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Full text of "The Plough, the loom, and the anvil"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/ploughloomanvil81phil 



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flje flangl); tlje %m% anlt tlje ^miiL 

Vol. VIII. JULY, 1855. No. 1. 

THE MINING OF GOLD. 

The iramense cliange in the quantity of gold annually converted into coin, 
can not fail to have some material and permanent influence upon the money 
value of merchandise. The difference between ten and twenty millions of 
annual product, for a single year, is not of much account ; and this was the 
maximum variation in the first quarter of this century. But now the differ- 
ence is tenfold this amount, and this increase of annual product promises to 
be permanent. Let us loolc at this. The entire cpiantity of metallic coin in 
this country was estimated at from 69,000,000 to t;lG,000,000 ; and in 1821, 
from 818,000,000 to $20,000,000. From that time to 1841, it appears by 
the Custom-House returns, that the importation was $181,589,814, while 
8138,085,922 were exported, leaving in the country $43,003,892. To this 
add the quantity in the country already, estimated, as above, at $19,000,000. 
Deduct the quantity annually used in the arts, supposed to be $500,000, and 
the quantity lost by wear, estimated at \ of one per cent, or, taking these two 
jtems as absorbing $1,000,000, add the product of domestic mines, esti- 
mated at $6,000,000, and the result gives, as the estimate of the amount of 
gold and silver in the country in 1841, equal to $57,503,892. This gives a 
decennial increase of 73 per cent. 

The average annual product of gold and silver coin in the world, for the 
first half of this century, is estimated at $60,000,000. Of this about one 
half is supposed to be used in various manufactures of wares, etc. California 
and Australia each now yields about $80,000,000 annually. Hence the 
annual product of gold and silver must now be about $200,000,000. If 
$60,000,000 was the annual product a few years since, one half only of this 
being kept in the currency of the worlJ, and the product is now as above 
stated, allowing even $50,000,000 to be used in manufactures, we shall have 
an annual increase of coin amounting to $120,000,000. 

It is true that the commerce of the world is greatly extended, but not in 
any ratio to compare with this. The world's population does not greatly 
increase from year to year, and the changes produced by the progress of 
civilization and refinement is, unhappily, very far behind any such proportion 
as is denoted by these figures. In our own largest cities, luxury, and dissi- 
pation and extravagance do increase at a fearful rate, but these are oply small 
1^ excrescences, very limited pustules on the surface of the great body politic. 
» Our agricultural and mechanical population, as a whole, maintain the sim- 
"*", VOL. VIII. 1 ' 

- 590343 



THE illNING OF GOLD. 



and, at the end of 1849, less than two years after the discovery, the 4000 
digo^ers had increased to 50,000 Americans and 5000 foreigners. 

During the years 1848 and 1849, 840,000,000 -were obtained from the 
washings. 

California, with all its miners, exhibits, as yet, no symptoms of exhaustion. 
It still holds the first rank among the gold-producing countries of the globe. 
How much gold California has thus far produced will be seen from the fol- 
lowing table-, which shows the quantity of gold that has been deposited in 
the United States Mint, and all its branches, by California and all the other 
States, since the earliest discoveries of gold in North- America :* 



Years. 


Virginia. 


North 
Carolina. 


South 
Carolina. 


Georgia. 


Tennessee. 


Total for each 
year. 


1804-'23 . , 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1887 

1838 

1889 

1840 

1841 

1B42 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851....... 

1852 

1853 


■ '$V,500 
24,000 
26,000 
34,000 

104.000 
62,000 
60,400 
62,000 
52,100 
55,000 
57,600 
38,995 
25,736 
42,163 
48,148 
40,595 
86,783 
55,538 
. 67,736 
57,886 

129,382 
65,991 
69,052 
83,626 
52,200 


. 


$47,000 

5,000 

17,000 

20,000 

21,000 

46,000 

134,000 

204,000 

294,000 

4.58,000 

475,000 

880,000 

263,500 

148,100 

116,900 

i,899,505 

' 473,543 

485,793 
355,523 
326,883 
403,295 
275,622 


"$3,506 
26,000 
22,000 
45,000 
66,000 
38,000 
42,O0(' 
55,200 
29,400 

'406,644 

40,577 
24,564 
19,459 

41,(if.2 

126,982 

99,317 


$212,666 

176,000 
140,000 
210,000 
415,000 
319,900 
201,400 
83,600 

8,582',633 

' 257^663 

236,349 

209,587 

157,213 

90,542 

58,896 


iii666 

1,000 

7,000 

8,000 

100 

800 

50^440 

' 7,i6i 

5,180 

1,507 

2,377 

750 

149 




$47,000 

5,000 

17,000 

20,000 

21,000 

46,000 

140,000 

466,000 

£20,000 

678,000 

868,000 

898,(l(J0 

698,500 

407,000 

282,000 

f 435,100 

404,208 

426,18.5 

542,117 

777,097 

1,045,445 

967,200 

1,019,281 

1,129,357 

889,085 

896,675 

7,079,144 

36,933,314 

56,.i40,012 

54,506,963 

55,622,051 


1354, 3 mo's 


1,403,431 
4,631 


7,848,664 
62,832 


1,035,491 

8,044 


0,361,583 
4,167 


79,970 


224.392,334 
11,111,098 



The following amounts are included in the total: ^/aSawm— $155,107 from 1837 to 
1847; 1848, .$14,462; 1849, $10,700; 1850, $6538; 1851, $3962; 1852, $254; total, 
$191,023. iV^ra-l/fx/co— 1848, $682; 1849, $32,889 ; 1850, $5392 ; 1851,^800; 1852, 
$814; 1853, $3632; total, $44,299. Om/ow— 1853, $13,535; first three months of 
1854, $445. California— ISiS, $45,301 ; 1849, $6,151,360; 1850, $36,273,097; 1851, 
$55,938,232; 1852, $53,794,700; 1853, $55,113,487 ; total, $207,316,177 ; first quarter 
of 1854, $11,031,479. There were also received, from miscellaneous sources, in the 
•whole period at the Mint, $48,161. 



* General Rafael Espiuosa, Governor of Lovrcr California, has recently discovered rich 
gold and silver mines near San Jos6, Lower California. One silver mine of immense 
richness is spoken of, the mouth of which was closely covered with decayed wood, 
showing that it had been worked at some remote period. Near the mine stands an old 
dilapidated house, the walls of which are ornamented with specimens of antique 
painting in Indian colors, and inside the walls is a huge tree, towering in solitary 
majesty. A coal mine of uncommon richness has recently been discovered this side of 
Cape St. Lucas. Tlio discoverer is takmg steps to secure it from the Mexican govern- 
ment, when he proposes to form a company for the purpose of workmg it. It is within 
eight days' sail of San Francisco, and near a good landing. 



THE MINING OF GOLD. 



From the preceding table it will be seen that up to the beginning of 1854 
there had been deposited in the United States Mints the following amounts : 

From the Atlantic States, - - - - - - - $16,910,162 

New-Mexico, Oregon, and various sources, - - - 105,995 

CaUfornia, 207,316,177 



224,392,334 



The actual manifested shipments of gold from California fall short of the 
above two hundred and seven millions by -$3,500,000, which is the amount 
carried away by passengers in small and large sums. 

The following table, which we find in Mr. Whitney's Metallic Wealth of 
the United States, is an approximation to the grand total of the gold pro- 
duced by California up to the beginning of 1854, most of the items being 
from actual returrns : 

Deposited in United States Mint and branches up to Dec. 31, 1853, . - $207,316,177 
Shipments to foreign ports in 1848, 1849, and 1850, (estimated,) _ - 10,000,000 

Taken out of the country by foreign miners, chiefly Mexicans, in 1848 

and 1849, (estimated,) 10,000,000 

Shipped to Europe in 1851, 3,392,760 

Shipped to South-American ports in 1851, 2,372,000 

Shipped to Europe in 1852, 6,000,000 

Shipped to South- America and Asiatic ports in 1854, ... 1,000,000 

Shipped to England in 1853, 5,000,000 

Shipped to other ports in 1853, 1,600,000 

la cu-culation in California, in transitu, and otherwise absorbed, (estimated,) 13,319,063 

1260,000,000 

This enormous sum of gold was produced by the mines of California 
between 1848 and 1853, inclusive, as follows : 

lbs. Troy. 

In 1848, $5,000,000 representing of pure gold, - - - 20,150 

1849, 20,000,000 " " ... 80,600 

1850,45,000,000 " " ... 181,400 

1851, 65,000,000 " " ... 262,000 

1852, 62,500,000 " ' " ... 252,000 

1853, 62,500,000 " " ... 252,000 ' 

$260,000,000 1,048,150 

Having in the preceding pages given a brief sketcb of the gold regions of 
the United States and the amount of their production, we now proceed to 
glance at the principal gold regions of other countries : 

The gold mines of Russia are chiefly on the eastern slope of the Ural 
mountains, in the eastern part of Siberia, and in the Caucasus. The western 
slope of the Ural yields but little. Formerly, gold was found in the region 
about Archangel, but these mines have not been worked since the commence- 
ment of the present century. The gold mines of the Ural and of Eastern 
Siberia have acquired, during the last twelve or fifteen years, great import- 
ance. The mines of Eastern Siberia are by far superior to those in the Ural, 
the amount of gold found in the latter being to that of the former as'l to 6. 
The Ural gold region extends over a surface thus far unknown, new mines 
being constantly discovered. (Jold was first discovered in these mountains xa 
1774, but the exploitation of the mines assumed no importance until 1819. 
The greatest amount of gold is obtained from the washings of the sands, the 



6 THE MINIXG OF GOLD. 

yield of which is very small ordinarily, 128,000 parts of sand giving only 
one part firokl. 

From 1823 to 1839 the gold mines of the Ural mountains produced 432 
Russian pounds weight of gold, equal to 389.92 pounds avoirdupois. The 
total value of the gold produced by all the mines of Russia from 1819 to 
1848, inclusive, was 223,900,000 roubles of silver, equal to 1167,925,000. 
Their production in 1848 was 21,637,300 roubles of silver, equal to 
$16,227,975.* Up to 1850 the Ural gold washings have yielded only 
932,270 pounds Troy of gold. The government first commenced their ex- 
ploitation in 1814. The Russian gold mines are thought now to be on the 
decline. 

In England and Ireland gold is found in many places in very small 
quantities. The Romans mined extensively for gold in Wales, but not 
with much success. In the reign of James V. several hundred men were 
employed in washing the sands of Dumfriesshire for gold, but w'ith what 
success we are not informed. Gold is still found in small quantities in the 
tin mines of Cornwall, where it has been observed for hundreds of years. 

Some years ago, a lump of gold weighing 22 ounces was found in the 
Wicklow mountains of Ireland, which created an immense excitement. A 
gold mining company was immediately formed, and a large capital wasted in 
endeavoring to find the lodes in which the j^recious metal originated. 

Previous to the year 1853 the entire amount of gold produced by Great 
Britain did not exceed four ounces per annum. Since 1853 the appearance 
in England of a work entitled, " The Gold Rocks of Great Britain and Ire- 
land^'' by John Calvert, filled with the most extraordinary stories of golden 
treasures existing in England, Ireland, and Scotland, has created an extraor- 
dinary excitement among the English on the subject ; but it does not appear 
that any of Mr. Calvert's golden dreams have as yet been realized. Great 
Britain is decidedly poor in gold mines. 

The same may be said of Germany. Some of its gold mines have been 
worked ever since the days of the Romans. The principal mines are in 
Transylvania, Hungary, Salzburg, Tyrol, Styria, and Bohemia. The entire 
production in 1820 was 2682 pounds ; in 1848, 5645 pounds, and the yield 
for 1854 is estimated at 6000 pounds. 

In France^ the sands of the Rhine continue to be washed for gold, but 
only on a small scale. Formerly the yield was very considerable. In 1846 
the gold washings of France yielded only about $9000. There is no gold, 
in fact, found in France worth mentioning. The poorest spot in California is 
richer in gold than all France. 

Spain, in ancient time, if we may believe Diodorus, Pliny,f Strabo, and 
other ancient writers, was immensely rich in gold. It was found both in the 
solid rock and in the sands of the rivers — in those of the Tagus and Douro. 
In the time of Pliny, A.D. 23, Spain was the richest gold country known. 
Gallacia and the Asturias yielded 20,000 of gold annually. From Pliny's 
account of mining operations, it appears that in those remote times, 1800 
years ago, not only were the ancients well versed in smelting, but that the 
arts of cupelling and amalgamating were fully understood and practised. 

* Etudes sur les Forces Produdives de la Russie, par M. L. de Tegoborski, vol. 1, pp. 278- 
294. This work is official. 

f Metallis, plumbi, ferri, acris, argcnti, auri tota ferme Hispania scatet. — G. Plinii 
Secundi, Hist. Mundi, lib. iii. 4. 



THE MINING OF GOLD. 



Diodoriis and Pliny speak of tliese arts as being then of the most ancient 
origin. 

The gold mining operations of the ancients in Spain extended over a large 
surface, as may be seen at the present day. The places worked seem to have 
been thoroughly exhausted ; but Spain still contains gold in considerable 
quantities, though the amount produced is small. If Spanish industry at 
the present day was equal to that of the Romans, gold would undoubtedly 
be produced by them in large quantities. The sands of their rivers still pro- 
duce gold, but the washings are confined to the river Sil and Salor, which 
yield only about $8000 per annuna. 

Italy contains gold ; and mines which were worked in the time of Pliny 
still continue to yield gold. The sands of the Po still contain gold. The 
principal gold operations of Italy are at present carried on in Piednoont and 
Savoy. The gold mines of the province of Ossola, still worked, must have 
been very rich in ancient times; for Pliny informs us that the Ptoraan Senate 
forbid over 5000 slaves being employed in them lest the price of gold should 
be reduced by the large quantity produced. In 1829 these mines yielded 
only 250 pounds Troy. A French company has recently commenced working 
a gold mine near Genoa. 

In Central Asia gold is found in various localities. In 1851 the Ptussians 
established gold washings in the Caucasus. The sands of the rivers of this 
region wiere washed for gold long before the Christian era. Thibet. is also 
supposed to be rich in gold. The rivers of the western portion of that coun- 
try are especially referred to as abounding in auriferous sands. They are 
estimated to yield about 10,000 ounces annually. 

SotUhern Asia, that is, Asia south of the Himalayan chain of mountains, 
in ancient times yielded vast amounts of gold. By many the Ophir of So- 
lomon is thought to have been somewhere in Southern Asia. Gold is still 
found in many localities in India. The washings of the Burrampooter are 
estimated to yield from 30,000 to 40,000 ounces annually. Many of the 
streams of the Burman empire produce gold. Ava produces about 2000 
pounds annually. The Malayan peninsula is represented as rich in gold. 

In China and Japan there is much gold, though we have no very reliable 
statistics of the amount of their production. The Japanese government 
forbids the exportation of gold. The gold-bearing formations of Siberia 
enter into China, but they are little worked by the Chinese, the government 
having suspended mining operations "in order to preserve the balance of cir- 
culation." This fact, whatever may be thought of Chinese political economy, 
shows that these mines are capable of producing abundantly. 

Borneo has extensive gold washings. About 5000 Chinese are engaged in 
the washings of the western coast; and according to Mr. Brooke, the Rajah 
of Sarawak, the annual production is $5,000,000. The other East-India 
islands also produce considerable quantities of gold. Gold dust is very 
abundant in Sumatra, and is an article of considerable traffic. 

The whole product of Southern Asia, including the East-India islands, is 
estimated at from 25,Q00 to 30,000 pounds annually. 

Africa, according to the accounts of all travellers who have penetrated to 
the interior, is rich in gold. Owing to the climate chiefly, all attempts to en- 
gage in mining operations have proved disastrous. The gold washings of 
Nubia, Senegambia, and Bambuck are important. According to Russegger, 
who travelled through Nubia in 1838, the great chain of mountains which 
traverse the interior of Africa from ENE. to WSW., contains large amounts 
of gold of a remarkably yellow color, and of a very pure quality. The 



THE MINING OF GOLD. 



annual production of Africa at the present time is about 4000 pounds. The 
next El Dorado will probably be in Africa. 

Australia, as all know, is now second only to California as a gold-bearing 
country. The discovery of gold in Australia illustrates the value of geolo- 
gical science. Mr. Murchison, in examining the Australian cordillera, in the 
south-eastern corner of Australia, discovered such a remarkable resemblance 
between the geological position and mineralogical character of the rocks of the 
Australian and Uralian cordilleras, that he predicted the discovery of gold in 
Australia. Cornish miners immediately began to " prospect," and gold was 
discovered. Mr. Murchison, soon after his geological surveys, wrote to Earl 
Grey on the subject of encouraging the search for gold in Australia : but 
the Earl "took no steps whatever to promote the discovery of gold, on the ground 
that the production of this metal would interfere with sheep-growing /" We 
think that Earl Grey must have felt a little sheepish after reading the fol- 
lowing facetious remark in the Quarterly Review : " We were quite unpre- 
pared," says the Review, " for such pastoral predilection in the colonial office 
under Lord Grey's presidency. To realize Arcady in New South Wales, and 
convert convicts into Strephons, might be a very amiable conception, but 
would hardly justify the minister of a great commercial empire — and, above 
all, a zealot of Free Trade — in an attempt to cushion rich sources of mineral 
wealth opened in a colony under the watch of his intelligence."* 

While Earl Grey was dreaming of sheep-growing, a Mr. Smith applied to 
the government for a reward for the discovery of certain auriferous deposits, 
which he agreed to point out as soon as the reward was paid ; but while 
Mr. Smith was awaiting the movements of the government, a " returned Ca- 
lifornian," named Hargroves, found gold on the Macquairie river, a piece 
weighing 13 ounces having been dug up. Without asking for a reward, 
Hargroves informed the government of his discovery, and then there was a 
general rush for the second California. 

Earl Grey now forgot his sheep-growing, and the government began to 
stir in the matter, by laying claim to the gold region, granting licenses to dig 
for £l 105. per month. It also instituted a geological commission to explore 
the country. 

The Australian gold region extends over a space of at least nine degrees 
of latitude, and occupies a breadth of 50 miles or more. 

The discovery of gold in Australia was first announced in May, 1851. In 
December of that year 12,000 persons were digging for gold at the Mount ■ 
Alexander gold-field. A shepherd discovered a block of quartz lying upon 
the surface, from which 60 pounds of gold were taken. Nearly all the gold 
of Australia is obtained from washings, all of the quartz-mining companies, 
without exception, having failed. The quartz veins are found not to be rich 
in gold ; and investigations made in Loudon with regard to the quartz-gold 
mining companies of Alistralia, seem to indicate that they are mostly 
swindling concerns. 

The auriferous deposits of Australia are similar to those of California. 
The gold is remarkably fine, and contains from three to seven per cent of 
silver. The total amount of pure gold produced by Australia, since the 
first discovery up to the beginning of 185-1, is estimated by Mr. J. D. 
Whitney, after a careful examination of all the returns and estimates, to be 
as follows : 



Quarterly Eeview, XCL, 511. 



COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



9 



lbs. Troy. 

1851, (year of discovery.) 30,000 

1852 - . - 830,000 

1853', 210,000 

Total since discovery, 570,000 

Soidh-Americah&s, never been a great gold-producing country ; whilst its 
silver mines, ever since the discovery of America, have poured forth an un- 
pa.ralleled stream of wealth. la 1800, according to Humboldt, it produced 
691,625 lbs. of silver, and only 33,524 lbs. of gold, of which 9900 lbs. came 
from Brazil. In 1850, South- America produced only 24,000 lbs. of gold. 
The countries yielding gold in South-America are New-Granada, Venezuela, 
Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. The total amount produced by New-Granada 
since 1804 is estimated at $204,085,328. The principal mines are in the 
provinces of Antioquia and Veraguas. New-Granada produces annually 
about 13,276 lbs., and Brazil about 6000 lbs. The total amount of gold 
produced by New-Granada, from the earliest mining operations up to 1841, 
IS $376,500,000; and the total amount produced by Brazil up to 1845, is 
3,576,192 lbs. Troy. 

Mexico yields gold in scarcely any other way than as a constituent of its 
argentiferous ores, which yield a very important per centage of gold. M. 
Duport estimates that per centage, for 1840, at one eighth in value. There 
is probably much gold in Mexico which will not be discovered until the 
Anglo-Americans get possession of that country — an event not far distant. 

Central-America, according to Mr. Squier, and other travellers, is rich in 
gold ; but we have no statistics on the subject. 



COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

The annexed statement exhibits the value of merchandise imported into 
the United States from each foreign country, and the value of merchandise 
exported from the United States to each foreign country, during the year 
ending June 30, 1854 : 

Russia, - - • , - 
Prussia, - . - - - 
Sweden and Norway, 
Swedish West-Indies, - - - 
Denmark, . . . _ 
Danish West-Indies, - - - 
Bremen, - - - - - 
Hamburg, - - - - - 
Holland, . . - - 

Dutch East-Indies, . - - 
Dutch West-Indies, - - - 
Dutch Guiana, - - - - 
Belgium, . - - - 

England, - - - - - 
Scotland, .... 



Foreign 


Domestic 


Imports. 


Exports. 


$1,544,235 


$335,521 


47,773 




515,178 


1,085,602 


22,590 


12,741 


8,097 


87,870 


- 286,044 


928,924 


14,643,927 


8,386,077 


- 2,322,971 


2,255,519 


1,695,970 


2,299,710 


- 1,041,600 


109,203 


534,978 


371,380 


- 104,236 


53,745 


3,462,241 


3,848,890 


140,388,733 


135,111.708 


5,820,469 


3,097,662 



10 



COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Ireland, - - - _ _ 
Gibraltar, - - 

Malta, 

British East-Indies, 
British West-Indies, - - - 
British Honduras, - - - - 
British Guiana, - - - - 
Cape of Good-Hope, . . . 

British American Colonies, - 
Other British Colonies . - . 
Canada, - - - . . 
Australia, - - - _ - 
France on the Atlantic, 
France on the Mediterranean, - 
French Guiana, - - - - 
French West-Indies, . . . 

Spain on the Atlantic, - 
Spain on the Mediterranean, 
Teneriffe and other Canaries, 
Manila and other Philij^pine Islands, - 
Cuba, - - - - ' - 

Other Spanish West-Indies, 
Portugal, - - - - - 

Madeira, 

Fayal and Azores, - - - 
Cape de Verds, . . . _ 
Italy, - . . - . 

Sicily, .--_.- 
Sardinia, - - _ - _ 

Tuscany, - - _ . . 

Trieste and other Austrian ports, - 
Turkey, Levant, etc., . - - 

Hayti, 

Mexico, 

Central Republic of America, 
New-Granada, . - - . 

Venezuela, - - - - - 
Brazil, .-.-.. 
Oriental Republic of Uruguay, 
Arojentine Republic, . . - 

Chili, 

Peru, ------ 

Ecuador, ----- 

China, ------ 

Asia generally, - - - - 

Africa generally, - - - - 

South America generally, 
South Seas and Pacific Ocean, - 
Sandwich Islands, - - - 

Atlantic Ocean and uncertain places, - 

Total, 



Foreign 
Imports. 


Domestic 
Exports. 


229,335 


1,006,017 


59,6'73 


447,445 


83,695 


108,528 


5,378,321 


567,193 


- 1,126,417 


4,756,398 


228,954 


203,913 


47,489 


718,096, 


448,903 


292,628 


- 2,206,021 


4,693,771 


4,344 




- 6,721,539 


10,510,373 


214,202 


2,999,635 


- 32,892,021 


29,749,466 


2,889,372 


1,218,786 


29,618 


100,148 


161,085 


551,525 


358,504 


1,390,348 


1,579,074 


1,212,368 


39,598 


19,613 


2,265,282 


27,852 


- 17,164,339 


3,228,116 


2,850,353 


990,886 


243,592 


127,150 


30,007 


47,708 


21,584 


10,030 


8,985 


30,037 


971,718 


1,586,327 


959,300 


246,151 


85,676 


188,305 


1,152,717 


11,735 


741,919 . 


1,697,319 


803,114 


219,496 


- 2,357,222 


1,880,187 


3,463,190 


1,091,870 


- 2,360,422 


250.539 


1,478,520 


855,254 


- 3,072,649 


1,131,604 


14,110,387 


4,046,857 


457,179 


450,855 


2,144,9'71 


658,720 


- 3,332,167 


1,942,330 


1,005,406 


^651,707 


57,534 




10,506,329 


1,293,925 


60,730 




1,385,568 


1,716,924 


235,693 


47,241 


10,103. 


886,779 


- 119,130 




60 




$301,494,094 


$252,047,806 



BUSINESS OF THE NEW- YORK CANALS. 11 

The above statement of exports only includes domestic merchandise shipped 
to the places designated. The value of foreign mercbandise, during the year 
ending June 30, 1854, was $23,748,514. This makes the total exports for 
the year, $275,796,320. This includes $38,062,570, of gold and silver coin 
and bullion. The comparative table given above shows the extent of our 
foreign trade with each country. 



MANUFACTURES IN SOUTH-CAROLINA, 

From the census of 1850, it appears that the following is the condition of 
manufactures in that State : 

Capital employed, $5,166,865 

Annual product, 7,072,513 

Produced in families, 919,525 

The number of hands employed was 7009. 



BUSINESS OF THE NEW- YORK CANALS. 

.From the Eeport of the late Auditor of this department, it appears that 
the whole amount of Tolls collected, the last season of navigation, upon the 
canals of this State, was $2,773,566.35. 

The following table exhibits the quantity and value of the agricultural pro- 
ductions, merchandise, etc., ascending and descending, within the same 
period : 

Products of the forest, 

" animals, - 

Vegetable food, _ _ - 
Other agricultural products, - 
Manufactures, - - - - 
Merchandise, - - - . 
Other articles, . . - 

Total, 

The whole number of barrels of flour arriving at tide-water, was 
1,249,453. Bushels of wheat, 3,523,800. This wheat, turned into flour, 
at five bushels for each barrel, would amount to 704,760 barrels, giving a 
total of 1,954,213 barrels. The quantity of corn arriving at tide-water was 
12,813,929 bushels. 

This makes a decrease in the revenue, as compared with 1853, of 
$491,152, and in tonnage of 81,991 tons. There was a decrease of flour 
and wheat amounting to 419,774 tons, and in corn and oats an increase of 
270,231 tons. 



Tons. 


Value. 


1,768,745 


$14,384,785 


78,684 


11,666,296 


903,735 


38,331,500 


10,420 


1,983,068 


258,021 


9,795,420 


406,022 


123,107,863 


740,235 


10,954,380 


4,165,862 


$210,284,312 



12 POTATOES. 



POTATOES. 
[Translated from the French manuscript hy the Editori] 

The production of potatoes, in the city and State of New- York, is of 
vital importance. This tuber, at this season, commands an enormous price, 
and during the whole winter, has cost more than any other article of food. 
Comparing the price of this article in Pennsylvania, we find it to be one 
tenth what is paid for it in New- York. 

The population of the city of New-York is more than half a million 
of inhabitants. It consists of Americans, descendants of the English, who, 
for their tables, demand beef and potatoes ; of Germans who sing, " Pota- 
toes are ruddy and fine, and also as white as alabaster, and are good for 
men, women, and children, and are the true plaster for the stomach;" 
the French, who make part of the population of the Empire City, re- 
peat in their country, " Long live mirth and the potato." Thus this nation, 
wiio are accustomed to use the potato in their own country, not only 
eat it with pleasure and delight, but wifeh greediness, and deprived of this 
production, they feel the want of it, and are discontented ; and although the 
potato is at an exorbitant price, they will procure it, instead of some other 
kind of food which would be more nutritious and at a more moderate price, 
as rice, semoulia, (paste baked of Hecker's farina,) farina, beans, pearl barley, 
etc. But custom makes law. Men prefer that to which they are accustomed 
from infancy, and perhaps there is another consideration which leads them 
to prefer the potato. 

Let us look at this. The population of New- York is composed, to a large 
extent, of workmen laboring in the ship-yards and in various manufactures. 
The women are not less busily employed, but labor in different shops, and 
thereby furnish their share of the family expenses. So the members of the 
family are all absent from their homes, the fire is extinguished, and all culi- 
nary processes cease. On their return in the evening the supper must be pre- 
pared speedily — hunger demands this. The fire is hastily kindled with coal 
or coke, or wood, and in an hour a supper of potatoes, beef steak, roast beef, 
or a chop is prepared, with coft'ee or tea with milk, which revives the strength 
of the laborers, restores their good humor, and makes them happy, secures 
for them a quiet rest, and prepares them for the labor of the succeeding day. 
But this is not all. That which remains of the evening repast serves for the 
morrow's dinner in the workshop or stoi'e, and for the noon repast of the 
children who remain at home, after having taken a moderate breakfast, and 
prevents the necessity of the loss of time and of labor, which would otherwise 
be required in its preparation. So potatoes are indispensable to the city 
laborer ; and the farmer, if he understands his own interests, will take espe- 
cial care to cultivate this tuber as a source of profit. 

But why is it that this article is so dear and at the same time so easily 
cultivated 1 This tuber originated in America, and was imported with great 
care into Europe, and when it had become common in Germany and in the 
countries of central Europe, France had not any knowledge of it. It was 
during the Seven Years' War that a French oflicer, named Parmenthier, who 
was taken prisoner in Prussia, was fed upon it, and was greatly pleased with 
it. When his liberty was restored to him and he returned to liis own coun- 
try, he carried a sack of potatoes with him, and presented them to the king, 



POTATOES. 13 



and sought his assistance in introducing them as an article of food. I pass 
in silence over the difficulties which he met in this effort, but he has furnished 
his country with the means of feeding millions of Frenchmen, and at this 
day his name is pronounced with gratitude and with respect as a benefactor 
of the nation. 

But the potato is most productive in the west of Europe. Poland, after 
overcoming many difficulties, cultivates it extensively, so that it has become 
the principal article of food for its inhabitants, and a source of wealth to the 
producer. It is used in the manufacture of spirits, and through the influence 
of Pistorius, a Prussian, by means of apparatus of his invention, 'alcohol is 
distilled from it not inferior to that obtained from rye. 

It is remarkable that the potato, originating in America, is now cultivated 
more extensively in its adopted than in its native countiy, and that it should 
become of superior quality, more farinaceous, more nutritive. It is also more 
productive and less liable to decay, and richly rewards the labor of the pro- 
ducer. 

In ISTew-York a bushel of potatoes costs ten shillings. In Poland, in the 
country, four bushels can be purchased for one slylling and two cents ; and 
in the capital, at Warsaw, they cost one shilling ar bushel, and the price does 
not exceed more than three or four shillings even in a distressing famine. It 
is sufficient to say that a gallon of spirits, which is produced from potatoes, is 
sold for one shilling and two cents, and one can judge of the immense extent 
of the cultivation of this tuber, which yields four, six, and even ten thou- 
sand bushels to the producer. 

In France potatoes are cheap, and furnish the common food of children 
who attend school, and of laborers, who are in the habit of using them at 
their noon meal, fried in lard, and which is sold to speculators — a hundred 
being served together, which sufiice for one person. These are sold in Paris 
in the streets, cooked by steam, at one cent a pounxl, which the laborer eats 
with much pleasure. 

I would make a few suggestions in respect to the quality of the potatoes 
of Europe. The ordinary kind are more or less farinaceous, and are placed 
in the earth after the frost is out. These ripen by midsummer or in June. 
They are generally buried in sand. They are difficult to preserve, and great 
care is taken to keep them sound for seed. Another quality is ordinarily 
called "Michaelmas," because served in the month of June. The gathering of 
them is commenced in last of September. Another kind of potatoes is 
oblong, red and orange colored ; but these are a luxury, and served only on 
the tables of the rich. 

It is proper to say that America is not the only original country of the 
potato. Asia produces the same kind of product. The ocean also furnishes 
a growth analogous to this, under the name of banana ; and that which 
shows the eternal will of Providence to distinguish the races of men is this : 
the potato of the interior of Africa is as black as the skin of the negro, while 
it has the same savory, luscious taste as the American potato, which is yellow 
and sweet. 

We pass on now to the deterioration of this crop, and to the means neces- 
sary to prevent its complete destruction. For many years the potato has suf- 
fered from a disease which materially injures it and makes it unwholesome. 
This disease has been progressively developed in Poland, in Germany, in 
France, in Ireland, and at last in this, its native country. Some have called 
it cholera. In the interior of the tuber a sac is formed, which is filled with a 
blackish juice, which not only renders a part of the fruit unfit for consump- 



14 POTATOES. 



tion, but is actually poisonous. Naturalists have sought eagerly to discover 
the nature and the cause of this disease. Some have supposed it to be occa- 
sioned by the prepared manures, and perhaps not without reason, since the 
hydrogen gas, which this manure contains, confioes the moisture in the fruit, 
and the great heat confines it in the interior of the tuber, and hinders the 
evaporation of the humid particles which it contains, and which remaining 
there, in a stagnant condition, at length attack it, and become the cause of 
the malady. Others suppose that the use of burnt bones is the cause. 
Others affirm that the ground being partially covered with stones, produces 
this effect, since they hinder the heat of the sun from penetrating the soil, 
and impede the necessary vegetation. There may be some reason in this, 
since the fruit, being deprived of heat, can not develop itself. But neither of 
these has regard to the primary causes of this disease, which we will explain 
as, in our own experiments, they have come under our observation. 

Providence has created man, and has given to him strength and vigor, as 
he has to all his creatures, for securing a succession of generations. The po- 
tato has been left to rely on a fictitious art for its reproduction ; that is to 
say, the planting of the tubers. But it deteriorates ; it has become weak, 
and has lost its vital forces, and^no person is yet found to aid in its regene- 
ration. 

Being always transplanted without being renewed, the potato has dimi- 
nished, has lost its vital force and vigor, and its old age has produced this 
disease, since it is deprived of the strong juice necessary to its proper growth. 
Its juices may be compared to the blood of animals, and the effects of disease 
are analogous. 

In Poland certain agricultuvists, among whom I was one, having perceived 
the loss of vigor in this tuber, and a general use being made of it in the 
manufacture of spirits, and the amount of this crop annually diminishing:, they 
sought for the cause. At length they became convinced that the nature of 
the potato had deteriorated, and thpy resolved to obtain the seed for the fol- 
lowing year, instead of planting the tuber, and they obtained a new growth, 
but smaller, and instead of being fjxrinaceous, it was glutinous and without 
sweetness, and their hopes were disappointed. But they would not cease 
their efforts, and they replanted tliese potatoes the following year. The next 
harvest exceeded^their expectations, the potatoes being large and farinaceous, 
and when used in the manufacture of spirits, they were much more product- 
ive. This method of renewing the crop was continued for six years. The 
result was entire success, and when the potato was generally attacked by this 
disease in Europe, which was considered as a form of cholera, their crop was 
liberal. Thus was it proved that this renewal of the seed was essentially 
beneficial. 

Tiie potato is originally from Mexico, and has been naturalized in Europe 
and in North America, but has continually been renewed by planting the 
tuber, and has thus lost its vital force, and is threatened with entire destruc- 
tion. 

One of the agriculturists of this country, Mr. Goodrich, has attempted the 
renewal of this crop from the seed which he obtained in Mexico, but he com- 
plains that the fruit does not meet his expet'tations. Let him console him- 
self, since we have seen that the same results happened to the farmers of 
Poland ; and if Mr. Goodrich replants the potatoes which he has tlius ob- 
tained in succeeding years, success will crown his efforts. 

The reason why the potato does not come to maturity the first season is, 
because the seed is obtained from a country almost tropical, and has not 



POTATOES. 15 



power to develop itself as it should do. The fruit is not more than half ma- 
tured, and a second season is necessary for it in the temperate zone. A single 
season in the torrid zone is as efficacious, in the development of fruit, as two 
seasons at the north. Farmers should not abandon their experiments on 
account of the want of success in those of Mr. Goodrich, but continue their 
endeavors to save the potato from destruction. 

In cultivating the potato, it should be remembered that it is capricious in 
its nature. It should not be planted two successive years in the same soil. 
The land should be well manured before planting, and the manure v^ell 
rotted. The soil, if fertile, should not lack manure, and a gravelly soil 
requires it, but the latter produces a fruit more farinaceous and more savory. 
If planted soon after the ground is thawed, it will ripen by June, and then it 
should be harvested. They should then be placed in a heap, not too much 
elevated, and after several days they should be removed, separated from 
earth, and placed for the winter where they will be safe from the frost. The 
potato, when planted at the beginning of June or the end of May, ripens by 
the end of September. They should be harvested in dry wealher. 

As soon as the stem is out of the ground, it should be kept free from 
weeds, and as it increases in height, the root should be covered with earth. 
Any one may satisfy himself that cultivation with the plough is less bene- 
ficial than with the hoe, although cheaper for the farmer. The cutting off 
the flowers to concentrate the juice in the fruit, is not wise. It is true that 
the flower absorbs the juice and diminishes the vegetation of the fiuit, but 
the stem which remains absorbs bad air, hydrogen gas, and communicates it 
to other parts of the plant. Instead, therefore, of cutting off the flowers, it is 
better to bury them in the earth, and thus they are destroyed, and the stem 
dries with them. 

If it is desirable to have the potato less moist, for a new planting, or for 
sale in the spring, to preserve them from frost, a sort of cave may be built in 
an elevated and dry soil, with planks, and the potatoes placed in it, and they 
may be covered with boards and the dried moss or straw, and then with 
earth, making a kind of hillock. A layer of lime will absorb the water occa- 
sioned by a thaw. When thus prepared, the fruits that are placed in it will 
be kept as sound and fresh as they were at the harvest. If kept in these 
caves in the earth without boards, they will put out buds and lose their vital 
force. 

To obtain seed, choose a rich soil, not too highly manured ; plant in the 
month of April ; keep the young stems free of weeds ; give them free growth, 
and let the fruit ripen on the stem ; dry the seed in the shade, and preserve 
it in a dry and warm place. 

Potatoes, besides being a pleasant, wholesome, and useful article of food in 
the family of the farmer, will serve him also with nourishing feed for pigs. 
So, too, in the confection of this tuber, starch is produced equal to that made 
from wheat. The process is as follows : 

The potatoes are carefidly separated and well washed. They are then 
grated into a vessel of water, and then are pressed and left to deposit at the 
bottom the farinaceous parts. The water is then poured off", and the portions 
of the farina that have thus been separated are pressed out, cut, and are dried 
in the sun. This gives starch. This mass, being broken up and sifted, gives 
farina. At the beginning it is necessary to hasten the process, to guard 
against fermentation ; for starch, when left in v.'ater, will ferment. The farina 
of the potato can be mixed with other flour in the preparation of bread, and 
when so mingled it makes an excellent pudding with eggs ; and if we take 



16 



A COUNTRY SEAT ON THE HUDSON, 



the white of eggs and knead this farina with them, and paste will be formed, 
which, when coarsely grated and dried, make§ a transparent gruel. 

In cooking this, it is mixed with milk, and seasoned with sugar and cinna- 
mon ; or it may be mixed with water, with a due quantity of butter, and 
seasoned to your taste ; or, in a beef soup, it may supply the place of ver- 
micelli. Saniewski Felix. 

Mai/, 1855. 



A COUNTRY SEAT ON THE HUDSON. 




ND^nSON Sn. 



MESSINA — THE COUNTRY SEAT OF J, R. inVINGSTON, ESQ. 



WnOEVEn has not seen the country seats on the upper side of the Hud- 
son knows nothing of the finest specimens of rural residences in America. 
There are in the neighborhood of I3oston, many beautiful villas and cottages, 
designed in admirable taste and kept in the highest order, that are indeed 
admirable in every respect ; but they, like more solitary specimens of the 
same kind, in the environs of many of our cities, are only suburban residen- 
ces of a few acres. There are, in various parts of the country, many gentle- 
men's large seats, well laid out, with lawns, pleasure-grounds and gardens, in 
a simple and unpretending manner, highly creditable to the possessors. But 
nowhere in America are there to be found country residences, where nature 
has done so much to assist man in his attempts to create a beautiful home, 
as in what may bo called the upper terrace of the Hudson. This includes a 
hill of land on the eastern shore, extending from Ilyde Park to Hudson city, 
a distance of about 50 miles. 

The peculiar advantages of this part of the river are these : First, the 
finest mountain and river views in the country — the river being the Hudson, 
in its loveliest portion — sometimes two or three miles wide — indented in out- 



A COUNTRY SEAT ON THE HUDSON. 17 

line, and varied by numerous islands ; the mountains being the Catskills — 
their highest summit 3000 feet high — near enough to give a character of 
grandeur to the scene, and distant enough to possess that blue haze of at- 
mospheric distance, which makes a mountain a kit of poetry, instead of a bare 
reality of rocks and trees in the landscape. Second, they have the advantage 
of having been held as country seats since the first settlement of the river — 
with much of the fine natural beauties of wood and water preserved, and 
heightened by the fostering spirit of taste, rather than despoiled by the ava- 
ricious spirit of the mere tiller of the soil. 

For almost the entire distance of this fifty miles, the east bank of the Hud- 
son is one line of country seats — varying in extent from 50 to 500 or 600 
acres. Instead of having the same general features of interest and beauty, 
nothing is more striking to the picturesque tourist than the highly varied 
character of these places. Every mile seems to present new groupings of 
headland and foreground, some new combinations of wood, water and moun- 
tain — so that no one who has seen one or two places can imagine with cer- 
tainty what will be the aspect and picturesque character of the next residence. 
The enchanting beauty of the Hudson itself is varied and heightened, too, by 
its peculiar life and animation. Snowy sails, sometimes singly in calms, and 
sometimes floating along in the light breezes like troops of white swans ; 
swift steamers freighted with throngs of busy and curious people ; huge clus- 
ters of freight barges, loaded down with the produce of whole countries ; and 
finally, stealing along under the high wooded banks, the river railway, whose 
trains fly along between the commercial and political capitals of the State at 
the rate of thirty to fifty miles an hour — all of these give to these finest seats 
on the Hudson a completeness of interest which the traveller looks in vain 
for anywhere else in America. 

Among the finest of these residences, Montgomery Place, Blithewood, 
Ellerslie, Hyde Park and others, have been already described, and some of 
them illustrated in various other works of ours. Persons wishing to see the 
finest specimens of landscape gardening in the countrj'^, naturally go to these 
places, to study them as the best examples of the art, and there are few 
places, out of England, where the lover of embellished home scenery can find 
so much gratification and instruction. 

• About the centre of this upper terrace lies Messina, the seat of the late 
John R. Livingston, Esq., a sketch of which we present our readers this 
month. This house is one of the noblest in its proportions on the whole 
river, and is worth an examination as a specimen of a first-class mansion in 
the country. It was built by Mr. Livingston after his return from France, 
some years ago. He was so much pleased while there with the residence of 
Beaumaichais, near Paris, that he determined to model his home upon it. 
This accounts for the air of a French chateau, which we discover in some of 
its features. The design was, however, really drawn by an English architect, 
Brunei, the celebrated architect of the Thames tunnel — who came out to this 
country and erected two or three residences for different members of the 
Livingston family. The plan of the interior is spacious and elegant — the 
rooms large and finely proportioned, uniting some of the best features of both 
the English and French residences. 

Finely varied and extensive grounds surround the mansion at Messina. 
There is an abundance of foliage and fine old trees, the scenery is beautiful, 
and the neighborhood most picturesque and interesting. Though not at 
present in the high condition of some of the places we have just mentioned 
(owing to the want of personal interest, consequent upon the declining health 
2 



18 CALIFORNIA WHEAT CROP. 

of the late proprietor,) it could readily, in the hands of a person of taste and 
fortune, be restored to its former high keeping. As it is but rarely one of 
the first class residences is to be obtained, we believe we shall render a serv- 
ice to some of our numerous readers who are annually settling in the coun- 
try, by drawing their attention to a site that has long been considered oneofi 
the best in the Union. — Horticulturist. 

We are indebted to our friend Allen, of the Genesee Farmer, for this en- 
graving. 



CALIFORNIA WHEAT CROP. 

The wheat crop of the State for the present season has been a subject of 
much discussion. Our last files of San Francisco papers tell us that during 
the harvest, parties traversed the State for the express purpose of ascertaining 
the condition of things, and that the following is the result of their investi- 
gations as to the extent of the crop : 



Counties. 


Acres planted. 


Average. 


Wheat, bushe 


Marin, - 


335 


30 


10,050 


Sonoma, 


16,353 


23^ 


380,207 


Napa, - 


- 17,000 


20 


310,000 


Solano, 


6,214 


25 


155,350 


Yolo, - 


- . - 9,980 


25 


249,500 


Yuba, 


3,655 


22^ 


82,237 


Butte, - 


- 3,725 


22^ 


83.812 


Placer, 


1,545 


20 


30,900 


Sacramento, - 


- 3,415 


25 


85,375 


Calaveras, - 


2,142 


m 


48,195 


San Joaquin, - 


- 11,340 


28^ 


320,355 


Stanislaus, - 


4,295 


14f 


63,350 


Mariposa, 


- 2,365 


15 


35,475 


Tulare, 


2,920 


10 


29,200 


Contra Costa, - 


- 3,785 


21f 


81,377 


Alameda, - 


15,490 


40 


619,600 


Santa Clara, - 


- 22,745 


20 


453,900 


Santa Cruz, 


6,530 


50 


326,500 


Monterey, 


745 


40 


29,800 


San Francisco, 


445 


30 


13,350 



Total, - - 135,024 258-15 8,439,533 

During the year 1853 the imports of flour into the State were 209,547 
bbls. and 199,143 saclis ; for the year 1854 the imports were 150,420 bbls. 
and 67,349 sacks. Thus the breadstuff's trade of California has been com- 
pletely revolutionized, and but a comparatively short period can elapse before 
the importation of flour from other parts must cease. The crop of the pre- 
sent year is not so large as some exaggerated estimates early in the season 
made it, nor is the yield per acre so great ; but the progress made is remark- 
able, and shows the capacity of the State. 



THOROUGH CULTURE. 19 



THOROUGH CULTURE— METHOD OF ANALYSIS. 

The expense of a careful and reliable analysis deters many from adopting 
that mode of ascertaining the condition of their soils. la the Norlliern 
Farmer we find the following directions for investigating this matter, which, 
after a few trials, will not be very troublesome to a man not specially 
versed in chemical manipulations. We copy it for the benefit of those who 
wish to try it, and also to* show to all who complain of prices, that a very 
accurate measurement of each element is not a matter to be disposed of in 
a few hours, and that it ought to be paid for accordingly. 

In order to get a knowledge of the quality of soil, the portion to be ana- 
lyzed should be taken from three or four inches below the surface, and should 
be placed in the sun or in a warm room, till it feels dry to the touch. Then 
weigh accurately 200 grains of it, and pass it through a common sieve, 
carefully weighing and noting down on paper what remains. What goes 
through this sieve, put into a fine wire or gauze sieve, weighing and noting 
as before. What passes through the last sieve, put into a glass tumbler and 
fill it nearly full of pure water, stir it for two or three minutes, and then let 
it rest for half a minute, pour off the water, retaining what has settled, and 
weight it. This will enable you to determine the texture of the soil and its 
productiveness. If a large portion goes through the two sieves, and remains 
suspended in the water, the soil will be productive. This a very important 
point for a man to understand, when he is purchasing a farm. Some of the 
most productive lands in our country are not so rich in vegetable and animal 
matter as other lands which are less productive, but they are of a finer text- 
ure, which enables them to exert a more thorough chemical action on sub- 
stances brought into contact with them, so that these are more readily ab- 
sorbed by the roots of the plants, ami aflford them more nourishment. 

In order to ascertain the ingredients of which a soil is composed, weigh 
100 grains of it that have passed the second sieve as above described. 
Place this on a piece of white paper in an oven, or on a stove as hot as it 
can be made without scorching the paj^er. After this is dried thoroughly, 
weigh it again, and the loss of weight will show the amount of water it con- 
tained, and indicate its capability of retaining moisture, which is a property 
essential to its productiveness. To determine the amount of the Vf-getable 
and animal matter it contains, having noted the weight of the soil thus 
dried, place it on a sheet of platina and hold it over a hot fire, stirrino- with 
a metallic rod until no blackness appears in the mass. If it contains vegetable 
matter only, the gas emitted will smell like burning peat. If it contains 
animal matter, the smell will be like that burning feathers. The loss in 
weight will show the amount of animal and vegetable matter contained in 
the soil, that can be rendered useful as food for plants by the action of water, 
air, and heat. To ascertain the quantity of lime, put one quarter of a gill of 
muriatic acid with an equal quantity of water into a glass tumbler, and set 
it on the scale and balance it accurately. Then weigh 100 grains of the 
soil dried as above directed, and put it into the acid and water, and let it 
remain undisturbed until the effervescence has ceased, which may take two 
or three hours. Then see how many grains it will take to balance the scale. 
If it requires ninety-four grains, sixir grains of carbonic acid have escaped. 
Now, as lime contains about forty-three per cent of carbonic acid, the 
amount thus liberated shows that the soil contains merely seven and a half 



20 CULTIVATION OF COTTON IN ALGERIA. 



per cent of lime ; and such a soil, if rich in vegetable and mineral matter, 
is regarded as the first quality wheat-land. Now, to ascertain whether iron 
exists in the soil, dip a piece of oak bark into the tumbler, and it will be 
colored red if there is iron in the earth. To determine the quantity, pour 
off the acid carefully and put into it the prussiate of potash until it no 
longer forms a blue precipitate ; let it settle, then drain it off, and heat the 
deposit which is oxyd of iron, to redness, and let it cool and weigh it. To 
ascertain the quantity of gypsum or plaster, put 100 grains of the dried 
earth into a crucible with one third the quantity of pulverized charcoal. 
Keep it in a red heat for half an hour more, filter it, and let it stand in an 
open glass dish for three or four days, and a white precipitate will be formed, 
which is plaster. Dry and weigh it to find the amount. These rules of 
analysis might be extended to the reduction of soils to their simple elements ; 
but as we proceed, the process becomes more and more intricate, and the 
results less useful to the farmer. What has already been said, will enable 
the farmer to form a general idea of the nature of the soil and its adapted- 
ness to procure crops. As I am not able to say all I wish in relation to deep 
ploughing and stirring the ground in dry weather, and the use of certain ma- 
nures, I shall reserve my remarks for a future article on these subjects. 



CULTIVATION OF COTTON IN ALGERIA. 

The Moniteur publishes a long report from the French Minister of War 
to the Emperor, on the cultivation of cotton in Algeria. It begins by saying 
that his Majesty, with the view of encouraging that cultivation, had deter- 
mined, by decrees of the 16th October, 1853, to give from his privy purse 
200,000f. a year, for five years, to the planter who might produce the largest 
and best crop of cotton. It then states that this measure has already pro- 
duced excellent results, inasmuch as in the course of last year, notwith- 
standing the unfavorable state of the weather, " the plantation cotton plants 
had assumed a large development," and that " Europeans and natives zealously 
rivalled each other in its cultivation." The Minister proceeds to give a 
report from the jury charged to examine the specimens of cotton sent to com- 
pete for the prize. After stating that the Arabs in the time of the Turks 
had cultivated cotton on a very small scale on the Tell, and still continue to 
do so in the neighborhood of the Collo, and after discussing at some length 
the different modes of cultivation — this report says, that in 1853 the cotton 
plantation covered about 530 hectares (the hectare is 2\ acres) and that in 
1854 they extended to 1720 hectares, exclusive of some made by the natives 
at Biskoa. In this total of 1720, the province of Algeria is down for 653 
hectares, that of Oran 802, and that of Constantina for 265. Eleven 
planters had presented themselves as competitors for the Emperor's prize, the 
extent of their plantations being rather more than 316 hectares. M, Mas- 
queher, Jr,, colonist of Saint Denis du Zig, in the province of Oran, and 
Si-ali-ben-Mohammed, caid of the circle of Guelma, were considered the best 
ex cequo. In consequence, the jury proposed that the prize should be divided 
equally between MM. Masquelier and Si-Ali, and that in addition each shall 
receive a gold medal. The Minister recommends his M.ijesty to sanction 
this award, and the Moniteur announces that the Emperor has done so. 



ECONOMIC CULTIVATION. 21 



We are inforraed that by order of the French Minister of War, 124 bales 
of cotton from Algeria, the produce of 1854, were sold publicly at Havre on 
the 12th of February, by Messrs Masquelier & Co. These cottons, gathered 
ill the provinces of Algiers, Oran, and Constantine, consist of 77 bales of 
long staple and 47 bales of short staple. 

The information forwarded to the French administration concerning these 
cottons (says the Monlteur) represents them as excellent in working quality, 
and beautiful to the sight. There is therefore no doubt of their being bought 
up by our cotton-spinners, who already gave such a welcome to the Alge- 
rine cottons of the last growth, with a view of showing their various uses in 
the raannfnctures at the Universal Exhibition. 

To help this useful manifestation, the War Department has taken measures 
for reserving a suitable place in the Algerine compartment of the Universal 
Exhibition for every article manufactured with Algerine cotton which our 
manufacturers may be willing to place at its disposal for this purpose. 



ECONOMIC CULTIVATION. 

We have repeatedly seated ourself With the intent of writing upon the best 
mode of cultivating the various crops, and almost as often have we actually 
had our attpntion turned to and written upon some other topic. The reason 
is this: No one, except the favored few who have all the means at command 
.needful in carrying out their plans of farm operations, can do half as well as 
they know liow to do. Their land is poor, and they have not the means of 
enriching it. Labor is dear, at least when measured by their means, and 
they can not afford to hire it, Tell a man that a pujse full of gold is only an 
inch beyond his utmost reach, and you do him no good but to excite feelings 
of discontent and envy, and even lead him to forego certain improvements 
which are within his reach, because they pay so little compared with what 
he is really anxious but unable to do. Poverty is a terrible burden, and 
nowhere is it felt more than among intelligent farmers. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, we would now urge this class of farm- 
ers, first, to expend their labor and their fertilizers upon a much smaller 
quantity of land than is usually done. Instead of planting five acres of corn, 
plant two, or one even ; and plough and cultivate this small field to the 
entire neglect, if need be, of other acres. If those lie fallow, it will be useful 
to the soil, and at least no money will be wasted on them. 

We say to such farmers, in the second place, you can do more than you 
have done in the preparation of various composts. There are very few farm- 
ers who can not double and treble the quantity and value of those necessary 
means of restoring vigor to worn-out and barren soils. By diminishing the 
extent of surface under cultivation, and by proper industry in preparing com- 
posts, there is scarcely a farm in the country that can not be made to pro- 
duce its sixty, and seventy, and eighty bushels of corn to the acre. And 
even thougrh one acre only is brought up to this desirable condition, a series 
of years will suffice to bring the whole farm to a high state of cultivation. 
If only small fields are made thus productive, the hopes and courage of the 
farmer will be thereby excited, and he will stand up manfully among men, 
and tell of his success as well as they. 



22 ECONOMIC CULTIVATION. 

We would NOT advise farmers ofL limited means to buy guano cor phos- 
phates at any thing like their present prices. Pay your poorer neighbor his 
six or eight shillings a day (if you can not exchange worlc with him) to help 
you collect leaves from the forest, mud from the meadow, carting the latter 
only after it is tolerably dry, peat or marl from the bog ; and if you can buy 
barn-yard manures, mix them with turfs, sods, roots, weeds, dirty straw, 
spoilt hay, chips that are unfit to burn ; and if you are conveniently situated 
for it, get sea-weeds from the sea-shore, oyster-shells, old bones, horns, etc., 
etc. Dead animals are of great value. The offal from a slaughter-house, 
worthless scraps of hides, bones, etc., etc., should be used only with large 
quantities of common soil, or of some other solvent. Not one in a hundred 
turns to the best account the contents of privies, hog-pens, soap-suds, and 
other kinds of waste. 

Pardon us for asking why will you tax yourselves so severely by neglect- 
ing any of these modes of improving your lands ? It may be only such 
neglect that keeps you in poverty ; and though you enter upon the work 
with many painful doubts in relation to the result, we will assure you against 
loss from any such operations, it" conducted with tolerable discretion. 

Now is the time to commence this system of operation for the next year. 
On every leisure day, let the time be occupied in these preparatory labors. 
Every hour thus spent is worth something, and will tend to fill your purse at 
the time of harvest. 

Almost all farmers sadly neglect their barn-yard manures. Were these 
properly cared for, their value, as a whole, would be more than doubled. 

Having thus suggested the means by which manures may be provided, the 
next inquiry is, how and where shall they be used ? Perhaps we are unable 
to give the information that many would desire, for reasons suggested in the 
last number. Perhaps you have an enclosure that for many years produced 
very large crops, and you just looked on and watched your opportunity to 
take from it the most you could get, returning nothing to it. It may be 
that it is sa situated that it is almost able to take care of itself, like much of 
the interval on the Connecticut, which is annually enriched by being over- 
flowed. If this is so, we should labor to hasten this process of improvement, 
and should do all in our power to get this soil back into the condition of 
a fertile field. When this is accomplished, take the next promising lot, leav- 
ing the more desperate cases to the last. When you plough your clayey 
grounds, fill in, without stint, a sandy compost. If the field is sandy, plough 
in a clay compost. This need not be a costly job, but generally is practica- 
ble for the poorest farmer. If you have a boggy meadow, a thorough ditch- 
ing will be a part of the process necessary in reclaiming it, while the mate- 
rial thus thrown out is exactly what some other soil most needs. Compen- 
sations are not found only in the structures of animals, but they occur in 
almost every farm the world over. 



Receipt for Making Liquid Opodeldoc. — Take two quarts of proof 
whiskey, or other proof spirits, warm it over coals, being careful to prevent a 
blaze. Dissolve in it a pint of soap ; when cold, put it in a bottle and one 
ounce of camphor. It is then ready for use. This is an excellent remedy 
for sprains or bruises, and should be kept by every owner of horses. — 7%>e- 
^anoe Farmer. 



CORN — ITS CULTURE, ETC. 



23 



CORN— ITS CULTURE, VARIETIES, AND PROPERTIES. 

Different varieties are to be preferred for different uses, and under differ- 
ent circumstances. That best suited for the table will not be the best for 
general cultivation, nor is that which makes the best bread the most efficient 
in fattening animals. The principal varieties cultivated in the United States 
are given in the N. Y. State Agricultural Society's Report for 1853, from 
which we make the following abstract. 

THE YELLOW VARIETIES. 

1. Golden Sioux or Northern Flint corn, derived from the Sioux Indians 
in Canada; 130 bushels have been raised to the acre. 

2. King Philip or Eight-Rowed Yellow corn, named after the celebrated 
chief of the Wampanoags. A hardy plant, grows about 9 feet high, stalks 
small, ears 10 to 14 inches in length. 

3. Canada ^corn or Eighteen-Rovved Yellow, smaller, earlier, and more 
solid than the preceding, contains more oil than any other variety, except the 
Rice corn and the Pop corn ; is highly valuable for fattening, and is grown 
in many gardens for early boiling or roasting. 

4. Button corn ; first brought into notice in 1818, by Mr. Salmon Dutton, 
of Vermont ; ears from 8 to 12 inches long, 12 to 18 rows, large cob ; yields, 
with good culture, from 100 to 120 bushels per acre. 

5. Southern Big Yellow Corn. The cob is thick and long, grains much 
wider than deep, and the rows unite with eacb other ; their sides fall off 
almost to a point. The grains contain less oil and more starch than the 
northern flint corn, comes to maturity late, yields abundantly ; much used 
for fattening. 

G. Southern Small Yellow Corn. Ears more slender, and shorter than the 
preceding ; grains smaller ; less productive, but ripens earher ; abounds 
in oil. 

■WHITE CORN. 

1. Rhode-Island White Flint Corn. Grains about the size and shape of 
the Tuscarora, abounds in a transparent, colorless oil, which may be easily 
seen through their clear, pellucid hulls. The farinaceous parts of the grain 
are white. The flour or meal is more substantial and less liable to ferment 
and become sour. 

2. Southern Little White Flint Co^-n. The kernels are smaller than the 
preceding, and resemble them in shape, but are more firm and solid ; con- 
tain more oil, cob smaller in proportion to the size of the ears, but the yield 
is less abundant. 

3. Dutton White Flint Corn. This does not differ materially from the 
Yellow Dutton, except in color. 

4. Early Canadian White Flint Corn. Cultivated principally for boiling 
and roasting when green. 

5. Tuscarora Corn. Obtained from the Tuscarora Indians in the State of 
New-York. Ears contain from twelve to sixteen rows, grains nearly as deep 
as broad, of a dead whitish color on the extreme end, composed entirely 
within of pure white dextrine and starch, except the germs. It contains nei- 



24 ' CORN — ITS CULTURE, ETC. 

ther gluten nor oil. It is softer and better food for horses than the flinty- 
kinds, and is excellent for boiling when green. 

6. White Flint Corn. Ears contain twelve rows, of rather wliite, round- 
ish, thick grains, which are filled with a snowy white flour, composed chiefly 
of starch, with neither ghxten nor oil. It is extensively mixed with buck- 
wheat, particularly in New-Jersey. Its properties resemble the preceding 
variety. 

7. Virginia White Gourd-Seed Corn. Ears not very long, contain from 
twenty-four to thirty-six rows of very long and very narrow grains, so soft 
and open in texture that they will not bear transportation by sea, without 
being kiln-dried. Grains at the extreme end are almost flat, and grow so 
closely together from the cob to the surface that they produce a greater yield 
than any other variety in proportion to the size of the ears. They contain 
more starch, and less gluten and oil than those of the flint kinds, and from 
their softness are better feed for horses. When crossed with other grains, a 
small indention is seen in the ends of the grains when perfectly dry. It 
matures late. 

8. Early sweet corn. One kind of this corn has a red cob, and another 
kind a white cob. Ears are short, usually contain eight rows ; grains, when 
mature, are of a light color, and become shrivelled. It contains a large pro- 
portion of the phosphates, considerable sugar and gum, and but little starch. 
It is extensively cultivated for culinary purposes. The Shakers prepare it by 
boiling and scalding when green, separating it from the cob, and kiln-drying 
for winter use. It is also preserved in cans hermetically sealed. 

9. Rice Corn. A small variety, with small conical ears, the grains termi- 
nating in sharp points, which give it the appearance of a bur. It contains 
more oil, and less starch than any other kinds. Is excellent for poultry, 
from its oily nature. 

10. Pearl Corn or Pop Corn. Ears -small, grains roimd, of various shades 
of color; contains more oil and less starch than any other variety. It forms 
an excellent dish when hulled and boiled. 

11. Chinese Tree Corn. This was introduced by Grant Thorburn, " twelve 
or fifteen years ago," a kernel being found in a chest of tea. It is a pure 
white variety, ear about ten inches long, ten rows, grains very closely set, 
long and wedge form, well filled to the end of the cob, some of the grains 
slightly indented. The ears grow on the end of the branches. It is said to 
yield one fourth or one third more than the common varieties. It is better 
flavored when ground than other white corn, and is excellent for hominy, 
samp, etc. Generally two ears on a stalk, and often three. 

The varieties of corn are very numerous, though but few of them are 
extensively cultivated in this section of country. 

Sweet corn contains the greatest amount of the phosphates, and of course 
requires more of these elements in the soil. It, in fact, consumes nearly dou- 
ble the quantity consumed by some other varieties. It also contains more 
sugar and inore gum than the yellow corn, though it has only a small quan- 
tity of starch. 

Rico corn contains but little starch, while it yields the greatest quantity 
of oil. 

Southern corn contains more starch than the northern. 

Pop corn contains but little starch. 

According to Prof. Sali&bury, Ohio dent corn contains the greatest quan- 
tity of sugar and starch, and small 8-rowed corn, of gluten, and also of oil, 
and of albumen. Buell's Dutton corn contains the greatest proportion of 



CORN — ITS CULTUEE, ETC. 



25 



water. The same learned Professor found in the variety called Turkey 
wheat 5.32 p?r cent of oil. 

According to Goukl, if Square corn is worth fifty cents a bushel for fatten- 
ing properties, Flint corn shouM he estimated at 58 cents. The Tuscarora 
corn contains but very little oil, an important element fur producing fat, but 
of little worth in making bread. This variety is valuable in the raanufticture 
of starch. 

Gluten is essential in tbe production of muscle, and hence, for working 
animals, the Yellow Northern corn is • preferable to the Southern, which 
abounds more in starch. 

Of twenty-seven varieties examined by Prof. Salisbury, the Rhode-Island 
Sweet corn was found to be richest in albumen and oil, and must deficient in 
starch. 

Prof. Salisbury found the White Flint corn to consist as follows : 



Silica, - - - - 9.50 


Potash, . - - - 


23.92 


Alkaline and earthy phos- 


Soda, - - - - 


22.59 


phates, - - - 35.5 


Chlorine, - - 


0.405 


Lime, - - - - 0.16 


Sulphuric acid, 


4.385 


Magnesia, - - - 2:41 


Organic matter. 


0.367 


Prof. Shepherd gives the analysis of Southern corn as follows : 




Silica, - - - - 38.45 


Carbonate of lime, - 


2.60 


Potash, - - - 19.51 


" magnesia. 


2.16 


Phosphate of lime, - - lY.17 


Sulphate of lime and magnesia, 0.79 


" magnesia, 13.83 


Silica mechanically formed. 


1.70 


" potash, - 2.24 


Alumina and loss, 


1.65 



In making mush, yellow corn absorbs water more freely than the white, 
the difi"erence being about one in seven. The yellow meal gives less bran 
when sifced, than does the white, by about one twentieth. 

The yellow is harder, drier, keeps more easily, and weighs more per bushel 
than the white, and produces a greater quantity by weight to the acre. 

Sixteen gallons of oil are extracted from one hundred bushels of corn. By 
this process it loses in fattening capability, but, when used in bread, is more 
easily digested. 

Northern corn grows well at the South, but Southern corn will not gene- 
rally ripen well at the North. This is in accordance with the general rule of 
vegetation. Trees for ornament or for fruit may be profitably moved south- 
wardly, but seldom flourish if carried towards) the north. 

Corn should be planted at a depth of about one inch. An experiment is 
described as having been made in Connecticut, in which the corn was 
covered at a depth of three inches. It came up and grew well at first, but 
soon ceased to grow for a while. It was discovered that new roots had been 
formed near the surface, and all below these had peiished. Tbe more shal- 
low the covering the better, provided the grain is not thereby so exposed to 
the heat of the sun as to dry and harden, when it ought to swell and soften 
as a pre-requisite to germination. It will not vegetate at a higher tempera- 
ture than 110° Fahrenheit, nor below 55''. 

The soil should be deep and mellow. It may be sown or planted in con- 
nection with ashes, plaster, or prepared bones. It may be sown in drills or 
planted in hills. If intended for green fodder, drills are most expedient. If 



26 THE OSAGE ORANGE. 



in hills, allow four stalks to each. If in drills, they may be single, double, 
or treble. If the first, they should be 3|- feet apart ; if double or treble, 
plant so as to form lines diagonally as well as longitudinally. Thus : 

or thus : ..... 

the rows being 6 inches apart, the plants 9 inches, and the centre of the drills 
3 feet. 

If corn is planted in hills by securing regular rows in different directions, 
the cultivator may be run through in different directions, and hand labor 
thus be saved. If planted by hand, the rows may be marked off by a marker 
or a very coarse hay-rake, having the teeth at the distance required for the 
rows. 

If the stalks are to be taken into the account, it is found that the stalks of 
the small Northern corn contain more desirable and palatable food than the 
lai'ge Southern. On analysis, they render a larger proportion of sugir. 

In the fattening qualities of the various species, there is also a difference, 
although experiments on this point are not so numerous as to be received as 
authoritative. It is unquestionably true, however, that corn should be cooked, 
before it is given to animals. From some experiments it appears that three 
bushels of meal cooked are equal to four and a half of hard corn. This gives 
a result in value as follows : If fed raw, a bushel of corn, when made into 
pork, is worth only 38^ cents ; if cooked, it is worth 55 cents. But we have 
often expressed our belief that all such experiments should be "received with 
great caution. No one experiment of this sort can be relied upon for general 
application. Hundreds ought to be made and compared before any great 
confidence can be placed upon them. 

Corn is rich in phosphates, as already suggested, and hence it is that great 
caution is necessary in feeding it to animals, and especially to horses. These 
salts are chiefly appropriated by the bones and a too free use of them pro- 
duces disease in and about the joints. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE L00», AND THE AKVIL. 

THE OSAGE ORANGE. 



Mr. Editor: Almost everything that pertains to the interest of the farm- 
ing community is spoken of in your journal, such as the best mode of obtain- 
ing the largest and most profitable crops, the best kinds of cattle, swine, 
horses, and poultry, etc., the best kinds of ploughs, harrows, cultivators, and 
finally, all kinds of farming tools, the draining of swamp lands, etc. If I 
mistake not, your correspondents have never said a word about hedging with 
the osagc orange or any other mode of fencing without rails or boards. 
The great and general study of the prairie farmer is to contrive how to fence 
his land upon the large prairies. If some of your correspondents who have 
tried the osage, would give their mode of culture, and circulate it through 
your journal, it would be a great pleasure to many of us here in this prairie 
country. L. S. Sfencer. 

lA/nn, Warren Co., Iowa: 



MEXICAN GUANO. 27 



FOR THB PLOUGH, THB LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

( 

A GIRDLED TREE STILL GROWING. 

Mr. Editor : Will you, or some of your correspondents, give me an 
explanation of tlie following ? 

In my orchard is an apple-tree, the body of which is about three inches 
in diameter. Two years ago I took off most of the top, and inserted scions 
of other fruit. Last spring, 1854, I found the mice had girdled the stem, 
entirely removing the bark for at least five inches. I placed earth about the 
exposed portion, and left it to die. I find now. May, 1855, that the tree 
seems to be vigorous, that it made the usual quantity of wood last season, 
and that it promises to bear fruit this. The wood from which the baik was 
removed is dry, and apparently dead. No roots have shot out from the bark 
above. 

Nbw the query is, How does the tree obtain nourishment ? The sap does 
not pass up through the bark, nor through that portion of the wood called 
the sap, for it is dry and apparently lifeless. Can it pass through the heart 
of the stem ? If not, it must derive its nourishment solely from the atmos- 
phere, through the leaves. That it will continue to live, I do not expect ; 
but how has it lived and thrived thus far, that is the question ? 

Now, that I may give as much as I receive, suffer a word of exhortation 
about young trees. Now is the time especially to look after and care for 
your fiuit-trees. The caterpillars should be stirred up with a long pole, 
or some other instrument of torture, I go for persecuting the " varmints." 
I think intolerance may better be expended upon these pests than upon 
foreigners of our own species. 

He who has but few trees can easily keep them clean. He who has many 
can still better afford it. 

Young trees should be washed at least twice during the season. First, let 
the scraper pass around with his saw and pruning-knife, removing a'l moss, 
dead bark, suckers, and limbs which interlace or injure others. Then let a 
wash of soft soap and water, about one pint to a pailful, be applied with a 
sponge, and the work is done. A few dry ashes about the roots will annoy 
the insects, and promote the growth of the tree. R, B. H. 



MEXICAN GUANO. 

The opinions of Dr. Jackson and Dr. Hayes, of Massachusetts, given below 
in respect to the subject of our title, coincides exactly with what we have 
many times stated to friends who have made personal inquiry of us in rela- 
tion to it. The extract is taken from a Boston exchange : 

" Dr. A. A, Hayes, State Assayer, said the resources for suj^plying the 
waste incident to culture, are not abundant. We have not the seasonable 
rains of Englanrl, and can not draw our rules from the method. Lands do 
not run out. They have not time to recuperate the soil by me^ns of decom- 
posing rocks. The time is too short, unless we make up the supply by arti- 
ficial means. 



28 SAFFRON. 



There is a new variety of guano found on the Bird Islands, on the Atlan- 
tic side of South America. The proportion of phosphate of lime in this is 
very large, 60 per cent of the whole. 

He had no confidence in the ammoniacal contents of Peruvian guano. 
This guano from the Atlantic side furnishes a much larger quantity of phos- 
phate than the Peruvian, 

No manure can compare with barn-yard manure, weight for weight, in 
equal states of dryness. 

This guano, used in compost, oifevs a resource long needed. It may be 
used by sowing it upon the snow and allowing it to find its place. 

Dr. C. T. Jackson, of Boston, said he had some practical knowledge of this 
new kind of guano. It is rich in phosphates. Some specimens contain am- 
monia. 

The action of manures is quickened by rendering them soluble; but if 
they are made soluble too suddenly they are washed away. ^ 

Nature disengages potash slowly from feldspar. We must learn a lesson 
from this. Leached ashes are about as good as guano. Ashes is what we 
know as once the saline matter of plants. 

Leached ashes operate almost as favorably as unleacbed ashes. There is 
a large proportion of phosphates and silicates in them. He was surprised to 
see fish neglected and thrown away in so many places. Dr. Hare had a 
method of dipping fish into a mixture of sulphuric acid and water. There 
was no smell from them, and when dry he would grind them up, and make 
a guano, without depending on the birds. 

He would put on guano both ways ; would plough in a part and harrow 
in a part. Barn-yard manure retains moisture. If the season is moist, the 
use of guano is of more avail. This may account for some of the discrepancy 
in the reports about the use of guano. 

He would join his ffiend. Dr. Hayes, in recommending this Mexican guano 
to be put in compost." 



FOR THE PLOron, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

SAFFRON. 

This article comes to us from the East. It is highly prized in Europe. I 
remember that, in my youth, saffron was very dear in Poland, a pound cost- 
ing ninety francs, or sixteen dollars. But industrious France engaged in this 
trade, and commenced the cultivation of this plant: and throughout the 
environs of Pithivier, in the department of Loirret, whence it was sent into 
Poland and was sold for that of the East, although it- had less strength, on 
account of the cheapness of the price for which it was sold. 

In 1834, in France, I examined the mode in which this wfis cultivated, 
and here note the results which I then obtained. 

Saffron is that portion of the corolla termed the ray, and is cultivated by 
transplanting the tuber. It requires an argillacious, marly soil, and shoiild 
be cultivated without being manured. The tubers are planted at a distance of 
ten fingers, and three fingers in depth. They produce a stem which after two 
months produces a flower, and of the ray petals of this flower the saftVon con- 
sists. The petals are plucked and are collected in a sieve, and then dried in 



THE SEASON, CROPS, PRICE OF PRODUCE, ETC. 29 

the shade, as the rays of the sun dissipate their strength. After the saffron 
is gatherel, the stems are dug up without breaking thera. The vines are 
then cleaned and preserved for the next year. They should be kept in a dry 
and warm place where there is no odor. 

After the saffron is gathered, the flower and stems are cut off near the 
ground, and the plant is left to vegetate until the next year, without any 
other care than that of keeping it free from weeds ; and it will produce a 
crop in the second year, and even in the third, as good as in the first. 

Saffron should be planted in April, and the harvesting is in September. 
The land used for this plant, after three years, should be cultivated with 
other crops for six years. 

The petals of the flower should be dried by being spread upon a table 
covered with a white cloth. 

The saffron of Franca was sold in 1828 at forty francs, or eight dollars, a 
pound. In 1850, when the product was very much increased, it was not 
worth more than twenty-five francs, or five dollars, a pound. It is inferior to 
that from the East, but has the same properties. 

I have seen and examined the saffron produced in the State of New-York. 
It is deficient in sweetness and in odor, compared with the French. This 
difference is probably the result of a different kind of cultivation. 

Saniewski Felix. 

[The above was translated from the French manuscript by the editor.] 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

THE SEASON CROPS, PRICE OF PRODUCE, ETC. 

Messrs. Editors : The winter commenced witb a heavy snow-storm on the 
3d of December, which fell about two feet deep, and made beautiful sleigh- 
ing till the last days of the month. From about the 26th of December till 
the 12th of January, the ground was generally bare, when the snow again 
fell. February was the coldest, stormiest February since my memory. From 
my record I find, Feb. 6th, mercury down 22 degrees below zero, and the 
snow about two feet deep. March was an uncommonly cold, stormy month, 
and the first week in April nearly as cold as mid-winter. The weather 
moderated toward the middle, with uncommon hard showers. May came 
cold and wet, and remained so till about the 18th, when it became dry, and 
seriously dry, till the last of the month, with a frost about every other night, 
but not hard enough to do much damage. June came in cold, with a fine 
rain on the 2d and 3d ; and now, Jim e the 6th, there is au appearance of a 
great storm, with weather rather cold for this season. 

From the great amount of sleighing, the farmers and lumbermen had a 
fine chance to draw their produce to market, and to get in a larger stock of 
logs than any year for ten years previous. Every mill is crowded. The 
price of lumber down the Susquehanna is lower than last year, namely, $12 
per thousand, or $2 lower than last year. Hemlock lumber from $3 to $4 
lower, namely, from $5 to $6 per thousand. Shingles, good, Sl8 per thou- 
sand ; and square timber worth not enough to pay for running, although 
mare run than ever before in one year. 

Of the crops, wheat and rye are generally fine, so far. Rye is very promis- 



80 PAINT FOR HOUSES. 



ing. Of winter wheat, there was but little sown, in consequence of the 
ravages of the wheat-fly last year. A few fields of oats and barley begin to 
appear, and look well ; but a majority of oats is only now up, in consequence 
of .the cold, dry weather last month. A large amount of oats sown. Corn 
is generally up, with the exception of a few fields on the high hills; and, 
considering the season, it appears well, and an unusually large quantity is 
planted. In consequence of the very high price of grain for the last year, 
there has been an uncommon amount of grain put in the ground. A few 
meadows and pastures are good, but many are injured by the late dry, cold 
weather, and a large amount of grass-seed did not come up last year. We 
find it is useless to sow clover, except in very dry ground, on the account of 
its freezing out in winter. 

I have reason to believe that cattle and produce are dearer and scarcer 
than before in twelve years. Wheat at $2.50, but no more for sale ; rye, 
$1.25 ; corn, from $1.25 to $1.50 ; oats, from Go to 70 cts ; potatoes, from 
75 to 87 cts — have been $1, and now rising again ; hay, from |12 to $20 
per ton ; butter, from 18 to 22 cts. per pound; common working oxen, per 
yoke, from $125 to $150, and common horses $150 per head ; cows, from 
$25 to $40 per head. R. Howell. 

Niclwls, Tioga Co., N. Y., June 6th, 1855. 



PAINT FOR HOUSES. 

We recently published a few directions on this subject, which seemed to 
us important. One who seems to be versed in the subject, as a practical 
painter, makes other suggestions, in the Indiana Farmer .^ which we are dis- 
posed to indorse. He says : " It is not easy matter for some painters who 
pretend to considerable experience in their art, to paint the interior of a house 
in a proper manner. White lead and oil, mixed as for outside use, will dry, 
it is true, and preserve the wood-work ; but before three months, the paint 
will become almost yellow, and have exactly the appearance of being smoked. 
This is not the case with external painting, because the light and air bleach 
the paint precisely as it does linen or cotton cloth when exposed in a similar 
way. 

To paint white in the interior of a house, very little linseed oil should be 
used, except what the white lead was at first ground in. Spirits of turpen- 
tine should be the principal fluid used to n ix the paint, Japan being added 
in small quantity as a dryer. The first coat, or " priming," should be mixed 
with linseed oil alone, being well rubbed down when dry, with sand paper. 
Two coats should afterwards be put on with the turpentine alone, the last 
coat being rather the thickest. 

To make a very handsome white finish, for parlors and other nice rooms, 
after putting the paint on very carefully, Gum Demar varnish should be put 
on over all. This makes a beautiful gloss, and keeps the paint of a brilliant 
white all the lime. Should the paint become dirty, it can be washed olf as 
easily as a pane of glass, using nothing but warm water, as strong soap 
destroys the varnish. Every house-builder desiring a permanent, brilliant 
white finl-h to his rooms, should use this varnish. It answers a very good 
purpose to mix it in with the last coat of paint, making a much handsomer 



MODE OF RAISING CALVES, 31 

finish than when not used at all, but much the best way is to give the entire 
work a coat of the varnish after the painting is finished and partially dry. 

Kitchens should be painted a light slate or lead color, made by mixing a 
small quantity of lampblack with the white lead; particularly the doors, 
mantel-pieces, and wash-boards. The floors of porches and kitchens may be 
painted with the same material, or they will look pleasant and cheerful if 
yellow ochre is used, ground up with linseed oil and Japan. 

In putting on green paint, slate color should first be used as a priming, 
two coats of the green being added afterwards. Paris green makes the 
brightest color, and must be carefully ground in oil, adding Japan as a dryer. 
Chrome green makes the deepest and must permanent color, and white lead ia 
used to temper the paint to the proper hue. — Ohio Farmer and Horticulturist. 



MODE OF RAISING CALVES. 

We doubt very much whether any artificial process can be as successful as 
that designed by the Author of nature. Our wisdom is not wise enough, in 
our judgment, to criticise Omniscience. But sometimes, for specific purposes, 
the second-best mode is then and there desirable. We have made this sug- 
gestion elsewhere, in reference to the treatment of trees and other vegetable 
growths, and would apply it here to the subject of our title. Still we can 
conceive that in certain cases the advice of a correspondent of the Country 
Gentleman may be worthy of attention. He says : 

" Among all the various ways for raising calves, described by your correspond- 
ents, there seems to be none adapted to the wants of the cheese dairy-man. The 
farmer keeping thirty-two cows, should be able to raise some half-dozen calves 
annually from the best milkers in his herd, to supply the place of those failing 
from old age and casualities of various kindi, and to improve his dairy stock at 
a cost somewhere near the value of the animal when matured. The idea of 
raising stock to supply our wants by feeding calves for three or four months 
on new milk, either from the pail or at the teat, is to say the least, sim.j^ly 
abmrd. One gallon of milk makes a pound of cheese worth to the producer 
ten cents, or the same value if made into butter. A calf requires two gallons 
per day, equal to twenty cents. Three weeks' feed at this rate amounts to 
as much as the calf may be expected to bring at four months age. There is 
then a loss of twenty cents per day for the remaining two or three months 
that they are fed, amounting to a loss of at least eight dollars each the first 
season. In a butter dairy the skim or sour milk may be fed perhaps. Un- 
less there is some cheaper method to be practised, we can never render our 
city heef-eaters any relief. 

My method is as follows, and calves may and have been raised by it that 
were very far above the average, even of good lots, at four months. Take 
the calf from the cow at three days old, and learn it to diink ; it will learn 
far easier then, than at any time after; feed new milk twice a day for two 
weeks, and once a day one week longer. At two weeks begin feeding once 
a day, and in a week more twice a da)% porridge, made of three to four 
quarts of sweet whey and one pint of meal, of a mixture in nearly equal 
parts of oats, buckwheat, corn, and rye. Cook as if for one of the 



82 



GRAIN" AND GRASS SEED HEADER AND HARVESTER. 



human family. The cost of one quart of this meal, (daily mess for each) 
may bo three cents, which is all the value they consunie, the whey being 
of too little value to make any account of. Give this feed four months, 
and continue the whey a month longer, always with a good bite of 
grass, tender and sweet, and no fears need be entertained for the result. 
The first winter give warm shelter, good hay, and one pint of oats each, daily; 
and my word for it, you will never be ashamed to have a neighbor call and 
look at your young stock." 



GRAIN" AND GRASS SEED HEADER AND HARVESTER. 




We have seen a working model of this useful machine, invented by Mr. 
T. S. Steadman, of Holley, N. Y., in the possession of our neighbor of the 
Genesee Farmer^ and were exceedingly pleased with its operation. The en- 
graving well represents its appearance. 

"It is drawn by one horse, which walks outside of the part of the field in- 
tended to be harvested. Turning continually to the right, it cuts equally as 
well when turning a corner as when going straight ahead. The seed heads 
are gathered by the comb, cut off by the revolving knives, and by a self-rak- 
ing apparatus attached, thrown to the rear end of the box. By detaching the 
intermediate gearing wheel, it is immediately converted into a three-wheeled 
wagon and can be driven wherever wished. By pressing down one or both 
of the levers shown on the rear end of the box, one or both sides of the comb 
and cutter may be lowered or elevated at pleasure. The peculiarity of the 
machine is that it cuts and saves only the heads of the grain or seed, and by 
an extra pair of wheels, it can be applied to the gathering and harvesting of 
any kind of grain or grass seed. It will cut from eight to twelve acres per 
day with ease. All the bolts in tlie machine are in sight with but one ex- 
ception, and any common blacksmith or mechanic can repair it, if by acci- 
dent it should get out of order." 



IMPROVED IIJLY FORK. 



33 



IMPROVED HAY FORK. 




From the same source as the preceding, we have obtained an engraving 
of this eflScient implement, the description being taken from the American 
Farmer. In that journal Mr.- Edward Stabler, a correspondent, says : 

" We have had it in use several years, and, as now improved in the mode 
of discharging the hay, I consider it not only a labor-saving, but also a time- 
saving machine. 

" As originally made, (for the plan of which I was indebted to a friend in 
New-Jersey,) the rope was fastened to the ujiper end of the handle ; and 
although the hay was raised equally well, it was found tedious and laborious 
to work the trip cord ; and very difficult, if not impracticable, to discharge 
the hay when and where desired on the mow. In this way its operation was 
not at all satisfactory. 

" By attaching the rope to the handle, six or eight inches from the head 
piece, instead of the upper end, and passing it along the handle, under the 
trigger, at this point a slight jerk of the trip cord held by the man on the 
wagon, instantly changes the fulcrum — of course the position of the fork — 
and th.', hay falls. The trip cord also serves to pull back the foik to the wagon. 

" I am thus particular in describing both fixtures, as many inquiries have 



34 CHEAP COMPOST FOR CORN. 

been made, and perhaps by some who use the original plan. A mere trifle 
in co.«t will add the improvement, and, as I think, nearly double its value. 

" The ' tackle ' is attached to the peak of the rafters, and directly over the 
centre of the hay mow ; the fall rope passes under and near the rafter, to a 
guide pulley fastened to the upper end of the door post, down by the side of 
the post to within a foot of the floor, and through another guide pulley; to 
this end of the rope is attached a swingle- tree, or hook, as may be most con- 
venient in working a horse or yoke of oxen. 

" If properly managed, the fork will readily raise froin*four to six hun/lred 
weight of hay at a time (while a hand fork is moving the tenth part of it, 
perhaps ;) and when high eneugh the horse stops. A band or two on the 
mow with forks, sway it backwards and forwards, to give an impulse in the 
desired direction, when the trip cord, by the strength of a finger, throws it 
instantly in a compact layer, as taken from the wagon. Considerably more 
hay can thus be mowed in a given space, with comparatively little manual 
labor, fewer hands, and in a third or fourth of the time. 

Very respectfully, Edward Stabler. 

" Head of tough scantling, 3^ by 4 inches, 3 feet 3 inches long, with bands 
at ends. 

"Handle 3-^ by 4 inches, 3 feet long, inserted at right angles, and braced 
with 3 iron plates -J by 1|- inches. 

" Steel prongs |- inches square at shoulder, set angularly in the head, and 
tapered to the point, 22 inches long clear of head, with screws and nuts at 
back end. 

*' As the handle does not raise vertically, the prongs should curve upwards 
considerably, so as to resist the hay. 

"The trigger is very simple — an iron pm ^ inch diameter, bent at right 
angles, one end driven into the handle, projecti||g an inch, and ranging down 
the handle about 2|- inches. A curved iron strap with an eye, and confined 
at the opposite side by a small staple, passes over the rope, and the other end 
bent parallel with the pin ; a small ring attached to the trip cord slips over 
both ; the tension of the rope while hoisting, eflfectually fastens it, until the 
cord pulls off the ring." 



CHEAP COMPOST FOR "CORN. 

Having received the credit for two years past, of having as good corn as 
any in our neighborhood, and attributing our success mainly to the use of a 
single handful of cheap compost, dropped in each hill before planting the corn, 
we give you a statement as to how we form it. 

Supposing a load to contain twenty-five bushels, we take two loads of 
muck manure from our hog-yard, one load of wood-ashes, and three bushels 
plaster Paris. Work the parts thoroughly together with a hoe or shovel. 
Our corn-ground having received a coating of manure before being ploughed, 
the harrow follows the plough lengthwise of the furrows until the surface is 
well pulverized. We mark one way fqi- the hills with the shallow furrow of 
the plough, and then draw a chain the other way, which shows the place for each 
bill. The compost gives the corn a good start, and the manure helps it out 
We have also, for the last two or three years past, soaked our seed-corn in a 
strong solution of tobaeco-water, and have not been troubled much with 
worms. Let it remain in the solution from twelve to twenty-four hours. 
— Country Gentleman. 



FAEINA. 35 



TRAPPING GRUBS AND CUTWORMS. 

The following uovel method of getting rid of these occupants of a corn- 
field, was adopted by a correspondent of the Michigan Farmer : 

He planted his corn on a clover sod plowed in in spring. While planting 
he found plenty of the small grubs. The corn was planted about the 20th 
of May, and as soon as it came up they commenced their mischief. Knowing 
no reliable or certain way of saving the corn, he concluded to trap them. 
For this purpose he took a round stick three or four feet long, and about 
twoJnches in diameter, and, making one end sharp, and taking two rows at 
a time, he made from two to four holes, four or five inches deep, in or close 
by every hill. After fixing several rows in this way, he waited to see the 
result. On examination, he found that almost every hole had one' or more 
worms in it. In one hole he counted as many as six. He then went over 
the whole field in the same way, and the result was that hardly a hill of corn 
was destroyed after the holes were made, while his neighbor's corn just over 
the fence, which was on ground plowed very early, was more than half cut 
ofi' with the worms. " It might be supposed," says C. Q., " that when the 
fellows fell into the traps, they would bore into the side and escape ; but on 
watching them I found they would try to climb up the side, but the sides 
being smooth they always fell back again, when about twenty-four hours of 
sunshine and starvation would put an end to them. They usually commit 
their depredations in the night, and while crawling around to fiadjthe corn 
they tumble in." An additional recommendation of this method is, that the 
birds will not pull up the corn, when they find plenty of gruh already pro- 
vided for them. 



FARINA. 

The following account of the manufacture of Farina is from Warren's 
" Para on the Amazon." It should be remarked that the article so much in 
use in this country as an article of food, under the name of " Hecker's Farina," 
is not the Farina of South-America, but is manufactured from wheat : ^ 

" The vegetable (Jatreph amanihot) from which the farina is made, is, in 
its natural state, considered quite poisonous, and is entirely unfit for the pur- 
pose of nutrition. The means, therefore, by which its pernicious qualities are 
expelled, and the nutritious principle retained, must be always regarded as a 
most extraordinary and valuable discovery. 

The plant is a native of Brazil, and was known to the natives on their first 
intercourse with white men. No other vegetable, not even wheat, possesses 
an equal degree of nutriment, and, together with bananas and wild meat, 
constitutes the principal item of the native Brazilian's bill of fare. The 
farina is made from the root, which is first rasped with a piece of indented 
wood, until it is reduced to pulpy consistence. The juice is then eflfectually 
expressed in the following singular manner : Large circular baskets of plaited 
rushes are filled with the raspiiags of the mandioca root, and then suspended 
from the branches of the trees. By means of a considerable weight of stones 
fastened beneath, the rushes are drawn tightly together, and most of the 



COST OF RAISING WHEAT, CORN, ETC. 



liquid squeezed out. After this, the pulpy substance is exposed on skins to the- 
rays of the sun, for the purpose of evaporating all tbe remaining moisture. 

The juice being at length entirely expressed, the pulp is placed on large 
earthenware pans, and stirred over a hot fire until it granulates; it is then 
put up in baskets for use." 



COST OF RAISING WHEAT, CORN, ETC. 

The next volume of the New-York Agricultural Transactions will contain 
a detailed farm account of Mr. William Johnson, near Geneva, from which we 
gather the following interesting items in regard to the cost of raising 
different crops the last season. His statement is published in the Journal of 
the State Society for the present month, and shows very creditably the 
order and method of Mr. J.'s agricultural operations. 

The farm contains eight acres of tillable land divided into nine lots, num- 
bered from one upwards, and accurate account kept vi'ith each. The soil is 
a dry loam, with a clay subsoil, pretty uniform throughout the farm. Each 
crop is charged with the interest on the value of the land producing it, and 
with all the labor and material used in its production. Of wheat six acres 
was sown, the whole expense was $122.40 ; the product was 126 bushels or 
21 bushels per acre ; this makes its cost per bushel a trifle over 97 cents. 
But deducting the value of the straw, estimated at $18, we make the cost of 
the wheat but 83 cents per bushel. It was sold at $1.81, leaving a fair 
margin for profit at either figures. But at the price of wheat for many years 
past the profit would have been little or nothing. 

Eight acres of barley cost $102.20 and produced 284 bushels, or 35^ 
bushels per acre. It cost very nearly 37 cents, and sold for $1.00 per bushel. 
This produced a greater per cent of profit than the wheat, as we believe it 
generally has, for a series of years. 

Ten acres of corn, on clover sod, cost $153.26. The product was 410 
bushels of corn, and $60 worth of corn stalks. Mr. Johnson states the cost 
of raising the corn at 37^ cents per bushel, but if we deduct the value of 
the stalks from the whole expense, it makes the cost of the corn but 22f 
cents per bushel. We should be glad of some explanation from Mr. J. on 
this point, as the value of the stalks and straw may have been allowed to 
balance some part of the expenses not indicated. 

Ten cows are kept upon the farm, yielding an average of 210 pounds of 
butter each. Mr. J. estimates the product of each cow worth about $54, and 
the cost of keeping $26.85. It cost 12i cents per pound to make butter, on 
Elmwood farm, and we think it can not be sold for less anywhere with much 
profit. His pork, killed at 9^ months old, fed on milk and fattened with 
corn, costs 5 cents per pound. The balance over expenses on the whole farm, 
for last year was $953.42, 

Mr. Johnson practises the following system of rotation. First, corn, to which 
is applied all the unfermented manure he can get. The next spring it is 
sown with barley at the rate of 2i bushels of seed to the acre, then sown to 
wheat in the fall, with ,a top-dressing of fine manure, of about six loads to 
the acre. The following spring it is sown with eight quarts of clover-seed 
and four quarts of timothy, with one bushel of plaster per acre, when it is 



PROGRKSR OF CIVILIZATION. 37 



allowed to remain three years in grass. The usual product is 55 bushels of 
corn, 30 of barley, and from 20 to 30 of wheat, per acre. The manure is all 
kept under cover, and a regular system of underdraining is being <}arriedout 
— Rural New-Yorker. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE LOCUST. 

The following information concerninof the habits of the seventeen-year 
locust, given by a writer in the Boston Advertiser, will be found interesting 
at the present time : 

" The locust's favorite resort is that of a copse of young and rather thin 
oak wood, where the soil is rather soft and light. They are first discovered 
in the ground near the surface, in the form of a large white grub or worm, 
and a quarter of an inch in diameter. Where or in what mode they pass 
through the chrysalis state, and become fully invested with wings aud other 
members, I do not know; but they are soon found in vast numbers, and in 
a full chorus of sonorous voices, among the branches of the small trees. 
They have a distinctly marked W found on the back. In this stage of their 
lives they do not seem to feed. • On opening one, the body appears to be a 
mere hollow shell, without any feeding or digesting organs. They continue 
in this state, I believe, about six weeks or two mouths. 

Shortly before their disappearance, many of the small twigs of the young 
oaks appear to be girdled and partially cut off, and hang suspended from the 
extremity of the branches. The leaves turn red as when touched by frost 
in autumn. On examination these twigs appear to be sawed about two 
thirds off and girdled, so that — the circulation of sap being cut off — it soon 
dies, and probably falls to the ground during the ensuing winter by the action 
of Avind, rain and snow. 

The general belief is that by a curious and remarkable instinct, the in- 
sect is led to <leposit its eggs in some secure mode upon these small twigs, 
and then thus partially to sever them from the parent stock, so that by their 
fall the eggs shall be borne gently and safely to the ground, into whose bo- 
som they are in some form received and cherished, to reappear in the form 
of the fu!l-grov?n locust, after the lapse of seventeen years. I am not aware 
that this fact of the deposit of eggs upon the falling twig has been verified 
by actual observation ; it is one of the points which require careful exami- 
nation." 



PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION. 



In a lecture on what he has seen abroad, Wendell Phillips observes : 
" In Italy, you will see a man breaking up his land with two cows, and 
the root of a tree for a plough, while he is dressed in skins with the hair on. 
In Rome, Vienna, and Dresden, if you hire a man to saw wood, he does not 
bring a horse along. He never had one, or his father before him. He 
puts one end of the saw against the ground, and the other on his breast, and, 
taking the wood in his baud, rubs against the saw. It is a solemn fact, that 



SS THE CULTURE OF STRAWBERRIES. 

in Florence, a city filled with the triumph of art, there is not a single auger, 
and if a carpenter would bore a hole, he does it wilh a rtd hot poker! 
This results not from the want of industry, but of sagacity of thought. 
The people are by no means idle. They toil early and late, men, women, 
and cbiidren, with an industry that shames labor-saving Yankees. Thus he 
makes labor, that the poor must live. In Rome, charcoal is principally used 
for fuel, and you will see a string of twenty mules, bringing Htlle sacks of it 
upon iheir backs, when one mule could draw all of it in a cart. But the 
Charcoal vender never had a cart, and so he keeps his mules and feeds them. 
This is from no want of industry, but there is no competition. 

A Yankee always looks haggard and nervous, as though he were chasing 
a dollar. With us, money is every thing; and when we go abroad, we are 
surprised to find that the dollar has ceased to be almighty. If a Yankee 
refuse to do a job for fifty cents, he will probably do it fur a dollar, and will 
certainly do it for five. But one of the iazaroni of Naples, when he has 
earned two cents and eaten them, will work no more that day, if you ofifer 
him ever so large a sum. He has earned enough for that day, and wants 
no more. So there is no eagerness for making money, no motive for it, and 
every body moves slowly." 



PRUNING TREES. 



The best time for this is when the sap does not flow very freely. If the 
limbs are cut when the sap is abundant, it will often run down ihe stump of 
the limb and the trunk of ihe tree, producing an unseemly dis-coloration. If 
any amount happens to collect in some cavity, it feiments, and is converted 
into a noxious liquid which injures the substance of the wood. If the leaves are 
very abundant, they will secure such a flow of the sap into their own tissues, 
as will prevent any such action. Hence in midsummer trees can be pruned 
with impunity. But the spring is riot a proper time for this work, unless at 
a period before the sap begins to circulate freely. 



THE CULTURE OF STRA.WBERRIES. 

The New- York Horticultural Society, at a recent conversational meeting, 
arrived al the following conclusions in regard to the best method of culti- 
vating strawberries: 

"The best soil for the strawberry was stated to be a gravelly loam. The 
land should be well drained, and to every acre applied twenty bushels of un- 
leached ashes, ten bushels of hme, and two or three pounds of salt. The 
ground should be well broken up, animal manures should be eschewed ; leaf 
is the best, and this should be carefully spaded in. About the first of July 
is the best lime to set out the plants. In doing this, pains should be taken 
to have them firmly rooted. The roots should be eighteen inches apart, and 
the plants a foot apart. 

Sometimes it will be well- to allow greater interval, in which case the in- 



THE CULTURE OF FRUIT. 39 

terstices can be filled up from the growth of the runners. After setting out 
the plants, throw on a covering of tan bark an inch or an inch and a half 
in depth, then water ihem plentifully and the moisture will be retained along 
time. After cold weather comes on, cover the strawberry-beds and the walks 
with clean straw, throwing over a little brush, or something to keep the straw 
in its place. In the Spring remove the straw and make use of some fertiliz- 
ing agent to give the plants vigor, as sulphate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, 
or nitrate of potash. Keep the roots out, see that the plants are bountifully 
watered, and let nothing intervene to disturb or retard their growth till you 
gather the fruit. The beds should be made over as often as every three 
years." 



FOR THB PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

THE CULTURE OF FRUIT. 

Messfs. Editors : — During the last four years I have examined the fruits 
in the markets of New- York, Brooklyn, and Williamsburgh, as well as the 
orchards of their environs, and I have perceived that all the fruits are inferior 
to those of Europe. This is not on account of the soil, but from neglect of 
cultivation, and from want of care in the management of fruit trees. It is 
only in Boston that I have seen in the market, good apples, good pears, and 
good peaches. I do not know where they grew, but I am satisfied that the 
State of New-York does not produce them. For the purpose of indicating 
the proper method of improving this branch of rural industry, I will examine 
successively the several products of this branch of labor so profitable to the 
farmer. 

1. The Strawberry. 

There is not to be found in the market any of this fruit except what is pro- 
duced from the native growth, and without the labor of cultivation. The 
garden strawberry, though larger and of excellent flavor, is seldom cultivated. 
There is a peculiar quality to the strawberry which has a taste well pro- 
nounced that of the pineapple. This fruit is not produced without pains, but 
is juicy, refreshing, and delicious. 

The town Fontaines des Roses, situated about three miles from Paris, fur- 
nishes this fruit to the inhabitants of the capital, and its proprietors are 
enriched by this kind of industry. They devote themselves exclusively to it, 
and the surrounding country for twelve miles square produces only this fruit, 
the value of which in Paris, to the dealers, is from four to six cents a pound. 
The wild strawberry does not grow in the forests, which are young, cultivated, 
and held by individual proprietors, and have the appearance of gardens. 
Nor does that fruit improve much by culture, though the taste becomes a 
little more delicate. But Poland not only cultivates extensively the garden 
strawberry, but produces this fruit in the forests so extensively that for one 
cent, in the market of the small cities, one may buy a gallon, and two per- 
sons can pick a barrel in a^day. 

The fruit is not only eaten with sugar, or with milk, or with sweet wine, 
but the juice is expressed, and is used to season ices in the summer, and gives 
them a most agreeable taste, as well as that of the pineapple, which resem- 
bles the flavor of this fruit. 



40' THE CULTURE OF FRUIT, 



The manner of propagating and cultivating the strawberry plant is as fol- 
lows : 

The soil is prepared beforehand, slightly manured, though it is necessary 
that the manure should be thoroughly beaten or broken up, and at the time 
of planting, should be perfectly free from weeds. The buds or new shoots 
"which the old plant has put forth are cut off near the root, and are placed in 
regular lines, in the ground, either in autumn or iu spring, at a distance of 
about six inches. Those planted in autumn will bear fruit in the next sea- 
son, but those planted in the spring will not produce fruit till the following 
year. To preserve the strawberries in good condition, it is necessary to keep 
them entirely free from weeds. In the month of October, cut off the runners 
with the young buds, and repeat this operation in the spring. 

To transport the young plants to America, it is necessary, as soon as they 
are dug up, to place them in boxes, and cover them with earth, and as soon 
as they arrive, to plant them in the ground already prepared for them. The 
experience of the writer proves the correctness of these directions, which are 
based upon that experience. 

Finally, I would add, that the strawberry plant, being properly trimmed, 
should be carefully stirred with a weeding-hoe through the entire spring, and 
all the yellow and decaying leaves should be cut off. 

2. The Gooseberry. 

In America there are but few gooseberries, except those which grow spon- 
taneously in the woods, and they are sour, small, and have but little juice; 
while in Europe they are cultivated with care, and they are very profitable 
to the producer. The ripe gooseberry is wholesome and refreshing. The 
syrup of gooseberries is beneficial in febrile diseases. The preserve serves to 
season the beef and cutlets of convalescents, and the gooseberry tart is good 
for children. 

The gooseberry is white and red. The former is sweeter, and is used chiefly 
for eating. The latter serves also for syrups and for sweetmeats. 

The wild American gooseberry is somewhat improved by cultivation. It 
must be taken from the forests, and transplanted in the fall into the garden, 
or on land properly prepared for it. The old and superfluous branches 
should be cut off. Every spring the earth should be removed around its 
roots, and which should be covered with manure. The young branches may 
be cut off and transplanted in suitable places. Thus cared for, it will reward 
the laborer with a plentiful crop. It grows well among vines, with which, in 
France, it is often cultivated. 

I propose to indicate the manner of making the syrup and sweetmeats from 
gooseberries. When they are ripe and gathered, the juice should be expressed 
by pressure, and suffered to stand for twenty-four hours in a cool place, so as 
to prevent fermentation. It is then poured into a copper kettle. For every 
quart of juice add half a pound of sugar for the syrup, and a pound for sweet- 
meats. Place the mixture over a moderate fire ; stir and skim it till it is 
clear. Pour the syrup into vessels to cool, and then bottle it. The sweet- 
meats should be put into china pots and cooled, and covered with white 
paper saturated with brandjr, and then with prepared bladder. 

To give the preserve a pleasant flavor and odor, some add a pound of 
whortle-berries to three pounds of gooseberries, and press out the mixed juice. 
The sweetmeats should be boiled a longer time than the syrup ; they should 
be boiled and re boiled until on cooling they are sufficiently thick to be cut 



THE CULTURE OF FRUIT. 41 

with a knife. It is well to renew the paper over the preserves once in two or 
three months. 

In France, sweetmeats are prepared for commerce with brown ^ugar and 
even with molasses ; but they do not keep so well as thqse prepared other- 
wise, and I should alwajs recommend refined sugar. A quart of syrup costs 
twenty cents ; the preserve, with refined sugar one shilling a pound, and with 
molasses ten cents. 

Confections of the gooseberry serve also for fine pastry, and the syrup for 
ices. I say nothing of the gooseberry of Manot, as it is of little value. 

3. The Cherry. 

The cherry-tree comes to us from the East, from Persia. The Crimea pro- 
duces many fine varieties, and from this region it was introduced into Poland 
and the low countiies of Germany, where it ornaments the public roads. 

The cherries of the New-York market are of poor quality, without proper 
flavor, deficient in pulp and in juice, while the coat is thick with a hard skin, 
where they grow wild in the forests or fields, unless improved by very careful 
cultivation, judicious pruning, and scraping the bark. Under such treatment 
of the tree, the fruit will improve. 

A pound of bad cherries in New-York costs ten cents ; while in Germany, 
for that sura perhaps fifty pounds ; in Poland still more ; and in France ten, 
and of good quality. 

There are different qualities of cherries : 1st. White, of an exquisite taste, 
a mixture of sweet and sour, a sino-le one of which weighs half an ounce. It 
is called noble, and is found in Europe, in the Crimea, and in Poland. 2d. 
Th^ common white, a smaller variety, a pleasant taste, but a little sour. 3d. 
Of blood color-; small, but sweet. 4tb. Black, of sweet taste, and with a 
thin skin. 5th. The hard cherry, with a large and hard stone ; flesh dry, and 
taste sour, bordering on the bitter. 

The first of these is served on the tables of the rich. The second is com- 
mon, and is not only eaten, but is also mixed with the third and fourth kinds 
for sweetmeats. They are also dried for use in winter. The last kind are 
not esteemeJ, but are given to children. All the others abound with an 
agreeable and refreshing juice, and syrups and sweetmeats are made of them 
in the same manner as from the gooseberry. 

To obtain good cherries in the State of New-York, it is necessary when the 
trees are in the right condition, to gather the fruit, cutting off the stems, and 
confine them in A cask. As soon as they are received, the ground being well 
prepared and manured, separate the pulp from the stones ; bury these in the 
earth, about eight inches apart. In a year or two, when the young trees are 
vigorous, transplant them in the autumn to the place designed for them. 
Throw barn-yard manure round their roots. The manure may be mixed 
with blood from the slaughter-house, and in the third year the young trees 
will bear fruit. But constant care should be taken of them. 

The peach-trees of New- York might be improved by grafts from Germany 
and France, when the buds are partially developed in the spring. The com- 
munication by steam and railroad is now very rapid. I commend this to the 
intelligence of the farmers and of amateur fruit-growers: I repeat that in- 
Germany all the public roads are set with these trees^ and thus the crop pro- 
duced is very large, and their income covers the cost of keeping the roads in 
order. 

If one would make a syrup of cherries, the process is as follows : As soon 



42 THE CULTURE OF FRUIT. 

as the cherries are ripe, gather them and leave thera in a heap for forty-eight 
hours in a moderate temperature. Then press the cherries and strain the 
juice. Boil the juice as directed for gooseberries, without sugar. When it 
is cleared of skui^j, add sugar to your taste, and boil it a second time with 
the sugar, and again skim till it is clear. Then add cinnamon or cloves to 
your taste. Let the syrup cool, place it away in glass vessels, and cover them 
as in the case of gooseberries. If the syrup begins to mould after a time, 
re-boil it and add more sugar. 

If sweetmeats are to be prepared of cherries, the pulp must first be sepa- 
rated from the stones, and the juice boiled with the sugar for half an hour. 
Honey may be substituted for sugar, but the taste v/ill be injured, and the 
peculiar effect of the honey must be overcome by the use of spice, the spice 
always being used in the form of a powder. 

Dried cherries are good in some diseases for convalescents, when boiled, 
and are prized by children in the winter. Where cherries are veiy abundant, 
they are manufactured into spirits called Kirschwasser, the purest and most 
wholesome liquor of Germany, It is sold extensively in Fraoce, England, 
and the United States. 

4. The Prune. 

But few prune-trees are seen in the United States, and the prunes which 
are in tbe market are sour and small, but are still of some value when diied. 
When cooked, they remove obt^tructions or are laxative. A few of a better 
sort are found, but are very dear. 

The prune is of several species. Befides those to which^we have referred, 
they are white, chestnut, and blue. There are also others. The small prune, 
white and a little yt'llovvish, has an excellent taste, is easily separated from 
the stone, and is used in France for sweetmeats. It is found in the environs 
of Orleans, of Blois, and on the banks of the Loire. The large white has a 
bitter taste, brisk, and a little tart, and is used only for eating when fresh. 
It is found all over Europe. 

The Rainglotte has a green color ; is large, with an exquisite taste, 
and is gathered before it is ripe. It is used in France in the manufacture of 
a liquor called Chinois, of which the consumption is very large and the pro- 
duction very profitable. 

There is still another excellent kind of while prune, of the size of a duck's 
egg. It is found in Switzerland and in France, in the environs of Blois. In 
Poland I have successfully grafted trees from buds brought from Switzerland, 
though they were two months in the passage. 

The chestnut-colored prune is of the same size as the preceding, and is 
very profitable; but the deep blue is the most valuable. There are two vari- 
eties. In one the pulp is easily separated from tlie stone. When it opens, 
it has the color of the skin of the chestnut; but in ripening it is covered 
with a rime, which changes its color into a deep blue. Its flesh is yellcw. 
The German is not so good as that from Poland. It is less fleshy ; its stone 
is large, as may be seen in those which are imported dry into Ameiica, and 
which are called Tzewtchken. The Hungarian is most esteemed. It is deli- 
cious, and is made into a liquor called Kivoritsky, or Plumberry. The other 
kind is oval. The pulp is separated from the stone with difiiculty. It is 
called the prune of Damas, whence it originated. It is more savory, and 
more juicy, and sweeter than the orhdr variety. It is imported inio New- 
York drv, and is called the Prune of Bordeaux. 

But the best kind is in the environs of Chinon, in France, and in the dc- 



THE CULTURE OF FRUIT. 43 

partment of Cher and Loire, and enriches its cultivators by a large and profit- 
able commerce in France «Rnd England. The Hungarian is not superior to 
this. 

The prune is a very valuable gift of Providence. As fresh fruit, they are 
wholesome, and refreshing, and nutritive. Dried, they may be preserved 
many years. Made into sweetmeats,' they keep many years, are useful for 
children, with their bread, and is employed in puddings, and in making valu- 
able liquor. ^ 

Prunes are dried as follows : Lay them upon a flat surface woven with 
young branches of trees, in the manner of a basket, but less clo-e. Expose 
them to a moderate heat, as in an oven after bread has been bakeil, and let 
them remain till the second day; then turn them, and again expose them as 
before, till they are completely dried. - In Germany they are diitd fur a full 
hour, in holes dug in the ground. Some bury them wilh a. fire in the ground, 
by which means they are made to taste of smoke. Another inconvenience 
is, that the windfalls, or wormy prunes, are gathered among the good ones, 
which is scrupulously avoided in France. 

Another manner of drying them is as follows : Those prunes which are 
easily separated from the kernel are selected, the kernel is removed, and each 
prune is fastened upon a small wooden peg, and thus dried. 

Sweetmeats are prepared as follows: The white prunes are stoned and 
placed in a kettle over a moderate fire. When they boil, add sugnr, more 
or less, according to one's taste, or say four pounds to a bushel or more. 
When properly thickened and cooled, remove it into pots covered with bran- 
died paper. The blue prune is treated in the same manner, but without 
sugar, and with cinnamon or cloves. They should boil sixteen hours, and 
the greatest care must be taken, constantly stirring them with a wooden 
spoon, until the preparation is entirely finished. The longer this process is 
continued the longer they will keep. • 

They who wish the plea'^antest sweetmeats should take half of these 
prune*, and half of those of Damas, and prepare them as those last dei=cribed. 
When the juice is clear, and the stones all separated, the juice, should be 
strained. If all can not be prepared at once, pour back the juice into the 
kettle, and then add more prunes and proceed as before. 

To obtain prune-trees, the same method should be observed that we have 
described when treating of peaches. But the ground selected should be pro- 
tected from the north wind. The prune likes company, and if planted sepa- 
rate from others, will not succeed so well as when enclosed in an orchard. 

5. The Apricot. 

An apricot is not of great value, but it demands a great deal of care, and 
should be protected from the north wind. The least frost destr ys the 
flower, and renders the tree barren. They should be arranged in rows 
against a wall, and exposed to the southern sun. 

Apricots, when skinned, stoned, and boiled with sugar and white wine, 
produce a marmalade, which is good for a dessert, and wholesome f>r con- 
valescents. Saniewski Fklix. 

[Translated from the French Manuscript by the Editor.] 

To be continued in the next number. 



44: PROMOTION OF INVENTIONS. 



PROMOTION OF INVENTIONS— ASSOCIATED INVENTORS. . 

