Spavin in Horses," is taken from 
the London Farmers' Magazine : 

Spavin and other Ossific Enlargements, the predisposition to which 
may be either constitutional or local, are compof'^'d of the earthy matters of 
bone, chiefly invading the tissues low in the scale of organization, such as 
cartilage and fibrous cartilaginous substance^ ; injuring the structure and func- 
tions of the parts, by rendering them rigid and inelastic ; and causing partial or 
complete lameness, depending on the situation and extent of the deposition. 

It is perfectly well ascertained that the progeny of some horses inherit a 
constitutional tendency to splints, epavins, ring-bones, and other bony deposits, 
without exhibiting any peculiar conformation of limbs or joints to account 
for it. There are instances of in ossific diathesis^ transmitted from parent to 
oflfspring ; but, on the other hand, this hereditary predisposition more com- 
monly depends on faulty or peculiar conformation. 

Thus horses most disposed to spavins are those possessing short pointed 
hocks, deficient in width and breadth below, and disproportionately small, 
compared with the upper portion of the joint. Those most disposed to ring- 
hones are horses with upright pasterns and high action ; and those most 



484 ITALIAN RYE-GRASS. 



liable to ossified cartilages are the heavy draught breeds ; so much so that 
it is no uncommon case to find the cartilages of the feet of horses of this 
character changed into bone at four and five years old. The reason of this 
is evident enough ; concussion is easily produced in the joints of the character 
of horses described ; inflammation of a slow chronic kind follows as a natural 
consequence, and osseous eflusion is the result. 

There is no diflBculty in establishing the hereditary character of those 
diseases. Taking spavin as an example, we have numerous and unquestion- 
able cases to produce. Some ten or a dozen years since a spavined thorough- 
bred stallion served mares in the neighborhood of Truro, and in a few years 
afterwards it was really astonishing to see the number of his stock that were 
similarly diseased. One striking circumstance connected with this horse is 
much to the purpose. A half-bred mare, one of the stock, exhibited spavins 
at four years old, and, becoming unfit for fast work, was kept for breeding 
purposes and occasional work on the farm. Two of the mare's stock also 
exhibited spavins in a short time after the breaking. 

There is a curious case recorded in the Veterinarian, by Mr. Percivall, of 
a thorough-bred horse, called Dominie Sampson, that had run very success- 
fully on the English turf, and, although fired in both hocks, was inconsid- 
erately purchased for the East India Company, and was sent out as a cover- 
ing stallion to the stud at Buxar, where for years he had forty mares 
annually, and the whole of which generally proved with foal, but were 
afiected either with curbs or spavins, and only one of his stock was passed 
into the cavalry ; consequently he was discharged from the stud. 

Curbs are frequently found in horses exhibiting the character of hock de- 
scribed in the last example, and are generally caused by injury of the annu- 
lar ligament from over-exertion, producing swelling and inflammation about 
three inches below the point of the hock formed by the os calcis. The 
peculiar form of this bone appears to be connected with the cause of the 
disease. Its chief purpose is to act as a lever for the action of very powerful 
muscles, the tendons of which are inserted into its extremity, and in propor- 
tion to the projection of this bone will the muscular energy be increased by 
which the joint is moved. On this account its length is a matter of consid- 
erable importance. It is supposed also to assist indirectly in supporting the 
superincumbent weight with the other bones of the hock, and materially 
assists in preserving these parts from the effects of concussion. But when 
the OS calcis is short, forming a pointed hock, the leverage or mechanical 
power is injuriously diminished, leaving too much for the other parts of the 
joint to perform, and concivssion is the common consequence, followed by 
inflammation and lameness, som-^.times connected with curbs, at other times 
spavins or thorough pins ; and it 'is not an uncommon case to see all three 
of these diseases in the hock at one time. There are other formed hocks, 
which even more dispose to curbs than the one just mentioned; such are 
the " sickle-hock" or " cow hock." Wo can scarcely name any disease of 
the horse which affords stronger evidence of a hereditary tendency derived 
from peculiarity of structure than the one wt have been considering. 



ITALIAN RYE-GRASS. 

This grass, recently introduced into the United States, is either a native of 
Italy or Germany, and is probably perennial. It differs from the common 
kinds of rye-grass in many botanical particulars, which it is needless to enu- 



AETIFICIAL MANURES. 485 



merate, and wliicli are only intelligible to tlie scientific eye ; but to the ordi- 
nary observer, it difiers very perceptibly in presenting a darker green color, 
and in having much more abundant and broader foliage. It very commonly 
attains the height of four feet, and sometimes more, and is not inclined to 
spread on the ground. If sown in September, it may be cut in the following 
May ; and if sown early in March, it will yield a heavy crop in July. "Whe- 
ther given as green food or converted into hay, it is eaten with avidity by 
cattle, which have, in various instances, manifested their preference of it to 
the common sorts, which is accounted for by its superior succulence and soft- 
ness. It braids much quicker than any other species of rye-grass known to 
us, arrives sooner at maturity, and is in every respect superior to all of them. 
As it overpowers clover if sown with it, it is useless to sow them at the same 
time ; and the only chance of their doing well together would be on poor soil, 
where the vacancies between the turfs of rye-grass might be filled with clo- 
ver, to be available in the second or third mowings. It is sown in the usual 
way after a harrowing, and covered with a bush-harrow and a roller, and the 
quantity of seed for clean ground is about twenty-one pounds per acre. 
Among its other good qualities, it is found to withstand the influence of frost 
better than any other varieties of grass. In a word, it is a decided acqwsi' 
tion to our agriculture. — Genesee Farmer. 

This growth is very highly commended by those who have had exiensire 
experience. Two or three growths may be cut in a single year. For soiling 
it is very superior. — [Ed. P., L., & A. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THK ANVIL. 

ARTIFICIAL MAl^URES. 



Messrs. Editors : I have noticed, with much pleasure, the prompt and 
decided stand you have taken in some of your late numbers, in exposing the 
frauds that are practised in the manufacture and sale of artificial manures. 
Every farmer who has made, or intends to make, use of these manures, will, 
no doubt, feel their obligations to you for the exposure you have given, and 
which will, in all future purchases, keep them on the look-out for frauds, to 
which they are so often exposed. 

From the article in your last issue, it appears that in an instance where the 
purchaser complained to the vender of the impurity of the article bought, he 
was consoled by the soothing assurance that it " contained the quantities suit- 
able for plants." How kind it was in this vender to get up the article in just 
the right proportion, and mix in so much foreign matter that " the 2}^C'nts'^ 
should not get an over-supply of that which was, no doubt, cracked up loudly 
as something essential to their healthful growth ! 

jSTow, after many years' experience on the farm and among manures, we 
have never seen an instance where farmers could not apply substances bene- 
ficial to the soil in just the right quantities for plants, without being at the 
extra expense arising from the purchase of adulterated articles ; and we know 
of no reason why such unwarrantable frauds should be practised without ex- 
posing their perpetrators to such punishments as swindling of the baser sort 
demands. 

What would be the result if the farmer should adulterate the articles of 
produce he sends to market ? In the fii-st place, he would have to restore to 



486 CULTIVATION OF SANDY SOILS. 



the purchaser all moneys he received over the actual value of the article sold 
and if he escaped without paying heavy damages for the imposition practised, 
he might think himself fortunate ; and then, if such frauds became common, 
laws of greater stringency would be passed in order to overcome such evils. 
All this would be right — for farmers, like all others, should be honest ; and 
when they show an inclination to the contrary, it should be checked, so that, 
whatever temptations may await them, the power of law, where their own 
love of right would not do it, should keep them in their legitimate bounds. 

The same rule should apply to men in other employments. The farmer 
should be protected from frauds as well as other men are, and in the manures 
he jiurchases, as well as in other things ; for what he suffers in these matters 
arises from a failure in his harvest, and, of course, in the loss of hard labor, as 
well as in the cash he pays out for valueless, useless property, and through 
his sufferings the community must suffer from deficient crops. 

It is apparent enough, that the evils of these frauds in artificial manures are, 
in each successive year, becoming more and more common in our country, 
and all under the pretense of benefiting the farmer. 

We know of but two ways of remedying this evil : One is to make it a 
penal offense for any one to manufacture or sell adulterated artificial manures, 
and to carry out this, a responsible and intelligent inspector should be ap- 
pointed for every mart where such manures are offered for sale, whose duty it 
should be to brand every parcel just in proportion to the purity of the article 
it claims to be, whether first, second, or third quality, beyond which it should 
be condemned. 

In the second place, farmers should look more to their own resources, and 
less to the manufactures for the means of improving their soils. Where is 
the farmer, in all our country, that avails himself of all the means at his com- 
mand for increasing both the quantity and value of his manure-heaps ? What 
wastes of some sort are to be found, even on premises the most economically 
managed ! How far can the manures offered as merchandise in the market 
be manufactured at home, at less expense than they cost, and of a superior 
quality ? 

These are questions for each farmer to answer ; and in looking over the mat- 
ter, the mass, if not all, we are sure, will find that available means, not 
hilherto adopted, are within their reach of increasing their crops, and beauti- 
fying their lands with luxuriant vegetation without having recourse to swin- 
dlers and speculators, who, without conscience or remorse, will turn them off 
with catch-penny commodities under the assumed names of fertilizers ! 

Yours truly, W. B. 



FOR THB PLOOGH, THB LOOM, AND THE ASVIL. 

CULTIVATION OF SANDY SOILS.— LONG-ISLAND. 

Messrs. Editors : A large portion of the soil of the country is of this 
class, and very little of it is under what may be called good cultivation. The 
greater part is managed on the skinning or starvation system. That these 
soils possess many advantages, has been long acknowledged by those who 
have given the subject the ier.st consideration, whilst their peculiar adaptation 
to the culture of root-crops ib now generally admitted. The absence of alu- 
mina and their porous character rendering them unable, in a great measure, 
to retain moisture, the best portions of manure are lost, either by percolation 



ATLANTIC COTTON MILLS. 



487 



or evaporation; aid hence has arisen a great objection to the cultivation of 
thi? cb?s of 7 '3, u: -a thsi- ;'r:.,.ne. , ca-^. ."i i. : g., ^nd ::..-.^7 L. _.i.-Dg 
early crops, do not seem to have obviated. And yet that such soil can be 
well and profitably cultivated has been long known ; witness the barren sand 
of Belgium and the estates of Coke and Hatherton in England, or, nearer 
home, the blowing sand near Albany, and some small portions of Long-Island. 
Their' adaptation also for sheep husbandry is well known; and yet, withm a 
few miles of this great city are thousands of acres, every way capable of sup- 
porting immense flocks, with not a sheep on them. I have been led to make 
these observations from a recent trip on the Long-Island Railroad, when, in 
the space of about fifty miles, I did not see that number of sheep ; and, as a 
friend with me observed, on passing Hempstead Plains, here are the Downs, 
but where are the South-Downs ? Certainly not there. A great many sheep, 
I understand, are raised on the north side of the island, and the stock is gene- 
rally improving; Wm. Becar, W. W. Mills, and J. Smith having some fine 
flocks. Still they are the exception, not the rule, and it is the latter that we 
want. The arrowing taste for mutton, and the high price a good article will 
always command, we think should stimulate the farmers of Long-Island to 
push forward in what I consider a profitable branch of husbandry ; and 
instead of being satisfied with raising from eight to ten bushels of rye to the 
acre, and then carrying the straw off the farm, consume it on the farm, and 
not rest satisfied till they can, from the same land, raise from five to six hun 
dred bushels of turnips. That this can be done, we will endeavor, at some 
future time to show. ^• 



ATLANTIC COTTON MILLS, LAWRENCE. 

President — J.' Wiley Edmunds. 

Treasurer — Wm. Gray. 

Agent — Henry K. Oliver. 

Directors— Khhoii Lawrence, Nathan Appleton, John A. Lowell, G.. W. 
Lyman, J. W. Edmunds, George H. Kuhn, Wm. Gray. 

Superintendent — Jos. P. Battles. 

Paymaster — Samuel C. Oliver. . . , 

This Company was incorporated in 1 846. Its capital is |1,800,000, divided 
into 1800 shares, of $1000 each. 

Ground was broken for the erection of these mills in 1846 ; and in May 
1849, mill No. 1 went into operation. The mills which are situated between 
the Pacific and Bay State, in ward 3, are popularly designated as Nos. 1, 
(west building,) 2, (east building,) and 3, (centre.) The centre or main build- 
ing was erected subsequently to Nos. 1 and 2, and between them, and they 
nolv form one connected structure 577 feet in length. Nos. 1 and 2 are each 
220 feet in front, 64 feet wide, and five stories high, including basement, be- 
side attics. The height of each is 65 feet to the eaves. The centre mill No. 
3, is 137 feet in length in front, 123 feet in rear, and 100 feet wide. _ It is 
six stories high, including basement, or 78 feet to the eaves. Exclusive of 
these buildings, are two picker-houses 75 feet, 8 inches, by 53 feet,_4 inches, 
and three stories high ; two cotton-houses ; No. 1 being 200 feet in length, 
50 feet in breadth, and 25 feet in height; No. 2, 120 feet in length, 50 feet 
in breadth, and 25 feet in height; these buildings are capable of holding 
10,000 bales of cotton ; a waste-house, 80 feet long, 23 wide, and 15 high ; 



488 ATLANTIC COTTON MILLS. 

a boiler-house, 42 feet square, with coal shed attached, 62 feet by 42. It has 
at present four boilers, but is capable of containing six; steam-chimney 150 
feet in height. Canal building, 805 feet long, 40 feet wide and two stories 
high, exclusive of attic. 

The counting-room is in the canal building, and beside a general recep- 
tion-room, contains the respective offices of the agent, superintendent, pay- 
master, and clerks. 

In the same building is the repair-shop, including iron, carpenter, and 
blacksmith shops ; also a store-room and cloth-room. The building contains 
in addition, a 15-horse power steam-engine. 

In the repair-shop 48 men are employed, under the superintendence of 
John S. Stafford, head-machinist, and Perley Ayer, head-carpenter. In the 
cloth-room 20 hands are employed under the direction of Lewis Young, over- 
seer. The number of out-door hands is 25, of which Artemas Harmon is 
overseer. 

Mills Nos. 1 and 2 each contain a carding-room, spinning-room, dressing- 
room, and upper and lower weaving-room, with the following number of per- 
sons employed in each, namely : 

Total number of males employed in Mill No. 1, 61 ; females, 290. The 
average amount monthly paid to males in this mill is $1800; to females, 
$4000. 

Total number of males employed in Mill No. 1, 60; females, 281. The 
average paid monthly for wages is, to males 1800 ; to females, $4000. 

Total number of males employed in Mill No. 3, 84 ; females, 226. The 
.average amount of wages paid monthly to males is 2100 ; to females, $4100. 
The whole number of males employed by the corporation is 307 ; of females, 
701 ; and total employed, 1104. 

Machinery. — These Mills are thoroughly supplied with machinery of the 
most approved kind and in best order, as follows : No. 1, 1 whipper ; 3 cal- 
vert-openera ; 8 pickers; 78 breaker cards ; 62 finishers' oards ; 2 lappers; 
1 lap-winder; 14 railways; 12 drawing frames; 13 speeders, carrying 258 
spindles; 19 stretchers, carrying 936 spindles; 54 warp frames, with 128 
spindles each; 50 filling frames, of 128 spindles each, and averaging 13,312 
spindles; 18 warpers; 10 dressers; 398 looms. 
Mill No. 2 contains the same machinery as No. 1. 

Mill No. 3 contains 1 whipper ; 3 calvert-openers ; 8 pickers ; 76 breaker 
cards ; 74 finisher do. ; 2 lappers, one for 42 cards, and one for 34 cards ; 8 
railway heads for finishers, 8 cards each ; 18 fine speeders, 72 spindles each; 
88 warp frames, 128 spindles each, carrying 11,264 spindles ; 26 mules, car- 
rying 14,460 spindles — a total of 25,724; 18 warpers; 12 dressers; 530 
looms. The whole number of looms in the above mills is 1326 ; of spindles, 
52,348. 

Beside the machinery contained in the above, there are 3 folding ma- 
chines ; 3 hydraulic presses, and all sorts of machines necessary for repairing 
at the mills ; also for making rolls, banding, belts, etc. 

Thirteen thousand bales of cotton are annually used, averaging 450 lbs. 
per bale. The goods made are Nos. 14 and 24, shirtings and sheetings, of 
various widths ; 285,000 yards are manufactured weekly, or about 15,000,000 
yards yearly — equivalent in length, for every year, to eight thousand miles, 
or one third the circumference of the globe. The power is supplied by three 
of Boyden''s iron Turbine wheels, 8 feet in diameter, and of 500-horse power 
each. The surface embraced in the mill-site comprises an area of 300,000 
feet 



ATLANTIC COTTON MILLS. 489 

The Company have six blocks of brick boarding-houses, three stories high, 
exclusive of attics, containing spacious tenements. One half fronts on Me- 
thuen street, and the other on Canal street. The houses are built in the most 
substantial manner, in which taste and convenience are combined. Shade- 
trees are planted on either side, thus giving them a pleasing and attractive 
appearance. 

In September, 1851, at a meeting of the overseers, a library association 
was formed, and a library commenced by the donation of one hundred vol- 
umes and a loan of fifty dollars from Gen. H. K. Oliver, the Agent. Subse- 
quently $50 and 24 volumes of Littell's Living Age were presented by Wm. 
Gray, Esq., Treasurer of Mills. Donations were afterward received from 
Amos Lawrence, Esq., and the Lawrence Tract Society. Recently the direct- 
ors have appropriated |500 for the library, and the Company will pay the 
future expense of the same. It now consists of 1500 volumes, and is an- 
nually increasing. It is kept in the Canal building, and is free to all in any 
way connected with the mills. 

Much attention has been paid to the social and moral condition of those 
engaged in the mills, and the agent has been indefatigable in his efibrts to 
promote the best welfare of all concerned. The regulations require a proper 
observance of the Sabbath, and a regular attendance at some place of public 
worship. The reception of company, or any rudeness or disorder is strictly 
prohibited on that day in all the boarding-houses. 

Altogether the Atlantic Mills are a model of neatness, order, and excel- 
lence. The most perfect harmony exists between the various departments, 
reflecting the highest credit upon the management of so extensive a corpora- 
tion. As might be expected, this corporation is in a highly flourishing con- 
dition, having for some time past declared semi-annual dividends. 

While establishments like the one above described are thus successfully 
contributing to the national wealth ; creating a home market and affording 
employment to thousands, it is gratifying to know that they are conducted 
with the highest regard to the best interests of the employed. And so long 
as the social, moral, and intellectual wants of those connected with them are 
duly considered and regarded so long should proprietors and agents receive 
the meed of approbation from an enlightened and intelligent community. 

We collate the above statement from a recent number of the Lawrence 
Sentinel. But we are not willing to dismiss the topic without adding our 
OWN testimony, from long and intimate acquaintance with the accomplished 
agent, to his earnest endeavors to promote the welfare and happiness of his 
operatives, as well as to advance the interests of the Company. When we 
contrast his policy with what we have sometimes (but thank God, not often) 
seen in some other establishments, in other places, we are prompted publicly 
to thank Gen, Oliver for his noble and successful example. God bless him 
and his, and all who follow in these his footsteps, and let every one of our 
readers say, Amen. 



Population of Michigan. — We have before us the population of Michi- 
gan, taken this fall by State authority. It exhibits a very rapid growth. All 
the counties are given except eight small ones, and the number is 518,698, 
estimating the omitted counties. Four years ago, the census returns made 
Michigan contains 397,967 ; increase in four years, 120,731, or 30 per cent. 
The same rate of increase would elevate Michigan to about 700,000 in 1860. 



490 GOOD COFFEE. 



GOOD COFFEE. 

There are comparatively few who can prepare a cup of good coffee. Iq 
this, as in wines and liquors, the taste of the many is so depraved by use that 
they do not relish the best specimens. We once knew a country wine-dealer 
who returned, as unfit for his market, the onlt cask of imported wine ever 
sent to him by his city correspondent. It would not be strange if similar 
wisdom should be developed in the matter of coffee. " Who is to determine 
what is best ?" We suppose they are to decide who are most devoted to the 
business, and have been longest tinder the best instruction on the subject. 
The Chinese best know how to use tea ; and those who acquire the art from 
them are next in order. The Turks have been long famous for their coffee, 
and so have the French. If any of us do not like such coffee, then we must 
adopt our own plans. But we can not claim to be the only sensible people 
on this subject. One might not relish a segar that would be pronounced 
capital by au old Spaniard, and yet the Spaniard is by far the best judge of 
what " good" tobacco is. So it is with all artificial preparations. Use may 
accustom us to think almost any thing " the best." We go against the long 
boiling of coffee or long steeping of tea. We thereby get an excessive pro- 
portion of the hitter principle, which is no advantage to the flavor of the 
beverage. It is not this which abounds in almost every plant that we desire, 
but it is the peculiar flavor of the berry of the coffee, and of the leaf of the 
tea. This flavor exists chiefly in its oil, its essential oil. When this is ob- 
tained by the use of alcohol, it is called an essence. When this alcohol is 
taken from the essence, the essential oil remains. 

In Knighton's ^'■Forest Life in Ceylon^'' are the following hints on the pre- 
paration of coffee, derived from long experience : " The subtle aroma which 
resides in the essential oil of the coffee-berry is gradually dissipated after 
roasting, and of course still more after being ground. In order to enjoy the 
full flavor in perfection, the berry should pass at once from the roasting-pan 
to the mill, and thence to the coffee-pot ; and again, after having been made 
should be mixed when almost at a boiling point, with hot milk. It must be 
very bad coffee, indeed, which, if these precautions be taken, will not afford 
an agreeable and exhilarating drink. Two great evils are constantly perpe- 
trated in England in its preparation, which are more guarded against in 
almost all other countries, and which materially impair its flavor and strength — 
keeping the coffee a considerable time roasting or grinding, by which its 
strength is diminished, and its delicate and volatile aroma lost, and mixing 
the milk with it after it has been allowed partially to cool." 

He who can not indorse this from his own experience, has not entered 
far into the mysteries of the culinary art, and yet how many families boil 
their coffee and tea almost by the hour, " so as to get the strength out." We 
had almost as lief drink an infusion of peas or of rye, as such coffee. Rather 
than partake of this, we would secure what passes out of the nose of a boil- 
ing coffee-pot. This vapor might be passed by a tube into a closed vessel 
filled with hot water, from the top of which a tube should descend into the 
liquid, as a safety-valve. x\fter long-continued boiling, we have no doubt 
that this second vessel would contain a better-flftvored beverage than that in 
the pot; and if the quantity of water was properly graduated, it might not 
be very weak. It certainly would be worth saving and restoring to the pot. 

But vr-hen the "coffee" is bought of the grocer, already burned and ground, 
and then is prepared by long boiling in a coffee-pot, from which there is 



BEST POSITION OF FIRES FOR WARMING APARTMENTS. 491 

abundant evaporation, the wretched stuff is, at best, but a poor apology for well- 
prepared coffee. Especially as it is often " settled" so very imperfectly as to 
deposit large quantities of mud on the bottom of each cup. Under our per- 
sonal or family direction, neither our coffee nor chocolate will present any 
such evidence that any powdered or solid material has been employed in the 
preparation. We think there is no part of the culinary art in which people 
are so self-sufficient and yet so ill-informed. 



BEST POSITION OF FIRES FOR WARMING APARTMENTS. 

A VERY valuable paper on this subject has been read before the London 
Society of Arts, by Dr. Arnott. He goes into a full exposition of several 
popular errors on this subject, and then proceeds as follows : 

" These explanations being premised, the two popular delusions respecting 
the low fires become at once apparent. 

1st. The supposition that fuel burnt in a low fire gives out more heat, has 
arisen from the experimenter not reflecting that his hand held over the low 
fire feels not only the heat radiated from the fire itself, but also that reflected 
from the hearth close beneath it, which second portion, if the grate were high, 
would have room to spread or radiate downward and outward to the more 
distant floor or carpet, and so warm them. 

2d. The notion that the fire, because near the floor, must warm the carpet 
more, springs from what may be called an error in the logic of the reasoner, 
who is assuming that the hearth, floor, and carpet, being parts of the same 
level, are in the same predicament — the truth being, however, that, in such a 
case, the hearth within the fender gets nearly all the downward rays, and the 
carpet almost none — as a candle held before a looking-glass at a moderate 
distance diffuses its heat pretty uniformly over the whole ; but if moved close 
to one part of the glass, it overheats, and probably cracks that part, leaving 
the rest unaffected. A low fire on a heated hearth is to the general floor or 
carpet of a room nearly what the sun, at the moment of rising or setting, is 
to the surface of a field. The rays are nearly all shooting upward from the 
surface, and the few which approach it slant obliquely along or nearly paral- 
lel to the surface, without touching, and therefore without warming it. 

Striking proof of the facts here set forth is obtained by laying thermome- 
ters on the floor of a room with a low fire, and of a room with the fire, as 
usual of old, at a height of about fifteen or sixteen inches above the hearth. 
An experiment tried in two such rooms, in both of which thermometers on 
the piano-fortes, four feet above the floor, stood at 62°, showed the carpet, 
not far from the hearth, to be at 56° with the low, and at 73° with the high 
fire. 

As would be anticipated by a person understanding the subject aright, 
low fires make cold feet very common, unless to those who sit near the fire 
with their feet on the fender ; but, deceived by their fallacious reasoning, the 
advocates are disposed to blame the state of their health or the weather as 
the cause, and they rejoice at having the low fire, which can quickly warm 
their feet when placed near it. A company of such persons seen sitting close 
around their fire, with thankfulness for its warmth near their feet, might sug- 
gest the case of a party of good-natured people duped out of their property 
by a swindler, and afterward gratefully accepting as charity from him a part 
of their own property." 



492 TURNIPS AS FEED. 



These suggestions certainly commend themselves to our good judgment, 
and would lead us to increase rather than diminish the height of our grates, 
stoves, etc. For aught we can see, the reasoning would lead us to elevate 
these fixtures to the highest point from which heat would radiate in very sen- 
sible quantities to the surrounding floor. Thus the circle of attraction to 
those having cold feet, would be very materially enlarged. 

Our readers may remember some statements which we made in our num- 
ber for April, 1853, in which we explained the mode by which our atmo- 
sphere is warmed. The direct rays of the sun in passing through it are very 
inefficient, while the temperature of the earth has a very important influence. 
The notion that "heat rises," is not the controlling principle in this matter, 
but the efiect is dependent on other and very difterent principles, which we 
need not here repeat. We refer the reader to the article already described. 



TURNIPS AS FEED. 

While in attendance upon the late National Poultry Show at Barnum's 
Museum, we spent a few minutes in the " Lecture-Room." Our friend Mr. 
Solon Robinson was making remarks upon the use of turnips as feed, as 
reported in some of the journals of the day. He took the position that they 
were good for nothing as nutriment, and sustained himself by giving its 
analysis. This is all very well, but unfortunately it is not in accordance Avith 
well-known facts. We used to talk in the same way, but were obliged to 
yield not simply to a few doubtful experiments, but to years of experience. 
This the speaker seemed to feel, for he admitted that " in England it might 
not be so." But we suppose a turnip in England is very much the same 
thing as a turnip in New- York. He also added that they should be fed by 
turning the cattle in upon them, as they are growing in the field. We can 
not see the force or propriety of this distinction. Is it not the same worth- 
less thing before it is pulled, as afterwards ? Must the cattle or sheep pull 
it, or bite it ofi", to render it nutritious ? But even here there is no escape, 
for the English practice is, after the animal has bit off" as much as is prac- 
ticable, the root remaining in the ground is then lifted by a fork and le ft on 
the top of the ground, for the cattle to eat at pleasure. 

We are compelled to admit that there is something in this fact of nutri- 
tion, that no doctrine of chemistry or physiology is able to explain. The 
fact is unquestionable, that turnips are excellent for fattening sheep and 
cattle, whether we can explain why it is so or not. It is equally true, as Mr. 
R. stated in the same speech, that about 97 per cent of the flat turnip, as 
shown by a chemical analysis, consists of water. These two facts, so appar- 
ently contradictory, are entirely above and beyond contradiction. We sub- 
join the following, on this subject, which appears in the Northern Farmer. 

" The vegetable I wish to recommend as the best, all things considered, 
for milch-cows in winter, is white flat turnips. Some, perhaps, will object to 
the turnip, because it will aft'ect the taste of the milk and butter. So it does 
if fed raw ; this can be avoided by boiling. For each cow, boil a half a 
bushel of turnips soft ; while hot, add five or six quarts of shorts ; which 
will swell, and you will get the full worth of it. A mess like this fed to a 
cow once a day, will produce more milk of a good quality, than any other 
feed at the same cost. Turnips fed in this way do not taint either milk of 



VALUE OF MANUFACTURES. 493 

butter. One thing in favor of turnips as feed for cows, is, that they can be 
sown in August, or as late as the first of September. I sowed some as late 
as September, last year, which were very fine. Turnips are also very profit- 
able feed for pigs, when boiled in the same way as for cows." 



FOR THIS PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THB ANVIL. 

CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF MINNESOTA. 

I ONCE before mentioned something about threshing-machines. Illinois as 
yet has furnished the best or most substantial and useful, that have been 
brought to Minnesota. Elgin, III., has the praise of furnishing the best ma- 
chines as yet. One machine has threshed 12,000 bushels of grain, and the 
repairs have not amounted to five dollars. As Minnesota will be a great 
farming country, a great number of machines will be wanted in this country. 
Spring wheat is worth from $1 to $1.25 per bushel; oats, 40 to 45 cents per 
bushel. 

The crops, on an average, have been good. I hear of no failures of crops, 
unless by negligence or improper culture. Potatoes have done well, and no 
sign of rust as yet ; and I may say that Minnesota farmers are a happy peo- 
ple. Taxes are light, and a ready market for all that farmers can raise of 
every description ; cash in hand for all ; cattle, horses, pork, poultry, butter, 
etc., in abundance. The bank panic has not afl'ected us much as yet, and we 
feel confident that Minnesota has managed her afiairs so as to stand aloof 
from the Eastern pressure in financial business. 

There is so much good land in Minnesota, and so much of it is cultivated, 
that systematic farming is little thought of. If a man's farm don't suit him, 
all he has to do, is to move a few miles off, and find a farm that will suit him 
better. We turn the sod over in June and July, and the spring following we 
get from twenty to forty bushels per acre of spring wheat. Corn of most all 
varieties does better here than in the Eastern States. 

Your most obedient, P. Prescott. 

Fort Snelling, Min., Jan., 1855. 



VALUE OF MANUFACTURES. 

We know of nothing which so forcibly illustrates the importance of encou- 
raging HOME INDUSTRY, as the rise and progress of our manufacturing towns, 
and among these the history of Lawrence is eminently worthy of attention. 
We gather the following facts from a carefully-written article in the Lawrence 
Sentinel. 

The first town-meeting after the town charter was obtained, was held April 
26, 1847. The whole number of votes for Moderator was six. The town 
voted to raise 14500 for general expenses, $1200 for roads and bridges, 
$2000 for schools, and $2000 for building two school-houses. 

At the second annual meeting, $18,000 were appropriated for current ex- 
penses, $4000 for schools, $30,000 to build a town-house, $12,500 to build a 
brick school-house, $250 for another school-house, $1500 for Hook and Lad- 



494 MANUFACTUEE OF PLATE-GLASS. 



der Company; and July 1, $10,000 additional were appropriated for the 
town-house. 

At the third annual meeting, $25,000 were appropriated for the expenses 
of the town, of which about $8500 were for schools and school-houses. 

Thus progress and regard for education go hand in hand. In these mat- 
ters it is emphatically true that " the liberal soul shall be made fat," while the 
industry you cherish and protect is not only self-sustaining but is constantly 
and increasingly aggressive upon all idleness, and ignorance, and the vices 
that grow therefrom. It is, in many respects, the leaven that pervades the 
entire mass. 



MANUFACTURE OF PLATE- GLASS. 

AVe find in the Polytechnic a very concise account of the process enjployed 
in the manufacture of plate-glass. We have not yet been able to compete 
with the English in this department, on account of the great expense with 
which it is attended, and the necessity of great skill, which it requires. With- 
out occupying space now, with its history, we copy the account given of its 
present condition. The American invention, spoken of at the close of the 
extract, is by the learned editor of the journal from which we copy. 

" The best plate-glass now manufactured comes from St. Gobain, in France, 
where the manufacture of cast plates was first established in 1689 ; the Eng^ 
lish plate is next in quality ; the German being liable to cloud ; the excellence 
of the plates of St. Gobain is due, it is said, to the fact that it is a true chemi- 
cal compound, consisting of one atom of trisilicate of soda, and one atom of 
trisilicate of lime, with a small per-centage of alumina ; this manufacture is a 
very good example of the advantage of employing the best chemical talent in 
a manufacture where chemical compounds are used. The services of Gay 
Lussac were engaged for a long time at these works, where his investigations 
were in the highest degree valuable. 

The manufacture of plate-glass, as at present conducted, requires a number 
of workmen, and the greatest care, after the vitrification of the materials is 
complete, which takes ordinarily about twenty hours. The glass is trans- 
ferred from the pots in which it is made to a cistern, or as the French call it, 
cuvette, made oblong, and so formed as to be readily transported. This cis- 
tern is highly heated in a furnace, and the glass is ladled from the melting- 
pot into it, and then stands till it is fined, and at a proper heat to work. 
When the melted glass in the cistern is in the proper state for flowing readily 
and equably, the cistern is taken out of the furnace by means of tongs, which 
are made to embrace the cistern. It is then raised by a crane, placed upon 
a low carriage, and removed to the casting-table. The outside of the cistern 
is carefully cleaned, and the glass skimmed with a broad copper sabre, to 
prevent any impurities from mixing with the glass on the casting-table. The 
cistern is then wound up to a suificient height by means of a crane, and swung 
over the upper end of the casting-table, which has been heated by hot coals 
spread over it, and then wiped perfectly clean. The cistern being tilted over, 
a torrent of melted glass is suddenly poured out on the surface of the table : 
it is prevented from running off the sides by ribs of metal, one of which is 
placed along the whole length of each side, their depth being the exact mea- 
sure which is to be given to the thickness of the glass. When the cistern 
has been emptied, a massive copper cylinder, three feet in diameter, extend 



MANUFACTURE OF PLATE-GLASS. 495 



ing entirely across the table, and resting on the side-ribs, is set in motion, 
and spreads the glass out into a sheet of uniform breadth and thicliness. The 
pouring out of the glass is a grand sight, and the variety of colors exhibited 
by the plate, immediately after the roller has passed over it, is beautiful to 
behold. In order to remove all impurity from the casting slab, a washer is 
drawn immediately in front of the fluid glass ; the excess of glass pours over 
the front edge into a trough, filled with water; the roller then passes off the 
slab, and is received in grooves in front of the slab. The slab is then cleared 
of any redundancy at the sides ; a thick flange of the still soft glass is turned 
up at the end; and when this flange has become somewhat rigid, a rake- 
shaped iron is applied to it, and the plate is forced forward into the annealing 
oven, or thrust upon a wooden platform moving on wheels, and so conveyed 
to the oven, where it remains about five days, in a horizontal position, ex- 
posed to a gradually diminishing temperature. 

Grinding and Polishing. — The plate being still hot, and yielding wheri it 
is slid into the oven, takes an impression of the bricks of the oven upon which 
it rests, while the upper surface is generally made smooth and bright from 
the action of the fire, but it is not flat. The plates, as they come out of the 
annealing furnace, are about half an inch thick, of an irregular mottled ap- 
pearance. They are carefully examined, to see whether the glass is suffi- 
ciently free from defects to admit of forming large plates, which, of course, 
have a much greater comparative value than small ones. If the defects are 
such as can not be removed by grinding, the plate must be cut up into 
smaller plates, so that the defective portions maybe rejected. The plates 
having been squared, next undergo the processes of grinding and polishing. 
These were formerly done by hand, but of late years this laborious work is 
almost entirely performed by machinery. The first object is to produce a 
level surface, which is done by gfinding one plate upon another, a rough or 
rolled surface being opposed to the comparatively smooth or casting-plate sur- 
face. The grinding machines for large plates are arranged in pairs, consist- 
ing of two benches of stone, fifteen feet long, eight feet wide, and eighteen 
inches high. On the surface of each bench, one or more plates of glass are 
imbedded in plaster of Paris, close together, and quite level. Other plates of 
glass are cemented upon the lower faces of two swing-tables or runners, which 
are made to traverse over the fixed beds by appropriate machinery, in such a 
way that each runner is made to rotate around its own axis, and by a combi- 
nation of two movements to change continually the relative position of the 
fixed bench and runner. Such an arrangement tends to the mutual correc- 
tion of the two surfaces of the glass, and greatly assists the equal distribution 
of the sand and water. All the irregularities of the surface are first ground 
out with sharp river-sand, which has been washed and sifted into three sizes : 
the sand and water are thrown on by hand from time to time. When the 
plates have been ground quite flat, the finer sand is employed ; this is fol- 
lowed by one finer still, which removes the scratches made by the coarser. 
The plates of glass are well washed between every change of sand ; and when 
one side has been ground, the plates are reversed, and the other side ground. 
When the plates become sufficiently smooth to require the application of 
emery, there is a tendency to cohesion between the surfaces, which, travelling 
over each other with moderate velocity, produce so much friction that one 
surface will frequently tear the glass from the other. Hence it has not been 
thought safe to trust the next process, namely, the smoothing, to machinery, 
and hand-labor has been employed. 

The polishing is completed by rubbers, covered with thick felt, and worked 



496 MANUFACTURE OF PLATE-GLASS, 



by machinery. The plates of glass are embedded close together, with their 
surfaces quite level, upon movable platforms, fixed upon a traversino- bed. 
The rubbers, which measure eight by six inches each, are attached, one foot 
asunder, to reciprocating carriages, which drag the rubbers backward and 
forward over the surface of the glass, while the latter traverses, beneath the 
rubbers, a space equal to the distance between the two lines of rubbers, so as 
to expose all parts of the glass equally to their action. Each rubber is made 
to exert a pressure of about fifteen pounds, by means of lead weights. The 
powder used for polishing is Venetian pink ; this contains only a small por- 
tion of the oxide of iron mixed with earthy matter ; it admits of being mixed 
with water, and thus reduces the friction, and prevents the glass becoming 
heated by the action of the rubbers. Tripoli irocees, or putty-powder, used 
with water, are too active to produce a high polish on glass ; but they may 
be employed dry for the last finish in hand-polishing. In polishing by ma- 
chinery, dry powders must be avoided on account of the friction and heat 
evolved. Hand-polishing is very tedious, and is apt to produce a wavy ap- 
pearance ; hence, machine-polished glass is to be preferred. 

The grinding and polishing of the glass reduce their thickness as much as 
one third, and in some cases one half. Should the glass be defective, the 
polishing will only serve to heighten the defects ; hence, a second and more 
careful examination and selection are now made. The defective ones are cut 
up into smaller plates, and these are polished again ; the perfect ones are 
reserved for silvering." 

"A machine for making plate-glass has been invented by J. J. Greenougb, 
and patented a short time since, which does away with almost all the mani- 
pulations formerly required ; by it glass of any required magnitude can be 
made, and at a cost very greatly reduced from the old method ; it consists in 
taking the glass from the cistern or cuvette directly between two rollers, by 
which it is drawn out into the form of a slab; descending perpendicularly, it 
is again reduced to a thinner plate by a pair of rollers placed below the first 
and made to draw sufiiciently for the purpose ; it then passes downward to a 
third pair of rollers, and thence to any number found necessary, the sets of 
rollers being sufficient in number to sustain and draw the glass, and hold it 
till it gets suflSciently cool to sustain its own weight, when it descends into an 
annealing oven below, where it is suspended till cool. By this means the 
two sides of the plate are perfectly straight and parallel, requiring but little 
polishing to prepare them for mirror plates, or other like purposes. It will 
be seen that great rapidity of execution can be attained with this method ; 
the quickest working glass, such as could not be used in the ordinary way, 
may by this means be wrought at a very low cost. The rollers are kept cool 
by a stream of cold water running through them to carry ofi" the superfluous 
heat, and the temperature of the glass is thereby rapidly reduced to the pro- 
per point for annealing. 

There are many minor details in the manufacture which we have here not 
enumerated ; but sufficient has been shown to demonstrate a greatly reduced 
cost over the old method of making plate-glass, which it must eventually 
supersede." 



Cashmere Goats. — A pair of pure-bred Cashmere goats were recently 
bought by some gentlemen in Eichmond, Va., for fifteen hundred dollars. 
The wool from another pair of the same lot, when examined by a micro- 
scope, compared precisely in fineness with the hair of a $2700 Cashmere 
shawl. 



NEW GAS STOVE. 497 




NEW GAS STOVE. 

A NEW method of obtaining heat from gas has been invented 
by Mr. Shaw, of Boston. 

The stove consists of three upright iron cylinders, the middle 
one being about one half larger than the other two. Above 
these is another cylinder of radiation, which shows the amount 
of gas consumed. The engraving is a small representation of 
its general appearance. 

One of our exchanges says : 

"Although very diminutive in size, it heats a room, in ten minutes, warm 
enough for all practical purposes, when the flame can be reduced and an even 
temperature maintained. When in full blast, it consumes about four cents' 
worth of gas per hour ; but after the room is heated, one cent's worth of gas 
per hour will amply suffice. It is easily managed ; indeed, there is nothing 
complicated about it, and a servant who has sense enough not to attempt to 
blow a gas-light out, can safely be intrusted with its care. The heat it pro- 
duces is not a dry heat, but of an agreeable moisture, partly produced by the 
usual pan of water, which should be attached to every stove, while the flame, 
burning through asbestos, resembles so closely hot coals that the difi'erence is 
scarcely perceptible." The following letter from Professor Hayes, who has 
inspected and tested the stove, and who is very high authority in such mat- 
ters, is quite explicit : 

' The present invention is based upon the principle of burning a mixture of 
illuminating gas with air, so as to develop the largest amount of heat which 
the gas can afford. 

Ordinary burners consume a current of gas in air, thereby producing light 
and an ascending current, by which the heat generated is carried upward and 
dispersed. 

The iron structure, or stove, serves as an absorbent of the heat generated 
by the perfect combustion of the mixture of gas and air. It then presents a 
large heated surface, which warms the air in contact with it by conduction, 
and also in a high degree all bodies near it, by radiation. 

No danger exists in this mode of combustion ; the utmost amount of explo- 
sion attending it is that which we observe, when we light gas, at the top of a 
tall burner-chimney. 

The products arising from the combustion are vapor of water, carbonic 
acid, and nitrogen gas, and the amount or volume of these bodies is the same 
as that produced from an equal number of gas-burners as arranged for aff"ord- 
ing light. 

It is a feature of economy shown in carrying out the application of the 
principle, that has led the inventor to so arrange the parts that the heat pro- 
duced is retained as long as possible low down in the space to be warmed. 
The second or upper radiator has been added for this purpose, and it also 
serves as an indicator of the amount of gas which should at any time be con- 
sumed for v/arming the air of an apartment. 

If after the first hour of the combustion the temperature of the exit-pipe 
becomes higher than that of the hand, a portion of the gas may be shut ofi^, 
and when the air of the room has become warmed, a small volume of gas 
will maintain that temperature. 



•iyb CAST-IKOX HOUSES. 



I think the inventor has shown much judgment and skill in adapting the 
parts to the scientific principle, and that his gas-stoves, without ventilation 
for open rooms, and with ventilation for close rooms will prove a great addi- 
tion to our means of comfort and convenience. 

Respectfully, 
(Signed) A. A. Hayes, M.D. 

Assayer to the State of Massachusetts.^ 

II Boylston street, 22d Nov., 1854. 

In a library, where dust is so injurious to books, its value is inestimable. 
In the Merchants' Exchange, Boston, Mr. Shaw has placed one of the largest 
size, which contains eight jets, and gives satisfiiction. To warm the room, it 
requires that they all be lighted for the first half hour, after which four may 
be shut off" 



Cast-Iron Houses. — A most ingenious and practically useful application 
of cast-iron has just been introduced by Mr. Chaplin, engineer and iron-house 
builder, Glasgow, giving the material a wide scope in an extremely novel 
direction. It consists in the adoption of cast-iron for house-building purposes, 
in such a manner as to produce a close resemblance to stone. To this end, 
the metal is cast in rectangular blocks, with back-flanges and strengthening 
ribs, for bolting together into a solid mass, each separate detail being made 
in the shape of ashlar-hewn stone, or brick. The pieces may obviously be of 
any convenient size and shape, all, when erected, running in level courses, 
and each numbered, in correspondence with its size and special form. In this 
way a solid cast-iron mass is easily erected, the numbering system very much 
facilitating the ordering and putting together of the pieces ; and, if desired, a 
single plate may be made to resemble two or more stones, by being suitably 
marked. An internal air-space, or non-conducting section, may also be 
formed by an inner hning of wood, or lath and plaster; and the chimneys 
and flues may be carried along in this space, as in stone or brick erections. 
By this system an entire house, of large size may be erected with very few, 
perhaps four or five, varieties of sizes and shapes of cast-iron pieces, or facti- 
tious stones. No lintels are necessary for the windows and doors, as, by bolt- 
ing together the flanges of the pieces, due support can be given, without 
involving the use qf long pieces. A double shop, with an overhead dwelling, 
recently erected by the patentee, exhibits the value of the plan in a most 
favorable light. The roof, which is of arched corrugated iron plates, is con- 
cealed by the projecting eaves ; and whilst the entire front is severe and plain 
ashlar imitation, sufficient relief is given by the separate attachment of light 
ornamental beads or mouldings — one at the top of the first course above the 
windows, and one for the roof-gutter. The roof-gutter is fastened on outside 
the wall face, and the edge of the roof is brought over the wall, so that no 
dripping from leakage can find its way to the interior of the house. Either 
new or old stone and brick buildings may be faced with thin plates of this 
" imitation ashlar," Avhich is obviously more enduring, and less liable to injury, 
than the best sandstone or cement; whilst the material admits of the most 
elaborate ornamentation at a comparatively small cost. 



THE LOWELL WIRE FENCE. 



499 



THE LOWELL WIRE FENCE ILLUSTRATED. 

In our January number, we clironicled the invention, by John Nesmith, 
Esq., of Lowell, Mass., of a machine for manufacturing wire-fence, and spoke 
of the admirable adaptiveness of this mode of fencing to farms, gardens, roads, 
railroads, canals, trellis-work, etc. We are now happy to present our readers 
with some cuts illustrative of this novel and excellent fencing. 

Fig. 1. 




Fig. 1 represents the strongest kind of this fencing, four feet high ; the 
mesh or squares six inches ; the straight or lateral wires of JSTo. 10 wire ; the 
body of the fence of No. 12 wire, (or it may be of No. 15 wire ;) varnished 
with asphaltum blacking, (or it may be coated with coal tar, or painted, or 
galvanized,) for beauty and preservation. If re-varnished once in five or six 
years, this fence will last a century or more, while the rflost durable post-and- 
rail fence lasts but about thirty years. The price of this mode of fence is 
from 75 cents to $1.10 per rod, according to the weight of the wire. 




2. — This netting is of the same height as the former, with wire and 



600 



THE LOWELL WIEE FENCE. 




mesh of the same sizes, but without the two lateral wires through the middle 
of the fence. This varies in price from 60 to '95 cents per rod. Both these 
make first-rate cattle fences. 

Fig. 3 represents a different kind 
of this netting, from sixteen inches 
to four feet high, with mesh of three 
inches. The outside wires are of 
No. 10 wire ; the inside of No. 15 ; 
the price from 75 cents to $1.50 
per rod. It is a capital sheep, gar- 
den, and poultry fence. This net- 
ting, four feet high, is sufficient, 
without covering, to "hold" hens. 
All who have tried it attest its practicability. Richard S. Fay, Esq., the 
popular agricultural lecturer, writes of it as follows : 
"Charles Cowley, Esq., Agent of the Lowell "Wire Fence Co.: 

SiE : Your favor of Jan. 2d is duly received. I have used the Lowell wire fence dur- 
ing the past summer, for folding sheep at night on land that I wished to manure, shift- 
ing once or more every week, and have found it answer the purpose perfectly. I have 
also inclosed an acre or two of ground with it for the purpose of keeping a few sheep 
separate from the flock. If properly set, it would hold any thing, and for smaller ani- 
mals, particularly sheep, it is impossible that they should break it down or escape from 
it. I have had some iron rods made with a double foot, which I drive into the ground 
and attach the fence to it either by copper wire or stout twine. A man and a boy will 
inclose a quarter of an acre in less than an hour, having these posts, which should be set 
not more than a rod apart. 

When I change the fence to a new spot, I unfasten it from the posts— throw it down — 
begin at one end, and roll it up as you would a carpet. And so in re-setting, reverse the 
process, rolling it out where it is to be set; drive down the posts, and then raise it and 
attach it to them. My fence cost $1.50 per rod, and it is a cheap mode of hurdling or 
inclosing at that price. I understand now that it is made much cheaper. 

_ I am very truly yours, Richard S. Fat. 



Boston, Jan. 5, 1855." 

F\s. 41. 




Fig. 47 represents the front door of a 
house, arched with some of this netting as 
a mode of trellis-work. It may be had of 
any width, from sixteen inches to four 
feet, and of any mesh, one, three, or six 
inches. Light, cheap, elegant, and dura- 
ble, this is the most admirable trellis-work 
yet devised. Hon. Marshall P. Wil- 
der, of Dorchester, Mass., President of the 
United States Agricultural Society, who 
has recently procured some of the four- 
feet-wide, six-inch mesh netting for grape 
trellises, writes as follows : 

" Charles Cowlet, Esq., Agent, Etc. : 

Dear Sir: I have recently examined some of 
the netting of the Lowell Wire Fence Company, 
for fences, trellises,, etc. From my own expe- 
rience and that of others, I can not doubt that it 
is perfectly practicable as a fence for fields and 
gardens, or that it is well adapted to all uses 
where a strong, close, elegant, economical, and 
durable fence is required. Wlaere stone is not 
abundant, or where lumber is expensive, as in 
many of our States, I should deem it the most 
practicable fence that could be procured. If 
our railroads are hereafter to be inclosed, as 



AMERICAN SOLIDIFIED MILK. 501 



safety and economy demand, they can scarcely be fenced cheaper or better than by this 
mode of fence. The stouter kinds of this netting are of such strength, that cattle could 
not easily penetrate or pass it ; while the closeness of the lighter kinds renders them ad- 
mirably available for garden uses, heneries, and poultry fences. Fencing like this has lor 
some years been extensively used in Great Britain ; and, since it can now be made at a 
much less cost, by machinery, it would seem to be equally adaptive to the United states. 
1 know of no fencing so good as this, that can be procured for $1.50 per rod the highest 
price asked for the most costly kinds of this netting; and this is, probably, the only 
fencing of equal merit that can be bought for $1.50 per rod. , , . ■, t 

As a material for rose-trellise?, grape-trellises, and ornamental work m gardens, 1 
think it unequalled in cheapness, durability, and beauty, by any thing yet devised. It 
will, without doubt, eventually be received into general use, when its merits are appre- 
ciated by the public. Tours respectfully, Marshall P. Wilder. 

Dorchester, Jan. 15, 1855." 

Besides the kinds of this netting represented in these cuts, there are other 
kinds— one of one-inch mesh, whicli is fast coming into use for window-net- 
ting, bird-cages, etc., etc. 

The enormous expense of constructing and repairing stone walls, post-and- 
rail fences, and other modes of fence now in vogue, is such that many do not 
hesitate to attribute to it the present backward state of American agriculture. 
The well-known Mr. Biddle, some years ago estimated that the fences of 
Pennsylvania alone cost $100,000,000, and the annual expenditure upon them 
not less than $10,000,000. In all the other States, the '' fence-oppression, as 
it has been called, weighs no less heavily than in Pennsylvania. In view ot 
such facts, we regard Ue introduction of the fencing above portrayed as a 
blessing to all the farmers in the country. That it will, in a great measure, 
supersede all our present modes of fencing, is an opinion concurred in by its 
inventor, by the Company organized to manufacture it, and by all, whether 
practical agriculturists or scientific theorists, who have tried or examined it. 



American Solidified Milk.— Mr. Blatchford has established a factory for 
the purpose of carrying on this process at Armenia, N. Y. There the follow- 
ing treatment is adopted : To 112 lbs. of milk, 28 lbs. of Stuart's white sugar 
are added, and a trivial proportion of bicarbonate of soda— a teaspoonful, 
merely enough to insure the neutrahzing of any acidity, which in the suna- 
mer season is exhibited even a few minutes after milking. The sweet milk is 
poured into evaporating pans of enamelled iron, embedded in warm water 
heated by steam. To facihtate the evaporation by means of blowers and 
other ingenious apparatus, a current of air is established between the covers 
of the pans and the solidifying milk. Connected with the steam-engine is an 
arrangement for stirrers, for agitating the milk slightly whilst evaporating, 
and so gently as not to churn it. In about three hours the milk and sugar 
assume a pasty consistency. By constant manipulating and warming, it is 
reduced to a rich creamy-looking powder ; then exposed to the air to cool, 
weighed into parcels of a pound each, and by a press, with the force of a ton 
or two, it is made to assume the compact form of a tablet, (the size of a small 
brick,) in which shape, covered with tinfoil, it is presented to the public. On 
a recent examination of the routine, some of the solidified milk which had 
been grated and dissolved in water the evening previous, was found covered 
with a rich cream. This skimmed off, was soon convered into excellent but- 
ter. Another solution was speedily converted into wine-whey, by a treatment 
precisely similar to that employed in using ordinary milk. 



502 



bloomfield's cylindrical steam valve. 



BLOOMFIELD'S CYLINDRICAL STEAM VALVE. 

The annexed engravings represent a new valve for engines, invented by 
Hosmer Bloomfiekl, of Springville, N. Y. 




Fig. 2 is^ a side elevation of tlie valve, with the inlet pipe attached, and 
the crank-pin, for oscillating the valve. Fig. 1 is a transverse vertical section 
of the valve and the steam passages of the cylinder of an engine. A repre- 
sents the cylindrical valve, which forms a steam-box, with head and bottom 
like a cylinder. This valve extends to the outside of the valve-cover, C, and 
is oscillated by the eccentric rod, which is attached to the pin of the arm 
shown in Fig. 1. B is an opening in the roof of the valve, to counteract the 
abutting force of the steam on the cylinder ftice. D is an oil-cup, and there 
are channels cut in the valve to allow its whole surface to be lubricated. E 
is a layer of vulcanized india-rubber packing, to render the cover, C, steam- 
tight, la Fig. 1 the steam is exhausting from the steara-cylinder at the 
right-hand end, and the engine is taking in steam by the left-hand port and 



MISCELLANEOUS. 503 



passage. This figure is taken through the length of the steam-cylinder, and 
is consequently at right angles to Fig. 2, which shows the exhaust-pipe on 
the steana-cylinder under the top inlet steam-pipe. The advantages claimed 
for it by its author are : 1st, perfect freedom from unequal steam-pressure ; 
2d, accessibility of all its parts to lubrication ; 3d, simplicity, 4th, even wear 
of surface after it is ground in steam-tight. 

More information respecting it may be obtained by letter addressed to 
Mr. Bloorafield, at Springville. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Embossing TELEaRAPH. — Mr. E. S. Barnes, of South-Camden, N. J., pro- 
fesses to have made certain discoveries which enable him to improve vastly 
upon the present system of printing-telegraphs. He calls his invention the 
" Embossing Telegraph," and sets forth in a circular the principal advantages 
over other methods. Some of these are as follows : 

The difficulties from atmospheric electricity are entirely removed, by a pro- 
cess which needs to be seen to be properly understood. Suffice it here to 
say, that however great the volume that may be discharged into the office, 
there is a contrivance, no more complicated than a simple vessel of acidulated 
water, to arrest and dissipate nearly, if not quite all the charge ; and any that 
may pass, will not disturb the equilibrium of the magnet, at most, more than 
momentarily, owing to a combination of a permanent with an electro mag- 
net, the former of which will not be inductively affected by any amount of 
water that can pass the vessel of acidulated water. And now to produce the 
Roman letter, by a process combining simplicity of mechanical construction, 
strength of operation, and ease of acquirement by any operator of ordinary 
capacity. This I have done. But to set forth how, would be to give a 
detailed description of the instrument, which is not here my intention. I will 
endeavor to make it perfectly clear to any one who will be pleased to witness 
the operation, at Camden, New-Jersey. There is another feature of great 
advantage in this instrument — the " circuit-breaker," at the terminating sta- 
tion, and the type-wheel, at the receiving station or stations, return to a given 
starting-point at the completion of each letter, the instrument thereby adjust- 
ing itself at every letter, and this without loss of time. 

" Mr. Barnes," says the Louisville Journal, " resided here for a considerable 
time a few years ago, and fci well remembered by many of our citizens. He 
gave much attention to the subject of electro-telegraphs, and, by those who 
knew him well, he was considered a great inventor. We have a strong hope 
that his Embossing Telegraph will accomplish all that is expected of it. 

Employment for the Poor. — We cheerfully give place to the following 
by request of Mr. De Motte. The object is obvious to the reader. It was ori- 
ginally addressed to the editor of the Sun : 

The Address of the American and Foreign Emigrant Protective and Em- 
ployment Society, which you kindly gave a place in your columns, has already 
produced its anticipated fruits. Numerous letters have been received within 
the last few days at the Society's office, requesting that portions of the sur- 
plus labor of our city may be removed to the neighborhood of the writers. 
These letters are on file, and open to the inspection of any disposed to exam- 
ine them. The Board of Managers have to deplore an exhausted treasury. 



604 MISCELLANEOUS. 



One thousand dollars, placed in their hands, could be at once advantageously 
employed to defray the travelling expenses of suitable persons, desirous of 
obtaining employment, to the locations where their labor is desired and 
needed. It would undoubtedly be the best investment of charitable funds 
that could be made. In all cases the beneficiaries are required to refund the 
amount thus advanced out of their future earnings, and their employers are 
engaged to see that this is done. This very day a respectable American me- 
chanic — a wheelwright— applied to the Society for aid to remove himself and 
family to the country, where employment and a home awaited him, but the 
boon could not be granted him. 

The Managers take this opportunity of inviting the friends of humanity in 
the country to aid in this work of benevolence. The support of the destitute 
poor now in the pity of New- York, who can not be removed, is taxing to the 
utmost the charity of the citizens. Let those communities where labor is 
wanted form Associations, collect funds and remit them to the Society, and 
the pledge will be given that, if not restricted to country or creed, careful 
selections will be made of moral and industrious persons to fill the stations to 
which they may be invited. A good opening is oflfered to those wanting 
employment who have means sufficient for their removal, of doing so, as in 
removing under the auspices of the Society, care will be taken to prevent im- 
position or disappointment, and every facility and information will be ex- 
tended to each. Mortimer de Motte, Cor. Sec. 

Weiv-York, Jan. 12. 

Slag as a Material for Fictile Purposes.— Some time ago, Mr. Elliott, 
of Ellsworth, made a very satisfactory attempt to establish the manufacture 
of bricks and tiles from the slag, or refuse cinder, of blast furnaces. Now, 
we have a further movement towards a similar end, at the hands of Dr. 
Smith, of Philadelphia, who, with a staff of chemical assistants, is at present 
engaged in the matter at Merthyr. His experiments have been made with 
the view of producing bottles, and domestic utensils of various kinds, as well 
as tiles and paving-flags ; and this mode of converting the enormously-accu- 
mulating cinder of the iron works has been decidedly successful. The new 
bottles are tougher and more perfect in their anneal ment, than any of the 
ordinary glass kind; but they are undistinguishable from glass ones in 
external appearance. Lady Charlotte Guest has adopted the process, and 
it is believed that not much time will elapse before the transmutation of what 
has hitherto been a constantly-increasing waste mass, will be a commercially- 
valuable fact. 

To Give a Dull Black Color to Brass. — A dull black color, such as 
is frequently employed for optical instruments, may be given to brass by first 
carefully rubbing the object with tripoli, then washing it with a very dilute 
solution of a mixture of one part of neutral nitrate of tin and two parts of 
chloride of gold, and then wiping off the excess of liquid, after the lapse of 
ten minutes, with a wet cloth. If there has been no excess of acid, the sur- 
face of the metal will have assumed a dull black color. The neutral nitrate 
of tin may be prepared by decomposing the perchloride with ammonia, and 
dissolving the precipitated oxide thus obtained in nitric acid. 

Locomotion by Means of a Vacuum and Compressed Air. — Mr. Som- 
meiller, a Sardinian engineer, and director of the railway works of Turin, has 
invented an ingenious aparatus, which he has patented in France and several 
countries abroad, for the utilizing of natural waterfalls for the purpose of 



MISCELLANEOUS. 505 



compressing air into suitable receivers, or for producing a vacuum in such 
receivers, and applying the same to locomotive purposes. The Sardinian 
Government has just made a grant of 80,000 livres, for the purpose of 
experimenting upon the invention, which will probably be applied to the 
ascent of Mount Cenis and the Col de Tende. 

Portable Screwing Tackle, — This form of sere wing-tackle possesses 
the valuable feature of extreme portability. It is intended more especially 
for gas and water-pipe fitters, or for other artisans whose avocations require 
the carrying about of screwing apparatus to scattered jobs. The die-frame 
is of cast-iron, with two diametrically-opposite bosses cast upon it, which are 
bored up sufficiently far to receive the two wrought-iron handles. The boss- 
holes are made with a slight taper, so that a tap will fasten the handles in 
their places, whilst they can be at once knocked out when required. When 
both handles are unshipped, the stock will go into a very small compass, so 
as to be easily packed in an ordinary tool-basket or box. 

Polished Shirt-Bosoms. — We have often endeavored to learn how this 
work is done, but have met with little success. We are now able to give 
the following as a process in use in some laundries : 

To a quarter pound of starch add white spermacetti of the size of a walnut, 
or say, half an ounce ; boil these together from one to three hours. 

In ironing, when the flat is hot, rub the face of it rapidly with a piece of 
white wax, taking care not to suflFer it to adhere too freely ; and this gives a 
smoothness to its surface which is serviceable in heightening the polish of 
the linen. 

Since the above was written, we have seen the following in an exchange : 
" We often hear ladies expressing a wish to know by what process the 
gloss on new linens, shirt-bosoms, etc., is produced, and in order to gratify 
them, we subjoin the following recipe : 

" Take two ounces of fine white gum arable powder — put it in a pitcher, 
and pour on a pint or more of boiling water, according to the degree of 
strength you desire — and then, having covered it, let it stand all night. In 
the morning pour it carefully from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork it, and 
keep it for use. A table-spoonful of gum-water stirred into a pint of starch 
made in the usual manner, will give lawn, either white or printed, a look of 
newness, when nothing else can restore them after they have been washed. 
The Water-Powee, Etc., Potomac. — We have received a pamphlet 
and extensive maps, describing the water-power at the Great Falls and town 
of Potomac, owned by the Great Falls Manufacturing Company, and in- 
tended to give a particular account of it. But the pamphlet was mislaid, 
and hence forgotten till our pages were full. We shall publish it in our 
next number. Meanwhile, we merely remark that here are the means, if 
properly used, for one of the largest and safest manufacturing establishments 
in the United States. 

Northen Farmer— Caution.— The editor of The Northern Farmer 
recently complained of some of his contemporaries for not giving credit for 
borrowed articles. But in his January number he has published an entire 
article entitled, "Raising Forest-Trees," which we prepared for our own 
journal, without any intimation that it is not editorial in his pages. This 
example is not commendable. 

Iron Trade, Yorkshire. — Since the recent discovery of iron-ore in the 
Cleveland Hills, in the North Riding, the trade has made rapid progress. 



506 MISCELLANEOUS. 



E;g"'"t.aen "••!->■ ''••s- i t.-tiiV.' heu tbe^nseWcs ^r> tlie c"??' ;t!'^ of t!if '^7'? aii'' 
Tees, who will shortly have eighty-five furnaces in blast, producing 500,000 
tons of iron per annum. Several of these are already at work ; others are 
building. Sites for 300 houses, with a church, market-place, and other pub- 
lic structures, have been laid out near Stockton, and the whole will be com- 
pleted in two years. The new town will bear the name of North-Ormsby, 
and this makes the second town erected since the discovery of ore. 

Manufacture of Iron and Steel. — A Frenchman has been attempting 
to instruct the Americans in the application of wood to the manufacture of 
iron and steel. Wood can not be employed without previous preparation, on 
account of the quantity of water it contains ; and he calls attention to the 
methods which have been employed, for a short time, in Styria and Carinthia, 
for driving off the water by heat, but stopping the distillation as soon as the 
substances which escape begin to contain carbon. One method is this : The 
gases coming from the fire-place are brought into immediate contact with the 
wood, which is thereby raised to a temperature sufficiently high to yield its 
moisture to them. In the second method, the gases are not brought into 
contact with the wood, but are conducted through iron pipes, around which 
the wood is piled. This is the more economical process, and does not render 
the wood liable to spontaneous combustion, as the first is apt to do. The 
carbonaceous residue is then applied to the puddling process, in which the 
quantity of air introduced into the furnace is regulated, so that no more is ad- 
mitted than is required. Under the old system it was found that mineral 
combustibles were much better adapted than wood to the operations of the 
puddling furnace ; they produced a more regular current of gas, and the 
interstices between the pieces of wood permitted too much air to pass. But 
now the dried wood and the current of air, by which ignition is supported, are 
admitted separately into the laboratory, and hence the fire-place must have 
quite different dimensions. It is very long vertically ; the grate is very low, 
and composed only of a few bars to support the wood. The air does not 
enter freely into the fire-place ; the bellows sends a graduated current of air 
under the wood, and produces its distillation. On account of the j^ile which 
the air is obliged to traverse, the distillation is gradual. The air admitted is 
in proportion to the quantity of wood I'equired to be carbonized in a given 
time. The current of combustible gas found in the wood passes into the 
laboratory, where the puddling takes place, and is met by a regulated current 
of air driven through a pipe. The laboratory thus obtains, instead of an 
ordinary flame, a combustible gas, free from all traces of oxygen. It is 
asserted that, by this process, the purification of the iron takes place under 
very favorable circumstances, and that even impure kinds yield excellent 
metal. 

Coal Trade. — In the year 1853, 8,835,5*73 tons of coal, 40,142 tons of 
cinders, and 195,269 tons of culm, in all 9,070,984 tons, were shipped at the 
several ports of the United Kingdom, coastways, to other ports of the United 
Kingdom. In the same year, 3,758,123 tons of coal, to the declared value of 
£1,507,950, and 176,939 tons of cinders, to the declared value of £96,641, 
were exported from the several ports of the United Kingdom to foreign coun- 
tries, and to British settlements abroad. 4,026,985 tons of coal were brought 
into the port of London during the year, of which 3,373,256 were brought 
coastways, and 653,729 by inland navigation and land carriage. The export 
of coals to Russia during the year 1853 amounted to 212,762 tons, the de- 
clared value of which was £78,559. We glean this information from a par- 
liamentary paper. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 507 



"Anastatic Printing," now a comparatively antique invention, is a 
peculiar process, by which any design made on paper with prepared ink, 
chalk, or other oleaginous matter, may be transferred from the paper to 
a metal plate, which plate, in turn, may be used as the actual printing 
surface for the production of an indefinite number of copies of the original 
design. 

The discovery of this interesting art occurred at Erfurt, in Germany, 
some years ago ; but its introduction here is mainly due to Professor 
Faraday, who gave an elaborate lecture on the subject, at the Royal Institu- 
tion, in 1845. The term "anastatic" has been deduced from the Greek, 
(dvdaramg, resurrection, or reproduction?! The plan is simply this : The 
printed original, or the paper carrying the oleaginous device, however 
produced, is laid face downwards, upon a clean zinc plate, and an acidulous 
solution is then applied to the back of the paper, when the whole is passed 
through a press. The presence of the oleaginous lines in contact with the 
plate, prevents the acid from taking efTect at those parts, whilst the black 
spaces, being quite unprotected, are fully and completely acted upon, or 
" bitten" in by the acid. We have thus a reversed /ac-simjVe of the. original 
device, the lines of such figure or letters being in relief. On the removal 
of the paper, the plate is treated with a gummy solution to prevent the 
adhesion of the printing-ink upon the blank spaces, and the plate is then 
inked upon by rollers, and printed from — ^j'jst as a form of types would be 
used. 

In some instances, very old letter-press and drawings have been most per- 
fectly re-produced in this way ; but, in the majority of cases, the comphcated 
and uncertain chemical arrangements necessary for reviving the hard and ■ 
dry ink of old subjects, have been a complete bar to the application of the 
new process to this purpose. Hence, Mr. Cowell, with other printers, has 
been led to adapt the art to purposes of more general utility. 

New Method of Treating Gutta Percha. — A new mode of treating 
gutta percha, with the view of applying it to various new purposes, has been 
lately patented in France. To render it liquid, a carburet of hydrogen, ob- 
tained in the following manner, is made use of: Take of the fight oils from 
the distillation of coal tar, (spec. grav. 20° to 30°,) and wash it well several 
times, adding, the first time, a little sulphuric acid, for the purpose of remov- 
ing matters injurious to the production of the carburet. The acid can be 
removed by repeated washings with water, after which the oil must be dis- 
tilled. To the distilled oil some lime in powder and sulphuret of carbon must 
be added, and it is then subjected to a second distillation. A liquid, indi- 
cating 28 or 30 degrees on the hydrometer, passes over. By means of this, 
gutta percha may be liquefied, applied either cold or hot, the latter being 
best. By adding a little alcohol to the carburet thus obtained, a liquid is 
obtained of 32° or 33°, which will take away spots of grease from all kinds 
of textile fabrics, even from silk, without altering the color, and it may be 
used for cleansing gloves. Its unpleasant smell can be removed by adding a 
little essence of lavender. An important application of the liquefied gutta 
percha is for printing rollers, which are usually made of gelatine, or glue and 
molasses mixed in different proportions, according to the temperature and the 
season. If to these matters a small portion of liquefied gutta percha is added, 
a very superior kind of roller is obtained. Liquefied gutta percha, mixed 
with gum copal, dissolved in the carburet above described, produces an excel- 
lent varnish for wood and metals, and applied to iron it prevents its oxydiza- 



508 MISCELLANEOUS. 



tion. All sorts of fabrics can be rendered water-proof by a single coating of 
liquefied gutta percba. Wben intended to be used in a solid state, tbe gutta 
percba should be well kneaded in a heated mortar, and then pulverized color- 
ing matter is added. It is then kneaded again, in order to make the coloring 
enter into every part of the mass. It is then passed between rollers. Thus 
prepared, it resists from 140° to 160° Fahr. of heat. It is made use of in 
the manufacture of all kinds of objects of art or industry, such as pipes, boxes, 
vases, statuettes, casts, etc. 