Men do that for wliicli they have means. Capitalists buy to sell at an 
advance, and the possession of, capital directs their mental faculties to study 
the most safe, and lucrative investments. Whatever genius for literature, art, 
or science they may possess lies dormant; the mind being drawn by interest 
to find the way of using most profitably the instrument which is already in 
possession. 

Men without capital, if they believe they have genius, use their mental' 
powers to advance their fortunes. Hence it is that authors, artists, inventors, 
etc., seldom possess wealth until they have acquired it by their works. The 
mere possession of capital in early life, or even the expectation of it, diverts 
and "withholds the mind from patient study and labor, without which even 
the greatest genius can not attain the excellence that faculties not much 
above mediocrity can attain in communities where good instruction is offered 
them. And hence it is not to be expected that inventors will individually 
have means to establish their inventions. 

Their resource hitherto has been to seek the cooperation of capitalists. 
But capitalists, not having studied, are not able to see the capabilities of 
inventions, until they are in successful operation. Watt in vain, for many 
years, besieged the doors of capitalists, before Dr. Roebuck, a man of more 
science than capital, invested an inadequate sum in his enterprise, and suf- 
fered loss by it. After more delay, Boulton, a man of sufficient capital and 
extraordinary business talent, formed a copartnership with him, and expended 
fifty thousand pounds before one pound was returned. Fulton, for many 
years, appealed to capitalists, and "was derided by them before he got means 
to place a steamboat upon the Seine, "which was deemed a failure, and ten 
years more elapsed before he made a demonstration that could allay the 
apprehension of failure. Evans, Trevithisk, and many others, for half a cen- 
tury struggled to introduce the locomotive, and were deemed insane ; and 
they were not more unlucky than most inventors. 

'■ This glaring truth, that "wealth diverts the mind from science, and that 
therefore men of wealth are not likely to promote inventions, until they see 
"with their eyes what they can not see "with their brains — that they will 
accomplish the objects intended — this trite and established truth should 
admonish those who rely upon their intellectual powers, that they ought to 
unite, and aggregate their small means for the purpose of putting their inven- 
tions into operation, so far as to demonstrate their utility, to the satisfaction 
of capitalists, who certainly desire to promote whatever will yield large pro- 
fits, and are backAvard only because they can not by calculation find out the 
result of a machine not yet built. 

Capital governs, with what little science its owners have picked up. The 
bookseller is boss-author ; the shipping merchant is boss-engineer and naval 
architect, and smiles at "theorists" who decry the tub-like shape of his ships, 
and the lumbering complication of his engines ; and if he believed in improve- 
ment, he would not desire it until his present ships are worn out. And men 
of science, disregarding each other, bow to these blind idols. Will this con- 
tinue much longer? Is it not yet possible to organize a company of invent- 
ors, and of such liberal capitalists as may be disposed to promote inventions ? 

The reiily to these questions is stereotyped : " Inventors can't agree 1" 
This reply is not true. Inventors can agree as well as traders, or manufac- 
turers, or politicians. 



PROMOTION OF INVENTIONS. 45 

We now propose to outline a plan, which, others may amend, for a Com- 
pany of Inveators and CapitaHsts. And this we do, not with the intention 
of doing more than naturally should be done by journalists who hnve pecu- 
liar facilities for aiding in the first steps of such a movement. What we 
intend is to collect the names, subscriptions, and opinions of those who are 
willing to join in such an effort, if it can be commenced with sufficient means. 
We therefore invite all who are so disposed to communicate with us by let- 
ter or j)ersonally. If we find the prospect encouraging, we shall wlUingly 
make our pages a medium of communication, without charge, until a com- 
pany has become able to do without such help. 

The Rooms are a burdensome expense to a new organization. But there 
are two institutes already established, and another building, which will allow 
the use of their rooms for such an object. The American Institute, the Me- 
chanics' Institute, aud the Cooper Institute intend to promote such objects to 
the best of their ability. There is therefore no occasion to apprehend an 
absorption of the means in the mere expenses of the organization. On this 
point we speak advisedly. 

A Fund is indispensable. This fund should be devoted to the practical 
demonstrations necessary to convince the public of the utility of inventions. 
Half the profits of it should remain in it, to increase it. The stockholders 
should voie per share, as in other companies. 

Inventors would ofter their plans and conditions. Each stockholder would 
be at liberty to appropriate his stock to any plan which he preferred. But 
if any stock should not be thus appropriated, the directors should appro- 
priate it. 

The company should receive a portion of the profits ; but such receipts 
should be credittd to those whose stock was invested in that particular inven- 
tion. 

We will illustrate our meaning by an example. Fulton brings in a draw- 
ing of a steamboat, with descriptions, calculations, etc., and sucli proof of its 
utility as he can adduce. He argues his case with the members individually, 
and with the directors. He peisuades them to appropriate ten liiousand dol- 
lars. But he wants twenty thousand. Evans brings in his plan of a loco- 
motive, and in the same way he gets a subscription ; and others do the same. 
But neither gets the amount he requires. Fulton proposes to the others to 
take their funds, with the consent of their subscribers, on condition that out 
of the first fruits of his invention he will put four times as much into theirs. 
They may deem this proposition preferable to waiting for more subscrip- 
tions ; if so, they will become stockholders in Fidton's enterprise, and aid in 
establishing his invention ; and he, if he obtain means, will in like manner 
aid them. 

Another example : Gurney proposes his plan of a steam-carriage, and 
invites others to improve upon it, and to contribute means to build it, on 
condition that, when it has become profitable, the directors shall appraise the 
contributions of each who has in any way promoted the general result, and 
shall divide the stock of the invention among them, in proportion to the 
value of what each has contributed. Hancock offers to construct a boiler, 
which Gurney accepts, though he secretly prefers his own. Symington offers 
a ratchet engine, as a sure means of avoiding the pitching aud rocking that 
a crank and connecting rod will produce : this Gurney politely declines. 
Smith, the wheelwright, offers a set of wheels, which are accepted. Norris 
will build the engines, and take half pay in stock ; and tweuty different per- 
sons will furnish money enough to do the rest. ' Gurney's carriage finally is 



46 SAWING RED-HOT IRON. 

built, and runs at fifteen to thirty miles an hour. But cautious capitalists 
say, "Wait! he -will run into carriages, frighten horses, and there will be 
damages to pay. He will break down, blow up, and so forth. No, no! it 
won't pay ! We won't go into it ! Wait awhile !'" 

In this stage it is well to have an association of men who have suflBcient 
science to know that these fears of mere ignorance are groundless. Such 
men will maintain the invention until the bugbears are no longer formidable. 
When these irrational apprehensions are allayed, and the mere physical eye 
can see that the invention is profitable, a rush of pirates takes place and Gur- 
ney would be robbed and ruined if no force but his own were ready to defend 
him. But the united sympathy and interest of the members of the company 
would put the pirates handsomely through the courts ; and, as in the case of 
Watt and Boulton, they would have to pay three times the patent fees. At 
last the invention has become valuable in the market. The directors form a 
joint stock, giving to each as many shares as they deem him justly entitled 
to, after a consideration of the contributions and hazards. 

We need not spin out this thread. We will conclude by suggesting a few 
conditions : 

1st. Each member to pay ten dollars per year, and as much more as he 
pleases ; to be credited seven per cent interest for pre-payment, and to forfeit 
fourteen per cent for delay of payment. 

2d. Each member to vote on the amount credited to him on the books. 

3d. x\s soon as a member has r^lOO in the fund, he may receive half the 
profits on his share ; the other half to be added to his share, besides the 
annual ]»ayment of $10. 

4th. Each member may appropriate his share of the funds to such inven- 
tions as he prefers — the profit or loss to be his own ; but the directors to 
have control of the funds, so that they shall be returned with the stipulated 
profit. 

5th. Funds not thus appropriated by inventors may be appropriated by 
the directors, on account of their owners. 

6th. The directors, by a nine-tenths vote, may veto an appropriation of a 
member, if, in their opinion, the invention is unworthy of trial. This is a 
better guard than to exclude \h% invention from exhibition, because it is 
hazardous to say. that it may not receive such improvements as will make it 
worthy of trial. 

Such is the general idea, not wholly original, which we have of an organ- 
ization that shall in time be able to inspire confidence in capitalists, and until 
that time shall enable inventors to help each other. We have known invent- 
ors to work at low wages on their own machines, while their employers made 
fortunes by them. And if inventors are too indolent to avail themselves of 
the grea-t principle of association, such will often be their lot. They may 
fancy that they can contend with wealthy freebooters ; but one may as well 
attempt to beat an army with his fist. 



Sawing Red-IIot Iron. — Iron bars and shaftings are cut to length by a 
circular soft steel saw. The iron to be cut is heated red hot, and in that con- 
dition is presented to the saw, which rotates at high velocity, and is kept 
cool by causing its lower half to revolve through a trough containing cold 
water. A large bar of iron can tlius be cut through in a few seconds. 



STEAM-CARRIAGE PROJECTS. 47 



STEAM-CARRIAGE PROJECTS. 

Among the numerous steam-carriage plans that were really good, there 
have been a few so absurd as to have excited prejudice against the inven- 
tion. Among these are two — one English, and one American-^both of which 
have been practically tried, to the full satisfaction, no doubt, of those who 
hate all who pretend to know more than their neighbors. 

Garvey, in his evidence before a Committee of the Commons, 1834, says : 
" Mr. King, who is a naval man, associated a steam-carriage with a vessel, 
and built one with ' two decks ;' two tiers of passengers above ; and engines 
in the ' hold,' between the wheels ; the weight was ten to fourteen tons. It 
was drawn into the road ; the steam escaped from the pipe into the ' hold ;' 
the engineer jumped off, and the wheel went over his head." 

A friend has recently given us a picture and description of " Gen. Scrapie's 
Prairie Steam-Car," cut from an " Extra Sun," and credited to the Scientific 
American. The date is not upon the piece of paper. 

It begins by saying : " There are few plans of enterprise, now in progress, 
to which more importance attaches, or which excites more interest, than that 
of navigating the extensive prairies by steam-power, and with carriages capa- 
ble of accommodating one hundred passengers, besides twelve to twenty tons 
of merchandise." It goes on : " Gen. Semple, now in the Senate at Wash- 
ington, some time during the last summer adopted the very rational conclu- 
sion, that the power of steam could be as efficiently applied to the propulsion 
of large carriages on prairies, as to other purposes ; and that whatever load 
might be drawn by 100 horses, might also be propelled by a 100 horse- 
power engine." * '•' " We have no particular instructions from the hon- 
orable inventor, with regard to the construction of the upper works ; but 
having the foundation and general plan, we have presented the plan which 
appears to us the most convenient for the purpose intended." 

The wheels are six feet high, and five wide. There are four drivers, whicli 
may be turned " by cranks or by gear-wheels attached to the ends of the 
cyUnders ; the latter mode will be preferable if a rotary engine is used, in 
which case the two gear-wheels on each side will be driven by an interme- 
diate wheel, which will take to both at the same time. Either plan is suffi- 
ciently simple ; and, on the whole, there is no doubt of the complete success 
of the enterprise." 

Taking the wheel as a measure, we find that the car is twenty feet wide, 
twenty-three high, and forty-seven long. It has a ladder to reach the first story, ' 
and stairs to the second. Within two years this oracle has approved another 
scheme to put a heavy locomotive on a plank roak. 

Now, these schemes have in them all the elements of failure, and not one 
element of success, if the opinions of the English steam-carriage men are 
correct. 

We have been told that General Semple spent $20,000 in an attempt to 
put this into execution. Whether he was induced by the assurance of the 
very Scientific American, that " on the whole there is no doubt of the com- 
plete success of the enterprise," we do not know. But when men of " science" 
give such assurance, and such machines are built, it is natural that those who 
witness the failure should have but little confidence in the self-styled men of 
science. Thus it is that quackery, or perhaps puffery for pay, destroys all 
confidence ; and the press can aid inventions only so far as it finds men 



48 DOLCE CAMPANA PIANO ATTACHMENT. 

qualified to reason upon them — that is, only so far as it is read by theoretical 
or practical mechanics. 

Twenty-six years ago, the word "locomotive" was not applied to the en- 
gines on railways ; they were called steam-carriages. Steam-carriages, then, 
have succeeded on iron roads, and that so perfectly that there can be little 
doubt of their success on roads of a somewhat inferior quality. 




DOLCE CAMPANA ATTACHMENT TO BOARDMAN, GRAY & CO.'S PIANOS. 

This improvement of the piano- 
forte is claimed to be one of the 
greatest made for a long time ; 
and from what we have seen, and 
from the descriptions we have had 
of it, we should think this claim 
well founded, although we have 
had but a very limited opportunity 
of testing it for ourselves. The 
following is given as the best 
illustration of it, in connection with the small engraving which accom- 
panies it. 

The crooked bridge of a piano is connected with, and, as it were, part of, 
the sounding-board ; and the strings, passing over this bridge, and connected 
thereto, when put in motion give vibration to the sounding-board, and thus 
power and volume of tone to the piano. 

The Dolce Campana Attachment consists of a scries of weights, held in 
position in a frame, and is so placed' and secured in the piano, that these 
weights are held ovei* this crook'^d bridge ; immediately under them there are 
screws inserted., in the bridge for the weights to rest upon when the attach- 
ment is in use, and the pedal is so connected with the attachment that when 
pressed down, the weights (attachment) drop so as to rest on the screws, and 
thus on the sounding-board ; and when the foot is off the pedal, and the 
pedal lifted up, the Attachment rises off the sounding-board, and has no 
effect ; but when the pedal is pressed down, the weights, or attachment, rest 
on the sounding-board, controlling its vibrations, and the tone and power of 
the instrument; and the attachment thus being under the control of the 
pianist, he can produce the most beautiful effects at will. When the attach- 
ment is in use, it produces a delicate, soft, bell-like, silvery tone in the piano, 
truly enchanting ; and when we take into consideration that tho great power 
of tone of the piano is in the free and perfect vibration of the sounding-board, 
and that the sounding-board's vibration and tone are under the perfect con- 
trol of tho performer, so that he can let it sound full or graduate its tones to 
the music and effects wished for, it will at once be clear that the invention is 
a valuable one. By using it in connection Avith the harp, or soft and loud 
pedals, a great variety of effects and changes can be produced, like changing 
tho stops of an organ ; and by holding the loud pedal down, and striking full 
chords with the fingers, and then letting the att^ichmcnt off the bridge, a full 
and perfect swell is produced at the will of tho performer. The Dolce Cam- 
Dana Attachment is truly a legitimate and valuable improvement, tho most 



SAVE YOUR SUDS, 49 

valuable one of modern times, to the piano-forte. Messrs. Boardman, Gray 
«k Co., of Albany, N.Y., are the inventors and patentees. It is applied only 
to their otherwise truly superior piano-forte. They have lately patented 
another valuable improvement, which consists in making the sounding-board 
of their pianos corrugated, so that each side is fluted, thus gaining a much 
greater surface, and securing firmness and stiffness without the necessity of 
cross-bracing, as in the ordinary sounding-board. This, and its peculiar form, 
secures it from a liability to crack or split, and it has been found on trial to 
give a much greater volume of tone, and the quality also is much improved. 
We take pleasure in calling attention to the advertisement of Messrs, 
Boardman, Gray & Co, 



?0H THB PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AHB THE ANVIL, 

S A V E YOUR SUDS, 

"A PENNr saved is as good as a penny earned." In the form of soap-suds, 
there runs from the kitchen fertilizing matter enough to supply the family 
with garden vegetables. How can it be saved and applied ? Let me sug- 
gest. As often as washing day comes, let all the suds be cai-e fully saved, 
in a tub or receptacle kept expressly fur that purpose. After sunset, let it 
be applied to whatever in the garden needs it most. Cucumbers, squashes, 
and melons need frequent applications of it while small, and it will do them 
as much good as guano or superphosphate; having this advantage — it costs 
■nothing, and is always at hand. Tomatoes, cabbages, beans, peas, corn, and 
potatoes, and even weeds, will all be grateful for small favors of this kind. 

Your grape vines should occasionally have a pailful ; the oftener and the 
stronger the better. By the way, vines need frequently looking after at this 
season. Useless shoots and suckers should be lopped oflf. Direction should 
be given to new branches ; ties should be examined and secured when neces- 
sary, and the ground should be kept loose about the roots, and free from 
weeds and grass. The removal of leaves for the admission of light to the 
fruit, I have no faith in. Let them have the covering which Nature de- 
signed, and they "will mature and ripen in due time. You need not fear 
making the ground too rich ; the grape is a voracious feeder. 

But" I am not done with suds. Every garden has, or should have, young 
fruit-trees. To these application should be made of strong suds frequently. 
It will destroy insects, remove moss and scurf, 2>romote the health and vigor 
of the bark and the growth of the tree. 

But this is not all. There should be a cess-pool, to which all the wash of 
the kitchen and other parts of the house should be conducted. Into this let 
there be dumjyed loam, muck, leaves, weeds, bones, old shoes, ashes, old plas- 
ter, and what not. If properly cared for, it will be found, at planting time, 
to contain sufficient for a liberal dressing for the whole garden, and that, too, 
of the very best of vegetable aliment. 

Try it, reader, and save yourself the trouble and expense of running about, 
in the spring, after manure for your garden. R. B. H. 

4 



50 . RINGBONE OCCUllKING IN HORSES. 



RINGBONE OCCURRING IN" HORSES. 

Ringbone is anotlier form of exostotic disease, the pathology or nature of 
which, not ditfering materially from those ah-eady considered — spavin and 
splint. Its location is the pastern-boQO. Most generally, the joint is involved, 
so that the final result is ayichijlosis (loss of raotion) in the joint formed by 
the OS suffrayinis and os coronce, (large and small pastern bones.) 

Nature of Rinybone. — The term Wft^6o«e is far behind the times as re- 
o-ards our present knowledge of nosology, (which signifies the doctrine of the 
names of diseases ;) yet to the unprofessional it is somewhat suggestive, and 
therefore may as well be retained. It signifies a circular eminence around 
the pastern-bone. The ring is formed by incrustation, or osseous deposit 
around the bone, or joint, as the case may be ; yet, in order to make out a 
case that comes strictly Avithin the meaning of the word — that is, as horse- 
men interpret it — there must exist complete anchylosis of the pastern- 
joint. 

Various osseous deposits are now and then thrown out on the pastern and 
coronet-bones, varying in shape, size, and seat ; they are often unaccom- 
panied by lameness, and, consequently, stable-men have named them 
'' ding-fasts,'" or something of the sort. They all, however, come under the 
disease known as exostosis. 

A pure case of ringbone — anchylosis — generally has an external origin : 
we find that an osseous deposit commences at the lower margin of the pas- 
tern, and upper part of the coronet-bones ; this spreads so as to involve both 
joint and ligaraentary tissue ; and if there be any predisposition, in the ani- 
mal, to ossifc diseases, the malady may spread, so as to involve fetlock, 
pastern, and coffin joints. 

Causes of Ringbone. — This disease, in many cases, is hereditary, trans- 
mitted, either directly or indirectly, through the sexual congress. I shall not 
contend that its direct origin is a settled point, but merely intimate, in sup- 
port of this opinion, that I have seen colts of only a few weeks' growth the 
subjects of this disease. I once bought an unweaned colt, and brought it up 
by hand, as the saying is. At the age of four months, I observed tumefac- 
tion on the pastern of both hind-legs, which ultimately resulted in stiflf joint. 
The little creature had never been subjected to any sort of labor or exercise 
to produce lameness, and therefore the disease must have originated at birth. 
Mr. Percival, whose opinion on veterinary matters is unquestioned, says that 
his attention to the hereditary origin of ringbone, was tirst aroused from a 
remark made by an extensive dealer in horses, in reply to a question put to 
him, how it happened, that but few ringbones were met with, compared to 
the number that attracted notice in times past. The reply was : " Because 
no breeder of horses, now-a-days, will send a mare to a horse having ring- 
})Qiies'' — a very good example for American horsemen to imitate; for a vast 
number of our best, as well as inferior horses, are the subjects of this infirm- 
ity. 

Of the indirect transmissibility of this disease we have ample proof. It 
lurks in breed just as scrofula and consumption do in the human subject. 

The author just quoted remarks that "a coarse or half-bred, fleshy or 
bony-legged horse, with short and upright pasterns, is the ordinary subject 
of this disease ; and there exist satisfactory reasons why we should expect 
him to be so. Tho pastern and coffin-bones constitute the nethermost parts 



EINGBONE OCCURRING IN HORSES. 



^1 



— the pedestals — of the columns of bones composing the limbs, and being so, 
they receive the entire weight and force transmitted from above. The pas- 
tern, being long and oblique iu position, receives the superincumbent vreight 
in such an indirect line that, bending towards the ground with the fetlock, 
nothing like jar or concussion follows. The very reverse of this, however, 
happens every time the foot of a limb, having a short upright pastern, comes 
to the ground. In such, instead of the weight descending obliquely upon 
the sessamoids, (two small bones at the posterior and inferior part of the fet- 
lock joint,) and the fetlock bending therewith, it descends directly, or nearly 
so, upon the pastern, making this bone entirely dependent on the bone 
beneath it — the coronet — for counteracting concussion ; and should any thing 
occur to diminish this, or to throw more weight on the bones beneath than 
they can counteract, jar of the whole apparatus ensues; and an effort of na- 
ture to streno-lhen the parts, by investing them with callus and ossification, 
is likely to be the ultimate result. For we would view ringbone, disease 
though it must assuredly bo called, as frequently, in young horses, a recourse 
of nature to strengthen weak parts — the bones being unequal to the exer- 
tions or efforts required of them." 

From the fact that horses of the above peculiar conformation are most 
subject to this malady ; and knowing, as we do, that defects and faults ac- 
quired become permanent in the race, all doubts as to indirect hereditary 
origin are set at rest. 

The direct causes of ringbone (and at times they are merely exciting) are 
ligamentary strains, brought about by over-work, extraordinary efforts of 
speed, pulling up suddenly, etc. In short, either sprain, injury, blow, or 
bruise, likely to produce inflammatory action in the region of the pastern- 
joint, may result in ringbone. Still, I contend that, aside from such causes, 
there must be lurking in the system of the subject a predisposition, denomi- 
nated by human practitioners idiosyncrasy — a weakness in bone, limb, or 
ligament — the result of errors in breeding, aggravated by a too early use of 
the muscular powers, and want of proper attention to food and stable man- 
agement. 

It appears, therefore, that there is no direct or spccijic cause for ringbone, 
and we can only regard as indirect those causes which, in a large mfijority 
of cases, are invariably present. 

Treatment of Ringbone — Preliminary Remarks. — It would be very inter- 
esting and funny to notice some of the methods of treating ringbone ; but 
the subject of this malady is a creature, whose mental and instinctive capa- 
cities combined far surpass those of any other animal, and, indeed, do not 
differ in kind from the mental nature of our species ; in degree, however, 
there is evidently some difference. 

He has also nerves to feel, is keenly sensible to pain ; and therefore such 
atrocities as we frequently see perpetrated upon this noble animal, even un- 
der the sanction of long usage, are neither interesting nor pleasant matters 
for contemplation. 

There is a common error abroad, and in some of the popular works on 
farriery the error is stereotyped, that '''• ringbone is fed by a bladder at the 
posterior part of the pastern,''^ which has just about as much to do with the 
disease as I had with the late victory achieved by the " Kaow-Nothings." 
This error, however, vrould not amount to much, only that it has led to the 
infliction of a cruel operation, without the least advantage. In short, it 
tends to make matters worse than they were before; for this bladder is in 
reality a bursal sac, the use of which is to secrete and contain a fluid called 



52 EINGBONE OCCUERING IN HORSES. 



synovia, (known as joint-oil,) used for the purpose of lubricating tendons and 
their articulating surfaces, so as to prevent friction; therefore its extraction 
must be disadvantageous to the limb. 

it IS not enough, forsooth, for the poor brute to suffer this excruciating tor- 
)iient, which usually attends inflammation and ossification of the parts ; but 
he must, in'addition, submit to a species of cruelty unheard of in the annals 
ot human medicine, and for which veterinary science furnishes no authority. 
It has been my painful duty occasionally to take in charge subjects that have 
been most shamefully maltreated in this respect, and I have seen others that 
have been the subjects of cruelties that would make a Christian shudder to 
ihink of, (see "Modern Horse Doctor," p. 278 ;) and I do hope that the reader, 
if he be in any way interested in horses, will set his face against every species 
of barbarity practised on them, and endeavor to aid those who are now en- 
gaged in the work of reform. I feel assured that if the American people 
were better informed as to the nature and treatment of diseases occurring 
among live stock, these evils would cease to exist. But a new era is dawn- 
ing, America will, ere long, boast of her veterinary schools, and from them 
shall go forth a class of /the right kind of men, to illuminate the compara- 
tive darkness that now exists. 

Now as regards the treatment. The idea of curing ringbone is really ab- 
surd — nature never intended that it should be cured. The new growths, if 
I may so call them, and the changes that take place in the joint, are a part 
of nature's own handiwork, in view of strengthening a weak bone or joint; 
and therefore there is no need of cure. To attempt a cure can be regarded 
in no other light than forcing nature to turn a somerset ! Our object in the 
treatment is merely to aid nature, (that is all the assistance she requires of 
us.) All we have to do is to excuse the animal from work, aud apply reme- 
dies that are calculated to relieve pain and lessen lameness. We treat the 
disease, when first discovered, just as we should a recent spavin or splent, by 
cooling lotions, cold-water bandages, etc. If the parts are inactive, we apply 
the usual counter-irritants. In all cases, therefore, of ringbone, whether it 
have a pereosteal, bony, cartilaginous, fibrous, or synovial origin, rest, light 
diet, and the above means are most calculated to promote anchylosis of the 
joint, which is nature's cure. 

As regards the bony tumor, that is genei-ally nothing more than an eye- 
sore, and very seldom causes pain, (that is, after the new formations are com- 
pleted.) There is some stiffaess ever after to be observed, but that is not due 
to the tumor, but is the natural consequence of stiff joint. — Written for the 
Ohio Farmer, by Q. H. Dadd, Veterinary Surgeon, Boston, Mass. 



Gas for Fuel. — The Albany .^^Zas says that a mechanic is manufacturing 
furnaces for heating dwelling-houses, gas being used as a fuel. A room 15 
feet square can be heated, it is said, at a cost of about one cent and a half an 
hour. 

This is just what Mr. Shaw, of Boston, has been doing successfully for 
•several months. 



KEEPING FURS IN SUMMER. 



53 



STATE FAIRS FOR 1855. 



Vermont, 
New-Hampshire, 
Canada-East, - 
Ohio, - 
New- York, 
Connecticut, - 
Maryland, 
Canada- West, - 
Indiana, 
lUinois, - 
New-Jersey, - 
Kentucky, 
North-Carolina, 
Pennsylvania, 
Georgia, 
Virginia, 



Rutland, 

Sherbrooke, 

Columbus, 

Elmira, 

Hartford, 

Baltimore, 

Coburg, 

Inianapolis, 

Chicago, 

Camden, 

Paris, - 

Raleigh, 

Philadelphia, • 

Atalanta, 

Richmond, 



September 11 to 13. 
September 12 to 14. 
September 11 to 14. 
September IS to 21. 
October 2 to 5. 
October 9 to 11. 
October 30, 
October 9 to 12. 
October 17 to 19. 



September 25 to 28. 
October 16 to 18. 

September 10. 



KEEPING FURS IN SUMMER. 

A Troy farrier, in one of our exchanges, the name of which we have lost, 
thus directs as to the treatment of these valuable articles. 

About the 1st of April, or on the approach of warm weather, lightly whip, 
comb, and brush your furs till they are perfectly free from dust ,• sprinkle them 
with a little spirits of any kind, and wrap them in clean linen. Put them in 
a tight box or drawer, and keep them from the air as much as possible. la 
this situation they may remain ten or fifteen days, when they ought to be 
examined, and the whipping, combing, and brushing repeated. 

The insects most destructive to furs, are, first, the black bug which infests 
smoked meats, etc. It ap^^^ears and deposits eggs early in the spring. This 
kind of moth does not eat the fur, but preys altogether on the skin. Next 
the small ash-colored miller, which produces the moth that destroys all kinds of 
woollen stuffs, and may be seen hovering about the candle on a summer evening. 
This kind particularly preys upon and destroys the furs, and ought to be most 
guarded against ; also the mite, which is very numerous. They appear like 
dust, and are scarcely perceptible to the naked eye. They subsist upon and 
destroy the fibrous membrane which attaches the fur to the skin. Hence the 
practice of sunning and airing furs is highly prejudicial, for as insects fly about 
in the air, it not only afibrds them an opportunity of getting in and breeding, 
but the warmth of , the sun nourishes and supports them, and at the sama 
time spoils the color and destroys the life and beauty of the fur. 

Coarse furs — such as bear and buffalo skins — may be preserved by beating 
them well in the spring, and heading them up in an air-tight spirit-cask, 
which has been recently emptied. Especial care must alway-s be taken to 
have furs, woollens, etc., clean and free from insects when they are put up for 
the season — and no means are adequate to the preservation of furs that are 
badly dressed and not cleansed of the natural grease. 



54 



VAN DEWATER's turbine WATER WHEEL. 




i—^j-p-i 



VAN DE water's TURBINE WATER WHEEL. 55 



VAN DEWATER'S TURBINE WATER WHEEL. 

Thk accompanying engraving is a vertical section of the water ■wheel of 
Henry Van Dewater, of tlie city of Albany, N. Y., embracing an improve- 
ment on his patent of October 1853, for which he has taken measures to 
secure a patent. 

The improvement consists, first, in the employment of a concave guide at 
the low-sr part of the casing underneath the wheel, in combination with a 
gate which surrounds it, to regulate the discharge of water from the casing 
or wheel. Second, in the employment of a peculiar gate and a series of 
shutes made and arranged to admit the requisite quantity of water to the 
wheel. Third, in surrounding the wheel with a chamber (filled with water) 
which, in connection with the peculiar form of the buckets, makes the water 
<3xert an upward pressure to relieve the bearing step of the weight of the 
wheel. 

A is the cylindrical casing of the wheel, which may be made of cast-iron. 
It is secured in its upright position by the rods, a a, to a flanch, B, under- 
neath the casing. This flanch is placed at the lower part of the guide or 
deflector, C, which is of a concave conical form, and projects upwards a suit- 
able distance within the casing, A. On the upper end of this guide is the 
step or bearing of the wheel shaft. This step is secured by an upright 
ledge, b. Within the lower part of the casing there is a rim or band, E, 
which forms a gate. This gate works snugly within the casing, and has four 
vertical rods, c c, (two shown,) attached to it at opposite points. The upper 
ends of these rods are connected to cross bars, F, to which vertical racks, d d, 
are attached ; these gear with the pinions, e e, at the end of a drum, G. 
'vVithin the casing, A, and directly above the guide, C, is the wheel, H. It 
is fitted between lateral flanches,//, which thus form a chamber or recess, 
<■/, around the wheel. The top and bottom edges of the buckets are radial 
with the wheel, and the intermediate points are gradually curved, so as to 
leave the spaces between the upper edges of the buckets wider than the 
spaces between the lower ends ; ihe figure shows the form of the buckets. 
Directly above the wheel there is a fixed series of shutes or guides, i, which 
are placed directly over the buckets, h. The shutes are of a spiral form con- 
forming to that of the buckets, and at the mouth of each there is a slide, j, 
connected to a circular rim, I, which encompasses the shaft, D. These slides, 
j, form the gate above the wheel. J J are two vertical racks attached to the 
upper surface of the rim, I. Two pinions in a drum (not shown) gear into 
these racks. By turning the drum, these pinions operate the racks, J J, and 
thus raise or lower the slides, _;, according to the direction the drum is turned. 
By turning the drum, G, the pinions, e e, take into the racks, d d, and ele- 
vate or lower the lower gate, E. The water from the flurne flows into the 
upper part of the casing, and the slides, y, being open, it passes in and fills 
the entire casing, and is directed tangentially against the buckets of the 
wheel, the quantity being regulated by the guides and slides. As the spaces 
between the lower edges of the buckets are narrower than those between the 
upper ones, the water presses upward to a certain degree against the under 
surfaces of the buckets, and thus relieves the under step of the shaft, D, from 
top weight, thereby decreasing the friction. The surrounding water in the 
recess, (/, acts upon the wheel when at work. By regulating the gate, E, the 
unequal draft of partial vacuum upon the column of water descending from 



m 



SELF-ACTIING CAR-COUPLING. 



the bottom of the wheel is obviated. It will be observed that when the gate, 
E, is raised or lowered, there will be an equal space all around the deflecting 
guide, C, so that the draft is equalized at all points around the wheel. In 
the ordinary French turbine a valve is used for this purpose, but this causes 
uuequal draft, and is therefore inferior to the guide, C. 

These improvements on the Jonval French turbine wheel by Mr. Van De- 
water are obvious. His wheels have a high reputation for efficiency. Per- 
sons in various parts of our country using his wheels, testify to their high per 
centage of power and excellent construction. 

More information may be obtained by letter addressed to Mr. Van Dc- 
water. 



SELF-ACTING C AR- G UPLING. 



-2?7.r 




The annexed engravings represent an improvement in railroad car cou- 
plings, for which a patent was granted to D. A. Hopkins, of Elmira, N. Y., 
on the 1st of August, last year. 

Fig. 1 is a perspective view, showing two coupling-boxes detached, and 
fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section through the centre of one coupling-box, 
and showing the coupling link in various positions ; also a coup!iiig-pin 
locked in the link and out of the link. Similar letters refer to like jiarts. 

The top and bottom bars or plates, A A, of each box are made of wrought 
iron, with their outer ends somewhat enlarged. The bars are riveted together 
by bolts, R R, and have a wooden block, B, between them. The draw-head, 
H, is made of cast iron, cast on the enlarged ends of the bars, A A, as shown 
in fig. 2, thus forming a draw-head strongly united to the wrought-iron bars. 
The mouth of each head, II, is wide, while the throat, at h h, is very narrow. 
L is the connecting or coupling link. C (G in fig. l) is a bolt passing into 
an opening in the wooden block, B ; its inner end abuts against a coiled 
spring, S. F is the head of this spring bolt ; it is allowed room in the open 
space to move back and forth. Its face is fluted with section grooves, to 
receive the end of the link L, and retain it in various positions, as shown m 



SELF-ACTING CAR-COUPLING. 



57 




y /L 



fig. 2. P is the coupling-pin. It will be observed that when the pin, P, is 
withdrawn, and the cars uncoupled, the spring bolt, C, will be forced forward 
in the box, and the pin, P, will then rest on its top as shown by the dotted 
lines, fig. 2, which represent the bolt and pin in this position. When it is 
desired to couple the two cars — by running back the front or bringing for- 
ward the rear one — the link, L, will enter the throat of the box, and push 
back the serrated head, F, of the spring bolt in the open space of the box, 
when the pin, P, will drop through the opening of the link, and thus couple 
the cars. Owing to the narrow throat of the head, H, and the form of the 
face of F, this self-acting coupling is perfectly adapted for cars of all heights, 
as shown by the various positions of the link, L, in dotted lines, fig. 2. This 
must be a very durable and strong draw-head, as the crushing force comes 
on the cast-iron head, H, while the tensile strain is sustained by the wrought- 
iron bars, A A, because the pin, P, passes through them as well as the shoul- 
der flange of the head, H. The mouth of the head, H, is so formed as to 
resist sudden and great shocks. 

This self-acting car-coupling has been in use for more than a year on the 
Canandaigua & Elraira Railroad, N. Y., and has been found perfectly prac- 
tical, superior to, and more economical than the ordinary kind. It has also 
been adopted by the New- York & Erie Ptailroad, whose superintendent 
regards it as the only coupling yet brought before him well adapted for all 
the varying conditions and circumstances of railroads. 

More information may be obtained by letter addressed to Mr. Hopkins, at 
at Messrs. Fowlers & Wells, No. 308 Broadway, this city : or W. P. Yates, 
Elmira, N. Y. 



Trap Rock Manufactures. — J. T. Chance, of Birmingham, Englapd, ba8 
taken out a patent for fusing trap rock, and submitting it to severe pressure, 
while in that state, so as to make it into slabs, and other forms. 



oS ENGLISH PATENTS, 



■ TESTING OP CANNON. 

A coRRESPONDENT.of the Charleston Standard writes thus respecting the 
manufacture and testing of cannon at Washington : 

(a-nns are cast in any shape that may be suggested by the process of inves- 
tigation, then fired to test iheir projectile force, then fired until they burst; 
and when the result has been attained, with every care to determine the 
causes and conditions of the experiment, sections of the broken metal are 
carefully drilled out from different parts of the piece, from the muzzle and 
the breech, and the inside and the outside, and each piece is subjected to a 
strain to test its tensile strength. To apply this strain, one end is fastened to 
a frame, and the other is taken hold of by machinery, and the power is so 
magnified that the iron is obliged to part. In the process of these experi- 
ments, one fact has become pretty well established which rather contradicts 
received opinion. It has been supposed that the cannon always cooling from 
without, and the outside contracting, therefore, around the inside still extended 
by heat, would become more brittle, but this, in such tests as have been 
used, would not seem to have been the case. A bar cut from the outside of 
the cannon, will generally part with about the same amount of extension 
as a bar cut from the inside, whether it be taken from a longitudinal or 
vertical section of the gun. Another fact of some importance, however, has 
been established. It is found that the strength of the gun may be much 
increased by taking the weight of metal from the muzzle and casting it 
around the breech. A gun, for instance, has been cast with a view to this 
experiment, which was much thinner at the muzzle than cannons usually are, 
but which was by so much the thicker at the breech, where the charge ex- 
plodes. It was tired some 1200 times, under every conceivable condition 
likely to insure explosion, and when it did burst, the fracture occurred at the 
breech, as is usually the case with cannons. 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 

Smokeless Furnace. — We have during the week inspected an entirely 
new arrangement of steam-boiler furnace in action on a twenty -five horse power 
boiler at the granaries and flour mills of Mr. Edward Gripper, Winchester 
wharf, Southwark. The principle of construction is that of mechanical motion 
applied to the bars, but diflferent to anything yet introduced. Every alternate 
bar is so connected with a cross-piece at each end as to form one entire movable 
frame, which is connected by gearing with the motive power. The motion 
given to it is angular ; first, the bars rise very slowly about an inch 
above the stationary ones ; they then move gradually in a lateral direction 
towards the bridge ; again sink in a vertical direction about an inch below 
the other bars, and then move laterally forward to their original position. 
What are termed the stationary bars are not fixed as usual, but hung in 
such a manner -as exactly to balance the vibrating frame with the load of 
fuel which it has to move, thus taking but little power from the engine to 
keep them in motion. The fuel is fed through a hopper and regulating in- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



59 



clined plain, and the whole is self-acting, requiring bat little attention from the 
stoker. We were informed that this apparatus had been in constant use about 
six months, that no difficulties whatever arose from the mechanical motion; 
there was an entire absence of clinker, nearly perfect combustion of the fuel 
was eff'ected, and during our visit not a particle of smoke was visible from 
the chimney. Mr. Gripper estimates the saving of fuel alone at about 10 
per cent, beside numerous other advantages. — Lo7idon B. B. Journal. 

Water-power Engine. — An hydraulic power engine which works by 
the pressure of a column of water, simplified and originated by Mr. James 
Sinclair, engineer, Stirling, has for some time been applied in several large 
printing-offices in Stirling, Dundee, and other towns in Scotland, having the 
advantage of a high service of water from the hills. The proprietors of the 
Scotsman, published in Edinburgh, have adopted this mode of power, with 
perfect success. The whole machine weighs 6cwts and occupies a horizon- 
tals pace of only 31 by 25 inches, and but 37 inches high. It consists of 
two oscillating cylinders, working similarly to a high-pressure steam-engine, 
the water being admitted through the axis on which they vibrate. It 
works smoothly, is perfectly safe, has great power for its size, and is per- 
fectly manageable ; there is no shock or recoil, and no danger of the pipes 
bursting. The column of water which the company allow, is 150 ft. high, 
which gives sufficient power to work off" 2000 impressions per hour. Wher- 
ever a supply of sufficient height can be obtained, these engines are well 
adapted to a great variety of purposes. 

Ornamenting Wood. — Thos. Clayton, of Oldham, England, has obtained 
a patent for transferring the designs of graining on choice wood, such as ma- 
hogany, rosewood, yew, etc., from engraved metallic heated rollers, or flat 
surfaces, to surfaces of common woods, such as pine, by which process he ob- 
tains a close imitation of choice and expensive woods. 

Carriage-Shafts. — H. A. Genetreau, of Paris, has obtained a patent in 
England for the application of whalebone, or of bamboo cane, to the con- 
struction of carriage-shafts. 

Match Cigars. — W. P. Surgey, of London, has taken out a patent for 
tipping cigars with an igniting composition which is fired by friction. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



A Large Knitting Factory. — The village of Cohoes, on the lower falls of 
the Mohawk, N.Y., is one of the best for manufacturing purposes in our 
country, and has progressed rapidly within the past ten years. A new fac- 
tory for the manufacture of knit-fabrics, such as drawers, etc.. has recently 
been set in operation there, which is said to be the largest one of the kind in 
the world ; it is 395 feet long, 7o wide, and six stories high. It is designed 
to give employment to GOO operatives; the rooms are stated to be well ven- 
tilated, commodious, and cheerful. The name of the new factory is "The 
Mohawk River Mill." The machinery used embraces all of the most recent 
improvements. — Scientijic American. 



60 MISCELLANEOUS. 



New Light. — The Cleveland Plaindealer says: "Last evening we wit- 
nessed the result of a series of experiments made by Dr. Taylor, the celebrated 
clairvoyant physician of this city — the actual production of a brilliant light, 
and of course an intense heat, by the decomposition of water. The apparatus 
for producing this astonishing effect is very simple, and has, as he alleges, 
been constructed entirely under the spiritual direction. It is imperfectly 
made, and yet serves to demonstrate the fact and the principle involved in 
the process. The light is exceedingly brilliant, equal to the best quality of 
gas, and superior in color, it being slightly of an orange tint, and producing 
not the least smoke. A caveat for the discovery has been filed in tlie Patent 
Office in Washington, by a gentleman of this city, who compared the appa- 
ratus with that of Paine, and the two are entirely unlike. Distinguished 
chemists who have examined this invention pronounce it a triumph. We do 
not feel competent to decide any questions that may happen to arise among 
scientific men ; but the result we have actually seen, and verily believe that 
no deception has been resorted to in producing it." 

Minds, when under excitement, however produced, may be directed into 
some new and useful channel. But the professed paternity of this professed 
discovery, does not lead us to place much confidence in it. 

New Mode of Separating Gold from Quartz. — Professor Benjamin 
Harding, of this city, has just patented a new process for separating all the 
gold from quartz, without the agency of amalgam, and which also entirely 
dispenses witli the heavy outlay heretofore incurred for massive crushers. It 
is assumed that by this new process every pxrticle of gold can be taken from 
the quartz. The agency by which, this wonderful result is attained, is of suck 
a nature as to be readily understood by scientific men ; and the benefits which 
are likely to flow from the discovery are too obvious to require remark. — 
iV. Y. Journal of Commerce. 

To Transfer Patterns, Etc. — The Liverpool Journal describes the fol- 
lowing process for transferring the forms of natural objects or the patterns on 
ribbons to paper: 

" Saturate common writing paper with porter, coffee mixed with sugar and 
cream, or the solution of achil. Place the object whose form is to be trans- 
ferred on the prepared paper, and expose them to the action of the sun's rays 
or those of a common fire. 

Various other solutions may be used for the same purpose, as bieliroraate 
of potash, yellow chromate of potash, etc. When figured satin ribbons are 
saturated with such solutions, and exposed to the sun's rays, the raised pat- 
terns are given in beautiful relief in a lighter tint of the same color as the 
ground. 

Fine Cherries. — AVe have been favored with a taste of some beautiful 
cherries, (seven in number,) large, plump, small stone, and well-flavored, from 
a young tree belonging to Mr. R. Ilayes, of Paterson, N. J. They grew in 
two bunches, and were its entire crop. When that tree grows larger, we 
should admire to refresh ourself under its shade. 

Umbrellas. — Calkins & Darrow, 42 Maiden Lane, have a very large 
assortment of umbrellas and parasols, and the reputation of their work is not 
inferior to that of any establishment in the city. Their piices are reason- 
able. 

New Patents. — We have failed to receive some engravings which we 
expected to publish in this number. Our next issue shall compensate for the 
limited amount of such articles in this month's number. 



NEW BOOKS. 61 



NEW BOOKS. 

St. Petersburg ; its People, their Character and Institutions. By Edward Jerr- 
MANN. A. S. Barnes & Co., New- York. 1855. 

This very enterta'ming volume is translated from the German by Frederick Hardman. 
The author was long a resident in St. Petersburg, and lie gives his personal experiences 
with all classes from the Czar to the peasant, and describes their condition, socially, 
politically, and morally. Its views are pro rather than awii-PuUsaian.r^Ilead it by all 
means. 



Principles of Agricultural Chemistrt with Special Reference to the late Re- 
searches MADE IN England. By Justus Von Liebig. John Wiley, New- York. 
1855. 

Dr. Liebig sustains his previous reputation in this new work, and brings his extensive 
observation and experiments to bear with great power oa his theory in relation to min- 
eral manures. It is translated by Prof. Gregory. 



Which: the Right or the Left? New- York: Garrett <i; Co. 12mo, 536 pages. 

This book is deservedly commended on all hands. It will be read extensively, and 
can not fail to do good. It is got up in excellent style. 



The War in the East 

Is the title of a lihrdte by Bishop Southgate, and handsomely executed by Pudney 
<fe Russel, New-York, in which much information is given in a small space, in relation to 
the causes of the present war, and the relative position of all the parties concerned. We 
have read it with great interest, and commend it to all. 



Blanche Dear wood ; a Tale of Modern Life. Second edition. Bunce &, Brother, New- 
York. 1855. 407 pages. 

This book is commended by our brethren of the press, universally, and we cheerfully 
join in with them. A second edition is already issued — an approval of the public mind, 
rarely given so emphatically as in this instance. It is also handsomely printed and well 
bound. 



Star Papers; or, Experiences of Art and Nature. By Henkt Ward Eee'Jiiek. 
New-York: J. C. Derby. 1855. 

This is an after-dinner book, written in the shade of trees, etc.^ and is filled with the 
offhand thoughts and sentiments of the author, clothed in all the strength and exuber- 
ance of fiu;ure arid fancy for which he is so distinguished. It is a printed form of the 
author. There is much in it that will please every intelligent reader, and some that 
many will disapprove. 



We had intended to notice some capital books recently issued by J. P. Jewett &i Co, 
Boston, but are obhged to defer them to a future opportunity. 



62 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM MAY 1, 1855, TO JUNE 5, 1855. 



Philip Bacon, Simsbury, Conn., improved tape 
fuze. 

Geo. W. Brown, Galesburg, III., improvement 
in Beed plantirs. 

Alex. C. Blount, Mount Pleasant, Ala., improve- 
ment in preparing turpKutine for distillation. 

Jiio. T. Brupn, New-York, improvtment in stone 
and marble saws. 

Dexter H. Chamberlain, West-Roxbury, Mass., 
improvemeD( in lumps lor burning fluid. 

Robert Crichton, Buchanan, Pa., improvement 
in machines tor making bolts. 

Thos. Daugherty, Erie, Pa., improvement in 
hoot crimps. 

William Fowler, New- York, for faucet. 

D. H. Fox and John Fink, Reading, Pa., im- 
provement on rairoad car ventilators. 

Benjamin Ilirdinge. New-York, improvement 
in apparatus for dissolving silica. 

Benjamin Hardince, Ntvv-York, improvement 
in facing beds lor grinding artiflcial granite, etc. 

Simon Ingersoll, Greenwich, Conn., machine for 
sawing or ll-Uing trees. 

A. Lempeke, Pleasant Mount, Pa., mode of 
checking wind mills. 

Henry Link, Little Falls, improved propeller. 

T. N. Luptoa, Winchester, Va., improveaient in 
grain harvesters. 

J. H. Manney, Rockford, III., improvement in 
grain and grass harvester. 

Henry P. Odiorne, Phi'alelphia, Pa, improve- 
ment in guides for hemming eording, 

Wm. Paule. Alexandria, improvement in vonti- 
latinaf railroad cars. 

Lyman E. Payne, Yazoo City, improvement in 
window sar^hes. 

Gilbert Ei'-hards, Cunningham, Mass., improve- 
ment lu sp^rk arresters. 

Ezra Ripley, Troy, bi lance-gate faucet. 

A. V/. Roberts, Uarlford, Conn., nozzle for hose 
pipes. 

W. M. and .1. C. Rhodes, Taunton, Mass., ma- 
chine lor leathering taeks. 

C. H. Rhode, N. Y., improvement in sash sup- 
porter. 

Josiah J. Sherman, Albany, improvement in 
processes for preparing liquids for aiding diges- 
tion. 

Thos. J. Sloan, New- York, improvement in appa- 
ratus lor regulating supply of water to steam 
bi'ilers. 

Jno. Stowell, Charlestown, Mass., improvement 
in flre-aruis. 

Aiidrew .f. Suffern, Suffern, improved machine 
for rolling railroad cars, 

Eden C. Tavener and Oscar Nesmilh, Hamilton, 
Va., imprriveraenc in jjloughs. 

Grant U. Turner, Cuyahoga Falls, 0., improve- 
ment in smut machines. 

Joel Webster, Brooklyn, improvement in silver- 
ing looking-glasses. 

Henry Whitney, Jr., Cambridge, Mass., improv- 
ed inkstand. 



Andrew W. Wilson, Piqua, ()., shingle machine. 

Francis A. Wo'ff, Ripley, Mise., method of saw- 
ing a log by its own weight. 

George B. Woodrufl' and JamesN. P«Imer,New- 
Haven, Conn., improvement ia gas regulators. 

Wm. H. Zahn, New- York, assignor to Frederick 
Renttr, same place, improvement in plaiting and 
twisting cord. 

Ilendrick V. Duryea, Oswego, assignor to "The 
Oswego River Starch Coinpan.\," improvement in 
apparatus for manufacturing starch. 

Thomas Hooker and Wm. D. Beaumont, New- 
Orleans, assignors to Allred A. Pray, Nathaniel 
M. Harris, E. C. Lnmoyne, James R. Jennings. 
George E. Kirk, and Lfiwrenre A. Kirk, all of 
same place, improvement in artificial fuel, 

John Taggart, Roxbnry, assignor to himself and 
Nehemiah Hunt, Boston, Mass., machine for saw- 
ing wedges or shingles. 

John W. Adams, New-York, improvement in 
metallic circular plate springs. 

David S. Barber, Almond Thompson, and De 
Al^eroy Thompson, Pittstield, Vi., improvement 
in shighs. 

Job R. Barry, Philadelphia, improved ventilat- 
ing and cooling apparatus. 

Francis Bowmim, iSomerville, Mass., improve- 
ment in rosin stills. 

Henry E. Canfield, New- York, improvement in 
double-acting spring hinges. 

Handel S. Chapin, Glover, Vt., improvement in 
window safh fixtures. 

Chas. T. Hester, New- York, improvement in 
connecting clamps for the plates of galvanic bat- 
teries. 

John Chilcott and James Scungeour, Brooklyn, 
improvement in sewing machines. 

Jacob A. Couover, New-York, machine for split- 
ting wood. 

Henry W. Dickinson, Hartford, Conn., improve- 
ment in cording guide for sewing machines. 

George Dixon, Lafayette, Ind., velocitrait lubri- 
cator. 

EzraPabrney, Mount Morris, III., improved 
hommony machine. 

Francis P. Hart, Chandlersville, Pa., gauge for 
slitting lumber. 

Lorton Holliday, Rogersville, N. Y., mitre and 
beveling machine 

W. II. Howard, Philadelphia, improvement in 
condensers for fibrous materials. 

Thos. J. Knapp, Philadelphia, adjustable tenon 
ing tool. 

David Mathew, Philadelphia, improvement in 
spark arresters. 

Purches Miles, Hartford, improvement in cur- 
tain fixtures. 

A. H. Morrel, Marlin, Texas, improvement in 
cotton seed planters. 

Ebenezer W. Nichols, Worcester, mode of secu- 
ring brace-bits in their sockets. 

Jno. H , James M., nnd H. Q. Thompson. Hol- 
dernes^s, N. H , improved nuchine for polishing 
the solesi of bools and shoes. 



LIST OF PATEjSTS, 



63 



Alexander H. Niles,Georgetown, N. Y., improve- 
ment m carringes. 

Francis Peibody, Salem, Mass., method for regu- 
lating wiiidinills. 

Jno. M. Terkins, New- York, improved mode of 
attaching hubs to uxles. 

Geo. W. Phipps, Philadelphia, improvement in 
window shutters. 

Jno. K. Root, Hartford, improved slide lanies. 

S. J. Russel, Chicago, hot air furnace. 

James H. Stiiiison, Baltimore, improvement in 
butter coolers. 

Wm. McK. Thornton, Pottsville, improvement 
in michine lor creasing the edges of leather straps. 

Jeremiah 0. Tilton, Sanbornton Bridge, N. H., 
improvement in temples for looms. 

Leonard Tilton, New-York, device for adjusting 
planing machinery. 

Benj. B. Webster, Boston, improvement in 
spring curtain rollers. 

David Weieer, Milwaukee, improved composi- 
tion for filling in fireproof safes. 

Robert Wicks, New-Yori, improved furnace 
grate-bar. 

Robert J. Marcher, Bloomingtoa Grove, N. Y., 
assignee of .1. S. Barber, Boston, fllass., machine 
for cutting irregular forms. 

Henry Terry, Plymouth, Conn., assignee of 
John M. Heck, nf same place, improvement in 
dressing sewing thread. 

Samuel Huffman and C. D. May, assignees of 
Samuel Huffm m, Charleston, III., improved mode 
of iiidi>;atiu^ the number of yea and nay balls, in 
machine for taking votes in legis^lative bodies. 

Jno. Taggarl and Julius S. Shailer, Roxbury, 
assignees of John Taggart, aforesaid, fluid metre. 

Benjamin S. Nicholson, administrator of John 
P. Niijholson, deceased, late of Davidsonville, Md., 
improvenieot in giain harvesters. 

Arad Woodworth 3d, of Boston, improvement 
in machinery lor spinning. 

M. G. Hubbard, New-York, improvement in 
springs for carriages. 

Geo. B. Ambler, Trumbull, Conn., improve- 
ment iu wooden saddle trees. 

Lucius B. Bradly, Watertown, Conn., improved 
rat-trap. 

Thomns G. Boone, Brooklyn, improvement in 
steam boilers. 

Leonard Campbell, Columbus, Miss., improve- 
ment iu cotton gins. 

Lewi.s VV. Colver, Louisville, improvement in 
seed planters. 

Robert Cushman, Pawtucket, improvement in 
£top motion of knitting machines. 

D. W Clark aud H. Gray, Bridgeport, Conn., 
improvement in carnage wheels. 

John Chase, Jr., Pequonoek, Conn., improve- 
ment in brick presses. 

Rufus K. CbanJler, Richmond, improvement 
in wristbands of bliirts. 

Daniel Drawbauga, Eberly Jlills, Pa., stave ma- 
chine. 

Michael B. Dyott, Philadelphia, improved warm* 
air furnace. 

Charles A. Durgin, New-York, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Wrifiht Duiyea, New Y''ork, improvement in 
umbrellas. 

Marcus D. Du Bois, Newburgh, improvements in 
valve gear for oscillating engines. 

Henry Gross, Tiffin, Uliio, machine for cutting 
screws on bedstead rails. 

Henry Gross, Tiffin, Ohio, improvement in fire- 
arms. 

Jonathan Haines, Pekin, 111., improvement in 
grain harvesters. 



Chase B. Horton, Elmira, improvement of Lul- 
lers of buckwheat, 

J. W, Hooglaud, of Jersey City, tree-nail ma- 
chine. 

M. G. Hubbard, Now-York, improvement in 
carriage springs. 

Isaac Krebs, Winchester, Va,, improvement in 
■whiffletrees. 

A, B. Latta, Cincinnati, improved carriage' foi 
steam fire-engines. % 

Charles B. Loveless, Boston, improved air-heal- 
ing cook stoves. 

Henry B Lum, Sandusky, improvement in farm 
gates. 

David Mathcw, Philadelphia, improvement in 
spark arresters. 

Robert J. Marcher, Salisbury Mills, N. Y., tool 
for grooving mouldings. 

Jacob Marshall, Reading, improvement in lubri- 
cating compounds. 

Jason C. Osgood, Troy, N. Y., improvement in 
submarine exca\atint; machines. 

Henry Pearce, Cincinnati, improvement in cord- 
age machinery. 

J. Reymen, Dubuque, improvement in fences. 

Thos. F Rowland, Jas. Stephens, aud Wm. H. 
MasoQ, Brooklyn, improved appaialus for drying 
grain. 

T. J. W. Robertson, New- York, improvement 
in sewing mnchines 

Edgar M. Stevens and Jos. B.Crosby, Boston, 
aud Jos. W. Pearson, Winchester, Mass., im- 
provement in seed planters. 

John Tucker, Norway, Me., improvement in ox 
yokes. 

Geo. Turner, Edinborough, Pa,, mandrel for cut- 
ting tapering sticks. 

John Tyler, West-Lebanon, N. H., curbs for 
water wheels. 

Jonathan Whipple, Jr , Milford, Mass., improv- 
ed self-acting nipper bl"ck. 

Leroy S. V\ bite, Chiciipee, and Lewis White, 
Hartford, Conn., improvement in telegraphic key 
apparatus. 

Caleb Winfgar, Union Springs, N. Y., method 
of closing and opening gate.s, elc. 

John H. Wygant, Hackeiisack, N. J., improve- 
ment in spikes. 

Linus Yale, Newport, N. Y., improvement in 
bank locks. 

Jonas B. Aiken, Franklin, N. H., assignor to 
Jonas B. Aiken and Herrick Aiken, Franklin, 
aforesaid, improvement in knitting mucliines. 

J. S. Baiden, New-Haven, assignor to Uliver 
Snow, and G. B. Farnam, Mendeu, Conn., water 
metre. 

F. S. Coburn, Ipswich, assignor to Rugsles, 
Noarse, Mason & Co., Worcester, Mass., im- 
provement in screw wrenches. 

Abrabam Gessner, Wiiiiainsburgh, assignor, 
throu^jb others, to the " North American Kero- 
sene Gas Light Company, '' improvement in burn- 
ing fluids. 

Lucien E. Hicks, Boston, assignor to himself and 
Geo. N. Davis, Boston, aforesaid, improvement in 
hose couplings. 

Joseph Bon.', Jr., Philadelphia, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Thomas Arnold, Mobile, improvement in invalid 
bedsteads. 

John Avery, Lowell, Mas?., improvement in 
shuttle motion of looms. 

Charles F. Brown, Warren, R. I., improvement 
in cartridge. 

Samuel W. Brown, Lowell, improvement in gas 
regulators. 

E. Daniels, New-York, improvement in invalid 
bi'dstead-". 

E. VV. Goodale, Clinton, Mass., improved ma- 
chine lar making papt^r bugs. 

John Henderson, Horscneads, improvement in 
hub and axle faslenings. 

Wm. W. Hubbard and David Mathew, Phila- 
delphia, improvement m vapor engines. 



64 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Thos. Foster Thornton, Buffalo, assignor to 
George A. Prince and TLomas Stephenson, Buf- 
fulo, aloresiiul, inipruvtd swell for rne.lodeons. 

lloinerHoliaiid, Wesifield, iMass, improvement 
in processes for treating auriferous and argenti- 
ferous sulpiiurets. 
Dean S. Howard. I.yonsdale, N.Y., water wheel. 

Joseph Hollely, Brooklyn, fluid faucet. 
Kdwai^G. IJyilc, Carnptown, N. J., improve- 
ment in roe construction of ear trumpets. 

John N. King, Muriay, N. Y., improvement in 
swing bridges. 

T. J. Kiiidleberger, Springfield, O., improve- 
ment in cider itii Is. 

Gabriel Leverich, Wellsburgh, N. Y., apparatus 
for paging boolis. 

William Laridsdell, Memphis, improvement in 
tmnyant propellers. 

George W. La Baw. Jersey City, mitre machine. 

William Maurer, New-Vork, improvement in 
door locks. 

Thos. S. Minnes.s, Meadville, Penn., improve- 
ment in seed planters. 

': enry Mellish, Walpole, improved shoe for 
grain mills. 

Erasmus A. Pond, Rutland, Vt., improvement 
in pill-mal\ing michines. 

Silas S.Puinam,Boston,improvement in forging 
machines. 

Francis Peabody, Salem, improved grass har- 
vester. 

E. Truman Prentiss, Philadelphia, improve- 
ment in lubricating compounds. 

Henry A. iioseiitbul, New-York, improvement 
in uterine supporters. 

David Stoddard, Cincinnati, improvement in 
cut-off valves. 

Jacob C. .-clilough, Easton, Pa., improvement 
ill arrate bars for furnaces. 

Webster Shitibies, '1 liomaston. Me., assignor 
to himself and Edwiird li'Brien, of same place, 
improvement for retfing topsails. 

Isaac M. Singer, New-York, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Darnel VV. cjiiell, Woousocket, improvement in 
looms. 

Alfred B. Seymour, Claverack, N. Y., improve- 
ment in machines for helically creasing sheet 
metal pipes. 

Kicbaid A. Ptr.itton, Philadelphia, improvement 
in chairs for dentists' use. 

Ohapin Street, Barre Centre, improvement in 
grain drills. 

Francis Fiizpatrick, Cincinnati, improvement 
iM straw cutters. 

J. B. Terry, Hartford, improvement in pin-stick- 
ing machines. 

Harvey Webster, and Alonzo Webster, Mont- 
jiclicr, impnivtriient in whilletrees. 

Will. D. Wilson, Kichmond, Va, improved corn 
grinder and cru.shcr. 

Milton U. V\liipple, Charlestovpn, Mass., im- 
provement ill prepiiring wood for paper pulp. 

E. D. Williams, Wilmington, Del., improvement 
ill vehich.s. 

Couriland Wilson, and Wm. Moore, Jr., Yard- 
1','yvillc, Pa., improvement in mowing machines. 

.loseph Welsh, Philadelphia, improvement in 
looms. 

Sigismnnd Beer, New- York, a^signrr to Lewis 
IVuihtwanger and Sigitmund Beer, New-York, 
a oresaid, improvement in de-vulcanizing India 
rubber. 

Aildison Capron, of Atlloboro', assignor to him- 
Kf-if, Jo.«. S. Dennis, Somerville, and Hervey M. 
liictiHids, Atileboro', improvement in sewing ma- 
chines. 

Alfred Swinele, Boston, assignor to Elmer 
Tovvnsend, Boston, aforesaid, improvements in 
hand pfgeintr machines. 

Lucieii E. HickH, Boston, assignor to himself 
and Hitam D. Hall, Biverly, improvement in pads 
fur hernial trusseij. 



Francis Walle, Bethlehem, Pa., machine for 
making paper bags. 

Abiaham Gesner, Williamshurgb, assignor to 
''the North American Kerosene Gas Light Co.," 
im|irovement in burning fluid compounUs. 

Leander R. Sireeter, Lowell, assignor to him- 
self and Ira Leonard, of same place, improvement 
in amalgamating the precious m tals. 

James Albro, LlizHbethiown, N. J., for im- 
provement in registering blocks for printing oil 
cloths. 

Lucien A. Butts, Cuba, N. Y., for improvement 
in seed planters. 

Daniel Biocher and Geo. M. Blocher, Cumber- 
land, for improvement iu burning brick. 

Ernest Uahr, Rochester, Ind , for improved ship 
ventilator. 

Thomas Champion, Washington, for improve- 
ment in feeding water to steam boilers. 

P. J. Coogan, Charleston, for improved arrange- 
ment of drains for sewers. 

Chas. H. Dana, West-Lebanon, N. H., for im- 
provement in seed-planters. 

Lewis VV. Clover, Louisville, for improvement 
in washing machines. 

William H. Degge.=, Washington, improvement 
in the soak pits of brick machines. 

William H. Degges, Washington, for improve- 
ment in brick machines. 

Andrew Dietz and John G. Dunham, Earitan, 
N. J., for improvement in reaping and mowing 
machines. 

Tiiomas Estiack, of Philadelphia, for improved 
mode of securing washboards to walls. 

William Fisher, Philadelphia, for method of 
composing music. 

Franklin J. French, Whittingham, Vt., for im- 
provement in boot jacks. 

Luther Hill, Stonehara, Mass., for improved 
machine for skiving hoot and shoe counters. 

M. G. liubbard, New-Vork, for improvement 
in grain and grass harvester.^. 

Lansing E. Hopkins, Brooklyn, forimprovement 
in the process of manuf;icturiiig hats. 

William R. Jackson, Baltimore, for improve- 
ment in floating cabins fur steam and other ves- 
sels. 

Edwin A. Jeffrey, Corning, N. Y., for double- 
acting pump. 

Harrison Loring, Boston, for improvement in 
apparatus for bleaching rags. 

William S. Loughborough, Rochester, for im- 
provement in fastenings for carpets. 

Samuel J. M'Dougall, Brooklyn, for improve- 
ment in hydro-carbon vapor apparatus. 

Daniel Minthorn, New- York, for improved brace 
for supporting garments. 

Silvanus Perkins, Pittsburgh, improvement in 
wagon wheels. 

Andrew Rankin, Newark, for improvement 
in the manufacture of hats. 

Samuel J.H. Smith, Boston, improved portfolio. 

George S. G. Spence, Boston, improved furnace 
for warming builijings. 

Joseph D. Spilkr, Concord, bench rest. 

Harlon H. Thayer, Sandwich, improvement in 
machine for kneading clay. 

O. B. Tomlinson, Athens, Pa., for improvement 
in the manufacture of ornamental felt cloth. 

Henry Webster, Beetown, Wis., for improve- 
ment in steam-engine regulators. 

Hiram Wheeler, Boston, improvement in gas 
regulators, 

Wm. C. Whipple and Wm. C. Bowe, Westville, 
Ct. for improved inelodeon. 

Wm. Whiteside and John Shin, Philadelphia, 
for improvement in looms. 

George W. Zcigler, TUiin, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in boot coupling machines. 

Wm. Darker, Jr., of West Philadelphia, assign- 
or to J. B. Thompson, Philadelphia, for improve- 
ment in ring-spinning frames. 

Anthony PuUak, Philadelphia, improvement in 
wrouglit-iron beam and girders. 



f l)e |l0iii|l), tl)e foant, fliiHlje ^m\l 



Vol. VIII. AUGUST, 1855. No. 2. 



GREAT TELEGRAPH ENTERPRISE. 

The sciences are mutual commentators on each other. Every, new dis- 
covery, in any department, tends to elucidate or correct previously-existing 
theories in some collateral science. So it is in the practical application of 
science or mechanics. Every step gained throws increased light over the 
horizon. The knowledge of forces, projectiles, etc., affects and modifies the 
forms and methods of promoting locomotion of merchandise and of persons. 
Improvements in this leads the way to railroads. These opened new trades, 
and greatly increased the traffic in merchandise already established. 
The telegraph is invented, and instantaneous communication is opened 
from the extremes of a continent, dispensing with much of the older forms 
of correspondence. But this is not the final result. There is no such 
thing as j?«a^ result in scientific attainments, or in their practical applications. 
The next movement is, continents are united, and already there is electric 
communication between London and the Crimea. Even this is not enough. 
Now the great ocean must be crossed by these eloquent wires. Man not 
only says to the ocean, bear up for us our rich freights, and to the winds send 
them to distant countries, but it now says to the wind we need not your aid 
in this work There is a power at our command, wrapt up and asleep in a 
cask of fresh water, far more serviceable than your fickle breezes. And to- 
day he is ready to say, even to the wide and pathless ocean, you can form 
no barrier to our constant and instantaneous communication with the other 
side of the flood. We can hear what is hourly transpiriag in the old world, 
notwithstanding the thunder of your mighty roar. Yofl cannot drown the 
small voice of the telegraph. But we are running wil/1. We pass at once 
to the simple narrative of what is done, or is doing, in tie great enterprise. 

For a year past notices have occasionally appeared i/i the papers of a com- 
pany formed in this city to carry a telegraph across tbfe ocean. But the pro- 
ject seemed so wild and visionary that few believed' it would be seriously 
attempted. The design was vast and grand, no dou(»t, but it was impracti- 
cable. Many even doubted the existence of such a company. They thought 
it all a hoax, and others, when assured of the fact, siook their heads and ut- 
tered wise rema'ks on the transparent folly of sinj^ng money to the bottom 
of the ocean. It was literally throwing it into tlv sea. We are at length 
enabled to remove all mystery from the matter, ^id to state on the best au- 
thority what plans have been formed, and how U' they are advanced toward 
accomplishment. A little more than one year ?go a few individuals formed 
the daring project of carrying into execution this dream of science — this 

VOL. VIII. 5 



CS GREAT TELEGRAPH ENTERPRISE, 

scheme wliicb sanguine spirits had hoped for, but few believed possible. 
Their first step was to obtain a charter from Newfoundland. For this pur- 
pose three of their number were dispatched to St. John's, where, after weeks 
of negotiation with the Government, they succeeded in obtaining from the 
Province an exclusive charter for fifty years to build a telegraph to or across 
the island or the waters adjacent thereto or any of its dependencies. As Lab- 
rador is one of these, this charter virtually gives them the whole range of 
the continent. Further to encourage the enterprise, the Government agreed 
to pay £5000 towards constructing a bridle-path across the islands, which 
was necessary for the use of the telegraph, and to guarantee the interest on 
£50,000 for twenty years, and also to give fifty square miles of land, to be 
selected anywhere on the island — all this on its completion to St. John's, to 
which were to be added fifty more square miles of land if it should be carried 
across the Atlantic. 

They obtained also from Prince Edward's Island an exclusive charter for 
fifty years. This Province gave 1000 acres of land. At the same time, to 
complete their right of way, they purchased a charter which had been previ- 
ously obtained in New-Brunswick, and have since obtained one from Can- 
ada, with full liberty to cross their territory at any point that should be neces- 
sary. They also made a valuable agreement with Prof. Morse for the use of 
his patents and all renewals. This gentleman, who is the highest authority 
on the subject in the world, was sanguine of the success of the enterprise, and 
soon became personally connected with it. The Company was formally or- 
ganized in May, 1854, by the choice of Peter Cooper, Marshall O. Ptoberts, 
Cyrus W. Field, and Chandler White, Esqrs., as Directors. Peter Cooper 
was chosen President ; Moses Taylor, Treasurer, and Professor Morse, Elec- 
trician. From these names it will be seen that the business is in the hands 
of men who, to say the least, are not generally regarded as visionary, but as 
those who look far ahead and are apt to carry through what they have once 
begun. 

The Company immediately commenced operations. They at once J)ur- 
chased the steamer Victoria, and sent her to Newfoundland with an engineer . 
and assistants. A road was to be cut across the whole extent of the island, 
four hundred miles, through a wilderness seldom trodden by man. In this 
work about six hundred men were employed the whole of the season. It 
now appeared thtt the Government of Newfoundland, while granting a char- 
ter most liberal anl honorable to themselves, had yet acted wisely for the in- 
terests of their owr Province. A new spring was given to industry, treas- 
ures were found wlich before were not known to exist. Last summer the 
Company employed three mineralogists to explore the country, who discov- 
ered two mines of ccal, one of copper, one of lead, and also quarries of slate 
and alabaster, and v«ry valuable traces of ship-timber. This will develop 
rapidly the trade of tie island, which before has been confined almost wholly 
to its fisheries. 

So far all went well, The work was begun and advancing successfully. 
Less than a hundred m'les of submarine cable were needed to stretch across 
to Cape Breton, and whn this was laid and the line completed to St. John's, 
there would be direct tepgraphic communication east from New- York about 
twelve hundred miles. Ibis certainly was a long stride toward Europe. But 
now came the great difficilty. They had reached the rocks of Newfound- 
land, but there before then was the mighty ocean, raging wildly around 
those cliffs, as untamed as vhen Columbus first crossed the sea. To advance 
into these deep waters was the next and the perilous step. Proposals had 



GREAT TELEGRAPH ENTERPRISE. 67 

been received from a European company to unite with thera iu the enter- 
prise, and in January last one of the directors sailed for England to complete 
the negotiat'ons. 

In this he was entirely successful. In London he formed a contract with 
the Transatlantic T«legraph Company, composed of English and French cap- 
italists, whereby the latter engaged to construct and lay down, at their own 
expense and risk, a submarine cable extending from Ireland to St. John's, 
Newfoundland, and to have it completed on or before the 22d day of Janu- 
ary, 1858. The two companies, European and American, each will own the 
line which it constructs, but their contract obliges thera to operate in connec- 
tion with each other, to the exclusion of all other lines, for the period of fifty 
years, which is the limit of the American company's charter. 

At the same time, a favorable contract was made for the submarine cable 
to connect Newfoundland with Cape Breton. This will be seventy-four miles 
long, and is to be ready on the last day of this month, when it will be ship- 
ped direct to Newfoundland. . The steamer Victoria sailed a few days since 
for St. John's, with Mr. Ellis, the chief engineer, and his. assistants. The 
company confidentially expect to have telegraphic communication established 
between New- York and St. John's in the course of this summer. All the nec- 
essary harbor and wharf accommodations have been secured at that port for 
the steamers which are expected to call there on their trips between Ameri- 
ca and Europe. St. John's is about two days nearer to England than Hali- 
fax. We have therefore every reason to believe that in three months the old 
world and the new will be within a week's hail of each other — and that within 
three years the two hemispheres will be in instantaneous communication. 

We are aware that some will read this with a smile of incredulity. All 
the contracts in the world will not convince them that such a work will ever 
be achieved. Though the bond be sealed, signed, and delivered, yet neither 
Englishmen nor Americans can do what is beyond all humafi power. To 
these evil prophets we may add a word to show that the enterprise is not so 
impossible as they are wont to believe. The first thing to be noted is the 
bed of the ocean along the track of the proposed route. Says Lieut. Maury : 
"There is at the bottom of the sea between Cape Race in Newfoundland and 
Cape Clear in Ireland, a remarkable steppe, which is already known as the 
Telegraphic plateau. The great circle distance between these two shore lines 
is 1600 miles, and the sea along this route is probably nowhere more than 
10,000 feet deep." That is not too deep to be reached by the cable sunk in 
the waters, and yet deep enough to be out of the way of anchors and ice- 
bergs. This seems like a special provision of nature to favor this great work. 
A chain of uplands lies under the sea as if on purpose to bear up the chain 
of intelligence across the deep. On that broad plateau is to be laid this 
mighty coil — this serpent winding around the earth, and pressing it together 
in its folds. The bottom of the sea is found to be cot sharp rock nor preci- 
pice, but soft, shelly sand, into which the telegraphic line may sink and be- 
come imbedded for ages. 

Next as to the material employed. To speak of a ioire would convey a 
false idea. For though there are several small copper wires, these are encased 
in gutta-percha, and around thera is wound a coil of heavy wire, forming alto- 
gether a huge iron cable, strong enough to hold fast any ship-of-war in the 
world. We have at our office specimens of that used under the British Chan- 
nel and under the Mediterranean, The cable purchased for the line from 
Cape Breton to Newfoundland weighs over five tons to the mile, and that '<■ 
cross the Atlantic will be much stronger. 



68 MAGNIFICENT FAETMING. 

But the most triumphant proof that this thing is possible, is the fact that 
it has been done. A telegraph lias been in operation four years from England 
to France. Others stretch to Belgium and Holland. The last steamer 
brought news that a line of 500 miles has just been laid under the Black 
Sea, by which the Crimea is brought into hourly communicaLion with Lon- 
don. Another is now being laid irom France to the Island of Sardinia, and 
thence across to Algeria. The man who has acliieved the greatest of these 
triumphs is Mr. John W. Brett, of London. This gentleman is now interested 
in the Transatlantic Telegraph Company, and undertakes to belt the ocean. 
With a full knowledge of the immense labor and cost, and of all hazards, he 
still dares to promise to bind the Atlantic, as he has already bound the Med- 
iterranean. 

Nor is the difficulty greatly increased by the length of the line. Doubts 
have been expressed whether an electric current could be sent such a distance. 
It was said it would not go more than five or six hundred miles, and projects 
were devised for carrying a telegraph around by way of Greenland and Ice- 
land. But these doubts are now set at rest by recent experiments of Prof. 
Faraday. He declares the thing perfectly practicable. The only drawback 
to his happiness in the discovery was that it would occupy an appreciable 
time in the passage. He seemed in this a Utile disappointed. When asked 
" how long it would take to pass from London to New-York ?" he answered, 
'• possibly one second." This is not quite as quick as we expected, but on the 
whole we think that will do ! 



MAGNIFICENTFARMING. 

The following very interesting account of the large and excellent farm of 
.John Sigerson & Brother, near St. Louis, is copied from the Valley Farmer. 
There are much larger farms in the Union, but none, perhaps, where there 
is so profitable a combination of diversified crops — and the enterprise and 
energy of the Sigersons are worthy of imitation. 

The Sigerson farm is situated south of the River de Peres, in what is 
known as the Carondelet Common Fields, and consists of one thousand acres, 
all under fence and nearly all in cultivation. When the commencement was 
made there, about ten years ago, the whole tract was covered with a stout 
growth of black jack, hickory, hazel, etc. The Gravois runs through the 
entire tract, diagonally from south-east to north-west, affording abundance of 
water for stock. The ground is quite undulatitig, and on it are found numer- 
ous sink-holes through which the water drains off by subterranean passages 
in the limestone ledge which underlies the whole section into the Mississippi 
river. The soil is a rich, sandy loam, very deep, upon a clay sub-soil, and on 
being worked becomes very friable, and is easily pulverized. It is admirably 
adapted to the growth of fruit, and also, corn, wheat, potatoes — in fact every- 
thing cultivated in this region. 

They have now an apple and peach orchard in bearing, of over IGO acres, 
embracing some 40,000 trees ; they have 5,000 pear trees in bearing, besides 
nectarines, apricots, cherries, plums, quinces, etc., in great niunbers. They 
have 200 acres of meadow, GO acres of wheat, the finest we have seen this 
season ; GO acres of oats ; 100 acrts devoted to the nursery, in which they 



MAGNIFICENT FARMING. 69 

have this year planted about &ve bushpls of apple seeds, and thirty bushels 
of peach stones ; they have in it 50,000 budded peach tree,*, which will be 
ready for sale this fall; a larger quantity of apples; 300,000 grape cuttings ; 
30,000 evergreens, besides large quantities of quinces, pears, etc., as well as 
ornamental and shade trees, roses, dahlias, and every variety of hardy and 
exotic flower and shrub. They have twenty-five acres of strawberries, from 
■which they have daily gathered from one to two hundred gallons of straw- 
beii'ies for two weeks past. 

Besides supplying a large amount of food for the St. Louis market, the 
Messrs. Sigerson are intending this year to send large quantities to Chicago, 
Milwaukie, Galena and other cities north of us. By our railroad fncilities 
this can now be accomplished so as to contribute vastly to the comfort of our 
northern neighbors, and be a source of profit to the enterprising men engaged 
in it. They expect to have from twenty to thirty thousand bushels of peaches 
to dispose of this season. 

The force employed to carry on this vast concern, varies, according to the 
season, from thirty to fifty men. They have residing on their place about 
eight men who have families, to whom they furnish a comfortable home, a 
garden plat, fire-wood, pasturage for a cow, and pay them twenty dollars per 
month, the men boarding themselves. Single men are boarded by the pro- 
prietors, and paid from twelve to fifteen dollars per month. 

We were much interested in the appearance of the giant growth of wheat, 
in the midst of large trees ; in the natural blue grass pasture ; the nine mile? v-^ 
of Osage Orange hedge, most of it a perfect barrier to all kinds of intruders ; 
the magnificent evergreen hedge ; the luxuriant clover, and above all, the 
neatness and order characterizing the whole concern, in which respec^ a vast 
improvement has been made since our previous visits. Nor ought we to omit 
to mention the valuable stock belonging to the farm. We particularly 
noticed four two year's old heifers brought from Kentucky — animals that 
cannot easily be beaten, also a pair of mares heavy with foal, which were 
really splendid animals. We hoticed many other fine animals, which we 
cannot particularize. 

The Sigersons are firm believers in the efficacy of deep ploughing and thor- 
ough cultivation, and act upon the principle that whatever is worth doing at 
all, is worth doing well*; accordingly they put the plough down to its beam, 
and frequently put in the spade so as to pulverize fully two feet deep. The 
weeds are also, we notice, kept in subjection. 

The success of this enterprise, so highly creditable to the proprietors, and of 
which our city and State have just cause to be pround, has demonstrated one 
thing from which the people of both the north and the south should receive 
instruction. It is often said by over-zealous persons at the north, who know 
but little about the actual condition of things in the Slave States, that white 
laborers cannot live in a slave community ; that the tendenc}' of the institu- 
tion of slavery is to drive away all inteUigent free laborers, etc., etc. ; yet 
here is, in a Slave State, the largest farm in the Union, and one which is 
making more money for its owners than any other, operated entirely by free 
labor, there never having been a slave employed on the place, and a better, 
more respectable and intelligent set of men cannot be found employed in any 
place in the Union. 

One thing more we would notice in concluding our remarks upon this 
establishment, and that is over the entrance gate to the place, is placed a 
sign to the effect that no business visitors are admitted on the Sabbath. The 
Scripture says, " They that honor me I will honor." 



70 MAGNIFICENT FARMING. 

Mr. n. F. French gives the following account in the New-England Farmer 
of the Farm of Mr. Darius Claggett : 

Good husbandr}' and energetic farming are not limited to New-England 
men. I yesterday accepted an invitation from a leading merchant of this 
city, Mr. Darius Claggett, to visit his farm on the Rock vi lie plank-road, 
about five miles from Washington. His family reside on the firm in sum- 
mer, and Mr. Claggett himself comes to his city business every day except 
Sunday and Friday. 

I have rarely seen a place which gave so decided evidence of good taste 
and good judgment, and withal, of such preserving faith in our good moiher 
earth, as this. Six years ago Mr. Claggett purchased three hundred acres of 
land, mostly covered with a small growth of yellovp pine, entirely unimproved. 
In this short period of time he has cleared and put under the plough one hun- 
dred and fifty acres, a large part of which is covered with a choice variety of 
fruit trees of all descriptions that the climate will produce. His trees ap- 
pear to be judiciously selected, carefully pruned and protected, and making 
a growth far beyond what I have ever seen at the North. He has already 
2500 apple trees, 450 pears, 1600 peaches, 150 apricots, and as many plums. 

The apple trees are set forty feet apart, and the land among them planted 
with wheat in drills, with bare strips of a ^aw feet in width along the rows. 
They are making generally a better growth than we get in New-Hampshire. 
I saw upon them marks of our old enem}^, the borer, and far worse marks of 
the seventeen-year-locusts of 1852. According to the theory, they will not 
be here again until 1869, by which time our friend will, it is hoped, have 
been 2)aid by the fruit of his trees for all his labors. He said that when the 
locusts had possession of his trees, he could scrape from the body of a newly- 
set apple tree a pint of the insects at opce ! His pear trees, however, far 
excel his apples. Indeed, I have never seen so large a number of pears to- 
gether that appeared so healthy, as w^e say at home, so thrifty as these. I 
saw no signs of the sap-blight or winter-killing, but the trees seemed full of 
life, and many of them were full of fruit already set. The peach orchard is 
already set for a large crop. In 1853, Mr. C. sent to the market 700 baskets 
of peaches, and his crop this year will probably far exceed that quantity. He 
has this year in grass, about 20 acres, in wheat about the same, in corn about 
40 acres, and in potatoes about 12 acres, besides lai^e tracts of vegetables 
and small fruits, among the rest two acres of strawberries. He manures all 
his crojis with Peruvian guano, 300 pounds to the acre, ploughed in, and 
thinks this will insure him abundant crops. 

Mr. Claggett has been for thirty years in his counting-room, and never 
owned a farm before. Indeed he informed me that he never saw a plough run 
in his life until he saw his own, on this farm. His labor is performed by a 
foreman, a native of the district, and six laborers, mostly Irish, with two yoke 
of oxen and three horses, a force by the way, entirely insufiicient to perform 
such mighty works on New England soil. I did not see the ioreman, but 
cannot hrlp suspecting that he is a farmer of the right stam]^. I have good 
faith in the success of any intelligent man who will read and inquire, and 
spend his money freely that he may produce satisfactory results in agricul- 
ture. Still it is a business not learned in a day, and I have no reason to 
doubt the correctness of our friend's remark, that " Farmer Claggett owes 
merchant Claggett a good deal of money," 

Such men, however, are public benefactors. They inspire others with faith 
in labor, and faith in the heritage which a good God has given us, and if 
they expend money in the experiments, they derive from them the rational 
satisfaction that they leave the earth better than they found it. 



PLAlSr OF A FARM COTTAGE. 



71 




PLAN OF A FARM COTTAGE. 

The rooms in this plan for a small fcirm-house are of the most common 
description, to wit : a parlor, a living-room or kitchen, a pantry, and a bed- 
room, on the first floor ; and three bed-rooms, with closets, on the second. 
Althouofh uncommon in its form and arrano-ement, this cottage is thought to 
be more than ordinarily convenient, as well as unique in expression. 

In this design the parlor is 
1 3^ feet square, inside measure ; 
the kitchen, 13 J by 16^; the 
bed-room, which has a small 
closet, 13|- by 9 ; the pantry, 
6|- by 8^; the hall or entrance, 
7^ square ; the passage, 2 feet 
8 inches wide, and the stairs 2 
feet 3 inches. The bed-rooms 
in the second story are of the 
same size as the three lower 
ooms, and directly over them. 
The space over the pantry af- 
fords room for two good-sized 
closets. The parlor chimney 
ascends only to the chamber 
floor, and a pipe runs from it 
across the passage to the main 
chimney. The rear gable is of 
GROUND PLAN. the Same height as the two 

H, hall or entrance ; P, parlor ; L, living-room or kitchen ; f„-,_i nnaa Knt- flm rnnf ia Iacc 
B, hed-room: P. pantry, with shelves;/ principal chimney; ^"^""^ <^V^^' DUt lue lOOl lo iess 

A, parlor chimney. Steep, inasmuch as the back 

part is wider than the front parts. The wood-house should stand 20 feet in 
the rear of the building. 

The cost of materials and labor vary so much in different locations that it 




72 



ENTOMOLOGY, 



seem^ needless to attempt giving an estimate of the expense. It will vary, 
however, from $500 to $800, depending upon style of finish, cost of mate- 
rial, etc., and is therefore within the means of all. — Gen. Farmer. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



The number of insects, worms, etc., which are either annoying to the per- 
son, or injurious to our crops, is very large. The former are the less 
important, a little skill only being necessary to protect us in a great measure 
from such annoyance ; or if wounded, appliances are at hand to diminish or 
eradicate the disease they may produce. But with our fruits and vegetable 
crops of many kinds, the proper treatment in the way of prevention is abso- 
lutely essential. Yet this is a branch of science about which our farmers and 
mechanics and professional men alike are eminently ignorant. Many are 
acquainted with flowers, both wild and exotic, and cultivate fruits extensively, 
who know nothing of the animals or insects that infest and destroy them. 
Cut-worms, wire-worms, etc., eat off the young corn, or devour its tender leaf; 
the borer pierces your apple or peach-tree, or plum-tree ;' while the caterpillar 
comes in throngs and devours all before it. The curculio destroys the young 
frijit; green lice, or aphides, cover the tender branches of choice roses, gera- 
niums, and other flowers, so that they wither and die. Nor will they suffer 
jour shrub-;, nor the leaves of-your trees to grow and flourish, if they obtain 
an undisturbed possession. , 

We purpose, in this and other essays, to throw a little light upon this sub- 
ject, and hope to give such illustrations of the more destructive species, and 
shall lead the laborer or amateur agriculturist to detect and know them, and 
apply such means for their destruction as are at hand. 

First, let us describe the general classes in which these animals are 
arranged. 

I. Coleoptera; or Beetles. These are insects with jaws, and two thick 
wing-covers meeting in a straight line on the top of the back, and two filmy 
wings, which are folded transversely. Their tran formation is complete. 
Their larva?,* called grubs, are generally provided with six true legs, and. 
sometimes with a terminal prop Jeg. More rarely they are without leg! 
The pupre have wings and legs distinct and unconfined. 

Of this order many species are useful, as they live upon caterpillars, jilant- 

* Larva; (singular larva) are insects in their first stage or infancy, formed directly 
from the e^jg. The word signifies a mask. It is applied to all insects that undergo a 
complete transformation, to all joung and-wiugless grasshoppers, and to all young 
insects before the wings begin to appear. 

A pupa is the second stage of in.-ect life. Those that undergo a partial transforma- 
tion retam their activity and ibeir appetite for food, and grow and acquire the rudiments 
of wings. Others, at this age, entirely lose their larva form, and take no food, but remain 
at rest, in a deathlike torpor. This is the pupa state. 

The pupa? from caterpillars are generally called chrysales or chrysalids, on account of 
their having shining spots upon them. Grubs, after their first transformation, are some- 
times called nymphs. 

In most young insects, or larv£e, the body consists of a head and a series of twelve 
rings or segments, the thorax not being distinctly separated from the binder parts of the 
body or abdomen, as in the adult form. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 78 



lice, or other noxious insects. Such are the Water Lovers, Rove-beetles, Car- 
rion-beetles, Skin-beetles, Bone-beetles, various kinds of Dung-beetles, etc., 
which act as scavengers. Stag-beetles, Many Bark-beetles, and Spring-bee- 
tles live under the bark or in the interior of decayed trees, and are therefore 
harmless, if not positively useful in hastening a process which is inevitable, 
and the better, of course, tlie more rapid. 

II. Orthoptera. Thisi order includes Crickets, Cockroaches, Grasshoppers, 
etc. They have jaws, two thick opaque upper wings, overlapping a little on 
the back, and two larger thin wings which are folded in plaits like a fan. 
Their transformation is partial. The larvaj and pupa3 are active, but without 
wings. All of this order, except camel crickets, which prey on other insects, 
are injurious to our household goods or .to vegetation. 

III. Hemoptera. In this order are included Bags, Locusts, Plant-lice, etc. 
Tliese insects are provided with a horny beak for sucuon, four wings, tlie 
uppermost generally thick at the base, with thinner extremities, which lie flat 
and cross each other on the top of the back, or are of uniform thickness 
throughout, and slope at the sides like a roof. Their transformation is par- 
tial. The larvae and pupae are nearly like the adult insect, but without 
wings. 

IV. Neuroptera ; Dragon files, Lace Winged files, Ant-lions, Day-fiies, 
May-files, White Ants, etc. These are insects with jaws, four netted wings, 
of which the hinder are the largest, without stings or piercers. Their trans- 
formation is complete or partial. Larvaj and pupae are various. Of this 
order. Dragon flies (Libelluladse) prey upon gnats and mosquitoes; others 
devour aquatic insects. 

V. Lepidoptera ; Bufterfiles and Moths. These have a mouth with a 
spiral sucking tube, wings four-covered with branny scales. Transformation 
complete. The larvae are caterpillars, and have six free legs, and frum four 
to ten fleshy prop legs. Pupae, with the cases of the wings and of the legs 
indistinct and soldered to the breast] 

Some kinds of caterpillars are very troublesome in our houses, destroying 
woollens, furs, feathers, wax, etc., etc. ; but most of them live on vegetable 
food, and are destructive to buds, flowers, leaves, stems, fruit, seeds, pith, and 
roots of plants. 

VT. Hymenoptera ; Ants, Bees, Saw-files, Wasjjs, etc. This order con- 
sists of insects with jaws, wings 4-veined in most species, the hinder pair 
being shorter than the others, having a sting or piercer at the extremity of 
-the abdomen. Their transformation is complete.' The larv^ are mostly 
maggot-like or slug-like, but some are caterpillar-like. Their pupie have 
legs and wings uncon fined. 

VIl. Diptera ; Mosquitoes, Gnats, Files, etc. These insects have a horny 
or fleshy proboscis, two wings only, and two knobbed threads called balan- 
cers or poisers behind the wings. Their transformation is complete. The 
larvae are maggots without feet, and with breathing-holes generally in the 
hinder extremity of the body. Pupae mostly encased in the dried skin of the 
larva}, pometimes, however, naked, ia which case the wings and legs are visi- 
ble, and are more or less unconfined. 

Besides these seven orders, which are generally adopted by naturalists, are 
several smaller groups, not arranged in any order. There is not entire uni- 
formity, however, among learned writers on this subject. The flea tribe was 
placed among the bugs by Fabricius, and forms the order Aptera of Leach, 
Siphonaptera of Latreille, and Aphaniptera of Kirby. They are destitute of 
wings, and have four little scales pressing close against the body. Their 



74 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



mouth is fitted for suction, and with lancet-hke piercers for making punctures. 
They undergo a complete transformation. Their larvae are worm-like and 
without feet. Their pupc-e have their legs free. Besides these are many 
others, not generally classified in orders, of some of which we shall treat here- 
after. 

The number of species of insects is very large. Four thousand species of 
w'eevil have been scientifically described and named, but they are all arranged 
in 350 genera. Some have judged that there are six insects to every plant. 
Harris says that four to one is within bounds. 

The following extract from the recent work of Dr. Emmons illustrates the 
great importance of a general knowledge of this subject : 

"A thick foliage of a fine avenue of poplar was all at once attacked by an 
immense quantity of caterpillars of Borabax dispar. I thought of giving 
them the calosoma sxjcoiohanta for company ; as, like them, it passes its life 
upon the trees, feeding upon the caterpillars which it meets, and even de- 
posits its eggs in their nests, that its voracious progeny may procure nour- 
ishment more easily and in greater abundance. Well ! this insect multiplied 
itself with a rapidity truly astonishing; and the caterpillars disappeared, 
without those who were witnesses to the destruction having the least idea of 
.the causes which produced it. M. Boisgiraud then gives it as his opinion, 
that the neighborhood of the city of Toulouse is so little ravaged by the 
Mefolontha vulgaris which is so destructive in other parts of France, because 
the Caruhus aiiratus seizes and devours the Melolontha previous to the de- 
position of its eggs ; and that it is more fond of these than of any part of 
the insect. You see, then, that it is indispensable to study the manners and 
habits of destructive insects, that their instinct and address may be success- 
fully employed for the destruction of the species able to do us injury. Then 
in place of barbarously crushing the useful species which have the misfortune 
to be not always ornamented with the rich colors of the butterfly or the 
Biiprestis^ we will endeavor to protect them and propagate their race. We 
will find auxiliaries in them the more valuable, as they increase with our 
adversaries, and as they alone are able to rival the cunning of these ingenious 
enemies." 

The Melolontha here spoken of is a destructive family, called Melolonnadce 
or Melolonthians. Its popular name is the common Oock-choffer of Europe. 
The female lays its eggs, a hundred or more in number, in the earth, at a 
depth of five inches or more, and then ascends, and, like most in.^ects, soon 
perishes. The little white grubs hatch in fourteen days. They have six 
legs near the head, and a mouth provided with strong jaws. When at rest, 
they curl themselves in the form of a crescent. Tbey subsist on tender roots 
of various plants, and often commit the most deplorable ravages. During 
the summer they live near the surface ; but as winter approaches, they descend 
below the reach of frost, and remain torpid till spring. They then change 
their coats, and ascend to the suiface for food. After three or four summers, 
they cease eating, penetrate about two feet into the earth, and by peculiar 
motions they form an oval cavity, line it with a glutinous substance, and, 
throwing oflF their skin, become pupa3. In this state the legs, wing-cases, and 
antennse of the future beetle are visible through the transparent skin. In 
February this skin is rent, and in May the ))erfect beetle digs its way to the 
surface. These grubs are very destructive. They sometimes devour the roots 
of whole acres of grass, or of wheat or other grams. The May bugs, as they 
are called, pass the day among the trees, and at night fly about and, attracted 
by lights, enter houses, moving very irregularly, and hitting against objects 



entox:ology/ 75 



that are in their way, and often fall to the ground. Hence the phrase, "as 
blind as a beetle." 

Amona the many species of the 6rst order, (Coleoptera.) 

The Scarabeeidae are distinguished by short moveable horns or antennas, 
ending with a knob, the projecting ridge of the forehead extending more or 
less over the face like the visor of a cap, beneath which the antennae are 
planted. 

Areoda Lanigera^ or woolly areoda, or Goldsmith Beetle. This is nine- 
tenths of an inch long, lemon-yellow above, glitters like burnished gold on 
the top of the head and thorax, under side of body copper colored and 
thickly covered with whitish wool. Legs brownish yellow, or brassy, shaded 
with green. Morning and evening after the middle of May, till the 20th of June, 
they "fly about, with a humming rustling noise, among the trees, the young 
leaves of which they devour. Pear trees are specially subject to their attacks, 
though they do not spare the elm, poplar, oak, hickory, and other trees. 
They remain, at rest during the day, secreted often between two or three 
leaves, which they draw together and confine by their claws. They cleave 
to the under side of the leaf. 

When the tree is shaken they fall to the ground, without attempting 
to fly. 

Our May beetle is of another species from the European. It is the 
Phyllophaga quercina of Knoch. It is a chestnut-brown, smooth, with fine 
punctures or dots. Each wing-case has two or three slightly elevated long 
itudinnl lines. The breast is covered with a yellowish .down. The knob of 
its antenna? contains only three leaf-like joints. Its average length is nine 
tenths of an inch. 

The grub is a white worm, with a brownish head, and, when fully grown, 
is nearly as thick as the little finger. 

A grub is frequently found under old dung-heaps, commonly called the 
muck-worm. This is the dung-beetle, and is called by Mr. Say, Scarabceus 
relictus. 

The Phyllophaga fraterna, or leaf-eater, is smaller and more slender. The 
punctures are less distinct, and the three elevated lines are scarcely visible. 
Its length is thirteen twentieths of an inch. Its habits, like those of the pre- 
ceding. It is seen in June and July. . 

The Phyllophaga hirticula is of a brown color, its punctures larger than 
in the preceding, and on each wing-cover are three longitudinal rows of short, 
yellowish hairs. Length, seven tenths of an inch. Seen in June and July. 

Phyllophaga Georgicana, or Georgian Leaf-eater. This species is bay-brown, 
entirely covered on the upper side with very short yellowish grey hairs, its 
length seven-tenths of an inch. 

Phyllophaga PilosicoUis (of Knoch) is a smaller chafer, ochre-yellow, with 
a very hairy thorax. It is often thrown out of the ground in early spring 
by the spade, but does not ascend voluntarily till the middle of May ; length 
half an inch. 

All these are found in nurseries, orchards, and gardens, and are injurious. 

Ojnalojjlia Vespertina (of Gyllenhal, and Sericea of Illiger,) attacks the 
leaves of the sweet-briar, on which they may be found in the evening, about 
the last of June, in greater numbers. They <i-esemble May beetles in form, 
but are shorter, and smaller in size, and thicker in proportion to the length. 
The Vespertina is a bay-brown ; wing-covers marked with many longitudinal 
shallow furrows, which with the thorax, are thickly punctured ; three-tenths 
or four-tenths of an inch in leno-th. 



76 THE CENSUS OF CLIXTON. 

Omdoplia Sericea, or Silky Oinalophia. A deep chestnut browo, irrides- 
cent or changeable, reflecting the colors of the rainbow. In other respect it 
resembles the preceding, in appearance and habits. 

Pel'ulnota punctata, or spotted pelidnota. This is found on gi'ape vines, 
both wild and cultivated, in July and August. They are oblong, ovate, about 
one inch long. Their wing-covers are tile-colored, or a dull brownish yellow, 
and having three blacli dots on each. The thorax is darker, with a black 
dot on earh side. The body beneath, and the leg?, are a deep bronze-green 
color. 

The leaves of the grape-vine are their only food. They fly by day. 

The only method of destroying them is to pick them oft' with the hand 
and crush them. Their larva? live on rotten wood. 

The natural enemies of the beetle, which materially check its ravages, are 
the badger, the weasel, the marten, skunk, bats, rats, dunghill fowls, night- 
hawks, and crows. The common jay devours them, feeding each of their 
young with fifteen or twenty every day, and devouring some fifty themselves, 
when fully grown. 

The number of beetles maybe materially diminished by shaking the trees 
every morning or evening. The morning is the best time, as they will not 
then attempt to fly. Sometimes two bushels have been collected on a sheet 
in a single experiment. They may be thrown into boiling water, and then 
fed to swine. 



THE CENSUS OF CLINTON. 

" The harmony of interests" among all trades, which we so constantly en- 
force, is obvious in the following statistics of this young but thriving com- 
munity. Our readers will remember it as the location of the manufacturing 
establishments originated by the eminent inventor, E. B. Bigelow, Esq. 

"The whole population of Clinton on the first of June last, was 3644. Of 
this number 1470 are males, and 2174 females. The nativities of the in- 
habitants are found to be as follows, viz. : 2283 are natives of the United 
States, and 1361 of other countries. Of the natives, Massachusetts furnishes 
1582 ; New Hampshire, 236 ; Vermont, 153 ; Maine, 104; New-York, 63, 
and other States, 162. Of the foreigners, Ireland furnishes 966 ; Scotland, 
107; England, 72 ; Germany, 69; British Provinces, 53 ; South America, 
3, and Spain, 1. The following are the ages of the people, in periods : 

" Under five years of age, 416 ; between five and ten, 314 ; ten to- fifteen, 
296; fifteen and twenty, 509 ; twenty and thirty, 1028; thirty and forty, 
637 ; forty and fifty, 271 ; fifty and sixty, 159 ; sixty and seventy, 81 ; seventy 
and eighty, 26 ; eighty and ninety, 6 ; ninety and one hundred, 1. 

" The above population hve in 489 houses, and constitute 619 families." 

In coni-^oction with the above, as illustrating the connection between intelli- 
gent industry and the fine arts, notice the following, found in the village pa- 
per of Clinton : 

"Music on the Common.— ►- We are informed that arrangements have been 
made for music on the common every Thursday evening, by the Clinton 
Brass Band. Should Thursday evening prove stormy, they will play on Fri- 
day evening, and if both are unpleasant, it will be omitted for the week. The 
arrangement goes into elTect next week." 



GATEEEING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 



GATHERING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 

This is a subject respecting which we have much to learn in tliis country ; 
and considering the vast amount of capital invested in fruit-culture, and the 
prospective importance of the business in a commercial point of view, it be- 
comes worthy of serious and immediate attention. How many of those who 
are in the possession of orchards and fruit gardens know exactly when even 
to gnther fruits in order to secure their greatest possible amount of excel- 
lence ? May we not safely say that three-fourths of nearly all our summer 
fruits are consumed in an immature state ? The keeping of fruits in winter, 
and the packing for distant markets, are questions that concern deeply the 
extensive orchardists of this country. AVe have translated from the Ri'vm 
Horticule the following observations on this subject, by Prof. Dubreil, formerly 
of Rouen and now of Paris. They contain many valuable hints and sugges- 
tions worthy of attentive perusal. — Horticulturist. 

" The preservation of fruits is a fjuestion intimately connected with the 
fruit-garden. This should furnish during the entire year the same quantity 
of the best possible fruits. In order to do this, it is true we must plant an 
equal number of varieties ripening their fruits during each month of the 
year. But this will be insufficient unless we adopt a mode of preservation 
which will retard the ripening of fruit to mid-winter, spring, or even the fol- 
lowing summer. The fruit-garden cannot give the results expected from it, 
if we are deprived of its products from February to June, when the earliest 
fruits begin to ripen. This question, then, has a certain importance, not only 
for those who gather and consume the fruit, but for those who deal in fruits 
and who, without proper modes of keeping, are exposed to great losses. As 
the mode of gathering has a certain influence on the preservation of fruit, 
we will first treat of that operation. 

I. ON GATHERING. 

"1st. Degree of Maturity. — Fruits should be gathered when they pre- 
sent a sufficient degree of maturity ; and in this respect the difterent species 
of fruits require difterent treatment. 

" All the Stone Fruits, the cherries excepted, should be taken from the 
tree three or four days before their absolute maturity. 

" The Kernnl Fruits of Summer and Autumn are gathered eight to 
twelve days before maturity. 

" These fruits possess, then, the necessary elements to accomplish their 
maturit!on, which is nothing more than a chemical reaction independent in 
some measure of vital action. In thus separatilig them from the tree they 
are deprived of the sap from the roots, they elaborate more conqiletely that 
which is contained in their tissue, the sugary principle is then less ati". cted by 
water, and a higher flavor is therefore acquired. The time suitable tur gath- 
ering is when the side next the sun commences to change from green to yel- 
low. 

" The Cherries, Gooseberries and Raspberries are only gathered after their 
perfect maturity ; but they should not be allowed to pass this moment, as they 
immediately lose some of their qualities. 

" The Kernal Fruits ivhich ripen only in Winter, are gathered when they 
have accomplished their full development, and before vegetation has com- 



78 GATHERING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 

pletely ceased — that is to say, from the end of September to the end of 
October, according to the variety, the earliness of the season, and climate. 
Experience has demonstrated that fruits left on the trees after their growth 
do not k'-ep so well ; they lose their sugar and perfume, because at this time 
the temperature is ordinarily too low In- the new fluids which arrive in their 
tissue to hi sufficiently elaborated. If, on the contrary, this epoch is antici- 
pated, the fruits wither and do not attain maturity. It is equally necessary 
to gather the fruits from the same tree at different times — first, those placed 
on the lower parts of the tree; then, eight or ten days after those on the 
upper part, of which the growth is prolonged by the influence of the sap, 
which remains longer in this part of the tree. For the same reason the fruits 
of standard trees in the open ground are gathered later than those of esp ilier, 
and those of aged or languishing trees before those of young and vigorous 
ones. The precise moment for the gathering of each fruit is indicated by the 
facility with which it is detached from the tree when slightly lifted upwards. 
" Various instruments under the name of ' Fruit Gatherers' have been in- 
vented to detach the fruits at the tops of the trees without the aid of ladders ; 
but their employment is too slow, and the fruits are more or less bruised, and 
do not keep. When the fruits are gathered, they are deposited in a basket 
similar to that used by the cultivators of Montreuil, (fig. 1.) It is about two 

feet long, eighteen inches 



wide, and a foot deep, with a 
carpet on the bottom. The 
fruits are laid in one by one, 
and only in three rows or 
tiers ; when too many are laid 
on the top of each other, the 
■bottom ones are bruised. 
Each tier is separated by a 
FIG. 1. quantity of leaves. If they 

are peaches, each one is enveloped in a leaf of the vine. The basket, beang 
suQiciently full, is carried on the head into a spacious and airy place, where 
the fruits are deposited on leaves or dry moss ; the table of the fruit-room 
can serve this purpose. There the summer and autumn fruits achieve their 
maturity, and are taken thence to be consumed. The peaches should be 
cleaned of the down which covers them, and 'which is disagreeable to the 
mouth. ' 

" Grape% for immediate consumption or to be preserved fresh, are gathered 
only at perfect maturity ; the longer they are left on the vine, the more 
sugary principle will be developed. Grapes from contre-espaliers are to be 
preferred for keeping to those from espaliers, as experience has demonstrated 
to the cultivators of Thomery that they keep better. 

" The Dry Fruits, such as filberts, chestnuts, etc., are gathered at the mo- 
ment when they detach themselves from the trees. 

" In gathering fruits, a dry time and a cloudless sky should be chosen ; 
and the middle of the day, from noon to four o'clock, is the best time to 
operate, as the fruits are charged with less humidity, the flavor is more con- 
centrated, and those destined to be preserved keep better. This rule applies 
to all fruits. 

" 2d. Mode of Gathering. — The best method of gatheiing fruits con- 
sists in detaching them one by one with the hand. All pressure should be 
avoided as far as possible, as every bruise is followed by a brown spot, which 
gives place to and brings on the rapi'.l decay of the entire fruit. 




GATHERING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 79 



II. PRESEVATION. 

"The preservation of fruits can only be applied to those which ripen 
durinof the winter, and which, detached from the tree before the first frosts, 
are placed under shelter from the cold to complete their matuptj. The 
grape only is an exception to this. Summer and autumn fruits are also pre- 
setved, but only by the aid of certain proceedings, such as drying, and cook- 
ing more or less perfect, added to the exclusion of air or the addition of 
sugar, proceedings which result in discoloring the fruit and altering their 
flavor more or less sensibly. We cannot here describe the different me- 
thods. 

" To preserve the fruits of winter, it is necessary, first, to prevent the ac- 
tion of frost, which disorganizes them completely ; second, to retard the pro- 
gress of their maturity in such a manner that a certain number of them will 
not ripen till toward the month of May in the following year. Experience 
has demonstrated that decomposition succeeds quite rapidly to complete ma- 
turity, and that it is impossible to prolong their preservation beyond this 
point. 

" To obtain more or less perfectly the two-fold condition which we come 
to describe, depends upon the construction of the place in which the fruits 
are deposited, the fruit-room, and to the care which they receive. 

" 1st. Of the Fruit-room. — The fruit-room will give the more satisfactory 
results in proportion as it fills the six following conditions : 

" 1. That its temperature he uniformly equal. It is by changes of tem- 
perature, which expand or rarify the liquids contained in the fruits, that fer- 
mentation is excited and the interior organization destroyed — phenomena 
from which result maturity or ripeness. 

*' 2. That this temperature should he eight or ten degrees ahove freezing. 
A higher temperature favors fermentation too much. If, on the c »ntrary, it 
is lowered two or three degrees, this fermentation ceases, and maturation be- 
comes stationary. Thus we see fruits preserved five or six months in an ice- 
house. In this case the end aimed at has been exceeded ; for we are obliged, 
in taking them from the ice-house, to expose the fruits for a certain length 
of time to a higher temperature, in order to ripen them. The fruits thus 
preserved ripen afterwards with diflBculty, and their quality is often found 
altered. 

" 3. That the fruit-room be deprived of the action of the light. This 
agent also accelerates maturation in facilitating the chemical reactions which 
produce this phenomena. 

" 4. That all the carbonic acid discharged from the fruits he retained in 
the atmosphere. This gas, it appears from experiments of Couverchel, con- 
tributes powerfully to the preservation of fruits. 

"5. That the atmosphere he more dry than hinnid. Humidity is also a 
condition necessary to fermentation ; it diminishes the resistance of tissue in 
the fruits, and favors the efl:'usion of its juices. It is, then, proper to avoid 
its accumulation in the fruit-room ; but it must never be completely dry, for 
the fruits losing then, by evaporation, a considerable quantity of the aqueous 
fluids wither, dry up, and do not ripen. 

" 6. That the fruits are so p)lc-(^^d as to diminish as far as possible the 
pressure which they exercise upon each other. This continued pressure deter- 
mines the rupture of the vessels and cells toward the point of pressure, 
the different fluids are mingled, and this mixture promotes the chemical com- 
binations which result in maturity. 



80 



GATHERING AND PRESERVATION" OF FRUITS. 



" We propose t© construct a fruit-room to fulfil these conditions, in the 
following: manner : 





-; 








r^, r 




j 






T 




(^ /-^r-TfTN 






*v 


JK J^X^J 


1 




I 


?:s. 


y 




n V. 




-Ir-^^-rVcVs -•■-^■,:. 




/ 



"^Ji> 



'• AVe would choose a very 
dry soil, somewhat elevated, 
facing the north, and complete- 
ly shaded from the sun by high 
])larjtations of evergreen trj|^s. 
The dimensions are to be deter- 
mined by the quantity of fruit 
to be preserved. That of which 
we give the plan (6g. 2) is 15 
feet long in the irisitle, 12 feet 
wide, and 9 feet high. This 
will give place to 8,000 fruits, 
allowing each one to occupy 
4 inches square. It is sunk 2|- 
feet in the ground ; and if the 
^ ''^- '■• . soil is very dry, it may be 3 

feet. This enables us the more easily to guard the atmosphere against the 
external temperature. To prevent surface water from accumulating in the 
surrounding sjil and filtering into the fruit-room, the surface of the ground 
should descend from the walls, and these should be constructed of cement a 
foot above the soiL 

"This fruit- room is enclosed by two walls, (A and B,) leaving between 
them an open space (G) about 10 inches wide. This stratum of air inter- 
posed between the two walls is the surest means of protecting the interior 
from the exterior temperature. The two walls are each 12 inches thick, con- 
structed with a sort of mortar, or mud, made of clay and straw. This ma- 
terial is cheap, and on the whole a bad conductor of heat, and on this ac- 
count preferable to common masonary. The walls are pierced with six open- 
ings — three in the inside and three on the outside walls — the first similar 
and exactly opposite to the last. The openings for the outside wall are — 

" 1. The double door (D) ; the outside door opens out ; that of the inte- 
rior inward, and it opens in two parts, like a shutter. When the frosts are 
severe, the space between the two doors should be filled with straw. 

" 2. Two windows, (E,) about 20 inches square, placed on each side, and 
opening at 18 inches from the soil, and closed by a double sash, of which 
the one closes out and the other in. The space between the two 
sashes should also be carefully filled with straw at the commencement of 
winter. 

"The inside wall has a door (F) and two windows (C) ; but here the door 
is simple ; the windows are also closed with two sashes, the out&ide one sliding 
in a groove, and the other opening out. 

"As soon as the fruits are collected in the fruit-room, the joints and open- 
ings around the windows should be filled with paper, to prevent the air from 
the space between the walls entering the fruit-room. The four windows are 
only intended to admit air and light necessary to dry and ventilate the fruit- 
room before gathering in the fruit. We shall presently see that it is easy to 
get rid of the interior humidity produced by the presence of frtiits, without 
em ploying currents of air. 

" The ceiling, sustained by beams, is composed of a layer of moss, sustained 
by laths, and covered above and below with a layer of plaster; the whole 



GATHERING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 



81 




FIG. 3. 



being one foot thick. This mode of construction is necessary to exclude the 
influence of the exterior temperature. 

" The roof is thatched a foot thick with straw, and the dormer may be 
used for storing fodder in ; but the points of union between the dormer and 
the outer wall must be perfectly close. 

" The floor is of oak. Tbe walls, and even the ceiling, should have a cov- 
ering of boards. These precautions serve to maintain an equal temperature, 
to exclude exterior moisture, and to completely separate the atmosphere of 
the fruit-room from that without. 

"All the interior walls, from 18 inches of the floor to the ceiling, are fur- 
nished with board shelves, 2 feet wide, placed 10 inches apart. To facilitate 

the arrangement of the fruit, the upper 
shelves (A, fig. 3) are made to slope down- 
ward in front, at an angle of 45 degrees; 
[l^ and this decreases as they come down, un- 
til the lower ones within four or five feet of 
of the floor are horizontal. 
, " The tables or shelves are all made of 

B narrow strips about 4 inches wide; and to 
facilitate the circulation of air, about an 
inch of space is left between each strip. 
The shelves are fixed to the wall by brack- 
ets, sustained in front by upright posts (D) 
placed 4|- feet form each other. The cross- 
pieces (E) attached to the uprights, support 
horizontal laths (F), or oblique ones (G.) 

"In the center of the fruit-room we reserve a table (I, fig. 2,) 5 feet long 
and 2t]- feet wide, separated from the shelves by a space of 3 feet. This 
table serves to receive the fruit temporarily, and has a narrow molding 
round the edge to keep it from falling oflf. All the shelves have similar 
borders. 

" Such is the mode of construction we propose for a fruit-room, by the aid 
of which we can easily obtain many of the results which we have indicated 
as necessary — that is to say, it will enable us to maintain an equal tempera- 
ture of 45 to 50 deg. Fahrenheit above zero, and that the action of the light 
is prevented. As for the other necessary conditions, we shall presently point 
out the means to secure them. In certain circumstances, much of the ex- 
pense of a construction like the above might be avoided. If, for example, 
there was a subterranean cave or a grotto in a rock, a fruit-room might be 
established in either place, provided they be very dry. The interior fitting 
up would be the same. 

" As the fruits are brought into the fruit-room, they are deposited on the 
table, which is covered with a thin layer of dry moss. There they are as- 
sorted ; each variety is placed separate, and all unsound or bruised specimens 
are taken out. The sound fruits are left on the table two or three days, in 
order that they may part with some of their moisture. The shelves are then 
covered with a thin layer of dry moss or cotton, to prevent the fruits from 
being bruised by their own weight. We then proceed to wipe the fruits 
slightly with a piece of soft flannel, and arrange them in rows on the shelves 
leaving a space of a fourth of an inch between each, and keeping each var- 
iety separate, and placing similar varieties next each other. 

" The fruit-room may not only serve for the preservation of kernal fruits, 
6 



GATHERING AND PRESERVATION OP FRUITS. 



but for grapes. The Cha«selas varieties in particular keep well in this way. 
We proceed wiih them as follows ; Each bunch is ' 
cleared of all decaying or unsound berries, and fixed 
by ihe point ou a small wire hook formed like an § 
(fig. 4). Thus attached it is less liable to decay, as the 
berries have a tendency to separate from each other. 
The bunches are then hung by the other end of the S 
hook around one or two hoops (fig. 5) placed one above 
the other, and suspended from the ceiling of the room, 
and rendered moveable by two small puliies. 

" If it be desired to keep in this way a large quan- 
tity of grapes, space may be economized by substitut- 
ing for the hoops wooden frames (fig. 6), about 4 feet 
riG. 4. square. These frames are furnished with sirips of rods, 

separated from each other by a space of 3 or 4 inches, and having on one 
side small pins to suspend the crotchets of grapes on. These frames are also 
fixed 10 the ceiling so as to occupy all the surface, and, like the hoops, to 
move up and down as may be necessary. 

" The grape-growers of Thomery, who pre- 
serve a large quantity of grapes, content them- 
selves with placing bundles on wire frames, 
on which they probably spread a thin layer 
of very dry fern. 

" When all the fruits are thus arranged in 
the fruit-room, the doors and windows are left 
open during the day, unless in wet weather. 






FIG, 6. FIG. 6, 

Eight days' exposure to the air in this way will be necessary to deprive the 
fruits of their surplus moisture. After that, a dry and cold time is chosen to 
close hermetically all the openings. The doors must be opened no more, 
except when necessary to enter. 

"Until the present time we have employed no other means to remove 
moisture from the fruit-room but by creating currents of air more or less in- 
tense. This mode is attended with serious inconveniences for the preserva- 
tion of fruit. In the first place, it produces an equilibrium of temperature 
between the atmosphere of the fruit-room and the exterior, and this change 
is very injurious to the fruits. In the second place, a glare of light is instantly 
admitted to the fruits, and this is no less injurious than the change of tem- 
perature. In fine, this vicious method should not be practiced unless the 
exterior temperature is not below the freezing point, and the weather is dry. 
In the winter, however, the weather is generally the reverse of this, and the 
fruits have to be abandoned to a destructive moisture. 



FOREST TREES. 



83 



" To escape this difficulty, we advise the u^e of chloride of calcium. This 
has the property of absorbing so great a quantity of niuisture (about double 
its own weiyht) that it becomes liquified after being exposed for a certain 
time to a moist atmosphere. Fresh lime has the same property of absorbino- 
moisture ; but at the same time it absorbs the carbonic acid set free by the 
fruits, and it is important to save this gas, as it aids materially in jjreserving 
them. 

"To employ chloride of calcium, a sort of wooden box should be con- 
structed (A, fig. 7), lined with lead (F), about 18 inches wide and 4 inches 
r deep. It is raised about 18 inches from 

the floor, on a small table (B) havino- 
one of its sides (C) about li inches 
lower than the other. At the middle 
of the lowest side of the box a small 
mouth is fixed for the liquified chloride 
to run over into a stone jar (E) placed 
below it. The chloride is spread in the 
box in small porous particles, very dry, 
and about 3 inches thick ; and if the 
quantity employed be entirely liquided 
before the fruit is consumed, a fresh 
^i(^- ^- supply may be added. About fifty 

pounds applied at three times is sufficient for a fruit-room such as is described 
above. The liquid which results from this operations should be cnrefully 
saved in the jar, and be kept covered until the following season. When the 
fruit-room is filled anew, the liquid may be put in a brass kettle and placed 
over the fire, where it will soon evaporate to perfect dryness, and may be em- 
ployed again in the same manner as before. 

" Such are the cases necessary to fill the conditions we have indicated for 
the preservation of fruits. The fruit-room should be visited at least once in 
eight days, to remove the fruits which begin to decay, set apart those which 
are ripe, remove the decaying berries from the grapes, and renew the chloride 
of calcium." 




FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANTIL. 



FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS, TIOGA CO., N. Y., AND THEIR USE. 

No. 1. Ulmus Americana — American Elm, White Elm. A large tree grow- 
ing only in the vicinity of streams, and seldom found on hills, and from 60 
to 90 feet in height, and 2 to over 3 feet in diameter, whea old. The body 
uneven, frequently flat on two sides, while others are found with ridges pro- 
jecting out on one side and a groove on the other ; and frequently three or 
four such grooves and ridges. Bark on large trees deeply grooved and rough, 
of light gray color. Full of branches, that are often from 40 to 50 feet in 
length, with a regular taper from end to end. One tree near by me, with 
branches extending 35 or 40 feet in every direction, being the widest spread- 
ing tree that I have ever seen, with limbs bending over in a graceful manner 
on all sides. Frequently the body is covered with short, slim branches from 



84 BLACK KNOTS IN PLUM TREES. 

the ground to the maia branches, giving the tree at a distance an appear- 
ance of being covered with a green running vine ; young sprouts frequently 
covered with pubescent leaves, smooth above, pubescent on the end or 
side, from 2 to 5 inches in length, and 2^ in breadth, with short stems, and 
from fifteen to 19 ribs on a side and doubly serrated, a notch being at every 
rib with a small one upon the large, frequently one side of the leaves longer 
than the other. Flowers appear before the leaves, and this year on the 24th 
of April, in great numbers, giving the tree a beautiful yellowish-grefu color 
in perfect clusters. Fruit, or seeds, about § of an inch in length an d;^ 
breadth, tuat is, the husk that contains the seed ; edges of the husk covered 
on all sides with a fringe about one-sixteenth of an inch in length, and being 
of an oval shape, when ripe they are carried away by the wind. The seeds 
are about the length of a flax-seed and a third wider ; seeds about all ripe, and 
are dropped by tije first of June. I have two large spreading elms near the 
edge of my corn-field that have produced thousands of seeds, that have veg- 
etated over a large part of the field. The first time hoeing the corn did not 
destroy them all, and on the 30th day of June they were two inches in 
length, and the largest had four leaves. This elm is useful in preserving 
the banks of streams ; the larger roots are frequently 70 or 80 feet in length. 
It makes good firewood, being as goodas hickoiy. It is more full of alkali 
than almost any other wood, as the soap-makers can well testify. 

No. 2. Ulmus Fulva — Slippery Elm, Red Elm. The Slippery Elm isget- 
ting quite scarce in this vicinity, and is found only on the lowest land. This 
tree here is found from forty to fifty feet in height, and from 12 to 15 inches 
in diameter ; the com.mon observer would not distinguish it from the other 
species of elm. Perhaps the leaves are a trifle larger, and the young sprouts 
more pubescent. The inside bark contains valuable inedical qualities, being 
mild mucilage, which is used for dysentery, coughs, colds, and externally as a 
poultice. Flowers in April. Fruit in May. 

3. Ubnus Racemosa. — White Elm. With this elm I am not much acquaint- 
ed, but like the other species, it grows on low land near streams, and often 
attains a large size. One tree in this vicinity I should judge to be 100 feet 
in height and two feet in diameter, and VO feet without a branch. I think 
this species does not branch as much as the two preceding, or so low down. I 
have noticed a number near Rosebank, Canada West, that were over 100 
feet high and 3 feet in diameter, and between 70 and 80 feet without a branch. 
The bark of this species is more deeply furrowed than the preceding. Flow- 
ers in April, and fruit in June. The wood is very tough, and is used here 
for making axe-handles and whip-stocks. R. Howell. 

Nichols, July 3, 1855. 



Black Knots in Plum Trees. — The following process has proved a cure 
for this troublesome disease in several experiments, and we commend it to 
our readers for a careful trial : v 

" Out out the diseased wood as thoroughly as possible, and then apply spir- 
its of turpentine. Oover the wound immediately after the application of the 
turpentine with grafting-wax." 



THE GRITTINESS OF PEARS. 85 



THE GEITTINESS OF PEARS. 

Some of the very finest of our fruits are occasionally injured very materi- 
ally by a hard gritty texture, either extending entirely or partially through 
its substance. We have known for some years that this could be to some 
extent controlled by a judicious process of ripening. A friend of ours at the 
Horticultural Rooms in Boston, of whose method of preserving fruits we have 
before alluded, is also successfulin the prevention of the evil here described. 
But his efforts are directed ^to the specimens after they are plucked from the 
tree. In the last number of the Florist we find a process described which is 
well worthy of consideration. If it is as successful as is claimed for it, it will 
well pay the labor it requires. The article referred to is as follows : 

The grittiness of pears is the chief circumstance which diminishes their 
value at the dessert. Some are more subject to the affection than others; but 
all are occasionally deteriorated by it. The proximate cause is known to con- 
sist in the deposit of hard matter in certain cells of the flesh, analogous in all 
respects to that which gives its bony texture to the stone of plums, cherries, 
etc. In all these cases, the tissue is originally soft and pulpy, and if it were 
to remain so, the whole of a plum would be as perfectly eatable a s aberry of 
the grape. But in stone fruits gritty matter is gradually deposited within 
the pulpy cells of the lining of the flesh, as constantly and naturally, as phos- 
phate of lime in the gelatinous tissue of the bones of animals. In the pear, 
on the contrary, there is no special part set aside for the reception of the grit, 
which manifests itself accidentally here and there among the soft flesh, some- 
times in large and sometimes in small quantities. In fact, in the pear, the 
grittiness may be regarded as an unnatural secretion, induced by unknown 
causes, while in stone fruits it is part and parcel of their nature. 

We say induced by unknown causes, for we are not aware that any at- 
tempt has been made to show out of what circumstances the grittiness arises, 
or by what it is diminished or prevented. We are now, however, assured 
that it is entirely owing to the exposure of the pear fruit to too much cold. 
It appears that o~n the 16th of last November, Mr. A. Delaville, gardener at 
the Chateau de Fitz James, near Clermont, (Oise,) exhibited before the Im- 
perial Horticultural Society of Paris, some St. Germain pears, a part of which 
were covered with spots and full of grittiness, while the others were remark- 
able for their beauty, and wholly exempt from grittiness. We are assured 
that both samples came from the same tree, and that the only difference con- 
sisted in the fine ones having been protected, while the others had been ex- 
posed to the weather without any shelter. In fact, M. Delaville is of opinion 
that the external spots and the internal grittiness were wholly caused by the 
cold rain which had fallen on the fruit during its growth, and had arrested 
the free circulation of sap. 

With reference to this hypothesis, he remarks that the sorts which are 
most subject to spotting {tavelage) and grittiness, are those which have the 
finest skin, such as the St. Germain, Crasanne, Brown Beurre, and Winter 
Bonchretien. The eflfect of aspect also supports this view, it being notorious 
that the affections in question are most common with pears on open standards, 
or exposed to the east and south, the quarters whence (at Clermont) the cold- 
est rains always come. 

The manner in which M. Delaville protects his pears is thus described : — 



86 POOR FARMING EXPENSIVE. 

As soon as the fruit is completely set, he encloses every cluster in a cornet of 
paper, fixed to the top of the stock by a piece of rush (bast.) This cornet 
must be large enough to cover all the upper part, so as to guard the fruit 
perfectly from the direct action of exterior agencies. If a tree is trained to 
a wall the same degree of protection is not necessary, because the wall affords 
a natural shelter on one side, but where pyramid or other openly-trained* 
trees have to be dealt with, the cornet must be very wide, and tbe small end 
placed upwards, so as to leave nothing uncovered except the bottom of the 
fruit stalk. 

These cornets remain in their places during the whole season, and are not 
disturbed till about a fortnight before gathering, at which time they are re- 
moved, in order to give the fruit color and to complete the ripening, "just as 
peaches and grapes are unleafed a short time before gathering them." M. 
Delaville concludes by assuring the public that by this sim|)le method his 
whole crop of pears is very fine, instead of a third or more being unmarketa- 
ble as is often the case. 

The eflFect of these precautions should certainly be tried here, now that 
pears are getting into the condition when paj^er cornets are first applied. — 
Gard. Ghron. 



POOR FARMING- EXPENSIVE. 

The truth is, poor farming is an expensive business. The cost exceeds the 
income. If from a very low grade of farming, which must of course be un- 
profitable, we ascend to a better condition of the art, we shall come to a point 
where there is neither loss nor gain ; the income equals the outgoes ; the 
ends meet, as they say. And this, if we understand these matters, is the 
• very condition in which nine-tenths of our farming now is. 

The farmer of a hundred acres puts on his farm in his own labor, in the 
labor of his wife and his children, in taxes, insurance, etc., $500. And he 
takes off in some marketable produce or for home consumption, ^500. " The 
ends meet;" and if there were no better way he need not complain ; for he 
is working his way through the world as quietly and as easily as most men ; 
for the development of high moral qualities he has the advantage of most 
others ; and what is more, he has the best possible means of training his 
children to those habits of industry and frugality which more than conspire 
to make them good men and women and worthy citizens. Let him not, 
therefore, complain. But if there is a better way, let him fall into it. We 
do not believe that farming is necessarily limited to the operation of putting 
on $500 and taking off 8500, and living by the operation, only because what 
is put on is mostly in the form of labor done by the family. If a farm will 
give $500, with the labor of one man, it will give a great deal more with the 
labor of two men ; and the excess will more than balance the wages and 
board of the second. Instead of putting on |500 and taking off $500, the 
better way is to put on $700 and take ofi" $900 ; and then to put on $900 
and take off $1200. There is doubtless a limit beyond which the income 
could not be made to increase above the expenditures ; but very few of us 
are in danger of going beyond the limit. There is much more danger of 
falling short of it. Our standard is too low. Men are afraid to trust their 
land, lest it should not pay them. It is the best paymaster in the world. — 
The Farmer, hy J. A. Nash. 



THE PROFIT OF FATTENING SWINE. 87 



THE PROFIT OF FATTENING SWINE. 

In the Monthly Farmer for April, 1854, there are statements over my sig- 
nature relative to the profit of fattening swine in New-England, together with 
hints as to the proper mode of conducting the business ; and in the following 
number for May, there is a shorter article, confirming the statements previ- 
ously made. Since writingthose articles, I have further investigated the sub- 
ject, in order to prove the soundness or otherwise of the views then presented. 

On the 2 1st of December, 1854, I bought four very leanshoats, weighing 
respectively, 63, 01, 60 and 58 lbs., or in all, 242 lbs., gross live weight. 
They were placed in warm apartments, consisting of a pen for making com- 
post, and an eating-room. The litter made by two horses was daily thrown 
into the compo^^t pen ; also, about every third week, a cord, or two loads of 
either muck or forest-mould was put into the pen ; and clean straw was add- 
ed, at suitable times, for bedding. The pigs were fed on meal made by 
grinding ears of corn, or on what is called corn and cob meal, and they were 
supplied with all the meal they would eat with a good appetite. Immedi- 
ately after feeding them at a given time, the meal for the next feeding was 
placed in the bucket, and boiling water was added, and also after awhile the 
wash of the kitchen, the whole standing in a warm place till the time for 
feeding, and the meal becoming thoroughly soaked and very much swollen. 
Whenever a grist of ears of com was to be carried to mill to be ground for 
the pigs, the same was accurately measured up in a basket, well known to 
hold the right quantity of ears, when even full, to make a bushel of shelled 
corn ; and the pigs were charged with each grist at the time it was measured. 
Entire accuracy was aimed at in keeping the account with the pigs, and I 
know of no chance for a slip in the accounting. 

The business was thus conducted till the 14th of the present month, when 
the pigs were sold to the butcher for eight cents per pound, dressed — he 
charging three dollars for slaughtering the four. Between the dates above 
named, the pigs consumed seventy-six bushels of corn on the ear, equal to 
thirty-eight bushels of shelled corn. During this time they manufactured 
eight cords, or sixteen loads of muck and mould into the first quality of com- 
post, mingling the raw materials well with the horse manure and straw for 
bedding. They may be accounte<l with as follows : 

825 lbs. of dressed pork, at 8 c. per lb $66 00 

Deduct '76 bu. ears df corn, or 38 bu. corn consumed, at an 

average price of %\ 25 per bu $4*7.50 

Deduct paid for slaugbtering 3.00 

Deduct paid for pigs at outset, $3 00 12.00 62,50 

Balance over market price of the corn 3.50 

Add 8 cords or 16 loads of-raw material manufactured into 

compost, worth a bu. of corn, or $1.25 per load. . , 20.00 

From which, if you please, deduct the cost of supplying the 

material, say 50c. per load, which is rather high 8.00 12.00 

Profit on four pigs, over and above market value of corn 

consumed $15.00 

With regard to the price at which the corn is charged to the pigs, I have 
to say that in January the thirty -eight bushels could have been bought for a 
dollar per bushel ; and at less than a dollar and a quarter as late as March, 
though now corn is worth more than the price charged the pigs. 



88 BALDWIN APPLE. 



It will be found on calculation that these pigs gained some over fifteen 
pounds of net pork to each bushel of corn consumed ; which argues pretty 
well for the mode of feeding, and for the business of converting corn into 
pork and compost. 

Another year's practice and observation has not disclosed any thing ma- 
terial for me to deduct from the view formerly advanced as to the policy and 
profit of fattening swine. I still entertain entire confidence in the desireable- 
iress of the business, when conducted with system and propriety. Indeed, I 
have never seen the year in farming when I was not well paid for fattening 
pigs of a good breed, fairly reckoning their services as manufacturers of fer- 
tility for the land. In my judgment, it is sounder practice for the farmer 
thus to add to his means for making crops and keeping his lands in good 
heart, than by buying the fashionable concentrated fertilizers of the day, 
which too often merely stimulate the present crop, and leave the land no bet- 
ter than they found it. 

Notwithstanding the great prejudice existing with many persons against 
the grinding and feeding of the cob with the corn, it is sufficient for my pur- 
pose to know, as I do by repeated trials, that corn and cob meal, properly 
ground and cooked, will make from twelve to sixteen pounds of net pork for 
each bushel of corn consumed. F. Holbrook, 

in New- England Farmer. 

Brattleboro', May 22, 1855. 



Baldwin Apple. — To Medford belongs the introduction of the celebrated 
"Baldwin Apple." The first tree producing this delicious fruit, grew on the 
side-hill, within two rods of the former Woburn line, and about ten rods east 
of the present road which leads from West Medford to the ancient boundary 
of Woburn. It was on the farm occupied by Mr. Thompson, forty or fifty 
rods south of what used to be called the "black horse tavern." At the re- 
quest of Governor Brooks, the writer made a visit to that tree hi 1813 and 
climbed it. It was very old and partly decayed, but bore fruit abundantly. 
Around its trunk the woodpeckers had drilled as many as five or six circles 
of holes, not larger than a pea; and, from this most visible peculiarity, the 
apples were called " Woodpecker Apples." By degrees their name was 
shortened to Peckers ; and, during my youth, they were seldom called by 
any other name. IIow they came by their present appellative is this : Young 
Baldwin, of Woburn, aftervyards a colonel, and father of Laomi, was an inti- 
mate friend of young Thompson (afterwards Count Rumford ;)'and, as lovers 
of science, they asked permission of Professor Winthrop to attend his course 
of lectures in natural philosophy, at Harvard College. Twice each week, 
these two thirsty and ambitious students walked from their homes in Woburn 
to bring back with them from Cambridge the teachings of the learned pro- 
fessor. One day, as they were passing by the " Woodpecker Tree," they 
stopped to contentfjlate the tempting red cheeks on those loaded boughs, and 
the result of such contemplation was the usual one — they took and tasted. 
Sudden and great surprise was the consequence. They instantly exclaimed 
to each other that it was the finest apple they ever tasted. Some years after 
this, Col. Baldwin took several scions to a public nursery, and from this cir- 



THE WHEAT CROP. 89 



cumstance they name the apple after him, which name it has since retained. 
In the gale of September, 1815, this parent tree fell; but very few parents 
have lelt behind so many flourishing and beloved children. — History of Med- 
ford hij Rev. Chas. Brooks. 



Farmers by Adoption. — We know a great many farmers in Grant county 
who acquired a training in other pursuits, yet succeed better than those who 
were raised on a farm. They soon acquire a mode of management that oth- 
ers do not attain in a life-time. We account for it in this way : they turn to 
farming because they have a love for it, and prosecute what they love best 
with most zeal ; their superior business-tact acquired in other pursuits is ap- 
plied to the farm with more advantage than to the business of their youth, 
and also with better profit. Another peculiarity about those who have but 
recently forsaken the business of their early training and went to the farm : 
they are all great readers of agricultural publications, they follow all new sug- 
gestions, forsaking the old, with as much pleasure as a dandy lays by his not 
quite thread-bare coat for a new one of the latest fashion, and in most cases 
with nine times the profit. Yes sir, the man who adopts farming at thirty, 
adopts also the farm book, the Wisconsin Farmer — and the -ffera/t^ — Grant 
County Herald. 



THE WHEAT CROP. 



This crop is of very great value, second perhaps, in importance, only to 
that of corn and cotton. The origin of wheat is unknown. It was intro- 
duced into this country in its very infancy, and its cultivation has increased 
with the increase of the country, until the value of the annual growth is 
nearly or quite $100,000,000. Still, of late years the crop in New-England 
has materially diminished, and our journals have expended a vast amount of 
ink and paper, and our journalists of an indefinite amount of brains to ex- 
plain this decrease. Tc us it seems a very simple aflfair. The climate, soil, 
etc., all the numerous circumstances and conditions which naturally aflfect 
this growth, resulting in a healthful or diseased condition of it, are such that 
it is not to be relied upon as a profitable crop. Hence it is not a favorite, 
but gives place to some of the numei'ous growths which are more desirable. 
Besides this, the land appropriated to this crop is not sufficiently cultivated. 
Though there are sections of the State of New- York where the crop succeeds 
very well, we are by no means sure that it would not be a gain in the end, 
if the culture of it through the State was entirely abandoned. That there 
are large sections in which such gains would result, we are very confident ; 
and while vast regions of the west and north-west produce it so abundantly, 
we should not see cause for anxiety if the millions of bushels raised in the 



so ~ ~ THE WHEAT CROP. 



Empire State, shouLl become thousands — hundreds. So, perhaps, in some 
other States. It has repeatedly been stated that there are hirge sections of 
country in which the crop does not pay its cost of production. Prof, Mapes, 
after a very careful examination of statistics, expressed such an opinion some 
years ago. In this we fully concur with him. So meagre is the crop in 
these sections, that through the whole extent of this country, the average 
crop has been estimated at scarcely more than ten or twelve bushels per 
acre; and this minimum is not a paying crop. But by the last census it 
appears that the entire crop was less than 100,500,000 bushels, while 
11,000,000 of acres were devoted to its growth, and this gives us less than ten 
bushels per acre. How much reliance should be placed on these figures each 
one must judge for himself. It must be to some extent only the result of 
opinion rather than of accurate calculation. As to the produce per acre in 
several States, the census returns for 1850 centain the following: 

Massachusetts grows IG bushels; Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas, 15 
bushels; Iowa and Wisconsin, 14; Maryland and Vermont, 13 ; Indiana, 
New York, and Ohio, 12 ; Delaware, Illinois, Missouri, New-Hampshire, and 
New-Jersey, 11; Arkansas, Maine, and Michigan, 10; and all other States 
still less ; Georgia yielding only five bushels per acre. Under the inflq^nce of 
these figures we are tempted to use even stronger language than we have 
used as to the cultivation of this crop. Good wheat land ought to produce 
from tvifenty-five to thirty-five bushels at least, and even then it would not 
pay as well as corn. 

There are various kinds of wheat. Perhaps about a dozen varieties have 
each their own peculiar characteristics. Of these some are " spring wheat" 
and some "winter wheat," the latter being sown in the fall, and remaining in 
the ground through the winter. The spring wheat has a smaller grain, con- 
tains a greater proportion of gluten, and is of less value in the market. No 
two kinds, however, are equal in these respects. Some of our very abundant 
crops are peculiar; and yet their peculiarities are not understood. There is 
a vast difference between the Howard-st. flour and the Genesee flour. Let 
the house-wife accustomed to the latter only, make a batch of bread of the 
former, and it will be as tough as the strongest teeth would desire. The ex- 
cessive amount of gluten requires more water and a thinner mass than some 
other varieties. But this only in passing. We shall recur to it again. 

The following have been pronounced the best varieties of wheat by the 
highest authorities : 

1. White Flint; 2. Improved White Flint; 3. White Provence'; 4. Old 
RedChafl"; 5. Kentucky White Bearded; 6. Indiana Wheat; Y. Velvet Beard, 
or Crate Wheat ; 8. Wheatland Red ; 9. Golden Drop ; 10. Mediterranean; 
1 1 Blue Stem, etc. All these, and others that might be added, probably belong 
to one of four distinct and permanent species. Such, at least, is the opinion 
of Von Thaer, although he inadvertently, we suppose, calls them genera. 
The genus is Triticum, and the points of diversity noticed are the basis of 
specific distinction. Permanent diversities of the flower or blossom exclu- 
sively control the generic divisions of plants, while differences in leaf, stem, 
etc., etc., give rise to species. 

Nor do the distinctions noted among the different kinds of wheat appear 
to be very satisfactory. If the winter wheat is sown in the spring these dis- 
tinctions appear materially changed, as the plant in appearance approximates 
to the characteristics of spiing wheat. Possibly, under a zealous perseve- 
rance, these experiments and these difterences would entirely disappear. It 
is generally found that spring wheat will not endure through a winter. But 



THE WHEAT CROP. 91 



60.60 


per 


cent. 


16.18 




u 


10.18 




u 


22.26 




u 


2.04 




(( 



we are not satisfied that a gradual training to exposure to cold ivould not 
discover that this even was not a feature utterly beyond control. 

The excellence of wheat may be summed up in the following particulars : 
Straw, medium size, strong, not peculiarly liable to the attacks of insects, 
not sensitive to frost. 

Heads Ions:, well filled ; grains, large, solid, white, and rapidly germin- 
ating. Chnff not easily separated from the grain. 

Good wheat weighs sixty pounds to a bushel ; sometimes as high as sixty- 
six. 

Of the varieties we have named, the first and third are remarkable for the 
weight of straw; the second for large berry; the first, third, seventh, and 
tenth are less liable to disease, or the attacks of insects; first, third, and 
seventh bear the frost well. Perhaps the first may be remarked as the most 
productive. 

The constituents of wheat are as follows : 
Starch, sugar, or gum, - - 
Gluten or albumen, _ . - - 

Water, 

Woody fiber, . . . . - 

Various salts, .-----. 
Small grains grown in hot and dry air, are generally more nutritious than 
the larger grown in moist soil. 

The proportion of gluten, as already suggested, varies very materially in 
different kinds of wheat. The greater the amount of gluten, the more water 
it absorbes, and the heavier is the loaf from the same weight of flour. 
Among the analogies illustrating this point we find the following : 

With two pounds of flour and the same amount of yeast, in each experi- 
ment, that from northern flour (Cincinnati) weighed three pounds, the Ala- 
bama (southern) weighed three and a half pounds. But these proportions 
are controlled by circumstances. 

Different kinds of manure change to a large extent the condition of these 
elements. Take for instance the elements%f gluten and starch. An experi- 
ment used by Hermbstadt, with equal weights of different manures, resulted 
as follows : 

Gluten. Starch. 

Unmanured, 9.2 66.6 

Vegetable manure, ... - 9.6 65.9 

Cow dung, 12. 62.3 

Pigeon dung, 12.2 63.2 

Horse dung, .... 13.7 61.6 

Human urine, .... 35.1 39.9 

Goat's dung, .... 32.9 42.4 

Sheep's dung, 32.9 42.8 

Night soil, 33.9 41.4 

Ox blood, 34.2 41.3 

It will be perceived that as the gluten increases the starch decreases. As 
to the point which element is the more desirable, our answer is this : For 
persons with stomachs like that of an ostrich, a large amount of gluten 
answers a very good purpose. For persons of limited digestive power it is 
fatal. For dishonest bakers who would make the loaf heavy with the least 
cost, encourage the increase of gluten. On the other hand, starch, farina, 
arrow-root, and all substances of that class, are universally wholesome food, 
and of easy digestion. Bread abounding in gluten, should be eatea before it 



92 " THE WHEAT CROP. 



becomes diy ; while that rich iu starch remains moist and paletable for 
several days. 

It is very fashionable now-a-days to study the use of soda and all alkalies 
in the place of yeast. We do not comprehend this. Just look into a dish 
of yeast and estimate its excellence as a diet. An excess of alkali is injuri- 
ous. So is an excess of water as a counter-agent to an'excess of acid, which 
is very common ; soda is highly useful. We know of no good obtained from 
yeast, except that it makes the bread light, and this is accomplished as well 
W soda. But '' there is no accounting for tastes ;" and prejudices on this 
subject are quite as unmanageable and as ridiculous as exhibitions of " taste" 
are in other relations. 

Wheat should be sown at a depth of one or two inches. M. Moreau 
planted thirteen beds, with 150 grains each, at various depths, and gives the 
followins: as the result : 



Depth. 


Came up. 


No. of heads. 


No. of grains. 


7 


5 


53 


682 


6i 


14 


140 


2520 


5f 


20 


174 


3818 


4* 


40 


400 


8000 


4i 


73 


700 


16,500 


Sf 


93 


992 


18,534 


2f 


123 


1417 


35,434 


H 


130 


1560 


34,349 


2 


140 


159G 


36,480 


If 


142 


1660 


35,826 


1 


137 


1561 


35,072 


i 


64 


529 


10,587 


On surface. 


20 


107 


1600 



Wheat of the preceding year is preferable for sowing*. The success of this 
crop is very dependent upon the *uality of the seed. Defective seed cannot 
produce a flourishing crop, but during its growth will ever be subject to all 
manner of diseases. This is also a very hungry crop. It impoverishes the 
soil more than almost any other. Or we might, perhaps, better avoid such 
phrases, though quite common, and say that it requires a liberal allowance of 
those elements of which most of our soils are eminently deficient. Where 
such deficiencies exist the growth must be very imperfect. Hence it should 
be sown either on the most fertile soils, or where for previous crops of a 
difierenl nature, it has been liberally enriched with the phosphates or fertil- 
izers producing soluble phosphates. Free acids are destructive to this crop. 
A large j^roportion of clay, that is, clayey soils, are suited for it, rather than 
sandy or silicious soils, though a free supply of lime, marl, ashes, etc., may 
secure on the latter a tolerable growth. All these, except the lightest 
silicious, should be thoroughly ploughed, the clods carefully broken, and the 
entire mass mellowed. 

It may be sown in drills or broad-cast, at the rate of one and a half to 
two bushels per acre. Even more than this is often used. 

Wheat straw is more nutritive as food than that of other grains, but is 
not more desirable for other purposes. The diseases and the insects to 
which this crop is particularly exposed will be considered in other papers, as 
well as the best preventives and remedies. 



DRAINING HEAVY SOILS. 93 



NORTHERN SUBSTITUTE FOR SUGAR-CANE. 

We learn from a writer in the Journal of Comm.erce, that one of our mis- 
sionaries in South Africa has sent here a few seeds of a plant which is pro- 
nounced a substitute for the sugar-cane in the manufacture of sugar, and 
which will grow well in our climate. The plant is called Imfe, by the Kaf- 
fres, but is known by many specific names. It resembles broom-corn, when 
growing. The natives of Natal cultivate it after the same manner as Indian 
corn, and it matures in three to four and a half months. It yields a larger 
quantity of sugar, say from 50 to 75 per cent, from the same bulk, but not of 
so good qualicy. It grows on either high or low land, and the abundant seed 
it produces serves well as feed for horses. A patent for the manufacture of 
sugar from this growth has recently been obtained in England. 



DRAINING HEAVY SOILS. 

Mr. Editor: — Much is said of late on the practicability of thorough 
drainage of soils before cultivation can be successfully carried out on the 
Farm. Many " teachers'' claim that all soils capable of cultivation must be 
thoroughly drained previous to their becoming fit for good and profitable 
cultivation. They say in substance, that thorough draining moistens dry- 
soils in dry weather as much as it relieves them of excess of water in wet 
weather. A doctrine to us about as reasonable as the (stove theory) namely, 
if one stove in use through the winter will save half of the farmer's wood 
over the old fire-place, then two stoves set at work ought to save it all. But 
first what is the object of draining soils? Why, it is of course to relieve 
them of an excess of moisture or water supposed to be in the soil. But 
then if there be no excess of moisture in the soil, should the soil be drained 
by " pipe-tile" in order to moisten these soils in dry w^eather by the use of 
air introduced into the soil according to the theory of these " teachers ?" We 
say, no. It" a "pipe-tile" is laid down in an ordinary soil, to carry off an ex- 
cess of moisture supposed to be in the soil, will not this "tile" serve to 
collect what moisture there is in the soil in a dry time and "conduct" it ofi"? 
Now instead of this plan, suppose you plow and sub-soil your lands to a 
reasonable depth, you then open the sub-soil so as to relieve the soil of sur- 
face water by heavy rains, also in dry weather moisture is drawn up from the. 
lower sub-soil and retained near the surface with the air to circulate, and de- 
mands no " pipe-tile" to conduct off" this moisture, but it is retained in the , 
soil. Now we claim that this is all the " draining" that a majority of these 
" heavy soils" as they are called, need; namely, deep plowing and an occasional 
sub-soiling. But again, there is another class of heavy soils which want 
through drainage before they can be cultivated with the best success. On many 
such soils, in course of the season, the surface will be apparently dry, but a 
few inches below, stagnant water will be found restingon the sub-soil. Such 
soils should be thoroughly drained by " pipe or stone," to relieve the soil of 



94 CHEAT IN FERTILIZERS. 

an excess of water. On most soils of this character the grasses on the sur- 
face will indicate the excess of wet by coarse and rush grasses, heavy ferns, 
and in some cases alders. Many of these soils are situated on high rolling 
lands, as it is a law of most of the water courses that they come out, ne-iv the 
surface on liigh lands, while low valleys and table-lands will be comparatively 
dry. Low swales, bog and swamp lands arQ another class of wet lands. 
These are mostly low lands laying at the foot of high lands and mountains. 
The draining of such lands and of swamps will depend on ibe situation of the 
]and aiid the character and depth of the soil to be drained. There are in 
many sections of country nearly whole farms that would pay well for drain- 
ing, we are well salis6ed, but comparing such lands on farms to the whole 
amount of tillable land in a town or country, and the ratio of lands that 
repuire " drainage" would be very small. To find out how wet a s^.il must 
be in order to require draining, we think (Mr. Johnson of Geneva, N.Y.,) 
who has had much experience in draining, has given a srood rule. It is in 
substance thus, dig pits or holes at several points in the fields where there is 
an appearance of water in tbe soil, at such depth as would be necessary to 
drain. If water gathers in these holes and stands for several days, it is a sure 
sign that there is an excess of water in the soil, which should by removed by 
drainage. We have occupied a hundred acres or so of tillable land, on which 
there was not an acre or half an acre that wanted any "draining" whatever. 
"Scientific teachers" declare to the contrary, notwithstanding. What our soil 
wanted was deep plowing, with an occasional sub-soiling, and this too at a 
much more thorough rate than we gave it, taking one season with another. 
But this doctrine that all tillable soils need draining by "tile" before good 
cultivation can take place, we consider to be as great a piece of "Empiri- 
cism" as was ever palmed off" by any set of teachers on the agricultural pub- 
lic. Just look at the extra expense farmers must be subject too, if they fol- 
low these "teachers," rules of laying down " pipe-tile" to drain dry up-iands 
which they no more need than they do to have the "Gospel" explained to 
them. But then these " teachers" say that tile-drains moisten dry land as 
much in a drought as they dry it when wet. Very well. But few of the most of 
farmers can aflbrd to lay down " pipe" to moi-ten their lands in a draught. 
After this plan, then, go ahead. They may get as much celebrity for "pipe 
laying" as certain politicians in New- York city once did. We prefer to adopt 
the more rational, and we think, economical plan, of plowing and sub-s..iling 
in order to moisten land in a drought, and also to relieve it of surface-water 
in a wet time. Yours, etc., L. Dwands. 

Derby, Ct., June, 1855. 



CHEAT IN FERTILIZERS. 

We have often advocated the importance of a sworn inspector of all gua- 
nos or other artificial fertilizers, aqd every month but adds to our conviction of 
the necessity of such a preservative against fraud. 

One of our most able exchanges, the Country Gentleman, has recently 
cha\;ged a fraud of this kind upon our learned neighbor of the Working Farm- 
er. We cannot believe so able and practised a teacher in this department 
should have descended to this depth of crime. We would rather hope and 



THE COEN CROP. 95 



believe that our Albany friend is misinformed. At any rate the learned Pro- 
fessor should at once firmly and explicitly deny the statement, or great injury 
■will be done to the honest trader. If respectable men are found engaged in 
this business, it will soon destroy all respectable traffic in such articles. The 
character of the dealer is now the only security of the public. If this is over- 
thrown, it will be regarded in the same light as dealing in gambling tools. In- 
deed we scarcely know which is most degraded, the corruptor of the kind 
referred to, who essentially destroys the crops of the country, or he who pro- 
vides the means for wasting them in games of chance at the gambling-table. 
The latter is on better ground than the former, in one respect. The gambler 
does not destroy or annihilate, so much as he fraudulently acquires the prop- 
erty of his neighbor. We hope our neighbor will not rest quietly under 
this severe charge. 



THE CORN CROP-THE GREAT STAPLE. 

Our readers need not be reminded of our views on this subject. We re- 
gard this crop as by far the greatest, when we consider its profit to the pro- 
ducer, and no crop can be considered superior to this, in respect to its o-eneral 
utility. Our views are well-expressed in the followmg article which we find 
in The Soil of the South, which, by the way, is one of our best exchanges. 
It is original in the Civilian and Cfazel(e,'Ah'ich. we have never met with. 

"Plant Corn." 
This laconic sentence, uttered by Gen. Houston in 1842, in reply to the 
appeals made to him for counsel, during one of the most gloomy and tryino- 
periods in the history of Texas, ought to be adopted as the motto of the State. 
To Gen. Houston's military career Texas owes much — probably her very ex 
istence as a nation and State ; but she owes him no less for his exertions to 
consolidate her government and secure for her the blessings of peace ; to pro " 
mote order, system, industry and prosperity among her people. All of mere 
military glory which any man can gain is as nothing compared to the merit 
which attaches to those who 

" Scatter plenty o'er a emiling land, 
And rtad their history in a nation's eyes." 

It is not enough that Texas can surpass every other State in the production 
of cotton and sugar. So long as corn is worth a dollar and a half a bushel 
in the Galveston market, and is brought here at that rate for transportation 
to the interior, (as it has been within the past two weeks,) the production of 
even cotton and sugar will be a poor business. In order to the most success- 
ful production of other articles, a people must first secure the means of cheap 
living. If corn is abundant and cheap, meats, and all other necessary articles 
of subsistence, will be comparatively easy to obtain. If corn is scarce and high, 
the reverse will follow. The fear of an over-supply of corn has been the great 
drawback to Texas thus far. It is true that, in the Western States, corn has 
sometimes been so abundant as to appear almost valueless, but this very fact 
has made the Great West what it is — the most progressive and prosperous 
country that ever existed. Notwithstanding the immense supply of Indian 
corn it has always been usefully employed, and the demand has outgrown 



96 * THE CORN CROP. 



the increased production. Recent events have drawn the attention of politi- 
cal economists strongly to this sulject, and led to the clear establishment of 
the fact that corn is by far the most valuable crop in the United States, and 
that its importance is constantly increasing, while, from the deterioration of 
the soil and other causes, both corn and the supplies of other articles de- 
pending upon it, have greatly fallen off in some of the older Slates of the 
Union. Its cultivation is mainly confined to a belt of thirteen deofrees. The 
last census shows that five States, including Western Pennsylvania and Wes- 
tern Virginia, in the valley of thn Ohio, furnish half the amount produced in 
the Union. Though cotton has increased, it has not half so rapidly as maize. 
The latter is destined to become the great staple of commerce. The climate 
in Europe is not adapted to its cultivation, and foreign demand is on the 
increase. It is estimated that 50,000,000 bushels, or 1,500,000 tons, are 
transported annually in bulk, witbin the States. 3,(^00,000 hogs are pre- 
pared for market every year, of which 2,000.000 are fatted on corn, consum- 
ing 200,000 tons. The manufacturer of G00,0ii0 barrels of whisky con- 
sumes 100,000 tons. 170,000 tuns are used in cattle feed. The aggregate 
amount for 1849-50 is two million tons. According to the current in- 
crease, in 1860 nine hundred millions of bushels will enter into commerce, or 
three milhon tons, which will furnish exclusive employment for 4,000 miles 
of railroad. The demand for corn and animals depending upon it is rapidly 
increasing within the State. It appears that in Kentucky and Tennesee, 
there has been a great decrease in cattle in ten years ; no less than 33,786 
of neat cattle in the former, and 72,066 in the latter State. It is stated on 
the best authority that in Massachusetts, from 1840 to 1850, the hay crop 
had depreciated 12 per cent., altlrough 300,000 acres had been added to those 
previously under tillage. The corn crop during the same period fell short 
6,000 bushels ; there has been a falling oft" of 160,000 sheep and 76,600 
swine. In the State of New-York from 1845 to 1850, 671,692 acres were 
added to those previously under cultivation, and yet there had been a most 
alarming falling oft" in all kinds of agricultural products. The same is true 
of most of the old States. All these deficits must be supplied from the new 
States of the South and West. Texas beeves have already found their way 
to the New-York market. They are still needed, not only there, but through- 
out the Union. Texas horses, mules, sheep, and hogs would find an equally 
ready sale, especially if the breeds were a little improved by feeding with 
corn. These animals have, thus far, been raised here on the spontaneous 
productions of the soil, and without cost to the owners. Feeding during win- 
ter would produce much better stock, and still enable our farmers to undersell 
those of any other State. According to the best accounts, two years ago, 
and before the present era of high prices set in, the expense of raising a horse 
in Indiana, until three years old, was |30 ; in Kentucky, the cost was from 
|!40 to $45, and its value from $70 to $150 ; in Maine, the cost till four 
years old was 860, and the price 8100 and upwards; in Missouri, the cost 
was from 618 to 620, and average price 6100. The cost in Union count}^, 
Pennsylvania, was from 660 to 6S0, and the price 6125 to 6150. In Schuyl- 
kill county, the cost is 635 to 645 a year till two and a half yeai-s old ; after 
that he w'ill cost from 650 to 660. He will sell from $100 to 6230. Corn 
is not likely to prove a burden so long as it can be converted intoi horses at 
these prices ; or into pork at from $16 to 620 per barrel. _ 

Late as is the present season, it may yet prove exceedingly profitable to 
follow the advice at the head of this article. 



MEMOIR ON THE PEODUCTIOISr OF BUCKWHEAT. 97 



MEMOIR ON THE PRODUCTION" OF BUCKWHEAT. 

Buckwheat was introduced into France in tlie eighth century by the Sara- 
cens, in the time of their invasion into that country, and has preserved its 
name (Sarrazin) from this people, as it has in Poland, where it was intro- 
duced by the Tartars, six centuries afterwards, where it is called Tartarka. 
It is not a cereal, as is generally supposed, but it is now placed by French 
botanists in the same class as cabbage. 

There are two kinds of buckwheat ; the common, and the buckwheat of 
Siberia, as it is called. These tw® kinds differ very much. The former is 
more farinaceous than the latter. Prepared with the hull, it is sweeter, and 
does not heat so quick, as it is less resinous than the other kind with the 
hull. The taste is more bitter ; but as it does not heat so quick, it may be 
kept a long time. The latter sort, however, is preferred. Two crops of this 
can be grown in a season, since neitber frosts nor hot winds injure it ; and 
it produces fifty, one hundred, and even five hundred fold, while that just 
named does n6t produce more than twenty or thirty to one. 

The Tartars did not employ the first, as they did not use the farina, but- 
hulling the grains, they used them as they do rice, boiling them in water or 
in milk. The process of hulling was performed without the use of a mill. 
Boiling water was poured upon the grains, and after standing an hour, the 
water was poured off, and the grains were dried by the fire, or in the sun ; 
and after the grains were dry, they were placed between two sheets, and 
rolled with a wooden roller, by which the hulls were separated from the 
grains. They were then fanned, and were ready to be cooked. What is 
surprising, as the result of this process, is, the grains were kept distinct from 
each other, while those hulled in a mill and cooked, became compact and 
adhesive. 

The people^of the East make delicacies from the meal of buckwheat, which 
is called Me mondc, or pealed grain. Open the Thousand and One Nights, 
and at the splendid banquets, among the most choice dishes served upon the 
table of Haroun el Raschid, Caliph of Bagdad — were the Bermacedes or 
ragouts of mutton — served with the meal of the monde ; that is, of hulled 
buckwheat. 

In Poland, with the aid of a mill, we find buckwheat not only in the form 
of coarse meal, but also fine white meal, which is the same thing as the 
farina of Hecker, manufactured in JSTew-York. 

In Germany, as in Poland, this is well known as a healthy and light nutri- 
ment, and is used in the confection of sausages with pork, mixed with the 
muscle and the fat. 

The Hollanders make much account of semoulie, or fine meal, which is a 
source of great profit, and an article of commerce with China, and is there 
well-known under the name of small European rice. Lord MacCarty, 
ambassador of England, in that country, reports that a dish oftered him by 
the Chinese, in the name of the Emperor, as a mark of distinction, was 
nothing else but the meal of buckwheat. 

France harvests more than 5,000,000 hectolitres of buckwheat, (a hecto- 
litre being a little less than three bushels,) and of 35,000,000 inhabitants, 
two and a half millions live chiefly on this production. They use it in the 
form of farina, of which they make a porridge, of pancakes and of bread, but 
for the last it must be mingled with the flour of barley or of rye. It is thus 

Y 



98 MEMOIR ON THE PRODUCTIOISr OF BUCKWHEAT, 

made as black as tbe soot of the chimney. It is dark colored because the 
grain is niixeii with it without hulling. 

M. Felix Didier Saniewski, (the writer of this memoir,) a Polish refugee, 
after the revolution of 1830, liaving resided in France for five years, perceived 
that the proper use of thi-; grain was not understood, and constructed a 
mill of brass, of which the following is a description : 

The mill presents a total elevation of a metre and forty- five cetiti metres, 
(a metre is a little more than a yard.) The base is of jtlank, sixty centi- 
metres on the sides and ten ceniiraetres ihick, supported by three feet of 
forty-five cents, in height fastened into them, and supported by cross-pieces. 
Upon the plateau or base, rests the lower stone, ten centimetres thick, lying 
horizontally. This millers call the bed. It is enclosed in a casing to the 
depth of five^entimetres. The second stone is of the same thickness. It 
lies upon the first, and is supported, by iron-work, as is seen in ordinary mills. 
The two stones are forty-two centimetres in diameter. An opening is made 
in the upper stone for the admission of grain, ten centimetres in diameter. 
The ba<e is surrounded with four planks, which form the sides, and which 
millers call tbe frame. This extends to the height of five centimetres above 
the Hne of the junction of the two stones, and are four centimetres in thick- 
ness, making the total dimensions seventy centimetres. There is an open- 
ing in the said frame at the same level as the base, to admit of the discharge 
of the farina. Finally, two uprights or posts, ninety centimetres in height, 
and fastt-ned to the frame at their extremities by a cross-piece four centi- 
metres in length, which is pierced in the center. Through this orifice a 
spindle parses, one metre in length, ironed and pointed at the lower extrem- 
ity. From this opening there passes obliquely a lever, which may be applied 
to one side of the stone by means of a mortice made in the stone itself, by 
which the miller moves the stone to the right or to the left. 

Not having been a miller, and not knowing, except by observation, the 
process of preparing the various kinds of food made with buckwheat, by the 
aid of this mill, which cost twelve dollars, he commenced his experiments, 
and engaging with a miller of Saint John, of Ruelli, near Orleans, at the 
commencement of 1836, he ground three hectolitres of buckwheat, and hav- 
ing converted this quantity into coarse meal, he sold it in the markets of 
Orleans and of Paris at six sous (cents) per French pound, while the same 
thing imported from abroad had been, before this, sold to " amateurs," for 
eighteen sous per pound. 

It was impossible to obtain, by a large mill, this meal, (seraoule) ; and 
hence it was necessary to have recourse to his small mill; and after having 
constructed a bolting-cloth of fine silk, he obtained the most beautiful farina, 
which was fold at Paris as it had been prepared in the provinces. 

Afti-rwards he presented to the Minister of Agriculture a memoir on this 
subject. In the years 1837-8, difterent agricultural societies examined his 
processes, and reported upon them. At the exhibition of products of 1839, 
at Pans, he obtained "an honorable mention," and the report of the jury 
declared that he merited a reward of the first rank, but in consequence of the 
limited extent to which these labors had been performed, the award could 
not properly be made. In 1840 he published a memoir upon the products 
of buckwheat ; and in 1842 he went through the departments and instructed 
the inhabitants how to obtain them, not only by aid of his small mill, but 
also by using a Holland mill, as well as the mills already in u<e, in grinding 
•wheat. In 1841, at the exhibition of four departcoents at Tours, a medal 
was awarded to him for these services. 



MEMOIR ON THE PRODUCTION OF BUCKWHEAT. 99 

He arrived at New- York in 1851, and having noticed in the shops the 
show of Hecker's Farina, and curious to know what it was, he purchased a 
pound of it, and having considered it very carefully, he was satisfied that it 
was the self-same thing as his semoule, or the tine meal of buckwheat. 
Afterwards, passing through Forsyth street, he perceived in the window of a 
baker's shop a larger loaf of farina not bolted, which he bought on account 
of its resemblance to that used by his countrymen in Poland. In eating it, 
he discovered the hull of buckwheat. The baker was a German, and M. 
Saniewski, understanding his language, inquired of him where he obtained the 
farina for tlie manufacture of that bread. The answer was, at Hecker's, in 
Cherry street. He then visited this mill, and found a clerk who spoke Ger- 
man, with whom he entered into conversation concerning the farina of Mr. 
Hecker. He commended its excellence, and then, as a stranger, expressed a 
wish to see the mill. The clerk replied that this was not permitted ; that it 
was a secret which could not be made known to strangers. . 

As his children had been accustomed to this kind of food in France, and 
as it was light, convenient, and easy of digestion, he often purchased this 
farina, and prepared it as he had been accustomed to do, without regarding 
the directions upon the envelope, especially as neither himself nor the mem- 
bers of his family knew the language. But a while afterwards, having 
repeatedly bought this f-irina, he perceived that it had a different taste and 
a yellowish color after it was cooked, while it had been white ; that it was not 
so compact, and had less adhesion. He then examined the farina as it was 
bought raw in the package, which he found of a yellowish color, and havinp»' 
tasted it, he was satisfied that it was the farina of wheat as it was used in 
France. Tliis could readily be perceived, as the difference was obvious after 
it was cooked, as it is milder (plus liante) than pure buckwheat. This is 
caused by the fact that wheat contains gluten, while buckwheat does not, 
which has only albumen, and is more binding and sweeter. In cooking the 
two another difference is perceived; for when the meal of wheat is thrown 
into boiling water and is not stirred diligently, it will form a compact mass, 
which is not in the condition of separate grains, as in the case of buckwheat, 
although the latter will also form a paste, but when the water is drained 
from it, and it is removed into a colander, it separates itself into grains. 
Hence while it is easy to distinguish, the one from the other, it is evident 
that Mr. Hecker uses wheat; first, because there is not a sufficient quantity 
of buckwheat grown to provide for so extensive a consumption; second, the 
buckwheat costs more than wheat; third, there is more profit from a given 
weight of wheat than from buckwheat; fourth, the labor of preparing buck- 
wheat is more expensive; and fifth, the gain is greater. 

But to the consumer these two are not the same thing, as the buckwheat, 
being destitute of gluten, is light and easy of digestion for the dyspeptic, is 
wholesome for children, and those who cannot eat almost anything else, find 
no trouble in the use of this. Of this I have had proof from Mr. Mansei, 
Prefect of Maine and Loire, in France, who was dyspeptic to the last degree, 
and was given up by his physicians, who having recourse to the pure meal 
of buckwheat which he purchased of me, after some months, in which he 
exclusively used food prepared from buckwheat, became so much improved 
that he could digest any kind of food, and his health and strength were com-' 
pletely restored. The flour of wheat was at the same time injurious to him, 
and the use of it had nearly cost him his life. Wheat is also injurious to 
children. 

The meal of buckwheat is a wholesome diet ; but it should not be mixed 



100 MEMOIR ON THE PRODUCTION OF BUCKWHEAT. 

with other ingredients, as pounded rice, nor substituted for that of wheat, as, 
in my opinion, this is a want of good faith to the consumer. To extend the 
use of this wholesome food, it is necessary that all should know how to pre- 
pare it, and that farmers who grow this crop would obtain a greater profit 
who sell it in the grain, as I have shown above ; and I recommend the use 
of the simple mill, already described, with the following additional con- 
veniences for its manipulation. : 

A pan or sieve, or a light trough, oblong, and dug in a semicircular form 
of common wood, which may be used in winnowing the grain ; a sieve 
through which after the grain is ground the coarse meal, the Hour, and the 
farina, as well as the particles of the bruised grains, may be collected. Three 
sieves are needed, two of moderate fineness, and one finer at the bottom, made 
of silk, after the manner of bolting-cloths, or of fine muslin. This is all that 
is required. 

The manipulation is as follows : The buckwheat should be cleared of all 
gravel ; the upper stone is raised by the aid of a screw, which is introduced 
into the lower stone, and when the grain comes from the mill broken, and 
2)asses on to the sieve, giving it a rotation by which the hull rises to the top, 
and is removed by a stroke of the hand, and is thrown away as useless. 
Since the light hull will remain on the sieve with the coarse meal, this must 
be fanned, and that which can be scattered by the wind is driven away, and 
the pure meal will remain. But it is still necessary to give a blow with the 
hand upon the sieve, and separate the particles of flour from the hull by 
this process. The residue which is separated by the wind from the meal is 
nutritive, but excites heat, although for horses it may be very useful when 
wet or salted. 

The flour and the farina which shall remain at the bottom of the sieve is 
passed over the sieve, and the farina and the very fine particles of the hull 
are separated from the semoule, and it is necessary still to keep the fan in 
motion. The particles that are found mixed in the flour will rise to the top, 
and may be brushed away with the hand, and thus the semoule will remain 
2)ure, and fit for commerce or domestic use. 

To turn the mill, the strength of a boy of twelve years old is sufficient, 
and the clearing may be done by the hand of a woman, since it is very light 
work, and females are especially adroit in this kind of labor. And then, 
when the mijl is to be set away, it may be placed in one corner of a cham- 
ber, or in the hall, or in a granaiy. It is exactly the work for a farmer on 
a leisure day — being light, useful, and profitable. 

If a coarser meal is desired, and it is to be preserved a long time, as on 
a long voyage, it is necessary to dry the buckwheat before a fire. The 
manipulation is the same. I have had experience of this in France, having 
left two sacks of ^this meal for two years in a moist place, so that the sacks 
were partially decayed, but on removing those portions of the meal that 
were particularly exposed, I dried the remainder in the air, and found that 
it had not lot its flavor. 

All these varieties of flour may be obtained with an ordinary mill, but 
the stones should be very hard, and in good condition. I have had repeated 
proof of this in France, with the mills of Brittany and of Normandy. But 
for the wealthier farmers, and those who would make much account of these 
products, we recommend the Holland -dill, Avhich grinds, separates, cleans, 
and then delivers the products desired. It costs one hundred dollars, but 
lasts an age. The following is a description ©f it : 

[We shall give this description when we can procure an engraving of it, 



MEMOIR ON" THE PRODUCTIOISr OF BUCKWHEAT. 101 

that it ma}'- be better understood. If any are desirous of tryinp- it, we will 
communicate to them personally such an exhibition of it as may answer the 
purpose. — Ed.] 

I do not know, but I presume that the mill of Mr. Hecker is of this 
description. The description and the design, connected, were given in my 
memoir upon the use of Buckwheat, published in France, in 1840. One 
reason why I entertain this belief is, that the mode of using Hecker's farina, 
written in his directions, is an extract from this memoir, (p, 71,) under the 
title La Semoulc. Changing the name of a product does not change its nature- 
Having indicated the manner of preparing these products, I would give 
some idea of their value. 

Extract from the Report of the Commissier of the Society of Agriculture 
of Blois, August 25th, 1837 : " That the value of the new products which 
we have discovered may be properly understood, and in what proportions 
they are to be obtained, we take in our first experiment five pounds (French) 
of buckwheat, which gave — 

Meal, (gruau,) lib. 12oz. 

Farina, 4| " 

Waste,' (recoupe,) - - - - 1 " 12" " 

Bran, (sou,) - 14|" 

Loss, 5'' 

In our second experiment, 32 pounds 8 ounces reduced to 31 pounds 3 
ounces by cleansing, (the grain being mixed with gravel,) the result was — 

Coarse meal, _..._. slbs. 4oz. 

Fine meaj, (semoule,) - - - . 4 " 4 « 

Farina, 4 " 8 " 

Waste, 3' " 12 " 

Bran, - 8 " 8 " 

Loss, 2 " 4 " 

Notice how I have proved the correctness of my calculations. 
Cost of four bushels of buckwheat at 95c.. $3 80 

Expense of preparing it, (a day's work,) $1 50 

Total, $5 30 

Product of four bushels of the grains weighing, after cleansing, sixty 
pounds : 



Coarse meal, 


' 16lbs. 


at 


30c. 


^4 


80 


Fine meal, 


6 " 


u 


35 c. 


2 


10 


Farina, 


6 " 


u 


15c. 




90 


Bran, 


13 " 


a 


5 c. 




65 


Waste and loss, 


19 « 


<( 






00 



GOlbs. 88 45 

From this it is obvious what large jM'ofits a farmer can secure to himself 
by preparing his own buckwheat ; and I add that the bran is good feed for 
horses and for swine, while the hulls which he will throw upon his dung- 
heap is good and nutritious feed for hens and ducks. 

I will not speak of the great profits which Mr. Hecker obtains from buck- 
wheat in selling it at one shilling a pound, nor of the monopoly which he has 
secured of this crop in this section of country, which has raised the price of 
buckwheat from three to six cents a pound, at the cost of the consumer. 
{^To he concluded in otir next.) 



102 NEW- YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 



NEW-YORK AND :fiRIE RAILROAD. 

A LEISURELY trip over the eastern half of this great road, is an event of great 
interest and pleasure, as we can personally testify. One thing strikes all 
travelers early and obviously, the kind and gentlemanly bearing and man- 
ners of the superintendent, Mr. McCallum, and his assistants, oue of whom, 
Mr. Hugh Riddle, is in Port Jervis, and has the care of the road from that 
place to Susquehanna Depot; and this first impression is in no danger of 
being removed by a more intimate acquaintance either with mechanics or 
engineers. Another thing which will impress and please the leisurely 
traveler, is the perfect system whiah marks the management of the road, 
from the matters of greatest importance, to the minutest matters in the work- 
shops and around the stations, which enables few men to do the duties which 
otherwise would be less perfectly done by many, and \y]\\d\ awakens a feel- 
ing of conscious safety, and excites a friendly sympathy in the mind of the 
traveler. The repairs for two sections of the road are done at Susquehanna 
depot, where locomotives are repaired and rebuilt ; two hundred men are em- 
ployed there, and four hundred can be, when business demands the labor of 
so large a number of persons. Ms. Gregg is the master mechanic. For mak- 
ing and mending wheels, boilers, cylinders, and all other parts of some ten 
dozen locomotives, turn-tables, round-houses, machines' tools and so-forth, 
must all be on a great scale, and to manage all the men and work so as to 
have neither material nor time lost, requires the most skilful, constant, and sys- 
tematic care. Such is the management of an establishment of such gigantic 
size. An hour or two under the pilotage of Mr. G., and in free conversation 
with foremen and subordinate masters, will teach a valuable lesson on kind, 
exact, and successful management. The lessons of the turn-table and round- 
house are soothing to nervous people. The way in which the engine is inspect- 
ed, after " walking over the section" — all around it, and over it, and before and 
behind itf and in "its joints and articulations," and how every separate part 
is thumped, handled, cleaned, and made just exactly right, and put exactly 
in its place ; the way this is done all the time, and everywhere, puts the ner- 
vous passenger in perfect quietude, and fits him to enjoy the grand, beautiful 
and sublime scenery lining the sides of the valleys through which the road 
passes. That scenery, by the way, a man must enjoy in spile of himself; who 
starts, for instance, from Susquehanna for New-York at 6^ o'clock A. M.,on a 
bright morning in June, and, having had an agreeable interview with himself 
before starting, takes his seat in the aft end of the aft car, and gives himself up 
to observations and reverie. Beauty, grandeur, sublimity and youthful fresh- 
ness in nature everywhere and variously greet him as onward he goes, over 
the hills and over the valleys in delightful haste, and safety towards New- 
York. Amidst the most rocky and rugged scenery, the stupendous works of 
men join with nature in awakening a traveler's wonder and admiration ; for, 
while the road for the engine and his truck has been excavated from the prim- 
itive rock on one side of the now calm and now roaring Delaware, across the 
bosom of said stream, and also excavated from primitive stone, is seen the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal, whose placid bosom glistens like a silver band 
along and around the bald black base of the apjiroaching mountain. The 
road, and river, and canal down at the bottom of a broad ravine, make a 
grand and sublime impression, every way suited to harmonize with the im- 
pression of that charming cascade^ a long ways back, which surprised and de- 



NEW-YORK AND ERIE RAILAOAD, 103 

lighted you by the free and easy way its waters plunged over a high preci- 
pice down into an abyss dark as midnight. Nowhere can be found such a 
railroad scenery. Some experience enables us to speak intelligently in refer- 
ence to a desirable trip over this road, to take which entitles any man to re- 
ceive our congratulations. 

We hope to be able to ma\Q a more extensive report, ere long, of the beau- 
tiful scenery along this immense thoroughfare. M. M. D. 



Ingenious Bridge. — A small apparatus for crossing a canal and tow-path, 
came lately under our inspection in Port-Jervis, N. Y., and we were so much 
pleased with it, that we attempt a description of it for the benefit of whom 
it may concern, stating by the way, that one of our fiiends, Mr. L, H. Beck- 
with, is the inventor and owner of the bridge we saw. It is built, firs|, by 
erecting two posts, each about twenty-eight or thirty feet hi^h, one on the 
outer edge of the canal, and one on the outer edge of the tow-pat,h. From 
the tops of these posts wires are fastened and stretched outward at an angle 
of some forty degrees, and made fast to a tree or post. From the top of 
each post a wire is fastened, and stretched inward across the canal, and inserted 
and made fast to the opposite post, just four feet from its top. Another one, 
perpendicular to the face of the canal, made to roll upon the upper wire by 
a pulley attached to the upper end of said wire, hangs down to within four 
feet of the ground, and has a loop in its downward end, of size and strength 
to admit a foot. Hence to cross the canal, put your foot in the loop of the 
wire pendent from the higher transverse wire, and also grasp it in your hand 
and your weight carries you over the water safely. Before starting, grasp also 
the wire hanging from the lower transverse wire, and slip or trundle it across 
with you, that you may use it in returning. The wire is* about three six- 
teenths of an inch in diameter, which is used in the construction of Mr. B.'s 
bridge, which is to him very convenient, and which is a contrivance of much 
ingenuity. 

Mechanical Statistics. 

Port Jervis, IsT. Y. — Saiv-Factory of James H. Mondon & Co., owners and 
agents. Shop employs 16 hands on an average ; make cast-steel saws of all 
kinds, taking the steel in sheets. 

Machine- Shoj) included, has J. B. Crisman, foreman ; has 3 lathes, and 
other tools in proportion. 

Neversink Foundry, by Van Fleet, Bull & Co., employs 20 hands on an 
average, running two tons iron daily. 

M:ichine-Shop attached, has 5 lathes, and other tools in proportion. 

Be2)air-Shop of New-York and Erie Railroad. — This shop is one of the 
smaller ones belonging to this road. George H. Hoagland, foreman. Shop 
has 6 lathes, and other tools in proportion. Ilef)air locomotives. 

Carpenter's Shop, A Wood, foreman. 

Car Inspectors, C. D. Cooper and W. E. Cooper. 

W. H. Lamoreux, Wm. J. Hull, Edward Merritt and others, Engineers. 

Hugh Riddle, Esq., Superintendent of Delaware Division of Road. 

Susquehanna Depot, Penn. 

Repair-Shop of New- York and Erie Railroad. — James B. Gregg, mas 
ter mechaniQ ; A. King, General, and Robert Wallace, Assistant Foreman 
George Pettit, Dispatcher. 

Machine-Shop has lathes, planes, etc., 46, and other tools in proportion. 



104 WELDING CAST IR0:N. 



Largest lathe has face-plate 8 feet in diameter. John Wood and R. F. 
Brown, Foremen. 

Forge-Shop has 2 trip-hammers, 26 fins ; Wm. Hunt, foreman. 

Connecting-Rod Shop, John Durling, foreman. 

Pattern- Shop), William Nugent, foreman. 

Print-Shop, John W. Smith, foreman ; Johfi T. Bourn, store keeper. 

Foundry, has Samuel Falkenbury, foreman and 14 hands on the average. 
Frederick Avery and others, engineers. 

This shop does the repairs on 105 locomotives, all used on two divisions of 
the road. 

Two new engines of extraordinary power and simplicity have lately been 
received, built for the road, after the ideas of Mr. Gregg. They have 5 feet 
driving-wheels, cylinder lY by 24 inches — outside connections — 1100 feet 
heatecl surface, 8500 pounds traction — 60,000 pounds weight ; 40,000 being 
on the driving^heels. 

Central Village, Conn. 

Union Co. — 2 mills cotton. H. L. Aldrich, agent. 

Old Mill has 18 cards of 36 inches ; 3,300 ring andthrosele spindles ; 84 
looms. Cloth is 28x36 inches wide, of yarn, No^ 26. 

New Mill has 40 cards of 30 inches; 5,500 ring spindles, 132 looms. 
Cloth 39 inches 72x80; and 36 wide, 60x68 ; of yarn No. 30.* Shepard 
Dixon, Martin Pierce, Benjamin R. Money, Wm. J. Potter, and others, over- 
seers. 

Almyville-Mill — Cotton. Sampson Almy owner and agent. 

Mill has 18 cards ; 80 looms; 3,448 spindles. Cloth 32 wide, '72x88 ; and 
34 wide; 72x88. . 

Moosvp Mill — Woolen. — E. A. Russell, owner and agent. Mill has 7 sets 
cards, of 40 strands each, and 47 looms. Make first class fancy cassimeres 
and doeskins. 

Waregan Mill — Cotton. — J. S. At^^ood, Superintendent ; has 70 cards ; 
10,500 spindles ; 236 looms. Cloth 34 wide, 84x100 ; and 40 wide, 84x84 ; 
i)f yarn No. 35. Alfred Chatterton and others overseers. 



WELDING CAST-IRON. 

The welding of cast-iron, part to part, or a new part to an old one, is done 
bj a process different from the welding of wrought-iron ; and yet the pro- 
cess of doing it may properly be called welding. The honor of first welding 
cast-iron, since the reviving of art, probably belongs to Mr. Samuel Falken- 
burg, foreman of the foundry attached to the Susquehanna machine-shop of 
the New-York and Erie Railroad. The process is somewhat as follows : Mr. 
F. has a pattern made of the casting to be supplied to another given casting, 
and moulds the casting with the use of the pattern to the imperfect piece. 
Instead of pouring the fused iron into the mould, and allowing it immediately 
to cool, the fused iron is permitted to escape by a prepaied orifice — the 
pouring of the fused metal and its escape being continued — until the rough 
edges of the imperfect piece become fused by the heat of the passing fused 
iron, when the orifice by which the fused metal escapes is closed, the mould 



> PANORAMIC VIEWS AND PAINTINGS. 105 

is filled, and the iron, tlius confined in juxtaposition with the melted edge of 
the unmelted iron, gradually cools and becomes sohd. When the sand is 
removed, the new part is found to be one with the old, the welding and sup- 
plied part being perfect. The welding has been most frequently performed 
upon locomotive cylinders, one part of which has been broken off. It will 
readily be seen that one great difficulty to be overcome is the difference in 
the contraction of the new and old parts while they are cooling. This diffi- 
culty is greatly diminished, if not satisfactorily overcome, by heating the 
cold iron as much as may be done before the new metal is poured into the 
mould. By this means the shrinkage of the old and the added parts become 
equalized. Many damaged cylinders have been mended in this manner by 
Mr. F., and consequently much expense has been saved to the road. We 
are assured by Mr. Gregg, the able master-mechanic of the shop, under 
whose supervision some one hundred locomotives come, that the welding is 
perfect and hence satisfactory, though some cylinders have been damaged by 
having pieces broken out through the whole length, and some also having 
flanges broken off. Mr. F. has procured no patent right for the sole use of 
his discovery, yet this acknowledgment is his due — he being the discoverer 
of the mode of welding cast-iron. This discovery is abundantly sufficient 
to entitle him to be honored as the benefactor of mankind. The process by 
which it 'was reached partakes about as much of invention as of discovery. 



PANORAMIC VIEWS AND PAINTINGS. 

J. R smith's tour of EUROPE, 

" Who does not believe his own eyes ?" " What I see I know ;" and other 
expressions of like import, are heard almost every day. But such phrases do 
not embody the whole truth. What a man sees is fixed in his mind in 
definite foim. It is bounded by mathematical lines, and by well-defined 
surfaces. Half the people in the world do not know what they think they 
do. Ask for a definition of hundreds of words, without entering upon difii- 
cult abstractions, like virtue, kindness, etc., and though they are used perhaps 
every day in common conversation, you will fail to get correct answers. 
The definitions may be only imperfect and partial, or even positively in- 
correct. 

We have a system in our own mind in regard to visible illustrations. 
We would employ them in almost every branch of education for the young 
and for the old. Who would teach geometry without diagrams ? AVho 
would instruct in architecture without drawings and models, and even actual 
structures ? In our view such aids are almost equally essential in geography, 
history, etc. In botany it is absolutely impossible to teach or to learn merely 
by definition and explanation. Such studies alone are not worth a mill. 

The missionary enterprise, in our view, would be wonderfully benefited 
could the scenes witnessed by our missionaries be presented before the vision 
of the people who are called upon to sustain them. Give us such facilities 
for reaching the hearts of the people, through their eyes, and we need not 
fear to insure an increase in missionary contributions of one hundred per 
cent. We have made such statements often in private circles, and some- 



106 PANORAMIC VIEWS AND PAINTINGS. 

times in public assemblies. We must have personal knowledge of the 
recipient of our charities ere our last coin is drawn from our pockets, and 
any arrangement which approximates towards this adds to the weight of the 
motive which operates upon us. 

In geography we have tested' the powers of the magic-lantern in giving 
interest to a branch of study in itself as an abstraction as dry as any art of 
the chemist could make it. So, too, in astronomy. And what would one 
know of chemistry without seeing experiments ? 

What is " a knowledge of geography ?" A readiness in giving latitudes and 
longitudes, with certain names of very uncertain forms of mountains, etc. ? 
Not at all. These are but the frame -work. We should know the forms, 
appearances, habits, manners, dress, opinions, etc., of the people. It is this, 
and this only, which is worth study. We would see the people, see their 
houses, their public buildings, etc., and extend this kind of instruction in 
the greatest possible degree. 

Views of cities, mountains, cataracts, etc., are interesting to all, learned and 
ignorant, young and old, and give a zest and a reality to less material 
topics. 

J. , R, Smith's Pamorama. 

We were led into the preceding train of remark by witnessing the views 
of various European cities, now on exhibition in this city. As a mere work 
of art, Mr. Smith's Panorama of European cities, etc., is the finest we have 
ever seen. Such effects could only be produced by a skillful hand. The per- 
spective, in which so many fail, is preserved throughout, with scarce an 
exception even in minor points. The coloring, shading, etc., are admirable. 
So, too, the selection of scenes presented is very judiciou'i. There is much 
meaning in a remark in a little descriptive pamphlet which Mr. Smith gave 
us, in which he says, " Leghorn is a line place, but not for a picture." He 
has presented us good pictures. We would not like to dispense with one of 
them, but with the young pupil of Master Squeers cry " more, more." 
We have capital views of Rowen, Paris, Brussels, Hamburg, Berlin, Milan, 
Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples, etc., with various castles, cathedrals, palaces, 
monuments, churches, etc., mountain scenery, views on the Rhine, volcanoes, 
and other natural objects ; every one of which is worthy of careful study, and 
which exhibit capital judgment in the artist. Besides this, we are satisfied' 
that the views are true to the reality. The single view of the great cathe- 
dral of Milan by night, lighted, and filled with people, is fidly worth the price 
of a ticket. So is the night view in Hamburg. So is the view of Heidel- 
berg castle. Several glaciers are included in the views of the Alps, which 
teach better than any geography can, the various forms and appearances 
which they assume. We know of no better method of giving interest to 
studies of this sort than by such representations. Had we a class in geogra- 
phy to instruct, we would take them to such an exhibition as this, even at 
our own cost. Even ordinary engravings are better than nothing. Well- 
made panoramic views are second in value only to an actual visit to those 
places, and almost all of us must confine our foreign tours to the halls 
where panoramas are exhibited. 

But we would say a word more of this work of Mr. Smith, as a work of 
art. We should like to know how all the capital illustrations of day and 
night, moonlight, the light of conflagrations, the twinkling of .stars, the spark- 
ling of crystals in caverns, etc., etc., can be represented in a style so splendid 
and so true to nature. Perhaps we can get admission to these secrets. If 



COMPANY OF INVENTORS. 107 

/ ' 

so, we will tell you, kind reader, all we are permitted to. The thunder and 
storms, and even the roar of the batteries before Sevastopol, belong to a hum- 
bler department of art, and are properly introduced into such representations 
rather to relieve the observer, and prevent weariness from a constant tax of 
eye-sight, than for their literal resemblance to the tempests of the outer 
world. Of the reliabilility of these representations we have evidence in the 
fact that the views were taken on the spot, and have been successfully ex- 
hibited in several European cities. The views of Sevastopol are taken from 
the drawings of the French engineers. 

The style of painting in a panorama is peculiar. A mere portrait-painter 
could not succeed in it. An artist quite skilled in common landscapes \yould 
need some experience in this particular branch of the art. The scene-painter, 
vfho so much increases the interest of dramatic representations, boasts an art 
peculiarly his own. It is unhke all other styles of representing nature, and 
most emphatically so when most true to nature. The artist who produces a 
good panorama, possesses an art scarcely less distinct from all others than 
does the dramatic painter. 



FOR THE PLC(UQH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVILc 

COMPANY OF INVENTORS. 

Sirs : — I gladly avail myself of the opportunity you offer, in your July 
number, to propose myself as a candidate for membership of a Company of 
Inventors, on the plan you propose, should the plan meet with such general 
favor as to bring together a number sufficient to be effective. 

Several attempts have been made to form associations of Inventors ; but 
none that I know of that proposed to make inventions help each other in 
the way you suggest. They were rather designed to obtain amendments of 
the patent laws ; and examine and certify as to the merits of inventions, so 
that capitalists might rest assured of the safety of investing money in them, 
and the inventions, thus endorsed and aided, might speedily become profitable 
to all concerned. 

I have little hope from attempts of this kind to amend the patent laws ; 
still less hope have I that examinations and reports will influence capitalists. 
Inventors themselves, generally, have been obliged to demonstrate the utility 
of their own inventions, before capitalists would engage in them ; and such 
will continue to be the only course until science is more generally taught 
tban it is at present. 

But a combination, by which the force of a number could be applied to 
one invention at a time, would excite hope, and induce inventors to make the 
advances needed, for the sake of having the like aid, sooner or later, and the 
profit they might reasonably expect from their own judicious choice of the 
inventions to which they could appropriate their funds. 

I would gladly avail myself not only of the capital which such a company 
might appropriate, but also of the talent that would probably be offered, on 
the conditions proposed, namely, that the profits resulting from such joint la- 
bor and hazard should be divided, by disinterested judges, among those who 
had contributed to the result. My improvement in the steam carriage, if it 



108 - FALL RIVER ROUTE TO BOSTON". 

have the aid, instead of the rivahy of the inventive talent of the countiy, will, I 
am confident, produce money enough to enrich hundreds ; yet if left to the 
judgment of capitalists, it may be along time before it- is brought into use. I 
have always hoped to concentrate in one powerful company all the improve- 
ments that may be made in this invention, and to make it for the interest of 
every inventor to work with me, and not against me ; and I cordially invite 
such cooperation as you have proposed. 

The approaching fair of the American Institute at the Crystal Palace, will 
afford an opportunity to organize such a company. Meantime, I hope you 
will receive the names of many inventors, and many enterprising capitalists, as 
members of this proposed cpmpany. Yours respectfully, J. K. Fisher. 



PRESERVATION OF MILK. 

The following method of preserving milk for any length of time is found 
in the London New Monthly Magazine. It looks to us rather a dubious 
process, but we should like very much to have it tried, and the results re- 
ported to us. If successful, this is of very great value for ships at sea, and 
for all in warm climates. 

" Provide pint or quart bottles, which must be perfectly clean, sweet, and 
dry ; draw the milk from the cow into the bottles, and as they are filled, 
immediately cork them well up, and fasten the corks with pack-thread or 
wire ; then spread a little straw on the bottom of a boiler, on which place 
the bottles with straw between them, until the bottles contain a sufficient 
quantity. Fill it up with cold water ; heat the water, and, as soon as it 
begins to boil, draw the fire, and let the whole cool gradually. When quiet 
cold, take out the bottles and pack them in a cool place. 

" Some years since, there was a Swedish or Danish vessel at Liverpool, 
having milk on board, preserved in this manner. It had been carried twice 
to the West Indies, and back to Denmark, and been above eighteen months 
in the bottles ; nevertheless, it was as sweet as when taken from the cow." 

On this subject the editor of the Chemist, in the May number, remarks : 

" We lately tasted, at the Royal Institution, milk preserved by Mr. Mab- 
brun's process, and which had been presented by the Abbe Moigne to Mr. 
Barlow, who alluded to it in his lecture on preserved meats and vegetables. 
This milk was one year old, and was as sweet as when first drawn ; a con- 
siderable quantity of cream had collected in the necks of the bottles." 



Fall PavER Route to Boston. — We have again had occasion to send two 
ladies of our family, unattended, over this route. We never feel regret on account 
of such necessity, for we know thoy will be well cared for. A letter received 
from them, after stating sundry particulars, says : " You must puff this line 
handsomely, for they richly deserve it." Especial reference is made in it to 
the clerk, and we have ever found him prompt in business, careful in his es- 
pecial trusts, particularly attentive to those avIio make known their wants, 
gentlemanly and kind to all. Capt. Brayton is a model commander. The 
whole arrangement on board is judicious ; the tea-table superior to that of any 
other line, and the servants are attentive and courteous. 



EOCK BLASTING, 



109 



ROCK BLASTING 




The annexed figures are views 
of an an improved implement for 
blasting rocks, for which a patent 
was granted to Capt. C. F. Brown, 
of Warren, R. I., on the 11th of 
July last. 

Figure 1 is an external view of 
the implement, and figure 2 is a 
vertical section of the tube which 
contains the charge. Similar letters 
refer to like parts. 

This invention relates to a new 
and useful impleraement for blast- 
ing rocks, and consists in placing 
the powder or charge within a tube 
or case, between two heads provi- 
ded with suitable packing, and at- 
tached to a rod, by which arrange- 
ment the charge is prevented from 
" blowing out," or obtaining vent in 
the directicn of the line of the hole 
in which the tube and charge are, 
placed, and the whole effect of the 
charge is exerted against the sides 
of the tube or case. 

A represents a tube or case con- 
structed of sheet metal, j^aper, or 
other material ; B, figure 2, rep- 
resents a metal rod having a con- 
ical metal head, C, perma- 
nently attached to its lower 
end. The diameter of the base 
of the head B, corresponds to the 
diameter of the boro of the tube or 
case ; D is also a conical metal head, 
placed loosely upon the rod, B, in 
in an inverted position, the rod 
passing through a circular hole, c, 
which is made longitudinally 
through the center of said head, 
represented by dotted lines, figure 
2. On the upper part of the rod, 
B, a screw thread, 6, is cut, and a 
nut, E, works thereon. F F are 
metalic rings which encompass the 
heads near their bases, and serve as 
packing ; G is a piece of fuse, the 
lower end of which is attached to the 
small end of the head, D, and the 
upper end is passed through an ap- 



110 PEAT COAL AS A SMELTING FUEL. 

erture, c, in said head, and projects a suitable distance above the tube, A. The 
implement is used in the following manner : The rod, B, is inserted within the 
tube, A, the head resting upon tlie bottom of the tube. The necessary amount 
of powder is then poured within the tube ; the head, D, is placed down upon it, 
and secured at this point by tbe nut, E, which 'is screwed down against D. 
The space within the tube between the two heads, C D, is therefore filled with 
powder, and the tube is inserted within the hole which is drilled in the rock 
in the usual manner, the diameter of the hole corresponding to the diameter 
of the tube, A ; the fuse, G, is to be sufficiently long to reach the top of the 
hole. The powder being ignited by means of the fuse, the rings, F F, are. 
forced tightly between the beads and tbe tube, and effectually close the top 
and bottom of the tube, and as the powder, when ignited, will act with equal 
force against each of the heads, C D, it is evident .that no vent can be obtain- 
ed in a direction in line with the hole in the rock in which the tube or case 
is placed, or as commonly expressed, the charge cannot " blow out," and the 
whole effective force of the powder will be exerted against the sides of the 
tube, and the splitting of the rock rendered certain. The heads are made of 
conical form in order to deflect, and thereby diminish the force of the power 
exerted against them. The packing, F F, may be formed of rings similar to 
metallic packing of a piston for steam engines. Tde rod, B, should be, suf- 
ficiently thick to prevent breaking, and to resist the force of the power exert- 
ed against them. The above implement is eftective, and rocks may be blasted 
with much greater facility than by the ordinary mode, no tampering or pack- 
ing of clay being necessary to confine the powder within the hole. The im- 
plement may be used repeatedly, as it cannot be projected to any great dis- 
tance from the spot where used. 

The packing-rings, F F, may be entirely dispensed with by using a small 
quantity of sand, say sufficient to come near the top of the conical head, then 
pour in the powder on top of the sand, then insert the fuse, and pour a small 
amount of sand upon the p')wder as directed above, taking care that the fuse 
has entered the powder. Tne head, D, is placed down and secured by the 
nut as described above. 

Sand is better than the rings, and the implement should be washed after 
using. The readers of this journal may be assured of the excellence of the 
apparatus, as tested by repeated experiments, witnessed by many competent 
judges. Any further information may be obtained by addressing the in- 
ventor as above. 



PEAT COAL AS A SMELTING FUEL. 

The intrinsic excellence of the fuel producible from our waste peat bogs, 
induced us to write, so far back as 184G, that " we should one day be able to 
manufricture, if not coal, as at present dug from the bowels of the earth, at 
least a fuel equally useful for all the purposes to which the former is at pres- 
ent applied." Since this early date, it is true that nothing has been done 
on the large scale to render waste bog an, industrially valuable fuel; but 
abundant proof has been given of the truth of our original observation. The 
nine years' interval has witnessed the manufacture of a fine, hard, and rich fuel, 
far superior in many points to the best ])it coal, both as a smelting material, 
and as a fuel for numberless industrial pursuits. 



PEAT COAL AS A SMELTING FUEL. Ill 

To accomplish this, the work of many minds has been required, and many- 
varieties of rich carbonaceous material have been developed during the prose- 
cution of the search. .But amongst the most persevering and successful pro- 
moters of the pursuit, we have to rank the Messrs, Gvvynae, of Essex Wharf, 
London, who have originated and apparently perfected a system of making 
a solid carbonaceous fuel, and have, besides, satisfactorily applied it in the 
manufacture of iron. 

Dr. Letheby, of the London Hospital, has examined this fuel, and he re- 
ports most favorably upon it. The specific gravity of,the block on which he 
operated, was 1.14, its structure being very hard and dense. The actual 
stowage weight of a cubic foot was 71.24 pounds, whilst Newcastle coal is 
about 49.69 pounds only. One hundredparts of the fuel contain nine o^hy- 
groscopic moisture ; and they yield 55 of volatile matter, much of which is 
condeusible, and thirty-six parts of charcoal. The charcoal contains 3.8 of 
ash. 

In submitting one pound, or 7000 grains, of the fuel to distillation in an 
an iron retort, the resultant volatile products were conducted through a red- 
hot iron tube, in the hope that the paraffine of the tar would be decomposed 
and converted into a gaseous hydro-carbon of high illuminating power. The 
results of this treatment were 2520 grains of charcoal, 1320 of ammoniacal 
liquor, 360 of thick tar, and 2800 of combustible gas. This gas amounted 
to 6.25 cubic feet, and when burnt at the rate of five cubic feet per hour, from 
an argaud burner with fifteen holes, and a 7 inch chimney, it gave a light 
equal to that of seven sperm candles, each burning at the rate- of 120 grains 
per hour. One hundred parts of the prepared peat therefore furnish : — Of 
porous charcoal 36, ammoniacal liquor 18.86, thick tar containing paraflSne 
5.14, and gas of an illuminating power of seven candles 40 parts. 

Dr. Letheby sums up his report in these terms : — " The amount of gas is 
very considerable, (a ton of the material furnishing as much as 14,000 cubic 
feet of gas,) and although the illuminating power is not very high, yet from 
the fact that much of the tar anclparaffine had actually been rendered gase- 
ous by their passage through a red-hot tube, there is every prospect that 
they might be still further decomposed, and converted into gases of high illu- 
minating power. The gas, when purified by passing through an alkaline 
mixture, was found to be entirely free from sulphur ; and in this respect it 
has great advantages over coal gas, for the products of its combustion are 
wholly harmless in respect of their action on inorganic matter, such as books, 
drapery, and other perishable fabrics; in its use as fuel, there is no opaque 
smoke evolved, no sulphurous acid is set free, the heat is quickly raised and 
quickly diffused, the ashes never clinker so as to choke the bars of the furnace, 
and that the peat does not contain any metallic sulphuret or other substance 
that is likely to produce spontaneous combustion. In short, it fulfils most of 
the conditions which are mentioned by Dr. Lyon Playfair and Sir H. De La 
Beche in their report as to the requisites for a good fuel." 

The Sheffield steel-makers cannot now get a proper supply of Swedish iron 
even at £38 a ton. We have no substitute for this costly material in our pit 
coal iron ; but we have a remedy in the employment of charred peat. Good 
British ore, smelted with peat fuel, would most undoubtedly rival the best 
productions of Sweden, and at a cost which puts comparison out of the ques- 
tion. Mr. Gwynne, indeed, boldly asserts that, with his ])rocess of smelting, 
he can supfily iron for the steel-makers at one-half of the price now paid to 
Swedish houses. 

The uniformity in the character of the iron produced by the peat smelting 



112 



IMPEOVED STEERING APPARATUS. 



is a great feature in its favor, aud besides this, the quality of the metal is 
fully equal to what bears so high a price as " charcoal iron." What greater 
inducements could we have for a trial of the peat system ? 

Mr. Summerhill of Sheffield, has tried charred peat in his charcoal fires, and 
he finds that, with one ton of the charred but uncompressed Flintshire fuel, he 
can produce upwards of 2h tons of "charcoal iron." This iron was made 
into tin-plate material, weight for weight ; charcoal from peat has a greater 
tendency to make iron " burrow," in comparison with the common system of 
treatment, and the product is extremely well suited for the wire-drawer. The 
blast pressure under which Mr. Summerhill worked in the case which we have 
adduced, was 2^ pounds. If we have so excellent a smelting material lying 
in abundance before us, we shall have ourselves seriously to blame if we neg- 
lecT-its very evident application. — Fract. Mech. Journal, London. 



IMPROVED STEERING APPARATUS. 
Figure 1. Figure 2. 

G 




This remarkably neat and compact steering apparatus, is the invention of 
Capt. Charles F. Brown, of Warren, of Rhode Island, who has taken meas- 
ures to secure a patent for the same. 

Figure 1 is an elevation of the apparatus, and figure 2 is a vertical section. 



HOLLYHOCK PAPER. 113 



The neatness of the apparatus is observable at a glance ; it combines com- 
pactness with the great power of the screw and inclined-plane. The outside 
is composed of a hollow pillar, B, fig. 1, bolted to the deck. E is the horizon- 
tal wheel, with its handles, G G. This wheel is secured on a strong screw-rod 
F, which forms its axis. It passes freely through the collar of the hollow 
pillar, and works into a thread collar in a hollow tube or metal cylinder, J J. 
This cylinder is made with two feathers, H H, on its outside, to slide in two 
vertical grooves in the inside of the pillar, B, to guide the cylinder J J, stead- 
ily up and down, as it is made to slide thus when the screw is turned by the 
wheel. This cylinder, J J, has two spiral flanges, K K, extending on each 
side from top to bottom, on the interior, 0. The rudder post P, has a metal 
top, A, firmly secured to it, and made of a somewhat greater diameter than 
the post below. This head of the rudder post has two spiral grooves, L L, 
cut around it, into which the spiral flanges, K K, of the sliding cylinder fits. 
The head. A, of the rudder post has an interior hollow part, M, represented 
by the dotted lines, in which the screw-rod, F, turns, but does not touch. 
The screw acts only upon the thread of the collar of the sliding cylinder, J J, 
raising it and depressing it, as the wheel is turned, and when it is raising or 
falling, the flanges, K K, acting in the grooves, L P, of the head of the rud- 
der post, turns it with great power to steer the vessel. On fig. 1 there is a 
small slit, N, at the bottom of the hollow pillar, in which is a pointer 
F, attached to the rudder post, which turns so as to indicate the de- 
grees through which the rudder has moved. A dial can be secured before 
it, with the degrees marked out on it. This is a very beautiful arrangement 
of itself. For compactness and neatness, we have seen no steering apparatus, 
to equal it. It has been highly approved of by all nautical gentlemen who 
have seen it. 

More information may be obtained by letters post-paid, addressed to Capt. 
Brown, who is a gentleman of great mechanical ingenuity. 



HOLTHOCK PAPER. 



James Niven, Keir, Dunblane. — Patent dated November 10, 1854. 

Mr. Niven here puts forth the claims of one of the many plants which grow 
luxuriantly, and with little cultivation, in all parts of the British islands, as a 
cheap raw material in substitution of the rags used in the manufacture of pa- 
per. The present invention, in fact, relates to the application or employment 
and use of the plant commonly known as the Hollyhock, or Rose-Mallow — 
that is to say, the plant which, in the botanical classification of Linnaeus, is 
the Altha) Rosea Monodelphia Polyandria, and is comprehended under the 
natural order " Malvaceae,'* or of plants of the genera " Malva," — in the man- 
ufacture or production of pulpy material from which paper is to be made, as 
well -as in the' manufacture or production of fibrous materials for textile pur 
poses. The invention, as regards both these uses, applies to all the many 
varieties of the hollyhock plant, or the order "Malvacete," but more obviously 
and particularly to the ordinary large garden hollyhock. The stems of such 
plants furnish large quantities of long fiber of great tenacity, which fiber, 
when duly prepared, is most excellently suited for the preparation of a pow- 



114 ~ HOLLYHOCK PAPER. 



erfully cohering paper pulp, as well as for use in textile manufactures. Being 
a perennial rooted plant, the roots are also largely available for the produc" 
tion of strong fiber. In adapting the stems of such plants to the manufac- 
ture or production of paper pulp, the plant is used either in a green or drie*^ 
condition ; it is preferred, however, to operate upon the stems immediately, 
or soon after the plants are cut or pulled in the ordinary manner of gathering 
and removing such plants. When the stems are removed from the earth, 
they are first of all steeped in water for a term of six or eight days, more or 
less, the practical duration of such steeping being regulated and governed by 
the actual resultant eflfect of the water ; that is to say, the steepij^gis contin- 
ued until the pure and valuable fiber will freely separate from t pre ligneous 
or woody portion of the stems. 

At this stage of the process of manufacture, the stems under treatment are 
removed from the water or " steep," and they are then submitted to the ac: 
tion of any suitable mechanical arrangement for the purpose of beating or 
breaking them up. This breaking up may be eflfected in the general man- 
ner commonly pursued in the primary breaking of the flax plant, so as to 
disintegrate the fibers and break off the woody or ligneous portions of the 
stem. It is not, however, essentially necessary to remove the ligneous por- 
tions, as it has been found that the whole of the stem is fitted for being re- 
duced to a pulp. During, or subsequent to this disintegrating process, the 
mucilaginous or gummy matter, with whatever aqueous matter is present in 
the stems, is washed clear away, either by pure water, or by an acdulous solu- 
tion, or by any other economical and effective cleansing agent. When the 
stems are thus fully reduced or disintegrated, the ligneous waste portions are 
removed, and the resultant fibrous mass is spread out in the open air, where 
the sun's rays can act upon it to bleach and dry. When so bleached and 
dried, the fiber may be stored away for subsequent use. In making paper 
from the fibers© prepared, the fibrous mass is bruised or broken down in any 
suitable mechanical apparatus, and it is then chopped or finely divided by 
any suitable cutting instrument. The reduced mass is then soaked in water, 
and worked up or macerated in the usual manner, as pursued in the ordinary 
manufacture of paper from rags, for the production of a pulpy mass suitable 
for the u£e of the paper-maker. The pulp so made is capable of being used 
in the manufacture of paper, either alone or unmixed, or it may be commin- 
gled with other materials already in use in the paper manufacture. When the 
pulp is obtained, the subsequent routine of its manufacture into paper is simi- 
lar to that pursued with the ordinary rag pulp, or it may be varied as the 
properties of the fiber may suggest. 

In the application of the hollyhock stems to the manufacture of textile ma- 
terials, the fibers prepared in the manner just described, are subsequently treat- 
ed according to the existing textile processes ; such processes, for instance, as 
are adopted in the flax manufacture. Being strong and of good staple, this 
fiber is particularly well suited for being prepared, spun, and woven into 
cloth. And it has been found, that the roots of the plants are also well adapt- 
ed for the production of a remarkably strong fiber. Hence, in manufactu- 
ring practice, so often as the crop of plants grown for the purpose requires . 
renewal, the roots are to be taken up and prepared for the obtainment of 
fiber, both for the manufacture of paper and for textile purposes. When 
taken from the ground, the roots are macerated and reduced, and the fiirinace- 
ous matter contained in them being removed, the resultant fiber is employed 
in the manner already pointed out, but more particularly for the manufacture 
of paper. — Pract. Mech, Journal, London. 



IMPROVEMENT IN SCREW PROPELLERS, 



115 



IMPEOVEMENT IN SCREW PROPELLERS. 

PATENT GRANTED JULY 12, 1855. 

Figure 1. 




The accompanying engravings are views of improvements in Screw Pro- 
pellers, invented by Capt. Charles F. Brown, of Warren, R. L, wlio has se- 



116 IMPROVEMENT IK SCREW PROPELLERS. 

cured a patent for the same. Figure 1 is a perspective view, sliov?ing the 
propeller, rudder, and part of the frame of a vessel at the stern. Fig. 2 is a 
horizontal section taken through the axis of the propeller. The same letters 
of reference indicate like parts. This invention relates more particularly to 
that description of screw propellers which has its blades adjustable in the 
hub, for the purpose of altering the pitch of the screw, and for bringing the 
blades to a position to offer no material resistance to the progress of the ves- 
sel whea under sail. Another principle of the improvement consists in so 
operating one of the blades, that, when brought into a proper position, and 
the revolutions of the propreller stopped, it will act as a rudder, in case of 
the vessel's rudder being disabled, and it will therefore serve to steer the ves- 
sel when under sail. 

A A is the framing of the vessel, in which are the bearings of the propel- 
ler shaft, B. C is a hub on the shaft ; this shaft is bored from the front end 
nearly to the back end — the bored part extending through the hub ; in this 
bore is fitted a rod, a b, which is furnished at that part passing through the 
hub with a rack, d. The hub is also bored transversely, to receive the piv- 
ots, c c', of the propeller blades, D D' ; these pivots are not radial to the hub, 
but pass through it at equal distances from the axis on opposite sides to it. 
Each one of the pivots carries a small toothed pinion, e e, gearing into the 
rack, d, on the rod, a b. The hub is solid except where it is bored to receive 

FiGUKE 2, 




U LfLjO/V't^LTLri 



^^W' 

s.^ ^ 



the rod and the pivots, and where it is slotted from the outside to the center 
bore, to allow the pinions to be inserted. The pinions are secured to the piv- 
ots, and the pivots are confined in the hub by the pinions or by other suita- 
ble means. If the rod, a b, be moved longitudinally, the rack, d, turns^ the 
pinions, c e, and by this means, the blades, D D,' are brought to any position 
either in line with or parallel to the axis of the screw, or at any pitch or^in- 
chnation in either direction, so as to make a right or left hand screw ; the 
pinions are geared with the rack so as to make each blade occupy the same 
position in relation to the axis of the shaft. 

The rod, a b, is moved by a person on the deck of the vessel, as follows : 
A vetrical shaft, F, is placed in suitable bearings near one side of the propel- 
ler shaft — its upper end reaching above the deck and carrying a wheel, G. 
Opposite the propeller shaft it carries a toothed pinion,/, which gears into a 
rack, <7 ; this rack is attached to a collar, h i, which fits to,_ but is capaple of 
moving longitudinally on the propeller shaft. This collar is prevented from 
turning on the shaft by flanges, », above and below the rack, which em- 
brace the pinion and keep the rack in gear. There is a recess in the collar, 
h, i, which divides it into two parts, and in this recess is fitted another collar, 
k, fitting to the shaft, B, so as to be capable of sliding on it, but this collar 



princes' protean pen. 117 

is made to turn with the shaft by a pin, w, passing through it and the shaft, 
and through the rod, a 6 ; a slot in the shaft allows the pin to move longitu- 
dinally, by turning the wheel, G, the piniqn,/, is made to move the rack, g, 
loufritudinally ; and the collar, h i, moving with the rack actuates the col- 
lar, k, while the pin, m, moving with the said collar, actuates the 
rod, a b, and causes the rack to turn the pinions, e e ; this can be done either 
while the propeller is revolving or while it i^ stationary. A dial, O, is placed 
upon deck, and a pointer, p^ on the shaft. F, indicates the position of the 
blades. This i^^seen on deck, and is a very convenient arrangement for set- 
ting the blades. 

The rod, a b, so far as it has been described in its relation to the adjust- 
ment of the blades of the propeller, may be considered a single rod, but for 
the purpose of using the blade of the propeller as a rudder, it (the rod) is di- 
vided longitudinally into the two parts, a and 6, which are held together by 
a screw-bolt, n, at the front end when the propeller is in use. The part a of 
the rod carries that part of the rack which gears with the pinion, which is on 
pivot c of the blade, D, and the part b carries that part of the rack gearing 
with the pinion on the pivot c,' of blade D.' The blade, D, is the one which 
is intended to serve for a rudder ; and, for that reason, that portion a, of the 
rod is made larger than the other, and for another reason, viz., when the other 
blade is not in use, it is necessary for the pin, m, to work clear of the other 
part, b. The first thing to be done to. use the blade, D, for a rudder, is to 
bring the said blade, D, to a vertical position downwards, and this is done by 
stopping the engine in a proper position. The blade, D,' is then secured in 
its place above the other one by a set screw, q, which passes through the shaft, 
B, into a recess in the part b, of the rod. The screw-bolt, w, is then loosened 
from that part, a, of the rod, which is thus left free to be moved independ- 
ently of the other part, b, of the rod, thus enabling one of the blades to be 
used for a rudder in an emergency. 

The superiority of this mode of arranging and adjusting the blades, con- 
sists chiefly in the depth of bearing, or socket obtainetl for the pivots of the 
blades, by fitting them through the hub. The common arrangement is to 
make the pivots, c c, radial, and \o turn them by bevel gearing — that is, in 
arrangements of adjustable blades ; this prevents their being carried through, 
and requires the hub to be hollow to receive the gearing. This arrangement 
is therefore more compact, and far stronger, according to the dimensions of 
the parts. The steering improvement, in many cases, may be the means of 
saving a vessel, as in a case like the Helena Sloman. 



The sixth annual meeting of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement OF Education will be held in the chapel of the New-York Uni 
versity on the 28th, (Tuesday,) 29th, 30th, and 31st of August, 1855. The 
Introductory Address will be given by Alexander Dallas Bache, LL.D., the 
retiring President. 

Princes' Protean Pen. — We again call attention to this new pen. It 
pleases us much. We seldom sit dowif to write an hour at a time without 
using it. We should be very sorry to be deprived of it. 

One form is for the pocket, and another is for the desk. The former may 
be carried in the pocket, full of ink, and without risk to a white vest. 



118 



IJIPEOVED ROAD MEASURE. 




IMPROVED ROAD MEASURE. 

The annexed figures represent a nejv odometer for measuring tlie distance 
which a carriage travels, invented by F. S. Coburn, of Ipswich, Mass., who 
has taken measures to secure a patent. 

Fig. 1 is a full sized edge view of the odometer. Fig. 2 is an inside view 
showing ^the toothed wheels. Fig. 3 is a view of the odometer weight, E, 
and fig. 4 is the dial of the odometer. This small instrument may be at- 
tached to a carriage in fifteen minutes. A cover shdes over the dial, which 
cannot be opened without a key. It is made to turn with the hub of the 
carriage. The cost is trifling, and the manufacture may be a source of con- 
siderable profit to the mechanic, and a great security to the keepers of stables 
and others. In the inside of this odometer, which is a small box, the weight, 
E, is suspended on a stud or small shaft, and it will be observed that it 
always hangs perpendicularly while the odometer revolves with the axle. 
Upon this principle bf action the whole of the wheels are operated. On the 
small stud on which E is hung, is the ratchet wheel in fig. 3, into which the 
ratchet, F, takes, which moves one notch every revolution, but the ratchet, F, 
by passing over the" teeth of the small wheel, fig. 3, when the carriage is 
backing, allows the weight to move freely, and consequently there is no reg- 
istering. The motion imparted in one direction by the weight to the shaft, 
Gr, moves the wheel, H, fig. 2, one tooth every revolution of the odometer, 
and every revolution of wheel, H, moves the wheel, I, (which should be set 
v.'ith its ratchet in a contrary direction,) one tooth, and this wheel, I, moves 
the one, J, which is the dial plate, apd an opening in the case, fig. 4, shows 
it with the miles marked out. The dial is divided so as to bo applied to 
wheels of different sizes. This odometer is small and neat ; the figures rep- 
resent one of full size which has been used repeatedly. It will be observed 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 



119 



that the wheels are simply moved on the clock-work principle of gearing to 
reduce the revolutions from the first to the last, which registers the miles ; 
the Avhole operations being dependent upon the suspended balance weight E. 
The instrument is neat and simple, and is very convenient. There are but 




few persons who go out with a carriage but would like to be able to tell the 
distance they have traveled when they return, and yet there is no way of 
doing this but by such an instrument. With turning to the one side and 
the other on a road — turning out and turning in on the track — the mile 
stones are no guides for indicating the distance traveled ; the odometer alone 
is the true tell-tale. An odometer is the same as the tell-tale on the steam- 
engine, without which no steamship) navigates the ocean. We hope such in- 
struments will soon come into more general use. 

More information about this one may be obtained by letter addressed to 
Mr. Coburn at Ipswich. 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 

Gwynne's Centrifugal Pump for Raising Sunk Ships. — The following 
letter from the owners of a ship sunk in the Missouri is good practical testi- 
mony to the value of this pump for the heavy work of raising vessels : " The 
Irontou struck a large submerged rock on the Missouri river, eighty-five miles 
above St. Louis, last month, and filled in about forty minutes, and sunk in 
about ten feet water. She was somewhat listed, and one guard and j^art of 
her deck was just out of water, while the other guard had some three or four 
feet of water over it. We sent one of our steam diving-bell boats (the '■Sub- 
marine, No. 6,) to the wreck, where she arrived on Sunday, at dark. The 
next morning, while part of her crew were adjusting the suction-hose, (twen- 
ty-one inches in diameter,) our carjDenters curbed off the hatches, and by 10 
o'clock A. M., steam being up, we started the pump, and in less than ten 
minutes the water v/as so low that the suction-pipe took air, the water being- 
only seven or eight inches deep on her floor timbers. The pump kept the 



120 AMERICAN PATENTS. 



water down until the carpenters succeeded in bulk-heading or partitioning 
oft' the break in her hull, and before dark the Tronton was safely floating. 
Steam was raised on her, and she was brought down to this city, where she 
has been docked. The pumping engine used on this occasion was one of 
your pattern, called B. No. 3 ; and some idea of its power may be inferred 
from the fact, that we did not stop the break at all in her hull before we 
pumped the water out of her. The dock showed thedamage to be crushing 
in her larboard knuckle for twenty feet. The planks were completely shat- 
tered for this distance, and about thirty inches in width ; and every timber, 
futtock, and her knuckle kelson in this space, were broken in. The tonnage 
of the Ironton is about one hundred and fifty tons. We estimated the dis- 
charge of the pump at about five hundred barrels per minute. The stream 
from it was ten inches deep, thirty-four inches wide, and ran at the rate of 
ten miles per hour, as we ascertained by a light paddle-wheel made for the 
purpose. — Eads & Nelson." 

^ Machine-made Watches. — Some five years since, Messrs. Howard & Da- 
vis, in connection with Mr. A. L. Dennison, commenced abranch of this bus- 
iness in Roxbury, and though the most serious obstacles were in the way, 
they have persevered, slowly gaining knowledge by experience, and slowly 
attaining the object of their desires. The want of machinery, and the inex- 
perience of laborers, have been great drawbacks ; but they have gradually 
overcome these, and have now every convenience for the successful prosecu- 
tion of their business. Their estabhshment in Roxbury was so surrounded by 
dusty localities, that it was found impossible to obtain perfection in works 
which were liable to this inconvenience, and a location for a bililding was 
therefore selected in Waltham, which is most admirably adapted to the pur- 
pose. The building, occupying a third of an acre, is a curiosity in itself, for 
it is the first structure erected in this vicinity of the "gravel wall," or " con- 
crete material," which has been brought to public notice by Mr. O. S. Fow- 
ler. The concrete consists simply of limstones and sand, mixed as we do mor- 
tar, and then, by a simple process, piled up in layers, which becomes hard, 
and in the lapse of years is as solid as stone. The building, thus constructed 
at an expense of one-third of what it would cost to erect a brick edifice, and 
which is comparatively fire-proof, has stood the cold of the present severe 
winter, and established, beyond a doubt, its adaptability to ordinary uses. 
The manufactory at Waltham is a two-story building, built in the form of a 
square. Mr. Dennison, assisted by Mr. Stratton, superintends the works, and 
a twelve-horse engine furnishes the motive power for the machinery, heats 
the entire building, and carries from the river water into the reservoir, which 
supplies every part of the building with water. The different departments 
are separated, and each gang of mechanics has a distinct portion of the watch 
to manufacture. In one room the plate is cut, in another the jewels are re- 
duced to a proper size, while the second hands, minute hands, the jewel 
screws, the wheels, the springs, the cases, the engraving, and the polishing, re- 
quire each a distinct process, in which different classes of operatives are en- 
gaged. The operatives number at present about fifty, a quarter of whom are 
females, who are found well adapted to the business, and it is a fact worthy of 
note, that these American watches are the product of American operatives. 
In Locle, and other Swiss towns, where watches are made, the parts are man- 
ufactured in the cottages of the workmen, and are then carried to head-quar- 
ters, and put together ; little machinery is used ; here under one roof the watch 
is completed, by the aid of machinery, and less skilful hands. In a few 
months, when under full blast, at the strike of each hour, it is expected that 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 121 



a watch will be finished, that is, twelve perday. The cost, of course depends 
upon the style of the cases ; those in gold will range, at retail, from 75 to 
100 dols., and those in silver, from 30 to 40 dols. The Company intend 
manufacturing large quantities of watches of the hunting style. Parts of 
watches, screws, hands, wheels, are also neatly put up on cards, and are 
much sought after by the trade. 

The " London" Locomotive above Niagara. — The great subject of con- 
versation in the West just now, is the passage of the " London" locomotive 
over the gorge of Niagara, and the name of the great metropolis was never 
in prouder remembrance than when borne, as now upon the fabric that testi- 
fied almost man's highest exce)lence in bold art. The bridge settled just 
half aa inch when the locomotive was at the center, for the brave men who 
controlled the starting bar paused in the very mid-river. Thus arriving at the 
line ^here the state and the colony meet, the flags of the two nations were 
waved, the scarlet and the blue fluttering in the exultation of those who there 
did homage to the blended sovereignty. The bridge is built so that it rises 
arch-like in the center. The deflection was no greater than was anticipated. 
Thei'e are two tracks — indeed, three, on the bridge ; the 4-8|- of the New- 
York Central, the five feet of the Great Western, and by a fifth rail the 
New-Yoik and Erie (continued by the Canandaigua road) also can transport 
freight or humanity over. There were six passengers or persons on this 
boldest of all locomotives, and by a measure of justice seldom wrought out 
in bold enterprises, all were represented, as well the man who furnished the 
means as he who produced the skill necessary. There is a good omen in the 
fact, that the crossing was first done from the Canada side over to the Ameri- 
can, the sons of St. George will feel justified at grouping the two recol- 
lections, that, as an English steamer first made regular communication across 
the sea, it was an English locomotive that has first made this thrilling transit 
over the Gulf. Far away beneath, so f;ir that the heavy wave scarce shows 
its swelling, rushed the Niagara, and the shrill shriek of triumph the " Lon- 
don" sent forth as it passed over the chasm was heard beyond the cataract 
itself. 

The American Paper Manufacture. — There are in the United States 
750 paper mills in actual operation, having 3000 engines, and producing in 
the year 270,000,000 pounds of pajDer, which is worth at 10 cents per pound, 
827,000,000 dollars. To produce this quantity of paper 405,000,000 pounds 
of rags are required, 1^ pounds of rags being necessary to make one pound of 
paper. The value of these rags at 4 cents per pound is 10,200,000 dollars. 
The cost of labor is If cent upon each pound of paper manufactured, and is 
therefore 3,375,000 dollars. The cost of labor and rags united, is 19,575,000 
dollars a year. The cost of manufacturing, aside from labor and rags, is 
4,050,000 dollars, which makes the total cost 23,625,000 dollars of manufac- 
turing paper, worth 27,000,000 dollars. We import rags for this manufacture 
from 26 different countries, and the amount in 1853 was 22,766,000 lbs., worth 
982,837 dollars. Italy is the greatest source of supply, being more than 
one-fifth of the whole amount, but the supply has been gradually falling off 
every year. From England we imported 2,666,005 pounds in 1853. The 
cost of imported rags has been as follows: — 1850, 3 61-100 cents ; 1851, 
346-lOOcents; 1852, 3 42-100 cents ; 1853, 3 46-100 cents. Theconsump- 
tion of paper in the United States is equal to that of England artd France 
together. — Boston Post. 