PRESERViNa Meat and Fruit. — The French have been experimenting 
upon this subject, and it is reported that a mode of preserving meat and fruit 
has been discovered, by which they are not altered in size or appearance, so 
that at the end of six or eight months, when placed on the table, they would 
be taken to be perfectly fresh. What is still more strange, the articles have 
lost none of their original flavor. If all this is true, the discovery is a very 
valuable one. MM. Delabarre and Bonnet have submitted to the French 
Minister of War some samples of meat preserved by their method. This con- 
sists in drying it by natural means, and then preparing it with materials fur- 
nished by the animal. When the water which composes a large part of fresh 
meat is driven off, the osmazome supplied by the animal is applied as a var- 
nish to the increase of the nutritious properties of the meat. By desiccation 
the meat is reduced in size and weight one half, and this is done Avithout the 
application of artificial heat. It may be eaten in this state, and is not dis- 
agreeable. When cooked, half an hour's immersion in hot water is sufficient 
to increase its bulk to what it was originally, and to render it as palatable as 
if fresh meat had been cooked. There has been such wholesale deception in 
the preservation of meats, that the public is naturally suspicious in the mat- 
ter ; but we need not say that a cheap method of preserving meats in an 
eflfectual manner, would be most valuable both to the inventor and the public. 

Lime Light from the Decomposition of Water. — Professor Callan, of 
Maynooth, has published, in a recent number of the London, Edinburgh, 
and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, the results of a series of experiments on 
the decomposition of water, with a view to obtain a constant and brilliant 
lime light. He states, firstly, that he has invented a new apparatus for 
applying with perfect safety the mixed gases, oxygen and hydrogen, to the 
production of a flame of the most intense heat, which, when thrown on lime, 
produces a most dazzing light. Secondly, that he has invented a new 
voltameter to which a common jet may be screwed, and the gases inflamed 
as they issue from it, without the smallest risk of injury, and by which the 
full decomposing effect of a battery of 100 or 500 pairs, arranged in one 
series, may be produced without exhausting the power of the battery more 
rapidly than if it only contained three or four cells. Thirdly, that he has 
discovered a new negative element, far cheaper, more durable, and one which 
may be made to act more powerfully than the platinized silver used in Smee's 
battery. Fourthly, that he has discovered a new mode of protecting iron 
against the action of the weather, and of various corroding substances, so 
that it may be used for all the purposes to which sheet-lead and galvanized 
iron are applied. Fifthly, that he has discovered a new method of produc- 
ing a brilliant intermittent lime light by means of a small galvanic battery ; 
and, sixthly, a new mode of exhibiting dissolving views by means of the lime 
light. Lastly, that he has invented a new sine galvanometer, the only 
instrument yet made by which very powerful galvanic currents can be 
measured. 



NEW BOOKS. 509 



A. C. RussEL, of Kirtland, one of the heaviest sheep men on the Reserve, 
and who knows what a good sheep is, sent sonae of his best ewes to Brooklyn, 
last week, to be tupped by " Tippecanoe," the celebrated buck owned by Jno. 
Goes. 



General Agency. — The publisher of The Plough, the Loom^ and the Anvil^ 
believing it in his power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to them that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purchase of books of any description ; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, and experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and will execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

j^^Particular attention to business connected with the Patent-Office. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to. 

School-Teachers. — Having had occasion to furnish teachers for some 
of our Southern friends, we have been fortunate enough to learn of several 
young ladies who are admirably well qualified for families or schools, and if any 
are in need of such, a letter addressed to us will receive immediate answer. We 
shall not fear to guarantee that any reasonable expectations will be fully met. 
Some of them are desirous of going South. 



NEW BOOKS. 
Wm. Hall <fe Son's New Music. 

Among the capital pieces of new music published by this well-known firm, are We- 
molo Schottisch, by Wra. Vincent Wallace, very beautiful when nicely executed. It is 
also a capital exercise for those who would acquire a fii'ra and vigorous touch. 

Zme Or and Polka de Concert, by Wm. V. Wallace — very difficult, but very fine. 

The Dream of Youth, song and quartet, by Wm. lueho — simple, natural, and 
effective. 

Down the River, down the Ohio, as sung at Christy's, by E. P. Christy — quite charac- 
teristic. 

Messrs. Hall <fe Son have recently produced a great excitement among the music 
dealers, by offering all their music, not copy-righted, at about half pkice. Their idea is 
to give music a value like other publications, not merely by the square foot, but by its 
cost, modified somewhat by other considerations. Whether this is or is not a wise 
policy, is not for us to decide, though we confess we do not see why an impression from 
an old plate which has produced its thousands and tens of thousands of copies, and been 
thrummed for years, should command as much price as new music, especially that for 
which a large sum has been expended in the purchase of a copy-right. But one thing 
we do know. This is a capital opportunity to obtain a large portfolio of good music 
very cheap. This arrangemeat may be permanent, and it may not. Hence all should 
avail themselves of it. Let any of our subscribers make out their lists, inclose their 
costs at half price, " or thereabout," and send to us, and we will purchase and forward 
immediately as ordered, without charga. And though we much prefer definite instruc- 
tions, we will venture to assume the task of selection, provided the general character of 
the pieces desired is sent to us with their cost. State also what proportion of vocal or 
of instrumental is desired. 

The Field-Book of Manures; or. The American Muck-Book, etc., etc. By D. J. 

Beowne. New- York : C. M. Saxton. 

We have before commended this book. We repeat the commendations before given. 
It is literally full of valuable instruction in the making and using of all manures, ani- 



510 NEW BOOKS. 



mal and artificial. It is entirely reliable from beginning to end. It would be difficult 
to improye it. 

" Father Clark ;" or, The Pioneer Preacher. Sketches and Incidents of Rev. John 

Clark. By au Old Pioneer. New- York: Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman. 1855. 
• Tuis title is doubled, if not somewhat twisted. The book is the first of a series of 
" Pioneer Books," -written, it is said on the cover, by Rev. J. M. Peck. Why the author's 
name is not on the title-page as well, we do not know. Father Clark -was the first 
preacher who ventured into the Spanish country west of the Mississippi. His earlier 
life was various — a sailor, privateer, a prisoner, a fugitive, shipwrecked, a teacher, and 
a preacher in the South and West. He died in 1883. 

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for 1855. Bos- 
ton : Phillips, Sampson & Co. 

This annual is filled, as usual, with a large amount of valuable information. The sta- 
tistics are full and reliable. The execution of the volume is very creditable to the pub- 
lishers. 

Poems of the Orient. By Bayard Taylor. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 1855. 
203 pages. 

This volume is handsomely executed, and it ought to be, for it contains some of the 
finest things we have seen for many a day. 

" And the poet knew the land of the East ; 
His soul was native there." 

The soul of our author is quite at home, whether he treats of the " Arab Warrior," " The 
Temptation of Hassan Ben Khaled," or "The Birth of the Prophet." "The Shekh," 
from the Arabic, is a very beautiful effusion. There is certainly poetry, and of a high 
order, and nature, perhaps unsanctified, in "In Articulo Mortes." There is much to com- 
mend in this little volume. 

De Bow's Review. 

We have taken occasion repeatedly to commend this publication. It is chiefly statis- 
tical, and of course less attractive as a mere amusement than many of far less value. 
But Mr. De Bow is a worker, and he works to some purpose. His pages uniformly 
exhibit proof of this. His connection with the census department gives him peculiar 
facilities for a work of this description, and if his results are sometimes imperfect, it is 
not from want of care on his part, but from errors in original documents. But other 
matters beside statistics are always found in this journal, both from his own pen and 
from contributors, and these contributors, for ability and information, will not suffer by 
comparison with those of any other journal. It surely deserves a liberal patronage. 

This Review has recently been enlarged. Each monthly number now contains 144 
pages, and the editor will devote his time exclusively to it. It is published both at New- 
Orleans and Washington. 

Statistical View of the United States, Etc. ; being a Compendium of the Seventh 
Census. By J. J). B. De Bow, Superintendent of U. S. Census. 1854. 
This volume has just been sent us through the courtesy of Mr. De Bow. It is a House 
document. The contents are prepared, evidently, with unusual care. Several tables 
are added, not found in former volumes of this description. Mr. De Bow is a very indus- 
trious and efficient officer. 

A Universal and Critic 4l Dictionary of the English Language ; to which are 
added Walkei's Key to the Pronunciation of Classical and Scripture Proper Names, 
much enlarged and improved, and a Pronouncing Vocabulary of Modern Geographical 
Names. By Joseph E. Worcester, LL.D. Boston: Jenks, Hickling & Swan, Pub- 
lishers. 

Johnson's Dictionary (Todd's Edition) and the words found therein, and in common 
use, are without cited authority. To these have been added nearly twenty-seven thou- 
sand words, and authorities given. Beside a complete dictionary, this volume comprises 
the principles of pronunciation, orthography, English grammar, the history and origin 
of the English language, Archaisms, provincialisms, and Americanisms. Also, Walker's 
Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names, and a 
department devoted to the pronunciation of modern geographical names and European 
languages, which are alike invaluable to the student and the common reader. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



511 



List of Patents Issued 

FKOM DEC. 12, 1854, TO JAN. 2, 1855. 



Nathan Ames, Saugas, improvement in poly- 
graphs. 

Nathau Ames, Saugus, for improved polygraph. 

Qaetan Bonell, Turin, Sardinia, improvement in 
operating looms by electricity. Patented in France, 
Aug. 15, 1853. 

B. F. Brown, Dorchester, Mass., improvement in 
hanging carriage bodies. 

Mathew Cridge and Samuel Wadsworth, Pitts- 
burg, improvement of oscillating steam-engines. 

Wm. F. Cumberland, Newark, improvement in 
machines for bending metal. Patented in England, 
Jan. 23, 1854. 

Thos. 0. Cutler, New-York, improvement in ma- 
chines for crushing and grinding minerals and 
other substances. 

Charles Danforth, Paterson, N. J., improvement 
in throstles for spinning cotton. 

George W. French and William Wagstaff, 
Cambridge, improved method of destroying ver- 
min. 

Moses Gates, Gallipolis, improvement in hoes. 

John Good, Philadelphia, improvement in cof- 
fins. 

E. L. Hagar, Frankfort, N. Y., improvements in 
harrows. 

J. W. Hoard, Providence, angler's combined float 
and sinker. 

Enoch Jackman, Portland, Ct., improvement in 
securing carpets to floors. 

Jacob Jenkins and John R. Cooke, Winsted, Ct., 
improvement in hub-bands for carriages. 

Edward C. Johnson, Lowell, improvement in 
flyers. 

U. A. Luttgens, Paterson, N. J., improvement 
in cut-off regulators for steam-engines. 

J. W. Lovocraft, Rochester, feed motion for saw- 
ing light lumber. 

Wm. Lyon, Newark, improvement in sewing- 
machines. 

Henry H. Olds, New-Haven, improvements in 
propulsion of vessels. 

Eldridge H. Penfleld, Middletown Ct., improve- 
ment in dock-holders for horses. 

James Perry, New-York, improved gold-col- 
lector. 

Henry A. Roe, West-Andover, Ohio, improve- 
ment in cheese-vats. 

Joel n. Ross, New- York, improved hygrometric 
regulator for hot- water apparatus. 

George Ross, New-York, improvement in looms. 

Geo. W. Stedman, Vienna, N. J., improvement 
in sewing-machines. 

Daniel W. Shares, Hamden, Ct., improvement in 
seed-planters and cultivators. 

Jeremiah Stever, Bristol, Ct., improvement in 
machine for scraping metals. 

Edward Stiercn, Alleghany county. Pa., improve- 
ment in processes of treating the mother water of 
salines. 

Benjamin F. Taft, South-Boston, for boring ma- 
chine. 

Henry Waterman, Huason, improvement in con- 
densers for steam-engines. 

D. P. Weeks, Maiden, Mass., improved hot-air 
furnace. 

Jacob W'eimar, New-York, improvement in door- 
locks. 

C. W. Wyatt, New- York, machine for dressing 
felloes. 

Daniel L. Winsor, Duxbury, improvement in 
ships' windlasses. 



John Andrews, Winchester, Mass., assigned to 
himself, Nathaniel A. Richardson, and Gardner 
Symones, of same place, for improvement in seed- 
planters. 

M. J. Lieberman, New- York, assigned to George 
S. Hanford, Solomon H. Handford, and John E. 
Hanford, for improvement in water-proof cloths, 
etc. 

Henry and William Tiebe, Cincinnati, assignors 
to themselves and Harmon H. Herman, same place, 
for improvement in casting the spouts of tea- 
pots. 

Joseph Perkins, Salem, Mass., assignor to him- 
self and Henry P. Upton, of same place, for im- 
provement in trussing yards to vessels' masts. 

Chas. P. Bailey, Zanesville, for feeding apparatus 
to a machine for cutting irregular forms. 

S. W. Brown, Lowell, improvement in conden- 
sers. 

T. J. Chubb, New-York, improvement in metal 
separators. 

Maj. B. Clarke, Newman, Ga., improvement in 
cleaniDg seed-cotton and feeding it to the gin. 

David W. Clark and Sylvester H. Gray, Bridge- 
port, Ct., for double-acting force-pump. 

Horace J. Crandall, Boston, improvement in bilge 
supporters for holding vessels in docks. 

Daniel Fitzgerald, Thos. Rogers, and Wm. C. 
Walker, New-York, improvement in guards for 
ferry-boats. 

Jno. S. Gage, Cowagiac, Mich., improvement in 
clover harvesters. 

Geo. W. Grader and Benj. F. Cowen, Memphis, 
improvement in grain mills. 

Stephen Hadley, Jr., Lyman, N. H., for direct 
action water-wheel. 

Isaac B. Howe, Nortbfield, Vt., improvement in 
machines for straightening heavy metal bars. 

Wm. B. Leonard, New-York, improvement ia 
dynemometers. 

Chas. Merrill, Maiden., Mass., improvement in 
sash-fasteners. 

James Myers, Jr., New-York, improvement in 
making sugar-moulds. 

Geo. Keynolds, Bangor, improvement in compo- 
sitions for tanning. 

John P. Sherwood, Fort Edward, improvements 
in cut-nail machines. 

Jona. Smith, Neponset Tillage, Mass., improved 
method of holding vessels by the keel in dry and 
other docks. 

John J. Speed, Jr., and John A. Bailey, Detroit, 
for shingle-machine. 

Louis Stein, New-York, improvement in revolving 
fans for apartments. 

Samuel Taggart, Indianapolis, for improved 
clutch in machines for packing flour. 

Nathan Thompson, Jr., AVilliams burgh, improve- 
ment in life-preserving seats. Patented in Eng., 
Sept. 18, 1854. 

Grey Uiley, Chapel Hill, N. C, improvement in 
boot -crimping machines. 

Daniel P. Weeks, Maiden, Mass., improved oven 
cooking range. 

Wendell Wright, New-York, improvement in 
spring-bed bottom. 

Robert Griffiths, Alleghany City, and Geo. 
Shields, Cincinnati, assignors to Robert Griffiths, 
aforesaid, improvement in machines for forging 
horse-shoes 

Wm. F. Ketchum, Buffalo, assignor to Rufus L. 



512 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Howard, improvement in grain and grass harvest- 
ers. 

Elisha Pratt, Salem, Mass., assignor to Elisha 
Pratt and II. E. Upton, of same place, improve- 
ment in leather-splitting machines. 

Milton Roberts, lielfast, Me., assignor to Milton 
Roberts, and Iliram E. Pierce, same place, im- 
proved machine for turning prismatic forms. 

Allen B. Wilson, Watertown, Ct., assignor to 
W. P. N. Fitzgerald, Washington, D. C , improve- 
ment in sewing-machines. 

Norman Aylsworth, Rochester, improvements 
in machines for boring, planing, and slotting 
metals. 

David Baldwin, Godwinville, N. J., improved 
apparatus for feeding paper to printing-presses and 
ruling-machines. 

Wm, Ballard, New- York, improvement in con- 
structing vessels. 

Abram Brigham, Manchester, N. IT., improve- 
ment in looms. 

John E. Brown and Stephen S. Bartlett, Woon- 
socket, E. I , improvement in grain and grass har- 
vesters. 

Thos. II. Burley, Cincinnati, dovetailing ma- 
chine. 

Marshall Burnett and Chas. Vander Woerd, 
Boston, improvement in grain and grass harvest- 
ers. 

S. J. Butterfleld, Philadelphia, improvement in 
locks for fire-arms, 

J. Caffry, Paradise Township, Pa., improved 
trap for catching animals. 

Thos. J. Flanders, Manchester, N. H., construc- 
tion and mode of driving circular saws. 

Ezekiel Gore, Bennington, Vt., improvement in 
churns. 

Jesse W. Hatch and Henry Churchill, Rochester, 
improvement in machines for cutting out boot and 
shoe soles. 

Chas. W. Hawkes, Boston, and Geo. P. Reed, 
Waltham, improvement in compensation balances 
for time-keepers. 

Alex. Holstrom, New- York, improved apparatus 
for atmospheric pile-driving. 

James B. Harris, Cincinnati, improvement in 
railroad chair machines. 

■ Asa P. Keith, Bridgewater, Mass., improvement 
in cotton-gins. 

Julius H. Kroehl, New-York, improvement in 
machines for forming flanges on wrought-iron 
beams. 

Hazard Knowls, New- York, for cutters for tongu- 
i ng and grooving. 

Westley M. Lee, New-York, improvement in 
machines for forging car wheels. 

Jean F. LeMovinier, New-York, improvement in 
constructing pavements, etc. 

Adrian V. K. Orr, Steeleville, Pa., for a shingle 
machine. 

Samuel Pearson, Jr., and Wm. H. Gardner, Rox- 
bury, improvement in regulating the size of rov- 
ing. 

Obediah Rich, Cambridge, Mass., improvement 
in processes for extracting tannin from leather. 

H. J. Rogers, Baltimore, improvamentsin signal 
flags. 

Sylvanus Sawyer, Fitchburg, Mass., aacliine for 
splitting rattans into strips. 

Richard A. Tilghman, Philadelphia, improvement 
in processes for making soap. 

Farnham Z. Tucker, Brooklyn, improvement in 
life-preserving rafts. 

Henry G. Tyer and Jno. Holm, New-Brunswick, 
improvement in processes for making India-rubber 
cloth. 

Wm. E. Ward, Fort Chester, improvement in 
sheet-iron blinds. 

Daniel T. Ward, Newark, improvement in sew- 
ing-machines. 

Edward A. Foote, Hartford, improvement in pro- 
tecting slides and ways from dust. 

RufuB Keeler, Rochester, assignor to Lewis C. 



England, New-York, improvement in tanning pro 
cesses. 

Lewis Kech, New- York, assignor to Theodore 
Pincus, same place, for machine for manufacturing 
wooden boxes. 

P. H. Nile?, Boston, assignor to himself and J. A. 
Richards, same place, improvement in curtain fix- 
tures. 

A. H. Ward, Jr., Boston, assignor to himself and 
Kirk Book, some place, improvement in composi- 
tions for uuhairing hides, 

Alex. Anderson, Markham, Canada, improve- 
ment in seed-planters. 

Robt. Arthur, Washington, improvement in self- 
sealing preserve-cans. 

S. B. Balchelder, Lowville, improvement in jour- 
nal boxes for carriages. 

Wm. H. Brown, Erie, improvement in suspended 
purchases. Patented in England, Oct. 2, 1854. 

Sharpless Clayton, West-Chester, Pa., improve- 
ment in teeth. 

Willard Cowles, Washington, improvement in 
apparatus for stereotyping. 

Levi Dedrick, Albany, improvement In ox-yokes. 

St. John D'Doris, Philadelphia, for composition 
for fuel. 

Adolph Hammer, Philadelphia, improvement in 
fermenting tuns for beer. 

Emanuel Harmon, Washington, improvements in 
flre-proof iron buildings. 

M. G. Hubbard, New- York, improved mode of 
hanging the knife in planing machines. 

Jno. Imel, Liberty, Ind., improvement in culti- 
vators. 

Asa Keyes, Brattlehorough, improvement in ma- 
chines for cutting and trimming slate. 

Philip W. Mackenzie, Jersey City, for machine 
for blowing blasts, etc. 

Henry Miller, New- York, improvement in steam 
railroad-car brakes. 

Russell S. Morse, East-Dixfield, Me., improve- 
ment in fruit-dryers. 

Francis Randolph, New- York, improvement in 
elevating scaffolds. 

Emile Sirret, Buffalo, imnrovement in rakes. 

John A. Taplin, Fishkill, improved method of 
hanging a path-finding saw. 

Cuno Werner, Philadelphia, improvement in 
compositions for dressing leather. 

Chapman Warner, New- York, improvement in 
cast-iron pavements. 

Wm. J. Warburton, Philadelphia^ improvement 
in hats. 

Warren Wadleigh, Hill, N. H,, improved mar 
chine for cutting irregular forms. 

Jos. S. Winsor, Providence, improvement in ma- 
chine for making weaver's harness. 

Lysander Wright, Newark, for sawing-machine. 

Daniel Wells, Philadelphia, for burglar's alarm. 

Stephen Brown, Syracuse, improved press for 
printing different colors. 

Warren S. Burgess, Norristown, Pa., improved 
arrangement in double-piston steam-engines. 
Sf Pulaski S. Gaboon and Samuel J. Ross, La 
Grange, Me., approved chuck for turning elliptical 
cylinders. 

Amory Felton, Troy, improvement in grinding 
mills. 

Wm. Hicks, Steubenville, improved paint brush. 

Sidney Kelsey, Erie, improved printing-press. 

C. Locher, New-York, improvement in folding 
life-boats. 

Jas. Lewis, Prattville, N. Y., improved printing- 
press. 

Thos. Slaight, Newark, improvement in pad- 
locks. 

John Smith, of Cincinnati, improved crank con- 
nection in double-piston steam engines. 

Dwight Gibbons, Rochester, assignor to F. Starr, 
same place, improved brace for piano frames. 

Joshua Stevens, of Chicopee Palls, assignor to 
Massachusetts Arms Company, of same place, im- 
provement in repealing fire-arms. 



Clje |l0M9lj, tij? |00m, anil tl)e Jlnull. 



Vol. VII. MARCH, 1855. No. 9. 



"COMMERCE IS KING" 

So was Charles I., of England, and so is Francis Joseph, of Austria. 
There are kings who have but little power of their own, and that little they 
abuse. There are kings, who, distrustful of themselves, carry out the suo-- 
gestions of wise counsellors, and they have far more credit for intelligence 
and energy than they really deserve. There are kings, whose crown is theirs 
of right, whether reference is had to descent or to personal desert. There 
are kings, whose authority is acknowledged with not a little of awe and re- 
verence ; and there are kings who are permitted to retain their title and their 
place because they do no harm, and allow every body to manage their own 
aflfairs. 

Without regarding the particular sense of the phrase, when this " com- 
mon saying," which we have taken for our title, is uttered by one and an- 
other of this or that nation, let us examine, in the light of facts, what is its 
TRUE sense. How, and why, and where, is commerce king ? We could 
point to countries and to regions of less extent, where, in a mistaken sense, it 
is supposed that commerce reigns ; and we could show too, that sometimes 
this reign is anything but just and kind. We could point out localities and 
times when her iron heel is upon the head of those under her authority, 
Avhile they all live and breathe only as she nods a contemptous permission. 
But we can also point out the times and the places where she is as submis- 
sive and unpretending a servant as any Ethiop. She has no will but that of 
her subjects, and she ceases to labor only by their consent. 

There are some phrases that seem to be chiselled into the very granite of 
our social structure that are very indefinite in their meaning. But this does 
not prevent their use on all occasions and for all purposes. They are heard 
either as sigh or song in every breeze ; they are uttered in triumph or in 
dismay, as they encounter one or another class of the community. Perhaps 
what was commenced as a shout is echoed back in the note of despair. 
*' Commerce is King" may be, by bare possibility, of this class. 

This cry reminds us of a story told of more than one, but which describes 
an actual scene in the life of an eccentric divine, of Berkshire County, Mass. 
"In those days catne John the — Episcopalian ? No, that does not sound 
right. In those days came John the— Presbyterian ? No, that is not it. In 
those days came John the — the Baptist? Ah, yes ; 'John the Baptist.' So 
you see, my hearers, John was a Baptist." So " Commerce is King." But 
who is Commerce ? What is this king ? Is he a man ? a ship ? a class ? a 
clan ? Does he live on land or on the sea ? Is his throne near by, or " afar 

VOL. vir. 80 



514 COMMERCE IS KING. 



oflf?" Does he take cognizance of all, or only of the great ? Who is he, and 
what is he ? 

Commerce, says Webster, (we go for Webster,) is — " 1. An interchange or 
mutual change of goods, wares, productions, or property of every kind, between 
nations or individuals, either by barter or by purchase and sale; trade ; traf- 
fic — foreign or inland. 2. Intercourse between individuals, interchange of 
work, business, civilities, or amusements ; mutual dealings in common life." 
And Daniel Webster has spoken of " a vast commerce of ideas,'" 

Now in view of this definition, we confess ourself almost puzzled. We 
hardly know what to say next. The thinff, the image, is almost as misty as 
the form described in Milton's first book ; as formless as the spirit which we 
can scarcely seem to see in the 4th chapter of Job. Its limits pervade all 
space. Its motions are felt in every place. Its breath is heard wherever one 
proposes a trade with his neighbor. His voice sounds loud in the auction- 
room, in the market, and on 'change. Wherever men meet, and each re- 
cognizes the existence of the other, there is commerce. Surely then, there 
is at least one attribute of power. Commerce may be king. But look 
again. 

In the strictest, technical sense, commerce embraces "all exchange of 
goods, wares, productions, or property of any kind." No proper definition 
of the term can be given less comprehensive than this. Commerce with 
foreign nations, trade on the sea, exchange of large values — these are no de- 
finitions of commerce. No sane man ever so believed. These are parts, 
branches, departments of commerce, nothing more. And as we dwell on the 
subject, we are more than half persuaded, in spite of all that farmers, me- 
chanics, or trades or crafts of any sort, can say, that "commerce is king." 

But what does the phrase mean ? Who will tell us ? Is any one and 
every one king, who carries on commerce ? Such a claim would be like that 
of some anti-monarchists, which makes every citizen a monarch — a monarch 
without the title, and destitute of power. Is this the case with King Com- 
merce ? Poor King Commerce ! 

Perhaps we can come to some result by a series of negations. And it is 
very clear that these words can not imply that the individuals, or any limited 
combinations of persons interested in commerce, can make themselves kings. 
Commerce is king ; and these caballers, these factionists, these conspirators 
against the existing sovereignty, have no crown, no thrones, no court, no 
paraphernalia of authority. The chair of state is occupied. What if each 
owns a score of ships, or daily sells 10,000 barrels of flour, or every hour 
sends a ship to a foreign port. They are not commerce, and commerce is 
king ; and what is more, it is not in their power to dethrone him. Nor are 
the small or the large, nor all the people interested in commerce, in any city, 
state, country, or continent, identical with commerce. All that can be said 
is that ihey live by it. 

How far shall we pursue these negations ? Probably we have already 
blown away some of the fog which rests on many minds in regard to this 
great image. They perceive that those interested in a thing, must be essen- 
tially and utterly, and in every part and particle, different from the thing in 
which they have this interest, and by which they thrive. All the merchants, 
traders, dealers, sellers, buyers, barterers, &c., <fec., in all the world, arc ?wt 
commerce. Whatever is true, therefore, it is not true that those who trade 
in any particular sorts of wares or merchandize, have the throne and reign, 
of right, over others. It does not follow that "a merchant" can therefore 
Zco't c?own on " a farmer " or " a mechanic." He is no more " commerce " 



COMMERCE IS KING. 515 



than they, and perhaps we may see, by and by, that the balance is, if any 
where, the other way. If commerce is king, then "foreign commerce" is 
but a foot or a leg, it may be only a toe. Let us see what the facts are, 
bearing most directly on this subject. 

1. The man engaged in foreign commerce has first to procure every thing 
that he puts into trade, from those of other pursuits. Not a kernel of corn, 
not a grain of wheat, not a seed of an apple, not a particle of anything, can 
he have, even for himself] till he procures it, by the aid of, or through com- 
merce, of the producer. His name goes through all the commercial ^papers 
of the' country, as having sent out so many hundred thousand dollars' worth 
of apples, pears, figs, oranges, and other fruits, such a value of spices, so 
much cotton, tobacco, &c., &c. Where did he get it ? He had to buy every 
mill's worth of the producers, the growers, the farmers. They had it, he 
had none. Which position seems like that of a king here ? Bat have we 
strained, or tortured, or misapplied the truth in this representation ? Surely 
not. 

2. The foreign trader may fail to purchase these articles. He will have 
nothing to do with them. What then ? Must the producers starve ? By 
no means. They will graduate the amount to be produced by the probable 
demand, but they will be pretty sure to raise enough for their own use,^ so 
that they are safe. But where is " our king," who sent these goods to foreign 
nations ? He begs of those producers to let him have at least enough for 
his personal necessities. Who is most like a king then ? 

Is this declamation ? Is it mere theory ? Look at facts. Of all the 
commerce of the world, it is fairly estimated that, in 100 parts 

Trade among neighbors forms, 75 

Trade among fellow-citizens, but living more remotely 
from each other, ------ 20 

Foreign trade, --------5 

100 

Which interest stands highest here ? This is not theory, nor speculation, 
nor dogma, nor sect, nor party. It is the result of actual calculation. And 
perhaps many persons will be surprised to learn that if all our foreign com- 
merce were annihilated, the entire amount of trade would be directly dimin- 
ished only by five parts in a hundred. Ninety-five per cent, would still 
remain. 

There is, however, another view of the subject, which changes, to some 
extent, the appearance of this picture. In its essence, it is^ unchangeable. 
The parts of it are fixed on the canvass beyond the power of art to change 
them. We can, however, materially improve the shading. 

Instead of adopting Adam Smith's division of labor into productive and 
unproductive, we are inclined to consider all forms of industry (so called) 
j^ productive, and arrange difterent craftsmen into those who — 1st, produce 
valuable material, and those who — 2d, by a change of form or condition of 
the material, add something to its value. Thus, by the labor of the farmer, 
with a trifling cost of money, one bushel of grain, of trifling value, becomes 
many, worth a large sum. This is his business, and he has no time for any 
thing else. He attempts nothing else. The miller changes the form and 
condition of this grain, and thus making it available for use as food, increases 
to some extent its value. The baker does the same. They are producers of 
the second sort. The second form may, in some cases, be quite as productive 



516 COMMERCE IS KING. 



as the first. Such is the case with the watchmaker, for example. Suppose 
all these opportunities of useful industry are promptly and fully met, that 
territory then may be said to be supplied with all the population it can sup- 
port. It can feed no more. But a new thought is suggested. There is a 
community "elsewhere," who, being otherwise occupied, do not produce this 
useful article of food ; and it is ascertained that the producers, if they could 
but convey the material to that community, would find a ready market at a 
paying price. But who shall convey it? They have business enough in 
producing it, and can not endure this additional labor. They may find a 
third party, who will transport their merchandize for them, for a reasonable 
cotnpensation. This third party is, then, the foieign merchant. The producer 
pays him for his services ; they cultivate more land, secure greater crops, and 
also supply the third party with his food, as he has no opportunity to pro- 
duce it for himself, and thus they again have an increased demand for the 
results of their labor. They call in help from abroad. Their sons, as they 
grow up, are all engaged in the same labor, and both the communities arc 
thus increased ; while the third party, the carrier, obtains a very important 
position. He is dependent on them for his daily bread. They are dependent 
on him for the profit that may be obtained from their surplus products. If 
he abandons them, they must limit their products to their own wants, or he- 
come tkeir 010)1 carriers ; and whether the one or the other would be the 
more profitable, would depend entirely on circumstances. 

It is true, however, that producers generally can not be carriers. If they 
would get the profits of their increased production Avithout help from others, 
they must induce the people to whom they have before conveyed their food, 
to change their location, and to come and reside in their neighborhood. 
When this is done, the only third party they will need is one of the younger 
boys, who will drive the team to the neighboring village, and there leave 
what has already been contracted for, or what will be called for as soon as it 
arrives. And here we have the value of immigration, not the immigration of 
rival producers, but of consumers ; not of farmers, but of artisans and ma- 
nufacturers. 

But "commerce is king," although our commercial hero of the third party 
has abandoned the field, and is no more heard of. And how is "commerce" 
king? Evidently thus. All these arrangements are made with a view to 
increase the facilities of commerce. It is for this the merchant carrier was 
dispensed with. His employment, as a business by itself, was abandoned, for 
the very purpose of encouraging commerce. The interests of trade, that is, 
of commerce, are promoted thereby, though at the ruin of the foreign ship- 
per, and thus Commerce is King. Another view of a kindred topic will be 
found in another page of this journal. 



Treatment of Boots and Shoes when Burned. — In our juvenile days 
we had occasion, too often, to need a cure for carelessness in burning our 
boots, and we used to apply, with good effect, an application we have seen 
recently recommended in a late exchange. Apply, very liberally, and in- 
stantly, soft-soap to the burned leather, till it is peifeclly saturated. If not 
too badly burned, the leather will be soft and pliable as before. 

To Thaw Pcmps. — Procure a lead tube of convenient length to reach the 
ice ; place the tube on the ice, and pour into it hot water, till the whole is 
mtlted. 



IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 517 

IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

BY H. SCRIVENOR. 

Sweden has been long celebrated for its mines and mineral productions, 
particularly iron, which still forms one of the principal exports, although it 
has much decreased of late years. By an account taken by the government 
in the year 1748, we find that, at that time, there were 496 foundries, with 
539 large hammers, and 971 small ones, for making bar and other manufac- 
tures ofiron, Avhich produced 304,415 ship-pounds'*, or nearly 40,600 tons. 

The government established an office in 1740 to promote the production 
of iron, by lending money on the ore, even at so low a rate as 4 per cent. ; 
a correct register was then made of the mines, which is still continued. 
Each forge has its particular mark stamped on the bars of iron it produces, 
which is correctly copied into the manuscript, with the name of the place 
where the establishment is situated — the names of the proprietors of the 
work — the commissioner or agent for the sale of the iron — the assortment 
each makes, and to what country it is generally shipped — the quantity annu- 
ally made by each work — the quantity which each work delivers to the gov- 
erment (which is about 1 per cent, on the quantity of the iron produced) — 
the estimation of the quality of the iron of each work, which is variable — 
the place and province in which the works are situated — the place from 
whence the iron is generally shipped, and how many hammers each work 
has : all which particulars are regularly and alphabetically described and 
arranged. 

As the working of the mines is attended with considerable expense, and 
the sale of the iron uncertain, the Bank of Stockholm receives that metal as 
a proper security for a loan. The iron being duly appraised, and lodged in 
the public warehouse, the proprietor receives three-fourths of its value, at the 
interest of 3 per cent., and when he can find an opportunity to dispose of his 
iron, it is again dehvered to him, on producing a certificate from the bank, 
that the loan upon it is duly discharged. 

The iron mine of Dannemora, the most celebrated in Sweden, is situated 
in the province of Upland, about one English mile from Osterby, and thirty 
English miles north of Upsala. This mine was discovered in the year 1448, 
and though it has now been wrought for four centuries, it still yields abun- 
dance of the best iron in Europe. 

The iron mine is on a hill so little elevated above the surface of the neigh- 
boring country as easily to escape observation. It is about two English 
miles long, and nearly half a mile broad ; it is almost surrounded by lakes — 
those of Dannemora, Films, and Grufve, lying quite contiguous to it. On 
the side where there are no lakes there is a turf moss. The ore forms a 
large vein in this hill, which stretches in a north-west and sonth-east direc- 
tion. The mine was some years ago inundated by the water from the ad- 
jacent lakes; a strong wall, however, has been built to keep off the water. 
It is drained by two steam engines, kept at work by means of wood for fuel. 

It was first wrought as a silver mine, the silver being extracted from ga- 
lena. This source of emolument soon failing, or becoming unproductive, the 
iron ore began to be extracted and smelted, and the excellent quality of the 
iron gradually drew to it the attention of the public. At first it belonged to 
the King of Swedes, but that monarch consigned it over to the Archbishop 

* 7i to a ton. . 



518 IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

of Upsala as a part of his revenues ; at present it belongs to a number of 
private individuals, who work it separately, each on his own account. 

At the side of the mine is a large opening, about fifty fathoms deep, and 
fifty wide, and at the lower part of this is the entrance to the mine, which 
is wrought about thirty fathoms deeper than this opening. The mines are 
thus described in " Coxe's Travels," who visited them in the year 1790: — 
" The pits are deep excavations, like gravel pits, and form so many abysses 
or gulfs. The descent is not, therefore, as is usual in mines, down a narrow, 
subterraneous shaft. At the side of the mine I stepped into a bucket, and, 
being suspended in the open air, in the same manner as if a person was 
placed in a bucket at the top of Salisbury spire, was gradually let down to 
the ground by a rope and pulley. The inspector accompanied me to the 
bottom, and while I was placed at my ease in the inside upen a chair, he 
seated himself on the rim of the bucket, with his legs extended to maintain 
the equilibrium. He had in his hand a stick, with which he gently touched 
the sides of the rock, and the rope of the ascending bucket, in order to pre- 
vent our bucket from swepving against them, which must have infallibly 
overset us. 

While hung suspended in mid-air, and so giddy that I could not venture 
to look down, I observed three girls standing on the edge of the ascending 
bucket, knitting with as much unconcern as if they had been on terra firma ; 
such is the efleot of custom. We were about five minutes in descending, 
and the depth which we reached before I stepped out of my aerial seat was 
500 feet. Not being a mineralogist, my curiosity was soon satisfied; I again 
got into the bucket, and was drawn up in the same manner. 

The inspector informed me that the richest ore yields 70 per cent, of iron, 
the poorest 30; that, upon an average, the collective mass gives one-third of 
pure material; that about 12,000 tons are annually drawn from the mines, 
which yield about 4000 tons of bar-iron. 

The mass of ore occupies a small compass. The length of the pits, con- 
sidered as one, is 7G0 feet, and the breadth, from three to twelve. The ore 
runs from east to west. The richest ore is near 500 feet in dejith. and the 
Storoe Grube is not yet fathomed. 

The matrix of the ore being a calcareous earth, consequently contains but 
little sulphur, which is, perhaps, the reason of its superior quality." 

The ore is blasted with gunpowder. The part of the vein which lies under 
the great opening which forms the mouth of the mine, is called stor rymning ; 
it constitutes by far the greatest portion of the mine. The next portion is 
called j^'onZ grufca (earth mine), and it yields the ore of the very best quality. 
The portion farthest south is called sodra grufva,, or southern mine ; it yields 
the worst kind of ore of all the three, probably from being mixed with gale- 
na and blende. The rock through which the vein runs is said to be quartz. 
The substance immediately contiguous to the vein appeared to Dr. Thomson 
to bo hornstone, and to contain hornblende. The ore itself contains lime- 
stone, quartz, and actinolite, and affords from 25 to 75 per cent, of cast-iron. 
In the worst kind of ore Dr. Thomson also perceived blende, fluor-spar, galena, 
and amethyst, but in small quantities. Carbonate of lime, crystallized in 
dodecahedrons, also occurs in this vein ; and likewise sulphate of barytes, 
mountain cork, and the aplome of Ilaiiy. 

The ore is broken into small pieces, and roasted ; it is then put into coni- 
cal shaped furnaces, constructed of the slag from cast-iron. In these furnaces 
it is mixed with the proper quantity of charcoal, and then melted and sepa- 
rated from the slag. The cast-iron obtained in this manner is as white as 



IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 519 

silver, completely crystallized, and very brittle. The cast-iron is reduced to 
malleable iron by heating it in a bed of charcoal, and hammering it out into 
bars. In this state it is whiter than common iron, and is less liable to rust, 
is distinctly fibrous in its texture, and much stouter than any other iron. 

Tlie cause of the superiority of the Dannemora iron has never been ex- 
plained. Some chemists ascribe it to the presence of manganese. Berzelius 
attributed it to the presence of the metal of silica, while others suppose it 
to arise from the nature of the process employed. Dr. Thomson was assured 
by one gentleman, who had bestowed particular attention to the subject, 
that, by following a similar process, he has obtained as good iron from other 
Swedish ores. But that something is due to the ore itself is evident from 
the circumstance, that the quality of the iron, though the same process is 
followed, differs a good deal, according to the part of the vein from which 
the ore is taken. 

In the neighborhood of the mines are establishments for forging the iron, 
and for the accommodation of more than 300 workmen and their families. 
Bach of the little villages has three or four regular streets, often planted 
with trees, a church, a school, and a hospital. 

In 1833 there were in the whole of Sweden from 330 to 340 smelting 
furnaces, producing 90,000 to 95,000 tons of pig- iron; in converting this 
into bar-iron, about 23 per cent, is allowed for waste, and, as near as can be 
ascertained, the annual manufacture of this latter is 63,000 to 65,000 tons. 
The number of iron works is about 420 to 430, having about 1100 forge- 
hammers. The annual export of bar-irou, on an average of ten years, end- 
ing 1831, vras 49,568 tons. The smelting furnaces and iron works are 
licensed for a particular quantity, some being as low as 50 tons, others 
as high as 400 to 500 tons per annum ; some few bar-iron works draw 
licenses for 1000 tons each. The licenses are granted by the College of 
Mines, which has a control over all iron works and mining operations. The 
iron-masters make annual returns of their manufacture, which must not ex- 
ceed their privilege, on pain of the overplus being confiscated, and the col- 
lege has subordinate courts, called courts of mines, in every district, with 
supervising officers of various ranks ; and no iron can be sent to any port of 
shipment without being landed at the public weigh-house, the superintendent 
of which is also a delegate of the college, and his duty is to register all that 
arrives, and to send his report quarterly to the college. It is impossible for 
an iron-master to send to market more than his license. Many, however, 
sell at the forges to inland consumers, returns of which are never made, and 
so far licenses are exceeded, but it is supposed this excess cannot be above 
3000 tons. 

There is no chance whatever of the mauufacture of iron in Sweden becom- 
ing free ; on the contrary, there is much greater probability of its decrease ; 
as in those parts of the country where iron works are established, there are 
already as many forges as the neighboring forests can supply with charcoal. 
If there are proprietors of forests on which they can prove that iron works 
have not been privileged in former times, in that case the Government can 
not refuse to grant the right of erecting works in proportion thereto ; but, 
except either very ftir north, or far in the interior, there do not exist such 
woods. 

It does not always follow that the forests belong to the proprietors of the 
iron works, but they have, nevertheless, the right of purch;\sing all the char- 
coal sold from these woods. "We may consider the case in this manner : — 
A person, a century back, who had 20,000 acres of forest, may have ob- 



620 IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

tained tlie privilege of manufacturing 200 tons of iron annually ; the estate 
in the lapse of time has become divided amongst a number of heirs, or has 
been sold in lots to different persons ; but the proprietor of the iron works 
still retains the right to the charcoal of the whole, if any is made for sale. 

There is no department in Sv/eden conducted with more fairness than the 
College of Mines, which manages these matters.* 

Average Produce. Average Exports. 

Unvrroiight iron. Bar-Iron. Bar-Iron. 

Years. Tons. Tons. Tone. 

1833 to 1839 . . 89,610 73,592 58,766 

1840 — 1844 . 105,485 84,041 66,046 

1845 — 1849 . . 106,630 90,466 74,069 

I860 — 1852 . 124,169 99,889 7.5,940 

Important recent discoveries have had, and necessarily will have, a mate- 
rial effect on the iron manufacture of Sweden. Dr. Ure may introduce the 
subject to our readers in the following observations respecting Mr. Heath's 
experiments in the manufacture of steel and their results : 

" One of the greatest improvements which this valuable modification of 
iron has ever received is due to Mr. Josiah M. Heath, who, after many elabo- 
rate and costly researches upon both the small and the great scale, discovered 
that, by the introduction of a small portion (1 per cent., and even less) of 
carburet of manganese into the melting-pot, along with the usual broken 
bars of blistered steel, a cast-steel was obtained after fusion, of a quality very 
superior to what the bar-steel would have yielded without the manganese, 
and, moreover, possessed of the new and peculiar property of being weldable, 
either to itself or to wrought iron. 

He also found that a common bar-steel, made from an inferior mark or 
quality of Swedish or Russian iron, would, when so treated, produce an ex- 
cellent cast-steel. One immediate consequence of this discovery has been 
the reduction of the price of good steel in the Sheffield market by from 30 
to 40 per cent., and likewise the manufacture of table-knives of cast-steel with 
iron tangs welded to them ; whereas, till Mr. Heath's invention, table-knives 
'were necessarily made of shear-steel, with unseemly wavy lines in them, 
because cast-steel could not be welded to the tangs." 

Mr. Heath obtained a patent for this and other kindred meritorious in- 
vention?, on the 5th Apiil, 1839, "but, strange and melancholy to say," 
observes Dr. Ure, "he has never derived anything from his acknowledged 
improvement but vexation and loss, in consequence of a numerous body of 
Sheffield steel manufacturers having banded together to pirate his patent, 
and to baffle him in our complex law courts." Whether the remarks on the 
conduct of the steel manuf\icturers of Sheffield are just, is not important to 
this inquiry ; the fact is, that various alterations and improvements have 
been effected in the manufacture, not confining it to the use of Swedish or 
Russian inferior marks, but to the use of English iion, and this to the extent 
of attracting the notice of Mr. C. F. Woern, Junior, a member of the Swedish 
Diet, who made it the subject of a motion in the Diet, 1853, 1854 : — " On 
the repeal of the taxes on pig and bar-iron, as well as of the privileges still 
existing in favor of the mining districts and iron works of Sweden." 

" In several parts of Lapland, the protoxide of iion occuis in great beds, or im- 
mense masses ; at Gillivara, 200 leagues north of Stockholm, towards the 67th degree 
of latitude, it constitutes a considerable mountain. The iron is despatched in small 
sledges drawn by reindeer, lo streams which fall into the Lutea, and thence, by 
■water carriage, to the port of Lutea, where it is embarked for Stockholm. 



88 lbs. 


per head. 


81 




36 




29 




24 




18 




IH 




11 





IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 521 

Mr. Woern, in his Treatise — after a review of the iron trade in Sweden 
during the last twenty years, and arriving at the conclusion that the home 
consumption has certainly been on the increase, owing to the general growth 
of population and trade between the years 1834 and 1851 — says: "Yet, 
in comparison to the population, the consumption per man is very much 
smaller than in other civilized countries ; accurate calculations on this sub- 
ject show the following results — all kinds of iron being reduced into pig- 
iron : 

In North America the consumption is 
Great Britain, .... 

France, 

Hanover and Oldenburg, 

German Customs' Union, . 

Switzerland, - . . . . 

Sweden, ..... 

Austria, ..... 

Russia, 8 " 

At present there is reason to believe that the Swedish consumption is 14 lbs. 
per head." 

He then speaks of the exports of bar and manufactured iron from Sweden, 
which, during the same period, he calculates to have increased about 25 per 
cent. 

In order to show the insignificance of this increase, in comparison to 
that which has taken place in other countries, he reviews the trade, and 
speaks more particularly of the discoveries and improvements made from 
1796 to 1851 in Scotland, and observes: "Instead of having been, as 
before these discoveries and improvements were made, only two-fifths of the 
Swedish production, it rose in Scotland in ten years to double the Swedish 
production, and is now six times as large. In Wales we notice the same 
thing, as well as in the United States, Belgium, Silesia, the German provinces 
on the Rhine, and even France. If we compare the countries -which chiefly 
produce iron for the last twenty years, we find that 

Great Britain , . increased in 

United States . . " 

France ... " 

Russia .... " 

German Customs' Union " 

Austria .... " 

Belgium ... " 

Sweden .... " 

Norway ... " 

and thus the production has increased more rapidly in every country than 
in Sweden, with the single exception of Russia. Now, if we compare the 
total production of these countries twenty years ago, and that of Sweden at 
the same time, with what it is now, we find that the production of this 
country has suffered a decrease from y\ to -g'g-." 

He then goes on to the more important subject of the manufacture of En- 
glish steel. He says : "I have found it impossible to obtain trustworthy 
information as to the amount of manufacture or consumption of English steel 

* Mr. Warn statfsthe make of pig-iron in France, in 1846, as 2,742;51 ship-lbs. 
T. v., equal to 457,087 tons. 



1850 


244 pe 


r cent. 


u 


471 


a 


1846* 


141 


u 


1849—1851 


20 


11 


1850 


60 


a 


<( 


130 


u 


u 


217 


i( 


(( 


51 


(( 


1841— 184c 


, 62 


a 



522 IRON TRADE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

iron ; but to a certain extent such a guide is found in the number of steel 
furnaces in Sheffield and the neighborhood. I have had returns made at 
four different periods. The first, of 1835, is found in Porter's ' Progress of 
the Nation ; ' the second, of 1842, is given by Professor Le PJaj, iu his ex- 
cellent treatise on the manufacture of steel in Yorkshire ; the third is of the 
year 1846, and is part of the evidence of one of the largest manufacturers of 
Sheffield, Mr. Henry Unwin, before a Committee of the House of Commons, 
on the occasion of a railway being applied for to Sheffield ; and the fourth 
is'the result of an account taken at my request by the same gentleman, in 
July, this year, of existing furnaces, in which he says he is so much the more 
sure of not having overstated the case, as he has separately noted the owner 
and situation of each furnace. 

According to these statements, there existed, in Sheffield and the immedi- 
ate neighborhood, in 

1835, 56 blistered-steel furnaces, and 554 cast-steel furnaces. 
1842, 97 " 'f IU " 

1846, lOS " « 974 " 

1853, 160 " « 1,495 " 

The new furnaces are built rather larger than the old ones, and Mr. Unwin 
estimates their capacity of production at 300 tons annually, and the total 
production of steel in England at 40,000 tons. 

Porter estimates the manufacture of steel in Sheffield in 1835 at 15,000 
tons, of which 2,000 tons were from English iron. The same amount is 
given by Mr. Danielson, in his Treatise on the Manufacture of Steel in 
England in 1844. Mr. G. Ekman, in his letter which refers to Professor Le 
Play's work, estimates this production of 1845 at 3,000 tons; and, according 
to Mr. Unwin's statement, giving 40,000 tons as the annual production of 
steel in England, it must now amount to 7,200 tons, when the whole im- 
port of foreign iron not re-exported has been deducted. The Unglish steel- 
iron is, moreover^ universally known for its closeness and pureriess, and some 
of the best sorts are so much liked, that they fetch a higher price than the 
best Swedish marks." 

Thus much as to the competition of British iron with Swedish, in Great 
Britain, for the manufacture of steel. He then refers to the export to other 
countries, and shows that of Great Britain to be five or six times as large as 
it was, whilst that of Sweden has been almost stationary, — " that the latter 
amounted to almost one-half of the export of Great Britain twenty years ago, 
and in 1850 it was scarcely a tenth part of it, and must since then have 
fallen ofl' still more." 

The object of Mr. Woern's motion was to alleviate, if possible, this state of 
aff'airs, by inducing the Government to remove all taxes and restrictions on 
the manufacture of iron. But the greatest difficulty Sweden has to contend 
against, as far as the increase of manufacture is concerned, is the want of coal. 

Now comes a consideration, whether, with the immense abundance of rich 
ore which Sweden possesses, there are not certain localities where it may be 
shipped at a low rate of cost. Let the Swedish Government take off any 
heavy restrictions on the export of this ore, and a valuable trade may be en- 
couraged between Gottenberg, or other shipping ports, and the port of New- 
castle, thus bringing the ore to the coal, and a more certain benefit might be 
derived by Sweden than by an attempt at any great increase of the manu- 
facture. 

Oddy, in his work on " European Commerce," observes, that iron makes 



THE WINE TRADE OF FRANCE. 



523 



no regular article of export from Norway ; yet there does not appear any 
reason why they might not have cultivated this branch of manufactures as 
well as Sweden. Wood they have m sufiacient abundance. There are 
several foundries in Norway, but they have not been worked with spirit ; 
their produce is, therefore, but small. Since the year 1'792 ihey have not 
much extended their works. Moss, a town of a thousand inhabitants, con- 
tains a principal iron work. Skaggerak is also in repute for its iron trade. 

The iron mines of Norway he on the coasts of the Gulf of Christiana, and 
on the side facing Jutland, principally at Arendal, at Krageroe, and the 
neighborhood. The ores consist almost solely of black oxide of iron, which 
forms beds in veins of from 4 to 60 feet thick, incased in gneiss. These iron 
ores are reduced in a great many smelting forges situated on the same coast, 
and particularly in the county of Laurwig. The annual product is about 
"7,300 tons, in the form of cast-iron, bar-iron, sheet-iron, nails, etc., of which 
one-half is exported. 

AVERAGE MAKE OF BAR-IRON. 

Years. Tons. 

1831 to 1835, .... 3,645. 

1836 — 1840, .... 3,898. 

1841 — 1845, .... 3,7'72. 

Average export, about 2,050 tons. 



FROM hunt's MKECHASt'a MAOAZINB. 

THE WINE TRADE OF FRANCE. 
LETTER FROAI DR. GOODRICH, U. S. CONSUL AT LYONS. 

I propose to give you, in this communication, some account of the staple 
productions of France, that may be of interest to many of the readers of 
the Merchant's Magazine, and especially so, as the vine culture is beginning 
to attract attention in the Southern and South-western sections of our own 
country. 

As you are aware, the two principal products of France are wheat and 
■wine — both entering largely into domestic consumption, and the latter yield- 
ing a surplus for exportation. 

The most productive wine districts of France are the South and South- 
western, and the least productive is the North-western. The vine grows not 
only on the level and undulating lands, but also on the hill-sides and moun- 
tain summits. These lands are mostly stony, sandy, sterile, worn out, and 
unfit for wheat growing. During the last three or four years a destructive 
disease has attacked the vine not only in France, but in Italy, Spain, and 
Portugal. This malady is of a fungoid character, and its preventive or 
remedy has hitherto eluded the vigilance and researches of the chemist and 
naturalist. 

In the statistics I shall give you — and they will be official — I will, for 
brevity, avoid the smallest numerals, as my object can be attained without 
them. The number of acres of land under vine culture in France difiere but 
a little from 5,000,000. There are about 2,000,000 of persons (mostly 
females) employed in the cultivation of the vine and the manufacture of 
wine, exclusive of 250,000 engaged in the transportation and sale of wines. 



524 THE WINE TRADE OF FRANCE. 

The average annual product is a little more than 800,000,000 gallons — for 
obvious reasons I give you American rather than French terms. The domes- 
tic or home value varies of course with the supply and demand, say from ten 
to twenty cents a gallon. For the last two years, owing to the "disease," the 
price has augmented from one to two hundred per cent, on former prices. 
The annual value may be set down in round numbers at $100,000,000. 

In the year 1849, which is probably the best for several years, the num- 
ber of acres under cultivation w^as 5,500,000, producing 925,000,000 gallons 
of wine. This was an increase of 115,000,000 over that of the last decade, 
1839. Nearly 50,000,000 gallons are annually exported as French wines. 
In 1849, 41,000,000 were exported ; in 1850, 42,000,000 ; in 1851, 49,500,- 
000 ; in 1852, 53,200,000 ; in 1853, 43,500,000. Ninety millions of gal- 
lons are annually distilled into brandy, although for the ensuing year, owing 
to governmental restrictions, there will be but little French brandy exported 
to the' United States except that made from American whiskey imported into 
France. One-seventh, or about 133,000,000 gallons of wine, are annually 
exported from France, either as wine or its distillations. The excise duty on 
wine and its productions paid into the French Exchequer during the past year 
was $22,800,000. This includes the ordinary excise, as also the " Octroi" or 
city duty. There are, by estimate, 220,000,000 gallons of wine raanufac-. 
tured into spirits, inclusive of the 90,000,000 made into brandy. This leaves 
more than 700,000,000 gallons of wine for home consumption, or about 21 
gallons for each inhabitant for the year. 

Wine, as a beverage, is universally used here by all classes. The strong 
liquors are chiefly for exportation ; hence, you see very little drunkenness in 
la belle France. 

The disease of the vine in France has for the last two years been very 
destructive, and it has greatly diminished the production of wine. This is 
on the increase, and fears are entertained that it may totally destroy the vine. 
Under this apprehension, may not the subject of vine culture legitimately 
and appropriately attract the attention of our Southern and South-western 
planters ? Many of our Southern lands, I opine, are })eculiarly adapted to 
the vine, and from natural sterility or other causes are unsuited to products 
requiring I'icher and stronger soils. The lands of southern Europe employed 
by the vine are light and sterile, unsuited to wheat and other grains. 

If our Southern farmers would, at this time more especially, turn their 
fvttention to this subject, would it not enure to their own individual interests, 
enhance the national wealth, and be promotive of national temperance by the 
introduction into general use of a cheap beverage, that would ultimately 
root out those " villainous spirits," whose baneful influence is felt throughout 
the length and breadth of our land ? 

In regard to the vine and its diseases in Europe, should the present con- 
dition of things continue for a few years, would it be the strangest fact in the 
history of commerce, if our favored country should become the exporter 
instead of the importer of wine? and may not the vine yet prove one of the 
sources of our national wealth, as well as the promoter of a sound national 
morality ? 

Such a result would restore the vine to its pristine value, as one of the 
good gifts of God. Yours, &c,, 

CHARLES S. GOODRICH. 
Lyons, Franca, September 1, 1854. 



farmers' sales and city prices. 525 



FARMERS' SALES AND CITY PRICES. 

If some of our domestic animals knew their own strength, they might 
forever free themselves from the state of servitude in which they are now 
held. Like the lion and tiger, they might be their own masters, but they 
would, at the same time, assume the responsibility of providing for them- 
selves, and, on the whole, the exchange might not be an improvement in their 
condition. Our farmers, however, year after year, live in voluntary bondage 
to an army of greedy bloodsuckers, who draw out of them, at beggarly 
prices, the hard earnings of the labor of months, while they remain ever 
doomed to constant toil, and must themselves incur the risk of droughts, and 
of floods, and of overstocked markets, and of blighted crops, with no one 
bound to give them food or shelter for a single day. And this bondage is 
the result, to a great extent, of their own inefficiency and indolent habits. 
They scarcely feel their chains, or if they do, they have no idea that they can 
possibly be shaken oft". 

How is this? A complex, expensive, and artificial system is called into 
being, having in special charge the interests of the producer, who is taxed 
therefor from sixty to ninety per cent, of his possible profits. This system is 
composed of carriers, brokers, commission agents, and men of various other 
sorts, who make their entire living out of the profits on the products of the 
farm, actually paid by the consumer. That consumers do pay cruelly high 
prices under this system is a matter of actual experience. That farmers, at 
the same time, obtain little or no advance over the prices of years gone by, 
is equally a matter of experience. 

What would our farmers think of receiving from 18 to 25 cents for their 
beef? What castles would they not build, in imagination at least, if they 
should realize eight or ten shillings a pair for their chickens, and three shil- 
lings a dozen for their eggs ? prices paid every day in this market. They 
now sell their chickens at three or four shilllings a pair, oftener the smaller 
of these prices ; their eggs at twenty or twenty-five cents a dozen, paid in 
groceries ; and so on through the chapter. Some services are required, wo 
are aware, before the living animal is prepared for the operations of the cook. 
But we remember when the hide, tallow, and oflal, paid the butcher for his 
services, and suppose this would not be thought unworthy of the craft in 
these later times ; and as to poultry, eggs, and the products of the dairy in 
general, there is no occasion for extra services, requiring compensation, to fit 
them for the stalls and shops of the retailer. 

The difference between eight and ten cents a pound for pork is by no 
means slight in the matter of profit ; twentj'^ per cent, does not tell half the 
story. Probably the pork itself cost six cents. All the farmer's profit, then, 
(save the manure,) is two cents, at the lower price, but is four cents at the 
the higher ; and this increase from eight to ten cents, makes a diftereace in 
the gain of exactly one hundred per cent. If they could get but ten cents 
a pound, selling directly to the consumer, and sell for eight cents to the mid- 
dle man, then they pay him just half their entire profits. Wall street men 
could not afford to pay for services at that rate. 

Every thing that the farmer produces, with very few exceptions, is subject 
to the expense of a burdensome and complicated system. His butter and 
eggs often go to the village grocer, in payment for goods at the highest rates. 



526 farmers' sales and city prices. 

which goods- are often and usually of an inferior quality, and for a sum vary- 
ing from one-hair to three-fourths their fair price in the market. Milk is 
sold to the cartmen, in a pure state, for about one-half (often less) of what 
it brings in the city, after it is nearly or quite doubled in quantity by the 
addition of the Croton, to say nothing of the chalk mixtures — and so runs 
the whole story. The poor farmer toils on, overjoyed to get six or eight per 
cent, on his investment, but, in a majority of cases, doomed to drag on from 
year to year, subjecting his farm (for want of means) to a wretched system 
of management, which is annually destroying its ability to produce — glad if 
he can feed and clothe a family, every member of which toils, not Hke a 
slave, but harder than he, while even his children can scarcely be spared to 
go to school, even in winter. And all this for what ? Because the lazy 
earth will not produce what she ought ? NO ! ! But, because farmers have 
no means to feed her. She is feeble as old age itself. They are, year by 
year, trying out, as by fire, the tat of the land, and the poor thing shows signs 
of decay, not to be mistaken. And all this, while middle men, out of the 
same products of the farm, are building splendid city mansions, and living 
on the luxuries of the season, paid for, all of them, from the crops produced 
by these poor farmers. 

Horrible as is this picture, we thank God that we can perceive no difficultv 
in producing an entire change in this system, if farmers shall so will it, so 
that the profits that are made shall go into the pockets of those to whom they 
properly belong — to wit, of the producers. And how can this be done? 

To some extent, the way is clear, and without any hindrance. Tinae 
might be required for perfecting the details of this important reform, but the 
following are self-evident propositions. 

So far as the large establishments of hotels and boarding-house?, in all our 
cities and villages, are concerned, every man, who may be relied upon for 
keeping his contract, might engage an almost indefinite amount of eggs, 
milk, meats, his vegetables, and, if a good dairyman, his butter and cheese, 
at prices much higher than are now received by first hands, though, perhaps,. 
not quite so high as the consumers now pay. Our milk farms are scarcely 
among the most profitable sources of income, while commissions or charges, 
of some sort, ai-e paid to two or three middle men, who get a large part of 
their income, perhaps the whole of it, from the profits which might be secured 
to the producer. 

Suppose the Astor House requires fifty gallons of milk, at regular periods. 
Let an arrangement be made by which that quantity of milk, properly 
secured, shall be sent by cars, or otherwise, at the times agreed upon. The 
hotel keeper sends his porter, on its arrival, and takes possession, returning 
the cans at the same time. How simple is this machinery. If the hotel or 
boarding-house keeper does not wish the trouble of sending for it, let him. 
pay one cent per gallon additional, or half that, according to circumstances, 
while you engage a faithful porter to do this service at your cost. 

The same arrangement is practicable with egg^, and most of the produc- 
tions of the farm, including vegetables and perishable fruits. All that is re- 
quired to accomplish this is enterprise, and a good article. Nor would 
these establishments require a very limited supply. Hundreds, even thou- 
sands, of contractors for the whole products of a farm, so far as several of 
these articles are concerned, might be found, at once, in this cit}^ Other 
cities would furnish customers in proportion to their size; and, by degrees, a 
general system, relieved chiefly, if not entirely, of high-priced middle men, 
might be put in operation, for the sale of all the varieties of products required 



farmers' sales and city prices. 527 



for our table?, and with very little trouble to any body. But if it were 
otherwise ; if the labor were considerable, still that labor would have its 
reward, and that is just what an active, efficient farmer would desire — an 
increase of his labor, without au increase of required capital, which would 
bring with it a proportional increase of profit. 

We could refer producers to moderate sized boarding-houses — say families 
of twelve to twenty persons, who would rejoice to make such an arrange- 
ment. We have heard them express views in accordance with these sug- 
gestions, and we have also known such plans in successful operation. 

Nor would this be a small affair to the farming interest. At present rates, 
probably, it would quadruple their profits ; and, at ordinary prices, it would 
more iban double them. The farmer who now gets six or eight cents for 
his pork, makes but a very small profit. Three or four cents increase on each 
pound would be a very great gain. If he could himself receive twenty-five 
and twenty-eight cents a pound, in cash, for his butter, which the speculator 
now gets, he would, ere long, have money in the bank, after paying off his 
mortgage, and buying improved stock. Twenty-five cents a gallon for milk 
and water, even though it was only half-and-half, would enable him, if he 
choose, to keep his pleasure carriage and fast horses ; and more than this 
does many an unscrupulous city cheat get every day of the year, for a meaner 
article, to say nothing of another large amount for chalk mixture, intended, 
more particularly, for the poorer classes, who are obliged to buy where they 
can. 

This whole system of middle men grows, to a very great degree, out of 
the indolence and inefficiency of the producer. Do we not hear it said in 
reply, " the farmer does not wish to become a carrier, nor a porter, dancing 
attendance at the doors of city aristocrats." Very well ; then let him be 
content with his two to four per cent, profits on his most productive articles, 
while his active and less conceited city neighbor takes these, his hard earn- 
ings, and, by performing such services, pockets an additional twenty to 
fifty per cent., and, by-and-by, becomes himself the city aristocrat. But why 
should not the farmer do this service ? Is it less honorable to contract with 
another for the sale of an article, delivery included, than it is to plough, and 
hoe, and ditch, and make compost, in producing? Is it less honorable for 
him to sell and deUver, than it is for our dealers in dry goods ? Very few, 
we trust, will raise such objections. But they " do not want the increase 
of care and attention such a plan would demand." In reply to this, we say, 
if an increase of care is to be thus rejected, whatever it might return by way 
of profit, then it would be better to sell half the farm, and thus, by confining 
the labor of production to a few acres, and realizing from their products a 
larger sum than is now obtained from the whole, and, with less care, secure 
a greater income with less outlay. The value of this other half might then be 
vested in safe and remunerative stocks. 

Commercial agencies are very good things when they are wanted ; but they 
are, generally, death to the producer. Their incomes, kept out of their 
pockets by their own consent, and with their eyes wide open, and without 
the use of chloroform, have built many a princely mansion in this and other 
cities, and furnished their tables with all the luxuries of the season, while the 
producer, who might have reaped this golden harvest, is shivering in a cold 
kitchen, and sits at a table supplied with the less desirable products of his 
own hog stye, toughened and possibly made unwholesome by saturation 
with salt, and not merely villainous, but poisonous salt petre. Who sits 

FOR THIS PICTURE? 



528 MILK IN BREAD. 



MILK IN" BREAD.; 

We are sometimes forced to confess ourselves deficient in patience, wlien 
we read some of the deliberate assertions of scientific men. They pronounce, 
as from the seat of power, and the centre of all the wisdom, in favor of this, 
and that, and the other, in the very teeth of a general and almost universal 
experience. We are compelled to place a very hw of the solemn announce- 
ments, even of the i^reat Liebig, in this category. He has proclaimed that 
bread is rendered unhealthy by being moistened with milk, and though wo 
cannot at this moment cite his words, there is no doubt that he intends to 
teach this doctrine. Many of our journals have copied his language, and 
also the following, without comment, which we regard as, at least, a partial 
sanction of it : 

Milk ix Bread. — I have more objection3 than one to milk in bread, but the most 
eerious is, that persons of advanced age, who are in the daily use of millc-made bread, 
will be expected to suffer from an over supply of osseous or bony matter, and par- 
ticularly if their kidneys are affected. Bread should always be made with water, 
and when so made it is suitable lor the aged and the young, the sick and the well. 
And as for sour milk, a microscopic view would, I presume, present additional argu- 
ments against its use. — Water Cure Journal. 

Now, whatever may be said on this wise, we can not hesitate to pronounce 
the principle here inculcated, as a general proposition, in our opinion, utterly 
at variance with truth. We doubt not that there are persons, of all ages, 
who can not digest milk, even when diluted. We have seen infants in that 
condition. We are well acquainted with a very learned divine, who acquired 
an ability to indulge in the use of milk, in his maturer years, only by first 
diluting it very freely with water — perhaps nine parts water to one of milk. 
We have no doubt that these v^riters, to whom we refer, have met with such 
cases. But to pronounce that milk, in itself, is an unwholesome beverage, or 
a substance that demands of rational men, not moderation, but abstinence, is 
too ridiculous. What does the milk do to us, whether mingled in bread or 
otherwise, to make us dread it ? Does it makes us too " bony ?" We, who 
were brought up in the country, and who have used milk as drink, and in 
bread, and in various modes besides, shall not easily be led to admit that 
doctrine. We know of many more people who are apparently injured by 
meats than by milk, in bread or out of it; and our friend of the " Water 
Cure" is consistent in this, and forbids both. 

Viewed in the light of "dietetics," why should milk in bread be unwhole- 
some? Is it of doubtful expediency as a beverage? Whosays that? And 
how is its nature changed when mingled in the bread ? As a chemist, we 
venture to say, in nothing essential. Fermentation, when carried to excess,- 
may affect portions of the milk, but it is not then unwholesome. Ask our 
Southern friends what they think of sour milk, of bonny-clapper. Why 
not eat bread moistened with milk before baking, as well as after? Is 
not bread and milk wholesome? Does " bread and milk" cause us to suffer 
from an "over-supply of osseous, or bony matter?" We have no patience 
with such science. "A microscopic view would, I presume, present addi- 
tional arguments against its use." Indeed I And how is it with water? 
Does not a microscopic" view of that, too, " present arguments against its 
use?'' We venture the opinion, that very f^w can view a drop of water Ixforo 
a solar microscope, and straightway go away and drink it. And how does a 
" microscopic view" affect the wholesomeness of vinegar? Fiiend Water 
Cure, vegetarian as you are, your logic is surely out of joint ; for no one, of 



SANDY SOILS — LONG ISLAND. 529 



any considerable experience ia the use of optical instruments, can be ignorant 
that a microscopic view of vegetables would present millions and billions of 
"arguments against (their) use;" and nice, large, and plump ones, too. 
We doubt whether you will make much on either of these tacks. 