122 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



ENaLISH PATENTS. 

Protectiox of the Westmixster Palace from Lightning. — The Par- 
liamentary estimates for the year contain a charge of £2314 for securing the 
new houses of Parliament from lightning, backed by a very able report on 
the subject by Sir W. Snow Harris. That great authority on this import- 
ant subject very clearly and properly exposes thepopular error of attributing 
an attractive power to lightning-rods. It is proved by a most extensive in- 
duction of facts, and a large generalization In the application of metallic con- 
ductors, that metallic substances have not exclusively in themselves any more 
attractive influence for the agency of lightning'than other kinds of common 
naatter ; but that, on the contrary, by confining and restraining the electrical 
discharge within a very narrow limit, the application of a small rod, or wire 
of metal to a given portion of a building is in reality highly objectionable. 
Besides, the application of an ordinary lightning-rod is of a very partial char- 
acter. It has small electrical capacity, and is very often knocked to pieces by 
heavy discharges of lightning. Last June, Ealing church was struck by light- 
ning ; the small conductor attached to the tower was partially fused, and 
damage ensued. So again, in July, a church at Astbury was struck, and 
the small conductor fused in several places, the discharge dividing on the 
body of the church, and displacing and shivering several stones. In Her 
Majesty's navy, conductors of this description have been repeatedly knocked 
in pieces by lightning. 

To secure such a building as the new palace at Westminster against light- 
ning, Sir Snow Harris considers it requisite to complete the general conduct- 
ibility of the whole mass, and so bring it into that, passive or non -resisting 
state which it would assume in respect of the electrical discharge, supposing 
the whole were a complete mass of metal. By this means a discbarge of 
lightning, in striking upon any given point of the building, would have, 
through the instrumentality of capacious electrical conductors, unlimited room 
for expansion upon the surface of the earth in all directions, to which, by a law 
of nature, the discharge is determined. In fact, what is called lightning is 
the evidence of some occult power of nature, forcing a path through substan- 
ces which ofi'er greater or less resistance to its progress ; such, among the 
former, as atmospheric air, vitreous and resinous bodies, dry vegetable sub- 
stances, and such like. In the case of such bodies, a powerful evolution of 
light and heat attends its course, together with irresistible expansive and dis- 
ruptive force, by which the most solid and compact structures are rent asun- 
der ; whereas, in finding a path through substances which offer comparatively 
little resistance to its course, this explosive form of action, which we call 
lightning, becomes transformed into a harmless and unseen current. Hence 
the great protective influence of a capacious and general system of conduc- 
tion, such as that just adverted to, which does not restrict the discharge to a 
given partial and narrow path, but is so circumstanced that lightning, strik- 
ing anywhere upon buildings, cannot enter upon any circuit, of which the 
large capacious hues of conduction do not form a part. 

Miles' Hydrostatic Railway Brake. — The Shrewsbury and Hereford 
Railway has just been the scene of an interesting trial of this invention under 
the auspices of several eminent railway authorities and men of science. The 
testing train left the Shrewsbury station at 12.30, arrived at the city at 2.40 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 123 



stopping at the usual stations on its way. The patent break alone was used 
during the journey, and upon the arrival of the train at this station, a num- 
ber of experiments were tried upon different portions of railway, princi- 
pally to ascertain the distance and time in which a train could be arrest- 
ed. Notwithstanding the usual drawbacks to working all new inventions, 
the train was easily stopped, when going forty miles per hour, in 300 yards, 
the usual distance with the ordinary brakes being about lY50 yards. Colonel 
Kennedy and other gentlemen, who tried these tests, expressed a strong opin- 
ion that, with the slight enlargement of the tender cyhnder, pointed out by 
Mr. Miles, a train would be stopped with ease in three yards to the mile ; 
that is to say, a train going forty miles an hour would stop in 120 yards. 
The experimental train left this city, with the usual mails and passengers, at 
6.45, and arrived at Shrewsbury at 9.15, using the patent brake during its 
course, still proving itself most effective. The brakes themselves are upon 
the usual principle, but are placed upon every carriage, instead of on one or 
,two only. A cylinder is fixed under the carriage, 4^ inches diameter and 3 
inches stroke ; and in this cylinder is fitted a solid piston, the rod of which is 
attached to the lever of the brake. Into each side of the cylinder is screwed an 
iron tube, one inch in diameter, and terminating, at each end of the carriage 
with a joint of a novel character. When the carriages are connected, the tubes 
are made continuous by inserting into these joints a flexible tube between each 
carriage ; and when the engine is attached to the train, thatis also connected 
by a flexible tube, leading into tubes fixed in the bottom of the tender, which 
tubes are merely for the purpose of reducing the temperature of the water 
used in applying the brakes. The boiler is fitted with a stop-cock near the 
starting lever, and from this cock is a tube connected to the tubes in the 
tender. When a train is made up, and the engine attached, a cock inside 
the tender is opened, and the tubes throughout the train are allowed to fill 
themselves with water ; water being only compressable to the extent of one 
inch in 15,000, is always ready to be acted upon at the moment. At the 
present day, locomotives are worked at a pressure of from 100 to 150 lbs., 
per square inch ; but for example's sake, we will take the lowest figure, there- 
fore, with the cylinders before described, a power of 1500 lbs. is given to each 
Ijrake, no matter what may be the number of carriages in the train. The 
cylinder to work the tender brake is 4^ inches diameter, with a 6 inch stroke 
and gives a force of 3000 lbs. The mode of bringing the brakes into use is 
this : The engine driver shuts off his steam, opens the cock named in boiler, 
and in one second, the whole of the brakes are on the wheels, and are taken 
off" by the driver shutting the cock in the boiler, and opening the one in the 
tender. 

Scott's Elastic Action Three- Wheel Brougham.— -Mr. Michael Scott, 
G. E,, who has devoted considerable attention to the perfecting of the details 
of vehicular contrivances — more especially the parts relating to the springs 
and bearings — has submitted to us a plan of "three-wheel Brougham," of 
very suggestive character. This carriage is designed for affording superior 
facility of motion, with ease and accommodation to the occupants, and means 
of resisting the wear and tear of trafiic; It has two wheels behind, and a 
single central wheel in front, as high or even higher than the hind pair. This 
lightens the draught and simplifies the under frame-work. The driver's seat 
occupies the place usually assigned to the rumble, directly over the hind 
Avheels, so that the reins stretch over the body of the carriage, asjn the Han- 
som. This obviously leaves the front view quite open and free. In arrang- 



124 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



}ug the details of the bearing actions, Mr. Scott uses a " semi-circular spring" 
the extreme end of which, together with the spring blocks, are wholly dis- 
connected — producing great elasticity. His " elastic nave, is also a further 
means of obtaining an easy action. The mortice beds, or the portions on 
which the inserted wooden spoke ends bear, are cushioned with India-rubber. 
India-rubber is also used for eucirchng the felloes of the wheel, either in strips 
as an independent tyre, or in small blocks or cushions between the wooden 
felloe and the ordinary metal tyre. The inventor has contrived to elasticate 
various other rigid parts of the carriage, even the axle itself, as well &s the 
shoes of the horses. 

The French Beet Sugar Manufacture. — There are now at work in 
France 208 beet sugar manufactories, being fewer by 95 than were in opera- 
tion last year at the same time. The quantity of sugar manufactured, including 
7,8'70,605 kilogrammes, lying over since 1854, was 43,229,798 kilogrammes, 
or 30,921,340 less than last season ; and that sold for consumption, or de- 
posited in the Government bonded stores, 39,659,690 kilogrammes, being a 
falling off of 23,591,362 kilogrammes. 

PuRiFviNG Rancid Oil. — It has recently been discovered in France, that 
nitric ether, commonly known as " spirits of nitre," has a powerful effect in 
clearing and deodorising impure oils. A small quantity mixed with the crude 
oil carries oft' all the disagreeable odor, whilst, by subsequently warming the 
oil so treated, the spirituous ingredient is renewed, and the oil becomes sweet 
and limpid. A few drops of nitric ether added to the contents of an oil bot- 
tle, will act as a constant preventive to rancidity. 

Logan's Portable Winch for Shipbuilders. — This winch is constructed 
so that it can be fixed in any position, and may be adjusted with facility to 
the work to be performed. To this end the winch is formed with a sole plate 
of malleable iron, and is fitted upon an under sole plate, upon which it turns 
by means of a swivel joint. The under sole plate is formed with clamps, or 
bent ends, by which it can be hung upon any fixture, as the frames, plates, 
or other part of a ship, or of a boiler, or other structure. The whole appa- 
ratus can be carried by one man, and can be moved along the plates, or other 
part on which it is hung, at pleasure. The two sole plates are formed with 
regularly pitched holes, arranged so that those in one plate may be brought 
fairly opposite to those in the other. Thus, on the winch being adjusted, it 
can be fixed in position by means of pins passed through the holes in the two 
plates. This apparatus will be of great utility in the construction of iron 
ships, boilers, and all other structures in which heavy weights have to be 
lifted and moved about. Thus the winch can always be conveniently placed, 
and the tackle can be fixed immediately over the plate, frame, or other arti- 
cle to be lifted, whilst it is immaterial in what position the winch is fixed, as 
the swivel joint arrangement gives it the power of accurately adjusting itself 
to the work it has to perform. 

Locomotive Expenses and Statistics. — The total cost of locomotive 
power, including repairs, on the Caledonian Railway, is 8d. per train mile, and 
including the working repairs of waggon and carriage stock, 10-OSd. per train 
mile. The average number of engines in steam during the past half-year has 
been 90, and the number of train miles run, 8,532 per day. The average 
number of engines in working order has been 118, repairing 20, and renew- 
ing 7, together 145. The passenger trains averaged 7-19 carriages, and tho 
goods trains 22-65 waggons. 



NEW BOOKS. 125 



NEW BOOKS. 

Sabbath Morning Readings on the Old Testament. Book of Leviticus. By Rev. 
John Gumming. Boston : John P. Jewett & Co. 1855. 

Our readers know the high estimate with Which -we regard the works of this learned 
divine. The volume before us is not exceeded in its interest by any of its predecessors. 
It is just the thing for Sunday-school teachers and Bible classes. 



Sabbath Evening Readings on the New Testament. St. Luke. By the same. 

This is a full, plain, practical exposition of the Gospel, as the former volumes we have 
described are of the Pentateuch. No Sabbath-school teacher should be without it. It 
is also just what is wanted in our " mutual classes," which, by the way, ought to be mul- 
tiplied a hundred fold. 

These books are for sale by Jewett & Proctor, Cincinnati ; and Sheldon, Lamport & 
Blakeman, New- York. 



The New- York Quarterly. July, 1855. Jas. G. Reed, Publisher. 

We seldom see this work, but what we have seen gives us a desire to see more. The 
articles in this number are well written, judicious, instructive and entertaining. What 
more is to be desired ? We commend it to the reading community as one which they 
should sustain for theitown sakes. It is devoted to Science, Philosophy, Literature and 
the interests of our united country, and is recommended by the most eminent literary 
gentlemen of New- York. Terms, $3 a year ; 4 copies, $10. 



Harpers' New Monthly for August 

Is on our table, in anticipation of its issue, and is elegantly executed and numerously 
illustrated. The topics are of unusual interest. 



DossTicKs. What he says. By Philander Doesticks, P. B. New- York : Edward 
Livermore. 1856. 

This republication of newspaper articles " claims nothing," says the " manufacturer," 
and " amounts to nothing;" "some are bad, some are worse." The author is essentially 
correct, though there are now and then genuine scintillations of wit, and many good 
strikes of true humor. But like " Hodge's razors, it was made to sell." 



Putnam's Monthly for August. 

This is a very good number. The contents are as follows : Turkish Wars of Former 
Times, My Lost Youth, The Bell Tower, Unknown "Tongues, (The Language of Animals,) 
About Babies, Life among the Mormons, The River Fisheries of North America, (The 
Artificial Propagation of Fish,) Cape Cod, First Friendship, Living in the Country, Sir 
John Suckling, Twice Married, (Continued,) Tlie Armies of Europe, Editorial Notes, etc, 
etc, American Literature and Reprints. Dix <fc Edwards, Publishers, 10 Park Place. 



Household Words foS August, by the same publishers. 
Is just what is wanted for an after-dinner book. 



The Knickerboker 

Is also on our table ; an old friend to whose calls we have not been accustomed of late. 
We greet him as a highly esteemed and well-established friend, of high literary merit, 
and well deserving a prominent place among the standard literary works of the day. 



126 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



It is edited still by tbe able and popular writer, Louis Gaylord Clark. Published by 
Samuel Eueston, 848 Broadway. 



NEW- MUSIC. 

Wsr. Hall & Son have an unusual proportion of pieces of a high order in their late 
issues. Among the songs that we have especially noticed, are 

Sweet Kate of Norton Vale. By Geo. Simpson. 

The music is very sweet, and the words by Edward Farmer as good as they can be, 
coming from a lover who has lost his heart. 

Come Haste thee Home. Ballad by A. C. Faknhaji. 

Music not very unlike the former in its general character, and equally good. 

I Want A Wife ; or, the Bachelor's Invitation. Melody by Wallace, adapted to 
words of Clarence Rawlings by Chas. Jarvis. 

Why is it that bachelors can't write their own words, but have to go to spinsters for 
this service in such circumstances ? 

Hope on, hope ever. By Chas. Jarvis, to words of L. W. Glenn. 
A VERY pretty song, with a very pretty little chorus to it. 



Among the instrumental pieces are 

Maria Polka Mazurka. By Joseph Archer. Very fine. And Meyfr Polka, fan- 
tasie, by Leopold de Meyer. Quite as good in its wp-y : and both quite easy for those 
of onlj tolerable skill on the piano-forte. ' 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM JUNE 5, 1855, TO JULY 3, 1855. 



Wm. Atiamson, of Philadelphia, improvement 
in saud-paper cutting machines. 

E. Allen, Worcester, improvement in fire arms. 

A. C. BiUinfiS and B. II. Ruggles, Palmer, 
Mass., improved mode o( riveting shingles. 

Addison P. iirown, iiratfleboro, saU'-regulating 
■wind-mill.s. 

Ephraim Brown, Lowell, burglar's alarm. 

Adolph and Phenis Iirown, New- York, macliine 
for Doxing and turiiiuff wood. 

Gardner A. Bruce, Mechanicaburg, Ill.,improve- 
inent.in harvester reels. 

Sylvester Colburn, Ansonia, Conn., improve- 
ment in grain and grass harvesters. 

Julius C. Dickey, Saratoga Springs, improved 
mill steps. 

Kobert D. Dwycr, Kichmond, Va., improvement 
in attachments for lijihtning rods. 

Edmund Field, Greenwich, Conn., improve- 
ment in locking latches for doors. 

Geo. Finley, Collins Township, Pa., improve- 
ment in machines for washing sand. 

Thomas Fowler, Cohoes, improvement in knit- 
ting machines. 

Charles Folson, Cambridge, Mass., improved 
book clasp. 

H. H. Fultz, Lexington, Miss., improved horse 
power. 



Jacob Harshman, Daytou, O., improvement in 
steam boilers. 

Isaac R. Hartwell, Woodstock, Vt,, machine 
for cutting cavities spherical, eliBsadiol, etc. 

James D. Hayes, Mt. Morris, 111., improvement 
in lard lamps. 

Edmund Hayes, Wlieeling, and Morgan Hayes, 
Washington, Pa., improved apparatus for setting 
bo.Kes for carriage tops. 

Birdsill Holby, Seneca FalLs, method of regu- 
lating the issue apertures, and of suspending tur- 
bine wheels. 

Wm, II. Hovey, of Springfield, Mass., improve- 
ment in grain and grass harvesters. 

M. G. Hubbard, New- York, method of hanging 
plane stocks and their mouth pieces. 

Fiiedrich W. Hoffman, and Chas W. Gustay, 
Fordliam, New- York,' improvement in machines 
for making rivets. 

James and Wylie Littie, Princeton, Indiana, 
improvement in attaching the connecting bar to 
the cutters of harvesters. 

John Loudon and Otto Ahlstrom, New-York, 
improvement in screw fastenings. 

Jean Pierre MoUicre, Lyons, France, iniprove- 
ment in sewing machines. Patented in France, 
May 30, 1854. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



127 



Milo P^ck, New-Haven, improvement in trip- 
hammers. 

Paul Peckham, Petersham, Mass., machine for 
dressing conical tapering surfaces. 

Samuel Rockafellovir, Goatsville, Pa,, improve- 
ment in mowing machines. 

John J. Rollow, Fredericksburg, improvement 
in machine* for shucking ami shelling corn. 

A. H. Rowand, Allaghany City, machine for 
feeding sheets of paper to printing presses. 

Eumund Q. Smith, Cincinnati, method of cut- 
ling straight or curved moriices. 

Wm. Stinson, Georgetovvrn, Pa., improvement 
in corn plantt^rs. 

Samuel T. Thomas, Lawrence, Mass., improve- 
ment in looms. 

Hiram Tucker, Cambridgeport, improvement in 
spring bed bottoms. 

T. J. Van Benschoten, Poughkeepsie, improve- 
ment in horse collar blocks. 

John U. VVallis, Dansville, N. Y., improvement 
in pa('dle wheels. 

Nicholas Whitehall, Attica, Ind., improvement 
in plyws. 

Geo. B. Wilson, Elizabeth, Pa., improvement 
in cooling and dvying flour. 

Robert Wilson, Columbus City, Iowa, improve- 
ment in apparatus for heating feed water to steam 
boilers. 

Eabert Wilson, Columbus City, Iowa, improve- 
ment in sewing machines. 

Edward Brown, VVaterbury, Conn., assignor to 
the ScoviUe Manufacturing Company, of same 
place, machine for beveling and polishing the 
inner edges of daguerreotype fac plates, or 
*'mats. 

Wm. McDonald, New- York, assignor to R. 
Hoe & Co., of the same place, machine for mitre- 
iug printers' rules. 

.Tames Curtis and Samuel Hoard, Chicago, 111., 
water metre. 

Augustus M. Clover, Waterborough, S. C, im- 
provement in cotton presses. 
John Power, Boston, cork machines. 
George W, Stedman, Vienna, N. J., improve- 
ment in sewing machines. U 

Thomas Silver, Philadelphia, improvement in 
marine steam engine governors. 
Thomas C. Clarke, Camden, N. J., filter. 
Thomas C. Clarke, Camden, N. J. hydrant 
filter. 

Chas. M. Day, N. Y., feed motion for saw mills, 
etc. 

George L. Bulany, Mount Jackson, Va,, im- 
provement m mill bushes. 

^ Elisha Fitzgerald, New-York, improvement in 
buoys for raising sunken vessels. 

Calvin Fletcher, Cincinnati, improvement in 
supplying furnaces with hot air. 

Wm. S. Ford, N. Y., improvement in window 
»ai?hes. 

Wm D. Greenleaf, Washington, N. H., im- 
provement in fastening scythes to snaths. 

Floriau Hesz, Cincinnati, improvement in bed- 
steds. 

M. J. Kennedy, Fallston, Pa., machine for join- 
ins staves. 

John C. Kine, Pittsburgh, improvement in door 
locks. 

James J. McComb, New-Orleans, improvement 
in arrangement of bumpers for self-^icting bar 
brakes. 

Fred'k Newbury, Albany, improvement p re- 
volving fire arms. 
Isaac M. Newcomb, Eden, Vt, sewing machine. 
Jos. H. Penny and Thomas B. Rogers, New- 
York, improvement in propellers. Patented in 
England, June 14.J853. 

John Plumbe, San Francisco, improvement in 
cutting chiy into bricks. 

Edgar A. Robbins, Rochester, method of tuning 
accordeons. 
Geo. H. Swan, Bridgeport, stave machine. 



Orson W. Stow, Planstville, Ct., improvement 
in sheet meltal folding machines. 

Edward A. Sterry, Norwich Town, Ct., faucet. 

Henry W. Smith, Boston, improved coupling for 
organs and melodeons. 

Christopher Sharps and George E. Adriance, 
Hector, tenoning machine. 

Jos, C. Silroy, New-Orleans, improvement in 
door locks. 

Hosea D. Searles, Rockford, 111., improvement 
in guard rails of railroads, to be used with prong- 
ed cow-catchers. 

Samuel Taylor, Petersham, Mass, improvement 
in plank roofs for buildings. 

Wm. E. Thompson, Cleveland, improvement in 
heating wrought iron wheels for forging. 

Nathaniel Waterman, Boston, poitable floating 
filter. 

Sheldon Warner, Enfield, Mass., curvillinear 
sawing machine. 

Wm. D. Beaumont, Mobile, improvement in ar- 
tificial fuel. 

Wm. Gee, New-York, improvement in soda 
water generators. 

Aug. M. Glover, Waterborough, S. C, improve- 
ment in the buckets of paddle-wheels. 

John Grout, Hocking City, Ohio, improved Belf- 
acting cotton press. 

Geo. King, FarmvilIe,Va., improvement in press- 
ing tobacco in plugs. 

Jos. Montgomery, Lancaster, Pa., and James 
Montgomery, Baltimore, improvement in wheat 
fans. 

Joan Pierre Molliere, Lyons, France, improved 
machine for cutting the e.lges of boot and shoe 
soles. Patentee in France, January 5, 1S34. 

T. J. W. Robertson, New-York, iuiprovement in 
sewing machines. 

Isaac M. Singer, New-York, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Chas. R. Webb, Phila., improvement in wind- 
mill. 

Charles De Saxe, New-York, assignor to Thos 
H. Bate, same place, improved surptntine spinner 
to catch fish. 

Joel G. Northrop, Syracuse, assignor to James 
G. Mather, same place, improvement in printing 
presses. 

Orson C. Phelps, Bo.ston, assignor to Orson C. 
Phelps and John Holtou, same place, improve- 
ment in metalic medium for filtering. 

Jo.shua Turner, Jr., Charlestown, Mass., as- 
signor to Asa Bennett, Boston, ^lass., and War- 
ren Covell, Debham, Mass., machine lor ruling 
leather. 

Caleb H. Griflln, Lynn, assignor to Caleb H. 
Griffin, and George W. Otis, same place, improve- 
ment in macliine for cutting out boot and shoe 

Jolin M. Wimley, Philadelphia, assignor to J. 
A. Shaw, same place, improvement in attaching 
gutta percha soles to boots and shoes. 

Jos. Adams, Fairhavea Yt., improvement in 
stone sawing machine?. 

Horatio Allen, New -York, two motion con 
valves. 

Avery Babbeit, Auburn, machine for cuttmg 
irregular forms. 

Uriah Bebee, Oakland, Mich., improvement in 
corn planters. 

Henry Boynton, Hinesburgh, Yt., reciprocating 
railway propeller. 

John H. Cocke, Bremo, Va., improvement in 
railroad car seats. 

S. Park Coon, Milwaukee, improvement in appa- 
ratus for replacing railroad cars upon the track. 

Richard F. Cook, Troy, Ala., improved fish 
hook. 

L. G. Evans, Spring Hill. Ala., improvement in 
plows. 

Jas. P. Fennel!, Philadelphia, improved coal 



128 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Geo. Fetter and Jos. L. Pennock, of Holmesburg, 
Pa., machine for cutting the inside hole of shovel 
handles 

Arasmus French, Waterbury, Ct., improvement 
in springs for hmges, etc. 

Abraiii C. Faiiston, West Philadelphia, im- 
provement in scalfolds. 

Robert R, Gray, Crawfordsville, Ind., improved 
expanding block for horse collars. 

Stephen Gorton and Francis Morris, Crawford 
couniy. Pa., improved stump machine. 

Geo. VV. inidreth, Lockport, improved mode of 
hanging bells--. 

Oiris C. Hill, Maloue, improvement indoors. 

Robert M. Kerrisou, Philadelphia, improved 
piano forte action. 

John L. Kite, Philadelphia, improved hot air 
furnaces 

Joseph H. Marston, Philadelphia, apparatus for 
taking sterroscopic protographs. 

Felix Miller, New-York, improvement in fasten- 
ings for carpets. 

Jeans Pierre Molliere, Lyons, France, improved 
machine for cutting leather Into strips, for boot 
and shoe s iles and heels. Patented in France, 
July 2J,- 1853. 

Jonah Newton, New York, method of scouring 
cutters to rotary discs. 

Roy.il Parce, Pitcher, N. Y., machine for cutting 
locks and tapering ends of wooden hoops. 

W. D. Parker, New-York, improved ice-house. 

David Pierce, Woodstock, Vt., machine for 
manufacturing wooden ware. 

David and J. R. Pollack, Lancaster, Pa., fan 
blower. 

Lovell T. Richardson, Worcester, socket handles 
for chisels. 
^ John Richardson, Buckeyestown, Md., improve- 

ment in producing intermittent acceleration of 
motion, in harvesters, rakes, etc. 

Harrison D. Reynolds, Pendleton, Ind., improve- 
ment in cleaners. 

John W Russell, Springfield, Mass., improved 
chuck for turning escentrics. 

James Selby, Lancaster, Ohio, improvement in 
seed drills. 

Albert S. Southworth and Josiah J. Hawes, Bos- 
ton, apparatus fur moving stereoscopic pictures. 

Sylvester Stevens, Boston, improvement in ro- 
tary engines. 

Peter Tun Eyck, New- York, improved self act- 
ing brake for vehicles. 

William Thompson, Nashville, self-operating 
circular gate. 

Levi Till, Sandusky, improved brick. 

Charles F. Thomas, Taunton, improvement in 
steam boilers. 

Albert M. Waterhouse, New-York, improvement 
in hose couplings. 

Alva Worden, Ypsilanti, improvement in joints 
for stove pipes. 

Jesse N. Holies, Philadelphia, assignor to H. J. 
Ockerhiiu-ien, Baltimore, improvement in joints of 
pipes for artesian walls. 

George L. Dulany, Mount Jackson, Va., as- 
signor to Ueuben Allen, Shenandoah county, Va., 
improved mill dress. 

Thomas Hi di;son, Brooklyn, assignor to Rob't 
L. Wright, New-York, improvement in the man- 
ufaf.tur.- of artificial stone. Patented in England, 
May '.), 18.34. 

Abram and Chas. N. Clow, Port Byron, im- 
provement in corn sheUcrs. 



Marvin S. Otis, Rochester, assignor to Charles 
Rumley, of same place, improvement in machine 
for bonng cylinders. 

Isaac H. Steer, Winchester, Va., assignor to 
Henry Carter, Pittsburgh, improvemeut in mak- 
ing nuts. Ante-dated December 19, 1654. 

VVm. and Wm. F. Boyd, Watertown, Mass., 
improvemeut in bridle winkles. 

Chas. B. Bristol, Naugatuck, Conn., improved 
wrench. 

Martin Croke, New- York, improvement in 
weather strips for doors. 

Henry Clayton, Dorset Square, England, im- 
provement in brick and tile machine:*. English 
patent Dec. 13, 185 J. 

Daniel N. Zanzack, Salem, Masg., improved 
mode of hanging window sashes. 

Samuel Eakins, Philadelphia, improvement in 
ice pitchers. 

Moore R. Fletcher, (late) of Concord, for tidal 
alarm apparatus. 

Jonas S. Halsted and Cornelius J. Ackerman, 
New-York, for carpenter's mitre and bevel square. 

Chas. S. iiarris, Holyoke, for balance valve. 

A. V. Hough, Green Castle, Ind., improvement 
in brick machines. 

Chas. H. Johnson, Boston, improved in gas 
burners. 

K. A. L. McGurd5% Sabine Parish, La., improve- 
ment iu cotton gins. 

Peter Moody, IndianapoUs, improvement in 
horse collar blocks. 

Isaac M. Wade, Clinton, Mich., improvement in 
churns. 

Wm. Wiler and Lucien Moss., Philadelphia, 
improved gas-lighter. 

Moses D. Wells, Morgantown, Va., improve- 
ment in seeding machines. 

Bernard 0. Bo'an, Marietta, Pa., improvement 
in machines for cleaning ore. 

Henry Peckham, King's Ferry, improvement in 
st.aw cutters. 

Abraham Powell, .Ir.,Mare Island, Cal., improv- 
ed fuse stock for bomb shells. 

Elisha E. Rice, Hallowell, Me., improvement in 
railroad car brake. 

Alfred A. Starr, New-York, improved adjuste'" 
of window blinds. 

Lafayette Stephens and Solomon B. Elithrop, 
Elmira, improvement in window blinds, doors, 
etc. 

Joseph Sykes, Mercer, Pa., for wheelwrights' 
guide mandrel. 

Chas. Taylor, McKeesport, Pa., improvement 
in machines for cutting grain, grass, etc. 

Reuben H. Thompson, Buffalo, improvement in 
hand machines lor making boots and slioes. 

John H. Tuck, Pall Mall, England, improvements 
in packing for stuthng boxes. 

Thos. Champion, Washington, D. C, improved 
steam boiler furnace. 

Stephen Hull, Poughkeepsie, improvement in 
attaching the raker's seat to harvesters. 

John H. Manny, Rockford, 111., improvement in 
the cutters of harvesters. 

.John H. Manny, Rockford, 111., improvement in 
the guard fingers of harvesters. 

Oren Stoddard, Busti, N. Y., improvement in 
corn planters, to be operated by hand. 

Jacob Lenneff, Philadelphia, improvement in 
machines for miking harness for looms. 



tlje P0a9l), tl)e iwm, m^f tj)f JlnDil. 



Vol. VIII. SEPTEMBER, 1855. No. 3, 



NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN INDUSTRY. 

The North and the South. — From the very able and elaborately pre- 
pared article which opens De Solo's Review for April, we copy the following 
paragraph : 

" Let us now compare the present condition of a northern and southern 
parish, each containing 100 families of six, persons. In the former we shall 
find some three of its families who derive the whole or part of their income 
directly from the United States Treasury, while there is no such family in 
the latter, if it be like the majority of the slave-holding conTmunities of the 
same size. If the northern parish happen to be on the coast, every bay, and 
iulet, and creek has been carefully surveyed by the federal government, and 
lights shme every twenty odd miles along the shore, to protect its mariners. 
In the southern parish, the vessels must find their way through the shoals as 
best they can, for there has been no survey, and no warning beacon cheers 
the storm for hundreds of miles. The Union spends ten dollars in cutting- 
roads and canals, cleaning; rivers and constructina; harbors "in the northern 
parish, where it spends one in the southern. And to secure these 'oenents 
the parish in the free States pays in taxes $388. and receives l:>ack in dis- 
bursements $1360; while the same number of families in the slave States 
pay $1620, and receive only $270. The excess of $1350 goes to be distri- 
buted amongst the northern parishes. This is not all, for the hundred fam- 
ilies of the southern neighborhood are deprived of ths profits of using over 
$8000 of their own cotton, tobacco, grain, etc., in order to let the hundred 
northern families use over $5000 of it a whole year free of charge. When 
the two parishes join in war against a common foe, the southern must send 
five times as many soldiers, and pay five times as much of the expenses ; and 
yet when the conquest is over, it must suffer its partner to seize all the con- 
quests, and at the same time to kidnap its property and attack its domestic 
peace. Can insolence — can tyranny go further? Or can history show a 
more degraded community than the southern must be if it submits ?" 

In our number for May we entered upon an examination of certain state- 
ments made by this able writer in Be Boiv's Review. We then noted, for 
future comment, which has accidentally laid in our drawer till the present 
moment. We now propose to make it the basis of a few practical sugges- 
tions, and a perusal of it will show that if we speak plainly, we are not 
without precedent. We shall endeavor to be at least logical and courteous. 

VOL. VIII. 9 



130 NORTHERISr AND SOUTHERN INDUSTRY. 

We have no doubt that a careful study of the subject, with the facts that 
are within the reach of most persons, would furnish them with abundant 
data tor a satisfactory solution of the problem here presented. A candid ex- 
amination of the statistics we have presented in this journal, would furnish 
all the material necessary in such investigation. 

It appears from this extract that for " every hundred families of six 
persons," that is, in, every community of 600 inhabitants, at the North, we 
shall find three persons fed from the public crib, while " there is no such 
family in the latter, (the South) if it be like the majority of the slave-holding 
communities of the same size." 

And why is there this difference ? A visit to any one of such communities 
would furnish a ready answer. That community of 600 souls at the North 
lives chiefly by some mechanic trade. Each man labors, not for the pro- 
duction of goods to be used by himself and family, but for those who are 
rem !te from him. The products of his labor are sent abroad. Perhaps he 
is 100 or 200 miles from navigable waters, and all his goods are sent to the 
seaboard. This requires easy and cheap communication, and such com- 
munication is, of course, secured. The nature of their business requires an 
extensive correspondence, quite as much so as that of the merchant. Hence 
they make efforts to secure a mail route, and to insure success in their 
application, they show that the correspondence of the community will loay 
the expense of a 2^ost-office and probably pay a profit to the government. 
Doing this, they secure their post-office. The communication being easy and 
cheap, the expense of the post route is comparatively small, and these 
facilities for an increased business produce their legitimate effects. Such 
communities arfe established " through New-England" upon the average, 
perhaps, in every ten miles or so, along post routes, and frequently are much 
nearer than this, and they are seldom far from a route previously established. 
Let us give a , striking illustration of this process, on a territory with which 
we are quite familiar. Worcester, Mass., and Providence, R. I., are two of 
the more important cities of the Eastern States, each containing a large 
population, and a large amount of wealth, and carrying on a very extensive 
busiaess, requiring a prompt and frequent conveyance of the mail. The 
traveled route between them lies in the valley of the Blaclistone river. And 
what are tlie features which could not fail to excite the wonder of a traveler 
for the first time passing over that route ? He would scarcely find himself 
out of sight of " a factory" for the whole distance. 

The suburbs of Providence are filled up with iron establishments of various 
sorts. Pawtucket, 4 miles from Providence, is a large " factory" village, and 
its smaller "factory" villages are scattered along a distance of some tkree 
miles. Lonsdale, " a factory village," is 7 miles from Providence. Woon- 
soeket, another very large " factory village," is 16 miles from Providence. 
Waterford, little else beside a "factory village," is 18 miles. Blackstone, 
another "factory" village, is scarcely a half mile from Waterford. Millville 
is 20 miles, Uxbridge 25, Whitinsville is 26, Northbridge is 31, Farnum's 
Village is 33, Saundersville, in Grafton, is 34, Sutton is 35, and Milbury is 
37 miles from Providence, and each of them is a " factory village," and the' 
lasfc is but 6 miles from Worcester, around which "factories" cluster on every 
*de. The capital invested in these establishments is estimated by millions, 

^ much of it is owned by the Superintendents living on the spot, and the 

is done to a great extent by-permanent residents in the village, who are 

'^y and prosperous, intelligent and moral class of the community in 

>y live, supporting the institutions of religion, and schools, and 



NORTHEEN AND SOUTHERN INDUSTRY. 131 

lyceums, and probably reading 1000 pages, while a farming population of the 
same size would read 100. Why should not such communities have the 
facilities of a post-office? What "three" public functionaries are supported 
for (by ?) them, we cannot guess. We could conjure up a second. If the 
'■ix-gatherer is "around," he will be very sure not to overlook these " factory 
villages." The third we cannot guess. 

Now show us such communities at the South, who are refused such aid (?) 
from the general government. Comparatively few such villages are found 
there. Agriculture vetoes, beyond appeal or reversion, any considerable 
collection of people on small territories. Let the South establish her 
mechanical and manufacturing villages, and she too will have these and other 
favors from the " United States Treasury." Large plantations are eveu less 
favorable to such a state of things than are the small farms of the New- 
England States. Who does not see that such complaints as these, however 
aimed, are in fact, to be laid only at the door of the system which excludes 
denseness of population, which renders good roads or other ready communi- 
cation very difficult and expensive, if not impossible, and by necessity 
excludes every condition which would favor the extension of mails an'd 
.similar conveniences at the disposal of the general government ? 

The next topic of complaint is the comparative frequency of Light-houses, 
and it is perfectly obvious that this persistency in remaining a mere 
agricultural community, operates beyond the power of mere choice, in 
arranging this matter also. 

Light-houses are usually placed in harbors frequented by shipping, or on 
dangerous points along the coast near such harbors. So far as security along 
rocky shores is concerned, probably our " factory villages" do not exert a 
very great influence in increasing the number of these structures. This 
must go to the account of " Geological Formations." We do not now think 
of a more appropriate title under which to enter these expenditures. 

But as to the former, these little communities must take their share of 
responsibility. It is these which produce " merchandise." They bring into 
existence all the tools, and implements, and machines, and fabrics used by all 
sexes, of all classes, in all communities. Hence they affect very materially 
the amount ^f commerce, and they accordingly affect very considerably the 
size and the location of mercantile and commercial points or centers, and so 
far control the circumstances which occasion the necessity for such structures. 
It is not merely a favorable location on the sea that creates a commercial 
city. A convenient harbor is, in fact, a minor consideration. Look at Lon- 
don. It is not near the sea. Look at Venice, standing on the sea, and yet 
her glory is gone, so far as the extent of her commerce is concerned, and this 
is the result solely or chiefly of the springing up, the creation of a new com- 
merce by the energy and skill of the people of our own country — in other 
words, by Yankee enterprise. Look at New-Orleans, far from the sea, and 
difficult of access. Look all down our Atlantic coast, and it will not appear 
that our largest cities always have the superiority of others in this respect. 
Boston is more than 40 miles from the open sea. There must be material, 
and there must be individual energy, and with these, prosperous cities will 
increase and " Light-houses!' or other commercial facilities will be demanded, 
and will be secured. In the absence of these on the land, our pilots must 
give a wide berth to shoals and hidden rocks, just as a sparse population, 
awffy from great thoroughfares, must convey their own products a long dis- 
tance and at great expense, to find a gpod market. All this is the fault of 
no one; it is simply the inevitable law of nature, over which parliaments and 
legislatures can have but a very limited control. 



132 NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN INDUSTRY. 

All the other distinctive differences, so earnestly set forth by this writer, 
result from the same and kindred causes. You cannot have the interest to 
expend where there is no principal, and equally true is it that where commer- 
cial pursuits are not fostered, where the social structure forbids extensive 
manufacturers, whether of wood or iron, or cotton or wool, then the facilities, 
the conveniences, the profits, the wealth, the energy of character and the 
success which variety of pursuit alone can produce, are not to be expected. 
Nor are those who do enjoy them to be censured because they are not uni- 
versal. 

The statistics which we have published show that in mere agricultural dis- 
tricts, agricultural products are not more productive of income, than they 
are in such a territory as we find in the Northern States. Thus, while in 
New-England the " manufacturing, mining, and mechanic arts" produce an 
income of $102 00 to each person, and at the South only $13, the agricul- 
tural products of the South, per acre, are only $1 03, while in New-England 
they are 81 76. This is stated by Mr. Tucker, and we do not doubt his ac- 
curacy. 

Our learned friend, De Bow, in the census of 1850, also brings us to the 
same conclusion. The average value of land, 2:)er acre^ in New-England, he 
estimates at $20 27, while in the Southern States he calls it $5 34, and this, 
too, in the older States of the Union. 

How can there be any diversity of opinion on this subject with such ad- 
mitted facts before us? And still the South ridicules the "factory" system 
of the North, and describes her operations in anything but flattering phrase- 
ology. True, they sometimes quote from some zealous writer living on 
Northern soil, though they often pervert and exaggerate ; but those who live in 
New-England know many of these statements to be either absolutely false, 
or true only in certain limited localities. In such cities as Lowell, Lawrence, 
and Manchester, the female operatives are " separated from family influences," 
.'ind parental watch ; but there is a substitute by no means inoperative in 
the esprit de corps, which expels from their social circle every one who brings 
reproach upon it by offending against good morals. They are chiefly the 
daughters of farmers, well brought up, and strictly moral from habit and 
from principle ; and many of them are well educated, competent to teach in 
schools, North or South, and thus in fact many do occupy one half the year, 
while they work in the factory the other half. 

But this state of things exists only in a few large cities. Where there is 
one Lowell, there are a dozen Waterfords and Lonsdales, villages chiefly 
consisting of tenements built by the owner of the mills, or by the farmers and 
mechanics of the neighborhood. On these places, the dweUing is hired 
by the head of the ftimily, while the children work in the mill. There no 
such separation of households is seen. Perhaps the father is also employed by 
the same parties. The house is rented in view of just this arrangement. The 
formt^r occupant abandons, either because he can do better elsewhere, or be- 
cause his children have married and he goes to live with them, or to the place 
of his fathers; and a new occupant is obtained for the dwelling, who can sup- 
ply the help needed by the mill owner. Such establishments are scattered all 
over New-England, and if Lowell were as bad as the most zealous of the en- 
emies of this system would make it, it would not even then be good evidence 
of what the great majority off ictory villages are in New-England. Besides, 
superintendents often exert a most powerful influence in favor of good morals, 
in these more unfavorable circumstances. We remember that in one of these 
large cities, one of them, in conversing with ourself on this subject, once said. 



XORTHERN AND SOUTHERN INDUSTRY. 133 

" I will, give you $100 if you will tell me some new and innocent amusement, 
for our operatives after the hpurs of work." This remark shows the interest he 
felt in this direction, and with such men to manage the affairs of the company, 
there is comparatively little danger. 

The largest assembly we ever saw convened in the Sabbath-school was in 
that same Lowell, so slandered by this writer, and the school consisted chiefly 
of female operatives belonging to the mills. 

We can scarcely regard such remarks as we have alluded to, and which we 
have taken as our caijtion, as honestly made. There are evils inevitably re- 
sulting from the separation of family influences that are to be lamented, but 
sometimes such change is for the better. The daughter, who has been living 
in utter neglect or disregard of the institutions of religion, is thus brought 
under a better influence. We would not fear to hazard something on the 
statement, that a larger part of the entire mass of factory operatives in New- 
England, regularly and voluntarily attend Sabbath-schools than are to be found 
in any community of equal numbers and similar ages in the Southern States. 
If any one will give us the figui'es in any large district South, we will furnish 
them from the North, and bring this to a test. 

No, such evils are not eating out the vitals of New-England. They are 
safe, reasonably safe in the matter of good morals, and they are growing richer 
every year. When this is equally true of the South, we will listen to ar- 
guments which go to show that agriculture, as a sole occupation, is the chief 
end of man, and that all forms of mechanical industry are but sources of un- 
mixed evil. 

But we have not yet reached the climax, " for the 100 families of the 
Southern neighborhood are deprived of the profits of using over $8000 of their 
own cotton, tobacco, grain, etc., in order to let the 100 Northern families 
use over $5000 of it a whole year free of charge," Well, this is a hard 
case. The North ought to be ashamed of themselves, and as the good 
woman said of Napoleon Bonaparte, " ought to be talked to severely." But 
who lets them have this cotton and tobacco ? Is it surrendered at the point 
of the bayonet ? Oh no, it is all sent North by its owners, because they 
are not disposed to have any " factory villages," and think mechariic arts 
quite beneath them. , What " insolence" ! What " tyranny ? " Our Southern 
friends csmnot but see that this extract is only the eloquence of big and 
hard words. We defy any man to put the idea intended to be conveyed into 
cool, logical propositions, and to show its connections, without showing at 
the same time that the South, in this very condition of things, (so far as it is 
truly represented,) have their own chosen way — that the system of policy 
which produces these results, is adopted and cherished by Southern 
politicians, in spite of Northern resihtance, in opposition to Northern 
statesmen and Northern votes in Congress, and that they are the inevitable 
results of confining themselves so exclusively to agricultural pursuits. To 
talk about " insolence" and " tyranny" uncler such circumstances, is more 
than mere nonsense, it is downright impudence, and 'does much to alienate 
the feeUngs of the people in different sections of the country. 

We advise our Southern friends not to be duped by such idle pretences, 
nor to listen to those political advisers who live by inculcating such 
doctrines. Let them advertise in our pages for masons, and carpenters, and 
blacksmiths, and brick-makers, and machinists, and spinners, and weavers, 
md so on to the end of the chapter, and build their own mills, and man- 
ufacture " their own cotton and tobacco," and make handsome profits by the 
process, and raise the price of land on every mill stream, and far and wide 



134 ECONOMY IN FARMING. 



set into movemeut the whole system of raechanical industry, and our friend 
De Bow will then be crowded with the statistics of comparatively high 
prices, and profitable investments, and renewed la^ds, and reviving cities, and 
extended commerce. Let them defend and " protect" and cherish these 
efforts in their infancy, and then they will have the use of their own money 
and their neighbors' too, if they have any who refuse to go with them in 
these industrial pursuits. Let them use fewer harsh words, c )mplain less, 
and accomplish more, and our word for it, they will grow rich and power- 
ful, and in every such " community of 100 families" (if not too widely 
scattered) they too will have one or more "^famihes supported directly from 
the United States Treasury," and with this additional gratification, that they do 
not enjoy these privileges at the expense of others. We would use a more 
moderate and truthful form of expression than is contained near the close of 
our extract, and say that the history of those States will never show a com- 
paratively prosperous and an advancing community, as long as present 
systems and theories prevail. 



FOR THB PLOUGH, TUB LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

ECOKOMY IN FARMING. 

Mr. Editor : — I observe in the July issue of your valuable journal, an 
article on economic cultivation, which ought to be set in letters of gold. 
No farmer of common observation but will admit its truth, but still there is 
that early training, those scenes of our boyhood, the veneration for our 
fathers who cultivated the same fields — these cling to us in our after lives. 

But all things are changeable, and soswith the soil ; it behooves us to 
look about us when we can see the lee shore in the distance, and hear the 
low sound of the breakers as they dash on the shore. The present high 
price of labor and diminished crops M'ill hardly balance the sheet. We have 
known men the past season not able to cut more than three hundred of hay 
per day. Value of hay, $2 50. Labor, $1 15. Profit to the land of 75 
cents on one day's work. You may say this will do very well, but, brotlfer 
farmers we will show you another picture. By another system of cultivation 
a man will cut and house one ton of hay per day ; estimate labor, |1 75 ; 
value of hay, $15 ; leaving a profit to land of $13 25 ; difference between 
the two systems, $\2 50, So much is the difference in two day's labor. 

But this is only a small item in a former's book. There are other crops 
as important as hay. We take for instance, Indian corn. Many farmers 
make no more than twenty or twenty-five bushels per acre, and some, we 
are sorry to say, do not do that. The cost of working the crop, the land, 
etc., as labor is now, will not fall much short of $20, Estimate price of corn 
at $1 per bushel : $25. Fodder, $5, making $30, leaving $10 to the land. 
In the making of this crop, the value of the land i^ diminished rather than 
increased for succeeding crops. 

Fifty bushels of corn can be made with ease by good cultivation at the 
North per acre. Cost of cultivation, land, elc, $32, Corn, $50, Fodder 
$10. Leaving |28 as profit to the land. A difference between thel' two 



STATISTICS FOR TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY. 135 



systems of $18 on one acre of land. This is quite a return for an extra out- 
lay of $12. Now these are stubborn facts that will surely look the farmer 
in the face at the end of each year ; but these are only two of the leaks in the 
farmer's ship. ^lany suppose that a farmer's thrift is told by the number of 
his half-fed animals about his yards. A grand mistake. Our motto should 
be, in this respect, more profit on one full fed animal than two half fed, 
which will be found by balancing accounts. 

The earth is formed of atoms. So by taking care of small things, we 
make a large pile in the end. The droppings of a single ox once, is a matter 
you might say, of small consequence, but if repeated six times in twenty -four 
hours we get 1990 in a year, quite a pile. This being carefully composted 
* with sods by the way-side, or mud from the swamp, rich in vegetable mat- 
ter, and being combined with gasses, will produce four ears of corn for each 
dropping, making 7960 fears of corn at 230 ears per bushel, or 34|- bushels of 
shelled corn, and the land left in better condition for succeeding crops. 

But perhaps, after all that may be said, that the waste of manure, and 
the injudicious application of the same to the soil, is the largest leak in the 
farmer's ship, and would fend in a failure in most other pursuits. 

A few days' extra labor in dull weather in the collection of turf, mud, and 
in fact, the waste of all things that are lying waste about almost all farms, 
would add largely to the amount of our stock of manure, and cover our 
fields iwith a bountiful harvest. This crop, judiciously spent, will place us in 
a situation to make another equally as good. Now, the greatest thing we 
want is to make one good crop, and after, if it is well spent, we can keep 
along. Our theory is, that the change of one plant will produce another. 

EppiKra, Auff. 6th. D. L. Harvey. 



STATISTICS FOR TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY. 

Tennessee has an ' area of 18,984,022 acres of land. Kentucky, 
22,340,748 acres. Tennessee cultivates, 5,360,220 acres, and Kentucky, 
11,268,270 — more than double what Tennessee cultivates. 

Tennessee has a white population of 829,210; slaves, 183,059 : Kentucky, 
white population 779,828 ; slaves, 182,025 — each State a population of 
twenty to the square mile. It is conceded by all who are posted up in 
statistics, that Tennessee stands at the head of the list in the great staple of 
these United States, to wit: Indian corn — Ohio second, .and Kentucky 
third. 

The products of each State for one year, stands for Tennessee thus — cotton 
bales, 194,532; tobacco, 20,148,923 lbs.; rice, 258,854 Ib.^. ; oats, 7,7i)3,- 
086 bushels; Avheat, 1,619,386 bushels; potatoes, 3,855,560 bushels; peas 
and beans, 369,321 bushels; value of farming implements, etc., $5,360,220. 
Live stock — mules 75,303 head ; horses, 370,636 ; cattle, 750,765 ; swine, 
3,114,111. 

Kentucky stands as follows: cotton bales, 728 ; tobacco, 55,501,196 lbs.; 
rice, 5,688 lbs.; oats, 8,201,311 bushels; whfat, ^,140,822 bushels; 
potatoes, -2,490,671 bushels; peas and beans, 262,574 bushels; value of 
farming implements, etc., $5,169,037. Live stock — mules, 65,609 head: 
horses, 315,682 ; cattle, 753,312 ; swine, 2,861,163. 



136 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



Manufacturing establishments for Tennessee — cotton goods, 53 ; woolen, 
4; iron, 81 ; tanneries, 394,. Home manufactory, ^SjlSTjYlO. 

For Kentucky — cotton goods, 8; woollen, 25; iron, 45; tanneries, 275. 
Home manufactory, 12,456,838. 

Tennesse has produced two Presidents, eleven Representatives in Congress, 
and nine hundred and twenty-five old pensioners. Kentucky, — Presidents, 
nine Representatives in Congress, and six hundred and fourteen old pension- 
ers. More than other States can show except New-York and Pennsylvania. 

Total valuation of all live stock in the aggregate— Tennessee, $29,978,016 ; 
Kentucky, $29,591,387. 

Capital invested in making whisky— Tennessee, $66,125 ; Kentucky, 

"",900.— 6r«Je^i;e. 



EiSTTOMGLOGT 



"We continue our exhibition of this very important branch of science, and 
propose to present engravings of the more destructive kinds of insects. It 
ought to be observed that we base our statements principally upon the work 
of Dr. Harris, although we have consulted many others, found in the Astor 
Library and elsewhere. We take from them such suggestions as we deem 
valuable. 

■ The following genera belong to the same order as those exhibited in our 
August number, viz. : 

COLEOPTERA. 

Osmodermia Scabia. Rough Osmodermia is a: large insect, body broad, 
oval, thorax nearly round, color purplish black, and in the males of cop- 
pery luster. Head is punctured, concave on the top; the edge of the 
broad vizor in the males is turned up. Wing-cases thickly punctured, 
under side of body smooth, legs short and stout. They have a strong odor 
of Russia leather. Females are larger than the males, and are destitute of 
the coppery lustre, and are nearly an inch in length. During the day, these 
beetles secrete themselves in the crevices or hollows of trees, and are 
especially fond of cherry and apple trees. Their larvae live in the hollows of 
these trees, feeding on the diseased wood. The grubs are fleshy, whitish, 
with a reddish hard-shelled head, and resemble the grubs of the common 
dor-beetle. In the fall, it forms an oval cell of the fragments of wood, 
cemented together, and comes forth in Jidy in the form of a beetle. 

BuPRESTjs Femorata (of Fabricius) is of a greenish black color above, 
with a brassy polish, very distinct in the two large transverse, impressed spots 
on each Aving-cover. The thorax has no smooth elevated lines upon it. 
Front pair of thighs is toothed beneath. Length, four-tenths to half an inch 
or more. Appears last of May to the middle of July. It especially fre- 
quents white oak trees, but is found in an(J under the bark of the peach. 
The ^rub bores into the trunks of these trees. 

The ELATERiDyE ; or Elators, or Spring Beetles, are related to the pre- 
ceding. They are well known by the faculty which they have of throwing 
them'^elves upward with a jerk when laid on their backs, by an abrupt in- 
flection of the anterior portion of the body. The body is of a hard consist- 
ence, usually rather narrow and tapering behind. The head is sunk to the 



ENTOMOLOGY. 137 



eyes in the fore part of the thorax, Antenna3 of moderate size, and more or 
less notched on the inside like a saw. Thorax broad at base as the wing- 
covers, usually rounded before, the hinder angles sharp and prominent. The 
scutel of moderate size, legs rather short and slender, feet five jointed. 

The grubs of the Elaters live upon wood and roots, and some devour the 
roots of herbaceous plants. Some of them are long, slender, worm-like, re- 
sembling the common meal worm, nearly cylindrical, with a hard and smooth 
skin, buff or brownish yellow, the head and tail being a little darker. Each 
of the first three rings is provided with a pair of short legs. They have a 
shoKt prop-leg behind to support the body. Others of this class are propor- 
tionally broader, not cylindrical but flattened, with a deep notch at the ex- 
tremity of the last ring, the sides of which are furnished with sharp teeth. 
These are mostly wood- eaters. 

In England these are called wire-worms, but they are not the American 
wire- worn, which is a species of lulus. The English wire-worm has but six 
feet, while the American has many. In Europe, to get rid of these insects, 
they strow sliced potatoes or turnips along the field, which are collected 
every morning, with the insects, which greedily come to feed upon them. 
After their last transformation Elaters appear on trees, and fences, and on 
flowers, and on the tender leaves of plants. They .creep slowly, and, when 
touched with the hand, generally fall to the ground. They fly by night and 
by day. 

The Genus Elater (of Linnaeus) has been latterly sub-divided into smaller 
groups. 

Elater Ocularius (of L.) now called Alaus, is the largest of our spring 
beetles, and measures from one and one-fourth inches to one and three-fourths in 
length. Color black, thorax oblong square, nearly one-third the length of 
the whole body, covered above with a whitish powder, and with a large 
oval velvet black spot, like an eye, on each side of the middle. AVing-covers 
marked with slender, longitudinal, impressed hnes, and spangled with numer- 
ous white dots. Under side of body and legs covered with a mealy white 
powder. 

It is found in trees, fences, and buildings, in June and July. It undergoes 
its transformations in the trunks of trees. 

The grubs are reddish yellow, proportionally broader than the other kinds, 
and much flattened. 

All the beetles named above belong to the general tribe of Leaf-horned 
Beetles, so called on account of the leaf-like joints with which, the end of 
their antennae is provided. 

We now come to a class called SERRICOR^^, or Saw-horned, from the ap- 
pearance of the tips of the joints of their antenna?, which project, more or 
less, on the inside, somewhat resembling the teeth of a saw. 

Buprestis Diverca ; (or, Divaricata of Say,) when in the grub state attacks 
the cherry and peach trees. The beetles are copper-colored, sometimes brassy 
above, and thickly covered with minute punctures ; thorax, slightly furrowed 
in the middle. Wing covers fiaely marked with numerous fine irregular 
impressed lines, and small, oblong square, elevated black spots. They taper 
behind. Middle of the breast furrowed. Males have a little tooth on the 
under side of the shanks of the intermediate legs. Length seven-tenths to 
nine-tenths of an inch. They are found on the cherry and peach trees from 
June to August inclusive. 

Elater Cmereus (of Weber) now called Melanotus, or Ash-colored Elater. 
It is six-tenths of an inch in length, dark brown, covered with short gray 



138 ENTOMOLOGY. 



hairs, thorax convex, wing-covers marked with lines of punctures, resemblino; 
stitches. Their claws resemble little combs, thorax short and rounded be- 
fore, and body tapers behind. It is found on fences, trunks of trees, and in 
paths, in April and May. They pass the winter under the bark of trees. 
The grub lives on wood. * 

Elater Communis, (of Schonherr,) now Melanotus, is very common, resem- 
bles preceding, but smaller, seldom exceeding a half an inch in length, 
lighter colored than the preceding, thorax a little longer, less convex, and 
having a slfender longitudinal farrow in the middle. Appears in April, May, 
and June. The transformed beetle may be found under the bark of ti^es, 
in autumn, where they pass the winter. 

Elater Ajnessifroas, (of Say,) now Ludius, so named from the vizor being 
pressed downwards over the lip. Body is slender and almost cyhndrical, 
deep chestnut brown color, appearing gray from the many short yellow 
hairs which cover it. Thorax of moderate length, not much narrowed be- 
fore, convex above, hinder angles very long and sharp pointed, and, in certain 
lights, of a brassy hue. Wing-covers finely punctured, with slender longi- 
tudinal lines impressed on them. Claws not toothed beneath. Length, 
four-tenths or five-tenths of an inch ; females larger. 

Elater Obesus, (of Say,) now Agriotes, is a short, thick beetle, dark brown, 
covered with dirty, yellowish hair, which, on the wing-covers, is arranged 
in stripes. Head and thorax thickly punctured, wing-covers punctured in 
rows. Length three-tenths of an inch. It is seen in April, May, and June, 
among the roots of grass, underneath boards and rails which lie on the ground, 
and on fences. KoUar says : " This beetle is especially injurious to oats, 
causing the leaves to become dry and fall off. It destroys whole fields of 
corn by attacking the roots. 

The larvjfi are slender, linear, fleet, shining, smooth, slightly hairy and 
brown. The last ring of the body terminates in a toothed forceps. It re- 
sembles the meal worm. 

We now reach the Weevil tribe, of v/hich there are many kinds. They 
are distinguished from the preceding and from other insects by having the 
forepart of the head prolonged into a broad muzzle, or a snout, more slender, 
in the end of which is the opentng of the mouth. Their name is suggested 
by this feature, viz, : 

Rhynchophorid^ ; or Snout-bearers. They are of small size ; antenna^ 
are on the muzzle or snout, knotted at the end, feelers very small, and gen- 
erally concealed in the mouth. The abdomen is often of au oval form, wider 
than the thorax. Legs short, and the soles of the feet short and flattened. 
They live upon bark, stems, leaves, buds, flowers, and fruit, and are often very 
destructive. They fly by day ; though some kinds have very short wings, 
and are unable to fly. They walk slowly, and when alarmed, they turn back 
their auteunaj, fold up their legs, and fall from the plant. They use their 
snout in eating and in boring. 

Their grubs are short, fleshy, whitish, and without legs. The head is 
covered with a hard shell, rings of their bodies very convex, or hunched. 
Jaws strong and bony. Most of them are transformed within the vegetable 
on which they feed, though some of them enter the ground, and there 
undergo th^ change which converts them into beetles. Seed peas are often 
found with holes in them, the work of these insects; and perhaps the insect 
is still to be seen within the substance of the pea in spring in the form of a 
small oval beetle, one-tenth of an inch or more in length, rusty black, with a 
white spot on the hinder part of the thorax, and several dots behind the 



ENTOMOLOGY. 139 



middle of each wing-cover, and a white spot, resembling a T in form, on the 
expiised extremity of the body. It is the Bnichus Pisi, of Linnreus, 
and is familiarly known as the Pea-bug. The larvse feed upon the pea in 
its soft state. The grub is changed to a pupae in the autumn, and daring the 
winter becomes a beetle, and bores a passage sufficiently large for its egress. 
In laying the egg, the beetle pierces the pulp of the pea, leaving a small 
puncture, the place of which is rendered visible by its discoloration, the spot 
on the pod corresponding to that on the pea. Bruchid^ is the name of 
the Weevil tribe. 

Various plans are proposed in checking the ravages of this insect. One 
is, by keeping seed peas in a tight vessel, more than one year, before .planting 
them. Another, immersing them in hot water before planting. Late plant- 
ing has been found etfectual. ^ 

The crow, blackbird, and the oriole devour them, splitting open the pea 
for this purpose. 

CuRCULioNiD.E, or the Curculio tribe, is extensive and highly destructive, 
attacking fruit and forest trees, and making great havoc. Of the latter kind, 
we shall treat hereafter. The falling of unripe plums, cherries, apples, etc., 
is caused by the grub of these insects. 

Mhynchcenus, (now Conotrachelus,) Nenuphar ; or Plum Weevil. This is 
the Eh. Argula, of Fabricius. Their color is dark brown, variegated with 
white, yellow, and black spots ; thorax vmeven. They are found as early as 
30th of March, and continue through the season of fruiting. They are from 
three- twentieths to one-fifth of an inch in length, exclusive of their curved 
snout, which is larger than their thorax, and when they are at rest is bent 
under their breast. Color dark brown, variegated with white, yellow, and 
black spots ; thorax uneven. Several short ridges may be seen on their 
wing-cover, those on the middle of the back forming two considerable 
humps of a black color, behind which there is a wide band of ochre yellow 
and white. Their thighs have two dttle teeth on the under side. 

As soon as the plum is set, they pierce it with th«ir snout, lay an 
egg in the puncture, and thus go from plum to plum over the tree. The 
irritation produced by these punctures makes the young fruit gummy and 
diseased, and it falls off before it is ripe. 

When disturbed or shaken from the tree it resembles a bud in its general 
appearance, especially when feigning death, as it does when it is alarmed. The 
grub, which is a small, yellowish, footless white maggot, leaves the fallen fruit, 
enters the earth, changes into a pupa, and in the first brood comes to the sur- 
face again, in about three weeks, in beetle form, to propagate its species and 
destroy more fruit. It has not been decided whether the latest generation of 
the weevil remains in the ground all winter in the grub or in the pupa state. 
Dr. E. S. Sanborn, of Andover, Mass., asterts that the grubs, after having en- 
tered the earth, return to the surface in about six weeks as perfect weevils, 
which must remain hidden in crevices until sprino-. 

Some of the remedies recommended for preventing the ravages of these 
insects are absurd, such as tying cotton around the trees in order to prevent 
them from ascending, since they are furnished with wings, and fly from tree 
to tree with the greatest ease. Among the remedies at present in use, one 
is to cover the fruit with a coating of white-wash, mixed with a little glue, 
applied by means of a syringe ; another is to spread a sheet upon the ground 
under the tree, and then jar the principal branches suddenly, with a mallet 
red with cloth, so as not to bruise the bark, when the perfect insects will 
nto the sheet and feign death, and may be gathered and destroyed. 



140 ENTOMOLOGY. ^ / 

Hogs are sometimes turned into plum orchards, where, by eating the fallen 
and diseased fruit, they materially lessen the evil Coops of chickens 
placed under the trees, and the branches ofien shaken, the insects fall, and 
are eagerly seized and devoured. All fellen fruit should be gathered up sev- 
eral times in the course of the season and burnt, or given to hogs, or des- 
troyed in some other way. By so doing, thousands of the grubs which 
have not yet left the plums are destroyed. 

Peaches, nectarines, cherries, and even apples, pears, and quinces, it is 
said, are attacked by this insect. 

The large warts of a black color, as if charred, seen on many plum trees, 
are supposed to be pr^ duced by the punctures of these beetles, and to be the 
residence of the grub. 

The most efficient security against these insects is the shaking of the trees 
every morning and evening while they remain in beetle form. When thus 
disturbed, they fold their legs and fail, and may be caught in a sheet, and, 
being properly confined, thrown into the fire. All the fruit that is pierced 
should be gathered as soon as it falls,. and after being boiled may be fed to 
swine. The diseased limbs should be treated with a knife, and the diseased 
parts be burned, early in the season. 

Calandra, (now Sitophilus,) Oryzm, or the Curculio Oryzae, of Linnoeus, is 
a small insect resembling the wheat weevil, about one-tenth of an inch in 
length, exclusive of the snout, having two large red spots on each wing-cover. 
This weevil lays its eggs on the rice in the fields as soon as the grain begins 
to swell. The parent bores a hole into the grain, drops a single egg^ and 
thus goes from grain to grain. When the grub is grown, it bores a hole 
through the grain, artfully stopping it with the flour of the rice, and are iu 
the winter changed to pupa3. The following spring they become beetles 
and come out of the grain. 

These beetles can be removed from the rice by winnowing and sifting the 
grain in the spring. 

Another beetle has been very destructive to pear trees. The leaves and 
branches of the tree suddenly wither and die ere mid-summer. These efiects 
have been traced by some scientific gentlemen to the depredations of a small 
beetle, only one-tenth of an inch in length, according to Dr. Harris incor- 
rectly named by Prof Peck, 

Scolytus Pyri. Its color is deep brown, antennae and legs paler, thorax 
short, convex, rounded, and rough before. Wing-covers minutely punctured 
in rows, and they slope oflf very suddenly and obliquely behind. Shanks 
widened and flattened towards the end, set with a few tee^h externally, and 
end with a short hook. Joints of the feet slender and entire. 

The only r-'medy consists in cutting off the limb helow the disease, and be- 
fore the insect makes it escape. This should be attended to in the month of 
June. 

Saperda Bioittata. The larva of this beetle is the apple tree borer, 
whose ravages have been so extensive through New-England and the Middle 
States. The upper side of the body is marked ,by two white stripes, between 
three of a light brown color, the face, antennse, legs, and under side of the 
body being white. Length one-half to three-fourths of an inch. It deposits 
its eggs in June or July, being laid upon the bark near the root during the 
night. During the day it rests among the leaves. It attacks the apples, the 
quince, and several fruit trees. The larvro are fleshy whitish grubs, nearly 
cylindrical, and tapering from the first ring to the end of the body. Head 
small, Jiairy, brown. The first ring is much larger than the others. The 



ENTOMOLOGY. 141 



next are very short, and all these are covered with punctures and very minute 
hairs. The 4th and on to the 10th are furnished with two fleshy warts. No 
legs can be seen. The larva state continu-es two or three years. The final 
chano-e takes place within the wood, and near the bark, about the first of 
June, and the beetle gnaws through the surface and escapes in the night. 

Several remedial operations are practised. Thrusting in a wire, and thus 
destroying the insect, has been long practised. Sometimes the grub is cut 
out with a knife or gouge. 

Saperda (now Oberia) Tripunctata, of Fab. This insect attacks, the tall 
blackberry and raspberry. It differs from the preceding in having a larger 
head in proportion, in being cylindrical in the middle, and thickened a little 
at each end. The beetles are very slender, of cylindrical form, black, ex- 
cept the forepart of the breast and the top of the thorax, which are rusty 
yellow; and generally on the middle of the thorax are two black 
elevated spots, and there is a third dot on the hinder edge close to the 
scutel. Length of the beetle from three-tenths to half an inch. Its trans- 
formations are completed in July, and it lays its eggs early in August on the 
stems of the shrub, near a leaf or twig. The grub burrows directly into the 
pith, and consumes it for several inches, producing the death of the stem. 

Phyllophagous, or Leaf-eating Beetles, are numerous, but are compara- 
tively harmless, and are so easy of access that their destruction is not so 
difficult. They generally are without a snout, with short legs, and broad- 
cushioned feet, eyes nearly round and promment. Body in some oblong, 
and in others oval, broad, and very convex. Of these the 

Hispa Rosea (of AVeber) frequent apple trees. They are of a deep tawny 
or reddish yellow color, marked with deep red lines and spots. They appear 
late in May and early in June. 

Cassida aurichalcea (of Fab.) is of a brilliant brassy or golden luster, but 
blackish beneath, with legs of a dull yellow, and is found on the stalks of the 
sweet potato and the convolvulus, appearing in May and June. The larvas are 
broad, ovhI, flattened, dark-colored grubs, with a fring of stiff prickles round 
the thin edges of the body, and have a long, forked tail, which is turned over 
the back. They become purple early in July, and soon after are transformed 
to beetles, which are broad oval, and about one-fifth of an inch in length. 

Galeruca rittata, or criocetris vittata of Fabricius, the striped Galeruca, or 
cucumber bug. This insect is well known by its ravages upon melon and 
cucumber vines in May, and early in June. Several broods are produced 
during the summer. Color : light yellow, head black, a black stripe on each 
wing-cover, inner edge of which is also black, the abdomen, part of forelegs, 
knees and feet of the other legs, are black. Length, less than one-fifth of an 
inch. 

Among the preventives that have been tried, with more or less success, are 
sprinkling the vines with tobacco and red pepper, watering them with a solu- 
tion of Glauber's salts, or of tobacco, or elder, or walnut leaves, or of hops. 
The use of charcoal dust is highly recommended, and also of Scotch snuff and 
sulphur. Lighted pine knots, or staves of tar-barrels, stuck in the ground 
rounds the hills, in the night, attract them and thus destroy them. A cov- 
ering of millenet, stretched over a frame, is the surest. 

The Genus Haltica, one of the Halticadce, contains a small, black, jump- 
ing insect, very injurious to cucumbers in their early growth. The body is 
oval and very convex above, thorax, short ; head, broad ; autennte, slender, 
about half the length of the body, and implanted near the middle of the fore- 
head ; the hindmost thighs are very thick; surface of the body smooth, and 
often brilliantly colored. 



142 YEAK-BO.OK OF AGRICULTUKE. 

, 1 

These beetles eat the leaves of vegetables, preferriug plants of the cabbage, 
turnip, mustard, radish, and other cruciferous pla,uts. The Turnip Fly is one 
of the Halticas. Two ounces of sulphur mixed with a pound of turnip seed 
has sometimes proved a security against this insect. 

Hahica x>uhescens, or the Cucumber flee-beetle, is one-sixteenth of an inch 
long, black, with clay-yellow antenuge and legs ; body above covered with 
punctures, arranged in rows on the wing covers, with, a deep transverse fur- 
row across the hinder part of the thorax. 

Haltica st/iolafa, or the Wavy-striped flee beetle, may be seen in great 
abundance on the horse-radish, mustard, turnip, etc., in May. 

Haltica chalyhea (of Iliger) frequents grape vines, the buds and leaves of 
which it destroys. It is a greenish-blue color, underside dark green, antennae 
and feet a dull black, about three-twentieths of an inch long. It appears in 
April and early in May. A second brood is found late in July. 

Lime dusted over the plants when the dew is on them is useful in destroy- 
ing them ; also, all^aline solutions, or a pound of hard soap in twelve gallons 
of water, applied twice a day, with a watering pot. Kollar recommends an 
infusion of wormwood. 

The following is also recommended, which is also said to be good on rose- 
bushes : 

Get 4 lbs. quassia chips and pour four gallons of boiling water over them 
in a barrel. Cover to keep in steam, and stand 12 hours ; then fill the bar- 
rel and water daily. 

Cantharidid^. — The Cantharides, or Blistering beetles, form a distinct 
class. They are distinguished from the preceding beetles by their feet, the 
hindmost pair having only four joints, while the first and middle pair are 
five-jointed. Of these 

CantJiaris vittata, or Striped Cantharis, has obtained the name of the 
Potd.^0 Fly. It is a dull tawny yellow, or light yellowish red color above, 
with two black spots on the head, and two black stripes on the thorax and 
each of the wing covers. The underside of the body, the legs, and antennre, 
are black ilud covered with a grayish down. Length, about half an inch. 
In the Middle States it is very common. 

Cantharis cinerea, or Ash-colored Cantharis, is often found on potato vines 
about 20th June and after. Its form is more slender than the preceding. 

A black Cantharis is also sometimes seen in potato-fields. It is the Lytta 
atrata of Fabricius. 

Other blistering beetles occur, but are not especially injurious to fruits or 
flowers. They may be destroyed by being caught and immersed in scalding 
water, and then sold to the apothecary. 



Year-Book of Agriculture. — We publish in our advertising sheet the 
prospectus of the Year-Book of Agriculture, to be issued by Messrs. Childs 
& Peterson, 124 Arch street, Philadelphia. We have no other information 
on the subject than is furnished by this prospectus, and a printed circular 
which accompanied it ; but the plan is certainly very capital, and carried out, 
as we are justified in ex'pecting it will be, it ought to receive the attention 
of every agriculturist. We recommend the work to the examination of all 
our readers. 



FOREST TREES OF NICnOLS. 143 



FOIJ TlIS TLOUGn, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS, N. T,, AND VICINITY. 

Acer Bubrum. — Red Maple, or Soft Maple. — No. 1. — The Eed Maple is^ 
found here, from the lowest creek flats to the tops of the highest hills, several 
hundred feet above the stre'am ; and from sixty to seventy-five feet high, some- 
times two feet or more in diameter, but generally less. The wood is close 
grained, of a reddish color. Sometimes the variety called Curled Maple oc- 
curs, in which the wood is winding or twisting, which renders it very hard 
to split. I have frequently been fifteen or twenty minutes spliting a log of 
tirevvood that would not have taken more than five minutes if it had been 
straight grained. By a close attention to tbe grain of the wood, when cut- 
ting down the tree, this can be remedied. The wood of this tree is very val- 
uable for fuel, and for mechanical purposes it is best to saw into scantlings, 
four and a half inches square, and is worth now |8 per thousand — has 
been generally about $10. 

The leaves of this maple are from five to six inches in length, and near 
that in width, and frequently not half that size ; and from three to five lobed, 
and serrated, or notched on the edges ; of a beautiful green color on the up- 
per side, and a whitish pubescence on the under. These leaves turn up be- 
fore a storm, and show the white side in a beautiful manner. Stems to the 
leaves from tv^o to six inches in length, and of a reddish color ; the young 
.sprouts are of the same color. Flowers this year were in full bloom on the 
24th of April, and fruit ripe on the l7th of June, contrary to the opinion of 
our venerable botanist Dr. J. Torrey. He says fruit ripe in September. 
Flowers red, and in great numbers, this year appearing a number o^' days 
before the leaves, giving the trees a beautiful appearance ; flowers and fruit 
on stem about two inches in length, fruit of a reddish color in clusters, two 
^eeds always attached together, base to base, with a wing on one side, near 
one inch in length. 

The Eed Maple makes a beautiful shade tree, and is set out along a num- 
ber of public highways. The branches incline toward the body of the tree 
in a beautiful manner. The wood of the Red Maple, like the other species 
!,f maples, if left exposed to weather, soon decays, and the stumps from \]xe 
-mailer class of trees sprout very much two or three years. Cutting the 
sprouts either in the longest days or later part of August will destroy them, 
and the stumps in eight or ten years will rot out. The young of Red Maple 
has a dark smooth bark; the old tree deep furrowed and rough. 

Acer Saccharinum. — Sugar Maple, Hard Maple. — No. 2. — This tree 
grows in this vicinity on the creek flats, also on the high hills in all elevations 
and situations, from sixty to eighty feet high, and two feet, rarely three feet, 
ill diameter. Bark of a light color, and quite rough when full grown. 
Wood yellowish white and very hard, generally quite knotty after getting 
up twenty or thirty feet. The wood of this tree is of the best quality for 
i'uel and for mechanical and cabinet- ware, especially when it is in the form 
of Curled or Birdseye Maple. It is then used for the front of chairs, bureaus, 
etc. The lumber from the' Sugar Maple is worth here about $10 per thous- 
and ; rare kinds much more. From the sap of this tree, the common Maple 
sugar is made. The sap is drawn oflf by cutting a slanting box five or six 
inches long and two feet deep, about two feet from the ground, and insert a 
t 



144 FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS. 

spile in the lower corner of the box. Another method is to bore in near 
the ground with a three-quarter inch auger in which a spile is inserted. The 
sugar IS made by boiling the sap in kettles. A good-aized tree will make 
from ten to twelve pounds of sugar in a year. On account of the low price 
of cane sugar, there has been but little Maple sugar made in this vicinity for 
the last ten years, and it is worth nov/ from ten to fifteen cents a pound. 

The season of sugar making is generally from the 20th of February to the 
15th of April 

This is one of the most beautiful shade trees we have in this vicinity ; and 
is generally planted by the side of all the public highways and yards. The 
branches generally grow so as to form a p^ rauiid, and are generally loaded with 
the most beautiful leaves. The Sugar Maple is quite a slow grower, and its 
extreme hardness makes it bad to cut into firewood, especially if cut down 
sei^eral months before it is made into wood. In clearing new land of this 
kind of trees, it is often the case that they fall across one another, when 
they are burned into, and so worked into short lengths without much labor. 
In burning a new fallow the fire will often continue in a large tree of this 
kind fifteen or twenty days. Its leaves are truncated, and somewhat cordate at 
the base, a beautiful green on the upper side, and whitish on the under, 
three to five lobed; lobes with a slender acumiaation, leaves from four to five 
inches long and a trifle more wide, especially across the lobes. Stems to the 
leaves from two to six inches long. Flowers appearing this year on the 1st 
of May of a beautiful yellowish green color. I judge the fruit will be ripe 
about the first of September. The fruit is of the same shade as the Red 
Maple, and about one-third larger. Stems to the fruit are about two and 
a half inches long. 

Acer Pennsylvanicum. — Moose Wood, Striped Maple. — No. 3. — This 
small Maple, like the others, is found on high and low land, and is quite 
scarce. It is seldom more than twenty-five high, and from four to five inches 
in diameter. The bark is smooth, of a dark green color, with sometimes a 
a black stripe, with the ends of the branches with white stripes, giving the 
tree a beautiful ap2)earance. 

Leaves five to seven inches long, and from four to five inches wide, fre- 
quently near twice that size ; three lobed, with end of the leaves running to 
3 sharp point, edge of the leaves finely notched. Flowers appear about the 
1st May, and fruit ripe about the 1st of September, Flowers much larger 
than either the Sugar or Red Maple, and of a beautiful green color. Fruit 
in clusters, on long stems ; from eight to fourteen on a stem ; yields a sweet 
sap almost equal to the Hard Maple. 

Acer Spicatum. — Mountain Maple. — No. 4. — This Maple is a shrub or 
small tree, growing from four to sixteen feet high, and from two to three 
inches in diameter. The bark of a light color. In this vicinity it is found 
growing only along small streams and is shady places. Leaves from three 
to four inches long, and about that wide. Many of them not half that size ; 
the larger leaves, three lobed, and the smaller with no lobes ; edge of leaves 
deeply notched. Flowers appeared this year about the 15th of June, on 
long stems, from thirty to fifty on a ste'm, of a white color. Fruit leddish, 
much smaller than any of the other species, wings at a more obtuse augle 
than the other species, and a half inch long. Trees this year loaded with 
fruit when not five feet high. 

Nichols, July 30, 185-5. R. Howell. 



VARIETIES OF COTTON. 145 



VARIETIES OF COTTOiN". 

The different kinds of cotton which are imported and used in Great 
Britain have been examined under the microscope by Dr. Ure and by Mr. 
E. Wilson. To their observations we are indebted for the following meas- 
urements. In examining a sample of cotton, it is usual to take a portion 
of it between the forefinger and thumb, and laying the portions as they are 
successfully drawn out back again on and parallel to the filaments from which 
they have been drawn out ; and repeating this process several times, small 
tufts are formed, in which the respective lengths of staple may be observed. 

The fibres of cotton, when drawn out from the mass in which they appear 
entangled, display so many irregular twists as to give them a jointed appear- 
ance, and, as Mr. E. Wilson observes, " in this state they resemble a string 
of oval beads, pointed at each extremity, and connected by their points." 

The entire fibre appears to taper finely to both ends, that which' is adherent 
to the seed being somewhat the thickest. Under the microscope the fibre is 
observed to be continuous, moderately twisted, flat, ribbon-hke, clear, and 
transparent in the middle, and obaque towards each margin. The finer and 
more uniform the fibre, and more inclined to twist, the better is it suited for 
spinning into fine yarn. But if the fibres are short, broad, and formed of 
flimsy ribbons, they are less suited for machine spinning, though they may 
yet, as before mentioned, be twisted into thread by the delicate fingers of the 
Hindoo. 

The value of cotton depends on the length, strength, and fitness, as well 
as on the softness and equality of the fibre. But these essential qualities are 
modified by color and cleanliness, that is, freedom from knots and impurities, 
so that there may be less waste in spinning. Formerly color had great in- 
fluence, but now the great distinction is into long-stapled and short-stapled. 
The difterent kinds of cotton difler from each other not only in the above 
properties, but also in considerable dift'erences in quality between different 
samples of the same kind of cotton. " The finest quality of Sea Island is 
sometimes worth three times as much as the common quality of the same 
class. The variation of quality in most of the other denominations is from 
20 to 25 per cent., and in none of them is more than 50 per cent." These 
are sometimes divided into three or four qualities, as ordinary, middling, fair, 
and fine. At other times these are still further sub-divided, as into inferior, 
ordinary, middling, good-middling, middling-fair, fair, good-fair, fine, or good 
and fine. '■ Except the better qualties of Sea Islands there is no sort of cot- 
ton which is now confined it its use to any peculiar or exclusive purpose. By 
mixing different sorts together, and by careful management in preparing the 
mixture for spinning, the manufacturers can now make a substitute for almost 
any particular kind of cotton, except the very best. It is only requisite to 
add, that the long-stapled cottons are generally used for the twist or warp, 
and the short-stapled for the weft." 

Sea Island, or long-stapled cotton, the most highly esteemed of the cot- 
tons, is remarkable for the length and fineness of its fibre, as for its silky 
softness. Among white cottons it is distinguished by a slight yellowish tinge 
of color. This kind sells in England from eighteen pence to two shillings, 
and has sold as high as five and seven shillings a pound. The quantity is 
limited, from the peculiarity of physical circumstances required for its pro- 

10 



146 VARIETIES OF COTTON. 

duction. The fibres are equable, about 1|- in length, and examined under 
the microscope, about airVo^ti of an inch in diameter, formed of flattened 
cylinders transparent in the middle, obaque towards the margin, and more 
or less twisted. Dr. Ure has observed some kinds crimped transversely with 
irregular bandages, and some with flimsy ribbons and warts which adhere 
to the sides of the filaments, called neps by spinners. Mr. Wilson describes 
the Sea Island as thick and narrow, but looking the finest of all as seen with 
the naked eye. This kind is employed for spinning the finest yarns. 

Upland, or short-staple cotton, under which names are now usually in- 
cluded the produce of the interior of Georgia and Carolina, as well as of 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Tennessee. It used to be, and is some- 
times still called Bowed^ from the cotton of Georgia having been formerly 
cleaned with the Indian cotton-bow. Though shorter in the staple and un- 
equal, this is white in color, much esteemed, and forms the bulk of the cot- 
ton of commerce. The staple is one inch to one and a quarter inches in 
length. The best kinds are fit for spinning as high as No. 50, some higher ; 
the shorter kinds are worked up into No. 30, and other coarser yarns ; but 
mixed with g9od Egyptian or with Pernambuco cotton, even these can be 
spun into higher numbers. Under the microscope, the fibres appear less 
twisted than others, some as cylindric fibres with many twists, of the width 
of about XX til of ^^ iiich ; thin and broad. 

Egyptian. — The best Egyptian cotton ranks next to Sea Island in quality 
and length of staple, though it is not usually so well cleaned. It was only 
about the year 1821 that the Pasha began the cultivation, by importing seed 
from America and the Mediterranean and from Brazil. These different 
kinds may, therefore, be met with in cultivation there, though the Sea Island 
yields the best kind of cotton, called Mako, which is used here like that 
kind for the finest yarns. It has a staple of 1^ to If inches in length, from 
__i__.th to -ooVo^^ of an inch in breadth, uniform, spiro-cylindrical, thin and 
broad. Some excellent cotton has been sent from Port Natal ; that from the 
island of Bourbon used formerly to be much esteemed. Some has also come 
from the west coast of Africa. 

West Indian. — The West Indies supplied England with the largest quan- 
tity of cotton in the eighteenth century ; but the cultivation was neglected 
when sugar became more profitable, and the imports have greatly fallen off". 
But the cotton is long-stapled, silky, and may be produced of a quality equal 
to Sea Island. Bourbon cotton is the same species that is cultivated in the 
West Indies. The cotton of Porto Rico was at one time considered to be 
the best; that of St. Domingo has been spun into No. 100 yarn ; and some 
of the finest cotton ever grown was in Tobago by Mr. Robly, between 1789 
and 1792. The cottons of Barbadoes, Guadaloupe, and Jamaica, were also 
highly esteemed. Bryan Edwards (Hist, of the AVest Indies, 1793,) mentions 
a green-seeded cotton, from which the cotton can only be separated by hand. 
Inferior kinds, or shorter-stapled cottons, may, therefore, be imported from 
these islands. Dr. Ure describes the St. Domingo cotton as composed of 
narrow twisted ribbons, from yuVotli to T2Votli of an inch, with a few flat- 
tened cylinders and some spiry fibres. 

South American Cotton. — In the year 1780, Mr. Bryan Edwards states 
that" the finest grained and most perfectly cleaned cotton which was brought 
to the English market was, he believed, that of the Dutch plantations of 
Berbice, Dcmerara, and Surinam, and of the island of Cayenne ;" and that 
these cottons sold at that time for two shillings a pound. The first importa- 
tions of cotton are stated to have first takc-n place from Maranham in the 



VARIETIES OF COTTO]Sr. 147 

year 1781. The Pernarabnco was soon afterwards sent, of so fine and su]ie- 
rior a quality as to be highly esteemed, and its price ranked next to the Sea 
Island. The staple is long and fine, generally well cleaned, glossy, some 
with a yellowish tinge ; spins into a stout yarn, and is esteemed by hosiers. 
It continues to be imported into England from all these places, as well as 
from Bahio, Maceio, Para, also from Peru ; inferior qualities from Carthagena. 
The fibre is in length about l^V to li of an inch ; is cylindrico-spiral, about 
, 5V0 ^^ *<^ 2 oV 0-^^ of an inch in diameter ; some with a few twisted ribbons 
and warty excrescences on the sides of the filaments. 

East Indian Cotton. — Considerable, though varying quantities of cotton, 
we have seen, are imported from India. It varies a great deal as obtained 
from different districts ; is esteemed for its color, though all is short-stapled, 
and generelly sent in a dirty state to market. In those of this country it is 
known by the name of Surats, Madras and Bengal, while the name Surats 
is often used as a general term for Indian cottons. Some of this cotton is of 
good quality and fit for general purposes, while the great mass is only bought 
when American cotton is dear. The cottons of Surat, of Broach, and of 
Berar are all included under the name of Surats, forming the kinds which 
are most esteemed here. The cottons of Cutch, of Candeish, etc., are like- 
wise exported from Bombay, whence also England obtains the cotton of 
Coompta, which is produced in the southern Mahrattaern country and in the 
most southern part of Berar. These are also cottons naturally of good qual- 
ity. Under the head of Madras, the cottons of Salem, Coimbatore and Tin- 
nivelly are included, which rank higher than the cottons of Bellary, Guntoor, 
and the ceded districts. Bengal cottons include those from the northwest 
provinces, from Bundlecund, as well as what is imported from Nagpore and 
Berar. The latter kinds are of the same, quality as are exported from Bom- 
bay ; but they are generally used up by the weavers of the upper parts of 
the Bengal presidency. Some Bourbon cotton is also exported, from Madras, 
the produce chiefly of the southern provinces of the peninsula ; though es- 
teemed, it is inferior to the original Bourbon. The Indian cottons, under 
the microscope, appear less spiry ; a few flattened cylinders, with many 
flimsy ribbons and warty excrescences, varying in diameter from gju-th to 
ToV th of an inch ; some are jsVo^^ ^^ o oV 0^^ °^ ^^ ^^^^- ^^ length dif- 
fering from Hths to lyV^^ ^^ ^^ inch. 

Mediterranean Cottons. — Much cotton is cultivated in the countries 
surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. It is generally the produce of the In- 
dian species of plant, though American seeds have been introduced into 
some other places as well as into Egypt. These are cultivated in Asia Minor, 
in parts of Greece and the islands ; generally known as Levant, some as 
Smyrna cottons. The Italian cottons are produced in Sicily, in Calabria, 
near Naples, and in Malta. The cottons of Sicily, of Calabria, and of Cas- 
tellamare, are the best, and are probably the produce of an American species. 
A Nankin cotton is cultivated in Malta, and used there. Most of these cot- 
tons are employed for native manufacturers in the countries where they are 
grown, or are exported for the use of the manufacturers of the continent. 
They are seldom brought to Great Britain, except when the price of cotton 
is very high. 

Though we have noticed the appearance of the filament of cotton under 
the microscope, it is to be observed that the fingers of practised brokers have 
a delicacy of touch that enables them to judge most correctly of the fineness 
and length of staple, and some will pronounce, even in the dark, on the 
value of cotton. But the difierent varieties might yet be subjected with 



148 ' EDUCATION OF FARMERS. 

benefit to further microscopical examination, to ascertain the effects of the 
different processes of culture, in the several soils and climates of different 
countries, on the length, breadth, and smoothness of the fibre. — De Bow's 
Review. 



FOB THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

EDUCATION OF FARMERS. 

The notions are becoming obsolete that the cultivation of the mind an d 
the cultivation of the soil are antagonistic, and that education is due only to 
"the professions." 

It belongs to our strong-minded farmers to Tirork a* still greater reform in 
their midst. As improvements are made in agriculture, it becomes neces- 
sary, if a farmer would take respectable rank in his class, that he should be 
intelligent upon subjects relating to his department of industry; for the be- 
lief is becoming more popular every day, that the farmer who has his mind 
weU stored is pretty sure to have his barns well stored also. This belief, per- 
haps, more than any other cause, has aided in carrying the weekly and 
monthly periodical to the country fireside, and made sale for thousands of 
volumes on agricultural science. 

As a thirst for knowledge increases with its gratification, study and re- 
search in one department of science naturally creates a desire to extend the 
range. If farmers will encourage such desires in their children, mental cul- 
ture and refinement will be found to adorn the social circle in the country 
as well as in the city. Indeed, there is no class more favorably circum- 
stanced than the agricultural, for enjoying the true pleasures which general 
intelligence affords. With homes of taste where they might enjoy their 
hours of repose, with companionship that elevates and refines, the sons of 
the farmer would not think their dignity and respectability increased by be- 
ing permitted to stand behind a city counter measuring laces and silk?. 

It is quite common for complaints to be uttered, that country people do 
not hold the position which they ought; that they are looked down upon by 
other classes. For this farmers are themselves responsible to a great extent. 
Let them manifest as much zeal and care upon the improvement of their 
families as they do upon their blooded stock; let not the poetry of life be 
all crushed by sweat and toil ; let them give liberal patronage to literary and 
scientific institutions ; then will the wealth which an intelligent understand- 
ing of the principles of agriculture brings, and the power which knowledge 
Q-ives, place the farming class where no derogatory comparisons can, with 
truth, be offered. 

The discoveries of the last few years have elevated agriculture almost into 
the rank of exact sciences. Certain conditions being given, the intelligent 
farmer knows precisely what to do in order to accomplish desired results. — 
Proofs of the advantages which such enjoy may be deduced from the many 
letters which are daily published, written from various parts of the country, 
asking for information concerning the treatment of lands etc. Did the 
writers of many of these letters possess, in connection with their practical skilly 



MANURES, 149 



a knowledge of the organized sciences and their handmaid, Chemistry, they 
would be capable of giving the information sought instead of asking it. 

The great principle upon wliich scientific agriculture is based, is this : " not 
a particle of matter can be created, not a particle can be lost." It is on this 
principle that manures are applied to soil, that crops are varied, that old and 
exhausted lands are renovated. 

But the economical and intelligent husbandman has no exhausted fields. 
He knows the elements of plants to be few, and the stimulants he can gene- 
rally command, to a great extent, from his own resources. In studjing the 
lav/3 of chemical and vital philosophy, he has wide scope for observation, 
and for controling the processes of decomposition and recomposition to the 
accomplishment of specific ends. From Spring to Autumn, from Autumn - 
or Spring, his broad acres are his laboratory and observatory. He sees in 
the death and decay of one season, elements for the beauty, brightness, and 
wealth of the next. 

In -this country there is no position too high for the aspirations of the in- 
telligent and successful farmer. Has he by his own toil subdued the land, 
and by his acquaintance with nature's laws reaped golden harvests, he finds 
himself secure in the possession of two means for controlling men. First, 
that willingness, " to know his work and do it," which Carl^le says is the 
mission, of every man, and which forms a strong link of brotherhood with 
those who are delving. Second, he possesses wealth which has a charm to 
open a passage to the hearts of a certain class. If, added to these, he has 
that intelligence which commands the respect of cultivated persons, he pos- 
sesses perhaps greater power than any other man for gratifying an honorable 
ambition. The people regard him as their own, they look up to him, and 
are willing to crown him with the wreath of honor. June Isle. 



M A]Sr UEES. 

HOV?" THEY ACT HOW TO BE APPLIED. 

Writers on this subject are in the habit of classifying manures under dif- 
ferent titles, as stimulants, fertilizers, etc. 

There is, however, an objection to this, because such an arrangement seems 
to give the impression that the earth is, like the human body, acted upon 
through nerves which excite or which produce stupor in the system, as one 
or another application is made, and again through other organisms which 
actually yield new elements, suited for the actual transformations needful, in 
order to assimilate its substance to the plants, actually to unite or annex these 
prepared elements to the structure of the plant. The views of any writer, in 
reference to these matters, are mere theories, often crude and inconsistent, or 
often are nothing better than hypothesis or mere supposition. 

Certain facts, however, are pretty well ascertained, and under this class 
we may place the following : 

1. Some kinds of manure act indirectly by producing chemical changes in 
the soil with which it comes in contact. Tiiey may dissolve or render solu- 
ble what was before insoluble, and thus render fertile what was useless. 



150 MANURES. 



2. Some applications may produce a reverse action, and by transmitting 
into insoluble combinations what was before soluble, produce barrenness, 

3. Some applications produce a change only on the physical condition of 
the soil, acting precisely as the spade does ; namely, causing the earth to become 
porous, or pulverulent and light, in contradistinction to a consolidated, adhe- 
sive mass. If the ground is in the latter condition, neither the roots nor the 
rain can find their way into it. Like hardened clay, it resists the effect of 
the one and sheds the other. 

4. A given element, necessary for certain chemical or vital actions, may 
bo wanting, and the fertility of a soil may be increased by the proper ad- 
dition of this deficiency. 

But when we begin to classify different manures, among the^e different 
agencies, we are far from actual demonstration. In a hundred experiments, 
we may find ninety corroborating our favorite theory. The other five are ab- 
solutely and irreconcilably inconsistent Avith it. The received process, in 
such case, is to announce that our theory is confirmed by numerons experi- 
ments, and to treat the results of the other five as some mistake, or as tainted 
with error or imperfection in its management. 

All knowledge is useful. Each branch of science is indispensable in its 
place. But it is not unfrequently dragged out of its place, and made to ap- 
pear more as a clown or " fool" than the declarations of true wisdom. 

All farmers would find great benefit in a thorough practical knowledge 
of chemistry ; but all farmers never will be chemists any more than they 
will be physicians or lawyers. It requires as long study and as thorough 
practice to be a truly skillful and practical chemist, as it does to be a good 
physician or a good lawyer. We may talk about this incur public addresses, 
and write about it in our journals, but no Methusaleh will ever live long 
enough to see such a diffusion of knowledge actually accomplished. 

Our lands are just about as much diseased as our bodies are. As stated 
elsewhere in this number, there are scores that have some physical ailment, 
generally or frequently fastened upon them in the primary school, while others 
are inherited from their parents, where there is one strong, vigorous, well- 
developed system, without any weak spot in it. No one expects that all 
will become skilled in prescribing for all the ills that "flesh is heir to," and 
why should they drpam of any such reform in respect to the " theory and 
practice" of agriculture? We hope to cure these bodily ills, but only by im- 
proving our school benches, and our habits in childhood and youth, and by 
having wise teachers and wise committees and trustees, while it will be the 
part of the children to obey. The process must be analogous to this, in re- 
claiming our waste lands. 

Animals fed on food which is destitute of certain elements, will exhibit 
corresponding diseases in their own bodies. The same phenomenon is uni- 
versally witnessed in plants which grow sickly and feeble for want of one or 
more of those elements. The land is barren, the crop fails, and the season is 
lost, perhaps, for the want of a few j^ounds of phosphorus per acre, or a very 
small supply of nitrogen. 

Thus we lay down such general statements as we have given at starting, 
and prescribe, in general terms, that for close, compact lands, the plough, the 
cultivator, and the harrow must be vigorously applied ; that in heavy, moist 
soils some compost of an opposite character must be thoroughly mingled ; and 
when we have formed a list of such rules of moderate length, we have gone 
to our utmost limit. No milleuiuin of our anticipation will ever produce 
i^irned men without persevering laborious study, nor allow one to be dili- 



MANURES. ' 151 



gent for a whole day in out-door labor, and then do a day's work in the li- 
brary at its close. It is only the few wonderfully apt minds of those who 
are not eminent for the amount of work accomplished in their own calling, 
that seem to furnish exceptions. 

We therefore must content ourself and our readers by an endeavor to give 
general principles, with a few appropriate directions, when the conditions of 
the case are obvious, and leave the rest to the agricultural chemist, who, if 
properly trained, may give specific directions in each case, presented to him, 
precisely after the manner of a family physician. 

Certain facts are well established. If by tight shoes we produce corns on 
the foot, one essential part of any remedy must consist in removing this pres- 
sure. So if our farmers have exhausted their soils by repeated crops, while 
the harvests removed have not been supplied in some other form, the land 
must deteriorate. And one essential point must not be overlooked ; to wit, this 
process inust he sto2)2)ed. No plan can be successfur in endeavors to do this, 
which does not carefully regard this fact. 

The farmer must know what he has removed, and what he has returned. 
Probably few have manured their lands to an amount equal to what has 
been removed in the accidentals of the crop, so to speak — such as the straw 
of various grains, the stalks of corn, the tops of potatoes, etc. Now a good 
crop of grain cannot be grown without a healthy, vigorous straw ; unless this 
growth is liberally provided, the crop must be a comparative faili^. Barn- 
yard manures, next to the straw itself, are the best application for such a pur- 
pose. If deficient in anything, it must be in the silex, and this is abundant on 
almost all soils, though it may be in a condition to render it useless to the 
plant. Hence, silex in soluble form, or an application that shall render it 
soluble in water, in such cases will not be out of place. 

Rest, however, is generally sufficient for this purpose. Natural agents act 
of themselves if let alone, and a year or two of rest will prove of great value 
to all soils exhausted by frequent croj^s. 

A change in the nature of the successive crops, that is, judicious rotation, 
is another efficient mode of restoring the fertility of such soils. 

In liquid manures, as urine, etc., these elements are already in solution, and 
hence act more rapidly when applied than solid manures. IBut for the same 
reason they are less efficient in renewing worn out soils, their efficacy being 
chiefly exhausted during the growth of the first crop. 

The value of all manures is in proportion to the amount of useful elements 
which they contain, in soluble form. The following arrangement shows the 
elements which are most likely to be deficient, and which must therefore be 
provided by the successful farmer.' 

1. Nitrogen. — This is as important for plants as for animals, and whether 
it is obtained from tbe soil or ihe atmosphere, it is perfectly clear that this 
and all other matters which go to make up a " fertile soil," as generally un- 
derstood, must be placed within the reach of the plant. This supply of ni- 
trogen maT/ be always appropriated from the ammonia which is in the air or 
in the soil, as chemists claim, but this does not enable the plant to dispense 
with the element in the soil. It must be furnished in some form. ~ 

2. Phosphorus. — This is another essenti'al element, which ought never to 
be omitted. It exists in barn-yard manures, and all animal excrements. 
Still, an additional supply from guano, bones, etc., in many cases will prove 
highly useful. Especially is this the case where the cereals have been grown, 
for those crops consume the phosphorus much more rapidly than many other 
crops. 



152 HOKTICULTUKAL. 



3. Sulphur is another element which is often used up by successive crops. 
This is furnished in gypsum, which is a compound of sulphuric acid and lime, 
and is therefore the sulphate of lime. Look over the various tables of analysis, 
note what crops contain this element in the greatest proportion, and if such 
crops have been or are to be grown on a given soil, it is at least safe to use 
this fertilizer freely. 

4. The several alkalis may come next in order. An examination of dif- 
ferent analyses will show which of these is most abundant ia a given growth, 
and your knowledge of the crops raised will enable you to judge whether 
either of these is likely to be deficient. Three per cent, of hme should exist 
on all soils. It is always safe to apply them all, as an excess of alkali is not 
one of the evils ordinarily requiring caution in the preparation of soils. The 
alkalis may be supplied from bones, ashes, lime, gypsum, etc. 

5. Carbon is present in all c»ops, and is always useful in every kind of soil, 
and though it is supposed to be appropriated by the plant from the atmos- 
phere, it must form a part of every good soil, and though injurious when 
supplied so freely as to render the atmosphere of the plant essentially impure 
to the exclusion of Oxygen, etc., there is liitle actual danger of such excess. 
Charcoal dust, powdered peat, etc., contain this element in a very convenient 
form. 

6. Iron may exist in excess in soils, but this occurs only in limited territories. 

The m#de in which these manures should be applied depends on their na- 
ture ar^d the specific object in view. When lands are to be improved, all 
manures should be composted, or at least ploughed in and thoroughly mixed 
and incorporated with the soil. If the increase of a growing crop is the aim 

, of the farmer, he may sprinkle them on the surface, and mix in with the 
harrow, etc , if the nature of the crop permits such operations, or he may use 
liquid manures as irrigants. Small portions used in the hill at the time of 
planting, act on the next crop chiefly, and if used freely wall, in some limited 
degree, improve the general character of the soil. Where stocks are small, 
and the supply of barn-yard manure limited, various composts, as found on 
many pages of our journal should be mainly relied upon. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



Aktwerp Raspberries. — The Poughkeepsie (N. Y.) Eagle gives a 
very good account of the details and extent of one branch of " Fruit Cul- 
ture" thus : 

But few persons are aware of the extent and importance of this compara- 
tively new branch of Agricultural, or rather Horticultural business. 

The most extensive operations in this part of the country, are carried on 
at Milton, Ulster county, although the fruit is largely cultivated in this 
country. 

There are now about 100 acres of Raspberries in bearing, in the immediate 
vicinity of Milton, and immense quantities of plants are being set out every 
year. 

A few days ago we visited the Raspberry plantation of Nathaniel Hallock, 
at Milton, in order to learn the modus operandi of the culture. Mr. Hal- 
lock's being one of the principal plantations. 



HORTICULTURAL. 153 



The pickers were in the fields -with tbeir baskets between 8 and 9 o'clock 
in the morning, as soon as the dew was off the pknts, as the berries do not 
keep so well when picked wet. 

In a short time the pickers began to bring in the baskets of berries. These 
baskets hold about a pint, and are very neat looking, being made of willow, 
and much superior to the baskets in whieh strawberries are sold, in fact the 
berries would hardly sell if sent to New-York in strawberry baskets. 

There were about fifty pickers at work — men, women and children — the 
women being the most expert pickers, of course. 

One person was employed constantly, and a part of the time several per- 
sons, packing the baskets. The baskets, as soon as picked and examined, are 
packed into boxes of different sizes, according to the crop of thnt day. The 
object of putting them into boxes is to insure their safe transit to the market, 
and in order j;o do this the packer has to work carefully to fit the baskets in 
so that each one braces the other ; when the boxes are filled to the top, the 
lid is closed and locked, and the boxes are ready for shipment. 

The season lasts about six weeks, and this peiiod is one continual round 
of business ; the berries being sent off to New- York every night except Satur- 
day, (there being no sale for them on Sdnday.) 

The berries were all picked about six o'clock, and after supper they were 
conveyed to the landing, the baskets making two very heavy two horse loads, 
and as we could calculate the steamboat took off about 60,000 baskets that 
night, making about 20 tons of berries, exclusive of the weight of boxes and 
baskets. 

The baskets are imported from France by hundreds of .thousands every 
year, and although such quantities are manufactured every year, the supply 
is inadequate to the demand, the latter exceeding the former by about 
one-half. 

The culture of the plants requires the services of a largo number of 
people. 

The pickers constitute a small army, there being from five to ten, and 
often more required for each acre, according to the time in the season, 
which was at its height this year about the second week in July. 

The manufacture of the boxes in which the baskets of berries are packed 
is no small item, and the steamboats that carry this extra freight are 
obliged to employ extra men to handle it. 

This business, though at first view it seems small, gives employment to, 
and distributes its gains among thousands of persons. 

From the Milton landing, the average daily export is 10,000 baskets, and 
the retail price in New- York, averages about ten cents per basket, thus the 
product of 100 acres, amount to 81,000 per day, or 842,000 per season. 
We can call to mind no other crop which produces as much per acre, or 
which gives employment to so many. 



Catawissa Raspberry. — The Catawissa raspberry originated in the grave- 
yard of a little Quaker meeting-house in the village of Catawissa, Columbia 
county, Pa.- The. fruit is of medium size, inferior to many of the new popu- 
lar varieties, but is sufficiently large for all economical purposes. Its color is 
dark red purple when ripe, and is of a-very high flavor. It bears most 



154 



HORTICULTUKAL. 



abundantly after the young wood, on which it produces its best fruit, attains 
a height of four or five feet; usually begins to ripen early in August, and 
even sooner. The fruit is produced on branches continually pushing out 
from all parts, successively appearing in various stages of growth, from the 
blossom to perfect maturity ; and often there may be counted more than fifty 
berries on a branch. As the fruit of each branch successively ripens, the 
later ones gradually diminish in size; but there is no suspension of blooming 
or fruiting, before the plant is checked by frost. If protected in doors, it 
undoubtedly would produce during the winter months. One great advan- 
tage of this over other varieties of the raspberry is, that if the stocks should 
be accidentally broken off, or should be killed by winter frost, it is all the 
better for the crop. Another advantage is, that from the small space of a 
few yards well cultivated, a daily dessert for a small family would always 
be at hand for from three to four months of the year. 








0'^ 




lONICERA FRAGRATISSIMA. 

This is a sub-evergreen hardy shrub. Flowers whitish, very sweet scented. 
Native of China, Belongs to Caprifoils. Introduced by the Horticultural 
Society. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



155 



This is one of the plants obtained from China by Mr. Fortune, while in 
the service of the Horticultural Society, but has not flowered in the Chiswick 
Garden, where it has been merely known as a perfectly hardy " Caprifolium." 
In January, 1853, it blossomed in the garden of the Marquis of Salisbury, 
at Hatfield, whence Mr. William Ingram, the gardener there, sent us speci- 
mens, with the following note, on the 13th of April : 

" The plant which aftbrds me these flowers has been^ in bloom since 
January. It occupies an east wall, and has enjoyed no particular advantages 
of soil or treatment. The flowers appear with the earliest development of 
the leaves ; and although not large or otherwise striking in appearance, com- 
pensate for any deficiency by their exceeding fragrance, combining the rich- 
ness of the perfume of orange blossoms with the delicious sweetness of the 
honeysuckle." 

Its evergreen foliage distinguishes it from all the previously-known species 
of the Chamfficerasus division of the genus. — Paxioii's Flower Garden. 



THE NEW-ROCHELLE BLACKBERRY. 



We have just received a specimen of the fruit of the New-Rochelle 
blackberry, for which we are indebted to the politeness of Messrs. George 
Seymour & Co., of South Norwalk, Ct. The berries were slightly bruised in 
transportation, some forty miles on the railroad ; but we assure our readers, 
nevertheless, that they afibrded us a very fine treat. Mr. Woodwortb, our 
neighbor of Woodworth's Youtli's Cabinet, who has just paid a visit to the 
nursery of Messrs. Seymour & Co., assures us that this blackberry is all that has 
been claimed for it. He counted upwards of 800 berries onone stalk, many 
of them of gigantic size, and all much larger than the common variety. 
Messrs. Seymour & Co. have several acres devoted to the cultivation of the 
plants, though they have no hope of being able to supply the demand for 
the next season. . We are well assured that there is no humbug in this black- 
berry. 

Currants. — A writer in the Horticulturist speaks of the fine currants of 
the market gardens near London, which are grown in the following manner : 
They are planted in rows twenty or thirty feet apart, and three or four 
feet apart in the rows ; the ground which is naturally good is highly ma- 
nured, and cropped between with vegetables. When the plants commence 
bearing, they are pruned very hard ; the greater part of the young wood is 
thinned out, and what is allowed to remain is shortened back to three or 
four inches. By this means- the trees are always kept short, never attaining 
a greater height than two or three feet. These strong manured and well 
pruned trees produce magnificent fruit, and in great abundance, well remu- 
nerating the market gardener for his trouble. 



Wine Making is getting to be a profitable business in Lower California, 
where the vineyards are extensive. One proprietor last year had twenty five 
thousand bottles of wine from his vineyard, and this year he expects a 
greater yield. 



156 SOUTHERN FRUITS. 



SOUTHERN FRUIT. 
THE ORANGE, LIME, LEMOX, AND FIG OF FLORIDA. 

The Orange. — This tree, at one time furnished the leading export of 
Florida, Previous to the great frost in 1835, it is said that there were over 
two millions shipped annually from St. Augustine alone. The orange of 
Florida is very large and fine flavored, and commands the highest price of 
any in the market, having been sold in the grove as high as $10 per thou- 
sand. It has been remarked that the fruits of the tropic, generally, grow to 
the greatest perfection near its verge. This is certainly true in regard to the 
orange and banana, which, in the northermost Bahama islands, are much 
superior to those of Cuba, St. Domingo, and localities still nearer to the 
equator. From the shores of the Atlantic to the Miss^issippi, the great frost 
of 1835 completely ruined the orange groves. The effect was probably no- 
where so severely felt as in Florida, where they furnished the staple crop of 
the country. The effect upon the city of St. Augustine,v which was one vast 
orange bower, is thus described by Williams : 

" All kinds of fruit trees were killed to the ground, and many of these 
never again started from the roots. The wild groves suffered equally with 
cultivated ones. The orange had become the staple of our commerce, sev- 
eral millions being annually exported. , Numerous groves had just been 
planted, and extensive nurseries could scarcely supply the demand for young 
trees. 

" Some of the groves the previous autumn had brought their owners one, 
two, and three thousand dollars ; and the increasing demand for the fruit 
opened prospects of mines of wealth to the inhabitants ; 

'Then came a froat, a chilling frost ;' 

some of the orange groves estimated to be worth $10,000, were at once 
rendered worthless. A portion of the population of St. Augustine, who had 
been accustomed to look to their Orange groves for the purchase of luxuries 
and of necessities, were left suddenly without resource. The town of St. 
Augustine, that heretofore appeared like a rustic village, its white houses 
peeping from the clustering boughs, and golden fruit of its favorite tree, be- 
neath whose shade the foreign invalid cooled his fevered limbs, and imbibed 
health from the forest tree, how is she fallen ! Dry, unsightly poles, with 
rugged bark, stick up around her dwellings, and where the mocking bird 
delighted to build her nest and tune her lovely songs, owls now hoot at night, 
and sterile wiuds whistle through the leafless branches. Never was a place 
more desolate." 

Years passed on. A new growth had, in a measure, redeemed this deso- 
lation, when a new calamity was experienced, not as sudden, but eveatually 
as destructive as the frost. This was the visitation of the " insect," sgainst 
whose ravages nothing was found to avail. Grove after grove became 
blighted, yet, as some localities were spared for several years, it was hoped 
the destruction would not be universal. The insect first made its appearance 
at Mandarine, a flourishing village on the banks of the St. John's. It was 
thought by some to have been imported on a couple of trees brought from 
China and planted here. Like the weevil in the northern and southern wheat 
fields, nothing can stay its progress until it has run its appointed cycle, and 



HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. 167 

will probably disappear as mysteriously as it came. Twice, during the last 
hundred years, has the orange in the Mediterranean and South Europe iJeen 
sirailiarly attacked. And the hope that here, as in Europe, the insect will 
pass away, still continues to cheer the Florida orange grower, and he awaits 
the happy moment to renew his operations with renewed vigor. 

Au orange grove of common sized trees will produce from 500 to 2500 
oranges per tree, worth $5 and $25 per tree. One hundred trees or more 
can be planted upon an acre. Very little labor is required to keep a grove 
in condition. The sour orange, which grows spontaneously all over the 
peninsubi, may be budded with the sweet orange, and will bear in three years. 
In maay places the banks of lakes and streams are lined with wild groves of 
orange, some of them great in extent. These do not seem to regard the 
insect to any great extent, and continue to hang their golden clusters amid 
the green. On the upper waters of the St. John's, and also on the Atlantic 
coast near New-Smyrna, fine oranges are now produced ; those from the groves 
of Mr. Shelden and Mr. Speer being of peculiarly large sizo and delicious 
flavor. 

L<-mous and limes grow very thickly in Florida, and are abundant in a 
wild state. The Sicily lemon, transplanted in Florida, is much improved 
I'rom the original ; the writer of this has seen a specimen which measured 
eleven inches in circumference. 

The fig attains perfection in Florida. There are several varieties of this 
fruit; those of a dark purple color and about the size of a hen's egg, being 
preferred for the dessert. A branch cut from a bearing tree, and merely 
stuck in the ground, will produce fruit in two years. No attempt has been 
made to preserve dried figs in Florida, but it is evident that some method to 
do this could be devised, in which case New-Smyrna might rival the Asiatic 
Smyrna in her export of the delicious fruit. 

The hawey is a miniature fig, growing upon a large beautiful tree in south- 
ern Florida. The fruit is above the size of a hazel nut, and grows from the 
limb of a tree without any apparent blossom. It is of a dark brown color, 
and resembhng the fig in taste. 

The pereiminon is a delicious fruit, when fully ripe. In fact, when it is in 
perfectiun, there are few tropical fruits that can rival it in richness ; when 
green it has a fragrant astringency, only equalled oy the prickly-ash or the 
wild turnip. The natives of Florida used the dried persimmon extensively 
as an article of food, and we read in the lists of stores and provisions fur- 
nished by them to the old Spanish expeditions of cakes of dried persimmon. 
— Abstract from Soil of the South. * 



HUMAN" PHYSIOLOGY. 

[We have long thought it would be useftd and desirable to present correct 
views, at length, on this m'ost important subject. We have just received the 
following excellent essay on one branch of the subject, which we give below as 
an introduction, inviting our valued correspondent, from whom we shall al- 
ways be happy to hear, and others who take an interest on this subject, to 
give their views in careful detail on any of its numerous departments. All 
are profitable, and appropriate discussion is never without a good result. — Ed.] 



158 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN. 

Poor children! My heart aches when I look at the little things ! If you 
would know why, just take your stand where you can have a fair view as 
they come streaming out from the various departments of the public schools. 
How many do you see that are fat, rosy, and substantial-looking ? How 
many can you select that have neither sunken, sickly-looking eyes, deformed 
bones, or the sallow complexion unnatural to childhood ? 

Were I to offer to adopt all the sound and natural children you could se- 
lect from that mass of three or four hundred, I should not apprehend any risk 
of imposing a great burden upon myself. 

Poor children ! I wish I could read their mothers a lecture, which would 
ring in their ears until there was a complete reform in babydom. A mother's 
pride in her children is proverbial. Is it not strange, then, that she does not 
make childhood her first and most earnest study? Is it not passing strange 
that she should rear children without continuous and earnest thought and re- 
search upon the proper means for securing the highest degree of health and 
beauty ? 

In this matter, as in many others, that is an inexcusable weakness which 
leads us to walk in the old paths, for no better reason than because they are 
the same which our fathers and mothers trod. Remonstrances with a mo- 
ther upon the treatment of her child are often answered with the very foolish 
reason, that her mother pursued the same course in raising a family. 

Poor children ? My heart aches for them, that they have not mothers 
who will think for themselves. Through ignorant kindness or culpable 
thoughtlessness, many feed their children, from the age of three or four 
months, on meats, pastry, or whatever they themselves eat, washed down by 
tea and coffee. The children may thrive for a time, and be pointed out by 
the mistaken mothers to those who advocate " milk for babes." 

Such, probably, was the babyhood of ninety-nine hundredths of those un- 
fortunate children that were just seen issuing from the public school. With- 
out any regard to the indications of nature, the infant system was stimulated 
by those things that are with difficulty digested even by the adult stomach. 

Poor children ! Not only were they overfed, but from the time they were 
first put into the hands of the nurse, they have been tortured by their dress, 
as though they must thus do penance for mother Eve's transgression. Who 
can sit, a calm looker-on at, a baby's toilette-making — the lifting up and lay- 
ing down — the turning over and twisting around — the girthing and band- 
aging — the pinning and pulling — the powdering and dosing — the laying on 
of garment over garment with rule, but without reason ? 

So true it is that " the child is father of the man," I fear for future gener- 
ations, unless there be a reform in habyclom. The treatment followed in a 
majority of cases vitiates the system at an early age, inducing scrofulous dis- 
eases, premature developments, and tendency to insanity. The whole system 
is an unnatural and diseased condition. Years may pass, and the child may 
even grow to maturity without suffering from severe sickness. But when it 
comes to assume the responsibility of rearing offspring — what a progeny — 
dwarfed, mentally and physically — an embodiment of disease, born to endure 
life, not to enjoy it. 

Better would it be for our race were a Spartan severity enforced, than thus 
to people the earth. 

So long as parents exercise authority over their children in other matters, 



MEMOIR ON BUCKWHEAT. 159 

they ought to do so intelligently in the important items of food and clothing. 
To the age often years, the child's food may be of the simplest character, yet 
nutritious enough to supply all the wants of the body. Milk, bread, ripe 
fruits, and vegetables certainly offer sufficient variety, and promote a healthy 
appetite without resorting to meats, tea, coffee, etc. At whatever age stronger 
food is allowed, it should be taken in moderate quantities at the noon meal. 
The number who are induced to mark out a path and follow it is small, 
because the majority are willing to blindly do as their predecessors di4. But 
perhaps there is no subject of more universal importance to the race than the 
proper treatment of children — no subject which should be more constantly 
brought before the minds of the people — none more worthy for employing 
the eloquence of philanthrophic physiologists. June Isle. 



FOR TUK PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

MEMOIR ON THE PRODUCTION OF BUCKWHEAT. 
[concluded.] 

It now remains to indicate sundry preparations of Buckwheat, which we 
extract from the '71st page of my Memoir before referred to. 

" Semoule. 1st. Prepared with milk, with water, and with broth. 

"The Semoule is .put into the boiling liquid, in due proportion, and then 
is frequently stirred with a sp.oon, while it is boiled over a moderate fire for 
half an hour. Two ounces will suffice for a litre. The water should be salt- 
ed to one's taste. In eating this, add a little fresh butter. 2d. If you mix 
four ounces of Semoule in a litre of water, you will obtain a thfckened mass, 
which being placed gently on a plate, and allowed to cool, will become firm. 
It may be cut with a knife, and being served in a soup-plate with the ad- 
dition of a little broth, answers as a substitute for bread. 3d. This thickened 
semoule, fried in a frying-pan with butter, is an agreeable dessert. 4th. 
Four ounces of semoule, corked with milk and cooled, the yolks of a few 
eggs and little sugar and raisins, make an excellent cake. (It much re- 
sembles cake prepared with rice. It should be cooked in a copper pan, 
with a hberal proportion of butter, covered, and to make a crust, a little fire 
may be placed on the cover.) Each one may mingle v/ith this as he j^leases, 
dried prunes, orange peel, raisins, cinnamon, or the water of orange flowers. 
oth. "The same semoule, with a little butter added to the water, and with 
salt and minced parseley, makes a good dessert." Instead of the parseley, 
sugar, cinnamon, or the water of orange flowers may be substituted. 6th. 
Semoule thickened with hot w^ater, with the addition of fresh butter, makes a 
dish which, eaten with the sauce of ragout, may be a substitute for bread." 

Gruau. — [From page 73 of the same Memoir.] 

7th. The course meal, gruau, is prepared in the same manner which we 
have indicated in the 1st, 2d, 3d, and Gth of the above paragraphs, in treat- 
ing of Semoule, with this difference, that twice the quantity of gruau should 
be used as is prescribed of the semoule ; that is, four ounces for two, etc. 
8th, A ragout of mutton being cooked in a sauce, well clarified, and well 



160 MEMOIR OX BUCK\YHEAT, 

seasoned, gruau being tlien added io due proportion ; the mass stirred briskly 
and often, over a moderate fire, tlie result is an excellent ragout, a la Caliph 
of Bagdad. 9th. To make cake, the gruau, cooked in water with salt and 
butter, is placed in a copper pan or in a baker's oven. 10th. Mix half a 
pound of gruau with a litre of water, salt it, let it stand in a cold place, cover 
it, and send it to the baker. When cooked, cover it freely with butter, and 
you obtain a dessert a le the Emperor of Russia. It is improved by the ad- 
dition of butter in the pot before it is cooked. 

The gruau of Buckwheat serves also for the confection of excellent pud- 
dings. They may be prepared as follows : — Upon a half pound of gruau, 
pour a little boiling watar, mixed with a pound of the liver of veal, of mutton, 
or of pork, and mix it with the meal. Pour over this a pound of melted fat, 
season with salt, pepper, pimento, etc., to taste, when this mixture is brought 
to a proper consistence, neither too thin nor too thick, and when cooked for 
^half an hour in boihng water, it forms an excellent pudding, 

A very delicate pudding is made with the setnoule of Buckwheat as fol- 
lows : — Take one pound of scalded semoule, two pounds of liver, one pound 
of fat, four ounces of raisins, two ounces of pounded sugar, season with salt, 
pepper, etc., in proper quantities, mix, etc., and you have a confection highly 
prized in Poland and Germany. 

I now proceed to point out certain uses for the farina of this plant. It 
may be supposed that it is impossible to make good bread of this farina, but 
this is an error, though it cannot be thus used unmixed. It would be heavy, 
and soon become dry. But it should be mixed with that of wheat or of rye. 
We have made experiments in this in presence of the agricultural commis- 
sioners of Remorantin, that is, the department of Loire and Cher, in France, and 
the result was as follows : 

Exlract fom the Ruiiort of tlte Ar;riciiltural Commission of Remorantin, 
Session 20th JanuarT/, 1838. 

•'• The commission v?as conveyed to the manufactory of Mr. Saniewski. He 
had there pr.n'ided for the fabrication in our presence, of thirty pounds of the 
farina of buckwheat, which was delivered to M. Lacroix, a baker of reputation, 
at Remorantin, for the purpose of being manufactured into bread ht exper- 
iment. 

" Session of 22d January, 1838. — The progress of manufacturer of the 
trial bread was gone through with in the presence of the commissioner, in 
the bakery of Mr. Lacroix, in the proportions indicated in the table following : 

Pounds of Farina of 



Xt). of composition. 
1st 

2d - 
3d 
- 4th - 


Buckwheat. 
3 - 
'- 4 

2 - 
- 4 - 


Wheat. Rye. 
3 - 

- 2 - - 
- 2 

- - - 2 


T. tal 


of composition. 
6 

- G 
4 

- G 


- 


13 


5 4 




22 




RESULTS OBTAINED IN BREAD. 






Qualities. Poun 
1st, - 

2d, '- - 
3d, - 
4ih, - 


ds weight after 
G.12 
- '7.2 ■ 
6.10 

- n.u 


baldng. Weight 24 hours 

- G.l 
G.2 

- 4,9 
7. 


after. 


This operation leads 


us to the foil 


owing observations 




. 



MEMOIR ON BUCKWHEAT. 161 

The season was cold, and it was difficult to obtain a good fermentation. 
The bread termed No. 1 was delivered imperfect, and gave a product inferior 
in quality to that which it was hoped would be obtained from that mixture, and 
which had been presented us bj' M. Saniewski. (It should be observed that 
I had presented bread made at my house, for the use of my family, whicb 
was of excellent quality. We had used bread made from buckwheat mixed 
wiih wheat or rje, but my wife kneaded it in a warm apartment, and shel- 
tered from the cold, which was excessive at the bakery. I add that it is 
necessary to make use of leaven for the proper fermentation of the farina of 
buckwheat.) 

There is but one kind of black, compact bread, made by the people of 
France, from buckwheat, and still it is often very inferior, as the buckwheat 
is ground with the hull, and is not properly cleaned, but good farina of buck- 
wheat can be employed in other forms besides that of the buckwheat cakes 
in general use in the United States, as follows : 

1. Small Cukes. — Knead this farina with tepid water, with salt in due 
proportion. The mass must not be too thick, but be well wrought. Take 
small portions of this mass in a spoon and immerse it in boiling water, so as 
not to diminish its heat, and allow them to remain till they rise to the sur- 
face. Then take them from the water and place them upon a dish , and dip 
them into cold water, and eat them with fresh butter. Warmed and fried, 
they are an agreeable food, which may be a substitute for bread. 

Remark. — I have learned that when fried in pork fat, with onions, they 
form an excellent dish. 

14. When these small cakes have been taken from the boiling water and 
passed into the cold water, (see 13,) take some diluted broth and season it 
with butter or lard fried with onions, heat it and pour it iipon the cakes, and 
you have a very nutritive dish, which is everywhere used by the people of the 
country. The soup is used as a substitute for bread. 

Thus, too, this soup may be prepared with milk, immersing the cakes in 
boiling milk, and diluting it afterwards with water. 

Agciin, when the water is boiling, without taking it from the fire, drop 
the farina into it, and leave the mass to boil from fifteen to twenty-five min- 
utes. Pour ofi" the superfluous water, and with a wooden spoon knead the 
paste which is formed, until the farina which is not cooked takes the form of 
paste. Then take it in a spoon dipped into butter or fat, dividing the paste 
iuto small pieces, fry them in pork fat, and you have an excellent dish, which 
in Poland is called Parka, or 

This farina used with the farina of wheat in the proportion of three to five, 
serves for the making of spiced cakes, and gives an agreeable flavor. 

The straw of buckwheat is good, mixed with the straw of oats, of barley, 
or of hay, as feed for cattle or for sheep in time of scarcity, but should be 
seasoned with salt, and should be fed to them after they have had a little 
salt water. 

Buckwheat is also good for bees, and forms honey of the best quality. 
The wax made from it is hard and white. 

Saniewski Felix, 

Polish Refugee. 

KISLICHV. 

We gave a recipe for making this European (German) drink, in a recent 
number, from M. Saniewski, remarking that we thought the quantity of water 
much too great. We have since discovered that a mistake was made by one 

11 



162 AVOODLANDS. 



of us in transcribing thefiirures in the printed memoir, to which reference has 
been made above. It reads thuf< : 

10 pounds of the faiiua of wheat, 
3 " malt, made tine, 
3 " of the farina of buckwheat, 
50 quarts of boiling water. 
Then add half a pound of brewer's yeast or 2 pounds of baker's yeast. Tbo 
next day stir the vxhole mass, and add 50 quarts more of water when the fer- 
mentation is finished. 



WOODLAND 



TffE decrease in the quantity of valuable timber in this country has been 
often alluded to in our journals, and much is done in the way of securing 
new growths. But much more oughi to be done, and much that would pay 
handsomely for the cost. 

We publish an exirict from the Reports of the Massachusetts Ai^iicultura! 
Society of 1854, which is the result of extensive iiiquiry and cartful observa- 
tion. It is as follows : 

'' A class of lands has been already mentioned, with a query whether it 
would not be true economy to make woodland of them, subjecting others 
less exhausted td cultivation in their stead. Many thousand acres of poor 
and wurn-out lands mny be found in the eastern part of the State and else- 
where, which, for all practical purposes of cultivation, may be con^idered as 
worthless, the net prohts from tliem not being vvortli estimating. Such lands 
as 1 have intimated, have already been plai.ted with pitchpine to a consid- 
erable extent; and as many acres have been visited for the purpose of examin- 
ing the progress of the experiments, it is proper here to state the methods 
which have been pursued with success. 

" The pitch-pine is adapted to a light sandy soil, or to one which has been 
exhausted by continued cropping. On such a soil it wdl do well, even in 
the early part of its growth, if no attention at all be ptiid to it; whereas, 
if it stands on rich land, wiih a deep mould and lull of organic matter, 
the grasses and weeds too often check its early gowth, if indeed they do not 
entirely destroy it. 

" Xhe seed of the pine may often be purchased at about one dollar a quart. 
It is usually gathered in October by taking the new cones from the trees, 
before they have been opened by the frost, so as to allow their seed to fall. 
These cones should be kept free from moisture, and dried in the sun, or by 
artificial lieat. When dry, the seeds become loof-ened and drop from the 
Cones, or they may be tbreshed out. They are cleaned by rubbing and 
winnowing. In Europe it is generally considered better to sow thukly in. 
beds; when about three years old the trees are transplanted. I his course is 
not generally pursued here on account of the labor of transplanting, though 
if the soil were worth any thing for pasturage during these two or three 
years, it would probably be advii-able to adopt it. The seed may be sown 
either in autumn or in early spring. Many use tbe lioe for making the 
holes, and drop the seed by hand ; others jdough furrows six feet apai t and 
drop the seeds in the bottom of the furrows from one to two feet apart. 



PROPAGATING FROM SUCKERS. 163 

This requires too much time and labor if the plantation is to be very large. 
A simple machine has been contrived for dropping tbe seed at the proper 
distancf', by which a man with a horse raay plant five or six acres in a day, 
which is quite as much as he could plough with furrows at the distance of 
six feet in the same length of time. This machine costs from three and a 
half to live dollars. 

"About a quart of seed is generally allowed to four acres. If it be of 
good quality, this is commonly found to be a sufficient quantity. Probably, 
however, planting a little thicker would secure a more perfect exemption from 
any difficulty arising fiora accident or bad seed. 

" The transplanting of young white pines may be effected with safety at 
almost any season of the year, provided, in taking them up, the bark of the 
roots is not strained and broken or loosened. The roots may be cut off with 
much greater safety than their bark can be broken. By careful attention to 
this precaution more than a thousand younyr white pines were transplanted 
by a farmer in Bristol county with the loss of only one or two. 

" Among other very valuable trees may be mentioned the yellow locust, on 
sandy land, both on account of its intrinsic- value as wood, and the benefit 
to dry pasture lands. The Scotch larch has also been planted to consider- 
able extent, and for rapidity of growth, value for timber and beauty, is one 
of the most desirable additions to the farm. The silver polar on light soils 
and exposed situations, is also of great value, as are also the white bu-ch, the 
chestnut, and, as an ornament unsurpassed, the graceful elm." 



FOR THE PLOUGH, TIIK LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

PROPAGATING FROM SUCKERS. 

It is hardly supposable that nurserymen would palm off" upon their custom- 
ers suckers for healthy tiees. But notwithstanding nil th it has been written 
Upon the subject, the budding or grafting and transplanting- of suckers is a 
common practice. It seems to me proper, therefore, that line upon line and 
prect'pt should be given touching this matter. No fact is beiter estabii^hed 
than that a healthy, long-lived tree cannot be produced from a shoot or sucker. 
Tbe cherry, plum, ap[)le and pear tree will often send up from iheir roots 
thrifty and healihy-looking sprouts. These are seized by the unexperienced 
cultivator as a cheap and expeditious mole of multiylying his stock of trees. 
He will learn when too late that the sucker is the offspring of disea-e. No 
healthy tree produces them. They may grow vigorously for a while, and 
yield some fruit. But their career will be short, and their greatest yield will 
be of disappointment. Trees raised from suckers may be known by the pro- 
fusion of sprouts which they generally send up. They are also dwaifish ia 
appearance ; and put forth an excessive number of fruit buds everv spring. 
Very little of ihe fiuit, however, will ripen. It will wither and decay upon 
the trees in all stages, from the blossom to maturity. Finally, such trees will 
die suildenly without any apparent cause ; leaving to the proprietor no other 
reason for regret than that their demise had not occurred at an earlier date. 
I give the results of my own experience on this subjrjct, corroborated by ob- 



164 THINGS TO BE DONE. 



servation and the testimony of others ; and I would say to all arborists that 
the experiment of raising fruit from suckers is no less futile than that of 
raising poultry from chalk eggs. R. R. H. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE tOOM, AND THE AliTIL. 

THINGS TO BE DONE. 

Apples which fall prematurely should be promptly gathered and i-eiDoved. 
The pigs v\ill be glad of them, and they will do them no harm. These wind- 
falls are filled with insects which have already doije mischief enough. If un- 
molested they will burrow in the soil and prepare for the depredations of the 
ensuing season. 

The eneioies of cultivated fruit are already legion ; and it would seem as 
though they keep pace with the improvements in culture and the multiplica- 
tion of varieties. If we would hav« good fruit we must not relax our efforts, 
but persevere, and prosecute the varments even unto death. 

To this end it becomes us to secure what assistance we can command. The 
most efficient aids are the birds. "Were there enough of them I doubt not 
they would do the whole wo^-k. Let them be protected and encouraged. 
The Legislature of Massachusetts did wisely at its last session in making it a 
penal offense to kill robins and some other birds. What better than barbar- 
ism is it to break up the nests of such birds, and even shoot them in wanton 
sport. And how superlatively nigardly to refuse them a few currants or 
cherries. It is but few they want after having labored faithfully all the sea- 
son to protect the garden, tind make home pleasant with their cheerftd music. 
I, too, would treat toads Wn^Xy. Why not? They are great workers, de- 
vour multitudes of insects, are quiet and unobtrusive in their manners, and do 
no harm. 

True, Milton says, Satan approached the ear of Eve, in position " squat 
hke a toad." But that was no fault of the toad. True merit is alv/ays 
humble. Empty heads arq always erect, while those filled with grain are 
bowed down. Sycophantic fools, who would sell what of soul they have, and 
allow themselves to be trodden upon if done by the heel of oflncial greatness, 
are called " Toadies." But this is slander. The toad is a gentleman com- 
pared with such. He catches his own flies. He neither fawns nor will be 
fawned upon ; and further, he is said to have something valuable in his head. 
Weeds should not be permiited to go to seed in or about the garden or 
cultivated fields. Noxious weeds, like sins, are wonderfully prolific. There 
needs but few stocks to seed a large field. To spend the whole summer in 
labor to subdue the weeds, and then allow enough to mature on the borders 
to stock the grounds for the coming season, when a few minutes' work, or 
hours at most, would remove them all, seems very much like litching mint 
and annis, and omitting weightier matters. 

I no more believe that weeds can be killed out, and cultivation become 
clean^ than I believe that absolute perfection is attainable in this life. Yet, 
as in the latter, it is our duty to labor at the attainment of so desirable an 
object. So, in the former, we should aim at extermination, and accomplish 
all we can. 



IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 165 



Scions which were set in the spring should now be looked after. A vio-or- 
ous growth of suckers will be found to have shot out. These should all be 
removed, except where the scions have failed. In such cases they should be 
spared to keep the limb in atiealthy condition for subsequent gratling. 

The wax should be examined, and if necessary more should be ap|>lied, and 
all the cracks ftnd crevices should be stopped. Whatever is worth doing at 
all is worth doing well. If worth one's while to graft a tree, it will pay to 
care for it when grafted. 

The secret of failure in fruit growing, in most cases, is want of continued 
care, and the tree may have been judiciously selected and properly planted, 
but then it is neglected. The budding and grafting may have been well per- 
formed and then no more care bestowed. What wonder that no fruit is ob- 
tained, that fruit-growing is reganled as a thriftless business ? Let the corn 
plant receive no better attention, and what would be the result ? Would 
not the planter conclude that corn growing don't pay ? R, R, H. 



OBSERVATIOiSrS ON IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 

Not having the honor to belong to the veterinary profession, I do not reg- 
ularly read your very able periodical, though my attention has lately been 
called by a friend to an article in the number for May last, on the subject of 
" Animal Physiology, and Breeding Farm Stock," in which the writer most 
strongly reprobates the practice of in-and-in breeding. It so happens that I 
am well acquainted with Mr. Barford, of Northamptionshire, who is men- 
tioned by name therein; and having some opportunities of seeing his man- 
agement of his sheep, and his practice with regard to in-and-in breeding, I 
take the liberty of troubling you with a few lines in reply to Mr. Lance's 
paper. 

That gentleman has adduced several instances, or rather related several 
anecdotes,'' as the data on which he founds the argument, that consanguinity 
in blood among parents leads to degeneracy in the offspring." But, to me, 
they by no means satisfactorily prove his position. His long quotation from 
Mr. Lawrence's lectures about the Angola sheep makes rather for than 
against the practice of in-and-in breeding, as it clearly recognizes the possi- 
bility of retaining varieties of animals by ^^ preservinff the race pure" by se- 
lecting for propagation the animals most conspicuous for size, or any other 
property we may fix on. In this way we may gain sheep valuable for the 
fleece, or the carcass, large or small, with thick or thin legs ; just sucli, in 
short, as we choose. The other instances he mentions, as of Hallers, " two 
noble females," of Mr. Marsh, of Ryton, having produced an "appalling 
malformation" in the produce of a son with his mother, and others, only 
prove, what I presume Mr. Lance will at once admit, viz., the truth of the 
old adage that " like begets like," and that where any imperfections, moral 
or physical, exist in the parent, they will most likely reappear in the offspring, 
whetLier bred in-and-in or not. 

As a set-off to one of Mr. Lance's instances, I may mention that Bake «^ ell 
found that good qualities were also transmissible, and in as great a degree 
as evil ones. And it is rather sino-alar that he founded the observation in 



166 IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 

the results of an experiment (among others) exactly similar to that of Mr. 
Marsh, having found that a sow of his never bred so g)od p'g-i as when put 
to her own son. And allow me to a-k Mr. Lance whi-ther '' the def rmilies 
of mind and body," which, according to Mr. Lawrenc^^, f^P'ing up so plenti- 
fully in our large cities, cannot be amply accounted for by the intemperate 
habits, the vicious indulgences, the vitiated atmosphere, the unhealthy occu- 
pations, the undrained and unventilated habitations in which so many of our 
urban population live and have their being, with ut having recourse to "the 
want of selections and exclusions" to which he has alluded ? Fur it must be 
borne in mind that, in agricultural districts, the same " want of selections 
and exclusions" exists as in the cities, without, as Mr. Lance n^u^t admit, 
anything like the amount of mental and bodily deformity which ."degrades 
the race" in the towns. And supposing, for the sake of argument, that the 
state of many of the royal houses in Europe be such as Mr. Lawrence imjlies, 
may it not be possible that many generations of luxurious indulijence and 
unrestrained passions, which, perhaps, are inseparable from their exalted posi- 
tion, may not, by their continued though gradual eflect on the constitution, 
sufficiently account for it, without attributing it wholly to the fact of their 
being restricted to some ten or twenty families in the choice of husbands and 
wives ? But to return to sheep-breeding. 

I gather, from what Mr. Lance implies rather than from what he says, that 
he imagines Mr. Barford allocs the most promiscuous and iudiscwminate in- 
tercourse among his flock. There cannot be a greater mistake. The most 
continued vigilance is exercised to prevent the propagation of any defect, 
should they appear, and, to use Mr. Lance's own words, " it is only the best 
that are allowed to continue the race." In this I presume Mr. Barford only 
follows the example of every other breeder; and not to do so, would at once 
stamp a man with the most ridiculous imbecility. 

If the cousins, of whom Mr. Lauce has spoken, if the white breed of fowls 
ia Hampshire, if Mr. Marsh's hogs, if the "silly" sheep in Wiltshire, in fact, 
if the subjects of any of the in breeding experiments he mentions, had any 
"deficieney of nervous energy," and "weakness of malformation," in short,, 
any defect whatever, it is evident to the narrowest mind that the nearer the 
aflinities, and the longer they are bred so, the more decided these defects 
become. But it must be absurd to attribute them to the bare fact of in-and- 
in breeding. Mr. Lance must prove that all cross-bred animals are free from 
all defects, before he can say that. In fact, I should regard failure in in-and- 
ia breeding experiments as the most irrefragable evidence of defect in the 
parent or parents, and nothing more. I often ttiink that it mitst be to mis- 
apprehen>ion on this point that much of the unmitiga'ed hostility to in-and- 
in breeding is to be attributed. Peopl*^, by some means or other, get hold 
of the idea that the advocates of the system mean universal and indiscrimi- 
' iiate in and-in breeding, than which nothing can be more absurd. 

But let us see where Mr. Lance's favorite system will lead him when car- 
ried into practice. As the end and aim of all crossing is of course improve- 
ment, all breeders may hope to (nay, if the theory be co^ect, they must, at 
some period or other,) reach a point beyond which there is no improvement 
to be made by crossing; that is, they will produce a perfect animal, or, at 
least, one more })erfect than anybody's else. Now, sir, allow me to pro]jound 
this quesiinn to Mr. Lance : When a man has arrived at this point — when 
he has exhausted every source of improvement which the kingd.an, nay, 
which the world affoids, — what is he to do? It is evident he must 
adopt'one or the other of the following courses : Either he must feed oft' and 



GRAND NATIONAL EXHIBITION OF STOCK. 167 

consign to the butcher both his m-iles and female^, without any more ado ; 
or he may allow thera to live to an unprnfitable maturity, and a useless old 
age, and die at last a natural death ; or he may call in Mr. S afford, and dis- 
peri^e to the four quarters of the globe the fruits of perhaps a litVtime of care, 
trouble and anxiety, besides enormous expense, and br-gia again de novo ; or 
he may knowingly and wiih his eyes open, by crossing theui with animals 
inferior to themselves, retrogra le, step by step, to the mediocrity and inferior- 
ity with which- he set out in the first instance ; or, his last resource, he may 
by in-and-in breeding, attempt to propagate t'lem perfected as they are, and 
thus retain for his country and himself the benefits which such a race of 
animals must necessarily confer. But such is the amount of obstinate pre- 
judice now entertained against this system that we might expect to see many 
gentlemen, perhaps Mr. L mce himself, adopt any of the above sources rather 
than the last. This is a suppositious case, bur, substantially it may be said 
to have occurred in the instance of Mr. Barford's tiock, as the following rough 
sketch of its history will show. 

About the year l7S6, the late Mr. V. Barford commenced sheep-breeding, 
lie hired rams of Mr. Roliinson, of Wellingborough, who was a disciple of 
Bakewell, of Di-hiey, and bred from his stock. Mr. Barford continued to do 
so until about the year 1810, when the present Mr. Barford, considering his 
own sheep as good as Mr. Robinson's, and not being able to find any that he 
thought calculated to improve them, was really j)laced in something like the 
dilemma which I have above mentioned. However, in-andin breeding had 
no imaginary terrors for him, and therefore he boldly adopted the last of the 
courses which I have enumerated ; so that, by necessity, even if he had not 
from choice, he must have become an in-and-in breeder. I will not take 
upon myself to say that he has succeeded ; but I do ask any gentleman who 
is skeptical of ihe possibility of the thing to visit him, and inspect a flock of 
which every individual sheep has a pedigree than can be traced back for up- 
wards of forty years without a cross ! 

With such a fact as this before me, Mr. Editor, and with the still more 
significant one that the Jews have bred from the closest affinities from the 
very time of their father Abraham, without any deficiency of nervous energy, 
or any physical or moral degeneracy, I think I may be justified in declaring 
my firm opinion that the explanation of the numerous and palpable defects 
in man and animals, in modern times, must be sought in other reasons than 
the system of breeding Mr. Lance so strongly objects to. — Omega, iu The 
London Veterinarian. 



A GRAND > NATIONAL EXHIBITION OF STOCK. 

The United States Agricultural, Society under the Presidency of Marshall 
P. Wilder, does not not prove to be a mere opportunity fir holding office, 
nor its official stations mere sinecures, as some predicted. Some of the 
largest and best exhibitions in the country have been under the auspices and 
through the ag^-ncies of this Society, 

Another exhibition of stock is now contemplated at Boston during the 
next mouth, as will be seen by the fc^llowing offiaal notice. We commend 
this to the attention of stock growers and amateurs, and all lovers of agricul- 



168 ' AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 

tural progress throughout the country. Improvement in stock lies at the 
foundation of all improvements, bearing directly upon improved feed, more 
economy in the selection and proportion of the various crops of tillage, pas- 
ture, etc., and creating in fact a sort of more necessity for improvement in 
every department of agricultural management. We commend this exhibition 
to the public favor as promising to be one of the most interesting exhibitions 
ever held in New-England. 

CIRCULAR. 

A Grand National Exhibition of Stock. — Horses, Cattle, Sheep and 
Swine — open to competition to all the States of the Udion, and to the 
British Provinces, will be held by the United States Agricultural Society, in 
the City of Boston, on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, October 
23d, 24th, 2oth and 26th. 

Twenty-Thousand Dollars have been guaranteed by patriotic gentlemen of 
Boston and its vicinity to defray the expenses; the City of Boston has 
generously granted to the Society for present use, a fine public square of 
fifty acres ; and Ten Thousand Dollars wnll be ofiered in Preminms, in the 
various departments. 

The previous Exhibitions of this Society — at Springfield, Mass., in 1853, 
and at Springfield, Ohio, in 1854, — were eminently successful, and no efforts 
•will be spared to make the present Show, combining as it does, the Four 
Great Departments of Farming Stock, superior to its' predecessors. 

The Premium List, with the Rules of the Exhibition will be forwarded to 
all who will address the President, or Secretary, at Boston, to that eff^^ct. 

It is earnestly hoped that all Breeders, and owners of Fine Stock will feel 
it to be a duty, as it certainly is for their interest, to contribute for the Show. 

The List of Entries, Exhibitors, and Award of Premiums, and all the 
proceedings of the Exhibition, will be published in the Journal of the So- 
ciety, for 1855. Annual Members of the Society, who desire to receive the 
Journal, should remember to renew their subscriptions. 

Marshall P. Wilder, President. 

William S. King, Secretary. 
Boston, August, 1855. " . . , 

I^^Editors favoring the objects of the Society, will please give the above 
an early insertion, and notice. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE-ANNUAL FAIR. 

The Twenty-seventh Annual Fair of the American Institute will be held 
in the Crystal Palace in this city in October next, and we cut th^ following 
from the circular which has been issued : 

"The Twenty-seventh Annual Fair of the American Institute will be 
opened in the City of New- York on the third day of October, 1855, and 
continue during the month. 

''The Managers announce to the Manufacturers, Mechanics, Inventors, Ar- 
tizans. Farmers, Gardeners, and all others interested, in the United States, 
^hat iliey have secured the Crystal Palace, erected in 1853 for the Exhibition 
of the Industry of all Nations, in which to hold the Twenty-seventh Annual 
Fair of the American Institute. 



AM. ASS. FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 169 

"This magnificent and spacious building will afford unusual facilities for 
the arr^iiigement and display of tha various specimens of Art and productions 
of Nature. Steam-power will be provided, to put in operation Machinery of 
every description, and the Managers pledge themselves to make every exer- 
tion in their power to effect such arrangements, for the accommodation of 
exhibitors, as will secure the great ends of the Exhibition. 

"Premiutns of Gold and Silver Medals, Cups, Books, and Diplomas, will 
be awarded to the Exhibitors of artiitles deemed worthy of such distinction, 
by competent Judges appointed for that purpose. 

"Practical and disinterested persons, acquainted with the several branches 
in which they shall be appointed, will be selected for Judges, to whom all ar- 
ticles for competition will be referred, in order to secure the same satisfaction 
that has heretofore been given, in the bestowal of the awards of this In- 
stitute. To insure a perfect impartiality, the By-Laws of the Institute pro- 
hibit 'any premium being awarded by the Board of Managers to any Mem- 
ber of their Board, to any of the Trustees, or to any of the Standing Com- 
mittees of the Institute, or anything in lieu thereof.' 

"The awards will not be confined to specimens prepared expressly for 
exhibition ; but when articles are entered as being of ordinary manufacture 
for general consumption, full weight will be given to that fact, as showing 
the actual state of the particular branch to which they belong. 

" The Managers desire strongly to impress Exhibitors with the necessity of 
furnishing mforraation, at an early day, of the description of articles they 
intend to exhibit, and the space required for their proper display." 

The Managers are striving to make an exhibition that shall do honor to 
all concerned, and will furnish all the facilities in their power to sati;?fy both 
exhibitors and visitors. They offer peculiar inducements for the exhibition 
of steam-engines, and building materials, natural or artificial, and also for 
Designs, Sculptures, Paintings, etc. The products of agricultural and house- 
hold industry, of course, are among the necessities of such an occasion. We 
hope the public will give their attention to this. Mr. John W. Chambers 
is the Secretary of the Board of Managers, and may be found at the rooms 
of the Institute, 353 Broadway. , 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION" FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

Providence, Wednesday, Aug. 15. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science commenced its 
Ninth Annual Meeting in the chapel of Manning Hall, Brown University, 
August 15 th. 

The officers of the Association are as follows : 

President — Dr. John Torrey of New-York. 

Permanent Secretary — Prof. Jos*^ph Lovering of Cambridge. 

Tieasurer — Dr. A. L. Elwyn of Piidadelphia. 

General Secretary — Dr .Wolcott Gibbs of New- York. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, Dr. Torrey, who at 
once introduced to the Association the Rev. Dr. Wayland, President of 
Brown University. 

He gave them a very handsome welcome. We make the following ab- 



170 AM. ASS. FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



stract of the discussions of especial interest to the public from our city dailies. 
Economy of Heat. — The first paper read was by Prof. Henry, on Com- 
bustion. He had based his experiments on a [laper by Count Rumford, sta- 
ting that when the sides and back of a grate were composed of fire-brick 
and heated red hot they radiated more heat than the fire itself. When a fire 
was made of coals and small pieces of fire-brick it- gave out a much greater 
amount of heat and the cinders were entirely consumed. The same effect 
was produced by the mixture of fuel and clay. Count Rumford had given 
no account of the cause of that phenomenon. He had repeated the experi- 
ment and the result a])peHied to confirm the experiments of Count Rumford. 
He then varied them with flames of hydrogen and alcohol and different sub- 
stances, carbonate of lime, glass, stone, coal, and clay. Carbonate of lime 
produced the greatest eff"r-ct. It had long been known that a piece of plati- 
num wire in a flame would increase the radiation of light, and these experi- 
ments proved that the radiation of heat was increased in like degree. We 
could not suppose that tlie absolute amount of heat was increased. The 
most probable conjecture he thought was, that the heat of combination was 
converted into radient heat. To test this he had placed a platinuna wire in 
the ape.x of a flame and introduced a slip of mica, one-fifch of an inch in. 
breadth, vertically beneath it. The wire immediately diminished in intensity 
of light and of radiant h^at, so that while the mica itself was radiant witu 
light and heat it was evident that its introduction cooled the flame above it, 
verifying the idea that the intensity of radiation was produced at the expense 
of the heat of combinatinn. So if fuel was to be employed in the evapora-v 
tion of water by combustion under a kettle, its effect would be diminished 
by any suostance intervening between the flame and the kettle, and the flame 
ought to be made to strike directly on the, kettle with considerable force. 
But a very different fire was required to warm a room. Tn that case, radia- 
ting substances might be employed to advantage. 

Temperature of the Planets. — In a discussion on this general subject 
Prof. Agassiz stated that at very remote times there was a similarity of ani- 
mals in the polar and equatorial regions, indicating a temperature so nearly 
equal as not to be capable of explanation by any other hypothesis than that 
ot interior heat. He did not think, however, that we should find it so gloomy 
on the surface of Mars as the gentleman had supposed ; he thought we 
should see something more than red snow. In his wandering:^ on tlie Alps 
he had seen Cerasite in full bloom at an elevation of 11,000 feet above the 
level of the sea. He had found several mosses also in the same situation. — 
A kind of Podura was frequently found in the fi.-sures of t^e glaci-^rs, and 
besides even the genus of the Cyclops and others wtiich would make quite a 
Fauna and a little Fk)ra were they examined and stated. 

Prof. Loomis reii-serled that the earth had not sensibly lost heat for 2,000 
years. 

Prof. Pierce stated that we never saw the body of Saturn, and il was 
always heated to a whiteness and we only saw the cloud above it. 

Prof. Chase said that we knew that light was as necessary to vegetable 
life as heat was to anitnal life. He would inquire, then, where the light ne- 
cessary to vegetable life on the more remote planets came from? How was 
it to be su|»plied ? Did light radiate from the internal heated nucleus ? 

Prof. Henry said that this whole subj.^ct belonged not'to the domain of 
actual siience but of scieniitic speculation. It did not strike hitn that the 
same matter must be found in all the planets, even if we adopted the nebu- 
lar theory of condensation. The condensation of different material would 



AM. ASS. FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 171 

take place at different epochs. He thought the proposition with regard to 
light Whs a very sinking one. The dvnimic power, which decomposed tlie 
carbonic acid necessary for organic tbriiis, was found only in the chemical 
ray. The Sun was yet a great source of heat and life. Its strength however 
was wasting away. 

" Th** Sim b'mself ehall fade, and ancient D>ght 
Again involve a desolate abjss." 

With regard to the changes in the Earth's temperature, the data were not 
very prei-ise. There were conditions which miHtaied against the results as- 
certained. He instanced the effect of the Moon in retardint/ the velocity of 
the Earth. The argument that the Earth hnd not [lerceptibly cooled within 
2,000 years was based on the fact that the sidenal day was now the same as 
then, and it would have shortened had the Earth shrunk by cooling. Whea 
certain substances became solid they became enlarged. His own view of the 
inhabitability of the planets was that the outer platiets had passed that con- 
dition which was necessary to organized life, and the interior had not yet 
come to it. On the E^irth organization had evidently commenced at the 
poles, and had gone out there while it was still luxuriant at the equator. — 
It was destined to go out there also. 

Mr. Gould would ask the grounds on which Prof. Loomis stated the 
earth's temperature had not changed for the last 2,000 years. Prof. Win- 
lock and he had convinced themselves that they could see distinct traces of 
an atmosphere around the surf ice of the moon. Twilioht distinctly nppenred, 
and he could only attribute it to the atmospheric influence. At each suc- 
cessive lunation during its earlier part they could perceive the lunar disk bor- 
dered as it were by a fringe of light. This surface was distinctly bounded. 
There was almost as much difference between that and the dark surface of 
the moon as between the light and the dark rings of Saturn, the only interrup- 
tions of this boundary being such as would naturally result from the inequal- 
ities on the moon's surface. He could not speak with confidence as to the 
breadth of that portion, but he thought it must exceed two seconds of time. 

Calculating Machine. — Thomas Hill of Waltham, read a paper the 
design of which was to show that there were many cases in which the scien- 
tific computor could save time without the sacrifice of any desirable degree 
of accuracy by substituting construction for logarithmic computation. He 
had at the suggestion of Prof. Pierce produced a machine by which he had 
calculated 200 phases of an eclipse in ten hours, scarcely varying a minute 
from the calculations subsequently published in the Nautical Abnanac. The 
method ot construction also had this advantage, that any considerable error 
became apparent to the eye, since a series of results always in construction 
runs in a regular curve. 

StiPARATlON OF AlCOHOL FROM WhISKY BY FoRCE OF GrAVITV. Prof. 

Henry then detailed an experiment which was made at the Siuithsoniau in 
consequence of the granting of a patent for the separation of alcoliol frtim 
whisky by placing a considerable quantity in -a vertical tube. The patentee 
stated that by the use of a tube 100 feet in height he had separated 100 
gallons of alcohol in 12 hours. The experiment was made in one of the 
powers of the Smitbsoniati, with a gas-pipe 160 feet long, into which stop- 
cocks were inserted at various lengths. A most careful examination of the 
whisky at the various heights was made at the end of a few hours, and also 
at the expiration of some months, but no more variation could be discovered 
than in difterent samples of the same whisky not subjected to the process. 



172 ARTIFICIAL STONE. 



The patentee bad, however, obtained bis patent and sold several rights at a 
high price. A paper was read at ihe last meeting of the Association an- 
nouncing this discovery. The gist of his remarks was that the Patent-Office, 
the Smithsonian, the Association, and the country, had been sublimely hum- 
bugged. {^End of first dat/s proceedings.) 



FOR THK PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THK ANVIL. 

BRITISH OIL AND OIL OF SPIKE. 

As the farmers in this vicinity are much in the use of a nostrum named 
British Oil, and another of simihir virtue called Oil of Spike, I send re- 
cipes, that those who wish may prepare them for their use. 



BRITISH 


OIL. 


8 Fluid ounces 


Spirits Turpentine, 


do. do. 


Oil Linseed, 


4 do. 


Oil Juniper, 


4 do. 


Barbadoes Tar : 



Mix thoroughly. 

OIL OF SPIKE. 

I^ One pint Spirits Turpentine, 
Two ounces Oil Lavender, 
Four ounces Barbadoes Tar;* 
Much used for sprains and bruises in cattle and horses. 
Hyde Park, July 19, 1855. Ariel Hunton. 



ARTIFICIAL STONE, 



Science and art have united, in recent times, in many useful discoveries 
and inventions that bid fair to make a thorough revohition in the depart- 
ments of art with which they are connected. Among these, the manufacture 
of new materials for buildings and other structures, hitherto made only of 
■marble or other mineral, expensive and difficult to work. A fictitious or coun- 
terfeit substitute for marble is found m the marbleized iron, which is valuable 
in its way. A far more valuable substitute is found in the Silexian marble, 
,an artificial composition, which we described some months since, and which 
promises much. We now are offered another material, which seems to prom- 
ise great things. A. mere vi«w of these products does not enable one to 
judge of its durability, but the chemical combinations which occur in the 
mixture of its ingredients do furnish testimony to a great extent reliable, 
and this testimony \n this- case is favorable. 

The stone to which we refer is that manufactured by the " American Arti- 
ficial Stone Company," whose works are in Newark, N. J., and are known as 
the Uamil'on Work's. The inventor is Mr. Thos. Ilodgson, but it is now un- 
der the management of a Mr. Wood. 

The stone is composed of sand, sulphate of lime, and blood, and produces 



ARTIFICIAL STO]S"E. 173 



an imitation of the old red sand-stone, popularly called freestone, now used 
so abundantly in our ciry architecture. The chemical action -which gives 
hardness and insolubility to the compound is thus explained : 

1. The sulphate of lime possesses the peculiar property of hardening, after 
being mingled with water, in the form of powder, so as to form the consist- 
ence of cream. If suffered to stand, it rapidly becomes hard, and refuses to 
yield a second time to the action of water, but is to a great extent in that 
form insoluble. . 

2. But the strongest adhesion and its utter insolubility which occurs, is the 
result of a combination of the potash in the blood wiih the silex of the sand, 
forming the silicate of potash, which is insoluble. The iron of the blood also 
which pervades the mass, acted upon in different ways, unites with oxygen and 
forms an oxide of iron, msoluble in water. This product grows harder and 
becomes imperishable by continual exposure to these influences, and is thus 
made a durable and cheap material for ornamental architecture. By the use 
of moulds of various kinds, it may be formed, like the Silexian marble, into 
any desired shapes, whether of statues, bas-reliefs, lintels, trusses, etc. Gar- 
den ornaments are also manufactured by this company, although we under- 
stand from their pamphlet put into our hands, that their purpose is to sell 
the moulds, with the right to manufacture, rather than to manufacture them- 
selves. 

At a meeting of gentlemen interested in this subject, recently held in this 
city, refnarks were made by Prof. Mapes, so replete with interest, and so 
thoroughly endorsing and carrying out our own views in relation to a reform 
in our architecture, as presented in a recent number of this journal, that we 
present them in full, so far as they bear upon this subject or upon the impor- 
tance of the invention. 

" I conceive the great advantage of this invention to be apart from its du- 
rability as a building material : Its use for building purposes will be great ; 
but in addition to this, it will enable us to avail ourselves of the designs of 
sculptors through all time, for our current use. The mould once made, we 
may give in a single hour that which required the labor of a lifetime to 
compose. The study of the arts of design has been materially neglected in 
our country, and the duplication of these ornaments will have a tendency to 
correct the evil ; for when the finest designs shall be found covering the ex- 
terior of our buildings, the eye of the rising generation will, without its volition, 
be educated to recognize the finer class of forms. Look at France, as an ex- 
ample : she warred with half Europe, without colonies to pay tribute, or 
agricultural products to export ; and all this arose from her placing Christen- 
dom under contribution for her arts of design. Napoleon made the arts of 
design a part of the common-school education of France ; and every appren- 
tice, while he learned to read his language, also learned to comprehend the 
beauty of graceful forms, until even the silversmith of England found it his 
profit in copying the designs of the tinsmith of France ; for up to the time 
of Wedgewood, every piece of pottery made in England was but a copy of 
the grotesque forms of those made by the Chinese. Wedgewood introduced 
a school of design in his factory, and thus rendered the manufacture of por- 
celain, china, etc., one of the greatest industiiesof his country. At one time, 
three quarters of the members of the Royal Academy who had received 
the degree of Academician, were found to have emanated from Wedgewood's 
school. 

Last year, we imported twelve hundred thousand dollars worth of French 
furniture, the wood and workmanship of which was inferior to our own ; but 



174 ARTIFICIAL STONE. 



the designs were more graceful ; and our wealthy citizens will continue to 
pay for these designs until our mei^lianics shall became better educated in 
the arts of design. Rest assured the eye may be cultivated even beyond its 
own volition. He who can draw the letter S (which is an approximation to 
Hogarth's line of beauiy) wit'i accuracy, can never be guilty of building an 
ungraceful utensil. Look about this room, observe ttie figures of the carpet, 
the curtains, the form of the girandole, and the graceful form of the tiacks 
of thtise sofas, and you will find that all these de>igns were originally taken 
from the French, before which our furniture was grotesquely square and 
wanting in beauty. A pound of American coitun is still returned to us 
from France a thousand times increased in value in the form of French laces 
embracing French designs. Even French calicoes oC new patterns when 
first introduced, are purchased by our wives and daughters at a price which 
pays the French raaimfai-.turer four hundred per cent, more for his designs 
than we can procure for calicoes of the same quality with designs of less benuty. 

" From all this you may readily perceive, that when Mr, Wood shall have 
ornamented the exterior of our houses wiih coj)ies of the finest desiijns, 
more cheaply than we can now use the plaini-st surfa'-es, the eve of our 
youth will become educated with tne-e beautiful forms, until our cabinet- 
makers, blacksmiths, and so forth, will produce designs of greater beauty 
than those nov? made. At this time the frames of steam-engines and other 
machines are parallelograms supported on straight legs, while the line of 
force is often in another direction. Why should we not copy such forms rfs 
are suggested, by Nature's laws : When a lion le^ps from an eminence, his 
foot reiirt-sents the smallest amount of material arranged in such form as to 
exercise the greatest amount of resistance. 

"And why should not these be copied in the frame of every steam-engine ? 
Why should not our mantles be sustained by caryatiiles, figures of Hercules ; 
or, at least, some figure indicH.tive of strength ? Why should our doorways 
be square frames, requiring but a rope suspended in the middle, to imitate a 
gallows? Fortunately these remarks will not applv to the doors of this 
room. Ornamental architecture may, ere long, rt-lieve us from the use of 
square rooms, causing us to feel as if confined in a packing box, with a win- 
dow in its side. All angles may be relieved by ornament, until this feeling 
of confinement is done away with. 

"The invention of Mr. Wood will be one of the sfreatest engines to relieve 
architecture of its sameness, and will entitle him to the thanks of the public. 
Its beauty is in its simplicity. It canies with it, its own rationale, for suc- 
cess, and after time has permitted all the necessary chemical changes to take 
place, it will then be found capable of being immersed in water without change. 

" When we examine the structures bviilt by the Romans, we are surprised 
to fitid the mortar harder than the stones; but by reference to Vitruvius, we 
find that the Rwmans made their mortar many months before its use; that 
the quantity of lime used was much less than is now applied ; but that im- 
meiliately bi-fore its final use, it was beaten with cleaver-shaped piei-es of 
wood, until the Sdicate of Lime formed, was fairly and evenly divided 
throughout the mass ; and ttiat its peculiar hardness arises from the absence 
of any excess of lime, and the perfect converHou of the small amount used 
into the silicate; which fact is analayous to the rationale we ha^e already 
explained, as belonging to the invention of Mr. Wood. The finest of our 
Filth Avenue houses may be imitated or improved upon, with this material. 
We want but the moulds, and the duplicates can be rapidly and coeaply 
furnished." 



IMPROVED HARNESS SADDLES AND TREES. 



175 




IMPROVED HARNESS SADDLES AND TREES. 



176 IMPROVED HARNESS SADDLES AND TREES. 

The annexed engravings represent an improvement in first-class harness 
saddles and trees, for which a patent was granted lo Robert M. Selleck, of 
this city, on the 'Zlh of last November. 

Figure 1 is a perspective view of the improved saddle ; figure 2 is a per- 
spective view of a saddle partly fini-hed, viewed from the rear; figure 3 is a 
perspective view of the tree as prepared for the saddler to work upon ; figure 
4 represents one-half of a partly finished saddle in section, and figure 5 is a 
vertical longitudinal section, showing the tin seat of the saddle. The same 
letters refer to like parts. 

A represents the cast-iron frame or tree, upon which the saddle is con- 
structed ; B B are the shoulders cast on the sides of its head, C ; D D are 
circular holes for the terrets, E E, to pass through, as represented ; F is an 
oblong slot cut through its tup for a tongue or tack-hold on the gullet piece 
to pass through ; G is the gullet piece. It is provided with an opening in 
its center, and fits over the tree. This gullet piece fits against the shoulderii, 
B B, and its top surface stands even with the head, C. Owing to the 
shoulders being formed on the tree, the full thickness of the leather forming 
the gullet piece can be employed without increasing the thickness of the sad- 
dle. The gullet piece can also be extended back under the cantt-l, H, and 
crupper, I, and be made to f jrm part of the flaps, as shown. If the should- 
ers Wf re liot formed on the tree, the gullet piece would have to be skived ofi", 
and fitted in and tacked to the front of the frame or tree after the flaps have 
been fitted in their places, and the edge of the piece uniting the flaps at the 
back of the tree will also have to be skived ofi" and fitted in and tacked to 
the back of the tree, as is done in constructing saddles on the common wood 
trees. By this arrangement the front and back of the gullet piece on the 
common tree can be made in one, and of the same thickness as the flaps, 
L L, and owing to no tacking and fitting-iu being necessary, can be arranged 
on the frame by the tree-maker before the tree is delivered to the saddler, 
and made to serve as a tack- hold or soft substance for the saddler to work 
upon, and when the saddle is completed, form part of the flaps. By thus 
fitting the gullet piece the bolts which secure the crupper will serve for secur- 
ing it in its place, and the back edge of the leather which covers the saddle 
can be secured under the cantel, instead of to the back edge of the tree, and 
considerable time and labor saved, and a more solid and also a much hand- 
somer and n-^ater appearance given to the back portion of the saddle ; J is 
the tongue or tack hold, to which the front end of the leather which covers 
the seat is tacked. This tongue forms part of the gullet ; it passes down 
through the slot, F, and under the head, C, of the tree, and is secured in 
place by the, gullet hook, K; M M are tongues formed on the flaps, L L. 
These tongues serve as blocking, and also as receptacles for the sockets of 
the terrets, it passing under the frame or tree. A, Avhile the flaps lay on it ; 
N, figure 5, is the false tin seat, arranged on the cantt-l (which owing to its 
being formed by itself, can be made of any desired shape) and also on the 
frame or tree, A. As this seat is made of tin, and can be struck up on a 
die, the part which fits the cantel may be made to form a' perfect circle — 
instead of having its sides nearly verical, as is the case when the cantel and 
seat are cast in one piece. 

. The nature of the improvements consist, 1st, in a cast-iron saddle tree 
having a depression formed on each side of its head, and a gullet p-ece con- 
structed and arranged upon it in such a manner that it can be fitted flat on 
the tree, with its top surface even with the head of the same, withuut the 
necessity of its being skived down and tacked to the front and back of the 



NEW BUILDING MATERIALS. 177 

tree, as when placed on a wooden tree. The gullet piece can also be extended 
back under the cantel and crupper, and secured, and a portion of it can like- 
wise be secured and carried under the head, and by the gullet hook. By 
extending the gullet piece backwards it is made to form part of the flap, and 
owing to its being thus extended, and a portion of it carried under the head, 
it serves as a tack hold to work upon in covering the seat with leather. The 
second improvement consists in providing the flaps with tongues, which pass 
under the lower parts of the frame while the flaps pass over it. By thus 
constructing the flaps, no other blocking than that afforded by the 
tongues is required under the frame. A third improvement consists in 
making the seat of tinned sheet iron, and separate from the cantel. This 
invention possesses manifold advantages over anything heretofore known. 
As it enables the most ordinary workman to make a first-class saddle on 
an iron tree. Heretofore none but the best workmen with safety could be 
put to work on a first-class saddle. Saddles can in this manner be made of 
greater symmetry with increased strength and durability. The tree itself can 
be afforded at a much less cost than heretofore, and a saving of about half a 
day's labor on each saddle is effected, and thereby saddles of the first-class 
can be afforded at the same price as one of the second-class made on an or- 
dinary tree. • 

More information may be obtained of Mr. Selleck, at his place of business, 
253 Pearl street, this city. 



NEW BUILDING MATERIALS. 

A GENTLEMAN exhibited to The Traveller a few days ago a very 
beautiful specimen of a new description of brick, which, if all that is said of 
it be true, may probably effect quite a revolution in the building trade. ■ The 
bricks in question are formed of lime and sand, and are the invention, of 
Mr. Ambrose Foster. Acting on the established fact, that hydrated (wet) 
lime, when exposed to the action of the atmosphere again, takes up the car- 
bonic acid which it lost in the process of burning and slacking, and so be- 
comes indurated, Mr. Foster set himself to work to find out the proper pro- 
portions of sand and lime to form a species of sand-stone. These he found 
were one part lime to twelve of sand. He also found that in order to effect 
a more perfect combination, the lime and sand should be mixed together in 
a nearly dry state. The mixture is then run into moulds, and subjected to 
great pressure, as much indeed as 120 tons upon a single brick of the or- 
dinary size. When placed out in the atmosphere, a chemical change begins. 
The moisture of the atmosphere enables the lime to again take up the car- 
bonic acid, and the whole is transformed in the cour.=e of a few days into 
brick of remarkable hardnesss, ready for ordinary building purposes. 

The surfaces now present the appearance of a whitish sand-stone, while 
month after month, and year after year, the same chemical changes are 
going on, and the bricks become harder and harder, till at last they are said 
to be as indestructible as granite itself. The bricks are also, from their 
nature, impervious to damp, and one great advantage is, that from their 
smoothness and beauty, lathing and plastering becomes unnecessary, and the 
outside and inside of a wall is made at the same time. Owing to their 

12 



178 



SOCIETY OF ARTS EXHIBITION AT PARIS. 



great strengtli and hardness, these bricks can be manufactured with perfora- 
tions, as in the specimen which was shown to us. This is a saving of mate- 
rial, and gives many other advantages. 

Lime and sand, it is well known, are more plentifully scattered than the 
clay from which the common brick is formed, consequently Mr. Foster's in- 
vention will materially decrease the cost of building, since by the machinery 
of manufiicture, which is portable, they can be made in almost all localities 
more cheaply than the most common brick. Metallic oxides may, where 
necessary, be incorporated with the materials so as to give any shade or 
colors required, or produce an almost-indestructible imitation of any kind of 
marble or stone. 

We understand that M. & 3. H. Buck & Co., of Lebanon, New-Hamp- 
shire, who are the agents of the patent and manufacturers, are about to erect 
a dwelling-house in North Danvers, of this new material. An opportunity 
will thus be afforded of testing its strength and durability. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS EXHIBITION IN PARIS. 

The London Practical Mechanics' Journal .contains an illustrated chapter 
on the details of this exhibition. 

Photographic Views of Carriages. — ^Harper & Co., Coachbuilders, of 
the Haymarket, have applied this new process to the production of perspec- 
tive views of carriages. This gives them a complete portfolio, from which 
purchasers may make orders, fully understanding what they order, which 
otherwise, even if reference is made to small diagrams, can scarcely be said to 
be practicable. 

The Circular Plate-Cutting Machine, exhibited by Messrs. Sebley, of 
Ashton-under-Lyne, is prominent in the collection. The representation of it 
is here given. 




This sketch is a hand machine as it stands on a table. A pair of horizon 
tal shaft?, geared by equal-sized spur pinions, are turned by a winch haudle 
while each shaft has at its opposite end a circular shear-edged cutter "" 



The 



STEAMBOAT STATISTICS. 



179 



plate to be cut is clamped by a central screw in a recessed bracket holder, 
adjustable to the size of cut desired. The helix upon the upper cutter shaft 
is to allow of the necessary movement in cutting different thicknesses of plates. 
Different sizes are made, cutting from six inches to six feet in diameter. 
One now at work cuts ^ inch plates to 12 inches in diameter, in ten seconds. 
The American Fog-Horn, as used on the Lakes for signaling ia dense 
fogs. " It produces a stunning sound with a mere zephyr breath, and when 
the full power of the chest is given out, an immense volume of sound is given 
out." - _ 

A Smoke-preventing Furnace, with movable chill-bars, by Mr. Eegan, 
of Liverpool, the object of which is " to give a regulated supply of rarified air 
to the gases of combustion." 

A Railway sanding Apparatus, and Driver's Time-keeper, by Mr. J. 
Beal, of Chestnut. 

The Patent Crystal Window of Messrs. Lloyd & Summerfield, is a v^ery 
elegant adaptation of glass to a new purpose, the framing pillars of large 
windows, such as shop-fronts. " Boxwood and Printers' ink will not copy the 
wonderful hues reflected by such resplendent masses of artificial crystal." 
These fronts consist of plate glass exclusively, supported by flint glass pillars 
or sash bars. Hence the transmission of light to the interior of the apartment 
is perfect. The larger pillars are made in detached lengths, which are bound 
together to form a single solid pillar, by a metal tension rod, passing through 
the centre from end to end. This binding is covered by a silvered tube, which 
materially adds to the luster of the glass. 

The Hand-barrow Ambulance is scarcely more than a wheelbarrow 
frame, with a bed tick or canvas instead of a wooden floor, properly pillowed, 
the wheel of which is capped, for carrying the 
sick and wounded. The wheel may rest on 
, springs. 

f; Mr. Jee's Continuous Rail, for railways, 

represented in the margin, is simply a rail in 
^^^^^^ longitudinal halves or sections, fastened together 
*^1 by bolts or rivets to produce a solid rail. 




Steamboat Statistics. — The Cincinnati Gazette, of Friday, publishes an 
interesting statement prepared by W. W.- Guthrie, Esq., Local Inspector, 
showing the number of steamboats in existence on the Western and South- 
ern rivers, and the number of disasters for the six months ending June 30th, 
1855. From this it appears that 39 boats were totally lost. The estimated 
damage to boats was $573,700, and. to cargoes $1,229,800. Thirty-one lives 
were lost. Twelve steamboats were destroyed by fire, 7 were damaged by 
ice, 52 were sunk or damaged by snags, 5 were damaged by explosion, and 
7 by collision. , The Avhole number of boats on Western and Southwestern 
rivers is put down at 600. Mr. Guthrie says : 

" It is worthy of remark that there has been no explosion or collapse of 
flue of any boiler manufactured since the passage of the law by Congress of Au- 
gust 30th, 1852, and coming under the reduction of f^team pressure. In every 
instance, the disasters have been from boilers made previous to the passage 
of that law." 



180 



peince's pkonean pen. 



PRINCE'SPROTEAN P^N. 

We are now permitted to give a representation of this "Fountafu Pen," 
and do not hesitate to revert again to it as an invention of great value. 
We were in error in describing the interior spring as gold. It is 
all of vulcanized rubber, "Goodyear's patent," and beyond the 
power of anj'- acid to corrode or injure. We have now used one ■ 
of these pens for some two months, and ro pleased are we with it 
that we are dissatisfied when obliged to take up any other, for 
continuous use. If we would write only a receipt, (a duty too sel- 
dom called on to perform,) or other similar service, any pen an- 
swers the purpose. But we have now been writing some two or 
three hours ; and had we been obliged to use a common metalic 
pen, after the experience we now have, we should deem it a real 
misfortune. The letters are formed with a gold pen, selected like 
any other, to suit your own taste. But we are saved the danger 
of spilling ink upon our table from the pen, or upsetting the ink- 
stand, and from reaching after ink, and can occupy the entire 
table with books, or papers, or other conveniences, as we may wish. 
We have filled our pen one day and used it for two days in suc- 
cession, without having recourse to the inkstand. True, we did 
not write a quire of paper during that time, though we covered 
several sheets on each of these days. 

Read again what we have said heretofore on this subject, and 
send the bill to us for damages, if, on trial, every word we have 
written is not literally true. We never commend anything in these 
pages further than we are willing to be judged by the results. 
Nor have we any kind of interest to advance by giving publicity 
to these statements. 

The following directions for its use are given us by the inventor : 
" To fill the reservoir with the piston, remove the cap by turn- 

Fl |j|{| it like a screw, insert the pen in the ink half an inch or more, draw 
1 1 1 up the piston, then with the thumb and finger on the lower part 
of the piston, draw it up tight into the head of the tube that it 
may neither move nor allow any pressure of the air. Wipe the 
pen with a soft cloth or ^aper after filling and ivhenever the cap is 
removed, 

" The piston is not to be pushed down until the ink is entirely 
exhausted.' To push it down, place the thumb and finger just 
_^ above the tube, that the piston may not be broken. 
Put the cap on lightly when the pen is not in use, to preserve the ink from 
dry in f ; and screw it home to its shoulder when carried in the pocket. 

" To' fill the reservoir by suction, (the mode adapted to pocket pens,) loosen 
the small screw at the upper end, but do not take it out ; insert the pen in 
ink, as above ; apply the lips to the small screw, exhaust the air by suction, 
and' while the pen remains in the ink, turn the screw until it is in tight. Or, 
loosen the screw, insert the tube in a bottle of ink, let it remain until the ink 
has found its level in the tube, "then turn the screw until it is tight, and 
the pen is ready for use. 

" The suction pens should be carried in the pocket with the cap upwards. 
" Use good ink, free from sediment : Headly <k Field's American Fluid, also 
Bryan & Wilcox's, and Arnold's Fluid Ink, recommended to the public, as 
they will copy." 



AMEEICAN PATENTS. 181 



J American Patents. 

TALBOT'S IMPROVED LOOM. 

Mr. William Talbot, a practical manufacturer in Williraantic, Ct., has 
lately made some valuable improvements on the loom, adapted to facilitate 
and perfect the weaving of bags, ducks, diapers, twills, checks and cassimers. 
His letters patent are dated November twenty -eighth, 1854. The primary 
idea of the loom is that of the Jaqueard and the endless chain, so modified, 
compacted, and so easily arranged and managed, and so quickly adapted to 
so great a variety of weaving, as to win the approbation and admiration of 
the most expert workmen in that department of manufacturing. 

One great value of this patent; we imagine, will be found in the weaving 
of bags and pillow-cases, making them j^ositivehj uniform, an achievement 
of great difficulty, because of the great number of picks in both, and the ne- 
cessity of measuring those picks, and thus securing a proper bottoming. 
The improvement can be so arranged, ifl a very short period of time, as to 
weave bags, twilled 'or plain, of exactly uniform length, or of exactly an 
equal number of picks, day after day, or rather through beam after beam, 
making a real and strong bottom to each. Those engaged in making bags 
will easily see the worth of this improvement in the department of weaving. 
The cards of the Jaqueard and the endless chain are dispensed with by Mr. 
Talbot, in weaving large patterns. Their ^^laces are supplied by two cyhn- 
ders, the rotary action of one being used in making the body of the bag, 
and the action of the other being used in making the bottom of the same — 
the action of the one cylinder giving motion to the other cylinder when the 
first is desired to be motionless, and the second is desired to be in action. • 

Another fact about the loom is, that it weaves with a shed opening both 
ways ; not a peculiarity indeed, but a fact which every manufacturer of goods, 
iigured in weaving, may desire to know. We have seen a loom in opera- 
tion having seventeen harnesses, and the shed was broad open, for the free 
and easy passage of the shuttle, without any great tension of the warp. 

The open shed, moreover, is connected with such a particular motion of 
the harnesses, that when any one or more are either up or down, they have 
a pause in their motion ; a short pause, indeed, but still of great value in 
giving time for the shuttle to race through its course. In most looms, when 
a harness attains its greatest height in weaving, or its lowest point, it is 
made instantly to move to the opposite point. This improvement, on the 
contrary, gives the harness a moment's pause when it is either up or down 
in its motions. 

Connected with this fact of a pause in the motions of the harnesses, 
while they are at the highest or lowest point, is this other feet, that this im- 
provement secures such a com^pensation of motion, as to require but a moiety 
more power to run it than is needed in the lighter and plainer looms. One 
or more harnesses up-balance an equal number which is down ; and very 
little power is needed to make them change places, so perfectly is compensa- 
tion secured. 

This peculiarity stands connected with another, which is, that the loom, 
while moved with little power and noise, can safely and properly be made to 
move with very great speed. We have' seen it going at the speed of one- 
hundred and thirty picks to the minute, and we know that it can be tended 
with the ease of the common loom. 



182 AMERICAN PATENTS. 



The cost of applying this improvement to a common satinet loom is 
about forty-five dollars ; and a new loom constructed after this patent may 
be made at a cost of one hundred dollars, or thereabouts. It only remains 
for us to say, that one gentleman, a distinguished weaver and designer, 
looking upon the loom in operation, says : " On that loom I can weave any- 
thing." Any person calling at our ofhce, No. 9 Spruce street, can see some 
beautiful specimens of its work. One or all the improvements have been 
adopted already in several celebrated mills. We deem it equal to any dis- 
covery made in weaving during the present century. Particular information 
may be had by applying to Messrs. Rollinson & Talbot, of Willimantic, Ct., 
or to Messrs. Howe & Converse, Stafford, Ct. 



CONTINUOUS WOOLEN SPINNER. 

Mr. a. E. Bigelow, manufacturer, in Rockville, Ct., has lately invented 
and constructed an improved woole'h spinner, to which he has given the 
- name placed above. For his improvements, letters patent were issued in the 
spring of 1855. It has been been our pleasure to see it at work ; and we are 
pleased to say, that it meets the expectation and excites the admiration of 
woolen spinners. It strikes the beholder as being a woolen ring-traveler 
spinning-frame, and such, indeed, it is. The advantages claimed for the 
" Continuous Spinner" over the jack, are quite numerous and obvious. A 
spindle in this frame will do twice the work of one in a jack, in the same 
length of time ; and hence a thousand spindles running after this mode of 
spinning, will do the same work, in a given time, which is done by two 
thousand jack spindles. Then, again, space is economized by this improve- 
ment to the amount of fifty per cent. — a very great gain. The spindle re- 
volving on a stationary point needs not the room of the jack spindle, which 
moves outward from the strand. Another excellence is, that the Continuous 
Spinner economizes in the account of help, a child ten years of age turning 
out as much yarn in a specified time as can be turned off from jacks by two 
men. Add this to a large saving on account of waste, which is eighty per 
cent, less than on ordinary jacks, and we have the sum of the advantages 
claimed. Any person inspecting the machine in operation, and having only 
a moderate acquaintance with woolen spinning as it is performed on 
jacks, will easily see that the the claims set forth in the foregoing statement 
are not exaggerated. Mr. Daniel Painter, of Worcester, Mass., Mr. Geo. 
Kellogg. Jr., of Rockville, Ct., and Mr. Carlton Grant, of the latter place, give 
the spinner their positive recommendation. • It seems well ada2")ted to fulfil 
its promise, and make woolen spinning more simple and economical. One 
frame spinner of one hundred and twenty-eight spindles has been in opera- 
tion some two successive years, and it may now be seen at the Florence Mill, 
in Eockvilie, Manufacturers of wool, who have occasion to use yarn, should 
give it an inspection. Particulars may be learned from the patentee, H. E. 
Bigelow, Esq., of Rockville, Ct. 

India Rubbeu Lining of Ships. — Mr. J. P. Corbett of New-York, has 
patented a plan, of lining vessels with a continuous coating of India Rubber, 
as a safeguard against leakage. The space between the frame and the lining 
is filled with the rubber. 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 183 



MINNii: AND SHARP'S RIFLES. 

An account is given in The Traveller^ of the rifle manufactory of Messrs. 
EoBBiNS, Lawrence & Co., of Windsor, Vt. It is situated in Hartford, 
Ct. We have seen the workmanship of this company, and have long known 
their great reputation as manufacturers of fire-arms, and we are sure that 
they stand, deservedly, among the best artists in their kinds of work, therein 
described, in this country. The following is the account referred to : 

" One mile southwest of the State House, on the banks of Little River, 
stands the manufactory of Sharpe's rifle, and the Minnie rifle. This estab- 
lishment is owned by Robbins, Lawrence & Co., of Windsor, Vt., where 
they carry on large works for the manufacture of pistols, rifles, and machinery. 
The establishment here as there, is admirable for its perfection and system. 
Those who have a taste for such things, and love to see the triumph of mind 
over matter, cannot fail of satisfaction in witnessing the march of a rifle from 
its elements of rude iron and wood to its perfect state — much like the mock 
development of a rose in the magic lantern, from bud to full blown flower, 
in a minute. Thus : 

" A flat bar of iron, two feet long, and weighing eight pounds, is started 
at one end of a series of fourteen trip hammers, which strike eight hundred 
blows a minute. In its progress it is flattened, lengthened, rounded and 
welded. It then passes through a series of borers, by which the inner sur- 
face is smoothed, polished, and the spiral grooves cut. A series of lathes 
then polishes the outer surface. Other processes prepare the lock and its 
appendages. The stock, of black wallnut, which comes rough from the 
forests of Ohio, passes rapidly through its own metamorphosis by appropriate 
machinery.^ That for cutting the putch-box and the inlets for the lock is 
wonderful. It consists of a frame having a lateral motion, in which is 
inserted a series of drills moving perpendicularly, each in its turn, as the 
frame moves laterally. What would require a man with hands and many 
tools an hour, or more likely two hours, to accomplish, is here done in two 
minutes. What I have described, relates, as to the barrel, to the Minnie rifle. 

" Sharpe's rifle is a lighter arm for horsemen and sportsmen, neater, 
shorter, and more perfect. The barrel, instead of wrought iron, is made of 
cast steel, and the calibre is bored from a solid cylinder. This arm has re- 
ceived the approbation of the government over all others of the species. The 
excellence consists, not only in the perfect adaptation for load at the breech, 
but in the apparatus for priming. A cylinder two inches long, and as large 
as a pipe stem, contains fifty flattened caps, resembling spangles on a lady's 
fan. This cylinder, inserted perpendicularly on the. top of the breech, rests 
on a spiral spring pressing upwards. After each discharge, and at the re- 
cocking of the gun, a debcate slider removes a cap from its cylindrical pipe, 
and fixes it on the vent, ready for another dischai'ge. The ball is solid and 
conical, attached to the cartridge by a string. The cartridge and ball are 
two inches in length. The operator provided v,dth cartridges at his side and 
rounding at the breech, if he is practised, can discharge the piece eighteen 
times a minute. The ball of the Minnie rifle is hollow, that it may the bet- 
ter expand into the grooves, and form a slug. 

"This Company are making large quantities of arms, which indirectly find 
their way to the British government and into their army. They also make 
much machinery for Biitish manufacturers. I understand that many 
machines used in this establishment are as yet hardly introduced into Great 



184 AMEKICAN PATENTS. 



Britain. These works, though standing on a stream, are moved principally 
bj steam. One engine is of sixty-horse power, and another of forty-hoi-se 
power. It is interesting to see how in this region steam is taking the placje 
of water power, as raih'oads have of canals. At New-Britain, a sluggish 
stream first started their manufactures, but now is almost entirely unused." 



PRINTING IN COLORS. 

Printin'g in colors is an art which has been carried to great perfection by 
several processes, and several machines have been lately devised for cheapen- 
ing and expediting the work. Mr. Samuel Brown, of Syracuse, N. Y., 
patented a press, the practical operation of which is little known beyond its 
immediate locality, but which is capable of printing four colors at one im- 
pression, and will throw off about 500 impressions per hour. The press is 
on the " platten," or " flat impression" principle, and in general appearance it 
somewhat resembles the Adams press. Each colored ink is distributed on a 
separate roller, and all move horizontally across the form at the same time, 
but at difterent levels ; the blue roller, for example, being beneath the black, 
and the yellow and red ranging still further below. Those portions of the 
" form" which are to be of any given color are " locked up" in separate small 
" chases," and as the bed of the press sinks down after each impression, these 
chases are stopped by pins projecting from the sides ; each at their proper 
level, to receive the desired color. Only one of these presses is yet in opera- 
tion; but, although evidently somewhat clumsy, and liable to derangement, 
the specimens of work done are very creditable, and give promise of very' 
favorable results in the coarser kinds of colored work. 

A polychromatic press, far superior to this for every variety of small work, 
has been patented and set in successful operation by Messrs. A. M. & G. H. 
Babcock, of Westerly, R. I. In this press the paper is laid on a revolving 
cylinder, or rather parallelopiped, with four flat faces, and it is firmly held 
by the usual means. The paper is laid oh the upper face, after which a 
quarter revolution presents a new face to receive paper, and presents the 
paper already laid to the action of a form which moves horizontally from the 
side. Another quarter revolution presents this first sheet to the- action of 
another form, rising from beneath, of a different color, and a third movement 
gives it a third impression. A fourth movement presents it at the top again, 
when the printed sheet is removed, and another laid on. The three forms, 
one form on each side, and one form beneath, move up simultaneously 
against the three faces, whilst the hand of the attendant is occupied in 
changing the paper on the fourth. The inking rollers, of which, of course, 
a separate set is provided for each form, perform their duties admirably, 
moving once backward and forward over the form, whilst the paper cylinder 
is changing positions. The "register" of this press is perfect, a point of the 
first im[)ortance in color printing, as the sliglitest misplacement of an im-' 
pression frequently ruins what would otherwise be a fine effect. The work 
is performecl rapidly and well, ytt without violent motions of concussions, 
and the number of inks employed is three, although, by a trick well known 
to the craft — allowing some lines to receive two full and perfect impressions, 
thus superposing one color upon another — six actual varieties may be pro- 
duced. Patents for the United States have been secured, and measures are 
taken to secure patents for the British islands. 



•ENGLISH PATENTS. 



185 



EnglishPatents. 

Hydrostatic Motive Powek Engines. — Consiclerable jjower 5s derivable 
from a Barker's mill, but, from some hitherto unknown cause, as beneficial a 
result has never been obtained from it as from an equal expenditure of water 
in other machines. I conceive that this description of engine has thus failed 
to realize theoretical expectations regarding it, on account of a serious defect 
in the construction. In an ordinary Barker's mill, the water is admitted to 
the center of the wheel at one side only ; consequently, as the pressure due 
to the fall of water exerts itself in all directions within the wheel, and the 
ducts leading to it, it follows that there will be an unbalanced pressure tend- 
inw to force the wheel away from the duct, and causing immense pressure 
and friction against the bearings on the opposite side of the wheel to that at 
which the water enters. When the cause of the defect is explained, the 
remedy at once suggests itself, and consists in iutruducing the water to the 
wheel at both sides. An arrangement for carrying out this improvement, 

which has lately been patented by me, is 
represented in the accompanying engrav- 
ing. Here the water is conducted to the 
apparatus by a pipe, a, which branches 
off to two boxes, b. These boxes are on 
opposite sides of the wheel, c, which re- 
volves in a vertical plane. The shaft of 
the wheel is hollow fiom end to end, and 
its opposite ends are entered through 
stuffing-boxes into the boxes, b, and the 
water enters into the body of the wheel 
in equal quantities from each side, so that 
there is no lateral pressure whatever on 
the bearings, and the wheel is enabled to 
give off its full power, which is communi- 
cated to the machinery to be driven by 
■^^^^^^^^s^s^^^^J^S^*^^^ means of the pulley, d. The wheel, c, 
here represented is of the simplest kind, being composed of two hollow curv- 
ed arms, from the ends of which the water is ejected, causing the wheel to 
revolve. The improvement is, however, obviously applicable to various des- 
criptions of turbines and other hydrostatic 'motive power engines. 

DuLwiCH, February, 1855. C. Tetlet. 

Steam-Engines and Governors. 
J. W. Hagxwoeth, Darlington. — Patent dated September %, 1854. 

This patent comprehends various modifications of the general details of 
steam-engines, as more especially intended for stationary and marine pur- 
poses, with the view of securing proper efficiency of working action. ' 

One detail of these improvements relates to a " Duplex Over-end Crank," 
to be used instead of the ordinary crank arrangements of steam-engines. This 
double crank is made by keying or forging on, the end of the main shaft, a 
plain crank arm of the usual kind. The opposite end of this crank is formed 
with an eye to receive a stout crank-pin (answering as the working pin for 
one steam-cylinder,) which is forged in one piece with a second arm, or 
lighter crank lever. The other end of this secondary arm has forged upon it a 




186 



ENGLISH patents: 



second crank- pin for the other steam-cylinder. The stouter pin of the second- 
ary crank arrn is fixed into the eye of the first crank, so as to set the two 
arms at a considerable angle with each other, or at a right angle, as may be 
desired'. The slide-valve for each steam-cylinder of a pair of engines may be 
"worked from a spanner, keyed on the end of the secondary crank-pin ; the 
oth^r end of this spanner being -directed back as far as the center of the 
shaft, -whilst it terminates in a solid pin set true with the axial line of the 
main shaft, upon which two eccentrics, two eccentrically disposed pins may 
be used. 

The steam-cylinders for actuating this " Duplex Over-end Crank" are dis- 
posed, one on each side of the main shaft, opposite to each other, and nearly 
in the same straight line. The axial lines of the two cylinders must vary 
sufficiently in the plane of the shaft, to allow for the thickness of the second 
crank, in addition to one-half of each crank journal. But by cranking the 
second crank lever, the distance may be diminished. 

Another portion of the improvements relate to a system of economizing 
steam power, by means of an arrangement which is represented in vertical 
section in fig. 1 of our engravings. Here an inverted steam-cylinder a, sup- 



FlG. 1. 



posed to be placed vertically 
above the shaft which it 
drives, is supported upon a 
hollow cast-iron platform, or 
table, B, the central portion 
of which is shaped to answer 
as the bottpm cover of the 
cylinder with the piston-rod 
stufling-box cast upon it. The 
table, B, is carried by four 
hollow cast-iron pillars, c, 
being held down by long 
bolts, D, passing to the base 
frame below. The steam-cy- 
linder, A, is cast in one piece 
with, or it may be otherwise 
attached to, an outer cylin- 
der, E, arranged to enclose an 
annular space round the cy- 
linder, A. The exhaust port 
orports, F, in the valve cas- 
ing g, communicate with this annular space, into which the exhatist steam 
from the steam-cylinder consequently enters. A number of tubes, h, are passed 
vertically through the space between the two cylinders ; and they communi- 
cate with spaces above and below the cylinders, and through the^e tubes the 
feed-water is made to pass on its way to the boiler, being pumped up frorp. 
below by the pipes at i, and passing oft" above by the pipe, j. It fallows from 
this arrangement, that the exhaust steam surrounding the steam-c}linder, A, 
will prevent loss by radiation of heat therefrom, and will, at the same time, 
communicate a portion of its heat to the feed-water rising through the tubes, 
II. The exhaust steam, and any condensed portion of it, finally passes ofi" by 
the bottom port, k, which communicates with the interior of the hollow table 
B, and with the hollow pillars, c, being thus spread over a large extent of 
metallic condensing surface, and finally, finding its way to a cistern below. 
The arrangement just described is obviously most suitable for a vertical 





ENGLISH PATENTS. 



187 



steam-cylinder ; but the apparatus may also be adapted to steam-cylinders 
arranged in other positions. Thus, with horizontal steam-cylinders, the 
tubes, II, may be bent round across the steam-cylinder, but it is preferred in 
all cases to have these tubes as nearly vertical as possible. 

The patent also covers a nev? form of governor, vv'hich is represented in ver- 
tical section in figs. 2 and 3, and consists of a-three-branched vessel or pipe, 
A, carried upon a vertical spindle, b, supported and driven in the manner 
usually employed with ordinary ball or pendulum governors. One, c, of the 
three branches of the vessel, a., rises up centrally and vertically, whilst the 
two other branches, d, run out, upwards and laterally, on opposite sides. The 
central branch, c, is bored out cylindrically, and inside it works a plunger, or 
heavy float, e, A rod, f, passes up from the float, e, through a hole in the 
Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 

cover of the pipe, c, and is joined to the lever, g, wliich transmits the regu- 
lating action of the governor to tbe throttle valve, h. A quantity of mer- 
cury, I, or other suitable fluid, is placed in the vessel, A, which mercury fills 
tbe three branches to the same level when the governor is at rest. On the 
governor being caused to revolve, however, the centrifugal action causes tbe 
mercury to run up the lateral branches, d, and to sink to a lower level in the 
central branch, c. If the governor is driven beyond the proper rate, the 
mercury will sink so lo-w in the central branch, c, as to allow the float, e, to 
descend, which movement will act on the throttle-valve connections in sucli 
a manner as to partially close the valve, and diminish tbe supply of steam to 
the engine. Contrariwise, when the governor revolves at too low a rate, tbe 
mercury will siuk> in tbe laternal branches, d, and rise correspondingly the 
central branch, c, lifting the float, e, and thereby causing the throttle- valve 



188 MISCELLANEOUS. 



to open further, and give an increased supply of steanv to the engine, to en- 
able it to recover its rate. The throttle-valve, ii, represented as in connection 
with the improved governor, is also constructed according to one portion of 
the invention. The valve seating consists of a cylinder, j, fitted into the 
steam-pipe, k, in such a manner that one end of the pipe communicates with 
one or both ends of the cylindrical seating, whilst the other end communicates 
with the circumference of the seating, the stream having to pass through the 
cylindrical valve seating on its way to the cylinder, this passage being effected 
through slots in the seating. The spindle, l, of the valve passes through the 
axis of the seating, and carries a number of radial feathers corresponding to 
the slots in the valve seating, j, and turning on their circumferental edges to 
work upon the turned inside surface of the valve seating. The valve is thus 
balanced as regards the steam pressure, which can in no position have any 
tendency to shut or open it, or prevent its being shut or opened, by the least 
possible force applied to its lever. 

In addition to the above, Mr. Hackworth also describes two arrangements 
of reversing gear for mining and similiar engines. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Saleratus. — The Medical Examiner reviews at some length the state- 
ment of Dr. Alcott respecting the poisonous effects of saleratus used in food, 
and after carefully examining the statements, closes by saying — what is per- 
fectly correct, in our judgment-^that " there can be but little doubt that the 
dangerous properties attributed to saleratus by some persons, exist entirely 
in their imaginations." . 

Patents Granted. — In 1841, there were 847 apjjlications, 312 caveats, 
and 4Q5 patents were issued. In 1847 there were 1531 applicants, 533 
caveats, and 572 patents issued. In 1852, 2,639 applicants, 996 caveats, 
1,020 patents issued. 

Ship-building. — The number of vessels built in the United States, in cer- 
tain years, is given in the census returns, as follows : 

1815, 136 ships, 224 brigs, 680 schooners, 274 sloops and canal boats. 
Total 1,314 ; tons, 154,624. 

1829, 44 ships, 68 brigs, 480 schooners, 145 sloops and canal boats, 43 
steamers. Total 785 ; tons 77,098. 

1852, 255 ships, 79 brigs, 584 schooners, 267 sloops and canal boats, 259 
steamers. Total 1,444 ; tons 351,493. 

Steam Tonnage of United States. — The steam marine of the United 
States by the report of the Secretary of the Treasury in 1852, consisted of ocean 
steamers 96, ordinary 382, propellers 67, ferry-boats 80. total 625 , 
tonnage 212,500. The inland steam marine consists of 767 steamers, of 
274,723 tonnage. 

J. B. Wickeksham is at his old stand, 312 Broadway, and is agent of the 
^Ew-YoRK Wire Railing Works. He has a fine book of specimens of 
capitals, fences, fire-frames, chimney-pieces, girders, gratings, bedsteads, etc. 
The volume will bo forwarded to any order, enclosing a shilling or four post- 
age stamps. 



NEW BOOKS. 189 



New Description of Silver. — A Frencli savant, M. Sainte Clair De- 
\alle, has succeeded in obtaining from the aluminum in common clay a metal 
which rivals silver in beauty, and surpasses it in durability, not to mention 
other qualities. It can also be produced in masses sufficient and cheap 
enoutrh to replace copper, and even iron in many respects, the cost of ex- 
tracting it, owing to recent discoveries, being only about forty cents the 
pound. The new metal is wonderfully light. Among the many remarka- 
ble qualities.of aluminum, such as its resistance to oxydation, either in the 
air or by acids, its hardness, its wonderful lii^htness, its malleableness, the 
facility of moulding it, etc., we are told of another, its sonority. An ingot 
was suspended by a string, and being lightly struck emitted the finest 
tones, such as are obtained only by a combination of the best metals. 

CoTTOK Manufacture in the South. — An able writer, in a Northern 
periodical, has taken up this subject, and shows very conclusively that the 
Southern States ought to become the manufacturers, as well as producers, 
of cotton for the world. From facts furnished by this writer, it appears 
that the cotton manufacture makes up nearly one-half of the external trade 
of the British Kingdom. The United States furnish four-fifths of the six 
millions of pounds imported into Great Britain. The writer proves, by sta- 
tistics and figures, that the British manufacturer receives five times as much 
for converting the cotton into cloth, as the farmer for producing the raw ma- 
terial, and both employ the same amount of capital. It appears that the 
same disproportion exists between the profits of the Southern planter and 
the Northern manufacturer. The writer then sets forth the great advantage 
possessed by the Southern planter for manufacturing, and shows that the 
mere saving in the transportation would go largely to the payment of the 
manufacture. He urges that instead of increasing the product, already too 
great, the true Southern policy is to enter largel)^ into the manufacture, and 
thui withdraw a portion of the labor engaged in the production, and employ 
it in the more profitable mode of manufactures. — Mobile Advertiser, . 



NEW BOOKS. 



A Practical Grammar, etc. By S. M. Clark, A.M,, Principal of Cortland Academy. 

New-York : A. S. Barnes &. Co. 1 855. 

Another stone in the " foundation" of the English language. It is " analytic" in its 
character, beginning with letters, and going on to the most complicate sentences Dia- 
grams have been introduced for illustrating the subjects, the value of which, says the 
author, has been tested by experience, being of as much value here as in Mathematics, 
since by it the mind is relieved, and receives valuable aid from the eye. This new can- 
didate for popular favor will, no doubt, receive its share of attention. 



The New-York Musical Review and Gazette. Mason <fe Brothers, New-York. 

We have long intended to commend this capital Weekly sheet to all our musical 
friends who hke to be posted up on American and foreign musical afifairs. Every num- 
ber pays well for the reading, and if we ever differ from the Editor, it only shows that 
"editors disagree" in music as well as elsewhere. We say emphatically, this journal 
is well worth the respectful attention of the public. 



190 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



NEW MUSIC. 
Pianos for Pdblio Schools. 

We learn from the Buffalo Courier that the citizens of School District No. 14, by their 
committee, after examioing various Pianos with reference to durability, finish, tone and 
comparatiye excellence, have selected one of Messrs. Boardman & Gray's Pianos, with 
the corrugated sounding-board, for their school. 

This is an example that should be imitated by other schools. Let Music and cheer- 
fulness take the place of the rod and arbitrary law in schools, and we have taken a long 
step in the way of human progress that will not need to be retraced. 

And as to Pianos, those made by Messrs, B. & G. certainly stand A No. 1 in the 
list. They are made to last and improve rather than grow dull with age. They have 
several points of excellence (secured by letters patent) which others have not, and are 
pronounced by many of our best Pianists to have no equals in any country. 



We have received from the House of S. T, Gordon, 29*7 Broadway, where lovers of 
good music can be supplied with whatever is fresh or desirable in that line, as also ■with 
Pianos, Melodeons, and Organs, from the best manufacturers, a choice selection of mu- 
sic, consisting of Polkas, Schottisches, Ballads, comic, sentimental and moral. Among 
which are — "My Mother's Grave," by W. G. Wetmore, M.D ; "The Early Flower," 
by W. H. Hartwell ; "Spare the Old Homestead," by J. P. Webster; "The Poultry 
and The Baby-Show Polkas ;" " Have you seen Sam," etc, etc. 



List of Patents Issued 

FEOM JULY 10, 1855, TO AUGUST 3, 1855. 



John Aspinwall, London, for improvement in 
apparatus for draining sugar. 

Charles Atwood, Birmingham, Conn., improve- 
ment in ventilating railroad cars. 

Jonathan F. Barrett, North Granville, N. Y., for 
improved method of raising and lowering the 
cutters of harvesters. 

Thomas Barrows, Dedham, improvement in 
process for treating wool. 

Wm. Blackburn, Jersey City, N. J., for auto- 
matic machine for turning ship spars, etc. 

Francis B. Rlanchard, Wateryille, Me., for im- 
provement in air and steam engine. 

Samuel W. Brown, Lowell, for improvement in 
gas regulators. 

Eleazar Brown, Jr., for improvement in lubrica- 
ting compounds. 

S. N. Campbell, Elgin, III., for improved sun- 
shade. 

Daniel Campbell, Washington, D. C, for im- 
provement in saddle trees. 

Jamps E. Cronk, I'oughkecpsie, for device to 
allow the escape of waste water from pump bar- 
rels. 

Lyman Clinton, North Ilaven, Conn., for im- 
provement in straw • utter*. 

Daniel Deshon, 9d, Whitesfown, for improve- 
ment in spark arresters. 

Kufus M. Dill, of Ilolyoke, for improvement in 
looms. 

Sheldon S. Hartshorn, of Orange, Conn., for 
improvement in buckets. 



John J. Heard, Boston, for ship pump. 

Enoch Jackman and Edwin G. Dunham, Port- 
land, for improvement in fastenings for carpets. 

Beujamin F. Joslyn, Worcester, improvement 
in slice wrenches. 

Wright Lancaster, of Harmony Township, Ind.' 
for improvement in washing machines. 

James Murphy, New-York, improvement in 
steam boilers. 

Jno O'Niel, Kingston, N. Y., for improvement 
in machine for pulverising clay. 

Orson Parkhurst and Daniel Bullock, Cbhoes, 
for machine for cutting screws on bedsteads. 

Isaac J. Hite, White Post, Ya., Assignor to "W. 
F. Pugett, of same place for improvement in har- 
vesters. 

F. A. Parker, Shaftsbury, Vt., for improvement 
in saw-sets. 

Adonijah and Simeon Peacock, Cincinnati, fo' 
improvement in attaching cast points to steel 
mould-boards of plows. 

Samuel Pearson and Wm. H. Gardner, of Rox- 
bury, for improvement in rope and cordage ma- 
chines. 

William Robinson, Augusta, Ga., for stave ma- 
chine. 

Stephen Saunders, South Kingston, R. I., for 
vibrating stop water for ships and other vessels. 

Frederick Scheurer, N. Y., for improvement in 
counter scales. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



191 



Jos. Smart, Philadelpliia, for self-regulating 
water pa^kiug for pumps, etc. 

Samuel W. Soule, Oswego, for improvement in 
excavators. 

Sophia B. Spafford, administratrix, and George 
Alexander, admiuistratorof Simeon L. Spaftbrd, 
deceased, (late of Phi'adelphia,) for improvement 
in railroad draw-biidge signals. 

Andrew Stoeekel,N. Y., for machine for cut- 
ting legs for pianos, tables, etc. 
;3Chas. M. Swany, Richmond. Ind., for guage or 
stair rai >i. 

Charles F. Thomas, Taunton, for improvement 
ia the means of increasing draft in locomotives. 

Stephen Ustic, Philadelphia, for improvement 
in brick presses. 

Orrin D. Vosmus, Mt. Sterling, Ky., for im- 
provi ment in open stirrups. 

Wm. E. Ward, Port Chester, for improvement 
in machines for making boit.s. 

Jerome B. WoodrulT, Washington, D. C, for im" 
provement in sewing machines. 

John C. Young, Middletown, Md., for machine 
for boring posts and pointing rails. 

John Edgar, Baltimore, Md , for self-regulating 
wind-mills. 

Wm. P. Walter, Philadelphia, for improvement 
in manufacturing plate glass from cylinders. 

Abnor Whitely, of Clark county, Ohio, for im- 
provement in grain and grass harvesters. 

John Philips, of Waynesborough, Pa., assignee 
to Benjamin Brantz, of the same place, for self- 
regulating wind-mill. 

'•The Delaware Air-Spring Manufacturing Com- 
pany," assignee ^f James F. Heyward of Wil- 
mington, Uel., for improvement in pneumatic 
springs. Patented in England, Jan. 2i!, 1855. 

Chas. F, Brown, Warren, R. I., improved mode 
Of mounting ordenance. 

C. H. Butterfleld, South Lancaster, Mass, im- 
provement in lanterns. ;;; 

Washington H. Bixler, Easton, Pa., improve 
ment in nut machines. 

Benj. Eastman, Philadelphia, improvement in 
invalid bedsteads. 

Jacob Edson, Boston, improved method of op- 
erating valve of pumps. 

Edwin Ellis, Ansonia, Conn., improvement in 
machines for forming metal tubes. 

John Frazer, New-York, assignor to Logan' 
Vail & Co., of same place, improvement in adjust- 
able rises. 

William Gourley, Clarke county, Va., improve- 
ment in harrows. 

John K. and William P. Gamble, Philadelphia, 
improvement in safety railroad draw-bridges. 

Francis Blake, Needham, Mass., improved rosin 
oil latnps. 

Joseph C. Gartly and Jacob Fox, Philadelphia) 
fan-blower. 

L. A. Gibbs, Wash'n, D. C.,'expanding auger or 
bit. 

John B. Holmes, New- York, assignor to A. R. 
Pratt, same place, improvement in ship's cap- 
stans. 

J. Carroll House, Lowvillo, N. Y., alarm bed- 
stead. 

Aaron G. Heckrotte, New- York, improvement 
in railroad car coupling. 

Tyler Howe, Cambridgeport, improvement in 
bedsteads. 

Julea Jennotat, Paterson, N. J,, improvement in 
bottle fastenings. 



Harold Kelsea, North Branch, N. !!., improve- 
ment in treating a single Etrand and twisting Sew- 
ing thread. 

J. S. Morgan. Highland, 111., -wind-mill. 

Edward Mingay, Boston, improvement in der- 
.ricks. 

David Mathew, Philadelphia, improvement in 
apparatus for heating feed water to locomotive 
engines. 

Jos. A. Peabody, Lowell, machine for morticing 
window blinds. 

S. T. Parmelee, New-Brunswick, N. J., im- 
provement in attaching metallic heels to India 
rubber soles. 

Oliver Palmer, Buffalo, wi'ecking-pump-rotary. 

John-Ryan, Wilmington, Del., improvement in 
railroad car coupling. 

Frederick R. Robinson, Worcester, improve- 
ment in guides for sewing machines. 

John B. Stott and Alex. Ferguson^ Troy, im- 
provement in cro:s-head attachment for working 
engine valves. 

Matthew Ludwig, Boston, machine for sawing 
down trees. 

Otis Tufts, Boston, improvement in construct- 
ing iron ships. English patent dated April 2, 
1854. 

Wm. C. Worthen, New- York, improvement in 
metallic blinds for doors and windows. 

Willard M. Wheeler, Upton, Mass., water- 
w^heel. 

Moses D. Wells, Morgantown,Va., improvement 
in churns. 

Edwin Williams, Covington, Ky., improved 
excavating machine. 

Edwin D. Willard, Washington, D. C, improve- 
ment in gas-burning gridirons. 

Edward Wood, Philadelphia, improvement in 
looms. , 

David Watson, Petersburgh, improvement in 
harvesters. 

Chas. Waters, Brooklyn, improvement in lan- 
terns. 

Henry Van De Water, Troy, turbine water 
wheel. 

James Dickinson and Oliver White, Richmond, 
Ind., self-regulating wind-mill. 

John Pepper, Franklin, N. H., assignor to the 
Franklin Mills of same place, improvement in 
knitting machines. 

Albert Reinhaidt, New- York, assignor to Jas. 
Schlumberger & Co., Gueberyiller, France, im- 
provement in machinery for preparing wool for 
combing. 

W. H. Elliot, Plattsburgh, N. Y,, improvement 
in devices for sealing preserve cans. 

John A. Reynolds, Elmira, improvement in Are 
arms. 

John A. Reynolds, Elmira, improved apparatus 
for corking repeating fire-arms. 

Cephas Appleton, Lyndon, Vt., Machine for 
cutting sheet metal. 

John and Evan Archer, New-Brunswick, N. J., 
for cutting boot and shoe uppers, soles, etc., from 
sheets of India rubber. 

Archibald Railcy, BIueKock, O., whippletree. 

William Ball, Chickopee, M^iS.*., feeding water 
steam boilers by auxiliary engines. 

G. Thompson, E. Tarentum, Pa., mode of e 
paring potash and soda. 

Pierpont Seymour, E. Bloomfield, N. Y., seea 
planter. 



192 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



A. E. Smith, Bronxville, N. Y., washers for 
axles. • 

C. A. Wilson, Newport, Ky., oscillating valves 
and gearing for pumping engines. 

Wm. Mootry, New-Yorit, refrigerators. 
Jesse Urmy, Wilmington, Del., grain and grass 
harvesters. 

Augustus Seaborn, assignor to E. T. Fairbanks 
& Co., St. Johnsbury, Vt , union platform scales. 

S. T. Jones, New -York, furnace for treating 
zinc ore. 

Andrew Campbell, Newark, N, J., feeding paper 
to printing presses. 

Willis IIumistOD,. Troy, N. Y., candle mould 
apparatus. 

Merwin Davis, New-York, printing press. 

Augustin Duboce, Brooklyn, N. Y., propellers. 

John A. Buruap, Albany, N. Y , double recip- 
rocating split piston rods for pumps, etc. 

Frank Otase, So. Sutton, N. H , window blinds. 

Matthew F. Connet, Plainfleld, N. J., turning 
cylinders of wood. 

. J. T. Eussell, Tyler county, Va., wagons. 

T. E. Saridgren. Wilmington, Del., hydrody- 
namic friction joints. 

G. R. Comstock, Manheim, N. Y., cheese 
presses. 

John AUender, New-London, Ct., bottle fasten- 
ings. 

James Montgomery, Baltimore, Md., wrought 
iron shafts, 

Henry Colgate, Jersey City, N. J., starch mak- 
ing. 

John Williams, Hartford, Ct., calendar clocks. 
Albert Walcott, Detroit, Mich., dressing lumber 
.from the log. 

E. A. Swan, Brooklyn, N. Y., and De Witt C. 
Smiley, iMew-York, dressing and carving stone. 

F. O. Degener, New- York,- paging macliine, 

W. H. KUiytt, Pldttsburgh, N. Y, exhausting 
and sealing vessels. 

Phineas Emmons, N. Y., sizing hat bodias. 

Benj. Fulgham, Richmond, Ind., sawing ma- 
chines. 

_ Kington Goddard, Philadelphia, Pa., bridle 
reins. 

<5. H. Guard, Brownsville, N. Y., boring and 
mortising hubs. 

Joseph Harris and Elbridgo Harris, Boston, 
Mass., hand stamp. 

John Harris, N. Moosick, N. Y., machinery for 
making rope. 

Horace Uotchkiss, Waterbury, Ct., cutting files. 
g?M. ;g. Hubbard, New-York, improvement in 
carriages. 

John Jerries, Bethany, N. Y., stalls for horses. 

James Kelren, Canton, Mass., assigiler to him- 
self and George Banks of E. Boston, Mass., mak 
ing railway chairs. 

Francis Kennej, Springfield, Mass , parlor 
stoves. 

E. B Larcher, Baltimore, Md., making gutta 
percha boots 

Saml. Macferran, Philadelphia, Pa., processes 
for smelting iron. 

D. M Messer, Boston, Mass., processes for 
hulling cotton seed. 

Jonas Moore and D. P. Adams, Marietta, Ohio, 
administering pulverulent medicines 

E. N. Moore, Lenox, Pa., and J. B. Hanyan, 
Chester, N. Y., balance water gate. 



H. E. Worthinglon, Brooklyn, N. Y., water 
metre. 
Joseph Plegar, Birmingham, Pa , hinges. 

H. T Robbins, Lowell, Mass., shuttle guides 
for rooms. 

John n. Atwater, of Kalamazoo, for improve- 
ment in washing machines. 

Nelson Barlow, of Newark, for improved meth- 
od of feeding planks to planing machines. 

Simon Barnhart, ofChilicothe, lor fan blower. 

Olivet D. Barrett, of Fulton, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in washing machines. 

John Ericsson, of New-York, for improvement 
in air engines. 

.lohn A. Elder, of Westbrook, Me., and John 
Richardson, of Portland, Me., for improved ma- 
chines for ruling and paging paper, 

John A. Elder, of Westbrook, Me., and Ephraim 
Wood, of WiiUhrop, Me., for improvement in ma- 
chinery fur seizing and dressing warps. 

Fred'k Field, of Toledo, for cross-cut sawing ma- 
chine. 

Jas. Harrison, .Jr., of Milwaukee, for improve- 
ment in sewing machines, 

Liveras Hull, of Charlestown, Mass, for ma- 
chine for sawing rattan. 

Solon S. Jackman, of f ock Haven, Pa., for im- 
provement in machines for compressing puddler's 
J)all3 and other masses of iron. 

Joseph Johnson, of Washington, D. C., for im- 
provement in washing machines. 

Fielding H. Keeney, of Newport, Ky., for circti- 
lar saw mandrel. 

Stephen Meredith, of Meadsvflle, Pa., improve 
ment in distilling coal with hydrogen gas. 

Fred'k Perry, of Newark, for improvement in 
cut-off valves for steam engines. 

Wm. H. Rhodes. M. D., of Berlin, N. Y., for im- 
provement in artificial legs 

Wm, Sellers, New-York, for improvement in 
ventilating hats. 

Isaac M. Singer, New-York, for improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Paul Stillinan, New- York, for improvement in 
water guages tor steam boilers. 

ElamC. Shaftsbury, of New- York, for improve- 
ment in excluding dust from railway cars. 

Geo. S. Shepard, of Canaan, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in musical road instruments. 

C. C. Taylor, of Delafield, Wis., for improve- 
ment in bucket for water-wheel. 

Anton Von Hagen, of Cincinnatti, for improve- 
ment in soap cutting machines. 

Norman W. Wheeler, of Cincinnatti, for im- 
proved inetho 1 of operating steam valves. Ante- 
dated March 1, 1855. 

Henry R. Worthington, of Brooklyn, for im- 
provement in direct ' acting hydraulic steam 
pumps. 

Wm. G. Wolf, of Philadelphia, for improvement 
in writing desks. 

Sam'l M. Yost, of Connersville, Ind., for im- 
provement in washing machines. 

Lucien N. Bigelow, of Cuba, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in seeding machines. 

Sam'l A. Briggs, of Providenco, for improve- 
ment in hot-air furnaces. 

John P. Hayes, of Philadelphia, for improve- 
men in ovens. 

DESIGN. 

N.ntbaniel P. Richardson, of Portland, for de 
sign for Franklin fire-places. 



f Ije fifiH% tl)e 1*00111, anil tljc ^n^il. 



Vol. VIII. OCTOBER, 1855. No. 4. 



THE CONDITION OF LABOR— TRUE PROSPERITY. 

We think the time has come for the mass of the people to review the 
past and examine their present condition, and to know whether they are 
receiving and have received that return for their labor to which thev are 
entitled. It may be found that the language of that true poet, Hood, 
applied to a single form and department of labor, is applicable, in a degree, 
to a much larger proportion of the people than has been generally supposed. 

" O men with sisters dear, 
men with mothers and wives! 
It is not linen you are wearing out, 
But human crea'ures' lives! 

Stitch ! stitch ! etitch ! 
In I overty, hunger and dirt, 
Sewing at once, with a double thread, 
A shroud as well as a Bhirt. 

» * * * * 

O God r that bread should be so dear. 
And flesh and blood so cheap ! 

Work ! work ! work ! 
My labor never fliigs ; 
And what are its wages ? — a bed of straw, 
A crust of bread and rags — 
That shattered roof, and this naked floor — 
A table, a broken chair — 
And a wall so blank — my shadow I thank 
For sometimes falling there !" 

Intelligent industry ought to thrive, and in every department of useful 
labor a livelihood ought always to be secure to the industrious worker. He 
should not be borne down into the dust, either by fraud or by force. That 
law of trade, belonging to a code now quite current, " buy cheap," ought 
not to override all justice and all mercy, and make paupers or beggars of 
those by whose labor the rich become richer, and the strong stronger. Nor 
is it enough to show, in justification of such a grinding process, that it is 
necessary to enable the employer to compete successfully with some other, 
who lives on fraud, and whose prosperity grows out of the destruction of his 
neighbors, as really as the tree of the forest thrives on the decomposition of 
the dead animal at its root. 

If any one thing can show the general prosperity and well-being of a- 

VOL. VIII. 13 



194 THE CONDITION OF LABOR. 

community, we think it is the fact that all useful labor is remunerative. This 
does not require that every form of kbor should receive a large sum ia 
wages, but it does require 'that the amount received should enabe the 
laborer to provide well for himself. He expends his energies, his only 
capital, for the good of his employer. He is not fully compensated unless 
he receives at least what will restore to him what he has expended. In any 
condition of things short of this, he is reducing his capital, and in the code 
commercial, this is the unpardonnble sin. Nor does the laborer receive this 
full remuneration when he merely gets wages that will buy all he want* to 
eat, drink, and wear. That laborer is a man. Progress is as much a part 
of his creed as it is that of the scholar, though the progress desired is dif- 
ferent in kind and in degree. This must be his creed because he is a man, 
and no man is in the best condition to do well for himself or for others who 
does not see something before him, and within his reach, better than the 
present. He knows that there will be " rainy days." He knows that sickness 
may lay him low and hold him helpless. He has loved ones, too, whom he 
cherishes as his own eyes, to whom he would do good. He is not then 
satisfied, althougi when night comes he finds that his food for the day has 
been paid for, and a. shilling is left for his lodging. 

We may take another view of this doctrine, which may set it in a clear 
light. A young man commencing for himself says, " Here I am, about to begin 
a series of labors, which shall, perhap?, continue for many years, but, at 
last, it will give me a comfortable home for myself and mine in our old age. 
Thirty years even may be past ere I acco npiish this; but yet so much a 
year laid up will secure this result." But he labors ten years without gain- 
ing anything, and now only twenty remain. Hence the annual saving must 
thereafter be greater than he first proposed, or his prospects will be mate- 
rially lessened, and his hopes disappointed. He is not now in so good a 
condition as he was when he commenced for himself. His circumstances 
have constantly been growing worse and worse. He is not ready to sur- 
render the one aim of his hfe. He has not thought of despair. But he 
sings, in the words of the same poet : 

" No parish money or loaf, 
No pauper badges for me, 
A son of the eoil, by right of toil, 
Entitled to my fee. 
No alms I ask ; give me my task — 
Here are the arm and leg, 
The strength, the sinews of a man, 
To work, and not to beg." 

Without spending further time or space in this direction, we repeat that 
it is a full remuneration for all his expenditures that he may rightfully claim, 
and in this calculation, be it more or less, within reasonable limits, this desire 
for progress or an improved condition comes in as a legitimate item ; and, if 
disappointed in this, the laborer is so far deteriorated, positively incapa- 
citated. It would be impossible to lay down any particular rule for meas- 
uring or limiting the amount of this obligation. But, whatever it may be, it is 
a legitimate item in fixing the price of a day's work. The interest of the 
employer demands it as really as the interest of the employed. 

Whatever standard may be adopted as a just measure of recompense for 
services rendered, no difference of opinion can exist on the absolute proposi- 
tion, that the laborer is worthy of a full remuneration for whatever is actually 
expended for his employer; and no community can be said to be prosperous 
where labor does not thus receive its full reward. 



THE CONDITION OF LABOR. 195 



A great deal of confusion exists in the minds of thousands upon the real 
question at issue on this subject. If a certain number of the comraunity grow 
rich, if the wealth or power of certain sects or cliques, or particular interests, 
increase, the idea prevails that the corarauuity is necessarily prosperous. 
Nothino- can be more erroneous. Suppose a bouse consists of ten partners, 
each having his distinct branch of trade, and that five of these lose as much 
as the other five gain. Is that house prosperous? No man thinks so. 
Then why should we not judge the same of a comrhunity ? 

We can well understand why, in past times, such a mistake should be 
made. There have been times when the interests of the masses were not 
regarded. The lords of the manor, the baron^*, and a few other titled men, 
constituted the nation. No man was in any sense a citizen who was not the 
owner of real estate. " The right of peerage was origmally territorial," says 
Blackstone, " that is, annexed to lands, honors, castles, manors, and tue lifee, 
the prop ri<- tors and possessors of which were allowed to be peers of the 
realm. When the land was alienated the dignity passed with it as an 
appendant." Even in the early history of this country similar views were 
held. It is within the recollection of many, not among our " oldest inhabit- 
ants," when the owneiship of real estate was necessary to constitute a voter. 
Nor is it longer ago than the frimous Dorr rebellion in Rhode Island that 
this was one of the doctrines which became a matter of contention even at 
the point of tbe basnet. The views generally entertained on this subject 
even now partake very extensively of the coloring of those past epochs. 

When any such Jiraitation of the right of citizen-hip is established, it 
mdij, perkajJS, be true, that the welfare of the masses is not involved in the 
welfare of the community. But even then we do not see that the state of 
things would be essentially changed in this respect. The general may be 
regarded as the only person of consequence among all those who are about 
him. But if his army are weak from starvation, where will he obtain his 
laurels ? So the master may appropriate to himself all the dignities and 
emoluments, and even ignore the existences which minister to him, but if 
they are diseased and dis-abled what becomes of him ? It is quite too late 
in the day to urge any such considerations as these to which we have 
referred upon the public mind. Tue community is made up of all its 
parts, whether they are held in honor or in dishonor, •whether allowed more 
or less of civil and social privilege, and that community does not prosper 
where the masses are not in good condition — well educated for the duties 
required of t'oetn — happy and contended. 

But we must not extend these remarks. We appreciate the importance 
of every block in the structure of society whether below or above the sur 
face, aijd are quite ready fairly to investigate the question, Is our community 
in a prosperous condition ? When compared with many others it undoubt- 
edly is prosperous., But when compared with our own ideas of what we 
should be and may be, when we compare our practice with our theory, we 
must pause ere we answer either way, yes or no. 

What are the facts connected with this inqtiiry ? Vast estates are 
made, and ipnde rapidly. We can point to those who have accumulated a 
million in les-> than thirty years. But did they make it, or steal it? Was 
it the result of honorable, legitimate traffic, or was it the product only of 
trickery, dfC«it, fraud, falsehood? Was it drawn out from the hard and 
honest earnings of others, who were deluded by the false tales that were 
told them ? If this is the process, would any amount of wealth thua 
acquired by the few make a prosperous community, or furnish any 



196 THE CONDITION OF LABOR, 

evidence of its good condition ? This, no doubt, does describe truthfully 
the process by which many great estates have been rapidly acquired. 
Our cities abound in them, and they are met with all over the country. 