We have lived for years on milk-bread, and wish those glorious days might 
return. And we are not very bony, nor troubled with the animalcules, so 
far as we know. Some of our family connexions have continued to live in 
the same style ever since, and they are not particularly bony. And when 
we visit " the spot where we were born," or its neighborhood, we always go 
back to these old habits, and eat our bread and milk, and milk-bread and 
milk, too; and we generally come back with less apparent symtoras of too 
much bone than we had before. We exhort our readers, one and all, who 
are not already diseased, or in an ab-normal state, to get and eat as much 
milk-bread as they can. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

SANDY SOILS — LONG ISLAND. 

Messrs. Editors : I was pleased to notice, in your last number, an article 
over the signature of "L," calling the attention of your readers to Long 
Island and its neglected soil. It is truly remarkable that the lands of Long 
Island, so cheap, and so close to New-York, the best market in the world, 
have been suffered so long to lay waste and unproductive. 
_ The chief causes, no doubt, are, that immense tracts have belonged to 
single families or individuals, and that cutting wood, catching oysters and 
fish, instead of farming, have long been the principal occupation of the 
inhabitants ; and, at the same time, there has prevailed a mistaken opinion 
as the quality of the land and its fitness for agricultural purposes. 

A gentleman of Islip informed me, not long since, that he had resided 
forty years upon a farm on the south side, which was very productive ; but 
that the great body of the land, in the middle of the Island and along the 
railroad, was, until recently, considered worthless ; but that he had put'some 
under cultivation near Suffolk Station, and was surprised at the result ; and 
from experience he found it superior to the old farm. 

There is a very erroneous opinion generally entertained about porous soils 
losing the manure by percolation. A recent examination, by a gentleman of 
Long Island, of a barn-yard where the soul was porous, showed that the dis- 
coloration of the soil, underneath the barn-yard, had not extended but a little 
depth ; and his opinion was that he lost but little of the strength of the 
manure by percolation. 

It is a well known property of water, in passing through the earth, to part 
with all foreign matter held by it. Witness the purity of the springs on 
sandy or gravelly soil, and the operation of artificial filters, as seen on a small 
scale about our cities, and on a large scale in the water-works of London and 
other European cities. Is it not a popular error that the manures are lost by 
percolation ? 

May there not also be an error about the loss of manures by evaporation, 
when covered in the soil ? Evaporation carries off the moisture, it is true ; 
converts the water into steam, but how can anything except moisture leave 
the soil ? If you evaporate salt water the salt is left; if sweet water— sap of 
the maple or juice of the cane — sugar is left. 
31 



580 SPENT TAN AND SAW-DUST FOR MULCHING TREES. 

There are some well known facts that bear on this subject. One is, that 
in very dry seasons porous soils suffer less than the close and clayey soils. 
This was the case on Long Island last year, which was a very dry one. Long 
Island suffered less than almost any other section of the country where the 
drought prevailed equally. 

The sandy soil allows early ploughing and sowing, and if thus worked and 
properly manured the vegetation of the crop covers the soil before the sun 
renders the surface too dry. The air penetrates the open, porous soil, and at 
night deposits its moisture, with which on Long Island it comes richly laden 
from the ocean or the Sound. 

I will venture to predict that Long Island is destined at no distant day to 
be a remarkably rich and productive agricultural country ; or rather, that it 
will be one immense and teeming garden. 

W. E. M. 

Note. — Our correspondent is no doubt correct in his opinions above ex- 
pressed iu relation to the percolation of manures on the soils of Long Island. 
There are soils, however, which admit the passage of liquid manures through 
them without any apparent loss. We make this remark lest some of our 
readers should be led to suppose that we inculcate the doctrine that there is 
no soil where the application of manure, in its present condition, seems quite 
inexpedient. The subsoil has an important connection with this matter. We 
have before given some specific directions iu regard to it. As to Long Island, 
we know that good farms have been made there, and that thousands of acres 
upon it, yet unimproved, could be made into fertile and paying farms. 



FOa THK PLOUQH, THE LOOM, AND THB ASVIL. 

SPENT TAN AND SAWDUST FOR MULCHING FRUIT-TREES. 

Messrs. Editors : It may not be uninteresting to your readers to learn 
that spent tan spread on the surface of the ground, under a tree which has 
been recently transplanted, is one of its greatest protectors from drought. 
In the spring of 1853, we set a quantity of fruit trees in a gentleman's gar- 
den and fruit grounds. The soil was very dry and gravelly, and it was the 
common opinion that they all would die from the drought. 

The ground was prepared for setting in our usual way, with the addition 
of loam to set the roots in. After setting the trees, the ground was covered 
to the distance of two feet from the tree with common sawdust. There was 
not one fruit-tree that suffered from the drought ; and last season several of 
them bore and ripened fruit. 

We set on the same grounds, also, about fifteen rods of arbor vita) hedge. 
We mulched them also with sawdust, and there was not one failure. 

Last June I set a quantity of arbor vita3 on a bank, close to a wall. I put 
about two shovels full of spent tan around each tree ; and although they 
were set just as the extremely dry season commenced, not one of them died, 
although we did not water them. 

Villages are frequently built on alluvial soil, and then it is often extremely 
difficult to make trees flourish. Those who wish to ornament their gardens 
will find that a liberal supply of sawdust or spent tan added to the soil, either 
by mixing with it or as a top dressing, is very advantageous. 

Either of the above substances, which are usually considered worthless, and 



ROOT CROPS. 531 



can be had in abundance near all our villages, will many times pay the ex- 
pense of hauling and applying. Adopt this treatment, and those trees which 
usually appear sickly in mid-summer will be of a darker hue, and their 
broad leaves will shelter you from the scorching heat of a summer's sun. 

I have no doubt that near almost every country village sufficient quantities 
of sawdust and tan are wasted every year to top-dress the ground under five 
thousand trees. 

Let me advise you, then, to apply it to your alluvial soils, and your villages 
will no longer have the appearance of being built in a desert, but rather in 
the luxurious soil and in the balmy climate of the Indies. 

Plant trees and make them flourish, and then the weary traveller will 
admire your scenery, and will thank you for the rare pleasure which such 
scenes impart ; while your own eyes constantly beholding the work of your 
own hands, you will daily and hourly find occasion to rejoice in the pleasing 

change. 

L. H. Spear. 
Brainton, VL, Feb. 5th, 1855. 



ROOT-CROPS.— THE NEW-ENGLAND FARMER AND " WE," vs. THE COR- 
RESPONDENT OF THE NEW-ENGLAND FARMER. 

We are very happy to notice the commendation of the learned Editor of 
the New-E*igland Farmer, with which he prefaces our article, taken from 
our journal, entitled, "The Value of Root-Crops." We are gratified at this 
for two reasons, one personal, and the other subjective. That is, we are glad 
to have his endorsement as to the importance of Root- Crops, and of having 
more light on the subject of fattening and muscle-producing food. 

We are also glad to read the language quoted below, from a correspondent 
of the N. E. F., who seems disposed to find fault with something, or else to 
be troubled with what scholars call cacoethes scribendi — are thus glad, because 
we think if there was unfavorable criticism to be made on that short essay, 
this writer might have discovered it. But he represents us as taking a posi- 
tion we never have taken, and then attacks it. Whether he carries even 
that fiction, remains to be seen. Our language was as follows : " We are 
inclined to explain it (a certain fact) on the principle that concentrated 
nutriment is not so wholesome as that which is more diluted. The more di- 
luted our food, provided we do not overtask the energies of the intestinal 
canal, in the conveyance of it to its destination, the better for the health of 
the animal. May not this be the rule ? In such cases the absorbents have 
more time, and a better opportunity to possess themselves of what they 
need, without sufi"ering anything to escape them. We do not assert this. 
We on\j suggest, where no one appears to estabhsh anything." 

But out of this doubly-guarded enquiry and " suggestion," this corres- 
pondent, E. C. P., objects to us because — " among other objectional sentences, 
(sentiments?) I can not help noting the following: ' The more diluted our 
food, provided we do not overtask the energies of the intestinal canal, in the 
conveyance of it to its destination, the better for the health of the animal.' 

" Now this means, (says our critic,) if it means anything, that the less con- 
centrated the food of animals, — that is, the greater proportion of bulk to nu- 
triment, — the ' better for the health of the animal.' The writer does not 



532 FAIRS AND HUMBUGS. 

seem to perceive that, in carrying out his doctrine, he must inevitably run it 
"into the ground ;" for it comes to this, that when food is discovered which 
contains no nutriment at all, it is better adapted than any other for sustain- 
ing animal life." 

Really, tbis is singular logic. It reminds us of the so-well-known Paddy, 
who, on the assumption that the use of a stove would save half the fuel, pro- 
posed by buying two, to save it all. We can not seriously find fault with 
such logic, even if we had asserted what the learned E. C. P. says we have, 
but leave him in his glory ; nor shall we enquire how he can " dilute" nutri- 
ment when there is none. It is not on account of such criticism that we 
notice this writer, but, because we would give our own readers to understand, 
that our opinions, as there expressed, are sustained by one of the best editors 
in the United States, and, also, to renew our exhortation to them to cultivate 
root-crops much more extensively, and to feed them to their stock quite 
freely. Every week, almost, we find accumulative evidence on this subject. 
We would not have the diet exclusively nor mainly such ; nor can we go 
with this same E. C. P., of " Somerville," who commends " about sixty per 
cent, of nutriment to forty per cent, of bulk !" that is, that the nutriment 
(solid contents, of course,) should be fifty per cent, more than the bulk ; for 
Ave are quite sure that far less than one hundred and fifty per cent, of nutri- 
ment would be quite ruinous to the health of animals. Rather than this, 
because cheaper, and the results the same, we would " buy two stoves," and 
save all — the cost of nutriment. 



[We publish the following communication without [any hesitation, al- 
though we are surprised at the statements made by the writer, in respect to 
exhibitors and committees. We have more to say on this subject, which 
we perhaps may put into form in season for the present number. But we 
wonder that any community should t©lerate, for a moment, any approach to 
such practices as are described in the statements below. We must believe 
that such occurrences are very unfrequent. — Eds. P. L. & A.] 

FOR THE PLOUOH, THB LOOM, AND THK ANVIL. 

FAIRS AND HUMBUGS. 

Although we are said to be fond of being humbugged, yet I apprehend 
that we may possibly overdo the thing, and become disgusted with it. In 
fact, there are some men who already have become so, and declare that all 
fairs are humbugs. The utility of fairs, in future, must depend on the 
manner of conducting them, and the character of the articles and stock ex- 
hibited in them, and the candor and honesty of the exhibitors and judges. 

Few men who have been attendants on our fairs, have failed to notice the 
attempts at deception practised by exhibitors; in fact, it has become so com- 
mon, that honorable men are hardly expected to be perfectly reliable in these 
matters. 

The true friends of improvement have it in their power to prevent, in a 
great measure, these evils, if they will set themselves about it in earnest. 

It may require some time and effort to remove these evils, but the advan- 
tages to be obtained are worth the eftbrt. We cannot afford to lose the 
impulse that has been given to agriculture, and the improvement in stock 



WASTEFUL FARMING. 533 



and agricultural implements by fairs, because these are not conducted as 
they should be, or because a few unprincipled men care for nothing but to 
advance their own interest by imposing upon the credulous. 

When a man presents a sheep on exhibition, that a committee are confi- 
dent was shorn high stubble^ as it is called, which means, so shorn as to 
leave the wool one inch long at shearing ; or paints them, so as to make 
them appear like black-tops, when they are not so, let a committee report 
what they believe to be the fact in a few such cases, and the effect will be 
felt as far as the case becomes known. 

True, this would require some independence in judges, but that is what 
we ought to expect. If men have not that quality, they are not the men 
we want for those places, and they had better not serve in them. 

Shall a committee say to the public that an artide or an animal is worthy 
of commendation, when they are confident it is not so ? Certainly not. By 
so doing, they inflict a great injury on the cause they are chosen to advance. 

Let every honest man sustain truthful reports, and set his face like flint 
against impositions, and those that are guilty of such deception would aban- 
don the fairs or their evil practices. 

Although there is perhaps no other stock so liable to deceive as sheep, 
yet, by over-feeding and other ways they are made to deceive the buyer, the 
spectator, and perhaps the public. 

In hopes that these few thoughts, imperfectly expressed, may do some- 
thing to increase the utility of fairs, I leave them at your disposal. 

w. 

Ohio, Feb., 1855. 



/■OR THK PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AKD THE ANVIL. 

WASTEFUL FARMING. 

Mr. Editor : — Each farm has within itself the means of its own improve- 
ment. Science of late years has done much to improve the most ancient of 
arts ; still there is much left to accomplish. The field of investigation is still 
but partially explored. But there is, of late, a spirit of inquiry in most of our 
farming communities, as to the best system to be pursued for the improve- 
ment of the soil, which speaks for good. 

There are but few pursuits that would suflfer the loss and waste to which 
the farmer submits in manure, and other modes of wasteful management, 
■without a failure. Our manure heap is our capital and bank of deposit. 
Here refuse of all kinds should be safely placed to be converted by the labo- 
ratory of Nature to some useful purpose. The farmer would be astonished 
were he to know fully how little the system of reproduction is understood. 

There is an immense loss in not yarding stock in a proper manner, and 
supplying muck or turf to absorb the urine. Where barns have stood for 
years without a cellar under them, and, for several generations, the manure 
heaps have been deposited, all that is wanting is, that this soil be carted to 
the field. Here is one of the many means of improvement. 

Again we can see a great advantage in the the change of soil, by carting 
from the most barren knoll soil of a diSerent character. The most wonderful 
eflfects, sometimes, are thus produced. This process supplies to the soil that 
which was wanting for the formation of a perfect plant. Here, again, ac- 



534 DOCK RAILWAY, LIVERPOOL. 

cording to my theory, we have within our reach the means of greatly adding 
to the amount of our crops. 

The larger the crop, if judiciously managed, the larger the manure heap, 
and, on our system of reproduction, the better prepared for the next. By 
pursuing this system, our lands will iucrease in fertility from year to year. 

Another great loss the farmer is subject to is from the wrong application 
of manure to his fields. Different soils require different applications ; while 
the heavy, tenacious soil will require the manure on the top of the furrosv, 
and the dryer soil that it be turned under. There can be no particular rules 
laid down on paper for the application of manure. The practical tiller of 
the soil must use his best judgment according to the nature of the soil, and 
the crop he intends to raise. On this subject our farmers need much light, 
which they should obtain by reading and experiment. 

There is another lai-ge loss the farmer is subject to from the planting of a 
particular crop on the wrong soil. A particular crop planted in a particular 
location would prove a dead loss ; while, by planting it elsewhere, it might 
drove a source of profit. Good cultivation will, generally, do much to insure 
a good crop. One acre, well cultivated, will be of as much actual profit as 
three, poorly done. It costs no more to cultivate one acre for a full crop 
than it does for a half a crop — the acre proving a profit, and three a loss ; 
while, by a good cultivation, the value of the one acre is increased, and, by 
the poor cultivation, the value of the three is diminished. 

We would not be understood to discountenance the purchasing of highly 
concentrated fertilizers. On the application of these, at present, our farmers 
need much light. But we would be understood that we do not make use of 
one-half the means within cur reach for the improvement of our farms and 
crops, and have, therefore, no reason to find fault, or be disappointed, if such 
farming is not found profitable. D. L. Harvey. 



Dock Railway, Liverpool. — At the last meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, there was exhibited a large model of a high level railway, which it is 
proposed to carry along the east side of the whole line of docks at Liverpool. 
The construction will consist of iron frame-work supporting two platforms. 
The lower Avill be about 52 feet wide and 20 feet above the present quays, 
designed entirely for goods traffic, having four lines of railway — the two 
nearest the docks to be used as sidings for trucks while loading and unload- 
ing, and the other two as up and down lines for trucks in motion. The upper 
platform is to be about 23 feet wide, and to have two lines of railway, 
intended for passengers only. The lower platform will be provided with 
hydraulic cranes, which will transfer goods either from or to the vessels or 
the trucks, as well as work through the hatchways in the platform to the 
quays. The scheme embraces the construction of deposit and transit-sheds, 
a connection with existing or future railways, and with private warehouses, 
and the erection of passenger-stations. The great thoroughfares will be 
crossed by bridges, and the line will be equally applicable for horses or loco- 
motive power. The cost is estimated at less than £250,000 a mile. This 
includes hydraulic cranes and platforms, with stationary steam power to work 
them. On the other hand, it is calculated that the value of the quay space 
gained by the platforms of the railway, at the low rate of £5 a yard, will 
yield a return of about £210,000 a mile, not much below the estimated 
expenditure. 



THE CULTURE OF THE ROSE. 635 



HORTICULTURAL. 

FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE AKVIL. 

THE CULTURE OF THE ROSE. 

The Rose, on account of its exquisite sweetness and surpassing beauty, is 
often termed " The Queen of Flowers." Although there are some flowers 
which may have a more gaudy appearance ; yet there is none which pos- 
sesses so many excellent qualities as the Rose, and none so universally ad- 
mired, or so generally cultivated. It is the universal favorite. No flov^er, 
either, is of more easy cultivation, particularly in the Middle, Western, and 
Southern States. 

We can scarcely pass a house, however humble, without seeing one or 
more of the family Rose, within the garden or about the door. These, dur- 
ing the months of May and June, give a cheerful and an enlivening appear- 
ance to every thing around, and are calculated to drive dull melancholy from 
the most phlegmatic. 

But why should the pleasure thus afforded be confined to the short season 
of a month or two, when it might, with little trouble or expense, be extended 
through eight or nine months in the year ? In this respect, the Rose sur- 
passes every other flower which can be grown in the open air. There are 
many varieties of this beautiful flower, which, under proper cultivation, will 
bloom profusely from early spring until late autumn. And who that has a 
taste for the sweet and the beautiful, would willingly forego this luxury of 
nature ? This would argue, not only a want of refinement, but a want of 
taste for Nature's works. 

Many persons, no doubt, are deterred from the cultivation of fine roses, 
from an apprehension that they are too tender for the climate, and require 
more attention than they are willing to bestow upon them. But this is en- 
tirely a mistake. The rose is much more hardy than many persons suppose. 
It will stand the winters of the Middle and Western States, uninjured, almost 
without protection. But as our winters are sometimes pretty severe, it is best 
to guard against this contingency by throwing around the root of the rose a 
little protection ; and this will require not more than one minute's labor to 
the plant. I have found that to draw up the earth a few inches — say from 
four to six — around the root of the rose, is quite sufficient. Indeed, this is a 
better security than wrapping it up, and keeping it warm by putting manure 
around it. This keeps it too warm, and causes it to throw up tender shoots 
beneath the protection, Avhich never fail to be killed when exposed to the air. 
There is more danger of killing roses by keeping them too warm than too 
cold during winter. They should be kept sufliciently cool to prevent them 
from vegetating until the frost is entirely over, and there is no danger. It is 
true, the tops may be killed, but this is no serious disadvantage. A rose 
must always put out a new growth before it blooms, even if the last year's 
wood should not be killed ; and when the plant is killed down by the frost, 
Oft cut with a knife, it will throw up more vigorous shoots, and grow better, 
and bloom prettier, than if the old wood should remain untouched, either by 
the frost or the knife. It is a great mistake to suppose that, because the rose 
has been bitten down by the frost, that it is killed, or even injured. Protect 
the root, and what is called the neck, or collar of the plant, and there is no 
danger. I have had, growing in my garden, in the open ground, for several 



536 THE CULTURE OF THE ROSE. 

years, all the varieties of the ever-blooining rose, such as the Tea, Bengal, 
Noisette, and Bourbon, and have never lost one by the cold weather, when 
protected as I have described. 

A good deal has been said on the different methods of propagating the 
rose — whether it should be on its own roots, or on a foreign stock. Each 
method, no doubt, has its advantages and disadvantages. Some will do best 
■when budded on a good thrifty stock ; others, perhaps, will succeed better 
on their own roots. There is a very general prejudice existing against budding 
roses. There are two objections urged against it. One is, that the bud is 
often inserted so high up on the stock that it cannot be protected, and con- 
sequently is killed by the frost. There is great weight in this objection, and 
I would advise my friends never to purchase a rose that has been budded 
some distance above the ground, particularly if it belongs to any of the ten- 
der families. A rose should always be budded as near to the surface of the 
ground as possible ; and then, when transplanted, the point of inoculation 
should be placed a little below the surface, and this point being protected 
during the winter, there is not the least danger of its being killed. Sorae- 
times, when planted in this way, roots will strike out from the bud, and then 
it will have a double advantage. 

Another objection to budded roses is, that the stocks are apt to throw up 
suckers, which not only prove troublesome, but often draw the nourishment 
from the rose. This, it is admitted, is sometimes the case ; but it is very- 
easy to distinguish between the two, and the suckers should always be 
removed as soon as they make their appearance. 

I have had considerable experience on this subject, and can say, that in 
many respects I prefer a rose budded on a hardy, strong-growing stock. It 
is hardier, more thrifty, and blooms better. I have frequently lost roses in 
the winter when on their own roots, although protected ; but never when 
budded. The reason is obvious : for when the top of a rose is tender, the 
rest is so too, in the same proportion ; and when a tender rose is on its own 
roots, and the top should be killed, the root is very apt to be killed also. 
But I find the prejudice against budded roses is so deeply rooted in the minds 
of some people that no reasoning will remove it; and the old adage is 
verified, 

"Convince a man against hia will, 
He's of the same opinion still." 

Well, I suppose we must use another old adage, and say, 

"What can't be cured 
Must be endured." 

I have sometimes been amused at persons when they would come into my 
garden ; they would exclaim, " 0, what pretty roses !" and earnestly inquire, 
" Why is it that your roses bloom so much better than mine ?" " 0," I would 
answer, "it is because mine are budded.'''' I would then give my reasons for 
believing a budded rose was better than one on its own roots ; and although 
they seemed to be convinced of the truth of what I said, yet, when asked 
which they would prefer, "O," they would say, " they never intended to have 
a budded rose !" Thus you see it is of no use to reason with some persons. 

The rose requires a strong, rich soil to bring it to perfection. If it is not 
naturally rich, it must be made so. I have found that alluvial soil, with a 
portion of sand, is well adapted to the growth of the rose; so also is well 
rotted chip manure, leaf mould, or rich virgin soil from the woods. It is of 
service to take up a rose every three or four years, and transplant it, trimming 
the roots, and renewing the soil about it. This seems to give it new life and 



THE GROUPING OF ROSES. 537 

vigor. The surface around should be kept loose, and clear of weeds. I have 
also found that mulching is of great service, particularly in summer. It pre- 
vents the too rapid evaporation of the moisture, and keeps the ground in 
good condition around it. 

Roses should be kept well pruned. All the dead and sickly-looking 
branches should be removed, and a proper shape given to the plant. This 
not only improves it in appearance, but makes it more thrifty, and increases 
its blooming qualities. 

Nothing has a more beautiful appearance than a garden with roses of 
different hues richly arranged in it. It seems to impart a cheerfulness to 
everything around it. A garden is a pretty good index of the character of 
the inmates of a dwelling; and I have often thought that I could determine, 
with a good deal of accuracy, respecting the industry, good taste, and refine- 
ment of a family, by taking a peep at the garden as I passed by their house. 
It requires but little time or trouble to plant a few trees in a yard, or a few 
flowers in a garden, and the pleasure thus afforded will more than balance 
the trouble and expense of doing it. Besides, this greatly increases the in- 
trinsic value of a place, and if a man wished to sell, he might expect to get 
more for a place thus improved and ornamented, than he could get if there 
were no such improvements. 

A taste for these things should be encouraged in children — particularly in 
females. The cultivation of flowers is particularly adapted to young ladies. 
Indeed, I have thought that a female without a taste for the beauties of 
Nature, was destitute of at least one distinguishing trait of female character. 

To cultivate flowers is not only a pleasing employment, but it conduces 
greatly to health. We know that a beautiful garden will attract the atten- 
tion of females, and bring them out to the open air when they could not be 
induced to leave their room were there no such attraction. 

J. R. B. 
Rosemont, near Nashville, Term. 



THE GROUPING OF ROSES. 

[We find in the Courier, published at Louisville, Ky., the following advice 
in reference to the grouping of this splendid variety of plants in the embel- 
lishment of grounds. We are not familiar with all these varieties, but we 
know many of them to be as described, and we give the entire article a place 
in our journal, as the opinion of a professed florist, who appears to under- 
stand what he writes about. — Eds. P. L. & A.] 

In our paper of Saturday, we endeavored to point out the rewards that 
may be gained by a proper grouping of roses, and we promised to give some 
aid towards this enjoyment by giving a list of such roses as may be relied 
upon for this object. Those who carefully study the whole subject may give 
an infinite variety of efi'ects by a judicious grouping. But we proceed to the 
names and characters of roses for the purpose we have indicated : 

We begin with the Remontants or hybrid perpetual Hoses. These should 
be the favorite of the garden. They grow luxuriantly, bloom freely through 
the season, have a variety of colors and a delightful fragrance. Among the 
preferable ones of this class, we rank the following: 

Baronne Prevost — Bright red, and very large. 



538 THE GROUPING OF ROSES. 

Cornet — Bright rose color, with odor of the Cabbage Rose. 

Duchess of Sutherland — Light pink color, and ranked by the rose fanciers 
of France as among the first. 

Geant des Batailles — Brilliant crimson, superb in size and appearance, and 
deemed nearly perfect by rose fanciers. 

Jacques Lafitte — Deep brilliant rose color, and a splendid flower. 

La jReine — Brilliant glossy rose, large and superb. This is a prime favor- 
ite with rose cultivators. 

Madame Laffoy — Dark crimson, very brilliant, large and splendid. 

Marquise Bocella — Pale blush, dwarf. 

Mrs. Elliott — Bright lilac, crimson. 

Prince Albert — Rich velvetty crimson, one of the most beautiful of the 
whole family of perpetuals. We have never seen any Remontant rose that 
we preferred to this. We are glad to see that it is becoming a denizen of 
Cave Hill Cemetery. It will be a beautiful gem in that city of the dead. 

Rivers'' Perpetual — Is another great favorite of those who know the merits 
of the Remontant roses. Its colors are very rich, and it is quite a prolific 
bloomer. 

Sidonie — A brilliant rose color, very perfect. 

William Jesse — Light crimson, lilac tinge, large and very beautiful. 

The name Remontant, meaning to grow again, indicates the character of 
this variety. A succession of blooming periods may be looked for from the 
Remontants. The perfection of the foliage, variety in the colors of the petals, 
in the shape and size of the flowers, and the delightful fragrance of the Re- 
montants have made them welcome guests in every flower garden. 

Bourbon Roses. — The Bourbon Roses are well called ever-blooming plants. 
They richly reward the cultivator. We name a few choice specimens : 

Leveson Goioer — This is esteemed equal to any of the Rose family. It is 
very large and double, and of a deep rose color. It is equal in form to the 
Souvenir de Malmaison, and that is merit enough. 

Hermosa — This is an old variety, but none of the new favorites have been 
able to displace it. The flower is cupped, very double and perfect, and the 
plant is one of the most prolific of bloomers ; color, a very delicate rose. 

Queen of the Bourbons — The most indifferent person could not pass this 
plant in bloom without pausing to do homage to its beauty. The flower is 
a delicate fawn color, cupped beautifully, very fragrant, large, and its rich 
glossy appearance makes it resemble wax-work. No group of roses can be 
complete without it. 

Souvenir de Malmaison — We are sure that no one who has properly cul- 
tivated this rose ever hesitated in putting it at the very head of all roses. It 
is perfect. The foliage is unsurpassed in richness, the flowers cupped, perfect 
in form, very double, with thick velvety petals. The flower is the largest of 
all the roses, but its petals are compact and shingled with perfect regularity. 
The flowers are often from four to five inches in diameter, and their color is 
an exceedingly delicate blush, tinged with cream. It is one of the most pro- 
lific of bloomers, one of the earliest in the spring, and one of the last of the 
autumnal bloomers. This is a deserved favorite in Cave Hill Cemetery, and 
it flourishes there in all its perfection. 

Raymond — A deep pink, tinged with purple. 

Emile Courtier — Four cupped, double and perfect, and color a deep rose. 

Enfant d'' Ajaccio — A rapid grower, making shoots from twelve to fifteen 
feet in length. Flower double-cupped, very fragrant, and a brilliant scarlet 
crimson. 



THE GROUPING OF ROSES. 539 

The Bourbon roses properly grouped witli the Remontant family, and well 
cultivated, would be the pride and glory of any grounds, and we hope to see 
Louisville extensively ornamented in this way. But the means of grouping 
are not yet complete. 

The China or Tea Roses are essential to a tasteful grouping of the plants. 
These, like the Remontants and Bourbons, have perfections of their own. 
We name such as will aid in making charming groups. They are peculiarly 
adapted to bedding out upon a lawn, but also make rich pillar roses. An 
Englishman, living in Rome, made a number of rose arcades, called Per- 
goles, which he ornamented with the China rose. Andot, who was entranced 
with the splendor of the beauty, says : " It is impossible to conceive a more 
splendid bloom than that of these roses trained upon pergoles so graceful. 
The foliage was hidden under the gorgeous drapery of the glittering roses." 

The China roses should be kept free from weeds, and young shoots should 
be kept pegged down, in order to make masses of foliage and bloom of 
every variety of tint. Parsons, in his great work on the Rose, speaks cora- 
mendingly of the adaptation of the China rose to the terraces of grounds. 
The slopes should be planted with dwarf China roses, the shoots of which 
should be pegged down. A magnificent mass of brilliant and various bloom 
will reward the labor. But to the varieties. 

Adam — Flowert cupped, double, very large, and perfect in form ; color, 
rich glossy rose. 

Agrippena de Cramoise — One of the oldest, but the principal favorite of 
this class. It is beautifully formed, and its rich crimson color is unsurpassed. 
It is hardy, and a prolific bloomer. 

Devoniensis — A beautiful flower of immense size ; color, a fine creamy 
white. The flower bud is the most beautiful of all with which we have any 
acquaintance. The odor is very rich. 

La Sylphida — A pale yellow, and very beautiful. 

Barbat — Fawn colored flower, and superb. 

Niphetoes — Large pure white, very splendid. 

La Pactole — Form of flower, cu2)ped ; color, pale sulphur ; centre, deep 
lemon yellow. An abundant bloomer, and quite hardy. 

Saffrano — The half opened bud is one of the gems of floral beauty. It 
is a rich fawn color. Of all the fawn colored roses this is the most beautiful. 

Souvenir d^n Ami is ranked by rose fanciers as the queen of tea-scented 
roses. It blooms freely, and its large imbricated flowers resemble those of 
the ^falmaison ; color, a delicate crimson, shaded delicately with rose tints. 

Triumphe de Luxembourg — An old but still a favorite variety. The plant 
is of luxuriant growth, the flowers of immense size, rose and buff" color, and 
very fragrant. 

Noisette, or Climbing Roses. — Ami Vibert — A small fragrant, perfectly 
double, pure white flower. 

Belle — White, with rosy centre. 

Fellenberg — Very prolific, bright crimson flowers. 

Jaune Desprcz — Bright fawn color, and one of the most fragrant of all 
the tea or Bengal roses. 

Ophire — Bright salmon and fawn colored flowers ; one of the most beauti- 
ful of its class. 

Monstreuse — A fine blush, and a capital rose for pillars. 

He that may study and cultivate these varieties will obtain rewards and 
gratifications from which he will not be willing to part. And it must be re- 
membered that a perfect feast of rose pleasures cannot be enjoyed without 
having members of the four classes we have described to-day. 



640 THE TRANSFER OF BEES. 



» THE TRANSFER OF BEES. 

Mr. Eddy gives the following information, with directions, in tlie Puritan 
Eecorder, in reference to this subject. We think he understands the busi- 
ness as well as anj'^ man : 

"The reasons for a transfer are: — 1. The leaky condition of the hive; 2. 
The bad condition of the comb. 3. The presence of the Bee-Moth. When 
a transfer becomes necessary, and is decided upon, the method of performing 
the operation is as follows : — 1. Close the Bee entrance with cotton batting; 
2. Nail a thin piece of board over the same ; 3. Slide a zinc plate, or its equiv- 
alent, between the bottom board and the base of the hive ; 4. Invert the hive 
with the bottom board held in place; 5. Remove the bottom board ; 6. Set 
the new hive upon the zinc plate ; 7. Adjust the hives so that no Bees can es- 
cape when the zinc plate is removed ; 8. Withdraw the zinc plate ; 9. Rap 
smartly upon every side of the hive, for twenty or thirty minutes, until the 
Bees are thoroughly routed, and nearly all of them have ascended into the 
new hive; 10. Slide the zinc plate between the two hives; 11. Set the new 
hive precisely in the place of the old one; 12. Remove the zinc plate upon 
which the new hive stands. 

The operation is now complete, with the exception of a very few Bees 
which remain in the old hive. These are now to be drummed out, at a short 
distance in front of the new hive, and they will return to the familiar spot. 
I choose to perform the operation in the after-part of the day. Care should 
be taken that the Bees which are to be transferred, should occupy a stand by 
themselves. This is a matter to be attended to early in Spring. One prime 
object of the transfer is to get rid of the black comb which is no longer suit- 
able for use. Of course I do not transfer this comb to the new hive. I lose, 
and expect to lose, the young which are found in the brood comb, at the 
time the transfer is made. For this loss, I receive more than an equivalent 
in the new circumstances of prosperity in which the colony is placed. The 
transfer should usually be made in the month of June. I prefer about the 
middle of the month. If it is done later than this, suflBcient winter stores 
may not be secured. For further particulars, relative to Bee management, I 
would refer your readers to my book on " I3ee Culture ;" a copy of which 
will be sent to individuals, free from postage, who may forward to my address 
nine letter stamps." 



New Mordant in Dyeing. — A Swede named Rydin, has published a 
method of obtaining a fine blue, of excellent tint, for cotton, by employing as 
a mordant the oxyd of chromium, dissolved in an acid; in place of this 
oxide, a double salt may be used, such as the double sulphate of chromium 
and potash. This salt is obtained by mixing one part of a solution of bichro- 
mate of potash, and one part and a half, or two parts, of sulphuric acid. 
Alcohol, sugar, or any other substance capable of converting the chromic acid 
into an oxyd of chromium, may be added. The oxyd is added to a decoc- 
tion of logwood, and the dyeing maybe effected in one operation, by putting 
together the salt, the decoction, and the cotton, and heating the whole. Or 
the cotton can be treated with the salt, hot or cold, and may then be placed 
in the decoction until the desired color is obtained. By varying the propor- 
tions of the salt to the decoction, very delicate shades of gray and lilac may 
be obtained. 



HORN AIL. 541 



THEHORNAIL. 

The notion that this was a specific disease has long been denied by skill- 
ful surgeons and doctors. The opinions now prevalent, which are deemed 
worthy of confidence, are well given by Dr Dadd, in his remarks at a late 
legislative agricultural meeting in Boston. He remarked, that Veterinary 
science had been too long neglected in this country. He commenced prac- 
ticing the Veterinary art some twelve years ago in this city. There were 
many who pretended to prescribe for diseases of animals, without knowing 
anything about them, and would commence some very funny operations. 

They would examine the horns, and would sometimes bore into them, and, 
perhaps, let out a little pus, if they found the horn cold. 

He considered, however, that heat or cold on the surface were only symp- 
toms. If the surface was hot, the circulation of the system was active ; if 
cold, the reverse was true. 

There was communication from the horn to the nares, or nostril, and any 
pus in the horn would, of course, run down through the nostril instead of 
upwards into the horns ! 

Sometimes this might become tenacious, so as to stop the passage. Then 
it was requisite to steam the nostril to make it run down. By penetrating 
the living membrane, or by admitting the atmospheric air by boring, inflam- 
mation was apt to ensue. 

He maintained there was no such disease as " horn ail." Has examined 
animals said to die of horn ail. Has found a softening of the brain. And 
this arises often from an improper condition of the stomach. Many diseases 
of the brain originate in the stomach. 

He has some fine anatomical preparations of horns which he invites people 
to examine. There is a perfect channel to the tip of every horn. There are 
longitudinal divisions of the horn, and if, in boring, the gimlet hits one of 
the partitions, it appears to be solid. If it chances to go between two of these 
partitions, it would appear to be hollow. 

The cold horn is really only a circumstance indicative of the state of cir- 
culation in the system. 

He was called to see a cow that had been driven ninety miles. Some of 
the neighbors guessed she was constipated, and gave her a poimd of salt per 
day for three days in succession. No eflfect was produced, and another ad- 
vised thirty-six drops of Croton oil. A third caused a quarter of a pound of 
gunpowder to be given. If some matches had been given with the gun- 
powder it might have been heard from 1 
^ He found the cow groaning, and recommended ending her misery at once 
by killing. This the owner would not do. The cow died in a few hours, 
and he found all these nostrums in her paunch. 

Now if medicine be turned down a cow's throat very slowly, almost im- 
perceptibly, the animal has the power to send it, and will send it, to the real 
digesting stomach. It must be poured very slowly to get to this second 
stomach, otherwise it goes into the paunch where it can do no good. The 
stomach of the horse is quite dififerent. 

It requires skill and science to prescribe properly for a dog or a horse as 
well as for a man. 

Many die of flatulent and spasmodic cholic. The intestines appear as if 
knotted up. Without knowledge this cannot be cured. The seat of the 
disease is in the nervous system. There are two sets of fibres in the intestine. 



542 CHLOROFORM FOR ANIMALS. 

the lorgitudinal and the circular. The contraction of these makes a me- 
chanical obstruction, presenting this knotted appearance, and leaving the pas- 
sage hardly as large as a goose-quill. 

He contends that animals perspire as we do — that a great deal of matter 
passes off by the "insensible perspiration." Hence we should rub them to 
promote circulation on the surface and prevent congestion. 

Kindness to cows is requisite. They do not return all the food from the 
ruminating stomach ; only the coarser parts. 

The Alderneys are very nervous. It annoys and injures them, especially, 
to be ill-treated. Indigestion is the result. 



BARBADOES TAR FOR HORSES. 

FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

Messrs. Editors : When I first tried my luck as a physician, I had in 
my possession a gallipot of Barbadoes tar, which I had purchased of the ex- 
ecutors of a deceased physician. They did not kuow what the article was, 
and I kept it a long time before I knew. The first use I made of it, was to 
apply it to my horse's tail, after pricking ; it relieved the soreness to the ex- 
tent, the tail might be turned over the back, and the horse would not move, 
which was an indication that the movement of the tail was not painful. 

It may not be known to every one, that Barbadoes tar, or rack oil, is the 
principal ingredient in British oil, and oil spike. The oil from Seneca 
Lake, N. Y., is an inferior article. In preparing this ingredient for use, I 
melt the tar with an equal quantity of lard, mixed well. 

Any person who will make a trial of the above, will derive a benefit. The 
flesh of the horse is of a dry, inflammatory nature, and it is difficult to pro- 
mote a discharge of pus ; and this article will promote this discharge more 
eflectually than any other article known to me. When this point is attained, 
the inflammation will cease, and the cure is much facilitated. 

A. HUNTON. 

Hyde Park, Vt, Feb. 11, 1855. 



CHLOROFORM FOR ANIMALS. 

Dr. Jacksox, of Boston, the first discoverer of the value of ether in sur- 
gical operations, commends the use of a mixture of ether and chloroform in 
operations on domestic animals. This mixture may be conveniently inhaled 
by the animal, by wetting a sponge with it, and placing it on a basket or 
muzzle, to be attached to the head, in the same manner as teamsters often 
feed their horses with provender. The sponge should first be saturated with 
water, squeezed dry, and then the mixture, one part of chloroform, and four 
parts of ether, mixed in a bottle, may be poured upon the sponge as required, 
supplying it anew as it evaporates. 

This mixture Dr. J. regards as a safer application than ether alone. He 
has never known a fatal accident from its use, where it was inhaled in con- 
nection with atmospheric air. The latter is necessary in inspiration to sus- 
tain the functions of life. Animals which perspire freely will bear strong 
doses, while it should be given very cautiously to cats, dogs, etc. The Dr. 
commends its use in shoeing refractory horses. 



VALUABLE STATISTICS. 



643 



VALUABLE STATISTICS. 

We select the following useful tables from the volume recently prepared 
by Mr. De Bow, from the census returns. The title of each table explains 
its special design. We shall probably have occasion to refer to them here- 
after. 

Land actually cultivated m the several Crops of the U. States, 1849-50. 



Products. 



Indian Corn 

Meadow or pasture lands — that pro- 
portioQ which is regarded improv- 
ed, and exelusiTe of Ilay croj; 

Hay 

Wheat 

Oats 

Cotton 

Rye 

Peas and Beans 

Irish Potatoes 

Sweet Potatoes 

Buckwheat 



Acres. 



31,000,000 



20,000,000 

13,01)0 000 

11,000 000 

7,500,000 

5,000,OOU 

1,200,000 

1,000,001 

l,0OU,UOi 

750,000 

600,000 



Products. 



Tobacco 

Sugar 

Barley 

Rice 

Hemp 

Flax 

Orchards 

Gardens 

Vineyards 

Other products 

Improved but not in actual cuUiva'n 

Total improved lands 



Acres. 



400,000 
400,000 
30n,000 
175,000 
110,000 
100,000 
500,000 
500,000 
250,000 
1,000,000 
17,2i7,614 



113,032,614 



Imports of several leading articles into the U. States, 1821-1853. 



1821 
18-25 
1830 
1835 
1S40 
1845 
1850 
1851 
3S52 
1853 



Cotton 
manufac- 
tures. 



i7 ,589,711 
12,509,516 

7,81.2,326 
15,307,585 

6,504,484 
13,863,2S-.i 
211,103,719 
22,161,442 
19,689,496 
27,731,313 



Woollens. 



Linen 
manufac- 
tures. 



Silk manu- 
factures. 



$7,437,737 
11,392,264 

5,766,39b 
17,834,424 

9,071,184 
10,666.176 
17,151,509 
19,507,309 
17,673,694 
27,621,911 



$2,564,159 
3,887,787 
3,011,280 
6,472,021 
4,614,466 
4,923,109 
8,134,674 
8,79i,742 
8,515,709 

10,236,037 



Coffee. 



.■§4,480,9241 

10,290,7431 

5.932,242 

16,677,547 

9,H35,7.J7 

9 928,411 

19,.596,858 

28,026,268 

23,6U9,279 

33,048,542 



Tea. 



ic . ji Iron and 
iSP-^if ^'"^ steel man- 
^'^"'°«- ulactures. 



$4,489,970 
5,260,82^ 
4,227,021 
10.715,466 
8,546,222 
6,243,5;i2 
11,234,835 
12,851,070 
14,474,900 
15,564,590 



$3,553,895 
4,232,602 
4,630,922 
6,806,425 
5,; 8 1,428 
4,780,720 
7,5.58,554 
13 845,940 
14,718,359 
14,993,003 



51,322.6.36 
3,728.9.35 
2,425,018 
4,-522,806 
5,427,010 
5,761,788] 
4,719,232| 
4,798,005: 
7,285,817i 
8.224,853! 



$8,064,990 
0,1.50,765 
8,155,964 

13,131,44" 
8 882,813 
4,070,242 
4,028 972 
5,4.53,592 
5,505,044 
4,201,382 



$1,868,529 
3,706416 
3,655,848 
5,351,610 
3,184,900 
5077,788 
7,078,603 
8,182,438 
8,048,618 
7,838,791 



Exports of certain leading articles from the U. States, 1821-1853. 



«• 


1 












Beef and 




Cotton. 


Tobacco. 


Specie. 


Rice. 


Flour. 


Fish Man^'^c- 
*'^'^- tures- 


Lumber. 


pork, cat- 
tle & hogs. 


1821 


$20157,484 
36,846.649 


$5,648,962 


$10478,059 


11.494,307 


«4,298,043 


$973,591 


«2,584,916 


$1,822,077 


$2,052,439 


1825 


6,115,6-23 


8,797,055 


1,925,245 


4,212,127 


1,078,773 


5,417,978 


1,988,2-20 


2,763,144 


183(1 


29,674,683 
64,961,302 


5,586,365 


2,178,773 


1,980,8-24 


6,085,953 


756,677 


5,320,980 


2,056,289 


2,032,928 


1835 


8,250,.577 


6,477,775 


2.210,331 


4,894,777 


1,008,534 


7,':94,07;) 


3,402,9-24 


2,415,493 


1840 


63,870,307 


9,883,957 


8,417,014 


1,942,076 


10.143.615 


720,164 


9,873,462 


2.926,846 




1845 


51,739 643 


7,469819 


8,606,495 


2,160,4.56 


5,39.8,593 


1,012,007 


10,329,701 


3,099,455 


4,918,093 


185(t 


71,984,616 


9,951,023 


7,522,994 


2,631,5.57 


7,098,57(1 


456,794 


9,99-2,-! 44 


4,493,658 


9.155,895 


1851 


1i2,:h15,317 


9,219,251 


29,472,752 


2,1709-27 


10.524,331 


481,66 


21,296,49b 


4,6H0,206 


6,057,973 


185'' 


87,955,73-2 


10,031,283 


42,674,115 


2,470,029 


11,869,143 


453,010 


19,987,430 


4,991,184 


5,265,699 


1853 


1,09456,404 


11,319,319 


27,486,875 


1,657,656 


14,783,394 


461,016 


22,721,660 


4,996,014 


8,416,878 



544 



BOUND-HOOFS. 



Commerce of (he U. States loith several Foreign JVations, 1790-1853, 



1790 

1795 
1800 
1805 
1810 
18-21 
1830 
18-10 
1850 
1853 



Great BritaiB and de- 
pendencieB. 



Imports. Exuorts, 



30,972,215 

4-2,577,590 



29,277.938 
26,804,984 
39,I30.9'2I 
85,117,477 
113,219,200 



9,246,5fi2 
9,218,540 
27.310,289 
2.5,047,3ri6 
10,555,488 
20,522,-272 
31,ij47,881 
70,420,846 
88,388,675 
145.553,624 



France and depen- 
dencies. 



Imports. Exports, 



20.288. 
9,044, 



5 900 
8,240 
17,908. 
27,036, 
33,525 



West Indies 
generally. 



Netherlands and 
dependencies, 



Imps. Exp'ts. Imports. Export.* 



4,668.902 
12,653.635' 85,186 

5,163 833, 26,937 
21. 072.7471 
137,630 

6.474.718 
11.806,238 
22,.349,154 
20,183,094 
27,044,479 



3.727 



9,417 



l,.543 348i 3,699,615 

115.631 7,132,6-2' 
.3496 947 

369,931 

560,513 

247,121 



PT,934 
98,125 



2,934.272 
1 3i6.765 
2.3-26 896 
2,732,561) 
2594,619 



47,240 
2,884,817 
5,669,016 
17,835,216 
174,078 
7.6,-8.336 
4,562,437 
4.540.085 
357 1.607 
2,979,332 



Hanse Tovnis. 



Imports. Exports 



1.663 
4,998 



990, 
1 873 
2,521, 

8,7h7, 
13,843 




1790 
1795 
1800 
1805 
1810 
1821 
1830 



Russia. 



China. 



Imports. Exports. Imports. Exports 



1,168,715 
1,524,995 



1,852,199 

1.621,8991 
1840 2,.')72,427!l, 
1850] 1.51 1.5721 
18531,278,5012. 



66,221' 

71,372' 
975.698: 
628 894 
416,575 
,169,481 
861,941 
,456,653 



1,144, 
4,613, 



3,111 

3.878 
6,640 
6,593 
10,573 



1031,023,242 

463|l. 047,385 

322.075 

319.479 

4,290,560 

742,193 

1,009,968 

1,605.217 

3,736,892 



Spain and depen- 
dencies. 



Imports. Exports 



3,942,445 
16,071,918 



9,653,728 
8.373,681 
14,019.647 
15,864,748 
26,030,320 



1,989. 
4,714. 

15.660. 

12,672, 

14,941. 
7,218 
6 049, 
7,017, 
9,931, 

11,847. 



Mexico. 



Imports. Exports 



.,235,241 
,175,001 
',135,366 
1,167,9,-5 



4.a37,4,-8 
•2,515,.341 
2,0I2,R27 
3,558,824 



Colombia, C. Amer- 
ica, Brazil, Argen- 
tine, Conf. and Chili. 



Imports. Exports. 



5,528 856 
9,093,688 
16,553,496 
23,280,079 



4,756,347 

5,891,478 
8,12.i,H25 
8,577,131 



HOOF-BOUND. 

Dr. Dadd gives the following directions for this disease: "In all cases, 
we must endeavor to give the frog a bearing on the ground ; and, in order 
to do this, the shoe ought to be renooved. A dry, brittle, and contracted 
hoof may be improved by repeated poulticing with soft-soap and rye-meal, 
applied cold. So soon as the hoof softens, let it be dressed, night and morn- 
ing, with turpentine, linseed oil, and powdered charcoal, equal parts. Yet, 
after all, a run of grass in a soft pasture, the animal having nothing more 
than tips on his feet, is the best treatment, A very popular notion exists, 
that cow manure has a wonderful effect on a contracted hoof; but it is the 
candid opinion of the author, and no doubt the reader will coincide, that filth 
and dirt of every kind are unfavorable to healthy action. Such a remedy, 
aside from its objection on the score of decency, savors too much of by-gone 
days, when live eels were sent on an errand down horses' throats to unravel 
their intestines. If any benefit belongs to such an objectionable application, 
it is due to the property it possesses of retaining moisture ; therefore, cold poul- 
ti3e3 and water are far superior. Clay and moist earth, placed in the stall 
for the horse to stand on, are far inferior to stuffing of wet oakum, which can 
be removed at pleasure. In order to keep it in contact with the sole, we have 
only to insinuate two strips of wood between the sole and shoe ; one running 
lengthwise and the other crosswise of the foot. It affords considerable pres- 
sure to the foot, is cooling and cleanly, and is far superior to the above 
articles." 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 545 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN 

ERASTUS BRIGHAM BIGELOW. 

The subject of this notice was born April 2cl, 1814, in West Boylston, a 
small town of Massacliusetts, seven miles north of Worcester. His father 
had a little farm, to the toils of which he added, with Yankee versatility, the 
business of a wheelwright and that of a chair-maker. The boy was sent, of 
course, to the district school. At the age of eight he asked his master to 
put him into arithmetic and writing, but he was pronounced too young for 
these high branches. He was not, however, to be headed off so. He took 
up Pike's Arithmetic at home, performed, unassisted, every question as far as 
the Rule of Three, and made a fair record of the whole. Who does not see 
in this a promising outset? 

But his school and his arithmetic engrossed only a fraction of his time. 
His boyish activities showed early a mechanical tendency. With minute 
fence of regular post and rail he inclosed a few yards of ground. This was 
?us little farm. There might be seen a plough, a cart, a wagon complete in 
every part, with other implements of husbandry, all of his own making, and 
of a size to match. His live stock was a litter of kittens. To carry out his 
idea, he must set them to work : a yoke was made, and two of these small 
steers were attached to the cart. Finding that they insisted on pulling back- 
ward, he turned their heads toward the cart. The wheels now went forward, 
but the team could not be guided ; the experiment consequently failed. 

Not content with being a farmer and a wheelwright, he went into the 
chair line. Having made a chair-back, he so finiiied it with paint and bronze 
and gold, that folks looked on with wonder, and predicted that the boy was 
destined to become a great painter. 

He contrived to get a violin, and it was not long before he could execute 
with facility the then popular airs of " Bounding Billows," and " Away with 
Melancholy." This was a new phase. His career, evidently, was to be a 
musical one. Kind neighbors even suggested that he might hope ere long- 
to find high and profitable employment in the orchestra of the Boston Mu- 
seum, consisting at that time, if we remember rightly, of a fiddle and a hand- 
organ. 

John Temple, a neighbor of Mr. Bigelow, was a substantial farmer. He 
had noticed the lad's capacity, and sometimes jokingly asked him to come 
and live with him, and learn his occupation. Erastus regarded this proposi- 
tion as a business matter. With him, an offer was an offer. Accordingly, 
one Monday morning in early spring, this boy of ten years presented himself 
at Mr. Temple's door and demanded employment. It was given him, with 
no expectation that he would continue through the day. He worked on, 
however, and at the end of the week suggested to Mr. T. that it would be 
proper to come to some understanding in regard to wages. On being asked 
his terms, he offered to work six months on condition of receiving at the 
dose, a cosset lamb called "Dolly," to which he had taken a strong liking. 
The moderate demand was of course acceeded to. But scarcely had a month 
elapsed ere a difficulty arose. Dolly could not live without eating, and how 
was he to provide for her ? His fellow laborers discovered the cause of his 
anxiety, and teasingly aggravated it. At length he proposed and effected 



546 BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 

an alteration in the contract. He relinquished his claim to Dolly, and Mr. 
T. acjreed to furnish, instead, a pair of cow-hide boots, and sheepVgray cloth 
sufficient for a suit of clothes. The agreement was fully carried out on both 
sides. At the close ol" the period, an offer of four dollars a month for the 
ensuing summer was made and accepted. The kind-hearted man, at parting, 
gave the young farmer a silver dollar. 

During the next two years he continued to work for Mr. Temple in the 
summer, and to attend school in winter. The farmer urged him to stay till 
he should be of age, and he offered to do so if, at the close of the term, he 
could receive in compensation a small outlying farm belonging to his em- 
ployer. Fortunately, this offer was declined. It was an escape not unlike 
that of Daniel Webster from the clerkship of the county court. 

In 1827, Mr. Bigelow removed to another part of the town, and engaged 
in the manufacture of cotton yarn. Erastus was set to work in the mill. So 
long as he found anything to study in the machinery and its working, he 
was interested ; the occupation then became distasteful. While employed 
in this drudgery of tending spindles, he was busy in framing plans for the 
future. Ilis grand desire was to obtain a liberal education. As his parents, 
from their limited circumstances, could not encourage him in this, he began 
to consider in what way he might accomplish the object himself. He already 
knew how to earn and to save. He had not only clothed himself by his toil, 
but to his first silver dollar had added several more. Like Goldsmith, he now 
turned his musical talents to account. In a community where critical con- 
noisseurship was unknown, he passed for an accomplished performer. At all 
balls and dancing parties for many miles around his services were in request. 
After a long day of spinning, how tedious must have been a whole night of 
fiddling! Often, doubtless, his eyelids grew heavy and his arm a-weary. 
Who can think of the motive which nerved that arm, without respect for the 
young violinist ? 

x\bout this time he made his first invention. It was a hand-loom for 
weaving suspender webbing. It accomplished the object ; but as the busi- 
ness would not justify the employment of an^operative, he abandoned it, after 
realizing from it a few dollars. His next invention was of more importance. 
A ball of cotton cord, known in the market by the name of " piping cord," 
had been brought into the house for domestic use. On examination, he 
found it to be of yarn hke that which he was spinning every day. On in- 
quiry, he learned that it was made by hand, in the ordinary rope-walk. He 
was sure that it could be formed more expeditiously and cheaply by auto- 
matic machinery. In a few weeks he had matured the plan of a machine, 
and within two months he had it in successful operation. It worked well — 
earning for the youthful inventor In the course of a year about one hundred 
dollars. At length the article fell greatly in price, and the working of the 
machinery was abandoned. 

These first developments of a peculiar genius were evidently called forth 
by his burning desire for an education. They were temporary expedients to 
enable him to pay his way. It should not be foigotten that they were the 
achievements of a lad only fourteen years of age. Having now by his in- 
dustry and ingenuity acquired a small fund, he obtained parental consent to 
attend a neighboring academy, at his own expense. This was in 1830. 
Here he entered on the study of Latin. His teacher was pleased, and wrote 
to the father, recommending a collegiate course for the boy. ]3ut to the 
cautious parent, a trade seemed safer and better. As the son preferred not 
to engage again in the dull employment of the spinning mill, the matter was 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 547 

compromised, aad he was told that he might go to Boston and become a com- 
mission merchant, if he could. 

To Boston accordingly he went. He carried no letters — knew no one. 
After a few inquiries from door to door, he found employment in the whole- 
sale and retail dry-goods establishment of S. F. Morse & Co. The firm was 
highly respectable, and the place was deemed a good one. But the charm 
of novelty was soon over, and then the occupation of measuring and selling 
ribbons and calicoes seemed petty and monotonous. He felt, he knew, that 
he was made for something beyond that. The idea of a college course still 
haunted him. On one occasion he walked out to Cambridge, and had a talk 
with President Quincy. It only served to show that there was no chance yet 
for him. 

About this time a teacher of stenography came to Boston and gave les- 
sons in the art. He drew much attention and formed Urge classes. Our 
young clerk shared in the general interest, but the cost of a course (ten dol- 
lars,) was beyond his means. So he got some books and taught himself. 
He was surprised to find the art so simple, In a few days he could write 
with ease in short-hand. A new thought struck him. If he could learn 
stenography in this way so quickly and easily, why should not others — why 
should not many avail themselves of the useful, labor-saving process ? The 
rareness of the acquirement must be owing to the expense. He would ob- 
viate that. He would write a book on short-hand, illustrated by plates, and 
filled with rules and examples. Energetic and industrious — to resolve, with 
him, was to act. In a short time his work — " The self-taught Stenographer" 
— was ready for the press. To prosecute this new enterprise, he relinquished 
his post behind the counter, much to the regret of his parents, who naturally 
questioned the expediency of the step, and to that of his employers, too, 
whom he had fully satisfied. 

Having printed a small edition of his work he became his own bookseller, 
and in ten days sold seventy-five dollars' worth in Boston alone. This greatly 
encouraged him. Forgetting that Boston was peculiar and prepared ground, 
he regarded his sales there as an exponent of the national demand, and im- 
mediately ordered a large impression of the work. To meet the extensive 
business now opening upon him he took a partner, a medical student, who 
was anxious to see a little of the world before he settled down as a profes- 
sional drudge. The young doctor was to pay the entire cost of printing, to 
share equally in the labor and expense of distribution and sale, and to re- 
ceive one-half of the profits. These hopeful adventurers set out at once upon 
their commercial travels. They visited the most inviting portions of New- 
England, New-York, New-Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Here the cholera, 
then on its first terrible march through America, put a stop to their journey- 
ings. They went home, having made about a hundred dollars. Four hun- 
dred dollars were still due the printer, a large part of the edition was yet on 
hand, and all the best ground had been canvassed. It looked decidedly 
dark. Young Bigelosv without hesitation released his discouraged partner 
from the pecuniary obligation. 

Behold him now at the age of eighteen. His little educational fund has 
vanished, all his schemes have failed, and he is four hundred dollars in debt. 
His father, in the meantime, had been extending and diversifying his busi- 
ness. He had formed a partnership with the celebrated " John Smith," and 
a new mill had been erected for their operations. As the old mill now stood 
idle, Erastus thought that he might turn it to some account. In this project 
he found a person willing to join him. John Munroe was the name of h.h 



548 BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 



second associate. Their business was the manufacture of twine. It was be- 
ginning to be moderately successful, when a disagreement between Smith and 
his partner put a stop to the operations of the younger firm. 

Bigelow & Munroe then undertook to run a cotton factory in Wareham, 
a place in the eastern part of Massachusetts. At the end of nine months 
this arrangement terminated in a loss. As author and as manufacturer, he 
was now obligated to the extent of fourteen hundred dollars. In Massachu- 
setts his way seemed completely hedged up. But Massachusetts is not the 
only place in the world. Soon after this we find our hero in the city of New- 
York, taking lessons in penmanship of the renowned Professor Bristow. 
His improvement astonishes even himself. A dozen exercises have trans- 
formed a poor writer into an accomphshed penman. Then, for some time, he 
supported himself by teaching the art. Newark, and several other large 
towns in New-Jei-sey and on the North River, enjoyed the benefit of his in- 
structions. He was not the person to be content with such a life. Indeed, 
he soon became deeply dissatisfied with that and with himself. An import- 
ant period of his existence was passing away in desultory and unprofitable 
efforts. He was conscious of powers that needed discipline only to insure 
him success. His literary aspirations returned in full force. But, alas ! what 
could he do ' 

In this state of mind he returned home. His parents received him kindly, 
but could not suppress their anxiety concerning his future. In that humble 
family council many plans were started and rejected. At length, with unan- 
imous approval, the youth resolves to become a physician. After a winter 
passed in classical studies at Leicester Academy, he entered his name as a 
student in medicine. This study he prosecuted with diligence for more than 
a year, being much interested in the science, but constantly annoyed by a 
sense of his imperfect literary preparation. Even then, could he but find the 
means, he would go back, to start anew and aright. Again the stimulus 
of this early and strong desire put him on the look-out for some source of 
pecuniary gain. With his mind in this state, he happened, while on a visit, 
to sleep under a knotted or Marseilles quilt. Years before he had seen sim- 
ilar fabrics woven by the slow and costly process of the hand-loom. Why — 
lie now asked himself — could not a power-loom be made to weave them ? It 
was not until a year afterwards that he set himself in earnest to solve this 
problem. Having suspended, for a time, his medical studies, he matured the 
plan of a loom. With some pecuniary aid he was enabled to construct the 
machine, which worked to the satisfaction of all. 

But to prosecute the enterprise, capital must be had. In quest of this he 
went to Boston. A sample of the fabric was shown to Messrs, Freeman, 
Cobb & Co., who were large importers of the article. Satisfied that it must 
succeed, they entered at once into an agreement, contracting to pay ail ex- 
penses thus far incurred, to be at the cost of patents for this country and for 
England, and to erect and furnish a mill that should meet all probable de- 
mands of the market. In consideration of this contribution, the inventor 
was to receive, free of expense to himself, one-quarter of the profits. A 
brighter day had, at length dawned on the struggling youth. He had 
reached the position so long sought. He could now secure a thorough edu- 
cation. Accordingly he renewed his studies under the care of a clergyman, 
who was in the habit of fitting young men for college. Must we state tha; 
even this fair prospect was soon clouded ? Freeman, Cobb & Co. failed in 
business. The period was one of commercial depression, and was, therefore, 
no time to raise capital for new enterprises. To increase his embarrassments, 



BIOGRAP'bY OF EMINENT MEN. 549 



his father had been unsuccessful in bis affairs, and was now in declining 
health. His own position and his sense of filial duty, left him no alternative. 
The sternly-exacting present must be provided for. Postponing to an indefi- 
nite future his half-realized schemes and hopes, he once more relinquished his 
classical studies. 

While, to meet the exigency, he was earnestly considering the question of 
" ways and means," an incident of travel recurred to his memory. In his 
stenographic journeying he had accidentally witnessed the process of weav- 
ino- coach-lace. At the time, he had felt no interest in the matter — had 
taken no note of the details. He only remembered that hand-looms were 
employed. With this recollection, the idea of a power-loom immediately 
presented itself. Two days' study convinced him that the thing could be 
done. But another point must also be settled : would it pay 1 He was 
wholly unacquainted with the character and extent of the coach-lace business. 
Hiring of a neighboring farmer his work-horse and old yellow-bodied chaise, 
he starts, with characteristic promptness, on a tour of inquiry. The carriage 
makers of Worcester, Grafton, Framingham, Medway, and Dedham, were 
successively visited and interrogated. The result was a general reference to 
Messrs. Fairbanks, Loring & Co., of Boston, venders of the article, with whom 
these mechanics all dealt. Into Boston accordingly went the yellow chaise. 
Messrs. Fairbanks & Co. settled every doubt. A coach-lace power-lpom. they 
said, would certainly do well ; but the thing had been often considered by 
the principal lace-makers, and pronounced an impossibility. They expressed 
a wish to join with him in case of his succeeding — though, as they afterwards 
confessed, without the slightest faith in the project. 

Mr. Bigelow went home, and with no other guide or help than a piece of 
coach-lace set himself to the accompHshment of a task, which, up to that 
time had been deemed impossible. Spurred on by necessity, and encouraged 
by a confident hope of success, his mind became intensely active. To others, 
indeed, he seemed to have grown suddenly stupid. When spoken to, he 
appeared to listen, and yet showed by his silence or inapposite reply, that he 
had not understood a word. One evening he was asked to show a visitor the 
way out. To the surprise of the latter, he took an unlighted candle, marched 
silently before him through a long, dark entry, and gravely bowed him from 
the door. During this period of mental abstraction, he took no note of 
time. He sat in the family circle with as little share in the conversation as 
if he had been deaf and dumb. All hints about bed-time were thrown away 
upon him, and the unmoved candle-stick, whose taper had expired m its 
socket, usually showed in the morning that he must have gone oflF to his rest, 
at some late hour, in the dark. 

The fruits of this extraordinary application soon appeared. Within six 
weeks from the time of its first conception, he had a power-loom in success- 
ful operation. Let any one examine this beautiful and complicate piece of 
mechanism, in which iron seems to act hke an intelligence, and exhibits a 
dexterity which human fingers scarcely surpass. Let him consider that this 
machine involved all the essential principles of a far more important one — 
the Brussels carpet loom; that the inventor was a young man not twenty- 
three years old, who had never even looked into a treatise on mechanics ; 
and finally, that all this was accomplished in the brief space of forty days ; 
and he will, at least, allow that the history of useful art exhibits few such 
instances of mental and executive eflSciency. 

Thus far we have traced, with some particularity, the ardent aspirings, the 
varied etforts, the successive struggles and disappointments of a poor but 



550 BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 



persevering j'outh. It shows what may be accomplished by high aims, a 
fixed purpose, and resolute industry. It will appeal to the warm sympa- 
thies of those who love to contemplate the development of mind and char- 
acter under a discipHne of hardship. We have followed a rivulet from its 
mountain spring. Obstacle after obstacle has opposed its progress. But 
above, or round, or through them all, it has still forced its way. In one 
bright flash it has just leaped over the last wall of rock. It becomes a deep, 
broad river : its banks widen out and wave with fertihty. But we must not 
be disappointed, if we miss, henceforth, the picturesqueness of its upper 
course. 

The complete success of the coach-lace loom brought the inventor at once 
into notice. Fairbanks, Loring & Co., of Boston, John Wright, of Worces- 
ter, Israel Langley, of Shirley, together with the inventor and his brother 
Horatio, united for the purpose of building and running the looms. This 
association afterwards became the "Clinton Company." Mr. B. was now in a 
condition to carry out his early and long-cherished, though often frustrated 
wish in regard to education. But the time for that scheme had, he felt, 
gone by. He had become better acquainted with the nature and measure 
of his own capacities. He saw opening before him a career of activity, suc- 
cess, and usefulness. To this, accordingly, he resolved to devote his future 
life. 

Soon after the Clinton Company began its operations in Lancaster, the 
affairs of Freeman, Cobb & Co., had becorne so far adjusted as to liberate 
from its legal embarrassment the counterpane loom. One of the firm im- 
mediately contracted with the inventor on terms highly favorable to the 
latter, for a number of the looms. But Mr. Bigelow happening soon after to 
be in New- York, saw there a new and different species of counterpane then 
just introduced from England. An examination of this fabric convinced him 
not only that it would be more marketable than the knotted counterpane, 
but that it could be made at less cost. With a disinterestedness hardly less 
rare than his ingenuity, he advised Mr. Roberts to give up the contract, and 
thus ]^j aside entirely the very curious and perfectly successful loom already 
made. He at the same time agreed to invent a power loom for weaving this 
new fabric. Within six months from that time he had such a loom in suc- 
cessful operation. A small mill in Lancaster was filled with the machinery, 
and the business, steadily prosperous, has remunerated the inventor, and en- 
riched, others. 

After starting the coach-lace and counterpane establishments, Mr. Bigelow 
took up the question of weaving the ingrain or Kidderminster carpet by 
means of power-looms. It was no easy matter to produce a fabric in which 
the figures should match, which should have a smooth, even face and perfect 
selvedge, and do this with a rapidity so much beyond that of the hand- 
loom as to make it an object. The hand-loom weaver can, to some extent, 
meet these conditions by the exercise of his judgment. If the shuttle has 
not fully done its work, he can give the weft-thread a pull with his fingers. 
If, on measuring, he finds that the figure is getting to be too long, or too 
short, he remedies the fault by putting either more or less force to the lathe, 
as he beats up. If he perceives that the surface of the cloth is becoming- 
rough, he regulates the tension of the warps. By the exercise of constant 
vigilance, skill, and judgment, he can cq^proxhnate to the production of a 
complete and regular fabric. But how shall these properties be imparted to 
inert matter ? How shall iron be taught to observe, to judge, and to vary its 
action with such modifications as the case may require ? 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 561 



To the achievemeut of this seeming impracticability our iuveutor now 
addressed his extraordiuary powers of analysis and concentration. A short 
study assured him that the idea was feasible. On the strength of this con- 
viction — before he had made a model or even complete drawings of the ma- 
cliine — he entered into a written contract with a company in Lowell, to 
furnish them with power-looms for making ingrain carpets. His first loom 
for two-ply carpets was set up within a year. In the matching of its figures, 
in evenness of surface, and in the regularity of its selvedges, its product far 
surpassed that of any hand-loom. Its average daily work was from ten to 
twelve yards ; that of the hand-loom is about eight yards. 

He must, he could, do better than that. A second loom, with various 
modifications and improvements was ere long produced. By this the daily 
product was raised to eighteen yards. Still he was not satisfied. A third 
machine, with essential variations, at length appeared. This loom made, 
with perfect ease, from twenty-five to twenty-seven yards a day. The others, 
of course, like his first counterpane loom, were thrown aside. This loom 
was started in the summer of 1841. In the autumn he went to England. 
During this short visit the manufactures of that country naturally drew his 
special regard. He at once saw that, in some important particulars, the 
English manufactures were in advance of ours. His opinion to this effect, 
frankly expressed on his return to Lowell, was received at first with mur- 
murs of surprise and incredulity. It was not long, however, before the 
practical adoption of his suggestions showed that they had taken full eftect. 
In 1842 the several manufacturing corporations of Lowell paid a deserved 
tribute to Mr. Bigelow's knowledge and skill, by creating a new office, with 
a liberal salary, and appointing him to fill it. His duties were to make im- 
provements and suggestions, and, generally, to advise and consult with the 
agents of the respective companies. In this capacity he brought forward 
some important improvements, which were adopted by all the cotton mills of 
Lowell. Finding his new office too general in its character and duties to give 
results satisfactory to himself, he resigned at the end of eighteen months, and 
with his retirement the office itself expired. During this period he built, 
for the Lowell Company, a mill to receive his power-looms ; and thus started 
the first successful power-loom carpet fiictory recorded in the annals of manu- 
facture. 