Other large estates are rapidly accumulated by foreign trade. Amorg 
the ignorant natives of China and the Indie?, the "shrewd" Caucasian 
sends his commercial agent, and, partly by cheating in weights and meas- 
ures, partly by deceits of other sorts, the rich products of those counines 
are obtained for a song, and the house rapidly becomes rich. It em;>loy3 
twenty or fifty men in our own midst, to handle, sell, and manage the^se 
rich cargoes, and a great noise is made about " commercial enterprise," 
and the progress of our country, and the very science of Permutation is 
exhausted in conjuring up numerous forms of trumpeting this "progress" 
over the continent, and even acro?s the ocean. But is it not obvious that 
all this is humbug and fraud ? What has it done for the general pros- 
perity of the community ? Perhaps this same great house beat down the 
shipbuilder that furnished the ships which brought over these rich cargoes 
to almost the cost of the timber, so tbat he had no resource but to do the 
same thing with the carpenter, and blacksmith, and lumberer, while the 
rigger, and sailor, and stevidore, and porter, as well as the clerks, book- 
keepers, and salesmen can find employment in that house only at the lowest 
possible wages. Is there here any evidence of a prosperous community ? 

But let us take a tour into the country. Rich lard extends all through our 
valleys, and our hills wave with rich harvests, herds and flocks abound, and 
the farms, barns, and granaries are running over. " Surely here is pros- 
perity," we are told, and we admit that no class in the world is so independent 
of the fluctuations which abound in all communities as this. But why are his 
barns so full and his granaries so loaded ? Because he can find no remunera- 
tive market. Because such a system of speculation pervades all the places 
of business, that the producer must sell at almost ruinous rates or keep his 
products for home consumption. This, often and generally, he cannot do, 
and therefore he must sell them to the speculator, who, without a particle of 
labor bestowed upon them, without doing a single thing to improve their 
condition, has such a control of the retail market, that he demands an exorbi- 
tant price for the daily necessaries of hfe, and, in a few years, budds a splen- 
did house in a fashionable street, and retires from active business to loan his 
money at tv,'o or three per cent, a mouth, and thus keeps the ball in motion 
till it is absolutely unwieldy. Is there here any evidence of a prosperous 
community ? 

We might thus run through all the forms of trade, and we should come 
to the same result, nor shall we get any satisTactory answer to the inquiry 
we have made, till we are so happy as to find all these classes well compen- 
sated for their labor, and labor always to be had. The farmer then toils 
cheerfully, and sings a song of praise each evening with a merry heart. The 
mechanic sharpens his tools and plies them with an energy that whets his 
appetite while he enjoys his liberal repast; and a hard day's work, well com- 
pensated and a certainty of employment for to-morrow, secures for him 
sweet sleep in the midst of a happy family. And so this ball r«lls on. All 
are well provided for, all are prosperous and happy. Grim want drives none 
into vice. The people become honest, and hate every form of crime. Even 
their selfishness teaches them such lessons, for now they have that which 
needs the protection of law, and they crave the peace and security which 
good morals alone can insure. 

Is there any such talisman as this among^all the regulations of thepohce, 
and the penal enactments of legislatures ? Surely there is none. 



METEOROLOGY FOR FARMERS, 197 

And to what result are we brought as to the answer, Yes or no 1 Are we, 
as a community, in a prosperous condition ? There has been, by general 
consent, one of the severest seasons our country has ever known. Its severity 
consisted in the fact that labor could find no market, and could earn no 
wages. Many a heart still aches under the bare recollection of its pangs. 
What produced that state of things? Who will inform us? Who will 
in^stigate it? Leave not the inquiry to the politicians, it is for the 
laborer. Puliticians are the most corrupt crew living on this footstool. 
There is not a band of pickpockets on earth, that can so easily be led to be- 
tray the interests of their associates as they. Statesmen are noblemen. Men 
who take office for the good of their country and labor for its good, deserve 
the highest of rev^ards. Men who seek office as they would buy goods at 
an auction, as a source of profit and for personal advantage, and who value it 
in the exact ratio of its emoluments, belong to a different class, and though 
some of these are truly honest, and many others as honest as is compatible 
with security of place, too many of them become politicians by trade, and 
they do trade in their policy just as they would in horses, to the best bidder. 
Trust not this discussion in such hands. Let the educated, the intelligent 
laborer, study the relations of trade, the antecedents of " commercial crises," 
and of stagnation in business. 

We have said this is the duty and interest of the laborer. This is a large 
class. It includes all but idle drones, who are generally too inefficient to 
exert any influence beyond their own family circles. The laborer, then, has 
it in his power to adopt such measures as he may think best. Will he take 
it in hand, and examine it in the light of facts? We will try to do our 
part. Let every reader give us his assistance. 



METEOROLOGY FOR THE FARMERS. 

We give extracts from the interesting letter of Lieut. Maury, of the U. S. 
Navy, to the Editor of the American Farmer^ on the subject of Meteorology. 
It is a matter of great importance to the Agricultural interest of the country ; 
and it is hoped an appropriation from Congress will be made, to carry out 
the views of Lieut. Maury. — Ed. 

"Observatory, Washington, June 18, 1855. 
" To the Editors of the American Farmer : 

" Gentlemen : — I am much obliged to you for your favor of the 9th inst. 
You are right ; I did not intend to confine the appeal to the farmers of any 
' pent-up Utica.' 1 intended to make it as broad as the land. 

" You ask for the plan of cooperation. It is very simple, and calls on the 
farmers for little more than good-will. 

" I first want authority to take the preliminary steps, and to confer with 
other meteorologists and men of science at home and abroad, with the view 
of establishing a uniform system of meteorological observations for the land, 
as we have done fur the sea. 

" If any officer of the Government were authorized to say to the farmers, 
as I have to the sailors. Here is the form of a meteorological journal ; it 



198 METEOROLOGY FOR FARMERS. 

shows you the observations that are wanted, the hours at which they are to 
be made; tells what instruments are required, and how they are to be u>ed: 
take it, furn'sh the Government with observations, and in return the Govern- 
ment will discuss them, and give you a copy of the results when publi>hed — 
he would have at once, and without cost, a volunteer corps of observers that 
would furnish him all the data requisite for a complete study of both agri- 
cultural and sanitary meteorology. 

" Such an ofler to the sailors has enlisted a corps of obscrrers for the sea, 
by whose cooperation results the most important and valuable, and as unex- 
pected as valuable, have been obtained. 

" Could not at least one farmer be found on the average for every county 
in every State that vv'ould gladly undertake the observations? I don't think 
there would be any difFiculty on that score. Sailors have been found to do 
as much for every part of the sea — on the average ten observers for a State 
would be sufficient. 

" Now if we could get the English Government, and the French Govern- 
ment, and the Russian Government, and the other Christian States, both of 
the Old World and the New, to do the same by their farmers, we shall 
have the whole surface of our planet covered with meteorological observers, 
acting in concert, and eliding from nature, under all varieties of climate and 
circumstances, answer to the same questions, and that, too, at no other expense 
than what each Government should choose to incur for ihe discussion and 
publication of the observations that are made by its own citizens or subjects. 

" What is wanted in a system of observations like this is uniformity. 
Hence, cooperation — an agreement to observe the same things at the same 
times — is essential to anything like success. We want not only correspond- 
ing observations as to the time, but we want them made with instruments 
that are alike, or that can be compared; and then we may expect to find 
out something certain and valuable, concerning the movements of this grand 
and beautiful machine called the atmosphere. 

" If you ask me to state beforehand what particular discoveries or special 
results of value I expect to make, I answer. If I could tell, I would not ask 
your assistance to make them. The fields meteorological are large — there 
are many of them, and all that I do know about them is, that there is in 
them mighty harvests of many sorts. 

"I make the appeal to the farming interest especially, because that is the 
great interest to be subserved by the scheme ; and if the farmers do not 
really care enough about it to use their influence with their Repi'esentatives 
in Congress to procure the very trifling appropriation that is required to get 
it under way, I do not see why I should give myself any further trouble in 
the matter. 

" Will you not bring the subject in some tangible shape before the Agri- 
cultural Societies of the country ? A simple memorial fnm them to Con- 
gress would not fail to procure all the legislative aid necessary. < 

"Some of the leading sciemific men of Europe are ready to join us in 
such a plan ; and with authority to confer with them officially as to details, 
I have no doubt that most of the goverments of the world would undertake, 
each for itself, and wiihin its own territories, a corresponding series of obser- 
vations, so that we should then be able to study the movements of this great 
atmospherical machinery of our planet as a whole, and not as hitherto in 
Isolated deiached parts. Re-pectfully, etc., 

« M. F. Maury, Lt. U. S. N." 



PROBLEMS AND TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 199 



PROBLEMS AND TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

One pound Avoirdupois = 1.21527 pounds Troy. 
144 pounds » =175 " " 

Avoirdupois pounds X 1.21527 = Troy pounds. 

,9115 == " ounces. 

.823 = Avoirdupois pounds. 
1.1 == " ounces. 

, .03657 = " drachms. 

system) = 15.4340 Troy grains. 
: 27.7015 cubic inches of distilled water. 
1 gallon of distilled water weighs lOjBb Avoirdupois. 
A cubic foot of distilled water weighs 62.5g) Avoirdupois. 
A wine gallon contains 231 cubic inches. 
An ale " " 282 " " 

An English Imperial ale gallon, dry measure, • = 277.274 cubic inches. 
A pint English Imp., wine measure, = 34.659 " 

A pint " dry measure, r^ 34.659 " 

A gallon " <■' = 277.274 " 

A bushel « « = 1.2837 feet. 





u 


ounces 


X 


Trov 


pounds 


X 




u 


ounces 


X 




u 


grams 


X 


1 


gramme (French dec. 


1 


poui 


id Avoirdupoi; 


5 = 



FRENCH DECIMAL SYSTEM. 

1 metre is 39.371 inches. 

The increasing series consists of the Millimetre, Decimetre, Metre, 
Decametre, = .03937 inches. Centimetre, Hectometre, Kilometre, and My- 
riametre, the last = 10930.389 yards. 

1 Gramme equals 15.4340 Troy grains. 

The entire series, increasing, consists of the Millegrarame, Centigramme, 
Decigramme, Gramme, Decagramme, Hectogramme, Kilogramme, Myria- 
gramme. 



To Find the Content of a Cylinder ( Well, Cistern, c&c.,) in U. States 
■Gallons. — Multiply the square of the diameter in feet, by the length of the 
cylinder in feet, and this product by 5.874 ; or 

Multiply the square of the diameter in inches by the length in feet, and 
this product by 0.408. 

For example. How many gallons in a well 22^ feet deep and 3^ feet in 
diameter ? 

3.5' X 22.5 X 5.874 = 1619.02 galls. 

Or, 3^ feet = 42 inches, and 42' x 22,5 x .034 == 1619.55 galls. 



To Find the Force of Wind, its Velocity being Given. — Divide the velo- 
city per second by 10, and multiply the square of the quotient by 0.229. 
The product will be the force exerted upon a square foot in pounds. 



200 COUNTRY HOUSES. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

SHORT AND USEFUL RULE. 

Solid feet multiplied by ff gives bushels of 2l50f * inches each, or by f f 
gives bushels of 2211.84 inches each. 

To' find the number of bushels m a square-cornered box or pile, multiply 
the length, breadth, and depth in feet together, and the product will be the 
number of solid feet, which, being multiplied by either of the above-men- 
tioned fractions, (f | or ff,) will give the number of bushels. 

Bentonville, Ind. Merchant Kelly. 



* " Standard bushel."— Ed. 



rOR THK PLOUon, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVII., 

COUNTRY HOUSES. 

Mr. Editor : — One of the most common features in the houses of the 
country is the want of taste, visible in all sections of the country. These 
dwellings are mostly the homes of the farmer, and surprising it is to se.e 
how little time is spent in improving them and making them look as a fann- 
er's home should. Most of them were placed close to the highway with a 
door-yard perhaps in front, of twelve by twenty feet, fenced off from each corner 
of the house and nmning to the street fence. Hence this yard comprised all 
the " grounds" the house had, and sometimes even this was wanting, as in many 
cases the!<e houses were set directly on the street. At the present time a little 
more taste may be shown in the buildings or houses than foimerly. But in 
the situation of the farmer's house and the grounds around, very little, if any, 
improvements have taken place in the last forty years. For some reason or 
other, people living in the country have a fear that they shall not see every- 
body that passes in the street, and so the houses must be built directly on the 
highway, to gratify this curiosity ; and of course all the dust and dirt of the 
street in a dry time must be endured for the sake of seeing the '' natives" as 
they pass by. Now it is astonishing to see what parsimony many farmers 
with large farms will exhibit in reference to an acre or two of ground for 
building a house. But ordinarily it is more owing to a want of a just appre- 
ciation of what a farmer's house should be, than from a real penuriouaness. 
All this difference comes from education, an education which every farmer 
may have by a little care and study, but which they so often neglect, believ- 
ing it more nectssary to increase the number of acres than to make perma- 
nent and lasting improvements on what they now possess. Of course those 
farmers who occupy old farm-houses of a former generation cannot change 
the situation, though the back-grounds may often be enlarged, and the whole 
premises can be changed when the right spirit is set at work. For instance, 
if the kitchen garden is close to the house, as is often the case, take up all 
the old board and picket-fence between the garden and door-yards, also re- 
move all the old rail fences near the house, and make one good substantial 
fence around the outside, making but one yard of the whole. The kitchen 



COUNTEY HOUSES. 201 



garden, of course, will be removed to a place outside of the yard-fence, while 
the old jDjarden can be used for fruit-trees, flowers, shrubs, etc. The old cow- 
houses, hog-pens, etc., if they are pretty near the house, as they often are, 
should be removed if they can be, especially the hog-pen, or a high board-fence 
may be put up in front to cut off the view from the house. 

Here we only give some ideas how an old,-fashioned farm-house may be 
improved by a little labor and taste. And when the farmer once commences 
an improvement of this character, he will find that as he goes forward with 
his improvements, new ideas will constantly turn up which will sbow him 
the value of such embellishments. All that is wanted by the farmer is a little 
exertion on his part to go forward and enter into this business. Of course 
where new grounds are to be laid out, a different plan will be carried out. In 
this case, the farmer can select his own grounds and make all the arrange- 
ments to his liking. An acre of land (two are better, and three or four better 
still) for a court-yard or " lawn," with the house standing on the highest point 
of land, the out-buildings a little below this level and in the rear, a country 
pl-ice can be made to make a good appearance. Whatever is the siz*^ of the 
yard, allow no cross sections of fences, but have one good substantial outside 
fence of wood, wire or iron, as the case m-iy be. Where the yard is compo- 
sed of fiv-^ or six acres, the kitchen and flower gardens may be placed in the 
rear of the buildings with suitable enclosures. It is also well to select the 
site for your house and out-buildings in or near a group of natural forest trees, 
for shade and protection, if they are at hand. Apple trees and cherry trees 
may be used for this purpose. Should neither of these be within reach, as 
will often be the case, then it will be time and money well-spent to transplant 
some large forest trees of six, eight, and ten inches in diameter at the trunk, 
to shelter your house and out-buildings from the sun's rays, and storms. This 
may be done by the " frozen ball method," which we have often named before, 
which most northern cultivators understand. The plan is, just before cold 
weather sets in, go to the forest and select your trees for removal, then dig 
about them, cutting off all the branching roots, leaving the main tuft roots 
at the bottom uncut. In this way the tree must stand till the earth about 
the roots is frozen to a solid ball. In the mean time the holes for the recep- 
tion of these trees must be dug, and all prepared before cold weather sets in. 
They should be dug some two feet larger than the ball of roots, and the space 
filled in with yard soil so as to give the young rootlets a good start in the 
spring. If there is a light snow on the ground the trees may be removed on 
an " ox-sled" or two drags fastened together. The trees mu^t be raised from 
their bed by means of long levers, pulleys, etc., and placed on the sled. It will 
require a great number of hands and a strong team, according to the size of 
the trees to be moved. In most situations the trees will require bracing du- 
ring the first winter they are set, to guard against winds and storms. When 
the work is well done they will continue to grow without much check the 
next season, and ordinarily none of the top need be cut off. Some cultiva- 
tors have done well by removing large trees in the spring. It will be seen 
that the peculiar advantage of this system of tree-planting is, that you have 
fine shade trees to begin with, on a new place, instead of having to wait ten 
or fifteen years for small trees to grow up for shade. This is quite an item of 
economy in time. 

In giving a description of what a farmer's country-house should be, we can 
only name the outlines, as the other points must be filled by the farmer him- 
self. One thing we will name. Generally, now, where a farmer wishes to 
build a hou;^e, he just goes and consults the " builder," commonly a house- 



202 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

carpenter mechanic. Of course he finds out what the lowest "job" price for 
a house may be. Then if he concludes to build, the plan and " architecture" 
of the house is left to this " builder" to determine, which in most cases will 
be a mere "copy" after some dozens of others. Now the farmer should know 
something of style and architecture himself. Then he should consult the 
best works on that subject, atxl not depend on the house-carpenter for this 
service. The farmer will find that it will cost him no more to build his 
house in a tasteful style, than to build it in violation of all the laws of good 
taste and of the rules of architecture. L. Durand. 

Perbt, Ct., September, 1855. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

Orthoptera. We now come to the next order of insects, the characteris- 
tics of which have already been given, and may be found on page 13, of ihe 
August number of this volume. All orthopterous insects are furnished with 
transversely movable jaws, resembling those of beetles. They do not under- 
go an entire transformation, but the young often closely resemble the adult 
insect. The changes which they underg*) are a series of moulting?, during 
which their wings are gradually developed. When fully grown they cast off 
their skins and appear in a perfect state, except that a fesv remain wingless. 
In their pupa state they are active and voracious; some species, like cock- 
roaches, eating whatever they find, whether animal or vegetable. Some are 
carnivorous, devouring other iusects. But most of them subsist on vecjfetables, 
and hence are very destructive, when they appear in large numbers. 

This order is divided by Harris, after some of the older writers, into four 
groups, viz: Orth. Cursoria or Runners, Orth. Raptoria or Graspers, Orth. 
Ambulatoria or Walkers, Orth. Saltatoria or Jumpers, the name being sug- 
gested by the habit of the insect. 

1. RuNXERS. Eirsvigs, which belong to this group, attack flowers, eating 
holes in their petals, and destroying their beauty. They also attack ripe 
fruits, as melons, etc. They are very timid, and often secrete themselves in 
the bottom of flowers, when their heads are covered, though iheir forked- 
tails may be exposed to sight among the stamens and pistils. When disturb- 
ed, they run into the nearest hole, and they always hide themselves from day 
light. This habit has induced gardeners to provide hollov? reeds, and other 
like contrivances, which will furnish these insects a convenient shelter into 
which they flee when alarmed, or as the day dawns; and in the morning they 
collect and destroy them. 

The true Earwig has a long body, which is somewhat flattened, armed at 
the hinder end with a pair of slender sharp pointed blades, which they open 
and shut like scissors or nippers. They are not common ; the name is often 
misapplied. 

Cockroaches do not attack our growing fruits, and hence are not described 
in this connection. 

Insects belonging to the second group are exclusively predacious, destroy- 
ing those that subsist on vegetable food, and hence are useful rather than in- 
jurious. They are found chiefly in tropical climates. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 



203 



There are in our climate very few insects that belong to the third group, 
these being also chiefly confined to tropical clinaates. They present a 
great variety of grotesque forms. Among those of this group which 
are sometimes found in our latitudes are : 

Spectrum femoratum, a long, but very slender insect, cylindrical, oval ; 
antennae, long and slender, with numerous joints, and inserted before the 
eyes; they are usua'ly of the color of that on which they rest. They are 
perfectly inoftensive, feeding exclusively on vegetables. Tnis insect is de- 
scribed in Long's Expedition as found at Niagara Falls, and in Missouri. It 
has also been noticed iu New-Jersey and in Massachusetts. 

Spectrum Bivitiatum. This insect is brown or bhick, with two yellow 
stripes extending from the head to the posterior extremity, antennae a dull 
reddish br)wn ; beneath, of a dull yellowish c'ay color ; feet dusky, thighs un- 
armed, blackish towards the tip. The female is much larger than the male. 
Thev frequent the Orange Palmetto, and other trees in Georgia. When 
taken, they discharge a milky fluid, from two pores of the thorax, having a 
strong odor, like that of the Gna{)haleum. 

In.-ects of the fourth group are by far the most numerous and most de- 
structive. Achetse, or Crickets, the Gryllidse, or Grass-hoppers, and the 
Locust-adse or Locusts, belong to it. 

Achetaj, or Crickets are nocturnal insects, generally keeping themselves in 
concealment by day, though some species are found by the way-side and in 
paths at all hours. They often burrow under lojse stones ov clods of earlh. 
ThesM are m';/e crickets. They are about an inch and a quarter in length, of 
a light 'bay or fawn color, and are covered with a velvt^t-like down. Their 
wing covers are not half the length of the abdomen. The wings are short, 
the fore-legs are contrived for digging, the shanks broad, flat, and three-sided, 
lower side divided by deep notches into four finger-like projections, resem- 
bling the hand of a mole, and hence this is called the GnjliotaJpa or Mole- 
crickt'.t. Oryllus being the ancient name for the cricket, and talpa that of 
the mole. 

This cricket, acheta gryllotalpa, infests gardens and meadows, and by bur- 
rowing among the roots of grass, grains, and other vegetable growths and 
cutting them off, does much injury. 

Our common species has short wings, and hence is called Brevi-pennis, in 
distinction from the European, which has long wings. 

Crickets deposit their eggs in large numbers, in the ground, during the 
fall, and these are hatched in the following su;nmer. Mmy of the insects 
die in the winter, but others shelter themselves under stones and in holes. 
The mole-cri. ket changes its abode according to circumstances. In doing 
this, it does not usually come out at the surface of the earth, but creeps, like 
the mole, throuojh passages which it has dug for itself underground. 

The '"singmji" or " chirping" of the cricket is produced by the males only, 
and is the result of rtibbing their wing-covers together. 

The following mode of destroying this insect is given by Kollar. "In 
the month of September, let three or four pits be dug, each two or three feet 
deep, and a foot wide, on a flat surf>ice of about six hundred square yards. 
These pits are to be filled with horse dung ani covered with earth. After 
the first frost, all the mole-crickets of the neighborhood will collect there to 
shelter themselves from the cold, where they may be destroyed in heaps." 

The Grvllad.e, or " Grasshopper" family are well known, and in some 
seiisons of the yenr are very abundant. But in our country, hitherto, they 
have not been particularly destructive. Such however is not the case with 



201 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

other regions. The migratory locust belongs to this genus, and the terrible 
desolation produced by this insect is well known. In Africa, they appear 
in legions, and the devastation they commit is terrible. In a few short 
hours they devour every gr«en thing over large tracts of territory. So dense 
are the masses in which they move, that they resemble a thunder-cloud. 
They have appeared in various parts of Europe, from Tartary, and have 
even found their way into England. In 1813, the French Government 
issued decrees, offering premiums for the insects or their eggs, with a view 
of destroying their larvae. The plague, so frequent in the East, has been - 
ascribed to the decaying of these swarms of locusts. It is supposed to 
be the Gr. migratorious which constituted one of the plagues of Egyj)t. They 
are sometimes used as food, and in the East are constantly offered for 
sale. Trave'ers have assured us that they form an agreeable diet, having 
the tHste of cray-fi^h. The Arabs pre^erve them in a dry state. They , 
are described in the New Testament, as having served as the food of 
St. John the Baptist. They are about two inches and a half in lentjth. Their 
head and neck are green, body brownish, upper wings brown, melting 
into greenish, and with darker quadrangular spots. The under wings are 
tran-parent, and greenish towards the body. The blue upper javifs are fur- 
nished witii sharp teeth. (Kollar.) 

Gryllus forinosus. The body is pale green, antennae yellowish, thorax 
armed with numerous small denticles, above compressed, very much elevated 
into a regularly bow-shaped keel. Keel with two yellow radii, and }ellow 
anterior and posterior edges. The Heraelytrse or wing-covers, with about 
six large brown spots, with pale wing cells. It is a very beautiful 
species. Major Long found this insect on the Arkansas River. 

Gryllus hirtipes is another species, very curious, but rare, occurring with 
the prece'ding. Its specific name is descriptive of its hairy feet. 

The species of grasshoppers and locusts are too numerous for detailed de- 
description. Dr. Harris describes nearly thirty species. They are not o'ten 
seen in so large numbers as to be very destructive to crops, though such an 
event has occurred in our own countr}^, and during the present season the 
country around the Great Salt Lake has been utterly laid waste by them. 
Whether tbis is the true M>gratonus we cannot judge, not having seen a 
descripiioa of the insect, but it probably is so. 

As to the mode of destroying them, it is obvious that when they appear 
in such immense masses, their actual destruction is out of the question. Their 
numbers may be diminished by drawing a piece of cloth held obbquely over 
the ground by four persons, the lower edge sweeping the surface. Thus they 
are coUecfed in a sort of winrow, and by a proper managerat-ut of the sheet, 
they may be secured in a heap, and poured into bags. They should then 
be immersed in boiling water, and afterwards given to the hogs. The even- 
ing is the proper time for this service. Such means have proved beneficial. 
Several bushels of insects have been collected in a single evening. 

In France, in 1825, six thousatid, two hundred francs were paid, at Mar- 
seilles, in premiums, a franc being given for a kilogramme, about two and a 
half lbs., or a quarter of a franc fur the same weight of eggs. 

When meadows are in danger of being materially injured by grass-hop- 
pers, tbe grass should be cut early, by which means a larger part of the 
growth' is preserved, and many of the young grass-hoppers, being thus de- 
prived of their fiod, will perish. 

Domestic fowls, and sorue species of birds, devour great numbers of crickets 
and grass-hoppers. Turkeys will fatten upon them, when they are numerous. 

The order Hbmiptera, exceedingly prolific and destructive, is next in order. 



SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST. 205 



, FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THB ANTIL. 

SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST. 

Mr. Editor: — ^In Vol. 8, No. 1 of your valuable publication, the Natural 
History of the Seventeen Year Locust is given. 

About the year 1820, the said locust made its appearance in myriads in E. 
Feliciana Parish, La. They have been found in that Parish* four feet beneath 
the surface of the earth, in the chrysalis state, -whence they make their way 
to the surface, in what length of time is unknown. But when the period of 
changing to a superior state of existence arrives, they simultaneously appear 
above ground, leaving a perfectly round hole nearly vertical, 10 or 12 inches 
deep. The insect in the chrysalis state is encased in a semi-transparent sub- 
stance that might be compared to horn of the same thickness. They have 
strong necks and fore-legs, and, as their eyes are shelled over, are not afraid of 
dirt, but like the mole can press the earth aside and force themselves through. 

These insects contrive to get above ground during the night, and, though 
their pace is slow, find some post, tree or stump on which they ascend, and 
before morning leave the homely dress they brought with them from the in- 
terior, sticking to whatever gave them support, but with a terrible rent in 
the back. When they first assume their superior state of existence they are 
literally " soft-shells," but a few minutes of good sunshine invigorates them, 
their shells become " hard," and they are able to soar aloft and become 
harmonious. 

In or about the year 1820, those locusts were so pumerous iu E. Feliciana 
Parish that it was useless to listen for a bell. 

The males alone are musical ; the music is played on two little shell or 
glass-like balls about the size of a duck -shot, under the ■Wrings, by a tremor 
of the w'mgi acting on said balls. 

The females are peculiar. They are furnished under the extremity of the 
body with two reddish-brown sword-shaped instruments, the curve turned 
upward. With this double instrument, they perforate the uuder-side of 
twigs about half the size of a man's little finger, making holes with each 
swoid at a time — the sword, being slightL separated, and the holes slaniing 
to about 45 degrees backward from the insect, from the perpendicular of the 
twig. These holes were filled with eggs resembling fly-blows, five or six to 
the hole. The twigs operated on had from three to seven, generally, of 
these perforations, lengthwise of the Umb, and about an eighth of an inch apart. 
The eggs, after looking plump and remaining about four weeks, hatched out, 
nobody knew when, and disappeared in the ground as was presumed. 

In 1831 the locusts reappeared inE. Feliciana to a small extent, I should 
probably not have recollected the circumstance but that the publisher of the 
village paper j^redicted great ravages from them, mistaking them for one of 
the plagues of Egypt. 

The W on the back mentioned, was in the locality where I saw them, on 
each wing. From that circumstance the old ladies in the country predicted 
war. 

It is a great mistake to presume that the locust of our country ever cuts 
off the limb of a tree ; they have no mandible. If they derive any sustenance 
from vegetation it is by suction with the slender bill they have. Some twigs 
die from the perforations made for depositing eggs. 



206 FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS, TIOGA CO. 

The insect that circles or cuts off twigs is a species of beetle, and probably 
6**9 into t'^igs for food. It is the progenitor of the Flat-Head or Sawyer — a 
good bait in fishing for perch, and extremely destructive to pine timber. 

W. M. D. 



FOR THE tLOVan, THE LOOM, AND THS ANVIL. 

FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS, TIOGA CO , N. Y,, AND THEIR USK 

Fagus Ferruginea, Beech. — The Beech is a very common tree in this vi-. 
cinity, and is seldom found on high land unless associated with commoa 
hemlock; tree is from 50 to 60 feet high, and from 15 to 20 inches in di- 
ameter, seldom two feet; bark, dark gray and smooth, about | of an inch 
thick; wood, of a yellowish white color. Sometimes large trees with a red 
heart, 6 or 8 inches in diameter; wood, smooth grain, and very hard when 
seasoned ; when green, of uncommon weight. A log put into water instantly 
sinks. Leaves; elliptical-ovate, acuminate, conspicuously toothed, with 15 or 
16 ribs on each side of the leaves, and a notch or tooth at each rib. Leaves 
from 2 to 5 inches long, and 1^ to 2^^ inches wide, on short stems; flowers 
appearing about the middle of May in clusters, appearing like a small round 
ball of fringe of a reddish green color. Nuts in a roundish shuck, dividing 
into four parts, and covered with soft prickly nut; two tognther, and nearly 
three square, or the shape of a grain of buckwheat, about f of an inch long, 
ripe about the middle of October. Nuts this year tn great abundance, gen- 
erally abundant every other year. The wood of the beech is used very 
extensively for fuel and plane stocks, and seldom for any other use in this 
vicinity ; wood, generally strait grained, and works into fuel, very easily. 
The trees are frequently hollow at the butt. The ash of the beech like the 
different maples is deficient in alkah, and the wood soon decomposes if left 
exposed to the weather. Trees cut in the latter part of winter begin to decay 
in the fall, especially small trees. The stumps from small trees sprout freely 
for a few years, when they die, and the stump is soon out of the ground. 

The beech-nut furnishes a large amount of food for hogs. Farmers hogs 
frequently live the winter through on the nuts, aud oecome very fat. They 
are also gathered for household use, being excellent for eating. It is thought 
by some that there are two varieties of the beech, but I have never been able 
to discover this. Large trees have frequently a red heart, which small trees 
seldom have. 

Carpinas Americana. — Hornbeam, Water Beech. — ^No.2. — ^The Water 
Beech, as it is called in this vicinity, is seldom found except in the vicinity 
of streams, and rarely on hills, unless on wet land with hemlock. Tree from 
15 to 25 feet high, seldom over 20 feet, and generally Y or 8 inches in diam- 
eter ; a few in this vicinity are 12 or 14 inches ; generally in open woods, low 
and brlincbing like an apple tree. Trees often grow with two main branches ; 
trunk of the tree very uneven, being full of grooves and ridges, and frequent- 
ly for a. space of several inches nearly flat. The bark is nearly smooth, and 
generally is covered with two or three varieties of moss. The bark h of a 
dark color. The leaves are from 2 to 5 inches long, and from 1 to 2 
inches wido, with 12 or 14 ribs on a side, and generally three notcheR be- 



MANUFACTURE OF NEEDLES. 207 

tween each rib. The leaves often terminate in a sharp point. Stem of leaves 
I" inch long; flowers in April. Fruit, a nut on long stems, in pairs ; at the 
base of the involucral scale, nuts flattish round, half of the size of a grain of 
wheat, sharp pointed, ripe early in October. "Wood heavy, close grained and 
excellent fire-wood, also good for levers, being very stiff. 

Nichols, September 10, 1855. E. Howell. 



THE LARCH FOR TIMBER. 



HowiTT, in his Rural Life in England, gives the following valuable sug- 
gestions : 

" Larch will supply ship-timber at a great height above the region of the 
oak ; and while a seventy-four gun ship will require the oak timber of 
seventy-five acres, it will not require more than the timber of ten acres of 
larch ; the trees, in both cases, being sixty-eight years old. The larch at 
Dunkeld, grows at the height of 1,300 feet above the level of the sea ; the 
spruce at 1,200 ; the Scotch pine at 700 ; and deciduous trees are not higher 
than 500. The larch, in comparison with the Scotch pine, is found to produce 
three and three-quarter times more timber, and that timber of seven times 
more value. The larch, also being a deciduous tree, instead of injuring the 
pasture under it, improves it. The late Duke of Athol, John the Second, 
planted in the last year of his life, 6,500 Scotch acres of mountain ground 
solely with the larch, which in the course of seventy-two years from the 
time of planting will be a forest of timber tit for the building of the largest 
class of ships in her majesty's navy. It will have been thinned out to about 
forty trees per acre. Each tree v/ill contain at least fifty cubic feet, or one 
load of timber, which, at the low price of one shilling the cubic foot, only 
one-half of its present value, will give 661,000 per acre, or in all, a sum of 
£6,500,000 sterling. Besides this, there will have been a return of £7 per 
acre from the thinnings, after deducting all expense of thinning, and the 
original outlay of planting. Further still, the land on which the larch is 
planted, is not worch above ninepence or one shilling per acre. After the 
thinnings of the last thirty years, the larch will make it worth at least ten 
shillings per acre by the improvemept of the pasturage, on which cattle can 
be kept summer aad winter." 



Manufacture of Needles. — In the manufacture of needles, the harden- 
ing process is effected by beating them in batches in a furnace, and when red 
hot throwing them into a pan of cold water. After this, they are tempered 
by rolling them forward and backwards on a hot metal plate. Then comes 
the polishing. On a very coarse cloth needles are spread to the number of 
forty or fifty thousand ; emery dust is strewed over them, oil is sprinkled, 
soft soap daubed upon the cloth, and the cloth is then rolled hard up and 
thrown into a wa*h pot to roll to and fro for some hours, when they are 
rinsed in hot water, rubbed iu sawdust, and look as bright as can bf*. 



208 EXTENSIVE LUMBER BUSINESS. 



EXTENSIVE LUMBER BUSINESS. 

The Three Riv^ers (Canada) Inquirer gives a very interesting account of 
the vast business operations of Norcross, Philips & Co., and illustrates the 
almost inestimahle advantages Tvhich a community may derive from the 
judicious enterprise of a single individual or firm. 

On Thursday evening, the Hon, Mr. Drummond, Attorney- General, visited 
the extensive establishment owned here by Norcross, Phillips & Co.; min-^ 
utely inspected the entire, and expressed his admiration of the economical 
distribution of the Motive Power, and of the excellent and suitable arrange- 
ments of the establishment. 

Though the Saw-Mills under notice are only in the second season of their 
operations, they give employment to about three hundred persons, who r> 
ceive liberal wages and permanent work. Had we not this resource in the 
immediate vicinity, in these extremely dull times, the laborers and some of 
the mechanics of the town would have suffered severely from the stagnation 
of business, and the high price of produce. Three hundred men, if married, 
represent a population of 1500 ; it therefore must be regarded as no small 
benefit to this class of our population, that so many are presented with the 
means of securing a comfortable support. 

We cannot pr-etend to give an accurate account to our readers of the, full 
benefit that our people derive from this establishment, but they may form an 
approximate opinion, when they are informed that upwards of one hundred 
thousand pounds are invested by the time the lumber reaches a market, thus 
including in the wide sweep of its benefits all classes, from the steamboat' 
proprietor to the day-lal)orer. The proprietors reasonably calculate on send- 
ing this season fifteen millions of f^^et to the American market, and that this 
calculation is based on moderate data, may be presumed from the fact that, 
•with four double gangs of saws, seven hundred and seven thousand feet of 
lumber were sawed in one week, and in eleven hours on Saturday last, 73,000 
feet were cut. Shingles and clapboards are extensively manufactured ; about 
teo thousand daily of the former, and four thousand of the latter. Window 
sashes and door frames, etc., will also be manufactured. 

In addition to all this, a large machine house is erected, and executes 
steamboat and other machinery. The firm intend to commence the manu- 
facture of sngar shooks for the West Indian market, as some of their limits 
abound in timber well suited for this branch ( f trade. One pervading rule 
of economy and rfgularity pervades the entire establishment. Even the 
saw-dust and refuse odds and ends of sticks are shovelled into the furnaces, 
and are found more than sufficient for fuel, and from an accurate calculation 
made by one of the partners, we were convinced that a steam-mill at the 
mouth of the St. Maurice could be worked as cheaply as a mill with water- 
power 20 or 30 miles higher up. 

The great obstacle to lumbering operations hitherto, has been the exces- 
sive cost of the transit of provisions and cattle, 100 or 150 miles up tlie river. 
This difficulty, entailing enormous expense, and prodigious waste of time, 
was promptly perceived by Messrs. Norcross & Philips, and to obviate it, 
they constructed a steamer, and had it launched. This boat is of 100 horse 
power, 120 feet in length and 20 feet wide, and now navigates 70 miles of 
the St. Maurice, above the Piles. 



. AGKICULTUEE, ETC., OF INDIANA CO., PA. 209 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL 

AGRICULTURE, etc., OF INDIANA COUNTY, PA. 

[The following interesting communication is received from a friend at a 
point near West Branch, about ten miles from the head of the Susquehan- 
aah, called Cherry Tree.] 

This place is so called from the fact, that when William Penn made one 
of his purchases of the Indians, (the place of contract was down the river 
about Curwinville or Oldtown,) it was agreed that the purchase line should 
•cross the river as high up as two Indians could row a canoe with two white 
men as companions. They set out, and having rowed as far as they could 
well do, they drew to shore, and at the place of landing was a large wild 
cherry tree standing, to which they tied their canoe. At the point where 
this tree stood, the southern line of the purchase crossed the river from east 
to west. This line is the dividing li-^'e between Clearfield and Cambria 
•C 'Unties, and cuts Indiana County on the dividing line between the townships 
of Montgomery and Green. Hence, the Cherry Tree is the point at which 
the purchase line, and the line which separates Indiana County on the west, 
from Clearfield and Cambria counties on the east, cut each other at right 
angles. Hence, also, the Cherry Tree is a point at which two counties and 
four townships corner. From the above you will see why this region is 
called the Cherry Tree. This region is also called the Pine region, from 
the fact that White Pine is very abundant all along the river on both sides 
for several miles back in the country. It is also called the Lumber region, 
from the fact that vast quantities of pine lumber, in theforms of hewn-timber, 
spars, and boards, are run down the river in rafts in the spring and summer 
during high water, or when, as they say here, there is a flood. This lumber 
is sold mostly at Marietta, below Harrisburg, to lumber merchants from New- 
York and Baltimore, and other places, whither it is taken by them for dis- 
posal. The lumbering season here is, for the most part, a very busy, labori- 
ous, and hazardous one. Sometimes it is very remunerative, as it was last 
spring a year ago. And sometimes, as last spring, it is a losing business. 

As for agriculture in this region, owing to the heavy growth of pine, 
and the recent date of the beginning of operations here, not much has been 
or could well be- done in that line. The people have been most dependent 
on buying their provisions, both for man and beast, abroad ; that is, out of 
the Pines, in the older settlements till the last two or three years. The 
timber is now getting so reduced, that the people are beginning to prepare 
the ground, divested of its native products, for the plough and the seed. 
For the last three years or so, the face of the people has been setting strongly 
towards raising their own bread and meat. Last year especially, the clearmg 
fever run high and strong, as if emulating the fever (drought) of the outer 
world. The last season was the most favorable for clearing of any ever 
known here, and every man seemed to put his best foot ahead to see how 
much he could clear. And the very legitimate consequence was, that a very 
large breadth of new ground was sown to wheat last fall, that is, for this 
region, and the winter and summer were both favorable to its growth, till 
the harvest. But during the lime of harvest there was so much rain, that 
the crop was considerably injured, and yet wheat has fallen in price since 
harvest from two and a half dollars to one dollar and even less in some 
cases. « 14 



210 AGRICULTURE, ETC., OF INDIANA CO., PA. 

Oats were, perhaps, never better or more abundant here than this 
season. Owing to wet weather, considerable difficulty was experienced in 
harvesting the oat crop as well as the wheat. Oats have fallen in price from 
about a dollar down to about twenty cents, and some are expecting that they 
will be down to twelve and a half cents before spring. 

The Rye crop was also good, and the price, instead of two dollars, as last 
spring, is slow at fifty cents. 

The Corn crop looks very promising now, and more acres were planted 
this season than perhaps were ever planted before in one season in these 
parts. If the corn comes to maturity, there will probably be a fall in its 
price from one dollar and fifty cents to I cannot tell what figure. The f )re- 
part of the season was very unfavorable for corn, so much so that it had 
made but little headway by the first of July. Hence it is late in ripening. 
We have had no frost yet, except a harmless white one on the morning of 
the 19th of August. 

The Hay crop was very good, all things considered. There was a dry 
spell about the last of May that threatened the hay crop somewhat, but at 
the time of cutting it was very good. But the rains were so frequent and 
abundant during and after haying, that much was spoiled. In fact, there is 
but little good, bright, sweet hay about these regions. 

The Buckwheat crop now promises an abundant yield if no ill betides it, 
and, for these parts, a large breadth was sown. The starvation prices of the 
last year or so up to harvest, has had the eftect of urging every man to raise 
all he possibly could of any and everything eatable for man or beast. So 
great was the scarcity, and so great the demand for seed buckwheat, as I have 
been informed, that it was sold at seven and even nine dollars a bushel. But 
if the crop comes in as abundantly as it now gives promise of doing, it will 
probably be humbled in price, like all its neighbors, to a low figure. 

The Potato crop had, all along through the season, threatened to a be 
very abundant and healthy one, but, alas, during the last two weeks it has 
sadly changed its tune, and cries rat! rat! rat! so that, I think, the people 
instead of turning up their saucy noses in view of their abundance, will be 
very apt to turn them up at another smell before winter or spring. Pros- 
perity makes some people very saucy and thankless. Like Jeshurun, if there 
is but even a prospect of waxing fat, they will begin to kick. They can't 
wait till they are fat. This has been, in truth, a very wet season — as wet as 
last season was dry. The rains have been not only frequent, but powerful, 
as though the very doors and windows of the clouds had burst open, and the 
winds were in keeping with the rains. It has been no uncommon thing to 
go out after the storm was passed and see the roads and fields all gullied 
out, and the corn and potatoes, etc., etc., lying exposed in all directions. On 
the whole, I think, that the practice of agricuUure has been greatly on the 
increase here during the last three years, and bids fair for the future. I could 
wish I were able to say as much for the science. Most of them would think 
that the price of agricultural books and papers, and the time spent in' read- 
ing them, as bad, if not worse, than thrown away. But the world moves, 
and thank God, (the great and the good,) the science as well as the practice 
of agriculture ^royresse^, and will progress, till righteousness, and peace, and 
truth, shall reign throughout all the earth. " Till every man shall sit under 
his own vine and fig tree." "Till the nations shall beat their swords into 
ploughshares and their spears into pruning hooks." Glorious day that com- 
pared with this. God speed the cause of agricultural acience and practice 
until the wilderness and solitary places shall be made glad, and the barren 



NOTES FROM THE FAR-WEST. 211 

waste shall become di fruitful field, and the eanh shall yield her strengib, 
and the family of man shall become oneffreat, peaceful, prosperous, and happy 
brotherhood. 

A County Agricultural Society for Indiana County was formed last March 
in Indiana town, which is trying to do something fur the noble cause. It is 
to hold its first annual Fair about the middle of next month, (October.) 

Prayingthe blessing of God Most High to rest upon you and the noble 
cause of agricultural science and practice in the world, I remain, 

Yours truly, D. M. 



FOR THB PLOUGH, THB LOOM, ASD THE ANVIL. 

NOTES FROM THE FAR-WEST. 

Mr. Editor : — Your valuable periodical, which punctually reaches us in 
these almost outskirts of creation, is perused with great interest, and as here- 
tofore I have occasionally supplied a few of its pages with observations upon 
this part of the country, I resume my pen, and otfer other gleanings, not, I 
think, uninteresting to the lovers of Agriculture. 

Our harvest is now rapidly proceeding, and by far the greater part of the grain 
is secured in stacks, and in another week the oats and barley will also be 
saved. The yield is abundant, and the quality excellent ; perhaps not so much 
bulk in straw as last year. The weather also around this region of country, 
with the exception of a few days, has been all that could be desired. Reap- 
ing machines are he'ard by the traveler as he passes along the road, and 
every hand that can be got is eagerly pressed into service. 

Wages with us are not quite so exorbitant as last year, nor are hands quite 
so scarce. No grain this year, I believe, will suffer or be lost for want of help, 
as was then the case. 

The crop of corn promises exceedingly good ; the stalks, owing to the timely 
showers, are strong, and the ears are putting themselves out in a remarkably 
fine manner. The long drought in the spring made the farmer very anxious 
about this crop ; many replanted, but eventually rain came, and all was recti- 
fied. This article has strangely risen in price since my shftrt residtnce here ; 
from 25 cents to 65, on the cob, per bushel. 

Hay with us is not a heavy crop ; but enough, and what has been preserved 
is in first-rate order. The old stock of hay has been entirely consum-d, and 
we had almost a panic last spring, as many formers were out of it before the 
grass grew. Gold would not purchase it, although it had risen from three to 
ten dollars per ton ; but we were much more highly favored than many other 
neighboring parts of the country. 

Th^ past winter was extraordinary for the quantity of snow. The oldest 
settler says he remembered but one such before. High drifts of snow-banks, 
storms of the same, continuing twenty-four hours, cold piercing winds, etc, 
made it a hard winter for cattle, and but few got through without some loss! 
It fell more heavily upon sheep than any other kind of stock. Many lost 
nearly the whole of their lambs, and, owing to the lateness of the spring, num- 
bers of their old stock died. 



• 



212 NOTES FROM THE FAR-WEST. 

There is too miicli inattention and carelessness here about live stock. The 
country is large and not fenced, and many roam away and are never sought 
after. Winter provender has usually been abundant and cheap, and the win- 
ters such that cattle have shifted a great deal for themselves upon the nu- 
merous stacks of straw and corn-stalks which have been left standing in the 
open prairies. But as stock and provender have increased in value, and the 
waste lands become enclosed, more attention is paid to this branch of hus- 
bandry, particularly in improvement in the breeding and rearing of all kinds 
of cattle. 

The dairy here is perhaps the most profitable part of the farm. I have 
seen cows yielding from the udder quantities of milk quite equal to anything 
I have known in the East ; but here they dry up sooner, as the prairie grass 
does not grow so late, nor is the bottom any thing like the thickness which we 
find in the old pastures of the longer cultivated States. A friend of mine has 
this spring introduced a fine Durham bull, which is expected to take the pre- 
mium at our coming annual county fair. Coming from a more Southern 
clime, it will be needful to guard it against the rigors of our severe winters ; 
and I have my doubts whether its progeny will ever be so fine and heavy as 
in a warmer temperature. 

Rock County, on the north-western part of which lies my landed property, 
on the meandering Catfish stream, but which has now received the more 
classical name of Wyhorra, is said to possess a soil inferior to none in any of 
these Western States. Several new occupants from the East have bought with- 
in sight almost of my residence, and several new houses are going up. The 
breaking- plough, with its team of from four to eight yokes of oxen, is turn- 
ing over the new soil, into which no ploughman has ever before probed. 

Horses with us maintain an extravagant price ; but many are brought from 
Ohio, which may be purchased at a more reasonable rate. One bunded and 
fifty dollars will buy a good horse, and not much less. It is a great country 
for raising these animals. It is rare to meet a team without a colt and some- 
times two, jogging beside their mothers. They are put to work too early, 
and then sometimes become prematurely old. This creature here, I some- 
times think, seems doomed to mishaps. A neighbor of mine found his only 
one cast and dead in hfs stable the other morning. His almost next resident 
lost one by its slipping upon the ice and breaking its leg ; while my_son\ a 
(Uost valuable one, a few days since was struck by lightning and killed in- 
tan taneously. 

Sparsely as at present this part of the country is settled, there has yet been 
:i fever for emigration, and numerous families liave left this vicinity for Iowa 
and Minnesota. Some who went to reconnoitre have returned, fully satisfied 
they should not be benefited by a removal. Most have gone to buy Govern- 
ment land, which can be had at a much cheaper rate than with us, where 
r-peculators have got possession of the greater part. Lands entirely unim- 
proved have this season been sold at prices from seven to fifteen dollars per 
;icre. 

These new States have a fine opening for the raising of fruit and ornamental 
trees. I have a young apple orchard now beginning to bear. The trees are 
luxuriant in their growth ; and I intend next spring to head them down con- 
siderably by pruning. My peach trees two winters ago were nearly killed by 
the severity of the frost, but since then they have made fresh shoots, a^nd 
nothing can appear more healthy. Some young vines of the Isabella and Ca- 
tawba kinds, which I brought from the East two years ago, have this 



VEED-ANTIQUE. 213 



season a few bunches of grapes upon them, and the bearers are extremely 
luxuriant, requiring a little protection, while young, during the winter, 

I am trying to prevail upon the farmers to plant ornamental trees around 
their homesteads, I planted, the first year I was here, seeds of the Alanthus, 
Locust, Laburnum and Katalpa, and some of them have now the height of eight 
or nine feet, with which next spring I hope to ornament my dwelling and 
the land contiguous thereto. Agricola. 

Freidom, Wis., Aug. 



VERD- ANTIQUE. 

"We have more than once referred to the new quarries of this elegant mar- 
ble, opened in Roxbury, Vt, A recent number of the Boston Traveller, de- 
scribing thfir machinery, highly commends the rock as more durable than 
other marbles, " resisting the action of acids," heat, frost, etc, 

^ We value this rock as one of greai importance in ornamental architecture, 
giving us a material that is easily wrought, and susceptible of a beautiful 
polish. But the writer referred to runs wild. 

What is Verd-Antique ? Any elementary treatise on Mineralogy will in- 
form^ the reader that its green is serpentine, and its white, lime stone. Ser- 
pentine, again, is composed chiefly of magnesia, with more or less of silex, 
alumine, oxides of iron, of manganese, etc. It is the proportion of these 
elements which determines the color, and some of its physical qualities. But 
the list of its component parts alone is enough to prove the unsoundness of 
the pretence that it is not afiected by acids, ^Magnesia, its principal element, 
is ready at any moment to go into " fusion," as the phrase now is, with any 
free acid. Toe oxides are also unable to resist the claims of an acid. We 
have no doubt that particular specimens may be selected, in small fragments, 
that would bear heat or frost, or other ordinary exposure, quite satisfactorily, 
and other fragments will exhibit other capabilities. But let any fragment, 
having white veins (white marble) in it, be tested with an acid, or let other 
specimens, colored with the oxide of iron or manganese, be exposed to the fire. 
The earthy oxide is both friable and pulverulent. The black oxide is used 
with common salt and an acid to produce chlorine. 

It certainly forms elegant pillars, columns, pilasters, etc., and we have seen 
very handsome fire-places formed) this rock. But we think it decidedly 
bad taste to mix up white marble with this. The Capitol at Washington 
may be made a splendid pile. But if such striking contrasts, such medleys 
of colors, are to be incorporated into it, it will more resemble a huge baby 
house, than a pure and dignified specimen of civil architecture. No. Leave 
such ornamentations to our dashing milliners, and to those by whom the 
merit of any such combination is measured by the boldness of its contrasts, 
or by its variety of color. 

The durability of a building stone in this climate cannot be measured very 
accurately by its condition in the antique structures of Italy, where the di 
mate is so unlike ours, and the condition of the atmosphere is not only so 
variable and not so various. 

We only add that this rock is not a true marble. Where the green is 
predominant it should be rather called serpentine, and the durability, 



214 VERD-ANTIQUE. 



strength, etc., of the rock will be that of serpentine variously modiBed by 
its conneclion with the different coloring minerals. If it is a marble, it is, of 
course, a caibonate of lime, and soluble in any acids. 

We regjird the Verd-Antique as well worthy the attention of our' archi- 
tects, and for their information we cut the following from the article above 
referred to : 

" The location of the modern Verd-Antique is on the summit of the Green 
Mountain range, in Roxbury, Vt., in a narrow valley made by the branches 
of the White river and the Dog river, the former running southerly into the 
White river and the Connecticut, and the latter into the Winooski and 
Lake Charaplain. The quarries lie on the westerly side of this valley, where, 
full of richness and beauty, as they are, they have been lying dormant, but 
in full view of settlers and even explorers for years and ages. The marble, 
so far as it has been discovered, lies in a line running nearly north and south, 
a distance of about half a mile immediately contiguous to the Vermont Cen- 
tral Railroad — the rails passing, indeed, at the very foot of the quarries. The 
quarries located and now owned by the American Verd-Aniique Marble 
Co., consist of six or eight out-crops, a few rods distant from each other, 
and ranging in height above the railroad from twenty to one hundred feet. 
One of these quarries has been opened and worked to considerable extent — 
sufficiently to test the quality of the material, and to indicate an exhaustless 
supply. The marble is found to improve rather than otherwise, as the quar- 
rying proceeds, in texture and beauty, and in all the qualities, v^hich render 
it superior to other marbles, especially in strength. It is ascertained also, to 
a practical certainty, that blocks of any desirable dimensions can be got out 
and wrought with facility into all the various forms which utility and orna- 
ment may suggest. 

" The Company have contracted with the Government to furnish a consid- 
erable quantity of this magnificent material for ornamental portions of the 
new Capitol at Washington. They are now engaged in fultilling this con- 
tract, and among the pieces to be furnished are several columns, about a 
foot in diameter and ten feet in length, some of which were being sawed at 
the mill on the occasion of our visit. When these columns are tinished and 
raised in their places, the American Capitiol will be worth visiting for a sight 
of them. They will be truly beautiful, and as worthy of admiration as the 
famous columns of Verd-Antique in the Villa Pamphilia, at Rome. 

" There is a mill for sawing the marble into slabs, or other pieces, as may 
be wanted, immediately contiguous to the quarry. It has five or six gangs 
of saws, and apparatus for grinding the marble, and is operated by a steam 
engine of thirty or forty horse-power. We saw at the mill many finished 
and polished specimens, which have been wrought to answer individual 
orders ; among the rest a center-table slab, four feet square, and an inch and 
a quarter in tuickness, which is exiremely rich and beautiful. We venture to 
say that it cannot be matched from any other quarry in the world ; and that 
it is incomparably more beautiful than any other quarry can produce. The 
green color, varying from the deepest to the lightest hue, pervades ; and the 
seams or vems are of the purest white and scattered throughout the material 
in every direction, with a variegation of gracefulness which no art could pro- 
duce. This splendid slab, we understood, had been ordered by the Governor- 
General of Canada. 

"This Verd-Antique marble is not only beautiful in the highest degree, 
but it posesses other most valuable qualities, in which marbles generally are 
deficient. It has been submitted to the examination of practically scientific 



WHEAT TRADE FROM TENNESSEE. 215 

men, and tested, and found to resist completely the action of frost or moist- 
ure, and has been exposed for a long time to a temperature of 212 degrees 
Fahrenheit, without exhibiting the blightest effect of the action. As to du- 
rability, therefore, it must take the highest rank. It has been likewise 
thoroughly tested as to strength, by the ordinary mode of applying a crush- 
ing force to the square inch. In this respect it is likewise preeminent. And 
in another very important particular, for many purposes for which marble is 
used, this Verd-Antique has been successfully tested. It is found to resist 
effectually the action of acids. A polished slab has been exposed to the 
action of concentrated muriatic acid, for twenty-four hours, without the 
slightest corrosion or change of color being discoverable. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, TUB LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

WHEAT TRADE FROM TENNESSEE. 

Messrs. Editors : — A century has rolled its tedious round since the 
article of wheat has been an important surplus in the trade of the farmer of 
Tennesee, and so long has Eastern Tennessee been bound. by those formidable 
natural granite barriers to transport her products over the broad-based and 
close-capped Allegany and Cumberland mountains. Thus ever locked up, her 
hardy pioneers aud their sons were forced to sacrifice their labor, till the 
glorious present year, 1855. In this bright year her farmers have put upon 
the seaboard (about one-third in your own city) about 300,000 bushels of 
this valuable cereal, so luxuriantly and healthfully grown in the swf^et valleys 
and hill sides of lovely East Tennessee. It is with the greatest pride I record 
the opinion, that our own East Tennessee alone can annually furnish treble 
the quantity aforesaid for ranrket, aside from employing all the time her 
manufactories of flour, which by the way are very considerable. The route 
over which our wheat was this year shipped from Knoxville via Atlanta to 
Charleston, S. C, thence by ship to your city, gives to our citizens but half 
satisfaction. The progress goes on. Already has the Old Dominion scaled 
the heights of the Alleganits with the farmers' iron horse, already has the 
proud summits of the adjacent hills been razed, and fast is the improvement 
pushing toward our lovely mountain-bound home. We of Tennessee are 
moving the very e>irth to greet her at the line of Virginia, and will as sure 
strike her veteran hand with the crash of trains, as the year 1856 rolls its 
last season half out. This road will bring our district at once in line of easy 
transport for wheat to New- York overland, a great desideratum in the 
transport of this article. No doubt the wheat grown in Eastern Tennessee will 
then, in larger quantities be re-shipped to Eur.ipe. Our facility being equal, 
our surplus will vie with any other district of equal area south of the Alle- 
ganies in this article. In view of this, our intelligent farmers are improving 
their seeds, fertilizing their lands, employing the most improved plans for 
harvesting, cleaning and putting up- ready for market iheir abundant crops 
of the present year, which have not perhaps in quantity been equal to that 
of last year, but in quality far better. Talking uf railroads, it may be sup- 
posed that the one spoken of, being a continuous line from the entire East 



216 FALL AND SPRING IT^OWING. 

_ ■ 

to the whole South and Wept, dividing Tennessee into two islands of about 
equal territory, would be sufficient for us, but the fact is otherwise. A road 
is now being put under contract from Charleston, S. C, entering the State 
about equi-distant from its eastern border to the Cumberland Mountain 
west, including the district aforesaid, and crossing at right angles the road 
running east and west, cutting Cumberland Mountain and Cumberland 
Gap, and terminating at Louisville, Ky. This work is sure to be completed 
before long ; and with branch roads to our beautiful county towns dotted 
along the valley, ere long Enstern Tennessee must be the garden of the South. 
And I am happy to add, that the recent influx of money has caused instita- 
tions of learning for either sex to be established and respectably administered 
in nearly every neighborhood in our mountain fastnesses. This pleasing 
fact is 8uhmitted as the surest guaranty of our lasting prosperity. 

Mill Bend, Tenn., August, 1855. A. L. B. 



FOB THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, ANB THE ANVIL, 

FALL AND SPRING PLOUGHING. 

Editor of the P. L. and Anvil : — Much has been said and written m 
regard to ploughing in the fall. Some contend that land ploughed in the fall is 
not as productive as when ploughed in the spring ; for spring grains of the 
broad-cast. As your plough cuts a wide and deep furrow, (for it has a strong 
team to draw it,) I would be much pleased to have you or some of your 
contributors that till the soil for a livelihood, give their opinions upon the 
subject ; for it is one of great importance to the farmers of this western country. 

What little experience I have had in Fall and Spring ploughing, convinces me 
that ground ploughed late in the fall is as productive as when ploughed in the 
Spring, for small grain, and in many places for corn. When corn is to be planted 
upon sod, my opinion is that it should be turned over in the fall, late, shortly 
before the ground closes up with frost. 

A few years since, I was working by the month for a farmer in the Bucteye 
State, where the soil is composed of red clay and some portions of gravel. 
Late in the month of November, I was set to breaking up a piece of pasture 
ground, where the introduction of the plough was never known to the soih 
After having turned over several acres, a gale from the north-west came up 
in the night, and the ground was so frozen the next morning that ploughing 
could not be done. The remaining part of the piece had to lay over until 
Spring. In the Spring I finished ploughing. At the usual time of planting, 
corn was planted, well-tended during the season of tending corn. In the fail, 
when the crop was harvested, there was one-third more corn per acre where 
the ground was ploughed in the fall than where it was ploughed in tho spring ; 
the soil was equally as good or better where it was ploughed in the spring as 
where it was ploughed in the fall. The next season corn was planted again ; 
the yield was the same as before. The next season it was sown with oats 
for the purpose of seeding to grass. At harvest time, like most men that 
work by the month, one morning I was introduced to a fine muly cradle, for 
the purpose of laying them in the swath, and as I cradled across the furrow, 



COST OF RAISING- WHEAT. 



217 



I could tell the moment that I struck the grain where the ground was p'oughed 
in the spring. The result was the same as with the corn. During these 
three years I tried the experiment on old ground for oats. The result was, 
where the ground was broken late in the fall, the crop was by far the best. 
I sowed the oats as soon as it was early enough in the spnng. 

Whether this would prove true in all soils I cannot tell. Many of your 
correspondents that have tilled the soil for years, can tell me their experience 
in fall and spring ploughing, in the Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil 

^ * L. S. Spencer. 



Lynn, Warren Co., Iowa. 



COST OF RABING WHEAT, CORN, ETC. 

The next volume of the New- York Agricultural Transactions will contain 
a detailed farm account of Mr. William Johnson, near Geneva, from which 
we have the following interesting items in regard to the cost of raising dit- 
ferent crops the last season. His statement is published in the Journal of 
the State Society, for the present month, and shows very creditably the order 
and method of Mr. J.'s agricultural operations. 

The farm contains 80 acres of tillable land, divided into nine lot^, num- 
bered from one upwards, and an accurate account kept with each. The sou 
is dry loam, with a clay sub-soil, pretty uniform throughout the farm. Each 
crop is charged with the interest on the value of the land producing it, and 
with all the labor and material used in its production. Of wheat six acres 
were sown, the whole expense was $122 40 : the product was 126 bushels, 
or 21 bushels per acre ; this makes it cost per bushel a trifle over O*? cents. 
But deducting the value of the straw, estimated at $18, we make the cost of 
the wheat but 83 cts. per bushel. It was sold at $1 81, leaving a fair mar- 
gin for profit at either figures. But at the price of wheat for many years 
past, the profit would be little or nothing. 

Eight acres of barley cost $102 20, and produced 285 bushels, or 32i 
bushels per acre. It cost very nearly 37 cents, and sold for $1 per bushel. 
This produced a greater per cent, of profit than the wheat, as we believe it 
generally has for a series of years. 

Ten acrts of corn, on clover sod, cost $153 26. The product was 410 
bushels of corn, and $60 worth of corn stalks. Mr. Johnson states the cost 
of raising the corn ^t 27i cts. per bushel, but if we dedtict the value of the 
stalks from the whole expense, it makes the cost of the corn but 22\ cts. per 
bushel. We should be glad of some explanation from Mr. J. on this point, 
as the value of the stalks and straw may have been allowed to balance some 
part of the expenses not indicated. 

Ten cows were kept upon the farm, yielding an average ®f 210 lbs. of 
butter each. Mr. J. estimates the product of each cow worth about $64, 
and the cost of keeping, $26 85. Ir, costs 12i cts. per lb. to make butter on 
Elm wood farm, and we think it cannot be sold for less anywhere with much 
profit. His pork, killed at 9^ months old, fed on milk and fattened with 
corn, costs 5 cts. per pound. The balance over expenses on the whole farm, 
for the last year was $953 52. 

Mr. Johnson practices the following system of rotation. 1st. Corn, to 



218 SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. 

which is applied all the unfermented manure he can get. T*:e next spring 
it is sowa with barley at the rate of 2^ bushels of seed to the acre, then 
sown to wheat in the fall, with a topdressing of fine manure, of about 6 
loads to the acre. The following spring it is sown with 8 quarts of c'over 
seed and 5 quarts of Timothy, with one bus-hel of piaster per acre, when it 
is allowed to remain three years in grass. The usual product is 55 bushels 
of .corn, 30 of barley, and from 20 to 30 of wheat, per acre. The manure 
ia kept under cover, and a regular system of underdraining is carried out. 



A GOOD FIELD OF HOPS, ETC. 

To Capt. J. Farwell <fe Son: 

It was truly gratifying to me on the 6th inst., to witness the early picking 
of such a noble field of hops as your hands were then finishing in so favor- 
able a time. This is just the way dictated and pursued in skilful husbandry. 
It adapts the crops and manure to the soil — bestows the best culture in the 
best season, having secured the best plants from a judicious selection of seed, 
it gives pleasure and profit in the process, and returns for vigilance and toil. 
At present prices, with the flavor and fragrance of your luxuriant growth, you 
must realize a pretty sum, while your intelligence and example will tell on the 
practice of other farmers who witness the results. I am happy in addressing 
you through The Plough, the Loom^ and the Anvil, which for years has 
been a welcome visitor to me with thousands of others, who are sharing the 
labors of able editors and correspondents whose sentiments, teachings and 
illustrations, I am confident, will well accord with your views and taste, and 
will repay the cost and attention it so well deserves. Like a garden soil, its 
deep, rich, and cultivated thoughts and interesting variety will, I doubt not, 
incline you to introduce it to the acquaintance of those dear to you. We 
live for others. Our injluence will be felt further and longer than eye and 
ear and tongue can reach. What we acquire and dissetninate through pe- 
riodicals, is almost without a limit. Soon it will be a matter of memory with 
us and with our successors. " Son, remember that in thy life tinoe thou 
receivedst thy good things," etc. And no less of what we have done. 
"What thou doest do quickly. In haste. You may hear from me again, 
Yours truly, Benjamin Willard. 

Lancaster, Mass, Sept. 8th, 1856. 



Self-closing Faucet. — Mr. Tuthill, of Boston, has introduced to the 
public some self-closing faucets for the supply of water or other fluids ; the 
peculiarity being than there is no drip nor waste, and also an instantaneous 
full stream. Vulcanized rubber forms the internal spring and packing to 
close a valve acted upon by pressure with the finger. It is, in the truest 
practical sense, a self-closing contrivance, as the fluid can only run so long 
as the p ressure of the hand is upon the valve. 



STATE FAIRS. 219 



STATE FAIRS. 

RHODE ISLAND. THE HORSE AND CATTLE EXHIBITIONS. 

These fairs of " the Society for the Encouragement of Domestic Industry" 
commenced on the 11 ih September at Providence. 

The number of horned cattle was nearly 120 ; of sheep, about 25 or 30 ; 
of swine, a large number, and some 25 or 30 coops of fowls. 

An address was delivered on Tuesday evening in Westminster Hall, by 
B. P. Johnson. Esq., of Albany, Corresponding Secretary of the New- York 
Agricultural Society. 

Mr. Johnson spoke of the need that farmers should take an interest in 
the improvement of agriculture through the various facilities presented by 
agricultural societies and other organizations and means of intelligence. The 
European system should be more extensively copied, for there are farms in 
England the annual rent of which was more than the whole value of equally 
large farms here, showing what care and intelligence might do. Thorough 
weeding, even to weeding grain, and thorough draining, were advocated as 
expenditures which would richly repay, and the latter in particular, by mak- 
ing before useless land valuable, would in a single season pay back the cost 
of permanent drains. The triumphs of American agricultural instruments 
at the London World's Fair were quoted, and it was to the support and 
introductory experiments of our agricultural societies, encouraging inventors, 
that we owed these triumphs. Educate the mind, was the motto for farmers. 
Sustain every society tending thitherward. Make young men intelligent, — 
let our country boys be made equal to the city boys in all the controUing 
elements of education, and it will tell on the farms and the land, — equal to 
every duty, even to legislating, so that the pure influence of the country air 
might be felt in. the seats of power, sending abroad its blessings the wide 
earth over. 

The exhibition of horses commenced on Wednesday, at eleven o'clock, 
with a grand cavalcade of nearly all the horses entered for premiums. The 
entries were, stallions, 36 ; breeding mares, 33 ; draft horses, 25 ; ponies, 
11 ; matched horses, 76 ; family horses and roadsters, 126 ; farady matched 
horses, 16 ; fillies, 9 ; making a total of 312. The cavalcade made a very 
fine appearance, the line of horses and vehicles extending more than around 
the course, which is a mile in length. 

The Exhibition of Stallions, which succeeded the cavalcade, was an 
object of much attention, the different animals being made to show their 
points before the judges' stand. Some of these were most magnificent 
animals, principally of the Morgan and Black Hawk breeds; and among 
them, from Massachusetts, were "Young Black Hawk," from Harrison 
Bacon, of Barre ; " Ethan Allen," from O. S. Roe, of N. Cambridge ; a fine 
Giffbrd Morgan, Hampden, from N. R. Washburn, of Springfield ; Gray 
Eagle, from A. Burdee, of Natick ; Young Empire, from Francis Twichell, 
of Petersham. There were also American Consul, from L. J. Keyes, of 
South Killingsly, Ct. ; a Black Hawk colt, " Mose," three years old, from 
Lowell Pitcher, of East Greenwich, R. L ; a magnificent chestnut stallion, 
from W. Bower, of Richmond, R. L, called "Ashuelot Morgan"; Matchless, 
by Wm. B. De Wolfe, of Bristol, R. L ; Morgan Black Hawk, Jesse Com- 



220 ' STATE FAIRS. 



stock, of MiUville, R. I. ; Stockbridge Chief, by P. W. Bishop, of Chatham, 

This part of the programme closed with some fine trotting in harness by 
several stallions, in which the animals entered by Messrs. P. W. Bishop .and 
0. S. Roe, took a distinguished part, receiving much applause. 

The Exhibition of Breeding Mares followed. Most of these were beau- 
tiful animals, and some of them proved to be very swift in harness. 

The Exhibition of FiUies was also attractive, though the animals were 
few in number. 

At a short time after three o'clock the course was cleared, and the great 
event of the day, to many, a trial of speed, took place. In this, although 
there had been thirteen entries, but nine horses competed, neither of which 
had ever before trotted for money, nor had their drivers taken part in prize 
races. The race was by mile heats, the best three in five, and continued till 
a somewhat late hour. The first prize of $200 was taken by Genesee, owned 
by Mr. Livingston, of New- York city, and the second of $100 by the Stranger, 
owned by Mr. Barnard, of Boston. 

HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY EXHIBITION. 

This Society, under the supervision of its President, John J. Stimson, 
Esq., and its Secretary, John F. Driscoll, Esq., commenced its tenth annual 
exhibition Wednesday morning. Westminster Hall was occupied by six 
large tables, extending from one extremity to the other, covered with fruit, 
flowers, etc., with an abundance of room between the tables for the comfort 
of visitors. The display of flowers and fruit was very extensive, constituting 
nearly the whole exhibition, and the air of the room was redolent with 
a delightful perfume. 

" There were two curious plants on the tables, both imported from South 
America and entered for premium by Mr, George W. Chapin, through his 
gardener, Mi'. George Anderson. One of these was a butterfly pl-mt, (con- 
cidiura,) covered with beautiful little yellow flowers exactly like small butter- 
flies on the wing, — not a single part of the insect except legs being wanting. 
The other was a large cissus discolor. ' 

" B.'th of these were objects of great attention, particularly the latter, 
which displayed its dark red and green leaves around a wire frame to the 
height of four or five feet. 

SIXTH ANNUAL FAIR OF THE NEW-HAMPSHIRE STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETT. 

" The Fair of the State Society of New-Hampshire opened in Manchester, 
Wednesday, September 12. 

"The ground enclosed for the purposes of the Fair embraced an area of 
thirty acres. In the enclosure were forage tents for the cattle and other 
stock, tents for the display of manufactured articles, machines, agricultural 
implements, horticultuial and floral specimens, vegetable produce, etc. There 
was a horse track one half mile round, on which the Society expended up- 
wards of two hundred dollars. Adjacent to the track was a large gallery of 
seats capable of accommodating nearly three thousand spectators. The same 
grounds were occupied last year. 

An unusual number of fine horses were exhibited. The exhibition of 
sheep and swine, though not large, was good. The show of vegetables was 
excellent, and of cloths " very superb." 

The Annual Address was by Hon. Charles B. Raddock, and Addresses 
were also made by Hon. John M. Botts and Governor Mctcalf. 



STATE FAIRS. 221 



VERMONT STATE FAIR. 



The finances of this Fair appear to have demonstrated the truth, and the 
importance too, of sundry suggestions which we made a few months since 
under the title, "Policy of Fairs," in which we contended that all charges for 
witnessing these exhibitions were of evil tendency, and might interfere with 
the good results which might otherwise be derived from them. The cor- 
respondent of the Traveller says : 

"Within the grounds every thing seemed to pass off very satisfactorily, 
though in one particular, we are sorry to say, we heard a good many com- 
plaints, if not a general one, in regard to the admittance fee. At all the pre- 
vious Fairs 12|- cents has been charged for a single admittance, 25 cents for a 
ticket good for one day, and 50 cents for a season ticket for the three days. 
But this year the committee, it seems, have changed the admittance fee to 
25 cents for one admittance, and the purchaser is not given the privilege of 
entering the grounds but once on that ticket, so that if one leaves for a 
moment, on entering again he has to pay another quarter of a dollar ; and then, 
to make the matter worse, no season tickets at all are sold. This extra, and 
v/e must confess exorbitant charge, the committee say they are obliged to 
make in order to pay expenses. At the previous State Fair, held at this 
place in 1852, they say their expenses exceeded the proceeds some $300, 
and that, too, when they had no premiums to pay, which they have this 
year ; but we think the committee has mistaken in this matter." 

The same correspondent remarks in reference to the show of horses : 

"From 4 to 6 P. M., was devoted to trotting on the course. As regards 
the exhibition of horses — in any other part of the United States but Ver- 
mont it might have been considered as a superior show, as it really was, but it 
did not seem to quite come up to the anticipations of some, but it is said that 
numerous accessions are expected to-morrow, though to one not thoroughly 
acquainted with the resources of it, in reference to this noble animal, it would 
not seem an easy matter." 

The arrangements announced for the exhibition of horses, show the supe- 
rior ability of this State to acquire renown in this department. The pro- 
gramme for Wednesday, September 12, reads thus: 

" Horses will be exhibited on track for inspection of Committees in the 
following order, commencing at 9.30 A, M. 1. Stallions of Hamber- 
tonians and other bloods not included in the following classes : 2. Descend- 
ants of the Bulrush Morgan, stallions. 3. Descendants of Woodbury Morgan, 
, stallions. 4. Descendants of Sherman Morgan, stallions. 5. Matched Horses. 
6. Foreign Horses. 7. Geldings and Mares. Each class will pass twice 
around the track, halting the second time in front of the Committee's stand, 
afterwards be subject to the direction of the Committees. 

Brood Mares and Fillies of the first four classes will be collected in divi- 
sions at 2 o'clock, for inspection of the Committees. 

" Trottinff on the course will commence at 4 P. M." 



Machine for picking Cotton. — P. W. Porter, of Memphis, Tennessee, 
has invented a machine that will pick cotton. He says that with his ma- 
chine, one man, and two horses will pick and gather up, without loss, four 
acres of cotton per day — about equal to the labor of 30 men. 



222 RYE. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

BARLEY. ' 

Barley is a spring crop. There are two varieties, one good for its farina 
and for making barley gruel, the other for the brewery, for the manufacture 
of malt, to be used in b^ if. Of this, I would say a few words. 

Beer in Bavaria is made entirely of pure malt with hops, but in that 
which is in so general use in Germany and America, the brewers always 
employ drugs as a substitute, as the bean of St. Ignatius, a narcotic by which 
the beer is made stronger and more intoxicating, and also cheaper. The 
best beer which I ever drank in my life was that of Croatia. It was pure 
and wholesome, and so thick (essentielle) that if one should pour a few drops 
upon the table, and should leave a glass standing upon it, on the following 
day it would be difficult to remove it. 

I have made myself acquainted with the process of its manufacture, and I 
recommend it to farmers CtS wholesome and nourishing. 

A tub, having a douv le bottom, is placed upon three legs, around which 
an empty space is left to collect the liquor. Fresh straw is laid upon the 
external bottom, on which is piled the malt. The vessel is then filled with 
cold water, and stones, heated in the fire to redness, are placed in this water 
till it boils. The liquor is then drawn off into another vessel through a 
cock at the bottom, and after it is sutfiidently racked, hops are added, and 
the mass is cooled. It is then left to ferment. This process being com- 
pleted, it is poured into a large barrel or hogshead, and forms an excellent 
drink, which is named by the Croatians stei7i bier, or stone beer. 



RYE. — MALT BEER. 

Rye is of two sorts, one sown for the winter, the other in the spring. The 
first is of a smaller kind, and the envelope on the hull is thinner, its ftirina is 
white, it is kept more easily. It requires a good soil, clayey, ^od manured. 
Spring Rye grows well in sandy soil, but when manured it is larger grained ; 
the hull is thicker, givet. less farina, which has a whiter color, although it 
makes a darker colored broad than that kneaded from the farina of Winter 

Rye. ... 

Spring Rye is always cultivated in northern countries, as in Russia, in. 
Poland, Sweden, and Denmark. It was not known in France till 1834, 
when, as I was traveling from Mayenne to Lessy, about twelve miles, and I 
perceived that it was not cultivated, I made known to JVI. Dejardin, of whom 
I have before made mention, that this crop would prove profitable. This 
gentleman, after listening- to my suggpstions, prepared the soil, obtained 
seed from Puland, from the environs of Krasaystof, in the palatinate of Lub- 
lin, and upon sandy plains it became profitable in certain years, of which I 
shall treat in an essay upon leguminous plants. Rye is universally used for 
l)rcad in the North, Wheat, which is exported from this country, being the 
food of Southern Europe. Rye is also used in the North in the manufacture 
of spirits. The best spirits of wine, such as is employed by apothecaries for 



DWARF PEARS. 223 



medicines, is from Rye. In the North, all the best liquors are prepared from 
it, such as hold the first rank, even in preference to those of France and 
Southern Europe ma'^"''n<:tured from the vine. But the Nortli dpes not 
wish to consume all its Rye in the fabrication of spirits, and therefore mixes 
with this potatoes, and the spirits thus produced are also pure, but have 
not the same delicate taste, anc nre less highly prized. 

[The two preceding articles were translated from the French manuscript 
of M. Saniewski, by the editor.] 



DWARF PEARS. 

The Country Gentleman disposes of the question of dwarf pears thus : 

" We have repeated and almost constant inquiries in relation to the value 
of the pear on qu'nce stocks. ' Are dwarf pears going to answer 1 Are 
they not a humbug 1 Are they as good as standards? Would you rather 
have a tree on pear or quince root ?' These are some of the questions that 
are continually asked ; and the conflicting answers that are given do not help 
to clear up the question. 

" Yet it is a very simple one,* and very easily understood when cleared of 
the fog which partial observers and interested persons have thrown around 
it. To say which is best under all circumstances, would be like attempting 
to answer the question, ' Do you think the watermelon as good as the straw- 
berry ? Shall we not confine ourselves hereafter to the best of these two, 
and discard the other as a hM-./oug 1' 

"Dwarf and standard pear^. are each excellent in their places. The standard 
pear, as a general rule, grows to be a much larger tree, requires more time, 
needs more room, ultimately bears more per tree, will endure more neglect, 
and in most cases live to a greater age. The dvv^arf will come sooner into 
bearing, will occupy less space, and will not bear neglect, but requires good 
cultivation. We are not sure but the last quality is a positive recommen- 
dation ; for planters certainly need the stimulus of necessity to induce them 
to take better care of their trees. A standard will indeed grow and bear 
under ordinary circumstances ; but give it the best chance, and the fruit will 
be so much improved, as sometimes to be scarcely recognized. The dv/arf is 
emphatically the tree for t'ce garden, where two hundred may be planted on 
a quarter acre, instead ol but twenty-five standards, and where no difficulty 
exists in giving them the best soil and treatment. Those who are about 
occupying new places, may secure ft)r themselves a supply of fruit in two or 
three years by planting thrte year dwarfs ; and pomologists may get the 
fruit of new kinds the first or second year. 

" One leading reason why some have pronounced dwarfs a failure, is the 
attempt to raise too many kmds on the quince. There are a few sorts that 
are entirely at homo on this stock, and are always seen in a flourishing state, 
under anything like favorable influences, among which sorts may be men- 
tioned Louise Bonne of Jersey, Duchess of Angouleme, Glout Morceau, and 
Vicar of Winkfield, trees of which, twenty or thirty years old, are now pro- 
ductive and vigorous, and will probably live to a hundred. Some of these, 
and especially the Jersey and Wmkfield, seem to grow well on almost any 
kind of quince. But all do best on the Fretach stock, and this only should 
be used. The Angouleme appears to bo the hardiest dwarf under neglect. 



224 MAMMOTH SUNFLOWER. 

We have just examined an orchard of these, about nine years planted, which 
until the present year, had been almost totally neglected for five or six 
seasons, and enveloped in weeds and grass, and growing on a hard stony 
soil. The present season they have been cultivated but not manured, and 
they all show a thrifty appearance, and are bending under their load of 
magnificent fruit. The trees are about two and a half to three inches in 
diameter, and stand erect, although allowed to run up as standards, without 
pruning. They bore very little while neglected. As a proof of their superior 
hardiness, all or nearly of all of those originally planted are flourishing, while 
other dwarfs, interspersed, have nearly all died out from neglect. 

" There are several sorts of the pear that usually do well and live long on 
the quince, if enriched and cultivated annually, but not otherwise." 



FOR IHB PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL, 

THE MAMMOTH SUNFLOWER. 

We live in a mammoth world, a mammoth age of progress, and we read 
of mammoth stores, buildings, etc., etc. I beg leave to bring into notice 
through your pages a mammoth Sunflower. To me it is a particularly old 
and endeared friend, the companion of my boyish days, the earliest pride of 
my youth, when I reared it in my own little garden, which I could and did 
proudly call my own real estate, and from which I had legally the right to 
forbid all trespassers, and could plan and adapt its cultivation to my own 
taste and wish. 

This child of Flora partakes greatly of aristocratic qualities ; not one of your 
lovv, creeping, trading productions, which hardly elevate themselves from the 
dust and dirt of the bed whence they were born. It is lofty in stature, splen- 
did in colors, raisirlg its head high above the children of the soil that surround 
it, turning its face towards the east, paying its orisons to its great antitype — 
the great king of the day. 

The wise men of Greece gave it the name of Helianthus, literally the flower 
of the Sun. Its round noble disc is studded with a sort of golden down in 
the center, while the edges, throwing out its spear-shaped floral leaves, are sig- 
nificant and emblematic of the rays of light emanating from the center of 
our solar system. 

Our mammoth flower which we propose to describe, is among the giants of 
this class. He stands by the walk in oui; garden, taking precedence on our 
right hand, rising to the stature of nine feet and six inches, loaded with blos- 
soms, branching out of his stem to the number of forty ; all, lacking four or 
five, in full bloom. His girth of the stem on the surf^ice of the earth is full 
nine inches, and he yet stands majestically upright, notwithstanding several 
furious storms have lowered some compeers around him. 

The seed of these plants is more useful than many suppose. It con- 
tains a great deal of oil ; fowls devour it voraciously, and thrive well U[)on it. 
Last fall I threw some heads of it into my pig-sty, and found tliey were soon 
eaten by the inmates, and this I intend to be the final disposal of ray great 
Mammoth Western Flower above described. How descriptive of the vanity 
and termination of all earthly greatness ! R. S. 

Fulton, Wis. 



GRAFTING BEETS. 225 



THE CULTURE OF STRAWBERRIES. 

The New-York Horticultural Society, at a recent Conversational Meeting, 
arrived at the following conclusions in regard to the best method of cultivat- 
ing strawberries : 

" The best soil for the strawberry was stated to be a gravelly loam. The 
land should be well drained, and to every acre applied twenty bushels of 
unleached ashes, ten bushels of lime, and two or three pounds of salt. The 
ground should be well broken up ; animal manures should be eschewed ; leaf 
is the best, and this should be carefully spaded in. About the first of July 
is the best time to set out the plants. In doing this, pains should be taken 
to have them firmly rooted. The roots should be eighteen inches apart, and 
the plants a foot apart. 

" Sometimes it will be well to allow greater interval, in which case the in- 
terstices can be filled up from the growth of the runners. After setting out 
the plants, throw on a covering of tan-bark an inch or an inch and a half in 
depth, then water them plentifully, and the moisture will be retained a long 
time. After cold weather comes on, cover the strawberry beds and the 
walks with clean straw, throwing over a little brush, or something to keep 
the straw in its place. In the spring, remove the straw, and make use of 
some fertilizing agent to give the plants vigor, as suljihate of soda, sulphate 
of ammonia, or nitrate of potash. Keep the roots out, see that the plants 
are bountifully watered, and let nothing intervene to disturb or retard their 
growth till you gather the fruit. The beds should be made over as often as 
every three years." 



GRAFTING BEETS. 

At the beginning of September, 1853, Dr. Allan Maclean, of Colchester, 
an ingenious experimentaUst and good physiologist, grafted a young plant 
of the White Silesian Beet upon a root of Red Beet, and vice versa. At the 
time of the experiment the plants were each about as thick as a straw. A 
complete junction was efiected. There was a slight contraction at the line 
of junction, much like that formed by "choking" a rocket case; above the 
line of contraction the plant was absolutely white, below it was absolutely 
red. Not a trace of blending the two colors could be discovered. By similar 
experiments on either vegetables and plants, Dr. Maclean had so far assured" 
himself of the perfect independence of scion and stock as to acquire the be- 
lief that neither the coloring nor any specific characters of one or the other 
would or could be altered by their union. The result of the trial wholly 
confirmed that view, and demonstrated that the White Beet adhered to the 
Red Beet by mere junction of cellular matter; that of the scion and stock 
holding together in the first instance, and each afterwards produced its own 
coloring matter in its own new cells as they formed superficially, the red cells, 
adhering to the white cells while in the nascent state, but retaining each the 
peculiarity belonging to it, without any interchange of contents through the 
sides of the cells in contact. 

15 



226 TEilPERATURE OF THE SEA, ETC. 

This is entirely consistent with all that has been discovered by the modern 
physiologists who have applied themselves to a study of the nature of the 
ipdividual cells of which plants consist. They have clearly shown that each 
cell has its own special inherent of secretion ; as indeed may be seen by any 
one who examines thin sections of variegated leaves or other parts. It will 
then be seen that some cells are filled with a red coloring matter, others with 
yellow, others with green. In other words, one cell has the power of secret- 
ing red matter, another yellow, and so on. The colors do not run together, 
but are contained each within the cell that produces it. Why this is so no 
one knows ; all that we are acquainted with is the fact that in the cells of 
the Red Beet resides a power of forming red matter, and in those of the 
White Silesian Be.et that of forming yellow ; and this peculiarity is not 
eflfected by the one growing to the other. Red-forming cells produce their 
like and yellow-forming theirs. Thus the limit between the scion and its 
stock is uumistakeably traceable, and notwithstanding the combination of the 
two sorts in one, each perseverlngly retains that which is natural to it. 

What is true of Beets is true of all other plants, and we shall endeavor on 
an early day to apply to the practice of grafting the unquestionable facts 
above explained. — Gardener's Chronicle. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANTIL. 

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SEA AND THE LAWS OF HEAT. 

Salmagandi, Ouachita Parish, La., Aug. 25, 1855. 

Mr. Editor : — In the United States Magazine is an article upon Vesuvius 
and its late eruptions. It is observed that in descending into some mines 
the temperature has been found to increase at a regular rate, which at a few 
thousand feet in depth would be sufficient to melt all substances that are 
known on the crust of the earth. . . . But this theory seems to be re- 
futed by the ocean, which shows no increase of temperature as we descend 
into its depths, but rather the contrary. Then it is said, according to the 
supposed law of increasing temperature, as we descend into the earth, there 
would be sufficient heat at eight or nine miles from the surface, not only to 
set the ocean boiling, but to evaporate the whole mass of waters at once. 
But man with his sounding apparatus has examined the water at that depth, 
and found it " cool as a cucumber." 

I have seen an anecdote of a pupil who, in reciting his lesson, repeated the 
truism, " heat causes all bodies to expand ;" his teacher requesting an instance, 
said he, " When the weather is hot, the days are long." Whether the 
elucidation was satisfactory I have never learned. But, as the pupil 
said in his recitation, heat causes all bodies to expand. That is good reason 
that the water at the lowest depths of the ocean should be coldest — the 
more heated, and consequently lighter particles rising to the surface, simply by 
the force of gravity. In ponds and lakes where the water is still, by sinking 
H jug a few feet, cool water may be obtained, while the surface, being heated 
from above, is much warmer. 

What is the cause of earthquakes or eruptions of mountains, T cannot 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 227 

pretend to say — the surface is what I am interested in. But were the editor 
of said publication at a hog-killing, and could see our Southern slaves, (who, 
by the way, are the ha2:)piest people in the country,) put their hands imme- 
diately under the bottom of a kettle to pour boiling water out — not particu- 
larly to make a display — but because they know from experience that the 
coldest water is at the bottom and keeps the bottom, cool, he probably 
would not be surprised that the coldest water in the ocean is at the bottom. 
A kettle of boiling water is an atomical ocean at a high state of tempera- 
ture. ' W.M.D. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 

A SPECIAL meeting of the American Institute was held on the l7th inst,, 
at the rooms, No. 351 Broadway. Dr. D. M, Reese in the Chair ; John W. 
Chambers, Secretary, 

After the reading of the Minutes of the previous meeting, the Committee 
on the Admission of Members submitted the names of six candidates for 
members, and they were unanimously elected. 

The principal object of the meeting being to hear a report from the Man- 
agers in relation to the exhibition to be held next month at the Crystal Palace, 
Mr. Smith, the Chairman, presented a lengthy report, from which we gather 
that the applications for space exceed the expectations ' of the Managers. 
The principle railroads have agreed to bring articles to the exhibition and 
return them free of charge. The shafting for the machinery is already in 
place. Two steam-engines are ready for operation in the Palace. 

Among the articles already entered is Dr. Drake's gas engine of 24 horse- 
power, six or seven entries of gas cooking apparatus, planing machines with- 
out number ; besides large quantities of the staple productions of our coun- 
try in iron, wool, and cotton. The machinery department will be filled with 
ingenious labor-saving machinery. 

Quite a spirited debate arose in relation to those Managers who have ac- 
cepted, and have not come up to the work. 

Some of the members insisted that they should forthwith resign and give 
place to those who are willing to act. 

Delegates were appointed to visit the New- York State Fair at Elmira ; the 
New-Jersey State Fair at Camden ; the United States Agricultural Show at 
Boston ; the Queens County Fair at Flushing, Long Island ; and the West- 
chester County Fair at Whiteplains, etc. 

An appropriation was made to pay current expenses. 
After the transaction of some other business, the question arose as to the 
time of adjournment. Some were in favor of meeting every week to hear 
the reports of Committees. Gen. Hall moved to adjourn to the regular 
meeting, as the Managers were continually occupied in the arrangements for 
the coming Fair. His motion prevailed. 

We understand that a Poultry Show will be held the last week of the Fair. 
A large number of fire engines were entered, and a test will be had of 
their power during the Exhibition. 

The Agent informed the meeting that, from the applicants for space, he had 
no doubt but the Palace would be filled. 



228 NAUMKEAG MILL, SALEM, MASS. 



THE NAUMKEAG MILL, SALEM, MASS. 

This mjll was established eight years ago, and having been planned and 
constructed upon the wisest principles of economy, and furnished with the 
best of machinery, and having been managed moreover with careful prudence 
and good judgment from the beginning, under the direction of Edmund 
Smith, Esq., it has enjoyed uninterrupted success. During all this time it 
has, with the exception of a single year, paid regular semi-annual dividends 
of from three to five per cent. 

We have in time past, we believe, published some of the statistics of its 
operations, but as we are now noticing, briefly, various branches of industry 
in Salem and vicinity, it may do no harm to state the facts anew. 

The mill building is a substantial affair, 400 feet in length by 60 feet in 
width, and 4 stories in height. It contains six hundred and forty-two looms 
and thirty-three thousand spindles. This machinery is driven by a splendid 
steam-engine of four hundred horse power, built in Providence, by Corliss & 
Nightingale, at a cost of $18,500, besides $13,000 for the boilers. It has 
been run without the necessity of stopping for the past seven years, and is a 
model of mechanical beauty. 

The mill produces Sheetings, Jeans and Flannels, at the rate of over one 
hundred thousand yards per week, the quantity annually produced being 
about five million five hundred and fifty thousand yards of goods'. In this 
manufacture they consume annually three thousand seven hundred bales of 
cotton. Other chief articles of consumption are, 2000 tons of coal, 3,500 
gallons sperm oil, 30 tons potato starch, etc. The mill gives employment to 
600 men, women and children, and it pays for labor, monthly/, eleven thou- 
sand dollars, all in cash, no orders or equivalents being given. 

We may add that the mill and works are lighted by gas manufactured 
upon the premises, in a neighboring building, at a much less cost than would 
be incuiTcd for oil, while the light is much safer, and has proved quite satis- 
factory since its introduction into the mill some three years ago. 

The capital of the company paid in is $700,000. The cost has been 
&?'720,000. 

The safety of the shareholders appears to be wisely guarded by a full in- 
surance on all the buildings and machinery, and on goods of the Corporation 
in the market, and by a guarantee on all sales of goods bj reliable and able 
factors. 

It appears from the last annual report that the product of the mill, for the 
year ending Nov. 30, 1854, was 5,0*73,648 yards of cloth. 

The general expenses, repairs, etc., amounted to $32,921, and during the 
year, the engine, shafting, etc., were placed in as good order, for the ten 
years to come, as they were when first put into operation. 

The net earnings of the year, deducting the expenditure above named, 
amounted to. $85,758 06. Deducting from this the amount paid in dividends, 
and there was a balance to the credit of the company of $30,870 06. 

The total amount of surplus then on hand was $174,803 91, or twenty- 
four dollars and ninety-six cents on each of the 7000 shares issued at that 
time. 

From the foregoing statements the reader can form an idea of the advan- 
tages which our city derives from this one mill, and what might be secured 
were the manufacturing business more extended. Of the hundred and thirty 



GLOUCESTER, MASS. — ITS INDUSTRY. 229 

thousand dollars wbicli are annually paid to the operatives, tte larger por- 
tion is expended in town, to tbe benefit of our traders, mechanics, etc. The 
same classes also derive grains from tbe labor and materials required, inci- 
dentally, in the operations of the mill. Tbe dividends also accrue largely to 
our own citizens, (there being 500 shareholders,) who own a good portion of 
the stock. 

Tbe tendency of a factory establishment like this, to increase the amount 
and value of real estate, is seen by a glance at the neighborhood of the 
mill. Ten years ago there was not a more quiet and retired locality in tbe 
city, but few buildings having been erected thereabouts. Now it is an ani- 
mated and populous neighborhood. New streets have been laid out in the 
rear of the boarding-houses, and buildings are going up steadily upon the 
remaining lots of land. There are in the vicinity two machine shops, an 
iron foundry, a ship yard, where a brig of 260 tons is building by Mr. Ed- 
ward F. Miller, of this city, a marine railway, a candle factory, and several 
stores. Some of these establishments are to be sure as old as tbe factory it- 
self, and even older, and we mention them only to show what a busy neigh- 
borhood it is. — Salem Observer. 



GLOUCESTER, MASS.— ITS mDUSTRY. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Boston Traveller says that the mackerel fishery 
for the Gloucester fleet on tbe north-east coast promises well the present 
season. About 200 sail are now absent from home. About a dozen have 
arrived from their first trips within tbe last fortnight, bringing tolerably good 
fares; from 150 to 300 barrels. The mackerel, however, pack out small, 
the market prices. are low, and sales dull just now. 

The " crafts" fishing along our coast and bay are doing better than they 
have for some seasons past. Sharks seem to be more plenty this year than 
ever before ; they are very troublesome to the schools of mackerel and the 
fishermens' nets which are set in the " coves" and along shore. A week since 
a monster shark made his appearance at Little Good Harbor Beach, near 
" Salt Island," driving a large school of " Fogies" ashore, and some one hun- 
dred or more bad to remain on dry land to get clear of their enemy. They 
soon, however, had to surrender to the fisherman's knife and wash-tub, for 
mackerel bait. 

Notwithstanding the depressed state of the fishing business at Gloucester 
during some years, the town is on the march of improvement, and is grow- 
ing up for a " big" city at some future time. New streets and avenues are 
yearly opened, with neat, large dwellings erected thereon. At least three 
hundred buildings have been erected in different parts of the town during 
tbe past two years. A large and fine church has also been built for the 
Congregational Society on Middle street. The old Baptist church on Plea- 
sant street has at last fallen into tbe hands of the Roman Catholics, and they 
have removed it to a lot of land on Park street. The Baptist society having 
built a new church, they disposed of the old edifice to private citizens, a few 
years ago, and it has remained dead property ever since. The company at 
last getting tired of the property, placed it at auction. A small number of 
persons only attended the sale, and it was knocked off to a Salem gentleman 



230 INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 



for less tbau 8300, who was present as an agent for the Salem Catholic 
priest. Several citizens would have purchased the old church and converted 
it into a dwelling-house if they had been aware that it was to pass into the 
hands of the Roman Catholics. Five years ago there were but two Irish 
Catholic families in town ; they now number some 500 in Gloucester, Rock- 
land and Lanesville. A number of foreigners have settled in Gloucester 
from Nova Scotia and the British Provinces. 

The authorities of the town are now taking the census. I have been in- 
formed by a canvasser that the population will come up to 10,000 ; an in- 
crease since the last census of some 3000. With the floating population, 
Gloucester has, no doubt, 2000 inhabitants, at the present time. 

Uncle Sam has selected a good and central spot of land on the corner of 
Spring and Pleasant streets to build the new Custom House, Post-Office and 
Court-house on. The building is to be of brick, fire-proof, large and sub- 
stantial ; to be commenced probably in a month or two. A new Custom- 
House has long been needed at this large port of entry. 

Mr. Hardy has on the stocks at his ship yard, Beach street, a real clipper 
schooner, of about 60 tons burden, built for the Lynn fishermen who attend 
the Boston market." Mr. Davis, at East Gloucester, has on the stocks a fine 
schooner for the fishing business. 

^ Oak Grove Cemetery, lately laid out, (entrance on Washington street,) 
will be, in time, one of the most delightful burial-places that can be found in 
the State. The grounds are very tastefully arranged. Lots sell for $75 to 
$100 at the present time. The Masonic Lodge have erected a neat monu- 
ment over the grave of the Hon. Wm. Person. 

A large number of strangers have been making Gloucester their seashore 
resort this season. A number could not get accommodations, and were 
obliged to seek other places. It has been quite a drawback to visitors to 
have both the Pavillion and the Gloucester House closed this summer. They 
could have both been filled with company, if opened. Let some good, popu- 
lar landlord lease these hotels, keep them up with the times, and a good, 
safe, profitable business may be done at both houses. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

UsQuiPAUG, R. I. — Usquipaug Mills. — J. B. M. Potter, Agent ; Manser 
C. Shippee, Superintendent ; Wm. W. Henry, Foreman. Cotton Mill has 18 
cards of 18 inches ; 1150 spindles, making satinet warp. Woolen mill has 
2 sets cards and 24 looms. Make jeans. 

Allenton, R. I. — Yawgoo Mill, woolen. — W. G. Rose, agent ; Nicholas 
R. Gould and others, foremen. Mill has 2 sets cards, 2 jacks, 16 looms. Make 
jeans ; warps purchased. 

Kingston, R. I. — Moorsjield Mill, yvoohn. — Daniel Rodman, owner; Os- 
car Gardner, foreman. Mill has 2 sets cards, 2 jacks, 16 looms. Make coarse 
kerseys ; 200,000 yards yearly. 

Narragansett, R. I. — Steam Mill, woolen. — Potter & Eaton, owners; B. 
S. Rose, Superintendent ; Benjamin Aldnch, Engineer. Mill has 2 sets cards, 
32 looms. Make jeans ; warps purchased. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 231 

New-London, Ct. — Repair Shop of iV. L. & W. Palmer^ R. R. — Wm. 
H. Grio-gs, master of motion power. Eoad has 65 miles of trade ; send out 
4 trains daily ; repair and rebuild locomotives ; do repairs for Amherst and 
Belchertown R. R. Wood-shop has C. M. Hutch, foreman. Forge-shop 
has John W. Rose, Foreman ; P. B. Hovey and others, engineers. 

MoNTViLLE, Ct.— Rockland Mill, woolen, has 30 looms. Make Satinets. 

Cordage Mill, E. H. Palmer. — Make 250 lbs. cords daily. Make bed- 
cords, plough and clothes-lines, coil-rope, etc. 

Cotton Rope Mill. — Wm. L. Allen, Superintendent. Turns out 250 lbs. 
daily. 

UNCASVILI.K, Ct. — Uncasville, Mang. Co. — 1 mill, cotton. W. R. Wood, 
manager; Ira Dimock, Machinist. Mill has 36 cards, 36 inches wide ; 369*7 
spindles, 120 looms. Make stripes, dereims, ticking, etc., of yarn No. 13. 

Norwich, Ct. — Repair Shop of Norwich and Worcester Railroad. R. Col- 
burn, Master of power-shop, has 4 lathes and other tools. Send out 2 pas- 
senger, 2 steamboat, and 3 freight trains daily. Road has 66 miles trackl 
Wood-shop has 20 hands, and G. R. Bentley, foreman. Forge-shop has 5 
fires, one furnace, and T. H. Pollard, foreman. 

Machine Shop of Peleg Rose & Co., owners ; L, H. Ellsworth, foreman. 
Shop has 20 lathes and other tools in proportion. Foundry attached, A. H. 
Vaughn, foreman, has 20 hands on average. Make pap^-mill machinery, 
steam engines, shafting, and do job work. 

Greenville, Ct. — Clark'' s Mill, cotton. — W. F. Clark, agent; Blan- 
chard, superintendent; D. Morrill, foreman. Mill has 36 cards of 18 inches; 
2044 spindles, 56 looms. Cloth is 30 inches wide, 48 by 52, of yarn Nos. 
16 and 19. 

Machine Shop of J. S. & S. J. Mowrey, owners. John A. Bennett, 
Foreman. Shop employs 80 hands. Forge shop has 18 fires. Make axles, 
springs, steam engines, paper-mill machinery, also Salisbury iron for axles, 
and best English steel for springs, supplying many of the best carriage 
makers with these superior articles. 

Bliss Mill. — W. Bliss, Agent. Mill has 800 spindles. Make satinet 
warps. 

Paper Mill, Chelsea Mang. Co. — J. D. Mo wry, agent. James Lindsay, 
Superintendent. Mill has 28 engines, running night and day, six machines. 
Make all qualities from finest book to newspaper. Employ 180 hands. 

Gas Works — Norwich Joint Stock Co. — Works have 12 crucibles set. 
Make superior gas. Charles F. Stacy, gas-fitter, connected with the Company. 

Jewett City, Ct. — Jeioett City MM, J. A. Slater, agent ; Burlson, super- 
intendent. Mill has 2856 ring and 2664 mule spindles ; 210 looms. Make 
20 different kinds of denims, stripes, ticking, etc. 

Ashland Mill, Cotton. — N. D. Adams, Agent ; Wm. Randall, superintend- 
ent ; Linnreus Wild and others, foremen. Thomas L. Young, repairer. Mill 
has 10 cards of 36 inches ; 1200 by 1000 spindles, 66 looms. Cloth 36 inches. 
52x60 ; yarn, Nos. 28 and 30. 

Hopeville Mill, woolen, — Henry Lathrop, agent; Cyrus Titus, superintend- 
ent. Mill has 4 sets cards, 40 looms. Warps made on the premises. Make 
satinets. 

Packersville, Ct. — Packer'' s Mill, cotton. S. A. Packer, agent ; Stephen 
Cole, foreman. Mill has 1*700 spindles, 52 looms. Make drillings and 
diapers. 

Yantic, Ct. — Yantic Mill, woolen. E. W. Williams, agent ; D. L. Hun- 
tington, Superintendent ; Wm. H. Wise, H. H. Hart, E. F. Yarrington, and 



2S2 INDUSTRIBL STATISTICS. 

Eli Cory, foremen. Mill has machinery to turn out 2000 yards flannel daily. 

FiTciiviLLE, Ct. — Fitch Mill, cotton. A. Fitch, agent ; J. W. Thompson . 
superintendent; Clark Reynolds, repairer. Mill has 48 cards, 30 inches: 
5130 spindles, 160 looms. Cloth 30 and 36 inches, 64x48, yarn 15. 

Daysville, Ct. — DaniePs Mill, cotton. D. A. Daniels, agent, J. A. 
Daniels, superintendent. Mill has 13 cards, 30 inches; 2100 spindles, 58 
looms. Cloth 28 inches; 60x68, yarn 29. 

FisHERviLLE, Ct. — MasonvHU Mills, 3, cotton. Dr. "Wm. Grovesenor^ 
agent ; Lucius Briggs, superintendent and agent ; E. B. Anderson, LewisWade, 
Thomas Williams, George T. Seaver and others, foremen. Mills have 10,000 
spindles, 51 cards 30 inch, 200 looms. Cloth is 38 and 39 wide, 78x108, 
yards 35 and 38. 

Thompson, Ct. — QuaddicJc Mill, cotton. H. S. Bartlett, agent ; Lucian 
Randall, Daniel Peck, foremen. Mill has 1650 spindles, 38 looms. Cloth 
28 inches, 60x60, yarn 29. 

Putnam, Ct. — Wilkinson Mill, coiio^. Edward Wilkinson, agent. Mill 
has 11 cards of 36 inches, 2350 spindles, 60 looms. Cloth 36 inches, 52x 
52, of yarn 18. 

Morse's Mill, cotton. M. S. Morse, agent ; S. Nichols, superintendent ; Al- 
bert Knight, David T. Spencer, Israel Kibbec, overseers. Mill has 48 cards 
30 inch, 8588 spindles, 200 looms. Cloth 36 and 38 inches, '72x72 ; yarn 
30. 

Ballow Mill. — H. Ballow, owner ; E. A. Cutler, superintendent ; Zadock 
Wills, John D. Wills, foremen. Mill has 62 cards, 24 inch, 9000 spindles, 
250 looms; cloth 28 inches ; 60x64, yarn 28. 

Rhodesville Mill, cotton. J. P. Bailey, agent. Mill has 24 cards of 28 
inches, 100 looms. Cloth 28 inches, 64x72, yarn 30. 

East Woodstock, Ct. — Smith's Mill, cotton. G. P. Smith, agent ; R.euben 
Gage, overseer. Mill has 1250 spindles, 36 looms. Cloth is 28 inches. 50x 
52, yarn 25. 

New-Boston, Ct. — New-Boston Mill, cotton. Billings and Upham, agents ; 
A. J. Davis and J. B. Bulbitt, foremen. Mill has 18 cards of 18 inches, 20 
looms. Cloth 28, 60x60, yarn 28 and 30. 

WiLLiMANTic, Ct. — Buck 3Iill. Wm. L. Jillson, agent. Mill has 1 2 
double cards, 1300 spindles. Make duck and bags. 

Willimantic Linen Co., 1 mill. — E. Johnson, agent ; Charles S. Bliven, 
superintendent ; Robert Dungan, Joseph RoUinson, Henry M. Hinde, L. W. 
Spencer and others, foremen. Mill turns out 4000 yards crash, and 200lbs. 
shoe-thread, and 200lbs. twine daily. 

Paper Mill. — L. & W. Page has 6 engines running day and night ; make 
printing paper. In this place three mills, cotton ; not running when these 
statistics were collected. 

Hop River Mill, cotton. Moses B. Harvey, agent ; Wm. B .Hawkins, super- 
intendent. Has two dressing frames ; make satinet warps. 

Wells Co., 1 mill, cotton. John H. Capen, agent. Mill has 12 cards 
36 inches. Make satinet warps, colored and plain. 

North Windham, Ct. — Lincohi's Mill, woolen. Stowel Lincoln, owner. 
Mill has 1 set cards, 1 jack, 5 looms, 1 bag-loom. Make felting cloths for 
paper hangers and calico printers. Turn out lOOlbs. daily. 

Matchany Mill, cotton. L. D. Spencer, superintendent ; Ithel E. Town, 
foreman. Mill has 16 cards 36 inches. Make satinet warps. 

Mansfield Center, Ct. — Bobbin Factory of George F. Swift ; employ C. 
men on average, and make bobbins, jack and all kinds of spools. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 233 



Machine- Shop of N. Rexford ; E. S. Capen foreman, has 10 lathes and 
other tools. Make machinery for silk mills and do jobbing. 

Machine-Shop of Orlow Atwood, has 4 lathes^nd other tools. Make silk 
machinery and do job work. 

South Coventrv, Ct. — Washington Mill, woolen. N, Kingsbury & Co., 
agents ; Gr. W. Capron, superintendent ; James Soules, A. B. Boardman, 
overseers. Mill has 3 sets, 26 looms. Make satinets, warps purchased. 

Coventry Depot, Ct. — Woolen Mill, H. E. Fargo, agent; Joel L. Ladd, 
Charles C. Bennett, foremen. Mill has 3 sets cards and 24 looms. Make 
satinets — warps purchased. 

Eagleville Gt.— Eagle Co., 1 mill, cotton ; E. B. Hibbard, agent. Mill 
has 18 cai-ds 18 inches, 2000 spindles, 44 looms ; make 30 inch drills. 
, Merrow, Ct. — Stockinett Mill, woolen. Pitkin, Merrow & Co., agents. 
Andrew Webster, E. C. Otis, foremen. Mill has 3 sets cards ; make stock- 
ings, shirts, drawers etc. 

West-Willingtox, Ct. — Willington Thread Co., I mill; Origin Hal!, 
agent. Mill has 4 cards 30 inches. Much yarn purchased of B. Greene. 
Make sewing thread, Johnson's patent finish, superior article. 

Stafford Springs, Ct. — Mineral Springs, Mang. Co., 1 mill, woolen. 
J. Converse, agent ; C. W. Eaton, Geo. B. Grant, foremen. Mill has 3 sets 
cards, 30 looms on satinets. Warps purchased. 

Converseville Co., 1 mill, woolen. P. Converse, agent ; Franscis Hyde, Pat- 
rick Powers and others, foremen. Mill has 3 sets cards and 30 looms on 
satinets. Warps purchased. 

Granite Mill Co.— I mill, cotton; G. M. Ives, agent. Mill has 20 cards 
36 inches, 5000 spindles, 121 looms. Cloth 28 inches, 60x64, of yarn 28. 

Orcuttville Co. — 1 mill woolen ; R. G. Pinney, agent ; Henry Orcutt, 
superintendent ; Alonzo L. Eaton, Orrin L. Fletcher, overseers. Mill has 2 
sets cards, 18 looms. Make heavy satinets. Warps are purchased. 

West Stafford, Ct. — West-Stafford Linen Co., 1 mill ; A. W. Case 
agent; C.J.Holmes, superintendent. Mill turns out ISOOlbs. shoe-thread 
weekly. 

Stockinett Factory of Samuel Fitch, has 6 rotary machines and makes 
webbing for rubber works. 

Machine-Shop of S. Fairman, has 3 lathes and other tools. Make patent 
universal chucks. 

Machine-Shop of J. W. Fairman & Co., has 3 lathes and other tools. Make 
Fairman's patent scroll chuck. 

Machine Shop of Washburn & Whiton, has 8 lathes, 2 lances, and other 
tools. Make scroll chucks, elevators, planers, and do job work. 

Sf afford Ct. — Woolen Mill by Converse & Hyde ; E. W. Daniels, super- 
intendent; F. N. Andrews, Lewis Putney & others, foremen. Mill has 2 
sets, 20 looms. Make satinets ; warps purchased. 

Valley Co., 1 mill, cotton ; Moses B. Haney, agent. Mill has 14 cards 
18 inches, 800 dead fancy spindles. Make satinet warps, 1800 threads, No. 
18 yarn ; 9600 weekly. 

Machine-Shop of Charles Holt. Shop has 6 lathes and other tools. 
Make finishing machinery for woolen mills. 

Hydeville, Mang. Co., 1 mill, woolen ; Elijah Fairman, agent; James 
Risley, superintendent ; Ashley D. Studley, E. H. Risley, Frank G. Fairfield, 
foremen. Mill has 3 sets cards, 24 looms. Make satinets, fancy and plain ; 
warps purchased. 

Staffordv^llE, Ct. — Machine-Shop of Howe & Converse ; Falkner, super- 



234 IMPEOVED FLOCK CUTTER. 

intendent. Shop has 14 lathes and other tools in proportion. Make looms, 
fulling-mills, and do job work. Make Talbet's improved loom. 

Siaffordville, Mang. Co., 1 mill, woolen; E. A. Converse, 'agent; Charles 
A. Tainter and others, foremen. Mill has 3 sets cards and 28 looms, on- 
satinets ; warps purchased. 

Rope Co., 1 mill, woolen ; E. A. Converse, agent. Mill has 3 sets, 26 looms. 
Make satinets ; warps purchased. 

Converse Brothers. — Mill woolen; E. A. Converse, agent ; Jos.H. Converse, 
superintendent ; Stillman Ellis and others, foremen. Mill has 2 sets, 20 loomg. 
Make fine satinets. Warps purchased. 



HARVEY'S DEAD SPINDLE. 

The spindle, of Mr. Moses B. Harvey, of Staflford, Ct., differs from any here- 
tofore introduced among cotton spinners. It is a short spindle, costing fifty 
cents less per spindle in a frame than the live spindle costs. A warve is 
fitted to the spindle revolving around it. Projecting from the upper end of 
the warve is a tube, which, entering the base of the bobbin, gives motion to 
the bobbin in part, the other part being secured by a pin in the base of the 
bobbin, suited to, and entering into, a hole in the upper plain of the warve. 
Motion is communicated to the warve, and thus to the bobbin, in the same 
way as it is given on a frame of live spindles. 

One advantage of the Harvey spindle over the common one is, that it re- 
quires much less power to run it ; and another is, that it will do more work, 
because capable of being run at greater speed. These advantages, added to 
the fact that a frame costs fifty cents less per spindle than other frames 
cost, are powerful recommendations of this spindle over other ring spinning. 
In the mill of the Valley Co., Stafford, Ct., are several frames of Harvey 
spindles running with perfect success. The geneual introduction of this 
mode of cotton spinning will be a general gain to all manufactories. 



IMPROVED FLOCK GUTTER. 



The knives upon the improved Cutter of Mr. Charles Holt, in Stafford, 
Ct., are sixteen in number, and are spiral around the shaft to which they 
are fastened. Each knife winds round one-fourth of the shaft, and hence 
four knives are constantly engaged in cutting. The outer cylinder is made 
to turn slowly, and bring the flock into contact with the knives. This outer 
cylinder, and also the frame-work of the machine, are made of iron . Thus, 
in looks and in operation, Mr. Holt's improvements are obvious and of sub- 
stantial value, being capable of doing much work, and of doing that work 
well. w 



lownd's pen and pencil case. 



285 



LOWND'S PATENT PEN AND PENCIL CASES. 



These cuts represent the outside 
appearance of a newly-patented and 
very useful article in the way of pen 
and pencil. Fig. 1, the case closed 
up portable and convenient for the 
pocket. Fig. 2, the pencil, and fig. 
3, the pen, ready for use. 

By examining the internal arrange- 
ment of No. 1, we find therein a sta- 
tionary slotted tube within which is 
the pencil tube, outside of which, be- 
tween it and the case, is the pen and 
pen-holder, all so arranged that they 
operate without interfering with each 
other, and the whole made much 
stronger and more durable than when 
both pen and pencil are at the same 
end. 

What is claimed as new and se- 
cured by letters patent is the slotted ' 
tubes, the pencil tube and the pen- 
holder, arranged and connected as set 
forth in the letters patent. To oper- 
ate : Pull out the chased tip A with 
the right hand, turn it to the right, 
and push it back to its place, this will 
leave the pen out ; then pull out the 
tip C, and it is as long as an ordinary 
extension case. The pencil is thrown 
out in the same manner as the pen, 
by turning and pushing back the tip 
C. Close the case by extending the 
inside barrels and reversing the move- 
ments. The ball B unscrews and re- 
veals a small chamber for leads. 

These pens and pencils are manu- 
factured exclusively by Wm. M. Will- 
marth, 44 Maiden Lane. Mr. W. 
was formerly of the old firm, and 
chief manager of the house of Ad- 
dison, Willmarth & Co., which is 
sufficieqt guarantee for the workman- 
ship of whatever comes from bis 
hands. 



236 



HALLADAYS WIND-ENGIXE. 










halladay's wind-engine. 237 



HALLADAY'S WIND-ENGINE, 

On another page the reader will see a picture of a Wind-Engine, which is 
now gaining popular knowledge and favor, lately patented by Mr. Halladay, 
of South Coventry, Ct. A company has been formed for the manufacture of 
this Engine, called the Halladay Wind-Mill Co., having a large shop 
in the place above mentioned. The mills are constructed of different sizes 
to suit the wants of purchasers, or rather to give any desired amount of 
power, varying in prices according to size, from $75 to $275 each. We have 
seen one, yet standing at the factory, of four horse power, furnished with a 
regulator to equalize its speed, such as is in common use in cotton mills to 
regulate the speed of breast wheels. The cost per horse power for a wind- 
mill is about the same as the cost per horse power of a steam engine. 

The patent of Mr. Halladay has reference to the mode of regulating the 
speed of the engine. It is by a device peculiar, ingenious, and simpla, that 
the wings of the engine are gradually turned around so as to change the 
angle of the fan in the face of the breeze, making the plane of the wing now 
nearly parallel with the line of the storm, as the storm or wind increases, 
and in the same proportion diminishing the speed. An inspection of fig. 2 
will show how this motion is given to the wings, y f are the stems to the 
wings. G is an aparatus, around the cylinder, into which the wings are in- 
serted. This aparatus, g, by a bar, h, turns the stem of the wings, so as to 
bring the plane of the wings at any angle with the line of the wind. 
When the wind is strongest and speed begins to increase, the fixture, g, is 
changed, and hence the angle is changed. The engine of the cut is working 
a pump. The regulator, giving motion to g, is found in the orifice of the 
water pipe. Any other regulator can be used to give the proper motion to 
G. We wish it to be distinctly understood that the peculiarity of this engine 
is found in its aparatus to regulate its speed. The great reason why wind 
power has been so little used heretofore is, that the power was irregular and 
uncontrollable. When the wind was high, the engine was straining, and 
cracking, and breaking. When the engine was suited to a strong wind, it 
ceased to work at the instant the wind lulled. Because of this variableness 
and inconstancy, wind power has been but little used. Along on the sea- 
shore, where water power could not possibly be had, efforts have been made 
to apply wind power to the grinding of meal. Yet these mills have always 
been abandoned the moment more regular power could be secured from the 
water. But wind power can always be had just where we want it, which is 
not the case with water power. Wind power is also both cheaper and safer 
than steam power. A wind engine uses up no cash to keep it going as steam 
does. When the difficulties referred to are overcome, wind power will be 
used every where. To do his pumping, and threshing, and saiving ioood, 
churning, and so forth and so forth, every farmer wants a small power, such 
as can be economically secured by the Wind Engine. And the blacksmith, 
and wheelwright, and carpenter, etc., etc., wants one or more horse power in 
his business, cheap and durable, as is given by the Wind Engine. The 
Company owning this patent, are receiving large orders at their factory, and 
they are prepared to fill them reasonably and rapidly. The American mind 
is not slow in detecting advantages which may be offered by new inventions, 
and it will soon clearly ascertain how Mr. Halladay's invention can be used 
to advantage. 



238 AMES' UNIVERSAL SQUARE. 



AMES' UNIVERSAL SQUARE. 

The annexed engravings represent a " Universal Square," for which a 
patent was granted to Nathan Ames, of Saugus, Mass., July, 1852, but which 
has not been brought before the public till very recently. This square is 
simple, and combines in a convenient form five useful instruments, viz., the 
"Try-square," the "Miter," the " T-square," the " Graduated Rule," and the 
" Center-square," for finding the center of a circle. 

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the instrument ; fig. 2 shows the method 
in which it is applied as a center-square for centering a circle; fig. 3 shows 
the different ways in which it is applied as a miter, and fig. 4 shows the 
application of the instrument as a T-square, a try-square, and a graduated 
rule. 

In the Patent OflSce Report for 1852-3 is the following description of the 
instrument, and its application as a center-square : 

" The general principle on which the instrument is based is well known to 
geometricians, viz., that if two tangents (or straight lines touching the circum- 
ference of a circle) be extended till they intersect each other, a straight line 
bisecting the angle between them will pass through the center of the circle. 
The instrument consists of two arms, A B and A E, fig. 1, placed together 
at right angles to each other, in the manner of a carpenter's square, but of 
equal thickness, and having their surfaces 'flush,' upon the upper surface of 
which arms a straight ruler, D A, is fixed at its end in such a manner as to 
have one of its edges at the inner angular point of the arms, and that edge 
extending midway between them, or bisecting the angle between them. The 
ruler can be braced firmly by a bar, B E, running across between the extreme 
ends. 

" If the mechanic wishes to find the center of a circular wheel, he places 
the instrument upon it, fig. 2, with the two arms both resting against its cir- 
cumference, in which position the edge of the ruler will run across its center. 
A straight line is marked in this position, and the instrument is again applied 
to another part of the circumference, so as to mark in the same manner 
another line intersecting the first. The point of intersection is, of course, the 
center of the wheel. The whole is the work of a moment." 

The first claim of the patent is for the application to an instrument of the 
geometrical principle alluded to above ; and the second for the union of the 
above with the common trying square by means of the bar, B E. 

At O, fig. 1, is a slot in the bar, B E, to admit a scratch-awl, or the point 
of a knife. This slot is also cut out in such a manner on the under side, that 
the point of the marking instrument may pass under the bar, making a con- 
tinuous mark, whenever it is desirable, from D to A. 

As a center-square, alone, the instrument is invaluable to every mechanic. 

A glance at fig. 3 will explain the diff'erent ways in which the square may 
be used as a miter. Simply placing the instrument over a square corner to 
be mitered (as seen at the left of the figure,) without any adjusting by the 
eye, is sufficient ; the tongue cannot fail to bisect the angle. By mitering 
both corners, the longitudinal center may also be readily found, the point 
where the two lines Intersect being equidistant from the two edges. The 
point where the tongue leaves the edge of the board will also be fo und to be 
just the width of the board from the end. 



COUPLmG GEAE FOR RAILWAY CARRIAGES. 



239 



Or, again, as seen at the right of fig. 3, there are two miters more. The 
cross bar, B E, fig. 1, resting against the edge of the board, the two sides of 
the square, B A and A E, will both be miters. 



•J 



The application of the instrument 
as a graduated rule, T-square, and 
try-square, will be easily understood 
by inspecting fig. 4. 

As a T-square, it is peculiarly 
strong, and free from liability of 
getting out of true. The tongue, 
I) A, being fastened, as it is, into 
the triangular frame, B A E, cannot 
be moved or knocked from its place. 
The same remark, of course, will 
also hold in regard to the instru- 
ment both as af miter and try- 
square. 

It^ is also obvious that there 
are other ways than those repre- 
sented in fig. 4 in which it may be 
applied as a try- square. That por- 
tion of the tongue between D and 
O, with either half of the cross-bar, 
• ?B E, forms a complete carpenter's 
^try-square, and may be used as a 
, substitute for it in every instance. 
The outside of the frame — the angle, 
B A E — is also a peifect square, and 
often very convenient. In short, it 
combines, in a most convenient form, 
so many useful instruments, no me- 
chanic's list of tools can well be 
complete without a Universal Square. 

We believe this to be a capital invention of great practical utility. 
More information in regard to the instrument may be obtained by letter 
addressed- to the patentee. 




COUPLING GEAR FOR RAILWAY CARRIAGES. 
Bij Messrs. Taylor & Cranstoun, Morayshire Railway, Elgin. 
Travelers by railway must have frequently observed — with some an- 
noyance at the delay thus caused — the process of coupling and uncoupling 
the carriages ; and will, doubtless, have remarked the risk of accident in- 
curred by the necessity of the attendants passing between the carriages to 
perform the operation. The improved coupling gear introduced by Messrs 
Taylor & Cranstoun, is especially designed to obviate all such accidents, by. 
doing away with the necessity of having to pass between the carriages or 
wagons when coupling or uncouplir.g them; whilst, at the same time," such 
operations may be accomplished by means of this gear with much greater 
facility and speed than by the existing systems. 



240 



COUPLING GEAE FOE EAILWAY CAEEIAGES. 



Each carriage or wagon, ia addition to draw-hooks, has attached to it 
three parallel-jointed engaging chain-links, freely hinged, so as to be capable 
of being raised or lowered at pleasure. These links are made with a central 
back stop-joint, in such manner, that whilst they will act with all necessary 
flexibility when drawing or being shifted in certain directions, yet, when 
lifted by the elevating lever, they will rise in a rigid condition, as if sohd. 
Such draw-links may either be disposed in sets of three at each end of the 
carriage or wagon, or they may be at one end only, with corresponding draw- 
hooks at the opposite end of the carriage or wagon framing. A transverse 
coupling or elevating shaft is disposed in bearings beneath each set of links 
— this shaft having upon it a lever frame-piece, with stud projections thereon, 
for the purpose of giving the lift to the links. Each end of the shaft carries 
a hand lever conveniently disposed for the hand of the attendant, so that 
when passing along the train he can quickly lift or lower the links, holding 
pins being provided for setting the levers at the required point. 

When the wagons are to be coupled, they are placed together in the usual 
manner ; the attendant then passes along either side of the train, and re- 
moves the holding-pin (which supports the links sufficiently high to clear the 
three corresponding hooks on the next wagon ;) the links then drop, and the 
necessary engagement is thus instantly effected. When the wagons are to 
be uncoupled, the attendant lifts the links clear off the hooks by simply 
pressing down the hand-lever, and either allows the links to drop to a 
vertical position when the wagon is removed, or, by inserting the holding- 
pin, the links are fixed in a position for coupling when the wagons are brought 
together, which can instantly be effected by the removal of the holding-pin, 
as already described. The action of uncoupling, thus places the links in 
position for coupling whenever the wagons are brought together. 

The carriages are coupled or uncoupled in the same manner as the wagons, 
with the exception that the center or draw-link requires to be tightened up 
after the carriages are coupled, to bring them closely together, and slackened 
oflF sufficiently when they are to be uncoupled. To effect this, a transverse 
hand- wheel shaft is fitted upon the carriage frame ; the center of this shaft 
having upon it a worm gearing with a worm-wheel set on a longitudinal 
nut-link of the draw-hook spindle. Hence, by turning one or the other of 
hand-wheels, the draw-link is tightened or slackened as required. This 
gearing may be modified in various ways ; for instance, the warm-wheel may 
itself be made to answer as the tightening nut. 

The details of this improvement will be better understood by reference to 
the following engravings. Fig. 1, is a side elevation of the ends of a railway 



11,11,1, 



iPiiii 




carriage, with the coupling gear attached. Y is the coupling of one 
car to that adjoining, the ends of which are represented at b and h. There 
are three inner engaging links, side by side, fig. 1 exhibiting the side view 



SADDLETREES. 



241 



of the outer one, while fig. 2 represents the appearance of the inner one as 
viewed by looking down upon it from the platform of the car. Each of 
these links is formed of two horse shoe pieces, e, connected by short joint 

links, T, in fig. 2, and by pins 
passing through the links at 
F, through eyes formed in 
the ends of the horse-shoe 
pieces. The outside engag- 

iog links, c, are connected 

•with the framing of the carriage by passing through eyes in staple link, H, 
fig. 1, bolted to the frame. Immediately below the links, c, e, etc., is a shaft, 
seen at l in fig. 2, the end of which appears above l in fig. 1, bolted trans- 
versely to the frame. On this shaft, as at l, in fig. 2, levers are fixed to play 
underneath the links, but not here shown. These levers, with the shaft, are 
moved by a crank-handle, as at l, fig, 1, so as to elevate or depress the links, 
as may be required, to hook or unhook the links, as at c in fig. 1, a"nd e in 
fig. 2, to the adjoining car. 




SADDLETREES. 

George M'Naught, txlasgow. — Patent dated Sejitember 23, 1854. 
Br the process adopted by Mr. M'Nauofht in the manufacture of saddle- 
trees, increased strength is secured, together with economy in the material 
used, and in the labor required in making such articles. 

Our engraving is 
a side elevation in 
perspective of a sad- 
\ * "^^^^HftL i^^Av^^^M die-tree, as made ac- 

cording to this sys- 
tem, and covered or 
canvassed in the 
usual manner. The 
portions of the sad- 
dle-tree to which the 
invention more es- 
pecially refers, are the semiciroular or curved head piece, a, and the two 
twisted side bars, b. According to the ordinary system of making saddle- 
trees, the head is generally made in two portions, each portion being in one 
piece with one of the downward projecting side pieces, c. These two por- 
tions of the head piece are each shaped out of solid pieces of wood, by 
sphtting, chopping, and cutting away the superfluous portions of the wood, 
to bring it to the proper form. According to this mode of proceeding, a con-i 
siderabie portion of the material is cut to waste, and the labor required is 
excessive. Now, the portion of this invention relating to the head of the 
saddle tree, consists in forming the semicircular part, a, out of a piece of 
wood, which is first cut to the necessary thickness in a flat state, and then, 
after being steamed, or otherwise prepared, is bent to the required semicircular 
or curved form, by means of screw presses or other suitable machinery, such 

16 




242 AMERICAN PATENTS. 



as is used in other manufactures for bending wood with the aid of steam* 
Or, instead of forming the head piece, A, of a single piece of wood of the 
full thickness required, it may be composed of two or more thin pieces, bent 
and glued, or otherwise attached or bound together, to give the required 
thickness. Similarly, whilst the side bars, b, are brought into the required 
form, according to the ordinary system of manufacture, by cutting away 
portions of the wood so as to give them a twisted shape, — under the im- 
proved system they are first cut to the necessary thickness in the flat state, 
being afterwards twisted by means of suitable machinery, after being steamed 
or otherwise prepared, so as to bring them to the twisted shape required in the 
construction of the saddle-tree, as indicated in the figure. The back, d, of the 
saddle tree is made in the usual manner, and the several pieces, a,b, c, d, being 
glued or otherwise connected or joined together, the corners, e, are filled up 
with separate pieces, so as to economize the width of the wood, out of 
which the side bars, b, are formed, and filling-up pieces are fitted in the 
usual way, on the inside of the pieces, a and c. The saddletree is finished 
externally in the usual manner, by being covered with coarse canvass, and 
washed with glue, or otherwise prepared. We have thus far only referred 
to the manufacture of saddletrees for the ordinary description of men's 
riding saddles; but it will be obvious that the invention, or a part of it, is 
equally applicable to the manufacture of other varieties of saddletrees. Thus, 
for example, the side bars of saddletrees for ladies' or side saddles, as also 
those of saddletrees for military saddles, may be made according to the im- 
proved system of manufacture, as already described. 



American Patents. 



FLOCK RENOVATOR. 



An ingenious machine has recently been constructed by Mr. Charles 
Holt, of'staff'ord, Ct., for renovating the flocks used in the manufacture 
of woolen goods. It consists of a cylinder, fourteen inches long and twelve 
in diameter, covered with cast iron plates, on the outer surface of which 
are small conical teeth, one half inch in length. This cylinder revolves 
about 200 turns per minute, in juxtaposition to an apron of iron, between 
•which and the rotating cylinder the flocks pass, and from which they fall. 
"While falling, they are pervaded by a strong tide of air from a blower, 
which runs about 800 turns per minute. By the wind of the blower 
the flocks are carried out through a prepared orifice, while other more 
ponderous and foreign matters fall under the machine. In this manner 
the flocks are renovated. The machine is made of iron, and costs about 
fifty dollars. It is simple in construction, occupies but little space, and 
is not easily put out of order. It is used by many manufacturers around 
Stafford, and is highly valued by them. It cannot fail to become greatly 
popular among those who use flocks in making woolen cloths, to whose 
inspection we cheerfully commend the machine. 



AMERICAN PATENTS. • 243 



ARTHUR'S PATENT SELF-SEALING CANS. 

These cans, invented by Dr. Arthur, of Philadelphia, are much the most 
convenient article for putting up all Mods of fruits that we have seen. 

They are constructed with a channel around the can near the top — which 
is filled with adhesive cement that softens sufiiciently to admit the cover 
when the fruit is put in hot ; or the cover may be heated and passed into it, 
and warming the can will allow the cover to be taken off without injury. 
They have been well tested, and being manufactured with the cement in the 
channel ready for use, the process of hermetical sealing becomes simple and 
within the reach of all good housewives. The process of sealing and un- 
sealing these cans is very simple, and as the lid covers the whole top of the 
can, it can be cleaned and used again. 



Guano Sprinkler. — The machine bearing this name has been constructed 
by Mr. Ira Dimock, a machinist and farmer, in Uncasville, Ct., and while it 
meets a want felt by the farmer and gardener, it also shows much ingenuity 
in the builder. The plan of the sprinkler is suggested in the common city 
watering cart. A cask having one head, and being the size of a common barrel, 
is fastened head downwards upon a pair of wheels, which are united to an 
axle as long as the distance between two rows of corn. From the lower end 
of this cask projects a pipe made of tin outward and faced backwards, about 
four inches in diameter, and about twelve inches in length. Across the end 
of this tin pipe another is placed, about four feet long, also made of tin, having a 
line on its under surface thickly perforated with small holes. A gate is made 
to fit over that end of the shorter pipe which is inserted in the barrel, by 
which the contents of the barrel are shut out from the pipes, or by raising 
which the contents are admitted to the pipes, and thus sprinkled upon the 
garden. When using the sprinkler, Mr, Dimock mixes the guano in the 
water, with which the barrel is filled, in due proportion. Then he trundles 
the machine out into his field, and pushing it forward at a chosen speed, and 
opening the gate at the lower end of the barrel, the guano, in proper quanti- 
ties and equally, is placed upon the ground and becomes mixed with the soil. 
No patent has been applied for on any part of the sprinkler. 

Percussian Water- Wheel. — A water-wheel bearing the name of Per- 
cussion and Reaction water-wheel, has been constructed by Messrs. Fairman, 
Cushman & Co., of West-Stafford, Ct. A wheel built after their patent is 
now in operation near their premises, and larger wheels than the one in use 
are in process of construction. The inventors claim that thus far in their 
labors they have gained many advantages over the Turbine, and they antici- 
pate greater advantage from future experiments and improvements. These 
advantages have reference primarily to economy of power, and then, as a sec- 
ondary end, economy of space. Many persons of experience in using and 
building iron water-wheels, speak of the Percussion as being greatly superior 
to any wheel within the limit of their acquaintance. Time will test the cor- 
rectness of their opinions. 



244 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



Felly-Sawing. — A great improvement in the mode of sawing fellies has 
lately been made by Mr. J. Knap, who is connected, with the celebrated car- 
riage and axle factory of Messrs. Mowry <fe Co., Greenville, Ct. The improve- 
ment consists, in part, of having two saws, standing in such position that one 
saws the inner and the other the outer edge of a felly at the same time. The 
other and most important improvement consists in making the platform, upon 
which the plank to be sawed is placed, rotary ; and in making its outer edge 
to rotate in a circle, exactly answering to the circumference of a wheel. The 
l^lank to be used is fastened by a simple screw-clamp upon the platform, which 
by the sawer is made to move against the teeth of the saw, and with a circu- 
lar motion. A central fastening to the platform is easily made, so as to 
guide its motions exactly, and so as to be comparatively free from friction. 
The whole improvement is very simple and economical, and it is easily applied 
and worked. The work turned out is almost exactly fitted for the spoke. 
Mr. Knapp has been very successful in his improved felly-saw. 

Improved Water-Wheels. — That veteran inventor, Simon Fairman, Esq., 
of West-Staftord, Ct., is engaged in making improvements on water-wheels. 
No improvement is matured sufficiently to make it public, and no one will 
come up to the satisfaction of the inventor, which will not come up near to 
the giving of cent per cent of the water. The aim is high, though it 
will not probably be fully attained ; but talent and genius, both of which 
he possesses in a remarkable degree, will do their utmost in this di- 
rection, and we may quietly wait for very important results. 



English Patents. 

An Improved Cement Applicable as a Plaster, or for Moulding 
Purposes. — This inventio'n has for its object the production from chalk or 
limestone of a cement or plaster, which will set somewhat after the manner 
of plaster of Paris, but will attain a much greater degree of hardness, and, 
when manipulation is required, will allow more time to the operator to work 
to a surface, and, moreover, will not be liable to injury from damp or rain. 

The improved process for the manufacture of cement consists in subjecting 
limestone to a further heating in contact with the products of combustion of 
coal, coke, and substances of a like nature. 

In carrying out his invention the patentee proceeds in the following man- 
ner : — The chalk or limestone is first burnt in a kiln, to produce quick-lime, 
by any of the methods ordinarily practised ; after which, the quick-lime is 
subjected to a second heating, at a dull red heat, in the presence of an atmos- 
phere created by the combustion of carbonaceous fuel. 

A convenient mode of doing this is to make use of a kiln of a reverbera- 
tory form, with the fuel arranged on bars at its bottom, and the previously 
calcined quick-lime placed at a short distance from it; this distance and the 
draught being so arranged that, when the fuel is undergoing combustion, the 
lime may not be heated too highly, but yet sufficiently to take the appear- 
ance of a dull cherry red. Should the heat maintained be too great, the 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 245 



lime -will remain in the ordinary state of quick -lime ; or, if it has previously 
acquired the property of setting, as above described, and then the heat be 
urged too far, it vfill again lose it ; also, if the lime show no sign of incan- 
descence, the process will be quite inefTective for the purpose intended. 
Unless, therefore, care be taken that the temperature to be maintained, dur- 
ing the second heating operation, be neither too high nor too low, the lime 
will, when made into a paste with water, still behave in the ordinary man- 
ner of common quick-lime; that is to say, instead of hardening into a solid 
coherent mass, it will either fall to a powder, or, if mixed with more water 
than is suflacient to convert it into a hydrate, it will dry up into a shrivelled 
cracked mass. Instead also of solidifying when immersed in a pasty state in 
water — as is the case when it has undergone the above-described process in 
a proper manner — it will quickly fall abroad. 

This heating of the lime in the presence of an atmosphere derived from 
the burning fuel, is continued for twelve hours, more or less. 

Although the processes, as will appear from the foregoing, is chiefly ap- 
plicable to litnes prepared from chalk, or the ordinary purer limestones, yet 
the patentee does not confine himself to these. Limes possessing weak or 
moderate hydraulic properties may thus be converted into cement, much 
better suited for many purposes than when in their ordinary state. When, 
however, these properties become so developed as to set quickly when burned 
in the ordinary manner, it it obvious that it would be useless to adopt a more 
expensive one. 

The prepared lime, when removed from the kiln, will usually be found to 
have reabsorbed a small amount of carbonic acid. 

When removed from the kiln, the lime is reduced to a power, and packed 
in air-tight casks for the market. A similar effect to that above described 
may likewise be produced in an ordinary lime-kiln, — the limestone being con- 
verted into quick-lime, and then subjected to the foregoing second heating 
process in one continuous operation. This mode of effecting the desired 
change is, however, very precarious, and attended with great difficulty. 
When it is attempted, the quantity of fuel must be greater than in ordinary 
lime burning ; and as soon as the conversion into quick-lime has been ac- 
complished, the temperature must be reduced by a proper regulation of the 
draught, so as to comply with the above specified conditions. 

In using the cement, care must be taken to wet the surface to which ad- 
hesion is required to be made ; and it is advisable even to rub into it some 
of the stuff, thinly mixed, before laying on the mass. The cement, when wet, 
should be wetted at intervals during the first day. 

Ornamental castings may be immersed in water for a few minutes after 
the cemfent has solidified ; and care should be taken that the thickness of a 
coating be no greater than necessary, as the tendency to heating, after it is 
made up, though greatly modified, is not entirely destroyed ; and this pro- 
perty, when the cement is in bulk, might endanger its safety. 

When used as a plaster, it may be mixed with a proportion of chalk 
in the ground state; it will not then give so strong a resistance to a trans- 
verse strain, but may still be worked to an excessively hard and well-polished 
surface. 

When used externally, or as a pavement, it may be washed over, with a 
solution of silicate of potash or soda, as this increases the hardness of the 
surface, and renders it more impervious. 

Court of Inventions at the Crystal Palace. — Inventors, and those 
interested in inventions, will be glad to learn that the directors of the Syden - 



246 ENGLISH PATENTS, 



ham Palace liav.e opened a court of inventions as an addition to this mag- 
nificent exhibition, and they invite contributions of models and drawings of 
new inventions. The great advantages of such an arrangement are to be af- 
forded to exhibitors free of all charge for space, the articles being, of course, 
delivered at the palace carriage paid. We believe many parties who were 
exhibitors at the recent exhibition of the Society of Arts, having had circu- 
lars addressed to them by the directors, have transferred their models and 
drawings to the Crystal Palace, thus availing themselves of this opportunity 
of keeping their inventions prominently before the public. We have no 
doubt that the arrangement will be received as a boon by a great number of 
publicity-seeking ioventors, and it is to be hoped, that in the Crystal Palace 
the inventions will stand a chance of being seen by others than mere rival 
inventors, for it too often happens that few parties visit exhibitions of inven- 
tions but inventors themselves, and they are, of course, each too engrossed 
with his own particular models or drawings to pay much attention to rival 
productions. 

Robinson's Screw and Slide Lever Steering Gear. — A simple, pow- 
erful, and apparently durable steering apparatus for ships, has lately been 
patented by Mr. John Robinson, of North-Shields, and worked out by the 
well-known makers, Messrs. Pow and Fawens, of that place. In this arrange- 
ment, the steering wheel is set a little out of the keel liue of the ship, on the 
port side ; and its spindle, which is carried in two end pedestal bearings, is 
cut with a stout square screw thread. This screw spindle has upon it a long 
traversing nut, fitted with a pair of diametrically opposed joint stud pins, for 
connection with the end of the sliding lever, which forms the actual tiller. 
The joint end of this lever is made with a fork and straps, for embracing the 
stud pins of the nut. The remaining portion of the lever is a plain cylin- 
der, and it is entered freely through a long inclined eye-piece on the rudder- 
head, which is, of course, on the starboard side of the screw spindle, and op- 
posite to the longitudinal center of the latter. The eye on the rudder-head 
works on a stud pin, so that, in all circumstances, the action is easy and free 
from strain. As the screw spindle nut traverses forward or aft, in obedience 
to the turn of the steering wheel, it carries with it the outer end of the tiller, 
which thus acts as a lever to turn the rudder ; and as the nut must always 
move in a straight line, the sliding tiller traverses back and forward in the 
eye of the rudder-head, to reconcile the right line action of the nut with the 
rotatory action of the rudder-head. The effective leverage of the tiller thus 
becomes greater as the rudder is moved from amidships to either the star- 
board or port side, and hence the steersman's power is increased in proportion 
to the external iluid resisted. 

Flax and Plantain Fibre for Paper-Making. — A bill for the incorpo- 
ration of an undertaking, to be called the Fibre Company, for supplying the 
serious want of a cheap material for paper by means of the fibre of common 
flax, is now before Parliament, after vain endeavors to avoid the trouble and 
expense of going there by obtaining a charter of limited liability. The West 
India plantain, too, has been called to the paper-maker's aid. This was 
noticed, a few nights back, in the House of Lords, by the Earl of Derby, who 
produced some specimens of the raw and manufactured articles. These were 
a specimen of the fibre of the plantain, [Musa Farad isiaca,) and a specimen 
of a textile fabric, of silky appearance, manufactured from the fibre ; a spec- 
imen of the fibre of the Hibincus J^sculentus (Okhro :) a specimen from the 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 247 



seed-pod of the Cryptostegia Gi-andifiora, suitable for india-rubber withe" 
The body of the plant yields gum caoutchouc, and the bark of the branche^ 
a fine fibre. AUo, two specimens of paper made from the jilantain fibre'' 
one specimen rough and unbleached, to show the great strength and tenaci- 
ty of the fibre, aad another specimen, of very good quality, bleached and 
carried through all the operations for the best paper. Paper made from the 
plantain fibre, and of an excellent quality, can be supplied at a cheaper rate 
than that made from rags. The abundance of the material is naturally an 
important element in the question. On one estate in Demerara, there are 
cut down 160,000 plantain trees every year, merely for the purpose of clear- 
ing. All these trees contain fibre capable of being manufactured into textile 
fabrics, or rope of various degrees of tenacity, or paper. The inventors have 
obtained a patent, and have made application to the Legislatures of Jamaica 
and British Guiana, and in both these colonies this invention has been made 
the subject of speci6c notice in the Governor's speech. The process and the 
machinery employed have been examined by committees of both houses of 
Parliament in these colonies, and their reports have been most favorable to 
the undertaking, so that the measures necessary to carry out the project have, 
been passed at the public expense. If the Government could do anything to . 
promote a manufacture which finds an inexhaustible quantity of raw material 
to meet a demand that is unlimited — for hemp, for textile fabrics of various 
kinds, and, last of all, for paper cheaper than could be formed of rags — and 
if these articles could be produced in colonies that have suffered such great 
distress, they would do much to introduce new prosperity into these colonies 
from a new description of industry. The matter is one of no ordinary im- 
portance, and it was well deserving the attention of the Government. 

Maynard's Combined TnRESHiNa and Dressing Machine. — A new agri- 
cultural machine, contrived for effecting the better separation of the chaff and 
cavings from grain and straw as threshed, has lately been introduced by Mr. 
H. Maynard, of Whittlesford, Cambridge. The plan which Mr. Maynard has 
followed out in his new design, has been copied from that in common use by 
every hand-tasker, who, when he wishes to make up his corn so as to produce 
chaff fit for the chaff-house, fills his riddle from the rough heap, and, after a 
few shakes, returns and sifts out the remaining corn on the same heap, 
instead of continuing the process till the corn is clean sifted out ; by this 
method the roughest is re-sifted, and the chaff left in the corn is free from 
cavings. This is precisely the principle embodied in Maynard's "machine, in 
which, instead of sifting quite down, as is done in most machines, only the 
first produce of the riddles is subjected to the dressing blast, while the re- 
mainder is continually being returned and mixed with the fresh proceeds of 
the drum, and the result is a separation of the chaff as perfect as is generally 
obtained from hand-sifting. This machine also prevents a waste of corn with 
the chaff', by returning the tail, or that portion which is blown out with, and 
falls short of, the chaff, and submitting it to a repetition of the process ; by 
this means the whole operation of dressing is done without permitting any 
portion of the corn to fall on the ground, and it is finally delivered by self-act- 
ing apparatus into sacks. The machine is peculiarly smooth in its action — 
this result being obtained by springs, and by making the two riddles balance 
each other. Mr. Samuel Jonas, the well-known Cambridgeshire agricultu- 
rist, has adopted the new machine, and speaks highly of its work. 

Improved Pavement, Roofing, Footways, etc. — The following is the 



248 . ENGLISH PATENTS. 



mode of preparing tlie mastic or cement : — Put into a cauldron, on a fire, — 
l&t, natural mineral bitumen of Bastennes or any other country; 2d, natural 
asphalte (ibe bitumen and aspbalte are employed in the usual well-known 
proportions ;) 3d, when the asphalte and the bitumen are raf-lted and well 
mixed together, add to them, instead of sand, a suitable quantity of mineral 
ore of iron, or ore of other metal, in powder more or less fine ; 4th, boil the 
whole until the matter is in a fit state to be employed. It is as well, first, 
by washing, to free the minerals or ores from all foreign matters which may 
adhere thereto ; 2dly, to add to the mastic a suitable quantity of oil of 
resin, or of any other oil of the same nature, not exposed to the inconvenience 
of drying, so as to give the mastic all the requisite malleability ; but these 
two conditions are not indispensable. The powders of the difierent minerals 
or ores may be replaced by filings of iron, or of cast iron, or of any other 
metal, either by powder of iron, cast iron, or any other metal prepared by 
special manufacture. 

The natural asphalte may be replaced by carbonate of lime in powder ; 
but in this case it is useful, although not indispensable, to compensate for 
the natural bitumen of asphalte, which is found wanting in carbonate of lime, 
by a proportionate increase of the quantity of bitumen of Bastennes, or other 
country, or by a proportionate quantity of oil of resin, or any other oil of the 
same kind. 

After having substituted, for natural asphalte, a carbonate of lime, gastar 
or pitch can also be substituted for the natural mineral bitumen of Bastennes ; 
but in this case, to compensate for the too great volatihty of the oils from 
these materials, it is necessary to mix with the mastic a suitable quantity of 
less volatile oil, such as oil of resin, or of the like nature. This cement 
may be employed for buildings, coalings, roofings, metallic sheetings, roads, 
streets, or footways ; in a word, for all purposes where cements or mastics are 
necessary : it may even be employed for painting all materials. For roads, 
streets, or footways, it may be employed alone, or in the form of concrete, 
or with iron or wood in the form of frames, or any other form. The forms 
.preferable are those having the form of an 8, formed by simple bands of 
iron in the form of T, or the form of unequal and irregular corrugates, fluted, 
grooved, or indented sheets. These corrugations, flutings, grooves, or inden- 
tations, should be unequal in size, that is to say, that each upper corruga- 
tion, etc., should not be so large as the lower. The angles of the corruga- 
tions, etc., may be right-angled ; but it is preferable that the angle should be 
slanting inwards towards their bases, so as to form more or less acute angles 
with the base. The corrugations may also receive a more or less conical 
form. The upper corrugations, etc., may even be rounded. The sheets of 
iron may be simply undulated, the undulations being more or less deep. 



Modern Rail-Bar Rolling. — The Rhymney Iron Works Company has 
just rolled the largest railway bar ever produced. It is one of Barlow's pa- 
tent rails, and has been sent to the Paris Exhibition. Previous to the ap- 
pearance of this example of such rolling, a 22 feet rail was the ultimatum, 
but the Rhymney Company has g'one, ai one stride, to a length of 52 feet 6 
inches. Mr. G. P. Hubbuck, the managing engineer of the works, conducted 
tiie operation, and he has made such excellent work in the present instance, 
that the rail has not been painted. It is simply brushed over with oil to re- 
pel the attacks of rust, and in this condition it will make its appearance in 
the great show of France. 



MISCELLANEOUS, 24^ 



THE ERIE RAILROAD. 

This is an immense work. Its great extent, reaching 461 miles, from 
New-York to Dunkirk, is not more remarkable than the immense labor re- 
quired in its structure in numerous places, or the unrivalled scenery which it 
constantly opens to the traveler. Its management exhibits the same un- 
tiring energy and ceaseless watch, guarding the immense number of pas- 
sengers conveyed over it from accident, and inspiring them with a feeling of 
security not felt on other roads and under a different system. The con- 
ductors are attentive to the wants of all, and are just what they should be. 

We have recently passed over portions of this road for the first time, and 
never have, we seen greater variety of attractive landscape, in a day's journey 
in the cars, and perhaps cannot point out more remarkable scenery than this 
ride brought to our view. We had intended a detailed reference to some of 
these localities in the present number, b,ut we find that our space is already 
occupied, and must defer it till our next issue. 



THE NEW-TORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

This road extends from Albany to Buffalo, and now includes, also, on the 
same management, a branch to Niagara Falls, viz., the Rochester, Lockport, 
and N. Falls Division.* This leaves the main road at Rochester. This road 
conducts the traveler through one of the most flourishing portions of the 
country. It passes by Schenectady, Utica, Rome, Syracuse, Clyde, Palmyra, 
'Rochester, etc., a distance of 298 miles. At Utica it connects with the 
Black River and Utica ll. R., now completed to Trenton, a distance of six- 
teen miles. Tbis is the proper mode of reaching that delightful and im- 
posing spot, Trenton Falls. From the cars you aie conveyed two miles by 
stage to the hotel at the Falls, kept by Mr. Moore, where the traveler finds 
everything furnished him that he could reasonably expect, and of the very 
best quality. No table that we saw on our recent tour was served in 
better style than his. We would have been delighted to make it our home 
for maisy days. 

But we must say one thing in relation to the Black River and Utica 
R. R. If they expect the visitors to the Falls to build their roads, they are 
doing perhaps as well as could be expected. But if they suppose that travel- 
ers will pay seventy-five cents for riding eighteen miles, in these days, without 
thinking themselves imposed upon, they are probably much mistaken. The 
regular and uniform charge upon the Central Railroad is but two cents a mile, 
while here it is more than double that, and though the total is small, the rate 
is as exhorbitant as if the road extended a thousand miles. For this, how- 
ever, the Central road is not responsible. They attend to their own road, and 
do all that the public have a right to ask. All the conductors are gentlemen, 
and understand the wants of the traveler, and do all they can to supply 
them. It is a pleasure to fall into such hands. We shall take occasioa ta 
refer again to this road hereafter. 



250 MISCELLANEOUS. 



Railroads in France. — Tbe total length of railroads opened and in use 
in FrrtDce at this time is 4,975 kilometres, (3,091i miles,) made up of the 
following roads of the length annexed : 

JSfames. Kilometres. , Miles. 

Northern Railroad, - - - - 70Y 439:^ 

Anzin and Somain, . - , . 19 \\i 

Paris and Strasbourg, - - - 803 536 

Montereau and Troyes, - - - 100 62 

"Western Railway, - - - 258 160|- 

Paris and Rouen, - - . . 139 86^ 

Rouen and Havre, - ... 92. 57-^ 

Rouen and Dieppe, - - - - 51 31:^ 

Paris and Orsay^, .... 25 15i 

Grand Central, 215 133^ 

Orleans and Branches, - - - 1,155 7ll| 

Paris and Lyons, - . . . 555 3442 

Lyons and Mediterranean, - - 528 328 

Southern Railway, " - - - - 251 156 

Cienture (around Paris,) - - 17 lOi 

Total 4,975 3,091i 

The average gross receipts per kilometre of all the railways for the first 
six months of the current year ending 30th June, is 23,686 francs, which is 
equivalent to $7,132 60 per mile. This is a difference of 13.97 per cent, in 
favor of this year over the same period of last year, 1854. The most profit- 
able roads are the Paris and Lyons road, of which the gross receipts during 
the six months were 35,051f per kilometre, the Grand Central 31,914f. per 
kilometre, and the Northern Railway, 30,524f. per kilometre. 

There are upwards of five thousand kilometres more of railways in France 
now in process of construction or conceded and soon to be commenced. — 
Paris Correspondent of the National Intelligencer. 

Smokeless Furnace. — We have during the week inspected an entirely 
new arrangement of steam boiler furnace, in action, on a 25 horse-power 
boiler, at the granaries and flour mills of Mr. Edward Gripper, Winchester 
wharf, Southwark. The principle of construction is that of mechanical 
motion applied to the bars, but different to anything yet introduced. Every 
alternate bar is so connected with a cross-piece at each end as to form one 
entire movable frame, which is connected by gearing with the motive power. 
The motion given to it is angular; first, the bars rise very slowly about an 
inch above the stationary ones, they then move gradually in a lateral direc- 
tion towards the bridge, again sink in a vertical direction about an inch below 
the other bars, and then move laterally forward to their original position. 
What are termed the stationary bars are not fixed as usual, but hung in such 
manner as exactly to balance the vibrating frame with the load of fuel which 
it has to move, thus taking but little power from the engine to keep them in 
motion. The fuel is fed through a hopper and regulating incline plane, and 
the whole is self-acting, requiring but litile attention from the stoker. We 
were informed that this apparatus had been in constant use about six months, 
that no difiiculties whatever arose from the mechanical motion ; there was 
an entire absence of clinker, nearly perfect combustion of the fuel was ef- 
fected, and during our visit not a particle of smoke was visible from the 
chimney. Mr. Gripper estimates the saving of fuel alone at about 10 per 
cent., besides numerous other advantages. — London Railroad Journal. 



-MISCELLANEOUS. 251 



A New Enterprise in Salem. — Among the contemplated enterprises 
of the coming year in Salem, the Gazette says, is to be the building of a 
large iron ship, of about 800 tons, by Mr. James Tetlow, a skilful machinist, 
who came there several years ago from Providence, R. I, and whose work- 
shop is in the yard of the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company. It gives 
the following particulars of the undertaking : 

The iron ship which Mr. Tetlow has contracted to build, is for Capt. 
Thomas McKenney, of Newburyport, and is to be employed in the South 
American trade. Her hull is to be entirely of iron, to be constructed in five 
sections, with iron bulkheads between, so that either section will suffice to 
float the ship in case of disaster. One of the sections might be entirely 
stove in by such a disaster as occurred to the Arctic, without any danger of 
the ship's sinking. She is to be called the " North Star." Capt. McKenney 
has found that wooden vessels employed in this trade are ruined by worms 
in a very short time. Mr. Tetlow expects to be about thirteen months in 
getting the ship ready for launching. He is now gathering materials, and the 
powerful and expensive machinery necessary for his purpose, and during the 
winter will be preparing the ribs and keel, which will oe set up in the early 
spring. 

A SuBSffiTUE FOR SiLVER. — A wonderful discovery is announced as hav- 
ing been mad-^ recently by a French chemist, M. Deville, to-wit : a new, easy , 
and cheap method of separating aluminum, the metallic base of common 
clay, from the other constituents. This metal rivals in beauty pure silver 
and surpasses it in durability. Hitherto it has existed only in small quanti- 
ties, and has been esteemed rather as a curiosity, the price in France, a short 
time since, being about the rate of gold ! But by Mr. D.'s improved 
method it can now be produced in masses suflicient and cheap enough to 
replace copper, and even iron in many respects, and thus place the " new 
silver" into such common use as to suit the means of the poorest persons. 
These facts are gathered from the National Intelligencer, which also adds : 
*' Among the many remarkable qualities of aluminum are its resistance to 
oxydation, either in the air or by acids, its hardness, its wonderful lightness, 
its malleableness, the facility of moulding it, &c., Mr. Dumas mentioned 
(before the Paris Academy of Science) another, its sonority. An ingot was 
suspended by a string, and being lightly struck, emitted the finest tones, 
such as are attained only by a combination of the best metals." 

Microscopic Photographs. — Some microscopic photographs exhibited 
at Manchester, Eng., th^ other day, excited much admiration. One, of the 
size of a pin's head, when magnified several hundred times, was seen to con- 
tain a group of seven portraits of members of the artist's family, the like- 
nesses being admirably distinct. Another microscopic photograph, of still 
less size, represented a mural tablet, erected to the memory of William Stur- 
geon, the electrician, by his Manchester friends, in Kirkby Lonsdale church. 
This little tablet covered only 1- 900th part of a superficial inch, and con- 
tained 680 letters, every one of which could be distinctly seen by the aid of 
the microscope. 

Valuation of Worcester. — The Worcester aS'/).?/ publishes the valuation, 
number of rateable polls, etc., of that city, for 1855. The valuation is, of 
real estate, $11,787,000, and of personal property, $6,263,000, total, $18,- 
050,000, being an increase since 1854, of $950,000. The number of polls 



252 MISCELLANEOUS. 



is 5825, being a decrease of 79. The Si^y says : " The decrease of rateable 
polls is to be accounted for by the two great fires which have occurred since 
the enumeration of 1854. The first fire, it was estimated, threw at least one 
thousand persons out of employment, and the other probably from one to 
two hundred. A large portion of those who were unmarried, together witli 
many who had families, left the city. The establishments burnt by the last 
fire have not yet been rebuilt. Those first burnt have mostly been rebuilt, 
but are not yet filled up, as before. Aside from this drawback, there must 
have been a considerable increase during the year. 

BoNELLi's Locomotive Electric Telegraph. — The Florence (Italy) cor- 
respondent of the J>fewark Daily Advertiser furnishes the following addi- 
tional particulars in regard to this wonderful discovery : 

"A second succes'iful trial of Bonelli's locomotive electric telegraph has 
been made on the Turin railway with the concurrence of the ministers of 
State and the diplomatic representatives of France and England. Two 
trains traversing a five-mile track exchanged communications till all were 
fully satisfied. The correspondence with the stations was equally satisfac- 
tory ; and orders to ' stop' and to ' proceed were obeyed as by volition. 
Morse's apparatus reduced to the dimensions of a coat pocket, including 
paper, &c., was used on this occasion. The simplicity of the invention is 
amusing. The wires running from the little pocket machine through the 
bottom of the car, trail on parallel insulated iron rods, which are the medi- 
ums. Strange that the notion never occurred to the Yankee nation ! 

'' The inventor, who is the director of the Sardinian telegraphs, has sub- 
mitted to the government an inexpensive project for working them, and also 
for continuing the submarine line now in use between Genoa and the islands 
of Corsica and Sardinia, (200 miles,) by way of Malta and other interme- 
diate points, to Constantinople and toe long Black sea line, and which will 
also be propounded to the electricians of the thousand-leagued Atlantic. 

Valuation of Springfield. — The total valuation of the real and personal 
properly in this city is 68,409,870, which is an increase upon the valuation of 
last year of $647,620. Number of ratable polls, 3793 — increase from 1854, 
139. Springfield's portion of the State tax is §4990 50 ; of the county tax 
$9003 63 — her city tax $64,995 — making a total to be raised by tax on 
polls and on property of $78,019 13. The polls are taxed $2 20 each, 
making $8344 60. The tax assessed on the property valuation is $8 50 on 
the $1000, making $71,483 89. Total sum assessed this year, $79,828 49, 
which is $1779 36 over the amount to be raised. The sum assessed this year 
is greater thane ver before, and the rate higher by $2 50 on the thousand. — 
Springfield RepuhUccui, 8th. 

Photographs, Neipce's Process. — Mr. Neipce's process of obtaining 
positive photographs is to expose a sheet of calotype paper to the daylight 
for a few seconds, or until a visible discoloration or browning of its surface 
takes place. Then it is dipped in a solution of iodine of potassium, consist- 
ing of 500 grains to the pmt of water. The visible discoloration is appa- 
rently removed by the immersion — though such is not really the case, for, if 
the paper were dipped into a solution of gallo-nitrate of silver, it would 
speedily blacken over. When the paper is removed from the iodine of 
potassium, it is washed iti water and then dried with blotting paper. It is 
then placed in the camera obscura, and after five or ten minutes it is removed 
therefrom and washed with sfallo-nitrate of silver, and warmed. 



NEW BOOKS. 



N E W B K S . 

Cora and the Doctok, or Revelations of a Physician's Wife. Boston : John P. Jewett 
ife Co. 407 pp. 

This is a capital book; one of Jewett'e best, and that is saying a good deal, Ther 
are but two things in it that are as they should not be — to wit, its title, which is quite 
forbidding ; and second, the name of a writer who can make such a book should not be 
unknown. Many of its scenes are full of interest, some of which are in connection with 
a sick-room. The whole is pervaded by a decidedly religious current of thought, and 
cannot fail to do good. There are no repulsive pictures in it as might be supposed from 
its title. 

Modern Mysteries Explained and Exposed. In four parts. By Rev. A. Mahan, first 
President of Cleveland University. 466 pages. Boston: J. P. Jewett<tCo. 1855 

Dr. Mahan has written a very sensible book on the mysterious subject of Spiritual 
Manifestations, etc. The subject is looked at carefully and logically, and "the spirits'' 
disappear before his magic wand of rational investigation. His ideas seem to accord 
very much with those of Mr. Rogers, in a small work noticed by us a year or two ago . 
and we are strongly impressed with the conviction that the truth is at least approxi- 
mated by this learned divine. "We commend this volume to those who wish to read on 
this subject. 

Olie ; or, The Old West Room. The Weary at Work and the Weary at Rest. By L, 
M. M. New-York : Mason <fc Brothers. 1856. 

Olie is a young girl who experiences a succession of misfortunes ; one hopeful prospect 
after another ending only in disappointment, often very severe, till at last, as usual, a 
happy marriage ends all her sorrows. Her life is crowded with scenes of interest and 
calculated to excite sympathy. The whole net-work of the story is well contrived. The 
moral of it is excellent. Let such books be multiplied. The more the better. 

The Elder Sister. By Marian James, author of Ethel, etc. New- York : Bunce 

Brother. 328 pages. 

A CAPITAL domestic story, the plot of which is perfectly natural, and its characters 
drawn with great discrimination and good taste. Without professing to teach, it is full 
of excellent, practical wisdom, and might profitably be read in every household. 

A Voice to America ; or, The Model Republic ; its glory or its fall, with a review of 
the Republics of South America, Mexico, and the Old World, apphed to the present 
crisis of the United States. New- York : Edward Walker. 404 pages, 12mo. 
The title shows the object of this work, and the space it occupies demonstrates that 
the numerous topics it discusses are scarcely more than glanced at. The author appeals 
to facts in the history of ancient and modern times, which teach us our danger. Its doc- 
trine, that would seem too obvious to be denied, is, that Americans must rule America. 
It is very certain that no others can, if they try, and every attempt of the kind, in the 
town-hall, or legislative assembly, without exception, proves it. Nor are Americans 
always wise enough to rule their own neighborhoods. They do not, however, wish any 
help from those who do not understand our past history and have no acquaintance with 
our political and social institutions. 

Theism, the Witness of Reason and Nature to an All-wise and Beneficent Creator 
By Rev. John Tullock, D.D. Robert Carter & Brothers : New- York, 
This volume is the product of a mind deep and clear, and accustomed to discriminate. 
It is philosophic and simple ; not above an ordinary intellect, and able to instruct and in- 
terest the learned. It has well earned the premium bestowed upon the talented author 
for the best essay on that subject. 



254 NEW MUSIC. 



The Hoeticulturist. 

This very useful and elegant journal has fallen into new bands. Since the death of 
Mr. Downing, it has been ably and successfully conducted by Mr. Barry, -who has shown 
himself eminently fitted for such service. A pressure of business engagements leads 
him now to resign, and be retires from his responsible post with the unqualified respect 
and esteem of every intelligent reader of his journal. May his last days be his best 
days. His place is henceforth to be occupied by John Jay Smith, Esq., of Philadelphia! 
already favorably known as a successful " horticulturist," and with ample means for con- 
tinuing the work with ability and doing honor to the cause he espouses, and we trust he 
will be abundantly sustained and amply rewarded. We wish him all possible success. 
[NoTg.— This notice was accidentally laid over, being prepared for a former number.] 



NEWMUSIC. 

New Music by Wm. Hall & Son, 

These gentlemen have lately issued some very beautiful things. Among them are 

" How Sleep the Brave." Trio for three female voices. Composed by J. A. Fowler. 
A moderato movement, very sweet and very simple. 

" Good Night and Pleasant Dreams" — Tyrolean, Words by Anson G. Chester, and 
composed by Wm. Vincent Wallace, not so simple as the former, but not difficult, and 
very beautiful, 

" Lilly-Willy-Woken." New song and chorus. By Henry E. Work. Very simple, 
comic, and good of its kind. It speaks of sundry mishaps to Bill Vining all through 
an attempt to break "a sorrel colt, some two years old or more." He lost his whip, his 
money, and his lady-love 

" Love's Approach," — Duett for soprano and contralto. Words by H. S. Cherley, and 
music by Wm. Vincent Wallace. This beautiful duett has recently been sung, with 
great applause, by Mesdames Parodi and Strakosch at their concerts in this city. 



Mdsio in New- York, ^ 

The Academy of Music will soon be opened for a season of forty operatic perform- 
ances, including the Prophet, the Hugenots, etc , etc., with a very strong corps of per- 
formers. Madam Lagrange is the principal soprano, and she has had no equal as a vo. 
calist since the lamented Sontag. While her dramatic powers are of a high order, in 
person and manners she is also quite charming. She will be supported by Miss Hensler, 
and Brignoli, Morelli, and Amodio. These have a well-established reputation here. 
Miss Hensler is one of the most promising of her age that we have ever seen. Besides 
these, Castellar, from the London Covent Garden, for whom Meyerbeer wrote the part of 
Bertha, in The Prophet, and who has a very high European reputation, and Signorina 
Aldina, very highly commended ; Salviani, an admirable tenor, and Caspina, a basso 
"of extraordinary voice," are also announced as engaged. Max Maretzek is the con- 
ductor. Such a combination of eminent artists cannot fail to attract. 

Theatrical. — Mile. Rachel still plays to respectable houses. The furor, however, 
passed away with the earlier performances. She has lately reduced her prices, with 
a corresponding increase in the attendance. There is no doubt of her ability as an ac- 
tress, although there may be a difference 'of opinion as to her exact position in the scale 
of merit as an artist. 

Mademoiselle Rachel has given a reading in the Tabernacle to a very good house, and 
with excellent success. 

Sacred Mdsio. — There will be several performances of sacred music, of a very high 
order, in the course of the season, though the details are not yet laid out. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



255 



List of Patents Issued 

FROM AUGCST 8, 1855, TO AUGUST 21, 1855. 



James Melville, Roebank Works, Grent Britain, 
and Jos. Burch, Craig Hull, Great Britain, ma- 
otine lor piiuting textile fabrics. 

Samuel W. Brown, Lowell, improvement in gas 
regulators. 

Jacob Busser, Philadelphia, improvement in 
railroad signals. 

D. D. Badger, New-York, improvement in iron 
houses. 

Leander TV. Boynton, "Worcester, improvement 
in machine for preparing flocks. 

Leonard Bailey, Winchester, Mass., plane 
scraper. 

John Broadbent, Oak Grove, Ky., improvement 
in looms. 

James Connor and Thos. Newby, Richmond' 
Ind., improvement in machine drills. 

Robert Cochran, Cincinnatti, improved method 
of hanging mill stones. 

Dewitt C. Oummings, Fulton, N. T., improve 
ment in straw-cutters. 

Daniel Duiilap, Concord, N. H., improved cut- 
ter-head t.tr irregular forms. 

Robt. W. Keuwich, Brooklyn, and Reinhold 
Boeklen, Jersey City, improvement in corn 
planters. 

Alden Graham, Roxbury, improved wrench. 

John N. Gamewell, Camden, S. C, improve- 
ment in apparatus for discharging atmospheric 
electricity from telegraph wires. Patented in 
England, Sept. 16, 18.i4. 

A. P. Gray and J. C. Fincher, Thibodeaux, 
guage attaihment, fof hand saws. 

Llveras Hull, Charlestown, Mass.j improve- 
ment in braiding machines. 

John L. Irwin, Franklin, Ala., improved mode 
of securing tires upon wheels. 

Peter H. Jackson, New-York, improvement in 
ship's winches. 

Williana J Mclntire, New-York, improvement 
in propelling vessels by the direct action of steam 
on the water. 

John G, McNair, West Farms, improvement in 
manufacturing carpets. 

D. W. Perkms, Rome, improvement in dental 
chairs. 

Ctias. A. Postly, Philadelphia, improved ma- 
,chine for measuring and weighing grain. 

Chasy E. Parker, Boston, and Joseph Sauger, 
Watertown, Mass., improved mode of adjusting 
blinds to window-i, etc. 

B. E. Barkhurst, Brunswick, Me., machire for 
sawing lumber. 

Edward Page, Worcester, improvement in 
molasses pitchers. 

Silas G. Randall and James H, Jones, Rockton, 
111., improvement in seed planters. 

Amasa Stune, Philadelphia, improvement in 
forming screw threads, etc., in the necks of glass 
bottles and similar articles. 

Geo. W. Smith, Nanticoke, improvement in 
tanning apparatus. 

Addison Spaulding, Lowell, liriprovement in the 
construction of artificial legs. 

Wm. J, Temple, Princeton, Mass., improved 
self-adjusting tongue iron. 

James M. Thompson, Holyoke, improvement 
in oil drippers. 

Addison Capron, Attleboro', and Jos. S Den- 
nis, Sornerville, Mass , assignors to themselves 
and He! ry M. Richards, Attleboro', aforesaid, im- 
proved machine for attaching hooks and eyes to 
cards. 



Jno. B. Tay, North Woburn, improvement in 
in the bed spring of leather splitting machines. 

Win. Van Aden, Poughkeei)sie, .spoke machine. 

Halvor Halvorson, Cambridge, assignor to Hor- 
ace Barnes, Boston, improvement iu the manu- 
facture of daguerreotype cases. 

Phillipe Stenger, Philadelpeia, assignor to Pas- 
cal Yearsley, of the same place, impiovernent in 
the manufacture of plate glass. 

Louisch Koch, New-Vork, assignor to Peter B. 
Sweeney and Michael Lacourt, of same place, 
improvement in machinery tor making paper 
pulp. 

jKin^s Smith, Laurel, Md., assignor to himself 
and VVm. Botterill, Howard Co., Md., improve- 
ment in temples for looms. 

Francis Arnold, Haddam, Ct., egg holder. 

John and Evan Arthur, New Brunswick. N. J., 
governnrs tor steam engines. 

Joseph Leeds, Philadelphia, Pn., furnaces for 
heating buildings. 

F. L. Bailey, Freeport, Ind., replacing cars. 

Oramel C. Barnes and A. J. Barnes, Stock- 
bridge, Vt., whiffletrees. 

Andrew J. Barnhart, Schoolcraft, Mich., corn 
planters. 

JFraneis Baschnagel, New-York city, composi- 
tions for treating rubber and gutta percha. 

Jacob Boyers, Granville, Va., churns. 

A. Brown and Abel Coffin, Jr., Sabine city, Tex- 
as, straining saws by atmospheric pressure. 

I). H. Chamberlain, West Roxbury, Mass., 
hand press for printing. 

Char es Cleveland, Ashfield, Mass., ventilating 
faucet. 

J. J. Dutcher, New-Haven, Conn., steam boil- 
ers. 

H. H. Fultz, Lexington, Miss.j cotton presses. 

Jofeph Garratt Sen., Indianapolis, Ind., alloys 
for journal boxes. 

J. K. Burrows, Newark, N. J., making zinc 
white. 

S. T. Jones, New-York city, zinc white. 

B. W. Gay, New London, N. H., extension ve- 
hicle. 

W. N. Gesner, Fair Haven, Conn., windlasses. 

F. B. Graham, Middletown, N. Y., hernial 
trusses. 

R. J. Blorrison, Richmond, Ya., cutting appar- 
atus of harvesters. 

D. Noyes, Abington, Mass., forging machine. 
L. E. Payne, Yazoo City, Miss., hanging win- 
dow sashes. 

R. Ray, Louisport, Ky., gathering eotton 
stalks. 

S. P. Roggles, Boston, Mass., gas regulators. 

F. Russell, Boston, Mass., harvesters. 

S. B. Sexton, Baltimore, Md., furnaces for heat- 
ing buildings. 

G. A. Somerby and C, W. Fogg, Waltham, 
Mass., railroad car-l'rake. 

J. Simpson, Louisville, S. C, cotton gins. 

M. Tromley, Mt. Vernon, III., gun locks. 

S. R. Wilniot, New-York city, portable steam 
sawing machine. 

Z. 0. Bobbins, Washington, D. C, (assignor to 
A. Martin, Norwich, Conn.,) Mills for compress- 
ing and grinding grapes and other small fruits. 

E. L. Seymour, New-York city, (afsignor to 
W. O. Bourne, New- York city aforesaid,) appa- 
ratus for sifting. 

C. Winegar, Union Springs, N. Y., drawing 
water from wells. 

John (X BriggN, Concord, N. H., improvement 
in the application of the conical pendulum to time 
keepers. 



256 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



C. VV. Blakeslee, Northfield, Conn., improve- 
ment in candlesticks, 

William Burnett, Cincinnati, improvement in 
sealing cans. 

Almond C. Buffum, Chicago, improvement in 
obstetrical extractor. 

Edward Camphell, Columbus, Ohio, improve- 
ment in f;lass journal box. 

Dugald Campbell, Nev»r-York, for swimming 
glove 
John D. Dale, Philadelphia, improved wrench. 
Henry Esling, New-York, improved basin stop 
cock. 

Wm. Fields and Solomon Gerhard, Wilmini,'- 
ton, Del., improved pressure water-wheel. 

SylTester H. Gray, Bridgeport, Conn., improve- 
ment in pumps. 

John L. Hardeman, Arrow Rock, Mo , improve- 
ment in hemp cutters. 

Horace L Hervey, Quincy, III., and Eobert D. 
Osborne, Springlield, Ohio, improvement in 
bridges. 

John and Thomas Hope, Providence, niachines 
for engraving calico printers rollers. 

Joseph Hyde. New-York, improved apparatus 
for vessels, to mdicate their locality, when they 
sink, and to apply a mgans of raising them. 

Ebenezer Jellreys, Dorchester, Mass., improve- 
ment in railroad car seals. 

Benjamin F. T^awton, M. D., Troy, for improve- 
ment in journal box alloys. 

Lewis H. Lefebvre, New-Orleans, for improve 
ment in warm bath apparatus. 

John Matthews, Jr., of New-York, improvement 
in pressure guages. 

Augustus McBurth, Elizabethtown, N. J., im- 
provement in percussion projectiles. 

Stephen P. Ruggles, Boston, hand stamp. 
Albert M. Smith, Rochester, improvement in 
railroad car seats. 

John Woodward, Wilmot Flat, N. H., improve- 
ment in horse yokes. 

Alonzo. E. Young, Dorchester, Mass., assignor 
to himself and Murk Worthley, Boston, Mass., im- 
proved door knob. 

John Swyney, assignor to himself and .Tames 
Dandridge. Boston, Mass., improvement in 
breech-loading magazine fire-arms. 

Charles Kctclium, ppnn Yan, assignor to Chas. 
G. Judd and Andrew i diver, of same place, ma- 
chine for sawing shii.yljs. 

Daniel ?. James, New Market, Va., assignor to 
himself, J. C. While, Dniwiddie 0. H., Va., and 
J. W. Mclntyre, Dinwiddle county, Va., improve- 
ment in corn and cob mills, 

Wm. C. Demain, Boston, assignor to A. B. Ely, 

of the same place, machine for paging books, etc. 

Albert Bingham, Boston, assignor in himself 

and Andrew J. Bailey, of same place, lor burglar's 

alarm. 

John Cram, Boston, assignor to himself and 
John S. Cram, of same place, improvement in 
folding chairs. 

Chas. S. Bradfield, Philadelphia, improvement 
in harvesters. 

Dexter H. Chamberlain, West Ro.xbury, Mass , 
for improvemeDt in curtain rollers. 

John J. Crooke, New-York, improvement in 
window shades. 

L. B, Bradley, Watertown, Ct., trap.s for catch- 
ing animals. 

A. D. Brown, Columbus, Ga., cotton gin 
saws. 



W. O. Bisbee, Camden, N. J., splitting fire- 
wood. 

Thos. Barrows, Dedham, Mass., preparations of 
wool oil. 

J. L. Cisco, Xenia. O., carriages. 

F. P. Dimpfel, Philadelphia, facilitating the re- 
moval of incrustation from steam boilers. 

O. C. Green, Belleville, III., harvester rakes. 
Asahel Gilbert, Jr., Lowell, Mass., sash fasten- 
ers. 

G. W. B. Gedney, New- York city, Rotary wood 
splitting machine. 

R. W. and Danl. Davis, Yellow Springs, O., 
vise. 

J. L. Gill, Columbup, O., plows. 

Danl. H. Pequea, Lancaster, Pa., limekilns. 

Horace Holt, Winchester, Mass., hand stamp. 

B. F. Joslyn, Worcester, Mass., scythe fasten- 
ings. 

J. L. McPherson, New-Vienna, O., |weighing 
scales. 

E. G. Russell, Ravenna, O., regulating valve for 
steam engines. 

F. A. Rosa and Wm. H. Marshall, New- York, 
sawing machine cases. 

David Kohau, Cincinnati, O., shutters or blinds 
for stores. 

M. Riche, Cincinnati, O., trimming books. 

B. F. Joslyn, Worcester, Mass., breech-loading 
fire-arms. 

Jno. Thompson, Clifton, N. Y., grain and grass 
harvesters. 

Levi Till, Sandusky, 0., brick machines. 

James Parsons, Dublin, Ind., wagons. 

Robt. Beans, Johnsooville, Pa., changing har- 
vesters from reapers to mowers. 

S. Bowerman, Detroit, Mich., cutting standing 
cotton stalks. 

James Emerson, Worcester, Mass., ship's wind- 
lasses. 

R. H Wait, Barkersville, N. Y., cutting irregu-* 
lar forms. 

Henry Waterman, Williamsburgh, N. Y., reap- 
ing and mowing machines. 

Albert Bingham, assignor to himself and An- 
drew .1. Bailey, Boston, Mass., inkstands. 

Nathan Thompson, Jr., Williamsburgh, N. Y., 
collapsible boat. 

J. A. Thompson, Cayuga, N. Y , straw cutters. , 

Jno, Demarest, assignor to " the J. L. Molt Iron 
Worfes," ofMott Haven, N. Y., flask lor moulding 
bath tubs. 

Wm. P. Walter and Jacob Green, Philadelphia, 
vault lights. 

RK-ISSUSS. 

Wm. G. Phillips, Newport, Del., method o' 
closing and opening gates. Patented March 7, 
1854. 

Hugh and James Sangsier, of Buflalo, improve* 
ment in lanterns. Patented June 10, 1854. 

DKsIQNS. 

Wm. A. Rogers, Decatur, Ala., design for labels 
on bottles and jars. 

Minnard H, Fowler and Enoch Jacobs, Cincin- 
nati, designs for iron railings. 

ADDiriO.NAL IMPROVBMBNT. 

Wm. D. Jones, Poughkeepsie, assignor to Henry 
Weinlield, of New-York, improvement in propel- 
lers. Patented April 17, 1855. 



C|)f flatigl), tl)e f 00itt, fln!i il)t ^m\l 



Vol. VIII. NOVEMBER, 1855. No. 5. 



SOUTHERN" AND NORTHERN INDUSTRY. 

SOUTH CAROLINA AND RHODE ISLAND. 

We have repeatedly endeavored to convince our Southern friends, as vrell 
as others, that their true policy was to establish and encourage, within their 
own territory, various manufactures, not only making themselves independ- 
ent of others, but also introducing a source of very great profit, far exceed- 
ing that of any single agricultural product. 

A writer in the Septemb&r number of De Solo's Review, seems to hold 
similar views with us on this great subject, and in an article on giving "a 
Statistical Review of the State of Illinois," asserted that '' the manufactures 
of Rhode-Island are more valuable than the manufactures and cotton of 
South Carolina. - Thus : 

Rhode Island manufactures $8,640,626. 

South Carolina *' 2,248,915. 

" " raises cotton to value of 4,628,270. 

"The population of Rhode Island is but 147,545, while that of South 
Carolina is 668,507. The area of Rhode Island is but 1,306 miles, while 
that of South Carolina is 29,000. 

On this statement a South Carolinian (as Mr. Da Bow informs us in a 
prefatory note) in his October number, remarks as follows : 

" Now, sir, we must do you the justice to believe that you were busy, or 
traveling, or indisposed, or in some other way prevented from a fair perusal 
of your proof-sheets. We have ourselves ere now, if we remember rightly, 
run the gauntlet of your statistical corrections, and acknowledged ourselves 
fairly chastised and honestly reproved. Most undoubtedly, if you read the 
above statement at all, it must have been at past the witching hour of night, 
when editors, like common folk, begin to wink their eyes and long for their 
pillows. The error of it (to use the harsher term) is too flagrant to escape 
any wide-awake eye. I say nothing' of the spirit of the remark, which shows 
certainly anything but kindness from the champion of the big Illinois giant, 
who thus singles out the weakling, South Carolina, as the object of unkind 
taunt, for her immense inferiority to her little Yankee sister, Rhode Island, 
and which points his moral by holding up said South Carolina as a warning 
to all lazy backsliders, in contra'bt to her industrious little rival, who shows 
us, ' beyond a cavil or a doubt, the true grounds upon which a State must 
rely for its greatness.' 

VOL. VIII. 17 



258 souTnERN and noethern" industry. 

" We pass over the invidiousness of the conclusion to show the insidious 
falsehood of the statement, or the absolute ignorance of every principle of 
political econonay in the maker of it. ' The manufactures of Rhode Island 
are more valuable than the manufactures and cotton of South Carolina.'' 
Is the writer ignorant of the difFerence between a gross and a net revenue ? 
Does the merchant of Chicago who sells $50,000 worth of goods in the year, 
foi which he has paid $48,000, do a more profitable business than the neigh- 
boring ftirmer who sells the proceeds of his harvests for $6,000, after paying 
all expenses with $2,000 ? In our humble opinion, the farmer makes double 
the gains, and has double the income of the merchant, while, according to 
the reviewer's system of calculation, the merchant has made more than eight 
times the profit of the farmer. It is scarcely necessary, we presume, to quote 
Say and Ricardo to prove that the farmer is the richer man ; and yet, in 
our supposed case, we have the parallel fact to the one upon which the re- 
viewer bases the superiority of Rhode Island. South Carolina, an agricul- 
tural State, incurs, like the farmer, but small expense in the raisiag of her 
produce. Of the staple which she sells she buys nothing; and after the ex- 
pense of supporting her laborers, which is small, (their principal provisions 
being of home growth,) all is clear gain. Even what she manufactures 
brings h -r small expense, for she but works up her own produce, which costs 
her nothing, even as the farmer's wife might spin and knit him socks from 
his own wool. Her $2,248,915 of manufactures, and her $4,628,270 of 
cotton, give her $6,877,185 of revenue, nearly free of expense, to say nothing 
of her rice and other smaller products which are in this calculation entirely 
ignored. On the other hand, Rhode Island, like the Chicago merchant, has 
begun by a large outlay. She has not only to support her laborers at an 
infinitely larger expense than South Carolina, but also to meet immense ex- 
pense of machinery from which South Carolina is exempt ; and again to 
pay for the material, the cotton and the wool, which she resells in the shape 
of manufactures, even as the merchant paid for his goods. Does the author 
of Illinois statistics call all this nothing ? He seems to have imagined the 
cotton and wool a windfall, a dew from heaven, a costless blessing. And the 
machinery, does it grow on the barren rocks, like oysters perhaps, or New- 
England clams, to be taken for the gathering ?" 

With- the particular controversy between these two writers in Z^e i^oj^^'s 
Revieio, we, of course, have nothing to do. We have not the pleasure of 
knowing even who they are. Both show themselves able to manage their 
own cause, so far as it is defensible, and perhaps neither would thank us for 
appearing to interfere with them. We do not intend to interfere. But so 
far as this issue bears upon the great industrial interests of our country, we 
attach to it a corresponding importance, and as it is thrown directly in our 
path, we are not inclined to pass it by in silence. We therefore take the 
occasion that is here presented to urge upon our Southern friends our con- 
viction that manufactures are an essential part of the productive industry of 
every prosperous community. On this point this particular question has a 
direct bearing. In enforcing this general topic, we see no objection to a 
careful examination of this particular and limited inquiry. What is true 
of these two States, is essentially true of any two States, and of all States, 
occupying similar positions in respect to the productive industry of the 
country. 

Hence we undertake to prove that the Illinois correspondent of September, 
if not literally, is essentially correct, that is, that the manufactures of the 
little Stf'te of Rhode Island are of greater value than the manufactures and 



SOUTHERN AND NORTHEEN INDUSTRY. 259 

cotton crop of South Carolina. If it be so, it is worse than folly to attempt 
to persuade the people that it is not so. 

Our friend from South Carolina does not give us any statistics, but con- 
ffcisses the want of them. " We have, unfortunately," he says, " no means at 
hand to assist us in computing what would be in truth the net income of 
Rhode Island, according to the reviewer's own statement of her gross income." 
With the aid of our learned friend De Bow, we will endeavor to supply this 
deficiency. It is too important a matter to be suffered to rest on any mere 
assertion, but whatever the truth may be, our refusal to weigh testimony and 
to compare facts, and to draw logical conclusions, will not prevent the devel- 
opment of the truth in the years to come, nor defend us nor tne South from 
its legitimate and inevitable consequences. Look at the agricultural condi- 
tion of some of the older States, who practically despise the mechanic arts 
and manufactures, and see the consequences of the polidy against which we 
protest. In one of our former volumes, (2d,) the honored and learned founder 
and editor of this journal, Col. Skinner, than whom ng warmer friend of the 
South ever breathed, uses the following language : " There may be seen 
along the tide water courses, magnificent ante-revolutionary mansions con- 
verted into stables and granaries, out-houses in ruins, churches and fences 
in a state of dec^y, with vestiges of old orchards, and gardens scarcely visi- 
ble, roads almost impassable, etc., etc." 

Again, the Richmond Republican^ in 1851, we believe, states that a little 
more than eighty years ago the imports of Virginia amounted to $4,085,4'72 ; 
in 1849, to $241,935. 

Again, the Alabama P?a«fer said years ago, "No one can doubt that 
there is a manifest falling off on the product per acre of cotton, and this 
reduction tells heavily on the cost of production per pound." 

But we have no occasion to multiply statements of this kind. They give 
us no pleasure. But we are unwilling that any false policy should attempt, 
with even temporary or partial success, to deceive those so deeply interested 
in this fundamental truth. It is false courtesy that would counsel silence 
under such circumstances. If success does not attend the policy hitherto 
prevalent in such districts of country, it is impoftant to look at the details 
and ascertain what is the exact point on which success or failure depends. 
The idea that American industry, judiciously managed, will not pay, is too 
absurd to occupy any one's time or attention for a moment. 

Let us, therefore, come to the question before us. What is the testimony 
in relation to it ? 

Our first authority is an able and valued correspondent of this journal for 
many years, and at the present time a grower of cotton, and abundantly 
able by experience and observation to judge of the profits actually realized 
by the planter. He speaks for himself in a subsequent page (270) of this 
number. 

Our second witness is the Southern press. A year or two since, some ably 
written papers appeared, either original or copied, we believe, in the Soil Oj 
the South, one of the ablest of our exchanges, in which it was estimated that 
the cotton crop cost the producer eight cents a pound, and which seemed to 
consider the crop as scarcely remunerative. 

Now what is and has been the market value of cotton to the producer ? 
Our witness on this point is the learned and accomplished editor,' Mr. De 
Bow, than whom, on such points, higher authority does not exist. 

The prices of upland cotton of different qualities, in 1851, ranged from 
Vi to 101 cents, in 1852 from V to 9^. In the March number of his Re- 



260 SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN INDUSTRY. 

view^ -ISdS, p. 181, we found if recorded as follows : " From 1840 to 1844, 
when the average [price of cotton] was only eight cents," etc. And again, 
" from 1845 to 1849, the average price was only 7^ cents." In a table on 
page 284, the prices are set down as follows : for 1850 and 1851, 11.8 cents ; 
1852 at 9 cents; and from 1840 to 1852, at 8 5 cents. And again, on the 
same page, it is stated that " the price has been 8^ cents at the seaports for 
the last thirteen years." 

Now assuming the cotton crop of South Carolina at [1,000,000] pounds, 
vre have very tolerable data for estimating the net profit of the growth. It 
then becomes necessary to inq^i'e into the net value of the annual product 
of the arts not agricultural in Khode Island. 

On this "point we bring forward the same witness, our kavned friend of 
the census of 1850. Our friend De Bow a])pears in his introductory note to 
endorse the doctrine against which we contend, taking back a previous rec- 
ommendation of the September article which is censured by his Oclober 
coVrespondent, but hia. statistical tables will not be so accommodating. Turn 
to page 1*79 of his Compendium and there read that the profits of tbe "prb- 
duct of manufacturers, mining and mechanic arts in Rhode Island are 30.18 
per cent." Unless Rhode Island falls below the average of New-England, 
it is true that nearly one-third of all the values of tbese products is not 
gain, for the average net profit of these products iu the New-Eogland States, 
is set down at 31.19 per cent. 

Now we suppose it is admitted by general consent that the cotton and 
woolen manufactures of Rhode Island are more profitably conducted than in 
almost any part of New-England. The mills are generally, or at lea~t very 
frequently, superintended by their owners, while many of the operatives 
are comparatively permanent residents of the village. Portions of them, of 
course, are floating, engaging themselves here or there, as best they may. 

Is there any doubt in this testimony, whether these manufactures of Rhode 
Island pay better than the cotton culture of South Carolina? But this is 
not the precise point in dispute. Let us therefore look a little further. 

The annual product of these interests in Rhode Island Mr. De Bow sets 
down as little more than $22,000,000. 30 per cent, of this is $6,000,000. 
The gross amount of the South Carolina cotton crop is " $4,028,270." But 
though this covers all the ground we have been contending for, as to the 
essential value of manufactures, so far as the point described as in dispute 
is concerned, we must go a little farther. 

The distinction between the products of " manufactures" and of " the 
mechanic arts" is more in name than in substance, but is often very con- 
venient, though the dividing line may not easily be drawn. Let us then 
take the "manufactures" proper, which are estimated at 18,640,626. 30 
per cent, of this is |2,588,481. Now, what compared with this is the net 
profit on four and a half millions of dollars' worth of cotton that is " not remu- 
nerative ?" On this state of the testimony, should we prese6t this subject to 
a judicious man about to invest his property, which would he choose, the 
South Carolina or the Rhode Island investment, allowing the same capital to 
he required ? 

This brings us to our last point — viz., the amount of capital required in 
these two investments. The amount of capital consumed in these " profits" 
in South Carolina is estimated in the census as follows : 

Real estate $105,737,492- 

Personal estate - - - - 178,130,217 

Total $283,867,709 



SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN INDUSTRY. 261 

while the " true valuation" is $288,257,694. A lar^e proportion of this is 

devoted to the raising of cotton. 

The same authority sets down th6_ capital invested in manufactures in 

Rhode Island as follow^ : 

In cotton --.-,-- 86,675,000 

In woolen 1,013,000 

^ . ( 428,800 

1° ^'•^'^ I 209,400 

Distilleries, etc., 17,000 



18,343,200 

Again, the enti^-e capital invested in " Manufactures, Mining, and the 
Mechanic Arts," is stated to be $12,923,176. 

AVhether there can be any disagreement in the jury on such evidence as 
this — whether that jury is composed of twelve men or twelve millions of 
men — would seem to be only another form of asking whether they were 
men of common sense, or whether they jumped at their conclusions under 
any momentary impulses which might be brought to act upon them. 

The general correctness of these calculations is obvious from the fact that 
we find in page 178 of the Compendium that the manufacture of cotton ia 
the United States pays all the expenses (esticnated) with five per cent, inter- 
est on the capital employed, and then pays a profit of ten millions of dollars, 
the entire amount of cotton consumed being valued at less than 35 millions, 
giving nearly the same per cent, profit as before stated in regard to the 
manufactures of Rhode Island. 

Such statements as we have here presented forcibly remind us that recent 
writers, who are so free'y and, allow us to say, ridiculously advocating, with 
scarcely a show of argument, the doctrine of disunion, if they are really in 
earnest about it, bfgin altogether " at the wrong end." One of them is 
about to establish (on paper) a line of packets, to run between Charleston 
and Havre, but has forgotton to furni:?h, or to begin to furnish, anything for 
the said packets to carry. Perhnjys he will confine them to cotton. Another 
has some different but equally flimsy fabric of which he is to build a great 
State. No. Such gentlemen would very soon find out that independence, in 
ANY form, will be and can be carried out with success only by establishing 
these various occupations among themselves ; otherwise they would be as 
badly off as the new comer on the borders of a wilderness who squats on 
the land bought and paid for by his next neighbor, but who yet has to bor- 
row, beg or buy of that same neighbor an axe, teakettles and irons, shovel 
and tongs, cups, saucers, gridiron, chairs, table, etc., etc., before he can have 
the means of properly preparing and enjoying his first cup of coflfee, or his 
first pork-steak, and who must get the help of the neighbor himself to lay 
the first timber of a log-cabin to protect him from wolves and bears. 

He who would advocate true independence at the very outset, should 
establish every useful form and variety of the mechanic and manufacturing 
arts; and thereby they would produce so happy a change in the financal 
and general condition of the States now exclusively agricultural, that all 
other questions would fide into comparative insignificance', or, if cot, Ihey 
would have all the means — physical, moral, and personal — that would be 
needed to pursue successfully any policy that might be deemed necessary for 
securing other important advantages. 

A fatal error is involved in another remark of this writer, thrown ofif as if 
it were not to be questioned, viz., " Of the staple which she sells she buys 



262 LACKAWANNA COAL REGION. 

nothing, and after the expense of supporting her laborers, which is small, 
(their principal provisions being of home growth,) all is clear gain." A ter- 
rible mistake this, or a more terrible practical blunder in suffering it to be 
true. 

The agriculturists of the South do not enrich their lands as they ought, 
and hence there is a gradual but inevitable "consumption" going on which 
•will ere long bankrupt the riche&t plantations, and create a desolation, not 
only in present supplies but in the source of supplies, which will exceed that 
which the most excitable have ever anticipated from the folly and fanaticism 
of their neighbors at the North. 

We do not believe there is any substitute in these later times, and in the 
higher forms of civilization, for the various sources of wealth to which we 
have here had reference. Prosperity in its fullest extent, without them, we 
beheve to be impossible, and therefore it is that we entreat that attention to 
the subject which will lead those in interest to that course of conduct which 
the case demands. 

Such policy as we here urge is important to all the States, whatever their 
climate or the productiveness of their soil. Nothing else can secure them a 
home market, and nothing else Avill even permit a concentrated population. 
On any other system we must be limited to a sparse population, imperfect 
facilities for the management of the traffic necessary in all communities, and 
a deprivation of many enjoyments which, in cities and large towns, are 
accessible to all classes. 



THE LACKA.WANNA COAL EEGION. 

The lands in this section of country are becoming of great value. Its 
population is rapidly increasing. Scranton is a new village located 
on the banks of the Lackawanna river, in the Lackawanna Coal Bed ; 
said to be next to the Schuylkill region, the most extensive Anthracite 
bed in the world, and even more valuable than the Schuylkill region, because 
the whole mountain contains either coal or iron. The yield of coal has 
already been in some instances 50,000 tons to the acre. Land has increased 
immensely in value in the last two years, since the prospect of a direct com- 
munication with New- York has become a certainty ; a tract of 150 acres has 
recently been sold at five hundred dollars the acre, for which two hundred 
dollars the acre were paid less than a year since. The Scranton Iron Works 
Co., one of the most extensive concerns in the Union, are now engaged in 
making the iron for the new railroad, and the quality of it is said to be equal 
to the best of that made in Wales. 

This village, which five years ago consisted only of a few scattered hamlets, 
now contains a population of more than 5000 inhabitants, and many new 
buildings are in course of erection. A small lot near the Wyoming House 
containing less than half an acre, sold last week for the location of a banking- 
house, for fifteen hundred dollars, the same having been purchased in No- 
vember, last year, for five hundred — and the hotel, a laige, substantial, three 
story brick building, erected three years since, and which stock-holders (it being 
put up by a company) supposed would be at least five years in paying 
expenses, not only paid a rent of $1200 last year, but divided besides, a 



WHAT A POOR FARMER CANNOT AFFORD 



263 



handsome profit to the stockholders, who now ask an advance of $20,000 
on its cost, though they would two years since been glad to have sold it at a 
loss, but at that time the prospect of the direct New-York connection was 
very dim. Now everything is bright, and Scranton iti 1860 will probably 
contain twenty thousand, residents. 



WHAT A POOR FARMER CANNOT AFFORD. 

Ik an address at the Annual Fair in Erie county, Hon. Horace Greeley 
made sundry very sensible observations. We note two or three of his speci- 
fications on the subject taken for our caption, on which we would make a 
few suggestions. Among other things, said he, 

" No poor man can afford to be a poor farmer." " No poor man can af- 
ford to cultivate his land in such a manner as will cause it to deteriorate in 
value.'' " No poor man can afford to produce weeds." '• Farmers cannot 
afford to grow a crop on a soil that does not contain the natural elements 
that enter into its composition." " No poor farmer can afford to keep fruit 
trees that do not bear good fruit, nor to work with poor implements." 

All this is well. It is true. It is perfectly undeniable. But it is only one 
side of the story. Some other kindred truths are equally obvious. That 
poor cripple at the corner " cannot afford" to waste his time in iDaction. 
That poor scholar cannot well afford the time to walk a hundred miles to the 
place where be is to seek for employment. That poor sick woman, the 
farmer's wife, cannot afford to Carry about that chronic disease which has 
been a burden to her for years. 

This chapter is a long one, and it is equally true as the former. So the 
poor farmer cannot afford to be " a poor farmer." Well, can he afford to be 
poor in any way ? 

There certainly are two sides to this. " Poor farmers" and poor me- 
chanics have a good deal to say for themselves. The latter would like a set 
of improved tools. The want of them prevents him from competing for a 
capital job, which is advertised, and hence he must let his richer neighbor, 
who is yet a poorer mechanic, secure the contract and pocket its profits. 
And this was only because he is poor. If he could have procured the tools, 
he might have secured these profits to himself. 

So the world goes. To him that hath is given more abundantly. Were 
this anything more than the mere accidentals and contingencies, attendant 
upon a higher which is the true Being, we should be much puzzled with our 
theology. 

But there are palliatives even here. There are possibilities to the poor 
man of which he makes no account. The cripple can use crutches, and he 
ought to do so. But he is not bound to run. So the poor farmer can gen- 
erally improve his condition, by the exercise of industry, economy, prudence 
in saving and manufacturing manures, by judicious crops, etc., etc., very much 
can be done. We think, however, that they need encouragement rather 
than censure ; and to have their hope and self-reliance strengthened. Any- 
thing that makes them despise themselves or mistrust their own powers is 
not only unjust but injurious, and indeed ruinous. 

We do not censure the orator for the suggestions in his address above 



264 WHAT FARMERS NEED. 

cited, but we bespeak a spirit of kindness and forbearance, and of encour;ige- 
ment for those who as really lament their imperfections as the most ardent 
reformer. 



WHAT FARMERS NEED. 

We find the following excellent paragraphs in a report of an address by 
the Rev. Dr. Huntington, before the Middlesex South Co, (Ms.) Agricultural 
Society : 

" Mr. Huntington announced as his subject not the results of farming but 
the farmer himself, and the culture of the cultivator. One of the questions 
for us was what kind of men was it necessary to be in order to raise anything 
to the best advantage. In the first place he spoke of the dangers arising 
from the necessary preponderance of manual labor in the farmers occupation, 
in which intellect was apt to abdicate, and leave everything to rote — plough, 
sow, cultivate, reap, and thrash, was the rule, binding a man down to physical 
toil. This should not be, and the farmer should cultivate his intellect, use 
his head, make his farm his subject instead of being its slave — and here was 
the merit of modern farming — it was awaking the farmer from his lethargy, 
and ennobling his pursuit in the eyes of the world. 

" One thing which the model- farmer wanted, was an invigoration of the 
perceptive faculties, the getting the eyes open to facts which turn up, what- 
ever way they come, and here was the chief benefit of cattle shows. The 
farmer goes home with an impulse that he will do his farming better and 
faith that it can be done better. Another mental faculty he needed was 
appropriation, to turn to account what he had seen and heard, and having 
verified what was good, to repeat it aloud. The brain, however, should be 
trained to discriminate between what was mere speculation and what was 
theory. The value of this was illustrated at length ; and earnest attention 
to improving, with the aid of the brain, the home lands, the home stock, was 
claimed to be as good, perhaps, as running off" to "Western prairies or foreign 
bloods as the only sources of improvement. 

" The natural advantages the farmer had over the average of city classes, in 
depth of thought, and greater knowledge, was spoken of; and though the 
citizeu knew more of a variety of subjects, yet it was for the farmer by his 
brain to grasp them all, and be the deep thinker in all branches of knowledge. 
From the brain the speaker passed to the hand, and in elaborating this spoke 
of the farmer as an exemplification of the benefit of obedience to the 
sentence — in the sweat of the brow shalt thou earn thy bread — comparing 
the eflferainacy of those who live without labor with the hardihood of those 
who eain their bread abroad. 

"The third elemental force necessary to a complete agricultural manhood, 
was that faculty to whose exercise we gave the name of taste. True manliness 
was impossible without sensibility to the beautiful, and it was a sin to crush 
it out by contempt or kill it out by neglect. 

" There were two directions in whieli we should exercise taste — in the spirit 
of order in the useful, and in the ministry of the purely beautiful, raising us 
into an atmosphere of generous refiuement. Music, painting, gardening, 
florticulture, should be cherished if we would have our children grow up with 
that love of home which is the mightiest protection against evil. 



A LAKE OF PITCH. 265 



" The fourth necessary power, the heart, was spoken of as the greatest of 
all, a sovereign ruling by divine right, the medium of holy influences. It 
was a sign of a boor, a blunderer, and a bear, to empty the bosom of gentle 
feelings. The noblest and boldest in earth's history were those who had 
borne in their hearts feelings of love. We might judge a farmer's heart by 
the way he treats his brutes. We should not rob our families of politeness 
to pay it all to the trader we patronize. 

•'The orator concluded most beautifully, speaking of our duty to keep our 
New-England pure and true, so that, while founding new ones at the West, 
we should not let the great exemplar decline. God made the world perfect ; 
sin destroyed its perfection ; but it was for us to reproduce Eden everywhere. 
Middlesex County was not yet finished, and we should go forth and perfect 
the old enterprises till not a lesson remained to learn and not a power or 
beauty in nature was left undeveloped." 



A LAKE OF PITCH. 

A LATE number of Silliman's Journal contains an account of that remark- 
able curiosity, " the pitch lake of Trinidad," W. I. It is situated on the 
western shore of the Island, near the village of La Braye, which is built on 
a foundation of hard pitch. The lake stands about 90 feet on a plateau 
above this village, is circular, and half a mile in diameter, surroundtd on all 
sides with a dense forest. Its face is intersected with a network of water 
channels, which gives it the appearance of marbled paper. The surface of 
the pitch is pretty hard, and when the water channels are dry it can be 
passed over on foot. In the center of the lake the pitch appears to be con- 
stantly and silently rising up en masse, and what is very singular, numerous 
pieces of wood are constantly coming up to the surface from below. These 
are from one to several feet in length, and are forced by the peculiar pressure 
to assume an ppright position, so as to appear all over the lake like stumps 
of trees protruding through. It is believed that this pitch lake is boiling 
slowly below. Streams of sulphuretted hydrogen gas frequently issue from 
beneath, the temperature of which is 97 deg. Fah. The center of the lake 
is somewhat plastic, but around the sides the pitch is very hard. The water 
in the streams and small pools is pure and soft ; fish are numerous in them, 
and aligators make them their habitation. Large springs of petroleum are 
in its vicinity, and about a mile northward there is a bed of brown coal crop- 
ping out upon the sea shore ; it is about 20 feat thick, and appears from its 
dip as if it passed under the lake. The pitch is of great depth, for it has 
been dug into 18 feet in many places. It is believed to be a submerged bed 
of vegetable matter, undergoing slow distillation by volcanic action under- 
neath. This store of bitumen appears to be inexhaustible. It is used with 
wood for fuel by the American stearcers plying on the Orinoco river. Mixed 
with pebbles and sand it makes excellent paverntnts, and ground floors of 
houses. With ten per cent, of rosia oil, it makes good pitch for ships. The 
Earl of Dundonald has purchased a tract of 26 acres of it, and has instituted 
experiments to discover, if possible, some means for making it a substitute 
for india rubber and gutta percha water-proof or vulc anized fabrics ; and he 



266 INSECTS INJUEIOUS TO VEGETATION. 



has already made some vulcanized cloth, which, from appearance, bids fair of 
future success. If such a result crown his efforts — and every person must 
wish him success — such an inexhaustable supply of cheap material as this 
lake furnishes will soon bring down the price of such goods in our country, 
and thus confer unspeakable benefits upon our people. 



INSECTS INJUEIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

HEMIPTEEA. 

This order includes various kinds of insects that severely try the patience 
of the farmer and gardener, and often destroy many of his crops. 

The terra hug is applied to those which agree in possessing the following 
characteristics : the mouth is furnished with a slender beak, consisting of a 
horny sheath, which contains three stiff and sharp-pointed bristles or needles, 
which are confined in a groove. They have no jaws, but suck the blood 
of animals and the juices of plants, after piercing them with their beaks. 

The name of this order, Hemiptera, is formed from two Greek words, 
signifying half-ivings^ and was suggested by the peculiar formation of their 
wing-covers, of which the fore part is thick and opaque, and the hind part 
thin and film-like. 

Bugs undergo three changes, like the insects already described. But, 
unlike them, tliey do not so suddenly change their form nor their habits. 
In this order the changes which they- all undergo are progressive. The 
young come from the Qgg without wings or wing-covers. These soon ap- 
pear in the form of scales, and as the insect becomes older, become com- 
pletely developed. During this progress, the insect repeatedly throws off 
its skin to allow of its growth. But in all this progress it is active, and its 
habits are unchanged. Some bugs have no wings, but are classed under 
this order on account of their resemblance to the members of it in general 
structure and habits. 

The order is divided into two groups, viz., Heteroptera and Hemiptera. 
These, like the name of the order, are of Greek derivation, the former sug- 
gested by the dissimilarity of the texture and structure of the fore part and 
hinder part of the wing-cover, while ^the latter indicates a uniformity of 
texture and structure in the entire organ. The differences between the 
two groups are very marked. 

1. The true Hemiptera are those whose wing-covers appear thick and 
opaque at the base, but thin and trasparent, or wing-like, at their tips. The 
second group contains those whose wing-covers are of the same texture, thin 
and transparent throughout. 

2. The wings of the Heteroptera are laid horizontally on the back. In 
the Hemiptera they are not horizontal, but inclined, like the wing-covers of 
locusts. 

3. In the former, the wing-covers cross each other obliquely at the end, so 
that the thin part of one overlaps the thin part of the other. In the latter, 
they do not cross each other. 

4. In the first group the head is more or less horizontal, and the beak is- 



INSECTS INJUEIOUS TO VEGETATION. 267 



sues from the fore part of it, and is abruptly bent backwards beneath the 
under side of the head and the breast. lu the second group, the face is 
vertical, or else it slopes obliquely under the body, so that the beak issues 
from the under side of the head close to the breast. 

5. The first order includes insects that live on animal and also on vegetable 
juices. The second contains only those living on vegetable juices. 

The first group under this order contains various bugs, properly so called, 
as squash bugs, fruit bugs, etc. We can refer to only a few of the many 
species. 

Coreus tristis, or Common Squash Bug. This was called C. tristis by 
Dr. Geer, C. moestus by Gmelin, C. rugator by Fabricius, and Coreus ordi- 
natus by Say. This bug, unfortunately, is well known to gardeners, but 
their habits are perhaps unknown to many. In the latter part of October 
they quit the plants on which they feed during the months previous, and 
concealing themselves in crevices, or other secure places, they there pass the 
winter in a torpid condition. With the return of warm weather, they quit 
their winter quarters, and as they meet under the young leaves of the 
squash, in June and onward, they pair, and lay their eggs immediately. At 
this time tbese insects are to be found on the ground, or on stems near the 
ground, but as daylight disappears they get beneath the leaves, and lay their 
eggs in little patches on their under surface. These eggs are round, flat- 
tened on two sides. The you'ng bugs, which are soon hatched, are shorter 
and rounder than the perfect insect, and of a pale ash color. As they be- 
come older, they also become more oval, and of a dull ochre-yellow. They 
live in little swarms, or families, beneath the leaves on which they are 
hatched, which soon wither and become brown, dry and wrinkled. They are 
then abandoned by the insects, which soon exhaust another leaf in the same 
way. Iq September and October they become perfect insects, with wing- 
covers and wings. It is then six-tenths of an inch in length, of a ru.sty black 
color above, and a dirty ochre-yellow beneath ; the sharp lateral edges of the 
abdomen, which project beyond the closed wing-covers, are spotted with 
ochre yellow. The thin, overlaping portion of the wing-covers is black, the 
wings transparent, but dusky at their tips. The ground color of the insect 
is yellow ochre, and the rusty black hue of the head, thorax, thick part of 
the wing-covers and legs, is occasioned by numerous black punctures. On the 
back part of the head, behind the eyes, are two glossy elevated spots,' called 
eyelets. 

In some species of Coreus is a thorn at the base of the antennae, and the 
legs are thorny ; but these are not found in the squash bug. 

When crushed they give out a very strong odor, like that of an over- 
ripe pear. 

To prevent their ravages, they should be killed as they are about to lay 
their eggs. The eggs may be crushed. A little time spent every day, at the 
proper season, will prove a valuable service. That which promotes a 
rapid growth of the vines is also useful. When the plants have attained a 
vigorous growth they suffer comparatively little from this insect. Hence 
rich fertilizers are valuable — as the drainings of a barn-yard, etc. 

Phytocoris lineolaris, or as it is called bv Say, Capsus oblineatus, or Little 
Lined Plant Bug. Insects of this genus are known by the following cha- 
racteristics : 

Eyelets wanting, antennas four jointed, first and second joints much thicker 
than the two last, which are slender and thread-like ; the head short and 
triangular ; body oval, flattened, and short ; thorax broad triangular, with 



268 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEG.']]TATION. 



the tip of the anterior angle cut off, and the broadest side applied to the 
base of the wing-covers. The latter, when folded, cover the Avhole of the 
abdomen, and tlieir thin portions have only one or two little veins ; the legs 
are slender, and the shanks bristled with little points. 

The P. lineolaris measures one-fifth of an inch or more in length. The 
males are darker than the females, being almost black above, head is yel- 
lowish, with three narrow, longitudinal stripes. A very good means of 
determining this species is by a yellow spot in the form of a V, often imper- 
fcct — only three spots being visible at the place of the extremities of the let- 
ter. It is most abundant in June and July, according to Dr. Harris, and is 
found in all parts of the Union. It lives upon dahlias, marigolds, and 
other flowers, and on potato vines, etc. 

Irrigation is recommended by Dr. Harris, as the best security against their 
ravages. Soap suds, potash water, decoctions of tobacco or walnut leaves, 
or a sprinkling of air-slacked lime, are useful. Chickens and young turkeys 
and ducks, will devour great numbers of them. 

Hemiptera Homoptera, the second group of the order Hemiptera, is 
subdivided into three large tribes : 

1. CiGADAD^. Harvest Flies, or Cicadians. These insects have short 
antennpe, which are awl-shaped, or tipped with a bristle. Wings and wing- 
covers, in both sexes, inclined at the sides of the body. Three joiots to their 
feet, skins firm and hard. The males make a peculiar buzzing sound. The 
females have a piercer lodged in a furrow, beneath the extremity of the body. 
They are readily distinguished by their broad heads, large -and very convex 
eyes on each side, and three eyelets on the crown. On the back part of the 
thorax is an elevation, in the form of an X. Their wing-covers and wings 
are transparent and veined. The noise made by the males is by means of a 
membrane on their sides, which is acted upon from within by a muscle. 
These drum-like membranes are not visible on the outside of the body, 
being covered with convex triangular pieces on each side. 

Cicadians do not leap. The legs are short, and the anteriol* thighs are 
armed beneath with two stout spines. 

Cicada Septendecejji, (of Linnaeus,) or Seventeen-year Locust, in the winged 
state is black, wings and wing-covers transparent, the thick anterior edge 
and larger veins of which are orange red, and near the tips of the latter 
there fs a dusky zigzag line in the form of a ^ ; the eyes are red, the rings 
of the body edged wiih dull orange, the legs of the same color. The wings 
expand from 2~ to 3~ inches. 

The female lays her eggs upon a small branch of a tree, which she pierces 
obliquely to the pith, and by a kind of sawing operation forms a longitudinal 
fissXire, of sufficient extent to receive from ten to twenty eggs. This process 
occupies some fifteen minutes, and several fissures are made in the same 
limb. The Cicada thus goes from limb to limb and from tree to tree, till she 
has deposited some four hundred or five hundred eggs. She thus becomes ex- 
hausted, and soon dies. The insect abounds most on the oak, but occasionally 
resorts to other trees and to shrubs, and not unfrequently to fruit trees. 

The eggs are one-twelfth of an inch in length. They are hatched in 
52 days after they are laid, according to Dr. Potter, and ace >r ding to 
others in 14 days. The young insect is one-sixteenth of au inch in iwugth, 
yellowish white, eyes and claws of the fore-legs reddish, grublike in form, 
with six legs ; on the shoulders are little prominences in the place of wings, 
and underthe breast is a long beak for suction. 

Some of the habits of the young insect are very wonderful. Soon after 



TOADS. 269 



they burst the shell of the egg that contains then), they raove to the side 
of the limb, and voluntarily drop to the ground. Thus they bury them- 
selves in the soil, attaching themselves to succulent and slender roots, on 
the juices of which they subsist. After a time they gradually ascend to 
the surface, and live in their burroughs or on the surface, according to cir- 
cumstances, till they shed their pupa skin and change to perfect insects, 
which are scon strong enough to fly. A good description of this insect 
was given by a correspondent in our October number, page 205. 

Cicada Canicularis, or the Dog-day Harvest Fly, so called from its ap- 
pearing near the commencement of dog-dajs, is also musical. This is 
sometimes mistaken for the 

Cicada 2Jniinosa, or Frosted Harvest Fly, found in the Middle States. 
Neither of these species is numerous enough to produce much injijry to 
our harvests. 

Tettigonia vitis, is an insect that has proved to be very destructive to 
grape vines. It is one-tenth of an inch in length, pale yellow or straw color, 
with two small red lirics on the head; the back part of the thorax, the scutel, 
the base of the wing-covers, and a troad band across the middle are scarlet 
color, tips of the wiog-covers blackish, with little red lines between the broad 
band and the tips. The head is crescent-shaped above, the eyelets just below 
the' ridge of the front. 

They are found on the under part of the leaf through most of the sum- 
mer, first appearing in June in the larva state, and destitute of wings. They 
generally remain quiet, their beaks thrust into the leaf, but if disturbed they 
leap nimbly from one leaf to another. They often cast their skius. They 
arrive at maturity in August. 

The I'-'avts thus attacked become yellow, and then dry, and the injury ex- 
tends to the fruit and to the growth of the wood. 

In the autumn they retire for shelter beneath fallen leaves and tufts of 
gra^s, remaining there till spring, when they emerge from their hiding-pUces, 
deposit their eggs, and die. 

Fumigations with tobacco, beneath a movable tent placed ever the trellis, 
insures their destruction ; but it may be necessary often to repeat the process. 



TOADS. (BUFO VULGARIS.) 

From the earliest recollection of the " oldest inhabitants," this little crea- 
ture has been under (he ban, a source of terror to every little miss, an object 
of disgust to maids and matrons, a by-word and term of reproach for every 
old aunt and grandm.i in the land, who would never seek farther in their 
vocabulary of opprobrious terms for a suitable name for any little urchin, 
than to call him a " little nasty iJoac?." Boys have made it their sport, have 
pelted it with stones, pierced it through and through with sharp sticks, sub- 
stituted it in the place of a ball, upon a bat-board, throwing it high in the 
air, and exulting in its torture ; and even men in the field, hoting their 
crops, have been wont to rudely thrust it aside with their hoes, as a useless 
reptile, wondering for what purpose such a loathsome object could have been 
created. The toad has been accused of being a venomous reptile, a fit object 



270 POLICY OF COTTON GROWERS. 

of dread, a poisoner of clioice garden plants, deserving banishment from 
every one's premises, and fit only to inhabit an tuiinTiahitahle morass or desert. 
The toad has, however, occasionally been brought into respectable notice by 
curiosity hunters, and newspaper paragraph writers, whenever he has chanced 
to have been found in a torpid state in the cavity of a rock, or in the trunk 
of a tree, in which cases, an antiquity has been ascribed to it equal to that 
of Egyptian mummies, or perhJips set down as of antediluvian origin. In this 
r-^anner, pooT toady has'^gone the rounds of newspaper notoriety, not for any 
merit or value it might have possessed, but as a matter of mere curiosity. 
But this poor and despised creature has not been left entirely friendless, nor 
without an advocate. 

Naturalists have placed' him in the scale of usefulness where he belongs, 
and have shown that he is not deserving the very many opprobriums that 
have been heaped upon him. 

To the gardener, the toad is a very useful assistant, as it devours a great 
many insects and worms that prey upon the plants. In the darkness of the 
evening, the toad comes forth from its hiding-place, and commences its work 
of extermination. Noiselessly it passes through the garden, regaling itseif 
upon the insects that have just begun their nocturnal work upon the tender 
plants. No one but those who have observed the movements of this little 
animal, can form any correct estimate of its usefulness. A few evenings 
since I watched one a short time, and observed that in the space of fifteen 
minutes, it devoured some fifteen or twenty insects, of that class too, that in 
the day time, lie concealed from the observation of the birds, but at night 
go forth in armies to carry on their work of destruction, to lay waste the 
gardener's toil. It would be a matter of economy for those who till the 
ground to provide the toad with a suitable place for retreat in the day time, 
thus virtually saying to him : " My dear little fellow, I value your services, 
and will do all I can for your comfort." 

With proper appreciation for his services, and care for his preservation, 
the toad will become quite domesticated, and will continue his valuable work 
for years, simply for his " board and lodging." Those who wantonly destroy 
the toad, should be classed with those who kill harmless and useful birds. — 
Ohio Farmer. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

POLICY OF COTTON GROWERS. " 

Dear Sir: — On 189 page of Sept. number you have an article from the 
Mobile Advertiser on Cotton Manufacture in the South. 

I do nof think the produce of cotton to be *' too great,^' but I know the 
price is not remunerative to the grower. How we can remedy is an after- 
thought, and may not be known and adopted for years. The disparity be- 
tween profits to the producer, the carrier, the manufacturer and the seller of 
■raanufoctured goods is too great. The commission merchant who only 
charges the small pittance of 2{ per cent, will in a very few years have his 
marbled halls and "ham boiled in champagne," whilst the vast bulk of the 
oTowers may Uve in their log cabins and live upon middling corn bread and 



POLICY OP COTTON GROWERS. 271 

greens. The manufacturer making his " five times as much for converting 
the cotton into cloth as the farmer for producing the raw material" soon be- 
comes a millionaire, whilst the producer and his operatives are under the 
ban. Until producers know and act upon, that " mind makes the man, and 
the want of it the fellow," until we educate and become self-acting and 
thinking beings, this will continue. We see it in every other position in 
society, and why not here ? 

There are two things in my humble opinion that will greatly aid the 
planter, and as much aid our whole country. The cotton planter and his 
negroes are now as much needed in America as any branch of business, as 
any other operatives. Was the South to devote its energies to producing 
grain, meat, wool, mechanics or the navy, how long would it be ere the 
North would feel the need of her manufactures ? 

What I now propose I have before done, and one of them many years 
ago, viz., Planters to restrict sales of cotton to one-eight or one-tenth of the 
crop per month. If sent forward, which is best for the mass, prohibit selling 
as now, in the short period of about 120 days. The other, to connect with 
the ginning machinery, the spinning of a portion, at least, of our crop. This 
matter was suggested some ten or twelve years ago, hoping that some large 
planter of enterprise would give the subject thought. It was reported a few 
years ago that a large Louisiana planter was building for this object, but he 
was taken away ere he had his buildings. 

The continent draws from England largely of twist, which can be supplied 
by the planter, and thus realize at least two prices for capital and laboi* em- 
ployed. The capitalist buys our cotton in the three or four last months of 
the year and holds until the manufacturer needs, then usually makes his 
profit and interest. If the planter will hold for the manufticturer he can 
demand the profit and interest. If the pork producer or the flour producer 
would ship to New-Orleans in the short space of three or four months the 
supply for the year tha quantity alone would depress the price. They know 
this and send forward as demanded, whilst the Southern cotton, sugar, 
tobacco and rice planters push in as early as possible — the factors advise 
rapid sales — the want of the " golden egg" as soon as possible, lo double, 
by long shares, causes in part this counsel. 

If only one-half the planters will attempt either or both of these, it is my 
conviction that ere five years profits would be more equable and the million 
clothed cheaper. The demand for cotton if not backed up by the millionaires 
must much exceed our crops. The profits by the manufacturers and sales- 
men are too great, and thus debar a larger use of cotton and fabrics. Cot- 
ton worth 10 cents per pound when costing 5 cents to spin will sell for about 
20 cents, and thus pay a large profit, even double that of producing, for the 
inci'eased capital needed to spin 100 bales on an unsettled plantation would 
be small. The young and old negroes could be employed say 4 or 5 months 
at least, as the clearing and improving would justify. These are mere hints 
for wiser heads to elaborate. Yours, etc. P. 



French Decimal System. — In our last issue on page 199 our printer 
made us say that a deca-metre ==.03937 inches. We wrote this of the 
milli-metre. It was interlined in the copy, and inserted in the wrong place. 
Please make this correction in the margin of your copy, or place the decimal 
point after the 9. • 



272 FATTENING ANIMALS. 



FATTENING ANIMALS. 

Certain facts ou this subject are uniform and perfectly well settled. 
Others are very inconstant and appear subject to no uniform law. Some 
well-known facts are of very easy explanation. Others seem to contradict 
ordinary principles of philosophy. Indeed, this department of physiology, 
if it deserve so worthy a name, partakes of the imperfections and doubls at- 
tached to many theories. 

We use the conditional '' if," for we are not quite willing to admit that a 
system, the entire object of which is to produce an abnormal, that is, an un- 
healthy, diseased action in the animal, is a part and parcel of any true phi- 
losophy. Would it not be worse than ridiculous to pretend to arrange 
into a science the means and modes of producing all manner of diseases ? 
As a counterpart to its opposite, it may be admissible, giving clearness and 
emphasis to it. By itself it would be absurd. It is or should be regarded 
like that part of a mathematical demonstration which shows that the oppo- 
site of the point to be proved is absurd. By itself, it is not demonstration. 
It ooly prepares the way for actual demonstration. But this is of little mo- 
ment. We must come to cur subject. 

Some principles and facts, as we have said, are well settlecl. Carbona- 
cious food promotes the deposition of fat. Nitrooenous food produces mus- 
cle, with its natural and healthful proportion of fiit, which is, indeed, very 
small. Wild animals are never fat, with the exception of those Avho lie dor- 
mant through the winter, sustaining life by the consumption of the fat ac- 
cumulated in autumn. This is alike true of herbiverous and carniverous 
animals. Those examples of domestic animals, as dogs, etc., who grow fat, 
are of no account, as their entire habits, both of eating and of living, are arti- 
ficial. So also the wild animals of particular districts, who have access to 
some peculiar kind of food, are of no authority in settling general facts and 
principles, though they are very important in showing the effects of that kind- 
of food. 

Again, the formation of fat is very much akin to the secretion of milk. 
Hence it is that great milkers are seldom fat, and are not easily fattened. So 
it is also true that cows becoming fat, generally give a diminished quantity 
of milk. If we would fatten a cow, it is desirable to begin by drying up her 
milk. 

Other facts seem to contradict received theories. We have more than 
once alluded to the fattening properties of turnips. It is well known, and a 
constant practice in England, that cattle are fattened upon turnips and hay, 
the latter being fed in moderate quantities and of inferior quality. What re- 
ceived theory explains this ? 

We do not remember any careful experiments to determine the connection 
between the quality of the milk and the condition of the animal, although 
general statements are abundant; but if such were made, we apprehend the 
results would be very diverse. Some cows are lean because they convert all 
their fatty feed into butter, etc., v;hich is secreted in and is a part of the milk. 
Other lean cows give very mean milk because their secretive organs have an 
imperfect action. Some cows are fat because they convert all the fatty ele- 
ments into solid deposits of fat, while the milk i.s almost destitute of cream. 
Odiers still may not possess the power of converting these elements into any- 
thing, but reject them with other useless and effete matters. 



FATTEXIXG ANIMALS. 273 

We do not believe that any two animak would give precisely the same re- 
sult, under such a course of experiments. Physiological phenomena vary like 
human countenances. 