Before quitting his post at Lowell, Mr. Bigelow had projected a new manu- 
iiicturing establishment at Lancaster for the weaving of ginghams. A com- 
pany was formed ; the required capital was promptly subscribed, and the 
projector was charged with the execution of the design. At the same time 
the Lowell Company resolved to build a large mill for the reception of their 
carpet power-looms, and Mr. Bigelow was commissioned to design and erect 
it. Both of these mills are of vast size, and in character perfectly unique. 
The one last named, with its two hundred iron looms, is, in fact, a grand 
carpet machine — the mill and its furniture being so combined, adjusted, and 
adapted, as to produce the most harmonious action and the highest results. 
The Lancaster mill is even more remarkable. Its connected structures, cover- 
ing more than four acres of ground, are filled with machinery and apparatus 
of the most perfect character, much of which was invented or adapted, and 
all of which was arranged and adjusted by Mr. Bigelow. Of this mill, the 
editor of the Merchants'' Magazine says : "It is deservedly rated as the most 
perfect establishment in the United States." Of the dye-house connected 
with it, he speaks as " probably the most perfect in the world ;" adding, 
" that the entire arrangement is of the most perfect description, and in its 



552 BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT AIEX. 

■ ^ _— 

vast completeness stands a splendid monument to the genius and masterly 
power of the mind of its projector." These immense structures, with their 
numerous and various and complicated machines, many of which were new. 
and nearly all of which were newly modified or adjusted, were carried on 
simultaneously — the working plans for the buildings and the machinery beini;; 
furnished as fast as the work advanced. These plans, once matured and put 
into the hands of the workmen, were scarcely in a single instance changed ; 
and the loss in this way was exceedingly small — a striking proof of Mr. 
Bigelow's business talent, his constructive abilities, and far-reaching mental 
vision. Contemporaneously with these labors, he superintended important 
enlargements of the Counterpane Works, and of those belonging to the 
Coach-lace Company. Nor was this all. During the three years thus occu- 
pied, he made nine distinct, important, and patented inventions. It would 
have been strange if, under a mental pressure so constant and intense, hi.s 
health had not given way. Justly alarmed, at length, he fled from the toil 
and care which would soon have ended all. A voyage to Europe, with his 
family, and a continental journey, completely restored him. 

On his return in 1848, he proceeded to develop and complete the Brussels 
Carpet Loom. The basis of this machine was indeed contained in the loom 
for coach-lace. But farther invention was needed to adapt it to the weaving 
of wider fabrics, to the making of figures that match, and to the formation 
of velvet-pile. This was fully accomplished. His power-looms weave rapidly 
and perfectly the Brussels and the Wilton, the tapestry and velvet tapestry 
carpets. They are competent, in fact, to every kind of looped and velvet-pik- 
fabric known in the market. 

In September, 1851, Mr. Bigelow took with him to England specimens of 
his Brussels carpet. Their appearance at the E.vhibition, though late, drew 
much attention, and largely increased the favor with which the British public 
had already begun to look on the so long despised American Department. 
The juries having then closed their labors, no prize could be awarded to these 
fabrics. But in a supplement to the Report on Class XIX, we find the fol- 
lowing : 

" The specimens of Brussels carpeting exhibited by Mr. Bigelow are woven 
by a power-loom, invented and patented by him, and are better and more 
perfectly woven than any hand-loom goods that have come under the notice 
of the jury. This, however, is a very small part of their merit, or rather of 
that of Mr. Bigelow, who has completely triumphed over the numerous ob- 
stacles that presented themselves, and succeeded in substituting steam-power 
for manual labor in the manufacture of five-frame Brussels carpets. Several 
patents have been taken out by difterent inventors in this country for efiect- 
ing the same object ; but as yet none of them has been brought into suc- 
cessful or extensive operation, and the honor of this achievement — one of 
great practical difficulty, as well as of great commercial value, must be 
awarded to a native of the United States." 

The shrewd and practical manufacturers of England were quick to see and 
prompt to acknowledge the value of the new machinery. An arrangement 
Avas immediately made with Messrs. Crossly & Sons, for placing the looms in 
their immense carpet manufactory at Halifax. Subsequently these gentlemen 
purchased, and now hold, the patent-right for the United Kingdom. 

Previously to the introduction of Mr. Bigelow's inventions, power-looms 
had scarcely been used for anv but the plainest and simplest fabrics. These 
improvements cover the whole higher range of textile art. If we except 
such regal luxuries as the pictured tapestries of the Gobelins, there is no 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 65e 



complex, or useful, or beautiful texture produced by skill and patience in the 
band-loom, to wbicb bis macbinery bas not been, or may not be, adapted. 
As compared witb tbe plainer and more prosaic processes, tbis almost magi- 
cal mecbanism, and its results of endless and beautiful variety, may be called, 
not unaptly, tbe poetry of tbe loom. Witb sucb means at their command, 
and aided by tbe untiring arm of falling or of expanding water, our modern 
Penelopes are producing webs tbat rival tbe fabled labors of Aracbne, witb 
a rapidity which Pallas migbt bave envied. 

To appreciate the difficulties of tbis achievement, and tbe greatness of the 
success, one must keep in view the nature and demands of the weaving art. 
Eacb different fibre wbicb it uses bas its own peculiar properties, and whether 
it be cotton, or wool, or llax, or silk, tbe macbinery must be adapted to 
*bose pecuharities. The number of fabrics which differ essentially m their 
t-xture is almost countless. To these considerations must be added the 
constantly recurring changes in figure and in color required to meet a fickle 
taste and ever-varying demand. He must be a good arithmetician who can 
calculate tbe combinations required to produce by automatic machinery the 
numerous dissimilar fabrics which fill up tbe long interval between plain 
cloth and a Wilton carpet. More than all, perhaps, it deserves to be con- 
sidered, that a power-loom for weaving tissues of the higher class, must bave 
not only many and complex mechanical movements, but, to a certain extent, 
also the capacity of self-adaptation— an ability, in fact, to meet exigencies as 

they arise. . ^ e t 

The extent of Mr. Bigelow's contributions to inventive art has otten_ been 
misapprehended. Many think of him as the inventor of a single machine— 
the carpet power-loom— and suppose tbis to be all. It is a great mistake. 
The numerous and complex requirements of the textile art were not to be 
met bv a single invention. Accordingly, Mr. Bigelow has, in this connec- 
tion, twenty-two United States patents. Each of these is a distinct but ne- 
cessary part in a closely-connected series of improvements, by means of which, 
under appropriate modifications, every variety of fabric may be wrought by 
power-looms. i • i 

It is difficult, by mere description, to impart a clear idea ot mechanical 
movements. All that we shall here attempt will, we trust, be intel igible to 
any one who bas ever seen a loom in action. Tbe figure on coach lace is 
formed by raising on tbe surface of the ground-cloth, a pile similar to that 
of the Brussels carpet. It is made by looping the warps over fine wires 
wbicb are inserted under such of them as bave been selected by the Jacquarcl 
to form tbe fio-ure. These warps are then woven into the body of tbe cloth. 
The wires are°now withdrawn, to be reinserted. In tbe Bigelow loom this 
finger-work is executed by automatic pincers. There is something wonder- 
• fully cunning in tbe movement of these nippers. Seizing tbe end ot the 
wire, tbev draw it out from the loops, carry it back towards tbe lathe, thrust^ 
it into what is called tbe open shed, and there drop it. Tbe warp-threads, 
which had been drawn apart, are now closed, and immediately reopened tor 
the passage of the shuttle, which carries the woof to tie and bind the loops. 
The pincers having dropped their wire, return to take another. As it is ne- 
cessary to have a number of these wires, and as they lie close together, a 
difficulty arose. It was clearly impossible to make tbe pincers so narrow, 
and so exact in their discrimination, as to seize the proper wn-e, and not nio- 
'lestits neiffbbors. Tbis was avoided by a mechanical contrivance on the 
other side li the loom, which, just at the rigbt moment, gives a little push 
to iust tbe ricrbt wire, and thus puts it in just tbe rigbt place for the waiting 



554 BIOGRAPHY OP EMINENT MEN. 



pincers. The curious meclianism by which these little rods are withdrawn 
and replaced, must work, it is evident, in perfect harmony with that which 
forms the figure. 

The loom for Brussels and tapestry carpeting is the coach-lace loom full 
grown. Nothing short of actual inspection can give any just idea of its 
wonderful capacities and life-like action. Wires three feet or more in length 
are here inserted and withdrawn with a precision and quickness which no 
manual dexterity ever attained. Let us watch the operation. First, mark 
that intruding knife or wedge, which, as it rises, separates from its compan- 
ion the wire next to be taken, and guides the pusher, which shoves it along 
towards the pincers. The pincers now walk up, grasp the wire, and draw it 
entirely out. While this is doing, another set of nippers, hanging down 
like two human hands, come forward, descend, and catch the wire at the 
moment when the drawing pincers drop their prey. No sooner have they 
seized the wire than they retreat to their original position, beneath which a 
small, angular trough has just arrived. The fingers relax, and the wire 
drops into the trough, which immediately returns. Last of all, a triangular 
pusher rushing through the trough sends the rod into the open shed. Note, 
also, the double action of the withdrawing pincers, which, while they attend 
to their own special mission, perform, also, sergeant's duty, by constantly 
bringing into line the straggling wires. Those bird-like, three-fingered claws, 
which dart back and forth with such rapidity, are busy in plaiting the sel- 
vedge, and their work is perfect. These, too, are " contrived a double debt 
to'pay," for, whenever their thread breaks, they instantly stop the loom. In 
this loom, and that for coach-lace, the mechanical contrivance for weighting 
the warp-threads is the same, being one of the most ingenious, as well as 
most important, of Mr. Bigelow's improvements. 

What is this remarkable process which we call invention ? How does the 
brain act while devising its wonders of mechanic skill ? These are questions 
of interest to inquiring minds, and may well puzzle those to whom even the 
witnessed action of complicate mechanism is a mystery impenetrable. By 
some it is supposed to be a sort of hybrid process — a result in which chance 
and calculation are about equally concerned. Accident has, doubtless, at 
tinies, had something to do with'it. The slightest incident may start the 
tram of thought which shall lead to some great discovery or invention. 
But in that train of thought there is nothing random or accidental. The 
mathematical element must, of necessity, figure largely. Yet in the mental 
series it is not first in order, nor is it, in fact, more essential than another 
faculty seldom associated with our ideas of machinery. The great mechani- 
cal^ inventor is, perhaps, the only person who compels the Mathematics to 
wait upon the Imagination. This power, and this alone, can supply him 
with the means of accomplishing his purposes. For the effectual use of. 
these means he depends on the science of number and quantity. That this 
substantially was the process in those inventions to which our attention has 
now been turned, appears from the following answer of Mr. Bigelow to an 
inquiry on that point : 

"I am not sure that I can convey to your mind a satisfactory idea of the 
mventive process in my own case. One thing is certain, it is not chance. 
Neither does it depend, to any great extent, on suggestive circumstances. 
These may present the objects, but they are no guide to the invention itself. 
The falling apple only suggested to Newton a subject of inquiry. All that 
we know of the law of gravitation had to be reasoned out afterward. 
My first step toward an invention has always been to get a clear idea of 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 0D5 

the object aimed at. I learn its requirements as a -whole, and also as com- 
posed of separate parts. If, for example, that object be the weaving of coach- 
lace, I ascertain the character of the several motions required, and the rela- 
tions which these must sustain to each other in order to efiect a combined 
result. Secondly, I devise means to produce these motions ; and, thirdly, 
I combine these means, and reduce them to a state of harmonious co-opera- 
tion. 

To carry an invention through its first and second stages is comparatively 
easy. The first is simply an investigation of f;\cts ; the second, as far as I 
can trace the operations of my own mind, comes through the exercise of the 
imagination. I am never at a loss for means, in the sense above explained. 
On the contrary, my chief difticulty is to select from the variety always at 
command those which are most appropriate. To make this choice of the 
elementary means, and to combine them in unity and harmony — to conduct, 
that is, an invention though its last or practical stage, constitutes the chief 
labor. 

In making this Tchoice of the elementary parts, one must reason from 
what is known to what is not so — keeping in mind, at the same time, the 
necessary combinations, examining each element, not only in reference to its 
pecuhar function, but to its fitness, also, for becoming a part of the whole. 
Each portion must be thus examined and re-examined, modified and re- 
modified, until harmony and unity are fully established. From the severity 
of this labor many inventors shrink, and this is the main reason why some 
very ingenious men fail to obtain satisfactory results. In my own case, the 
labor has not ended with the perfection of my looms ; other machines, pre- 
paratory and auxiliar, were necessary to give full efl'ect to the inventions. 

It is a well-known fact, complex inventions have not, as a general thing, 
come at once into use. In many cases this has been because they were not 
immediately brought into harmony with other things. In a state of natural 
progress, things move on together, and become mutually adjusted. An im- 
portant invention often disturbs these adjustments, and cannot be made to 
work efficiently until other inventions and new arrangements have brought 
all the related processes in accordance with it. This arduous duty I have 
endeavored to perform for all my looms. Lee's hand stocking-loom was 
invented several years before it was reduced to practice, and even this was 
not eflected by the inventor. The comparatively simple power-loom for 
weaving plain cloth was of very slow growth. A long time elapsed before 
its organization was so far harmonized as to work at all, and, for several years 
afterward, successive improvements only gave to it a moderate speed. Its 
capacity, in this respect, has actually been doubled within the last fifteen 
years. If my own more complex machines, for the production of figured 
fabrics, have attained at once to a high state of perfection, I attribute it, in 
part, to the fact that my attention has also been given to those processes 
which are subordinate, preparatory, and collateral, and that these have been ' 
made to accord with the main invention. That this claim of success is not 
extravagant will appear, I think, when it is considered that the cost of weav- 
ing coach-lace was, at one stride, reduced from twenty-two cents to three 
cents a yard, and that of Brussels carpet from thirty cents to four cents. Of 
the fabric last named, my power-loom, under the easy tending of a single girl, 
produces from twenty to twenty-five yards daily, and this of the best quality. 
That mechanical possibilities do not reach much farther in this direction, 
will be conceded, probably, by all who are acquainted with the peculiar char- 
acter of the process. 



556 'BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. 

I find no difficulty in effecting that concentration of thought which is so 
necessary in pursuits like mine. Indeed, it is not easy for me to withdraw 
my mind from any subject in which it has once become interested, until its 
general bearings at least are fully ascertained. I always mature in my mind 
the general plan of an invention before attempting to execute it, resorting 
occasionally to sketches on paper for the more intricate parts. A draughts- 
man prepares the working drawings from sketches furnished by me, which 
indicate in figures the proportion of the parts. I never make anything with 
my own hands. I do not like even drawing to a scale." 

It has become almost a proverbial remark that great inventors seldom 
reap the fruit of their ingenious toil. This has happened, not merely from 
the fact referred to above, that they had failed to perfect their inventions by 
meeting, as they ought, the new demands which their own improvements had 
created, but, also, because they have too frequently been inventors on^y. Ab- 
sorbed in their own pleasing projects, neglecting to avail themselves of what 
they have actually accomplished, in their ardent zeal to achieve something 
greater, they leave their rights unsecured, or sufter them to slip out of their 
hands. They labor, and other men — far inferior men — enter into their la- 
bors. To this rule, if it be one, Mr. Bigelow is a striking exception. He is 
no dreaming genius, who needs a guardian to protect his rights and manage 
his affairs. He is as much at home in matters of business as among the 
wheels and levers of his looms. Several of his most important contracts, 
drawn wholly by himself, have commanded the admiration of acute lawyers. 
More than once his patents have been invaded ; but, in every case, the 
offenders have yielded, either to his prudent firmness, or to the strong arm of 
law. In a single instance — and then through the negligence of a legal agent 
— he failed to obtain protection, in the English patent office, for some im- 
portant principles. It was a serious injury. 

In the ingrain-carpet power-looms of the great mills at Lowell, about 
thirteen hundred thousand yards are made annually. The same fabric is 
woven in large quantities by companies at Tariffville and Thorn psonville, 
Ct., whose power-looms are worked under license from the Lowell Company. 
Messrs. Higgins & Co. are using the Bigelow looms for tapestry and velvet- 
tapestry carpets, in their establishment in New-York. Another Company, 
in Troy, N. Y., is weaving the same article under license from Mr. Bigelow. 
At Humphreysville, Ct, several looms are now employed in the manufacture 
of silk brocatelle. Mr. B. adapted and constructed the machinery for this 
beautiful fabric in 1851. Goods for which the hand-loom artisans of Lyons 
get three francs a yard, are made here at a cost for labor of fifteen cents a 
yard. The agent, Mr. Humaston, is entitled to much praise for the skill and 
perseverance with which he has brought these works into successful opera- 
tion. 

In 1849, Clinton was made a township by legislative act. In 183*7, when 
the brothers Bigelow went to this spot, that they might use one of its brooks 
in operating the coach-lace loom, it was the least cultivated and least valued 
part of the old and beautiful town of Lancaster. At that time it contained 
some two hundred inhabitants ; it has now about four thousand. There may 
be seen the great gingham mill, already named, producing annually nearly 
five millions of yards ; the counterpane mill, which turns out yearly one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars' worth of goods ; the establishment of the 
Chnton Company, where two million yards of coach-lace, tweeds, (fee, are 
woven ; and that of the Bigelow Carpet Company, belonging to the two 
Bigelows, and to H. P. Fairbanks, of Boston, the daily results of which are 



BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT MEN. OOV 

a thousand yards of Brussels and Wilton carpeting. The amount made by 
this single establishment, now only three years old, is equal to the entire 
importation of Brussels carpet from England, at the time when the works 
were started. Though these looms run night and day, they are inadequate 
to the constant demand. 

We have seen, with admiration, on both sides of the ocean, many a village 
and city which owed their prosperity, if not their existence, to the genius of 
modern manufacture. But, to us, there is a charm in Clinton, which belongs 
to no other place of the kind. As, from those gentle, woody heights, we 
have surveyed its monuments of ingenuity, wealth, and enterprise — its nu- 
merous evidences of industry and thrift — its pleasant homes of competence 
and content — its institutions for learning and social improvement, and its 
neat temples reared for God — all of it the magical creation of a few short 
years — the spectacle certainly lost none of its interest, because we could trace 
it directly to the efforts of a single mind. Clinton, with all its actual and 
its prospective importance, was assuredly predestinated in that abode of hon- 
orable poverty, those hours of toil and vigil, and that filial love, which gave 
birth to the coach-lace loom. Happy he who may thus behold around him 
the good which he has done ! While scattering " plenty o'er a smiling land,'" 
he plants, also, in good ground, the blessed seeds of individual and domestic 
happiness, of social progress, of education, and morals, and religion. 

It would be a great injustice to omit in this reference to Clinton, one, who 
deserves to be called its twin founder — Horatio N. Bigelow. At the very 
outset, while success was yet uncertain, when he was himself poor and strug- 
gling, he gave pecuniary aid to his brother in the patenting and building of 
his inventions. All the mills in Clinton were started by him, and two of 
them are still under his management. To his skill, industry, and business 
talent, much of their success is undoubtedly due. It is not easy to estimate 
the advantage derived by thejnventor from so able and so faithful an ex- 
ecution of his plans. 

Mr. Bigelow's father, for whose sustenance and comfort he gave up his 
own cherished schemes, and devoted himself to invention, after aiding his son 
in building the coach-lace loom, died, much to the son's regret, just before 
its success was made certain. His mother, not yet very far advanced, lives 
to share the prosperity and affection of her sons.* He has been twice mar- 
ried. His first wife died early, leaving an infant child. This boy, of much 
promise, survived his mother hardly seven years. His present wife is a 
daughter of the late Col, David Means, of Amherst, N. H, They have one 
child — a daughter. 

Mr. B. is a man of middling stature, and slightly inclined to roundness. 
The lineaments of his face and head are such as one might look for after 
hearing his story. 

The individual, whose well-directed labors have not only gained for him- 
self reputation and fortune, but furnish employment and support to many 
thousand persons, while they save annually for his native land millions of 
dollars, is still under forty years of age. AVith such power of intellectual 
analysis and combination, such energy and persistency of purpose, he cannot 
yet have discharged the debt which he owes to his country and to mankind. 
That he still intends to devote himself to the advancement of industrial art, 
in all its interests, moral and material, we have the best reason to believe. 

* This estimable lady died a few weeks since, at the house of her son, in Boston. 



558 COMPOSITION FOR ROOFS, FLAGCHNGS, ETC. 



WELCH ANHYDROUS COMPOSITION FOR ROOFS, FLAGGINGS, FRONTS, &c. 

Whatever may be the firmness of the foundation, the massiveness or sym- 
metry of the walls, and the elegance and tastefulness of external or internal 
finish, a building without a permanent water-proof and fire-proof roof, is an 
imperfect and defective structure. It is destitute of one of the most essential 
qualities of a comfortable, safe, or durable edifice. Hence, a good roofino- 
material has long been regarded as a very important and valuable matter. 
Ingenuity has been taxed to invent some substantial, reliable, and economical 
means of protecting persons and property from the annoyance, injury, and 
perils, which are every where experienced from imperfect roofs. 

In Europe, tiles are used ; but they are expensive and unreliable. In our 
own country, shingles, slate, tin, zinc, copper, lead, brass, iron, and paper 
covered with tar and gravel, all have their advocates, and yet none of them 
exactly meet the exigencies of the case for which they are demanded. Shin- 
gles are unsafe, and too often insecure. Slate is expensive, and inaccessible 
to the great mass of our people. Tin requires great expense of painting, and 
is constantly exposed to corrosion, and, besides this, it is difficult to repair, 
and often, being too long neglected, till the roof leaks like a sieve, is beyond 
the cure of solder and patching, and is, therefore, useless. 

This article is rarely used for roofs in Great Britain, or on the continent of 
Europe. Tarred and gravelled paper, which have been so extensively used in 
various parts of the country, after a thorough experiment, have gone into almost 
universal disrepute. All these adaptations for roofs have objections more or 
less serious, either on account of the cost, security, combustibility, perishable- 
ness, or failure in other respects, to answer their intended design. 

The Anhydrous Composition, at the head of this article, seems to meet all 
the exigencies of the case so much better than any other material, that if 
half that is claimed for it is proved, it must eventually supersede all other 
materials now employed for such purposes. Those who are conversant with 
this composition claim for it as an effective and invaluable resistant of water ; 
and, hence, a roof made of it can never leak. Being incombustible, it can 
not take fire. Such is its nature, that it can never wear out or decay. It is 
a non-conductor of heat and cold, and, hence, tends to secure a cool temper- 
ature to upper rooms in the heat of summer, and a moderate temperature in 
winter. As the materials that compose it are found in great abundance in 
every state of the Union, it is universally accessible. It is cheaper than any 
other permanent roof. It may be put on at all seasons of the year, and is 
equally adapted to all climates, and to every temperature, both of cold and 
hot ; both wet and dr}'. It may be manufactured by fixtures of very trifling 
expense, in every city and principal district of tlie land. These excellent 
qualities of this article may be regarded as facts established both by experi- 
ment and the ordeal of scientific analysis. If broken by violence, or other 
cause, it is easily repaired. On all other points, this composifion solicits the 
careful and thorough scrutiny of the public. 

It may be applied to roofs perfectly flat, or in situations where the water 
may remain on them for any length of time, as the water will never pene- 
trate the composition. Sods of grass may be placed on it, and seeds planted 
and cultivated in the soil, and yet the dampness will not penetrate the roof. 
It is readily applied, also, to leaky roofs in any situation, whether covered with 
tin, shingles, sand, or other materials, without removing the old material ; 



WATER-POWEE ON THE POTOMAC. 659 



nor do roofs thus treated require any outlay for paint, or other substances, 
with which to keep it in good order. Gutters as well as roofs are treated 
with this composition. It is also useful for damp walls, to secure dryness , 
and in the construction of vaults under sidewalks, in cemeteries and cellars , 
and to repair them when injured by the dripping of water. If used under 
sidewalks, and in other similar conditions, it prevents the percolation of 
water and its pernicious consequences. 

It is also well fitted for deafening floors, and thus preventing injury to 
plastering by leakage of water through them. 

This Anhydrous Composition, with a little variation of material, and differ- 
ent preparation, may be made into a plaster, and apphed to the outside of 
the walls of brick and wooden buildings, in imitation of granite, brown stone, 
or any description of marble, white or clouded. 

This is claiming a great deal for any material, applied for such purposes, 
and it may, liereafLer, be found that we are in error in respect to it. But we 
present the claims of those interested in it, {with some, abatement,) and so 
far as evidence is furnished to us personally, that these claims are well 
founded from the evidence furnished ns. From the evidence furnished us 
we are induced to regard this a very valuable material. We ought, also' 
to add that it is not costly, but is comparatively cheap, so far as first cost is 
concerned. 



THE WATER POWER ON THE POTOMAC. 

We have recently received a pamphlet containing a minute description of 
the Water-Power of " The Great Falls Manufacturing Company" on the Po- 
tomac, opposite Washington and Georgetown, The legislature of Virginia 
has incorporated the town of Potoiuac, at the Great Falls, The surface of 
the territory thus incorporated is undulating, and abounds with springs of 
the purest water, and the adjacent country is very beautiful. This town of 
Potomac is, from Georgetown, fourteen miles ; from Washington C!ity, fifteen, 
and from Alexandria about twenty miles. It includes quarries of building 
stones, clay for bricks, and an al)uiidance of timbers. Lime and cement aro 
easily procured. 

The Water-Power is immense; the fall being nearly eighty feet. A wing 
dam is also contemplated, raising it five feet more. The Manufacturing Com- 
pany was incorporated in May, 1852, for h period of thirty years, and with a 
capital of one million of dollars. The privileges granted them, besides those 
named, are of very great value. Among these is a charter from the state of 
Maryland, authorizing a toll bridge across the Potomac, uniting the town 
with the Ohio and Chesapeake -Canal, and from Virginia, for a railroad to 
intersect with the Orange and Alexandria railroad. 

The area of the water way, at" Little Falls, is 2,040 square feet; the su- 
perficial velocity, 68 feet per minute ; the true jnean velocity is 56 feet ; and. 
hence, the quantity running is 114,240 cubic feet per minute. The property 
has been surveyed ; the head-gates, guard-walls and dam, have been located 
by skillful engineers, John and Stewart Chase, of Mass., and Asa Jackson, of 
Leesburg, Va. Extensive maps are iiUached to the description, and the 
whole is ready for any enterprising manufacturers, or capitalists, who will 
unite in the improvement of this tremendous water-power, Mr. Hall Neilson, 
of Washington, D. C, is President of the Company. 



660 



THE STKENGTH OF BEAMS. 




THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 

Ik tlie paper under this heading, iu tlie January number of this Journal, it 
was found that the furmuhx for ihe strength of beams was 

in which W= the breaking weight of the beam ; — /> = its breadth ; d =<= 
its depth ; ^ = its length, and C = a constant quantity deduced from expe- 
riment. This formula is applicable when the load is placed in the middle of the 
beam. If the strength of the beam is just suflScient to sustain it when in the 
Fig. 4. middle, it will be more than enough 

when at any other point. For if 
W (Fig. 4) be the greatest weight 
that a beam of uniform section 
will support in the middle, D, then 
the greatest W, which it will sup- 
port at any other point, P, will be 
found by the proportion. 

A P X P B : A D X D B :: W : W 

W == W (^ P >< ^ ^ ) 
(A P X P B) 

Therefore, a beam of uniform section throughout, to be used for sustaining a 
movable weight, as a bridge does a carriage, is unnecessarily strong at all 
other points, when it is of just sufficient strength at the centre. Indeed, this 
is evident at first sight ; for it is obvious that the leverage exerted by the 
weight, W, acting at the distances D A and D B from the abutments, is 
greater than that exerted by the same weight acting at the distances A P 
and P B. 

Theoretically, then, the area of the section of the beam should continually 
diminish from the centre toward each end, in the ratio of the rectangles of 
the segments ; that is, the section at the point P should be less than the 
section at the point D, in the proportion that A P X P B is less than 
A D X r> B ; so that at the abutments the beam Avould have tapered to a 
point. 

But here we come to the broad distinction existing between the strain 
and the simple weight of the load, between the tendency toward the fracture 
of the beam and the pressure upon the abutments. The load has a two-fold 
effect, the former of which alone we have been considering. The one is the 
simple action of the weight itself, while the other is the action of the weight 
in conjunction with the leverage. Thus, suppose 50 lbs. to be suspended 
from the end of a beam 10 feet long, the strain exerted will be 50 x 10 === 
500 lbs., while the tocif/ht which the abutment is called upon to sustain is 
only 50 lbs. The strai/t, from a constant load, varies, of course, as its dis- 
tance from the abutment, while the weight remains constant for any distance. 
And the cross section of the beam must be of sufficient area to support this 
weight; therefore, it cannot taper to a point, as the equation would seem to 
indicate. Ilowever, as the weight is generally so small in proportion to the 
strain, it is scientifically proper that a beam, intended for the support of 



THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS.. 561 



movable loads, should be smaller at the end than in the middle ; and this is 
generally or often the case with bridge chords, &c. 

We have hitherto supposed that the weight of the beam itself was no- 
thing ; but, practically, we will hardly find this supposition a correct one. 
The weight of the beam is to be taken into consideration, and many times is 
a most important element in the calculation. Thus, the greatest load that 
can ever in practice be placed upon the Britannia Tubular Bridge, over 
Menai straits, would be a train of locomotive engines, extending from end to 
end, and would weigh about 1,500 tons. But the weight of the bridge itself 
is nearly 11,000 tons. 

The effect of this weight is, of course, similar to that of a load equally 
distributed throughout the entire length of the beam, and is to be estimated 
as such. The weight of each half of the beam may be supposed to be col- 
lected at its centre of gravity, i. e., half way between the abutment and the 
centre of the beam, or at a distance of ^ Z from the abutment. Designating 
the weight of the half beam by w, the expression for the strain will be 

10 X -^ I = — That is, the strain resulting from the weight of the half 

4 
beam is equal to one-fourth the product of the length of the beam into its 
weight. 

Suppose the weight, w, to be accumulated at the middle of the beam. It 
would then act with the leverage, ^ I, instead of ^l, as before, and the ex- 
pression for the strain will become Therefore, a beam will sustain a 

twice heavier load when equally distributed than when accumulated at the 
centre. 

This may be illustrated somewhat more practically by means of a dia- 
gram, and as it shows the prime importance of taking the leverage into ac- 
count in questions of this kind, it may be well so to explain it. 

Fig. 5. Let A B (Fig. 5) be 

a beam, resting upon 
the supports, A and B, 
at the ends. Let D C 
and C E be weights, 
resting upon chocks at 
D, C, and E. It is evi- 
dent that the effect is the same as though they were equally distributed over 
the whole length of the beam. One-half of the weight D C, is sustained 
at D, and the other half at C, and the like is true of the weight C E. ^ But 
the parts sustained at D and E, immediately over the abutments, act without 
leverage, and consequently exert no fracturing strain. The parts sustained 
at C act with a leverage, A C, or its equal, C B, and, therefore, they alone 
tend toward fracture. But the weight sustained at C is only half the entire 
weight. The other half rests upon D and E ; therefore the beam Avill sup- 
port a w^eight, if equally di?tributed, equal to twice that which it can sustain 
if accumulated at the middle. . _ . 

The weight of a single beam, as compared with the load which, in struc- 
tures of various kinds, it is called on to sustain, is generally of trivial moment, 
and may, in many instances, be safely omitted in the calculation. But in 
large " built beams," such as bridges and trusses of any description, it is of 
great importance, and must be carefully prepared for. In cases like this, an 
estimate must first be made of the dimensions of the frame necessary for the 
33 




662 THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 

support of its own weight, and then afterward those dimensions must be 
motlified, so as to sustain, in addition, the load about to be imposed. 

To illustrate the mode of doing this, let us take one or two examples. 

An example given in the previous article was — What is the breaking 
weight of a beam of oak, 10 inches broad, 12 inches deep, and 14 feet long? 
The answer was found to be 14,331 lbs. This, of course, includes the weight 
of the beam itself. We wish to find how much weight can be placed upon 
the beam in addition to its own weight. Oak weighs about 36 lbs. per cubic 
foot. The weight of the beam then will be about 420 lbs. This weight 
being equally distributed, is equivalent to 210 lbs. placed at the centre. The 
breaking weight proper then, that is, the weight of the imposed load, will be 
14,331 — 210 = 14,121 lbs., or 28,242 lbs. equally distributed. 

Take another example. 

Seasoned pitch-pine weighs about 30 lbs. per cubic foot. What must be 
the length of a stick of this material, 12 inches square, that the breaking- 
weight, suspended from the middle, exclusive of its own weight, may be 

h d ^ 
10,000 lbs? In the equation, W ^ C as applied to this case, all the 

quantities are known, except Wand I; the first of which is the entire weight, 
and the other, the length of the stick in feet. Since the sectional area of the 
beam is a square foot, there will be as many cubic feet in its bulk as there 
are linear feet in its length ; and each one of these weighing 30 lbs., the 
weight of the beam will be represented by 30 I. But this weight, 30 I, is 
equally distributed ; its effect is therefore equivalent to 15 Z, suspended from 
the middle. The entire breaking-weight of the beam, therefore, will be 
10,000 -f 15 Z. By the table given in the previous number, we find C == 

1,632. And substituting these values in the equation W = C, we have 

10,000 -f 15 / = ll><ill 1632 = ^^^^ >< ^^^^ 
12 ; \2l 

235008 



~ I 
15^ + 10,000^ = 235008 

Z* X 606,66 Z= 15667.2 a quadratic equation, which, 
being solved, gives 

; = 22.7 ft. 
In like manner, the equation may be solved for any other of the dimen- 
sions ; as for instance, to find W, we have 

W -f 15 X 22.7 = ^1^^ =10352.8 
22.7 

W = 10352.8 — 15 X 22.7 = 10,012.3 lbs., which 
IB within a fraction of the value of W, as first given. 

For trussed bridges, trussed frames, and such built beams, a shorter way 
may be adopted. 

Suppose a truss supported at each end, and loaded in the middle ; or what 
is the same thing, for our purpose, supported at one end, and loaded at the 
other. Let the imposed weight be represented by W, and the weight of the 
truss itself by w. Let h be the height of the truss, and I its length. It is 
required to find the ultimate strength of each of the two chords, upper and 
lower == S. 



THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 563 

The effect of the load, W, acting at the distance, /, is represented by W I. 
The effect of the weight, w, acting at the distance, \ I, (its centre of gravity) 

is represented by — The sum of the two is W Z + — 

It A 

The effect of the strength or resistance, S, of the upper chord, acting at 
the distance, ^ A, from the neutral axis, is represented by S X ^^ ; and that 
Qf the lower chord is the same. The sum of the two (S X i ^) + (S X i ^i) 
=S A, which "will be equivalent to the straining force of the entire load — 
that is, 

S A == W ^ + — : whence 
2 

( 2A ) _ 
It should be remarked that Z, as here employed, represents the length of 
the truss supported at one end and loaded at the other. If the equation be 
used with reference to a truss supported at both ends and loaded in the mid- 
dle, I must be halved, and the equation will become 

S == / (2 W + w) 
( 4A ) 

To apply this equation, suppose we wish to ascertain the strength and size 
of chord necessary for a truss bridge of 180 feet span, and weighing 240,000 
!bs., and to bear an imposed load of 4,000 lbs. per lineal foot, (which is more 
than twice as much as any ordinary bridge is ever required to sustain.) The 
whole imposed load on the bridge will be 720,000 lbs., of which each truss 
will support one half, or 360,000 lbs., and each half truss 180,000 lbs. (By 
each half truss, is meant that part between one of the abutments and the 
middle of the truss.) In this case, then, W = 180,000 and w = 240,000. 
Let A = 18 ft. while ^=180 ft. Substituting these quantities in the 
equation above, we have 

S = 180 (360,000 + 240,000) _ ^^^ ^ 

( 72 ) ' 

S = 1,499,999 lbs.— say 1,500,000 lbs. 

Assuming 8,000 lbs. per .square inch of sectional area as the breaking 
weight of the chords, we have 187.5 square inches as the necessary area of 
section of each chord at the middle. 

The same equation can be solved for any one of the quantities contained 
in it, when the rest are known. 

The legitimate strain created by a movable load, such as a train of cars 
passing over a bridge, is to be estimated like all other similar strains. It is 
greatest when the load is at the middle, and diminishes as it approaches 
either end, in the proportion above stated. The effect of the load at each 
point in its progress can be easily found from the formulae before given. 
The vibration necessarily attending the passage of such a burden as a heavy 
train of cars, is to be estimated on other principles, that do not come within 
,the scope of the present purpose. Provision is generally made against such 
vibration by a system of stiffening and bracing. Therefore, the truss for a 
bridge is necessarily somewhat more complicated than that for the support 
of a roof, or any similar stationary permanent load. 

Let us find, from the dimensions of the beam, and the breaking weight as 
data, some formula which may serve as an expression for the strain per 
square inch of sectional arefi. 



56i 



TilE STRENGTH OF BEAMS. 



Fig. 6. 




ii 



be, therefore, ~ , which is equivalent 



to 



2d' 



If W (Fig. 6) be the 
breaking weight at the cen- 
tre, then the load supported 
by the half beam, B E, will 
be ^ W. The length of 
the whole beam, D B, is /, 
and that of the half beam, 
B E, is -^ /. The leverage 
is equal to this length, di- 
vided by the depth, A B 
= f? of the beam, and will 

The product of this lererage 



into the weight, ^ W, will represent the entire strain on the cros^ section, 

— ; X ^ W == — ■ , which, divided bv b d, the expression for the sectional 
2d ^ Ad ' . ' r 

area, will be the strain per square iuch ; and the formula will be 

Wl 



n 



— that is 



Ahd^ 

the strain, per square inch, equals the product of the length of the beam into 

the entire weight lequired to break it at the centre, divided by four times the 

product of the sectional area aod depth — all the dimensions being of the 

same denomination, i. e., all ii> inches, or all in feet. 

Take the example first given. A beam of oak, 14 feet long, 10 inchei'* 

thick, and 12 inches deep, just breaks under a weight at the centre — including 

its own — of 14,331 lbs. What is the strain per square inch of section? 

XT 14,331 X (14 X 12) 2407608 ,.^ , . , • 

H = — ^^ ~J = = 418 — which is 

4 X 10 X 12' 5760 

one-fourth of the number given as the value of the constant C for this mate- 
rial. Indeed, we might have reached the same result from the equation 
itself. For, substituting for W its value, as given in the formula 

7 7 3 

W = — - C, and, reducing, we find H = ^ C. 

This is applicable for single, unassisted beams. But it is evident that a 

disposition of several beams may be made, such that one may assist and 

support the other. Such is the case in an ordinary truss. It may, perhaps, 

♦ be well to explain the principles on which the simple but effectual frame is 

constructed : 

Fig. 7. A A (Fig. 7) and B 

B are the chords, c c 
c" &c., are the ties, and 
d d' and d" are the 
braces. Suppose a load 
to be suspended from 
the lower chord, A A. 
It is communicated by 
the tie, c, to the upper 
chord, B B, where it is 
divided and transferred 
each way down the 
brae..'?, cZ and c/, back. to the chonl, A A; here it is again carried to the 




PHOTOGRAPHY. 565 



upper chord by the ties, c and c\ whence it is again sent down by the braces, 
d' and d\ and so on, until it reaches the abutments at each end. Thus, the 
principle of the truss is simply that of distribution. Strain is not allowed to 
concentrate itself at any one poi#t, but is continually shifted and scattered. 
Hence it is obvious, that the standard for the strength of truss chords must 
be very much higher than that for mere unassisted similar beams ; and the 
beam which, single, Avould support one thousand pounds, may sufter with 
safety the imposition of a far heavier load, if forming the chord of a, judi- 
ciously constructed truss. Hence there is no necessary contradiction in_ the 
assumption previously made of the strength, per square inch, of a bridge 
chord at 8000 lbs. The beam itself is, of course, no stronger, or more 
capable of endurance, but it is so disposed, that the load placed upon it is 
shifted and thrown off. C. E. 

p. s, — In my article in the January number occur two or three misprint«, 
which rather interfere with a correct understanding of the text. On page 
412, the words, " that of," in the twenty-ninth line from the top, should be 
omitted. In the thirtieth line, for " E. W.," read " 4 W." In the thirty- 
first and thirty-second lines, for "a;," between ".f/," and "P," and, also, be- 
tween"/ E," and " W," read " X ," the sign of multiplication. In the thirty- 
fourth line strike out the word " the," before " P ;" and in the thirty-fifth 
line, insert " inversely," between " varies" and " as," and, also, between 
"is" and "as." 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 



This art is now attracting much attention from the public, in virtue, not only 
of the rare beauty of its results, but, of its diverse and infinite applicability to 
the reproduction of every variety of object. Following appropriately in the 
wake of the daguerreotype art, it has opened a new field, and awakened a 
new interest in its growth and perpetuity. The first public dawning of the 
daguerreotypic art was obscured by the clouds of prejudice and ignorance on 
the one hand, and distrust and jealousy on the part of artists. It, however, 
made its way, and, under the guidance of men of taste, skill, and energy, has 
at length become a recognized and leading feature in the world-of art.^ 

It may not be uninteresting to some of our readers to detail the distinction 
between the daguerreotypic and photographic processes. The daguerreo- 
type, as is well known, is produced by the action of light upon a preparation 
of chemicals upon the surface of a highly-polished, metallic plate. The re- 
versal of the object daguerreotyped is a necessity of this process. _ The pro- 
duction of photographs, though similar, differs in the respect that impression 
is first taken upon a plain surface, and from thence transferred by the action 
of light, to chemically prepared paper, the transfer again reversing the im- 
pression, and thus bringing it back to its original position. The effect upon 
the glass being durable, the number of impressions may be multiplied to_ an 
indefinite extent, at a comparatively nominal expense. This feature is a 
specially important one, as it affords to clubs, associations, or persons desirous 
of possessing themselves of portraits of any distinguished individual, ample 
facilities for doing so. So much for the modus operandi of the art. Its ad- 
vantages, in point of merit, over the daguerreotype, are briefly these : A 
more delicate softness of tint and transparency of shadow, and an entire free- 



566 WHITE aoLDEN FLINT WHEAT. 

dom from the reflected glare of the metallic plates. These, together with 
certain technical advantages, familiar only to the artist, and the faculty of re- 
duplication, constitute its chief claims to pne-eminence. Its applicability to 
architectural views, scenery, mechanism, or any object requiring clearness, yet 
delicacy of outline, is also a prominent feature of excellence. 

We look forward, and not far in the future, to the time when the traveller's 
paraphernalia will be incomplete without a photographic apparatus. Of 
course the result of this wide practice of the art will be not only to familiarise 
us with the architectural and scenic features of countries, of which we can 
now know but little through the medium of verbal or engraved descriptions, 
but to impel the artist to a more earnest study, and a more correct realiza- 
tion of the importance of truth in art. For, with the perfection of photo- 
graphic perspectives, the correct and delicate shading of its fairy pencil, 
challenging their study, and provoking their emulation, artists can not fail 
to approach nearer to the ultimate standard of excellence — truth. 

Yet, notwithstanding the great capacity for good which the art pos- 
sesses, it embodies in no less a degree the elements which may be turned 
against the interests of art with fatal power. Its assumption by men whose 
sole object is gain, and its consequent degradation, render it a convenient 
vehicle for the dissemination and perpetuation of crude and uncultured ideas 
of art. Unlike the daguerreotype, its susceptibility of being colored, either 
in oil or water colors, enhances and aggravates the danger. For, if the in- 
ferior execution, the degraded pandering to a ridiculous taste for high colors 
is more generally sought, who can doubt but it will be readily obtained ; or 
who can doubt that the result of such a condition of the photographic art, 
would entail a serious injury upon the cherished interests of public taste, and 
a fostering of the love for objects of the beautiful. 

The studio of Mr. Brady, of this city, furnishes many fine specimens of the 
daguerreian art, and this encourage us to hope that his attempts to perfect 
this new discovery will not be in vain. Indeed, he has already produced 
some excellent pictures. If he develops its wonderful capabilities, and ren- 
ders it an aid to the sister arts, and a universal teacher of the true and the 
beautiful, he will add another to the many laurels he has already won. 



White Golden Flint Wheat. — A sample of this superior wheat was 
exhibited by William Stavely, Esq., at the recent fair in Bucks county, and 
attracted unusual attention and commendation. The grains were about 
twice the size of the ordinary white wheat, round and plump; while the 
color was about the same as the old, and with the millers, a favorite variety. 
Mr. Stavely informs us that he sowed two bushels on an acre last fall, which 
produced about twenty-five bushels last harvest. The ground upon which it 
grew, he does not think the best, and is of opinion that it would have pro- 
duced about the same amount of Mediterranean wheat. As an evidence of 
the estimation in which he holds it, we may add that he has put the whole 
twenty-five bushels in the ground for next year's crop. — Farm Journal. 

Aldernev Cattle. — P. T. Barnum has imported two cows and a bull of 
the Alderney breed. They came from London in the ship Splendid, and 
are intended for his farm in Bridgeport, Ct. 



MACHINE FOR MAKING CHAIN LINKS. 



667 



MACHINE FOR MAKING CHAIN LINKS. 




The annexed engravings are views of an improved machine for making 
chain links, and were sent to us by Mr. Arcalous WyckofF, Columbus, Ohio, 
to whom a patent was granted on the 14th of last February. 

Figure 1 is a side elevation of the machine; figure 2 is a detached view, 
exhibiting on the under side the cutter and bender of the wire in its horizon- 
tal movement ; figure 3 is a detached view of a portion of figure 1, to show 
the action of the vertical bender, sleeve, and lever, giving the middle bend of 
the link. Similar letters refer to like parts on the three figures. 

This improvement in machines for making chains consists in giving the 
grip and middle bend of the Unk, cutting the wire the requisite length, and 
bending both ends of it simultaneously, and, by an automatic movement, de- 
livering the formed link ready for joining in a continuous chain. 

In figure 1, a; x represent a solid table. A is the pulley to which the 
power is applied, carrying on its shaft a pinion, B, giving motion to the 
driving wheel, C, on shaft, C ; D and E are cams on the horizontal shaft, C, 
for operating the bars, O and N ; F is a large cam also on the shaft, C, 
which, striking against the end of the bar, carrying rack, H, gives an inter- 
mittent motion to the pinion, K, placed on a vertical shaft, which also carries 
a bevel pinion (placed under K for giving motion to L, carrying a^sleeve,) on 
the outer end of which is a bending arm, which, in its semi-revolution, forms 
one eye of the link ; M is a pinion (driven by K) which is placed on a verti- 
cal shaft, and also carrying a sleeve, on the end of which is secured the knife 
or die,/, for cutting the wire into suitable lengths, and, likewise, for bending 



568 LARGE apples: 



the other eye of each link ; is a bar moved by cam E, it operates a lever, 
R, for giving the middle bend to the link, and holding or clamping the wire 
while being cut by/ and stationary die, ^, also retaining it until the link is 
formed ; N is a bar moved by cam, D, operating the pinion, M, by striking 
a stud while the wire is cutting ; P is a gauge (operated on by a set screw,) 
for graduating the pressure of the angular end of the slide bar, 0, on the 
lever, R, in giving the middle bend and grip to the link t Y is a sliding bar 
for closing the opening, 8, figure 2, through which the wire is fed ; it is 
pressed by the back of the cutter, /J which contracts the helical spring, 10, 
on the shank of Y ; this spring re-acts the moment the pressure is removed, 
and the bar, Y, is forced back, and closes the opening, 8, while the eyes of 
the link are forming ; T T are small, flat springs, having stub bolts or pins 
working in inclined grooves in the ends of the sleeves or pinions, M and L ; 
they are for the purpose of throwing off the link formed on the mandrels, c 
and b. The mandrel, h, is the one around which the end of the wire is carried 
horizontally by the die,/ in forming one eye ; c is the mandrel around which 
the wire is carried vertically by the bender on the sleeve of L, simultaneously 
with the formation of the other eye on & / G is a cam secured on the side of 
cam F, and^in its revolutions, operating on lever, I, draws back the rack, H, 
giving a -reverse movement to all the pinions except B, the rod, Y, being 
moved by the back of the die,/," permits the wire to be fed in opening 8. 

The operation is as follows : — A wire being introduced in opening 8, and 
held at a slight angle, is forced against the adjustable stop, 12, passing 
through a guide near to that side ; the angular projection, 4, on lever, R, is 
brought to bear diagonally on the wire, and, forcing it up between the pins, 
c and h, by means of cam, E, operating on bar, O, and forcing the angular 
projection thereon under the lever, R, raises it, and thus gives the middle 
bend to the wire, and securely clamping it between the pins, and against the 
plates. The die,/j is now moved by the semi-revolution of pinion, M, acted 
on by bar, N, and cam, D, and cuts off the wire rod the requisite length for 
a link, at the same time carrying it horizontally around the pin or mandrel, 
b, while the bender on the sleeve of pinion, L, simultaneously carries the 
other end round the pin, c ; L receiving its motion from the miter wheel 
under K, said wheel being actuated by the sliding rack, H, and cam, F, and 
completes the link. The springs, T T, are now forced outwards by the pins 
working in incMned grooves on the ends of the sleeves, and thus slide the eyes 
off the pins or mandrels, c and b, and the link drops from the machine ready 
for joining, which may be done by closing the eyes by hand, but much more 
perfectly by machinery. 

This machine, now in operation at Columbus, Ohio, makes about sixty 
links per minute, or fifteen hundred pounds per day, and bends them ready 
for use. 



Large Apples. — Thomas Pritchard, Esq., of this city, has shown us the 
finest specimens of apples we have ever seen in any country ; many of them 
measured fifteen and sixteen inches in circumference, and weighed twenty- 
eight and twenty-nine ounces. Fifteen or sixteen fill a half-bushel measure. 
These apples were raised by Nathan Robinson of this county, on trees only 
three years' growth. — Oregonian. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



569- 



MACHINE FOR CHOPPING BRUSH. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the New-Eiigland Farmer gives the following 
account of an invention of Mr. Daniels, of Vermont, (of Woodstock, we sup- 
pose, the inventor of one of the best of hay-cutters,) which he saw in opera- 
tion on the farm of Col. Stanley, of Methuen. AVe do not quite compre- 
hend its form, but its efficiency seems very evident. The writer says : 

Messrs. Eeitors : In passinof through Methuen, a few weeks since, I had 
occasion to call on Col. Charles E. Stanley, of that town, when I was shown 
by that gentleman a machine, or rather, cutter, belonging to him, to whicli 
horse-power is applied, for the purpose of cutting limbs and brush at the 
door. It is called " Daniel's Patent," of Vermont, being very much on the 
principle of some hay-cutters, only on a much larger scale. Two huge 
knives, about eighteen inches long, one-half .inch thick, and four and a halt 
in width, are strongly fastened on the shaft roll. A good feed roll is also 
applied. Hard wood limbs, without trimming, that are not more than three 
inches, or pine that are not more than four and one-half inches through at 
the butt, are cut with ease. By changing the gearing, they can be cut any 
length desired, from four and one-half to one fourth of an inch in length. 
When green pine limbs are cut two inches long and spread upon a floornot 
more than ten inches in depth, they will dry so as to burn well in a week. 

Col. Stanley says he can cut limbs and brush to the above degree of fine- 
ness faster than a smart man, with a good yoke of oxen, can haul and diimp 
them from one-fourth of a mile distant. The. advantage of cutting it so 
fine is, that it brings much scraggy and otherwise worthless brush, up to 
more than the value of its weight in solid wood, which, in these times of 
scarcity and high prices of fuel, is an object of too much importance to be 
overlooked. Col. Stanley's neighbors bring brush to him to be cut on equal 
shares. As near as I- could judge, the machine will do the work of forty 

men. „., 

The reason that the chips dry so quick, is, that they are not cut square ott, 

but obliquely, one side being concave, and the other convex ; consequently they 

are shattered to such a degree, that the air is admitted entirely t^^o^|J^^^|"^' 

and the drying process imediately commences. 
Danvers, Jan. 16, 1855. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Orangx Water-Melon.— Mr. Peabody, editor of the Soil of the 
South, Columbus, Ga., has lately introduced a new kind of water-melon, 
and which, from its singular properties, he calls the orange water-melon. P>y 
cutting the rind, as you peel an orange, the entire skin may be taken oft, 
leaving the pulp unbroken, which, with a little care, may be divided as you 
would an orange. The flavor is said to be rery fine, and it has proved 
itself perfectly hardy in this State. Mr. P. will, on receipt of a dollar, for- 
ward pre-paid packages of the seed. 

GrAS Lime. — Who has tried gas lime as a manure, and what was the result ? 
An answer to the above would be of service to many persons. ^ Who of our 
agricultural chemists can give its virtues, and the method of using it ? 



670 MISCELLANEOUS. 



Illinois. — Inexhaustible coal mines are found in the south part of tho 
State. Also lead, porcelain-clay, white and gray marble, saltpetre, salt 
marshes, Epsom salts, and pure alum. Shortly the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, a continuous line of 440 miles, will connect this region with Galena. 

A fine quarry of slate is being opened hnU a mile from the Railroad 
Depot in Northfield, upon the Land of B. F. Woodworth. It is very acces- 
sible, and, we doubt not, of excellent quality for roofing. Some think, from 
the dip and range, that it belongs to the same quarry with the slate west of 
the mountain. Who knows the riches of our State ? 

Steam Guk in England. — A London correspondent of the Hew- York 
Spirit of the Times says, that among the many interesting experiments that 
are daily performed in England, is Perkins' Steam Gun, which just now is 
attracting great attention. The gun is fixed, and the experiments are made, 
driving out balls at the rate of 300 to 400 a minute. Mr. Perkins has 
offered to the English Government to erect a single steam gun that shall take 
Sebastopol, or any other Russian stronghold, at a distance of five miles. He 
proposes to send a ball of one ton weight that distance, and with much 
greater efiect than with powder at one-fifth that distance. It is in contempla- 
tion, I believe, by government, to give orders for the manufacture of this gun, 
in order that the experiments may be tried. 

Earthquakes and Electricity. — The Boston Traveller says, that during 
the forenoon of the 8th instant, when shocks of earthquakes were felt in 
Maine, New-Brunswick avd Nova Scotia, telegraphic lines in different sections 
of the country were more or less disturbed by extraneous electric currents, 
similar to those that uniformly accompany manifestations of the Aurora Bo- 
realis ; but the disturbance was slight, compared with that which accom- 
panied the eruption of Manna Loa, a volcano on one of the Sandwich Islands, 
in February, 1852, at which time every telegraph line throughout the country, 
from Halifax to New-Orleans, and from New- York to St. Louis, was rendered 
completely inoperative. 

Improvements in Puddling Iron. — James Nasmyth, of Patricroft, near 
Manchester, England, has recently patented an improved operation in iron 
manufacture, by subjecting the molten metal in the puddling or refining fur- 
nace to the action of a current of steam, introduced at its lower portion, 
diffusing upwards, and thus mechanically agitating the liquid metal, and ex- 
posing fresh surface to the oxygen of the furnace atmosphere, which chemi- 
cally combines with the carbon and sulphur contained in the iron, and deprives 
it of those impurities. The hydrogen set free is thus in a state to combine 
with any excess of sulphur, whether present in the iron, or as a product of 
the combustion of the fuel. — Mining Journal. 

Durham Cattle For Sale. — James W Pearse, of Lancaster, is now 
in Marion county, with a lot of superior Short-horn Cattle for sale. Several 
of them took premiums at the recent Fairfield show, and several of the best 
breeders of that region certify as to their purity of blood and fine points. 

We see by tho Zanesville papers that Jones, of the "Stacey House," pur- 
chased of Mr. Pearse a thorough-bred heifer ; and Thos. Hall, of Wayne Town- 
ship, Muskingum county, another. Mr. Pearse will be recognized as the 
owner of the celebrated "C/ay Trustee," md also "/*nnc« ffal" 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



571 



Sizes of Shoes.— The Lynn Directory, for 1851, says a size is the length 
of one "barley-corn," or one-third of an inch. A size stick is thus formed : 
Take a rule or piece of pine-wood, thirteen inches in length, and divide it into 
thirty-nine equal parts of one-third of an inch each. The first thirteen are 
left blank, and counted nothing. The second thirteen are called niens 
and women's sizes ; each marked from one to thirteen. Thus, nine inches is 
a man's size, No. 1 ; ten inches is No. 4 ; eleven inches, No. Y ; twelve inches, 
No. 10. 

The Great Bell of Vienna weighs 34,400 pounds, and a small family 
could live conveniently under the immense structure. Eight men are re- 
quired to ring it, as the clapper alone weighs 1,400 pounds. In the room 
with the clock is stationed a roan to watch for the breaking out of fires in 
the city and suburbs. He takes the angle by means of a fine telescope, and 
on a chart, prepared for the purpose, finds the street and house ; and the 
alarm is then given. 

Gold Mines.— The Petersburg Intelligencer gives a list embracing fifteen 
of the most important gold mines of the State, the aggregate value of which 
is estimated at $1,700,000. Of these, five are not worked for want of 
capital, and four, valued at $575,000, are owned by English companies. The 
great drawback of gold mining in Virginia is the want of adequate ma- 
chinery — or, in other words, the mines are not rich enough to be profitably 
worked by the ordinary methods. 

Deformed Roots. — English farmers are much troubled with deformed 
roots, in their culture of carrots, parsnips, and other root crops. They form 
what are called fingers and toes, instead of the conical and regular shapes 
usual in successful root-growing. On a large scale this becomes a serious 
evil. A great amount of discussion has been bad in their papers as to the 
cause of this difiiculty, and the remedy for it. 

A late writer in the Agricultural Gazette states that the difficulty is in the 
seed-growing, and not in the root culture. His remedy is to cut out the 
central umbel, in seed-growing, and thus distribute the sap into ^he lateral 
ones, when a healthy seed -is produced. In this way, "fingers and toes" 
never disturb him. In using the seed of the central and large umbels, he 
always gets the deformed roots. — Prairie Farmer. 

Tradesmen and Laborers. — If any of our readers can furnish employ- 
ment for good workmen in any branch of industry, we shall be glad to send 
to them men who are well recommended. Hundreds of good men are still 
unemployed. 

The Sketch of E. B. Bigelow, Esq. — The Biographical sketch of this 
gentlemen, found in this number, is taken, with consent of the author, Nehe 
miah Cleveland, Esq., from the pages of the Merchants'' Magazine. 

Tennessee. — The coal mines at the Bluffs, seventy-five miles from Mem- 
phis, (recently discovered) yield the best quality of coal, and are apparently 
'nexhaustible. 



672 NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

Mining Engines and Machinery. A Barclay, Kilmarnock. Patent 
dated March 2, 1854. — A portion of the improvements comprehended in 
this patent relate to the so arranging the winding engines of coal and other 
mines, that they may be more safely managed than at present, whilst all 
chance of "over-winding" and injury to the mining mechanism may be 
avoided. These improvements are effected by adapting the ordinary and 
well-known " link motion" to the hand-gear of the engine, so that the attend- 
ant can easily stop and reverse his engine at the exact moment required in 
the action of winding. To do this, the engine-man has only to work a hand- 
lever up or down ; and this lever being suitably connected with the "link- 
motion," correspondingly affects the portion of such motion, and thereby 
either stops or reverses the engine, as is at present done in locomotive and 
marine engines. By such a system of gearing, the motion is entirely 
unbroken, and the attendant has always a safe and perfect command over his 
engine ; and to add still further to the safe working of the system, a self-act- 
ing movement is contrived to come into play at the precise moment required, 
for the purpose of stopping or reversing the engine, in case the engine-man 
should be careless or absent at the proper time. For this purpose a tumbler 
is so connnected with the engine or winding mechanism, that it shall be 
slowly wound up, or elevated to its falling centre, at the time that the motion 
of the engine is to be changed. Thus, as this tumbler falls over, it acts 

' through suitable connections upon the reversing or stopping-link, and effects 
the intended movement. Various means may be adopted for securing the 
self-acting effect, disengaging pins or stops being so set as to actuate the link- 
movement at the proper time. 

As adapted to direct-acting horizontal cylinder winding and pumping 
engines, for instance a small shaft passes away back from the main-shaft to 
the steam-cylinder, at which end this small shaft carries a worm in gear with 
a worm-wheel set on a horizontal stud. This wheel has a ring-groove in its 
side to receive adjustable stud-pins, which are set at the proper distances in 

■ the wheel, so as to act upon the adjusting lever of the valve-link motion. 
Provision is also made, by a separate adjusting slide or bolt, for allowing the 
engine-man to set the engine to go constantly in one direction, as when used 
for pumping. When so set, the adjustable-pins of the worm wheel no longer 
affect the engine, so as to set the valves for back or forward actions, or the 
up and down winding. Should the engine accidently run slightly beyond 
the intended point, an eccentric piece on the stud-spindle carrying the worm- 
wheel acts upon a sliding piece carried round by the wheel, and this move- 
ment, acting upon the under side of the valve-link lever, sets this lever to its 
central position, so as to prevent the return of the engine. These gearing 
details are obviously capable of being modified in various ways, and the 
arrangements are suitable for beam or other kinds of engines. To prevent 
accidents from the main gearing getting disengaged, a friction-brake appa- 
ratus is provided, to stop the engine's movement. Thus, should the wheels 
fly out of gear — owing, for instance, to the attendant's leaving out the fast- 
ening-key when changing from pumping to winding — this friction-strap will 
be brought into play to prevent the engine from running away. The brake- 
pulley is set upon the shaft, which is liable to slip back, and being loosely 
ercifcled by a friction-strap, the lateral traverse, owing to the disengage- 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 57^ 

ment, makes the pulley press itself hard against the interior of the strap. 
This strap encircles three fourths of the wheel, and is workable as well from 
both its ends. These two opposite ends are each connected to one of the two 
opposite cages, that is, the ascending and descending cages. For instance, 
when one of the cages arrives at its proper stopping point, it acts upon a pin or 
stop in connection with one end of the friction-strap, and draws the strap tight 
around the pulley in the direction of the revolution of the pulley at the time 
being. Hence, whichever way the engine is running, the friction-strap has a 
tendency to be forced down into frictional contact by the pully movement 
when once started. The engine-man can also work such friction-brake by a 
separate hand or foot-gear movement. 

Revolver Fire-Arms. J. H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's Inn Fields, and Glas- 
gow. — The invention of M. Lefaucheux, of Paris, which is the subject of this 
patent, relates to the class of fire-arms termed " revolvers," and consists chiefly 
of an improved construction of revolving chamber cylinder, and of a new 
arrangement of breech, to facilitate the loading of the weapon. The revolv- 
ing piece is a cylinder, with six or any other convenient number of cylindrical 
or slightly conical holes bored through it, to form the charge-chambers. 
An additional hole is bored centrally through the cylinder, for the passage 
of the spindle upon which it turns, and to which the barrel of the weapon is 
attached. The charge- chambers are each notched through to the outside of 
the cylinder at their back edges, to suit the particular description of cartridge 
employed, this cartridge being made up with the percussion appliance attached 
in such a manner as to enter and project through the notch of the charge- 
chamber. The breech o-f the weapon is hemispherical in shape, and is formed 
with a vertical groove, in which the hammer works, the hammer rising up 
centrally from the stock. The face of the breech-piece is perfectly smooth 
and flat, as is also the end of the charge-cylinder in contact with it. A chan- 
nel is formed in the breech on one side, through which the cartridges are 
introduced into the charge-chambers as these are brought round in succession, 
and a filling-uj) piece is hinged to the breech to close the channel when the 
chambers are not being charged, a spring-catch being provided to keep the 
filling-up piece closed when necessary. In a slide, on one side of the barrel, 
and in a line with the charging-channel in the breech-piece, is a rod for 
forcing out the cartridges, if required, without exploding them, or for remov- 
ing any matter left in the charge-chambers after a discharge. This rod is 
prevented, by a blade spring, from falling out or moving, unless the hand 
is applied. The rotation of the charge-cylinder is effected in the usual way, 
by the action of a catch in connection with the hammer, upon a ratchet 
formed upon the cylinder, and the cylinder is retained accurately in position 
during each discharge by means of a catch, also acted upon by the ham- 
mer, and made to enter a notch in the cylinder-face after each rotative move- 
ment. 

Journal Bearings. A. Barclay, Kilmarnock. — With a view of econo- 
mizing the oil used in lubricating the journal bearings of horizontal shafts, 
by enabling it to be repeatedly reiised, Mr. Barclay has designed the improve- 
ments forming the subject of the present patent, and which, by preventing 
the too rapid escape of the lubricating oil from between the rubbing surfjices, 
also renders the lubrication of the shaft much more efScient. In carrying out 
this invention, according to one modification, the shaft is formed with a project- 
ing collar upon it, of the length of the intended bearing, and the brasses are 



574 GENERAL AGENCY. 



formed to suit this modification. Each brass extends considerably past eacli 
edge of the collar, and is slightly turned out or recessed, so that the angles of 
the collar shall be slightly overlapped by the brass. Beyond this overlap on 
each side, the extension of the brass is hollowed out internally, to form an 
annular cup for the reception of oil, and these edge-cup pieces are well 
overhung, and brought close to the plain part of the shaft to prevent the 
entry of dirt. The inner face of the upper brass is^inclined upwards from 
each side towards the centre, instead of being square across as usual ; and 
the result is, that the oil supplied from the top, in the usual way, is well 
spread over the frictional surfaces, and, flowing down, it is caught by the 
annular cups of the brasses, and retained therein for continued use ; or the 
same effect may be obtained by beveling the inner edge or edges of the 
inner brass alone, the upper* brass being made square across, as usual. The 
continued use of the oil is effected by the action of the bearing collar on the 
shaft, for, as this revolves, its edges gather films of oil from the annular cups, 
and bring up the oil so collected to the top brass. Here the revolving collar 
edges apply the oil to the corresponding edges of the upper brass, and, owing 
to the duplex interior incline thereon, the oii is thence conveyed towards the 
centre of the bearing, whence it is well distributed over the whole rubbing 
surfaces. Instead of a plain collar projection, other forms of journals may be 
employed with the same result, or a cuuple of rings may be set fast on the 
shaft, so as to carry up the oil in a similar manner. 



New Music. — Wm. Hall <fe Son. — We would again remind our readers 
of the fine opportunity now offered of buying music very cheaply. Among 
the publications offered at reduced prices, we present the following reprints, 
and new pieces, with the reduced prices : Leonora, a polka ; Indiana, a 
brilliant waltz; Olga Mazurka, by A. Goria; "I Wandered on the Sea-beat 
Shore," by J. W. Cherry; "Cheer, Boys, Cheer," by Henry Russell; each 
of which contains five pages, and each is sold at fifteen cents. " Swinging, 
Swinging, All Day Long;" or. Song of the Old Hall Clock, is a very pretty 
solo and chorus, by Wuitzel, copyright, at twenty-five cents, nett, five pages. 



Gejteral Agency. — The publisher of Tlie Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil, 
believing it in his power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to them that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purchase of books of any description; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, and experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and will execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

|W°Particular attention to business connected with the Patent-OfBce. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to. 

School-Teachers. — Having had occasion to furnish teachers for some 
of our Southern friends, we have been fortimate enough to learn of several 
young ladies who are admirably well qualified for families or schools, and if any 
are in need of such, a letter addressed to us will receive immediate answer. We 
shall not fear to guarantee that any reasonable expectations will be fully met. 
Some of them are desirous of going South. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



» 

675 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM JAN. 2, TO FEB. 6, 1855 



Thos. n. Barlow, Lexington, improvement in 
Are -arms. 

Jarvis Case, Springfield, Ohio, improvement in 
seed-planters. 

John S. Barden, New-IIaven, for water metre. 

Jotham S. Conant, New-York, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Wm. C. Hooper, of Pittsburgh, for bench plane. 

Edward H. Graham, Biddeford, Me., improve- 
ment in fire-arms. 

John H. Allen, Bidleford, Me., improvement in 
temples for looms. 

John S. Addison, New-York, improved gold 
washer and amalgamator. 

Alfred C. C.irrait, Hanover, Mass., improvements 
in plugs lor lubrical}ug axles. 

Michael D. Dyott, Philadelphia, improvement in 
lamp shades. 

John C. Kline, Pittsburgh, improvement in door- 
latch locks. 

Arnton Smith, Macoupin county, III., improve- 
ment in plows. 

Samuel H. Robinson, Baltimore, improvement 
in lime kilns. 

Geo. M. Ramsey, Newark, for moulding machine. 

Alonzo D. Perry, Newark, improvement in fire- 
arms. 

Lucius Paige, Cavendish, Vt., improvement in 
brake blocks for railroad cars. 

Jno. L. McPherson, New Vienna, 0., improve- 
meui in scale. 

Hezekiah B. Smith, Lowell, improvement in 
sewing machine. 

C. B. Morse, Rhinebeck, for moulding machine. 

Elisba P. Beckwith, New-Londou, improvement 
in spring balances. 

Abijah R. Tewksbury, Boston, for improved 
steering apparatus. 

Parley Hutchins, Norwich, Mass., improved 
handlruck. 

0. B. Judd, Little Falls, improvement in grain 
and grass harvesters. 

John A. Pitts, Buffalo, improvement in straw 
cutters. 

R. L. Hawes, Worcester, for machine for making 
boxes of paper. 

Elijah Morgan, Morgantown, Va., improvement 
in 6ted planters. 

John F. Masscher, Philadelphia, for stereoscopic 
medallion. 

Hezekiah Conant, Hartford, improvement in 
moulds lor casting projectiles. 

John Sutton, New-York, lubricator for steam 
engi nes. 

Stephen L. Stockstill, and Pater H. Hume? 
Brandt, 0., improvement in seed planters. ' 

Gustavus Wissenborn, New- York, improved ar- 
rangement of filtering apparatus to prevent incrust- 
atiou iu steam boilers. 

John T. Willmarlh, Northbridge, Mass, im- 
proved dies for making bolts. 



Wendell Wright, New-York, improvement in 
mode of connecting pipes for steam boilers. 

Ambrose Poster, Portland, Wisconsin, and Eli- 
zabeth A. Messinger, administratrix, and Wm. 
Spencer, adminisirator of John A. Wessing^r' 
deceased, of Milwaukie, Wisconsin, assignors' 
through saia administratrix, and administrator to 
Ambrose Foster, aforesaid, improved building 
block. 

Wm. Leighton, Cambridge, Mass., assignor to 
the New-England Glass Company, of same place 
improvements indoor A nobs. ' 

Wm. M. Bonwill, Camden, Del., improvement in 
hernial trusses. 

Wm. Shaw, Boston, improved gas heater. 

Solomon G. Booth, New-York, inaprovement in 
rollers for corrugating sheet metal. 

George A. Brown, Widdletown, R. L, for hay- 
making machine. 

Henry J. Braaer, Nazareth, for improved instru- 
ment for cutting out stone. 

Dexter A. Chamberlain, and John Hartshorn, 
Boston, improvement in rollers for curtain?. 

George R. Comstock, Manhelm, New-York, im- 
provement in carriage seats. 

George R. Comstock, Manhelm, New-York, im- 
provement in carriage seats. 

George R. Comstock, Manhelm, New- York, im- 
provement in carriages. 

James Eccles, Philadelphia, improvement in 
looms. 

Henry A. Frost, Worcester, improvement in 
means for holdmg window-blinds. 

Louis Francis Groebl, Ph ladelphia, for improved 
marquetry. 

Michael Greenbaum, Chicago, for improved hot 
air furnaces. 

Wm. H. Harn, Carlisle, Pa., improved mill for 
cutting and grindiag vegetables. 
Wm. Ives, Buffalo, for book brace. 

Samuel G. Jones, Fitzwater Town, Pa., improve- 
ment in lifting jacks. 

Charles Meitam, New- York, improvement in 
rolling iron shutters. 

Daniel Newton, Southamton, Conn., improve- 
ment in metal folding machines. 

Horace W. Peaslee, Maiden Bridge, New- York 
improvrment in machine for washing paper stock.' 
Patented in E igland, September 20, 1854. 

Albert W. Roberts, Hartford, Conn., improve- 
ment in fire engines. 

E. K. Root, Hartford, for improved compound 
rifling machines. 

Eloy Schmiiz, New-York, for improved appara- 
tus for supplying furnaces with pulverized metal. 

R. P. Benton, Rochester, improvement in feed- 
ing morticing machines. 

Isaac J. Cole, Clermont, for improved compound 
crowbar. 

Abel W. Streeter, Shelburne Palls, Mass., im- 
provement in fastening centre bits. 

John Sutton, New-York, for lubrication of steam 
maahiuery 



576 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Lewis Hoover, Jersey City, improvement in lan- 
terns. 

Henry Blakeley, New-York, improvemeut in 
iron window blinds. 

Geo. Copelaud, Lewiston, Me., improvemenl in 
looms. 

[saae Williams, and Isaac W. Bausman, Alle- 
ghany county. Pa., improvement, in cotton seed 
planters. 

Samuel Huffman, Charleston, Illinois, assignor 
to himself and Dennis 0'Hara, Washington, U. C. , 
improvement in repeating cannon. 

Edmond Morris, Burlington, N. J., improve- 
ment in buckets for chain pumps. 

Leopold and Joseph Thomas, Alleghany City, for 
match machine. 

John U. VVallis, Dansville, New- York, improve- 
ment in paddle wheels. 

Geo. F. Wood, Ulysses, New-York, improve- 
ment iu oscillating engines. 

John M. Bull, Sidney, O., improvement inhand- 
rails for stairs. 

Newell A. Prince, Brooklyn, improved fountain 
pen, 

I, J. W. Adams, Sharptown, Md., improved im- 
plements for boring wells. 

Wm. Adamson, Philadelphia, improvement in 
clarifying glue. 

Abel H. Baxtlett, Kings Bridge, for hot air fur- 
nace. 

B. F. Rabbitt, New- York, for car ventilator. 

John Blackwood, Franklin Co., Ohio, improve- 
ment in seed planters. 

Jacob Brown, Lawn Bridge, 111., improvement in 
seed planters. 

Dexter H. Chamberlain, and John Hartshorn, 
Boston, fountain brush. 

Alfred Doe, Concord, Improvement in plows. 

Jas. Eaton, Townsend Harbor, Mass., improve- 
ment in dies for cap-tube machines. 

George Fowler, Northford, Ct., for double-acting 
force pump. 

Hezekiah Griswold, Hartford, improvement in 
the yoke of shirts. 

Jonathan Ilibbs, Tullytown, Pa., improvement 
in clover hullers. 

Alex. Hall, Lloydsville, Ohio, improvement in 
■piano fortes. 

John Hobbs, Hallowell, improvement in rain 
staff screws for ship carpenters. 

Washburn Race, and Birdsill Holly, Seneca 
Falls, improvement in carriage wheels. 

R. Jennings, Deep River, Ct., improvement in 
augers. 

Wm. H. McNamee, Philadelphia, improvement in 
locking spindle door latches. 

Sidq^y S. Middlebrook, Jas. E. Blakslee, and 
Charles F. Blakslee, Newton, Ct., improvement in 
machinery for felting hat bodies. 

J. B. Nichols, Lynn, improvement in sewing 
machines. 

Aaron Palmer, Brockport, improvemfrt in the 
construction of the frame of grass harvesters. 

Elijah F. Parker, Proctorsville, Vt. improvement 
in lantern frames. 

Jesse Eeed, Marshfield, improvement in cable 
stoppers. 

Henry Rogers, Ferrisburgh, Vt., improved force- 
;iump. 

David Russell, Drewersburg, Ind., improvement 
in harvester cutters. 

Alex. O. H. P. Sehom, Murfreesboro, Tenn., im- 
provement in portable fire-amis. 

Thaddeus Selleck, Greenwich, Ct., improvement 
in methods of working Franklinite ore. 

John Skelley, Brooklyn, improvement in carriage 
■wheels. 

Geo. L. Squir, Chicopee Falls, improvement in 
straw cutters. 

Joseph Stockdale, Ypsilanti, improvement in 
cultivator teeth. 

Jonathan G. Trotter, Newark, N. J., improve- 
ment in the construction of furnaces for zinc white. 



Henry G. Tyler, aad John Helm, New-Bruns- 
wick, N. J., improvement iu processes for making 
india-rubber cloth. 

Elisha Waters, Troy, improvement in cylindri- 
cal boxes. 

Salem Wilder, Lynn, improvement in wasing 
thread in sewing machines. 

Pinney Youngs, Milwaukie, Wis., improvement 
in sewing machines. 

James S. Ewbank, New- York, assignor to Wm. 
Everdell Jr., of same place, improvement in spurs. 

Edwin A. Morrison, LawrenceviUe, Va., assignor 
to himself and Robt. J. Morrison, Richmond, Va., 
improvement in delivering apparatus of grain har- 
vesters. 

George A. Meacham, New- York, for ■window 
washer. 

John Bean, and Benj, Wright, Hudson, Mich., 
improvement in smut machines. 

W. C. & J. S. Burnham, New- York, improve- 
ments in double-acting force-pumps. 

John H. Bloodgood, New- York, improvement in 
manufacturing seamless felt goods. 

David N. B. Coffin, Jr., Lyim, improved da- 
guerreotype holder. 

Nelson B. Carpenter, and John Powers, New- 
York, improved lifiing jacks for moving rail bare. 

Richard Deering, Sr., Louisville, for current wa- 
ter-wheels. 

Geo. W. Geisendorff, Indianapolis, and Jacob C. 
Geisendorff, Cincinnati, O., improvement in axle 
box rollers. 

John S. Griffiths, Huntington, Pa., improved 
corn and cob crusher. 

F. B. Bant, and Ellis Nordyke, Richmond, Indj, 
improved wire cloth bolt. 

Birdsill Holly, Seneca Falls, improvement in 
elliptical rotary pump. 

Daniel Haldeman, Morgantown, Va., improved 
burglar's alarm. 

Alpheus Kimball, Fitchburg, Mass., improved 
machine for repairing roads. 

S. E. Peltee, Foxborough, Mass., improvement 
in pressing hats and bonnets. 

Robt. A. Smith, and John Hartman, Jr., Phila- 
delphia, improved street-sweeping machine. 

Wm. Mt. Storm, New- York, improvement in 
steam generators. 

Joel Weigle,Swan Station, Pa., improved crush- 
ing and grinding mill. 

Wm. B. Carpenter, New-Y'ork, improvement iu 
the combined chair and crib for children. 

John Cochrane, Baltimore, improvement in lo- 
comotive trucks. 

V, P. Corbet, Corbetsville, New- York, improve- 
ment in constructing ships and other vessels. 

Thomas Champion, Washington, improvement 
in making steam boilers. 

Henry Glynn , Baltimore, improvement in manu- 
faeture of paper pulp. 

James A. Gray, Albany, improved sounding- 
board for piano fortes. 

James H. Mayilole, and Albert W. Morse, Eaton, 
N. Y., improvement in grass harvesters. 

Isaac M. Singer, New-York, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

James A. Taylor, Alden, New-York, improve- 
meut in mop-heads. 

Isaiah M. Williams, Blanchester, 0., improve- 
ment in butter workers. 

Cyrenus Wheeler, Jr., Venice, New-York, im- 
provement in grain and grass harvesters. 

L. W. Fiske, Louisville, improvement in com- 
positions for bleaching and stuffing leather. 

L. W. Fiske, Louisville, improvement in work- 
ing lime vats and tanneries. 

Hazen Webster, Ogdensburg, improvemeiu in 
churns. 

Geo; B. Ketcham, Bedford, Ind., improvement 
in mechanism for retaining cars upon the track. 

J. G. McFarlane, Perry Co., Pa., improvement u 
seed planters. Patented, March 14, 1S54. 



Clje II0119I), tlie inm, anli tf)f ^nuil. 



Vol. VII. APRIL, 1856. No. 10. 



MANA.GEMENT OF FAIRS— SYSTEMS OF PREMIUMS— WHO DESERVE 

THEM? 

We gave our views on this subject at some length, in our February num- 
ber, but rather in general than in detail. The subject of premiums was 
discussed, and, in reference to the policy of the plan now generally adopted, 
it was contended that premiums are not for the particular benefit of those 
who obtain them, but that they are oifered for the sake of their influence in 
securing a good exhibition. We now would very modestly suggest the ex- 
pediency of a thorough change in this system of premiums. 

But, before we enter farther upon the subject, we must insist on this: 
That a plan which is the best here or there, may not be the best plan, or 
even a good plan, everywhere. We are, by far, too much inclined to be 
imitators. This tendency often is good ; sometimes ii is ruinous. It may 
have been well, hitherto, to adopt the present system of premiums, but we 
have little doubt that there are sections of country where a change of sys- 
tem would operate beneficially. It may be that such sections are numerous 
and extensive. 

We have shown, we think, that the premium was originally proposed as 
an inducement to those whose example was worth something, to attend our 
fairs with the products of their industry. Perhaps those who were in ad- 
vance of their neighbors, in their style of farming, etc., and who would not 
expect to gain anything important at such gatherings, needed this almost 
absolute guaranty that they should make something out of such attendance. 
Men are selfish, even the best of them. But even selfishness exhibits itself 
in different forms, and may be controlled by other propensities, good or bad. 
Men are fond of showing the products of their own skill. How many there 
are whose '' geese are all swans," who think no other person ever succeeded 
in this, that, and the other, quite so well as themselves. This is a weakness. 
But there a.re forms, variations, and modifications of this passion, sgme of 
which are highly useful to others, and are destitute of any trace of wrong. 
I'hese propensities may sometimes very properly be encouraged. 

What is it, under the present system, which draws exhibitors to the fair ? 
Sometimes it is the least commendable form of this conceit; the mere love 
©f self-laudation. They did not adopt any improved mode of cultivation, but, 
by some fortunate concurrence of favorable circumstances, the crop turns out 
much better than the average, and the result is, an exhibition of it. The 

VOL. VII. 34 



578 MANAGEMENT OF FAIRS. 



chance for a little money, in the shape of a premium, is also worth some- 
thing, and, on the whole, the decision is in favor of the show. 

Others make a calculation beforehand. They say, "here is good soil. 
Now I will do my best — expend a little extra money in guano and super- 
phosphates, and get it all back, and more, too, in the value of the crop and 
the premiuna." This is better — it is good — positively commendable ; but 
it is not the best. 
^ The best and most worthy motive is, to become acquainted with, and to 
disseminate, the true principles of crop-growing ; to develop the science of 
farming; to make for one's self, and for others, substantial, permanent pro- 
gress in agriculture. A large crop a single year is no proof of good farming. 
But large cro^s for successive years, leaving the land in still better condition 
for the year to come, this is the true application of science to agriculture. ■ 

What hinders the attendance of nine out of ten of those who produce 
what is worthy of notoriety, and who yet absent themselves from our fairs ? 
We do not hesitate to say, it is the expense which would thereby be incurred. 
" It will not pay," is the common form of expression. But this does not 
mean " it will not put money in my pocket ;" but it does mean " it will 
take money out ;" and more money than the amount of gratification it will 
secure is worth, or more than I can afford. If this is so, what is the plain, 
the obvious mode of overcoming this objection ? Manifestly, to say to such, 
" It shall not cost you a mill." 

Here, then, you have our proposed modification of the system of premiums. 
Say to all within your "jurisdiction," whoever will present anything on such 
occasions, which the committee shall deem worthy of exhibition, shall have 
all his necessary expenses paid to him on the spot : or his expenses on the 
ground shall be paid by the society, without cost to the exhibitor, in the 
time and manner they may have previously arranged, but his expenses in 
arriving and returning shall be paid at the close of the fair. 

A similar plan might be adopted in reference to still more useful opei'a- 
tions. We refer to the proper management and accurate record of useful 
experiments on a farm. Suppose, for example, the proper authorities should 
seasonably announce that all exj^eriments, as to the most efficient mode of 
rendering sandy soils, similar to those prevailing on Long Island, or those in 
Georgia, fertile and productive for crops of wheat, or other given product, 
of the details of which, with all its proper antecedents, a minute diary shall 
be kept, as prescribed, duly authenticated, shall be entitled to so much, or to 
a reasonable premium, how much more instructive those operations would be. 

The experiments now given to the public, even by skillful farmers, are of 
little value to science. So much is omitted that the importance of the facts 
stated can not be properly estimated. By well known mathematical rules, 
if three quantities, bearing certain relations to each other, are given, a fourth 
can be found. But these experiments would have us determine a result, 
hitherto unknown, by scarcely giving us one exact known quantity. They 
tell us that the land was a " rich loam," or clayey, or peaty, and that they 
put on certain manures. But they give us no analysis of the soil ; no care- 
ful record of previous crops and former cultivations. Perhaps the application 
now made rendered soluble some fertilizer, applied years ago, but in an in- 
soluble form. Perhaps the very rocks have contributed valuable elements. 
We have seen many instances of that kind, when not a spade or hoe had 
been applied. The magnesian rock, or argillaceous slate, or the feldspar, or 
something else, was doing much more than was dreamed of; or, perhaps, 
some phosphate, hitherto insoluble, was now rendered efiicient : some lime- 



MANAGEMENT OF FAIRS. 679 

stone decomposed ; some — no matter what, so long as, whatever it is, small' 
or great, all is unknown. There may have been no such agencies, but we do 
not know that it is so. To farm by such science, with scarcely one known 
quantity, is to tax the farmer with problems which the mathematician 
would never attempt to work out. One might as w&ll write a correct 
biography of a man, when he has only had an imperfect account of his ap- 
pearance and deportment, for a few days only, from one not familiar with 
the character of the subject to be described. Such, too often, is the actual 
condition of our farmers in their daily toils by which they gather all their 
income. 

We have not wrought out the prominent idea here urged by an effort of 
our inventive faculties in our own sanctum. The thought is suggested by 
other operations that have proved eminently successful. For example. 
What kind of lotteries are most eagerly sought for by the masses of the peo- 
ple ? They are those which have, or profess to have, as many small prizes 
as there are tickets. Those " gift enterprizes," all offer something to every 
number — there are no blanks — and they are eagerly sought after, whenever 
the people have confidence in the operators. We do not know of an ex- 
ception among them all. In these, we admit, was the additional hope, the 
one chance in a thousand or more, of getting something great. But the 
features which made those people who never buy in other lotteries willing to 
incur this " risk," was that feature in it which secured them, as they supposed, 
from loss in any event. It is not the lottery alone which can array such 
efficient motives before the minds of men. There is no magic power in the 
lottery to urge men to action. The same controlling agency can as well be 
applied to a cattle show, or exhibition of crops, or of machinery ; or, rather, we 
would say, it can not rightfully be overlooked, whenever we would determine 
the best method to excite the general attention of a community, especially 
when they do not properly appreciate the more substantial benefits which 
may be thereby secured. 

Modifications of this plan might sometimes be desirable. If practicable, a 
moderate list of premiums, as now offered, might be retained ; or even the 
entire list, if there is money enough, but only in subordination to the other 
mode of expenditure, and to be paid aftei- all such bills are satisfied. The 
balance might then be divided, on some certain graduated scale, among 
the most deserving contributors. " Honorable mention," and the like, might 
also form a part of the system, as at present. 

But what inducement has my neighbor. A., to offer anything at our fair, 
when he has already been assured that neighbor B. has produced, and will 
exhibit, something better ? Neighbor C. is in the same condition. Hence, 

B. and C. both stay at home, and A. only exhibits ; and, as nobody but A. 
exhibits, therefore nobody goes to see the exhibition. But, if A. and B. and 

C, etc., were going to exhibit, and made some little noise about it, they ■ 
would awaken a general desire among the people to attend, and our fairs 
would be thronged. 

WHO DESERVES THE PREMIUM ? 

We need not say, that it might happen that B. or C, whose products are 
less valuable than A.'s, are both better entitled to a premium than he. Is 
he the best farmer, who, in a single season, forces out of his grounds the 
greatest cxo^l Br no means. A.'s grounds are in good condition. He 
bought them recently of one who took proper care of them, and all he has 
done is just to plant his seed, and, without especial skill or extra labor, let 



580 MANAGEMENT OF FAIRS. 

his crop grow. And he finds in the fall, taking the affidavit of his hired 
man as evidence, that he has grown one hundred and twenty bushels of com 
to the acre. Any fool might have done the same. Or, perhaps, he has 
been lavi?H in his expenditures on a given lot, doing what no one but a very 
rich man can do. But B. owns a farm consisting almost exclusively of sand. 
Still he is resolved to make a good soil, and hence he collects his leaves, and 
his turfs, and his clay, and his Hme and ashes, and mixing all these with 
the strong products of his hog-pen, and with his manure-heap, and carrying 
out a thorough system of ploughing, and mixing, and a judicious growth of 
crops, on land that had produced only eight or ten bushels of wheat, or 
twenty or thirty of corn, he has grown forty or fifty of wheat, and eighty or 
ninety bushels of good corn. Who best deserves a premium for these crops ? 
Who is entitled to the highest reward for good farming, from those who 
would reform our agriculture? 

Is it said " we have ofi"ered a premium for the greatest crop ?'" Indeed I 
Do you give premiums, and " the highest premiums," for unwise, unscientific 
farming — for farming that costs, in the end, more than the value of the crops 
— for farming in which, if your hired man persisted, you would discharge 
him? 

Some exhibitors buy their'land already prepared for them, and thus se- 
cure " the best crop." But why pay a man for buying a good farm, or why 
reward a man for planting corn on good land, when he has it at command, 
while he does not exhibit any skill in his calling. Of course, if he has good 
land, he will use it; and, if he uses it at all, we might almost say, he will not 
fail of a good crop. But reformers should not give honor to a man for mal- 
practice. No reward should be given for that, which, in its production, does 
not furnish evidence of peculiar skill, and is not worthy, eminently worthy 
OF IMITATION. If A. has, for a series of years, kept his land in good trim, so 
as always to produce good crops, reward him for it, if you will ; but we in- 
sist that no "premium" should be paid for anything that is not, all things 
considered, worthy of especial commendation. One may be willing to pay 
expenses for a pleasing addition to a show, which otherwise may fail to 
attract general attention, when he would not be willing, as an agriculturist 
of skill and discernment, to declare that /or such a production^ \h% grower is 
entitled to be singled out from all other competitors, and receive a pre- 
mium, or be honored by a proclamation of " well done," to the neglect of a 
score of others, more industrious, and better informed, and, in the end, more 
successful, than he. 

We have just laid down an exchange which illustrates our ideas on this 
branch of the subject. The editor says, in substance, that he has taken pains 
to get " the cream" of the doings of the agricultural societies, in his state, 
(Vermont,) and then " making a report in part," he proceeds to- give a 
statement of a few of the sums paid as premiums to sundry exhibitors, and 
attempts nothing else. If this is " the cream," we .don't care for the skim 
milk. But this is not the cream, nor even the skim milk. It is only the 
old horse 'that brought the milk to market. He wholly misapprehends bis 
business as a teacher of good systems of agricultural labor and production, 
who teaches such doctrines. The premiums are the bait to draw pub- 
lic attention. The mode of cultivation is the prize to be won ; and, if the 
matter is so managed, that this is not worthy of attention, then the whole 
concern is not worth a straw, and such societies may as well disband. ^ 

W^e do not think it well to honor with a medal, or its value in coin, the 
mere production of an extraordinary growth. If one has, by skill, produced 



FLAX. 581 

a soil capable of honestly sustaining a wonderful crop, HONOR HIM. Be- 
stow upon hioa that meed of praise of which kings may not be worthy. 
Hence, we would not offer a premium for that cultivation that happens to 
produce the greatest number of bushels, without reference to the antecedents. 
That same state of Vermont, in the county of AVindsor, recently presented a 
case bearing directly on this point. Two competitors for the prize, for the 
greatest crop of corn, reported exactly the same quantity per acre. Which 
shall have the " first prize ?" To us the problem is perfectly simple — he who 
contended most skillfully against obstacles and embarrassments. But that 
point does not appear even to have entered into the minds of that committee. 
We know not where to stop in writing on this subject. We commend 
these thoughts to all our agricultural societies. They have done like other 
societies long enough. We are fully persuaded that our annual shows are 
not managed as they should be ; that, besides the personal favoritism some- 
times exhibited, there is great want of judgment displayed in assigning pre- 
miums, and in awarding them ; there is a great want of preparatory labor on 
the part of managers, in taking suitable measures to secure a good show, 
which is a most crying sin ; and there is a great, even a fatal, want of means 
to make the good secured useful to the community. Here, inviting dis- 
cussion on this whole subject, we pause for the present. 



FLAX. 

We have often commended this growth to the attention of farmers, and 
for the purpose of giving them the views of different writers, more or less 
familiar with the subject, we take from the Valley Farmer the following 
article, which we regard as worthy of careful attention. After commending 
this crop as one promising large and certain profits, the writer proceeds thus : 

"The usual practice is to raise on the same piece of land, a crop of wheat 
one year, and the next year flax ; sowing the flax early, so as to have it out 
of the way for the early wheat sowing, and after the wheat is taken off", the 
stubble and a good stock of clover is turned under by a fall ploughing. 
There are farmers that have pursued this course for twenty years, without 
exhausting the soil, and always reaping profitable harvests every year, avoid- 
ing the loss of every alternate year in summer fallowing, as is usual with 
most farmers. The flax crop, when- sown thin, as is the practice when rais- 
ing it for the seed, leaves the land in fine condition for almost any other 
crop — a fact which is not generally known or appreciated. 

It is a very common practice to sow barley and flax together, as they ma- 
ture and are harvested at the same time, and can be thrashed together, and 
the two very easily separated with suitable screens in the fan. This practice 
is meeting with much favor, and is said to be a very profitable method of 
cultivating both barley and flax-seed. Indeed, some farmers assert that the 
yield of flax-seed is not diminished by the growth of the barley, nor is the 
yield of the barley less on account of the flax-seed. But we give these 
items, more for the expectation that every farmer will make tests for himself, 
than that he will take the statements as settled facts for all kinds of farms in 
all localities. But nothing can be more certain than that the farmers through- 
out the entire West — the length and breadth of the Mississippi Valley can 
make the cultivation of flax-seed a very profitable Crop, not second in value 



582 FLAX. 

to wheat, corn, or any other — the seed always commanding ready sale for 
cash, at high prices. It is a remarkable fact, that the demand for flax-seed 
has increased for the last year from one to two hundred per cent. The 
"Latourette Oil Works," of this city, completed and in operation the last 
year, are capable of consuming one hundred and fifty to two hundred thou- 
sand bushels per annum. ' The proprietors of these works are offering to con- 
tract largely, and offering every inducement to farmers to turn their attention 
more generally to the cultivation of flax-seed. The Collier Lead and Oil 
Works, of this city (H. T. Blow,) also consumes about as large a quantity of 
flax-seed annually. In addition to this, there have been several oil mills 
erected this past year, within the range of country trading with this city. 
We subjoin some practical directions. 

NATURE OF THE SOIL. 

Almost any kind of soil will grow flax-seed successfully, especially such as 
are adapted to wheat. If sown on rich bottom lands, you get a luxuriant 
growth of straw, but not so much seed as when sown on upland. Clay, 
hardpan, or sandy lands, are better for a good yield of seed, though rich 
loam, or prairie lands are good, especially if they are rolling and well drained. 
It must be borne in mind that a selection with a view to a good crop of seed 
is quite different from one for a good crop of fibre — the one requiring a 
harder, dryer soil ; while the other should have a low, rich, moist land. A 
dry season is favorable to a crop of seed, while a wet season is almost indis- 
pensable to a good crop of the fibre. 

PREPARATION OF THE GROUND. 

The ground for flax-seed should be ploughed the fall before, and again in 
the spring, and finally pulverised with a heavy drag. Thorough deep plough- 
ing and pulverising the earth, as far as possible, should never be neglected. 
The seed should be sown broadcast, and should have as light a covering of 
earth as possible, and, to this end, a brush should be used instead of a drag, 
so as not to cover the seed too deep. The field should be laid off" in furrows 
or lands, and trenches run with the plow to carry off" the surplus water. 

TIME OF SOWING. 

It may be sown as early in the spring as can be done with safety against 
frost. Many persons pay no attention to frost, and sow quite early. Some 
even sow it on the snow in February or March, as about nineteen cases in 
twenty the frost does not injure it; but there is a particular stage of the 
growth of the young sprout, when, if the frost takes it, it will perish, which 
gives the preference to ordinary spring sowing. If not sown till rather late 
in the spring, it frequently does not get suflficient growth before dry vreather 
overtakes it. Therefore, sow late enough to avoid frost, and early enough 
to secure early spring rains. 

KIND OF SEED. 

Particular attention should be taken to get large, full, and well-matured 
seed for sowing. Where the crop has been very thick on the ground, the 
stalk is pale and weakly, and does not afford sufficient maturity for the berry, 
and seed from such a crop should always be avoided. The best plan is to 
have one corner of a field sown on purpose to get seed for sowing tbe next 
year ; and on this corner, the less seed you can get evenly scattered over the 



FLAX. 583 

ground, the more vigorous and matured will be the stalks and the seed. 
There are different varieties of flax-seed, and some are preferable to others 
for their seed yielding and oil producing qualities. But it is so diflficult to 
get any pure species, it is, perhaps, better to disregard varieties, and select 
seed for its apparent goodness. Always sow pure flax-seed, without any 
mixture of foreign seeds. Too much care cannot be taken on this point. 
Be particular to riddle out all yellow grass, cockle, mustard rape, or other 
seeds, and starting with a pure seed, you will have no difficulty with foul 
stuff", and will always have the greatest yield per acre, and obtain the highest 
price when you market your seed. 

QUANTITY OF SEED. 

Much difference of opinion exists in regard to the quantity of seed to be 
sown per acre, but the probability is, that the quantity should be varied 
according to the condition of the ground, season, &c. The most successful 
raisers practice very light sowing, some even as low as eight quarts per acre ; 
but a fair average quantity, for all farms and all circumstances is, say from 
twelve to twenty quarts, when the crop is cultivated exclusively for the seed 
— thus securing plenty of room for the stalks to stand upon the ground and 
spread out their branches, and give the sun access to their roots, and securing 
strength of earth for nourishment and maturity of the stalk. When sown 
thin, the stalk branches nearly down to the ground, and each branch is loaded 
with bowls. When sown thick, the stalks are spindling and weak, and 
often have but a single berry on the top, and, perhaps, no seed at all, besides 
exhausting the soil to a wonderful rate. A. piece of ground that has been 
burthened with a thick mass of flax fibre, is good for nothing for years after. 
When sown thin for the seed, the fibre is very short and coarse ; and in the 
new linen process, as well as for the paper mills, is quite equal to the fine 
fibre. In Ireland, where the finest linen is produced, it is not uncommon to 
see as much as twelve bushels of seed sown to the acre, so that the stalks are 
little above fine threads, growing up through each other in a dense mass, and 
producing no seed at all. In Russia, the German States, and other portions 
of Europe, and in India, the quantity sown is regulated more to a view of 
both seed and fibre, and the quantity ranges from 1:|- to 2f bushels per acre. 

TIME OF HARVESTING. 

Flax-seed should be cut before it is ripe, when the boils are beginning to 
pass from the yellow to the brown color, and it is better to let it lie a few 
hours if the weather is dry, before binding it up, so that the seed can fill and 
ripen from the nutriment remaining in the stalk. If it is left standing till it 
is quite ripe, a large proportion of the seed will be lost in gathering the crop. 

MANNER or GATHERING. 

The crop can be cut with the cradle, or in any of the usual modes. After 
laying in the swath a few hours, it should be bound up in bundles and put 
in stack, or barn, secure from the weather. Some farmers mow the crop the 
same as hay, and handle it in bulk ; but the best way is to cradle, rake, and 
bind in bundles. 

THRESHING — TIME AND MODE. 

It should be threshed as early in the fall as possible, and in a time of dry- 
weather, for if it lies too long, the seed is apt to adhere to the shell, and is-. 
more difficult to thresh and clean up, and for the same reason, it should not 
be threshed in damp weather. 



584 FLAX MANUFACTURE, 



CLEANING UP AND MARKETING. 

The seed should be cleaned up on a barn floor, and in still weather. 
When it is cleaned up in the field, or when the wind is driving dust about, 
the dust and dirt gets in with the seed, and a great deal adheres to the seed, 
in spite of all efforts to clean it with the fan, causing it to look dull and 
dusty, and the oil makers will not buy it as prime seed. When it is cleaned 
up and ready for the market, it should be put into new, strong bags; for 
there is no other seed, or grain, that will creep out of so small a hole, or that 
is so likely to burst the bag. If the seed is 2:)lun]p and clean, and your half- 
bushel is correct, you will find ihat it will more than hold out by weight. 
The standard weight of a bushel is fifty-six pounds, and you will find that 



prime seed will go sixty pounds." 



THE FLAX MANUFACTURE. 

The effect of the present European war on this great branch of agricultu- 
ral products, was discussed at the annual meeting of the society for the pro- 
motion and encouragement of the growth of flax in Ireland. The views 
there presented ought to have an interest in the minds of our farmers. We 
copy the following paragraph, in relation to this subject, from The Practical 
Mechanic's Journal, 

" The proceedings of the meeting just held at Belfast, under the presidency 
of the Marquis of Donegal, hold a conspicuous position in the more import- 
ant affairs of the day, embracing the several heads of the effects of the war 
on our flax culture, and the proceedings taken by the committee thereon — 
the Irish flax crop of 1854, the operations of the year, mai'kets in new dis- 
tricts, saving of seed, the recently patented systems of steeping, unsteeped 
flax fibre, conversion of flax tow into wool, scutching machines, new scutch 
mills erected, new varieties of flax, intercourse with foreigners, exports of 
Irisb flax and tow, and a special report by the " Belgian Instructor" on the 
growth of hemp. The question as to the effects of the Russian war on this 
trade, necessarily assumes a seiious aspect, when it is remembered that out 
<yf an imported aggregate of 80,000 tons of flax, nearly 60,000 comes from 
Eussia, whilst some three-fourths of the seed sown in Ireland also comes from 
Riga. Prussia has, however, so far acted as an outlet of this Russian pro- 
duce, so that we have not yet felt any change. Still, for '• profit and loss" 
reasons on the part of the Irish farmers, the amount sown for the present year 
in Ireland, is only 150,972 acres against 174,579 in 1853 ; but as the yield 
in 1853 was inferior, it is believed that the marketable fibre this year will be 
equal to the last crop. Its value is taken at about £2,000,000. The saved 
seed is of much greater amount than formerly ; a single landed proprietor in 
Cork having the produce of 2,400 acres, whilst a firm in Derry holds 2,000 
barrels. Fourteen steeping establishments are now in operation in Ireland, 
carrying out the modern patented methods of treatment. In some, a portion 
of the flax is steeped in open air tanks, but all of them press the flax straw 
between rollers after its removal from the steep, and from this reason the 
fibre shows a marked improvement. The importance of the retteiy system, 
as enabling the grower to sell his flax crop without getting involved in the 
processes of steeping, drying, and scutching, is evinced in the fact, that large 



FLAX MANUFACTURE. 585 



retteries are now at work in England, Scotland, France, Belgium, Holland, 
Austria, Prussia, and Bavaria. The present unmechanical process of scutch- 
ing seeais to be now gaining some improvement, for the attention of very 
many inventors has been drawn to the subject. The government returns 
show the number of scutching mills in Ireland, in 1853, to have been 1,056, 
with 5,871 stocks ; there having been in 1852 but 956 mills, with 5,871 
stocks. The Belgian Instructor reports thus on the growth of hemp : — 
' From personal observation, I have arrived at the opinion that hemp can 
only be beneficially grown in Ireland in the following manner : It should be 
sown after potatoes, the field being thoroughly cleansed while digging that 
root. The hemp crop can be followed by a flax crop, as practised in Bel- 
gium. The hemp should receive some artificial manure — such as guano, or 
rape-cake dust — at the sowing period, to create a quick stimulus to the young 
plant, the manure to be applied with the seed. The seed should not be 
sown either broadcast or in drills, but with the usual corn-sowing machine, 
and covered, crossways, with the roller ; or, still better, ploughed in, in the 
same way as wheat, along with the artificial manure, so that the crop will be 
in drills of three to four inches apart. As only 140 plants, at the most, per 
square yard are required, and each pint contains 10,570 seeds, it follows that 
thirty-two quarts would be a suflScient quantity of seed per statute acre ; but 
I would recommend an increase of one fourth of that quantity for the follow- 
ing reasons : Experience has shown me clearly, that, although the female 
plant is the most vigorous at the ripening period, the male plant will take the 
lead until it arrives in blossom ; that the male forms about a fourth of the 
whole crop, and possess little fibre, and that of inferior quality, reaching ma- 
turity fully four weeks before the female. By pulling the whole crop at the 
ripening period of the female, the male plant becomes valueless. By taking 
a medium — that is, two weeks after the ripening of the male, and two weeks 
before that of the female — the valuable seed is sacrificed, and the straw 
steeps unevenly, with a mixed fibre of inferior quality. To obviate these 
evils, a very simple plan may be adopted. By sowing the crop in drills, as 
described above, a fourth of the plants can be easily removed ; and as the 
mail takes the lead, by simply pulling the most advanced plants at the time 
the crop is six to twelve inches high, it will turn out an almost female 
crop, securing the greatest yield in both seed and fibre, witliout any after 
trouble in the treatment between the plants of each sex. The expetiments 
have also convinced me of the possibility of taking ofi" the seed by the ordi- 
nary thrashing machine, provided an even crop be obtained ; and that the 
hemp straw can be scutched in the common flax scutching mill, by simply 
having the diameter of the beaters, to which the wipers are attached, enlarged, 
and the stock brought to an equal elevation, which can be done by excavat- 
ing the ground where the stocks have to be uted for hemp scutching, though 
attached to the same revolvino- shaft.' " 



Sulphate of Lead as a Substitute for Oxide of Tin in Making 
Enamel. — Albert Ungerer, of Pforzheim, states that if sulphate of lead, 
which, as our readers know, is a substance produced as a secondary product 
in many manufactures, be added to flint glass, to the extent of about 25 per 
cent., a beautiful enamel glass will be obtained, which, although very heavy, 
becomes much more fluid on being melted than the tin enamel, — Polytech- 
nische Journal. 



586 



AGRICULTUEAL CAPACITIES OF TEXAS, 



AGRICULTURAL CAPACITIES OF TEXAS. 

The March number oi De Bow's Review contains an account of progress 
in this state, which is truly remarkable :, 

" The following table shows the pr^.ncipal items of taxation, their value, 
etc., for each of the eight years, ending jvith 1853 : 



Years. 



1846 .. 
1847... 
1848... 
1849... 
1850... 
1851 . . . 
1852... 
1853 . . . 



Land. 



No. acres 
asaessficl. 



31,967,4811 
30.440,'>IO 
32.160. ^4 

32,890,887 
3-'.640,4no 
37.7.31.774 
37.838,79^ 
39,175.858 



Value. 



Negroes. 



No. 
ass'd. 



517.776,101 31,099 
17,326 994 39,251 
20,777,412 40,610 
20.874,641 43.534 
21,807.670 49,197 
31,415,604 59,959 
33, 1 16,77v' 68,77.1 
39.259,412 78,713 



Value. 



$10,142,198 
12,174,593 
13.398,47(i 
14,658,837 
17,776,500 
26.246 668 
28 628,990 
35,946,473 



Ad. 
valo. 



Horses and cattle. 



No. as- 
sessed. 



411,100 

448,971 
.581,251 
631 649 
750,35-2 
901.794 
41511,020,842 
456,1,164,463 



324 
3101 
323 

837| 
361 
404 



Value. 



Other property. 



Money at 
interest, 
goods in 
•tore, &c. 



$2 929,372 $3,543,501 
3,392,7f'4| 4663,131 
4,174,475! 5.461,666 
5419,015! 5,847.616 
5,222.270 6,675, 17.'^ 
6.638,115! 7,639 797 
7.977,999. 11,030,423 

10,217,499 13,734 530 



Agjiregate 
taxable, 
property. 



$34,891,175 
37.562..505 
4<.812,537 
46,241, .589 
51.814.515 
69.739,.581 
80,754,094 
99.155,114 



This is a most extraordinary result when we look back twenty years to the 
meeting at Niblo's Garden, where the Hon, Daniel Webster addressed a large 
meeting in relation to that then unknown region. The speculation in those 
lands, then set on foot by Messrs. Swartwout, Curtis, and others, filled the 
country with Texas land scrip, all of which, we believe, was considered ulti- 
mately valueless. Nevertheless, that great country, in spite of disrepute, 
bankruptcy, frauds, violence, war, and repudiation, was inoculated with the 
American element of progi-ess, and we find her wealth tripled in eight years, 
and those lands which General Hamilton, in 1840, vainly sought to pledge 
for a loan ia France, at $3 per acre, have risen, in eight years, from $55 to 
llOO per acre. The cattle have increased in number 700,000, but are 
assessed at the low rate of $7,78 per head, having apparently not increased 
in assessed value ; at that rate, the aggregate value has risen $7,300,000 
among a population of 154,431 white. 

Texas is, beyond all comparison, the best grazing country in the United 
States, To a stock-raiser in the north, his herd are a dead expense for at 
least one-half of the year. Hay and grain must be accumulated for their 
sustenance, and stables, more or less expensive, must be prepared for their 
protection during the winter months. Not so in Texas. Men whose cattle 
mimber thousands of head, are at no great expense for feeding them. The 
only expense attending the raising of cattle in Texas is that of salting them 
occasionally to prevent their becoming too wild, and herding them during 
the season of branding, and during the prevalence of severe " noj'thers.'' 
Nature, all-bountiful and propitious, spreads out upon the prairies her carpet 
of perennial greenness, and there they roam, lowing and feeding, fat and 
sleek. The increase of stock is very rapid, not less than thirty per cent, 
yearly. A cow and a calf will sell at from $8 to $15, good oxen from $30 
to $60 a pair, and a whole herd together will average $5 a head. To a man 
virho has but small means, there can be no more certain road to wealth than 
that of stock-raising in Texas. Before the lapse of ten years the increase 
alone would amount to five hundred head annually, if he had made his pur- 
chases judiciously at the commencement. Horses, mules, sheep, and swine, 
are all raised with equal facility. The average expense of fetting a hog till 



LINES OF EAILROAD. 587 



it weighs from two to three hundred pounds is about two bushels of corn, all 
the rest being effected by means of the pecans, and other food, which the 
country produces spontaneously. 

The number of slaves given in the census for 1850 was 58,161 ; number 
assessed in that year was 49,191; since when they have increased 70 per 
cent., with an increase of the price per head. Since 1846, it appears, under 
a supply of 47,000 slaves, the assessed value has advanced from |324 to 
$456 per head ; money at interest, it appears, has increased $10,200,000, or 
three hundred per cent., and it may be borne in mind there are no banks m 
Texas. 

Certainly such a State as that ought to do something towards meeting, m 
full, the obligations that she found takers for in the days of her adversity. If 
there were those whose hopes for Texas outlived the news of the Alamo, they 
may yet outlive the days of Texan dishonor." 



LIKES OF RAILROAD CONNECTING BOSTON AND NEW -YORK WITH 

THE WEST. 

Commencing at Boston, and following the line of the Western Railroad 
of Massachusetts to Albany, thence by the New- York Central Road to Buffa- 
lo, thence by the Lake Shore Railroad to Cleveland, thence by the lines of 
railway passing by Bellefontaine to Indianapolis, and thence to Terre Haute, 
we shall have an aggregate of one thousand and thirty-four miles of railroad 
in actual operation, crowded with business through the entire distance. 

If we begin at Neiv-York, and pass over the Hudson River Railroad to 
Albany, and thence follow the line above described, we shall find a distance 
of nine hundred and seventy-eight miles of completed railroads ; or if from 
New-York, we follow the New-York and Erie Railroad to Dunkirk, and 
there intercept the above described line, we shall find a distance of nine hun- 
dred and fifty-five miles of railroads in daily operation. 

If we start from Philadelphia, and pass by the Pennsylvania _ Central 
Railroad to Pittsburg, and thence by the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad to 
its intersection at Crestline with the fine from Cleveland to Indianapolis, we 
shall find a line of railroad eight hundred and eighteen miles in length to 
Terre Haute, in actual operation. 

If we start from Baltimore, and go by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
to Wheeling, and thence by the Central Ohio Railroad to Columbus, thence 
by the line to Xenia and the Indiana Central Railroad to Indianapolis, and 
thence to Terre Haute, we have a line of seven hundred and seventy miles 
now in actual operation. 

If we start from Cincinnati, and proceed by the railroad via Lawrence- 
burg to Indianapolis, and thence to Terre Haute, we have a hue of one hun- 
dred and eighty-two miles of railroad in operation. 

Combining these different lines, and omitting such portions of them as are 
common to two or more of the lines above named, we shall find an aggregate 
of tioo thousand nine hundred and ninety-one miles of railroad now comple- 
ted, and in daily and constant operation between Terre Haute and the cities 
of the East. 

Of the lines not completed, but now under construction, the Wabash Val- 
ley Railroad will unite with our line at Paris, in Edgar County, one hundred 



588 LINES OF RAILEOAD. 

and fifty miles from Alton, and passing to the valley of the Wabash, will 
proceed by Lafayette, Logansport, and Fort Wayne, to Toledo, where it will 
unite witb the navigation of Lake Erie, and form the shortest connection be- 
tween St. Louis and the Lake that is practicable. It will be about two hun- 
dred and seventy miles in length, from Paris to Toledo, and will passthrougli 
the most important section of the State of Indiana. 

At Toledo, it will unite with the Cleveland and Toledo Railroad, and se- 
cure, in the direction of Cleveland and thence to the' East, the connections 
that will entitle it to be considered one of the great thoroughfares of the 
business between the East and West. Nearly five millions of dollars have 
already been expended upon this line, and nearly one-half of the whole will 
be in operation by July of the present year. 

It will l>e remembered that the junction of the Missouri and Mississippi 
Rivers takes place opposite the city of Alton, and, consequently, the naviga- 
tion of the Missouri is favorably carried on from this point. 

I subjoin a recapitulation of the distances by Railroad, above referred to, 
for convenience of reference. 

Boston to Terre Haute, 1,034 miles. Miles. 

Boston to Albany, by Western Railroad, &c., 200 

Albany to Bufialo, by New-York Central Railroad, - - - 298 

Buffalo to Cleveland, by Lake Shore Roads, - - - - - 183 

Cjeveland to Indianapolis, by Bellefontaine Lines, - - - 281 

Indianapolis to Terre Haute, - 72 

Total, ----- 1,034 

New-York to Terre Haute, hy New-York Central Railroad, 978 miles. 

Miles. 

New- York to Albany, by Hudson River Railroad, - - - - 144 

Albany to Indianapolis, as above, - 762 

Indianapolis to Terre Haute, 72 

Total, - 978 

New-York to Terre Haute, by New-York and Erie Railroad, 955 miles. 

Milks. 

New- York to Dunkirk, 460 

Dunkirk to Cleveland, .--.__._ 142 
Cleveland to Terre Haute, 353 

Total, - - - - 955 

Philadelphia to Terre Haute, 818 miles. Milbs. 

Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, by Pennsylvania Central Railroad, - - 353 

Pittsburgh to Crestline, by Pennsylvania and Ohio Railroad, - 187 

Crestline to Indianapolis, by Bellefontaine Lines, - - - - 206 

Indianapolis to Terre Haute, by Terre Haute and Richmond Railroad, 72 

Total, - - 818 

Baltimore to Terre Haute, 775 miles. Milks. 

Baltimore to Wheeling, by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, - - - 380 
Wheeling to Columbus, by Ohio Central Railroad, . - - 141 

Columbus to Indianapolis, by Indiana Central Railroad, &c., - - 182 

Indianapolis to Terre Haute, 72 

Total, 775 



EAILWAYS IN KUSSIA. 689 



Cincinnati to Terre Haute, 182 miles. Milbs. 

Cincinnati and Indianapolis Railroad, - - - - - -110 

Indianapolis to Terra Haute, 72 

Total, - T 182 

The above are the lines of railway completed and in operation, and include, 
of distinct lines, 2,991 miles. 

LINES UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 

Miles. 

Wabash Valley Railroad, Paris to Toledo, " 270 

Cleveland and Toledo Railroad, via Sandusky, completed, - - 107 

Cleveland and Toledo Railroad, via Norwalk, completed, - - - 112 

Illinois Central Railroad, main hne, completed, - - - i 454 

Illinois Central Railroad, Chicago Branch, 173 

Connecting lines in progress, - - - - - -1,116 

Which, added to the aggregate above, make a total oi four thousand, 
one hundred and seven 7niles of railroads, connecting St. Louis with the 
Atlantic cities. 



RAILWAYS IN RUSSIA. 

The carriage allotted for my special use was about ten feet square ; it was 
furnished with two sofas and chairs, a small card table, and two side tables. 
On the sofas I could have reclined at full length — a convenience very desi- 
rable, and generally denied us on English railways — both [sofas and chairs 
had air cushions, and were very comfortable. I looked into several first and 
second class carriages, and they all appeared nicely fitted up, although not 
like the one assigned to me ; the second class carriages had cushions superior 
to those of the first class on English railways, and afforded plenty of room 
to each individual, allowing of his sitting without cramping his knees upon 
those of the person opposite to him. We left Moscow at 1 1 o'clock precise- 
ly — Mr. Sherman, my servant, and myself, occupying this litte room to our- 
selves ; our baggage was stowed away in another carriage. I was pleased 
to perceive that there was no unnecessary hurry in the railway movements 
such as those which annoy the English traveler ; plenty of time was allowed 
at every station to the passengers to take their meals, and in each there Avas 
all that could be required in the way of refreshments. The time allowed 
for the train to pass from one station to another is carefully fixed for the dri- 
ver, who dare not arrive a minute sooner or later ; so that, in some cases, we 
had to go very slowly, in order not to arrive before the time. This, however, 
is not unpleasant, as people on the continent do not give away to that ner- 
vous hurry which fidgets us and shortens our lives. Who in England has 
time to look around him ? Rich and poor seem to be urged along by an 
impetus which prevents their thinking of anything except their next ap- 
pointment, and as soon as that is kept, their thoughts fly to the next. — 
English Prisoners in Russia. 



590 CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CERTAIN FERTILIZERS. 



FOn THE PLOLOII, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CERTAIN FERTILIZERS ON THE POTATO. 

BY PROF. J. L. CAMPBELL, OF "WASHINGTON COLLEGE, VIRGINIA. 

In tlae spring of 1852, I applied to a part of a small lot of potatoes a mix- 
ture of wood ashes, gypsum, and common salt, using them in the proportion 
of four bushels of recently leached ashes, one bushel of ground gypsum, and 
half a gallon of salt. The application was made soon after the tops began 
to malce their appearance above the surface of the ground. The mixture 
was aj^lied to a part only of the lot, while, in other respects, the whole was 
treated alike. That part to which the application was made, produced not 
only a more abundant crop than the other, but, also, potatoes of much supe- 
rior quality. 

This led me to try a similar treatment of the greater portion of my little 
crop in 1853. The fertilizing preparation was in this case varied, by using 
double the quantity of salt previously used. By way of further experiment, 
too, the mode of applying it was somewhat varied. To one part it was ap- 
plied at the time of planting directly upon the tubers ; to another part, after 
the tops appeared above ground. The result this year was more satisfactory, 
in the soundness, quantity, and flavor of the potatoes, than it had been the 
year before, although the season was far from being favorable. There was, 
however, no perceptible difference between those having the fertilizers appHed 
at the time of planting, and those having them subsequently applied upon 
the surface of the ground. 

Such was the influence of the ashes, plaster, and salt, that I resolved to 
subject to chemical examination specimens cultivated both with and without 
the use of these manures. This has been done in such a way as to give a 
fair comparison of results. 

Two small plots of ground, alike in character and fertility, were prepared 
last spring (1854) for potatoes. The soil was broken up early, and exposed 
to' the action of frost. At planting time — the latter part of April — it was 
stirred, and laid off in trenches four inches deep, and two-and-a-half feet 
apart. In the bottom of these the tubers were drilled, at the distance of six 
or eight inches apart. The trenches were then filled up with a mixture of 
broken straw and stable manure. JJp to this point both portions of ground 
were treated precisely alike. 

The mixture of ashes, gypsum, and salt, was now scattered along the 
trenches on the manure in one of the plots of ground, while it was entirely 
withheld from the other. The quantity applied was at the rate of about 
twelve bushels to the acre. The whole was then covered with the soil. 
The subsequent culture consisted in keeping the ground clear of weeds, and 
in drawing a little earth to the tops in the early part of their growth — the 
same mode of treatment being applied to both divisions. The resulting 
crop was about as four to one in fiivor of that portion to which the mineral 
fertilizers were applied. 

It is deemed unnecessary to give further details as to mode of culture, re- 
sults in quantity, etc., as the object in view was a chemical investigation. 
The conclusions reached by this investigation will, doubtless, possess some 
interest in the mind of the intelligent agriculturist, and will, I hope, lead 
directly to more extended and more accurate practical experiments. 



CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CERTAIN FERTILIZERS. 



591 



Specimens of the tubers from both portions of ground have been examined : 

1. With respect to the relative quantities of solid, nutritious matter found 
in each ; and, 2. With respect to the influence of the mineral fertilizer 
upon the relative piroioortions of some of the elements in the ashes. 

For the sake of brevity, let the specimen cuUivated with the ashes, plaster, 
and salt, be designated by the letter A, and that cultivated with the organic 
manures alone by B. — The kind of potato planted is tbat known here as the 
Long Bed. 

The specimen, A, carefully cleaned, cut into thin slices, and dried at 212,° 
(F) lost 77.5 per centum of its weight, while B, treated in the same way, 
lost 82.2 per centum. Thus A was found to contain nearly 5 per cent, 
more of solid, nutritions matter ; that is, of starch, gum, etc., which give the 
potato its value as an article of food. 

The solid part of A, when thoroughly dried and burned, gave 4.15 per 
cent of ashes, while B, under like circumstances, gave 4 per cent. 

When subjected to analysis, the ashes of the specimens, A and B, were 
found to vary considerably in the proportions of some of their elements. 
They were examined especially with respect to the relative quantities of 
potassa, soda, sulphuric acid, and chlorine, contained in each. It will be 
remembered that ivood ashes afibrd, even after ordinary lixiviation, consid- 
erable quantities of potassa, together with several other valuable fertilizing 
substances, such as lime, phosphoric acid, etc. Gypsum is composed of 
lime and sulphuric acid, iDoth of which are found in the ashes of the potato. 
Common salt (chloride of sodium) is an abundant source of chlorine and 
sodium, the metallic base of soda. 

Without pretending to give any part of the process of analysis, I will 
simply sum up the results in a condensed form. The following table will 
give a comparative view of both specimens, together with similar results as 
given in Norton's Scientific Agriculture. The columns marked A and B* 
give the results of an analysis of the two specimens under consideration. 
The third column gives the proportions of the same elements from Norton. 



A. 


B. Norton. 


50.91 


49.75| 51.50 


3.49 


65 


a trace 


9.60 


6.27 


7.10 


3.30 


1.98 


2.70 


67.30 


58.65 


61.30 



100 grains of Ashes gave 
Potassa, - - - 
Soda, - - - 
Sulphuric Acid, - 
Chlorine, 



From the relative quahties of nutritive matter found in the two specimens 
differently cultivated, we may infer, that the presence of the inorganic ferti- 
lizers rendered the growth of the organic part of the tubers more perfect, 
and thus improved both the quantity and quality of the crop. 

We may also infer from the above table, that the inorganic part, or ashes 
of the potato, may be considerably modified in composition by an abundant 
supply of certain elements of fertility, not generally existing (except in limi- 
ted quantities) in soils that have been long under cultivation. 

It will be seen by reference to the table, that potassa constitutes about 
one-half of the weight of potato ashes ; hence the value of wood-ashes as a 
manure for this crop. While soda does not seem to be essential to the 
mature growth of the tubers, it is taken up by them when present in the 
soil. I presume it is taken up chiefly as chloride of sodium ; and, in this 



562 HORSE-SHOEING. 



form, doubtless, it does much to promote the healthful and vigorous growth 
of the plant. 

Chlorine is always present in the potato, and, hence, may be regarded as 
one of the elements in the soil designed by the Creator to aid in giving it 
full maturity. 

The sulphuric acid of plants is, doubtless, generally combined with some 
one or more bases forming salts ; probably sulphates of lime and potassa 
may exist together in the same plant. The presence of gypsum, in excess, 
not only furnishes an abundance of sulphuric acid and lime, but serves, also, 
to "fix the ammonia" of the organic manure used, of the soil, or of the 
atmosphe.e. This may be regarded as a secondary function of gypsum. 

Wood-ashes, too, may be regarded as doing more than simply providing 
a supply of potash. They contain a very appreciable quantity of soluble 
silica. This gives strength and a healthful growth to the stalks, and, hence, 
tends to prevent some diseases, having their origin near the surface of the 
ground, and often extending downward to the tubers. Ashes also furnish 
small portions of phosphates ; but, as phosphoric acid is found in no incon- 
siderable quantity in the ashes of the potato, I would recommend the addi- 
tion of bones, in some form, to the other fertilizers used, especially on soils 
that have been frequently planted with Indian corn and wheat. Burnt bones 
are readily reduced to powder by beating or grinding ; though they are 
more valuable, and their action more efficient, if dissolved in sulphuric acid. 

The advantages of applying soluble fertilizers, in such a way that they 
will be gradually carried to the roots of the growing plant by the rain, are 
too obvious to require even a passing remark. 



HORSE-SHOEING. 

If to write anything worth reading, requires that one should be practically 
acquainted with the subject, and understand what the conditions of the case 
demand, then, what we write under this title may be passed over as worth- 
less. We do not know what is the proper treatment of the case under our 
notice ; and, what is still worse, is, we do not know of any who are much 
above us in this respect. Nevertheless, what we do know, we are inclined to 
state. 

We know that horse-shoeing is a very important service, on which not 
only the value of the horse is often dependent, but even the life of his rider. 
We know, also, that skill in all the arts does not come by nature ; that ap- 
prenticeship in all its essentials is absolutely indispensable in them. We also 
know that our town and village blacksmiths, to a very considerable extent, 
are practitioners in tliis department, without any especial training for it. 
They learned what they know of some boss, who was very popular in his 
own community, perhaps, for his general proficiency in the art which he 
practiced, but who acquired his theories, if nothing more, from some master, 
who, perhaps, commenced this work when he was ignorant of it as his ap- 
prentice ; because he failed in some other employment, and had a natural 
tact for it ; and so the list goes on — " an unbroken succession" — from one who 
never spent an hour in the proper investigation of the subject. Hence, we 
are not surprised to read that " American horses fail in the feet oftener than 
those of other countries." 



HORSE-SHOEING. 593 



In some of our cities, our pavements are disgraceful in the eyes o 
sible horses. Broadway might very accurately be defined, "a street arranged 
so as to require' of all horses the greatest possible eifort to preserve their 
standing." We seldom walk to our place of business, less than a mile and 
a half, without seeing one or more instances of slipping ; and often, when a 
complete fall is avoided, we notice many horses whose cramped motions re- 
semble those of a smoothly-shod boy, who is taking his first lessons in walk- 
ing on ice. 

But as we pretend to no especial skill here, we give place to a writer in the 
iV. Y. Courier^ who seems to understand at least something on this subject, 
and " has had an experience of twenty years in the British cavalry," though 
in what capacity we are not informed, and whose suggestions -may be useful 
to those who have some personal responsibility in reference to this subject. 
He writes as follows : 

" Of winter or summer states of roadways, and the slipping, stumbling, and 
faUing of horses, the writer cannot here more than observe that it is these 
which dictate how the hoofs should be prepared and the shoes adapted. The 
business of the farrier, as well of the hostler, should all be managed in direct 
reference to them. An animal requires, in all states of the streets and roads, 
foot-freedom and foothold ; and, in slippery states, extra care must be taken 
that a good foothold is secured. All shoes and shoeing, however — and this 
fundamental rule should never be lost sight of — must be subject to the na- 
tural and elastic conditions of the foot, so as not in any manner to impede or 
injure these. In states of nature, and when galloping at hberty over all kinds 
of ground, soft and hard, rough and smooth, the horse has three sources of good 
and sufficient foothold. The first is the concave form of the under surface of 
the hoof; the second is the expansibility of the hoof, which opens at the heels 
and quarters, and spreads at the base, under the super-weight and momentum 
of motion ; and the third is the consequent and very effective stay derived 
from the action of the wedge-hke frog on the surface or ground. 

Let any mechanic examine the structure of the horse's foot, and he Avould 
at once discover and pronounce it to be an organ whose construction and pro- 
cesses were admirable, and well adapted it to be at once an expansive as well 
as a protective covering for the motive and sensitive joints and tissues con- 
tained within. He would furtber see and add that, if in circumstances of an 
altered or domesticated state, an additional or artificial protection against tefir 
or wear should be required, that this — whether of iron or aught else — must 
be so applied and adjusted as not to interfere with, or limit, the expansive 
properties of the hoof, on the penalty of fatal mischief. 

Let us now inquire into facts. How are the shoes of horses — ^this addi- 
tional protection — apphed ? Are their form and adjustments well and rightly 
suited to their end and purpose? No ; for, first, the hoofs grow deep, dry, 
hard, and inelastic ; second, the shoes promote this state, and further bind 
and debar expansion ; third, instead of being concave to the ground, so as to 
correspond to the concave form of the under surface of the hoof, the form of 
the shoes are the reverse, and may be, therefore, likened to a skate, nailed on 
in a manner to fix the parts; fourth, the frog is squeezed and diminished, and 
is altogether disabled from usefully exercising its truly valuable functions. 

In order to remedy one part of the evil, — slipping and falling — arising 
from such shoes and shoeing, recourse is had to toe-pieces and caulkings. 
These aggravate the general mischief ; for already ill-adjusted bearings of 
the hoofs and shoes are straining the joints and ligaments, and this eflfect of 
high caulking greatly tends to increase, as will be visible, if we observe ' the 

35 



594 POTATO CULTURE. 



manner in which one caulking first takes the ground, and then how the ani- 
mal's weight twists toward one on the other. Concussions and injuries to 
the foot, pasterns, and fetlocks, and wrenches of the hock?, are continual 
results. One kind of evil, substituted as the remedy for another, does not 
abate the first. It is only a superadded evil. From all these causes flow 
the almost universal prevalence of contracted, impaired, and unsound condi- 
tions of the feet of horses ; the fore-feet in particular, which are more under 
the centre of weight and motion. 

Tos-pieces should never be used. Properly formed shoes never require 
them. As a general rule, caulkings on the fore-shoes should seldom be re- 
sorted to. When icy states of the streets or roads seem to exact them, a low 
caulk on the outer heel of each shoe, only, should be used, and the web of 
the inner heel should be drawn narrow and thick, in proportion to the height 
of the caulk, so as to give an even and true bearing under the centre of the 
animal's weight. The same rule should apply to the under heel of the hind- 
shoes ; but a low caulk on the outer heel of each shoe, behind, is always 
recommendable. The main and true defence, however, against toeing, trip- 
ping, and stumbling, is ever to be sought in shoes and shoeing, mechanically 
and physiologically adapted to preserve natural and healthy forms and con- 
ditions of the hoofs and feet," 



THE POTATO CULTURE. 

Various expedients have been tried, with more or less success, to prevent 
the potato-rot, but we have not been forward in devising or commending 
plans for selecting special soils, or using certain precautions, from the fact, 
that we have had but little confidence in their success. Sometimes judicious 
management has lessened the rate or extent of decay ; but when a crop is once 
infected, or in that condition which is so called, alleviation is the only thing, 
in our judgment, that can be done. It is like one far gone in consumption. 
The philosophy which brought us to this result, be it true or false, is as 
follows : 

The tuber is not the organ on which vegetation seems to rely, as her main 
dependence, in sustaining her succession of growths, but is only a duplicate 
process, which is capable, to a limited extent, of increasing the production of 
the species. At the same time, in its native condition, the plant never for- 
gets its seeds. These are always the true reliance, and, we believe, the only 
true reliance for the propagation of plants. 

Analogy is also with us in this doctrine. How do we secure a permanent 
succession of tuberose plants for our flower-gardens ? We always rely on 
the product of seeds. We pot and repot tubers, but we always expect them 
to deteriorate, and have occasion nearly, or quite every year, to resort to new 
importations, or to the product of our own sowing. These importations, if 
honestly conducted, are the products of the seed, and not of the division of 
the tubers. We do not know why a greater permanency should be expected 
of the tubers of a potato than of a hyacinth. We have carefully watched 
this matter, not desiring to express an opinion too hastily, though we give it 
now as an opinion only, while it seems to us based on sound piinciples in 
philosophy. 



INDIAN" CORN — ZEA MAYS. 595 

If we are right, the true method for every farmer to adopt is to prepare his 
grounds in the best possible manner, plant the best potatoes he can procure, 
and give them his best attention, while he secures a good growth, and ripens 
the seeds in the best manner, planting them in a soil equally well prepared 
for them, and waits for his crop of seedlings. This should be done, to some 
extent, every year. 



INDIAN CORN — ZEA MAYS. 

We regard this crop not only as tbe most valuable raised in this country, 
on account of its immense amount, but as the most important to the producer. 
It grows in various temperatures, varying from " 40° south latitude to 45° 
north latitude," and will flourish even at the elevation of several thousand 
feet above the sea. New species are occasionally introduced, which bear 
greater degrees of cold than those hitherto cultivated. This, probably, is 
dependent, at least to a great extent, upon its becoming acclimated, or to 
adapting itself to the climate in which it is raised. 

The entire product of corn in the United States, by the census of 1850, 
as quoted on p. 326, of this volume, was 592,0*78,804 bushels. De Bow 
estimates this as amounting, in value, to 1296,035,552, as seen on p. 327. 

The chemical composition of corn varies with different species and diflfer- 
ent latitudes. Sweet corn contains more of the phosphates. Southern and 
" Oregon" corn contains more starch than Northern ; Rice and Pop corn 
have it in the least proportion. Rice corn contains the greatest quantity of 
oil. Pop corn contains its oil in small cells, and, by heat, this oil is decom- 
posed, and assumes a gaseous form, by which process the cells are burst, and 
the result, when produced suddenly, turns the grain completely inside out. 

The Tuscarora corn is deficient in oil, and, hence, is not so useful in fatten- 
ing animals, though it may make excellent bread. All corn contains gluten 
in so limited a quantity, that it does not " rise" like the flour of wheat, on 
the application of yeast. Yellow corn has ~ less bran than white corn ; it 
is heavier, also. 

MODE OF CULTURE. 

Good crops of corn can be grown in almost every kind of soil, by proper 
cultivation. But, judging from the rich crops produced in some parts of 
Ohio, that best suited to the growth of corn is an alluvial deposit, rich in 
vegetable matter, not stinted in its amount of moisture. It should be deep 
and mellow, allowing the roots to extend themselves freely in all directions. 

Corn will not. vegetate at a low temperature, and, hence, the condition of 
the season can not be overlooked by the judicious farmer. Some seeds will 
remain uninjured, if they do not actually vegetate, in a cold soil. Corn 
requires a temperature of at least 50° or 55*. If reduced below this, there 
is a tendency to decay. 

The ground being well ploughed and pulverized, the hills should be pre- 
pared at a distance of three or three and a half feet apart. The manure 
may be broadcast, or placed on the hills. An excellent manure for the hill 
is made by mixing one-fifth of hen manure, one-fifth of plaster, and three - 
fifths of ashes, of which, after it is well mingled, and has been left to ferment, 
a spoonful may be thrown into each hill. If manure is used broadcast, a 



596 FOOT-ROT. 



spoonful of gypsum in each hill, in most soils, is found very profitable. If 
barn-yard manure is not at hand, the artificial preparations to which we have 
so often referred, should be put in requisition. Decayed vegetable matter is 
most desirable, and, after this, the various bone mixtures. Soaking the seed 
before planting hastens its germination. Covering the seed with tar, and 
then, for convenience in planting, rolling it in ashes or lime, will preserve 
it from the attacks of crows or insects. 

When the corn appears above ground, an occasional sprinkling of ashes 
is useful, which may be applied at the hoeing. 

Hilling corn is not recommended. All such elevations are unfavorable to 
the influence of rains. Use a hoe, or a cultivator, or both, keeping down all 
weeds, and making the soil soft and porous. 

CORN FOR FODDER. 

Corn is often planted for use as feed ; and we doubt not that farmers 
would find it for their interest to make a more free use of this excellent feed. 
Few products of the farm are more nutritious or more convenient. A single 
acre will ordinarily produce five or six tons, and will keep four cows for 
three months. But a much greater result has been sometimes obtained. In 
1845, in Massachusetts, over thirty-one tons of green stalks were grown upon 
an acre. The product of two acres and thirty-tv/o rods was estimated as 
equivalent to fifteen tons of the best of hay. On this lot, ten bushels of corn 
were sown. When it is to be used in this way, it should be sown in drills, 
two and a half or three feet apart, sowing from three to four bushels to the 
acre. After sowing, the ground should be harrowed. The Stowell & West 
corn should be used. G-ood feed may thus be obtained by the end of June. 
The stalks should be suffered to wilt before feeding. If they are to be dried, 
or kept for winter, they should be cut in the tassel, and a little sprinkling of 
salt is recommended. This tends to prevent them from moulding, and is 
also agreeable to the cattle. 

The stalks may be prepared by various processes. Sometimes they are 
cut before the corn is ripe. This is for the benefit of the feed, and it saves 
the cost of the corn. Sometimes they are left till after the corn is gathered, 
when they are cut up from the roots. Which is best, on the whole, is yet a 
question. We are disposed to think that, by the use of some well-arranged 
cutters, the entire stalk may be consumed for feed. Every part of it is highly 
nutritious, and we see not why the whole may not be so prepared, as to be 
eagerly eaten by different kinds of stock. 



Foot-rot. — ^The Coimtry Gentleman states that the following remedy 
for the foot-rot in sheep has been used with great success by H. Howland, 
of Aurora, Cayuga county, N. Y., for the last thirty years : 

"Mix flour of sulphur with the salt given to the sheep, in a proportion 
just sufficient to discolor perceptibly the salt, or about one-eighth part. Sul- 
phur may be had at a wholesale price at a cost of not over two cents. 
Where local applications are necessary, we should much prefer a solution of 
chloride of Ume to any other application.'' 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 597 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The third annual session of this society commenced February 21st, 1855, 
in the "East Room" of the Smithsonian Institution. Twenty-six States were 
represented by accredited delegates from state and county societies, and there 
was also a large number of individual members of the society. 

The Hon. M. P. Wilder, of Mass., President of the Society, on taking the . 
chair, delivered a pertinent address, in which he recapitulated the operations 
of the society during the past year, including the cattle show at Springfield, 
Ohio, The address was received with applause, and has been printed for 
distribution in pamphlet form. 

On motion of Mr. King, of New- York, a committee of one from eacli 
state represented was chosen by the President, to nominate a board of officers 
for the ensuing year. 

A letter was read from Col. Selden, resigning his office as treasurer, and, 
accompanied by securities for the funds of the society deposited in the bank, 
was referred to Messrs. Wager, of New-York, Calvert of Maryland, and 
Worthington, of Ohio. They subsequently reported, complimenting Col. 
Selden for his integrity, and expressing confidence that the funds are secure. 

Resolutions were offered by Messrs. Holcomb, of Delaware, and Kemmel, 
of Maryland, which were sustained by Messrs. Calvert, Peck, and Kennedy, 
of Maryland, King, of New- York, and Jones, of Delaware, and then laid on 
the table for future discussion. 

Messrs. Wager, of New-York, Kennedy, of Pennsylvania, Proctor, of Mas- 
sachusetts, Steadman, of Ohio, and Jones, of Delaware, were appointed a 
committee to receive and report on amendments to the constitution. 

Mr. Calvert, of Maryland, offered a resolution recommending political 
action on the part of agriculturists, and supported it by able remarks. 

He was followed by Messrs, French, of New-Hampshire, Dyer, of Conn., 
and Kennedy of Pennsylvania, and the resolution was laid on the table for 
future discussion. 

Mr. Jones, of Delaware, presented a memorial, showing the effect of legis- 
lation upon agriculture, and embracing a mass of historical facts. 

After having been read, it was, on motion of Mr. King, of New- York, 
placed on the files of the society. 

Mr. Clenson, of Maryland, introduced a resolution recommending agricul- 
tural education. 

An informal discussion of the potato rot, deep ploughing, and other mat- 
ters of great agricultural interest, followed, in which a large number of 
gentlemen participated. Many facts of importance were elicited, as gentle- 
men from various sections related their " experience," and the debate was con- 
tinued until four o'clock. 