Facts which are well settled ought to be understood and acted upon. 
Those who experiment on these and kindred points ought not to waste their 
time and labor, and mislead the public, as many have done, by unphilosophic 
experiments, or by carefully managed experiments in peculiar or unnatural 
circumstances. For example, if a cow has been accustomed to roam at'large 
and is tied up in a stable, and deprived of all exercise, no experiment in fat- 
tening her is reliable. She may be fretted by the mode of confining her, or 
she may be discontented and uneasy for loss of company, or the sudden 
change in her habits mayhave a material influence, or the food given her 
may be that to which she is unaccustomed and for which her digestive organs 
are not prepared, or the quantity may be improper. Some animals require 
more food than others, though of equal weight. So other causes of error 
may exist. Hence although all positive arrangements may be as they should 
be, in a given experiment, the neglect of some other conditions may be fatal 
to its value as a representative of a class. 

Certain differences, of little apparent consequence, are often test points. 
Thus, raw, sour apples are not valued much as feed for fattening hogs. 
When cooked they are very generally approved. Boiled potatoes are much 
more efficient in this way than raw potatoes. Some exercise is necessary for 
the health of all animal*. Too much is fatal to any effort to fatten. These 
and such-like cannot be safely overlooked in any experiment on this subject. 
So too a given amount of exercise may, under the circumstances, be excessive, 
while it would be only moderate for another of more roving habits, although 
this might perhaps be regarded only as a source of discontent. But we do not 
believe this is of so little importance as seems to be supposed. In the human 
species this is an essential point. Why may it not be with all animals ? 
Shut up a person, long accustomed to much society, in a room by himself, or 
from which only certain persons are excluded, of what value would any ex- 
periment be in relation to digestion, appetite, and even general health ? And 
it should not be forgotten that natural propensities and instincts are quite as 
strong in brutes as in men. 

So too warmth of temperature has an important influence in the fattening 
of animals. A cold temperature requires an increase of food, and vice versa. 
It is therefore difficult to fatten animals that suffer from cold. Even when 
fattened such exposure consumes the fat and diminishes their energies. 

.We have much to learn on this subject, but we fail in making a practical 
use even of what we do know. Perhaps it is because we consider the truths 
as of small importance. For example, carding a cow daily as one would 
groom a horse is, and is admitted to be, always useful. But how sadly this 
treatment is neglected. It is as valuable to the cow, so far as her good con- 
dition is involved, as it is for the horse. And yet even few hard-working 
oxen are properly cared for in this respect. 



Cen^sus of RoxiftRY. — Whole number of inhabitants 18,699 : Ward 1 — 
4242 ; 2—1960 ; 3—5161 ; 4—2853 ; 5—2494. In 1850 the population 
was 15,012 ; increase in five years, 3687. 

18 



27-i SHORTHOENED VS. LONGHORN CATTLE, ETC. 



SHORTHONED CATTLE versus LONGHORN, HEREFORD, DEVON, 

SUSSEX AND SCOT. 

Sir : — If memory serves me right, in tlie year 1816, 1 saw tried or fed 
together, for two years, a three year old shorthorn Durham, valued at £20 ; 
a three year old RoUwright or Bakewell longhorned steer, valued at £15; 
~and*a three year old dun Highland Scot, value £12 — all equally good of 
their kind. The first winter they lay out in the open air — no hovel or cover 
for them to go under — in a close three miles from Boston and about one 
mile from the sea, and wintered upon nothing but hay. The following 
summer they were grazed upon first-rate land together ; and the second 
winter they lay again in the open air, in the same field as they were before 
wintered in, with 71b. of cake per day each, with some strong coarse h 'y ; 
and they were grazed in the same close as the summer before, without cake, 
until the last week in September, when they were sent into Northampton- 
shire, and fed under cover, and had 141b. of cake per day, until they came 
to the great Christmas market in Smithfield, where they were sold ; the 
shorthoned ox making £82, to Mr. Somers, of Somers Town, weight 151st. 
61b., of 141b. in the stone. The longhorned ox sold for £52 10s. to Mr. 
Parmington ; weigh!. 99st. lllb. The Scot was sold at £45 to Mr. Parden, 
weight 86st. of 14lb. The three above oxen was exhibited the last year at 
Boston Fair, on the 4th of May, and at Peterborough Fair on the 2d of 
October, with seven Lincolnshire oxen of the old Turnill breed, for which 
the owner was bid £G0 each, or £420 for the seven Lincolns, before they 
had eaten Linseed cake. I saw weighed, in the spring of the following year, 
a gigantic worked Lincolnshire shorthoned ox, a very large old-fashioned 
longhorned ox (not worked), a very fine boned smart North Devon worked 
ox, and a great polled Scot (not %vorked.) They were all good of their 
kind, and in a lean state when weighed, and were all grazed in one field of 
first-rate land, near Boston, for 24 weeks, when the shorthorned Lincoln ox 
gained 36st. of 14lb., which was 15 per cent., the most weight ; the giant 
Sussex ox next ; the longhorned ox third ; the handsome Hereford fourth ; 
the great polled Scot fifth ; and the North Devon being so much less in 
frame and bone, gained the least weight in 24 weeks' grazing. I am satis- 
fied that the North Devon consumed much the least food. 

It is to be found in many of the files of journals that Mr. Coke, the late 
Earl of Leicester, tried an experiment with a gigantic shorthorned ox of the 
old Teeswater kind, against two fine-boned handsome North Devon oxen of 
the same age. They were fed in the stalls for a long time, and the food 
weighed to them, until the shorthorned ox had gained 100 stone in weight, 
and the two Devons together 140 stone, but upon investigation, it is said, 
Mr. Coke found that tlie giant shorthorned ox had consumed a little more 
than both the Devons. " Gigantic animals," said Mr. C, " have gigantic 
entrails, and it takes a gigantic quantity of food to fill them." The trial 
proving in favor of the Devons, is said to be the cause of Mr. Coke breeding 
North Devon cattle. I knew a Lincolnshire-bred ox, with a dip of the Dur- 
ham in him, in 1815, that gained 50 stone of 141b. in 46 weeks, fed upon 
grass and plenty of Svveede turnips only, for more than half the year. The 
weight of this ox was 140st. 8lb. of 141b. to the stone ; slaughtered by Mr. 
Somers, of Somers Town. 



BEETS — BEET SUGAR. , 275 

It was proved by Mr. Bakewell and many other clever men, tliat great> 
coarse, large boned animals consumed much more food than fine boned, high 
bred animMls, which have greater propensity to fatten. It may easily be 
proved whether Mr. Coke's bailiff's evidence or statement was correct in the 
three oxen's weight of carcass and food, because any breeder may try the 
experiment with a shorthorn and a North Devon. It is worth trying. — Gorr. 
London Farmer's Magazine. . 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

BEETS — BEET-SUGAR. 

Mr. Editor : — The beets of the New- York market are of a very indifferent 
quality. They are of two kinds, the round and the oblong. In comparing 
them with those of Europe, they are very inferior. A beet root in France 
weighs two and four pounds or more, and such growth might be attained 
here, if it were properly cultivated. 

The beet root of France is not only larger, but sweeter. There are two 
kinds, the red and the white. The former are used exclusively as food, the 
latter in the manufacture of sugar. Both extend their growths and ripen 
above the surface. 

We will not treat of the red beet, which is used as food, but make a few 
suggestions upon the white, which has a shade of yellow, and which is used 
in the manufacture of sugar. 

It is well known that the prohibitory system of Napoleon I. in France, 
occasioned the introduction of beet sugar. This form of industry has now 
become so extensive in that country, that to protect its colonies which had 
furnished cane sugar, and which could not compete with the beet root sugar 
of France, it was found necessary to establish an impost upon the native 
sugar, which was sold at a higher price than that of the colonies. 

The yellow beet should be cultivated in a good soil, well manured, the 
roots being grown a foot from each other, and all weeds kept down. When 
it commences to ripen, the tops should be cut. These tops are eaten readily 
by cattle, and are useful in the production of milk, when fed to cows. 

Beet roots destined for the production of sugar should be kept in a dry 
place, and protected from the cold. 

In sowing beets for this manufacture, the cultivator may use profitably a 
machine similar to those used in various parts of the country. 

The white beet root, if it were cultivated in Old England, would compete 
successfully with the sugar manufacture of the South. 

I will now point out to the farmer the means by which he can furnish a 
substitute for imported sugar in his family : 

Take the white beet root, wash it clean, grate it to a powder, and then 
press the juice from it. Place it over a fire in a copper kettle. Heat it just 
to a boiling point, so that the bubbles will rise to the surface, constantly stir- 
ring it with a wooden spoon, so as to secure it from being burned, without 
removing it from the fire. If heated too much it will burn, and have a disa- 
greeable taste. When cooled, you will have an excellent syrup for common 
family use, and by care, the process may be continued, until it is sufficiently 
reduced to form sugar when cool. 



276 cahoon's seedling ehubaeb. 

To improve this syrup, for particular uses, it may be clarified by filtration 
through powdered wood charcoal This will delay its fermentation. It is 
necessary to be very careful in cooking the juice to skim it well. 

The residium of the beet root, after the juice is expressed, is very useful for 
cows, producing large quantities of good milk. At the sugar factories at St, 
Maur, near Paris, this material is sold to persons in the country who raise 
stock, and is regarded as a very nutritious kind of feed. 

Try it, and you will see its results. Saniewski Felii. 

[Translated from the French manuscript by M. P. P.] 



MR, OAHOON'S SEEDLING EHUBARB. 

The editor of the Prairie Farmer, who recently visited the garden of Mr. 
B. P. Gaboon, of Kenosha, Wisconsin, says : 

" Mr. Gaboon has a farm of six acres, all told, on which ha contrives to 
get a pretty fair living, if we can judge from appearances. He divides it 
between pie-plant, gooseberries, currants, evergreens and flowers. 

" But the pie-plant is the thing here. He has about three acres in this 
roQt, of his own seedling. It stands on ground which was a few years ago 
a marsh covered with alders, willows and water. Springs cropped to the 
surface just at its upper edge and flooded the Avhole region. Mr. Gaboon 
put in drains 30 feet apart and three feet deep, and covered them. They 
were made of four pieces of timber. The whole, was given one coat of 
manure and no more ; since which it is dry enough for a wet time, and wet 
enough for a dry one, and will produce anything which is willing to grow on 
reasonable land. Such masses of pie-plant never grew on any soil before. 
We counted on one root fifty-five stalks, of which the largest was two feet 
in length from root to leaf, and would girt eight inches or more. The others 
were of all sizes down to fifteen inches in length, and an inch in diameter, 
though the average would be twenty inches long and four or more in circum- 
ference. The root was not an unusual size, and was only an average of those 
which have stood three years and allowed a fair chance. Mr. G. showed us 
a stalk preserved in spirits which is five and a half inches wide, by 27 long. 

" These large stalks are commonly flattened, but the rest are not so by 
any means. We saw on the same root stalks as round as a rifle barrel ; some 
of them were three feet in length and an inch and a half in diameterf while 
others would be flattened so as to be twice as wide as thick. Nor do they 
preserve one color : some are green, some reddish hke the Victoria, and some 
speckled with a purplish red like the eggs of a turkey. We are satisfied 
that nobody can tell a pie-plant by looking at the stalks and leaves, without 
knowing more about it. 

" Mr. G.'s mode of culture is to set the rows five feet apart and two feet 
apart in the rows. At this distance they cover the ground m a single season. 
He has set 3,500 plants this year, commencing the 10th and ending the 15th 
of May. He cuts about three days in the week, cutting about four or five 
hundred pounds per day. He puts up in boxes or bales, and sells in Mil- 
waukee, Chicago, Detroit, Buffblo, or elsewhere — getting about 84 per 100 



TRIAL OF AGEICULTURAL MACHINES IN FRANCE. 277 



pounds. The cutting is continued till frost comes. In cutting he is guided 
by judgment, taking°all from a plant he thinks it can spare, and going over 
the same ground 5 or 6 times in a season. Then in spring and fall he makes 
sale of roots. He sold last spring 2,500 roots or more. 



Fall Plowinct, or Buckwheat to kill Wire-Worms. — We take the 
following from A. C. Dickinson's Address before the Cortland county (N. Y.) 
Agricultural Society. 

" Ploughing in the fall is to become more fashionable than formerly, as I 
regard it as the best and only sure remedy to destroy the wire-worm which 
has made, and is making, sad havoc of almost every kind of crops, wholly 
destroying some. Ploughing late in the fall will not kill all, but most of them. 
In three years I think they may be nearly or quite all destroyed, and itis the 
only remedy I know of to destroy the most mischievous and ruinous insects 
the farmer has to contend with. I have heard it said that five bushels salt 
to the acre would destroy them, or one hundred bushels of lime. I have 
tried both, and sowed ten bushels of salt to the acre, and they only laughed 
at my folly. I tried one hundred bushels of lime as recommended, and they 
fattened on my bounty. I have only proved one remedy for the rascals, and 
that is to break the sod and sow it to buckwheat ; plough late and as often 
as possible in the fall, and then sow it to peas in the spring ; with the like 
ploughing next fall they will not destroy any crop next season. 



Trial of Agricultural Machines in France. — The trial of agricul- 
tural implements and machines, on exhibition at Paris, has been had before 
the Grand Jury on the farm of the Postmaster General, M. Dailly, at La 
Trappes. Many of the great men of Europe were present, as were many 
eminent Americans — ex-President Fillmore among the number. The experi- 
ments consisted of drainage machines, ploughs, thrashers, sowing machines, 
feapers, and mowers. 

. Hundreds of machines were tested, and for the minor ones, the English 
carried off two-thirds of the honors ; but the great interest was felt in the 
reapers and thrashers. The contest with the former was among the Ameri- 
cans ; they had the whole field to themselves. Manny's, Wright's, (Adkin's 
Automaton Raker,) Hussey's, and McCormick's reapers, were tested together. 
The latter came off" victor. Four thrashing machines were tried, and six 
men with flails, to test the difference of the labor. " Pitt's American thrasher 
secured the prize." The six men thrashed 60 litres of wheat in thirty min- 
utes ; Pitt's machine 740 litres; the English machine 410; the French 
machine 250 ; the Belgian machine 150. In these trials of reaping and 
thrashing machines America stood singularly preeminent. 



-78 STATE FAIRS. 



STATEFAIRS. 

KENTUCKY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY — SIXTH EXHIBITION. 

This fair is pronounced as very successful. Kentucky stands among the 
foremost for fine cattle. Those of Aitcherson Alexander, Esq., of Woodford, 
are spoken of with especial commendation. A new variety of hemp, grown 
by Wm. L. Yance, Esq., of Woodford Co., was shown, the stems being up- 
wards of twelve feet long and average but a quarter or half inch in diameter 
at base. The seed was procured in France, It requires a season of five 
months. 

The sheep were fine, and mostly of the Cotswold and South-down breeds. 
The hogs were Yorkshires, Irish Grazier, and Sufiblk breeds. The Grazier 
is said to be the favorite in that region. 

The third day was devoted to the exhibition of horses, mules, etc. The 
horses in harness, matched horses, and mare colts under one year of age are 
described as making a capital show. 



NEW-YORK AGRICULTURAL STATE FAIR. 

^ The correspondent of The Boston Traveller discourses thus unceremo- 
niously in relation to our State Fair : 

"The State Fair yesterday was visited by upwards of 20,000 people, and 
should the weather continue .fine to-day, it is calculated that nearly as many 
more will be on the fair grounds as yesterday. The receipts now foot up 
86,200, and the managers confidently expect them to finally amount to 
810,000. The premiums awarded will be nearly 88,000. Last year, at 
New- York, the receipts were $9,000 ; the premiums about the same amount 
as this year. The south-western counties promised last year that when the 
Fair was held in their midst, they would do better than had heretofore been 
done in any other section of the State ; but they have only redeemed their 
promises so far as the pecuniary attendance is concerned. 

"The displays of Butter, Cheese, Honey, Soap, Yegetables, Grains, and in 
fact all the agricultural products of a ftirm would have disgraced a county 
fair, consequently in a State fair were of little account. What would be 
thought in Massachusetts of an exhibition .-upposed to contain the products 
of the State, in which the whole assortment consisted of one specimen of 
Beans, one of Flour, two of Honey, six of Butter, (all from one county,) six of 
Potatoes, one of Sweet Potatoes, two of Beets, two of Soap, three of Toma- 
toes, one of Water and one of Citron Melons ; no Peaches, no Grapes grown ' 
in the open air, no Flowers except Dahlias ; in fact the only things fully re- 
presented were Apples, Pears, Squashes, Pumpkins and Cabbages, besides 
some beautiful Grapes from the hot-houses of the Messrs. Hovey, of Cam- 
bridge, and to New-Yorkers it was a painful thought that at the Annual 
Fair of their own State they should be indebted for the most creditable dis- 
play of several of tlie products of the nursery to a concern fi-om the little 
barren State of Massachusetts. 



STATJ] FAIRS. 279 



" The horse stock of the South-western counties is nothing to boast of. 
The Floral Ball takes place to-night, and the ladies riding and driving match 
to-morrow. The fair is attended by the usual concourse of outside exhibi- 
tions. 

" As regards the morale of State fairs very little can be said favorably. 
The scenes of vice introduced into the rural districts, by the hangers-on, or 
followers of all exhibitions of a public nature, I believe do more real injury 
to the inhabitants than the benefit derived from the display of Agricultural 
and Horticultural stock will ever compensate for, because the injurious effects 
fall alnlost entirely on the young, inexperienced and verdant, who do not ex- 
pect to be benefitted by the exhibition, but make the occasion one of display, 
in other words they consider it a first-rate chance for a frolic." 

We publish the above as we find it, and would invite attention to the latter 
paragraphs, not to endorse or to deny them, but to warn " all men" to take 
care how they give occasion for such statements. The show of the finest 
cattle is a mean item to offset against the tarnished virtue of men and wo- 
men. 

We have read more than once, severe censure against the practice of a 
contest among female riders on such occasions. No sensible parent could 
suffer a daughter to enter such an arena. In its utter unfitness for female 
modesty, such public display is second only to the race-course, and should be 
avoided as such by all respectable females. 

The following account is an abstract from the Rural New-Yorker, and is 
more favorable, and per/iops more just : 

" Compared with former shows, it was universally pronounced superior in 
the variety and quality of animals and articles exhibited, and number of 
spectators present, to any fair held by the society since that of 1851, at Ro- 
chester. 

" The stately and dignified short-horns were well represented ; of Devons 
there was a fine shoAV, though some of the best herds were unrepresented. 
The Herefords were present in greater numbers than usual, we think, 
though never very numerously represented heretofore. The Ayrshires do 
not appear to gain in popular favor, or at least are not largely represented at 
our fairs. Of Grade and Native Cattle there was neither so large nor fine a 
display as we had anticipated — the farmers of the Southern Tier having ap- 
parently neglected to enter the arena of competition. The Fat Cattle shown, 
though not numerous, w^ere superior, and attracted much attention. The 
Genesee Valley sustained its high reputation. 

" Sheep of the various breeds were well represented. Of some there was 
not a large show, but it comprised many superior specimens, especially of the 
Essex and Suffolk breeds. 

" In Agricultural Implements and Machinery and Mechanical Tools and 
Inventions generally, the display was one of the largest and finest we ever 
witnessed at any exhibition. This department was not only very complete 
in the variety it comprised in the several branches, but the new and improved 
implements and machines presented — the perfected inventions of former 
years, and the novelties recently introduced by the active brain-power of the 
' Universal Yankee ^Nation' — demonstrated decided progress in the produc- 
tion and perfection of labor-saving machinery adapted to the most important 
operations of Agriculture and Manufactures. The contrast between this and 
former exhibitions was highly creditable to the numerous inventors and man- 
ufactures who contributed the results of their skill and industry, while it 
must have been most gratifying and satisfactory to farmers and others inter- 



280 STATE FAIRS, 



ested in this important branch of improvement. Columns might be filled in 
enumerating and describing the more important and valuable machines and 
implements, but want of space compels us to omit or defer mention of even 
the most noteworthy. 

" Floral Hall was the especial attraction of all devotees of Flora and Po- 
mona, and thousands of ' the rest of mankind.' It was most tastefully ar- 
ranged and contained a large and magnificent display of Fruits — one of the 
best, if indeed it was not the best, horticultural exhibitions ever made by the 
Society. Of Apples, Pears, Plums and Grapes, the show was in all respects 
superior, and received, as it merited, universal admiration and commenda- 
tion. Hovey & Co., of Boston, exhibited 210 varieties of Pears, while Ell- 
wanger & Barry, and A. Frost & Co., of Ptochester, were large contributors. 
But we cannot particularize. The display of Plants and Flowers was also 
creditable, while the arrangement of the whole was in excellent taste. The 
most attractive feature was the fancy Floral Designs representing various 
counties of the State, mostly in flower and evergreen work. The idea is a 
novel and happy one, and worthy of future attention. Of these emblatic de- 
signs we may give some descriptions hereafter. 

" The department embracing Domestic Manufactures, the Dairy, etc., was 
not highly creditable, nor what might reasonably be expected from the loca- 
tion of the exhibition. The Poultry show was decidedly meager, and we saw 
none so feverish as to do it reverence." 



ANKUAL EXHIBITION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Fifth Annual Exhibition of this Society was held at Harrisburgh 
26lh, 27th, 28th, and 29th of September. The arrangements on the ground 
were more complete than at any previous exhibition. The shedding for stock 
was more than sufficient for the purposes of the exhibition, as the display in 
this department, although there were many fine cattle on the ground which 
attracted the attention of nearly every visitor, w^as not large. 

In the horse department there was a very large number of entries, some 
of them animals which would have reflected credit upon any exhibition. 
The display of heavy draught horses was particularly fine. 

The immense buildings erected for the display of fine and mechanic arts, 
etc., notwithstanding their great extent, were well^fiUed with attractive articles. 
Some idea of the contributions may be inferred from the fact that the avenues 
through the building, if extended through a continuous line would have given 
a single avenue of 1800 feet in length with shelving on each side for the 
display of goods. 

In addition to these extensive buildings, there was a large circular tent 
appropriated to the display of seeds and vegetables which was well filled 
with very creditable specimens, giving evidence of the increasing interest 
felt in this direction by farmers. We are informed that the display was 
fully equal to that of last season. 

Another large tent was appropriated to the display of fancy needlework, 
preserves, etc., and, it is said, it has never been equalled at any exhibition of 
the State Society. There was in this tent, also, a most tempting display of 
preserved fruits, etc. 



STATE FAIRS, 281 

A third tent w^s set apart for dairy contributions, flour, etc. The display 
of butter and cheese was ^mall, but very excellent. 

The fourth large tent was appropriated to carriages, fire engines, etc., of 
which there was a very handsome display. 

The poultry department was perhaps better filled than any other. 

A third large building some two hundred feet in length, with double 
avenues, was appropriated to the exhibition of agricultural and horticultural 
tools, and of machinery, requiring the aid of steam power to operate them ; 
the larger implements, such as horse powers, threshers, reapers, mowers, corn 
and cob- crushers, etc., were all ranged in neat order around the outside of 
the building. There has never been a better exhibition of farm implements 
than on this occasion. The articles generally, appeared to be not only well 
made and finished, but efficient and serviceable. 



NEW-JERSEY STATE FAIR. 

The first Exhibition of the New-Jersey State Agricultural Society was 
held at Camden on the 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st of September. The 
grounds selected were most appropriate for the purposes of the Society, and 
were in themselves a feature worthy a visit. Although the display in some 
of the departments was not as full as it should have been, it will be recol- 
lected that this was the first exhibition of the Society, and as a first effort it 
was creditable in every respect. 

The display of horses was of the finest character, and a very attractive 
part of the exhibition. 

Of fruits and vegetables there was not as fine a display as there should 
have been. Few States are so capable of presenting a magnificent display 
in this department as New-Jersey, and we have no doubt but that she will 
give evidence of her abihty in this respect another season. 

The stock, although not large in number, embraced many first-class animals 
of the various breeds. 

Of agricultural implements there was an immense number on exhibition, 
and among them many of the most approved kinds in use. 

[n the mechanical department, as in that devoted to the fine arts, domestic 
manufactures, etc., the contributions were sufficiently numerous and attractive 
to enlist general attention. 

As a whole, the exhibition may be regarded as entirely successful, and the 
friends of the Society have everything to encourage them to persevere in the 
good work so auspiciously begun. 



The MiCHiaAN State Fair, at Detroit last week, is reported to have 
fully sustained the reputation of the Peninsular State, the exhibition indicating 
decided improvement in both agricultural and horticultural productions. We 
hope to receive a definite report in time for our next number. 



282 STATE FAIRS. 



CONNECTICUT STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETT. 

The Second Annual Show of the Connecticut State Agricultural Society 
was held at Hartford. 

The exhibition, considered with reference to the character of each de- 
partment, was highly creditable, and calculated to elevate the reputation of 
the State in regard to its agricultural resources and productions. 

Of the cattle, the greater part were a mixture, more or less, of the Devon 
with the common stoct, though some were a cross of the Short-horn. The 
Devons made a good appearance. "We saw but two Ayrshires — a cow and 
heifer, owned by Norman Battelle, of Norfolk, The cow was evidently a 
large milker, and the heifer appeared likely to equal her. Mr. B. stated that 
the cow had not been dry for three years, though she had bred every year. 
The only Jersey cows on the field were two, owned by John T. Norton, of 
Farmington. The looked like good ones, and a yearling heifer exhibited by 
him was admired as almost a model. We may mention in this connec- 
tion, that John A. Taintor, of Hartford, had several Jersey cows, just im- 
ported, in a field near the show-ground. One of them — a three' year old — 
has received the highest prizes of the Jersey Agficultural Society. She is 
very fine. She has been sold to Mr. Robeson, of Jamaica Plain. 

Sixty-three yokes of working oxen were shown. They were brought on 
the course and made the circuit, following in the rear of the horses. 

The oxen were generally of good size and form, well matched and well 
trained. The quickness and ease of their gait was in mauy instances remark- 
able. Nor were they deficient in strength, or a faculty of using it, as was 
proved by trying them on a heavily loaded cart. There were some good 
fat cattle. The horses made a good appearance. E. B. Bishop & Son, of 
New-Haven, exhibited three pair of mules. One pair were driven in a 
barouche, and were kind and active. Another pair, three years old, bred in 
Kentucky, were IG hands high, and were stated to weigh 2,350 pounds. 
Another pair, much handsomer and stronger made, weighed 2,000 pounds. 

Of sheep, Stephen Atwood, J. N. Blakeslee and Jos. Blakeslee, of Water- 
town, showed specimens of their Merinos, whose reputation is so widely 
known. L. & A. Whiting, of Torrington, had also good Merinos. We 
noticed some excellent Saxons, owned by John Whitman, of West Hartford. 
Good sheep in this class were also shown by Stanley Griswold, of Torring- 
ford. South Downs were shown by T. S. Gold, of West Cornwall, and G. 
W. Chadwick, of South Lyme. Cotswolds were shown by T. L. Hart, of 
West Cornwall, W. L. Cowles, of Farmington, Charles Tracy, of Norwich, 
and others. 

The show of swine was quite large, and comj)rised some good animals 
of the Sufiblk breed, and crosses with it. There were also a few specimens 
of the Essex. 

The poultry display was large, and the specimens were generally good. 

The department of manufactures was well filled, though it fell short of a 
fair representation of the ability of the State. 

The horticultural department comprised a good show of apples and pears, 
while there was no lack of grapes. Vegetables were numerous and of good 
quality. , 

The show of butter and cheese was the largest and, so far as we could 
judge by the looks and smell, the best we have seen at any show for several 
years. 



HINTS ON COLOR PRINTING, • 283 



OHIO AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

The Ohio Agricultural College holds its second Lecture Session at 
Cleveland, commencing on the first of December, and continuing twelve 
weeks. 

FARMERS, 

Whether old or young, this Institution places within your reach the means 
of acquiring a knowledge of all the sciences that have important relations 
to Agriculture. What intelligent farmer has not felt the need of such an 
Institution ? 

PLAN. 

Instruction given in lectures as in Medical Colleges. Four lectures will be 
given daily during the whole term. 

The Subjects embraced in the course are 

1st. Those that relate to the land. Geology, Mineralogy, Chemistry, etc. 

2d. Those that relate to Plants. Botany and Vegetable Physiology, Field 
Crops, Orcharding, Gardening, etc. 

3d. What relates to animals. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology ; 
Natural History of Domestic Animals — Veterinary Medicine, Insects, etc. 

4th. What relates to labor. Rural Architecture and Landscape Gar- 
dening, Draining, use and construction of Implements, Surveying, Farm 
Book- Keeping, etc., etc. 

LECTURERS. 

Prof. J. P. Kirtland, Prof. Jas. Dascomb, Prof. Sam'l. St. John, Prof. J. H. 
Fairchild, Prof. N. S. Townshend. 

ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. 

A Reading-Room, supplied with the principal Agricultural Periodicals, will 
be open to students at all hours. 

TERMS, 

For the entire course, - - $40 

Board and rooms may be obtained at |2 50 per week, exclusive of fuel and 
lights. 

This Institution is designed to be permanent, and is therefore incorporated 
as the Ohio Agricultural College. 

For further particulars, address the Secretary of the Board. 

Harvey Rice, President. 

Thos. Brown, Secretary, Cleveland, Ohio. 



HINTS ON COLOR PRINTING. 

The following may be of use to others besides printers. We find it in the 
Photogj^ajjhic Advertiser. 

"To produce fine qualities of Colored Printing Inks, by mixing pure dry 
colors with varnish, the printer will do well to give heed to the following 
particulars : 

"1. No more should be mixed at a time than will be required for the job 
in hand. 



284 RAILWAY INVENTION'S. 

"2. Colored inks should be mixed upon a slate or marble slab by means of the 
muUer, and never upon an iron or other metallic table. The table, before 
mixing, should be thoroughly clean, and perfectly free from the slightest soil 
or trace of other inks. 

" 3. For working colored inks the roller should not be too hard, and should 
possess a biting, elastic face. When change of color is required, it should 
be cleaned with turpentine, and a moist sponge passed over the face, allowing 
a few minutes to dry before resuming its use. 

" For bronze printing, the roller should have a firm face, or the tenacity of 
the preparation may destroy it ; yet it must have sufficient elasticity to de- 
posit the preparation freely and cleanly on the type. 

" 4. Various shades may be produced by observing the following direc- 
tions : 

^'Bright Pink Ink. — Use carmine or crimson lake. 

'■'■Deep Scarlet. — To carmine, add a little deep vermillion. 

'■'Bright Red. — To pale vermilion, add carmine. 

"Dee2) Lilac. — To cobalt blue, add a little carmine. 

"Pale Lilac. — To carmine, add a little cobalt blue. 

'■'Bright Pale Blue. — Cobalt. 

'■'Deep Bronze Blue. — Chinese. 

"Green. — To pale chrome, add Chinese blue; any shade can be obtained 
by increasing or diminishing either color. 

"Emerald Green. — Mix pale chrome with a little Chinese blue, then add 
the emerald uatill the tint is satisfactory. 

"Amber. — To pale chrome, add a little carmine. 

"Deep Broivn. — Burnt umber, with a little scarlet lake added. 

"Pale Brown. — Burnt sienna ; a rich shade is made by adding a little 
lake as above. 

" 5. Gold Preparation. — Print as with ordinary hak, then put on the 
bronze powder with a broad camel-hair brush ; all6w the impressions to 
remain a short time for the preparation to set, then clean of the superfluous 
bronze ; the impressions are much improved if passed through rollers." 



RAILWAY INVENTIONS. 

Our Canadian exchanges contain an account of two inventions for railway 
service, which meet the approval of persons in that section : 

*' Mr. I. W. Forbes, of this village, (Dunville,) has just secured the patents 
of some important improvements in Railroad Switches. We have been favored 
with an inspection of the model, and were astonished to find a machine so sim- 
ple and complete in all its parts and arrangements. It is just what it purports 
to be ;' a self-acting and self-adjusting switch,' requires no attendance, no 
matter how many tracks or in what position the Switch is placed, the whole 
being under the control of the engineer of the passing train, who can adjust 
the Switch and place the train on any track he chooses without any regard 
to speed or fear of accident. It has been examined by some of the most 
prominent engineers and superintendents in the country, who unanimously 



FIRST WATER POWER IJS" SILK MANUFACTURING. 285 

prouounced it the most perfect machine that has ever come under their notice. 
The adoption of this Switch -will save a vast amount of expense to such 
Companies as adopt the improvement, as well as prevent many accidents and 
losses which occur daily through the neglect and carelessnes of persons em- 
ployed for that purpose. 

Mr. Forbes has also invented an Alarm and Register, which is so arranged 
that the train cannot pass without ringing a bell, giving notice of danger of 
any kind or notifying that all was right, at any point of the road where 
required. 

This invention is thought by soma persons well posted up in railroad sta- 
tistics to be equal to the Switch in usefulness. We cannot describe it so that 
our readers will understand, and therefore will only say that it is intended to 
be attached to the engine, and is so constructed as to ring a bell near the 
engineer and warn him of danger on approaching stations, bridges, or curves, 
and would, no doubt, have saved many valuable lives the last twelve-month 
had it been in use. Several cases in point have occurred on our Canadian 
roads last year where the alarm flags were not observed by the engineer, and 
fatal consequences ensued which would have been prevented ; had this inven- 
tion been attached, it would have warned them of approaching danger." 



FIRST WATER POWER IN SILK MANUFACTURING. 

We suppose that the following historical facts are admitted. Nearly the 
first attempt at manufacturing silk in this country was made in Mansfield, Ct., 
and nearly the first man in the business in that town was Mr. Rodney Hanks, 
who deceased some years. Mr. Hanks was, also, the first person in Mansfield, 
or anywhere in America, who applied water power to the twisting and wind- 
ing of sewing silk and twist. Upon high land which slopes towards the 
east his mill was built ; a dam was built across a small stream of water 
rising on land still higher than the mill, which was turned and compelled to 
work its way down to the ocean. The building and the business were small, 
both reminding us of the names of John and Wm. Slater, and their labors 
in the beginnings of the manufacturing of cotten by water power. Forty 
years since that water power began to wind silk, guided by the ingenuity and 
skill of Rodney Hanks. That mill, and the newly-invented and constructed 
machines in it, and the mind which devised all, are gone. A new mill suc- 
ceeded on the same stream, larger in proportion and used by the father and 
his son, Mr. Geo. R. Hanks, for the same business. Now the second mill has 
given place to the third, the largest of all, which is used by father and son, 
Geo. R. Hanks and his son Philo G. Three mills have been operated by 
three successive generations of men in the same family and in the same 
business. During all this time water power has been used in winding and 
twisting silk, and during all this time progress has been made in the excel- 
lence of the manufacturing and in the amount done. The skill and know- 
ledge of the father, acquired by experiment or study, has been communicated 
to the son, and his again to his son, until now perhaps the world uses no 
better article of sewing silk and twist than comes from this celebrated factory. 
The name of Rodney Hanks should stand beside Slater and Wilkinson in 
the history of American manufacturing, as the name of his son Geo. R. may 
stand by the side of Martin in the annals of silk dyeing. D. 



286 ART OF PAINTING. 



BRITANNIA- WARE— A LARGE ESTABLISHMENT. 

The business of making- Britannia-ware in our country has wrown to great 
proportions, and its growth is still increasing in magnitude. Very much the 
largest establishment for this important business we suppose to be in West 
Meriden, Ct., owned and operated by the " Meriden Britannia Co." The es- 
tablishment, whilst it has a oneness, may properly be divided into three 
more distinct factories. One is north of the depot, where steam power is 
used, and where the ware made is mostly cast, an'd for common use. Im- 
mense quantities and diverse qualities of ware are turned out of this shop, ex- 
citing the admiration of even traveled persons. Another factory is " over 
east" some three miles, where water power is used, and where ware is both 
cast and " spun up" in large quantities, and some of it admirable qualities. 
Up stairs and down, through many stories, are ponderous machines and mul- 
titudes of men, actively at work upon ware in some stage of its construction, 
from the rough ingot to the burnished vase or tankard. But the largest 
factory is " down in Wallingford," where more men are employed, and where 
all the ware is either rolled, pressed and run up, or is the product of all three 
processes of manufacturing. In this factory the perfection of the art of mak- 
ing this ware is seen. With engines and machines, newly invented and 
constructed, with many men of great ingenuity long applied, with ample 
means and facilities, an immense quantity of culinary and purely ornamental 
wares of astonishing excellence is thus turned out into the American market. 
Each factory has its manager. Silver plating and burnishing are done 
only at this pjace. The burnishing hall is large, and the large company of 
men engaged in it furnishes some of the finest countenances in the State. 
These three manufactories, under the name of " Meriden Britannia Co." are 
the largest establishment in this business on this continent. It has, too, its 
" commercial gentleman," who is constantly visiting towns and villages in all' 
the latitudes and longitudes of our country, effecting sales to persons of taste 
aud refinement, as well as to those who use this ware in common life. 
"Where does our ware go to?" asks the manufacturer, astonished at the 
quantity demanded. " Where docs all the Britannia ware come from ?" asks 
the million of users and admirers. We cannot say where it all comes from, 
but we can say, that immense quantities go from the large establishment of 
the Meriden Company. D. 



THE ART OF PAINTING. 

The following recipes, prepared by a practical painter, have been sold 
for a dollar. We give them to our readers taken from the Due West Tel- 
scope. 

1. To Boil OIL — In boiling oil, never fill your kettle more than two-thirds, 
or it may run over and take fire. Place your kettle on the coals, simmer 
your oil till it will scorch a feather, when it will be fit for use. 

2. To Grind Paint. — Put your paint on a large flat stone, with a smooth 
face, wet your paint with oil, and grind until fine. Be careful to grind fine, 
or there will be a waste of the paint, and your work will not look well. 



ART OF PAINTING. 287 



3. A mixture for drying 2')aint. — Take 8 ounces of sugar of lead, 8 ounces 
of red lead, 8 ounces of lithavage, 4 ounces of umber ; make fine, put them 
into a gallon of oil ; simmer together one hour, then strain, pour in one pint 
of spirits of turpentine. Add one gill to one quart of paint to make it dry 
fast. 

4. Painting on Wood. — In any kind of painting your paint must he of the 
proper consistency, your wood clean and smooth, and you must have a pro- 
per brush, or you cannot do good work. It is as necessary that a painter have 
good tools as any other mechanic, to enable him to make a good job. I have 
seen houses and other things spoiled with poor brushes. 

5. To Paint a house White. — Mix 4 quarts of linseed oil, with one keg of 
white lead thoroughly. Commence at the top and paint six or eight boards 
at one through, using great care to lay the paint even and smooth. In put- 
ting on three coats, make the second the thickest, adding a little Prussian blue 
to the last coat to make the white more clear. Be careful not to use too 
much blue ; and you must putty all the holes and cracks before the last coat 
is applied. 

6. Cream Color. — Add finely-ground chrome yellow to white paint, (see 
No. 5,) a little at a time till the shade pleases you. You must add yellow 
every coat to have a good finish. 

7. Lead Color. — Add finelj'' ground lamp-black to white paint, (No. 5,) 
till the color suits you. 

8. Blue Paint. — Prepare a suflicient quantity of white paint, then add 
finely-ground Prussian blue in oil. Add a Httle at a time, until the color is 
light or dark as you may want the shade. 

9. Black. — In preparing black paint, grind lamp-black in oil ; and as black 
dries slowly, you should add two ounces of litharage, to every pint of paint. 
Always use boiled oil for black, to give it a body. 

10. Verdigris Green. — Wrap verdigris in cabbage or other large leaves, - 
and place it on the hearth, over which scatter cold ashes, then cover with 
coals, let it roast one hour, remove, and when cold, grind in oil. This is not 
so apt to fade as other green, and is used for outside work. * 

11. Common Green. — This is composed of nearly equal quantities of Prus- 
sian blue and chrome yellow. It must be ground very fine in oil. The shade 
may be varied with white lead. 

12. Another Green. — You may purchase patent green ready for grind- 
ing, which is beautiful if genuine ; to be ground as other paint. 

13. Stone Color. — Burn umber on an iron plate until it is of a reddish 
cast. No color looks better for a room if well put on. 

14. Stone Color of a beautiful Green Shade. — Add to white paint, suffic- 
ient to make a light drab ; then green enough to make a green shade. 

15. Orange Color. — Combine white lead with chrome yellow in the proper 
proportion to make a bright straw color, then add red lead to tinge it to an 
orange. 

10. Straio Color. — Number 15 makes a straw color by leaving out the 
red lead. 

17. Dark Stone Color. — Add umber to light lead color, (see No. 7,) till 
the color suits. 

1 S. Blossom Color. — To white paint add red or Venetian red, till the col- 
or please. Red lead is the best. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 



19. Flesh Color. — To white paint add chrome yellow enough to change 
its shade, then some red lead and a very small quantity of black, till the 
color suits. 

20. Best Co])al Varnish. — Reduce 2 lbs. of gum copal to fine powder and 
pour it into a copper kettle that will hold 3 or 4 gals., and melt it over a fire 
of charcoal. When the gum is dissolved, add one pint and a half of hot 
flaxseed oil, having removed the gum from off the fire, stirring smartly while 
adding the oil. AVhen it is partly cool, add slowly 3 quarts of spirits of tur- 
pentine, still stirring. Care must be taken that the contents of the kettle are 
not too hot nor too cool while adding the turpentine ; if too hot it will take 
fire ; if too cool it will not mix well. Strain whilst warm. 

21. Carriage Varnish. — Manage your copal as directed in No. 20. Use 
5 pints of hot oil that will scorch a feather, add 1 quart of turpentine, and 
proceed as in No. 20. This varnish will not crack. 

22. Gum Shellac Varnish. — Put two lbs. of Shellac gum into 2 quarts of 
spirits of wine, and shake occasionally ; and when it is dissolved it will be fit 
for use. This will not stand exposure ; it will dry in a few minutes, and an- 
swers well for coffins. 

23. Varnish to render Paper Transparent. — Heat 2 gills of spirits of tur- 
pentine in an earthen vessel ; when hot add 2 oz. rosin, and stir until dis- 
solved. Varnish both sides of your paper with one coat, and when dry it 
will be clear enough to read through. Lay this paper on a picture and mark 
the outlines, then cut it out, paint through the hole. In this manner you 
may paint any figure you may desire. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

Veknon Depot, Ct. — Phoenix Man'g. Co. T. Tyler, agent ; S. J. James 
and George Wilber, and others, foremen. Mill has 16 cards 24 inches; 
120S spindles. Make satinet warps, I'JOO yards weekly. 

KeUogville Mill, woolen. H. W. Talcott, agent ; Warren Spaulding, A. 
A. Ellsworth, Palmerton, and others, foremen. Mill has 4 sets cards ; 36 
looms. Make satinets. Warps purchased. 

RocKviLLE, Ct. — Springville Man'g. Co. Alonzo Bailey, agent; Digby 
Wood, C. Winchester, Jr., Wm. C. Avery, foremen. Mill has 3 sets card^, 
4 jacks, 28 looms. Make satinets. Warps purchased. 

Florence Mills, woolen. George Kellogg, Jr., agent ; Augustus Schwarz, 
John Dawson, Joseph Bailey, George Lee, foremen. Mill has 4 sets cards, 
4 jacks, 38 looms. Make Union cassimeres. Warps cotton and purchased. 
Machine shop attached, having Edward Low, foreman. 

New-England Co. Allen Hammond, agent; J. W. Thayer, superinten- 
dent; Vinton, Dimock, Van Tine, Buckrainster, Thompson, Soules, and 
Simonds, foremen. Mill has V sets cards, 44 Crompton looms. Make 
fancy cassimeres. Machine shop attached, having James M. Fuller, foreman. 

Saxony Mill, woolen. H. Selden, agent. Mill has 1 set cards, 10 looms. 
Make satinets. 

Leeds Co., 1 mill, woolen. A. Talcott, agent ; C. L. Clark, superintendent ; 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 289 

Albert R. Chapin, Francis Brown, and others, overseers. Mill has 6 sets 
cards, 40 looms. Make satinets. Warps jDurchased. 

Rock Man^'j. Co. George Kellogg, agent ; A. 0. Crosby, superintendent. 
Mill has 9 sets cards, 14 jacks, 70 looms. Make fancy cassimeres. Charles 
Metcalf, Jacob Guley, and others, foremen. Old mill attached to Rock, 
makes satinets. 24 looms. 

American Mills Co., 1 mill, woolen. Thomas Darrow, Jr., agent. Has 
13 sets, 25 broad and 36 narrow looms. Make fancy cassimeres. 

Slone Mill, cotton. A. Hammond, agent ; AVm. R. Ladd, superintendent. 
Mill has 14 cards 24 inches. Make satinet warps, turning out 2200 yards 
daily. 

Meriden, Ct, — Factory of Charles Parker. Employ 250 hands on an 
average. Make all kinds of Britannia and German silver ware, vices, kitchen 
hard ware, builders', ga e, and other hinges, locks, coffee-mills, etc., etc., etc. 
Office, 15 Gold street. New- York. 

Factory of Perkins & Parker, owners and agents. James M. Perkins, 
superintendent. Make 14 kinds of hammers, and a great variety of tin and 
iron spoons. Works have 11 fires; 2 hammer- engines; 2 trip-hammers. 
Employ in all 50 hands. 

Factory of Edward Miller. Employs 25 hands on average, turning out 
830,000 worth goods annually. Make trimmings for lamps, kettle cars, etc. 

West Meriden, Ct. — Meriden Machine Co., 1 shop. Oliver Snow, 
agent. Shop has 35 lathes, and other tools in proportion. G. T. Snow, 
foreman. Foundry has 15 hands on average; Eugene Leonard, foreman. 
Forge shop has 5 fire?, 2 trip-hammers ; R. S. Gladwin, foreman. Make 
machinery, tools, and do job work. Make Prew's car-wheels, patented. 

Meriden Lock Co. H. Curtis, agent ; H. H. Elwell, superintendent ; H. 
H. Booth, foreman. Employ 80 hands. Make builders' hard-ware, and 
spring balances. 

Silver Plating Shop of Henry Blunt. Commodiofiis laboratory. Does all 
kinds of plating. 

Foster, Merriam d- Co., 1 factory. Make furniture castors. Employ 30 
men. Foundry attached has 20 hands on an average. Alanson Watrous, 
foreman. 

Meriden Britannia Co. H. C. Wilcox, agent. Have 3 factories. Em- 
ploy 150 to 175 hands. Make Britannia ware, fine-plated goods. Office, 
corner Gold and John street?. New- York. North factory has L. J. Curtis, 
superintendent; the East one has Mr. Lewis, superintendent; the third one 
is in Wallingford, Ct., and has Samuel Simpson, superintendent, Seth 0. 
Babbitt, foreman, employing 60 hands ; Mr. M. L. Forbes, plater. German 
silver department and rolling works, Robert Wallace, foreman. The works 
turn out great quantities of Britannia ware of a very superior quality. 

Factory of Hanover Co., W. Webb, agent, turns out 400 dozens of ivory 
fine-teeth combs daily. 

Cutlery Factory of Meriden Cutlery Co. J. Brackenridge, agent. Employ 
75 hands, and make table cutlery. 

Lock Shop of Amory Parker & Co. Employ 40 hands, and make build- 
ers' hard-ware. R. L. Webb, finisher. Foundry attached, Mjron White, 
foreman. Power, steam and water, W. S. Coy, engineer. 

Foundry of Julius Parker & Co. Hiram Richmond, foreman. Employs 
25 hands. Make bliods, hinges, and scales. 

. Yalesville Mill. C, Parker & Co. Thomas Jerald, manager ; Timothy 
White, superintendent. Employ 05 hands. Make Britannia and German 
silver spoons, plain and plated. 19 



290 INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

Parker Scale Co. H. B. Osgood, agent. Make platform and counter 
scales. 

Wallingfordj Ct. — Fowler Man^g. Co. Alma J. Hall, agent. Shop 
has 8 lathes, 4 planers, and other tools in proportion. Make machine tools, 
and presses from 20 to 160 tons power. 

Fowler & Flagg, Jobbers. Forge shop has 3 fires and 1 hammer, George 
P. Munson, foreman. Power, steam. 

German Silver Works of Hall, Elton & Co. Have 3 mill?. Employ 150 
hands. Turn out $250,000 worth goods annually. George W. Elton, 
plater. Make German-silver ware, plain and plated. 

SouTHiNGTON, Ct. — Factory of W. J. Clark & Co. Make nuts, washers, 
patent shaft couplings, bolts, etc. Business about 860,000 per annum. 

Peck (b Smith MarHg. Co. Wm. Wilcox, secretary ; B. A. Neal, general 
agent; Wm. Jones, foreman ; F. Hitchcock and Henry Way, jobbers; Julius 
Lewis, manager of old shop ; B. Cadwell, foreman of foundry. Make ma- 
chines and tools for tin-workers, spoons, 14 kinds of coffee-mills, grind-stone 
and pump fixtures, steelyards and notions. Employ 150 hands on average, 
30 of whom are in foundry. Power is steam. James S. Young, engineer. 

Miller Man^g. Co. S. W. Sessions, manager. Employ 30 hands on 
average. Turn out 840,000 worth annually. Make carriage bolts. 

Manchester, Ct. — Pacific Co. C. G. Keeney, agent. Mill has 6 sets 
cards, 1200 spindles, 21 power frames. Make shirts and drawers. 

South Manchester, Ct. — Glohe Mills. J. Parker, agent; C. Cook, 
overseer. Has 8 cards, 600 spindles. Make satinets. Warps purchased. 

Charter Oak Mills. D. H. Bidwell, superintendent. Mill has 2 sets 
machinery. Makes satinet. Warps purchased. 

Middleton, Ct. — Sanseer Machine Shop. E. Lewis, agent. Has 12 
lathes, and other tools. Make machinery, and do job work. 

■ Shop of A. P. Bailey. Does silver plating and burnishing, and makes 
sewing birds. Sold by Stoors Brothers, No. 36 Vesey street, New- York. 

Russell Man'g. Co. Has 4 mil's. J. Brasselmann, dyer ; Samuel Single- 
ton, and others, foremen. Make suspenders, India Rubber, girth, boot, rein, 
and other webs. Turn out 8200,000 worth goods annually. 

Machine Shop of Wm. Stroud. E. Z. Parkhurst, foreman. Has 8 lathes, 
and other tools. Foundry attached, J. P. Davis, foreman. Has 6 hands on 
average. Do job work. 

Factory of E. L. Wright. Employs 6 hands. Make eyelets. 

Baldwin Tool Co. G. W. Fox, foreman of wood shop of 35 hands ; S. 
W. Drown, foreman of iron shop, with 25 hands. Make carpenters' tools. 

Factory of J. & W. Tidgewell. Employ 14 hands on an average. Make 
screw slide, mortise gages, printers' composing sticks, web-saws, etc. Turn 
out 812,000 worth goods annually. 

Factory of Charles North. Make John North's patent truss and sui:)ports. 

Britannia Factory of F. W. & 0. Z. Pelton. Make superior common and 
plated Britannia ware. 

Machine Shop of Nelson & Co. N. A. Parkhurst, foreman. Shop has 6 
lathes, and other tools. Makes tools, and do job work. 

Plantsville, Ct.— Plant's Man'g. Co. A. P. Plant, president. Make 
all kinds of bolts for carriages and springs, car and coach screws, wrought 
cut nuts and washers, snaps for harnesses, geared coftee mills, etc., etc. Turn 
out 8200,000 worth annually. Sold at 85 John street. New- York, and 70 
Kilby street, Boston. 

Stow Man'g. Co. S. Stow, president. Employ 60 hands on average. 
Make tin-workers' tools. 



PEOGRESS OF MECHANICAL INDUSTRY. 291 

MiLLviLLE, Mass. — Eagle Mill, woolen. S. B. Hall & Scott. Has 2 
sets. Make satinets. Warps purchased. David Lamson and Hiram Whit- 
ing, overseers. 

Millville Maii'g. Co. Edward S. Hall, agent ; Phillip Welden, James 
Pitts, Benj. Balmforth, and others, foremen. Mill has 14 sets machinery. 
Make superior fancy cassimeres, 

SILK FACTORIES. 

Mansfield Center, Ct. — Silk Factory of James Leigh. Abiel S. Holt, 
foreman. Turn out 150 lbs. weekly, for sewing, fringes, etc. 

Silk Factory of M. & G. C. Rixford. W. McFarland, foreman. Turn out 
150 lbs. weekly. Make superior article of twist, for sewing machines. 

Silk Factory of 0. S. Chaffee. Turn out 300 lbs. weekly of sewing silk 
and machine twist, of all colors. 

Silk Mill of Orlow Atwood. Turn out 100 lbs. daily. Orlow Atwood, 
foreman. 

GuRLEYviLLE, Ct. — Silk Mill of George R. Hanks. P. G. Hanks, 
superintendent. Turn out 200 lbs. weekly. Make superior sewing silk of 
all colors. Make sadlers' silks, and silks for embroidery an<J sewing machines. 

WiLLiMANTic, Ct. — Silk Mill of Joseph Conant. Wm. Williams and 
D. P. Conant, foremen. Turn out 150 lbs. weekly. 

South Coventry, Ct. — Silk Mill of E. Hovey <fc Son. D. Philo Conant, 
foreman. Turn out 200 lbs. weekly, sewing, sadlers' and embroidery silk. 



PROGRESS OF MECHANICAL INDUSTRY. 

The Bostonians are taking one step in advance of us all, in one direction, 
not perhaps in the natui-e of the service so much as in the attendant circum- 
stances, and the excellence of its arrangements. A " magnificent building" 
has been erected, near the Revere House, at the corner of Green and Pitts 
streets, calle^i the Gore Block, with a front of 80 feet and six stories in height. 
Its depth is 120 feet, and on Pitts street rises seven stories high, besides the 
basement or cellar. The building covers on the whole 7,500 feet of ground ; 
and each story consists of a large hall, adapted either for work-shops or show- 
rooms, to both of which uses, we believe they are to be applied. The build- 
ing is the property of Mr. Nathaniel Whiting, of Watertown ; and the whole 
has been leased by Messrs. Edwards, Fernald & Kershaw, of this city, and will 
be known in future as " The Union Safe and Lock Factory." The two firms 
to Messrs. Edwards, Fernald & Co., of Congress street, and Messrs. Kershaw 
& Co., of Charlestown street, have amalgamated ; and the joint concern will 
be conducted on the most extensive scale. Mr. Edwards, the senior partner, 
has been connected with the business ever since its commencement in 183S. 
The aiUs of the building (or L's, as we Yankees term it) will form their 
workshop. They will occupy tbe whole of the lower story, and will have un- 
der them a variety of tenants engaged in different mechanical pursuits, to 
whom they will furnish motive power by a 40 horse power steam engine lo- 
cated in the basement. Two upper stories have been taken by Messrs. Bum- 
stead & Co., of Washington street, for the manufactory of post-paper; and 
the fourth story by Messrs. Dicderman, foi" the manufacture of hat and other 



292 FORMATION AND ANATOMY OF HORSES. 

description of bandboxes. But in the meantime the vast space and rare ac- 
commodations of the building will be availed of by the New-England Inven- 
tors' and Mechanics Mutual Association, for a great industrial or polytechnic 
exhibition, to commence on the 22d inst., and continue open for a fortnight. 
The exhibitions will consist of a display of various mechanical inventions in 
the market, as seen with the machinery in operation ; and we understand that 
it is not at all unlikely that an exhibition of the sort, at once so useful, sug- 
gestive, and interesting, may assume a permament character and find fixed 
accommodation in the building. 



ON THE FORMATION AND ANATOMY OF HORSES. 

[We have extracted the following article from an English paper, because 
we think it much to be desired that more attention should be drawn to 
anatomical structure of horses. The importance of this, in relation to animal 
^ower and utility, cannot be over estimated. The article below presupposes, 
perhaps, too much knowledge of anatomy and physiology for many ordi- 
nary readers ; but the remarks are worthy of careful investigation. Thej 
are practical as well as scientific. In this country we are deplorably de- 
ficient in the knowledge of proper means for the improvement, treatment, 
and care of our horses, and domestic animals o-enerally. In New- York — in 
Broadway alone — is daily seen an amount of wasted animal powers, and of 
thoughtless but excessive cruelty, to that noblest and most useful of creatures, 
the horse, which loudly cries for both thought and remedy. Crippling, 
fallen, and even dying horses, are ordinary &pectacles on that leading 
thoroughfare. We are fully satisfied that most disorders of the feet are 
caused by unskilled shoeing and from badly-formed shoes. There are, and 
there should ba found, the means of amendment for all this. Schools for 
training the shoeing-smith, in a competent knowledge of au operation which 
ought to be altogether separated from common blacks mi thiag, are much 
wanted. The means of scientific training in the veterinary art generally, 
are urgently demanded. We are utterly behind the times in relation to ob- 
jects and subjects of so great import as those of veterinary science. To all 
communities, and in a greater degree to such as are largely agricultural or 
pastural, it is a science of the highest domestic and national importance. 
Boston, we perceive, has the great honor of having moved in this matter, by 
the organization there of a veterinary college. Surely New- York presents a 
yet ampler field, and no less calls for a similar institution. — Ed.] 

Lengtu of Chest. — Eighteen dorsal vertebrre and their intervening liga- 
mentous pads stretch along the roof of the chest in a continuous nearly 
straight line, and determine its length, which is proportionately greater in 
horses than in most oth^r animals. The floor is remarkably short, as will 
ba seen by the bony part of the sternum which forms its limit. The dia- 
phragm is inserted into the posterior end of the sternum below, and, follow- 
ing the lower end of the false ribs, it inclines backward to reach the last 
dorsal vertebrre above. This shortness of chest below, and in that part too 
where it is narrowest from side to side, reduces the volume of the lungs in 
this region. But, on the other hand, the inclination of the diaphragm back- 
wards, and a great extent of dorsal region, add strength to the lungs where 



FORMATION AND ANATOMY OF HORSES/ 293 

■they are already widest, in coBsequence of the arching ribs. The horse's 
chest, indeed, is remarkable for capacity above. Now, it must be observed, 
that there is wonderful significance in this. The chest is longest where the 
ribs have greatest range of motion, and where such motion will not interfere 
with progression. In other words, the chest is most conspicuous (it is 
longest and widest) in those dimensions where the moveable framework 
composing its walls can most efficiently increase and diminish its size during 
active breathing. Again the chest is smallest (it is narrowest and shortest) 
where its outer framework becomes connected with the forelegs, and pos- 
sesses least mobility. There is still another view of this interesting matter ; 
the chest is increased in length above, at the expense of the abdomen, in 
order to avoid so much the more space for those regions of lung which are 
most active in respiration ; but the abdomen is increased below at the ex- 
pense of the chest, because this legion contains lung of least respiratory 
capacity. It is also worthy of remark, that in horsey formed especially for 
speed, the chest is proportionally more extended along its roof, and the dia- 
gram is more oblique, than in horses with heavy carcasses, and adapted for 
slow draught only. This line of back-bones, however, forming as it does a 
sort of joined beam or suspension bridge, becomes weakened if it be too long 
.from end to end. Hence, where vast solidity, or great weight-bearing pow- 
ers are needed, as in the cart-horse, a short back and round deep carcase are 
desirable. Oa the other hand, where great flexibility is required, in order 
that the race-horse, for instance, may bring his hind-legs far forward to 
secure great length of stride and propulsive power, tlie back must be longer. 
In most animals specially adapted for mere speed, the back is moderately 
long, and the legs (especially the hind-legs) also ; these conformations are 
well shown in the hare and greyhound. In leaping animals, again, the back 
is somewhat shorter ; so in a hunter intended to carry a heavy man, the 
back should be shorter than in a race-horse, in order to secure the needful 
strength. A harness horse may have a longer back than a hunter, because, 
if combined with good well-placed limbs, and a deep chest, it gives him free- 
dom and length of step. 

Of the Withers. — The upper external undulating " line of the back" is 
formed by the ends of certain appendages (dorsal spines) attached to the 
back-bones. The first twelve or thirteen of these incline slightly backward; 
the remaioing six stand nearly unright. Their length gradually increases 
from the first to the fifth ; and the third to the sixth, inclusive, are so decid- 
edly longer than the others, that they form a very prominent eminence, which 
rises between and above the shoulder-blades. This elevation is called " the 
withers." The summits of the bones of the withers give extensive attach- 
ment to a powerful elastic double ligament, which suspends the head and 
neck. Each side of the withers affords insertion to muscles employed i* 
raising the fore parts of the body upon the hind, or the hind upon the fore ; 
they are specially concerned, too, in giving origin to muscles which raise and 
turn the head and neck. When the withers are low, they consequently 
afford so much the less space for these important fleshy masses. lu the 
horse, the withers rise more abruptly above the general plane of the back 
than iu most other animals, and well-raised withers with a properly carried head 
and neck often go together. Well-raised withers, then, constitute a "good point ;" 
this point, however, may be more essential in some horses than in others. It 
is quite possible, for instance, that a racer with low withers may possess 
great speed, and neither hares nor greyhounds possess high withers. The 
&mous Eclipse is said to have been lower in this part than at the rump. A 



294 FOEMATION" AND ANATOMY OF HORSES. 

racer at full speed holds bis head extended and loio ; he does not require tc 
raise the fore part of his body greatly from the ground: but it is requisite 
that he should cover, or be propelled over, a great space at every stride. 
This propelling power resides most in the hind parts, so that if muscular de- 
velopment be good in the Icins, quarters, and thighs, mere lowness of withers 
is no great disadvantage in race-horses. In a hunter, again, the head ought 
to be carried higher, so that the fore-legs may be freely raised, and in order 
that he may see or " measure his leap," as he phrase runs. A horse carry- 
ing his head low, and having low withers, must step low, because the mus- 
cles raising and advancing the fore-leg act at a disadvantage. One great 
point in securing a good upward leap over a fence, consists in raising or 
holding the head and neck well up; this is accomplished by muscles acting 
from the dorsal spines upon the neck and head ; coincident with this action, 
the fore-legs are raised by muscles acting upon them from above, and the 
fore part of the body is elevated about the same time by muscles operating 
on the withers from behind. The withers, then, are levers as well as points of 
purchase, and in proportion to their length, such is the power of muscles 
acting from and upon them; Again, when the withers are well raised and 
prolonged backward, the ^eck usually rises well from the chest, increased 
depth and obliquity are given to the shoulder, the fore-legs stand well for- 
ward in advance of the center of gravity, and greater security of action is 
thereby conferred. If a deep chest is added to this confirmation, the saddle 
will lie in the right place, and remain there almost without girths ; but no 
girthing in the world will secure a saddle where the withers are low, and the 
breast shallow before. 

Position of the Fore-legs.- — In horses used for the saddle, and possess- 
ing a desirable conformation of this point, a perpendicular line descending 
from the highest point of the withers to the ground, will fall several inohes 
behind the elbow point, thus showing that the fore-iegs are well advanced. 
In horses used for draught, this line will often fall along the outside center 
of the limb, or even still further forward ; this indicates an upright shoulder, 
which in heavy horses may coexist with high withers. Such a formation 
is advantageous where great weight requires to be thrown into the collar ; it 
shows that the fore-legs are placed backwards and near the center of gravity. 
Where the fore-legs stands too far under the body, we can often see the point 
of the breast-bone projecting forward, or advancing before the retreating 
shoulder. Although, however, such formation may be advantageous for 
heavy draught-horses, and may be tolerated, or even preferred, in coach and 
omnibus horses, where powers of draught are almost as important as powers 
of speed, yet a light harness horse, carriage horse, and hunter, should have 
•retreating high withers ; the line of which we have spoken should fall far 
behind the fore-leg, the point of the breast should be concealed by advanced 
shoulder points, in order to insure the speed, freedom, elevation of action, and 
forward-reaching movement of limb, which are so essential to the practical 
value of these horses. 

Of the Back. — Behind the withers, the back is mostly slightly depressed 
so that the middle of this region may sometimes be an inch or two lower^ 
than the rump. In a well-formed back, however, the line from the posterior 
base of the withers to the rump should he almost straight. A slight depres- 
sion involves no perceptible weakaess, and affords a convenient place for the 
saddle to rest upon. A great or palpable hollow, however, constituting what- 



FORMATION AND ANATOMY OF HORSES. 295 

is called a " saddle back," shows that the vertebral bodies are bent greatly 
downward, and form a weaker line than a tight well-traced chain or suspen- 
sion bridge. Accompanying this form, too, we usually find a deficiency of 
muscle on the back and loins, and the sides, although possibly round, are 
but shallow. In some horses, again, the dorsal vertebrai form a line which 
is concave below and convex above, so that their spinel project too far up- 
ward, and. render the back round or " reached," like that of a fish. Such 
backs are often very strong, because of being arched ; still they are highly 
unpleasant to ride upon, and are most unsightly under harness. In heavy 
draught-horses, and in large carnage horses, the line from behind the withers 
to the rump can be hardly too straight, for such a back is strongest in bone 
and flesh ; if the ribs joining such a back are long and well-arched, we 
usually have muscular loins, and a chest conveying the very expression of 
great strength and endurance combined. In saddle horses (hunters, perhaps, 
especially) a slight hallow behind well-raised withers is often preferred by 
some, for it gives the rider an easier and more secure seat, and di.es not 
sensibly impair the strength of this region, if the ribs are well arched. A 
hollow-backed, fiat-sided horse is almost useless ; he seldom looks well, rarely 
goes well behind, and is totally unadapted for holding against a heavy load 
when going down hill. 

Variety of Carriage. — In horses which are used as hunters, hacks, or 
for light harness purposes generally, it is obviously important that the head 
and neck should be light, and carried well elevated from deep slanting shoul- 
ders and well-raised withers ; by means of this formation, and this only, the 
center of gravity is thrown suflBciently behind the fore-legs to render their 
step light and secure. On the other hand, in cart, dray, or even in heavy 
race and omnibus horses, the shoulder should be more upright, but still very 
deep. This formation throws the fore-legs further backward, or under the 
body, and of course more directly below the center of gravity. In the act of 
draught, such horses instinctively depress, and continually oscillate the head 
and neck ; by means of these adaptations, the line of gravity is brought in 
front of each fore-foot alternately placed upon the ground, and an available 
weight is thrown into the collar. How truly absurd, then, is the habit of 
reining up a draught-horse's head, and yet compelling him to draw a heavy 
weight. This practice of tightly reining heavy horses may gratify the mor- 
bid taste of those who ever seek to destroy such useful provisions of nature 
as they cannot learn to value. The custom, however, is too expensive and 
too barbarous to gain sanction in this part of the kingdom, because you know 
that heavy draught work requires not only a certain massiveness of trunk 
and limb, but is rendered easier of performance when trunk and limbs can 
act in concert with the unrestrained movements of a somewhat depressed 
head and neck. We see, then, that a light, well-raised head, an elevated, 
neatly turned neck, and deep slanting shoulder, are points of beauty as well 
as utility in horses required for leaping and rapid action ; but a heavier (yet 
not a coarse, clumsy) head more humbly carried, and a stronger neck rising 
from a very deep but far more upright shoulder, have also their utility in 
horses required for heavy slow draught alone. — English Paper. 



" Plough deep while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and 
to keep." 



^96 AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 



FAIR OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 

This exhibition is far supoiior to any previous one that v. e have seen. In 
the nuniber of articles on exhibition, and the variety, and in the extent of the 
department of machinery it is much superior to those of former years. The 
statuary exhibited at the World's Fair, much of which still is there, and pic- 
tures, of which quite a number still remain in the gallerj% add very essentially 
to its interest. The central fountain is now arranged in much better taste 
than at any_ previous time. A large part of the building is occupied with 
articles on exhibition. 

We cannot give anything like a general view of this show, but among 
the many things of interest will speciiy the followiog : 

storm's cloud engine. 

This engine deserves the attention of engineers. A new principle has 
been introduced into it, which is the combination of cold atmosj)heric air 
with the steam in the steam chest. The result of this is a cloud or vapor, 
and hence its name. The effect of this combination is regarded in different 
ways by practical engineers, but the calculations of all seem to be a little 
confused, and their prophecied results to be contradicted by facts. It has 
been tested by several engineers, and among others by Mr. Allen of the 
Novelty Works. In one of his experiments, steam alone gave 170 revolu- 
tions to a pound of coal, and with the cloud combination it exceeded 250 
revolutions. All experiments prove that there is value in the combination,^, 
in the words of Mr. Allen, "The increase of pressnne is proved beyond a 
doubt, and even is over 50 per cent." Hereafter we may give a detailed 
account of this engine, with more specific statements of the advantage de- 
rived from the use of cold air in combination with the steam. 

SUCTION AND FORCE PUMP. 

Messrs. L. P. and N. F. Dodge have on exhibition a capital pump, of which 
they are the proprietors. The piston and valves are metallic, require no pack- 
ing, and have comparatively little friction. The pump is horizontal. The 
water enters the cylinder, upon its lower side, at each end alternately, passes 
through the piston-heads, and is discharged through the round air-vessel in 
the center of the pump. These pistons are each furnished with a metallic 
valve, connected in such a manner that both must operate simultaneously, one 
valve opening at the precise moment the other closes, so that any delay on " 
the part of one is immediately overcome by the other ; consequently these 
pumps may be run at higher speed than pumps generally, as the back action 
of the water, (water-ramming,) does not prevent the parts from performing 
their duty at the proj^er moment. The pump may have a perpendicular 
position bv modifying the lever power. It works with remarkable facility. 
We may illustrate this pump hereafter with a diagram. It is also adapted 
to the form of a fire engine. Four men can throw a five-eight jet a hundred 
feet high. 

fisher's steam carriage. 

The merits of this carriage have been frequently discussed in our pages, 
and we propose to say still more of it. Visitors to the Palace will do well to 
examine it. Capitalists may find it a good investment; mechanics will find 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 



297 



it a capital invention, and all lovers of the useful will be well paid for giving 
it a thorough examination. We have an article prepared in relation to it 
which will appear in this or our next issue. 




-^ 



PLYMTON S SECRETARY BEDSTEAD. ' 

This curious and most ingenious piece of furniture, now at the Fair of the 
American Institure, to begin with, we commend to every real old bachelor, 
of every age and condition, and secondly, .to all who would make one room 
practically count as two ; and thirdly, to all who would make their bed- 
rooms look as if it were a mere library or common sitting-room ; and fourthly, 
to all who are liable to occasions in which the whole house, except the kitchen, 
which should always be kept sacred to its own uses, must be turned, into a 
bedroom. To this preamble we annex the following description : 

Fig. 1 represents the mechanism in the form of a 
handsome secretary. It is, in fact, furnished with a 
convenient leaf for writing, and a drawer with the 
necessary implements for such use. 

When it is to be changed into a bed, it is turned 

down with perfect ease, upon a swivel, the necessary 

supports (legs) making their appearance in due season. 

The sides of the secretary form the side of the bed- 

ij stead. 

% -^ i The front of the secretary must, however, be first 

"^-ii-i-. — :-~:-'-^^^-"'^^ removed, and when opened, discloses a well-contrived 
FIG. 1. toilet-table and wash-stand, with its furniture in its 

own place. When the main, part is turned down horizontally, the back be- 
comes the upper part, the bed and bedding are exposed to view, and are 
ready to be put in order by the chambermaid. These a2)purtenances were 
confined in their places in part by the head and foot board and by a cord, 
and in part by an iron rod, which is surmounted with an ornamented ring 
or circle, which is intended as a support to a very handsome mosquito net. 
The rod is readily set into its socket. The drapery is then easily arranged. 
This may be a mere mosquito net, or it may be the most elegant lace curtain, 
presenting the precise appearance of such furniture as shown when it is sus- 
pended from a central point over the bed. 

Fig. 2 represents the toi- 
let-table and bedstead as 
formed by the arrangement 
already described. The toi- 
let-table stands upon cas- 
tors, independent of the 
other parts of the mechan- 
ism, and is complete in itself. 
The bedstead represents 
a perfect panelled French 
bedstead. The bed is a well- 
made spiral spring bed- 
bottom, covered with a hair 
^^^' ^' mattress or any other kind 

of bed that may be desired. 

The reverse process, by which it is transformed into a secretary, is as 





?^'a 



298 AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 




readily performed as the other, and neither will occupy more than a single 
minute. 

A patent has been obtained for this invention in England and in France, 
as well as in this country, and it cannot fail to be a very lucrative estate. 
The prices vary from $50 to $200. Those of 8100 are very handsome. The 
cheaper ones are of a plainer style. We shall be very happy to receive or- 
ders for these, and do not hesitate to recommend them. 

The sales-room is at 62 White street. 

Nichols's patent impi^oved combination fountain. 

description of instrument. 
A valve rod, for letting down 
soda ; B soda chamber, for hold- 
ing soda ; valve coupling, pre- 
vents the water from flowing into 
acid cylinder ; D acid cylinder, 
for holding the acid ; E purifier, 
cools and washes the gas •, F plug, 
for filling purifier with water ; G 
st 'p cocks, for controlling the 
flow of gas ; H agitator, for mix- 
ing the gas and water; I water 
chamber, holds the water to be 
charged ; J plug, for cleaning acid 
cylinder ; K stuffing box, makes 
the agitator rod tight ; K ditto, 
makes the valve rod tight. 
if" ' ! This is a new form of soda- 

water apparatus, diflering from all 
others in very important particu- 
lars, and designed for the benefit 
of every dealer in true mineral 
water. It produces, in less than 
30 minutes, without the use of 
wheels, force pumps, or any com- 
plicated or expensive machinery, 
soda-water, or water charged with 
I pure carbonic acid gas, (made en- 

tirely from bi carbonate of soda,) 

¥v^^;^;w^xs^^^^ at a pressure of 200 lb. and up- 
wards to the square inch ; and 
this is done easily without any fear, of explosion, an accurate guage ^nd safety 
valve guarding completely against danger. 

The process of charging is very simple ; the rod A is pressed down, which 
dislodges a portion of the soda in chamber B ; upon the acid in cylinder D a 
quantity of gas is instantly evolved which is forced by its own pressure 
through the purifier E, thence into the water chamber I. This process is re- 
peated till the guage indicates the pressure required. To impregnate the 
water thoroughly with the gas, the agitator H is admirably adapted, operat- 
ing like an old-fashioned churn ; it easily and effectually secures this great 
desideratum. The soda chamber B, the cylinder I), and the purifier E, con- 
stitute the generator. After the fountain is charged this generator can be 



I' '■<! ^ 




'' AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 299 

detached and removed from tlie fountain. By removing the plug J the cyl- 
inder is quickly cleaned. 

The inside of these fountains are lined with tin, and all the pipes are also 
of block tin. With fair usage, these instruments must continue perfect for 
many years. They are^nade of various sizes, and we understand the prices 
are very reasonable. 

The instrument on exhibition at the Fair of the American Institute is a 
beautiful piece of mechanism. F. B. Nichols, 7V Pine street, is announced 
as agent for this city. 

PORTABLE GAS GEKKRATORS. 

Of these there are several in the exhibition. One of these is the "Uni- 
versal Portable Gas Generator," R. Aubin's patent. Another is the " Mary- 
land Portable Gas Co.'s Apparatus." The latter has been exhibited at many 
fairs in difierent parts of the country. A third is the famous " Benzole 
Gaslight." Whose patent this is we do not now recollect, but beheve that 
it is not the machinery of the American Gas Co. of which we have written so 
often. 

shelly's improved carriage wheel. 

Is formed with two felloes, one about half way from the hub to the second. 
The benefit of this is by diminishing the number of spokes within the inner 
felloe, to secure a stronger hub. Only half the spokes are continued beyond 
the inner rim. The cost is said not to exceed that 6f the common wheel. 

ROCK DRILL. 

There is a model of a very good drill, worked by crank power by one or 
two men, by which rocks may be drilled at the rate of three or four inches 
per minute. It drills in diiferent directions, and is readily converted into a 
kind of hand-cart. It is a very ingenious mechanism. 

/ HAMD PRINTING PRESS. 

One of the smallest machines on exhibition, prints cards, etc., quite ex- 
peditiously, while the apparatus costs only from five to eight dollars. The 
" form" is cast upon a lever, near the end of which is a hinge joint, and, after 
inking, the process consists in forcibly pressing down this lever upon a small 
bed beneath. 

SEWING MACHINES 

Of all forms are found in this exhibition. The latest we have noticed is 
a musical one, in which the operator plays a melodeon, and, presto, her sew- 
ing is all done at the close of the performance. This is one of young 
America's newest contrivances. 

But this precocious young man has outdone himself in another ingenious 
and useful piece of mechanism. It is called 

Wright's patent sectional spring bed bottom. 
This is a simple and convenient form of using the spiral spring, which is 
applied to beds and seats in various ways, and all with good results. Each 
style has its own peculiar characteristic, and some find ready sales at com- 
paratively high prices. This form is cheap, costing only from five to ten 
dollars, and is used in connection with a mattress placed upon it, as are nearly 
all the other kinds of spring-beds. It does not 'easily get out of repair, and^ 
if any spring becomes defective in its action it can be repaired at once, 
without any difficulty. 

carpenter's patent convertible union CHAIR. 

In its first form it is a small cradle on which a very young infant may 



300 PATENT EEVOLVING HAMMER PISTOL. 



rest on a pillow quietly and be rocked to sleep. In a second it is transformed 
into a very small chair, with bars across the child's lap, in which it can be, 
placed without danger of falling out. A third transformation, we believe 
is a larger form of rocking-chair, and a fourth is a " high chair," in which 
the child may sit at a table. Segars, etc., must be furnished by its 
attendants. 

ENAMELED FURNITURE. 

Our cabinet makers have acquired the art, within a few years, of manu- 
facturing enameled furniture of elegant proportions and with a most beautiful 
surface. Mr. S. H. Warwick and Messrs. Briggs & Vickar, both of this city, 
exhibit in the Palace some very fine specimens of this sort. 
king's railway washing machine. 

This important femily drudge is not so recent as some other inventions we 
have described ; but it seems, like old wine, to be improved by age. We 
commend the attention of all housewives to this labor-saving machine, which 
seems far more careful of the delicate fabrics committed to it than is often 
witnessed in those other machines from the Emerald Isle. 

Now that we are upon these domestic affairs, we will refer to another stall 
in the gallery of the Palace, where Messrs. Cram & Son, of Boston, exhibit 
some very compact and comprehensive forms of "horses," or 

CLOTHES dryers, FOLDING CHAIRS, ETC. 

The latter may be carried out upon the common when one goes to see fire- 
works and " such like." They have also quite a variety of furniture of great 
convenience and utility. 



PATENT REVOLVmO-HAMMER PISTOL. 

This pistol, manufactured by the Robbins and Lawrence Company, Windsor, 
Vt., is es.teeraed particularly for its very extraordinary shooting qualities, as well 
as for its simplicity andc ompactness of construction. The four-inch barrel is 
very effective at the distance of 100 yards, and in skillful hands is entirely 
rfeliable for accuracy at 50 yards and over. The three-inch barrel, though 
not so likely to be accurate at a long distance, projects the ball with force 
almost equal to the larger barrel, and at ordinary pistol distance is fully as 
reliable. The barrels of both sizes are rifled with great exactness ; and the 
ball is driven through them precisely on the same principle, and with the 
same result as with the famous Minie ball — consequently, greater penetration 
of the ball, combined with accuracy, is attained, than with any other pistol 
carrying an equal charge. It is strong and durable, with no liability of failure 
in any of its parts, unless by reason of defect in the steel or iron which can- 
not always be detected until used. It has no liability to accidental disc1)arge 
by falling or catching the hammer. The hammer and lockwork being 
entirely concealed within the handle of the pistol, it can only be discharged 
by cocking it properly. It can be capped, loaded, and fired, with greater 
rapidity than any other — and in fact can be safely said to have no equal in 
any of its points of excellence. 

Price of both size?, $12 each, put up in neat boxes with wrench and 
moulds. 

Orders from any part of the country filled by the Manufacturers, at Windsor, 
Vermont. 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETl'. 301 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THIRD EXHIBITION. 

Our readers are apprized of the occurrence of this great exhibition at Bos- 
ton, commencing on the 23d Oct., and continuing for four days. We can 
only give an introductory account of its transactions, which we shall resume 
with our next issue. 

The grounds selected for the show are on Harrison avenue, and contain 
about thirty acres. 

They are entered through a fine gateway, of imposing appearance, designed 
by Mr. John R. Hall, architect to the society. Two towers, each forty feet 
in height, support a fine arch, that spans the entire width of the street. 
These towers contain the treasurer's ofiice, with twelve windows upon the 
Avenue front, for the sale of tickets. Upon their summits floats the Ameri- 
can ensign. 

Entering the field, we are treated to the novel and excellent feature of a 
vast area graded to a ferfact level. The field exhibits the verdure of spring, 
being covered with oats which were sown on the land, serving not only an 
ornamental purpose, but a very useful one, in keeping down the dust that the 
myriads of feet and hoofs would otherwise create. 

Nearly in the center of the field is a fine track for the trial of horses, de- 
scribing in its elliptical circuit an exact half mile. Midway on "the home 
stretch," a pagoda-like tower, of beautiful proportions, rises to a height of 
seventy feet ; and above it floats the Araeiican flag, thirty feet in length by 
twenty feet in width. The first story of the tower is designed as a gathering 
ground for the ofiicers of the society, marshals and invited guests ; the second 
story is for the accommodation of the judges. 

On the west side of the track, seats for six thousand spectators are erected,., 
in the most secure manner. 

In the center of the ellipse is the mammoth tent, capable of seating three 
thousand persons at the grand agricultural banquet, to be held on the after- 
noon of Friday, 26 lb, when several distinguished gentlemen will address the 
assembled guests. To the north of this, a little in advance, is the President's 
tent, where the guests of the society are received and introduced to its presid- 
ing oflacer. 

The Committee of Eeception consists of Hon. J. V. C. Smith, Mayor of 
Boston; His Honor Lieut. Gov. Brown ; George M. Atwater, Esq., of Spring- 
field ; Charles L. Flint, Esq., (Secretary Massachusetts board of Agriculture) ; 
with others. 

Still further north is another beautiful tent for a Ladies' Saloon, where ices 
and other refreshments may be obtained. Connected with this saloon is a 
Withdrawing Room, for more private use?. 

A tent h.^.s been specially set apart for the reporter?-, and every facility will 
be afforded them to obtain and transmit information. 

The Society's Committee Rooms are established in the handsome wooden 
building on the northeast corner. Here are arranged tables with stationery 
and other conveniences for the Committee. * 

More than three thousand feet of stalls are covered with a canvas roof, 
with festooned curtains in front. Additional accommodations are arranged 
for sheep and swine, at the south end ; and for neat stock at the opposite 



302 HORTICULTURAL. 



extremity. At these points, several ranges of tents, about one hundred fee'' 
long by twenty feet wide, are stretched, affording adequate protection from 
sun and cold to the animals, and presenting a picturesque appearance to the 
observer. 

The field-management of the Exhibition is entrusted to Maj. Gen. Tyler, 
Chief Marshal, with twenty assistants ; who appear in an appropriate and be- 
coming uniform. In addition there is a strong force of police, under the im- 
mediate direction of the chief or assistant chief. 

Very numerous entries of stock, in the various departments, have been 
made ; and some of the most noted horses in America, and very many of the 
finest specimens of neat kine both home-bred and imported are on exhibition. 



HORTICULTURAL. 

To OBTAIN Dwarf Bloominci Plants of Nerium Splendens. — The 
following mode of cultivating the Oleander appeared in Harrison's Floricul- 
tural Cabinet for 1846 : 

" In April I looked over my old plants and discovered those shoots which 
had a leading "bud of blossom ; I then took a small garden pot, knocked the 
bottom out, and carefully drew the shoot through at about six inches below 
its crown ; I notched the stem like a carnation, putting a bit of soil to keep 
ihe tongue open. I then tied a piece of sheet lead under the pot, to enable 
me to fill it with fine rich soil. I pressed the soil tight and placed the pot 
in a hot-house for a month ; the layers rooted speedily, I then cut it off the 
parent, repotted into a larger pot, kept it in the hot-house a fortnight longer, 
which was then the first week in June, and a most beautiful bloom succeeded 
upon all the plants and they not more than a foot high. A free supply of 
Avater was given whilst striking root a well as subsequently." 



THE OSAGE ORANGE FOR HEDGES. 

Mr. H. p. Bvram, the editor of the Louisville Journal, writes to that 
paper from Dayton, Ohio : , 

" In the vicinity of this city I saw some of the most perfect specimens o 
the Osage Orange that I have ever before met with — more perfect, indeed 
than I supposed nature could produce, even with all the aid that art and 
industry could lend her. The plants seem to withstand ^he bhghting efftcls 
of this unusually dry season, better than any other species of vegetation. 
The leaves still present the most rich glossy green that characterizes this plant 
in our most favorable seasons. 

" From a somewhat extensive acquaintance with the character of the Osage 
Orange plant, I have often pronounced it the hedge plant of America, but 
1 had no idea of the degree of perfection to which I find it susceptible of 
being trained in the hedge. The oldest of the hedges here now is about four 
years. It is four feet high, and three feet broad at the base, and as dense, 
compact and uniform from the ground to the top, as if it had been moulded 



HORTICULTURAL. 303 



by band from sorpe plastic material. My attendant remarked that it was " so 
close at the bottom that a snake could not find its way through it. There 
were several other specimens in the same vicinity, from one to two years old, 
all presenting the same beautiful appearance. 

" The great and only secret in producing this living American prairie fence 
is, clean culture for four years, and a relentless unsparing shearing, ivova the 
period of setting the plants to the end of four years, and then to maintain it 
in its proper form by semi-annual clippings." 



New Rose — Isabella Grey. — The Yellow Rose of which blooms were 
shown at a meeting of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, under this 
name, is certainly the finest of the roses of that color which have been 
raised in this country. It is a Noisette of fine shape, tea-scented, and the 
color is deeper than that of Chromatilla, Solfature or Augusta. Having 
been presented by Mr. Jas. Richie, of this city, with several blooms of it, we 
had an opportunity of seeing it by daylight, when it appeared of course to 
greater advantage. It is, we repeat, by far the best yellow rose out. — The 
i^lorist. 



NUTMEG TREE UST CALIFORNIA. 

The Calavaras Chronicle gives the following description of a Nutmeg Tree 
recently discovered in that section of the country, and which is said to be 
very abundant. It says : 

" We were recently shown by Mr. John Hanson, a branch taken frpra a tree 
of the nutmeg species, containing a cluster of the fruit to the number of 
seven. The tree from v/hich these nuts were taken, was discovered a short 
time since by a man engaged in working on the Mokelumne Hill flume, 
about fifteen miles distant. There are two trees standing near to each other, 
very nearly of the same size, supposed to be about thirty feet in height, and 
the trunks two 'in diameter. In appearance they closely resemble trees 
found in the torrid zones, shooting up in a single stem a distance of twenty 
feet before giving oflF any branches. The leaves are of the most beautiful 
deep green on the upper side, lighter on the under, are narrow, about two 
or three inches in length, and are arranged alternately upon footstalks from 
a foot to a foot and a half in length. It is a difiicult matter to determine by 
what chance these trees should, in the first place, have found their way so 
far from their native clime ; and most strange it is how they survive the 
frosts of this ; for it has ever been supposed that they were indigenous to the 
torrid zones. The nutmegs of commerce are procured from the East India 
Islands, principally from the Molucca group. When mature, they are sub- 
jected to a process of curation, whereby they are deprived of the power of 
germinating. As they are easily propagated from the seed, persons having 
gardens or grounds would bo well rewarded by procuring the fruit as soon 
as it is matured, and treating it in the same manner as the peach, or any 
other of the nursery seeds.'' 



504 



BLIND HINGE FASTENING. 





g^ggiSi^v^ 



PATENT BLIND HINGE AND FASTENING. 

The above cut is a representation of a patent hinge for window blinds, 
invented by Mr. Charles Packer, of Meriden, Ct., and patented by him in 
letters dated April 13, 1852. The fastenings are made of cast iron; and, as 
FIG 1. seen in the cuts, they are designed to 

be fastened to the window frame and 
the house by means of common 
screws. In fig, 1 we have a view of 
the parts of the hinges as seen sepa- 
rately, and a glance will show how 
the parts come together when put to 
use. In the upper left hand picture 
of the cut a small hook is seen pro- 
jecting from the iron hinge, into 
which a hook on the part seeo on the 
rio;ht hand upper picture fastens its'elf. 
The same hooks are seen in the lower 
pictures, one reaching up and one 
"^^ down, each suited to hook itself into 

the other. When the blind is thrown 

open thesG hooks clasp each other, and no wind can unfasten the blind. But 

how is the blind unfastened ? By the hand, which grasps the nearest corner 

of the blind, and, lifting it one-fonrth of an inch, unclasps the hooks and 

brings the blind forward. But won't , -, 

that hand lift the blind off the hinges I 

This dariger is obviated by a small 

guard, seen in the upper right hand 

corner of the upper left hand picture. 

Fig. 2 represents the blind closed. 

This hinge and fastenina: seem verv 

^•iraple and complete; and they are 

warranted not to break in the strong- 
est wind. The lower edge of each 

half of the hinge must be perfectly 

level, and in a straight line. The 

oblong eye, which belongs to the 

lower hinge, is furnished with a an 

gular side, to aid the hand in lifting 

the blind when the Wind is to be un- 
fastened and drawn tog-ether. The 

hmges are so applied as to have the 

blind rest upon the upper and lower 

binges. 

The time used in hanging Winds 

with these hinges is seventy -five per 

cent, less than is consumed when other 

that no hand can be so unskillful as to 

Though not a very costly adjunct to human comfort, yet a blind hinge, 

simple and safe, meeting tbe wants of the householder, may add greatly to 

it. We hope that the value of this new hinge may be thoroughly tested by 

the public. 




hinges are used ; and it is supposed 
fail to close the blind when desired. 



OAK SASH FASTENER, 



305 



OAR SASH FASTENERS 

FIG. 2. 



FIG. 1. 





In the above cuts are two views of a new Car Window Fastener, invented 
and constructed by Mr. Norman C. Stiles, of Meridan, Ct., who has applied 
for a patent for the same, and who has now the pleasure of knowing that 
his plan to open and close car windows is gaining much popularity. Fig, 2 
is a front view of the fastening, as seen upon the sash by the traveler. Fig. 
1 is a view of the internal arrangements of the. parts of the fastener. It is 
seen that a cog-wheel, some six-eighths of an inch in diameter, is so situated 
as to play into a rack in the side of the window. The cogs are long and 
the rack is made of brass. The wheel and the two bars fixed to act as a 
stop motion to the wheel, are about one-eighth inch in thickness. The bars 
are levers moving on fulcrums, and having the points, which intersect the 
cogs, drawn together by a coiled wire spring. If the thumb be applied to 
the outer end of the lower bar to elevate the window, the power removes the 
fastening and the window is elevated. If the finger is applied to the upper 
bar to close the window, then- the fastening is removed and the window 
closes. One great excellence of the improvement is, that the window can, 
by this apparatus, be kept open at any altitude. Another is, that any per- 
son's instinct leads him to use the fastening in just exactly the correct way. 
No man can be found so awkward as to disarrange the apparatus, or fail to 
get the window open to suit him. The cost of the fastenings is about two 
dollars per dozen, and any mformation may be obtained respecting them by 
application to the inventor. Even a cursory examination of the engraving 
will show the reader that he never saw a more simple, intelligible, and con- 
venient car-window-fastening on any window he ever attempted to open or 
shut. 



" Pride is as loud a beggar as want, and a great deal more saucy." 
20 



306 



fkazee's portable saw-mill. 




FRAZEE'S PATENT PORTABLE SAW-MILL. 

In new settlements a saw-mill is of the greatest importance, and wherever 
mill sites are to be found the value of the surroundmg territory is greatly 
enhanced in value. Such structures, generally, are of the rudest description, 
and intended only as a temporary aj&air, to be replaced, under more favorable 
circumstances, with a something more efficient and more expensive. 

But invention genius has not overlooked these necessities, and machinery 
has lately been constructed which renders it only needful to ^^ossess a few 
hundred dollars capital, to enable any party at once to enter a forest and 
commence the manufacture of lumber on the most extended scale, with an 
apparatus of sufficient portability to be readily removed from place to place ; 
in fact, reversing the order of things — instead of carrying the logs to the 
mill, to bring the mill to the logs. 

These characteristics to which we allude are contained in a saw-mill we 
have lately examined,* which, for cheapness, efficiency, simplicity and dura- 
bility, comes the nearest to perfection of any similar contrivance that has yet 
come under our notice ; and we feel that, in calling general attention to its 
superior qualities, we are performing an act that will result in almost univer- 
sal benefit. This saw-mill was invented by Benjamin Frazee, Esq., of this 
city, formerly of Durhamville, in this State, for which he received letters 
patent, dated October the 18th, 1853. 

Most persons, in trying to improve the structure of the saw-mill, have spent 
their time, money, and inventive genius, in endeavoring to study out some- 
thing new for mill-dogs, saw-sets, water-wheel, etc., etc. ; but it appears to 



*OQe of these tuillg is in operation in this city and attracts much attention. Any in- 
formation in regard to it may be obtained by addressing or calling upon Messrs. J, M. 
Emerson & Co., 1 Spruce street. 



DEOUGHT. 307 



have never occurred to them that the frame-work itself could be greatly sim" 
plified and cheapened, and yet leave its strength and efficiency unimpaired- 
The idea never struck them, that a large, strong frame, pitman and sash, 
could be wholly disj^ensed with, and still secure a powerful and effective mill ; 
yet we have abundant proof of these important fixcts, in the specimen mill 
of Mr. Frazee, now before us. Some of the advantages of Mr. Frazee's mill 
are peculiarly striking. It is constructed with 8 pieces of timber, from 5 to 
8 feet long ; 4 pieces of plank, from 4 to 6 feet long, and about 1,500 pounds 
of iron, besides two long bed-pieces, a carriage, some small wooden fixtures, 
pulleys, etc., the whole weighing about 2000 pounds, and, as will be readily 
perceived, the whole can be loaded and transported on a common farm wagon. 
The motive power usually sold with it, is a simply constructed, yet efficient 
and durable, portable steam-engine, of about 8 horse-power, which, together 
with the boiler, weighs about 3,500 pounds, making, with the mill, the whole 
establishment weigh 5,500 pounds, which with three ox teams, can be handily 
moved at the rate of from thirty to forty miles per day. No building is re- 
quired, unless the parties choose to erect a rough shed to protect it and the 
operatives from the weather ; nor is there any mason-work. The whole 
aflfair can be brought to a given spot, put together, the gear adjusted, steam 
got up, and be at work in o)ie day after arriving at the scene of operations. 
Again, this mill will perform a much larger amount of work than can be 
done by any other, with an equal amount of power, and at the same time 
the work will be superior in smoothness, straightness, and like desirable 
<|ualities. 

The simplicity of this mill is not the least valuable recommendation in its 
favor. It can be constructed by any mechanic, and the amount of repairs 
required, with fair usage, is of insignificant import. The price is another 
great desideratum, being only from $300 to $500, or, with engine and boiler 
complete and ready for action, from $1150 to $1250. 

]\iany enterprising men have gone into a new country, determined to 
settle near a saw-mill, so as to use up or make a profitable disposition of their 
timber; otherwise, in clearing the land, they would be obliged to burn or 
waste most of it. This will no longer be necessary. The forehanded pioneer 
may now take his saw-mill, as he has hitherto taken his ax and hand-saw. 
On arriving at his " claim," he can set up his mill, get out the timber for his 
own residence, if need be, sell the balance to pay for his land ; and even. get 
back the cost of the mill besides ; and, after all that, sell the mill for nearly 
or quite the original cost of it, to be moved to some other neighborhood, 
there to saw its way through another useful career ; and so on, till its timbers 
are shivered, and its existence is ended. Nor is this all. A circular saw, for 
lath, and other light sawing, can be attached, with very little extra expense, 
and some parties have added a small grist-mill, and the whole was worked 
without extra power. 



Drought — Protection against it. — It is estimated that some 25 gallons 
of water fall annually on every foot of soil in this country. Now suppose 
the leisure days of a farmer were devoted to the construction of one or more 
reservoirs on his high lands, for use when needed. What a difference should 
we experience in the crops of dry seasons ! While the many neglect this, if 
a few would secure such a safeguard, what prices they might command for 
their heavy crops 1 The work would pay for itself in one such year as this 



308 



ANC/IENT SAW-MILL. 




A SA."W-MILL' OF 1659 -from besson. 

Saw-Mills were at first devised to work by manual labor, as well as by 
water and otber power, and to this machine many crude devices for saving 
the former, as well as multiplying and increasing the latter, were applied. 
In a rare old work, Theairian Instnimentwm ct Machinarum, by J. Besson, 
in 1569, there is a representation of a saw- mill, here copied, in which there 
is a gang of saws, one-half of which have the teeth formed to cut on the 
downward stroke, while the intermediate ones are formed to cut on the up- 
ward stroke. The plan for hanging and vibrating the saws is ingenious for 
the employment of manual labor ; and the log is fed forward by means of 
a windlass and cord, on rollers, the windlass having arms extended out from 
it, which are struck by a pin on the fly-wheel upon the crank-shaft tliat turns 
the windlass at intervals by which means the log is moved a given distance 
at each revolution of the crank. It will thus be seen, that for a considerable 
period, gangs of saws were known and used ; — and, in fact, all the elements 
for feeding in the log and sawing by po'vor, were known at least as early as 
1588, at which time they were described and illustrated by Ramelli, in Le 
Deverse et Artijiciose Machine^ published in that year. — U. S. Joxir. , 



FOWLER MANUFACTURING POWER PUNCH. 



809 



THE FOWLER MANUFACTURING CO.'s POWER PRESSES 
OR BOn-ER PUNCHES, 

We have received the following description of these valuable machines, 
with the engraving, and commend them to the notice of all interested in this 
department of mechanics : 




The main body of the machine is made of cast iron. The hole for the 
eccentric shaft is reamed tapering so as to receive the shaft with its several 
offsets. 

The eccentric shaft is made large at the front end, to enable us, by the 
eccentric journal on its end, to give sufficient vertical motion to the punch, 
and the other bearings are made smaller to lessen friction, weight, etc., while 
it retains sufficient strength to prevent trembling. 

The slide-gate is made of cast iron. Slides in ways in the usual manner, 
as shown in the engraving. 

In the central part of this sliding-gate we make an oblong mortise with 
parallel sides, in which we place the cast steel sliding block, with a round 
hole to receive the eccentric journal. "We make the sliding block so much 
shorter than the mortise as to allow it to have sufficient longitudinal motion 
to accommodate the eccentricity of the journal, while it has no room to 
move in a vertical direction ; so that the motion of the eccentric journal will 
give a reciprocating motion to the slide which carries the punch. To graduate 
the motion of the punch so that it may come down at all times to the exact 
point desired, we use thin plates of different thicknesses, which may be placed 
over or under the steel block, and changed at pleasure. 

Back of the bearings on the eccentric shaft we fix a permanent collet, 
which always revolves with the shaft. In the front side of this collet we fix 
a stud or projection, which acts upon the upper end of the stop lever to throw 
the wheel out of gear. This lever works on a fulcrum screw, and is held to 



310 Johnson's patent thread. 

its place by a spiral spring when the macliine is in gear, while its lower end 
rests on the clutch lever. In the back of this collet we fix a stud or projec- 
tion, against the side of which the sliding rod strikes or presses when the 
machine is in gear. We place the fly-wheel with loose socket on the rear 
part of the shaft, so as to be turned freely upon it while the machine is out 
of gear. Back of the fly-wheel, and loose upon the shaft, we place the clutch 
which governs the connecting-pin. This clutch is moved by the clutch lever, 
by means of projections working in a groove. The clutch lever works on a 
fulcrum pin, in an inflexible arm attached to the main casting, and is worked 
by the foot to put the machine in gear, and is drawn back by a spiral spring 
to put the machine out of gear. 

The power being applied to the fly-wheel, it will move freely on the shaft 
without causing it to revolve. The workman then places his foot at the end 
of the clutch lever, when the upper end of the lever will force the clutch up 
against the nave of the wheel, and the connecting pin will be protruded 
against the side of the stud in the fixed collet and thereby revolve the shaft, 
which by means of the eccentric journal will depress and elevate the punch. 
"When the lower end of the cultch lever is depressed to put the machine in 
gear, the lower end of the stop lever, by the action of a spiral spring, will be 
drawn over and upon the clutch lever, so as to rest upon it, thereby keeping 
the machine in gear until the punch has operated on the material to be 
punched, and has been again elevated to its highest position, when the stud 
on the front side of the fixed collet, acting on the upper end of the stop lever, 
will force the lower end off from the clutch lever ; thereby, throwing back 
the clutch, leaving the punch at its highest elevation. 

Should it be desired to keep the machine in operation for a number of 
revolutions, the end of the clutch lever may be fastened, or held down by the 
foot. 

We have patterns for seven difierent sizes of presses, which will weigh from 
100 to 15,000 lbs., constructed either with or without back gears, and capable 
of executing cold punching that is done by any other style of press. 

WOLLINGFORD, CONN., ] 

Oct. 15, 1855. J 



JOHNSON'S PATEN r THREAD. 

Mr. E. Johnson, of Willimantic, Ct., has lately secured a patent for a 
peculiar method of finishing sewing cotton. The patent bears a late date, 
and the letters are in band. The thread is manufactured by the " Willing- 
ton Thread Co.," of which Origen Hall, Esq., is the agent. The mills run- 
ning in the business are located in West Willington, Ct., a small village on 
the WilUmantic and Palmer railroad. The thread finished has a round 
shape, and is two hundred per cent, stronger, in the common run, than 
thread finished in the ordinary way. A congress of ladies, who have expe- 
rience in using thread, have examined the patent thread, and used it in all 
ways, and each individual says, " it is very fine." " How do you like John- 
son's thread ?" is the question. " Very much," is one vote ; " best I ever 
saw," is another vote ; " f^ir ahead of Coates'," says a third ; " Sagemore's first 
make was not equal to it," says another; and so on, each one voted, all 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 311 



round tl^e room, perfectly delighted with Johnson's thread. Any man 
versed in such matters will pronounce the thread now without a parallel in 
our market. American ladies will not be long in learning its excellencies, 
and when they have learned them, the article will be used by all of them. 
Nothing is more certain than that Coates has a competitor in our market, 
who will better meet our wants than the English manufacture. We hope the 
Company, which has been formed for the making of this thread, will en- 
large their works, and put the article on sale in so many of our commercial 
towns, that thread users will have no difficulty in finding it. Inquiries for it 
are now frequent ; and it is greatly for the interest of the country that we 
make our own thread, and save among us the money heretofore sent to 
England for sewing cotton. 



American Patents. 

GREAT IMPROVEMENT IN PIANOFORTE ACTION. 

We have recently seen and tested the invention by Mr. John S. Morton of 
this city, by which the action of a pianoforte is wonderfully improved. It is 
perfectly simple, consisting only of a short lever attached to the hammer 
shank. The effect of it is to hold the hammer near the string while the 
player performs a rapid trill or a tremulo. Such is its action that a given 
note may be repeated with the greatest possible rapidity, without fail, and 
with only half or even less than the ordinary movement of the key. By 
means of it a movement is secured equal to that cf a grand pianoforte. 

It may be applied to any instrument, and at the cost of only $25. We 
understand that some of the most eminent pianists of the city have tried it 
and highly commend it. It is unquestionably a capital contrivance. 



A Powerful Pkess. — The Fowler Manufacturing Co., of Wallingford, Ct., 
have invented lately a new kind of press, two of which they have built, and 
are now using at their factory. Patents have been applied for. The power 
of the press is one hundred and twenty tons, after making an allowance of 
thirty tons for friction. The press is simple in construction, and stout as iron 
can well make it. It is used thus far in pressing frying pans ; pne hundred 
dozen of which one press will shape daily. One peculiarity of the press is, 
that the power of one hundred and twenty tons is not confined to a momentary 
motion of the stamp, like most presses of great power ; but this press puts 
fqrth this immense power during a motion of the stamp through four inches, 
through all which space the press has one hundred and twenty tons. It is 
supposed to excel any press heretofore built in its great and long-continued 
power. More particulars may be learned by addressing the company at 
Wallingford, Ct. 



The Double Giant Mill. — The mill named above is a late invention of 
Messrs. S. & S. M. Colburn, of Ansonia, Ct., and is designed for grinding corn 



312 AMERICAN PATENTS. 



into meal, and for grinding corn and cobs into feed. It is an improvement 
on a mill called the Little Giant, which is made with a cone inside a shell, 
and is turned by horse power, the cone, as a whole, moving with that power 
in uniform rotation. In the Double Giant the cone is made in two parts ; 
the upper section suited to crack the cob, and moving round as often as the 
horse turns round the lever ; and the lower section of the cone is made to 
reduce the corn and cob to meal, and turns round eight times to one revolu- 
tion of the upper section of the cone. Hence, for making meal, the grinding 
section of the cone goes eight times faster in the Double Giant than in the 
Little Giant. At the very lowest calculation the mill will do three times 
more work in the same time than the Little Giant. We have seen it in ope- 
ration, and know that one horse has ground a bushel of corn in twelve min- 
utes. It is a great invention, and must meet an immediate and extensive 
sale. Additional particulars may be learned by applying to the inventois, 
who have applied for a patent. 



Improved Brake for Railroad Cars. — AVe have recently examined a 
model of a new and ingenious Railroad Car Brake, invented and patented by 
Mr. Lucius Paige, of Cavendish, Vt., and which has been used for some time 
very successfully on the Rutland and Burlington, and likewise upon the 
Lowell Railroad. The improvement consists in the employment of a double 
lever, or of two levers of a peculiar form, one for receiving the power com 
municated by the brake-wheel, and the other for communicating the force to 
the brake. Spiral or rubber springs are placed between these two levers, for 
the purpose of giving them a yielding force. By this arrangement, the 
brake is rendered less expensive and more effectual than any other now in 
use. This of itself we should think would prove a sufficient recommenda- 
tion to the new brake. All danger of setting fire to the brake by friction 
is obviated by placing the end of the grain of the timber, of which the 
shoes are formed, in contact with the wheel. The spiral or rubber spring so 
equalizes and modifies the force applied, (and its application may be as gradual 
as desired,) as to prevent the agitation, jar, and noise usually caused by the 
application of the brake to the wheel, and graduates the movement of the 
wheel to a final stop without its sliding upon the rail. 

Attached to each end of the brake-beam are metallic sockets, through 
which theshoes extend. The latter are held in their place by metallic face- 
plates. AVhen the old shoes are shortened by use, these face-plates may be 
unscrewed, and the shoe placed closer to the wheel ; whereas, the ordinary 
shoes, by being permanently attached to the beam, must be replaced by new 
ones when shortened a trifle by use. This improvement, however vague 
may be any attempted description of it, is esteemed one of great practical 
importance and utillity. The mechanics, conductors and others, who have 
had to do with the new brake, on the two lines we have mentioned, speak 
of it as the cheapest and best thing of the kind now in use. Mr. Parker, 
the agent of the Boston and Lowell, speaks of Mr. Paige's brake as '• superior 
to most," and second to none with which he is acquainted. 



Useful Invention. — Imi-ortant to Railroad Corporations. — Was 
the reader ever in a train that ran off the rails ? If he has been he will have 



AMERICAN PATENTS. 313 



as lively a sense of the serious delay which such an accident occasions, and of 
the sad lack of proper mechanical appliances for replacing the train upon the 
rails, as railroad corporations have of the great injury done to the carriages 
by the clumsy methods which are brought into operation. Some better 
system of accomplishing the work has long been a desideratum, and that is 
now supplied. We were present recently at the shunt of the Boston ,and 
Worcester railroad, at Treiuont Bridge, to witness some experiments with 
an apparatus for the purpose, invented by Mr. S. P. Coon, of Milwaukee ; 
when a large freight car off the track was raised and gently deposited upon 
the rail, the whole operation not occupying more than two or three 
minutes. 

We can only describe the apparatus in a very general way. A couple 
of rails (which may be taken up wherever the accident occurs,) are run 
transversely under the beams of the car, or locomotive as the case may be, 
between the wheels of the trucks, and made to rest upon four portable 
screws, yoked in pairs, by which the car is elevated to a proper height and 
firmly supported. A small winch is made adjustable to the ends of the 
rails, the rope from which is attachable to a staple in the roller-frame. _ Under- 
neath the car, and resting on the rail and fitting to it, a small roller is placed. 
The car is raised by the screws, and by means of the winch it is gently 
drawn to the exact spot desired and safely deposited upon the rails. The 
whole proceedings need not occupy more than ten minutes. Like all other 
valuable inventions, this startles by its simplicity ; and we understand that 
it has met the high approval of all the mechanics and other railroad em- 
ployees to whom it has been exhibited. The apparatus bemg both light 
and compact, every train might carry one without inconvenience ; and we 
have no doubt that its advantages will be readily appreciated by those 
most interested, the various railroad corporations. Mr. Coon, the inventor, 
and also the agent for this district, Mr. N. Davidson, of 9 Spruce street, 
New- York, are at present staying at the Tremont House. 

Inventions to Prevent Railroad Trains running off the Track. — 
Danforth Johnson, Esq., of this city, has patented an invention which is 
intended as a perfect safe-guard to railway trains, so far as running off the 
track is concerned. He calls it a three-flange car-wheel, and, as the term 
indicates, it is simply a wheel with three flanges, one of which will strike the 
rail invariably, in case the train runs over any obstacle on the track, such as 
horse, cow, etc., etc. It will also keep the cars on the track in places where 
the rails spread ; will prevent the cars from running off the track in case of 
misplacement of switches, etc., etc. As the great majority of accidents on 
railroads is occasioned by the cars running off" the track, this invention will 
prevent such accidents in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. Mr. Johnson 
has submitted the invention to Mr.Farnham, of the Rock Island Railroad, and 
also to a number of engineers and railroad officers who all highly approve 
of it, and express themselves satisfied that it will do all the inventor claims 
for it. It will, of course, increase the expense of the wheels, but all new 
inventions for the improvement of the steam engine, locomotive, or indeed 
any description of machinery, enhance its cost, but at the same time they 
more than pay for this by economizing labor, by the prevention of accidents, 
etc., etc. 

We hope to see Mr. Johnson's invention brought before the notice of our 
principal railroad men prominently ; it is one of the most important, con- 
nected with railroads, that has been discovered for many years. — Chicago 
Democrat. 



314 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



English Patents. 

IRON SHIP-BUILDING. 

We suppose that a number of years must pass away before iron ship- 
building will be carried on to any extent in our country. Timber versus iron 
ships is simply a question of economy : we can build timber ships for less 
than iron ones, therefore while we can do this, such ships will take the lead. 
In some other countries, where plate iron is cheaper and timber dearer than . 
with us, iron ship-building has become a great business. Glasgow, in Scot- 
land, stands preeminent for steamship building. The new steamship Persia, 
for the Cunard Line, has recently been launched there; it is built of iron, 
and is the largest iron steamship afloat, being 360 feet long on the keel, 45 
feet in breadth, 32 feet deep, and of 3000 tons burden. The length of it is 
eight times that of the breadth — showing how different the proportions of 
vessels are now from what they were thirty years ago, when three times the 
length of the breadth was considered the best ratio of proportions. The 
breadth across the paddle-boxes, however, is 71 feet; still, it appears to us, 
that a little more breadth of hull would not have been amiss to give her 
greater stability in the water. Robert Napier & Sons were the builders of 
both hull and engines; the latter will work up to 4000 horse power — so it 
is stated — but the horse power of marine engines is a very indefinite matter. 
Three years ago the British Government would not allow an iron steamer to 
carry the mails ; this decree is now reversed. 

This monster of a vessel is built in seven water-tight compartments, and 
will have accommodations for 300 passengers. She will be ready for sea 
in October, and unless the British Government take her up for the Crimean 
service, we may expect to see her here about the month of December next. 

There are thirty-six iron ship-building establishments in the neighborhood 
of Glasgow, on the river Clyde. The capital employed is $10,000,000 
and 50,000 skilled workmen are engaged ; and at the present time they have 
32 new iron ships on the stocks. The arrangements for their construction 
and alteration are very perfect. A short time since an iron steamer was 
lengthened 30 feet, and her capacity for carrying increased 200 tons, in 14 
days. Another steamer was cut open in two places to avoid removing the 
engines and boilers, and 35 feet added to her length, in 21 days. — Exchange 



New Mode of Casting Steel Tubes without Weldixg or Brazing. 
— By this process, cylindrical or tubular forms are cast of a length and 
diameter according to the length and diameter of tube or cylinder intended 
to bo cast, in steel, in like manner to what has heretofore been practised 
when making the tubes of copper or of brass, or solid ingots of cast steel ; 
and having heated them to the usual temperature at which cast steel is ham- 
mered, he subjects them to the action of a tilt-hammer previous to drawing 
through the draw-plates, or extending by means of rolling. He sometimes 
anneals the cast cylinders or tubes, by taking the castings from the moulds, 
or by taking the moulds and castings where the material of the moulds and 
other circumstances permit, whilst still as hot as may be, and placing them 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 315 



into annealing oven. The casting is then heated to a red heat, such as is 
used when rolling or extending ingots of cast steel into bars. The tubular 
casting of steel is then extended in length by hammering, when on a man- 
dril, or by means of grooved rollers moving or rolling the hot steel tivbeover 
a fixed mandril, such as is used in welding iron tubes by grooved rollers; 
and it is again and again heated to extend its length. When the internal 
diameter of the tube or cylinder is required to be reduced, mandrils of less 
and less diameter, and Uss diameters of grooves in the rollers, are used ; or, 
in the place of fixed mandrils and grooved rollers, taper mandrils, such as are 
used when drawing or rolling brass tubes, may be used, and passed between 
the rollers with the tubes t