In the evening, the Society were favored by a lecture from their Vice-Pre- 
sident from Virginia, the venerable George Washington Parke Custis. His 
eloquent narrative of the illustrious " Farmer of Mount Vernon" was listened 
to with marked attention, by a large audience, and was warmly applauded. 

After the lecture, a large number of ladies and gentlemen were introduced 
by the President to the orator. 

After the lecture, the officers and committees were unexpectedly enter- 
tained at the National Hotel, by Col. C. B. Calvert, the proprietor of " Rivers- 
dale." A sumptuous repast graced the festive board, and the festivities were 
prolonged until a late hour. 



598 



UNITED STATES AG-RICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ECOND DAT 



This morning the Society met at ten o'clock, and, after the report of Mr. , 
King, of New- York, chairman of the nominating committee, elected the 
following 

OFFICERS FOR 186 5. 



PRESIDENT. 

Marshall P. Wilder, of Massachusetts. 



John D. Lang, Maine., 
H. F. French, N. H., 
Fred. Holbrook, Vt., 

B. V. French, Mass., 

Jos. J. Cooke, Rhode Island, 
John T. Andrew, Conn., 
Henry "Wager, New-York, 
Isaac Cornell, New-Jersey, 
Isaac Newton, Pa., 

C. H. Holcomb, Delaware, 
H. G. S. Key, Md., 

G. W. P. Custis, Va., 
Henry K. Burgwyn, N. C, 
James Hopkinson, S. C, 

D. A. Reese, Ga., 
A. P. Hatch, Ala., 
A. G. Brown, Miss., 
J. D. B. DeBow, La., 
Gen. Whitfield, Kansas, 



VICE-PEESIDENTS. 



Ji T. "Worthington, Ohio, 

B. Gratz, Ky., 

M. P. Gentry, Tenn., 

Jos. Orr, Ind., 

J. A. Kinnicutt, 111., 

Thos. Allen, Mo., 

T. B. Flournoy, Ark., 

J. C. Holmes, Mich., 

Jackson Morton, Fla.. 

T. G. Rusk, Texas, 

J. W. Grimes, Iowa, 

B. 0. Eastham, Wis., 

J. M. Horner, Cal., 

Jos. H. Bradley, D. C, 

S. M. Baird, New-Mexico, 

H. H. Sibley, Minn., 

Joseph Lane, Oregon, 

J. L. Hayes, Utah, 

Mr. Gliddings, Nebraska. 



EXKCUTIVE COMMITTE. 



John A. King, New-York, 
C. B. Calvert, Md., 
A. L. Elwyn, Penn., 
J. Wentworth, 111., 



B. Perley Poore, Mass., 
A. Watts, Ohio., 
John Jones, Del. 



SECRETARY. 

William S. King, Boston, Massachusetts. 



TREASURER. 



B. B. French, Washington, D. C. 

On a report of the Executive Committee, Dr. Elwin, of Pennsylvania, 
Henry Wager, of New- York, Dr. W. T. G. Morton, of Massachusetts, Col. 
Anthony Kirarael, of Md., and Chas. L. Flint, of Massachusetts, were ap- 
pointed delegates to attend the coming Industrial Exhibition at Paris. 

After the election, the discussion upon the resolution offered by Mr. C. P. 
Holcomb, of Delaware, on the "Reciprocity Treaty" as injurious to the 
agricultural interests of the Republic, took place. Messrs. Holcomb, Peck, 
King, and Jones participated in the discussion. 

This evening the Hon G. P. Marsh lectured on "Notices of the Rural 
Economy of Continental Europe." 

thirdday. 

After the election yesterday, the Society discussed a resolution offered the 
day previous by Mr. C. B. Holcomb, of Delaware, denouncing the " R^ciprft- 
city Treaty" as injurious to the agricultural interests of the public, Messrs. 
Holcombj Peck, King, Waters, Elwyn, Kennedy, Steadman, Cowley, and 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 599 



other gentlemen participating. The resolution, as finally amended and 
passed, reads : 

Resolved, That we object to the doctrine of free trade for agriculture and 
protection for other interests. 

Col. Calvert, of Maryland, offered the following preamble and resolutions, 
which he supported in an able and earnest manner, deprecating all applica- 
tions to Congress, and urging action on the part of agriculturists, as calcu- 
lated to coinmand success. 

The resolutions, after having been discussed by Messrs. Kennedy, of Penn., 
Jones, of Delaware, and King, of New- York, were carried : 

Whereas, The prosperity of a country is in proportion to the improvement 
of its agriculture, therefore, 

Resolved, That agriculture should be the first interest considered in legis- 
lating for the general welfare, and that such legislation should be had as 
will foster and protect this interest, which is paramount to all others. 

Resolved, That the time has arrived for the agriculturists of the whole 
country to meet in convention, and determine for themselves what legislation 
is necessary for their protection. 

Resolved, That such a convention, to be composed of delegates fiom each 
State of the Union, be earnestly recommended by this society, in order that 
an agricultural platform may be established, which will meet the views of, 
and be sustained by the whole body of agriculturists as a profession. 

Mr. Wagner, of New-York, submitted a report on the proposed amend- 
ments to the constitution, which was discussed by Messrs. Fay and Waters, 
of Massachusetts, Cooke, of Rhode Island, King, of New-York, Hamilton, 
of New-Jersey, Calvert, of Maryland, and Worthington, of Ohio. 

The constitution Avas so amended as to have the payment of ten dollars 
constitute life-membership, and to change the time for holding the annual 
meeting to the second Wednesday of January. 

Various reports were read ; among them, one on the Chess in Wheat, from 
the Smithsonian Institute ; on Agricultural History, by B. P. Poore ; on 
Mr. Glover's Collection, by Mr. Peck; and on Western Fruits, by Dr. 
Warden. 

Mr. Peck, of Maryland, reported that the committee appointed to urge 
upon Congress the purchase of Mr. Glover's collection of modelled fruits, had 
had an interview with the proper committee of Congress, and received assur- 
ances that the matter would receive their attention. 

A communication from Professor Henry was read, detailing experiments 
on the culture of the " Oregon pea," made under the direction of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, at the request of the society. The results at Savannah 
proved it worthless for that region. 

A paper on "Alderney Cattle," by Dr. W. J. G. Morton, was read and 
referred. Also, a paper on the " Potato Oat," from New-York. 

Dr. Warden, of Cincinnati, exhibited over thirty different varieties of 
Western apples, which he descanted upon with his wonted accuracy. 

The invitation was received and accepted inviting the Society to visit the 
Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute to-day at eleven o'clock. Invitations to 
the office of the Coast Survey and the agriculture room at the Patent Ofiice, 
were also accepted. 

After some remarks by Mr. Custis, giving his experience in growing wheat 
in Virginia, the Society adjourned until seven o'clock, when the Hon. G. P. 



eoo 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Marsh had been invited to address them on the Rural Economy of Conti- 
nental Europe. 

The lecture was hstened to with great interest, embodying, as it did, a 
great amount of original information, and its publication will constitute a 
valuable addition to agricultural literature. 

Dr. Warden followed, with an eloquent lecture on hedges, replete with 
practical information. 

Friday Morning, March 2. 

The Society met at ten o'clock, and passed an hour in familiar conversa- 
tion on agricultural subjects. 

After a discussion on the appointment of Commissioners to the Industrial 
Exhibition at Paris, the matter was referred to the Executive Committee. 

On motion of Mr. Poore, of Massachusetts, it was unanimously. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the United States Agricultural Society be 
presented to the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, for the facilities 
afforded in holding this session. The utility of this Institution, in thus serv- 
ing as a nucleus, around which all useful associations can rally, at the capital 
of our Republic, shows the wisdom of the course pursued by the present 
Regents. 

Col. Kimmel, of Maryland, read a curious extract from the Maryland 
Gazette, of September 8th, 1784, showing that "cattle shows" were estab- 
lished at Baltimore in that year. 

On motion of Mr. Waters, of Massachusetts, it was unanimously 
Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be proffered to Hon. George P. 
Marsh, for the very beautifully written and exceedingly interesting lecture he 
was so good as to present to us last evening, and that Professor Henry be 
requested to wait on him and request a copy for publication. 
On motion of Mr. Calvert of Maryland, it was unanim^isly 
Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be presented to Dr. Warden, for 
his interesting lecture on the cultivation of hedges, and that he be requested. 
to present a copy of the same for publication in the transactions of the 
Society. 

At eleven o'clock, in accordance with their acceptance of the invitation, 
the Society adjourned to visit the exhibition of the "Metropolitan Mechanics' 
Institute." 

After visiting the Exhibition yesterday, the Society returned to the " East 
Room," and, on motion of Mr. King, of New York, it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the officers of the 
Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute, for their polite invitation to attend their 
exhibition, which they have visited and examined with great pleasure. 

After some debate, in which a strong desire for concerted action on the 
part of American Agriculturists was manifested, it was, on motion of Col. 
Calvert, of Maryland, 

Resolved, That the first Friday after the next annual meeting of this So- 
ciety, be fixed for the assembhng of the Agricultural Convention, and that 
the press be requested to urge the importance of the subject. 

Resolutions were passed complimenting the agricultural press, and urgjflg 
its conductors to consider political economy, and urge united action on such 
matters connected with it as their judgment may suggest. 

On motion of Mr. Taylor, it was 



THE SPIDER. 601 



Resolved, That the thanks of the National Agricultural Society be ten- 
dered to the Hon. Mr. Morton, of the United States Senate, for his able 
Report upon the subject of an Agricultural Department. 

Resolutions were passed complimentary to President Wilder ; to the Re- 
gents of the Srai'ihsonian Institution ; to Lieutenant Maury, (for an invitation 
to visit the Observatory ;) to Mr. King, the Secretary of the Society ; and to 
Mr. Poore, of the executive committee. ^ 

Adjourning, after three days' session, in which, agriculturists from twenty- 
six States participated with great harmony of feeling, the members of the 
Society felt encouraged by this renewed and increased manifestation of the 
great interest of the Republic to assert its position. h 

In the evening many of the officers and members called upon Mr. Clayton, 
to thank him for his speech of the previous evening. 



THE SPIDER. 

Why hate and shudder at spiders ? Because they entangle flies and kill 
them ? That should entitle them to our gratitude, for flies, being troublesome 
and injurious to man, any other insect that destroys them ought to be con- 
sidered our ally, and taken into friendship. Are they not beautiful ? The 
other day we observed one in the field. He was larger than a double-eagle 
and as bright and yellow, having colors more striking, indeed, because har- 
moniously variegated. 

Few ladies could outvie him in personal ornaments, whicb, in his case, 
were not of recent purchase, but came to him by inheritance in the line of 
an ancient family. He had constructed one of his wonderful palaces of 
regular dimensions and great size ; but, either seeing, as the New-York archi- 
tects sometimes fail to do, that its foundations were insecure, or else disliking 
the neighborhood, as nice people do rum-holes, blacksmith's and currier's 
shops, French boarding-houses and American piggeries — for these, or some 
other good reasons, he made up liis mind to remove his residence. 

Now, as he had been at immense expense in building his capacious house, 
like the Crystal Palace proprietors of New-York, and out of his own bowels 
too, which they did not — for speculators and brokers are not supposed to 
have any, purses being a complete substitute — having been at so much cost, 
he did not like to go away and leave bis domicil behind him. For his stock 
of materials for such structures is limited, as well as the funds of the opera- 
tors in the Fancies. Nature, it is said, only supplies the spider family with 
a certain quantity at first, which, if they are extravagant in spending, they 
will have afterwards to make up by knitting, Schuylerizing or stealing — the 
difference between which methods, we can not tarry to record, and might 
not be able to do so, was ever so much time allowed us. In short, our spi- 
der resolved, as the palace proprietors, who may have taken the hint from 
him, are said to have determined on — he resolved to take his splendid dwell- 
ing down. 

So one morning he began in earnest to pull down, and, as far as we could 
judge, at the point where he had ended in putting it up ; that is, the last 
timbers he had placed in the building were the first to be removed. Pa- 
tiently and carefully he worked, taking off" filament by filament of those long 
beams and braces, which seemed single to the naked eye, but yet were dou- 



602 THE BAREFOOTED PRINTER-BOY. 



bled and trebled and quadrupled to afford sufficient strength for so large a 
work. For tliis creature, it must be obsex'ved, li^s discovered no iron or other 
new material to weave into his productions, but is obliged to labor with just 
the same raw material as when he spun his web upon the grape vines of 
Mrs. Eve. So if he wants augmented strength in any portion of his work, 
he can only attain it by putting several timbers together. 

By degrees, we could see, as he wrought, the main pillars and string- 
pieces lessening in size, and at length disappearing one by one, till finally, 
the whole habitation was invisible. What had become of" it? We kept a 
sharp look-out at this juncture, for it was evidently the crisis of the enter- 
prise. At last w*saw the spider hoist a pack upon his back in the shape of 
a ball, and commence his journey. It was his house, which he was thus 
transporting to erect in a more favorable locality. Like a snail, he was thus 
carrying it upon his back, though, unlike that animal, he had the rough 
stock of another in his belly, should this tenement of his be dissolved by the 
hurricane, flood, or fire. The beautiful, industrious and provident creature 
ran along as nimble as ^Eneas, with his father, Anchises, on his shoulders, 
though under the burden of all his worldly goods. He made for a large 
tree, where, notwithstanding all our vigilance, he forever disappeared. We 
sent after him a sincere wish, that he might obtain an eligible lot iip-toivrif 
whither he was going, on easy terms. — Newark Advertiser. 



THE BAREFOOTED PRINTER-BOY. 

The Pittsburgh Morning Ariel, under this caption, gives a short story of 
a distinguished citizen of Pennsylvania, as follows : 

Some thirty years ago, a barefooted boy floated down the Susquehannah 
river on an humble raft, and arrived at Harri^burg, Pa. He came from the 
North, and belonged to a large family, with all his worldly goods tied up in 
a little pocket-handkerchief. He sought and obtained employment in a 
printing office as an apprentice. From an apprentice to a journeyman, from 
a journeyman to a reporter, then to an editor, the barefooted printer boy 
worked his way against obstacles which the struggling poor only know. The 
persevering follower in Franklin's steps began to realize the fruits of his 
patient toil and privation. The young aspirant became Printer to the State, 
and by frugal management was soon enabled to accomplish the object dearest 
to his heart — the establishment of his mother in a home above* want — in the 
possession of every comfort she could desire. 

His brothers were next his care, and. like Napoleon, he had a strong arm 
with which to aid them — an indomitable perseverance that nothing could long 
sucessfuUy obstruct. In a few years, they too, with his sisters, were inde- 
pendent of the world ; the once barefooted printer boy was in possession of 
affluence, surrounded by a young and affectionate family. He did not stop 
here. He was the friend of the friendless, the patron of merit, and the en- 
courager of industry. He rose in honor and in office, until the poor bare- 
footed boy, who entered a printing office in Harrisburgh, hungry and v/eary, 
laid down his little bundle on a pile of wet paper and asked to become a 
printer's apprentice, was elected Senator in Congress ! That man is Simon 
Cameron, of Pennsylvania. 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 603 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 

The annexed table, showing the number of sheep and pounds of wool pro- 
duced in each of the States and Territories of the Union, according to the 
Census of 1850, has been published in many of the papers. We have added, 
in another column, at the right hand, the average yield of a sheep in pounds 
and hundreths : 

Av. 
3,09 
2,88 
3,70 
3,10 
2,92 
2,85 
2,91 
2,33 
2,45 
2,10 
2,69 
2,28 
1,63 
1,76 
1,76 
0,99 
1,76 
1,83 
0,99 
1,45 
2,00 
1,68 
1,68 
2,13 
2,56 
2,73 
2,32 
2,53 
2,28 
2,49 
1,02 
0,31 
1,00 
1,27 
2,82 
0,08 

21,571,306 52,417,287 2,42 

It appears that the average is higher, by six-tenths of a pound, in Ver- 
mont, than in any other State. Massachusetts comes next, and then Maine. 
These are the only States where it exceeds three pounds. In New-Mexico 
and Cahfornia, probably, the sheep are raised for mutton and peltry, and few 



States. 


Sheep. 


Lbs. Wool. 


Maine, 


440,953 


1,362,986 


New-Hampshire, 


384,656 


1,108,470 


Vermont, 


919,992 


3,410,993 


Massachusetts, 


188,651 


585,136 


Ehode Island, 


44,296 


129,692 


Connecticut, 


174,181 


497,454 


New- York, 


3,454,241 


10,070,301 


New-Jersey, 


160,488 


375,386 


Pennsylvania, 


1,822,356 


4,481,570 


Delaware, 


27,503 


57,768 


Maryland, 


177,902 


480,226 


Dist. of Columbia, 


150 


525 


Virginia, 


1,311,004 


2,860,765 


North Carolina, 


595,249 


970,738 


South Carolina, 


281,754 


487,223 


Georgia, 


560,435 


990,019 


Florida, 


23,311 


23,247 


Alabama, 


371,800 


659,118 


Mississippi, 


304,929 


659,619 


Louisiana, 


110,333 


109,897 


Texas, 


90,098 


131,373 


Arkansas, 


91,256 


182,595 


Tennessee, 


811,537 


1,363,378 


Kentucky, 


1,070,303 


2,283,685 


Ohio, 


3,937,086 


10,111,288 


Michigan, 


746,435 


2,043,283 


Indiana, 


1,122,484 


2,610,287 


Illinois, 


894,043 


2,150,113 


Missouri, 


756,309 


1,615,860 


Iowa, 


149,960 


373,898 


Wisconsin, 


124,893 


253,963 


California, 


17,574 


5,520 


Minnesota Territory, 80 


85 


Oregon Territory, 


15,382 


28,686 


Utah Territory, 


3,262 


9,222 


New-Mexico, 


377,271 


30,901 



604: AGRICULTURE AN^D EDUCATION IN TENNESSEE. 

of them are sheared ; for though we find a very regular diminution in the 
weight of fleeces as we proceed southward, it is not credible that fleeces actu- 
ally sheared, should average only about five ounces in California, and only 
about an ounce and a quarter in New-Mexico. 

The weight of fleeces in Vermont is not owing wholly to the latitude or 
temperature ; for if it were, New-Hampshire and Maine ought to yield heavier 
fleeces still. It is, doubtless, in part, caused by the quality of the pasturage, 
air, and water, of the Gi'een Mountain range ; an advantage in which Massa- 
chusetts partakes. Another, and a principal cause is, the superiority of the 
breeds raised here. Almost all the sheep there are descended from the best 
flocks in Spain ; and it has been long since ascertained that, with decent 
treatment, they do not deteriorate in Vermont. Not improbably, most parts 
of the Alleghany range may be found nearly or quite as well adapted to the 
same breeds. 

The fleeces in Vermont are very nearly 20 per cent, heavier than those in 
any other State, and 62 per cent, heavier than the average of the whole 
United States. The profit of wool-growing, compared with lighter fleeces of 
equal fineness, is about in the same pi'oportion ; for the rearing and support 
of a poor sheep is as costly as of a good one. But, besides this, the fleeces 
are much finer than the average of the whole country, and bring a higher 
price per pound. It is plain, therefore, why the Vermont farmers go into 
the business so much more generally and extensively than those of any other 
State. It is plain, too, what farmers of other States must do, if they would 
reap the same profits from this business. 

There are towns in New-Hampshire, where sheep of the same breeds yield 
the same profits ; and so in some other States. It is probable, however, that 
in this staple the Northern States will always retain some advantage over 
the Southern, and the mountains over the plains. — Boston Traveller. 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES AND EDUCATION IN TENNESSEE. 

In an address delivered by Governor A. V. Brown, before the "Agricultu- 
ral College and Mechanics' Institute," established by the State, for the im- 
provement of that people, the following passage occurs : 

" In no portion of the State would the results of that success be more 
striking and gratifying thsn in East Tennessee. For more than half a cen- 
tury you have been mountain-bound, and consequently excluded, save at vast 
expense, from the great market places of the world. Deprived by the fiat of 
nature of the usual stimulus to action, you have put forth no great agricul- 
tural or mechanical exertion. Your houses were not promptly and neatly 
repaired ; ypur orchards were left unpruned and neglected ; your best grass 
and meadow-lands were unreclaimed ; your fields were cultivated with a slo- 
venly indifierence, both as it regards durability and production. Indeed, the 
whole aspect of your country was that of a dissatisfied and desponding peo- 
ple, ready to seize the first opportunity to sell out and be oflT to some new 
and more favored land. But now how changed the scene ! The genius of 
internal improvement has waved his magic wand over you, and house, and 
field, and orchard, all the splendid exhibitions of this day's fair, proclaim you 
a contented, happy, and prosperous people. The traveler pauses and tells 



THE GREATEST GRAIN PORT IN THE WORLD. 605 



you in vain of the rich prairies of Texas, or the deep alluvion of the Arkan- 
sas. Even his gorgeous description of the diamond-studded and gold-glitter- 
ing California can extort from yom nothing more than the reply, ' East Ten- 
nessee is good enough for me.' And so it is, my countrymen. After years 
of travel and observation, I cordially endorse the sentiment, that East Ten- 
.nessee is good enough for you — good enough for any body. Where, upon 
this continent, can you gaze upon a more varied and lovely landscape than 
now spreads out before you ! Hill and dale, forest and field, torrents gushino- 
from the mountain side, and streamlets gently flowing through valleys fra- 
grant with flowers of perpetual bloom ! Further ofi" in the distance, we be- 
hold mountains in which lie imbedded, in close proximity, the largest supply 
of coal and iron ore that the whole Appalachian chain can boast. In the oppo- 
site direction, but in full view, lies another range of mountains, from whose bo- 
som are daily borne inexhaustible treasures of copper, and other valuable 
minerals. Between these mountains lie a succession of luxuriant valleys, 
irrigated by streams of unrivalled purity, and capable of sustaining in elegance 
and plenty tenfold their present population. Into these valleys the iron horse 
is already making his resistless way, and -waking to his fiery tread the slum- 
bering echoes of six thousand years. When to these mere geographical ad- 
vantages we add the charms and attractiuns of a population of whom it may 
be well said, without poetic hcense, 

' Where Man is brave, and Women true, 
And free as mountain air,' 

who would exchange his own native or adopted East Tennessee for any other 
land on the globe !" * 



THE GREATEST GRAIN PORT IN THE WORLD. 

The Democratic Press, printed in Chicago, claims that that city is the 
greatest grain port in the world, and proceeds to give the evidence which 
supports such a claim. The exports from European parts are given at an 
average of several years : 

" Those of St. Louis for the year 1853, those for Chicago and Milwaukie 
for the current year, and those for New- York are, for the past eleven months, 
of the same, year. With these explanations, it invites attention to the fol- 
lowing table : 

Wheat, In. Corn, Oats, Rye, Total, 

bush. bush. and I3arley. bush. 

Odessa, 5,600,000 1,400,000 7,040,000 

Galatz and Ibrelia, - 2,400,000 5,600,000 320,000 8,320,000 

Dantzig, 6,080,000 1,328,000 4,405,000 

St. Petersburg, - - all kinds. 7,290,000 

Archangel, - - - - « 2,528,000 

Riga, " 4,000,000 

St. Louis, 3,082,000 918,384 1,081,078 5,081,168 

Milwaukie, - - - . 2,723,574 181,937 841,630 3,747,161 

New-York, - - . - 5,802,452 3,627,883 9,430,335 

Chicago, - - . - 2,996,924 6,745,588 4,834,216 13,786,727 

By comparing the exports of the diflferent places mentioned in the above 



606 POST OAK GLADE LAND. 

table," says the Press, " it v?ill be seen that the grain exports of Chicago 
exceeded those of New- York by 4,296,293 bushels ; those of St. Louis by 
more than two hundred and fifty per cent. Turning to the great granaries 
of Europe, Chicago nearly doubles St. Petersburg, the largest, and exceeds 
Galatz and Ibrelia combined 5, 406, '727 bushels. 

Twenty years ago, Chicago, as well as most of the country from whence 
she now draws her immense supplies of breadstuffs, imported both flour and 
wheat for home consumption ; now, she is the largest primary grain depot 
in the world, and she leads all other ports in the world, also, in the quantity 
and quality of her beef exports ! We say the largest primary grain depot 
in the world, because it can not be denied that New- York, Liverpool, and 
some other great commercial centres, receive more breadstuffs than Chicago 
does in the course of the year, but none of them will compare with her, as 
we have shown above, in the amount collected from the hands of the pro- 
ducers. 

What a practical illustration the above facts afford as to the wonderful, 
the scarcely credible, progress of the west — what an index it furnishes to the 
fertility of her soil, and to the industrious and enterprising character of our 
people — what a prophecy of the destiny that awaits her, when every foot 
of her long stretches of prairie, and her rich valleys, shall have been reduced 
to a thoroughly scientific tillage !" 



POST OAK GLADE LAND. 



A farmer in Texas wishes to know " whether or not there is any method of 
reclaiming what we call 'Post Oak Glade,' which is a wet land of whitish 
or ashy color, most of the growth being Post Oak, with a few scattering 
Pines." He further says : " Such lands are apt to bake after heavy rains." 
A writer replies (in the Southern Cultivator) as follows : " I take it, this 
quality of land is better adapted to cotton than any other crop. I suppose it 
has too many silicates already without the use of hme. 

Will 'A Subscriber' try ten acres on my plan ? It will cost him nothing. 
Bed up the land in the spring, five inches deep, and that is very deep, (though 
I do not suppose he will think it deep until he puts the rule to it,) elevating 
his bed as high as a " dagon" plow of this depth will do ; plant on the top 
of the bed, covering shallow. In this country, I would not plant his land 
before the first of May ; with him, I advise him to plant at least one month 
after other planters. In cultivation, never go more than one and a half 
inches below the surface, and, in the latter part of cultivation, below one 
inch from the surface; cultivate either with a cultivator or with a sweep, 
cutting as deep at the outside of the wings as the point. 

I am mistaken, if 'A Subscriber' will justly pursue this plan, if he does 
not gather from 1000 to 3000 pounds per acre. I am also mistaken, from 
his description of his ' Post Oak Glade Land in Texas,' if it is not the very 
best cotton land in Texas. If I am right in the character of his land, it is a 
cold land, one on which, by ordinary culture, a good stand of cotton can not 
be obtained. *A Subscriber' must not plant this land until hot weather has 
set in, and then only by elevating the plant above the level, and as far above 
as he can, with five inches depth of bedding." 



BOa MEADOWS EECLAIMED. - 607 



BOG MEADOWS RECLAIMED. 

The following account of a reclaimed bog describes one of the most suc- 
cessful experiments we remember to have noticed. We find it in the Trans- 
actions of the Middlesex County Society, (Ms.,) in the statement of Mr. Asa 
G. Sheldon, of Wilmington, who is one of the enterprising farmers in that 
region. Mr. Sheldon's statement is as follows : 

'• The swamp land I offered for premium, in 1843, was blueberry swamp, 
with tome few maples and white pine; value not more than ten dollais per 
acre. I first dug a ditch through the centre of it, about forty rods in length, 
which cost sixty cents per rod, making twenty dollars. Then I cut off the 
wood and brush, which barely paid for cutting. In the fall, the manure was 
taken from the slaughter-yard and barn-cellar, teamed to a side-hill near tbe 
swamp, mixed one load of strong manure with three loads of blue clayey 
gravel. This was done in September. In the winter, when tbe swamp was 
frozen, this was teamed on, tipped up in loads, and tben covered with sand. 
In April, 1844, it was all overhauled. In May, I commenced digging over 
the swamp, and planting potatoes, putting a small shovel full of this compost in 
a hill. I found the depth of mud to vary from eighteen inches to nine feet. 
Where I found the mud deep and good digging, I dug five or six feet deep, 
filling the holes with blackberry roots, small stumps, and hassocks, within 
eighteen inches of the top, then covering it over with mud from the next 
hole, planting potatoes on the same. The clearing and planting were both 
done at once. The piece managed in this way was not less than two acres. 
A man would clear and plant from four to six square rods per day. Wages, 
at that time, were a dollar a day. Cost of clearing and planting, thirty-two 
dollars per acre. Cost of ditch, ten dollars per acre, making, in all, forty-two 
dollars per acre. The crop of potatoes was not less than two hundred 
bushels per acre. 

Grass-seed was sown on the ground when the potatoes were dug, and the 
ground raked over. In 1845-6-7-8 and 9, making five years, it produced 
as good a crop of English hay as I ever raised upon any ground, without 
any manure except what was put on the first crop of potatoes. In 1850, the 
cro]) of grass began to fail, and some wild grass came in. In September, 
1850, I plowed it by hitching the plow behind a pair of wheels, so that the 
oxen could walk on the grass. In the winter, when it was frozen, I teamed 
on manure, all kinds being mixed, about four cords to the acre. I planted it 
in 1851 with potatoes ; the crop was from three to five hundred bushels to 
the acre. Finding this much more profitable than hay, I have managed it 
in the same way until the present time. When the potatoes have been dug 
early, before they got their full growth, I have not obtained so large a crop. 
When they have been allowed to remain in the ground, they have never 
failed of yielding three times as much as the upland. 

The present season I invited the town clerk, with a number of other gentle- 
men, to witness the measurement of the ground, and the digging and mea- 
surement of the potatoes. From this, which I enclose, you w'ill see that the 
crop can not be valued at less than three hundred dollars per acre, many 
having now been sold for more than one dollar and fifty cents per bushel." 

Wilmington, Oct. 2, 1854. - 



60S IMPROVED STEREOSCOPE. 



IMPROVED STEREOSCOPE. 
J3 B 




The above ia a perspective view of Masclier's Stereoscope Medallion, for 
which a patent was granted January 16th, 1855. It is represented as open, 
or as it is used for viewing the two stereoscopic daguerreotypes, or other 
photographic pictures, which, by its optical arrangement, are made to appear 
as one, and that not a mere flat representatien, but a form standing up out 
of the substance on which it is drawn like a substantial, living thing. 

The following is a description of the engraving at the head of this article: 
C is the main central rim of a locket ; B B are two lids with daguerreotype 
pictures, E E, on them ; these lids are hinged on each sid'e of the rim, C. 
A A are two supplementary lids, each containing a lens, D D. These are 
also hinged to rim C, as shown, but are fitted to fold within the picture lids, 
B B, and are arranged in such relation to the same, that, upon being opened 
and properly adjusted, the lenses, D D, will stand opposite to the pictures, 
and convert the medallion into a stereoscope, by which a person looking 
through the glasses, D D, will see but one picture, solid and life-like. The 
patentee has applied double convex lenses to these medallions, the sides of 
which are of unequal convexity, (as one to six,) according to Brewster, so that 
the picture is rendered very cleai'. A medallion of this character can also 
be used for a microscope and sua-glass. 

This property of the stereoscope, of converting two flat pictures into one 
raised, substantial, life-like statue, appears, as yet, to be but little understood, 
and, consequently, but little appreciated by the public ; and we can assure 
our readers, that they can form no adequate conception of the beauty of this 
invention, until they have, with their own eyes, looked through the two lenses, 
at the two portraits opposite them. The resulting picture looks no more 
like either of its component pictures than a circle does like a globe. The 
medallion is made of gold, and when folded up, it is impossible to distinguish 
it from the locket commonly worn. When closed, it measures one and three 
quarters inch diameter, and three-eighths of an inch thick. The engraving 
represents a No. 9 medallion, which the inventor sells for $12 each, but he 
has applied the same principle to No. 7 and 8, some of which, he informs us, 
he will shortly have on sale, at $10 and 111 each, respectively. 

This medallion, with pictures, together with a handsome morocco case, in 
which it can be very safely kept, when not in use, weighs only three ounces, 
•onsequently it is admirably suited to send by mail to distant fiiends or 
relatives. 



IMPROVED STEREOSCOPE. 609 

'lliis locket exhibits tlie most extraordinary adaptation of means to ends 
that we have ever witnessed. Every particle of room is occupied, and is a 
most striking contrast to Prof. Wheatstone's first, and even to the most perfect 
foreign stereoscopes which are sometimes imported, Theirs are boxes occupy- 
ing one-half of a cubic foot, this, one-half inch ; the best imported ones magnify 
very little, whereas this magnifies four times. Even the stereoscopic daguer- 
reotype case, for which this same inventor also obtained a patent in 1853, is 
much superior with respect to portability, magnifying power, easy manage- 
ment, durability, and cheapness, to the best imported ones, but this last in- 
vention is an improvement upon that. Mr. Mascher has turned the tables 
upon the Europeans, for he informs us that he exports large quantities to 
England, France, and the Spanish jiossessions. 

We see by the report of the judges of the Metropolitan Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, at Washington, that they entertain the same favorable opinions of this 
invention that we do, for they have awarded to it the First Premium. A 
similar acknowledgement was also made by the Franklin Institute of Phila- 
delphia, last December, to the stereoscopic daguerreotype case, for they 
awarded to it the first premium, besides recommending the inventor to the 
Committee on Arts and Sciences, with a view to a still more favorable report, 
a recommendation and award extended to no other depositor. 

More information can be obtained by letter, by addressing I. F. Mascher, 
No. 408 North Second Street, Philadelphia. 

For the benefit of daguerreotypists who are not familiar with this beautiful 
invention, we add the following directions, commending this style of preserv- 
ing the very image of one's friends, to all who can afford this choice luxury. 
For, we repeat it, the difference between this style of representation and the 
common daguerreotype, is greater than between a common painting, and a 
correct statue ; for in this is the appearance of life. 

Directions to take and put up Pictures. 

" Prepare two plates, of such size that the two, when pasted together, will 
fit the size of case intended, ready for the camera, in the usual manner, and 
if you have two cameras of the same size and quality, set them about two 
feet apart, and at equal distance from the person or subject intended to be 
taken. Draw the focus correctly in each, and take both pictures at the same 
instant of time, finish them in the usual manner, and you will find that they 
are not exactly alike, but each picture looks to opposite sides of the plates, 
which is owing to the angle at which they are taken. Cut the plates so that 
they will fit the size-border intended, and paste them together in such a man- 
ner that both pictures look to the middle of the plates, taking care that both 
pair of eyes are parallel with the sides of the glass and border. For this 
purpose you must have a parallel ruler, which you can jJurchase at the opti- 
cian's for 37^ cents. It is absolutely necessary that the pictures be parallel, 
for if they are not, you will invariably see two indistinct pictures. 

Some artists turn out pictures in which one picture is at least one quarter 
of an inch lower down than the other. How is it possible to see such pic- 
tures correctly ? 

If you have only one camera, prepare your two plates as above, adjust the 
' focus properly, and take one picture. Let the subject sit perfectly still until 
you move the camera about two feet either to the right or left, re-adjust the 
focus, and take the second. Finish and put them up as above. 

Again, you can have a camera-stand made, having the table of which, say 
36 



610 CULTURE OF THE ORANGE. 

two-and-a-half feet long, and as wide as your camera is long, say ten inclies. 
Provide this table with one set of stops at each end Tor your camera to slide 
against. Now, previous to taking the picture, adjust the table in such a 
manner that the camera will be perfectly in focus at each end of the table. 
Make a slide for your plate-holder, with an opening in, so that it will expose 
half of the plate to the action of the camera. The camera is to be laid upon 
one of its sides, and both pictures are taken on one plate. 

Lay the camera on one end of the table, and take one picture ; put on the 
cap, and quickly move the camera over to the other end of the table against 
the other stops ; move the slide in the holder, in the same direction you 
moved the camera, and the other half of the plate will be exposed; take off 
the cap, and take the other picture. This plan is in successful operation, and 
is yery convenient and good, but, it is believed, not so perfect as taking them 
(pictures) with two cameras. 

Lastly, you can take both pictures at one time, on one plate with an ordi- 
nary camera, by means of two reflectors. Pictures have been taken this way 
that are very good. This plan is very good, cheap, and convenient. For 
full description of which, see page 348, vol. XVL SiUiinan''s Journal^ 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

CULTURE OF THE ORANGE. 

Messrs. Editors: — In your valuable journal I have never seen mention 
of fruit-growing in Louisiana. Have you no correspondent in this fair spot 
of our Union ? Or are the Louisianians so absorbed in sugar-making, than 
they have no time to devote to this beautiful occupation ? There have been 
very fine peaches ind pears raised in Louisiana; and I am sure that if one 
would wish to write upon the subject, he would find enough to make quite 
an interesting article for your paper. There is a fruit which I will introduce 
to your notice, and to the journal also. Would that I could make you more 
nearly acquainted with its sweet and delicious properties and qualities, than 
by a mere article in the paper ! A rich, juicy, delicious Louisiana orange is 
what no editor, but New-Orleans editors, often enjoy. 

The portion of Louisiana best adapted to orange growing is the Parish of 
Plaquemines, situated on each side of the Mississippi River, below New- 
Orleans. There are several fine orange groves in this parish ; one in particu- 
lar, consisting of three thousand trees. It is called " Eisayons ;" the motto 
on the button of the U. S. Engineers — meaning " let us try." It was planted 
by an engineer officer, and is now owned by his heirs. Fifteen hundred of 
these trees are nine years old ; the rest are, some eight, some six years old. 
Ten years is generally the time for a tree to mature. After this period they 
are the most profitable crop a man can raise ; for a tree will produce from 
fifteen hundred to two thousand oranges, which bring at his door |15 a 
thousand sometimes ; never Icss than ^10. If you will count up the thou- 
sands from the Essayons Grove at that rate, you will see that it will be quite 
a small fortune after a while. 

The orange, as well as the lemon and citron, never sheds a leaf of its 
foliage. Every year adds new branches and new leaves. The same branch 
will not bear two successive years. A tree, in the course of one year, will 



CHALK. 611 

sometimes, if luxuriant in its growth, put forth nine or ten branches, five or 
six feet in length. The tree will mostly make wood till it is ten years old ; 
after that it seems to reserve all its energies for the formation of the fruit. 
The seed is first planted in a nursery, then transplanted, at the age of one or 
two years, on the spot where it is destined to grow. The trees are put twenty 
feet apart each way. Some plant them at fifteen ; but the best way is to 
give them ample room for the roots to run. The roots are not more than 
three inches from the smface of the ground, with the exception of the tap-root. 
The plan now is not to trim at all, if possible. A tree left to its own natural 
disposition, will make a most beautiful, symmetrical production. They re- 
quire no manure, but the virgin soil of Louisiana seems to suit them admira- 
bly. They will get scrubby in old soils. 

Thei-e are some of the diseases which attack orange-trees -which are quite 
unmanageable. I will mention two very frequent ones. The lice is a small, 
blue insect, which covers the tree, bark, leaves and all. They will feed upon 
the leaves, and, in n few mouths, disrobe an orchard of four or five hundred 
trees, leaving them as bare as your hand. The tree, -at the end of a year or 
so, will recuperate, and again put forth its leaves, and boar its wonted trea- 
sures, but not in so great abundance. Another, and apparently irremediable- 
trouble, is a kind of dry rot which attacks the trunk of the tree, at its base, 
just where the root begins. It is at first a small spot, not mwe than a quar- 
ter of an inch large, but soon runs in a ring all round the base of the trunk, 
which brings a speedy death to the tree. The only remedy is to dig up the 
invalid by the roots, and consign it to the embrace of the Father of" Waters, 
putting in its stead a healthy tree, that will repay your care and labor. 

If any of your subscribers can give us through your paper a remedy for 
these evils, he will benefit a goodly interest in Louisiana. The Louisiana 
orange is much superior to the Havana or Sicily, for the reason that these 
have to be plucked green to be sent here, while ours are given us in all their 
full, rich, native growth, and sweetness. 

The best time to plant orange trees is in March, from the 15th to the last* 
before that it is generally too cold. Anything which will improve the culture 
of the orange will be quite acceptable in your columns to at least one of your 
subscribers. ■ Respectfully yours, A. S. 



Native Coffee.— The Calaveras Chronicle, Cal., says that wild coffee is 
found in abundance in that neighborhood, similar to the plant cultivated in 
Mexico, South and Central America. The berries resemble those of the 
genuine coffee plant. 

Chalk. — A specimen of this calcareous earth was shown us this week by 
A._G. Lawrence, Esq., of Campo Seco. It forms the base of a hill in that 
vicinity, the surface of wbich is a volcanic drift, containing a very rich gold 
deposite, which pays from |3 to $10 a cart load. The chalk hill has not 
been penetrated to any considerable depth, but it is likely that underneath 
this deposite gold will be found. A curious phenomenon may be observed 
at this hill — one part of it is composed' of chalk, while the other is the usual 
red clay formation, the line of demarkatiou being plainfy visible. — Cah 
Chronicle. 



612 COLORS OF HANGINGS, FURNITURE, ETC. 



COLORS OF HANGINGS, FUENITURE, ETC. 

We have been exceedingly pleased with aa article upon " Color in Nature 
and Art," written by one who proves himself well qualified for the task, in 
a recent number of JBlackwood. We have hitherto acted on the belief that 
cultivation of this sort is of great importance — scarcely less than the cultiva- 
tion ordinarily discussed in agricultural journals. For lack of acquirements 
of this sort, so many of our wealthy families are as utterly destitute of good 
taste in their household arrangements, as they can well be. Many a poor 
man's hovel, in rural districts, or in the city even, exhibits far greater profi- 
ciency in these matters. Even our upholsterers have learned nothing, and 
generally know nothing, about them. All they can do is to imitate their 
predecessors, who were just as ignorant as themselves, or to imitate some- 
body whom they accidentally met with, who did so-and-so, and, it may be,( 
under totally different circumstances. Hence, we see what we see in our 
gorgeous mansions — a genuine Indian display of brilliant colors, exhibiting 
about as much science and skill as we should find in a medium Crow Indian. 
Some of these natives, as our own eyes have had the evidence, have, by intu- 
ition, a far more cultivated taste. But our object is only to present an ex- 
tract, and commend it to general attention. After discussing sundry relative 
topics, the writer proceeds thus : 

" In coming to the furniture of our dwellings, it must be confessed that, so 
innumerable are the possible combinations of color, it is impossible to lay 
down many laws of general application. In large rooms, bright, contrasting' 
colors may be employed ; whereas, in small rooms, the harmony should be 
not of contrast, but of analogy ; in other words, the furniture of small rooms 
should in general have but one predominant color, and the contrasts exhibi- 
ted be only those of tone. On this principle, hangings with varied and 
brilliant colors, representing flowers, birds, human figures, landscapes, etc., 
may be employed in the decorating of large rooms ; whereas, chintzes are 
only suitable to small rooms, such as cabinets, boudoirs, etc. In bed-rooms, 
the window-curtains and those of the bed should be similar ; and if there be 
a divan, it may be similar also ; for we may remark, that it is conformable 
with the object of boudoirs, and similar places, to diminish their extent to 
the eye, by employing only one material for the hangings and chairs, instead 
of seeking to fix the eye upon many separate objects. 

Of hangings — and our remarks are almost equally applicable to the gene- 
ral tone of a room — we may say that, in consequence of an apartment never 
being too Jight, since we can diminish the day-light by means of blinds and 
curtains, it is best that the hangings be of a light and not of a dark color, so 
that they may reflect light rather than absorb it. Dark hangings, therefore, 
are proscribed, whatever be their color. Red curtains are to be met with 
very frequently in this country ; yet it must be said that red and violet, even in 
their light tones, ought to be proscribed, because they are exceedingly unfa- 
vorable to the color of the skin. Orange can never be much employed, it 
fatigues the eye so much by its intensity ; and, indeed, among the simple 
colors there is scarcely any which are advantageous, except yellow, and the 
light tones of green and blue. Yellow is hvely, and combines well with ma- 
hogany furniture, but not generally with gilding. Light-green is favorable, 
both to gilding and to mahogany, and also to complexions, Avhetber pale or 
rosy. Light-blue is less favorable than green to rosy com|)lexions, especially 



COLOES OF HANGINGS, FURNITURE, ETC. 613 



in day-light; it is particularly favorable to gilding, associates better than 
green with yellow or orange-colored woods, and does not injure mahogany. 
White hangings, or hangings of a light gray, either normal,^ or tinged with 
green, blue, or yellow, uniform, or with velvet patterns similar in color to 
the ground, are also good for use. 

In regard to the draping of floors, it must be borne in mind, that for a 
carpet to produce the best possible effect, it is not endugh that it is of the 
best manufacture, and of excellent colors and pattern ; it is also requisite that 
its pattern be in harmony with the size, and its colors with the decorations of 
the room. It is important for manufacturers to know how to produce car- 
pets which will suit well with many different styles of room furniture ; and, 
in our opinion, the best mode of attaining this end is, to make the light and 
bright coloring commence from the centre of the carpet; for it is there (that 
is to say, in the part most distant from the chairs, hangings, etc.) that we can 
employ vivid and strongly-contrasted colors without inconvenience. And if 
we surround this bright central portion with an interval of subdued coloring, 
we shall be able to give to the framing colors (those around the margin of 
the carpet) a great appearance of brilliance, without injuring the color of the 
chairs and hangings. With respect to the carpets of small or moderately- 
sized rooms, we may lay down the rule, that the more numerous and vivid 
the colors of the furniture, the more simple should be the carpet, alike in 
color and pattern — an assortment of green and black having, in very many 
cases, a good effect. On the other hand, if the furniture is of a single color, 
or if its contrasts consist only of different tones of the same color, we may, 
without detriment, employ a carpet of brilliant colors, in such a way as to 
establish a harmony of contrast between them and the dominant hue of the 
furniture. But if the furniture is of mahogany, and we wish to bring out its 
peculiar color, then we must not have either red, orange, or scarlet, as a 
dominant color in the covering of the floor. 

The covering of chairs may present either a harmony of contrast or a har- 
mony of analogy with the hangings, according as the room is large or small ; 
and a good effect may be produced by bordering the stuff at the parts ^ con- 
tiguous to the wood with the same color as the hangings, but of a higher 
tone. Nothing, we may add, contributes so much to enhance the beauty of 
a stuff intended for chairs, 'sofas, etc., as the selection 6f the wood to which it 
is attached ; and, reciprocally, nothing contributes so much to augment the 
beauty of the wood, as the color of the stuff" in juxtaposition with it. In 
accordance with the principles of coloring which we laid down in a preceding 
part of this article, it is evident that we must assort rose or red-colored woods, 
such as mahogany, with green stuffs ; yellow woods, such as citron, ash-root, 
maple, satin-wood, etc., with violet or blue stuffs ; while red woods likewise 
do well with blue-grays, and yellow woods with green-grays. But in all 
these assortments, if we would obtain the best possible effects, it is necessary 
to rake into consideration the contrast resulting from height of tone; for a 
dark blue or violet stuff will not accord so well with a yqjlow wood ns a light 
tone of these colors does ; and hence, also, yellow does not assort so well 
with mahogany as with a v/ood of the same color, but lighter. There is no 
wood more generally used by us than mahogany, and no covering for sofas 
and chairs more common than a crimson woolen stuff; and in this we are 
influenced not so much by any idea of harmony, as by the two-fold motive 
of the stability of the crimson color, and the beauty of the mahogany. In 
assorting these, we will often do well to separate the stuff from the wood by 
a cord or narrow galloon of yellow, or of golden-yellovp, with gilt nails ; or, 



614 CULTIVATION OF THE TOMATO. 

better still, a narrow galloon of green or black, according as we wisli the 
border to be more or less prominent. The red woods always lose a portion 
of their beauty when in juxtaposition with red stuffs. And hence it is that 
we can never ally mahogany to vivid reds, such as cherry-color ; and more 
particularly to orange-reds, such as scarlet, nacarat, and aurora ; for these 
colors are so bright that, in taking away from this wood its peculiar tint, it 
becomes no better than oak or walnut. Ebony and walnut can be allied with 
brown tones, also with certain shades of green and violet." 



CULTIVATION OF THE TOMATO. 

This most delicious fruit deserves better cultivation than it often receives. 
We find the following in the March Horticulturist, and commend it to the 
notice of our readers : 

" Let every one who has a tomato plot, — and who that has a garden has 
not, — notice the plants when in full bearing — and one or more will diow 
more excellence than the others — pick from the very best the most desirable 
fruit, and save them for seed. Kepeat this each season, always having an 
eye to form, color, productiveness, flavor, and size ; and if no improvement 
takes place, then consider the writer an ignoramus. I have followed the 
above plan for several years, and the result is quite satisfactory ; and so it 
will be to others if adopted. Let this be more generally done by private 
groweis ; let them raise their standard of excellence, and the awarders of 
prizes at the public exhibitions follow suit, and the large growers for market 
will soon be forced to take a better sample to the city, instead of the thick- 
skinned, hollow subjects, which are too often seen on the huckster's stall, and 
which " bounce" like a foot-ball. We shall then have weight and quality, 
in return for good money. 

GENERAL CROP. 

To get the general summer supply, and likewise as early as possible in the 
open ground, it is advisable to have strong and healthy plants ready to be 
turned out in a warm aspect, so soon as all danger of frost is over ; or where 
there is the convenience of glass box-fi-ames, a portion may be planted therein 
two or three weeks earlier, some at the distance apart that it is intended they 
should remain. A good start is a great advantage, and fine plants will fur- 
nish fruit much earlier, and in more abundance through the summei-, than 
those which are weak and stunted to begin with ; consequently, the little 
extra trouble I'equired is more than repaid The common plan of sowing on 
a hot-bed, and leaving the plants to crowd each other up till planting time, 
and then removini^, almost without roots, only partakes of the "penny-wise 
and dollar-foolish" action that is too often practiced, and always ends in keep- 
ing the per centage profits small. Yet we see persons, who ought to know 
better, still drawing along in the old way; and when thing go wrong, bla- 
ming everything but their own want of observation and foresight. All kitchen 
vegetables, without exception, are of the best quality when well grown, and 
nothing deteriorates this quality more than starving the young plants in the 
seed-bed. Do not ha in too great hurry to begin, but,'when started, take 
care that there is no check until ready for use, is advice that all vegetable 



CULTIVATION OF THE TOMATO. 615 



growers ought continually to act up -to. In the present instance, the seed 
may be sown about the middle of February, on the surface of a gentle hot- 
bed, upon which is three or four inches of good friable mold, and covered 
over with a box-frame ; or in boxes in a hot-house, where a temperature of 
50° to SS'' by night is obtained. When the plants are two or three inches 
hio-h, transplant either into another or the same bed, or into boxes about six 
inches apart. Where the required supply is not large, they may be put up 
sino-lyinto pint pots; and, after planting, give a light watering to settle the 
soil around the roots. Admit all the lighi possible, and, in mild days, let in 
a o-ood supply of fresh air, but avoid cold winds and frost ; the object being 
to keep a moderate temperature, without checking the progress of growth, 
and yet not so warm as to draw plants up weak. As the weather milds oflf, 
the glasses may, in fine days, be entirely removed. Pots or boxes are only 
necessary when the hot-house is used ; and, in the former case, when they 
become filled with roots, the plants ought to be moved into those of a larger 
— say two quarts. By the first week in April, both may be removed into a 
cold frame, and kept close for a day or two ; after which air should be freely 
admitted during warm days, and gradually increased, until the glasses are 
entirely pushed down, but be careful to cover at night when frost is appre- 
hended. 

It is often amusing, and sometimes even annoying, at the beginning of 
summer, to see our neighboring cottagers scouring over the country in search 
of tomato plants. Almost everybody who has a patch of ground wants 
them, and, in many cases, they are not to be had " for love or money ;" yet 
they have the means at command to raise for themselves ; every house has 
its window, and the only space required, is enough room for a box two feet 
long, by six inches wide, and four inches deep, and anybody of ordinary in- 
genuity can fix a little glass frame over this, to counteract the dry atmosphere 
of a dwelling-room ; such a simple contrivance will accommodate as many 
plants as will be required, and be less expense, than the loss of time and shoe- 
leather that is expended in troubling other persons, who, too often, have only 
time and convenience for their own stock. 

Almost any kind of soil will answer for the tomato ; but it prospers the 
best, and produces fruit of a finer quality, in a well-drained, tolerably-fei tile, 
but not over-rich loose mold. So soon as all danger of frost is past, begin to 
plant out ; loosen up the soil well, dig holes four feet apart, six inches deep, 
and as many across ; lift each plant with a ball of earth ; do not keep the 
roots exposed longer than is necessary, and, in fixing the plants in the holes, 
let them be placed about the same depth as they were previously ; cover up, 
and press the soil somewhat around the neck, and lift a little extra up to 
it, which will encourage fresh roots and strengthen the plant. If the weather 
be dry, give a good soaking of water ; and so far all is finished. 

A few words may be said about training. The most common mode is to 
spread out the branches, and let them trail along the ground, in which case, 
if cleanliness be cared for, there ought to be a covering of marsh hay or 
straw placed over the surface. Sometimes brush-wood is laid flat, and the 
branches allowed to lay over the top of it, which elevates the fi uit above the 
soil, and prevents it from rotting, if the season should happen to be wet ; but 
there is no other advantage in the method, and it is inconvenient when gath- 
ering. The neatest and cleanest plan, and one which may be adopted in all 
private establishments, is to sink poles in an upright position along each row, 
leaving the tops five feet above ground, (if placed four yards apart, it will bu 
close enough,) and fasten wires horizontally to them, which will form a cheap 



616 cuLTiVATio:sr of the tomato. 



trellis to train upon. As the branclies elongate, they may be tied loosely to 
these wires, and a kind of hedge-row is formed with very little labor — -the 
fruit is free to the action of air and light, and is unquestionably of much 
better flavor. 

SUCCESSION CROP. 

Notwithstanding the extreme fruitfulness of the tomato, it often happens 
that the earliest planting becomes exhausted before the end of summer, and 
only produces a decreased quantity of inferior fruit, when a succession be- 
comes useful. In this case, it is only necessary to sow in the open ground 
about the middle of April, and transplant as recommended above. The 
plants from this stock will continue to yield with certainty until cut down by 
frost, and, if covered over at night, may be kept bearing longer than if un- 
protected. 

GROWING TUROUGII WINTER. 

There is no difficulty in growing and fruiting the tomato through the win- 
ter and spring months, where such is desired. Indeed, no fruit-bearing plant 
is more easy to manage thus artificially, with the possession of a suitable 
structure. A close and sheltered glazed pit is the best and most economical, 
although a moderately warm plant-house is nearly equally convenient ; but 
there must be a full exposure to the sun, or the blossoms will not fertilize. 
The seed may be sown the last week in August, and when large enough for 
transplanting, remove the plants into the house, having previously prepared 
for their reception. A suitable provision may be made by fixing boards, with 
the sides upright, along the inside front of the house, and three feet from it ; 
fill in one foot deep with good, fresh mold, and place the plants three 
feet assunder in the bed so formed. If this arrangement can not be adopted 
on account of some peculiarity in the house, large boxes, filled with rich 
earth, will ansv\rer the purpose to almost equal advantage. As the plants 
continue to grow upward, train them near the glass, in the same way as a 
grape-vine, only allow the side shoots to spread out, so as to cover the whole 
surface so far as they extend. This rr^ay be done very simply by stretching 
copper wires horizontally along on the under side of the roof, and eight inches 
from it. After planting, give plenty of air till cold nights come on, when a 
little fire-heat is necessary. The most suitable temperature through the night 
is from 55'^ to 60"; and this ought to be maintained pretty regularly. In 
the day-time, it may be allowed, with sun-heat, to rise to 75*^ or 80°, always 
admitting air on every suitable opportunity. In cloudy or foggy weather, it 
is well to keep close, or to give air very carefully, as the plants, if exposed to 
too much damp and cold, are subject to be attacked by a black mildew, which 
destroys the leaves and weakens the blossoms, rendering them abortive. If 
such should occur, sprinkle a little sulphur upon the coolest parts of the heat- 
ing apparatus, and give a trifle more heat for a few days, when the pest will 
disappear. As the blossoms continue to expand, go over the whole once a 
day, when the sun shines, and give them a sudden but light flirt with the 
finger, which will liberate the pollen, and greatly assist impregnation, and 
nip out the end of each shoot, a leaf or two above the flo>%ers, to help the 
embryo fruit to swell. I have never been troubled with insects in furcing this 
fruit, but if red spider (acarus) should jippear, the sul|ihur will destroy it; 
and green or black fly {apJm) may be got lid of by fumigating with tobacco. 
No fu tber care is requisite than occasionally removing superfluous or weak 
branclies, withered leaves, and such like; and the cro]), with attention, Avill 
continue to produce from Christmas until those in the open ground are ready 
for use." 



EIPE GRAPES IN DECEMBER. 617 



RIPE GRAPES IN DECEMBER. 

In accordance witli your request, I herewith give you the 7nodus operandi 
of growing grapes under glass, to ripen them by the December sun. My 
former practice, to ripen grapes about the first of April, was the same as 
practised by others, say warming the roots by hot manure in the middle of 
November, and continuing the heat in the border, by fresh supplies of ma- 
nure, until the grapes ripened. I noticed the roots are injured from this 
practice, and the expense is very great, not only for the manure, but also for 
the labor of looking after the border and replenishing it. Not being satis- 
fied, I concluded to try the following plan, which has proved quite successful, 
and gives me the grapes earlier. 

We will suppose the vines were started in November of last year, (1853.) 
To get them in this state, their habits have been changed from the natural 
time of starting. Now we will encroach still further, and start them in 
August, say the first. You will find no delay in the pushing of the bud 
after pruning, as the roots are warmed by the summer sun, and there is no 
danger of killing the young rootlets from hot manure. The progress of the 
vines will surprise you : in a week they will require tieing up to the rafters, 
and very soon after you will be assured of a good crop of grapes from the 
fragrance of the bloom. 

It is now of the utmost importance to attend in season to keep the heat 
in the border which the sun has so generously supplied, and a plan suggested 
itself to me from the practice of keeping ourselves warm by a blanket, of 
which I have manufactured some 600 pairs a day for the past ten years. It 
is therefore very natural that I should have thought of a blanket to cover 
the border to keep the heat in ; but it would require a great many woollen 
blankets to cover a border one hundred feet long and forty feet wide, and a 
great many thicknesses to give sufiicient protection. However, we have the 
principle in the thought, and now for the practice. Instead of the woollen 
blankets, I substituted two tons of meadow hay, very dry ; this covered the 
border about one foot in thickness, and in order to keep it dry, I placed upon 
the top of it about six inches of wool waste and manure, to absorb the rain, 
imtil the frost should make it a more perfect protection. This has answered 
the purpose ; the heat has passed from the border about three degrees a 
week from the first of December, at which time it was GO"^, and the fmit has 
ripened perfectly. It was generally supposed by grape-growers that I should 
fail in color and flavor, as well as size, from want of sun in December ; but 
my experiment proves that plenty of pure air is quite as important. 

My mode of ventilating is entirely new, and appears tavorable to the 
growth of the grape. The warming apparatus inside of 'the house is simply 
a stove at each end ; consequently, the ventilation is complete, as the heavy, 
bad air is constantly rushing to the stoves and passing out of the tunnels. 
I do not, in speaking of this mode of ventilation, recommend stoves for 
heating in preference to the common furnace and hot-water pipes, but refer 
only to the principle of ventilation, which can be apjjlied to the common 
furnace by conducting the air from the house to supply the coal instead of 
the outside air. This plan would as effectually draw off the bad air as my 
stoves. — Correspondent Iloveifs Magazine. 



618 THE PRACTICAL SCIENCE OF CANDLE-MAKING. 



THE PRACTICAL SCIENCE OF CANDLE-MAKING. 

The Belmont Candle Factory — in that curious London district, Vauxhall 
— presents a famous example of applied clieniical science. Rather more than 
forty years ago, Chevreul, the French chemist, announced to the Academy 
of Sciences the important fact, that fatty bodies are of a compound kind. 
He it was who first pointed out that fat is not a simple organic substance, but 
a salt formed of animal acid, (margaric acid,) combined with an animal base, 
in such a state as to be severable, the acid then being obtained separately. 
This discovery — the essential base of the inodern art of candle-making, the 
fatty acid set free from the less inflammable base, being wonderfullj'^ improved 
as regards its burning properties — led to the vast extension, in this country, 
of the stearic candle manufacture, so ably represented by what is so well 
known as "Price's Patent Candle Company;" and it is to the obtainment of 
this acid in a pure hard state, and at the cheapest possible manufactming cost, 
that the candlemaker's chemist has since given his almost undivided atten- 
tion. 

This point gained, CheVreul, still pursuing his subject, came upon another 
fatty acid — oleic acid — originally developed in lard. Putting these purely 
scientific researches into the workman's hands, as in all such transitions, was 
a task of great difficulty, and it was not until a very few years ago that these 
discoveries, in fact, assumed a really practical and commercially valuable 
form. 

Acting upon Chevreul's suggestion, M. de Mill}', a Parisian candle-maker, 
set to work to disengage the acids from their base, "glycerine," by boiling 
the raw materinl, tallow, with thin cream of lime, on the principle of what 
is now termed " lime saponification." The glycerine dissolved in the water, 
the fatty acids combining with the lime. Sulphuric acid is then used for 
destroying this combination ; the acid seizing on the lime, and setting free 
the fotty acids, pressure being finally employed to obtain the solid mass. 

Thus far the French led the way in this curious manufjicture ; but, in 1829, 
our countrymen stepped in. At that date, Mr. James Suames patented a 
plan for separating the solid and liquid parts of cocoa-nut oil, and this pro- 
cess subspquently become the property of Messrs. Price, who were induced 
to establish large cocoa-nut kernel crushing mills in Ceylon, to keep up their 
supply of the now necessary qocoa-nut oil. Large plantations of cocoa-nut 
trees were made in Ceylon ; and of these, now coming into bearing, Messrs. 
Price possess above 1,000 acres. The oil is obtained from the fruit by drying 
the kernel, and then crushing it under edge-stones — the reduced mass being 
subjected to cold pressure, for obtaining the best portion of the valuable oil, 
and afterwards to hot pressure for getting out the wliole attainable oleaginous 
matter. 

The solid matter resulting from this pressure, or the cocoa-nut stearine, was, 
in itself, a step in advance of the tallow product; but the candles now known 
as "composite,"' so independent of snuffers, were yet undiscovered. In 1840, 
Mr. J. P. Wilson, anxious to produce economical self-snuffing candles, for the 
particular purpose of the illuminations on her Majesty's marriage, found that 
cocoa-nut stearine, mixed with the newly-discovered stearic acid, produced 
candles burning with a good light, with the great advantage of requiring no 
snuffing attendance. They are the candles made on this general principle that 



THE PRACTICAL SCIENCE OF CANDLE-MAKING. 619 



we now find in every grocer's shop, and in every dwelling-liouse, whose dark- 
ness is as yet undispelled by the brilliancy of gas. 

Latin- chemical discovery — for it must be remembered that the whole rou- 
tine has been the result of a continued chain^ of the elegancies of chemical 
research — led to the distillation of fats, previously acted upon by sulphuric 
acid, or by nitrous gases. The raw material now used is palm oil, and in the 
existinty refinement of the process, six tons of palm oil are subjected to the 
action of Cf cwts. of concentrated sulphuric acid, at a temperature of 350*' 
Fahr. Under this treatment the glycerine is decomposed, sailphurous acid 
gas is evolved to a considerable extent, and the fat is changed into a mixture 
of fat acids, dark in color, and possessing an elevated melting point. The 
product is washed, and it is then deposited in a still, from which the air is 
excluded by the agency of stearine. 

In its original condition, palm oil is of a bright orange red tint, as thick 
as butter. After the acidulous treatment and the washing, it is changed to a 
hard black mass. The distillation separates this into the pure acids, brought 
over in the form of vapor, and the charred refuse matter left behind in the 
still. The distilled mass may be used for making cheaper classes of candles ; 
or by being subjected to severe pressure, cold and then hot, it is brought into 
the condition necessary for making the Belmont sperm caudles.. 

The cotton used as the wick is plaited, and then dipped in a solution of 
borax. It is this plaiting which gives the wick the slight curvature at the 
flame, and the preparatio'n with borax renders the cotton somewhat less com- 
bustible, except at the point which we find is always bent over to the edge of 
the flame, where it is' in contact with the air, and is consumed. The mould- 
ing of the fatty matter, or the disposition of the combustible mass round the 
wick, is efi"ected in a frame, which has attached to it a box, with a wick bob- 
bin for each mould, the movement being so coutrived, that the action which 
expels one set of moulded candles, draws oft" enough wick for the succeeding 
operation. Of course, each candle is moulded upon the free end of the wick 
length, and the severance is eflected by the agency of a traversing knife. 
Forceps are employed to hold each wick over the centre of its mould, the 
axis of the tv/o being made to coincide with accuracy. In this condition, the 
mould is run through a steam-heated chamber to warm it, the required tem- 
perature being reached by the time the mould arrives at the filler. The filled 
mould then passes onwards, and, when cool enough to admit of the with- 
drawal of the forceps without injury to the moulded mass, the superfluous 
fat is removed, prior to the mould being emptied. All these motions are 
performed by means of guide railways — a clockwork precision being observed 
throughout the operation. Each apparatus contains 200 moulds, each mould 
having 18 inch bobbins, which, when full, hold 60 yards of wick. 

Chemistry has done more for the candle manufticture than mechanics. 
Much ye! remains to be done in the ma«ipulatory processes, for at present, 
some wicks w ill get out of the candle's centre, whilst the bottoms occasionally 
turn out to be hollow. Hence, the very best candles are yet made by the 
old hand system. 

During the early part of the present year, Mr. G. F. Wilson, the managing 
director of the works, introduced castor oil as a new and economical material 
for this manufacture. Castor oil, when treated with hyponitric, nitrous, or 
sulphurous acid, solidifies, and furnishes what is called ''palmine." This pal- 
mine, when used after being pressed, is well suited for hardening tallow, as 
well as for mixing with wax. In making composite candles with it, it is 
mixed with an equal amount of hard fat acid. 



620 TELEGRAPH ROUND THE GLOBE. 

In 1852, the Belmont works employed somewhere about 1,000 hands, 
turning out U2)wards of 100 tons of candles a week, of a value of £7,000 or 
£8,000. Since that time, the works have been surprisingly increased, the 
number of the employed being 2,000, working upon a capital of £700,000. 
They cover two acres of ground, besides further space at the Battersea off- 
shoots. 

But this extension was not equal to the necessities of demand, and an en- 
ormous branch from the parent undertaking has been just now got to work 
near Liverpool. The new works are named from Bromborough i'ool, at which 
point on the Mersey they are placed. Here the vast area of 3f acres is 
actually roofed in with corrugated iron; fourteen steam boilers being fitted 
up to supply the great steam-heating power required in works of this kind. 

These Avorks, like their progenitors in London, are perfect models of good 
arrangement and management, and they approach about as near to the per- 
fection of combined industrial operation as any existing example of the great 
factory system of modern times. — Pract. Mech. Journal^ Gla!>gow. 



TELEGRAPH ROUND THE GLOBE. 



[The following paragraphs have been or are going " the rounds" of the 
press. We have not published or noticed them, because we see, or think 
we see, in them unmistakable evidence of humbug. Still, as we believe the 
thing is not only practicable, but will be, in fact, accomplished in a few years, 
on some more feasible route, we take this method of attracting the attention 
of the public to its claims. — Eds. P. L, & A.] 

J. P. Shaffner, Esq., the editor of the American Telegraphic Magazine, 
has just returned from his expedition to Europe, where he has been making 
arrangements for the construction of an electric telegraph around the world. 
One object of his visit was to negotiate with the Danish Government for the 
exclusive right to lay a line over Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Isles, and 
Denmark, for the terra of one hundred years ; and the acquisition of similar 
rights over Norway, Sweden, and Russia. 

The scheme is a bold one, and large enough for any capacity. The route 
proposed is definitely traced, and seems quite practicable. From Labrador to 
Greenland is about five hundred miles. From the point of landing, the line 
is to extend underground around Cape Farewell to a point on the east coast 
of Greenland, favorable for a submarine connection with Iceland, A subter- 
ranean line across the eastern coast of that island will connect with a subma- 
rine wire running to the Faroe Ides, and thence to Norway. I^y'this route 
there will be no submarine section of more than five hundred miles. Trea- 
ties with the Emperor of Russia contemplate the extension of the line from 
Stockholm, in Sweden, to St. Petersburg. . . 

^ Mr. Shaffner proposes to run his line to Moscow, and thence into Asia, 
piercing Chinese Tartary, extending to the Sea of Ochotsk, and by the way of 
Karaschatka reaching Cooke's Inlet in North-America. From this point the 
line will be run along the Pacific coast to Oregon, and south to S in Fran- 
cisco, Cilifornirt, etc., etc. The earth will thus be girdled wiih one continu- 
ous and unbroken flame of electric light. 

In the submarine department of this work, Mr. Shaffner has associated 



PEOPERTIES OF CHARCOAL. 621 

with bim Mr. John W. Brett, who has been the projector and successful con- 
structor of the vast ranges of submarine and subterranean lines of the old 
world. 

In these negotiations, Mr. Shaffner has been singularly fortunate. He has 
succeeded where the most skillful diplomats might have failed. He says that 
he had one great element of strength ; that was, he was an American. His 
Majesty the King of Denmark intimated to him that he would not have' con- 
sidered the proposition had it come from a citizen of any other nation ; but 
he informed Mr. Shaffner that he granted the patents under the belief that 
there would be no obstacles in nature that could be a barrier against the 
genius and enterprise of his countrymen. 



PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL. 

The following is an interesting article, by J. Stenhouse, F. R. S., in the 
Journal of the Society of Arts, London : — 

" My attention was particularly drawn to the importance of charcoal as a 
disinfecting agent, by my friend, John Turnbull, Esq., of Glasgow, Scotland, 
the well-known extensive chemical manufacturer, Mr. Turnbull, about nine 
months ago, placed the bodies of two dogs in a wooden box, on a layer of 
charcoal powder a few inches in depth, and covered them over with a quan- 
tity of the same material. Though the box was quite open, and kept in his 
laboratory, no effluvium was ever perceptible ; and, on examining the bodies of 
the animals, at the end of six months, scarcely anything remained of them 
except the bones. Mr. Turnbull sent me a portion of the charcoal powder 
which had been most closely in contact with the bodies of the dogs ; I sub- 
mitted it for examination to one of my pupils, Mr. Turnbull, who found it 
contained comparatively little ammonia, not a trace of sulphurated hydrogen, 
but very appreciable quantities of nitric and sulphuric acids, with acid phos- 
phate of lime. 

Mr. Turnbull subsequently, about three months ago, buried two rats in about 
two inches of charcoal powder, and, a few days afterwards, the body of a 
full-grown cat Avas similarly treated. Though the bodies of these animals 
are now in a highly putrid state, not the slightest odor is perceptible in the 
laboratory. 

From this short statement of facts, the utility of charcoal powder as a 
means of preventing noxioifs effluvia from church-yards, and from dead bodies 
in other situations, such as on board a ship, is sufficiently evident. Covering 
a church-yard to the depth of from two to three inches, with coarsely pow- 
dered charcoal, would prevent any putrid exhalations ever finding their way 
into the atmosphere. Charcoal powder, also, greatly favors the rapid decom- 
position of the dead bodies with which it is in contact, so that, inf the course 
of six or eight months, little is left except the bones. 

fi«;In all the modern systems of chemistry, such, for instance, as the last edi- 
tion of Turner''s Elements, charcoal is described as possessing antiseptic pro- 
perties, while the very reverse is the fact. Common salt, nitre, corrosive 
sublimate, arsenious acid, alcohol, camphor, creosote, and most essential oils, 
are certainly antiseptic substances, and, therefore, retard the decay of .animal 
and vegetable matters. Charcoal, on the contrary, as we have just seen, 
greatly facilitates the oxydation, and, consequently, the decomposition, of any 
organic substances with which it is in contact. It is, therefore, the very op- 
posite of an antiseptic." 



622 THE SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH. 



THE SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH. 

At a late meeting of the Britisli Association, at Liverpool, Mr. J. W. Brett 
read a paper on "The Origin of the Submarine Telegraph, and its Extension 
to India and America." The author gave an account of the difficulties en- 
countered in establishing the first submarine telegraph, which has now been 
successfully working for three years between France and England; and stated 
that he had established the submarine telegraph between England and Bel- 
gium with equal success, which had been in operation since the first of May, 
1853. He then explained some of the difficulties he had encountered in 
laying down the two submarine lines in the Mediterranean in July last — 
especially in passing a depth exceeding, by 100 fathoms, what had previously 
been ascertained to exist on the route between Piedmont and Corsica. The 
depths encountered between England and France, and England and Belgium, 
did not exceed attheir maximum 30 fathoms; whereas, the submarine cable 
was laid down in the Mediterranean at a depth of 350 fathoms, exceeding 
about eight times that of the English Channel. It was the general impres- 
sion that the submarine cable would part by the great strain it would encoun- 
ter in passing these great depths; for which reason he was strongly advised, 
and more particularly by one of the most able and experienced officers of 
the Sardinian Government, who accompanied and aided the undertaking, to 
make a detour of about eight miles by the islands of Gorgona and Caprija, 
where the soundings vrere known not to exceed 100 fathoms ; but the great 
point to be considered was, whether he would not incur the risk of a total 
loss of the cable by not doing so. The prudence of these arrangements, Mr. 
Brett said he fully admitted ; but that it was a question he was determined 
to solve at once — for as this telegraph was not a telegraph to Corsica, but 
part of a line to India, to be shortly completed to Africa, where still greater 
depths must be encountered, it was necessary to test the fact. He then ex- 
plained the difficulties they encountered in paying it out, when, after the line 
had been paid out, as he believes, along the top of a submarine mountain 
for some miles, at a depth varying from 180 to 200 fathoms, it suddenly, as 
he believes, came to the edge of a precipice, making a total of 350 fathoms 
(exceeding by about 100 fathoms any depth marked in the various charts on 
this route,) where it ran out with frightful velocity ; and had the cable been 
less strong, the whole must, of necessity, have been lost ; and they were com- 
pelled, nevertheless, to anchor by the electric cable all night, to restore the 
injury that had occurred; but he felicitated himself upon the experience thus 
gained from his determination in taking the deepest route, as it had led to 
many valuable suggestions necessary to successful operations in great depths ; 
and the able Commander, the Marquis Ricci, who up to this time had been 
in doubt of iR success, then admitted that this kind of cable contained such 
remarkable elements of strength in its form and combination, that he be- 
lieved only certain improvements to be necessary (on which we had been con- 
sulting,) to successfully lay it down even in the greater depths of the 
Atlantic. Mr. Brett, in conclusion, explained his reasons for selecting this 
line to India via Egypt, in preference to the line by the Italian peninsula, 
which would ever be impeded by the jealousies and restrictions of the petty 
States ; whereas, to the shores of Africa, the Mediterranean telegraph passed 
through only the States of France and Sardinia, who had enccmraged it by 
liberal guarantees, and admitted that all communications, in whatever Ian- 



FOREIGN EXTRACTS. 623 



guage, should pass unrestricted through their States. From Africa he stated 
he had two pL'ins in contemplation for its extension to Egypt — one, a lino 
dropped in the Mediterranean in the shallow line near the coast, and another 
buried in the sand along the shore — both of which he was satisfied might be 
laid secure from derangement of any kind. He then referred to the proposed 
telegraph to America, and of the depth on the proposed line, as recently 
ascertained by Lieut. Maury, of the United States, with some estimates of the 
weight and cost ; and stated that a return of £100 to £150 per day would 
give a fair interest on the necessary capital ; that his plan comprised several 
lines of communication ; and that he entirely deprecated the idea of a single 
line of communication, which he beheved could not be done. 



FOREIGN EXTRACTS. 



How Smoke is Made in London. — Statistical facts tell us that there are 
upwards of 3,000,000 tons of coals yearly borne into London, by sea and 
railway, and that somewhere about one-third of this amount is there con- 
sumed in furthering the ends of mauufacfr.ring industry. Now, it is a well- 
known fact, established by practice, that by the better consumption of smoke, 
and obtaining more perfect comustion, 20 per cent, of fuel is saved ; hence 20 
per cent, on 1,000,000 tons amounts to 200,000 tons of coal saved annually 
to the nation, and that, at an average cost of £l per ton, is £200,000 saved 
to the metropolitan proprietors of furnaces and manufactories, which would 
otherwise pass off in smoke, contaminating the atmosphere. According to 
this calculation, it may be taken as a twofold and total saving to the nation, 
of £400,000 per annum ; and that without regarding it in a sanitary point 
of view, for as already the improved appearance of the London atmosphere 
is distinctly observable, it is unnecessary to point out the injury inflicted upon 
the public health, or the pecuniary loss we sustain in the apparently trivial 
matters of soap, and wear and' tear of linen, by the deposit of the large 
amount of carb®naceous matter always present in the atmosphere, inasmuch 
as smoke cooled is soot, but when heated to G00° Fahrenheit, becomes highly 
inflammable gas, and is consumed ; therefore, every wreath of smoke that 
curls up a chimney is fuel wasted. 

Copper Mines, South Africa. — There is a likelihood of copper-mining 
being carried on near the north-western limits of the colony, at a place called 
Nemaqualand, on a large scale. The ore is said to be very rich in metal, 
and has realized from £40 to £60 a ton. It is so easily worked that three 
men can quarry and prepare a ton a day, worth nearly £40, In is said that 
it can be raised and sent to England at a cost of £13 a ton. The quantity 
of metal varies from £45 to £15 per cwt. Several companies have been 
formed to carry on mining operations, and some correspondence has been 
published between the Colonial Governor and the Secretary of State, as to 
the terms on which grants would be made of the lands underneath which 
the ore lies embedded. The great difficulty seems to be as to roads. Hon- 
deklip Bay, forty miles off", is the nearest point of export, and hundreds of 
tons of ore have been J^brought to the surface, waiting for removal, which 
cannot be effected at any price. A railroad has been contemplated, but the 
necessary funds are not at present forthcoming. 



624 AMERICAN PATENTS. 



Gas in the North American States. — Coals are obtained in large quan- 
tities from Britain and from Canada for the purpose of manufacturing gas in 
towns along the seaboard of North America, South of New- York, the oolitic 
coal-field of Virginia sends a portion of the supply ; and in the states west 
of the Alleghanies, the nearest coal-field yields the whole required. In New- 
York, two companies supply the public with gas, and manufactured last 
year 300,000,000 of cubic feet. At Philadelphia, the municipal corporation 
are the only manufacturers. Last year they made about 232,000,000 of 
cubic feet. Gas is a good deal dearer in the United States than in Britain. 
In London, the average price is 4s. per 1000 cubic feet. The lowest price in 
America is at Philadelphia, where two dollars are charged for 1000 feet, that 
is to saj^, more than 100 per cent, higher. In Liverpool the price is a little 
higher than in London, the price at the former town being 4s. 6d. per 1000 
feet. The laborers employed at the gas-works receive from one to two dol- 
lars a day, according to their skill and the demand for their labor. Some 
new gas-works, lately built at Philadelphia, are said to be of excellent con- 
struction and arrangement. They comprise a telescope gas-holder, IGO feet 
in diameter, and 90 feet in height, with twelve guide towers made of cast- 
iron and stone, in an ornamental form. 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 

Improvement in Machinery for Combing Wool. Charles G. Sar- 
gent, of Lawell, Mass. Dated, August 15, 1854. — In this machine, the wool 
is pulled out from the main lot, and stapled in small successive portions be- 
fore the operation of combing commences, by which means the fibres are 
drawn out and laid lengthwise, which much facilitates the subsequent opera- 
tion of combing. It also causes the pincers or nippers, which draw out and 
staple the wool, to revolve continuously, any suitable number of them being 
brought up in succession to the feed-rolls, by which means the various ope- 
rations of the combing process are caused to proceed simultaneously upon 
different poitions of material, without the necessity, which has heretofore ex- 
isted, of performing them one at a time, all the others being for the time 
interrupted. It is evident that the withdrawing of the separate portions from 
the feeding-rollers must be an intermittent operation, and it has been the ob- 
ject of the inventor to make this intermittent movement approach as nearly 
as possible to a continuous one, as the material is to be delivered from the 
machine continuously in an unbroken sliver. 

Improvement in Fire-Arms. Eli Whitney, of Whitneyville, Conn. 
Dated, August 1, 1854. — Mr. Whitney claims the method of constructing 
the sear and lock-bolt in one piece, combined with the method of operating 
the same by the trigger and spring, so that the sear can not release the ham- 
mer, except when the chambered breech v.'ill be firmly locked in its proper 
position when constructed, combined, and operated ; also, the combination of 
the trigger with the spring and the lock-bolt, (when the lock-bolt is of the 
same piece as the sear,) for locking the chambered breech, and discharging 
the pistol, when constructed and combined, substantially as herein described ; 
also, the combination of the three springs (when they are all secured with 
one screw), with the catch-lever, trigger, and the lock-bolt and sear, when the 
whole is constructed, arranged, and combined, substantially as described. 



AMERICAISr PATENTS. 625 



Lubricating Material. William Little, of the Strand, County of 
Middlesex, England. Dated, August 1, 1854. Patented in England, July 
14, 1853. — To 100 parts tallow, melted in a cauldron, add 235 parts of a 
solution of ten or eleven deg. B. of caustic soda in water. This mixture is 
boiled until saponification takes place, when ninety parts more of water are 
added, and the whole again boiled until the ingredients are thoroughly com- 
bined. To this add a potash soapy compound, prepared by seventy parts of 
a solution of caustic potash, equal to eight or ten degrees B., boiled with 
thirty parts of a fish or vegetable oil, until saponified. These two compounds 
being thoroughly mixed by boiling, are poured into a vessel containing 150 
parts of the greasy oil distilled from the crude oil of coal, and the whole 
well mixed by stirring, until it acquires a thick consistence. This compound 
is to be used for the journals of railway carriages, etc. For ordinary machi- 
nery, mix two parts of the greasy oil with one part of the above mentioned 
soapy compound, add eight parts of water. 

Improvement in Tubular Bridges. Eden A. Baldwin, of Elmira, 
N. Y. Dated, August 8, 1854. — This invention consists in constructing a 
tube of sufficient diameter for the passage of a railway train, using planks, or 
other suitable timbers, placed longitudinally and dowelled together, and the 
•whole firmly bound with strong iron rods or hoops. For this purpose may 
be used oak plank, two or three inches thick, as the size or strength of the 
bridge may require, and of uniform width. The hoops or bands to be made 
of 1 J or 1^ inch iron rods, which are first made of the necessary form and 
size, and set up at the distance of five feet apart. The planks are then laid 
in them, beginning at the bottom and proceeding on each side until they 
meet at the top, taking care that the ends shall break joints. The joints are 
all formed on an exact radical angle, on the principle of an arch, and each 
plank is dowelled to the next one with strong wooden pins, one foot apart. 
Then the bands are tightened. 

Improvement in Cotton Presses. Nathan Chapman, of Mystic River, 
Conn. Dated, August 8, 1854. — The nature of this invention consists in 
having the hubs of the toothed wheels, on which the chains which raise the 
follower work, formed with recesses in them to receive the ends of the chains 
when wound up, and thereby cause said chains to exert a pressure inside of 
the bearings of said wheels, and retain the follower in its elevated or raised 
position, without any device being employed for that purpose. ' 

Improved Machine for Uniting Plates of Metal of Unequal 
Thickness. Jeremiah Carhart, of New- York, N. Y. Dated, August 1, 
1854. — This invention is for the purpose of uniting two plates or pieces of 
metal, of unequal thickness, by placing them together between a punch and 
die, with the thicker piece next the punch, and the thinner one next the die, 
and then, by pressure applied to the punch, forcing a portion of the thicker 
plate through the thinner one. 

Improvement in Manufacturing Pigments from Iron Ore. Joseph 
H. Davis, of Morristown, N. J. Dated, August 8, 1854. — Take pulverized 
hematite, or oxide of iron, place it in a reverberatory furnace or cylinder, heat 
it to about 1000 degrees Fahrenheit, and then introduce steam from about 
the same quantity of water as ore is used. The steam is decomposed, and, 
in proportion to the time in which the ore is exposed to the steam, different 
colors can be produced, from that of the yellow ochre to black. 

37 



626 AMERICAJf PATENTS. 



Method of Coating Iron with Brass or Copper. Hugh Byrgess, 
of Kentish Town, England. Patented in England, Feb. 17, 1853 ; in the 
United States, July, 1854. — The articles to be coated with copper, or alloys 
of copper, are to be first well cleaned in dilute sulphuric acid, as is well un« 
derstood ; they are then to be carefully washed in a dilute solution of chlo- 
ride of zinc. The strength of the solution is made by adding about five 
parts of water to a saturated solution of the chloride, formed by dissolving 
zinc in hydrochloric acid, till action has ceased. Also the other soluble salts 
of zinc and tin may be used, and oxide of zinc deposited on the article to be 
coated, by holding it in the fumes of zinc during combustion. Oxides of 
zinc, made into a very thin cream Avith water, 'and applied to the iron article, 
carbonates of zinc treated in the same way, are all applicable for the process 
herein described, or, in place of zinc, cadmium may be used in like manner. 
The article, after having been well dried, when any of the above solutions 
have been used, may be heated to about 250 degrees, and may be plunged 
into melted copper. 

A mixture of about two per cent, of zinc and one per cent, of tin to ninety- 
seven parts of copper, answers the purpose better than copper alone. 

"I claim the coating of iron sheets, bars, bolts, and other forms of iron 
with copper or brass, by a combination of processes as follows : by first 
cleaning, then coating them over with a solution of cadmium or zinc, drying 
and dipping them into a bath of melted copper or brass, and raising them 
out of the bath into an atmosphere of steam and carbonic acid, flowing in 
streams or in jets, substantially in the manner described." 

Improvement in Eadiators. John Gemmill, of Mercer, Pa. Dated, 
August 8, 1854. — This invention is designed to prevent the great loss of 
heat which is occasioned by the ordinary construction of stove-pipes, in con- 
sequence of the passage of the current through the pipe, in obedience to the 
known laws of heat, without producing the amount of radiation which a more 
favorable construction would afford ; it consists in placing upon the stove, in 
the situation usually occupied by the first two joints of pipe, a radiator of 
the form of two frustrums of cones joined at their bases, and in suspending 
within this case a deflector and regulator, consisting of an inverted cone and 
right frustrums, united at their bases, said deflector and regulator being lined 
with some non-conducting substance, and movable vertically. 

Improvement in Air-Heating Stoves. Nathaniel A. Boynton, of New- 
York, N. Y. Dated, August 8, 1854. — The fire-chamber is spherical, so 
formed as to cause the blaze and heat to be thrown off" from the wc-od bunieo 
therein at the sides, and thus to radiate the heat at the outside of tlie fire 
chamber, and next to the body of air surrounding it. By forming the fire> 
chamber in one piece, all leakage of gas is avoided, and the construction 
greatly simplified, while, from its form, great facility is given for unequal ex- 
pansion and contraction, without injury. 

Improved Tires for Carriage-Wheels. George Souther, of South 
Boston, Mass. Dated, August 1, 1854. — This- invention consists in applying 
elastic tires to carriage-wheels. The tire of the wheel is made with two j)ro- 
jecting flanges all around, having a space between them for the einstic lire. 
An entire ring of vulcanized rubber is then stretched over the tire. Fur a 
pleasure buggy, make the tire of wrought iron 1^ inch wide, the flaig^s y^g- 
inch deep inside, and y\ inch outside ; the space between the two flanges is 
about 1 inch, and the elastic strip is 1 inch wide and f thick. 



AMEEICAN PATENTS. 627 



Irresistible Horse-Bit. — A patent has just been issued to Messrs. 
Titus (fe Fen wick, of Brooklyn, N. Y,, for a very ingenious and useful con- 
trivance for stopping runaway horses, and placing the most fractious and 
powerful horse under the immediate control of all classes of riders and dri- 
vers, even to the most delicate female. 

The nature of the invention consists in closing a horse's nostrils, so as to 
check respiration, and bring him to a stand-still, by means of pressure ap- 
plied through ornamental, padded levers, attached to the ends of the bit-bar, 
and so arranged on the sides of the horse's nose, and attached to a rein, that, 
when the driver or rider pulls hard upon the rein, they are caused to move 
laterally toward each other like the jaws of a clamp, and close the horse's 
nostrils sufficiently to stop his breathing, and bring him to a stand-still. As 
soon as the driver lets the rein slack, the pads fly off, and allow the horse to 
breathe freely. 

This bit is intended to take the place of the ordinary kind, and presents a 
handsome appearance when on the horse. 

Improved Arrangement for Lathe Chuck. L. A. Dole, of Salem, 
Ohio. Dated, July 25, 1854. — -The first part of this invention relates to the 
means employed for making the hole which passes through the hub, per- 
fectly true, and the second part relates to the means employed for forming 
the shoulders in the same, after the central bore has been made true. 

This invention consists in the employment of a self-centreing lathe chuck, 
consisting of a scroll screw and sliding holding jaws, in combination with a 
mandrel or screw passing through its centre, and having a cutter secured to 
its extremity, for the purpose of boring hubs perfectly true, said screw being 
fed, while boring, by a female nut attached to the barrel through which the 
screw or mandrel works. And, also, it consists in so constructing and 
arranging the feed nut, and combining it with a guage plate arranged on the 
mandrel, that it will be caused to adjust itself at the moment the shoulder 
of the hub has been cut of the required depth, and then be capable of turn- 
ing with the screw, and allowing the cutter to square off the shoulder. 

Improvements in Compositions for Bleaching and Stuffing Leather. 
— A. patent has been granted to L. Woodbury Fiske, of Louisville, Ky., for 
improvements in bleaching and stuffing leather. This improvement includes 
two modes of bleaching, warm and cold. A large per cent, is saved in cost 
for producing, while the weight and fairness is enhanced. By chemical 
means an increased amount of " stuffing" is applied, and the surface coating 
of tallow that remains after drying, which by the old mode is " set off," is 
entirely forced into the body of the hide or skin, leaving the grain fibres free 
from " stuffing," which impairs the color, and the leather is produced with 
increased fairness and pliability. 

Improvement in working Liming Vats in Tanneries. — A second patent 
has also been granted to Mr. Fiske, for improvements in tanning. The object 
of this improvement is to render the process of " liming," as now generally 
practised by tanners, as well as Mr. Fiske's own unhairing soak, more rapid, 
efficacious, and economical, to cause the hides and skins to come from the 
vats more "plump," fair, and free from lime in the pores than has been the 
case hitherto, at the same time preventing the formation of the pellicle on 
the surface of the liquid in the vats, the deposite of carbonate of lime and 
consequent loss of strength, and the labor and expense of frequent change » 
in lime thereby induced. 



628 NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

Improvements in Fire-Arms. Joseph C. Day, of Hackettstown, N, J- 
Dated, August 8, 1854. — This invention relates, firstly, to a certain method 
of constructing the barrel, and connecting it with the stock and breech, folfr 
the purpose of allowing it to swing, and present the rear end of the bore for 
the reception of the charge ; secondly, to certain means of making a secure 
and perfect connection between the rear of the chamber and a fixed breech ; 
thirdly, to a certain arrangement whereby the caps are caused to be supplied 
from a magazine in the stock to the nipple as required, by the movements of 
the hammer in cocking and discharging the piece. 

Improvement in Sofa Bedsteads. Stanislas Millet, of New- York, 
N. Y. Dated, August 8, 1854. — Mr. Millet claims, in combination with a 
spring-bottom, such as represented, the attaching of the sagging-bottom to 
the hinged head and foot-board, so that said sagging-bottom shall be strained 
over the spring-bottom, when the head and foot-pieces are dropped to form 
a bed, and serve the purpose of a lining between the mattress and the springs, 
when used as a sofa or lounge, substantially as described. 

Improvement in Railroad Car Windows. George Spencer, of Utica, 
N, Y. Dated, August 15, 1854. — This invention consists in combining with 
the side of a car, a revolving window, formed of two separate circular sashes, 
connected by hinges, so that one sash may be opened to its full extent, and 
having a small part of the circle cut off, so that, by revolving it upon its cen 
tre, a small opening may be made at the forward part of the window, which- 
ever way the car may be moving, the residue of the window remaining at 
the same time covered. 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

Ornamentation of Pottery and Glass. Messrs. Bale & Lucas, 
Stafibrdshire. Patent dated Nov. 1, 1853. — This invention relates partly to 
the production of various ornamental eflfects and patterns upon the surfaces of 
articles made of pottery, glass, slate, etc., especially those made of brick, tile, 
slabs, etc., of pottery, glass, enamelled and glazed iron, etc., and also to other 
architectural fittings. The improvements are applied in that part of the pot- 
tery manufacture known as " ground-laying." Another part of the invention 
relates to the imitating of marbled and partly colored work upon the mate- 
rials above named, and also to printing ornamental patterns upon stone, slate, 
marble, etc. The new processes, so far as relate to the ground-laying, will be 
better understood by a short description of the modes at present generally 
employed in the manufacture. The outline of the intended pattern is first 
drawn on and pricked through tissue-paper, through which fine charcoal is 
rubbed or pounced upon the ware, leaving thereon a black outline. The 
parts intended to be white, or different from the ground, are then penciled in 
with a composition or " wat^r stencil," made of rose-pink, sugar, and water. 
After this the piece is oiled and bossed with a dabber, to lay the oil on evenly. 
Upon this the required color, ground very fine, is dusted. After being dried, 
the piece is well washed in clear water. The stencil, being soluble, comes 
off, and the color is left on, forming the pattern. It is then cleaned, diied, 
and fired in the kiln. A variation in forming the outline is often used, by 
printing it instead of tracing or pouncing in, and transferring such printed 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 629 

outline to the surface of the article, in the usual way of pottery transferring. 
In such case the outline is fired, after which the stenciling, oiling, grounding, 
etc., are repeated as before. In all cases, however, the outline only of the 
pattern is made merely to guide the stenciling, and in these processes every 
fresh coat of color requires a re-stenciling and repetition of the process. 

The improved modes of ground-laying, or what may, by way of distinction, 
be termed "printed stencil ground-laying," consist of fully engraving the 
entire pattern, in place of engraving the. outline only of the pattern on the 
copper. The brick or other article to be ornamented is sized with a mixture 
of Canada balsam and turpentine. An impression from the engraved plate is 
then taken in the usual way upon tissue-paper, the composition or stencil used 
being particularly adapted for printing purposes. It consists of about three 
j)aits of rose-pink, two parts of whiting, two parts of fine-ground flint, one 
part of lamp-black, one half part of sugar-of-lead, and two parts of resin, well 
mixed with printers' oil. The impression is then transferred to the sized sur- 
face in the ordinary way of potters' transferring. After remaining a short 
time, it is washed with soft soap and potash, to bring away the superfluous 
paper and size. In order to receive the ground, it is then oiled with Canada 
balsSm and linseed oil, but without the usual bossing, after which the ground 
color is brushed, dusted, or laid on in any convenient manner. It is now 
ready to be fired with the "stencil on," which is loosened by the heat, and, 
on coming out of the kiln, the stencil is readily rubbed ofl:' with fine sand and. 
water, leaving the color and pattern on the article, beautifully sharp and de- 
li ued, and clean at the edges. Another part of the invention is the converse 
of the above, and is specially adapted for fine, delicate work. The entire 
pattern is engraved as before, and the brick or other article to be ornamented 
is then oiled over with Canada balsam and linseed oil, and is dusted over 
with the color which is intended as the ground. An impression in stencil is 
then taken on tissue-paper from the engraved plate, and is transferred to the 
moist surface of the article prepared as above. The printed stencil is then 
irarefully peeled off", and brings away with it the color from all the parts of 
the article with which the printed stencil has come in contact, the other por- 
tions not touched by the print forming the pattern. 

When gilding is required, ground gold is dusted on instead of the ordi- 
nary color. The pattern is then printed as before in stencil, and transferred 
to the surface of the article upon the gold ; after which the article is washed 
with soft soap and potash, in order to bring away the superfluous gold and 
tlie oil from those parts not desired to be gilt. The article is then fired with 
the stencil on, which on coming out of the kiln is rubbed off", and leaves the 
gilt pattern under it firmly adhering to the ware. 

The great feature of difference between the old and new modes is, that 
instead of having to draw the outline, and to pencil and stencil in by hand, 
the pattern is " printed" complete in stencil. The advantages gained are not 
only the obtainment of more beautiful work of any breadth or fineness, (which 
is done at a cheaper rate than the modes at present in use,) but delicate ela- 
l>orate patterns, at present entirely unable to be attained, are easy and eco- 
nomical of execution. In addition, there are many other advantages, such as 
saving the cost and firing of the outline ; doing away with its ragged edges ; 
the trouble of bossing after oiling ; the cost of cleaning and picking out the 
pattern ; after washing off, being able to lay on as much color at one coat as 
required two and three applications in the old modes, and re-stenciling ; and 
lastly, in being able to gild at the same time at a reduced cost. 

la carrying out the invention upon articles where heat is not required, and 



630 NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

upon other substances, as stone, slate, wood, etc., wliicli will only bear a slight 
temperature, some slight deviations will be necessary from the processes 
above described ; and in ornamenting glass or other transparent substances, 
the process found most expedient is this : The pattern is engraved as before, 
and an impression is printed in black or any opaque color, and transferred 
generally to the back of the piece. The paper is then washed off, after which 
it is oiled to receive the ground color, which is brushed or dusted through 
perforated paper or oiled silk, or any other suitable medium. The piece is 
then sized with a solution of isinglass and water, and, whilst wet, gold-leaf is 
applied, and is seen through, on the front side where there is no color. It is 
then finished by painting it over with any desired color. When applied to 
walls, floors, or anywhere which is likely to be damp, a coating of gutta per- 
cha or other water-proof substance is applied to protect it. By this means 
most beautiful effects can be produced for walls and floors ; especially as land- 
scapes, fruit, figures, and gilding can be represented, and saved from injury 
and wear by being done at the back. 

In ornamenting opaque bodies not necessary to be fired, this last process is 
slightly varied. The piece is first sized with, isinglass and water, and the 
gold applied as before ; it is then dried a little and varnished, and afterward 
hardened to set the varnish ; the print is then transferred to it, and the paper 
wasTied off, after which it is oiled and the color applied as before, and the 
whole is afterward varnished. Another simple mode of ornamentation adapted 
for chimney-pieces, pillars, etc., of stone, slate, wood, etc., is as follows : The 
article having been first cleaned and dressed, is "painted over with the desired 
color ; an impression is taken from an engraved plate of the pattern desired, 
in any ordinary way of printing, and transferred to the surface of the article 
to be ornamented. The paper is afterward washed off", leaving the pattern, as 
marble, etc., behind, which may afterward be varnished so as to keep it 
clean. 

It will be evident, that the several modes described are admirably adapted, 
not only for general architectural purposes, as bricks, tiles, slabs, baths, chim- 
ney-pieces, doors, furniture, etc., but are capable of being applied to a variety 
of useful fittings, as tables, panels, pilasters, mouldings, ceilings, etc., either 
made of the materials themselves, or forming a species of inlaying and ve- 
neering. Bricks, blocks, pillars, and similar articles, too heavy and costly to 
be made entirely of glass, may be beautifully decorated by ornamenting the 
glass in the manner described, and then using it as a veneer. 

Preservation of Iron by STA.NNo-PLtrMBATiNG. — The Rev. N. Callan, 
of Maynooth College, the author of numerous improvements in practical sci- 
ence, has suggested and is now introducing a most important system of pre- 
serving iron from corrosion and general decay. He uses an alloy of tin and 
lead, or tin, lead, zinc, and antimony, recommending that the alloy should 
contain at least as much lead as tin, but not more than V or 8 parts of lead 
to 1 of tin. The iron is treated with such a composition, just as iron is 
usually coated with tin. In a series of experiments on the decomposition of 
water by the galvanic battery, the patentee found that concentrated nitric 
acid acted far more powerfully on lead than on iron coated with an alloy of 
lead and tin, in which the quantity of lead varied from 3 or 4 to *? or 8 times 
the quantity of tin; and that the greater the proportion of lead contained in 
the alloy, the less it was acted on by nitric acid. H'e afterward made a vari- 
ety of experiments in order to compare the action of strong nitric, su]j)liuric, 
and muriatic acid, as well as of diluted sulphuric and muriatic acid, on lead 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 631 



and galvanized iron, with their action on iron coated with an alloy of lead and 
tin, in which the quantity of lead was about equal to, or from two to seven or 
eight times as great as that of tin ; and from these experiments he concluded 
that iron coated with any of these alloys is far less oxidable and less liable to 
corrosion than lead, and infinitely less so than galvanized iron, the zinc coat- 
ing of which is rapidly dissolved by the acids, even when they are greatly 
diluted with water. Hence, iron coated with an alloy of lead and tin, in 
which the proportion of tin is small, will answer for all the purposes for which 
sheet-lead, leaden pipes, and galvanized iron are employed. The mixture of 
a small quantity of zinc with the alloy of lead and tin, with which iron is 
coated, hardens the coating, but diminishes its power of resisting corrosion. 
However, a coating of lead, tin, and zinc is far less oxidable than the zinc 
coating of galvanized iron. The addition of a little antimony, which is a 
cheap metal, hardens the coating, and increases its power of resisting oxida- 
tion and corrosion. Stanno-plumbated iron may answer better than galva- 
nized iron for the rope of iron wire by which the conducting^ wire of the sub- 
marine telegraph is protected, because the former will resist the corrosive 
action of the sea- water better than the latter. In a work published last year, 
Pouillet, lately professor in the Sorbonne, says that sea-water corrodes galva- 
nized iron. In his interesting little book on the electric telegraph, Mr. High- 
ton states that he saw, in the neighborhood of large towns, galvanized iron 
wires, an eighth of an inch thick, reduced, in less than two years, to the thick- 
ness of a sewing needle, by the sulphurous vapors arising from the coals con- 
sumed. It is very probable that these vapors would exert no action on 
stanno-plumbated iron. Stanno-plumbated iron is far preferable to lead, 
because it is much cheaper, much more durable, and much less affected by 
changes of temperature. It has also great advantages over galvanized iron. 
It may be employed for all purposes for which the latter is used ; it is much 
more easily worked and repaired, because it is far more easily soldered ; and 
it will answer for a great variety of uses, in which it may be exposed to the 
action of various corroding substance-, such as acids, etc. ; but for these uses 
galvanized iron is totally unfit, because the zinc coating is incapable of resist- 
ing the action of any acid. Stanno-plumbated iron, particularly if the coat- 
ing contains a small quantity of antimony, will probably answer better than 
lead for vitriol chambers. It may sometimes be used instead of copper for 
the sheathing of ships, and bolts and nails of coated iron may be sometimes 
employed instead of copper bolts and nails. It may also be used for some of 
the purposes for which enamelled iron is employed, such as the enamelled 
cast-iron cisterns and pipes used in water-closets. At the last meeting of the 
British Association at Hull, Dr. Gladstone stated that owners of iron-built 
ships object to sugar cargoes, because the saccharine juices that exude from * 
the casks corrode the metal. If the iron of which the ships are made were 
coated on the inside with an alloy of lead and tin, containing five or six tinies 
as much lead as tin, it is highly probable that the corrosion of the ships 
would be prevented. A small piece of an alloy of lead and tin, in which the 
quantity of lead was about five times as great as that of tin, was left in sugar 
dissolved in water for more than three months. After that period the alloy 
came out as bright as when it was put into the solution. Coating the iron 
on the outside would protect it against the action of the sea-water ; and would 
be particularly useful for vessels intended for the West-India islands, where, it 
is said, the sea-water soon corrodes the iron. Stanno-plumbated iron is not 
more expensive than galvanized iron. First, because the coating of lead and 
tin need not be half as thick as the zinc coating, and therefore the quantity 



>632 



NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 



of the alloy used ia coating a given surface of iron will bo far less than the 
quantity of zinc employed in galvanizing the same surface. Secondly, be- 
cause spelter is very volatile, and therefore the waste of zinc in a molten state 
is much greater than that of the alloy of lead and tin. Thirdly, a greater 
degree of heat is required to keep zinc in a state of fusion, than to melt lead 
and tin. Lastly, since the proportion of tin need not be more than the 
seventh or eighth of that of lead, the alloy is very little dearer than zinc. 
From these reasons, it is clear that stanno-plumbated iron must be at least as 
cheap as galvanized iron. 

Professor Airet's Pendulum Test of the Earth's Mass. — The follows 
ing letter from Professor Airey to Mr. James Mather, of South Shields, enters 
somewhat into the details of the pendulum experiment in the Harton Col- 
liery, on which we wrote last month : " It will be, I am sure, a matter of 
satisfaction to you to know, that the results of the computations of the pen- 
dulum vibrations gives the highest confidence in the certainty of the results 
to be deduced from them. The comparison of the rates of the pendulum, 
before and after their interchanges, shows that there is no evidence of their 
having undergone any mechanical change whatever, and almost positive evi- 
dence against their having undergone any change, amounting in its efiects 
on their vibrations to l-20th part of a vibration in a day. The immediate 
result of the computations is this. Supposing that a clock was adjusted to 
go true time at the top of the mine, it would gain 2^ seconds per day at the 
bottom. Or it may be stated thus — that gravity is greater at the bottom of 
the mine than at the top by 1-19190 part. To go a little further into the 
interpretation. If there had been no coal measure, or rocks of any kind, be- 
tween the top and the bottom, but merely an imaginary stand to support the 
pendulums, the gravity at the top would have been less than at the bottom 
by 1-8400 part nearly. But it is less by only 1-19200 part. And what is 
the cause of this difference ? It is the attraction of the shell of matter, the 
thickness of which is included between the top and the bottom of the mine. 
The attraction of that shell, therefore, is the ditference between the two num- 
bers which I have given, or is 1-14900 part of gravity nearly. But if that 
shell had been as dense as the earth generally, its attraction would have 
been 1-5G00 part of the gravity nearly. Therefore, the earth generally is 
more dense in the proportion of 149 to 56, nearly. You will remark that 
all these numbers are rough, and that to make their results available some 
small corrections are required (to which I have not alluded,) and some know- 
ledge of the density of the difterent beds, &c., which I do not po?sess at 
present." 

Manufacture of Caoutciiouc. J. H, Johnson, London and Glasgow. 
— This French invention, which has been patented in England on behalf of 
MAI. Guibal & Cumenge, relates to the recovery and utilization of the volatile 
ingredients used in dissolving caoutchouc in the process of manufacturing it, 
instead of allowing these ingredients to be lost by evaporation. This great 
saving is effected by placing the soft caoutchouc upon traversing cloths in 
closed chambers, provided at the top with a means of condensing the vapors, 
and carrying off the products, the material being heated by suitable apparatus 
beneath the traversing cloth. The caoutchouc, as it leaves the spreading 
rollers, is traversed over a horizontal table, consisting of upper and lowei- cast- 
iron plates, with an intervening place for the introduction of steam, hot water, 
or heated air. This table is covered in by a roofing of metal plates, set at 
convenient angles, the chamber being closed v in at each end by triangular 



MISCELLANY. 



metal plates, placed vertically. The roof is covered with felt, which is kept 
constantly saturated with cold water, su2:>plied by a duct above, and which is 
again collected by gutters running along the lower edges of the roof-plates. 
The vapor rising from the material is condensed upon the under sides of the 
roof-plates, and, trickling down, is collected in suitable gutters ; these gutters 
being carried completely round the chamber, and across the end-plates, so as 
to prevent any of the products of condensation from falling upon the caout- 
chouc beneath. The gutters communicate with suitable receptacles, into 
which the condensed matter passes ; and this matter can be used over again 
repeatedly in the manufacture of the caoutchuc, thereby considerably reduc- 
ing the cost. 



MISCELLANY. 



A Puzzled Pig. — One of our western farmers, being very much annoyed 
last summer by his best sow breaking into the corn-field,' search was insti- 
tuted in vain for a hole in the rail fence. Failing to find any, an attempt 
was next made to drive out the animal by the same way of her entrance ; 
but of course without success. The owner then resolved to watch her pro- 
ceedings ; and posting himself at night in a fence-corner, he saw her enter 
at one end of a hollow log, outside the field, and emerge at the other end, 
within the enclosure. " Eureka,^'' cried he, " I have you now, old lady 1" 
Accordingly, he proceeded, after turning her out once more, to so arrange 
the log (it being very crooked) that both ends opened on the outside of the 
field. The next day the animal was observed to enter at her accustomed 
place, and shortly emerge again. "Her astonishment," says our informant, 
" at finding herself in the same field whence she had started, is too ludicrous 
to be described ! She looked this way and then that, grunted her dissatis- 
faction, and finally returned to the original starting place ; and, after a de- 
liberate survey of mattei's, to satisfy herself that it was all right, she again 
entered the log. On emerging once more on the wrong side, she evinced 
even more surprise than before, and, turning about, retraced the log in an 
opposite direction. Finding this efibrt likewise in vain, after looking long 
and attentively at the position of things, with a short, angry grunt of disap- 
pointment, and perhaps fear, she turned short round, and started off on a 
brisk run ; nor could either coaxing or driving ever after induce her to visit 
that part of the field." She seemed to have a " superstition" concerning the 
spot. — Knickerbocker. 

Fire-flies. — In tropical climes, various luminous insects are attached to 
female head-dresses. They are used also as lamps. I have read fine print 
in a dark room by the light of two small Long Island fire-flies in a tumbler. 
But man was not the first to rob these living gems of their liberty and ra- 
diance. There are birds that seize and suspend them as chandeliers for their 
dwellings. The bottle-nested sparrow, or baya, is one of the kidnappers. 
Its nest is closely woven like cloth in the figure of a large, inverted bottle, 
with the entrance at the orifice of the neck. The interior is divided by par- 
titions into two or three chambers, one over the other. These are profoundly 
dark until lit up with fire-flies caught alive, and mercilessly fixed to the walls 
or ceiling with pieces of wet clay or cow-dung for sconces. — From " The 
World a Workshop" 



634 



MISCELLANY. 



Bknefit of Railroads to Farmers. — We find in the report of the 
Michigan Central Raih-oad for 1853, the following list of farm products 
carried upon that road last year : 



Apples, bbls. . . .25,912 

Barley, bush. . . 24,426 

Beans, bush. . . . 1,064 

Bran, etc., tons, . . 1,090 

Beef, bbls. . . . 6,872 

Butter, tons, . . 206 

Tork, bbls. . . . 11,673 

Pork, in hhds, tons, . 2,104 

Wheat, bush. . . . 807,707 

Corn, bush. . . . 200,931 

Cheese, tons, . . , 140 

Cranberries, bbls. . . 1,036 

Dried fruit, tons, . . 339 

Flour, bbls. . . . 416.863 



Grass and Clover Seed, tons, 394 

Salt, bbls. . . . 13,936 

Wool, tons, . . . 693 

Cattle, alive, . . . 4,012 

Garden roots, tons, . 1,045 

Hams, etc., tons, . . 323 

Hides, tons, . . 224 

Oats, bush. . . - .115,295 

Plaster, tons, . . 2,013 

Pelts, etc., tons, . . 212 

Horses, . . . 584 
Sheep, .... 12,432 

Lumber, feet, . . 12,377,534 



At a rough estimate, this would make upwards of 80,000 such loads as a 
common road wagon in Michigan usually takes to market, drawn by two 
horses, at an average, going and coming, of twenty-five miles a day, and 
would probably average six days for each load ; say four hundred and eighty 
thousand days, or the labor of one thousand three hundred and fifteen men 
and teams every day for one year, to say nothing of back loads and trans- 
portation of live stock. — Louisville Journal. 

Bending Ship Timber. — All the immense labor hitherto spent in round- 
ing timber to suit ships, and houses, and machines, and furniture, and what- 
ever other things require timber so curved, is now to be dispensed with by 
machines which can take the stateliest and straightest oak, and bend it like 
a Titan-bow, for the use of the proudest man-of-war, or the loftiest cathedral, 
and this, too, adding strength and durability to the wood 1 The first experi- 
ment has just been made on timbers sixteen feet in length, eight inches by 
ten, bent to as short a curve as can be used in ship-building. This machine 
is a large one, designed for ship timber, but there is another also ready for 
furniture, and both have just commenced operations. The place of action is 
Greenpoint, where there is a large foundry for making the machines, and 
large steam-vessels for steaming the timber, with other requirements in- 
cluded in the process. Henceforward all the delicate curves of steamers, 
frigates, or yachts, will be of solid timber, fashioned by this extraordinary 
innovation. So, too, the most ponderous rafters, such as bend in lofty ara- 
besques over chapel or hall, may be composed of unbroken trees of the forest, 
yielding under this new and wonderful power of man. So, too, all the 
curvilinear beauties may be detailed by the same means. The statistics of 
the value of such a discovery are beyond the conception of the uninitiated. 
All the immense shipping and building interests of the civilized world are 
included in this discovery. — N. Y. Tribune. 

« 

Agriculture in France. — A letter writer for the Bepuhlic says : " A 
trip of six hundred and fifty miles, from the northern to the southern ex- 
tremity of France, justifies me in the expression of my opinion that sun does 
not shed its rays on so fair a land, or one so thoroughly cultivated. The 
whole country is literally a garden. Every square foot, from the raouutain- 
toj) to the lowest ravine, is made to produce something, if it be susceptible 



MISCELLANY. 635 



of it. Their mode of planting or sowing their crops, whether on plain or 
hill side, produces the finest effect on the appearance of the landscape. The 
place allotted for each crop is laid out in squares, or parallelograms, with 
mathematical precision, and, whether large or small, the best garden could 
not be divided with greater accuracy. As there are no fences or hedges, and 
as the diflferent crops are in various stages of maturity, you can imagine the 
variety of hues that meet the eye, and the magnificence of the panorama 
that stretches out in every direction as far as the vision can penetrate. I 
am sorry to add in this connection that seven-eighths of the agricultural 
labor is performed by females, while two or three hundred thousand stalwart 
men in uniform are idling away their time in the barracks of the cities and 
villages. In the absence of fences, cattle, secured by ropes, are driven about 
their pasturage by females ; and sheep are confined within the required 
limits by boys, assisted by a shepherd's dog." 

Premium Pianos. — We see by the official report of the late Fair of the 
Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute, held in Washington, that Messrs. Stein- 
way & Sons were awarded the highest premium for their Serai-grand Piano, 
(which is, indeed, a perfect grand, in a square form,) and, also, the first pre- 
mium for a 7:^ octave circular scale piano. 

These instruments attracted much attention at the Fair, and public senti- 
ment seemed to be in advance of the committee in awarding the premiums. 
And so universally were they liked, that Mr. S. sold not only those on exhi- 
bition, but received orders for several others. They are unsurpassed for 
strength, delicacy of touch, power, and sweetness of tone. 

Opening of the Panama Railroad. — This gratifying event took place 
on the 20th ult., and the celebration was ^participated in by a large party of 
officers, stockholders, and invited guests, who were received with great de- 
monstrations of rejoicing at Aspinwall, Panama, and the intermediate points. 
The transit was made in four and a half hours, and the management of the 
road and machinery gave abundant satisfaction. Henceforth, the tedious, 
expensive, and laborious passage of the isthmus, between the two oceans, 
which occupied days, will now be accompHshed in a few hours. 

Prince Barnum. — Phineas T. Barnum is surely the greatest man out. 
He has stuffed with soap, or other soft material, or covered with wool, (per- 
haps from the woolly horse,) the eyes of several ladies of this city, who are 
announced to act as a committee on babies, at the Museum, on some future 
day. Surely it must require the exercise of some power which few men 
possess to induce ladies so far to forget what is due their sex as to occupy 
such a position. 

A New Ancesthetic Agent. — Professor Dugas, in the Medical College 
of Georgia, a few days since, had to extirpate a large tumor on the back 
weighing about ten pounds. He surrounded the base of the tumor with the 
freezing mixture for four or five minutes, which so obtunded the sensibiHty 
of the parts that the operation was performed with comparatively little pain. 

Fruit Trees. — It is a theory among fruit growers that the peach is de- 
stroyed by cold, when the thermometer reaches 10 degrees below zero, and 
that this tree cannot live when the' temperature is at that point ; but an ex- 
amination of the trees, in the western part of this state, fails to show that 
any injury has yet been received. — Rochester Adv. 



636 MISCELLANY. 



Progress ix Arkansas. — 


■The State of Arkansas has just completed a 


census of the State for 1854. 


The following is the result as compared with 


1850: 








1824. 


1850. 


Population, - - - 


253,117 


209,887 


Whites, ' - - . . 


119,224 


162,189 


Slaves, - - . - 


60,279 


47,100 


Free colored. 


614 


608 


Acres land cultivated. 


857,180 


781,530 


Bales of cotton produced. 


160,779 


65,344 


Corn, bushels, 1853, 


- 11,536,969 


8,893,939 


Wheat, do. 


332,535 


199,639 


Oats, do. 


- . - - - 1,040,506 


656,283 


It appears from this that the increase was as follows, viz : 




Increase of population, 




- 21 


Increase of whites, - 




20 


Increase of slaves, 




- 27 


Increase of lands cultivated, 




10 


Increase of cotton produced. 




- 150 


Increase of wheat produced, 




130 


Increase of oats produced, - 




- 50 


Increase of com produced, 




60 



Manufacture of Nkedles.^ — The number of procesBcs through which a 
needle goes in its manufacture is as follows : 1, wire received ; 2, weighed ; 
3, gauged ; 4, cut ; 5, rubbed ; 6, counted ; 7, pointed ; 8, washed ; 9, cut 
back ; 10, pointed at the other end ; 11, examined ; 12, counted ; 13, washed ; 
14, weighed; 15, annealed; 16, stamped; 17, pressed; 18, spitted; 19, 
piled; 20, broken ;' 21, heads piled; 22, oil burnt off; 23, soft-straightened; 
24, evened; 25, counted; 26, hardened; 27, evened; 28, stropped; 29, 
tempered; 30, weighed ; 31, examined; 32, picked for crooks; 33, hard- 
straightened; 34, counted; 35, scoured with seven emeries, washed and 
evened between each; 36, washed and dried ; 37, weighed ; 38, evened ; 39, 
headed; 40, weighed; 41, ground at the point; 42, weighed ; 43, scoured 
with one emery, and glazed ; 44, weighed ; 45, washed and dried ; 46, 
weighed ; 47, evened ; 48, headed ; 49, picked for waste set ; 50, weighed 
by count ; 51, set; 52, examined ; 53, weighed for drillers ; 54, blued ; 55, 
drilled ; 56, rubbed ; 57, weighed from drilling ; 58, examined ; 59, rounded 
by finishing ; 60, finished once ; 61, rubbed ; 62, finished again ; 63, rubbed ; 
64, examined ; 65, counted in 25's ; 66, papered ; 67, labelled ; 68, tied up ; 
69, collected ; 70, packed up. 

Warm Feed. — A correspondent of the N. E. Farmer gives the following 
fact relative to the management of one of his cows, and its result : "I will 
give your readers my mode of feeding one of my cows. I purchased her 
last November, when she gave four quarts of milk a day. I commenced 
feeding her with cut hay, two quarts of shorts, and a few carrots, wet with 
cold water, twice a day for one month. At the end of that time she had not 
increased in her milk at all. I then commenced wetting the same amount of 
feed with boiling water, and, at the end of the second month, she gave reg- 
ularly fiix quarts per day, which I thought a fair gain. Where a person 
needs considerable milk, and keeps but one cow, I would recommend a trial 
of this mode of feeding." 



NEW BOOKS. 687 



A SINGLE pound of flaxen thread, intended for tlie finest specimens of 
French lace, is valued at six hundred dollars, and the length of the thread 
is about two hundred and twenty-six miles. One pound of this thread is 
more valuable than two pounds of gold. 

The Lawton Blackberry. — We have had many enquiries in regard to 
this fine fruit, a full description of which was given in our October number, 
p. 210. We have asked the opinion of many of our friends who fruited it 
last year, and, without exception, they speak of it as well deserving the en- 
comiums given it. J. B. Lawton's office is at 54 Wall street, N. Y. 

Lewis House, Binghamton, N. Y. — Some of our friends have found a 
temporary home in this well known hotel, now kept by Messrs. Davis & Mor- 
ris, and report it as a very pleasant, and, in all respects, satisfactory place for 
the traveler. It is only a minute's time from the depot, with a good walk, the 
whole distance. Patronize the deserving. 

^j^^ We commend the experiments of Prof. Campbell, p. 690, to the 
attention of all agriculturists. 



General Agency. — The publisher of The PloiigTi, the Loom, and the Anvil, 
believing it in his power to be of essential service to the readers of that journal, 
in the purchase or sale of various articles, and the transaction of various kinds of 
business, would announce to them that he is ready to execute any such commis- 
sion which he may receive, including the purchase of books of any description ; 
implements connected with agricultural, manufacturing, or mechanical opera- 
tions; artificial manures; farm and garden seeds, etc., etc. One of the gentle- 
men connected with the journal is a proficient in music, and experienced in the 
selection of piano-fortes, flutes, etc., and wifl execute orders in that department. 

He will also act as agent in the purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

([^"Particular attention to business connected with the Pateut-Oflace. 

Letters of inquiry on these matters will be promptly attended to. 

School-Teacheks. — Having had occasion to furnish teachers for some, 
of our Southern friends, we have been fortunate enough to learn of several 
young ladies who are admirably well qualified for families or schools, and if any 
are in need of such, a letter addressed to us will receive immediate answer. We 
shall not fear to guarantee that any reasonable expectations wiU be fully met. 
Some of them are desirous of going South. 



NEW BOOKS 



Hahper's Gazetteee of the World. 

All the numbers of this ponderous work are now pubHslied, and taken together- 
they embody a vast deal of information in a very email compass. Large and well- 
drawn maps also illustrate the text. The whole execution of the work is in excel- 
lent style. It is impossible that perfect accuracy should be attained in all these 
descriptions. The longer articles exhibit evidence of great care and extensive re- 
search. Under some of the minor titles we have detected a few errors that are 
worthy of correction, on the part of purchasers as well as future publishers. The 
following now occur to us : 

Windham, Essex County, Mass. There is no such town, nor never was. 

Rowley, Essex County, Mass., does not contain any academy, 

Dummer Academy, in Newbury, parish of Byfield, is less than half a mile from 
the northern boundary. 

Woodstock, Windsor County, Vt., does not contain any academy, but an excellent 
public school. Nor does it lie " on" nor within less than eight miles of "'the Ver- 



638 NEW BOOKS. 



mont Central Railroad." Windsor, in same couoty, contains a large gun factory, 
omitted in tbe description, the business of whicli is worth moro to the town than all 
the mills actually mentioned. Nor is Windsor a '"capital" of the county, unless a 
single session, annually, of the circuit court of the United States makes it such, 
while all the count}' buildings and county office are at Woodstock. 

In Newburyport, Essex County, Mass., thtre is a monument erected in a church to 
the memory of Whitetield, some twtiity feet from tl>e pul|iit, while the I'oues of 
the venerable man lie in a tomb under tho pulpit. Such wou'd not be the idea from 
the language used by the compiler. The church is the First Presbyterian, in Federal 
street. 



Compendium of Hygiene; compiled for the use of the Winsted Hygienic Association. 
By Lucius Mills, Physician to the Association. West Winsted, Conn. 1855. For 
sale by Fowlers & AVells. 

We have here a small manual, 190 pages, designed more for the nurse thah the ' 
physician ; and the author wisely, we think, recommends the substitution of the 
former for the latter, in many cases whore hitherto the doctor is sfMit f >r. At least, 
he thinks this preferable, unless the physician is in reality a skillful man. We must 
confess that we have seen and known too much of medical students to look upon the 
large majority of them otherwise than with entire contempt, while the few we honor 
as among the most deserving and the most useful of men. A. skillful physician and 
a good man, in one person, has our heartiest sympathies and our profound res(>eet. 

This manual instructs us wisely, no doubt, in the proper use of food, diet, bathing, 
exercise, &c., as a proper substitute, often, for medicine, in many of the diseases to 
which we are exposed, and also gives directions for the treatment of wounds, poisons, 
&c. The author is a rational hydropathist. He is not inclined to drench us to death 
in attempting to cure every disease by the one process, but commends the use of 
different baths in a variety of cases. Recipes for gruel, farina, sago, rice, &c., &c., 
for the sick room, are also inserted. An " Addendum " directs us fully and judi- 
ciously, we think, in the cure of dyspepsia, by the " motorpathic " treatment. This 
is in a separate pamplet. We have no doubt the author has done his community 
and others a very good service in these pages. 



Botany of the Southern States. In two parts, <fec. By Prof. John Darby, A.M. 
New-York: A. S. Barnes <fe Co.; Cincinnati, W. H. l>erby; Savannah, John M. 
Cooper. 1855, 12mo. 612 pages. 

We have examined this volume with much satisfaction. It is well arranged ; the 
topics are well treated, and it is throughout what it should be. The former part of 
the volume (164 pages) is occupied with the elements of the science, and physiology ; 
this is followed by the Linnean system and the " Dichotomous Analysis ;" and then 
comes, commencing page 200, Descriptive Botany. A Glossary, and Indices finish 
the volu'ne. If we must find fault with any thing, it must be the phrase, "Dichoto- 
mous Analysis," as a new word and unnecessary, though expressive. The term used 
by Wood, for the same thing, is " Synopsis of the Natural System." This is the fact. 
It is also "dichotomous;" since, we ever have a choice between two dissinailars 
till we ai-e brought to the natural order. We conmiended Wood very highly, as 
vastly superior to any thing before published. He must now divide the honors with 
Mr. Darby. This last book is to the South what Wood professes to be for the whole. 
How full Mr. Wood is in the Southern Flora, we have had no means of ascertaining. 
He is filU for northern latitudes. Mr. Darby describes tho Flora from lat. 80° to 35'^, 
"including South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, parts of North Carolina, Floriila and 
Mississippi." The book is eminently wortiiy of extensive patronage t!iroughout. 



Messrs. Long & Brother, Publishers, 121 Nassau street, New- York, have in press, 
an Autobiography of an Orphan Girl. By Alice Grey. A tale, of real life, whose 
characters still play their part on the world's stage. 

The Slave of the Lamp. By Mrs. North, a well-known author; and The Watch- 
M.\N, illustrated by living characters — more anon. Price, $1 each. 



LIST OF PATENTS ISSUED. 



689 



The Gardener's Text Book, containing practical directions for the formation and 
management of the kitchen garden, and for the culture and domestic use of its 
vegetables, fruits, and medicinal herbs. By Peter Adam Schenck, formerly gar- 
dener to Edward C. Williams, Esq. Boston : John P. Jewett & Co. ; Cleveland, 
Jewett, Proctor & Worthington. 4th 1000. 

We have before commended this work. It gives us full instructions in the location, 
arrangements, and cultivation of the garden ; and the tools adapted to such service 
as is required, and the mode of using them. The proper culture and use of the 
various roots, medical herbs and other vegetables is fully set forth. The whole can 
not fail to be highly useful. 



Kate Atlesford ; a story of the Refugees. By Chas. J. Peterson. Philadelphia: 
112 Chestnut street; Boston, Phillips, Sampson & Co.; New- York, J. C. Derby. 

An " advance copy " of this came to hand too late for a general reading. It claims 
to be a historical novel of superior merit. We notice from the titles of the chap- 
ters, that it contains many exciting scenes of shipwreck, fire in the woods, abduction, 
pursuit, rescue, &c., and ends with a " wedding in 1780." 

P. S. — A friend who has read this commends it highly. 



First Lessons in Geography. By James Monteith. New-York : A. L. Barnes. 

This little book is National Geographical Series, No. 1. It is well suited for its 
object, as given in the title, and is very handsomely executed. It contains, as it 
should, many very good illustrations, maps, «fec. 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM FEB, 7, TO FEB. 21, 1855. 



James Allen, of Frease's Store, Ohio, improve- 
ment in clover huUers. 

Wm. H. Allen, Lowell, improvement in ma- 
chines for chopping meat and other substances. 

Hiram Berdam, New-Tork, improvement in 
life boats. 

Thomas D. Aylsworth, Frankfort, New-Yorl:, im- 
provement in hop frames. 

H. Clark, Newport, Fla., improvement in cotton 
gins. 

E. B. Clement, Barnet, Vt., improvement in 
churns. 

George Daniels, Philadelphia, improvement m 
the threshers and cleaners of grain. 

John Dick, New- York, improvement in stays 
for articles of dress. 

Ili'nry T. Dexter, Zanesville, improvement in 
wharf boats. 

G. Esterly, Heart Prairie, Wis., improvement 
in ploughs. 

James Esterly, Albany, improved magazine 
emiike consuming pipe. 

Phiiieas Emmons, New-York, improvement in 
cracker machines. 

H. W. Evans, Philadelphia, improved spirit 
levels. 

Asahel Faircbilcl, Ashland, Ohio, improvement 
in sleam boiler chimney. 

Wm. Fuzzard, Newark, improvement in ma- 
chinery f<jr felting hat bodies. 



John W, Haggard and George Bull, Blooming- 
ton, 111., improvement in rotary ploughs. 

Alonzo Hitchcock, Cliicago, improvement in 
weather sti-ips for doors. 

George H. and Benjamin H. Horn, Brooklyn, im- 
provement in sewing machines. 

Fred. Howes, Yarmouth Port, Mass., improve- 
ment in ships' standing rigging. 

Wm. S. Maclaurin, New- York, method of teach- 
ing penmanship, 

Matthew H, Merriam, Chelsea, Mass., and J. B. 
Crosby, Stoneham, Mass., improvement in leather 
splitting machine. 

Robert J. Morrison, Richmond, Va., assignor to 
himself and Edwin A. Morrison, Lawrenceville, 
improvement in grass harvesters. 

Josiah H. Noyes, Abington, Mass., improvement 
in lamp extinguishers, 

Jefferson Parker, Louisville, improvement in 
machines for slaughtering hogs. 

S. N, and Wm. F. Stillman, Leonardsville, N. Y., 
improvement in garden rakes, 

Wm. D. Titus and Robert W. Fenwick, Brook- 
lyn, improvement in bridle bits, 

Ira Reynolds, Republic, Ohio, improvement in 
ploughs. 

John Tremper, Philadelphia, improvement in 
steam valves. 

J. N. Williams, Dubuque, improvement in head 
sppporters for railroad oars. 



640 



LIST OF PATENTS ISSUED. 



A. B. Childs and H. W. Dickenson, Rochester, 
N. y.,. for method of feeding paper to printiog 
presses by machinery. 

E. A. Forhush, Ashland, Mass., improved sew- 
ing machine. 

Fredericli Denzier, N. Y. city, new form of bank 
lock. 

G. B. Clarke, Leonardaville, N. Y., chimney 
safe. 

Geo, Blanchard, Washington, D. C, life-saving 
raft. 

Levi Bissell, N. Y. city, improved metallic 
spring. 

J. H. Bennett, Bennington, Vt., straw cutter. 
C. E. Barnes, Oswego, N. Y., mill stone dress 
for hulling rice. 

Yarnall Baily, West Chester, Pa., fluid burners. 
S. H. Noble, Westfleld, Mass., screw wrenches. 
J. S. Keith and J. Brooks, Canton, Mass., bullet 
moulds. 

G. P. Ketchum, Bedford, Ind., new method of 
driving pairs of reciprocating saws. 

Gustavus Hammer, Cincinnati, Ohio, pump 
valves. 

C. C. Hall, Portland, Me., manufacturing paper 
from resinous barks. 

Daniel ilaldcman, Morgantown, Va., improved 
harrow. 

Joel Hastings, James Kamsey and H. G. Cham- 
berlain, St. Johnsbury, Vt., machine for cutting 
tenons. 

Joseph G. Goshon and S. M. Eby, Shirleysburg, 
Pa., maize leaves as a substitute for tobacco. 

Samuel Wetherill, Bethlehem, Pa., mode of 
manufacturing zinc white. 

Carriangton Wilson, N. Y. city, improved griddle. 
Thos. Tripp, Sandy Creek, N. Y., improved 
water ■wheel. 

G. N. Todd, Dundair, Pa., self-regulating water 
gates. 

'Samuel Taggarf, Indianapolis, Ind., new me- 
thod of feeding flour bolts. 

Wm. Stephens, Richmond, Ind., slide rest for 
engine lathes. 

Sauuel R. Smith and Elijah Cowels, Hadley, 
Mass., machine for cutting wood into slivers. 

Wm. Sage, Durham, Conn., air heater. 

W. C. Sanford, Meriden, Conn., improvements 
in skates. 

J. A. Robinson, Poplin, N. 11., hand cultivator. 

Jacob Pierson, Alexandria, Va., machine for 
manufacturing hoops. 

J. T. Ogden, assignor to himself and Thomas 
Goddard, Boston, Mass., carriage windows. 

C. W. Brown, Boston, Mass., assignor, to G. W. 
Banker, Watertown, Mass., and G. O, Carpenter, 
South Reading, Mass., for improved paint mill. 

Henry S. Ackerly, Now- York, improvement in 
piano forte frames. 

J. Bale, of Buffalo, improvement in hotel annun- 
ciators. 

James B. Blake, of Worcester, Mass., improve- 
ment in gas cooking-stoves. 

S. R. Bryant, of New;York, improved anchor 
tripper. 

Henry V. Corbett, Buffalo, improved mode of 
raising sunken vessels, 

Wm. B. Emery, of Alb.any, method of adjusting 
cylinders in boring machines. 

Wm. B. Emery, Albany, method of adjusting 
Bluff in planing machines. 

Ammi M. George, Nashua, improvement in ma- 
chines for maiing chain links. 



Daniel B. Nell, Mount Gilead, Ohio, improT»- 
meni in repeating single barreled firearms. 

Amos Nudd, Exeter, N. If., flre-engines. 

Obadiah Merland, Boston, improvement in roll- 
ers and dryers, for paper-making. 

Chas. Miller, N. w-York, improvement in ma- 
chines for making butt hinges, 

Chas. Morris, New-Haven, improved machine 
for shecoring leather straps. 

Zadoc Pangborn, Algonac, Mich., improvement 
in the construction of vessels. 

F, Peale, Philadelphia, improvement in pro- 
pellers. 

Robert Romaine, Montreal, improvement in 
seed-planters. Patented in England, May 10, 
1853. 

George S. G. Spencer, Boston, improv^ftnent in 
hot air furnaces. 

Wm. Steele, Wheeling, turning machine. 

Joseph Stevenson, Wheeling, Philadelphia, bed 
boat or life preserver. 

John StuU, Philadelphia, improved stereoscope 
case. 

Wm. L. Young, Muscatine, lovs^a, machine for 
cutting barrel heads. 

Lewis Teese & Son, San Francisco, improvement 
in forks for gold diggers. Ante-dated November 
22, 1854. 

Jeremiah P Smith, Hummelstown, Pa., im- 
provement in corn shellers. 

Hiram Hawley, Rome, N. Y,, mandrel for hold- 
ing carriage hul)s, &c. 

D. W. Hughes, New-London, Mo., improvement 
in hemp brakes. 

Wm. V. Gee, New-Haven, assignor to the At- 
water and Bristol Manufacturing Company of 
same place, improvement in looms. 

Alex. Kirkwood, Jackson Co., Miss., method of 
pumping water out of vessels. 

Asa Landphere, Albion, Pa., and Samuel Rem- 
ingtun, Ilion, N. Y., spoke machine. 

Peter Lear, Boston, improved method of ar- 
ranging and operating submerged horizontal pad- 
dle wheels. 

Chas. Leavitt, Quincy, improvement in port- 
able grain mills. 

Martin H. Mansfield, Ashland, Ohio, improve 
ment in hulling and cleaning clover seed. 

F. Russell, Boston, improvement in mowing 
machines. 

Thomas C. Ball, Walpole, improvement in screw 
jacks. 

Andrew J. Burnhai-t, Schoolcraft, Mich., im- 
provement in seed planters. 

David Russell, Drewsburg, Ind., improvement 
in spado ploughs. 

Jno. Haslam, New- York, and Jas. Haslam, 
Scarsdale, (solo heirs of Joseph Haslam, deceased) 
improvement in covering thread with wool or 
silk. 

Daniel W. Mcsser, Boston, assignor to himself, 
R. B. Fitts, and Albert James, of the same place, 
improved hand stamp. 

Horatio N. Gambrill, and Singleton F. Burgee, 
of IVoodbury Mills, Md., improvement in carding 
machines. Patented in England, August 22, 
1854. 

Jehu Hollingsworth, and Ralph S. Mershon, 
T^anesville, improvement in firearms. Patented in 
England, August 1, 1854. 

Ralph S. Mershon, and Jehu Hollingsworth, 
Zanesvilie, improvement in repeating firearms. 
Patented in England, August 1, 1854, 



Clie 110119!)^ t\jt im% flnb tijf Jlnuil. 



Vol. VII. MAY, 1855. No. 11. 



AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 

PRODUCTS SECTIONAL VARIETY AMPLE COMMERCE INDISPENSABLE. 

The wide extent and variety of surface of tlie territory of the United 
States not only permits but demands a very considerable variety in their 
agricultural products. It is true that, with few exceptions, the same vegeta- 
bles may be grown for our own tables in almost every state ; but it is also 
true that, for profitable culture on an extensive scale, different sections of the 
country, so various in soil and climate, require us to rely on those products 
which are best suited to the conditions presented. It is not caprice, nor 
fancy, nor fogyism, that in this sense, and to this extent, limits the farmers of 
one section to the production of cotton or of rice, and of another to sugar, 
and a third to cereals, etc. On one or another of these crops every farmer 
must rely as his chief dependence, however he may be disposed to indulge 
in variety, or to enter upon "improved systems." Regard should be had, to 
some extent, to the practice, now so popular on paper, of rotation in crops ; 
but even in this, there is such a thing as adhering to the letter in utter dis- 
regard of the spirit, and to tjie injury of the farmer, if not of the farm. 

Nor is this limitation in the number of profitable crops, in our view, en- 
tirely unfortunate and an evil. We have often advocated the doctrine, that 
every community should be, as far as possible, independent of all others. 
This doctrine is based on two elementary ideas, to wit : first, that it is haz- 
ardous, in time of war, to be dependent on an enemy ; and the second, and 
the greater, this independence obviates the necessity of expensive carriers. 
But neither of these reasons applies with much force to parts of the same 
country. They have, and ought to have, a sense of mutual dependence. 
Such is, in fact, the case, to a very great extent. Statistical tables of the 
various products of this country furnish full illustrations and abundant evi- 
dence on this subject. Thus: of 108 millions of bushels of potatoes raised 
in the states, by the census of 1840, Maine and New- York raised 40 miUions; 
of 14 millions tons of hay, worth about 197,000,000, New-York, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania raised more than five miUions ; of 84 millions bushels of wheat, 
New- York. Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia raised more than 52 millions; 
of 123 millions bushels of oats, those four great states raised over 68 mill- 
ions ; of about 4|- millions of dollars invested in fisheries, Massachusetts owns 
3^. By the last census, more than two-thirds the entire crop of wool, 

VOL. vu. 38 



642 AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 

valued at near 10 millions, were produced in New-York and Ohio ; of butter, 
the entire product being 50 millions of dollars, or 313 millions of lbs., New- 
York produced about 80 millions of lbs. ; of cotton and woolen manufactures, 
which together amount to the sum of 105 millions of dollars, Massachusetts 
alone produces more than 38 J millions, and New-England more than 08 
millions ; of tobacco, the crop being about 200 millions lbs., Kentucky and 
Virginia produce 111 millions; of 215 millions lbs. of rice, South Carolina 
produces about 100 millions; of the cotton crop, valued at 98^ millions of 
dollars, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi raised more than two-thirds, the 
entire crop being confined to six of the Southern and South-western states. 

Eight diflerent states produce the greatest amount of one or more crops, 
or products, viz : Massachusetts, New- York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Georgia, 
Alabama, Tennessee, and Ohio, while four others must bo added to the list, 
if we include the second highest, viz : New-Hampshire, Rhode Island, Ken- 
tucky, and Texas ; and of each of these pi'oducts, the total value is over 
$10,000,000. This precedence in the amount of production among the states, it 
will be perceived, belongs to the most widely separated portions of our country. 

Says Mr. Tucker, in his valuable work, Progress of the United States : 
" Two-thirds of the mining labor is in the Middle and Southern States. The 
Southern States stand foremost in agricultural labor, though they hold but 
the third rank in population. The Middle States employ the least labor in 
agriculture, in proportion to their numbers. In commerce, however, they 
employ the most, and next to them the New-England States. The same two 
divisions take the lead in manufactures, they contributing nearly two-thirds 
the labor employed in this branch of industry. Three-fourths the seamen 
are furnished by New-England." 

By the census of 1840, according to Mr. Tucker, the following was the geo- 
graphical position of the several industrial interests : 













Ocean 


Inter. 


Learned 




Mining. 


Agrlcul. 


Commerce. 


Manuf. 


Navig. 


Navig. 


Profess. 


N. E. States, 


5.3 


11.1 


15.1 


23.0 


75.3 


5.8 


10.9 


Middle States, 


40.7 


21.7 


42.0 


42.2 


17.3 


53.2 


37.0 


Southern " 


21.1 


24.8 


11. 


11.1 


3.5 


5.0 


12.1 


S. West. " 


1.0 


18.5 


12.3 


4.8 


3. 


12.5 


9.8 


N.V^est. " 


25.3 


23.9 


19. 


18,3 


.9 


22.9 


23.0 



100. 100. 100. 100. 100. • 100. 100. 

The entire value of the annual agricultural and manufactured products, in 
he same geographical divisions, was as follows : "^ 

Agriculture. Manufactures. 

New-England States, $74,749,889 $82,784,185 

Middle " 213,028,100 100,101,132 

Southern " (ex. Florida,) 139,083,014 15,040,324 

S. Western" 110,789,390 11,028,717 

N. Western" (ex. Wis. & Iowa.) 112,904,907 30,821,800 

The entire value of annual produHs, in these divisions, by the census of 
, was as follows : 

New-England States, - - - $187,057,294 
Middle " - > - -. 390,558,303 

Southern « ... 175,321,830 

S. Western «... 138,007,378 
N. Western " - - - 170,987,925 



AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 



64c 



By the census of 1850, the value of the agricultural products of the Uni- 
ted States was as follows : , 

Indian Corn was estimated at - - - $296,036,552 

Wheat, 100,485,944 

Cotton, - - 98,603,720 

Hay, 96,870,494 

Butter, 50,135,248 

Potatoes, 45,453,232 

Oats, 43,975,253 

Wool, 15,755,087 

Tobacco, 13,982,686 

Sugar, (cane,) 12,378,850 

Other vegetable products, with milk not included 

in butter and cheese, - - - . 106,774,794 

Making a grand total of - - $879,847,140 

[Note. — lathis table we do not include live stock, slaughtered an'raals 
orchard products, manures, etc., which are of immense amount, though very- 
difficult to estimate. The total is estimated at over 1,326 millions of dol- 
lars.] 

But a more extended view, while it confirms the statement we would 
illustrate, may also be of interest in various ways. Hence, we have pre- 
pared, at considerable labor, from the volume of the Census Returns recently 
published by Mr. De Bow, the following table, which specifies the relative 
position of each state, in respect to all the productions which are reported as 
exceeding 110,000,000. Those numbered 1, are the highest, and so on : 

TABL'E SHOWING THE RELATIVE PRODUCTION OP VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS. 



State and ratio to total 
population. 


o 
O 

!S 
cS 

■3 

c 




53 
O 

O 




S 

O 


2 


■s . 

re t*^ 

S 3 

■ a 
S '^ 
IS 

w 


■? 3 


a> 2 
en o 


o 
o 


o 
o 

O 

6-1 


cS 
3 

m 
o 

a 
a 

O 






'A 


Connecticut, 


1.60 


27 


25 




9 


21 


16 


22 


9 






8 




5 


3 


2 


Maine, 


2.51 


28 


20 




5 


19 


10 


15 


7 




12 






7 


10 


3 


Massachusetts, 


4.29 


23 


27 




6 


23 


12 


21 


6 










1 


1 


1 


New-Hampshire, 


1.37 


29 


23 




8 


24 


15 


16 


5 




14 






2 


6 


9 


Rhode Island, 


.64 


30 


30 




20 


27 


28 




19 










3 


5 


8 


Vermont, 


1.35 


24 


18 




4 


17 


16 


18 


4 




3 








7 




New-York, 


13.36 


13 


3 




1 


1 


1 


10 


1 


22 


2 






6 


2 


4 


New-Jersey, 


2.11 


18 


14 




10 


13 


9 


24 


8 


13 








11 






Pennsylvania, 


9.97 


12 


1 




2 


2 


2 


14 


2 


20 


4 


11 




4 


4 




Delaware, 


.39 


2-2 


19 




23 


26 


27 




24 


19 








14 






Maryland, 


2..51 


15 


8 




15 


18 


21 


25 


18 


15 




3 




9 






Virginia, 


6,1.3 


7 


4 


11 


13 


4 


7 


.3 


15 


7 


5 


1 




10 


9 


6 


North Carolina, 


3.7.5 


10 


12 


9 


16 


10 


20 


4 


20 


' 3 


16 


6 




12 




5 


South Carolina, 


2,88 


14 


17 


4 


26 


16 


23 


12 


27 


5 








13 






Georgia, 


3.91 


8 


16 


2 


24 


11 


19 


6 


25 


1 


15 


13 


4 


8 






Florida, 


.38 


25 


28 


10 


30 


30 


30 




30 


12 




10 


3 








Texas, 


.92 


20 


26 


8 


28 


28 


24 


19 


29 


9 






2 






11 


Alabama, 


3.23 


9 


21 


1 


22 


14 


18 


5 


23 


2 














Mississippi, 


2.61 


11 


24 


3 


27 


22 


17 




22 


4 














Louisiana, 


2.33 


16 


29 


6 


25 


29 


29 


23 


2S 


8 






1 








Arkansas, 


.90 


17 


22 


7 


29 


26 


26 


14 


26 


11 














Tennessee, 


4 32 


5 


13 


5 


21 


7 


11 


1 


16 


6 


11 


4 




15 






Missouri, 


2 94 


6 


IQ 




17 


9 


13 


8 


17 


14 


10 


5 










Kentucky, 


4.24 


2 


11 


12 


18 


6 


8 


2 


13 


10 


7 


2 










Ohio, 


8.54 


1 


2 




3 


3 


3 


7 


3 


17 


1 


7 




8 




10 


Indiana, 


4.26 


4 


6 


13 


12 


8 


4 


9 


12 


16 


6 


9 










Illinois, 


3.67 


3 


5 




7 


5 


5 


11 


10 


18 


6 


12 










Michigan, 


1.71 


21 


7 




11 


15 


15 


17 


11 


23 


9 










7 


Wisconsin, 


1.32 


26 


9 




14 


12 


12 




14 














12 


Iowa, 


.83 


19. 


15 




19 


20 


20 


20 


21 


21 















644 



AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 



Such a table, however, does not show the exact relation of the different 
states in respect to the vakie of their producfjons. The first half dozen may 
produce more than all the rest, or there may be a large amount produced in 
nearly the whole number. Hence, we have prepared another table, in which 
the quantity of each of the products above described is appropriated to the 
several geographical sections of the United States, generally known as New- 
England, Middle States, Southern, South- Western, and North- Western States. 
As these divisions are not perhaps familiar to all, we name them in order : 
1. Maine, New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Ver- 
mont ; 2. New- York, New-Jersey, Delaware, Maryland ; 3. Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, * Texas ; 4. Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee; and, 5. Missouri, Kentucky, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa. For convenience as a general 
reference, though not important in the use we make of it, we have placed 
over each division the population, the square miles of territory, and the pro 
portional population, the whole being 100. A few territories of little value 
in this connection, are not included in either of the tables here presented. 



^ 






^ 



&i 



'k. 



8 



g 






M Or-I 
oa OO O 

"~^ 6. 
o ^ o 

P< . . 
o c? i- 



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55 •q>^ -_ . . _ — 

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t"- -^t* lo o ro t^ ;=: c-i to O T 



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oo-o 

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C w O p- rt 

EC- > fc-Otli 



* Texas is classed among the South- "Western States in the census. We inadver- 
tently placed it among the Southern. 



AMERICAN INDUSTEY. • 645 

The examination thus made shows us, also, that there is no one crop or 
product which, in amount, so greatly exceeds others as to be of right regarded 
as the especial source of national wealth. If there are such products, to any 
extent worthy of such distinction, it belongs to the class of grains, which are 
not only so necessary to every community, but which are also very imposing 
in their amount — the value of this crop being more than 600 millions of dol- 
lars annually. And among all these varieties, Indian corn is nearly one-half 
the gross amount in value ; and, at the same time, as if to prevent all sec- 
tional jealousy, there is no crop which is so extensively cultivated among the 
different states as this. Sixteen states raise, each of them, over ten millions 
of bushels annually ; and there are but three states in all that do not raise 
more than a million bushels. 

We do not regard our cotton crop as an exception to the statements we 
have made. It is of immense value, in its direct and indirect results, as we 
shall see clearly in the sequel. But in the value of the crop itself, taking the 
census as authority, it is exceeded both by Indian corn and wheat, and is 
nearly equalled by the hay crop. True, it moves a multitude of spindles ; 
and the clatter of its looms, if heard in one grand, industrial chorus, would 
shut out from our hearing the very thunder, and the roar of our Niagara 
would be silenced in its presence. It builds ships, employs many sailors, 
clothes millions of people, rears cities, and is potent in directing the move- 
ments of commerce in this and other countries. Whoever speaks lightly of 
the importance of this crop, in its financial relations, is a madman or a fool. 
But we shall still insist, and the sequel will illustrate the position, that a wise 
Providence has built up this vast republic, so distant in its geographical ex- 
tremes, and so various in its possible developments, yet so related and so 
combined and interwoven in its wants, its products, and its interests, and so 
mutually dependent and mutually sustaining, that it would seem to require 
more than the wild frenzy of a madman, or the reckless abandonment of a 
fanatic, to break it in pieces. We should deem no force competent to over- 
come all these natural bands, cemented as they are by treasure and by blood — 
blood shed in the common defence, and the blood of families intermingled, 
and now beating in living hearts ; and, we verily believe, that no arm but 
that of an avenging God will ever bring this fair heritage to desolation. 
That bale of cotton, picked by single hands, ginned and conveyed by rail- 
road and steamer, dropping coins of gold all along its way, is spun and wo- 
ven into fabrics that are found in every village shop in Christendom. No less 
really do those threads run through the very woof and web of our social 
organism. Perhaps the wool of some Western or some New-England flock 
is taken for the filling of which this cotton forms the warp. If it be so, these 
two products of distant states are not more intimately connected, in all future 
time, than the distant states, so dissimilar in almost every physical feature, 
from which these materials are brought. 

It is not, however, the value of a crop or product which determines its finan- 
cial importance in a national view, nor yet in the leger of the producer. It 
may have cost all it will bring, though its market price is estimated by tens 
of millions. The amount of its "transactions" in the price current maybe 
comparatively small, and yet it may be highly remunerative. Some fertile 
lands are so cultivated as to be even a source of expense. Some soils of 
moderate value in the market are made to pay very handsome dividends. 

There are sections of country where wheat " will not pay." Sheep and 
wool are of doubtful value as an income in large sections of country. In 
such cases, these crops, though they may swell the column of " aggregates," 



646 AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 



are of no great pecuniary beneBt to anybody. We have recently seen the 
statement, by one evidently familiar with the subject, though he may be in 
error in his calculations, that the entire cotton crop costs the planter eight 
cents a pound. If so, the planter is enriching factors and manufacturers 
at his own private expense, and he is bound, in justice to himself, to keep his 
accounts with great care. 

But other considerations of great importance belong- to this view of our 
subject. Some crops pass directly from the producer to the consumer, though 
perhaps burdened with sundry commissions and charges. They are conveyed, 
and only conveyed, and then consumed. 

We have been trying to persuade those who supply our markets, that the 
neglect of attending to these matters is the cause, and, we think, in many 
cases, the sole cause of their poverty. One can not alibrd to produce scarcely 
any thing at half the " market price," If he does, he must ever be a pro- 
ducer, and never rest from his labor, nor ever be able to save any portion 
of the avails of his labor for the supply of his future wants. 

Some products pass into second hands, where, by the exercise of skill and 
labor, their value is greatly enhanced. Perhaps the second profits are greater 
than the first. A moderate illustration of this occurs in wheat. The flour- 
mills of this country employ some 38,000 men, either as millers or as mill- 
wrights. A much greater secondary profit arises from the manufacture of 
wool. The annual wool crop of this country, as we have seen, amounts to 
about $16,000,000. Wool is also imported to the amount of about 
$2,000,000. But the woolen manufactures of this country amount to more 
than $43,000,000. Nearly forty thousand hands are employed, permanently, 
while the capital invested in this manufacture exceeds $28,000,000. 

But a far more notable illustration is seen in the cotton crop. The value 
of this crop is less than a hundred millions, and of this about ninety millions 
value is exported, while very little raw material is brought into the country. 
Yet the value of our cotton manufactures is about $62,000,000. This gives 
employment to nearly a hundred thousand men and women, while over 
$75,000,000 capital is invested in it. The manufacture of wool, again, con- 
sumes some 46,000 tons of coal, and that of cotton some 120,000, the pro- 
duction ^f which furnishes support to other thousands. So, too, the iron trade 
— the value of which is about $60,000,000 annually — consumes one-and-a- 
quarter millions of tons of coal, and more than seventy millions bushels of 
charcoal — another valuable source of remunerative industry. 

A large part of the cotton crop, as we have just stated, is sent abroad. 
This service furnishes employment, in addition to a large force employed in 
inland navigation, to 800,000 tons of shipping, and to 40,000 seamen. In 
previous numbers, we have discussed, in various forms, the public and private 
bearings of such labor and charges. Items of cost, adding nothii g to the 
value of the raw material, are not, in general, regarded with much tavor by 
producers, and yet they are, of course, sometimes absolutely necessary. They 
are, however, entered on the profit and loss account, and, by their exact 
amount, diminish the balance of the credit side, if they do not sometimes de- 
stroy it. But cotton is not alone here. It is but lately that we have read 
that the short crop of wheat has most essentially diminished the business of 
our canals, and left thousands of boatmen without employment. 

It may be the payment of such charges, however, that swells the value of 
these crops to such enormous sums. We remember the time, and so can some 
much younger than we, when coin was worth scarcely ten cents a bushel in 
Ohio. It may be so now in some dark corner. But this was the result of 



AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 647 



enormous expenses for freight, etc., before railroads were so frequent. Now, 
when the market is open, when there is rapid communication between sellers 
and purchasers, taxes of this sort are paid, and still the nett price of the crop 
is more than quadrupled. 

If we should, therefore, conclude, as a matter of course, that all these 
charges were really a loss, a burden, our logic would be in fault. It would 
be just as rational to say that the cost of the harvest is a loss. 

When these commissions, charges of freight, brokerage, etc., are the ne- 
cessary means of producing high prices, they ought to be paid cheerfully, as 
in the case of the Ohio farmer. But if they are not necessary; if arrange- 
ments can be made for commanding present prices, and yet for dispensing 
with some of the immense outlays demanded by the present usagjs of trade, 
then these charges are not only a tax, but a useless tax, to their full amount. 
Hence, it is proper, in all such cases, to enquire who pays these charges, the 
producer or the purchaser. Let us use a familiar .illustration. A merchant 
sells goods to A. for $50, agreeing to deliver them. He sends them by 
packet or by steam. The owner of the packet is a gainer by this transaction, 
but the charge comes out of the $50, and it appears on the profit and loss 
account. But suppose he sells for $45 in the warehouse ? No such entry is 
then made in the profit and loss account, and yet the balance is just what it 
was before. The goods, in fact, are still charged with the freight, and he 
neither gains nor loses by the change. But suppose he finds a new custo- 
mer, B., and sells, when delivered, for IVS, the freight being $10. He makes 
a profit of $20 by this change. The ten dollars are not a loss, but a source 
of profit. And, yet, if you talk about that merchandise as estimated at 
$75, or $75,000,000, it is obvious that ere the real value of it is ascertained, 
all these charges must be deducted. If our corn crop was not wanted at 
home, but must needs be exported for a market ; if it should cost all our 
shipping to do this service, and em.ploy all our seamen, it would do much 
towards making this immense crop of no real value to the producer, and to 
the country it would be valuable just in proportion to the number of men it 
would support, and the capital it would profitably employ. 

Were a home market erected for our cotton ; were those forests of British 
spindles to be transported to Georgia and South Carolina, we might retain in 
our own neighborhood all the benefits of this trade, which now do so much 
to build up and perpetuate the enormous power of our island rival. T h 
profits of the foreign capitalist, the foreign manufacturer, the foreign artisan' 
the foreign spinner, and weaver, and colorer, would all be secured by our own 
citizens, and, perhaps, within sight of the growing crop. True, the manufac- 
tured goods must then be exported, and thus the shipping interest would 
still be needed as now ; but the grower of food and clothing would find his 
market wonderfully increased, and builders of houses, and owners of house- 
lots, and brick-makers, and lumber-men, masons, paper-hangers, tailors, shoe- 
makers, etc., etc. — a great multitude, would throng those shores, an untold 
capital would find a profitable investment, and barren wastes would echo, with- 
out interruption, the hum of prosperous and happy families ; manufactures of 
all kinds would be greatly increased ; the South and South-west would be 
dotted all over with cities, ever growing, and, day and night, the hum of 
profitable industry would not cease ; and, by-and-by, the splendid mansions 
of those made rich by this change, and who retired from the strife after 
wealth, satisfied with its results, would adorn suburbs of those cities and our 
rural districts and society would be enriched by the refinements and elegancies 
which wealth and industry only can procure. 



648 STATE PATRONAGE OF AGRICULTURE. 



STATE PATRONAGE OF AGRICULTURE. 

The following action of the Maine Legislature is commendable. It exerts 
a double influence, modifying the character and arrangement of the courses 
of lectures on chemistry and vegetable physiology, thereby securing more 
attention to these departments, for the benefit of all the students, while the 
liberal endowment, conditionally offered, provides for the instruction of an 
entire class of young men, (and old ones, too, if they will,) thus far without 
valuable facilities of imprcvement in these hitherto neglected sciences. 

The third section, however, is entirely too general. The obligation to 
analyze all soils, manures, plants, and seeds, sent by any farmer of the State, 
might require the constant employment of a dozen experienced chemists. 
Had it been confined to the " Board of Agriculture," who may be supposed 
to be reasonable men, no special danger of that sort might be apprehended. 
An Act to endow the Chemical Professorships of Bowdoin and Waierville 

Colleges, on certain conditions. 
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Legislature 

assembled, as follows : 

Section 1. The State Treasurer is hereby authorised and directed to 
transfer the sum of thirty thousand dollars, in six per cent. State Stock, to 
the Board of Trustees of Bowdoin College, and the like sum of thirty thou- 
sand dollars, in six per cent. State Stock, to the Board of trustees of Water- 
ville College, to be held in trust by them respectively, as endowments of the 
Chemical Professorships in these Colleges, of which they are Trustees, when- 
ever said Board of Trustees shall severally certify to the State Treasurer, 
through their Secretaries, under oath, that they have enlarged the duties and 
means of instruction under said professorships, so as to embrace Agricul- 
tural Chemistry and Vegetable Physiology ; and that they will comply with 
the requisitions hereinafter specified. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of said Board of Trustees, to cause instruc- 
tion to be given without fee, to all persons, inhabitants of this State, not 
undergraduates in a regular college course of instruction, who may resort to 
said institutions as students under the Professorships of Chemistry only ; they 
having the same privileges of the several libraries and on the same terms, 
and being subject to the same college laws, rules, and regulations as other 
students, so fav as they may be applicable to their position in said institu- 
tions ; and such students may attend, without charge, all the lectures in said 
colleges, under such restrictions as may be imposed by said Boards of Trus- 
tees, and sanctioned by the Board of Agriculture. 

Skc. 3. It shall be the duty of the Professors of Chemistry in each of 
these colleges, to analyze or cause to be analyzed, as speedily as may be, all 
soils, manures, plants, and seeds, sent to said colleges for this purpose, by the 
farmers of this State or the Board of Agriculture, without charge to the ap- 
plicant, and report the result to him, with such suggestions as he may deem 
necessary in the premises ; and annually, on or before the first Wednesday 
in January, report to the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture a full state- 
ment of his doings, with such other matter as he may deem suitable. 

Sec. 4. A committee of three from the Board of Agriculture, elected at 
its annual meeting, shall constitute an examining committee, to visit, from 
time to time, the Chemical departments of said Colleges, to witness their 



FAIRS — THEIR BENEFITS, ETC. 649 



instructions and doings, with special reference to the interests of Agricultural 
Science ; and annually, on or before the first Wednesday in January, report 
to the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture a statement, so far as they are 
able, of the doing, conditions, and prospects of these departments. 



FOR THE FLODQH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

FAIRS — THEIR BENEFITS, ETC. 

Messrs. Editors : — In the January number of your journal, an article of 
mine was published on " Fair Benefits," to which a lengthy editorial is ap- 
pended, giving a wide expansion to the subject. And first, the editor goes on 
to say that fairs are not designed for the especial benefit of those who receive 
premiums, but for the masses, or the people at large. Of course this policy 
is correct; and it was my object to sustain the same doctrine and principles 
in my article. The premiums, of course, are one of the leading causes, and 
a part and parcel of the whole system by which fairs are sustained. And, 
although the competition for premiums is open to all, but a small number of 
exhibitors can obtain what are called "first prizes," yet a larger number will 
obtain many of the grade premiums. The writer then goes on to suppose a 
case where all articles were to be shut up from the sight of the visitors, ex- 
cept those which had received a premium. How many tickets could then 
be sold, etc. ? Probably seven-eighths of all the exhibitors at our fairs, offer 
their articles for premiums, while one-eighth may offer them simply for ex- 
hibition and sale. In many instances, the premiums are of no particular 
consequence except to bring the articles before the pubhc. In many cases, 
exhibitors of machines, etc., have no eye on the premiums at all, but wish to 
bring them before the public for examination, and a future market. We do 
not see the force of the editor's argument, when he says, in substance, that if 
all the articles on which premiums have been awarded were removed or de- 
stroyed, our fairs would suffer but little, as the loss would be hardly noticed 
by the public, since about as good a show would be left without the prerni- 
um articles, as with, etc. Then he asks again, " For whose benefit are fairs 
instituted ? Are they for those who exhibit especially, etc. ?" But, as we 
have said before, the premiums are a part and parcel of the whole system, 
and so combined, that you can not well have one without the other attached. 
It may be true, a good or tolerable exhibition of articles may be had outside 
of the premium articles. But what brings such articles to the exhibition ? 
It may be safe to say that seven-eighths of such articles were entered for 
premium, in the first place, but failed to obtain such notice at the hands of 
the comraitteee, although, in many cases, they were equal to any on the 
ground. So, then, to say that as good an exhibition can be had without the 
premium articles as with, is, we claim, saying that which is not strictly true. 
Because, if you break up the system and order of the exhibition, then, unless 
fairs can be sustained on some principle entirely free from selfishness, where 
every body will do all things and furnish all things for the exhibition, free 
gratis, can we expect to see free fairs sustained by the people ? Our experi- 
ence has shown us that farmers should not be so anxious to show their corn 
or animals for the sake of saying that no better were to be seen in the country 
than theirs. But that such animals and such corn were the best they had, 
and they brought them to the exhibition for the sake of making a good show, 



650 FAIRS — THEIR BENEFITS, ETC. 

and drawing a premium, if they could, by fair means ; and this^dea is a just 
one. We never went on the principle that if no crops or animals were better 
than those tbat had already obtained the first premium, no premiums 
should thereafter be oftered, unless some things superior to those could be 
produced ; for we have not as yet reached that point of excellence in produc- 
tions or management. The idea is, forjudges to give premiums for the best 
articles shown on the ground, although there may be articles of double the 
value in the county or state of the same kind. Yet they are not on the 
ground, and so the judges must do the best they can with the articles before 
them. But the writer says, in substance, that the ultimate aim of all shows 
is to affect the masses of the people through the senses. So say we ; but 
how to come at that point in the most practical way is the question. Though 
the writer seems to think that if reading an account of the show at home was 
all that was necessary, then a few " itinerant committees," appointed and 
paid for by the State, would be the best thing to meet this demand. For 
our own part, we have but little faith in these "State Agents" to accomplish 
much good in that way. In most cases, they would have a stronger look for 
the " dollars " than for agricultural improvement. But the writer then goes 
on to ask, whether it is best to tax the people with such an assessment as 
will hinder them from seeing the show, and thinks such a plan is unwise — 
whether the tickets should be a sixpence, a shilling, or a quarter — he does 
not stop to ask, etc. Now, our idea is, as we said in our former article, that 
the people should bear their share of this tax, because, in principle, it is a one 
per cent, tax to a ninety-nine per cent, profit ; and who is better able to p.ay 
this tax and receive this profit than the people are themselves. 

It is very well known that the masses of people at large do not value a 
small tax of the above description when they become interested in the exhibi- 
tion ; and in reality thay feel disposed to learn something from it. Of 
course, it is understood that the farmers, who feel more interested in the 
support of these exhibitions than do the people in general, will do more to- 
wards their support. And, in fact, the greater part, or the whole of the 
management must be sustained by the farmers at large ; still the people 
should be willing to do their share. The writer goes on to ask at whose 
expense the temperance reform is sustained, and claims that those who 
totally abstain are the ones to be depended on to sustain this reform, although 
they may not need it themselves. Then, again, he asks who sustains all the 
" isms" of the day — why it is those who feel interested in their support, 
&c. And, of course, as he s^ys the agricultural reform belongs to this class, 
the farmers must be depended on to support it. Now, we beg leave to say 
that neither the agricultural reform nor the temperance reform are "isms," 
any more than they are "humbugs," as we understand it in the sense that 
word is made use of. But, on the other hand, both of these reforms are 
living, acting principles in themselves, in which the whole people should be 
actively interested. And why so? Because every man, woman, and child 
in the country is benefited, by such reforms and improvements. Then, on 
this principle, we say it is not those who feel the importance of the reform 
who should be depended on to sustain it ; because it is the whole people at 
large who get the benefit of these reforms. If this be the case, on what 
principle is it that a few individuals should have the burden and sustjiin these 
reforms, while the masses receive the benefits of them ? But the writer goes 
on to say that he has been quite celebrated in his day for his advocacy of 
Protection to American Industry, (fee. jWe are glad to learn that, for there 
is need enough of it in these days. We have known men who were great 



EOBUST HEALTH. 651 

advocates of this same doctrine, who, when they wanted a new coat, would 
pass by the American cloth, and nothing short of the best French would 
answer their purpose. We presume, however, that this writer does not be- 
long to this class of " Protectionists," but goes in for practice as well as 
preaching. His plan of an Industrial Protection is a new one, and it may 
be all well enough ; and we should be glad to have such a system of industry 
brought about, if it could be done ; but it is much easier to lay out a plan, 
on paper than it is to carry it out and make it work in practice. The doc- 
trine may be all well enough, but the next thing is to carry it out and make 
it work in practice. When this writer can succeed in drawing out any of 
the State or Government funds, to be used after his plan, we should be glad 
to be informed of it. We have learned, after a few years of trial, that go- 
vernment aid was the most " lame stick" to lean upon that you could pos- 
sibly name; and so we have come to place no dependence whatever on 
their talk. But we have much more confidence in individual efi'ort, carried 
out and acted upon in concert with the people at large, for improvements of 
this character. And when you can succeed in getting the people waked up 
to the importance of protecting industry as a principle, these plans can be 
brought about by the people at large. If you can get government aid in 
any wise it will be all well enough, but we, for one, can not place any con- 
fidence in their help. Yours, truly, 

L. DURAND. 
Berhy, Ct., March, 1855. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THS LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

ARE ROBUST HEALTH AND GOOD BUSINESS HABITS INCOMPATI- 
BLE WITH THE GREATEST REFINEMENT? 

This may seem to be a singular question to propound ; but if we are to 
judge from what we see and hear, there are difierent opinions on the subject, 
and I would be glad to see some more able pen than mine brought to its 
discussion. 

I feel deeply on this subject, and well I may, for some of my best friends 
fill early graves because, as it seems to me, the customs of society demand in 
females too great a delicacy; and it is to females more particularly that I 
would apply the subject. By all means, treat our sisters and female friends 
tenderly and kindly. But is it kindness to deprive them of all opportunity 
to qualify themselves physically to endure the hards-hips of life ? Shall 
we be so tender of our wives and daughters, as to deprive them of the luxury 
of a ramble in the bright green fields, with glowing cheek and bounding ' 
pulse? I would that every wo^an in the land were as perfect in form as 
Powers' Greek Slave ; but if the customs and practices of the present day 
continue, we shall be compelled to look among slaves and menials for models. 
I write this for the farmers of the land, and those who may become their 
companions ; for if others can enjoy the society and companionship of the 
feeble and deformed, we can not. Our duties and pleasures have too much 
of real life in them to admit of that, to say nothing of the efiect upon our 
posterity, which is a matter of vast importance, too great to be entered upon 
in this communication. It may be said that to be intellectual, we must be 
exempt from labor, and, therefore, delicately constituted. This does not 
agree with my observation, where labor and study have been harmoniously 



652 WHY ARE NOT SOUTHERN CROPS MORE PRODUCTIVE? 

combined, and good habits Lave done their part to strengthen and invigorate 
the constitution. IIovv great a proportion of those whose minds are cultiva- 
ted at the expense of physical culture are lost to the world, because they 
have not constitution to enable them to use the knowledge they possess, but 
they linger awhile in feebleness and pain, a burthen to themselves, a sorrow 
to their friends, and then drop into a premature grave. The remedy is, to 
a great extent, in our own hands. Let a correct stfuidard of physical beauty 
be established in accordance with the laws of Nature, and the same pains be 
taken with the human form divine that is taken with the precious jewel it 
contains, and they will help to adorn and improve each other. W. 



WHY ARE NOT SOUTHERN CROPS MORE PRODUCTIVE ? 

"The records show that he (the producer of cotton, tobacco, etc,) waR really 
paid for his exports in foreign goods, and that duties have been paid upon 
these to an an, mint over a billion of dollars; and this enormous sum the producer 
must have paid when he had to surrender a part of the value of his imports to 
government as he entered them. There is but one way in which he could have es- 
caped, and that is by selling the part left for as much as the whole was worth before, 
and, by thus raising the price, throw the whole tax upon the consumer. But, in this 
case, the South must have paid a still greater share of the duties than before ; for not 
only is she a much larger consumer of foreign merchandise than the North, but if the 
price of the imported article is raised, so must be the price of the similar article of 
domestic manufacture ; and thf; South would pay three or four times as much iu this 
shape to tlie northern manufacturer, as she would to government in the form of duties. 
It id true that the increased price of domestic goods would also be paid by the 
northern consumer; but with this important difference, that what was paid would be 
spent among themselves, and so in a manner returned to their pockets, as the facto- 
ries are scattered through their country, while to the South it would be a dead lose." 
— De Bow's Reuuin, Ajnil, 1855, p. 433. 

Some theorists are so wedded to their own notions, and so fixed in their 
" principles," that they can not see what even their interest would prompt 
them to regard with favor. They see that evils exist, which are felt some- 
times to be severe, but they will not admit that this state of things is the 
result of those conditions in which they almost alone differ from others, 
among whom these evils are not, found. Nor will they heed the coun- 
sel of those who would urge them to modify those conditions, and make a 
practical test of the correctness of those theories. Now and then, however, 
the truth incidentally creeps out, and it would seem that, after all, there was 
an appreciation not only of the truth, but of the importance of such counsel. 
Among many examples of this sort, we would refer to the closing sentence 
of the foregoing extract: " But with this important difference, that what 
■was paid would be spent among themselves, and so in a manner returned to 
their pockets, as their factories are scattered through their countiy." This 
admission is incidentally made in this passage; and though the learned and 
accomplished editor of that review might even add his powerful influence in 
favor of what we regard as the only wise course to pursue, yet our Southern 
friends generally do practically deny it, and limit themselves to the produc- 
tion of a few staples, which are now sold only as raw material in a foreign 
market, and thus they voluntarily assume the very "burdens" of which they 
BO grievously complain, and cast upon others the reproach of inflicting upon 
them evils, of which they, in fact, have essentially the control. 



WHY AEE NOT SOUTHERN CROPS MORE PRODUCTIVE? 653 

This admission contains a great truth, a controlling truth, on which depends, 
in our judgment, to a very great extent, the whole question of profit and loss. 
Hence, if we are correct, it is a truth that no individual and no commnnity 
can neglect with impunity. 

The question of loss and gain, in any business, depends on a proper regard 
for certain matters which are treated by the many as of little importance. 
We well remember the advice of an experienced friend when we were about 
engaging in a certain enterprise. " Now, remember,"^ said he, "your profits 
will not be made from what you earn, but from what you save." These 
words should be written in letters of gold in every counting-house and in 
every shop. Generally, if you caution a young man about his liberal indul- 
gence and large expenses, he will tell you — "Oh, I earn enough ; I have a 
good income." It is of little consequence what a man or a community earns, 
unless he or they will contrive to keep a portion of it. That is the difficult 
point in all financial operations. Many a young man gets rich on his hun- 
dreds, while many hundreds become bankrupt on their thousands. And, very 
often, the issue depends not so much on setting aside a portion of the re- 
ceipts, with the intention of saving it, as of avoiding certain expenses, or pre- 
venting small wastes and losses. 

Now, whether supposed facts and reasonings can be brought forward to 
the contrary, we add our testimony in confirmation of the doctrine incidentally 
presented in this quotation. The Northern States flourish with their indefi- 
nite variety of trades and occupations, simply by the practice of the truth 
here hinted at. Illustrations of it are not witnessed in " factories " alone. 
Hundreds of miles of raih'oads have been built, without the least expectation 
of profit in the shape of dividends, but exclusively for secondary and inci- 
dental benefits. Their money, as already invested, earns them at least lawful 
interest ; but these wise and prudent me'n, men of forethought and foresight 
too, prefer to bury it in the railroad, Avith the expectation of little or no di- 
rect returns. What is their motive ? Perhaps unproductive farms are thereby 
converted into house-lots. Perhaps a wide territory is thereby opened for 
tVade. And factories are built. Why ? Because such stocks always pay well ? 
Far from it. They will sometimes pay largely. Sometimes they sink im- 
mense sums. But they make a new market at any rate. The factory village 
furnishes a market for almost anything a farmer can raise, a mechanic con- 
struct, or a merchant import. What else is needful, then, for either of these 
producers, but sufficient numbers of just such customers. 

We do not intend to be understood that these secondary considerations 
generally or often control the action of city capitalists, when they subscribe 
for factory stocks. But such considerations have very often induced the less 
wealthy farmer and mechanic to invest their smaller savings in such es- . 
tablishments, and. they have grown rich by such indirect means. 

We have before alluded to the pine barrens, we so well remember, on and 
near which the thriving city of Manchester now stands ; and to the 110,000 
now received, annually, for milk by the farmers of the adjoining little town 
of Goflfstown, the land of which, in our boyhood, was as worthless as any 
other land in that whole region. Those farmers, could they have found the 
means, might almost have built those mills for nothing, without loss. 

And why do not our Soutliern friends see all this in reference to their own 
territory ? Is there any reason why the same results would not follow among 
them as at the North ? But the writer of the foregoing extract would make 
very prominent the fact, which i?, no doubt, true, in some sense, that the 
Southern States are burdened with severe " duties." " A billion of dollars " 



654: WHY ABE NOT SOUTHERN CROPS MORE PRODUCTIVE? 

has been paid. Well, all this is optional with thena. Individuals may not 
be able to rid themselves of this '' burden,'' if it be one, but combinations of 
men may. Is it asked, How ? The " one way," the writer describes, in our 
judgment, is wholly impracticable. The way we have often pointed out is a mat- 
ter of PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION. The writer of this paragraph substantially 
admits it in his closing sentence. If this is not so, the " difference," he de- 
scribes, would not be " important " in the view which he has taken. 

These " duties," and, of course, all the incidental charges, for they are 
alike " a burden," which are attendant upon exportation, whether of one 
sort or another, are represented in this passage as " burdens " upon the pro- 
ducer. True, he says, " in our belief, the duties are paid partly by the pro- 
ducer, and partly by the consumer." But he still reasons as if all were paid 
by the producer. "Southern burdens and Northern profits." Writers on 
the great subject of "Political Economy" are, perhaps, tempted sometimes 
to mystify the facts, and misapply acknowledged principles, and, therefore, 
fail to convince each other. But we would trust any one of the thousand 
"given cases," belonging to this chapter of Political Economy, to the decision 
of a jury of ordinary intelligence, if the facts could be clearly presented, and 
its party bearing kept out of view. Perhaps exceptions may occur to the 
general rule, in this department of science, as in every other. But take a 
case by way of example. 

The people of Ohio, at one time, were obliged to sell their corn at ten cents 
a bushel. But, by-and-by, communications were opened. Railroads were 
constructed. Those fertile lands were brought into close proximity with a 
ready market, and now that corn commands a dollar. But the railroad re- 
quires a " duty " of twenty cents, or two hundred per cent, on the original 
value of the crop. How enormous 1 How excessively tyrannical ! Such 
oppression who can endure ! And yet this very oppressive system' has con- 
verted their ten cents into eighty cents net; or, in other words, has increased 
the net value of the entire crop eight-fold. This tax is no " burden " upon 
any body. No one sutlers to the amount of a f^irthing for it. The producer 
is profited ; the consumer pays the duty and the eight hundred per cent,, 
and still is profited. The carrier is well paid for his service, and none even 
finds fault. " Oh, yes ! We req uire the lailroad to carry our corn ' free.' " 
The fully of the pretended claim is too apparent almost to allow it room on 
the page. And yet this is clearly a tax, an assessment, a " duty ;" and when 
used in connection with our canals, etc., these payments are sometimes ofli- 
cially described as " duties." Duties, then, are not always " burdens," nor 
"imposed," in any unfavorable or undesirable sense, by any one. Tiiey may be 
of great benefit, and, in some aspects of the question, may be very important, 
in this connection, to the cotton growers of the South. Whether they are 
oppressive or not is the question to be settled. But, after all, we think there 
is a way, and " a more excellent way," of getting rid of this "burden," if it 
be such, than by changing the revenue laws in the manner our Southern 
friends, many of them, would propose. 

We have already shown that, if a given investment can be made to pay 
good dividends, that investment should be pronounced successful, whether 
it be by direct or indirect processes; and we have referred to the manjier in 
which "the North" sustains herself under thg same revenue laws, and the 
closing sentence of our quotation brings it out beyond the possibility of mis- 
apprehension. And how do "the North" sustain themselves, and become 
rich, under that same revenue system ? It is by encouraging a diversity of 
employments. So says this able writer. So say we. It is true, and just 



WHY ARE NOT SOUTHERN" CROPS MORE PRODUCTIVE? 655 

about the whole truth. It is tlieir " factory " system — their facilities for 
trades of all kinds. " There is no friendship in trade," says the proverb ; 
but it is fake. No bigger lie was ever uttered by fraudulent huckster. It 
is true that there is no friendship in many traders. But when this is asserted 
as a fundamental principle of trade, it is false from A to Zed. Wholesome, 
prosperous trade demands, imperatively demands, a regard for the precept, 
"live and let live." This is the basis of all honorable traffic. Man is 
not an isolated being. His interests are interwoven with the interests of his 
associates, his " neighbors." He must recognize his fellows. He must have 
a prosperous community to deal with, if he would prosper, permanently, 
himself. What can a merchant do with bankrupt customers ? What can far- 
mers and mechanics do, if bound to deal with the moneyless and the starving ? 
Under the name of trade, one may, for a while, plunder and rob, as too many 
have done with our Indians, and in the East India trade. But this is not 
worthy the name of trade. No. " Live and let live " is not a gospel pre- 
cept alone. It is cut into the very walls of our social structure. It must be 
so, because the structure is social. This great truth is taught and proclaimed 
aloud in every thriving city and village. The commentary on its negation 
has been heard, not from any choice or intent, but yet not without emphasis, in 
our own mjdst, in the months past, and its voices are not all silent yet. This 
truth is proclaimed in every crowded mart, and its still, small voice is heard 
in the hospitalities and friendly greeting so characteristic of rural districts 
both north and south. 

Call in, then, the various crafts. . Give them room even among your cotton 
fields. " But who will employ them V Why, you will employ them, and 
they -will employ each other, through the whole chapter. Does not the 
blacksmith need shoes, and the shoemaker clothes ? 

But one department of this effort is pre-eminently important. Just trans- 
port those forests of spindles now bristling through that island yonder ; or, 
more properly, let machinists be assembled, from all quarters, on your own 
borders, and let them there erect their shops, and forge out those magic forms, 
more potent than any divining rods, and let other mechanics erect your fac- 
tories, and then fill them with machinery. Let your ingenious artisans invent 
improvements, and let other thousands take your own bales, and transform 
them into various fabrics. Let this be done till you find a use for a large 
part of ybjj^'fi^p, and then what do you think would be the price of raw 
cotton la' t'iverpool ? .■ . 

The price would then be regulated on this side the water. The large 
accumjjj^tions of any product at a market, determine the price of that pro- 
duct the world over. England how has all this crop to herself, and controls 
its price, for the simple.reason that no body else can buy it. Create a capacity 
to buy, or oonsume, in this country, and just so far you regulate and control 
its market value. 

The manufactured article must still be exported. Few ships and few sea- 
men would lose their employment. But^ffijeanwhile, you have immensely 
increased your profits, in various ways, so that you can really afford to sell 
the manufactured goods at less price even than they now are sold for. Why ? 
Because real estate owners would realize double, and trebfe, and even ten-fold 
their present receipts for their lands. Large demands would be created at 
once for house-lots, for corporation purposes, and for all kinds of mechanics. 
Another large pqrtion would be required for the use of those who would feed 
the additional population, and for the support of their own fcimilies, and so 
the story would go 6n, after the fashion of " The houss that Jack built." 



656 WHY ARE NOT SOUTHERN CROPS MORE PRODUCTIVE? 

There might even be some " dogs that loornj the cat," and other unpleasant 
incidents, but these would be comparatively but trifles. 

We happen to have on our table an account of just such an operation in 
the State of Connecticut. In 1G84, the territory of Mattatuck was sold 
"for divers good causes and 39 pounds." It was supposed capable of sus- 
taining THIRTY FAMILIES. On this tract, the thriving village of Waterbury 
now stands. We passed the night there some three years ago, in a hotel 
which cost, when unfurnished, 840,000, and a still more costly hotel was then 
nearly completed. The following is " The Grand List" of that town for 1854,: 

DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY. 

Dwelling Houses, 11,150,265.00 

14,922 Acres of Land, - - - . 396,3 53.00 

Stores, 65,300.00 

Mills and Manufactories, 33,450.00 

Horses and Mules, - . - - - 28,185 00 

Neat Cattle, .- - 28,772.00 

Sheep, Swine, and Poultry, - ... 349.00 

Coaches, Carriages, and Pleasure Wagons, - 10,959.00 
Farming Utensils and Mechanics' Tools, - 25.00 

Clocks, Watches, and Jewelry, - - - - 10,977.00 

Piano Fortes, &c,, 6,130.00 

Furniture and Libraries, 10,850.00 

Bank and Insurance Stock, - - - - 169,717.00 
Bridge, Turnpike, and Plank-Road Stock, - 600.00 

Manufacturing Stock, ... - 2,584,787.00 
State and other Stocks, - . - . - 5,600.00 
Railroad and oflier Bonds, . - - . 7,690.00 
Amount employed in Trade and Merchandising, 182,997.00 
Amount employed in Mechanical and Manufac- 
turing operations, - _ . . _ 63,375.00 
Investment in Vessels and Commerce, - - 300.00 

Money at Interest, 268,005.00 

Money on hand, 1,330.00 

All other Taxable Property, - . - - 2,2fiiy>,0 
Additions by Board of Relief, - - - '^eMOO 

Amount, ^5,033,109.00 
Deduct indebtedness, &c., 100,938.00 

$4,932,171.00 
Increase over previous year, |660,377. 
Amount of Assessment, at 3 per cent., - - 147,966.13 
1893 Polls, at ten dollars each, - - - 18,930.00 

935 Military Subjects, at fifty cents each, - 467.50 

Taxable amount for 1854, $167,362.63 

Certified by 

Israel Holmes, 2d, Town Clerk. 

One would think this profit enough for one generation, and nearly all this 
is the work of those now living. There are in this town five fulling-mills, 
three woolen factories, three cotton factories, two tanneries, two rolling-mills, 
a machine shop, two iron foundries, ten button factories, a pin factory, hook 



CLIMATE. 657 



and eye factory, india-rubber goods factory, five grist-mills, sixteen saw-mills, 
and last, though not least, twentt-thkee schools. 

Now, if the Southern States would, in the words of our extract, have all 
their outlays " in a manner returned to their pockets," and be rid of the 
" burdens " of which they complain, let them do as those do whom they in- 
tended by those words to describe. 

It is all very well to sit in the lap of wealth, and the free enjoyment of 
literary and social privileges, and of personal refinement, and to treat the 
" evils " incident to progress such as we have described as nuisances that can 
not and will not be endured. But such a course is not in good taste, at least, 
when one is mourning over financial burdens, and deterioration of property, 
and heavy expenses, and the like. These incidentals, as they might be 
termed, are found in groups. Mechanical industry occasions Qne set, inacti- 
vity and luxurious ease another set. They never get mixed up, except in 
some great financial crisis, which overturns and disappoints every body. We 
do not blame nor reproach the South even for boasting over their freedom 
from numerous evils that exist at the North. We should delight in the same 
quiet and refinement which characterises much of Southern life. We fully 
appreciate the high breeding, the refinements, and last, not least, the hospi- 
tahties of those States. But we can find all this, too, at the North. And as 
long as purses are finite things, and often seem very shallow, especially when 
used too familiarly, we learn to look upon all forms of labor, and even dust, 
and noise, and coarse manners, (if the intention is kind,) and the thousand 
elements that go to make up industrial life, in its various aspects and attend- 
ants, as of little consequence compared with the immense good which results, 
in various ways, from every form of industrj', and among all the people. 



CLIMATE. 

An erroneous idea generally prevails respecting climate, as affecting per- 
sonal comfort. The dwellers in the sunny South pity the New-Englanders, 
because doomed to shiver in so cold a climate. They, in turn, bless their 
stars that they are not wading in the snows of Newfoundland. 

I have been led, by observation and experience, to doubt whether the peo- 
ple of any one country have much, if any advantage, in the matter of climate, 
over others. 

Our ideas of pleasure and pain are intimately connected with, if not based 
upon the principle of contrast. In our idea of temperature, >ve have less 
regard to the actual than to the comparative degree of warmth. 

In the report of one of the exploring expeditions in the northern seas, it 
is said that, on a certain occasion, the crew were greatly elated with signs of 
a thaw, the mercury having risen to 40° below zero. Iljiving been subject 
to a much intenser degree of cold, they felt, as did the boy, whose father 
had administered to him a severe flugellation, " greatly refreshed." 

It may well be doubted whether the people ^f Maine suffer more from 
cold than do they of Virginia. 

Touching the weather, it is much as it is with the tariff — all that the 
people want is to have the line of governmental policy settled — to know what 
can be depended upon. So of the weather. The down-easter, knowing that 
39 



658 STATISTICS OF MUSCULAR POWER. 

from the middle of November to the middle of April the ground is to be 
covered with snow, and uninterrupted cold weather is to prevail, he wraps 
his fur coat about him, inflates his lungs, braces up his nerves, and thinks no 
more of the cold than the " rugged liussian bear." 

The dweller in the Old Dominion, on the other hand, regarding warm 
weather as the rule, and cold as the exception, makes no provision for the 
latter. But when the northern blasts come, as come they will, he wraps bis 
fig-leaf coat about him, and seeks shelter within the enclosure of his airy 
mansion, so constructed as to exclude heat rather than cold. 

Then there is another consideration which greatly favors the dwellers in 
cold latitudes. While the earth is covered with snow, there is but little 
evaporation. The atmosphere is consequently dry, and storms are unfre- 
quent. Where there is no snow, it is far otherwise. The whole surface 
being covered with water, evaporation is rapid, and the atmosphere is sur- 
charged with vapor, and the peculiar chillings which characterize a March 
wind in New-England, prevail during the winter months. 

Agriculturally, the snowy region has many advantages. It is better for 
the soil to be covered during the winter months. That there is any virtue 
in the remark, " snow is the poor man's manure," 1 don't believe' But cer- 
tain it is, that grasses and grains are benefited by being thus protected. 

Snow is an imperfect conductor of caloric, consequently the surface being 
protected from the cold of mid-winter, the heat from within dissolves the 
frost, and when the snow disappears in spring, the frost is go6e from the soil. 
It is not uncommon to find the grass growing before the snow is off. Fields 
are ready for plowing soon after they are bare ; so that stock will live, and 
seed may be gotten into the ground nearly as soon in Vermont as in Con- 
necticut. Then, for doing business, the snowy regions have greatly the ad- 
vantage. Lumbering is with great difficulty carried on where there is no 
snow. The lumber lands in Maryland and Virginia would be worth twice as 
much as they now are with northern winters for the removal of the lumber. 

But I will say no more lest 1 get up an emigration fever towards Green- 
land. R. B. H. 



Statistics of Muscular Power. — Man has the power of imitating 
every motion but that of flight. To effect this he has, in maturity and health, 
60 bones in his head, 60 in his thighs and legs, 62 in his arms and hands, 
and 67 in his trunk. He has also 434 muscles. His heart makes 64 pul- 
sations in a minute; and, therefore, 3,740 in an hour, 92,160 in a day. 
There are, also, three complete circulations of his blood in the short space of 
an hour. In respect to the comparative speed of animated beings, and of 
impelled bodies, it may be remarked that size and construction seem to have 
little influence, nor has comparative strength, though one body giving any 
quantity of motion to another is said to lose so much of its own. The sloth 
is by no means a small animal, and yet it can travel only fifty paces a day; 
a worm crawls only five inches in fifty seconds, but a lady-bird can fly twenty 
million times its own length in less than an hour. An elk can run a mile and 
a half in seven minutes ; an antelope, a mile in a minute ; the wild mule 
ofTartaryhas a speed even greater than that; an eagle can fly eighteen 
leagues in an hour ; a Canary falcon can even reach 250 leagues in the short 
space of sixteen hours. A violent wind travels sixty miles in an hour; 
sound, 1,142 English feet in a second. 



THE INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION AND TRAVEL. 659 



THE INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION AND TRAVEL— ITS MAGNITUDE AS 

AN INTEREST. 

J'ew persons, who have not taken the trouble to examine the statistics, and 
to submit the subject to the scrutiny of figures, have a correct appreciation 
of the magnitude of the interest engaged in conducting the internal trade 
and travel of tais wide-spread nation. We have heard much talk of the cot- 
tori interest, the sugar interest, the fanning interest, the manufacturing 
interest, and various other interests, but they are all small compared with this 
vast and rapidly-augmenting transportation interest. It is the growth of 
comparatively few years, but it has attained herculean proportions. If we 
begin the comparison by ascertaining the investment of capital, we find in- 
ternal transportation about, if not at the head of the list. We estimate the 
capital invested in this department of industry at one thousand millions of 
dollars. It is divided thus : 

Railroads and their machinery, - - - 1600,000,000 

Canals, 100,000,000 

Steamboats, "70,000,000 

Vessels in the coasting trade, - - - 130,000,000 

Turnpikes, stages, wagons, and canal boats, - 100,000,000 

$1,000,000,000 
The value of all the improved farms in the cotton-growing States of Loui- 
siana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, Flo- 
rida, and Tennessee, in the year 1850, amounted to about $512,000,000. 
The capital invested in growing cotton is therefore much less than that in- 
vested in internal transportation. It will be perceived that we do not include 
in the comparison the value of the slaves employed in producing the cotton. 
By a similar course of calculation, it may be shown that the capital invested 
in the agents of transportation exceeds that of any one interest of production 
taken separately. The fact is, that it is nearly one-third the whole value of 
all the farms in the United States ; the aggregate value of all the farms in 
the Union being thirty-five millions of dollars. 

The gross annual product of all the agencies for internal transportation we 
estimate at $120,000,000, which exceeds the whole cotton crop of last year 
by about twenty millions of dollars. It is more than double the annual pro- 
duct of gold in California, it is nearly double the value of all our agricultural 
exports tor the last year, and ten times the amount of exports of manufac- 
tured articles. 

One of the great advantages conferred on the country by this vast interest 
is the employment it aflbrds to productive industry in the constant and in- 
creasing demand created for machinery of transport. Thus, on the fifteen 
thousand miles of railroad now in operation, there are in use six thousand 
locomotives, and fifteen hundred steam engines are in use on boats. 
The engines on boats cost - - - - $12,000,000 
The locomotives cost - - - - 54,000,000 

Total, - - - - - $66,000,000 
It will require for renewals each year — 
Locomotives, -_._._. qqq 
Locomotives for increase of business, - - - 60 

Total locomotives to be built per year, - - - 660 



660 TASTE IN RURAL HOMES — ITS INFLUENCE. 

These locomotives will cost $5,940,000. It will require 165 new engines 
every year for steamboats, which will cost 81,320,000, making together 
$7,200,000 as the amount of the annual demand for steamboat engines and 
locomotives. 

There are on the fifteen thousand miles of railroad about one million, seven 
hundred and twenty-five thousand tons of iron rails, etc. "We estimate that 
these rails must be renewed in fifteen years. There will be required then 
115,000 tons of railroad iron each year for renewals, which, at $60 per ton, 
makes $6,900,000. 

We also estimate that there will, for the next twenty years, be 1200 miles 
of railroad constructed each year, that will require annually 1,380,000 tons 
of iron rails, costing 88,580,000, an.l 400 locomotives that will cost $3,600,000. 
These sums make an aggregate of $20,040,000, that must be expended each 
year merely for the renewal and repairs of iron rails and engines required to 
effect the transportation of produce, and the travel of passengers on railroads 
and steamboats. This is entirely exclusive of the ordinary repairs on tl'* 
hulls of the steamers, and the wood and earth work of the railroads, whi eh 
annually amounts to a very large sum. — Louisville Journal. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM,, AND THE ANVIL. 

TASTE IN RURAL HOMES — ITS INFLUENCE. 

Messrs. Editors : — Home is the spot where our warmest affections center. 
What place is more endeared to u'^, or to what do oiir thoughts more often 
revert, amid the bustle and hurry of life, or even amid the infirmities of age, 
than the place of our childish sports. The influence which home exerts upon 
character and circumstances in every period of life is great. It often gives 
shape to our character, and materially increases or diminishes our happiness. 
Home influences, that are exerted in childhood, frequently give direction to 
all subsequent life. Among men we find very different views respecting the 
beauties of nature and of art, and, consequently, we see a great diversity in 
their j)ractice. One has but little appreciation of beauty, The tasteful cot- 
tage, ornamented with walks, and flowers, and shrubbery, hardly secures a 
passing glance. Utility is his watch-word. Gold glitters in his eyes, and 
all the refinements of social life are sacrificed for its accumulation. He may 
have a dwelling, convenient in size perhaps, but destitute, both externally 
and internally, of almost every thing that can gratify a refined taste. There 
it stands, like a pyramid in the desert, vfithout a tree to ward off the rays of 
the sun, or to break the force of the storm ; without a shrub or flower to 
please the eye. The thistle and the noxious weed adorn the door-yard, 
if there be one, and often the dwarf elder, and the brier, take the i)lace of 
the rose, the snowdrop, and the honeysuckle. And if the swinish multitude 
are not actually permitted to revel around the door, the sty may be in close 
proximity, and its exhilarating odors may compensate for the absence of the 
rose and the sweet-brier. The neat, gravel walk, with its shrubbery and 
flowers, are too expensive. They bring no gold to fill his coffers, and, there- 
fore, possess no attractions. 

And the interior of such a dwelling is too often a counterpart to its exte- 
rior. For the sake of gain, convenience for performing domestic business 
may, to some extent, be consulted, but taste and elegance are utter strangers. 



TASTE m EUEAL HOMES — ITS INFLUENCE. 661 



The naked walls, without paint or paper, glare out upon the visitor; the 
floor, uncarpeted, exhibits but little neatness, and the furniture is in keeping ; 
the centre-table, covered with books and periodicals, of a character calculated 
to improve the understanding, correct the judgment, and form the taste, is 
not there. A few antiquated books, of ancestral inheritance, a borrowed 
novel, with the county paper, compose the literature of their rising family. 
All things look to the great object of the occupants — the acquisition of 
money. The little elegances and conveniences that render home delightful 
are too expensive. They can not have them, though their interest, from 
hundreds, and, perhaps, thousands of dollars, secured by bond or mortgage, 
is annually increased by a large per-centage. 

What a contrast is this to the neatly constructed cottage, tastefully adorned 
by the hands of art. Seen in the distance, it looks out from the graceful 
shade of the elm or the maple ; and thus situated, its symmetrical structure, 
neatly painted, with its green blinds, catches the eye, and calls forth the 
admiration of the passing traveler. It gives beauty to the landscape around. 
It is tiot a spot " where distance lends enchantment" merely, for a nearer 
survey serves only to heighten the emotions already excited in the mind. 
The minuter shades of beauty unite their attractions with those more ex- 
tended, and the result is, a keener relish is excited. The avenue, tastefully 
adorned with flowers of varied beauty ; the lawn, interspersed with shrubs 
and evergreens ; and the portico, where the honeysuckle ^d the climbing 
rose are trained gracefully over tbe light trelHs — all contribute to inspire 
kindly feelings. 

Enter the cottage, and we find the interior in keeping with the appearance 
without. Neatness and order meet the eye in every department. Happiness 
appears to have fixed her residence here. The books of the well-stored 
library, and the most useful periodicals of the day, occupy the leisure mo- 
ments of its inmates, while often the sweet tones of musical instruments, with 
the sweeter tones of a human voice, soothe the agitated feelings, and soften 
the rugged asperities of life. 

Such contrasts are every where apparent in our rural districts. There are 
those who despise every thing like beauty or rural taste. They look upon it 
as the ofispring of weak and effeminate minds, and their dwellings are in 
striking coincidence with their sentiments. They may, perhaps, see beauty 
in the golden harvest, because it promises to increase their wealth ; or they 
may admire their flocks and herds for the same reason. But the tasteful 
and the ornamental they leave for the ignorant dupe to admire — despising 
the beauties that God hath scattered around us in so rich abundance. 

The question is often asked with a sneer, to what profit is all this array of 
flowers, and shrubs, and walks, and shade-trees ? Thei/ can eat, and drink, 
and sleep quietly without them. And so can the brute ; and the swine, or 
the ox, if they could gain access to such a scene, would soon render it all 
deformity and desolation again. But, still, these things exert a mighty in- 
fluence upon men. They give rise to actions and states of mind that go far, 
not only to shape our present and futtire condition, but to influence the com- 
munity. Silently they tell upon society. As the mind acts on every thing 
around it, so a reflex influence is exerted upon it, which gives shape and 
coloring to future Hfe. What, then, is the influence that a correct taste, 
manifested in connection with the endeared spot called home, will exert ? 
Objects that act upon the mind, tend to bring it into sympathy with them. 
They impart, in some degree, their own character ; they leave the impress of 
themselves. Where all is deformity and disorder without and within a 



662 TASTE IN RURAL HOMES — ITS INFLUENCE. 

dwelling, no wonder if we see character and actions corresponding ; no won- 
der if we bear the profane oath, the vulgar jeer, and witness manners that are 
rude and coarse. All the objects around tend to foster these, rather than to 
elevate or refine the feelings. In the absence of all that is chaste and beau- 
tiful, we must expect coarseness and vulgarity. There is nothing in the 
objects around them to restrain the ungovernable passions of our nature, or 
to soften the asperities of an uncultivated mind. 

But the beauties created by a refined taste, tend to produce the opposite 
of all this. True, the depravity of our natures may influence a person to 
break through all restraint, and to set at defiance every influence. But this 
does not disprove the legitimate eftect of the influence in question. The 
beautiful will impart its character as well as the rude ; and, under its power, 
what is coarse and vulgar will be held in check, and the delicate and refined 
be invigorated. In the calm moments of reflection, the mind perceives that 
the brutal iind angry passions are intruders amid scenes sacred to refine- 
ment ; that coarseness and vulgarity are rendered more hideous and de- 
formed when surrounded by the beautiful and sublime. You may often 
judge the character of the inmates of a cottage by the scenery around. 
Where neatness, and order, and taste reign without, you may expect refine- 
ment and intelligence within. Even the child that meets you will exhibit a 
disposition moulded by the influences around him, and the stranger may ex- 
pect civility ancj a hospitable welcome within. " The manners of the 
roughest clown will be somewhat subdued, as he enters the threshold erected 
And furnished by a refined taste." 

It may be said, that the time spent in adorning our homes, and thus ren- 
dering them pleasant, tends to foster habits of idleness, and to the neglect of 
more important business. But such assertions are generally false. A culti- 
vated taste is more generally the ally of industry. Do we .find the inmates 
of a tastefully-adorned cottage among the idle, or the profligate ; among 
tavern-haunters and gamblers, or the inmates of a poor-house ? The reverse 
is true. And if the idle and intemperate would spend the time they squan- 
der, and the money they worse than waste, in pampering their appetites and 
lusts, in efforts to render their homes attractive and happy, they might bless 
their families with many comforts, and many sources of pleasure of which 
they are now destitute, and these would bind them more closely in aflfoc- 
tion, and make them and the community happier. Or lot the avari- 
cious raiser spend but a part of the interest of his wealth in thus cultivating 
in the minds of his offspring a correct feeling and taste, he might do society 
a favor, and, perhaps, save his children from forming tastes and habits that 
shall only fit them to curse his memory, and squander his hard-earned trea- 
sures, when he shall be silent in the grave. The man of cultivated taste 
employs his leisure moments in adorning his dwelling, and thus secures his 
object without encroaching upon the time demanded for more substantial 
employment ; while the fault-finder employs these moments in sleep, or idle- 
ness, or gossip with kindred minds, or in slandering the neighbor whom he 
envies ; and thus, while his business thrives, his cottage and garden assume 
an air of neatness and comfort. His children, instead of being j^ft to patrol 
the streets in search of company or mischief, listening to the vulgar ribaldry 
and pfofaneness of uneducated minds, or mingling in the angry broils that 
disturb the quiet, are taught to find enjoyment amid the beauties with which 
they are surrounded, or to engage in the active labor of adorning their home, 
and rendering it happy. The trees and flowers, cultivated with their own 
hands, become as it were the companions of theii' childhood, and an attach- 



THE IMPORTANCE OF FARM REGISTERS. 663 

ment is thus often formed for home, that saves them from the vortex of dissi- 
pation, and checks the roving, restless disposition often exhibited in youth. 
A taste is thus formed, and habits of industry, that are the precursors of suc- 
cess in future. It costs but little time or money to make a rural home in- 
viting. I do not argue for expensive and costly adornments. Many are the 
flowers and shrubs, indigenous to cur native soil, that surpass in beauty many 
exotics. And these may be easily transferred to ornament our residence. 
Where other circumstances are in equal ratio, it is believed that the man of 
taste will be the most prosperous and happy man. And the family brought 
up under such an influence, will be the most orderly, useful, and industrious 
members of society. A writer has well remarked, " when I see the new 
married couple with no object about them tasteful, by a kind of instinct, I 
mark them out for ultimate poverty." 

Let a correct taste be diftused through the community, and what a trans- 
formation would the landscape present. The unsightly deformities of nature 
would be concealed, or moulded into shape. The hill-top would be leveled, 
or crowned with beauty ; the morass be changed into the luxuriant meadow, 
and the unsightly avenue shaped to romantic beauty. And who would say 
that society would not be happier ? In what neighborhood would you wish 
to fix your residence ; where there is an absence of all that can delight the 
eye, where all was deformity and disorder, or amid the abodes of refinement 
and taste, however lowly. 

What, then, is the duty of parents in relation to this subject ? Children 
are generally pleased with the beautiful in nature ; and in the forming 
period of life, it needs but little effort to give a right direction in this re- 
spect to their feelings and pui-suits. The effort of the parent seems only 
secondingnature in her struggles for development. But such I deem is not 
the part of wisdom. Among other preventives against vice and dissipation, 
against idleness and profligacy, against boorishness and vulgarity of manners, 
let the parent early inculcate in the mind of his child a love of the beautiful 
and sublime. Let him train him up to habits of order, neatness, and indus- 
try, and early cultivate the feeling that he must lay the world under obliga- 
tion to him, because he render the little world about him, the sphere in 
which he moves, more happy, more fertile, and more beautiful. 

HORTENSIO. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

THE IMPORTANCE OF FARM REGISTERS AND FARM ACCOUNTS. 

Messrs. Editors : — Perhaps there is nothing of so much importance, that 
is so much neglected by the farmer, as the practice of keeping a diary, or 
farm register, and a strict account of all his receipts and expenditures. How 
many farmers are there within the circle of your acquaintance, who can tell 
how much money they have received during the year, and for what ; whether 
the profits, if any, have been derived from their corn, hay, or wheat, from 
their horses, cattle, or hogs, and upon which they have sustained a loss ; 
■whether their crops have been worked in due season, and with a judicious 
economy in every particular ; how much corn, or its equivalent, it will take 
to produce a pound of beef or pork, and what method of feeding will give 
the greatest return. I fear that, upon examination, the number found who 



664: TAKE CARE OF YOUR FRUIT. 

could answer these questions correctly would be few indeed. And why is it 
so? One reason is, the careless and shiftless manner in which farmers gene- 
rally manage every thing connected with farm work. What would )ou say 
of the merchant who followed his business in such a manner, some branches 
of his business being attended with a certain loss, and unknown to him, 
solely because he neglected to keep a strict account upon each branch ? You 
would say, that he would be obliged to sell out, sooner or later, to save the 
sheriff the trouble. But the merchant, even in our small county towns, 
deems it indispensable to success in business to keep an accurate account of 
every transaction. Then let the farmer adopt such a course. Let him keep 
an accurate account of his receipts and expenditures, profit and loss, upon 
each item, and every branch of his business, or with every field. Let him 
carry a small book in his pocket, and daily note down the various items of 
work for each day, together with such practical suggestions as may occur to 
his mind ; and, my word for it, he will find himself much the gainer in a 
pecuniary point of view, while he secures, also, much gratification and plea- 
sure in a review of his labor from year to year. The farmer would then 
know at a glance from what c/ops, what class of animals, and what course of 
management, he receives the greatest profits, and on what he sustains loss. 
"Would not this be a knowledge of the greatest benefit in determining his 
course for the future ? Let this practice become general, and the benefits 
arising from it would soon be made manifest in the improved condition of 
the farming community. They would be seen in the greater interest which 
would be awakened in those who now follow in the same old, beaten paths 
which their fathers trod, and who keep no accounts except such as they record 
with chalk. We should then see a desire on the part of farmers to possess 
a " little farm, well tilled," rather than to add acre upon acre to their 
already large estate, which has been rendered unproductive by shallow plow- 
ing, scanty manuring, and a hurried cultivation. We should then see agri- 
culture taking that stand which its merits demand. J. W. A. 
2fo. Neva-Saiem, Mass. 



TAKE CARE OF YOUR FRUIT. 

Now is the time — and the caution would have been better a month 
earlier — to look to your trees. The enemy is upon you who is as deadly as 
the Philistines. If you find him and secure him, well ; if not, you will pro- 
bably have occasion to regret the failure hereafter. 

Prof. Mapes gives directions to pour boiling water on the lower part of the 
trunk of peach trees, a quantity sufficient to cook the worm, doing no harm 
to the tree. Three gallons of boiling water, he says, may be used around 
each tree. 

In manuring trees, apply the manure, not around the trunk, but nearly 
under the extremities of the branches. The roots extend about as for under 
ground, generally, as do the branches above it, though, of course, the ratio is 
not exact nor uniform, but modified by the soils, moisture, &c,*, as well as by 
the nature of the tree. 

We have before stated that it is our belief that peach trees do better if not 
transplanted, but allowed to stand where they came up. We have Known 
such trees, and only such, bear fruit well for more than twenty years. 
Others attach no importance to this fact. But we should like to hear of 
transplanted peach trees bearing good croj^s for that length of time. Such 
ave not come under our observation. . 



FARMING IN EAST TENNESSEE. 665 



FOR THE PLOCGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANYIL. 

FARMING IN FAST TENNESSEE-GOOD CORN-BREAD. 

Dear Editors : — After a drought of over twelve months, a fine, seasona- 
ble rain has this week fallen. All nature is now enlivened, invigorated, and 
revived. Wheat, clover, timothy, and grazing grounds, are spreading their 
lovely green mats to the eye, promising a rich harvest. Our farmers have 
had every possible advantage during the winter, to early pitch a crop this 
spring ; and most of us are at least one month in advance of our usual time 
of readiness for planting. Many are done ploughing, and are waiting the 
proper time to plant. The drought has been anomalous ; and many of our 
old weather-astrologers say that the rainy season will now pay all it owes 
us. But, in the face of this prophecy, our hope is, that such will be the 
order of providence, that an abundance of the good things of the land will be 
gathered in due time ; for the effect of the drought has been upon the soil 
to mellow and pulverize it. The dry winter, which has been cold, has done 
much in this important particular ; and, indeed, something very uncommon 
or unnatural must take place, or a beautiful crop of all kinds must result. 
But temjjus omnia revelat. Then, if time reveals all things, without time, all 
things cannot be revealed. So, time only can reveal the certainty of our 
coming crop-season. But when I set down to write, I thought to have been 
able to draft something worthy of your columns ; but it is said, 

-some in spite 



Of their blundering, will ignorance write." 

So it is with me ; but, then, an excuse prompts me that 

"A little nonsense DOW and then. 
Is relished by the beet of men." 

So, if I can hope to entertain you personally for a moment, I shall be amply 
requited, without humiUatlng your very valuable periodical with its publica- 
tion. And, now, if your kindness will in any way justify the preliminary, I 
will take up my experience in furnishing your many agricultural readers with 
what I believe to be indispensable in furnishing for the table a good, palata- 
ble, nice, luxurious necessary for that department — to wit: Corn-Bread. 
This article of food stands in the West at least at the head of our hst of ne- 
cessaries ; and it is but little trouble to make it, likewise a luxury. I have, 
as your readers no doubt all have, before now, seen the paper account of what 
I may say, and I can only insist upon a trial ; and if, upon a trial, the value 
of the method is not acknowledged, then it will be that I shall be for once 
deceived. Your readers all know that to have good, palatable food on the 
table, the art and mystery lies not altogether in the cookery. This is merely 
one part of the business, that must be well understood, and properly attended 
to ; and, generally, our good housewives are adepts in this method without 
our aid. Then it is the business of the male department to see that the 
article for cookery is furnished in the pantry, clean, swett, and nice, unmixed 
with any foreign matter, and prepared in the proper manner. Well, what 
of corn-bread ? Some, I know, prefer old Virginia ash-cakes, as we are 
pleased to call them, and do not intend invidiousness when we apply the 
term either, for they are good. So are our johnny-cakes, hoe-cakes, dod- 
gers, etc. The peculiar manner of baking to taste, I do not wish to talk 
about ; but the way and manner of furnishing the meal for the cook is the 



666 NASCENT MANURES.